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Sample records for surfaces atomic force

  1. Measuring Forces between Oxide Surfaces Using the Atomic Force Microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik Guldberg; Høj, Jakob Weiland

    1996-01-01

    The interactions between colloidal particles play a major role in processing of ceramics, especially in casting processes. With the Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) it is possible to measure the inter-action force between a small oxide particle (a few micron) and a surface as function of surface...

  2. Immunogold labels: cell-surface markers in atomic force microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Putman, Constant A.J.; Putman, C.A.J.; de Grooth, B.G.; Hansma, Paul K.; van Hulst, N.F.; Greve, Jan

    1993-01-01

    The feasibility of using immunogold labels as cell-surface markers in atomic force microscopy is shown in this paper. The atomic force microscope (AFM) was used to image the surface of immunogold-labeled human lymphocytes. The lymphocytes were isolated from whole blood and labeled by an indirect

  3. Surface forces studied with colloidal probe atomic force microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giesbers, M.

    2001-01-01

    Forces between surfaces are a determining factor for the performance of natural as well as synthetic colloidal systems, and play a crucial role in industrial production processes. Measuring these forces is a scientific and experimental challenge and over the years several techniques have

  4. Modeling noncontact atomic force microscopy resolution on corrugated surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen M. Burson

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Key developments in NC-AFM have generally involved atomically flat crystalline surfaces. However, many surfaces of technological interest are not atomically flat. We discuss the experimental difficulties in obtaining high-resolution images of rough surfaces, with amorphous SiO2 as a specific case. We develop a quasi-1-D minimal model for noncontact atomic force microscopy, based on van der Waals interactions between a spherical tip and the surface, explicitly accounting for the corrugated substrate (modeled as a sinusoid. The model results show an attenuation of the topographic contours by ~30% for tip distances within 5 Å of the surface. Results also indicate a deviation from the Hamaker force law for a sphere interacting with a flat surface.

  5. Surface structure investigations using noncontact atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolodziej, J.J.; Such, B.; Goryl, M.; Krok, F.; Piatkowski, P.; Szymonski, M.

    2006-01-01

    Surfaces of several A III B V compound semiconductors (InSb, GaAs, InP, InAs) of the (0 0 1) orientation have been studied with noncontact atomic force microscopy (NC-AFM). Obtained atomically resolved patterns have been compared with structural models available in the literature. It is shown that NC-AFM is an efficient tool for imaging complex surface structures in real space. It is also demonstrated that the recent structural models of III-V compound surfaces provide a sound base for interpretation of majority of features present in recorded patterns. However, there are also many new findings revealed by the NC-AFM method that is still new experimental technique in the context of surface structure determination

  6. Electronegativity determination of individual surface atoms by atomic force microscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Onoda, J.; Ondráček, Martin; Jelínek, Pavel; Sugimoto, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 8, Apr (2017), 1-6, č. článku 15155. ISSN 2041-1723 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GC14-16963J Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : AFM * DFT * electronegativity * surface science Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 12.124, year: 2016

  7. Atomic forces between noble gas atoms, alkali ions, and halogen ions for surface interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J. W.; Outlaw, R. A.; Heinbockel, J. H.

    1988-01-01

    The components of the physical forces between noble gas atoms, alkali ions, and halogen ions are analyzed and a data base developed from analysis of the two-body potential data, the alkali-halide molecular data, and the noble gas crystal and salt crystal data. A satisfactory global fit to this molecular and crystal data is then reproduced by the model to within several percent. Surface potentials are evaluated for noble gas atoms on noble gas surfaces and salt crystal surfaces with surface tension neglected. Within this context, the noble gas surface potentials on noble gas and salt crystals are considered to be accurate to within several percent.

  8. Atomic imaging of an InSe single-crystal surface with atomic force microscope

    OpenAIRE

    Uosaki, Kohei; Koinuma, Michio

    1993-01-01

    The atomic force microscope was employed to observed in air the surface atomic structure of InSe, one of III-VI compound semiconductors with layered structures. Atomic arrangements were observed in both n-type and p-type materials. The observed structures are in good agreement with those expected from bulk crystal structures. The atomic images became less clear by repeating the imaging process. Wide area imaging after the imaging of small area clearly showed that a mound was created at the sp...

  9. Surface microstructure of bitumen characterized by atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaokong; Burnham, Nancy A; Tao, Mingjiang

    2015-04-01

    Bitumen, also called asphalt binder, plays important roles in many industrial applications. It is used as the primary binding agent in asphalt concrete, as a key component in damping systems such as rubber, and as an indispensable additive in paint and ink. Consisting of a large number of hydrocarbons of different sizes and polarities, together with heteroatoms and traces of metals, bitumen displays rich surface microstructures that affect its rheological properties. This paper reviews the current understanding of bitumen's surface microstructures characterized by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Microstructures of bitumen develop to different forms depending on crude oil source, thermal history, and sample preparation method. While some bitumens display surface microstructures with fine domains, flake-like domains, and dendrite structuring, 'bee-structures' with wavy patterns several micrometers in diameter and tens of nanometers in height are commonly seen in other binders. Controversy exists regarding the chemical origin of the 'bee-structures', which has been related to the asphaltene fraction, the metal content, or the crystallizing waxes in bitumen. The rich chemistry of bitumen can result in complicated intermolecular associations such as coprecipitation of wax and metalloporphyrins in asphaltenes. Therefore, it is the molecular interactions among the different chemical components in bitumen, rather than a single chemical fraction, that are responsible for the evolution of bitumen's diverse microstructures, including the 'bee-structures'. Mechanisms such as curvature elasticity and surface wrinkling that explain the rippled structures observed in polymer crystals might be responsible for the formation of 'bee-structures' in bitumen. Despite the progress made on morphological characterization of bitumen using AFM, the fundamental question whether the microstructures observed on bitumen surfaces represent its bulk structure remains to be addressed. In addition

  10. Atomic force microscopy analysis of different surface treatments of Ti dental implant surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bathomarco, R.V.; Solorzano, G.; Elias, C.N.; Prioli, R.

    2004-01-01

    The surface of commercial unalloyed titanium, used in dental implants, was analyzed by atomic force microscopy. The morphology, roughness, and surface area of the samples, submitted to mechanically-induced erosion, chemical etching and a combination of both, were compared. The results show that surface treatments strongly influence the dental implant physical and chemical properties. An analysis of the length dependence of the implant surface roughness shows that, for scan sizes larger than 50 μm, the average surface roughness is independent of the scanning length and that the surface treatments lead to average surface roughness in the range of 0.37 up to 0.48 μm. It is shown that the implant surface energy is sensitive to the titanium surface area. As the area increases there is a decrease in the surface contact angle

  11. Atomic force microscopy analysis of different surface treatments of Ti dental implant surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathomarco, Ti R. V.; Solorzano, G.; Elias, C. N.; Prioli, R.

    2004-06-01

    The surface of commercial unalloyed titanium, used in dental implants, was analyzed by atomic force microscopy. The morphology, roughness, and surface area of the samples, submitted to mechanically-induced erosion, chemical etching and a combination of both, were compared. The results show that surface treatments strongly influence the dental implant physical and chemical properties. An analysis of the length dependence of the implant surface roughness shows that, for scan sizes larger than 50 μm, the average surface roughness is independent of the scanning length and that the surface treatments lead to average surface roughness in the range of 0.37 up to 0.48 μm. It is shown that the implant surface energy is sensitive to the titanium surface area. As the area increases there is a decrease in the surface contact angle.

  12. Surface features on Sahara soil dust particles made visible by atomic force microscope (AFM) phase images

    OpenAIRE

    G. Helas; M. O. Andreae

    2008-01-01

    We show that atomic force microscopy (AFM) phase images can reveal surface features of soil dust particles, which are not evident using other microscopic methods. The non-contact AFM method is able to resolve topographical structures in the nanometer range as well as to uncover repulsive atomic forces and attractive van der Waals' forces, and thus gives insight to surface properties. Though the method does not allow quantitative assignment in terms of chemical compound description, it clearly...

  13. Surface adhesion properties of graphene and graphene oxide studied by colloid-probe atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Yanhuai; Zhang Ping; Ren Huming; Zhuo Qin; Yang Zhongmei; Jiang Xu; Jiang Yong

    2011-01-01

    Surface adhesion properties are important to various applications of graphene-based materials. Atomic force microscopy is powerful to study the adhesion properties of samples by measuring the forces on the colloidal sphere tip as it approaches and retracts from the surface. In this paper we have measured the adhesion force between the colloid probe and the surface of graphene (graphene oxide) nanosheet. The results revealed that the adhesion force on graphene and graphene oxide surface were 66.3 and 170.6 nN, respectively. It was found the adhesion force was mainly determined by the water meniscus, which was related to the surface contact angle of samples.

  14. Investigation of graphite composite anodes surfaces by atomic force microscopy and related techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirasawa, Karen Akemi; Nishioka, Keiko; Sato, Tomohiro; Yamaguchi, Shoji; Mori, Shoichiro [Mitsubishi Chemical Corp., Tsukuba Research Center, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1997-11-01

    The surface of a synthetic graphite (KS-44) and polyvinylidene difluoride binder (PVDF) anode for lithium-ion secondary batteries is imaged using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and several related scanning probe microscope (SPM) instruments including: dynamic force microscopy (DFM), friction force microscopy (FFM), laterally-modulated friction force microscopy (LM-FFM), visco-elasticity atomic force microscopy (VE-AFM), and AFM/simultaneous current measurement mode (SCM). DFM is found to be an exceptional mode for topographic imaging while FFM results in the clearest contrast distinction between PVDF binder and KS-44 graphite regions. (orig.)

  15. Characterization of polymer surface structure and surface mechanical behaviour by sum frequency generation surface vibrational spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opdahl, Aric; Koffas, Telly S; Amitay-Sadovsky, Ella; Kim, Joonyeong; Somorjai, Gabor A

    2004-01-01

    Sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM) have been used to study polymer surface structure and surface mechanical behaviour, specifically to study the relationships between the surface properties of polymers and their bulk compositions and the environment to which the polymer is exposed. The combination of SFG surface vibrational spectroscopy and AFM has been used to study surface segregation behaviour of polyolefin blends at the polymer/air and polymer/solid interfaces. SFG surface vibrational spectroscopy and AFM experiments have also been performed to characterize the properties of polymer/liquid and polymer/polymer interfaces, focusing on hydrogel materials. A method was developed to study the surface properties of hydrogel contact lens materials at various hydration conditions. Finally, the effect of mechanical stretching on the surface composition and surface mechanical behaviour of phase-separated polyurethanes, used in biomedical implant devices, has been studied by both SFG surface vibrational spectroscopy and AFM. (topical review)

  16. Surface features on Sahara soil dust particles made visible by atomic force microscope (AFM phase images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O. Andreae

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available We show that atomic force microscopy (AFM phase images can reveal surface features of soil dust particles, which are not evident using other microscopic methods. The non-contact AFM method is able to resolve topographical structures in the nanometer range as well as to uncover repulsive atomic forces and attractive van der Waals' forces, and thus gives insight to surface properties. Though the method does not allow quantitative assignment in terms of chemical compound description, it clearly shows deposits of distinguishable material on the surface. We apply this technique to dust aerosol particles from the Sahara collected over the Atlantic Ocean and describe micro-features on the surfaces of such particles.

  17. Theoretical atomic-force-microscopy study of a stepped surface: Nonlocal effects in the probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girard, C.

    1991-01-01

    The interaction force between a metallic tip and a nonplanar dielectric surface is derived from a nonlocal formalism. A general formulation is given for the case of a spherical tip of nanometer size and for surfaces of arbitrary shapes (stepped surfaces and single crystals adsorbed on a planar surface). The dispersion part of the attractive force is obtained from a nonlocal theory expressed in terms of generalized electric susceptibilities of the two constituents. Implications for atomic force microscopy in attractive modes are discussed. In this context, the present model indicates two different forms of corrugation: those due to the protuberance present on the tip leading to atomic corrugations; nanometer-sized corrugations detected in the attractive region by the spherical part of the tip

  18. Atomic force microscopy characterization of the surface wettability of natural fibres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietak, Alexis; Korte, Sandra; Tan, Emelyn; Downard, Alison; Staiger, Mark P.

    2007-01-01

    Natural fibres represent a readily available source of ecologically friendly and inexpensive reinforcement in composites with degradable thermoplastics, however chemical treatments of fibres are required to prepare feasible composites. It is desirable to characterize the surface wettability of fibres after chemical treatment as the polarity of cellulose-based fibres influences compatibility with a polymer matrix. Assessment of the surface wettability of natural fibres using conventional methods presents a challenge as the surfaces are morphologically and chemically heterogeneous, rough, and can be strongly wicking. In this work it is shown that under atmospheric conditions the adhesion force between an atomic force microscopy (AFM) tip and the fibre surface can estimate the water contact angle and surface wettability of the fibre. AFM adhesion force measurements are suitable for the more difficult surfaces of natural fibres and in addition allow for correlations between microstructural features and surface wettability characteristics

  19. Measuring adhesion on rough surfaces using atomic force microscopy with a liquid probe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan V. Escobar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a procedure to perform and interpret pull-off force measurements during the jump-off-contact process between a liquid drop and rough surfaces using a conventional atomic force microscope. In this method, a micrometric liquid mercury drop is attached to an AFM tipless cantilever to measure the force required to pull this drop off a rough surface. We test the method with two surfaces: a square array of nanometer-sized peaks commonly used for the determination of AFM tip sharpness and a multi-scaled rough diamond surface containing sub-micrometer protrusions. Measurements are carried out in a nitrogen atmosphere to avoid water capillary interactions. We obtain information about the average force of adhesion between a single peak or protrusion and the liquid drop. This procedure could provide useful microscopic information to improve our understanding of wetting phenomena on rough surfaces.

  20. Surface topography characterization using an atomic force microscope mounted on a coordinate measuring machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Hansen, H.N; Kofod, N

    1999-01-01

    The paper describes the construction, testing and use of an integrated system for topographic characterization of fine surfaces on parts having relatively big dimensions. An atomic force microscope (AFM) was mounted on a manual three-coordinate measuring machine (CMM) achieving free positioning o...

  1. Investigating biomolecular recognition at the cell surface using atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Congzhou; Yadavalli, Vamsi K

    2014-05-01

    Probing the interaction forces that drive biomolecular recognition on cell surfaces is essential for understanding diverse biological processes. Force spectroscopy has been a widely used dynamic analytical technique, allowing measurement of such interactions at the molecular and cellular level. The capabilities of working under near physiological environments, combined with excellent force and lateral resolution make atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based force spectroscopy a powerful approach to measure biomolecular interaction forces not only on non-biological substrates, but also on soft, dynamic cell surfaces. Over the last few years, AFM-based force spectroscopy has provided biophysical insight into how biomolecules on cell surfaces interact with each other and induce relevant biological processes. In this review, we focus on describing the technique of force spectroscopy using the AFM, specifically in the context of probing cell surfaces. We summarize recent progress in understanding the recognition and interactions between macromolecules that may be found at cell surfaces from a force spectroscopy perspective. We further discuss the challenges and future prospects of the application of this versatile technique. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Raman-atomic force microscopy of the ommatidial surfaces of Dipteran compound eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Mark S.; Gaimari, Stephen D.

    2003-01-01

    The ommatidial lens surfaces of the compound eyes in several species of files (Insecta: Diptera) and a related order (Mecoptera) were analyzed using a recently developed Raman-atomic force microscope. We demonstrate in this work that the atomic force microscope (AFM) is a potentially useful instrument for gathering phylogenetic data and that the newly developed Raman-AFM may extend this application by revealing nanometer-scale surface chemistry. This is the first demonstration of apertureless near-field Raman spectroscopy on an intact biological surface. For Chrysopilus testaceipes Bigot (Rhagionidae), this reveals unique cerebral cortex-like surface ridges with periodic variation in height and surface chemistry. Most other Brachyceran flies, and the "Nematoceran" Sylvicola fenestralis (Scopoli) (Anisopodidae), displayed the same morphology, while other taxa displayed various other characteristics, such as a nodule-like (Tipula (Triplicitipula) sp. (Tipulidae)) or coalescing nodule-like (Tabanus punctifer Osten Sacken (Tabanidae)) morphology, a smooth morphology with distinct pits and grooves (Dilophus orbatus (Say) (Bibionidae)), or an entirely smooth surface (Bittacus chlorostigma MacLachlan (Mecoptera: Bittacidae)). The variation in submicrometer structure and surface chemistry provides a new information source of potential phylogenetic importance, suggesting the Raman-atomic force microscope could provide a new tool useful to systematic and evolutionary inquiry.

  3. Evaluation of the roughness of the surface of porcelain systems with the atomic force microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavarria Rodriguez, Bernal

    2013-01-01

    The surface of a dental ceramic was evaluated and compared with an atomic force microscope after being treated with different systems of polishing. 14 identical ceramic Lava® Zirconia discs were used to test the different polishing systems. 3 polishing systems from different matrix houses were used to polish dental porcelain. The samples were evaluated quantitatively with an atomic force microscope in order to study the real effectiveness of each system, on the roughness average (Ra) and the maximum peak to valley roughness (Ry) of the ceramic surfaces. A considerable reduction of the surface roughness was obtained by applying different polishing systems on the surface of dental ceramics. Very reliable values of Ra and Ry were obtained by making measurements on the structure reproduced by the atomic force microscope. The advanced ceramics of zirconium oxide presented the best physical characteristics and low levels of surface roughness. A smoother surface was achieved with the application of polishing systems, thus demonstrating the reduction of the surface roughness of a dental ceramic [es

  4. Interfacial force measurements using atomic force microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chu, L.

    2018-01-01

    Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) can not only image the topography of surfaces at atomic resolution, but can also measure accurately the different interaction forces, like repulsive, adhesive and lateral existing between an AFM tip and the sample surface. Based on AFM, various extended techniques have

  5. Reversible electrochemical modification of the surface of a semiconductor by an atomic-force microscope probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozhukhov, A. S., E-mail: antonkozhukhov@yandex.ru; Sheglov, D. V.; Latyshev, A. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)

    2017-04-15

    A technique for reversible surface modification with an atomic-force-microscope (AFM) probe is suggested. In this method, no significant mechanical or topographic changes occur upon a local variation in the surface potential of a sample under the AFM probe. The method allows a controlled relative change in the ohmic resistance of a channel in a Hall bridge within the range 20–25%.

  6. Atomic Force Microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, R.D.; Russell, P.E.

    1988-12-01

    The Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) is a recently developed instrument that has achieved atomic resolution imaging of both conducting and non- conducting surfaces. Because the AFM is in the early stages of development, and because of the difficulty of building the instrument, it is currently in use in fewer than ten laboratories worldwide. It promises to be a valuable tool for obtaining information about engineering surfaces and aiding the .study of precision fabrication processes. This paper gives an overview of AFM technology and presents plans to build an instrument designed to look at engineering surfaces.

  7. Atomic force microscopy-based repeated machining theory for nanochannels on silicon oxide surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Z.Q., E-mail: wangzhiqian@sia.cn [State Key Laboratory of Robotics, Shenyang Institute of Automation, CAS, Shenyang 110016 (China); Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Jiao, N.D. [State Key Laboratory of Robotics, Shenyang Institute of Automation, CAS, Shenyang 110016 (China); Tung, S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701 (United States); Dong, Z.L. [State Key Laboratory of Robotics, Shenyang Institute of Automation, CAS, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2011-02-01

    The atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based repeated nanomachining of nanochannels on silicon oxide surfaces is investigated both theoretically and experimentally. The relationships of the initial nanochannel depth vs. final nanochannel depth at a normal force are systematically studied. Using the derived theory and simulation results, the final nanochannel depth can be predicted easily. Meanwhile, if a nanochannel with an expected depth needs to be machined, a right normal force can be selected simply and easily in order to decrease the wear of the AFM tip. The theoretical analysis and simulation results can be effectively used for AFM-based fabrication of nanochannels.

  8. Track sensitivity and the surface roughness measurements of CR-39 with atomic force microscope

    CERN Document Server

    Yasuda, N; Amemiya, K; Takahashi, H; Kyan, A; Ogura, K

    1999-01-01

    Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) has been applied to evaluate the surface roughness and the track sensitivity of CR-39 track detector. We experimentally confirmed the inverse correlation between the track sensitivity and the roughness of the detector surface after etching. The surface of CR-39 (CR-39 doped with antioxidant (HARZLAS (TD-1)) and copolymer of CR-39/NIPAAm (TNF-1)) with high sensitivity becomes rough by the etching, while the pure CR-39 (BARYOTRAK) with low sensitivity keeps its original surface clarity even for the long etching.

  9. Imaging surface nanobubbles at graphite–water interfaces with different atomic force microscopy modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Chih-Wen; Lu, Yi-Hsien; Hwang, Ing-Shouh

    2013-01-01

    We have imaged nanobubbles on highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) surfaces in pure water with different atomic force microscopy (AFM) modes, including the frequency-modulation, the tapping, and the PeakForce techniques. We have compared the performance of these modes in obtaining the surface profiles of nanobubbles. The frequency-modulation mode yields a larger height value than the other two modes and can provide more accurate measurement of the surface profiles of nanobubbles. Imaging with PeakForce mode shows that a nanobubble appears smaller and shorter with increasing peak force and disappears above a certain peak force, but the size returns to the original value when the peak force is reduced. This indicates that imaging with high peak forces does not cause gas removal from the nanobubbles. Based on the presented findings and previous AFM observations, the existing models for nanobubbles are reviewed and discussed. The model of gas aggregate inside nanobubbles provides a better explanation for the puzzles of the high stability and the contact angle of surface nanobubbles. (paper)

  10. Nonlinear dynamic response of cantilever beam tip during atomic force microscopy (AFM) nanolithography of copper surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, Y-L; Jang, M-J; Wang, C-C; Lin, Y-P; Chen, K-S

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the nonlinear dynamic response of an atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilever beam tip during the nanolithography of a copper (Cu) surface using a high-depth feed. The dynamic motion of the tip is modeled using a combined approach based on Newton's law and empirical observations. The cutting force is determined from experimental observations of the piling height on the Cu surface and the rotation angle of the cantilever beam tip. It is found that the piling height increases linearly with the cantilever beam carrier velocity. Furthermore, the cantilever beam tip is found to execute a saw tooth motion. Both this motion and the shear cutting force are nonlinear. The elastic modulus in the y direction is variable. Finally, the velocity of the cantilever beam tip as it traverses the specimen surface has a discrete characteristic rather than a smooth, continuous profile

  11. Localization of cesium on montmorillonite surface investigated by frequency modulation atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Yuki; Satoh, Hisao; Okumura, Masahiko; Onishi, Hiroshi

    2017-11-01

    Cation exchange of clay mineral is typically analyzed without microscopic study of the clay surfaces. In order to reveal the distribution of exchangeable cations at the clay surface, we performed in situ atomic-scale observations of the surface changes in Na-rich montmorillonite due to exchange with Cs cations using frequency modulation atomic force microscopy (FM-AFM). Lines of protrusion were observed on the surface in aqueous CsCl solution. The amount of Cs of the montmorillonite particles analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry was consistent with the ratio of the number of linear protrusions to all protrusions in the FM-AFM images. The results showed that the protrusions represent adsorbed Cs cations. The images indicated that Cs cations at the surface were immobile, and their occupancy remained constant at 10% of the cation sites at the surface with different immersion times in the CsCl solution. This suggests that the mobility and the number of Cs cations at the surface are controlled by the permanent charge of montmorillonite; however, the Cs distribution at the surface is independent of the charge distribution of the inner silicate layer. Our atomic-scale observations demonstrate that surface cations are distributed in different ways in montmorillonite and mica.

  12. Topography and Mechanical Property Mapping of International Simple Glass Surfaces with Atomic Force Microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, Eric M [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative Nanomechanical Peak Force (PF-QNM) TappingModeTM atomic force microscopy measurements are presented for the first time on polished glass surfaces. The PF-QNM technique allows for topography and mechanical property information to be measured simultaneously at each pixel. Results for the international simple glass which represents a simplified version of SON68 glass suggests an average Young s modulus of 78.8 15.1 GPa is within the experimental error of the modulus measured for SON68 glass (83.6 2 GPa) with conventional approaches. Application of the PF-QNM technique will be extended to in situ glass corrosion experiments with the goal of gaining atomic-scale insights into altered layer development by exploiting the mechanical property differences that exist between silica gel (e.g., altered layer) and pristine glass surface.

  13. DNA adsorption and desorption on mica surface studied by atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Lanlan; Zhao Dongxu; Zhang Yue; Xu Fugang; Li Zhuang

    2011-01-01

    The adsorption of DNA molecules on mica surface and the following desorption of DNA molecules at ethanol-mica interface were studied using atomic force microscopy. By changing DNA concentration, different morphologies on mica surface have been observed. A very uniform and orderly monolayer of DNA molecules was constructed on the mica surface with a DNA concentration of 30 ng/μL. When the samples were immersed into ethanol for about 15 min, various desorption degree of DNA from mica (0-99%) was achieved. It was found that with the increase of DNA concentration, the desorption degree of DNA from the mica at ethanol-mica interface decreased. And when the uniform and orderly DNA monolayers were formed on the mica surface, almost no DNA molecule desorbed from the mica surface in this process. The results indicated that the uniform and orderly DNA monolayer is one of the most stable DNA structures formed on the mica surface. In addition, we have studied the structure change of DNA molecules after desorbed from the mica surface with atomic force microscopy, and found that the desorption might be ascribed to the ethanol-induced DNA condensation.

  14. DNA adsorption and desorption on mica surface studied by atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Lanlan [State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Graduate school of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Renmin Street 5625, Changchun 130022 (China); Key Laboratory of Excited State Processes, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 16 East Nan-Hu Road, Open Economic Zone, Changchun 130033 (China); Zhao Dongxu [Key Laboratory of Excited State Processes, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 16 East Nan-Hu Road, Open Economic Zone, Changchun 130033 (China); Zhang Yue; Xu Fugang [State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Graduate school of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Renmin Street 5625, Changchun 130022 (China); Li Zhuang, E-mail: zli@ciac.jl.cn [State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Graduate school of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Renmin Street 5625, Changchun 130022 (China)

    2011-05-15

    The adsorption of DNA molecules on mica surface and the following desorption of DNA molecules at ethanol-mica interface were studied using atomic force microscopy. By changing DNA concentration, different morphologies on mica surface have been observed. A very uniform and orderly monolayer of DNA molecules was constructed on the mica surface with a DNA concentration of 30 ng/{mu}L. When the samples were immersed into ethanol for about 15 min, various desorption degree of DNA from mica (0-99%) was achieved. It was found that with the increase of DNA concentration, the desorption degree of DNA from the mica at ethanol-mica interface decreased. And when the uniform and orderly DNA monolayers were formed on the mica surface, almost no DNA molecule desorbed from the mica surface in this process. The results indicated that the uniform and orderly DNA monolayer is one of the most stable DNA structures formed on the mica surface. In addition, we have studied the structure change of DNA molecules after desorbed from the mica surface with atomic force microscopy, and found that the desorption might be ascribed to the ethanol-induced DNA condensation.

  15. Density Functional Theory and Atomic Force Microscopy Study of Oleate Functioned on Siderite Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixia Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficiently discovering the interaction of the collector oleate and siderite is of great significance for understanding the inherent function of siderite weakening hematite reverse flotation. For this purpose, investigation of the adsorption behavior of oleate on siderite surface was performed by density functional theory (DFT calculations associating with atomic force microscopy (AFM imaging. The siderite crystal geometry was computationally optimized via convergence tests. Calculated results of the interaction energy and the Mulliken population verified that the collector oleate adsorbed on siderite surface and the covalent bond was established as a result of electrons transferring from O1 atoms (in oleate molecule to Fe1 atoms (in siderite lattice. Therefore, valence-electrons’ configurations of Fe1 and O1 changed into 3d6.514s0.37 and 2s1.832p4.73 from 3d6.214s0.31 and 2s1.83p4.88 correspondingly. Siderite surfaces with or without oleate functioned were examined with the aid of AFM imaging in PeakForce Tapping mode, and the functioned siderite surface was found to be covered by vesicular membrane matters with the average roughness of 16.4 nm assuring the oleate adsorption. These results contributed to comprehending the interaction of oleate and siderite.

  16. Surface tension effect on the mechanical properties of nanomaterials measured by atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuenot, Stéphane; Frétigny, Christian; Demoustier-Champagne, Sophie; Nysten, Bernard

    2004-04-01

    The effect of reduced size on the elastic properties measured on silver and lead nanowires and on polypyrrole nanotubes with an outer diameter ranging between 30 and 250 nm is presented and discussed. Resonant-contact atomic force microscopy (AFM) is used to measure their apparent elastic modulus. The measured modulus of the nanomaterials with smaller diameters is significantly higher than that of the larger ones. The latter is comparable to the macroscopic modulus of the materials. The increase of the apparent elastic modulus for the smaller diameters is attributed to surface tension effects. The surface tension of the probed material may be experimentally determined from these AFM measurements.

  17. Atomic force microscopic study of the effects of ethanol on yeast cell surface morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canetta, Elisabetta; Adya, Ashok K; Walker, Graeme M

    2006-02-01

    The detrimental effects of ethanol toxicity on the cell surface morphology of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (strain NCYC 1681) and Schizosaccharomyces pombe (strain DVPB 1354) were investigated using an atomic force microscope (AFM). In combination with culture viability and mean cell volume measurements AFM studies allowed us to relate the cell surface morphological changes, observed on nanometer lateral resolution, with the cellular stress physiology. Exposing yeasts to increasing stressful concentrations of ethanol led to decreased cell viabilities and mean cell volumes. Together with the roughness and bearing volume analyses of the AFM images, the results provided novel insight into the relative ethanol tolerance of S. cerevisiae and Sc. pombe.

  18. Distinction of heterogeneity on Au nanostructured surface based on phase contrast imaging of atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Mi; Choi, Jeong-Woo

    2010-01-01

    The discrimination of the heterogeneity of different materials on nanostructured surfaces has attracted a great deal of interest in biotechnology as well as nanotechnology. Phase imaging through tapping mode of atomic force microscopy (TMAFM) can be used to distinguish the heterogeneity on a nanostructured surface. Nanostructures were fabricated using anodic aluminum oxide (AAO). An 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (11-MUA) layer adsorbed onto the Au nanodots through self-assembly to improve the bio-compatibility. The Au nanostructures that were modified with 11-MUA and the concave surfaces were investigated using the TMAFM phase images to compare the heterogeneous and homogeneous nanostructured surfaces. Although the topography and phase images were taken simultaneously, the images were different. Therefore, the contrast in the TMAFM phase images revealed the different compositional materials on the heterogeneous nanostructure surface.

  19. Differential MS2 Interaction with Food Contact Surfaces Determined by Atomic Force Microscopy and Virus Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, J; Stewart, D S; Nikolov, A D; Wasan, D T; Wang, R; Yan, R; Shieh, Y C

    2017-12-15

    Enteric viruses are recognized as major etiologies of U.S. foodborne infections. These viruses are easily transmitted via food contact surfaces. Understanding virus interactions with surfaces may facilitate the development of improved means for their removal, thus reducing transmission. Using MS2 coliphage as a virus surrogate, the strength of virus adhesion to common food processing and preparation surfaces of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and glass was assessed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and virus recovery assays. The interaction forces of MS2 with various surfaces were measured from adhesion peaks in force-distance curves registered using a spherical bead probe preconjugated with MS2 particles. MS2 in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) demonstrated approximately 5 times less adhesion force to glass (0.54 nN) than to PVC (2.87 nN) ( P force for PVC (∼0 nN) and consistently increased virus recovery by 19%. With direct and indirect evidence of virus adhesion, this study illustrated a two-way assessment of virus adhesion for the initial evaluation of potential means to mitigate virus adhesion to food contact surfaces. IMPORTANCE The spread of foodborne viruses is likely associated with their adhesive nature. Virus attachment on food contact surfaces has been evaluated by quantitating virus recoveries from inoculated surfaces. This study aimed to evaluate the microenvironment in which nanometer-sized viruses interact with food contact surfaces and to compare the virus adhesion differences using AFM. The virus surrogate MS2 demonstrated less adhesion force to glass than to PVC via AFM, with the force-contributing factors including the intrinsic nature and the topography of the contact surfaces. This adhesion finding is consistent with the virus recoveries, which were determined indirectly. Greater numbers of viruses were recovered from glass than from PVC, after application at the same levels. The stronger MS2 adhesion onto PVC could be interrupted by incorporating a

  20. Atomic force microscopy imaging and single molecule recognition force spectroscopy of coat proteins on the surface of Bacillus subtilis spore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jilin; Krajcikova, Daniela; Zhu, Rong; Ebner, Andreas; Cutting, Simon; Gruber, Hermann J; Barak, Imrich; Hinterdorfer, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Coat assembly in Bacillus subtilis serves as a tractable model for the study of the self-assembly process of biological structures and has a significant potential for use in nano-biotechnological applications. In the present study, the morphology of B. subtilis spores was investigated by magnetically driven dynamic force microscopy (MAC mode atomic force microscopy) under physiological conditions. B. subtilis spores appeared as prolate structures, with a length of 0.6-3 microm and a width of about 0.5-2 microm. The spore surface was mainly covered with bump-like structures with diameters ranging from 8 to 70 nm. Besides topographical explorations, single molecule recognition force spectroscopy (SMRFS) was used to characterize the spore coat protein CotA. This protein was specifically recognized by a polyclonal antibody directed against CotA (anti-CotA), the antibody being covalently tethered to the AFM tip via a polyethylene glycol linker. The unbinding force between CotA and anti-CotA was determined as 55 +/- 2 pN. From the high-binding probability of more than 20% in force-distance cycles it is concluded that CotA locates in the outer surface of B. subtilis spores. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Atomic force microscopy of surface topography of nitrogen plasma treated steel

    CERN Document Server

    Mahboubi, F

    2002-01-01

    Nitriding of steels, using plasma environments has been practiced for many years. A lot of efforts have been put on developing new methods, such as plasma immersion ion implantation (Pl sup 3) and radio frequency (RF) plasma nitriding, for mass transfer of nitrogen into the surface of the work piece. This article presents the results obtained from an in depth investigation of the surface morphology of the treated samples, carried out using an atomic force microscope. Samples from a microalloyed steel, were treated by both methods for 5 hours at different temperatures ranging from 350 to 550 sup d eg sup C in 75% N sub 2 -25% H sub 2 atmosphere. It has been found that the surface of the samples treated by PI sup 3 technique, although having more favorable properties, were rougher than the surfaces treated by RF plasma nitriding.

  2. Surface kinetic roughening caused by dental erosion: An atomic force microscopy study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quartarone, Eliana; Mustarelli, Piercarlo; Poggio, Claudio; Lombardini, Marco

    2008-05-01

    Surface kinetic roughening takes place both in case of growth and erosion processes. Teeth surfaces are eroded by contact with acid drinks, such as those used to supplement mineral salts during sporting activities. Calcium-phosphate based (CPP-ACP) pastes are known to reduce the erosion process, and to favour the enamel remineralization. In this study we used atomic force microscopy (AFM) to investigate the surface roughening during dental erosion, and the mechanisms at the basis of the protection role exerted by a commercial CPP-ACP paste. We found a statistically significant difference (p<0.01) in the roughness of surfaces exposed and not exposed to the acid solutions. The treatment with the CPP-ACP paste determined a statistically significant reduction of the roughness values. By interpreting the AFM results in terms of fractal scaling concepts and continuum stochastic equations, we showed that the protection mechanism of the paste depends on the chemical properties of the acid solution.

  3. Correlating yeast cell stress physiology to changes in the cell surface morphology: atomic force microscopic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canetta, Elisabetta; Walker, Graeme M; Adya, Ashok K

    2006-07-06

    Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) has emerged as a powerful biophysical tool in biotechnology and medicine to investigate the morphological, physical, and mechanical properties of yeasts and other biological systems. However, properties such as, yeasts' response to environmental stresses, metabolic activities of pathogenic yeasts, cell-cell/cell-substrate adhesion, and cell-flocculation have rarely been investigated so far by using biophysical tools. Our recent results obtained by AFM on one strain each of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe show a clear correlation between the physiology of environmentally stressed yeasts and the changes in their surface morphology. The future directions of the AFM related techniques in relation to yeasts are also discussed.

  4. Defects in oxide surfaces studied by atomic force and scanning tunneling microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas König

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Surfaces of thin oxide films were investigated by means of a dual mode NC-AFM/STM. Apart from imaging the surface termination by NC-AFM with atomic resolution, point defects in magnesium oxide on Ag(001 and line defects in aluminum oxide on NiAl(110, respectively, were thoroughly studied. The contact potential was determined by Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM and the electronic structure by scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS. On magnesium oxide, different color centers, i.e., F0, F+, F2+ and divacancies, have different effects on the contact potential. These differences enabled classification and unambiguous differentiation by KPFM. True atomic resolution shows the topography at line defects in aluminum oxide. At these domain boundaries, STS and KPFM verify F2+-like centers, which have been predicted by density functional theory calculations. Thus, by determining the contact potential and the electronic structure with a spatial resolution in the nanometer range, NC-AFM and STM can be successfully applied on thin oxide films beyond imaging the topography of the surface atoms.

  5. Direct observation of deformation of nafion surfaces induced by methanol treatment by using atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umemura, Kazuo; Kuroda, Reiko; Gao Yanfeng; Nagai, Masayuki; Maeda, Yuta

    2008-01-01

    We successfully characterized the effect of methanol treatment on the nanoscopic structures of a nafion film, which is widely used in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to repetitively image a particular region of a nafion sample before and after methanol solutions were dropped onto the nafion film and dried in air. When the surface was treated with 20% methanol for 5 min, many nanopores appeared on the surface. The number of nanopores increased when the sample was treated twice or thrice. By repetitive AFM imaging of a particular region of the same sample, we found that the shapes of the nanopores were deformed by the repeated methanol treatment, although the size of the nanopores had not significantly changed. The creation of the nanopores was affected by the concentration of methanol. Our results directly visualized the effects of methanol treatment on the surface structures of a nafion film at nanoscale levels for the first time

  6. Micropatterning of bacteria on two-dimensional lattice protein surface observed by atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Y.J.; Jo, W.; Lim, J.; Park, S.; Kim, Y.S.; Kim, Y.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we characterized the two-dimensional lattice of bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a chemical and physical barrier against bacterial adhesion, using fluorescence microscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The lattice of BSA on glass surface was fabricated by micro-contact printing (μCP), which is a useful way to pattern a wide range of molecules into microscale features on different types of substrates. The contact-mode AFM measurements showed that the average height of the printed BSA monolayer was 5-6 nm. Escherichia coli adhered rapidly on bare glass slide, while the bacterial adhesion was minimized on the lattices in the range of 1-3 μm 2 . Especially, the bacterial adhesion was completely inhibited on a 1 μm 2 lattice. The results suggest that the anti-adhesion effects are due by the steric repulsion forces exerted by BSA

  7. Investigation of integrin expression on the surface of osteoblast-like cells by atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caneva Soumetz, Federico; Saenz, Jose F.; Pastorino, Laura; Ruggiero, Carmelina; Nosi, Daniele; Raiteri, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    The transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) is a human cytokine which has been demonstrated to modulate cell surface integrin repertoire. In this work integrin expression in response to TGF-β1 stimulation has been investigated on the surface of human osteoblast-like cells. We used atomic force microscopy (AFM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy to assess integrin expression and to evaluate their distribution over the dorsal side of the plasma membrane. AFM probes have been covalently functionalised with monoclonal antibodies specific to the β1 integrin subunit. Force curves have been collected in order to obtain maps of the interaction between the immobilized antibody and the respective cell membrane receptors. Adhesion peaks have been automatically detected by means of an ad hoc developed data analysis software. The specificity of the detected interactions has been assessed by adding free antibody in the solution and monitoring the dramatic decrease in the recorded interactions. In addition, the effect of TGF-β1 treatment on both the fluorescence signal and the adhesion events has been tested. The level of expression of the β1 integrin subunit was enhanced by TGF-β1. As a further analysis, the adhesion force of the single living cells to the substrate was measured by laterally pushing the cell with the AFM tip and measuring the force necessary to displace it. The treatment with TGF-β1 resulted in a decrease of the cell/substrate adhesion force. Results obtained by AFM have been validated by confocal laser scanning microscopy thus demonstrating the high potential of the AFM technique for the investigation of cell surface receptors distribution and trafficking at the nanoscale.

  8. Investigation of integrin expression on the surface of osteoblast-like cells by atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caneva Soumetz, Federico [Department of Communication, Computer and System Sciences, University of Genova, Via Opera Pia, 13-16145 Genova (Italy); Saenz, Jose F. [Biophysical and Electronic Engineering Department, University of Genova, Via All' Opera Pia 11a, 16145 Genova (Italy); Pastorino, Laura; Ruggiero, Carmelina [Department of Communication, Computer and System Sciences, University of Genova, Via Opera Pia, 13-16145 Genova (Italy); Nosi, Daniele [Department of Anatomy, Histology and Forensic Medicine, Bio-photonic Laboratory, University of Florence, viale Morgagni, 85 Firenze, CAP 50134 Florence (Italy); Raiteri, Roberto, E-mail: rr@unige.it [Biophysical and Electronic Engineering Department, University of Genova, Via All' Opera Pia 11a, 16145 Genova (Italy)

    2010-03-15

    The transforming growth factor {beta}1 (TGF-{beta}1) is a human cytokine which has been demonstrated to modulate cell surface integrin repertoire. In this work integrin expression in response to TGF-{beta}1 stimulation has been investigated on the surface of human osteoblast-like cells. We used atomic force microscopy (AFM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy to assess integrin expression and to evaluate their distribution over the dorsal side of the plasma membrane. AFM probes have been covalently functionalised with monoclonal antibodies specific to the {beta}1 integrin subunit. Force curves have been collected in order to obtain maps of the interaction between the immobilized antibody and the respective cell membrane receptors. Adhesion peaks have been automatically detected by means of an ad hoc developed data analysis software. The specificity of the detected interactions has been assessed by adding free antibody in the solution and monitoring the dramatic decrease in the recorded interactions. In addition, the effect of TGF-{beta}1 treatment on both the fluorescence signal and the adhesion events has been tested. The level of expression of the {beta}1 integrin subunit was enhanced by TGF-{beta}1. As a further analysis, the adhesion force of the single living cells to the substrate was measured by laterally pushing the cell with the AFM tip and measuring the force necessary to displace it. The treatment with TGF-{beta}1 resulted in a decrease of the cell/substrate adhesion force. Results obtained by AFM have been validated by confocal laser scanning microscopy thus demonstrating the high potential of the AFM technique for the investigation of cell surface receptors distribution and trafficking at the nanoscale.

  9. Influence of the atomic force microscope tip on the multifractal analysis of rough surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klapetek, Petr; Ohlidal, Ivan; Bilek, Jindrich

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the influence of atomic force microscope tip on the multifractal analysis of rough surfaces is discussed. This analysis is based on two methods, i.e. on the correlation function method and the wavelet transform modulus maxima method. The principles of both methods are briefly described. Both methods are applied to simulated rough surfaces (simulation is performed by the spectral synthesis method). It is shown that the finite dimensions of the microscope tip misrepresent the values of the quantities expressing the multifractal analysis of rough surfaces within both the methods. Thus, it was concretely shown that the influence of the finite dimensions of the microscope tip changed mono-fractal properties of simulated rough surface to multifractal ones. Further, it is shown that a surface reconstruction method developed for removing the negative influence of the microscope tip does not improve the results obtained in a substantial way. The theoretical procedures concerning both the methods, i.e. the correlation function method and the wavelet transform modulus maxima method, are illustrated for the multifractal analysis of randomly rough gallium arsenide surfaces prepared by means of the thermal oxidation of smooth gallium arsenide surfaces and subsequent dissolution of the oxide films

  10. Ex situ investigation of the step bunching on crystal surfaces by atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasinski, Mariusz J.

    1997-07-01

    We are describing ex situ observation of step bunching on the surfaces of solution grown potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) and sodium chlorate monocrystals. The measurements have been done with the use of atomic force microscope. The use of this equipment allowed us to see directly the structure of macrosteps. Observation confirmed the existence of step pinning which is one of the proposed mechanisms of step bunching. Despite the very high resolution of AFM it was not possible to determine the nature of pinning point. The monatomic steps on KDP and sodium chlorate crystal surfaces are mainly one unit cell high what seems to be the result of the steps pairing. The origin of observed step pattern is discussed in frames of existing theories.

  11. Micro and nanostructural characterization of surfaces and interfaces of Portland cement mortars using atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barreto, M.F.O.; Brandao, P.R.G.

    2014-01-01

    The characterization of Portland cement mortars is very important in the study the interfaces and surfaces that make up the system grout/ceramic block. In this sense, scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive (X-ray) spectrometer are important tools in investigating the morphology and chemical aspects. However, more detailed topographic information can be necessary in the characterization process. In this work, the aim was to characterize topographically surfaces and interfaces of mortars applied onto ceramic blocks. This has been accomplished by using the atomic force microscope (AFM) - MFP-3D-SA Asylum Research. To date, the results obtained from this research show that the characterization of cementitious materials with the help of AFM has an important contribution in the investigation and differentiation of hydrated calcium silicates (CSH), calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2, ettringite and calcium carbonate by providing morphological and micro topographical data, which are extremely important and reliable for the understanding of cementitious materials. (author)

  12. Nanoscopic morphological changes in yeast cell surfaces caused by oxidative stress: an atomic force microscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canetta, Elisabetta; Walker, Graeme M; Adya, Ashok K

    2009-06-01

    Nanoscopic changes in the cell surface morphology of the yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae (strain NCYC 1681) and Schizosaccharomyces pombe (strain DVPB 1354), due to their exposure to varying concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (oxidative stress), were investigated using an atomic force microscope (AFM). Increasing hydrogen peroxide concentration led to a decrease in cell viabilities and mean cell volumes, and an increase in the surface roughness of the yeasts. In addition, AFM studies revealed that oxidative stress caused cell compression in both S. cerevisiae and Schiz. pombe cells and an increase in the number of aged yeasts. These results confirmed the importance and usefulness of AFM in investigating the morphology of stressed microbial cells at the nanoscale. The results also provided novel information on the relative oxidative stress tolerance of S. cerevisiae and Schiz. pombe.

  13. Spectral force analysis using atomic force microscopy reveals the importance of surface heterogeneity in bacterial and colloid adhesion to engineered surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Huilian; Winslow, Charles J; Logan, Bruce E

    2008-04-01

    Coatings developed to reduce biofouling of engineered surfaces do not always perform as expected based on their native properties. One reason is that a relatively small number of highly adhesive sites, or the heterogeneity of the coated surface, may control the overall response of the system to initial bacterial deposition. It is shown here using an approach we call spectral force analysis (SFA), based on force volume imaging of the surface with atomic force microscopy, that the behavior of surfaces and coatings can be better understood relative to bacterial adhesion. The application of vapor deposited TiO(2) metal oxide increased bacterial and colloid adhesion, but coating the surface with silica oxide reduced adhesion in a manner consistent with SFA based on analysis of the "stickiest" sites. Application of a TiO(2)-based paint to a surface produced a relatively non-fouling surface. Addition of a hydrophilic layer coating to this surface should have decreased fouling. However, it was observed that this coating actually increased fouling. Using SFA it was shown that the reason for the increased adhesion of bacteria and particles to the hydrophilic layer was that the surface produced by this coating was highly heterogeneous, resulting in a small number of sites that created a stickier surface. These results show that while it is important to manufacture surfaces with coatings that are relatively non-adhesive to bacteria, it is also essential that these coatings have a highly uniform surface chemistry.

  14. Reconstruction of the Tip-Surface Interaction Potential by Analysis of the Brownian Motion of an Atomic Force Microscope Tip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemsen, O.H.; Kuipers, L.; van der Werf, Kees; de Grooth, B.G.; Greve, Jan

    2000-01-01

    The thermal movement of an atomic force microscope (AFM) tip is used to reconstruct the tip-surface interaction potential. If a tip is brought into the vicinity of a surface, its movement is governed by the sum of the harmonic cantilever potential and the tip-surface interaction potential. By

  15. Following the surface response of caffeine cocrystals to controlled humidity storage by atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, A M C; Gardner, C E; Jones, W

    2009-09-08

    Active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) stability in solid state tablet formulation is frequently a function of the relative humidity (RH) environment in which the drug is stored. Caffeine is one such problematic API. Previously reported caffeine cocrystals, however, were found to offer increased resistance to caffeine hydrate formation. Here we report on the use of atomic force microscopy (AFM) to image the surface of two caffeine cocrystal systems to look for differences between the surface and bulk response of the cocrystal to storage in controlled humidity environments. Bulk responses have previously been assessed by powder X-ray diffraction. With AFM, pinning sites were identified at step edges on caffeine/oxalic acid, with these sites leading to non-uniform step movement on going from ambient to 0% RH. At RH >75%, areas of fresh crystal growth were seen on the cocrystal surface. In the case of caffeine/malonic acid the cocrystals were observed to absorb water anisotropically after storage at 75% RH for 2 days, affecting the surface topography of the cocrystal. These results show that AFM expands on the data gathered by bulk analytical techniques, such as powder X-ray diffraction, by providing localised surface information. This surface information may be important for better predicting API stability in isolation and at a solid state API-excipient interface.

  16. Synthesis of ZnS nanoparticles on a solid surface: Atomic force microscopy study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Huizhen; Lian Wenping; Song Yonghai; Chen Shouhui; Chen Lili; Wang Li

    2010-01-01

    In this work, zinc sulfide (ZnS) nanoparticles had been synthesized on DNA network/mica and mica surface, respectively. The synthesis was carried out by first dropping a mixture of zinc acetate and DNA on a mica surface for the formation of the DNA networks or zinc acetate solution on a mica surface, and subsequently transferring the sample into a heated thiourea solution. The Zn 2+ adsorbed on DNA network/mica or mica surface would react with S 2- produced from thiourea and form ZnS nanoparticles on these surfaces. X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to characterize the ZnS nanoparticles in detail. AFM results showed that ZnS nanoparticles distributed uniformly on the mica surface and deposited preferentially on DNA networks. It was also found that the size and density of ZnS nanoparticles could be effectively controlled by adjusting reaction temperature and the concentration of Zn 2+ or DNA. The possible growth mechanisms have been discussed in detail.

  17. Quantifying the importance of galactofuranose in Aspergillus nidulans hyphal wall surface organization by atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Biplab C; El-Ganiny, Amira M; Abbas, Mariam; Kaminskyj, Susan G W; Dahms, Tanya E S

    2011-05-01

    The fungal wall mediates cell-environment interactions. Galactofuranose (Galf), the five-member ring form of galactose, has a relatively low abundance in Aspergillus walls yet is important for fungal growth and fitness. Aspergillus nidulans strains deleted for Galf biosynthesis enzymes UgeA (UDP-glucose-4-epimerase) and UgmA (UDP-galactopyranose mutase) lacked immunolocalizable Galf, had growth and sporulation defects, and had abnormal wall architecture. We used atomic force microscopy and force spectroscopy to image and quantify cell wall viscoelasticity and surface adhesion of ugeAΔ and ugmAΔ strains. We compared the results for ugeAΔ and ugmAΔ strains with the results for a wild-type strain (AAE1) and the ugeB deletion strain, which has wild-type growth and sporulation. Our results suggest that UgeA and UgmA are important for cell wall surface subunit organization and wall viscoelasticity. The ugeAΔ and ugmAΔ strains had significantly larger surface subunits and lower cell wall viscoelastic moduli than those of AAE1 or ugeBΔ hyphae. Double deletion strains (ugeAΔ ugeBΔ and ugeAΔ ugmAΔ) had more-disorganized surface subunits than single deletion strains. Changes in wall surface structure correlated with changes in its viscoelastic modulus for both fixed and living hyphae. Wild-type walls had the largest viscoelastic modulus, while the walls of the double deletion strains had the smallest. The ugmAΔ strain and particularly the ugeAΔ ugmAΔ double deletion strain were more adhesive to hydrophilic surfaces than the wild type, consistent with changes in wall viscoelasticity and surface organization. We propose that Galf is necessary for full maturation of A. nidulans walls during hyphal extension.

  18. Air–water interface of submerged superhydrophobic surfaces imaged by atomic force microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Moosmann

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Underwater air retention of superhydrophobic hierarchically structured surfaces is of increasing interest for technical applications. Persistent air layers (the Salvinia effect are known from biological species, for example, the floating fern Salvinia or the backswimmer Notonecta. The use of this concept opens up new possibilities for biomimetic technical applications in the fields of drag reduction, antifouling, anticorrosion and under water sensing. Current knowledge regarding the shape of the air–water interface is insufficient, although it plays a crucial role with regards to stability in terms of diffusion and dynamic conditions. Optical methods for imaging the interface have been limited to the micrometer regime. In this work, we utilized a nondynamic and nondestructive atomic force microscopy (AFM method to image the interface of submerged superhydrophobic structures with nanometer resolution. Up to now, only the interfaces of nanobubbles (acting almost like solids have been characterized by AFM at these dimensions. In this study, we show for the first time that it is possible to image the air–water interface of submerged hierarchically structured (micro-pillars surfaces by AFM in contact mode. By scanning with zero resulting force applied, we were able to determine the shape of the interface and thereby the depth of the water penetrating into the underlying structures. This approach is complemented by a second method: the interface was scanned with different applied force loads and the height for zero force was determined by linear regression. These methods open new possibilities for the investigation of air-retaining surfaces, specifically in terms of measuring contact area and in comparing different coatings, and thus will lead to the development of new applications.

  19. Analytical Model of the Nonlinear Dynamics of Cantilever Tip-Sample Surface Interactions for Various Acoustic-Atomic Force Microscopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantrell, John H., Jr.; Cantrell, Sean A.

    2008-01-01

    A comprehensive analytical model of the interaction of the cantilever tip of the atomic force microscope (AFM) with the sample surface is developed that accounts for the nonlinearity of the tip-surface interaction force. The interaction is modeled as a nonlinear spring coupled at opposite ends to linear springs representing cantilever and sample surface oscillators. The model leads to a pair of coupled nonlinear differential equations that are solved analytically using a standard iteration procedure. Solutions are obtained for the phase and amplitude signals generated by various acoustic-atomic force microscope (A-AFM) techniques including force modulation microscopy, atomic force acoustic microscopy, ultrasonic force microscopy, heterodyne force microscopy, resonant difference-frequency atomic force ultrasonic microscopy (RDF-AFUM), and the commonly used intermittent contact mode (TappingMode) generally available on AFMs. The solutions are used to obtain a quantitative measure of image contrast resulting from variations in the Young modulus of the sample for the amplitude and phase images generated by the A-AFM techniques. Application of the model to RDF-AFUM and intermittent soft contact phase images of LaRC-cp2 polyimide polymer is discussed. The model predicts variations in the Young modulus of the material of 24 percent from the RDF-AFUM image and 18 percent from the intermittent soft contact image. Both predictions are in good agreement with the literature value of 21 percent obtained from independent, macroscopic measurements of sheet polymer material.

  20. Analysis of atomic force microscopy data for surface characterization using fuzzy logic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mousa, Amjed; Niemann, Darrell L.; Niemann, Devin J.; Gunther, Norman G.; Rahman, Mahmud

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present a methodology to characterize surface nanostructures of thin films. The methodology identifies and isolates nanostructures using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) data and extracts quantitative information, such as their size and shape. The fuzzy logic based methodology relies on a Fuzzy Inference Engine (FIE) to classify the data points as being top, bottom, uphill, or downhill. The resulting data sets are then further processed to extract quantitative information about the nanostructures. In the present work we introduce a mechanism which can consistently distinguish crowded surfaces from those with sparsely distributed structures and present an omni-directional search technique to improve the structural recognition accuracy. In order to demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach we present a case study which uses our approach to quantitatively identify particle sizes of two specimens each with a unique gold nanoparticle size distribution. - Research Highlights: → A Fuzzy logic analysis technique capable of characterizing AFM images of thin films. → The technique is applicable to different surfaces regardless of their densities. → Fuzzy logic technique does not require manual adjustment of the algorithm parameters. → The technique can quantitatively capture differences between surfaces. → This technique yields more realistic structure boundaries compared to other methods.

  1. Imaging three-dimensional surface objects with submolecular resolution by atomic force microscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moreno, C.; Stetsovych, Oleksandr; Shimizu, T.K.; Custance, O.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 4 (2015), s. 2257-2262 ISSN 1530-6984 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : noncontact atomic force microscopy (NC- AFM ) * submolecular resolution * three-dimensional dynamic force spectroscopy * high-resolution imaging Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 13.779, year: 2015

  2. Atomic force microscopy measurements of topography and friction on dotriacontane films adsorbed on a SiO2 surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trogisch, S.; Simpson, M.J.; Taub, H.

    2005-01-01

    We report comprehensive atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements at room temperature of the nanoscale topography and lateral friction on the surface of thin solid films of an intermediate-length normal alkane, dotriacontane (n-C32H66), adsorbed onto a SiO2 surface. Our topographic and frictional...

  3. Nanoscale fabrication and characterization of chemically modified silicon surfaces using conductive atomic force microscopy in liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinser, Christopher Reagan

    This dissertation examines the modification and characterization of hydrogen-terminated silicon surfaces in organic liquids. Conductive atomic force microscope (cAFM) lithography is used to fabricate structures with sub-100 nm line width on H:Si(111) in n-alkanes, 1-alkenes, and 1-alkanes. Nanopatterning is accomplished by applying a positive (n-alkanes and 1-alkenes) or a negative (1-alkanes) voltage pulse to the silicon substrate with the cAFM tip connected to ground. The chemical and kinetic behavior of the patterned features is characterized using AFM, lateral force microscopy, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (TOF SIMS), and chemical etching. Features patterned in hexadecane, 1-octadecene, and undecylenic acid methyl ester exhibited chemical and kinetic behavior consistent with AFM field induced oxidation. The oxide features are formed due to capillary condensation of a water meniscus at the AFM tip-sample junction. A space-charge limited growth model is proposed to explain the observed growth kinetics. Surface modifications produced in the presence of neat 1-dodecyne and 1-octadecyne exhibited a reduced lateral force compared to the background H:Si(111) substrate and were resistant to a hydrofluoric acid etch, characteristics which indicate that the patterned features are not due to field induced oxidation and which are consistent with the presence of the methyl-terminated 1-alkyne bound directly to the silicon surface through silicon-carbon bonds. In addition to the cAFM patterned surfaces, full monolayers of undecylenic acid methyl ester (SAM-1) and undec-10-enoic acid 2-bromoethyl ester (SAM-2) were grown on H:Si(111) substrates using ultraviolet light. The structure and chemistry of the monolayers were characterized using AFM, TOF SIMS, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray reflectivity (XRR), X-ray standing waves (XSW), and X-ray fluorescence (XRF). These combined analyses provide evidence that SAM-1 and SAM-2 form dense monolayers

  4. Bond-Strengthening in Staphylococcal Adhesion to Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Surfaces Using Atomic Force Microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boks, N.P.; Busscher, H.J.; Mei, van der H.C.; Norde, W.

    2008-01-01

    Time-dependent bacterial adhesion forces of four strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis to hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces were investigated. Initial adhesion forces differed significantly between the two surfaces and hovered around -0.4 nN. No unambiguous effect of substratum surface

  5. Adsorption of chitosan onto carbonaceous surfaces and its application: atomic force microscopy study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Shengnan; Liu Zhiguo; Zu Yuangang; Fu Yujie; Xing Zhimin; Zhao Lin; Sun Tongze; Zhou Zhen

    2011-01-01

    The adsorption of chitosan onto highly ordered pyrolytic graphite(HOPG) surfaces and its applications have been studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results indicated that chitosan topography formed on the HOPG surface significantly depends on the pH conditions and its concentration for the incubation. Under strongly acidic conditions (pH -1 , chitosan formed into uniform network structures composed of fine chains. When the solution pH was changed from 3.5 to 6.5, chitosan tends to form a thicker film. Under neutral and basic conditions, chitosan changed into spherical nanoparticles, and their sizes were increased with increasing pH. Dendritic structures have been observed when the chitosan concentration was increased up to 5 mg ml -1 . In addition, the chitosan topography can also be influenced by ionic strength and the addition of different metal ions. When 0.1 M metal ions Na + , Mg 2+ , Ca 2+ and Cu 2+ were added into the chitosan solution at pH 3.0 for the incubation, network structures, branched chains, block structures and dense networks attached with many small particles were observed, respectively. The potential applications of these chitosan structures on HOPG have been explored. Preliminary results characterized by AFM and XPS indicated that the chitosan network formed on the HOPG surface can be used for AFM lithography, selective adsorption of gold nanoparticles and DNA molecules.

  6. Evaluation of surface roughness of orthodontic wires by means of atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Antò, Vincenzo; Rongo, Roberto; Ametrano, Gianluca; Spagnuolo, Gianrico; Manzo, Paolo; Martina, Roberto; Paduano, Sergio; Valletta, Rosa

    2012-09-01

    To compare the surface roughness of different orthodontic archwires. Four nickel-titanium wires (Sentalloy(®), Sentalloy(®) High Aesthetic, Titanium Memory ThermaTi Lite(®), and Titanium Memory Esthetic(®)), three β-titanium wires (TMA(®), Colored TMA(®), and Beta Titanium(®)), and one stainless-steel wire (Stainless Steel(®)) were considered for this study. Three samples for each wire were analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Three-dimensional images were processed using Gwiddion software, and the roughness average (Ra), the root mean square (Rms), and the maximum height (Mh) values of the scanned surface profile were recorded. Statistical analysis was performed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey's post hoc test (P Sentalloy High Aesthetic was the roughest (Ra  =  133.5 ± 10.8; Rms  =  165.8 ± 9.8; Mh  =  949.6 ± 192.1) of the archwires. The surface quality of the wires investigated differed significantly. Ion implantation effectively reduced the roughness of TMA. Moreover, Teflon(®)-coated Titanium Memory Esthetic was less rough than was ion-implanted Sentalloy High Aesthetic.

  7. MM99.50 - Surface Topography Characterization Using an Atomic Force Microscope Mounted on a Coordinate Measuring Machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiffre, Leonardo De; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Kofod, Niels

    1999-01-01

    The paper describes the construction, testing and use of an integrated system for topographic characterization of fine surfaces on parts having relatively big dimensions. An atomic force microscope (AFM) was mounted on a manual three-coordinate measuring machine (CMM) achieving free positioning o...

  8. An atomic force microscopy study on the transition from mushrooms to octopus surface ''micelles'' by changing the solvent quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stamouli, A.; Pelletier, E.; Koutsos, V; van der Vegte, E.W.; Hadziioannou, G

    1996-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is used to study the behavior of a diblock copolymer onto a solid surface while the solvent quality is changed. In a first step, the copolymer poly(2-vinylpyridine)/polystyrene (P2VP/PS) is adsorbed onto mica from a selective solvent (the PS block is well solvated and

  9. Evidence of the no-slip boundary condition of water flow between hydrophilic surfaces using atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maali, Abdelhamid; Wang, Yuliang; Bhushan, Bharat

    2009-10-20

    In this study we present measurements of the hydrodynamic force exerted on a glass sphere glued to an atomic force microscopy (AFM) cantilever approaching a mica surface in water. A large sphere was used to reduce the impact of the cantilever beam on the measurement. An AFM cantilever with large stiffness was used to accurately determine the actual contact position between the sphere and the sample surface. The measured hydrodynamic force with different approach velocities is in good agreement with the Taylor force calculated in the lubrication theory with the no-slip boundary conditions, which verifies that there is no boundary slip on the glass and mica surfaces. Moreover, a detailed procedure of how to subtract the electrostatic double-layer force is presented.

  10. Characterization of local hydrophobicity on sapphire (0001) surfaces in aqueous environment by colloidal probe atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wada, Tomoya; Yamazaki, Kenji; Isono, Toshinari; Ogino, Toshio, E-mail: ogino-toshio-rx@ynu.ac.jp

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • Local hydrophobicity of phase-separated sapphire (0001) surfaces was investigated. • These surfaces are featured by coexistence of hydrophilic and hydrophobic domains. • Each domain was characterized by colloidal probe atomic force microscopy in water. • Both domains can be distinguished by adhesive forces of the probe to the surfaces. • Characterization in aqueous environment is important in bio-applications of sapphire. - Abstract: Sapphire (0001) surfaces exhibit a phase-separation into hydrophobic and hydrophilic domains upon high-temperature annealing, which were previously distinguished by the thickness of adsorbed water layers in air using atomic force microscopy (AFM). To characterize their local surface hydrophobicity in aqueous environment, we used AFM equipped with a colloidal probe and measured the local adhesive force between each sapphire domain and a hydrophilic SiO{sub 2} probe surface, or a hydrophobic polystyrene one. Two data acquisition modes for statistical analyses were used: one is force measurements at different positions of the surface and the other repeated measurement at a fixed position. We found that adhesive force measurements using the polystyrene probe allow us to distinctly separate the hydrophilic and hydrophobic domains. The dispersion in the force measurement data at different positions of the surface is larger than that in the repeated measurements at a fixed position. It indicates that the adhesive force measurement is repeatable although their data dispersion for the measurement positions is relatively large. From these results, we can conclude that the hydrophilic and hydrophobic domains on the sapphire (0001) surfaces are distinguished by a difference in their hydration degrees.

  11. Features of static and dynamic friction profiles in one and two dimensions on polymer and atomically flat surfaces using atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, G S; Watson, J A

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we correlate the Atomic Force Microscope probe movement with surface location while scanning in the imaging and Force versus distance modes. Static and dynamic stick-slip processes are described on a scale of nanometres to microns on a range of samples. We demonstrate the limits and range of the tip apex being fixed laterally in the force versus distance mode and static friction slope dependence on probe parameters. Micron scale static and dynamic friction can be used to purposefully manipulate soft surfaces to produce well defined frictional gradients

  12. Image simulation and surface reconstruction of undercut features in atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Xiaoping; Villarrubia, John; Tian, Fenglei; Dixson, Ronald

    2007-03-01

    CD-AFMs (critical dimension atomic force microscopes) are instruments with servo-control of the tip in more than one direction. With appropriately "boot-shaped" or flared tips, such instruments can image vertical or even undercut features. As with any AFM, the image is a dilation of the sample shape with the tip shape. Accurate extraction of the CD requires a correction for the tip effect. Analytical methods to correct images for the tip shape have been available for some time for the traditional (vertical feedback only) AFMs, but were until recently unavailable for instruments with multi-dimensional feedback. Dahlen et al. [J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B23, pp. 2297-2303, (2005)] recently introduced a swept-volume approach, implemented for 2-dimensional (2D) feedback. It permits image simulation and sample reconstruction, techniques previously developed for the traditional instruments, to be extended for the newer tools. We have introduced [X. Qian and J. S. Villarrubia, Ultramicroscopy, in press] an alternative dexel-based method, that does the same in either 2D or 3D. This paper describes the application of this method to sample shapes of interest in semiconductor manufacturing. When the tip shape is known (e.g., by prior measurement using a tip characterizer) a 3D sample surface may be reconstructed from its 3D image. Basing the CD measurement upon such a reconstruction is shown here to remove some measurement artifacts that are not removed (or are incompletely removed) by the existing measurement procedures.

  13. MDM2-MDM4 molecular interaction investigated by atomic force spectroscopy and surface plasmon resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscetti, Ilaria; Teveroni, Emanuela; Moretti, Fabiola; Bizzarri, Anna Rita; Cannistraro, Salvatore

    Murine double minute 2 (MDM2) and 4 (MDM4) are known as the main negative regulators of p53, a tumor suppressor. They are able to form heterodimers that are much more effective in the downregulation of p53. Therefore, the MDM2-MDM4 complex could be a target for promising therapeutic restoration of p53 function. To this aim, a deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlining the heterodimerization is needed. The kinetic and thermodynamic characterization of the MDM2-MDM4 complex was performed with two complementary approaches: atomic force spectroscopy and surface plasmon resonance. Both techniques revealed an equilibrium dissociation constant (KD ) in the micromolar range for the MDM2-MDM4 heterodimer, similar to related complexes involved in the p53 network. Furthermore, the MDM2-MDM4 complex is characterized by a relatively high free energy, through a single energy barrier, and by a lifetime in the order of tens of seconds. New insights into the MDM2-MDM4 interaction could be highly important for developing innovative anticancer drugs focused on p53 reactivation.

  14. AFM (Atomic force microscope and its use in studying the surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Škvarla Jiří

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarizes the present knowledge about the use of AFM in the mineral processing research. First, the development and fundamentals of the AFM imaging are presented in relation to other imaging techniques (especially STM, Scanning tunneling microscope. Further, the role of the sensing tip-surface interactions is mentioned. Finally, the surface force measurements in the AFM force calibration mode are diskussed.

  15. Atomic force microscopy of surface relief in individual grains of fatigued 316L austenitic stainless steel

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Man, Jiří; Obrtlík, Karel; Blochwitz, C.; Polák, Jaroslav

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 15 (2002), s. 3767-3780 ISSN 1359-6454 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/00/D055; GA ČR GA106/01/0376 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2041904 Keywords : fatigue * persistent slip band * atomic force microscopy Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 3.104, year: 2002

  16. Mapping of Proteomic Composition on the Surfaces of Bacillus spores by Atomic Force Microscopy-based Immunolabeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plomp, M; Malkin, A J

    2008-06-02

    Atomic force microscopy provides a unique capability to image high-resolution architecture and structural dynamics of pathogens (e.g. viruses, bacteria and bacterial spores) at near molecular resolution in native conditions. Further development of atomic force microscopy in order to enable the correlation of pathogen protein surface structures with specific gene products is essential to understand the mechanisms of the pathogen life cycle. We have applied an AFM-based immunolabeling technique for the proteomic mapping of macromolecular structures through the visualization of the binding of antibodies, conjugated with nanogold particles, to specific epitopes on Bacillus spore surfaces. This information is generated while simultaneously acquiring the surface morphology of the pathogen. The immunospecificity of this labeling method was established through the utilization of specific polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies that target spore coat and exosporium epitopes of Bacillus atrophaeus and Bacillus anthracis spores.

  17. Combined short scale roughness and surface dielectric function gradient effects on the determination of tip-sample force in atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gusso, André, E-mail: gusso@metal.eeimvr.uff.br [Departamento de Ciências Exatas-EEIMVR, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Volta Redonda, RJ 27255-125 (Brazil)

    2013-11-11

    The contribution of tip roughness to the van der Waals force between an atomic force microscopy probe tip and the sample is calculated using the multilayer effective medium model, which allows us to consider the relevant case of roughness characterized by correlation length and amplitude in the nanometer scale. The effect of the surface dielectric function gradient is incorporated in the tip-sample force model. It is concluded that for rms roughness in the few nanometers range the effect of short scale tip roughness is quite significant.

  18. Simulated non-contact atomic force microscopy for GaAs surfaces based on real-space pseudopotentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Minjung; Chelikowsky, James R.

    2014-01-01

    We simulate non-contact atomic force microscopy (AFM) with a GaAs(1 1 0) surface using a real-space ab initio pseudopotential method. While most ab initio simulations include an explicit model for the AFM tip, our method does not introduce the tip modeling step. This approach results in a considerable reduction of computational work, and also provides complete AFM images, which can be directly compared to experiment. By analyzing tip-surface interaction forces in both our results and previous ab initio simulations, we find that our method provides very similar force profile to the pure Si tip results. We conclude that our method works well for systems in which the tip is not chemically active.

  19. Controlling electron transfer processes on insulating surfaces with the non-contact atomic force microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevethan, Thomas; Shluger, Alexander

    2009-07-01

    We present the results of theoretical modelling that predicts how a process of transfer of single electrons between two defects on an insulating surface can be induced using a scanning force microscope tip. A model but realistic system is employed which consists of a neutral oxygen vacancy and a noble metal (Pt or Pd) adatom on the MgO(001) surface. We show that the ionization potential of the vacancy and the electron affinity of the metal adatom can be significantly modified by the electric field produced by an ionic tip apex at close approach to the surface. The relative energies of the two states are also a function of the separation of the two defects. Therefore the transfer of an electron from the vacancy to the metal adatom can be induced either by the field effect of the tip or by manipulating the position of the metal adatom on the surface.

  20. Origin of phase shift in atomic force microscopic investigation of the surface morphology of NR/NBR blend film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thanawan, S. [Institute of Science and Technology for Research and Development, Mahidol University, Salaya, Nakhon Pathom 73170 (Thailand)], E-mail: ststw@mahidol.ac.th; Radabutra, S.; Thamasirianunt, P.; Amornsakchai, T.; Suchiva, K. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Salaya, Nakhon Pathom 73170 (Thailand)

    2009-01-15

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to study the morphology and surface properties of NR/NBR blend. Blends at 1/3, 1/1 and 3/1 weight ratios were prepared in benzene and formed film by casting. AFM phase images of these blends in tapping mode displayed islands in the sea morphology or matrix-dispersed structures. For blend 1/3, NR formed dispersed phase while in blends 1/1 and 3/1 phase inversion was observed. NR showed higher phase shift angle in AFM phase imaging for all blends. This circumstance was governed by adhesion energy hysteresis between the device tip and the rubber surface rather than surface stiffness of the materials, as proved by force distance measurements in the AFM contact mode.

  1. Origin of phase shift in atomic force microscopic investigation of the surface morphology of NR/NBR blend film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanawan, S; Radabutra, S; Thamasirianunt, P; Amornsakchai, T; Suchiva, K

    2009-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to study the morphology and surface properties of NR/NBR blend. Blends at 1/3, 1/1 and 3/1 weight ratios were prepared in benzene and formed film by casting. AFM phase images of these blends in tapping mode displayed islands in the sea morphology or matrix-dispersed structures. For blend 1/3, NR formed dispersed phase while in blends 1/1 and 3/1 phase inversion was observed. NR showed higher phase shift angle in AFM phase imaging for all blends. This circumstance was governed by adhesion energy hysteresis between the device tip and the rubber surface rather than surface stiffness of the materials, as proved by force distance measurements in the AFM contact mode.

  2. An atomic-force-microscopy study of the structure of surface layers of intact fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalisov, M. M.; Ankudinov, A. V.; Penniyaynen, V. A.; Nyapshaev, I. A.; Kipenko, A. V.; Timoshchuk, K. I.; Podzorova, S. A.; Krylov, B. V.

    2017-02-01

    Intact embryonic fibroblasts on a collagen-treated substrate have been studied by atomic-force microscopy (AFM) using probes of two types: (i) standard probes with tip curvature radii of 2-10 nm and (ii) special probes with a calibrated 325-nm SiO2 ball radius at the tip apex. It is established that, irrespective of probe type, the average maximum fibroblast height is on a level of 1.7 μm and the average stiffness of the probe-cell contact amounts to 16.5 mN/m. The obtained AFM data reveal a peculiarity of the fibroblast structure, whereby its external layers move as a rigid shell relative to the interior and can be pressed inside to a depth dependent on the load only.

  3. Combined use of atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and secondary ion mass spectrometry for cell surface analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dague, Etienne; Delcorte, Arnaud; Latgé, Jean-Paul; Dufrêne, Yves F

    2008-04-01

    Understanding the surface properties of microbial cells is a major challenge of current microbiological research and a key to efficiently exploit them in biotechnology. Here, we used three advanced surface analysis techniques with different sensitivity, probing depth, and lateral resolution, that is, in situ atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and secondary ion mass spectrometry, to gain insight into the surface properties of the conidia of the human fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. We show that the native ultrastructure, surface protein and polysaccharide concentrations, and amino acid composition of three mutants affected in hydrophobin production are markedly different from those of the wild-type, thereby providing novel insight into the cell wall architecture of A. fumigatus. The results demonstrate the power of using multiple complementary techniques for probing microbial cell surfaces.

  4. CHARACTERIZATION OF SURFACE OF THE (010 FACE OF BORAX CRYSTALS USING EX SITU ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY (AFM:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suharso Suharso

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The surface topology of borax crystals grown at a relative supersaturation of 0.21 has been investigated using ex situ atomic force microscopy (AFM. It was found that the cleavage of borax crystals along the (010 face planes has features of the cleavage of layered compounds, exhibiting cleavage steps of low heights. The step heights of the cleavage of the (010 face of borax crystal are from one unit cell to three unit cells of this face.   Keywords: AFM, cleavage, borax.

  5. Probing the Surface Charge on the Basal Planes of Kaolinite Particles with High-Resolution Atomic Force Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, N; Andersson, M P; van den Ende, D; Mugele, F; Siretanu, I

    2017-12-19

    High-resolution atomic force microscopy is used to map the surface charge on the basal planes of kaolinite nanoparticles in an ambient solution of variable pH and NaCl or CaCl 2 concentration. Using DLVO theory with charge regulation, we determine from the measured force-distance curves the surface charge distribution on both the silica-like and the gibbsite-like basal plane of the kaolinite particles. We observe that both basal planes do carry charge that varies with pH and salt concentration. The silica facet was found to be negatively charged at pH 4 and above, whereas the gibbsite facet is positively charged at pH below 7 and negatively charged at pH above 7. Investigations in CaCl 2 at pH 6 show that the surface charge on the gibbsite facet increases for concentration up to 10 mM CaCl 2 and starts to decrease upon further increasing the salt concentration to 50 mM. The increase of surface charge at low concentration is explained by Ca 2+ ion adsorption, while Cl - adsorption at higher CaCl 2 concentrations partially neutralizes the surface charge. Atomic resolution imaging and density functional theory calculations corroborate these observations. They show that hydrated Ca 2+ ions can spontaneously adsorb on the gibbsite facet of the kaolinite particle and form ordered surface structures, while at higher concentrations Cl - ions will co-adsorb, thereby changing the observed ordered surface structure.

  6. Measuring the sizes of nanospheres on a rough surface by using atomic force microscopy and a curvature-reconstruction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oikawa, Koudai; Kim, Hyonchol; Watanabe, Naoya; Shigeno, Masatsugu; Shirakawabe, Yoshiharu; Yasuda, Kenji

    2007-01-01

    One of the advantages of atomic force microscopy (AFM) is that it can accurately measure the heights of targets on flat substrates. It is difficult, however, to determine the shape of nanoparticles on rough surfaces. We therefore propose a curvature-reconstruction method that estimates the sizes of particles by fitting sphere curvatures acquired from raw AFM data. We evaluated this fitting estimation using 15-, 30-, and 50-nm gold nanoparticles on mica and confirmed that particle sizes could be estimated within 5% from 20% of their curvature measured using a carbon nanotube (CNT) tip. We also estimated the sizes of nanoparticles on the rough surface of dried cells and found we also can estimate the size of those particles within 5%, which is difficult when we only used the height information. The results indicate the size of nanoparticles even on rough surfaces can be measured by using our method and a CNT tip

  7. Accurate measurement of Atomic Force Microscope cantilever deflection excluding tip-surface contact with application to force calibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slattery, Ashley D.; Blanch, Adam J.; Quinton, Jamie S.; Gibson, Christopher T., E-mail: christopher.gibson@flinders.edu.au

    2013-08-15

    calibrate the cantilever spring constant using the thermal noise method, allowing complete force calibration to be accurately performed without tip-sample contact. - Highlights: • A technique for determining AFM cantilever sensitivity is developed and tested. • The error on the method is between 2–5% and does not require tip surface contact. • The method is simple to implement and can be applied to any type of cantilever. • The current method can be used to determine the spring constant of the cantilever.

  8. Characterizing the effect of polymyxin B antibiotics to lipopolysaccharide on Escherichia coli surface using atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Yoo Jin; Plochberger, Birgit; Rechberger, Markus; Hinterdorfer, Peter

    2017-06-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on gram-negative bacterial outer membranes is the first target for antimicrobial agents, due to their spatial proximity to outer environments of microorganisms. To develop antibacterial compounds with high specificity for LPS binding, the understanding of the molecular nature and their mode of recognition is of key importance. In this study, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and single molecular force spectroscopy were used to characterize the effects of antibiotic polymyxin B (PMB) to the bacterial membrane at the nanoscale. Isolated LPS layer and the intact bacterial membrane were examined with respect to morphological changes at different concentrations of PMB. Our results revealed that 3 hours of 10 μg/mL of PMB exposure caused the highest roughness changes on intact bacterial surfaces, arising from the direct binding of PMB to LPS on the bacterial membrane. Single molecular force spectroscopy was used to probe specific interaction forces between the isolated LPS layer and PMB coupled to the AFM tip. A short range interaction regime mediated by electrostatic forces was visible. Unbinding forces between isolated LPS and PMB were about 30 pN at a retraction velocity of 500 nm/s. We further investigated the effects of the polycationic peptide PMB on bacterial outer membranes and monitored its influences on the deterioration of the bacterial membrane structure. Polymyxin B binding led to rougher appearances and wrinkles on the outer membranes surface, which may finally lead to lethal membrane damage of bacteria. Our studies indicate the potential of AFM for applications in pathogen recognition and nano-resolution approaches in microbiology. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Effect of SP-C on surface potential distribution in pulmonary surfactant: Atomic force microscopy and Kelvin probe force microscopy study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hane, Francis; Moores, Brad; Amrein, Matthias; Leonenko, Zoya

    2009-01-01

    The air-lung interface is covered by a molecular film of pulmonary surfactant (PS). The major function of the film is to reduce the surface tension of the lung's air-liquid interface, providing stability to the alveolar structure and reducing the work of breathing. Earlier we have shown that function of bovine lipid extract surfactant (BLES) is related to the specific molecular architecture of surfactant films. Defined molecular arrangement of the lipids and proteins of the surfactant film also give rise to a local highly variable electrical surface potential of the interface. In this work we investigated a simple model of artificial lung surfactant consisting of DPPC, eggPG, and surfactant protein C (SP-C). Effects of surface compression and the presence of SP-C on the monolayer structure and surface potential distribution were investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM). We show that topography and locally variable surface potential of DPPC-eggPG lipid mixture are similar to those of pulmonary surfactant BLES in the presence of SP-C and differ in surface potential when SP-C is absent.

  10. Quantified Differentiation of Surface Topography for Nano-materials As-Obtained from Atomic Force Microscopy Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Mousumi; Chatterjee, Somenath

    2018-04-01

    Surface texture is an important issue to realize the nature (crest and trough) of surfaces. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) image is a key analysis for surface topography. However, in nano-scale, the nature (i.e., deflection or crack) as well as quantification (i.e., height or depth) of deposited layers is essential information for material scientist. In this paper, a gradient-based K-means algorithm is used to differentiate the layered surfaces depending on their color contrast of as-obtained from AFM images. A transformation using wavelet decomposition is initiated to extract the information about deflection or crack on the material surfaces from the same images. Z-axis depth analysis from wavelet coefficients provides information about the crack present in the material. Using the above method corresponding surface information for the material is obtained. In addition, the Gaussian filter is applied to remove the unwanted lines, which occurred during AFM scanning. Few known samples are taken as input, and validity of the above approaches is shown.

  11. Surface and electron emission properties of hydrogen-free diamond-like carbon films investigated by atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Dongping; Zhang, Sam; Ong, S.-E.; Benstetter, Guenther; Du Hejun

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we have deposited hydrogen-free diamond-like carbon (DLC) films by using DC magnetron sputtering of graphite target at various r.f. bias voltages. Surface and nanoscale emission properties of these DLC films have been investigated using a combination of atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based nanowear tests and conducting-AFM, by simultaneously measuring the topography and the conductivity of the samples. Nanowear tests show that these DLC films are covered with the thin (1.5-2.0 nm) graphite-like layers at surfaces. Compared to the film bulk structure, the graphite-like surface layers are more conductive. The graphite-like surface layers significantly influence the electron emission properties of these films. Low-energy carbon species can be responsible for the formation of graphite-like surface layers. Nanoscale electron emission measurements have revealed the inhomogeneous emission nature of these films. The low-field emission from these films can be attributed to the existence of sp 2 -configured nanoclusters inside the films

  12. Prenatally administered HMB modifies the enamel surface roughness in spiny mice offspring: An atomic force microscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świetlicka, Izabela; Muszyński, Siemowit; Tomaszewska, Ewa; Dobrowolski, Piotr; Kwaśniewska, Anita; Świetlicki, Michał; Skic, Anna; Gołacki, Krzysztof

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this research was to check the effect of the prenatally administered β-hydroxy β-methylbutyrate (HMB) on the development of enamel surface of the spiny mice offspring. The spiny mice dams were randomly assigned into three groups: control group (not supplemented with HMB) and two experimental groups in which powdered HMB was given at the daily dosage of 0.2g/kg of body weight (group I) and 0.02g/kg of body weight (group II) during the last period of gestation. Newborn pups were euthanized by CO 2 inhalation. The morphology of incisor teeth was analysed using atomic force microscopy (AFM) in semi-contact mode in the height, magnitude and phase domains. Height images became a basis for determination of surface roughness parameters. Conducted study indicated that maternal HMB administration markedly influences enamel development. Enamel of offspring's teeth in both experimental groups was characterized by significantly smaller values of indices describing surface roughness and profile. HMB supplementation influenced the calculated parameters regardless of the diet type and offspring sex, however higher dose of HMB caused stronger changes in enamel surface's physical properties and could be observed in higher intensity in the male group. HMB administration caused reduction in the irregularities of enamel surface, thereby possibly reducing the probability of bacteria adhesion and caries development. These observations may serve to improve nutrition and supplementation of animals and could be a lead for further research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Three-dimensional hydration layer mapping on the (10.4) surface of calcite using amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marutschke, Christoph; Walters, Deron; Walters, Deron; Hermes, Ilka; Bechstein, Ralf; Kühnle, Angelika

    2014-08-22

    Calcite, the most stable modification of calcium carbonate, is a major mineral in nature. It is, therefore, highly relevant in a broad range of fields such as biomineralization, sea water desalination and oil production. Knowledge of the surface structure and reactivity of the most stable cleavage plane, calcite (10.4), is pivotal for understanding the role of calcite in these diverse areas. Given the fact that most biological processes and technical applications take place in an aqueous environment, perhaps the most basic - yet decisive - question addresses the interaction of water molecules with the calcite (10.4) surface. In this work, amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy is used for three-dimensional (3D) mapping of the surface structure and the hydration layers above the surface. An easy-to-use scanning protocol is implemented for collecting reliable 3D data. We carefully discuss a comprehensible criterion for identifying the solid-liquid interface within our data. In our data three hydration layers form a characteristic pattern that is commensurate with the underlying calcite surface.

  14. Three-dimensional hydration layer mapping on the (10.4) surface of calcite using amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marutschke, Christoph; Hermes, Ilka; Bechstein, Ralf; Kühnle, Angelika; Walters, Deron; Cleveland, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Calcite, the most stable modification of calcium carbonate, is a major mineral in nature. It is, therefore, highly relevant in a broad range of fields such as biomineralization, sea water desalination and oil production. Knowledge of the surface structure and reactivity of the most stable cleavage plane, calcite (10.4), is pivotal for understanding the role of calcite in these diverse areas. Given the fact that most biological processes and technical applications take place in an aqueous environment, perhaps the most basic—yet decisive—question addresses the interaction of water molecules with the calcite (10.4) surface. In this work, amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy is used for three-dimensional (3D) mapping of the surface structure and the hydration layers above the surface. An easy-to-use scanning protocol is implemented for collecting reliable 3D data. We carefully discuss a comprehensible criterion for identifying the solid–liquid interface within our data. In our data three hydration layers form a characteristic pattern that is commensurate with the underlying calcite surface. (paper)

  15. Atomic force microscopy recognition of protein A on Staphylococcus aureus cell surfaces by labelling with IgG-Au conjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatlybaeva, Elena B; Nikiyan, Hike N; Vasilchenko, Alexey S; Deryabin, Dmitri G

    2013-01-01

    The labelling of functional molecules on the surface of bacterial cells is one way to recognize the bacteria. In this work, we have developed a method for the selective labelling of protein A on the cell surfaces of Staphylococcus aureus by using nanosized immunogold conjugates as cell-surface markers for atomic force microscopy (AFM). The use of 30-nm size Au nanoparticles conjugated with immunoglobulin G (IgG) allowed the visualization, localization and distribution of protein A-IgG complexes on the surface of S. aureus. The selectivity of the labelling method was confirmed in mixtures of S. aureus with Bacillus licheniformis cells, which differed by size and shape and had no IgG receptors on the surface. A preferential binding of the IgG-Au conjugates to S. aureus was obtained. Thus, this novel approach allows the identification of protein A and other IgG receptor-bearing bacteria, which is useful for AFM indication of pathogenic microorganisms in poly-component associations.

  16. Atomic force microscopy recognition of protein A on Staphylococcus aureus cell surfaces by labelling with IgG–Au conjugates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena B. Tatlybaeva

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The labelling of functional molecules on the surface of bacterial cells is one way to recognize the bacteria. In this work, we have developed a method for the selective labelling of protein A on the cell surfaces of Staphylococcus aureus by using nanosized immunogold conjugates as cell-surface markers for atomic force microscopy (AFM. The use of 30-nm size Au nanoparticles conjugated with immunoglobulin G (IgG allowed the visualization, localization and distribution of protein A–IgG complexes on the surface of S. aureus. The selectivity of the labelling method was confirmed in mixtures of S. aureus with Bacillus licheniformis cells, which differed by size and shape and had no IgG receptors on the surface. A preferential binding of the IgG–Au conjugates to S. aureus was obtained. Thus, this novel approach allows the identification of protein A and other IgG receptor-bearing bacteria, which is useful for AFM indication of pathogenic microorganisms in poly-component associations.

  17. Atomic force microscopy recognition of protein A on Staphylococcus aureus cell surfaces by labelling with IgG–Au conjugates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatlybaeva, Elena B; Vasilchenko, Alexey S; Deryabin, Dmitri G

    2013-01-01

    Summary The labelling of functional molecules on the surface of bacterial cells is one way to recognize the bacteria. In this work, we have developed a method for the selective labelling of protein A on the cell surfaces of Staphylococcus aureus by using nanosized immunogold conjugates as cell-surface markers for atomic force microscopy (AFM). The use of 30-nm size Au nanoparticles conjugated with immunoglobulin G (IgG) allowed the visualization, localization and distribution of protein A–IgG complexes on the surface of S. aureus. The selectivity of the labelling method was confirmed in mixtures of S. aureus with Bacillus licheniformis cells, which differed by size and shape and had no IgG receptors on the surface. A preferential binding of the IgG–Au conjugates to S. aureus was obtained. Thus, this novel approach allows the identification of protein A and other IgG receptor-bearing bacteria, which is useful for AFM indication of pathogenic microorganisms in poly-component associations. PMID:24367742

  18. Small amplitude atomic force spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Beer, Sissi; van den Ende, Henricus T.M.; Ebeling, Daniel; Mugele, Friedrich Gunther; Bhushan, Bharat

    2011-01-01

    Over the years atomic force microscopy has developed from a pure imaging technique to a tool that can be employed for measuring quantitative tip–sample interaction forces. In this chapter we provide an overview of various techniques to extract quantitative tip–sample forces focusing on both

  19. Thickness and morphology of polyelectrolyte coatings on silica surfaces before and after protein exposure studied by atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haselberg, Rob, E-mail: r.haselberg@vu.nl [Biomolecular Analysis, Utrecht University, Universiteitsweg 99, 3584 CG Utrecht (Netherlands); AIMMS Division of BioMolecular Analysis, VU University Amsterdam, de Boelelaan 1083, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Flesch, Frits M. [Biomolecular Analysis, Utrecht University, Universiteitsweg 99, 3584 CG Utrecht (Netherlands); Boerke, Arjan [Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Utrecht University, Yalelaan 2, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Somsen, Govert W. [Biomolecular Analysis, Utrecht University, Universiteitsweg 99, 3584 CG Utrecht (Netherlands); AIMMS Division of BioMolecular Analysis, VU University Amsterdam, de Boelelaan 1083, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2013-05-24

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Atomic force microscopy is used to characterize polyelectrolyte coatings. •Coating procedure leads to nm-thick layers on a silica surface. •Polyelectrolyte coatings effectively prevent protein adsorption. •AFM provides the high resolution to investigate these thin films. •AFM results support earlier findings obtained with capillary electrophoresis. -- Abstract: Analyte–wall interaction is a significant problem in capillary electrophoresis (CE) as it may compromise separation efficiencies and migration time repeatability. In CE, self-assembled polyelectrolyte multilayer films of Polybrene (PB) and dextran sulfate (DS) or poly(vinylsulfonic acid) (PVS) have been used to coat the capillary inner wall and thereby prevent analyte adsorption. In this study, atomic force microscopy (AFM) was employed to investigate the layer thickness and surface morphology of monolayer (PB), bilayer, (PB-DS and PB-PVS), and trilayer (PB-DS-PB and PB-PVS-PB) coatings on glass surfaces. AFM nanoshaving experiments providing height distributions demonstrated that the coating procedures led to average layer thicknesses between 1 nm (PB) and 5 nm (PB-DS-PB), suggesting the individual polyelectrolytes adhere flat on the silica surface. Investigation of the surface morphology of the different coatings by AFM revealed that the PB coating does not completely cover the silica surface, whereas full coverage was observed for the trilayer coatings. The DS-containing coatings appeared on average 1 nm thicker than the corresponding PVS-containing coatings, which could be attributed to the molecular structure of the anionic polymers applied. Upon exposure to the basic protein cytochrome c, AFM measurements showed an increase of the layer thickness for bare (3.1 nm) and PB-DS-coated (4.6 nm) silica, indicating substantial protein adsorption. In contrast, a very small or no increase of the layer thickness was observed for the PB and PB-DS-PB coatings

  20. MDM2–MDM4 molecular interaction investigated by atomic force spectroscopy and surface plasmon resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moscetti I

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Ilaria Moscetti,1 Emanuela Teveroni,2,3 Fabiola Moretti,3 Anna Rita Bizzarri,1 Salvatore Cannistraro1 1Biophysics and Nanoscience Centre, Department DEB, Università della Tuscia, Viterbo, Italy; 2Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Università Cattolica di Roma, Roma, Italy; 3Institute of Cell Biology and Neurobiology, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR, Roma, Italy Abstract: Murine double minute 2 (MDM2 and 4 (MDM4 are known as the main negative regulators of p53, a tumor suppressor. They are able to form heterodimers that are much more effective in the downregulation of p53. Therefore, the MDM2–MDM4 complex could be a target for promising therapeutic restoration of p53 function. To this aim, a deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlining the heterodimerization is needed. The kinetic and thermodynamic characterization of the MDM2–MDM4 complex was performed with two complementary approaches: atomic force spectroscopy and surface plasmon resonance. Both techniques revealed an equilibrium dissociation constant (KD in the micromolar range for the MDM2–MDM4 heterodimer, similar to related complexes involved in the p53 network. Furthermore, the MDM2–MDM4 complex is characterized by a relatively high free energy, through a single energy barrier, and by a lifetime in the order of tens of seconds. New insights into the MDM2–MDM4 interaction could be highly important for developing innovative anticancer drugs focused on p53 reactivation. Keywords: MDM2, MDM4, atomic force spectroscopy, surface plasmon resonance

  1. Topographic characterization of the self-assembled nanostructures of chitosan on mica surface by atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Li; Wu, Jiafeng; Guo, Yan; Gong, Coucong; Song, Yonghai

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Nanocomposites of chitosan film were prepared by simple self-assembly from solvent media. • Chitosan molecules assembled on mica surface of nanoparticles, fibril and membrane with varied chitosan concentration. • Chitosan molecules assembled with different nanostructure under varied pH. • The optimum drying temperature for forming chitosan membrane is about 65 °C. - Abstract: In this work, the self-assembled nanostructures of chitosan on mica surface formed from various solvents were investigated by using atomic force microscopy. The effects of various factors on the self-assembled nanostructures of chitosan on mica surface, including solvents, the concentration of chitosan, the pH of solution and the drying temperature, were explored in detail. Our experimental data resulted in the conclusion that chitosan molecules could self-assemble on mica surface to form various nanostructures such as nanoparticles, fibril and film. Nanoparticles were always formed on mica surface from CCl_4, C_6H_6, CH_2Cl_2 solution, fibril preferred to form on mica surface from CH_3CH_2OH and CH_3OH solution and the optimal solvent to form film was found to be CH_3CN. Low concentration, pH and temperature were helpful for the formation of nanoparticles, medium concentration, pH and temperature resulted in fibril and high concentration, pH and temperature were often beneficial to forming chitosan films. The study of self-assembled nanostructures of chitosan on mica surface would provide new insight into the development of chitosan-based load-bearing materials.

  2. In situ observation of fluoride-ion-induced hydroxyapatite-collagen detachment on bone fracture surfaces by atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kindt, J H; Thurner, P J; Lauer, M E; Bosma, B L; Schitter, G; Fantner, G E; Izumi, M; Weaver, J C; Morse, D E; Hansma, P K

    2007-01-01

    The topography of freshly fractured bovine and human bone surfaces was determined by the use of atomic force microscopy (AFM). Fracture surfaces from both kinds of samples exhibited complex landscapes formed by hydroxyapatite mineral platelets with lateral dimensions ranging from ∼90 nm x 60 nm to ∼20 nm x 20 nm. Novel AFM techniques were used to study these fracture surfaces during various chemical treatments. Significant topographical changes were observed following exposure to aqueous solutions of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) or highly concentrated sodium fluoride (NaF). Both treatments resulted in the apparent loss of the hydroxyapatite mineral platelets on a timescale of a few seconds. Collagen fibrils situated beneath the overlying mineral platelets were clearly exposed and could be resolved with high spatial resolution in the acquired AFM images. Time-dependent mass loss experiments revealed that the applied agents (NaF or EDTA) had very different resulting effects. Despite the fact that the two treatments exhibited nearly identical results following examination by AFM, bulk bone samples treated with EDTA exhibited a ∼70% mass loss after 72 h, whereas for the NaF-treated samples, the mass loss was only of the order of ∼10%. These results support those obtained from previous mechanical testing experiments, suggesting that enhanced formation of superficial fluoroapatite dramatically weakens the protein-hydroxyapatite interfaces. Additionally, we discovered that treatment with aqueous solutions of NaF resulted in the effective extraction of noncollagenous proteins from bone powder

  3. Revealing molecular-level surface structure of amyloid fibrils in liquid by means of frequency modulation atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuma, Takeshi [Frontier Science Organization, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan); Mostaert, Anika S; Jarvis, Suzanne P [Conway Institute of Biomolecular and Biomedical Research, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Republic of Ireland (Ireland); Serpell, Louise C [Department of Biochemistry, University of Sussex, John Maynard Building, Falmer BN1 9QG (United Kingdom)], E-mail: fukuma@staff.kanazawa-u.ac.jp, E-mail: Anika.Mostaert@ucd.ie, E-mail: L.C.Serpell@sussex.ac.uk, E-mail: Suzi.Jarvis@ucd.ie

    2008-09-24

    We have investigated the surface structure of islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) fibrils and {alpha}-synuclein protofibrils in liquid by means of frequency modulation atomic force microscopy (FM-AFM). Angstroem-resolution FM-AFM imaging of isolated macromolecules in liquid is demonstrated for the first time. Individual {beta}-strands aligned perpendicular to the fibril axis with a spacing of 0.5 nm are resolved in FM-AFM images, which confirms cross-{beta} structure of IAPP fibrils in real space. FM-AFM images also reveal the existence of 4 nm periodic domains along the axis of IAPP fibrils. Stripe features with 0.5 nm spacing are also found in images of {alpha}-synuclein protofibrils. However, in contrast to the case for IAPP fibrils, the stripes are oriented 30 deg. from the axis, suggesting the possibility of {beta}-strand alignment in protofibrils different from that in mature fibrils or the regular arrangement of thioflavin T molecules present during the fibril preparation aligned at the surface of the protofibrils.

  4. Revealing molecular-level surface structure of amyloid fibrils in liquid by means of frequency modulation atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuma, Takeshi; Mostaert, Anika S; Jarvis, Suzanne P; Serpell, Louise C

    2008-01-01

    We have investigated the surface structure of islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) fibrils and α-synuclein protofibrils in liquid by means of frequency modulation atomic force microscopy (FM-AFM). Angstroem-resolution FM-AFM imaging of isolated macromolecules in liquid is demonstrated for the first time. Individual β-strands aligned perpendicular to the fibril axis with a spacing of 0.5 nm are resolved in FM-AFM images, which confirms cross-β structure of IAPP fibrils in real space. FM-AFM images also reveal the existence of 4 nm periodic domains along the axis of IAPP fibrils. Stripe features with 0.5 nm spacing are also found in images of α-synuclein protofibrils. However, in contrast to the case for IAPP fibrils, the stripes are oriented 30 deg. from the axis, suggesting the possibility of β-strand alignment in protofibrils different from that in mature fibrils or the regular arrangement of thioflavin T molecules present during the fibril preparation aligned at the surface of the protofibrils

  5. Atom-surface potentials and atom interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babb, J.F.

    1998-01-01

    Long-range atom-surface potentials characterize the physics of many actual systems and are now measurable spectroscopically in deflection of atomic beams in cavities or in reflection of atoms in atomic fountains. For a ground state, spherically symmetric atom the potential varies as -1/R 3 near the wall, where R is the atom-surface distance. For asymptotically large distances the potential is weaker and goes as -1/R 4 due to retardation arising from the finite speed of light. This diminished interaction can also be interpreted as a Casimir effect. The possibility of measuring atom-surface potentials using atomic interferometry is explored. The particular cases studied are the interactions of a ground-state alkali-metal atom and a dielectric or a conducting wall. Accurate descriptions of atom-surface potentials in theories of evanescent-wave atomic mirrors and evanescent wave-guided atoms are also discussed. (author)

  6. True atomic-scale imaging of a spinel Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}(111) surface in aqueous solution by frequency-modulation atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitta, Mitsunori, E-mail: m-kitta@aist.go.jp; Kohyama, Masanori [Research Institute for Ubiquitous Energy Devices, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 1-8-31 Midorigaoka, Ikeda, Osaka 563-8577 (Japan); Onishi, Hiroshi [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Kobe University 1-1 Rokkodai, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)

    2014-09-15

    Spinel-type lithium titanium oxide (LTO; Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}) is a negative electrode material for lithium-ion batteries. Revealing the atomic-scale surface structure of LTO in liquid is highly necessary to investigate its surface properties in practical environments. Here, we reveal an atomic-scale image of the LTO(111) surface in LiCl aqueous solution using frequency-modulation atomic force microscopy. Atomically flat terraces and single steps having heights of multiples of 0.5 nm were observed in the aqueous solution. Hexagonal bright spots separated by 0.6 nm were also observed on the flat terrace part, corresponding to the atomistic contrast observed in the ultrahigh vacuum condition, which suggests that the basic atomic structure of the LTO(111) surface is retained without dramatic reconstruction even in the aqueous solution.

  7. MDM2–MDM4 molecular interaction investigated by atomic force spectroscopy and surface plasmon resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscetti, Ilaria; Teveroni, Emanuela; Moretti, Fabiola; Bizzarri, Anna Rita; Cannistraro, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    Murine double minute 2 (MDM2) and 4 (MDM4) are known as the main negative regulators of p53, a tumor suppressor. They are able to form heterodimers that are much more effective in the downregulation of p53. Therefore, the MDM2–MDM4 complex could be a target for promising therapeutic restoration of p53 function. To this aim, a deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlining the heterodimerization is needed. The kinetic and thermodynamic characterization of the MDM2–MDM4 complex was performed with two complementary approaches: atomic force spectroscopy and surface plasmon resonance. Both techniques revealed an equilibrium dissociation constant (KD) in the micromolar range for the MDM2–MDM4 heterodimer, similar to related complexes involved in the p53 network. Furthermore, the MDM2–MDM4 complex is characterized by a relatively high free energy, through a single energy barrier, and by a lifetime in the order of tens of seconds. New insights into the MDM2–MDM4 interaction could be highly important for developing innovative anticancer drugs focused on p53 reactivation. PMID:27621617

  8. Atomic Force Microscope Mediated Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    The atomic force microscope (AFM) is used to inject a sample, provide shear-driven liquid flow over a functionalized substrate, and detect separated components. This is demonstrated using lipophilic dyes and normal phase chromatography. A significant reduction in both size and separation time scales is achieved with a 25-micron-length column scale, and one-second separation times. The approach has general applications to trace chemical and microfluidic analysis. The AFM is now a common tool for ultra-microscopy and nanotechnology. It has also been demonstrated to provide a number of microfluidic functions necessary for miniaturized chromatography. These include injection of sub-femtoliter samples, fluidic switching, and sheardriven pumping. The AFM probe tip can be used to selectively remove surface layers for subsequent microchemical analysis using infrared and tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. With its ability to image individual atoms, the AFM is a remarkably sensitive detector that can be used to detect separated components. These diverse functional components of microfluidic manipulation have been combined in this work to demonstrate AFM mediated chromatography. AFM mediated chromatography uses channel-less, shear-driven pumping. This is demonstrated with a thin, aluminum oxide substrate and a non-polar solvent system to separate a mixture of lipophilic dyes. In conventional chromatographic terms, this is analogous to thin-layer chromatography using normal phase alumina substrate with sheardriven pumping provided by the AFM tip-cantilever mechanism. The AFM detection of separated components is accomplished by exploiting the variation in the localized friction of the separated components. The AFM tip-cantilever provides the mechanism for producing shear-induced flows and rapid pumping. Shear-driven chromatography (SDC) is a relatively new concept that overcomes the speed and miniaturization limitations of conventional liquid chromatography. SDC is based on a

  9. High quality-factor quartz tuning fork glass probe used in tapping mode atomic force microscopy for surface profile measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuan-Liu; Xu, Yanhao; Shimizu, Yuki; Matsukuma, Hiraku; Gao, Wei

    2018-06-01

    This paper presents a high quality-factor (Q-factor) quartz tuning fork (QTF) with a glass probe attached, used in frequency modulation tapping mode atomic force microscopy (AFM) for the surface profile metrology of micro and nanostructures. Unlike conventionally used QTFs, which have tungsten or platinum probes for tapping mode AFM, and suffer from a low Q-factor influenced by the relatively large mass of the probe, the glass probe, which has a lower density, increases the Q-factor of the QTF probe unit allowing it to obtain better measurement sensitivity. In addition, the process of attaching the probe to the QTF with epoxy resin, which is necessary for tapping mode AFM, is also optimized to further improve the Q-factor of the QTF glass probe. The Q-factor of the optimized QTF glass probe unit is demonstrated to be very close to that of a bare QTF without a probe attached. To verify the effectiveness and the advantages of the optimized QTF glass probe unit, the probe unit is integrated into a home-built tapping mode AFM for conducting surface profile measurements of micro and nanostructures. A blazed grating with fine tool marks of 100 nm, a microprism sheet with a vertical amplitude of 25 µm and a Fresnel lens with a steep slope of 90 degrees are used as measurement specimens. From the measurement results, it is demonstrated that the optimized QTF glass probe unit can achieve higher sensitivity as well as better stability than conventional probes in the measurement of micro and nanostructures.

  10. Microparticle adhesion studies by atomic force microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Segeren, L.H.G.J.; Siebum, B.; Karssenberg, F.G.; Berg, van den J.W.A.; Vancso, G.J.

    2002-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is one of the most flexible and simple techniques for probing surface interactions. This article reviews AFM studies on particle adhesion. Special attention is paid to the characterization of roughness and its effect on adhesion. This is of importance when comparing the

  11. Coffee Cup Atomic Force Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashkenaz, David E.; Hall, W. Paige; Haynes, Christy L.; Hicks, Erin M.; McFarland, Adam D.; Sherry, Leif J.; Stuart, Douglas A.; Wheeler, Korin E.; Yonzon, Chanda R.; Zhao, Jing; Godwin, Hilary A.; Van Duyne, Richard P.

    2010-01-01

    In this activity, students use a model created from a coffee cup or cardstock cutout to explore the working principle of an atomic force microscope (AFM). Students manipulate a model of an AFM, using it to examine various objects to retrieve topographic data and then graph and interpret results. The students observe that movement of the AFM…

  12. Studying the InAs quantum points on the vicinal surface of a GaAs crystal by the atomic force microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Evtikhiev, V P; Kotelnikov, E Y; Matveentsev, A V; Titkov, A N; Shkolnik, A S

    2002-01-01

    The methodology for processing the images, obtained through the atomic force microscopy, is proposed. It is shown by the concrete example, how the parameters of the InAs clusters on the vicinal surface of the GaAs crystal are determined. This makes it possible to calculate the energy levels of the electrons and holes in the quantum point with application of the previously developed cluster spherical model

  13. Force sum rules at surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaschner, R.; Ziesche, P.

    1986-07-01

    Hellmann-Feynman theorems for partially extended arrangements of atoms (chains, strips, layers, wires and slabs) are derived and applied to one-, two-, and three-dimensional solids. The derivatives of the bulk energy with respect to the lattice spacings are related to the Hellmann-Feynman forces in the corresponding semi-infinite unrelaxed solids. These forces have to alternate going from the surface into the bulk provided that the latter is in equilibrium. (author)

  14. In situ atomic force microscopy studies of reversible light-induced switching of surface roughness and adhesion in azobenzene-containing PMMA films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, M.; Gonzalez-Garcia, Y.; Pakula, C.; Zaporojtchenko, V.; Strunskus, T.; Faupel, F.; Herges, R.; Zargarani, D.; Magnussen, O.M.

    2011-01-01

    Thin films in the range 40-80 nm of a blend of PMMA with an azobenzene derivative have been studied directly during UV and blue light irradiation by atomic force microscopy (AFM), revealing highly reversible changes in the surface roughness and the film adhesion. UV light induces an ∼80% increase in surface roughness, whereas illumination by blue light completely reverses these changes. Based on the observed surface topography and transition kinetics a reversible mass flow mechanisms is suggested, where the polarity changes upon switching trigger a wetting-dewetting transition in a surface segregation layer of the chromophore. Similar AFM measurements of the pull-off force indicate a decrease upon UV and an increase after blue light illumination with a complex kinetic behavior: a rapid initial change, attributed to the change in the cis isomer fraction of the azobenzene derivative, and a more gradual change, indicative of slow structural reorganization.

  15. Energy dissipation in multifrequency atomic force microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Pukhova

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The instantaneous displacement, velocity and acceleration of a cantilever tip impacting onto a graphite surface are reconstructed. The total dissipated energy and the dissipated energy per cycle of each excited flexural mode during the tip interaction is retrieved. The tip dynamics evolution is studied by wavelet analysis techniques that have general relevance for multi-mode atomic force microscopy, in a regime where few cantilever oscillation cycles characterize the tip–sample interaction.

  16. Effect of the interaction conditions of the probe of an atomic-force microscope with the n-GaAs surface on the triboelectrization phenomenon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baklanov, A. V., E-mail: baklanov@mail.ioffe.ru [St. Petersburg State Polytechnical University, Institute of Physics, Nanotechnology, and Telecommunications (Russian Federation); Gutkin, A. A.; Kalyuzhnyy, N. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Institute (Russian Federation); Brunkov, P. N. [St. Petersburg State Polytechnical University, Institute of Physics, Nanotechnology, and Telecommunications (Russian Federation)

    2015-08-15

    Triboelectrization as a result of the scanning of an atomic-force-microscope probe over an n-GaAs surface in the contact mode is investigated. The dependences of the local potential variation on the scanning rate and the pressing force of the probe are obtained. The results are explained by point-defect formation in the surface layers of samples under the effect of deformation of these layers during probe scanning. The charge localized at these defects in the case of equilibrium changes the potential of surface, which is subject to triboelectrization. It is shown that, for qualitative explanation of the observed dependences, it is necessary to take into account both the generation and annihilation of defects in the region experiencing deformation.

  17. The effect of uranium on bacterial viability and cell surface morphology using atomic force microscopy in the presence of bicarbonate ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sepulveda-Medina, Paola; Katsenovich, Yelena; Musaramthota, Vishal; Lee, Michelle; Lee, Brady; Dua, Rupak; Lagos, Leonel

    2015-06-01

    Nuclear production facilities during the Cold War have caused liquid waste to leak and soak into the ground creating multiple radionuclide plumes. The Arthrobacter bacteria are one of the most common groups in soils and are found in large numbers in subsurface environments contaminated with radionuclides. This study experimentally analyzed changes on the bacteria surface after uranium exposure and evaluated the effect of bicarbonate ions on U(VI) toxicity of a less uranium tolerant Arthrobacter strain, G968, by investigating changes in adhesion forces and cells dimensions via atomic force microscopy (AFM). AFM and viability studies showed that samples containing bicarbonate are able to acclimate and withstand uranium toxicity. Samples containing no bicarbonate exhibited deformed surfaces and a low height profile, which might be an indication that the cells are not alive.

  18. Atomic force microscopy. A new method for atom identification and manipulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Masayuki; Sugimoto, Yoshiaki; Morita, Seizo

    2007-01-01

    Frequency modulation atomic force microscopy (FM-AFM) is a scanning probe technique that detects the interaction forces between the outermost atom of a sharp tip and the atoms at a surface to image the sample surface. It is expected that the FM-AFM can cover the research field which scanning tunneling microscopy does not provide. In this article, we would introduce FM-AFM experiments applied to site-specific force measurements and atom manipulation, including how to solve the problems to achieve precise FM-AFM measurements. (author)

  19. Direct imaging by atomic force microscopy of surface-localized self-assembled monolayers on a cuprate superconductor and surface X-ray scattering analysis of analogous monolayers on the surface of water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schougaard, Steen B.; Reitzel, Niels; Bjørnholm, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    A self-assembled monolayer of CF3(CF2)(3)(CH2)(11)NH2 atop the (001) surface of the high-temperature superconductor YBa2Cu3O7-x was imaged by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The AFM images provide direct 2D-structural evidence for the epitaxial 5.5 angstrom square root 2 x root 2R45 degrees unit...... was studied by grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction and specular X-ray reflectivity. Structural differences and similarities between the water-supported and superconductor-localized monolayers are discussed....

  20. Depletion interaction measured by colloidal probe atomic force microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijting, W.K.; Knoben, W.; Besseling, N.A.M.; Leermakers, F.A.M.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the depletion interaction between stearylated silica surfaces in cyclohexane in the presence of dissolved polydimethylsiloxane by means of colloidal probe atomic force microscopy. We found that the range of the depletion interaction decreases with increasing concentration.

  1. Atomic beams probe surface vibrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, A.L.

    1982-01-01

    In the last two years, surface scientist have begun trying to obtain the vibrational frequencies of surface atoms in both insulating and metallic crystals from beams of helium atoms. It is the inelastic scattering that researchers use to probe surface vibrations. Inelastic atomic beam scattering has only been used to obtain vibrational frequency spectra from clean surfaces. Several experiments using helium beams are cited. (SC)

  2. Atomic force microscopy of starch systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fan

    2017-09-22

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) generates information on topography, adhesion, and elasticity of sample surface by touching with a tip. Under suitable experimental settings, AFM can image biopolymers of few nanometers. Starch is a major food and industrial component. AFM has been used to probe the morphology, properties, modifications, and interactions of starches from diverse botanical origins at both micro- and nano-structural levels. The structural information obtained by AFM supports the blocklet structure of the granules, and provides qualitative and quantitative basis for some physicochemical properties of diverse starch systems. It becomes evident that AFM can complement other microscopic techniques to provide novel structural insights for starch systems.

  3. Corrected direct force balance method for atomic force microscopy lateral force calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asay, David B.; Hsiao, Erik; Kim, Seong H.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports corrections and improvements of the previously reported direct force balance method (DFBM) developed for lateral calibration of atomic force microscopy. The DFBM method employs the lateral force signal obtained during a force-distance measurement on a sloped surface and relates this signal to the applied load and the slope of the surface to determine the lateral calibration factor. In the original publication [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 043903 (2006)], the tip-substrate contact was assumed to be pinned at the point of contact, i.e., no slip along the slope. In control experiments, the tip was found to slide along the slope during force-distance curve measurement. This paper presents the correct force balance for lateral force calibration.

  4. Characterization of nanoparticles using Atomic Force Microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, A; Schoenenberger, M; Gnecco, E; Glatzel, Th; Meyer, E; Braendlin, D; Scandella, L

    2007-01-01

    Nanoparticles are becoming increasingly important in many areas, including catalysis, biomedical applications, and information storage. Their unique size-dependent properties make these materials superior. Using the Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), individual particles and groups of particles can be resolved and unlike other microscopy techniques, the AFM offers visualization and analysis in three dimensions. We prepared titanium oxide, zirconium oxide and alumina nanoparticles and/or agglomerates on different surfaces and characterized them by AFM in the dynamic mode. The goal was to determine the shape, size and/or size distribution of nanoparticles. Different dilutions of nanoparticles were applied on various substrates e.g. clean silicon, mica and chemically treated silicon and imaged at ambient conditions. Nanoparticles deposited on mica appeared to be coagulated as compared to those on silicon. Whereas, on a chemically treated surface the density of the nanoparticles was very low because of the increased hydrophobicity of the surface

  5. Atomic force microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study of NO2 reactions on CaCO3 (1014) surfaces in humid environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltrusaitis, Jonas; Grassian, Vicki H

    2012-09-13

    In this study, alternating current (AC) mode atomic force microscopy (AFM) combined with phase imaging and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to investigate the effect of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) adsorption on calcium carbonate (CaCO3) (101̅4) surfaces at 296 K in the presence of relative humidity (RH). At 70% RH, CaCO3 (101̅4) surfaces undergo rapid formation of a metastable amorphous calcium carbonate layer, which in turn serves as a substrate for recrystallization of a nonhydrated calcite phase, presumably vaterite. The adsorption of nitrogen dioxide changes the surface properties of CaCO3 (101̅4) and the mechanism for formation of new phases. In particular, the first calcite nucleation layer serves as a source of material for further island growth; when it is depleted, there is no change in total volume of nitrocalcite, Ca(NO3)2, particles formed whereas the total number of particles decreases. This indicates that these particles are mobile and coalesce. Phase imaging combined with force curve measurements reveals areas of inhomogeneous energy dissipation during the process of water adsorption in relative humidity experiments, as well as during nitrocalcite particle formation. Potential origins of the different energy dissipation modes within the sample are discussed. Finally, XPS analysis confirms that NO2 adsorbs on CaCO3 (101̅4) in the form of nitrate (NO3(-)) regardless of environmental conditions or the pretreatment of the calcite surface at different relative humidity.

  6. The effect of multiple autoclave cycles on the surface of rotary nickel-titanium endodontic files: An in vitro atomic force microscopy investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Ashish Shashikant; Tilakchand, Mahima; Naik, Balaram Damodar

    2015-01-01

    To observe and study the effect of multiple autoclave sterilization cycles, on the surface of nickel-titanium (NiTi) files. The file used for this study was the Mtwo file (VDW) and ProTaper (Dentsply). The apical 5 mm of the files were attached to a silicon wafer and subjected to autoclave cycles under standardized conditions. They were scanned with an AFM after 1, 5, and 10 cycles. The unsterilized files were used as control, before start of the study. Three vertical topographic parameters namely maximum height (MH), root mean square (RMS) of surface roughness, and arithmetic mean roughness (AMR)were measured with the atomic force microscope (AFM). Analysis of variance along with Tukey's test was used to test the differences. The vertical topographic parameters were higher for both the files, right after the first cycle, when compared with the control (P autoclave cycles, a fact that should be kept in mind during their reuse.

  7. Intermittent contact atomic force microscopy in electrochemical environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haering, P; Koetz, R [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Siegenthaler, H [Bern Univ., Bern (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    In situ measurements with Atomic Force Microscopy may cause surface modifications due to the tip-surface interactions. As an alternative and less destructive method, Intermittent Contact Atomic Force Microscopy (ICAFM) has been tested in an electrolytic environment. In the ICAFM mode the tip is not constantly in contact with the surface under investigation but is tapping onto the surface with a certain frequency. A commercial Park Scientific Instruments Microscopy has been modified to enable in situ experiment with ICAFM. It was possible to image iridium oxide films with ICAFM in the electrolytic environment without any noticeable surface modifications. (author) 3 figs., 4 refs.

  8. Water-induced morphology changes in an ultrathin silver film studied by ultraviolet-visible, surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaoling; Xu Weiqing; Jia Huiying; Wang Xu; Zhao Bing; Li Bofu; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2005-01-01

    Water-induced changes in the morphology and optical properties of an ultrathin Ag film (3 nm thickness) have been studied by use of ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy. A confocal micrograph shows that infinite regular Ag rings with almost uniform size (4 μm) emerge on the film surface after the ultrathin Ag film was immersed into water. The AFM measurement further confirms that the Ag rings consist of some metal holes with pillared edges. The UV-Vis spectrum shows that an absorption band at 486 nm of the Ag film after the immersion in water (I-Ag film) blue shifts by 66 nm with a significant decrease in absorbance, which is attributed to the macroscopic loss of some Ag atoms and the change in the morphology of the Ag film. The polarized UV-Vis spectra show that a band at 421 nm due to the normal component of the plasmon oscillation blue shifts after immersing the ultrathin Ag film into water. This band is found to be strongly angle-dependent for p-polarized light, indicating that the optical properties of the ultrathin Ag film are changed. The I-Ag film is SERS-active, and the SERS enhancement depends on different active sites on the film surface. Furthermore, it seems that the orientation of an adsorbate is related to the morphology of the I-Ag film

  9. Cold atoms close to surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krüger, Peter; Wildermuth, Stephan; Hofferberth, Sebastian

    2005-01-01

    Microscopic atom optical devices integrated on atom chips allow to precisely control and manipulate ultra-cold (T atoms and Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) close to surfaces. The relevant energy scale of a BEC is extremely small (down to ... be utilized as a sensor for variations of the potential energy of the atoms close to the surface. Here we describe how to use trapped atoms as a measurement device and analyze the performance and flexibility of the field sensor. We demonstrate microscopic magnetic imaging with simultaneous high spatial...

  10. Equilibrium capillary forces with atomic force microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprakel, J.H.B.; Besseling, N.A.M.; Leermakers, F.A.M.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    We present measurements of equilibrium forces resulting from capillary condensation. The results give access to the ultralow interfacial tensions between the capillary bridge and the coexisting bulk phase. We demonstrate this with solutions of associative polymers and an aqueous mixture of gelatin

  11. Force modulation for improved conductive-mode atomic force microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelmans, W.W.; Sebastian, Abu; Despont, Michel; Pozidis, Haris

    We present an improved conductive-mode atomic force microscopy (C-AFM) method by modulating the applied loading force on the tip. Unreliable electrical contact and tip wear are the primary challenges for electrical characterization at the nanometer scale. The experiments show that force modulation

  12. The surface characteristics of Al-7%Si aluminum alloy manufactured by thixo/rheoforming process through nanoindentation/atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, S.H.; Kang, C.G.; Lee, S.M.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated nano/microsturcture and mechanical/tribological properties in the thixo/rheoformed A356 alloy parts using nano/microindentation and nanoscratch, incorporated with optical microscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). As a result, thixo-cast sample exhibited higher mechanical properties than rheo-cast, irrespective of grain size. The reason that mechanical properties of thixo-cast part was higher than that of rheo-cast, was interpreted by the effect of the eutectic region surrounded by the primary α phase on the hardness. It was also observed that shape and distribution of Si particles in the adjacent eutectic region to the primary α-Al phase of the thixo/rheo-cast products were different. By scratching surface of thixo/rheo-cast parts using a nanoindentor, friction forces and coefficients for the primary α-Al and eutectic phases in thixo-cast products were resulted to be higher than those in the rheo-cast. Nanoscratch for the thixo-cast product also revealed a rough and irregular surface compared to that for the rheo-cast, providing the evidence for the effect of eutectic entrapped by primary α-Al phase on mechanical properties

  13. Effect of multiple autoclave cycles on the surface roughness of HyFlex CM and HyFlex EDM files: an atomic force microscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, K; Uslu, G; Özyürek, T

    2018-02-13

    To compare the effect of autoclave cycles on the surface topography and roughness of HyFlex CM and HyFlex EDM instruments using atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis. Eight new files of each brand were subdivided into four subgroups (n = 2/each subgroup). One group was allocated as the control group and not subjected to autoclave sterilization. The other three groups were subjected to different numbers (1, 5, and 10) of autoclave sterilization cycles. After the cycle instruments were subjected to AFM analysis. Roughness average (Ra) and the root mean square (RMS) values were chosen to investigate the surface features of endodontic files. The data was analyzed using one-way ANOVA and post hoc Tamhane tests at 5% significant level. The lowest Ra and RMS values were observed in the HyFlex EDM files that served as the control and in those subjected to a single cycle of autoclave sterilization (P cycles of autoclave sterilization (P cycles, whereas those of the HyFlex EDM group exhibited a significant change after five autoclave cycles (P cycles of autoclave sterilization. In contrast, the surface roughness values of the HyFlex CM files did not increase until 10 cycles of autoclave sterilization. Present study indicated that autoclave sterilization negatively affected the surface roughness of the tested NiTi files.

  14. Characterization of cell surface and extracellular matrix remodeling of Azospirillum brasilense chemotaxis-like 1 signal transduction pathway mutants by atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Amanda Nicole; Siuti, Piro; Bible, Amber N; Alexandre, Gladys; Retterer, Scott T; Doktycz, Mitchel J; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer L

    2011-01-01

    To compete in complex microbial communities, bacteria must sense environmental changes and adjust cellular functions for optimal growth. Chemotaxis-like signal transduction pathways are implicated in the regulation of multiple behaviors in response to changes in the environment, including motility patterns, exopolysaccharide production, and cell-to-cell interactions. In Azospirillum brasilense, cell surface properties, including exopolysaccharide production, are thought to play a direct role in promoting flocculation. Recently, the Che1 chemotaxis-like pathway from A. brasilense was shown to modulate flocculation, suggesting an associated modulation of cell surface properties. Using atomic force microscopy, distinct changes in the surface morphology of flocculating A. brasilense Che1 mutant strains were detected. Whereas the wild-type strain produces a smooth mucosal extracellular matrix after 24 h, the flocculating Che1 mutant strains produce distinctive extracellular fibril structures. Further analyses using flocculation inhibition, lectin-binding assays, and comparison of lipopolysaccharides profiles suggest that the extracellular matrix differs between the cheA1 and the cheY1 mutants, despite an apparent similarity in the macroscopic floc structures. Collectively, these data indicate that disruption of the Che1 pathway is correlated with distinctive changes in the extracellular matrix, which likely result from changes in surface polysaccharides structure and/or composition. FEMS Microbiology Letters © 2010 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. No claim to original US government works.

  15. Characterization of cell surface and extracellular matrix remodeling of Azospirillum brasilense chemotaxis-like 1 signal transduction pathway mutants by atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doktycz, Mitchel John [ORNL; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer L [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    To compete in complex microbial communities, bacteria must sense environmental changes and adjust cellular functions for optimal growth. Chemotaxis-like signal transduction pathways are implicated in the regulation of multiple behaviors in response to changes in the environment, including motility patterns, exopolysaccharide production, and cell-to-cell interactions. In Azospirillum brasilense, cell surface properties, including exopolysaccharide production, are thought to play a direct role in promoting flocculation. Recently, the Che1 chemotaxis-like pathway from A. brasilense was shown to modulate flocculation, suggesting an associated modulation of cell surface properties. Using atomic force microscopy, distinct changes in the surface morphology of flocculating A. brasilense Che1 mutant strains were detected. Whereas the wild-type strain produces a smooth mucosal extracellular matrix after 24 h, the flocculating Che1 mutant strains produce distinctive extracellular fibril structures. Further analyses using flocculation inhibition, lectin-binding assays, and comparison of lipopolysaccharides profiles suggest that the extracellular matrix differs between the cheA1 and the cheY1 mutants, despite an apparent similarity in the macroscopic floc structures. Collectively, these data indicate that disruption of the Che1 pathway is correlated with distinctive changes in the extracellular matrix, which likely result from changes in surface polysaccharides structure and/or composition.

  16. Importance of length and sequence order on magnesium binding to surface-bound oligonucleotides studied by second harmonic generation and atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Joseph G; Geiger, Franz M

    2012-06-07

    The binding of magnesium ions to surface-bound single-stranded oligonucleotides was studied under aqueous conditions using second harmonic generation (SHG) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The effect of strand length on the number of Mg(II) ions bound and their free binding energy was examined for 5-, 10-, 15-, and 20-mers of adenine and guanine at pH 7, 298 K, and 10 mM NaCl. The binding free energies for adenine and guanine sequences were calculated to be -32.1(4) and -35.6(2) kJ/mol, respectively, and invariant with strand length. Furthermore, the ion density for adenine oligonucleotides did not change as strand length increased, with an average value of 2(1) ions/strand. In sharp contrast, guanine oligonucleotides displayed a linear relationship between strand length and ion density, suggesting that cooperativity is important. This data gives predictive capabilities for mixed strands of various lengths, which we exploit for 20-mers of adenines and guanines. In addition, the role sequence order plays in strands of hetero-oligonucleotides was examined for 5'-A(10)G(10)-3', 5'-(AG)(10)-3', and 5'-G(10)A(10)-3' (here the -3' end is chemically modified to bind to the surface). Although the free energy of binding is the same for these three strands (averaged to be -33.3(4) kJ/mol), the total ion density increases when several guanine residues are close to the 3' end (and thus close to the solid support substrate). To further understand these results, we analyzed the height profiles of the functionalized surfaces with tapping-mode atomic force microscopy (AFM). When comparing the average surface height profiles of the oligonucleotide surfaces pre- and post- Mg(II) binding, a positive correlation was found between ion density and the subsequent height decrease following Mg(II) binding, which we attribute to reductions in Coulomb repulsion and strand collapse once a critical number of Mg(II) ions are bound to the strand.

  17. The contribution of the electrostatic proximity force to atomic force microscopy with insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanley Czarnecki, W.; Schein, L.B.

    2005-01-01

    Measurements, using atomic force microscopy, of the force and force derivative on a charged insulating micron sized sphere as a function of gap between the sphere and a conductive plane have revealed attractive forces at finite gaps that are larger than predicted by either van der Waals or conventional electrostatic forces. We suggest that these observations may be due to an electrostatic force that we have identified theoretically and call the proximity force. This proximity force is due to the discrete charges on the surface of the sphere in close proximity to the plane

  18. The contribution of the electrostatic proximity force to atomic force microscopy with insulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanley Czarnecki, W. [Aetas Technology Corporation, P.O. Box 53398, Irvine, CA 92619-3398 (United States); IBM Corporation, 5600 Cottle Rd., Building 13, San Jose, CA 95193 (United States); Schein, L.B. [Aetas Technology Corporation, P.O. Box 53398, Irvine, CA 92619-3398 (United States)]. E-mail: schein@prodigy.net

    2005-05-16

    Measurements, using atomic force microscopy, of the force and force derivative on a charged insulating micron sized sphere as a function of gap between the sphere and a conductive plane have revealed attractive forces at finite gaps that are larger than predicted by either van der Waals or conventional electrostatic forces. We suggest that these observations may be due to an electrostatic force that we have identified theoretically and call the proximity force. This proximity force is due to the discrete charges on the surface of the sphere in close proximity to the plane.

  19. An Analytical Model of Nanometer Scale Viscoelastic Properties of Polymer Surfaces Measured Using an Atomic Force Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    have been developed ranging from measuring surface details to modifying surface structures . This chapter focuses on aspects of AFM modeling the- ory and...how far apart they are. An example of a poten- tial function is the Lennard-Jones potential, which is also called the 6-12 potential. It can be...γ1 + γ2 + γ12, (31) where γ1 and γ2 are the surface energies of the two adhering spheres, and γ12 is the interfacial energy between the two spheres

  20. Principles and applications of force spectroscopy using atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Kyu; Kim, Woong; Park, Joon Won [Dept. of Chemistry, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Single-molecule force spectroscopy is a powerful technique for addressing single molecules. Unseen structures and dynamics of molecules have been elucidated using force spectroscopy. Atomic force microscope (AFM)-based force spectroscopy studies have provided picoNewton force resolution, subnanometer spatial resolution, stiffness of substrates, elasticity of polymers, and thermodynamics and kinetics of single-molecular interactions. In addition, AFM has enabled mapping the distribution of individual molecules in situ, and the quantification of single molecules has been made possible without modification or labeling. In this review, we describe the basic principles, sample preparation, data analysis, and applications of AFM-based force spectroscopy and its future.

  1. SURFACE FINISHES ON STAINLESS STEEL REDUCE BACTERIAL ATTACHMENT AND EARLY BIOFILM FORMATION: SCANNING ELECTRON AND ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three common finishing treatments of stainless steel that are used for equipment during poultry processing were tested for resistance to bacterial contamination. Methods were developed to measure attached bacteria and to identify factors that make surface finishes susceptible or ...

  2. Atomic Force Microscopy for Soil Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    gazze, andrea; doerr, stefan; dudley, ed; hallin, ingrid; matthews, peter; quinn, gerry; van keulen, geertje; francis, lewis

    2016-04-01

    Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) is a high-resolution surface-sensitive technique, which provides 3-dimensional topographical information and material properties of both stiff and soft samples in their natural environments. Traditionally AFM has been applied to samples with low roughness: hence its use for soil analysis has been very limited so far. Here we report the optimization settings required for a standardization of high-resolution and artefact-free analysis of natural soil with AFM: soil immobilization, AFM probe selection, artefact recognition and minimization. Beyond topography, AFM can be used in a spectroscopic mode to evaluate nanomechanical properties, such as soil viscosity, stiffness, and deformation. In this regards, Bruker PeakForce-Quantitative NanoMechanical (QNM) AFM provides a fast and convenient way to extract physical properties from AFM force curves in real-time to obtain soil nanomechanical properties. Here we show for the first time the ability of AFM to describe the topography of natural soil at nanometre resolution, with observation of micro-components, such as clays, and of nano-structures, possibly of biotic origin, the visualization of which would prove difficult with other instrumentations. Finally, nanomechanical profiling has been applied to different wettability states in soil and the respective physical patterns are discussed.

  3. Atomic structure of surface defects in alumina studied by dynamic force microscopy: strain-relief-, translation- and reflection-related boundaries, including their junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, G H; König, T; Heinke, L; Lichtenstein, L; Heyde, M; Freund, H-J

    2011-01-01

    We present an extensive atomic resolution frequency modulation dynamic force microscopy study of ultrathin aluminium oxide on a single crystalline NiAl(110) surface. One-dimensional surface defects produced by domain boundaries have been resolved. Images are presented for reflection domain boundaries (RDBs), four different types of antiphase domain boundaries, a nucleation-related translation domain boundary and also domain boundary junctions. New structures and aspects of the boundaries and their network are revealed and merged into a comprehensive picture of the defect arrangements. The alumina film also covers the substrate completely at the boundaries and their junctions and follows the structural building principles found in its unit cell. This encompasses square and rectangular groups of surface oxygen sites. The observed structural elements can be related to the electronic signature of the boundaries and therefore to the electronic defects associated with the boundaries. A coincidence site lattice predicted for the RDBs is in good agreement with experimental data. With Σ = 19 it can be considered to be of low-sigma type, which frequently coincides with special boundary properties. Images of asymmetric RDBs show points of good contact alternating with regions of nearly amorphous disorder in the oxygen sublattice. (paper)

  4. Sub-Angstrom oscillation amplitude non-contact atomic force microscopy for lateral force gradient measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atabak, Mehrdad; Unverdi, Ozhan; Ozer, H. Ozguer; Oral, Ahmet

    2009-01-01

    We report the first results from novel sub-Angstrom oscillation amplitude non-contact atomic force microscopy developed for lateral force gradient measurements. Quantitative lateral force gradients between a tungsten tip and Si(1 1 1)-(7 x 7) surface can be measured using this microscope. Simultaneous lateral force gradient and scanning tunnelling microscope images of single and multi atomic steps are obtained. In our measurement, tunnel current is used as feedback. The lateral stiffness contrast has been observed to be 2.5 N/m at single atomic step, in contrast to 13 N/m at multi atomic step on Si(1 1 1) surface. We also carried out a series of lateral stiffness-distance spectroscopy. We observed lateral stiffness-distance curves exhibit sharp increase in the stiffness as the sample is approached towards the surface. We usually observed positive stiffness and sometimes going into slightly negative region.

  5. Atomic Force Microscope Image Contrast Mechanisms on Supported Lipid Bilayers

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, James; Dufrêne, Yves F.; Barger Jr., William R.; Lee, Gil U.

    2000-01-01

    This work presents a methodology to measure and quantitatively interpret force curves on supported lipid bilayers in water. We then use this method to correlate topographic imaging contrast in atomic force microscopy (AFM) images of phase-separated Langmuir-Blodgett bilayers with imaging load. Force curves collected on pure monolayers of both distearoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DSPE) and monogalactosylethanolamine (MGDG) and dioleoylethanolamine (DOPE) deposited at similar surface pressures o...

  6. Atomic force microscope with integrated optical microscope for biological applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Putman, Constant A.J.; Putman, C.A.J.; van der Werf, Kees; de Grooth, B.G.; van Hulst, N.F.; Segerink, Franciscus B.; Greve, Jan

    1992-01-01

    Since atomic force microscopy (AFM) is capable of imaging nonconducting surfaces, the technique holds great promises for high‐resolution imaging of biological specimens. A disadvantage of most AFMs is the fact that the relatively large sample surface has to be scanned multiple times to pinpoint a

  7. Atomic force microscope featuring an integrated optical microscope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Putman, C.A.J.; Putman, Constant A.J.; de Grooth, B.G.; van Hulst, N.F.; Greve, Jan

    1992-01-01

    The atomic force microscope (AFM) is used to image the surface of both conductors and nonconductors. Biological specimens constitute a large group of nonconductors. A disadvantage of most AFM's is the fact that relatively large areas of the sample surface have to be scanned to pinpoint a biological

  8. Calcite biomineralization in coccoliths: Evidence from atomic force microscopy (AFM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Karen; Stipp, S.L.S.

    2002-01-01

    geochemistry, crystal orientation, coccolith function, biomineralization, biological calcite, atomic force microscopy......geochemistry, crystal orientation, coccolith function, biomineralization, biological calcite, atomic force microscopy...

  9. Atomic Force Microscopy and Real Atomic Resolution. Simple Computer Simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koutsos, V.; Manias, E.; Brinke, G. ten; Hadziioannou, G.

    1994-01-01

    Using a simple computer simulation for AFM imaging in the contact mode, pictures with true and false atomic resolution are demonstrated. The surface probed consists of two f.c.c. (111) planes and an atomic vacancy is introduced in the upper layer. Changing the size of the effective tip and its

  10. Correlation of damage threshold and surface geometry of nodular defects in HR coatings as determined by in-situ atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staggs, M.C.; Kozlowski, M.R.; Siekhaus, W.J.; Balooch, M.

    1992-10-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to determine in-situ the correlation between the surface dimensions of defects in dielectric multilayer optical coatings and their susceptibility to damage by pulsed laser illumination. The primary surface defects studied were μm-scale domes associated with the classic nodule defect. The optical film studied was a highly reflective dielectric multilayer consisting of pairs of alternating HfO 2 and SiO 2 layers of quarter wave thickness at 1.06 μm. Nodule defect height and width dimensions were measured prior to laser illumination on two different samples. Correlation between these dimensions supported a simple model for the defect geometry. Defects with high nodule heights (> 0.6 μm) were found to be most susceptible to laser damage over a range of fluences between 0-35 J/cm 2 (1.06 μm, 10 ns, and 1/e 2 diam. of 1.3 mm). Crater defects, formed by nodules ejected from the coating prior to illumination, were also studied. None of the crater defects damaged when illuminated over the same range of fluences that the nodule defects were subjected to

  11. Characterization of Cell Surface and EPS Remodeling of Azospirillum brasilense Chemotaxis-like 1 Signal Transduction Pathway mutants by Atomic Force Microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billings, Amanda N [ORNL; Siuti, Piro [ORNL; Bible, Amber [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Alexandre, Gladys [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Retterer, Scott T [ORNL; Doktycz, Mitchel John [ORNL; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer L [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    To compete in complex microbial communities, bacteria must quickly sense environmental changes and adjust cellular functions for optimal growth. Chemotaxis-like signal transduction pathways are implicated in the modulation of multiple cellular responses, including motility, EPS production, and cell-to-cell interactions. Recently, the Che1 chemotaxis-like pathway from Azospirillum brasilense was shown to modulate flocculation. In A. brasilense, cell surface properties, including EPS production, are thought to play a direct role in promoting flocculation. Using atomic force microscopy (AFM), we have detected distinct changes in the surface morphology of flocculating A. brasilense Che1 mutant strains that are absent in the wild type strain. Whereas the wild type strain produces a smooth mucosal extracellular matrix, the flocculating Che1 mutant strains produce distinctive extracellular fibril structures. Further analyses using flocculation inhibition and lectin-binding assays suggest that the composition of EPS components in the extracellular matrix differs between the cheA1 and cheY1 mutants, despite an apparent similarity in the macroscopic floc structures. Collectively, these data indicate that mutations in the Che1 pathway that result in increased flocculation are correlated with distinctive changes in the extracellular matrix structure produced by the mutants, including likely changes in the EPS structure and/or composition.

  12. PREFACE: Atom-surface scattering Atom-surface scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miret-Artés, Salvador

    2010-08-01

    resonances. This proposal was, in a certain sense, the result of many previous studies carried out by the authors studying the hard corrugated wall, the eikonal approximation and the quantum theory of surface scattering. His stays with J Lapujoulade's group in Saclay were very fruitful for understanding diffraction patterns, surface phonons and selective adsorption resonances in metal vicinal surfaces. Together with R H Ritchie, he proposed some corrections to Van der Waals forces in 1985 and 1986. Self-energies of a charge near a surface or image states or potentials for electrons were also studied in collaboration with R H Ritchie in Oak Ridge and P Echenique in San Sebastian. In particular, they proposed a theory for cluster impact fusion in 1990. With J P Toennies and his group and visitors in Göttingen, many experimental features or effects were interpreted with Dick's invaluable collaboration. Thus, for example, we have (i) the large-momentum transfer undulations observed in the angular distribution of He atoms scattered by a platinum surface in the presence of a single CO adsorbate (the so-called reflection symmetry interference); (ii) the inelastic interference structures of the frustrated translational mode of CO on a copper surface; (iii) defect mediated diffraction resonances; (iv) inelastic focusing; (v) diffraction from nanostructure transmission gratings, etc. With J G Skofronick and S A Safron and their group in Tallahassee, He atom inelastic scattering from insulator experiments were carried out to test his theory. With K-H Rieder and his group in Berlin, Dick mainly considered the scattering of atoms from clean surfaces and in the presence of defects at grazing angles. And, finally, with W Ernst and his group in Graz, glass surface dynamics was developed as well as observation of the so-called boson peak. Finally, I would like to express my sincere gratitude to all contributors and those who were contacted but could not participate in this festschrift. They

  13. Single molecule atomic force microscopy and force spectroscopy of chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocun, Marta; Grandbois, Michel; Cuccia, Louis A

    2011-02-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and AFM-based force spectroscopy was used to study the desorption of individual chitosan polymer chains from substrates with varying chemical composition. AFM images of chitosan adsorbed onto a flat mica substrate show elongated single strands or aggregated bundles. The aggregated state of the polymer is consistent with the high level of flexibility and mobility expected for a highly positively charged polymer strand. Conversely, the visualization of elongated strands indicated the presence of stabilizing interactions with the substrate. Surfaces with varying chemical composition (glass, self-assembled monolayer of mercaptoundecanoic acid/decanethiol and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)) were probed with chitosan modified AFM tips and the corresponding desorption energies, calculated from plateau-like features, were attributed to the desorption of individual polymer strands. Desorption energies of 2.0±0.3×10(-20)J, 1.8±0.3×10(-20)J and 3.5±0.3×10(-20)J were obtained for glass, SAM of mercaptoundecanoic/dodecanethiol and PTFE, respectively. These single molecule level results can be used as a basis for investigating chitosan and chitosan-based materials for biomaterial applications. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Fidelity imaging for atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosal, Sayan, E-mail: ghos0087@umn.edu; Salapaka, Murti, E-mail: murtis@umn.edu [Nanodynamics Systems Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States)

    2015-01-05

    Atomic force microscopy is widely employed for imaging material at the nanoscale. However, real-time measures on image reliability are lacking in contemporary atomic force microscopy literature. In this article, we present a real-time technique that provides an image of fidelity for a high bandwidth dynamic mode imaging scheme. The fidelity images define channels that allow the user to have additional authority over the choice of decision threshold that facilitates where the emphasis is desired, on discovering most true features on the sample with the possible detection of high number of false features, or emphasizing minimizing instances of false detections. Simulation and experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of fidelity imaging.

  15. Dynamics of Pseudomonas aeruginosa azurin and its Cys3Ser mutant at single crystal gold surfaces investigated by cyclic voltammetry and atomic force microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Esben P.; Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov; Madsen, Lars Lithen

    1997-01-01

    Cyclic voltammetry of Pseudomonas aeruginosa azurin on polycrystalline gold is reversible (E0=360mV vs she;50mM ammonium acetate) but the voltammetric signals decay with time constants of about 3x10-3 s-1. No signal is observed for monocrystalline Au(111). Cys3Ser azurin is electrochemically inac...... into the solution, recovering the free Au(111) surface. The cyclic voltammetry and AFM data are consistent with time dependent adsorption of the azurins on gold via the disulphide bridge (wild-type) or free thiol group (Cys3Ser mutant).......Cyclic voltammetry of Pseudomonas aeruginosa azurin on polycrystalline gold is reversible (E0=360mV vs she;50mM ammonium acetate) but the voltammetric signals decay with time constants of about 3x10-3 s-1. No signal is observed for monocrystalline Au(111). Cys3Ser azurin is electrochemically...... inactive on either type of gold electrode but shows a reversible although decaying peak (362mV, 50mM ammonium acetate; decay time constant ~ 2x10-3 s-1) on edge-plane pyrolytic graphite.Ex situ and in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) of the azurins on Au(111) show initially arrays of protein structures...

  16. Characterization of the molecular structure and mechanical properties of polymer surfaces and protein/polymer interfaces by sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koffas, Telly Stelianos [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and other complementary surface-sensitive techniques have been used to study the surface molecular structure and surface mechanical behavior of biologically-relevant polymer systems. SFG and AFM have emerged as powerful analytical tools to deduce structure/property relationships, in situ, for polymers at air, liquid and solid interfaces. The experiments described in this dissertation have been performed to understand how polymer surface properties are linked to polymer bulk composition, substrate hydrophobicity, changes in the ambient environment (e.g., humidity and temperature), or the adsorption of macromolecules. The correlation of spectroscopic and mechanical data by SFG and AFM can become a powerful methodology to study and engineer materials with tailored surface properties. The overarching theme of this research is the interrogation of systems of increasing structural complexity, which allows us to extend conclusions made on simpler model systems. We begin by systematically describing the surface molecular composition and mechanical properties of polymers, copolymers, and blends having simple linear architectures. Subsequent chapters focus on networked hydrogel materials used as soft contact lenses and the adsorption of protein and surfactant at the polymer/liquid interface. The power of SFG is immediately demonstrated in experiments which identify the chemical parameters that influence the molecular composition and ordering of a polymer chain's side groups at the polymer/air and polymer/liquid interfaces. In general, side groups with increasingly greater hydrophobic character will be more surface active in air. Larger side groups impose steric restrictions, thus they will tend to be more randomly ordered than smaller hydrophobic groups. If exposed to a hydrophilic environment, such as water, the polymer chain will attempt to orient more of its hydrophilic groups to

  17. Tapping mode atomic force microscopy in liquid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Putman, Constant A.J.; Putman, C.A.J.; van der Werf, Kees; de Grooth, B.G.; van Hulst, N.F.; Greve, Jan

    1994-01-01

    We show that standard silicon nitride cantilevers can be used for tapping mode atomic force microscopy (AFM) in air, provided that the energy of the oscillating cantilever is sufficiently high to overcome the adhesion of the water layer. The same cantilevers are successfully used for tapping mode

  18. Resonant difference-frequency atomic force ultrasonic microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantrell, John H. (Inventor); Cantrell, Sean A. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A scanning probe microscope and methodology called resonant difference-frequency atomic force ultrasonic microscopy (RDF-AFUM), employs an ultrasonic wave launched from the bottom of a sample while the cantilever of an atomic force microscope, driven at a frequency differing from the ultrasonic frequency by one of the contact resonance frequencies of the cantilever, engages the sample top surface. The nonlinear mixing of the oscillating cantilever and the ultrasonic wave in the region defined by the cantilever tip-sample surface interaction force generates difference-frequency oscillations at the cantilever contact resonance. The resonance-enhanced difference-frequency signals are used to create images of nanoscale near-surface and subsurface features.

  19. Capillary forces in tapping mode atomic force microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zitzler, L.; Herminghaus, S.; Mugele, Friedrich Gunther

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the influence of the relative humidity on amplitude and phase of the cantilever oscillation while operating an atomic force microscope (AFM) in the tapping mode. If the free oscillation amplitude A0 exceeds a certain critical amplitude Ac, the amplitude- and phase-distance curves

  20. Investigating bioconjugation by atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Nanotechnological applications increasingly exploit the selectivity and processivity of biological molecules. Integration of biomolecules such as proteins or DNA into nano-systems typically requires their conjugation to surfaces, for example of carbon-nanotubes or fluorescent quantum dots. The bioconjugated nanostructures exploit the unique strengths of both their biological and nanoparticle components and are used in diverse, future oriented research areas ranging from nanoelectronics to biosensing and nanomedicine. Atomic force microscopy imaging provides valuable, direct insight for the evaluation of different conjugation approaches at the level of the individual molecules. Recent technical advances have enabled high speed imaging by AFM supporting time resolutions sufficient to follow conformational changes of intricately assembled nanostructures in solution. In addition, integration of AFM with different spectroscopic and imaging approaches provides an enhanced level of information on the investigated sample. Furthermore, the AFM itself can serve as an active tool for the assembly of nanostructures based on bioconjugation. AFM is hence a major workhorse in nanotechnology; it is a powerful tool for the structural investigation of bioconjugation and bioconjugation-induced effects as well as the simultaneous active assembly and analysis of bioconjugation-based nanostructures. PMID:23855448

  1. Automated force controller for amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyagi, Atsushi, E-mail: atsushi.miyagi@inserm.fr, E-mail: simon.scheuring@inserm.fr; Scheuring, Simon, E-mail: atsushi.miyagi@inserm.fr, E-mail: simon.scheuring@inserm.fr [U1006 INSERM, Université Aix-Marseille, Parc Scientifique et Technologique de Luminy, 163 Avenue de Luminy, 13009 Marseille (France)

    2016-05-15

    Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) is widely used in physics, chemistry, and biology to analyze the topography of a sample at nanometer resolution. Controlling precisely the force applied by the AFM tip to the sample is a prerequisite for faithful and reproducible imaging. In amplitude modulation (oscillating) mode AFM, the applied force depends on the free and the setpoint amplitudes of the cantilever oscillation. Therefore, for keeping the applied force constant, not only the setpoint amplitude but also the free amplitude must be kept constant. While the AFM user defines the setpoint amplitude, the free amplitude is typically subject to uncontrollable drift, and hence, unfortunately, the real applied force is permanently drifting during an experiment. This is particularly harmful in biological sciences where increased force destroys the soft biological matter. Here, we have developed a strategy and an electronic circuit that analyzes permanently the free amplitude of oscillation and readjusts the excitation to maintain the free amplitude constant. As a consequence, the real applied force is permanently and automatically controlled with picoNewton precision. With this circuit associated to a high-speed AFM, we illustrate the power of the development through imaging over long-duration and at various forces. The development is applicable for all AFMs and will widen the applicability of AFM to a larger range of samples and to a larger range of (non-specialist) users. Furthermore, from controlled force imaging experiments, the interaction strength between biomolecules can be analyzed.

  2. Intermolecular and surface forces

    CERN Document Server

    Israelachvili, Jacob N

    2011-01-01

    This reference describes the role of various intermolecular and interparticle forces in determining the properties of simple systems such as gases, liquids and solids, with a special focus on more complex colloidal, polymeric and biological systems. The book provides a thorough foundation in theories and concepts of intermolecular forces, allowing researchers and students to recognize which forces are important in any particular system, as well as how to control these forces. This third edition is expanded into three sections and contains five new chapters over the previous edition.· starts fr

  3. Atomic force microscope with integrated optical microscope for biological applications

    OpenAIRE

    Putman, Constant A.J.; Putman, C.A.J.; van der Werf, Kees; de Grooth, B.G.; van Hulst, N.F.; Segerink, Franciscus B.; Greve, Jan

    1992-01-01

    Since atomic force microscopy (AFM) is capable of imaging nonconducting surfaces, the technique holds great promises for high‐resolution imaging of biological specimens. A disadvantage of most AFMs is the fact that the relatively large sample surface has to be scanned multiple times to pinpoint a specific biological object of interest. Here an AFM is presented which has an incorporated inverted optical microscope. The optical image from the optical microscope is not obscured by the cantilever...

  4. Stacking it up: Exploring the limits of ultra-high resolution atomic force microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, N.J.

    2017-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a technique wherein an atomically sharp needle raster scans across a surface, detecting forces between it and the sample. In state-of-the-art AFM experiments the measured forces are typically on the order of pico-Newtons, and the lateral resolution is on the order of

  5. Spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy of biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetard, L; Passian, A; Farahi, R H; Kalluri, U C; Davison, B H; Thundat, T

    2010-05-01

    Scanning probe microscopy has emerged as a powerful approach to a broader understanding of the molecular architecture of cell walls, which may shed light on the challenge of efficient cellulosic ethanol production. We have obtained preliminary images of both Populus and switchgrass samples using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results show distinctive features that are shared by switchgrass and Populus. These features may be attributable to the lignocellulosic cell wall composition, as the collected images exhibit the characteristic macromolecular globule structures attributable to the lignocellulosic systems. Using both AFM and a single case of mode synthesizing atomic force microscopy (MSAFM) to characterize Populus, we obtained images that clearly show the cell wall structure. The results are of importance in providing a better understanding of the characteristic features of both mature cells as well as developing plant cells. In addition, we present spectroscopic investigation of the same samples.

  6. Influence of roughness on capillary forces between hydrophilic surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zwol, P. J.; Palasantzas, G.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.

    Capillary forces have been measured by atomic force microscopy in the plate-sphere setup between gold, borosilicate glass, GeSbTe, titanium, and UV-irradiated amorphous titanium-dioxide surfaces. The force measurements were performed as a function contact time and surface roughness in the range

  7. Atomic Force Microscope for Imaging and Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, W. T.; Hecht, M. H.; Anderson, M. S.; Akiyama, T.; Gautsch, S.; deRooij, N. F.; Staufer, U.; Niedermann, Ph.; Howald, L.; Mueller, D.

    2000-01-01

    We have developed, built, and tested an atomic force microscope (AFM) for extraterrestrial applications incorporating a micromachined tip array to allow for probe replacement. It is part of a microscopy station originally intended for NASA's 2001 Mars lander to identify the size, distribution, and shape of Martian dust and soil particles. As well as imaging topographically down to nanometer resolution, this instrument can be used to reveal chemical information and perform infrared and Raman spectroscopy at unprecedented resolution.

  8. Advanced atomic force microscopy: Development and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Deron A.

    Over the decade since atomic force microscopy (AFM) was invented, development of new microscopes has been closely intertwined with application of AFM to problems of interest in physics, chemistry, biology, and engineering. New techniques such as tapping mode AFM move quickly in our lab from the designer's bench to the user's table-since this is often the same piece of furniture. In return, designers get ample feedback as to what problems are limiting current instruments, and thus need most urgent attention. Tip sharpness and characterization are such a problem. Chapter 1 describes an AFM designed to operate in a scanning electron microscope, whose electron beam is used to deposit sharp carbonaceous tips. These tips can be tested and used in situ. Another limitation is addressed in Chapter 2: the difficulty of extracting more than just topographic information from a sample. A combined AFM/confocal optical microscope was built to provide simultaneous, independent images of the topography and fluorescence of a sample. In combination with staining or antibody labelling, this could provide submicron information about the composition of a sample. Chapters 3 and 4 discuss two generations of small cantilevers developed for lower-noise, higher-speed AFM of biological samples. In Chapter 4, a 26 mum cantilever is used to image the process of calcite growth from solution at a rate of 1.6 sec/frame. Finally, Chapter 5 explores in detail a biophysics problem that motivates us to develop fast, quiet, and gentle microscopes; namely, the control of crystal growth in seashells by the action of soluble proteins on a growing calcite surface.

  9. Atomic force microscope image contrast mechanisms on supported lipid bilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, J; Dufrêne, Y F; Barger, W R; Lee, G U

    2000-08-01

    This work presents a methodology to measure and quantitatively interpret force curves on supported lipid bilayers in water. We then use this method to correlate topographic imaging contrast in atomic force microscopy (AFM) images of phase-separated Langmuir-Blodgett bilayers with imaging load. Force curves collected on pure monolayers of both distearoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DSPE) and monogalactosylethanolamine (MGDG) and dioleoylethanolamine (DOPE) deposited at similar surface pressures onto a monolayer of DSPE show an abrupt breakthrough event at a repeatable, material-dependent force. The breakthrough force for DSPE and MGDG is sizable, whereas the breakthrough force for DOPE is too small to measure accurately. Contact-mode AFM images on 1:1 mixed monolayers of DSPE/DOPE and MGDG/DOPE have a high topographic contrast at loads between the breakthrough force of each phase, and a low topographic contrast at loads above the breakthrough force of both phases. Frictional contrast is inverted and magnified at loads above the breakthrough force of both phases. These results emphasize the important role that surface forces and mechanics can play in imaging multicomponent biomembranes with AFM.

  10. Growth models of coexisting p(2 × 1) and c(6 × 2) phases on an oxygen-terminated Cu(110) surface studied by noncontact atomic force microscopy at 78 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yan Jun; Lee, Seung Hwan; Kinoshita, Yukinori; Wen, Huanfei; Naitoh, Yoshitaka; Sugawara, Yasuhiro; Ma, Zong Min; Nomura, Hikaru

    2016-01-01

    We present an experimental study of coexisting p(2 × 1) and c(6 × 2) phases on an oxygen-terminated Cu(110) surface by noncontact atomic force microscopy (NC-AFM) at 78 K. Ball models of the growth processes of coexisting p(2 × 1)/c(6 × 2) phases on a terrace and near a step are proposed. We found that the p(2 × 1) and c(6 × 2) phases are grown from the super Cu atoms on both sides of O–Cu–O rows of an atomic spacing. In this paper, we summarize our investigations of an oxygen-terminated Cu(110) surface by NC-AFM employing O- and Cu-terminated tips. Also, we state several problems and issues for future investigation. (paper)

  11. Capillary force between wetted nanometric contacts and its application to atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crassous, Jérôme; Ciccotti, Matteo; Charlaix, Elisabeth

    2011-04-05

    We extend to the case of perfect wetting the exact calculation of Orr et al. (J. Fluid. Mech. 1975, 67, 723) for a pendular ring connecting two dry surfaces. We derive an approximate analytical expression for the capillary force between two highly curved surfaces covered by a wetting liquid film. The domain of validity of this expression is assessed and extended by a custom-made numerical simulation based on the full exact mathematical description. In the case of attractive liquid-solid van der Waals interactions, the capillary force increases monotonically with decreasing vapor pressure up to several times its saturation value. This accurate description of the capillary force makes it possible to estimate the adhesion force between wet nanoparticles; it can also be used to quantitatively interpret pull-off forces measured by atomic force microscopy.

  12. Quantification of Staphylococcus aureus adhesion forces on various dental restorative materials using atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merghni, Abderrahmen, E-mail: abderrahmen_merghni@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire des Maladies Transmissibles et Substances biologiquement actives (LR99ES27) Faculté de Pharmacie de Monastir, Université de Monastir (Tunisia); Kammoun, Dorra [Laboratoire de Biomatériaux et Biotechnologie, Faculté de Médecine Dentaire, Monastir (Tunisia); Hentati, Hajer [Laboratoire de Recherche en Santé Orale et Réhabilitation Bucco-Faciale (LR12ES11), Faculté de Médecine Dentaire de Monastir, Université de Monastir (Tunisia); Janel, Sébastien [BioImaging Center Lille-FR3642, Lille (France); Popoff, Michka [Cellular Microbiology and Physics of Infection-CNRS UMR8204, INSERM U1019, Institut Pasteur de Lille, Lille University (France); Lafont, Frank [BioImaging Center Lille-FR3642, Lille (France); Cellular Microbiology and Physics of Infection-CNRS UMR8204, INSERM U1019, Institut Pasteur de Lille, Lille University (France); Aouni, Mahjoub [Laboratoire des Maladies Transmissibles et Substances biologiquement actives (LR99ES27) Faculté de Pharmacie de Monastir, Université de Monastir (Tunisia); Mastouri, Maha [Laboratoire des Maladies Transmissibles et Substances biologiquement actives (LR99ES27) Faculté de Pharmacie de Monastir, Université de Monastir (Tunisia); Laboratoire de Microbiologie, CHU Fattouma Bourguiba de Monastir (Tunisia)

    2016-08-30

    Highlights: • 4 dental restorative materials were characterized for roughness, angle contact water and surface free energy. • AFM adhesion forces of S. aureus to tested materials were achieved in presence and absence of salivary conditioning film. • S. aureus initial adhesion is dependent on the surface free energy and roughness. - Abstract: In the oral cavity dental restorative biomaterials can act as a reservoir for infection with opportunistic Staphylococcus aureus pathogen, which can lead to the occurrence of secondary caries and treatment failures. Our aim was to evaluate the adhesion forces by S. aureus on four dental restorative biomaterials and to correlate this finding to differences in specific surface characteristics. Additionally, the influence of salivary conditioning films in exerted adhesion forces was investigated. The substrate hydrophobicity was measured by goniometer and the surface free energy was calculated using the equilibrium advancing contact angle values of water, formamide, and diiodomethane on the tested surfaces. The surface roughness was determined using atomic force microscope (AFM). Additionally, cell force spectroscopy was achieved to quantify the forces that drive cell-substrate interactions. S. aureus bacterium exerted a considerable adhesion forces on various dental restorative materials, which decreased in the presence of saliva conditioning film. The influence of the surface roughness and free energy in initial adhesion appears to be more important than the effect of hydrophobicity, either in presence or absence of saliva coating. Hence, control of surface properties of dental restorative biomaterials is of crucial importance in preventing the attachment and subsequent the biofilm formation.

  13. Quantification of Staphylococcus aureus adhesion forces on various dental restorative materials using atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merghni, Abderrahmen; Kammoun, Dorra; Hentati, Hajer; Janel, Sébastien; Popoff, Michka; Lafont, Frank; Aouni, Mahjoub; Mastouri, Maha

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • 4 dental restorative materials were characterized for roughness, angle contact water and surface free energy. • AFM adhesion forces of S. aureus to tested materials were achieved in presence and absence of salivary conditioning film. • S. aureus initial adhesion is dependent on the surface free energy and roughness. - Abstract: In the oral cavity dental restorative biomaterials can act as a reservoir for infection with opportunistic Staphylococcus aureus pathogen, which can lead to the occurrence of secondary caries and treatment failures. Our aim was to evaluate the adhesion forces by S. aureus on four dental restorative biomaterials and to correlate this finding to differences in specific surface characteristics. Additionally, the influence of salivary conditioning films in exerted adhesion forces was investigated. The substrate hydrophobicity was measured by goniometer and the surface free energy was calculated using the equilibrium advancing contact angle values of water, formamide, and diiodomethane on the tested surfaces. The surface roughness was determined using atomic force microscope (AFM). Additionally, cell force spectroscopy was achieved to quantify the forces that drive cell-substrate interactions. S. aureus bacterium exerted a considerable adhesion forces on various dental restorative materials, which decreased in the presence of saliva conditioning film. The influence of the surface roughness and free energy in initial adhesion appears to be more important than the effect of hydrophobicity, either in presence or absence of saliva coating. Hence, control of surface properties of dental restorative biomaterials is of crucial importance in preventing the attachment and subsequent the biofilm formation.

  14. Imaging stability in force-feedback high-speed atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byung I.; Boehm, Ryan D.

    2013-01-01

    We studied the stability of force-feedback high-speed atomic force microscopy (HSAFM) by imaging soft, hard, and biological sample surfaces at various applied forces. The HSAFM images showed sudden topographic variations of streaky fringes with a negative applied force when collected on a soft hydrocarbon film grown on a grating sample, whereas they showed stable topographic features with positive applied forces. The instability of HSAFM images with the negative applied force was explained by the transition between contact and noncontact regimes in the force–distance curve. When the grating surface was cleaned, and thus hydrophilic by removing the hydrocarbon film, enhanced imaging stability was observed at both positive and negative applied forces. The higher adhesive interaction between the tip and the surface explains the improved imaging stability. The effects of imaging rate on the imaging stability were tested on an even softer adhesive Escherichia coli biofilm deposited onto the grating structure. The biofilm and planktonic cell structures in HSAFM images were reproducible within the force deviation less than ∼0.5 nN at the imaging rate up to 0.2 s per frame, suggesting that the force-feedback HSAFM was stable for various imaging speeds in imaging softer adhesive biological samples. - Highlights: ► We investigated the imaging stability of force-feedback HSAFM. ► Stable–unstable imaging transitions rely on applied force and sample hydrophilicity. ► The stable–unstable transitions are found to be independent of imaging rate

  15. FEATURES OF MEASURING IN LIQUID MEDIA BY ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail V. Zhukov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research.The paper presents results of experimental study of measurement features in liquids by atomic force microscope to identify the best modes and buffered media as well as to find possible image artifacts and ways of their elimination. Method. The atomic force microscope Ntegra Aura (NT-MDT, Russia with standard prism probe holder and liquid cell was used to carry out measurements in liquids. The calibration lattice TGQ1 (NT-MDT, Russia was chosen as investigated structure with a fixed shape and height. Main Results. The research of probe functioning in specific pH liquids (distilled water, PBS - sodium phosphate buffer, Na2HPO4 - borate buffer, NaOH 0.1 M, NaOH 0.5 M was carried out in contact and semi-contact modes. The optimal operating conditions and the best media for the liquid measurements were found. Comparison of atomic force microscopy data with the results of lattice study by scanning electron microscopy was performed. The features of the feedback system response in the «probe-surface» interaction were considered by the approach/retraction curves in the different environments. An artifact of image inversion was analyzed and recommendation for its elimination was provided. Practical Relevance. These studies reveal the possibility of fine alignment of research method for objects of organic and inorganic nature by atomic force microscopy in liquid media.

  16. z calibration of the atomic force microscope by means of a pyramidal tip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Flemming

    1993-01-01

    A new method for imaging the probe tip of an atomic force microscope cantilever by the atomic force microscope itself (self-imaging) is presented. The self-imaging is accomplished by scanning the probe tip across a sharper tip on the surface. By using a pyramidal probe tip with a very well......-defined aspect ratio, this technique provides an excellent z-calibration standard for the atomic force microscope....

  17. Method for lateral force calibration in atomic force microscope using MEMS microforce sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziekoński, Cezary; Dera, Wojciech; Jarząbek, Dariusz M

    2017-11-01

    In this paper we present a simple and direct method for the lateral force calibration constant determination. Our procedure does not require any knowledge about material or geometrical parameters of an investigated cantilever. We apply a commercially available microforce sensor with advanced electronics for direct measurement of the friction force applied by the cantilever's tip to a flat surface of the microforce sensor measuring beam. Due to the third law of dynamics, the friction force of the equal value tilts the AFM cantilever. Therefore, torsional (lateral force) signal is compared with the signal from the microforce sensor and the lateral force calibration constant is determined. The method is easy to perform and could be widely used for the lateral force calibration constant determination in many types of atomic force microscopes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Mechanisms and energetics of surface atomic processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsong, T.T.

    1991-01-01

    The energies involved in various surface atomic processes such as surface diffusion, the binding of small atomic clusters on the surface, the interaction between two adsorbed atoms, the dissociation of an atom from a small cluster or from a surface layer, the binding of kink size atoms or atoms at different adsorption sites to the surface etc., can be derived from an analysis of atomically resolved field ion microscope images and a kinetic energy measurement of low temperature field desorbed ions using the time-of-flight atom-probe field ion microscope. These energies can be used to compare with theories and to understand the transport of atoms on the surface in atomic reconstructions, epitaxial growth of surface layers and crystal growth, adsorption layer superstructure formation, and also why an atomic ordering or atomic reconstruction at the surface is energetically favored. Mechanisms of some of the surface atomic processes are also clarified from these quantitative, atomic resolution studies. In this paper work in this area is bris briefly reviewed

  19. Atomic probes of surface structure and dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, E.J.; Jonsson, H.

    1992-01-01

    The following were studied: New semiclassical method for scattering calculations, He atom scattering from defective Pt surfaces, He atom scattering from Xe overlayers, thermal dissociation of H 2 on Cu(110), spin flip scattering of atoms from surfaces, and Car-Parrinello simulations of surface processes

  20. Study of Adhesion Interaction Using Atomic Force Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grybos, J.; Pyka-Fosciak, G.; Lebed, K.; Lekka, M.; Stachura, Z.; Styczeñ, J.

    2003-05-01

    An atomic force microscope is a useful tool to study the interaction forces at molecular level. In particular the atomic force microscope can measure an unbinding force needed to separate the two single molecule complexes. Recent studies have shown that such unbinding force depends linearly on the logarithm of the applied loading rate, defined as a product of scanning velocity and the spring constant characterizing the investigated system (cantilever vs. surface). This dependence can be used to study the energy landscape shape of a molecular complex by the estimation of energy barrier locations and the related dissociation rates. In the present work the complex consisting of ethylene(di)aminetetraacetic acid and the bovine serum albumin was measured. The dependence between the unbinding force and the logarithm of the loading rate was linear. Using the Bell model describing the dissociation of the above molecules caused by the action of the external bond breaking force, two parameters were estimated: the dissociation rate and the position of the energy barrier needed to overcome during a transition from a bound to unbound state. The obtained results are similar to those obtained for a typical ligand--receptor interaction.

  1. Reconstruction of Undersampled Atomic Force Microscopy Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tobias Lindstrøm; Arildsen, Thomas; Østergaard, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is one of the most advanced tools for high-resolution imaging and manipulation of nanoscale matter. Unfortunately, standard AFM imaging requires a timescale on the order of seconds to minutes to acquire an image which makes it complicated to observe dynamic processes....... Moreover, it is often required to take several images before a relevant observation region is identified. In this paper we show how to significantly reduce the image acquisition time by undersampling. The reconstruction of an undersampled AFM image can be viewed as an inpainting, interpolating problem...... should be reconstructed using interpolation....

  2. Atomic Force Microscopy Application in Biological Research: A Review Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surena Vahabi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Atomic force microscopy (AFM is a three-dimensional topographic technique with a high atomic resolution to measure surface roughness. AFM is a kind of scanning probe microscope, and its near-field technique is based on the interaction between a sharp tip and the atoms of the sample surface. There are several methods and many ways to modify the tip of the AFM to investigate surface properties, including measuring friction, adhesion forces and viscoelastic properties as well as determining the Young modulus and imaging magnetic or electrostatic properties. The AFM technique can analyze any kind of samples such as polymers, adsorbed molecules, films or fibers, and powders in the air whether in a controlled atmosphere or in a liquid medium. In the past decade, the AFM has emerged as a powerful tool to obtain the nanostructural details and biomechanical properties of biological samples, including biomolecules and cells. The AFM applications, techniques, and -in particular- its ability to measure forces, are not still familiar to most clinicians. This paper reviews the literature on the main principles of the AFM modality and highlights the advantages of this technique in biology, medicine, and- especially- dentistry. This literature review was performed through E-resources, including Science Direct, PubMed, Blackwell Synergy, Embase, Elsevier, and Scholar Google for the references published between 1985 and 2010.

  3. Distributed Surface Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    surface missile SSN nuclear powered attack submarine ST Singapore Technologies T-AKE Lewis and Clarke class TDSI Temasek Defense Systems Institute TRL...total of 313 (Department of the Navy N8 Department 2013). This 306-ship plan includes 12 SSBNs, 48 SSNs , 11 aircraft carriers, 88 cruisers and...MoCil • • West Reef Barque Canada Stloal frinc2 of wales Bank • Reef fat Grair9r Bani< Aneoyna Cltf •Mari\\eles • • • • Nlenwl Bank Ardaser n Dalas

  4. The effects of atomic force microscopy upon nominated living cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Hagan, Barry Michael Gerard [School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Ulster, Cromore Road, Coleraine, County Londonderry, BT52 1SA (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: bmg.ohagan@ulstser.ac.uk; Doyle, Peter [Unilever Research, Port Sunlight, The Wirral, Merseyside (United Kingdom); Allen, James M. [School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Ulster, Cromore Road, Coleraine, County Londonderry, BT52 1SA (United Kingdom); Sutton, Kerry [School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Ulster, Cromore Road, Coleraine, County Londonderry, BT52 1SA (United Kingdom); McKerr, George [School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Ulster, Cromore Road, Coleraine, County Londonderry, BT52 1SA (United Kingdom)

    2004-12-15

    This work describes a system for precise re-location of cells within a monolayer after atomic force imaging. As we know little about probe interaction with soft biological surfaces any corroborative evidence is of great importance. For example, it is of paramount importance in living cell force microscopy that interrogated cells can be re-located and imaged by other corroborative technologies. Methodologies expressed here have shown that non-invasive force parameters can be established for specific cell types. Additionally, we show that the same sample can be transferred reliably to an SEM. Results here indicate that further work with live cells should initially establish appropriate prevailing force parameters and that cell damage should be checked for before and after an imaging experiment.

  5. The effects of atomic force microscopy upon nominated living cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hagan, Barry Michael Gerard; Doyle, Peter; Allen, James M.; Sutton, Kerry; McKerr, George

    2004-01-01

    This work describes a system for precise re-location of cells within a monolayer after atomic force imaging. As we know little about probe interaction with soft biological surfaces any corroborative evidence is of great importance. For example, it is of paramount importance in living cell force microscopy that interrogated cells can be re-located and imaged by other corroborative technologies. Methodologies expressed here have shown that non-invasive force parameters can be established for specific cell types. Additionally, we show that the same sample can be transferred reliably to an SEM. Results here indicate that further work with live cells should initially establish appropriate prevailing force parameters and that cell damage should be checked for before and after an imaging experiment

  6. Cantilever contribution to the total electrostatic force measured with the atomic force microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guriyanova, Svetlana; Golovko, Dmytro S; Bonaccurso, Elmar

    2010-01-01

    The atomic force microscope (AFM) is a powerful tool for surface imaging at the nanometer scale and surface force measurements in the piconewton range. Among long-range surface forces, the electrostatic forces play a predominant role. They originate if the electric potentials of the substrate and of the tip of the AFM cantilever are different. A quantitative interpretation of the AFM signal is often difficult because it depends in a complicated fashion on the cantilever–tip–surface geometry. Since the electrostatic interaction is a long-range interaction, the cantilever, which is many microns from the surface, contributes to the total electrostatic force along with the tip. Here we present results of the electrostatic interaction between a conducting flat surface and horizontal or tilted cantilevers, with and without tips, at various distances from the surface. As addressed in a previous work, we show that the contribution of the cantilever to the overall force cannot be neglected. Based on a predictive model and on 3D confocal measurements, we discuss the influence of the tilting angle of the cantilever

  7. Analysis of the physical atomic forces between noble gas atoms, alkali ions and halogen ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J. W.; Heinbockel, J. H.; Outlaw, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    The physical forces between atoms and molecules are important in a number of processes of practical importance, including line broadening in radiative processes, gas and crystal properties, adhesion, and thin films. The components of the physical forces between noble gas atoms, alkali ions, and halogen ions are analyzed and a data base for the dispersion forces is developed from the literature based on evaluations with the harmonic oscillator dispersion model for higher order coefficients. The Zener model of the repulsive core is used in the context of the recent asymptotic wave functions of Handler and Smith; and an effective ionization potential within the Handler and Smith wave functions is defined to analyze the two body potential data of Waldman and Gordon, the alkali-halide molecular data, and the noble gas crystal and salt crystal data. A satisfactory global fit to this molecular and crystal data is then reproduced by the model to within several percent. Surface potentials are evaluated for noble gas atoms on noble gas and salt crystal surfaces with surface tension neglected. Within this context, the noble gas surface potentials on noble gas and salt crystals are considered to be accurate to within several percent.

  8. Localization and force analysis at the single virus particle level using atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Chih-Hao; Horng, Jim-Tong; Chang, Jeng-Shian; Hsieh, Chung-Fan; Tseng, You-Chen; Lin, Shiming

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Localization of single virus particle. ► Force measurements. ► Force mapping. -- Abstract: Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a vital instrument in nanobiotechnology. In this study, we developed a method that enables AFM to simultaneously measure specific unbinding force and map the viral glycoprotein at the single virus particle level. The average diameter of virus particles from AFM images and the specificity between the viral surface antigen and antibody probe were integrated to design a three-stage method that sets the measuring area to a single virus particle before obtaining the force measurements, where the influenza virus was used as the object of measurements. Based on the purposed method and performed analysis, several findings can be derived from the results. The mean unbinding force of a single virus particle can be quantified, and no significant difference exists in this value among virus particles. Furthermore, the repeatability of the proposed method is demonstrated. The force mapping images reveal that the distributions of surface viral antigens recognized by antibody probe were dispersed on the whole surface of individual virus particles under the proposed method and experimental criteria; meanwhile, the binding probabilities are similar among particles. This approach can be easily applied to most AFM systems without specific components or configurations. These results help understand the force-based analysis at the single virus particle level, and therefore, can reinforce the capability of AFM to investigate a specific type of viral surface protein and its distributions.

  9. High-frequency multimodal atomic force microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian P. Nievergelt

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Multifrequency atomic force microscopy imaging has been recently demonstrated as a powerful technique for quickly obtaining information about the mechanical properties of a sample. Combining this development with recent gains in imaging speed through small cantilevers holds the promise of a convenient, high-speed method for obtaining nanoscale topography as well as mechanical properties. Nevertheless, instrument bandwidth limitations on cantilever excitation and readout have restricted the ability of multifrequency techniques to fully benefit from small cantilevers. We present an approach for cantilever excitation and deflection readout with a bandwidth of 20 MHz, enabling multifrequency techniques extended beyond 2 MHz for obtaining materials contrast in liquid and air, as well as soft imaging of delicate biological samples.

  10. Dissipation and oscillatory solvation forces in confined liquids studied by small amplitude atomic force spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Beer, Sissi; van den Ende, Henricus T.M.; Mugele, Friedrich

    2010-01-01

    We determine conservative and dissipative tip–sample interaction forces from the amplitude and phase response of acoustically driven atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilevers using a non-polar model fluid (octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane, which displays strong molecular layering) and atomically flat

  11. Structure and stability of semiconductor tip apexes for atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pou, P; Perez, R; Ghasemi, S A; Goedecker, S; Jelinek, P; Lenosky, T

    2009-01-01

    The short range force between the tip and the surface atoms, that is responsible for atomic-scale contrast in atomic force microscopy (AFM), is mainly controlled by the tip apex. Thus, the ability to image, manipulate and chemically identify single atoms in semiconductor surfaces is ultimately determined by the apex structure and its composition. Here we present a detailed and systematic study of the most common structures that can be expected at the apex of the Si tips used in experiments. We tackle the determination of the structure and stability of Si tips with three different approaches: (i) first principles simulations of small tip apexes; (ii) simulated annealing of a Si cluster; and (iii) a minima hopping study of large Si tips. We have probed the tip apexes by making atomic contacts between the tips and then compared force-distance curves with the experimental short range forces obtained with dynamic force spectroscopy. The main conclusion is that although there are multiple stable solutions for the atomically sharp tip apexes, they can be grouped into a few types with characteristic atomic structures and properties. We also show that the structure of the last atomic layers in a tip apex can be both crystalline and amorphous. We corroborate that the atomically sharp tips are thermodynamically stable and that the tip-surface interaction helps to produce the atomic protrusion needed to get atomic resolution.

  12. Multiple atomic scale solid surface interconnects for atom circuits and molecule logic gates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joachim, C; Martrou, D; Gauthier, S; Rezeq, M; Troadec, C; Jie Deng; Chandrasekhar, N

    2010-01-01

    The scientific and technical challenges involved in building the planar electrical connection of an atomic scale circuit to N electrodes (N > 2) are discussed. The practical, laboratory scale approach explored today to assemble a multi-access atomic scale precision interconnection machine is presented. Depending on the surface electronic properties of the targeted substrates, two types of machines are considered: on moderate surface band gap materials, scanning tunneling microscopy can be combined with scanning electron microscopy to provide an efficient navigation system, while on wide surface band gap materials, atomic force microscopy can be used in conjunction with optical microscopy. The size of the planar part of the circuit should be minimized on moderate band gap surfaces to avoid current leakage, while this requirement does not apply to wide band gap surfaces. These constraints impose different methods of connection, which are thoroughly discussed, in particular regarding the recent progress in single atom and molecule manipulations on a surface.

  13. Noninvasive determination of optical lever sensitivity in atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, M.J.; Proksch, R.; Sader, J.E.; Polcik, M.; Mc Endoo, S.; Cleveland, J.P.; Jarvis, S.P.

    2006-01-01

    Atomic force microscopes typically require knowledge of the cantilever spring constant and optical lever sensitivity in order to accurately determine the force from the cantilever deflection. In this study, we investigate a technique to calibrate the optical lever sensitivity of rectangular cantilevers that does not require contact to be made with a surface. This noncontact approach utilizes the method of Sader et al. [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3967 (1999)] to calibrate the spring constant of the cantilever in combination with the equipartition theorem [J. L. Hutter and J. Bechhoefer, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 1868 (1993)] to determine the optical lever sensitivity. A comparison is presented between sensitivity values obtained from conventional static mode force curves and those derived using this noncontact approach for a range of different cantilevers in air and liquid. These measurements indicate that the method offers a quick, alternative approach for the calibration of the optical lever sensitivity

  14. Noninvasive determination of optical lever sensitivity in atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, M. J.; Proksch, R.; Sader, J. E.; Polcik, M.; Mc Endoo, S.; Cleveland, J. P.; Jarvis, S. P.

    2006-01-01

    Atomic force microscopes typically require knowledge of the cantilever spring constant and optical lever sensitivity in order to accurately determine the force from the cantilever deflection. In this study, we investigate a technique to calibrate the optical lever sensitivity of rectangular cantilevers that does not require contact to be made with a surface. This noncontact approach utilizes the method of Sader et al. [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3967 (1999)] to calibrate the spring constant of the cantilever in combination with the equipartition theorem [J. L. Hutter and J. Bechhoefer, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 1868 (1993)] to determine the optical lever sensitivity. A comparison is presented between sensitivity values obtained from conventional static mode force curves and those derived using this noncontact approach for a range of different cantilevers in air and liquid. These measurements indicate that the method offers a quick, alternative approach for the calibration of the optical lever sensitivity.

  15. Atomic force microscopy stiffness tomography on living Arabidopsis thaliana cells reveals the mechanical properties of surface and deep cell-wall layers during growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radotić, Ksenija; Roduit, Charles; Simonović, Jasna; Hornitschek, Patricia; Fankhauser, Christian; Mutavdžić, Dragosav; Steinbach, Gabor; Dietler, Giovanni; Kasas, Sandor

    2012-08-08

    Cell-wall mechanical properties play a key role in the growth and the protection of plants. However, little is known about genuine wall mechanical properties and their growth-related dynamics at subcellular resolution and in living cells. Here, we used atomic force microscopy (AFM) stiffness tomography to explore stiffness distribution in the cell wall of suspension-cultured Arabidopsis thaliana as a model of primary, growing cell wall. For the first time that we know of, this new imaging technique was performed on living single cells of a higher plant, permitting monitoring of the stiffness distribution in cell-wall layers as a function of the depth and its evolution during the different growth phases. The mechanical measurements were correlated with changes in the composition of the cell wall, which were revealed by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. In the beginning and end of cell growth, the average stiffness of the cell wall was low and the wall was mechanically homogenous, whereas in the exponential growth phase, the average wall stiffness increased, with increasing heterogeneity. In this phase, the difference between the superficial and deep wall stiffness was highest. FTIR spectra revealed a relative increase in the polysaccharide/lignin content. Copyright © 2012 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Characterization of molecular organization in pentacene thin films on SiO{sub 2} surface using infrared spectroscopy, spectroscopic ellipsometry, and atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frątczak, E.Z., E-mail: ewelinazofia@gmail.com [Faculty of Physics and Applied Informatics, University of Łódź, 90-236 Łódź, Pomorska 149/153 (Poland); Uznański, P., E-mail: puznansk@cbmm.lodz.pl [Centre of Molecular and Macromolecular Studies, Polish Academy of Sciences, 90-363 Łódź, Sienkiewicza 112 (Poland); Moneta, M.E. [Faculty of Physics and Applied Informatics, University of Łódź, 90-236 Łódź, Pomorska 149/153 (Poland)

    2015-07-29

    Highlights: • Pentacene thin films of different thickness grown onto SiO{sub 2} substrates were studied. • Polarized IR GATR spectra were recorded and conclusions on pentacene orientation were deduced. • Optical anisotropic properties and morphology of pentacene films were analyzed. • Dielectric properties vary to some extent with the film thickness. - Abstract: Thin films of pentacene of 32 and 100 nm thickness obtained by organic molecular beam deposition (OMBD) in high vacuum conditions onto silicon/native silica (Si/SiO{sub 2}) and fused silica substrates were examined. Alignment, anisotropic optical properties and morphology were studied in ambient conditions using infrared (IR) transmission and polarized grazing angle attenuated total reflection (GATR) techniques, variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry (VASE), UV–VIS absorption, and atomic force microscopy (AFM). For the first time dichroic GATR IR spectra were recorded for such thin films and conclusions on pentacene orientation were deduced on the basis of dichroic ratio of the IR-active vibrations. The symmetry assignment of the vibrational transitions is also discussed. The films exhibit continuous globular texture with uniaxial alignment of pentacene molecules and strongly anisotropic optical properties evidenced in the ellipsometric measurements. The results revealed that there are some quantitative differences in the orientation and in the dielectric properties between the two pentacene films of different thickness.

  17. Atomic probes of surface structure and dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, E.J.; Jonsson, H.

    1992-01-01

    Progress for the period Sept. 15, 1992 to Sept. 14, 1993 is discussed. Semiclassical methods that will allow much faster and more accurate three-dimensional atom--surface scattering calculations, both elastic and inelastic, are being developed. The scattering of He atoms from buckyballs is being investigated as a test problem. Somewhat more detail is given on studies of He atom scattering from defective Pt surfaces. Molecular dynamics simulations of He + and Ar + ion sputtering of Pt surfaces are also being done. He atom scattering from Xe overlayers on metal surfaces and the thermalized dissociation of H 2 on Cu(110) are being studied. (R.W.R.) 64 refs

  18. Probing Anisotropic Surface Properties of Molybdenite by Direct Force Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhenzhen; Liu, Qingxia; Xu, Zhenghe; Zeng, Hongbo

    2015-10-27

    Probing anisotropic surface properties of layer-type mineral is fundamentally important in understanding its surface charge and wettability for a variety of applications. In this study, the surface properties of the face and the edge surfaces of natural molybdenite (MoS2) were investigated by direct surface force measurements using atomic force microscope (AFM). The interaction forces between the AFM tip (Si3N4) and face or edge surface of molybdenite were measured in 10 mM NaCl solutions at various pHs. The force profiles were well-fitted with classical DLVO (Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek) theory to determine the surface potentials of the face and the edge surfaces of molybdenite. The surface potentials of both the face and edge surfaces become more negative with increasing pH. At neutral and alkaline conditions, the edge surface exhibits more negative surface potential than the face surface, which is possibly due to molybdate and hydromolybdate ions on the edge surface. The point of zero charge (PZC) of the edge surface was determined around pH 3 while PZC of the face surface was not observed in the range of pH 3-11. The interaction forces between octadecyltrichlorosilane-treated AFM tip (OTS-tip) and face or edge surface of molybdenite were also measured at various pHs to study the wettability of molybdenite surfaces. An attractive force between the OTS-tip and the face surface was detected. The force profiles were well-fitted by considering DLVO forces and additional hydrophobic force. Our results suggest the hydrophobic feature of the face surface of molybdenite. In contrast, no attractive force between the OTS-tip and the edge surface was detected. This is the first study in directly measuring surface charge and wettability of the pristine face and edge surfaces of molybdenite through surface force measurements.

  19. Significant improvements in stability and reproducibility of atomic-scale atomic force microscopy in liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akrami, S M R; Nakayachi, H; Fukuma, T; Watanabe-Nakayama, T; Asakawa, H

    2014-01-01

    Recent advancement of dynamic-mode atomic force microscopy (AFM) for liquid-environment applications enabled atomic-scale studies on various interfacial phenomena. However, instabilities and poor reproducibility of the measurements often prevent systematic studies. To solve this problem, we have investigated the effect of various tip treatment methods for atomic-scale imaging and force measurements in liquid. The tested methods include Si coating, Ar plasma, Ar sputtering and UV/O 3 cleaning. We found that all the methods provide significant improvements in both the imaging and force measurements in spite of the tip transfer through the air. Among the methods, we found that the Si coating provides the best stability and reproducibility in the measurements. To understand the origin of the fouling resistance of the cleaned tip surface and the difference between the cleaning methods, we have investigated the tip surface properties by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and contact angle measurements. The results show that the contaminations adsorbed on the tip during the tip transfer through the air should desorb from the surface when it is immersed in aqueous solution due to the enhanced hydrophilicity by the tip treatments. The tip surface prepared by the Si coating is oxidized when it is immersed in aqueous solution. This creates local spots where stable hydration structures are formed. For the other methods, there is no active mechanism to create such local hydration sites. Thus, the hydration structure formed under the tip apex is not necessarily stable. These results reveal the desirable tip properties for atomic-scale AFM measurements in liquid, which should serve as a guideline for further improvements of the tip treatment methods. (paper)

  20. Digital force-feedback for protein unfolding experiments using atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bippes, Christian A.; Janovjak, Harald; Kedrov, Alexej; Muller, Daniel J.

    2007-01-01

    Since its invention in the 1990s single-molecule force spectroscopy has been increasingly applied to study protein (un-)folding, cell adhesion, and ligand-receptor interactions. In most force spectroscopy studies, the cantilever of an atomic force microscope (AFM) is separated from a surface at a constant velocity, thus applying an increasing force to folded bio-molecules or bio-molecular bonds. Recently, Fernandez and co-workers introduced the so-called force-clamp technique. Single proteins were subjected to a defined constant force allowing their life times and life time distributions to be directly measured. Up to now, the force-clamping was performed by analogue PID controllers, which require complex additional hardware and might make it difficult to combine the force-feedback with other modes such as constant velocity. These points may be limiting the applicability and versatility of this technique. Here we present a simple, fast, and all-digital (software-based) PID controller that yields response times of a few milliseconds in combination with a commercial AFM. We demonstrate the performance of our feedback loop by force-clamp unfolding of single Ig27 domains of titin and the membrane proteins bacteriorhodopsin (BR) and the sodium/proton antiporter NhaA.

  1. Digital force-feedback for protein unfolding experiments using atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bippes, Christian A; Janovjak, Harald; Kedrov, Alexej; Muller, Daniel J

    2007-01-01

    Since its invention in the 1990s single-molecule force spectroscopy has been increasingly applied to study protein (un-)folding, cell adhesion, and ligand-receptor interactions. In most force spectroscopy studies, the cantilever of an atomic force microscope (AFM) is separated from a surface at a constant velocity, thus applying an increasing force to folded bio-molecules or bio-molecular bonds. Recently, Fernandez and co-workers introduced the so-called force-clamp technique. Single proteins were subjected to a defined constant force allowing their life times and life time distributions to be directly measured. Up to now, the force-clamping was performed by analogue PID controllers, which require complex additional hardware and might make it difficult to combine the force-feedback with other modes such as constant velocity. These points may be limiting the applicability and versatility of this technique. Here we present a simple, fast, and all-digital (software-based) PID controller that yields response times of a few milliseconds in combination with a commercial AFM. We demonstrate the performance of our feedback loop by force-clamp unfolding of single Ig27 domains of titin and the membrane proteins bacteriorhodopsin (BR) and the sodium/proton antiporter NhaA

  2. Atomic Force Microscopy Based Cell Shape Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adia-Nimuwa, Usienemfon; Mujdat Tiryaki, Volkan; Hartz, Steven; Xie, Kan; Ayres, Virginia

    2013-03-01

    Stellation is a measure of cell physiology and pathology for several cell groups including neural, liver and pancreatic cells. In the present work, we compare the results of a conventional two-dimensional shape index study of both atomic force microscopy (AFM) and fluorescent microscopy images with the results obtained using a new three-dimensional AFM-based shape index similar to sphericity index. The stellation of astrocytes is investigated on nanofibrillar scaffolds composed of electrospun polyamide nanofibers that has demonstrated promise for central nervous system (CNS) repair. Recent work by our group has given us the ability to clearly segment the cells from nanofibrillar scaffolds in AFM images. The clear-featured AFM images indicated that the astrocyte processes were longer than previously identified at 24h. It was furthermore shown that cell spreading could vary significantly as a function of environmental parameters, and that AFM images could record these variations. The new three-dimensional AFM-based shape index incorporates the new information: longer stellate processes and cell spreading. The support of NSF PHY-095776 is acknowledged.

  3. Probing living bacterial adhesion by single cell force spectroscopy using atomic force microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Guanghong; Ogaki, Ryosuke; Regina, Viduthalai R.

    be considered. We have therefore developed a simple and versatile method to make single-cell bacterial probes for measuring single cell adhesion with atomic force microscopy (AFM).[1] A single-cell probe was readily made by picking up a bacterial cell from a glass surface using a tipless AFM cantilever coated...... random immobilization is obtained by submerging the cantilever in a bacterial suspension. The reported method provides a general platform for investigating single cell interactions of bacteria with different surfaces and other cells by AFM force spectroscopy, thus improving our understanding....... The strain-dependent susceptibility to bacterial colonization on conventional PLL-g-PEG illustrates how bacterial diversity challenges development of “universal” antifouling coatings, and AFM single-cell force spectroscopy was proven to be a powerful tool to provide insights into the molecular mechanisms...

  4. Study of surface reaction of spinel Li4Ti5O12 during the first lithium insertion and extraction processes using atomic force microscopy and analytical transmission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitta, Mitsunori; Akita, Tomoki; Maeda, Yasushi; Kohyama, Masanori

    2012-08-21

    Spinel lithium titanate (Li(4)Ti(5)O(12), LTO) is a promising anode material for a lithium ion battery because of its excellent properties such as high rate charge-discharge capability and life cycle stability, which were understood from the viewpoint of bulk properties such as small lattice volume changes by lithium insertion. However, the detailed surface reaction of lithium insertion and extraction has not yet been studied despite its importance to understand the mechanism of an electrochemical reaction. In this paper, we apply both atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to investigate the changes in the atomic and electronic structures of the Li(4)Ti(5)O(12) surface during the charge-discharged (lithium insertion and extraction) processes. The AFM observation revealed that irreversible structural changes of an atomically flat Li(4)Ti(5)O(12) surface occurs at the early stage of the first lithium insertion process, which induces the reduction of charge transfer resistance at the electrolyte/Li(4)Ti(5)O(12) interface. The TEM observation clarified that cubic rock-salt crystal layers with a half lattice size of the original spinel structure are epitaxially formed after the first charge-discharge cycle. Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) observation revealed that the formed surface layer should be α-Li(2)TiO(3). Although the transformation of Li(4)Ti(5)O(12) to Li(7)Ti(5)O(12) is well-known as the lithium insertion reaction of the bulk phase, the generation of surface product layers should be inevitable in real charge-discharge processes and may play an effective role in the stable electrode performance as a solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI).

  5. Localization and force analysis at the single virus particle level using atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Chih-Hao [Institute of Applied Mechanics, Nation Taiwan University, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Horng, Jim-Tong [Department of Biochemistry, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa First Road, Kweishan, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan (China); Chang, Jeng-Shian [Institute of Applied Mechanics, Nation Taiwan University, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, Chung-Fan [Graduate Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Chang Gung University, Kweishan, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan (China); Tseng, You-Chen [Institute of Applied Mechanics, Nation Taiwan University, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Lin, Shiming, E-mail: til@ntu.edu.tw [Institute of Applied Mechanics, Nation Taiwan University, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Center for Optoelectronic Biomedicine, College of Medicine, Nation Taiwan University, 1-1 Jen-Ai Road, Taipei 10051, Taiwan (China)

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Localization of single virus particle. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Force measurements. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Force mapping. -- Abstract: Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a vital instrument in nanobiotechnology. In this study, we developed a method that enables AFM to simultaneously measure specific unbinding force and map the viral glycoprotein at the single virus particle level. The average diameter of virus particles from AFM images and the specificity between the viral surface antigen and antibody probe were integrated to design a three-stage method that sets the measuring area to a single virus particle before obtaining the force measurements, where the influenza virus was used as the object of measurements. Based on the purposed method and performed analysis, several findings can be derived from the results. The mean unbinding force of a single virus particle can be quantified, and no significant difference exists in this value among virus particles. Furthermore, the repeatability of the proposed method is demonstrated. The force mapping images reveal that the distributions of surface viral antigens recognized by antibody probe were dispersed on the whole surface of individual virus particles under the proposed method and experimental criteria; meanwhile, the binding probabilities are similar among particles. This approach can be easily applied to most AFM systems without specific components or configurations. These results help understand the force-based analysis at the single virus particle level, and therefore, can reinforce the capability of AFM to investigate a specific type of viral surface protein and its distributions.

  6. In situ electrochemical atomic force microscope study on graphite electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirasawa, K.A.; Sato, Tomohiro; Asahina, Hitoshi; Yamaguchi, Shoji; Mori, Shoichiro [Mitsubishi Chemical Corp., Inashiki, Ibaraki (Japan). Tsukuba Research Center

    1997-04-01

    Interest in the formation of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) film on graphite electrodes has increased recently in the quest to improve the performance of lithium-ion batteries. Topographic and frictional changes on the surface of a highly oriented pyrolytic graphite electrode in 1 M LiCiO{sub 4} ethylene carbonate/ethylmethyl carbonate (1:1) electrolyte were examined during charge and discharge by in situ electrochemical atomic force microscopy and friction force microscopy simultaneously in real-time. Solid electrolyte interphase film formation commenced at approximately 2 V vs. Li/Li{sup +} and stable film formation with an island-like morphology was observed below approximately 0.9 V vs. Li/Li{sup +}. Further experiments on a KS-44 graphite/polyvinylidene difluoride binder composite electrode showed similar phenomena.

  7. Investigating single molecule adhesion by atomic force spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetter, Frank W S; Kienle, Sandra; Krysiak, Stefanie; Hugel, Thorsten

    2015-02-27

    Atomic force spectroscopy is an ideal tool to study molecules at surfaces and interfaces. An experimental protocol to couple a large variety of single molecules covalently onto an AFM tip is presented. At the same time the AFM tip is passivated to prevent unspecific interactions between the tip and the substrate, which is a prerequisite to study single molecules attached to the AFM tip. Analyses to determine the adhesion force, the adhesion length, and the free energy of these molecules on solid surfaces and bio-interfaces are shortly presented and external references for further reading are provided. Example molecules are the poly(amino acid) polytyrosine, the graft polymer PI-g-PS and the phospholipid POPE (1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine). These molecules are desorbed from different surfaces like CH3-SAMs, hydrogen terminated diamond and supported lipid bilayers under various solvent conditions. Finally, the advantages of force spectroscopic single molecule experiments are discussed including means to decide if truly a single molecule has been studied in the experiment.

  8. Modelling atomic scale manipulation with the non-contact atomic force microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trevethan, T; Watkins, M; Kantorovich, L N; Shluger, A L; Polesel-Maris, J; Gauthier, S

    2006-01-01

    We present the results of calculations performed to model the process of lateral manipulation of an oxygen vacancy in the MgO(001) surface using the non-contact atomic force microscope (NC-AFM). The potential energy surfaces for the manipulation as a function of tip position are determined from atomistic modelling of the MgO(001) surface interacting with a Mg terminated MgO tip. These energies are then used to model the dynamical evolution of the system as the tip oscillates and at a finite temperature using a kinetic Monte Carlo method. The manipulation process is strongly dependent on the lateral position of the tip and the system temperature. It is also found that the expectation value of the point at which the vacancy jumps depends on the trajectory of the oscillating cantilever as the surface is approached. The effect of the manipulation on the operation of the NC-AFM is modelled with a virtual dynamic AFM, which explicitly simulates the entire experimental instrumentation and control loops. We show how measurable experimental signals can result from a single controlled atomic scale event and suggest the most favourable conditions for achieving successful atomic scale manipulation experimentally

  9. Scratch direction and threshold force in nanoscale scratching using atomic force microscopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tseng, Ampere A., E-mail: ampere.tseng@asu.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Kuo, Chung-Feng Jeffrey; Jou, Shyankay [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Nishimura, Shinya; Shirakashi, Jun-ichi [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan)

    2011-09-01

    The nanoscaled tip in an AFM (atomic force microscope) has become an effective scratching tool for material removing in nanofabrication. In this article, the characteristics of using a diamond-coated pyramidal tip to scratch Ni-Fe thin film surfaces was experimentally investigated with the focus on the evaluation of the influence of the scratch or scan direction on the final shape of the scratched geometry as well as the applied scratch force. Results indicated that both the scratched profile and the scratch force were greatly affected by the scratch direction. It has been found that, to minimize the formation of protuberances along the groove sides and to have a better control of the scratched geometry, the tip face should be perpendicular to the scratching direction, which is also known as orthogonal cutting condition. To demonstrate the present findings, three groove patterns have been scratched with the tip face perpendicular to the scratching direction and very little amount of protuberances was observed. The threshold scratch force was also predicted based on the Hertz contact theory. Without considering the surface friction and adhesive forces between the tip and substrate, the threshold force predicted was twice smaller than the measurement value. Finally, recommendations for technical improvement and research focuses are provided.

  10. Scratch direction and threshold force in nanoscale scratching using atomic force microscopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tseng, Ampere A.; Kuo, Chung-Feng Jeffrey; Jou, Shyankay; Nishimura, Shinya; Shirakashi, Jun-ichi

    2011-01-01

    The nanoscaled tip in an AFM (atomic force microscope) has become an effective scratching tool for material removing in nanofabrication. In this article, the characteristics of using a diamond-coated pyramidal tip to scratch Ni-Fe thin film surfaces was experimentally investigated with the focus on the evaluation of the influence of the scratch or scan direction on the final shape of the scratched geometry as well as the applied scratch force. Results indicated that both the scratched profile and the scratch force were greatly affected by the scratch direction. It has been found that, to minimize the formation of protuberances along the groove sides and to have a better control of the scratched geometry, the tip face should be perpendicular to the scratching direction, which is also known as orthogonal cutting condition. To demonstrate the present findings, three groove patterns have been scratched with the tip face perpendicular to the scratching direction and very little amount of protuberances was observed. The threshold scratch force was also predicted based on the Hertz contact theory. Without considering the surface friction and adhesive forces between the tip and substrate, the threshold force predicted was twice smaller than the measurement value. Finally, recommendations for technical improvement and research focuses are provided.

  11. In Situ Adsorption Studies at the Solid/Liquid Interface: Characterization of Biological Surfaces and Interfaces Using Sum Frequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy, and Quartz Crystal Microbalance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, D.C.

    2006-01-01

    Sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) have been used to study the molecular surface structure, surface topography and mechanical properties, and quantitative adsorbed amount of biological molecules at the solid-liquid interface. The molecular-level behavior of designed peptides adsorbed on hydrophobic polystyrene and hydrophilic silica substrates has been examined as a model of protein adsorption on polymeric biomaterial surfaces. Proteins are such large and complex molecules that it is difficult to identify the features in their structure that lead to adsorption and interaction with solid surfaces. Designed peptides which possess secondary structure provide simple model systems for understanding protein adsorption. Depending on the amino acid sequence of a peptide, different secondary structures (α-helix and β-sheet) can be induced at apolar (air/liquid or air/solid) interfaces. Having a well-defined secondary structure allows experiments to be carried out under controlled conditions, where it is possible to investigate the affects of peptide amino acid sequence and chain length, concentration, buffering effects, etc. on adsorbed peptide structure. The experiments presented in this dissertation demonstrate that SFG vibrational spectroscopy can be used to directly probe the interaction of adsorbing biomolecules with a surface or interface. The use of well designed model systems aided in isolation of the SFG signal of the adsorbing species, and showed that surface functional groups of the substrate are sensitive to surface adsorbates. The complementary techniques of AFM and QCM allowed for deconvolution of the effects of surface topography and coverage from the observed SFG spectra. Initial studies of biologically relevant surfaces are also presented: SFG spectroscopy was used to study the surface composition of common soil bacteria for use in bioremediation of nuclear waste

  12. In Situ Adsorption Studies at the Solid/Liquid Interface:Characterization of Biological Surfaces and Interfaces Using SumFrequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy,and Quartz Crystal Microbalance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, Diana Christine [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) have been used to study the molecular surface structure, surface topography and mechanical properties, and quantitative adsorbed amount of biological molecules at the solid-liquid interface. The molecular-level behavior of designed peptides adsorbed on hydrophobic polystyrene and hydrophilic silica substrates has been examined as a model of protein adsorption on polymeric biomaterial surfaces. Proteins are such large and complex molecules that it is difficult to identify the features in their structure that lead to adsorption and interaction with solid surfaces. Designed peptides which possess secondary structure provide simple model systems for understanding protein adsorption. Depending on the amino acid sequence of a peptide, different secondary structures (α-helix and β-sheet) can be induced at apolar (air/liquid or air/solid) interfaces. Having a well-defined secondary structure allows experiments to be carried out under controlled conditions, where it is possible to investigate the affects of peptide amino acid sequence and chain length, concentration, buffering effects, etc. on adsorbed peptide structure. The experiments presented in this dissertation demonstrate that SFG vibrational spectroscopy can be used to directly probe the interaction of adsorbing biomolecules with a surface or interface. The use of well designed model systems aided in isolation of the SFG signal of the adsorbing species, and showed that surface functional groups of the substrate are sensitive to surface adsorbates. The complementary techniques of AFM and QCM allowed for deconvolution of the effects of surface topography and coverage from the observed SFG spectra. Initial studies of biologically relevant surfaces are also presented: SFG spectroscopy was used to study the surface composition of common soil bacteria for use in bioremediation of nuclear waste.

  13. The atomic force microscope as a mechano–electrochemical pen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Obermair

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate a method that allows the controlled writing of metallic patterns on the nanometer scale using the tip of an atomic force microscope (AFM as a “mechano–electrochemical pen”. In contrast to previous experiments, no voltage is applied between the AFM tip and the sample surface. Instead, a passivated sample surface is activated locally due to lateral forces between the AFM tip and the sample surface. In this way, the area of tip–sample interaction is narrowly limited by the mechanical contact between tip and sample, and well-defined metallic patterns can be written reproducibly. Nanoscale structures and lines of copper were deposited, and the line widths ranged between 5 nm and 80 nm, depending on the deposition parameters. A procedure for the sequential writing of metallic nanostructures is introduced, based on the understanding of the passivation process. The mechanism of this mechano–electrochemical writing technique is investigated, and the processes of site-selective surface depassivation, deposition, dissolution and repassivation of electrochemically deposited nanoscale metallic islands are studied in detail.

  14. Characterization of polyethersulfone-polyimide hollow fiber membranes by atomic force microscopy and contact angle goniometery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khulbe, K.C.; Feng, C.; Matsuura, T.; Kapantaidakis, G.; Wessling, Matthias; Koops, G.H.

    2003-01-01

    Asymmetric blend polyethersulfone-polyimide (PES-PI) hollow fiber membranes prepared at different air gap and used for gas separation are characterized by atomic force microscopy (inside and out side surfaces) and by measuring the contact angle of out side surface. The outer surface was entirely

  15. Light forces on an indium atomic beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloeter, B.

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis it was studied, whether indium is a possible candidate for the nanostructuration respectively atomic lithography. For this known method for the generation and stabilization of the light necessary for the laser cooling had to be fitted to the special properties of indium. The spectroscopy of indium with the 451 nm and the 410 nm light yielded first hints that the formulae for the atom-light interaction for a two-level atom cannot be directly transferred to the indium atom. By means of the obtained parameters of the present experiment predictions for a possible Doppler cooling of the indium atomic beam were calculated. Furthermore the possibility for the direct deposition of indium on a substrate was studied

  16. Radical Chemistry and Charge Manipulation with an Atomic Force Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Leo

    The fuctionalization of tips by atomic manipulation dramatically increased the resolution of atomic force microscopy (AFM). The combination of high-resolution AFM with atomic manipulation now offers the unprecedented possibility to custom-design individual molecules by making and breaking bonds with the tip of the microscope and directly characterizing the products on the atomic scale. We recently applied this technique to generate and study reaction intermediates and to investigate chemical reactions trigged by atomic manipulation. We formed diradicals by dissociating halogen atoms and then reversibly triggered ring-opening and -closing reactions via atomic manipulation, allowing us to switch and control the molecule's reactivity, magnetic and optical properties. Additional information about charge states and charge distributions can be obtained by Kelvin probe force spectroscopy. On multilayer insulating films we investigated single-electron attachment, detachment and transfer between individual molecules. EU ERC AMSEL (682144), EU project PAMS (610446).

  17. Cellulose fibril aggregation studies of eucalyptus dissolving pulps using atomic force microscopy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chunilall, Viren

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available STUDIES OF Eucalyptus DISSOLVING PULPS USING ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY V. Chunilall1, J.Wesley-Smith2, T. Bush1 1CSIR, Forestry and Forest Product Research Centre, P.O. Box 17001, Congella, 4013, South Africa. 2Electron Microscope Unit, University of Kwa... pulp using atomic force microscopy (AFM) have reported increased cellulose fibril aggregation during processing, and a concomitant decrease in surface area available for chemical reaction1,2. These findings were subsequently confirmed...

  18. Functionalization of gold and nanocrystalline diamond atomic force microscope tips for single molecule force spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, Michael E.

    The atomic force microscope (AFM) has fueled interest in nanotechnology because of its ability to image surfaces at the nanometer level and act as a molecular force sensor. Functionalization of the surface of an AFM tip surface in a stable, controlled manner expands the capabilities of the AFM and enables additional applications in the fields of single molecule force spectroscopy and nanolithography. Two AFM tip functionalizations are described: the assembly of tripodal molecular tips onto gold AFM tips and the photochemical attachment of terminal alkenes to nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) AFM tips. Two separate tripodal molecules with different linker lengths and a monopodal molecule terminated with biotin were synthesized to attach to a gold AFM tip for single molecule force spectroscopy. The immobilization of these molecules was examined by contact angle measurements, spectroscopic ellipsometry, infrared, and near edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy. All three molecules displayed rupture forces that agreed with previously reported values for the biotin--avidin rupture. The tripodal molecular tip displayed narrower distribution in their force histograms than the monopodal molecular tip. The performance of the tripodal molecular tip was compared to the monopodal molecular tip in single molecule force spectroscopy studies. Over repeated measurements, the distribution of forces for the monopodal molecular tip shifted to lower forces, whereas the distribution for the tripodal molecular tip remained constant throughout. Loading rate dependence and control experiments further indicated that the rupture forces of the tripod molecular tips were specific to the biotin--NeutrAvidin interaction. The second functionalization method used the photochemical attachment of undecylenic acid to NCD AFM tips. The photochemical attachment of undecylenic acid to hydrogen-terminated NCD wafer surfaces was investigated by contact angle measurements, x

  19. Nanoindentation and atomic force microscopy measurements on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Considerable improvement in the hardness was observed when negative bias voltage ... ment considerably affects the microstructure of the coatings. Atomic ... coated with TiN show increase in the tool-life by several ... Also, it is well known.

  20. Multifarious applications of atomic force microscopy in forensic science investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Gaurav; Tharmavaram, Maithri; Rawtani, Deepak; Kumar, Sumit; Agrawal, Y

    2017-04-01

    Forensic science is a wide field comprising of several subspecialties and uses methods derived from natural sciences for finding criminals and other evidence valid in a legal court. A relatively new area; Nano-forensics brings a new era of investigation in forensic science in which instantaneous results can be produced that determine various agents such as explosive gasses, biological agents and residues in different crime scenes and terrorist activity investigations. This can be achieved by applying Nanotechnology and its associated characterization techniques in forensic sciences. Several characterization techniques exist in Nanotechnology and nano-analysis is one such technique that is used in forensic science which includes Electron microscopes (EM) like Transmission (TEM) and Scanning (SEM), Raman microscopy (Micro -Raman) and Scanning Probe Microscopes (SPMs) like Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). Atomic force microscopy enables surface characterization of different materials by examining their morphology and mechanical properties. Materials that are immeasurable such as hair, body fluids, textile fibers, documents, polymers, pressure sensitive adhesives (PSAs), etc. are often encountered during forensic investigations. This review article will mainly focus on the use of AFM in the examination of different evidence such as blood stains, forged documents, human hair samples, ammunitions, explosives, and other such applications in the field of Forensic Science. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Noncontact atomic force microscopy in liquid environment with quartz tuning fork and carbon nanotube probe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kageshima, M.; Jensenius, Henriette; Dienwiebel, M.

    2002-01-01

    A force sensor for noncontact atomic force microscopy in liquid environment was developed by combining a multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT) probe with a quartz tuning fork. Solvation shells of octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane surface were detected both in the frequency shift and dissipation. Due to t...

  2. Single-molecule force spectroscopy: optical tweezers, magnetic tweezers and atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Keir C.; Nagy, Attila

    2012-01-01

    Single-molecule force spectroscopy has emerged as a powerful tool to investigate the forces and motions associated with biological molecules and enzymatic activity. The most common force spectroscopy techniques are optical tweezers, magnetic tweezers and atomic force microscopy. These techniques are described and illustrated with examples highlighting current capabilities and limitations. PMID:18511917

  3. Nonequilibrium forces between neutral atoms mediated by a quantum field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behunin, Ryan O.; Hu, Bei-Lok

    2010-01-01

    We study forces between two neutral atoms, modeled as three-dimensional harmonic oscillators, arising from mutual influences mediated by an electromagnetic field but not from their direct interactions. We allow as dynamical variables the center-of-mass motion of the atom, its internal degrees of freedom, and the quantum field treated relativistically. We adopt the method of nonequilibrium quantum field theory which can provide a first-principles, systematic, and unified description including the intrinsic and induced dipole fluctuations. The inclusion of self-consistent back-actions makes possible a fully dynamical description of these forces valid for general atom motion. In thermal equilibrium we recover the known forces--London, van der Waals, and Casimir-Polder--between neutral atoms in the long-time limit. We also reproduce a recently reported force between atoms when the system is out of thermal equilibrium at late times. More noteworthy is the discovery of the existence of a type of (or identification of the source of some known) interatomic force which we call the ''entanglement force,'' originating from the quantum correlations of the internal degrees of freedom of entangled atoms.

  4. Diamond surface: atomic and electronic structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pate, B.B.

    1984-01-01

    Experimental studies of the diamond surface (with primary emphasis on the (111) surface) are presented. Aspects of the diamond surface which are addressed include (1) the electronic structure, (2) the atomic structure, and (3) the effect of termination of the lattice by foreign atoms. Limited studies of graphite are discussed for comparison with the diamond results. Experimental results from valence band and core level photoemission spectroscopy (PES), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), low energy electron diffraction (LEED), and carbon 1s near edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy (both the total electron yield (TEY) and Auger electron yield (AEY) techniques) are used to study and characterize both the clean and hydrogenated surface. In addition, the interaction of hydrogen with the diamond surface is examined using results from vibrational high resolution low energy electron loss spectroscopy (in collaboration with Waclawski, Pierce, Swanson, and Celotta at the National Bureau of Standards) and photon stimulated ion desorption (PSID) yield at photon energies near the carbon k-edge (hv greater than or equal to 280 eV). Both EELS and PSID verify that the mechanically polished 1 x 1 surface is hydrogen terminated and also that the reconstructed surface is hydrogen free. The (111) 2 x 2/2 x 1 reconstructed surface is obtained from the hydrogenated (111) 1 x 1:H surface by annealing to approx. = 1000 0 C. We observe occupied intrinsic surface states and a surface chemical shift (0.95 +- 0.1 eV) to lower binding energy of the carbon 1s level on the hydrogen-free reconstructed surface. Atomic hydrogen is found to be reactive with the reconstructed surface, while molecular hydrogen is relatively inert. Exposure of the reconstructed surface to atomic hydrogen results in chemisorption of hydrogen and removal of the intrinsic surface state emission in and near the band gap region

  5. Modification of calcite crystal growth by abalone shell proteins: an atomic force microscope study.

    OpenAIRE

    Walters, D A; Smith, B L; Belcher, A M; Paloczi, G T; Stucky, G D; Morse, D E; Hansma, P K

    1997-01-01

    A family of soluble proteins from the shell of Haliotis rufescens was introduced over a growing calcite crystal being scanned in situ by an atomic force microscope (AFM). Atomic step edges on the crystal surface were altered in shape and speed of growth by the proteins. Proteins attached nonuniformly to the surface, indicating different interactions with crystallographically different step edges. The observed changes were consistent with the habit modification induced by this family of protei...

  6. Probing the stiffness of isolated nucleoli by atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louvet, Emilie; Yoshida, Aiko; Kumeta, Masahiro; Takeyasu, Kunio

    2014-04-01

    In eukaryotic cells, ribosome biogenesis occurs in the nucleolus, a membraneless nuclear compartment. Noticeably, the nucleolus is also involved in several nuclear functions, such as cell cycle regulation, non-ribosomal ribonucleoprotein complex assembly, aggresome formation and some virus assembly. The most intriguing question about the nucleolus is how such dynamics processes can occur in such a compact compartment. We hypothesized that its structure may be rather flexible. To investigate this, we used atomic force microscopy (AFM) on isolated nucleoli. Surface topography imaging revealed the beaded structure of the nucleolar surface. With the AFM's ability to measure forces, we were able to determine the stiffness of isolated nucleoli. We could establish that the nucleolar stiffness varies upon drastic morphological changes induced by transcription and proteasome inhibition. Furthermore, upon ribosomal proteins and LaminB1 knockdowns, the nucleolar stiffness was increased. This led us to propose a model where the nucleolus has steady-state stiffness dependent on ribosome biogenesis activity and requires LaminB1 for its flexibility.

  7. Attachment of carbon nanotubes to atomic force microscope probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, Christopher T.; Carnally, Stewart; Roberts, Clive J.

    2007-01-01

    In atomic force microscopy (AFM) the accuracy of data is often limited by the tip geometry and the effect on this geometry of wear. One way to improve the tip geometry is to attach carbon nanotubes (CNT) to AFM tips. CNTs are ideal because they have a small diameter (typically between 1 and 20 nm), high aspect ratio, high strength, good conductivity, and almost no wear. A number of methods for CNT attachment have been proposed and explored including chemical vapour deposition (CVD), dielectrophoresis, arc discharge and mechanical attachment. In this work we will use CVD to deposit nanotubes onto a silicon surface and then investigate improved methods to pick-up and attach CNTs to tapping mode probes. Conventional pick-up methods involve using standard tapping mode or non-contact mode so as to attach only those CNTs that are aligned vertically on the surface. We have developed improved methods to attach CNTs using contact mode and reduced set-point tapping mode imaging. Using these techniques the AFM tip is in contact with a greater number of CNTs and the rate and stability of CNT pick-up is improved. The presence of CNTs on the modified AFM tips was confirmed by high-resolution AFM imaging, analysis of the tips dynamic force curves and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)

  8. Formation of hollow atoms above a surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briand, Jean Pierre; Phaneuf, Ronald; Terracol, Stephane; Xie, Zuqi

    2012-06-01

    Slow highly stripped ions approaching or penetrating surfaces are known to capture electrons into outer shells of the ions, leaving the innermost shells empty, and forming hollow atoms. Electron capture occurs above and below the surfaces. The existence of hollow atoms below surfaces e.g. Ar atoms whose K and L shells are empty, with all electrons lying in the M and N shells, was demonstrated in 1990 [1]. At nm above surfaces, the excited ions may not have enough time to decay before hitting the surfaces, and the formation of hollow atoms above surfaces has even been questioned [2]. To observe it, one must increase the time above the surface by decelerating the ions. We have for the first time decelerated O^7+ ions to energies as low as 1 eV/q, below the minimum energy gained by the ions due to the acceleration by their image charge. As expected, no ion backscattering (trampoline effect) above dielectric (Ge) was observed and at the lowest ion kinetic energies, most of the observed x-rays were found to be emitted by the ions after surface contact. [4pt] [1] J. P. Briand et al., Phys.Rev.Lett. 65(1990)159.[0pt] [2] J.P. Briand, AIP Conference Proceedings 215 (1990) 513.

  9. Quantitative assessment of contact and non-contact lateral force calibration methods for atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran Khac, Bien Cuong; Chung, Koo-Hyun, E-mail: khchung@ulsan.ac.kr

    2016-02-15

    Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) has been widely used for measuring friction force at the nano-scale. However, one of the key challenges faced by AFM researchers is to calibrate an AFM system to interpret a lateral force signal as a quantifiable force. In this study, five rectangular cantilevers were used to quantitatively compare three different lateral force calibration methods to demonstrate the legitimacy and to establish confidence in the quantitative integrity of the proposed methods. The Flat-Wedge method is based on a variation of the lateral output on a surface with flat and changing slopes, the Multi-Load Pivot method is based on taking pivot measurements at several locations along the cantilever length, and the Lateral AFM Thermal-Sader method is based on determining the optical lever sensitivity from the thermal noise spectrum of the first torsional mode with a known torsional spring constant from the Sader method. The results of the calibration using the Flat-Wedge and Multi-Load Pivot methods were found to be consistent within experimental uncertainties, and the experimental uncertainties of the two methods were found to be less than 15%. However, the lateral force sensitivity determined by the Lateral AFM Thermal-Sader method was found to be 8–29% smaller than those obtained from the other two methods. This discrepancy decreased to 3–19% when the torsional mode correction factor for an ideal cantilever was used, which suggests that the torsional mode correction should be taken into account to establish confidence in Lateral AFM Thermal-Sader method. - Highlights: • Quantitative assessment of three lateral force calibration methods for AFM. • Advantages and disadvantages of three different lateral force calibration method. • Implementation of Multi-Load Pivot method as non-contact calibration technique. • The torsional mode correction for Lateral AFM Thermal-Sader method.

  10. Quantitative assessment of contact and non-contact lateral force calibration methods for atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Khac, Bien Cuong; Chung, Koo-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) has been widely used for measuring friction force at the nano-scale. However, one of the key challenges faced by AFM researchers is to calibrate an AFM system to interpret a lateral force signal as a quantifiable force. In this study, five rectangular cantilevers were used to quantitatively compare three different lateral force calibration methods to demonstrate the legitimacy and to establish confidence in the quantitative integrity of the proposed methods. The Flat-Wedge method is based on a variation of the lateral output on a surface with flat and changing slopes, the Multi-Load Pivot method is based on taking pivot measurements at several locations along the cantilever length, and the Lateral AFM Thermal-Sader method is based on determining the optical lever sensitivity from the thermal noise spectrum of the first torsional mode with a known torsional spring constant from the Sader method. The results of the calibration using the Flat-Wedge and Multi-Load Pivot methods were found to be consistent within experimental uncertainties, and the experimental uncertainties of the two methods were found to be less than 15%. However, the lateral force sensitivity determined by the Lateral AFM Thermal-Sader method was found to be 8–29% smaller than those obtained from the other two methods. This discrepancy decreased to 3–19% when the torsional mode correction factor for an ideal cantilever was used, which suggests that the torsional mode correction should be taken into account to establish confidence in Lateral AFM Thermal-Sader method. - Highlights: • Quantitative assessment of three lateral force calibration methods for AFM. • Advantages and disadvantages of three different lateral force calibration method. • Implementation of Multi-Load Pivot method as non-contact calibration technique. • The torsional mode correction for Lateral AFM Thermal-Sader method.

  11. Capillary force on a tilted cylinder: Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosgodagan Acharige, Sébastien; Laurent, Justine; Steinberger, Audrey

    2017-11-01

    The capillary force in situations where the liquid meniscus is asymmetric, such as the one around a tilted object, has been hitherto barely investigated even though these situations are very common in practice. In particular, the capillary force exerted on a tilted object may depend on the dipping angle i. We investigate experimentally the capillary force that applies on a tilted cylinder as a function of its dipping angle i, using a home-built tilting Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) with custom made probes. A micrometric-size rod is glued at the end of an AFM cantilever of known stiffness, whose deflection is measured when the cylindrical probe is dipped in and retracted from reference liquids. We show that a torque correction is necessary to understand the measured deflection. We give the explicit expression of this correction as a function of the probes' geometrical parameters, so that its magnitude can be readily evaluated. The results are compatible with a vertical capillary force varying as 1/cosi, in agreement with a recent theoretical prediction. Finally, we discuss the accuracy of the method for measuring the surface tension times the cosine of the contact angle of the liquid on the probe. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Influence of atomic force microscope tip-sample interaction on the study of scaling behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aue, J.; de Hosson, J.T.M.

    1997-01-01

    Images acquired with atomic force microscopy are based on tip-sample interaction. It is shown that using scanning probe techniques for determining scaling parameters of a surface leads to an underestimate of the actual scaling dimension, due to the dilation of tip and surface. How much we

  13. Long Range Forces between Atomic Impurities in Liquid Helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupont-Roc, J.

    2002-01-01

    Van der Waals or Casimir interaction between neutral quantum objects in their ground state is known to be universally attractive. This is not necessarily so when these objects are embedded in a polarizable medium. We show that atomic impurities in liquid helium may indeed realize repulsive forces, and even Van der Waals and Casimir forces with different signs. (author)

  14. Atomic force microscopy studies of native photosynthetic membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturgis, James N; Tucker, Jaimey D; Olsen, John D; Hunter, C Neil; Niederman, Robert A

    2009-05-05

    In addition to providing the earliest surface images of a native photosynthetic membrane at submolecular resolution, examination of the intracytoplasmic membrane (ICM) of purple bacteria by atomic force microscopy (AFM) has revealed a wide diversity of species-dependent arrangements of closely packed light-harvesting (LH) antennae, capable of fulfilling the basic requirements for efficient collection, transmission, and trapping of radiant energy. A highly organized architecture was observed with fused preparations of the pseudocrystalline ICM of Blastochloris viridis, consiting of hexagonally packed monomeric reaction center light-harvesting 1 (RC-LH1) core complexes. Among strains which also form a peripheral LH2 antenna, images of ICM patches from Rhodobacter sphaeroides exhibited well-ordered, interconnected networks of dimeric RC-LH1 core complexes intercalated by rows of LH2, coexisting with LH2-only domains. Other peripheral antenna-containing species, notably Rhodospirillum photometricum and Rhodopseudomonas palustris, showed a less regular organization, with mixed regions of LH2 and RC-LH1 cores, intermingled with large, paracrystalline domains. The ATP synthase and cytochrome bc(1) complex were not observed in any of these topographs and are thought to be localized in the adjacent cytoplasmic membrane or in inaccessible ICM regions separated from the flat regions imaged by AFM. The AFM images have served as a basis for atomic-resolution modeling of the ICM vesicle surface, as well as forces driving segregation of photosynthetic complexes into distinct domains. Docking of atomic-resolution molecular structures into AFM topographs of Rsp. photometricum membranes generated precise in situ structural models of the core complex surrounded by LH2 rings and a region of tightly packed LH2 complexes. A similar approach has generated a model of the highly curved LH2-only membranes of Rba. sphaeroides which predicts that sufficient space exists between LH2 complexes

  15. Frictional forces between hydrophilic and hydrophobic particle coated nanostructured surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansson, Petra M; Claesson, Per M.; Swerin, Agne

    2013-01-01

    Friction forces have long been associated with the famous Amontons' rule that states that the friction force is linearly dependent on the applied normal load, with the proportionality constant being known as the friction coefficient. Amontons' rule is however purely phenomenological and does...... not in itself provide any information on why the friction coefficient is different for different material combinations. In this study, friction forces between a colloidal probe and nanostructured particle coated surfaces in an aqueous environment exhibiting different roughness length scales were measured...... by utilizing the atomic force microscope (AFM). The chemistry of the surfaces and the probe was varied between hydrophilic silica and hydrophobized silica. For hydrophilic silica surfaces, the friction coefficient was significantly higher for the particle coated surfaces than on the flat reference surface. All...

  16. Cellulose model surfaces - simplified preparation by spin coating and characterization by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kontturi, E.J.; Thuene, P.C.; Niemantsverdriet, J.W.

    2003-01-01

    Spin coating is introduced as a simplified method to prep. model surfaces of cellulose. Prior to spin coating, trimethylsilyl cellulose (TMSC), a nonpolar deriv. of cellulose, is synthesized in order to dissolve the otherwise immiscible cellulose. After the spin coating deposition of TMSC on an

  17. Recognizing nitrogen dopant atoms in graphene using atomic force microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Heijden, Nadine J.; Smith, Daniel; Calogero, Gaetano

    2016-01-01

    Doping graphene by heteroatoms such as nitrogen presents an attractive route to control the position of the Fermi level in the material. We prepared N-doped graphene on Cu(111) and Ir(111) surfaces via chemical vapor deposition of two different molecules. Using scanning tunneling microscopy image...

  18. Harmonic and power balance tools for tapping-mode atomic force microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebastian, A.; Salapaka, M. V.; Chen, D. J.; Cleveland, J. P.

    2001-01-01

    The atomic force microscope (AFM) is a powerful tool for investigating surfaces at atomic scales. Harmonic balance and power balance techniques are introduced to analyze the tapping-mode dynamics of the atomic force microscope. The harmonic balance perspective explains observations hitherto unexplained in the AFM literature. A nonconservative model for the cantilever - sample interaction is developed. The energy dissipation in the sample is studied and the resulting power balance equations combined with the harmonic balance equations are used to estimate the model parameters. Experimental results confirm that the harmonic and power balance tools can be used effectively to predict the behavior of the tapping cantilever. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  19. Quantitative measurements of shear displacement using atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Wenbo; Wu, Weida; Sun, Ying; Zhao, Yonggang

    2016-01-01

    We report a method to quantitatively measure local shear deformation with high sensitivity using atomic force microscopy. The key point is to simultaneously detect both torsional and buckling motions of atomic force microscopy (AFM) cantilevers induced by the lateral piezoelectric response of the sample. This requires the quantitative calibration of torsional and buckling response of AFM. This method is validated by measuring the angular dependence of the in-plane piezoelectric response of a piece of piezoelectric α-quartz. The accurate determination of the amplitude and orientation of the in-plane piezoelectric response, without rotation, would greatly enhance the efficiency of lateral piezoelectric force microscopy.

  20. Cooling and trapping neutral atoms with radiative forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagnato, V.S.; Castro, J.C.; Li, M.S.; Zilio, S.C.

    1988-01-01

    Techniques to slow and trap neutral atoms at high densities with radiative forces are discussed in this review articles. Among several methods of laser cooling, it is emphasized Zeeman Tuning of the electronic levels and frequency-sweeping techniques. Trapping of neutral atoms and recent results obtained in light and magnetic traps are discussed. Techniques to further cool atoms inside traps are presented and the future of laser cooling of neutral atoms by means of radiation pressure is discussed. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  1. Nanoscale investigation on Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formed on porous silicon using atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Ashwin; Karumanchi, Subbalakshmi Latha; Krishna, Vinatha; Thiruvengadam, Kothai; Ramalingam, Subramaniam; Gautam, Pennathur

    2014-01-01

    Colonization of surfaces by bacterial cells results in the formation of biofilms. There is a need to study the factors that are important for formation of biofilms since biofilms have been implicated in the failure of semiconductor devices and implants. In the present study, the adhesion force of biofilms (formed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa) on porous silicon substrates of varying surface roughness was quantified using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The experiments were carried out to quantify the effect of surface roughness on the adhesion force of biofilm. The results show that the adhesion force increased from 1.5 ± 0.5 to 13.2 ± 0.9 nN with increase in the surface roughness of silicon substrate. The results suggest that the adhesion force of biofilm is affected by surface roughness of substrate. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Uncertainty quantification in nanomechanical measurements using the atomic force microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, Ryan; Raman, Arvind; Moon, Robert; Pratt, Jon; Shaw, Gordon

    2011-01-01

    Quantifying uncertainty in measured properties of nanomaterials is a prerequisite for the manufacture of reliable nanoengineered materials and products. Yet, rigorous uncertainty quantification (UQ) is rarely applied for material property measurements with the atomic force microscope (AFM), a widely used instrument that can measure properties at nanometer scale resolution of both inorganic and biological surfaces and nanomaterials. We present a framework to ascribe uncertainty to local nanomechanical properties of any nanoparticle or surface measured with the AFM by taking into account the main uncertainty sources inherent in such measurements. We demonstrate the framework by quantifying uncertainty in AFM-based measurements of the transverse elastic modulus of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs), an abundant, plant-derived nanomaterial whose mechanical properties are comparable to Kevlar fibers. For a single, isolated CNC the transverse elastic modulus was found to have a mean of 8.1 GPa and a 95% confidence interval of 2.7–20 GPa. A key result is that multiple replicates of force–distance curves do not sample the important sources of uncertainty, which are systematic in nature. The dominant source of uncertainty is the nondimensional photodiode sensitivity calibration rather than the cantilever stiffness or Z-piezo calibrations. The results underscore the great need for, and open a path towards, quantifying and minimizing uncertainty in AFM-based material property measurements of nanoparticles, nanostructured surfaces, thin films, polymers and biomaterials.

  3. Manipulating Si(100) at 5 K using qPlus frequency modulated atomic force microscopy: Role of defects and dynamics in the mechanical switching of atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetman, A.; Jarvis, S.; Danza, R.; Bamidele, J.; Kantorovich, L.; Moriarty, P.

    2011-08-01

    We use small-amplitude qPlus frequency modulated atomic force microscopy (FM-AFM), at 5 K, to investigate the atomic-scale mechanical stability of the Si(100) surface. By operating at zero applied bias the effect of tunneling electrons is eliminated, demonstrating that surface manipulation can be performed by solely mechanical means. Striking differences in surface response are observed between different regions of the surface, most likely due to variations in strain associated with the presence of surface defects. We investigate the variation in local energy surface by ab initio simulation, and comment on the dynamics observed during force spectroscopy.

  4. Energy dissipation unveils atomic displacement in the noncontact atomic force microscopy imaging of Si(111 )-(7 ×7 )

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Toyoko; Inamura, Ryo; Kura, Daiki; Tomitori, Masahiko

    2018-03-01

    The kinetic energy of the oscillating cantilever of noncontact atomic force microscopy (nc-AFM) at room temperature was considerably dissipated over regions between a Si adatom and its neighboring rest atom for Si(111 )-(7 ×7 ) in close proximity to a Si tip on the cantilever. However, nc-AFM topographic images showed no atomic features over those regions, which were the hollow sites of the (7 ×7 ). This energy dissipation likely originated from displacement of Si adatoms with respect to the tip over the hollow sites, leading to a lateral shift of the adatoms toward the rest atom. This interaction led to hysteresis over each cantilever oscillation cycle; when the tip was retracted, the Si adatom likely returned to its original position. To confirm the atomic processes involved in the force interactions through Si dangling bonds, the Si(111 )-(7 ×7 ) surface was partly terminated with atomic hydrogen (H) and examined by nc-AFM. When the Si adatoms and/or the rest atoms were terminated with H, the hollow sites were not bright (less dissipation) in images of the energy dissipation channels by nc-AFM. The hollow sites acted as metastable sites for Si adatoms in surface diffusion and atom manipulation; thus, the dissipation energy which is saturated on the tip likely corresponds to the difference in the potential energy between the hollow site and the Si adatom site. In this study, we demonstrated the ability of dissipation channels of nc-AFM to enable visualization of the dynamics of atoms and molecules on surfaces, which cannot be revealed by nc-AFM topographic images alone.

  5. Lorentz force actuation of a heated atomic force microscope cantilever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byeonghee; Prater, Craig B; King, William P

    2012-02-10

    We report Lorentz force-induced actuation of a silicon microcantilever having an integrated resistive heater. Oscillating current through the cantilever interacts with the magnetic field around a NdFeB permanent magnet and induces a Lorentz force that deflects the cantilever. The same current induces cantilever heating. With AC currents as low as 0.2 mA, the cantilever can be oscillated as much as 80 nm at resonance with a DC temperature rise of less than 5 °C. By comparison, the AC temperature variation leads to a thermomechanical oscillation that is about 1000 times smaller than the Lorentz deflection at the cantilever resonance. The cantilever position in the nonuniform magnetic field affects the Lorentz force-induced deflection, with the magnetic field parallel to the cantilever having the largest effect on cantilever actuation. We demonstrate how the cantilever actuation can be used for imaging, and for measuring the local material softening temperature by sensing the contact resonance shift.

  6. Adhesion force imaging in air and liquid by adhesion mode atomic force microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Werf, Kees; Putman, C.A.J.; Putman, Constant A.; de Grooth, B.G.; Greve, Jan

    1994-01-01

    A new imaging mode for the atomic force microscope(AFM), yielding images mapping the adhesion force between tip and sample, is introduced. The adhesion mode AFM takes a force curve at each pixel by ramping a piezoactuator, moving the silicon‐nitride tip up and down towards the sample. During the

  7. Spatial dispersion in atom-surface quantum friction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiche, D.; Dalvit, D. A. R.; Busch, K.; Intravaia, F.

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the influence of spatial dispersion on atom-surface quantum friction. We show that for atom-surface separations shorter than the carrier's mean free path within the material, the frictional force can be several orders of magnitude larger than that predicted by local optics. In addition, when taking into account spatial dispersion effects, we show that the commonly used local thermal equilibrium approximation underestimates by approximately 95% the drag force, obtained by employing the recently reported nonequilibrium fluctuation-dissipation relation for quantum friction. Unlike the treatment based on local optics, spatial dispersion in conjunction with corrections to local thermal equilibrium change not only the magnitude but also the distance scaling of quantum friction.

  8. Atomic-scale friction on stepped surfaces of ionic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Pascal; Gnecco, Enrico; Krok, Franciszek; Budzioch, Janusz; Walczak, Lukasz; Konior, Jerzy; Szymonski, Marek; Meyer, Ernst

    2011-05-06

    We report on high-resolution friction force microscopy on a stepped NaCl(001) surface in ultrahigh vacuum. The measurements were performed on single cleavage step edges. When blunt tips are used, friction is found to increase while scanning both up and down a step edge. With atomically sharp tips, friction still increases upwards, but it decreases and even changes sign downwards. Our observations extend previous results obtained without resolving atomic features and are associated with the competition between the Schwöbel barrier and the asymmetric potential well accompanying the step edges.

  9. Structure of ordered polyelectrolyte films from atomic-force microscopy and X-ray reflectivity data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyaev, V.V.; Tolstikhina, A.L.; Stepina, N.D.; Kayushina, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    The possible application of atomic-force microscopy and X-ray reflectometry methods to structural studies of polyelectrolyte films obtained due to alternating adsorption of oppositely charged polyanion [sodium polysterenesulfonate (PSS)] and polycation [poly(allylamine) hydrochloride (PAA)] layers on solid substrates has been considered. The atomic-force microscopy study has revealed the characteristic features of the surface topography of samples consisting of different numbers of polyelectrolyte layers deposited from solutions characterized by different ionic strength values. It is shown that the shape of the reflectivity curves obtained from thin polyelectrolyte films depends on their surface structure

  10. Attractive interaction between an atom and a surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manson, J.R.; Ritchie, R.H.

    1983-01-01

    Using a general self-energy formalism we examine the interaction between an atom and a surface. Considered in detail are deviations from the Van der Waals force due to recoil and finite velocity of the particle. Calculations for positronium near a metal surface show that for such systems recoil and velocity effects are significant even at very low energies. We also examine the mechanisms for energy exchange with the surface and calculations show that single quantum events do not always dominate the exchange rates. 8 references, 2 figures

  11. Nonlinear Dynamics of Cantilever-Sample Interactions in Atomic Force Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantrell, John H.; Cantrell, Sean A.

    2010-01-01

    The interaction of the cantilever tip of an atomic force microscope (AFM) with the sample surface is obtained by treating the cantilever and sample as independent systems coupled by a nonlinear force acting between the cantilever tip and a volume element of the sample surface. The volume element is subjected to a restoring force from the remainder of the sample that provides dynamical equilibrium for the combined systems. The model accounts for the positions on the cantilever of the cantilever tip, laser probe, and excitation force (if any) via a basis set of set of orthogonal functions that may be generalized to account for arbitrary cantilever shapes. The basis set is extended to include nonlinear cantilever modes. The model leads to a pair of coupled nonlinear differential equations that are solved analytically using a matrix iteration procedure. The effects of oscillatory excitation forces applied either to the cantilever or to the sample surface (or to both) are obtained from the solution set and applied to the to the assessment of phase and amplitude signals generated by various acoustic-atomic force microscope (A-AFM) modalities. The influence of bistable cantilever modes of on AFM signal generation is discussed. The effects on the cantilever-sample surface dynamics of subsurface features embedded in the sample that are perturbed by surface-generated oscillatory excitation forces and carried to the cantilever via wave propagation are accounted by the Bolef-Miller propagating wave model. Expressions pertaining to signal generation and image contrast in A-AFM are obtained and applied to amplitude modulation (intermittent contact) atomic force microscopy and resonant difference-frequency atomic force ultrasonic microscopy (RDF-AFUM). The influence of phase accumulation in A-AFM on image contrast is discussed, as is the effect of hard contact and maximum nonlinearity regimes of A-AFM operation.

  12. MATCH: An Atom- Typing Toolset for Molecular Mechanics Force Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesselman, Joseph D.; Price, Daniel J.; Knight, Jennifer L.; Brooks, Charles L.

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a toolset of program libraries collectively titled MATCH (Multipurpose Atom-Typer for CHARMM) for the automated assignment of atom types and force field parameters for molecular mechanics simulation of organic molecules. The toolset includes utilities for the conversion from multiple chemical structure file formats into a molecular graph. A general chemical pattern-matching engine using this graph has been implemented whereby assignment of molecular mechanics atom types, charges and force field parameters is achieved by comparison against a customizable list of chemical fragments. While initially designed to complement the CHARMM simulation package and force fields by generating the necessary input topology and atom-type data files, MATCH can be expanded to any force field and program, and has core functionality that makes it extendable to other applications such as fragment-based property prediction. In the present work, we demonstrate the accurate construction of atomic parameters of molecules within each force field included in CHARMM36 through exhaustive cross validation studies illustrating that bond increment rules derived from one force field can be transferred to another. In addition, using leave-one-out substitution it is shown that it is also possible to substitute missing intra and intermolecular parameters with ones included in a force field to complete the parameterization of novel molecules. Finally, to demonstrate the robustness of MATCH and the coverage of chemical space offered by the recent CHARMM CGENFF force field (Vanommeslaeghe, et al., JCC., 2010, 31, 671–690), one million molecules from the PubChem database of small molecules are typed, parameterized and minimized. PMID:22042689

  13. Length-extension resonator as a force sensor for high-resolution frequency-modulation atomic force microscopy in air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Hannes; Wagner, Tino; Stemmer, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Frequency-modulation atomic force microscopy has turned into a well-established method to obtain atomic resolution on flat surfaces, but is often limited to ultra-high vacuum conditions and cryogenic temperatures. Measurements under ambient conditions are influenced by variations of the dew point and thin water layers present on practically every surface, complicating stable imaging with high resolution. We demonstrate high-resolution imaging in air using a length-extension resonator operating at small amplitudes. An additional slow feedback compensates for changes in the free resonance frequency, allowing stable imaging over a long period of time with changing environmental conditions.

  14. Surface Plasmon Polaritons Probed with Cold Atoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kawalec, Tomasz; Sierant, Aleksandra; Panas, Roman

    2017-01-01

    We report on an optical mirror for cold rubidium atoms based on a repulsive dipole potential created by means of a modified recordable digital versatile disc. Using the mirror, we have determined the absolute value of the surface plasmon polariton (SPP) intensity, reaching 90 times the intensity...

  15. Atomic Resolution Imaging and Quantification of Chemical Functionality of Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, Udo D. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science; Altman, Eric I. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Environmental Engineering

    2014-12-10

    The work carried out from 2006-2014 under DoE support was targeted at developing new approaches to the atomic-scale characterization of surfaces that include species-selective imaging and an ability to quantify chemical surface interactions with site-specific accuracy. The newly established methods were subsequently applied to gain insight into the local chemical interactions that govern the catalytic properties of model catalysts of interest to DoE. The foundation of our work was the development of three-dimensional atomic force microscopy (3DAFM), a new measurement mode that allows the mapping of the complete surface force and energy fields with picometer resolution in space (x, y, and z) and piconewton/millielectron volts in force/energy. From this experimental platform, we further expanded by adding the simultaneous recording of tunneling current (3D-AFM/STM) using chemically well-defined tips. Through comparison with simulations, we were able to achieve precise quantification and assignment of local chemical interactions to exact positions within the lattice. During the course of the project, the novel techniques were applied to surface-oxidized copper, titanium dioxide, and silicon oxide. On these materials, defect-induced changes to the chemical surface reactivity and electronic charge density were characterized with site-specific accuracy.

  16. Force, current and field effects in single atom manipulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braun, K.-F.; Hla, S.; Pertaya, N.; Soe, W.H.; Flipse, C.F.J.; Rieder, K.

    2003-01-01

    We present a detailed investigation of the manipulation of Ag and Au atoms with a STM tip on the Ag(111) surface at 5K. The interpretation of the feed-back loop signal gives a precise picture of the movement of the atom during manipulation. The threshold tunnelling resistance and tip-height to move

  17. Visualization of cytoskeletal elements by the atomic force microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berdyyeva, T.; Woodworth, C.D.; Sokolov, I.

    2005-01-01

    We describe a novel application of atomic force microscopy (AFM) to directly visualize cytoskeletal fibers in human foreskin epithelial cells. The nonionic detergent Triton X-100 in a low concentration was used to remove the membrane, soluble proteins, and organelles from the cell. The remaining cytoskeleton can then be directly visualized in either liquid or air-dried ambient conditions. These two types of scanning provide complimentary information. Scanning in liquid visualizes the surface filaments of the cytoskeleton, whereas scanning in air shows both the surface filaments and the total 'volume' of the cytoskeletal fibers. The smallest fibers observed were ca. 50 nm in diameter. The lateral resolution of this technique was ca.20 nm, which can be increased to a single nanometer level by choosing sharper AFM tips. Because the AFM is a true 3D technique, we are able to quantify the observed cytoskeleton by its density and volume. The types of fibers can be identified by their size, similar to electron microscopy

  18. Towards nano-physiology of insects with atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokukin, M E; Guz, N V; Sokolov, I

    2011-02-01

    Little study of insects with modern nanotechnology tools has been done so far. Here we use one of such tool, atomic force microscopy (AFM) to study surface oscillations of the ladybird beetles (Hippodamia convergens) measured in different parts of the insect at picometer level. This allows us to record a much broader spectral range of possible surface vibrations (up to several kHz) than the previously studied oscillations due to breathing, heartbeat cycles, coelopulses, etc. (up to 5-10Hz). Here we demonstrate three different ways with which one can identify the origins of the observed peaks - by physical positioning the probe near a specific organ, and by using biological or chemical stimuli. We report on identification of high frequency peaks associated with H. convergens heart, spiracular closer muscles, and oscillations associated with muscles activated while drinking. The method, being a relatively non-invasive technique providing a new type of information, may be useful in developing "nanophysiology" of insects. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Atomic force microscopy imaging of macromolecular complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Sergio; Billingsley, Daniel; Thomson, Neil

    2013-01-01

    This chapter reviews amplitude modulation (AM) AFM in air and its applications to high-resolution imaging and interpretation of macromolecular complexes. We discuss single DNA molecular imaging and DNA-protein interactions, such as those with topoisomerases and RNA polymerase. We show how relative humidity can have a major influence on resolution and contrast and how it can also affect conformational switching of supercoiled DNA. Four regimes of AFM tip-sample interaction in air are defined and described, and relate to water perturbation and/or intermittent mechanical contact of the tip with either the molecular sample or the surface. Precise control and understanding of the AFM operational parameters is shown to allow the user to switch between these different regimes: an interpretation of the origins of topographical contrast is given for each regime. Perpetual water contact is shown to lead to a high-resolution mode of operation, which we term SASS (small amplitude small set-point) imaging, and which maximizes resolution while greatly decreasing tip and sample wear and any noise due to perturbation of the surface water. Thus, this chapter provides sufficient information to reliably control the AFM in the AM AFM mode of operation in order to image both heterogeneous samples and single macromolecules including complexes, with high resolution and with reproducibility. A brief introduction to AFM, its versatility and applications to biology is also given while providing references to key work and general reviews in the field.

  20. Nanoscans of piezoelectric activity using an atomic force microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Z.; Guy, I.L.; Butcher, K.S.A.; Tansley, T.L.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Any crystal which lacks a centre of symmetry is piezoelectric. This includes all of the ferroelectric crystals used in photonics and virtually all compound semiconductors. Such crystals, when grown in thin film form invariably exist in a strained state and thus possess internal piezoelectric fields which can affect their electronic properties. A knowledge of the piezoelectric properties of such crystals is thus important in understanding how they behave in practical devices. It also provides a tool for analysing the crystal structure of such materials. Using an atomic force microscope (AFM) as a probe of piezoelectric activity allows the study of variations in crystal structure on a nanoscale. The AFM piezoelectric technique has been used by several groups to study structures of ceramic materials with large piezoelectric coefficients, intended for applications in piezoelectric actuators. In the AFM method, a driving signal of a few volts at a frequency well below the AFM tip resonance, is applied to a sample of the material mounted in the AFM. This voltage causes the sample dimensions to change in ways determined by the piezoelectric properties of the sample. The AFM signal thus contains the normal surface profile information and an additional component generated by the piezoelectric vibrations of the sample. A lockin amplifier is used to separate the piezoelectric signal from the normal AFM surface profile signal. The result is the simultaneous acquisition of the surface profile and a piezoelectric map of the surface of the material under study. We will present results showing the results of such measurements in materials such as lithium niobate and gallium nitride. These materials have piezoelectric coefficients which are much lower than those of materials to which the technique has normally been applied

  1. Using Atom Interferometry to Search for New Forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wacker, Jay G.

    2009-01-01

    Atom interferometry is a rapidly advancing field and this Letter proposes an experiment based on existing technology that can search for new short distance forces. With current technology it is possible to improve the sensitivity by up to a factor of 10 2 and near-future advances will be able to rewrite the limits for forces with ranges from 100 (micro)m to 1km.

  2. Using atom interferometry to search for new forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wacker, Jay G.

    2010-01-01

    Atom interferometry is a rapidly advancing field and this Letter proposes an experiment based on existing technology that can search for new short distance forces. With current technology it is possible to improve the sensitivity by up to a factor of 10 2 and near-future advances may be able to rewrite the limits for forces with ranges from 1 mm to 100 m.

  3. Magnetic moment measurement of magnetic nanoparticles using atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J-W; Lee, E-C; Ju, H; Yoo, I S; Chang, W-S; Chung, B H; Kim, B S

    2008-01-01

    Magnetic moment per unit mass of magnetic nanoparticles was found by using the atomic force microscope (AFM). The mass of the nanoparticles was acquired from the resonance frequency shift of the particle-attached AFM probe and magnetic force measurement was also carried out with the AFM. Combining with magnetic field strength, the magnetic moment per unit mass of the nanoparticles was determined as a function of magnetic field strength. (technical design note)

  4. High-speed force mapping on living cells with a small cantilever atomic force microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braunsmann, Christoph; Seifert, Jan; Rheinlaender, Johannes; Schäffer, Tilman E.

    2014-01-01

    The imaging speed of the wide-spread force mapping mode for quantitative mechanical measurements on soft samples in liquid with the atomic force microscope (AFM) is limited by the bandwidth of the z-scanner and viscous drag forces on the cantilever. Here, we applied high-speed, large scan-range atomic force microscopy and small cantilevers to increase the speed of force mapping by ≈10−100 times. This allowed resolving dynamic processes on living mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Cytoskeleton reorganization during cell locomotion, growth of individual cytoskeleton fibers, cell blebbing, and the formation of endocytic pits in the cell membrane were observed. Increasing the force curve rate from 2 to 300 Hz increased the measured apparent Young's modulus of the cells by about 10 times, which facilitated force mapping measurements at high speed

  5. High-speed force mapping on living cells with a small cantilever atomic force microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braunsmann, Christoph; Seifert, Jan; Rheinlaender, Johannes; Schäffer, Tilman E., E-mail: Tilman.Schaeffer@uni-tuebingen [Institute of Applied Physics and LISA, University of Tübingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 10, 72076 Tübingen (Germany)

    2014-07-15

    The imaging speed of the wide-spread force mapping mode for quantitative mechanical measurements on soft samples in liquid with the atomic force microscope (AFM) is limited by the bandwidth of the z-scanner and viscous drag forces on the cantilever. Here, we applied high-speed, large scan-range atomic force microscopy and small cantilevers to increase the speed of force mapping by ≈10−100 times. This allowed resolving dynamic processes on living mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Cytoskeleton reorganization during cell locomotion, growth of individual cytoskeleton fibers, cell blebbing, and the formation of endocytic pits in the cell membrane were observed. Increasing the force curve rate from 2 to 300 Hz increased the measured apparent Young's modulus of the cells by about 10 times, which facilitated force mapping measurements at high speed.

  6. Noncontact Atomic Force Microscopy: An Emerging Tool for Fundamental Catalysis Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, Eric I; Baykara, Mehmet Z; Schwarz, Udo D

    2015-09-15

    Although atomic force microscopy (AFM) was rapidly adopted as a routine surface imaging apparatus after its introduction in 1986, it has not been widely used in catalysis research. The reason is that common AFM operating modes do not provide the atomic resolution required to follow catalytic processes; rather the more complex noncontact (NC) mode is needed. Thus, scanning tunneling microscopy has been the principal tool for atomic scale catalysis research. In this Account, recent developments in NC-AFM will be presented that offer significant advantages for gaining a complete atomic level view of catalysis. The main advantage of NC-AFM is that the image contrast is due to the very short-range chemical forces that are of interest in catalysis. This motivated our development of 3D-AFM, a method that yields quantitative atomic resolution images of the potential energy surfaces that govern how molecules approach, stick, diffuse, and rebound from surfaces. A variation of 3D-AFM allows the determination of forces required to push atoms and molecules on surfaces, from which diffusion barriers and variations in adsorption strength may be obtained. Pushing molecules towards each other provides access to intermolecular interaction between reaction partners. Following reaction, NC-AFM with CO-terminated tips yields textbook images of intramolecular structure that can be used to identify reaction intermediates and products. Because NC-AFM and STM contrast mechanisms are distinct, combining the two methods can produce unique insight. It is demonstrated for surface-oxidized Cu(100) that simultaneous 3D-AFM/STM yields resolution of both the Cu and O atoms. Moreover, atomic defects in the Cu sublattice lead to variations in the reactivity of the neighboring O atoms. It is shown that NC-AFM also allows a straightforward imaging of work function variations which has been used to identify defect charge states on catalytic surfaces and to map charge transfer within an individual

  7. Taking Nanomedicine Teaching into Practice with Atomic Force Microscopy and Force Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Filomena A.; Freitas, Teresa; Santos, Nuno C.

    2015-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a useful and powerful tool to study molecular interactions applied to nanomedicine. The aim of the present study was to implement a hands-on atomic AFM course for graduated biosciences and medical students. The course comprises two distinct practical sessions, where students get in touch with the use of an atomic…

  8. Atomic profile imaging of ceramic oxide surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bursill, L.A.; Peng JuLin; Sellar, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    Atomic surface profile imaging is an electron optical technique capable of revealing directly the surface crystallography of ceramic oxides. Use of an image-intensifier with a TV camera allows fluctuations in surface morphology and surface reactivity to be recorded and analyzed using digitized image data. This paper reviews aspects of the electron optical techniques, including interpretations based upon computer-simulation image-matching techniques. An extensive range of applications is then presented for ceramic oxides of commercial interest for advanced materials applications: including uranium oxide (UO 2 ); magnesium and nickel oxide (MgO,NiO); ceramic superconductor YBa 2 Cu 3 O 6.7 ); barium titanate (BaTiO 3 ); sapphire (α-A1 2 O 3 ); haematite (α-Fe-2O 3 ); monoclinic, tetragonal and cubic monocrystalline forms of zirconia (ZrO 2 ), lead zirconium titanate (PZT + 6 mol.% NiNbO 3 ) and ZBLAN fluoride glass. Atomic scale detail has been obtained of local structures such as steps associated with vicinal surfaces, facetting parallel to stable low energy crystallographic planes, monolayer formation on certain facets, relaxation and reconstructions, oriented overgrowth of lower oxides, chemical decomposition of complex oxides into component oxides, as well as amorphous coatings. This remarkable variety of observed surface stabilization mechanisms is discussed in terms of novel double-layer electrostatic depolarization mechanisms, as well as classical concepts of the physics and chemistry of surfaces (ionization and affinity energies and work function). 46 refs., 16 figs

  9. Interaction of antihydrogen with ordinary atoms and solid surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froelich, Piotr, E-mail: piotr.froelich@kvac.uu.se; Voronin, Alexei [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2012-12-15

    The characteristic features of cold atom-antiatom collisions and antiatom-surface interactions are discussed and illustrated by the results for hydrogen-antihydrogen scattering and for quantum reflection of ultracold antihydrogen from a metallic surface. We discuss in some detail the case of spin-exchange in ultracold H-bar - H collisions, exposing the interplay of Coulombic, strong and dispersive forces, and demonstrating the sensitivity of the spin-exchange cross sections to hypothetical violations of Charge-Parity-Time (CPT) symmetry.

  10. Survey on result promotion of the atomic force technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eguchi, Masato; Okuno, Yumiko [Nikkei Research Inst. of Industry and Markets, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-02-01

    By change of environment around research and development of atomic force, investigation has been recently executed not only on a theme directing a specific aim, but also on technical development considering some applications to the other field reflected by social needs. Therefore, an effective procedure and program capable of reflecting and promoting results of the atomic fore development to other industrial field were necessary. In this study, methods of evaluation and industrialization on study results of the atomic force were investigated. As a result, in order to promote the study results to other field, it was found to be important that some free reasons and concept engineering to mediate between developing and applying sides were to be present. In addition, it was suggested by some searches that a new atomic industry has a probability to be created by using potential energies such as heat, radiation, pulse, and so on. In this paper, evaluation on industrialization of the atomic force technical resources, and establishment of the industrialization program were described. (G.K.)

  11. Adhesion force of staphylococcus aureus on various biomaterial surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Fahad; Balani, Kantesh

    2017-01-01

    Staphylococcus comprises of more than half of all pathogens in orthopedic implant infections and they can cause major bone infection which can result in destruction of joint and bone. In the current study, adhesion force of bacteria on the surface of various biomaterial surfaces is measured using atomic force microscope (AFM). Staphylococcus aureus was immobilized on an AFM tipless cantilever as a force probe to measure the adhesion force between bacteria and biomaterials (viz. ultra-high molecular weight poly ethylene (UHMWPE), stainless steel (SS), Ti-6Al-4V alloy, hydroxyapatite (HA)). At the contact time of 10s, UHMWPE shows weak adhesion force (~4nN) whereas SS showed strong adhesion force (~15nN) due to their surface energy and surface roughness. Bacterial retention and viability experiment (3M™ petrifilm test, agar plate) dictates that hydroxyapatite shows the lowest vaibility of bacteria, whereas lowest bacterial retention is observed on UHMWPE surface. Similar results were obtained from live/dead staining test, where HA shows 65% viability, whereas on UHMWPE, SS and Ti-6Al-4V, the bacterial viability is 78%, 94% and 97%, respectively. Lower adhesion forces, constrained pull-off distance (of bacterial) and high antibacterial resistance of bioactive-HA makes it a potential biomaterial for bone-replacement arthroplasty. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Elastic-properties measurement at high temperatures through contact resonance atomic force microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marinello, Francesco; Pezzuolo, Andrea; Carmignato, Simone

    2015-01-01

    fast direct and non-destructive measurement of Young's modulus and related surface parameters.In this work an instrument set up for Contact Resonance Atomic Force Microscopy is proposed, where the sample with is coupled to a heating stage and a piezoelectric transducer directly vibrate the cantilever...

  13. „New approaches to atomic force microscope lithography on silicon"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkelund, Karen; Thomsen, Erik Vilain; Rasmussen, Jan Pihl

    1997-01-01

    We have investigated new approaches to the formation of conducting nanowires on crystalline silicon surfaces using atomic force microscope (AFM) lithography. To increase processing speed and reduce wear of the AFM tip, large-scale structures are formed with a direct laser write setup, while the AFM...

  14. Molecular structure of dipalmitoylphospatidylcholine Langmuir-Blodgett monolayers studied by atomic force microscopy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhai, X.; Kleijn, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    Monolayers of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) on the air-water interface have been transferred at various surface pressures onto quartz substrates using the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique. The topography of these layers, on a molecular scale, has been examined by atomic force microscopy

  15. Chromosome structure investigated with the atomic force microscope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Grooth, B.G.; Putman, C.A.J.; Putman, Constant A.; van der Werf, Kees; van Hulst, N.F.; van Oort, G.; van Oort, Geeske; Greve, Jan; Manne, Srinivas

    1992-01-01

    We have developed an atomic force microscope (AFM) with an integrated optical microscope. The optical microscope consists of an inverted epi-illumination system that yields images in reflection or fluorescence of the sample. With this system it is possible to quickly locate an object of interest. A

  16. Imaging and manipulation of single viruses by atomic force microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baclayon, M.; Wuite, G. J. L.; Roos, W. H.

    2010-01-01

    The recent developments in virus research and the application of functional viral particles in nanotechnology and medicine rely on sophisticated imaging and manipulation techniques at nanometre resolution in liquid, air and vacuum. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a tool that combines these

  17. Atomic force microscopy of torus-bearing pit membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland R. Dute; Thomas Elder

    2011-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy was used to compare the structures of dried, torus-bearing pit membranes from four woody species, three angiosperms and one gymnosperm. Tori of Osmanthus armatus are bipartite consisting of a pustular zone overlying parallel sets of microfibrils that form a peripheral corona. Microfibrils of the corona form radial spokes as they traverse the...

  18. Contrast artifacts in tapping tip atomic force microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyhle, Anders; Sørensen, Alexis Hammer; Zandbergen, Julie Bjerring

    1998-01-01

    When recording images with an atomic force microscope using the resonant vibrating cantilever mode, surprising strange results are often achieved. Typical artifacts are strange contours, unexpected height shifts, and sudden changes of the apparent resolution in the acquired images. Such artifacts...

  19. Imaging of RNA in situ hybridization by atomic force microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalle, W.H.J.; Macville, M.V.E.; van de Corput, M.P.C.; de Grooth, B.G.; Tanke, H.J.; Raap, A.K.

    In this study we investigated the possibility of imaging internal cellular molecules after cytochemical detection with atomic force microscopy (AFM). To this end, rat 9G and HeLa cells were hybridized with haptenized probes for 28S ribosomal RNA, human elongation factor mRNA and cytomegalovirus

  20. Atomic force microscope characterization of a resonating nanocantilever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abadal, G.; Davis, Zachary James; Borrise, X.

    2003-01-01

    An atomic force microscope (AFM) is used as a nanometer-scale resolution tool for the characterization of the electromechanical behaviour of a resonant cantilever-based mass sensor. The cantilever is actuated electrostatically by applying DC and AC voltages from a driver electrode placed closely...

  1. Uncertainty quantification in nanomechanical measurements using the atomic force microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan Wagner; Robert Moon; Jon Pratt; Gordon Shaw; Arvind Raman

    2011-01-01

    Quantifying uncertainty in measured properties of nanomaterials is a prerequisite for the manufacture of reliable nanoengineered materials and products. Yet, rigorous uncertainty quantification (UQ) is rarely applied for material property measurements with the atomic force microscope (AFM), a widely used instrument that can measure properties at nanometer scale...

  2. Atomic force microscopy on domains in biological model membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rinia, H.A.

    2001-01-01

    This thesis describes the preparation and imaging of supported lipid bilayers, which can be regarded as biological modelmembranes, in the light of the formation of domains. The bilayers were prepared with either the Langmuir-Blodgett method, or with vesicle fusion. They were imaged with Atomic Force

  3. Stitching Grid-wise Atomic Force Microscope Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Mathias Zacho; Bengtson, Stefan Hein; Pedersen, Malte

    2016-01-01

    Atomic Force Microscopes (AFM) are able to capture images with a resolution in the nano metre scale. Due to this high resolution, the covered area per image is relatively small, which can be problematic when surveying a sample. A system able to stitch AFM images has been developed to solve this p...

  4. An Atomic Force Microscopical Study of the Synaptonemal Complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Putman, C.A.J.; Putman, C.A.J.; Dietrich, A.J.J.; de Grooth, B.G.; van Marle, J.; Heyting, C.; van Hulst, N.F.; Greve, Jan

    1993-01-01

    The chromosomal structure which is specific for meiosis, the synaptonemal complex (SC), plays a major role in chromosome pairing and the recombination of genetic material. The SC was studied using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results of this study confirm the results of light and electron

  5. On the role of coulomb forces in atomic radiative emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yngstroem, S.

    1988-10-01

    It is shown how the generalized Coulomb interaction (electric and magnetic fields of force) competes with the radiative interaction causing overall inhibition of the radiative capability of atoms and ions in a gaseous sample of matter. Basic quantum mechanical aspects of the electromagnetic interaction are discussed in a heuristic introduction followed by a more precise treatment in the formalism of relativistic quantum electrodynamics. (author)

  6. Manipulation and soldering of carbon nanotubes using atomic force microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashiwase, Yuta; Ikeda, Takayuki; Oya, Takahide; Ogino, Toshio

    2008-01-01

    Manipulation of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by an atomic force microscope (AFM) and soldering of CNTs using Fe oxide nanoparticles are described. We succeeded to separate a CNT bundle into two CNTs or CNT bundles, to move the separated CNT to a desirable position, and to bind it to another bundle. For the accurate manipulation, load of the AFM cantilever and frequency of the scan were carefully selected. We soldered two CNTs using an Fe oxide nanoparticle prepared from a ferritin molecule. The adhesion forces between the soldered CNTs were examined by an AFM and it was found that the CNTs were bound, though the binding force was not strong

  7. Nano Scale Mechanical Analysis of Biomaterials Using Atomic Force Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Diganta

    The atomic force microscope (AFM) is a probe-based microscope that uses nanoscale and structural imaging where high resolution is desired. AFM has also been used in mechanical, electrical, and thermal engineering applications. This unique technique provides vital local material properties like the modulus of elasticity, hardness, surface potential, Hamaker constant, and the surface charge density from force versus displacement curve. Therefore, AFM was used to measure both the diameter and mechanical properties of the collagen nanostraws in human costal cartilage. Human costal cartilage forms a bridge between the sternum and bony ribs. The chest wall of some humans is deformed due to defective costal cartilage. However, costal cartilage is less studied compared to load bearing cartilage. Results show that there is a difference between chemical fixation and non-chemical fixation treatments. Our findings imply that the patients' chest wall is mechanically weak and protein deposition is abnormal. This may impact the nanostraws' ability to facilitate fluid flow between the ribs and the sternum. At present, AFM is the only tool for imaging cells' ultra-structure at the nanometer scale because cells are not homogeneous. The first layer of the cell is called the cell membrane, and the layer under it is made of the cytoskeleton. Cancerous cells are different from normal cells in term of cell growth, mechanical properties, and ultra-structure. Here, force is measured with very high sensitivity and this is accomplished with highly sensitive probes such as a nano-probe. We performed experiments to determine ultra-structural differences that emerge when such cancerous cells are subject to treatments such as with drugs and electric pulses. Jurkat cells are cancerous cells. These cells were pulsed at different conditions. Pulsed and non-pulsed Jurkat cell ultra-structures were investigated at the nano meter scale using AFM. Jurkat cell mechanical properties were measured under

  8. Resolving amorphous solid-liquid interfaces by atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burson, Kristen M.; Gura, Leonard; Kell, Burkhard; Büchner, Christin; Lewandowski, Adrian L.; Heyde, Markus; Freund, Hans-Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Recent advancements in liquid atomic force microscopy make it an ideal technique for probing the structure of solid-liquid interfaces. Here, we present a structural study of a two-dimensional amorphous silica bilayer immersed in an aqueous solution utilizing liquid atomic force microscopy with sub-nanometer resolution. Structures show good agreement with atomically resolved ultra-high vacuum scanning tunneling microscopy images obtained on the same sample system, owing to the structural stability of the silica bilayer and the imaging clarity from the two-dimensional sample system. Pair distance histograms of ring center positions are utilized to develop quantitative metrics for structural comparison, and the physical origin of pair distance histogram peaks is addressed by direct assessment of real space structures.

  9. Mapping Electrostatic Forces Using Higher Harmonics Tapping Mode Atomic Force Microscopy in Liquid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noort, S.J.T.; Willemsen, O.H.; van der Werf, Kees; de Grooth, B.G.; Greve, Jan

    1999-01-01

    A simple model of a damped, harmonic oscillator is used to describe the motion of an atomic force microscope cantilever tapping in fluid. By use of experimentally obtained parameters, excellent agreement is found between theory and experimental results. From the model we estimate that the force

  10. Atomic force microscopy investigation of the giant mimivirus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, Yuri G.; Xiao Chuan; Sun Siyang; Raoult, Didier; Rossmann, Michael; McPherson, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Mimivirus was investigated by atomic force microscopy in its native state following serial degradation by lysozyme and bromelain. The 750-nm diameter virus is coated with a forest of glycosylated protein fibers of lengths about 140 nm with diameters 1.4 nm. Fibers are capped with distinctive ellipsoidal protein heads of estimated Mr = 25 kDa. The surface fibers are attached to the particle through a layer of protein covering the capsid, which is in turn composed of the major capsid protein (MCP). The latter is organized as an open network of hexagonal rings with central depressions separated by 14 nm. The virion exhibits an elaborate apparatus at a unique vertex, visible as a star shaped depression on native particles, but on defibered virions as five arms of 50 nm width and 250 nm length rising above the capsid by 20 nm. The apparatus is integrated into the capsid and not applied atop the icosahedral lattice. Prior to DNA release, the arms of the star disengage from the virion and it opens by folding back five adjacent triangular faces. A membrane sac containing the DNA emerges from the capsid in preparation for fusion with a membrane of the host cell. Also observed from disrupted virions were masses of distinctive fibers of diameter about 1 nm, and having a 7-nm periodicity. These are probably contained within the capsid along with the DNA bearing sac. The fibers were occasionally observed associated with toroidal protein clusters interpreted as processive enzymes modifying the fibers.

  11. Probing new intra-atomic force with isotope shifts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikami, Kyoko; Tanaka, Minoru [Osaka University, Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Toyonaka, Osaka (Japan); Yamamoto, Yasuhiro [Yonsei University, Department of Physics and IPAP, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-12-15

    In the development of atomic clocks, some atomic transition frequencies are measured with remarkable precision. These measured spectra may include the effects of a new force mediated by a weakly interacting boson. Such effects might be distilled out from possible violation of a linear relation in isotope shifts between two transitions, as known as King's linearity, with relatively suppressed theoretical uncertainties. We discuss the experimental sensitivity to a new force in the test of the linearity as well as the linearity violation owing to higher-order effects within the Standard Model. The sensitivity to new physics is limited by such effects. We have found that, for Yb{sup +}, the higher-order effect is in the reach of future experiments. The sensitivity to a heavy mediator is also discussed. It is analytically clarified that the sensitivity becomes weaker than that in the literature. Our numerical results of the sensitivity are compared with other weak force search experiments. (orig.)

  12. Interactive forces between lignin and cellulase as determined by atomic force microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Qin, Chengrong; Clarke, Kimberley; Li, Kecheng

    2014-01-01

    Background Lignin is a complex polymer which inhibits the enzymatic conversion of cellulose to glucose in lignocellulose biomass for biofuel production. Cellulase enzymes irreversibly bind to lignin, deactivating the enzyme and lowering the overall activity of the hydrolyzing reaction solution. Within this study, atomic force microscopy (AFM) is used to compare the adhesion forces between cellulase and lignin with the forces between cellulase and cellulose, and to study the moiety groups invo...

  13. The influence of the surface atomic structure on surface diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghaleb, Dominique

    1984-03-01

    This work represents the first quantitative study of the influence of the surface atomic structure on surface diffusion (in the range: 0.2 Tf up 0.5 Tf; Tf: melting temperature of the substrate). The analysis of our results on a microscopic scale shows low formation and migration energies for adatoms; we can describe the diffusion on surfaces with a very simple model. On (110) surfaces at low temperature the diffusion is controlled by the exchange mechanism; at higher temperature direct jumps of adatoms along the channels contribute also to the diffusion process. (author) [fr

  14. Minimizing tip-sample forces in jumping mode atomic force microscopy in liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega-Esteban, A. [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, C-3, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Horcas, I. [Nanotec Electronica S.L., Centro Empresarial Euronova 3, Ronda de Poniente 12, 28760 Tres Cantos, Madrid (Spain); Hernando-Perez, M. [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, C-3, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Ares, P. [Nanotec Electronica S.L., Centro Empresarial Euronova 3, Ronda de Poniente 12, 28760 Tres Cantos, Madrid (Spain); Perez-Berna, A.J.; San Martin, C.; Carrascosa, J.L. [Centro Nacional de Biotecnologia (CNB-CSIC), Darwin 3, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Pablo, P.J. de [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, C-3, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Gomez-Herrero, J., E-mail: julio.gomez@uam.es [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, C-3, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2012-03-15

    Control and minimization of tip-sample interaction forces are imperative tasks to maximize the performance of atomic force microscopy. In particular, when imaging soft biological matter in liquids, the cantilever dragging force prevents identification of the tip-sample mechanical contact, resulting in deleterious interaction with the specimen. In this work we present an improved jumping mode procedure that allows detecting the tip-sample contact with high accuracy, thus minimizing the scanning forces ({approx}100 pN) during the approach cycles. To illustrate this method we report images of human adenovirus and T7 bacteriophage particles which are prone to uncontrolled modifications when using conventional jumping mode. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Improvement in atomic force microscopy in buffer solution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Peak force detection. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Subtracting the cantilever dragging force. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Forces in the 100 pN range. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Imaging of delicate viruses with atomic force microscopy.

  15. Identification and ultrastructural imaging of photodynamic therapy-induced microfilaments by atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Se-Hui; Park, Jin-Young; Yoo, Je-Ok; Shin, Incheol; Kim, Young-Myeong; Ha, Kwon-Soo

    2009-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is an emerging technique for imaging biological samples at subnanometer resolution; however, the method is not widely used for cell imaging because it is limited to analysis of surface topology. In this study, we demonstrate identification and ultrastructural imaging of microfilaments using new approaches based on AFM. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with a new chlorin-based photosensitizer DH-II-24 induced cell shrinkage, membrane blebbing, and reorganization of cytoskeletons in bladder cancer J82 cells. We investigated cytoskeletal changes using confocal microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Extracellular filaments formed by PDT were analyzed with a tandem imaging approach based on confocal microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Ultrathin filaments that were not visible by confocal microscopy were identified as microfilaments by on-stage labeling/imaging using atomic force microscopy. Furthermore, ultrastructural imaging revealed that these microfilaments had a stranded helical structure. Thus, these new approaches were useful for ultrastructural imaging of microfilaments at the molecular level, and, moreover, they may help to overcome the current limitations of fluorescence-based microscopy and atomic force microscopy in cell imaging.

  16. Scattering of atoms by molecules adsorbed at solid surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parra, Zaida.

    1988-01-01

    The formalism of collisional time-correlation functions, appropriate for scattering by many-body targets, is implemented to study energy transfer in the scattering of atoms and ions from molecules adsorbed on metal surfaces. Double differential cross-sections for the energy and angular distributions of atoms and ions scattered by a molecule adsorbed on a metal surface are derived in the limit of impulsive collisions and within a statistical model that accounts for single and double collisions. They are found to be given by the product of an effective cross-section that accounts for the probability of deflection into a solid angle times a probability per unit energy transfer. A cluster model is introduced for the vibrations of an adsorbed molecule which includes the molecular atoms, the surface atoms binding the molecule, and their nearest neighbors. The vibrational modes of CO adsorbed on a Ni(001) metal surface are obtained using two different cluster models to represent the on-top and bridge-bonding situations. A He/OC-Ni(001) potential is constructed from a strongly repulsive potential of He interacting with the oxygen atom in the CO molecule and a van der Waals attraction accounting for the He interaction with the free Ni(001) surface. A potential is presented for the Li + /OC-Ni(001) where a coulombic term is introduced to account for the image force. Trajectory studies are performed and analyzed in three dimensions to obtain effective classical cross-sections for the He/OC-Ni(001) and Li + /OC-Ni(001) systems. Results for the double differential cross-sections are presented as functions of scattering angles, energy transfer and collisional energy. Temperature dependence results are also analyzed. Extensions of the approach and inclusion of effects such as anharmonicity, collisions at lower energies, and applications of the approach to higher coverages are discussed

  17. Atomic force microscopy as a tool for the investigation of living cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morkvėnaitė-Vilkončienė, Inga; Ramanavičienė, Almira; Ramanavičius, Arūnas

    2013-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy is a valuable and useful tool for the imaging and investigation of living cells in their natural environment at high resolution. Procedures applied to living cell preparation before measurements should be adapted individually for different kinds of cells and for the desired measurement technique. Different ways of cell immobilization, such as chemical fixation on the surface, entrapment in the pores of a membrane, or growing them directly on glass cover slips or on plastic substrates, result in the distortion or appearance of artifacts in atomic force microscopy images. Cell fixation allows the multiple use of samples and storage for a prolonged period; it also increases the resolution of imaging. Different atomic force microscopy modes are used for the imaging and analysis of living cells. The contact mode is the best for cell imaging because of high resolution, but it is usually based on the following: (i) image formation at low interaction force, (ii) low scanning speed, and (iii) usage of "soft," low resolution cantilevers. The tapping mode allows a cell to behave like a very solid material, and destructive shear forces are minimized, but imaging in liquid is difficult. The force spectroscopy mode is used for measuring the mechanical properties of cells; however, obtained results strongly depend on the cell fixation method. In this paper, the application of 3 atomic force microscopy modes including (i) contact, (ii) tapping, and (iii) force spectroscopy for the investigation of cells is described. The possibilities of cell preparation for the measurements, imaging, and determination of mechanical properties of cells are provided. The applicability of atomic force microscopy to diagnostics and other biomedical purposes is discussed.

  18. Friction and Adhesion Forces of Bacillus thuringiensis Spores on Planar Surfaces in Atmospheric Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kweon, Hyojin [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Yiacoumi, Sotira [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Tsouris, Costas [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2011-11-07

    The kinetic friction force and the adhesion force of Bacillus thuringiensis spores on planar surfaces in atmospheric systems were studied using atomic force microscopy. The influence of relative humidity (RH) on these forces varied for different surface properties including hydrophobicity, roughness, and surface charge. The friction force of the spore was greater on a rougher surface than on mica, which is atomically flat. As RH increases, the friction force of the spores decreases on mica whereas it increases on rough surfaces. The influence of RH on the interaction forces between hydrophobic surfaces is not as strong as for hydrophilic surfaces. The friction force of the spore is linear to the sum of the adhesion force and normal load on the hydrophobic surface. In conclusion, the poorly defined surface structure of the spore and the adsorption of contaminants from the surrounding atmosphere are believed to cause a discrepancy between the calculated and measured adhesion forces.

  19. High-speed atomic force microscope imaging: Adaptive multiloop mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Juan; Zou, Qingze; Li, Bo; Lin, Zhiqun

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, an imaging mode (called the adaptive multiloop mode) of atomic force microscope (AFM) is proposed to substantially increase the speed of tapping mode (TM) imaging while preserving the advantages of TM imaging over contact mode (CM) imaging. Due to its superior image quality and less sample disturbances over CM imaging, particularly for soft materials such as polymers, TM imaging is currently the most widely used imaging technique. The speed of TM imaging, however, is substantially (over an order of magnitude) lower than that of CM imaging, becoming the major bottleneck of this technique. Increasing the speed of TM imaging is challenging as a stable probe tapping on the sample surface must be maintained to preserve the image quality, whereas the probe tapping is rather sensitive to the sample topography variation. As a result, the increase of imaging speed can quickly lead to loss of the probe-sample contact and/or annihilation of the probe tapping, resulting in image distortion and/or sample deformation. The proposed adaptive multiloop mode (AMLM) imaging overcomes these limitations of TM imaging through the following three efforts integrated together: First, it is proposed to account for the variation of the TM deflection when quantifying the sample topography; second, an inner-outer feedback control loop to regulate the TM deflection is added on top of the tapping-feedback control loop to improve the sample topography tracking; and, third, an online iterative feedforward controller is augmented to the whole control system to further enhance the topography tracking, where the next-line sample topography is predicted and utilized to reduce the tracking error. The added feedback regulation of the TM deflection ensures the probe-sample interaction force remains near the minimum for maintaining a stable probe-sample interaction. The proposed AMLM imaging is tested and demonstrated by imaging a poly(tert-butyl acrylate) sample in experiments. The

  20. Detection of magnetic-labeled antibody specific recognition events by combined atomic force and magnetic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong Xia; Liu Yanmei; Li Jun; Guo Wei; Bai Yubai

    2009-01-01

    Atomic force (AFM) and magnetic force microscopy (MFM) were developed to detect biomolecular specific interaction. Goat anti-mouse immunoglobulin (anti-IgG) was covalently attached onto gold substrate modified by a self-assembly monolayer of thioctic acid via 1-ethyl-3-[3-(dimethylamino) propyl] carbodiimide (EDC) activation. Magnetic-labeled IgG then specifically adsorbed onto anti-IgG surface. The morphological variation was identified by AFM. MFM was proved to be a fine assistant tool to distinguish the immunorecognized nanocomposites from the impurities by detection of the magnetic signal from magnetic-labeled IgG. It would enhance the understanding of biomolecular recognition process.

  1. Detection of magnetic-labeled antibody specific recognition events by combined atomic force and magnetic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong Xia [Center for Advanced Optoelectronic Functional Materials Research, Key Laboratory of UV Light-Emitting Materials and Technology, Ministry of Education, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China); College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China)], E-mail: xiahong@nenu.edu.cn; Liu Yanmei; Li Jun; Guo Wei; Bai Yubai [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China)

    2009-09-15

    Atomic force (AFM) and magnetic force microscopy (MFM) were developed to detect biomolecular specific interaction. Goat anti-mouse immunoglobulin (anti-IgG) was covalently attached onto gold substrate modified by a self-assembly monolayer of thioctic acid via 1-ethyl-3-[3-(dimethylamino) propyl] carbodiimide (EDC) activation. Magnetic-labeled IgG then specifically adsorbed onto anti-IgG surface. The morphological variation was identified by AFM. MFM was proved to be a fine assistant tool to distinguish the immunorecognized nanocomposites from the impurities by detection of the magnetic signal from magnetic-labeled IgG. It would enhance the understanding of biomolecular recognition process.

  2. Shallow surface depth profiling with atomic resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi, J.; Dastoor, P.C.; King, B.V.; O'Connor, D.J.

    1999-01-01

    It is possible to derive atomic layer-by-layer composition depth profiles from popular electron spectroscopic techniques, such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) or Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). When ion sputtering assisted AES or XPS is used, the changes that occur during the establishment of the steady state in the sputtering process make these techniques increasingly inaccurate for depths less than 3nm. Therefore non-destructive techniques of angle-resolved XPS (ARXPS) or AES (ARAES) have to be used in this case. In this paper several data processing algorithms have been used to extract the atomic resolved depth profiles of a shallow surface (down to 1nm) from ARXPS and ARAES data

  3. Minimizing pulling geometry errors in atomic force microscope single molecule force spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Monica; Lee, Whasil; Ke, Changhong; Marszalek, Piotr E; Cole, Daniel G; Clark, Robert L

    2008-10-01

    In atomic force microscopy-based single molecule force spectroscopy (AFM-SMFS), it is assumed that the pulling angle is negligible and that the force applied to the molecule is equivalent to the force measured by the instrument. Recent studies, however, have indicated that the pulling geometry errors can drastically alter the measured force-extension relationship of molecules. Here we describe a software-based alignment method that repositions the cantilever such that it is located directly above the molecule's substrate attachment site. By aligning the applied force with the measurement axis, the molecule is no longer undergoing combined loading, and the full force can be measured by the cantilever. Simulations and experimental results verify the ability of the alignment program to minimize pulling geometry errors in AFM-SMFS studies.

  4. Athermalization in atomic force microscope based force spectroscopy using matched microstructure coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torun, H; Finkler, O; Degertekin, F L

    2009-07-01

    The authors describe a method for athermalization in atomic force microscope (AFM) based force spectroscopy applications using microstructures that thermomechanically match the AFM probes. The method uses a setup where the AFM probe is coupled with the matched structure and the displacements of both structures are read out simultaneously. The matched structure displaces with the AFM probe as temperature changes, thus the force applied to the sample can be kept constant without the need for a separate feedback loop for thermal drift compensation, and the differential signal can be used to cancel the shift in zero-force level of the AFM.

  5. [Atomic force microscopy: a tool to analyze the viral cycle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernaud, Julien; Castelnovo, Martin; Muriaux, Delphine; Faivre-Moskalenko, Cendrine

    2015-05-01

    Each step of the HIV-1 life cycle frequently involves a change in the morphology and/or mechanical properties of the viral particle or core. The atomic force microscope (AFM) constitutes a powerful tool for characterizing these physical changes at the scale of a single virus. Indeed, AFM enables the visualization of viral capsids in a controlled physiological environment and to probe their mechanical properties by nano-indentation. Finally, AFM force spectroscopy allows to characterize the affinities between viral envelope proteins and cell receptors at the single molecule level. © 2015 médecine/sciences – Inserm.

  6. Interplay between Switching Driven by the Tunneling Current and Atomic Force of a Bistable Four-Atom Si Quantum Dot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Shiro; Maeda, Keisuke; Sugimoto, Yoshiaki; Abe, Masayuki; Zobač, Vladimír; Pou, Pablo; Rodrigo, Lucia; Mutombo, Pingo; Pérez, Ruben; Jelínek, Pavel; Morita, Seizo

    2015-07-08

    We assemble bistable silicon quantum dots consisting of four buckled atoms (Si4-QD) using atom manipulation. We demonstrate two competing atom switching mechanisms, downward switching induced by tunneling current of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and opposite upward switching induced by atomic force of atomic force microscopy (AFM). Simultaneous application of competing current and force allows us to tune switching direction continuously. Assembly of the few-atom Si-QDs and controlling their states using versatile combined AFM/STM will contribute to further miniaturization of nanodevices.

  7. Fluctuation-induced forces on an atom near a photonic topological material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveirinha, Mário G.; Gangaraj, S. Ali Hassani; Hanson, George W.; Antezza, Mauro

    2018-02-01

    We theoretically study the Casimir-Polder force on an atom in an arbitrary initial state in a rather general electromagnetic environment wherein the materials may have a nonreciprocal bianisotropic dispersive response. It is shown that under the Markov approximation the force has resonant and nonresonant contributions. We obtain explicit expressions for the optical force both in terms of the system Green function and of the electromagnetic modes. We apply the theory to the particular case wherein a two-level system interacts with a topological gyrotropic material, showing that the nonreciprocity enables exotic light-matter interactions and the opportunity to sculpt and tune the Casimir-Polder forces on the nanoscale. With a quasistatic approximation, we obtain a simple analytical expression for the optical force and unveil the crucial role of surface plasmons in fluctuation-induced forces. Finally, we derive the Green function for a gyrotropic material half-space in terms of a Sommerfeld integral.

  8. Probing stem cell differentiation using atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Xiaobin; Shi, Xuetao; Ostrovidov, Serge; Wu, Hongkai; Nakajima, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was developed to probe stem cell differentiation. • The mechanical properties of stem cells and their ECMs can be used to clearly distinguish specific stem cell-differentiated lineages. • AFM is a facile and useful tool for monitoring stem cell differentiation in a non-invasive manner. - Abstract: A real-time method using atomic force microscopy (AFM) was developed to probe stem cell differentiation by measuring the mechanical properties of cells and the extracellular matrix (ECM). The mechanical properties of stem cells and their ECMs can be used to clearly distinguish specific stem cell-differentiated lineages. It is clear that AFM is a facile and useful tool for monitoring the differentiation of stem cells in a non-invasive manner.

  9. Probing stem cell differentiation using atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Xiaobin [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Ookayama 2-12-1, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Shi, Xuetao, E-mail: mrshixuetao@gmail.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Ostrovidov, Serge [WPI-Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Wu, Hongkai, E-mail: chhkwu@ust.hk [Department of Chemistry & Division of Biomedical Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Nakajima, Ken [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Ookayama 2-12-1, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan)

    2016-03-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was developed to probe stem cell differentiation. • The mechanical properties of stem cells and their ECMs can be used to clearly distinguish specific stem cell-differentiated lineages. • AFM is a facile and useful tool for monitoring stem cell differentiation in a non-invasive manner. - Abstract: A real-time method using atomic force microscopy (AFM) was developed to probe stem cell differentiation by measuring the mechanical properties of cells and the extracellular matrix (ECM). The mechanical properties of stem cells and their ECMs can be used to clearly distinguish specific stem cell-differentiated lineages. It is clear that AFM is a facile and useful tool for monitoring the differentiation of stem cells in a non-invasive manner.

  10. Noncontact AFM Imaging of Atomic Defects on the Rutile TiO2 (110) Surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritsen, Jeppe Vang

    2015-01-01

    The atomic force microscope (AFM) operated in the noncontact mode (nc-AFM) offers a unique tool for real space, atomic-scale characterisation of point defects and molecules on surfaces, irrespective of the substrate being electrically conducting or non-conducting. The nc-AFM has therefore in rece...

  11. Surface Forces Apparatus measurements of interactions between rough and reactive calcite surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziadkowiec, Joanna; Javadi, Shaghayegh; Bratvold, Jon Einar; Nilsen, Ola; Røyne, Anja

    2018-05-28

    Nm-range forces acting between calcite surfaces in water affect macroscopic properties of carbonate rocks and calcite-based granular materials, and are significantly influenced by calcite surface recrystallization. We suggest that the repulsive mechanical effects related to nm-scale surface recrystallization of calcite in water could be partially responsible for the observed decrease of cohesion in calcitic rocks saturated with water. Using the Surface Forces Apparatus (SFA), we simultaneously followed the calcite reactivity and measured the forces in water in two surface configurations: between two rough calcite surfaces (CC), or between rough calcite and a smooth mica surface (CM). We used nm-scale rough, polycrystalline calcite films prepared by Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD). We measured only repulsive forces in CC in CaCO 3 -saturated water, which was related to roughness and possibly to repulsive hydration effects. Adhesive or repulsive forces were measured in CM in CaCO 3 -saturated water depending on calcite roughness, and the adhesion was likely enhanced by electrostatic effects. The pull-off adhesive force in CM became stronger with time and this increase was correlated with a decrease of roughness at contacts, which parameter could be estimated from the measured force-distance curves. That suggested a progressive increase of real contact areas between the surfaces, caused by gradual pressure-driven deformation of calcite surface asperities during repeated loading-unloading cycles. Reactivity of calcite was affected by mass transport across nm to µm-thick gaps between the surfaces. Major roughening was observed only for the smoothest calcite films, where gaps between two opposing surfaces were nm-thick over µm-sized areas, and led to force of crystallization that could overcome confining pressures of the order of MPa. Any substantial roughening of calcite caused a significant increase of the repulsive mechanical force contribution.

  12. Hierarchical atom type definitions and extensible all-atom force fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zhao; Yang, Chunwei; Cao, Fenglei; Li, Feng; Jing, Zhifeng; Chen, Long; Shen, Zhe; Xin, Liang; Tong, Sijia; Sun, Huai

    2016-03-15

    The extensibility of force field is a key to solve the missing parameter problem commonly found in force field applications. The extensibility of conventional force fields is traditionally managed in the parameterization procedure, which becomes impractical as the coverage of the force field increases above a threshold. A hierarchical atom-type definition (HAD) scheme is proposed to make extensible atom type definitions, which ensures that the force field developed based on the definitions are extensible. To demonstrate how HAD works and to prepare a foundation for future developments, two general force fields based on AMBER and DFF functional forms are parameterized for common organic molecules. The force field parameters are derived from the same set of quantum mechanical data and experimental liquid data using an automated parameterization tool, and validated by calculating molecular and liquid properties. The hydration free energies are calculated successfully by introducing a polarization scaling factor to the dispersion term between the solvent and solute molecules. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Polythiophenes and fullerene derivatives based donor-acceptor system: topography by atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcakova, M. L.; Repovsky, D.; Cik, G.; Velic, D.

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this work is to examine the surface of a polythiophene/fullerene film in order to understand the structure. In this work polythiophene is used as electron donor and fullerene-derivative is used as electron acceptor. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), is an ideal method to study surfaces and nanostructures. Surfaces of fullerene C60 , fullerene-derivates PCBM, polythiophene P12 and a mixture of P12 and PCBM are characterized. In all samples, the average roughness, the arithmetical value of divergence from the high of the surface, is determined concluding that P12 and PCBM mix together well and form a film with specific topography. (authors)

  14. Effect of contact stiffness on wedge calibration of lateral force in atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Fei; Zhao Xuezeng

    2007-01-01

    Quantitative friction measurement of nanomaterials in atomic force microscope requires accurate calibration method for lateral force. The effect of contact stiffness on lateral force calibration of atomic force microscope is discussed in detail and an improved calibration method is presented. The calibration factor derived from the original method increased with the applied normal load, which indicates that separate calibration should be required for every given applied normal load to keep the accuracy of friction measurement. We improve the original method by introducing the contact factor, which is derived from the contact stiffness between the tip and the sample, to the calculation of calibration factors. The improved method makes the calculation of calibration factors under different applied normal loads possible without repeating the calibration procedure. Comparative experiments on a silicon wafer have been done by both the two methods to validate the method in this article

  15. Application of atomic force microscopy to the study of natural and model soil particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, S; Bryant, R; Doerr, S H; Rhodri Williams, P; Wright, C J

    2008-09-01

    The structure and surface chemistry of soil particles has extensive impact on many bulk scale properties and processes of soil systems and consequently the environments that they support. There are a number of physiochemical mechanisms that operate at the nanoscale which affect the soil's capability to maintain native vegetation and crops; this includes soil hydrophobicity and the soil's capacity to hold water and nutrients. The present study used atomic force microscopy in a novel approach to provide unique insight into the nanoscale properties of natural soil particles that control the physiochemical interaction of material within the soil column. There have been few atomic force microscopy studies of soil, perhaps a reflection of the heterogeneous nature of the system. The present study adopted an imaging and force measurement research strategy that accounted for the heterogeneity and used model systems to aid interpretation. The surface roughness of natural soil particles increased with depth in the soil column a consequence of the attachment of organic material within the crevices of the soil particles. The roughness root mean square calculated from ten 25 microm(2) images for five different soil particles from a Netherlands soil was 53.0 nm, 68.0 nm, 92.2 nm and 106.4 nm for the respective soil depths of 0-10 cm, 10-20 cm, 20-30 cm and 30-40 cm. A novel analysis method of atomic force microscopy phase images based on phase angle distribution across a surface was used to interpret the nanoscale distribution of organic material attached to natural and model soil particles. Phase angle distributions obtained from phase images of model surfaces were found to be bimodal, indicating multiple layers of material, which changed with the concentration of adsorbed humic acid. Phase angle distributions obtained from phase images of natural soil particles indicated a trend of decreasing surface coverage with increasing depth in the soil column. This was consistent with

  16. Phonon lineshapes in atom-surface scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MartInez-Casado, R [Department of Chemistry, Imperial College London, South Kensington, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Sanz, A S; Miret-Artes, S [Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones CientIficas, Serrano 123, E-28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-08-04

    Phonon lineshapes in atom-surface scattering are obtained from a simple stochastic model based on the so-called Caldeira-Leggett Hamiltonian. In this single-bath model, the excited phonon resulting from a creation or annihilation event is coupled to a thermal bath consisting of an infinite number of harmonic oscillators, namely the bath phonons. The diagonalization of the corresponding Hamiltonian leads to a renormalization of the phonon frequencies in terms of the phonon friction or damping coefficient. Moreover, when there are adsorbates on the surface, this single-bath model can be extended to a two-bath model accounting for the effect induced by the adsorbates on the phonon lineshapes as well as their corresponding lineshapes.

  17. Cooperatively enhanced dipole forces from artificial atoms in trapped nanodiamonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan, Mathieu L.; Bradac, Carlo; Besga, Benjamin; Johnsson, Mattias; Brennen, Gavin; Molina-Terriza, Gabriel; Volz, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    Optical trapping is a powerful tool to manipulate small particles, from micrometre-size beads in liquid environments to single atoms in vacuum. The trapping mechanism relies on the interaction between a dipole and the electric field of laser light. In atom trapping, the dominant contribution to the associated force typically comes from the allowed optical transition closest to the laser wavelength, whereas for mesoscopic particles it is given by the polarizability of the bulk material. Here, we show that for nanoscale diamond crystals containing a large number of artificial atoms, nitrogen-vacancy colour centres, the contributions from both the nanodiamond and the colour centres to the optical trapping strength can be simultaneously observed in a noisy liquid environment. For wavelengths around the zero-phonon line transition of the colour centres, we observe a 10% increase of overall trapping strength. The magnitude of this effect suggests that due to the large density of centres, cooperative effects between the artificial atoms contribute to the observed modification of the trapping strength. Our approach may enable the study of cooperativity in nanoscale solid-state systems and the use of atomic physics techniques in the field of nano-manipulation.

  18. Nanostructure and force spectroscopy analysis of human peripheral blood CD4+ T cells using atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Mingqian; Wang Jiongkun; Cai Jiye; Wu Yangzhe; Wang Xiaoping

    2008-01-01

    To date, nanoscale imaging of the morphological changes and adhesion force of CD4 + T cells during in vitro activation remains largely unreported. In this study, we used atomic force microscopy (AFM) to study the morphological changes and specific binding forces in resting and activated human peripheral blood CD4 + T cells. The AFM images revealed that the volume of activated CD4 + T cells increased and the ultrastructure of these cells also became complex. Using a functionalized AFM tip, the strength of the specific binding force of the CD4 antigen-antibody interaction was found to be approximately three times that of the unspecific force. The adhesion forces were not randomly distributed over the surface of a single activated CD4 + T cell, indicated that the CD4 molecules concentrated into nanodomains. The magnitude of the adhesion force of the CD4 antigen-antibody interaction did not change markedly with the activation time. Multiple bonds involved in the CD4 antigen-antibody interaction were measured at different activation times. These results suggest that the adhesion force involved in the CD4 antigen-antibody interaction is highly selective and of high affinity

  19. Nanostructure and force spectroscopy analysis of human peripheral blood CD4+ T cells using atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Mingqian; Wang, Jiongkun; Cai, Jiye; Wu, Yangzhe; Wang, Xiaoping

    2008-09-12

    To date, nanoscale imaging of the morphological changes and adhesion force of CD4(+) T cells during in vitro activation remains largely unreported. In this study, we used atomic force microscopy (AFM) to study the morphological changes and specific binding forces in resting and activated human peripheral blood CD4(+) T cells. The AFM images revealed that the volume of activated CD4(+) T cells increased and the ultrastructure of these cells also became complex. Using a functionalized AFM tip, the strength of the specific binding force of the CD4 antigen-antibody interaction was found to be approximately three times that of the unspecific force. The adhesion forces were not randomly distributed over the surface of a single activated CD4(+) T cell, indicated that the CD4 molecules concentrated into nanodomains. The magnitude of the adhesion force of the CD4 antigen-antibody interaction did not change markedly with the activation time. Multiple bonds involved in the CD4 antigen-antibody interaction were measured at different activation times. These results suggest that the adhesion force involved in the CD4 antigen-antibody interaction is highly selective and of high affinity.

  20. Protein crystals as scanned probes for recognition atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickremasinghe, Nissanka S; Hafner, Jason H

    2005-12-01

    Lysozyme crystal growth has been localized at the tip of a conventional silicon nitride cantilever through seeded nucleation. After cross-linking with glutaraldehyde, lysozyme protein crystal tips image gold nanoparticles and grating standards with a resolution comparable to that of conventional tips. Force spectra between the lysozyme crystal tips and surfaces covered with antilysozyme reveal an adhesion force that drops significantly upon blocking with free lysozyme, thus confirming that lysozyme crystal tips can detect molecular recognition interactions.

  1. Uncertainties in forces extracted from non-contact atomic force microscopy measurements by fitting of long-range background forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Sweetman

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In principle, non-contact atomic force microscopy (NC-AFM now readily allows for the measurement of forces with sub-nanonewton precision on the atomic scale. In practice, however, the extraction of the often desired ‘short-range’ force from the experimental observable (frequency shift is often far from trivial. In most cases there is a significant contribution to the total tip–sample force due to non-site-specific van der Waals and electrostatic forces. Typically, the contribution from these forces must be removed before the results of the experiment can be successfully interpreted, often by comparison to density functional theory calculations. In this paper we compare the ‘on-minus-off’ method for extracting site-specific forces to a commonly used extrapolation method modelling the long-range forces using a simple power law. By examining the behaviour of the fitting method in the case of two radically different interaction potentials we show that significant uncertainties in the final extracted forces may result from use of the extrapolation method.

  2. Self-excitation of Rydberg atoms at a metal surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bordo, Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    The novel effect of self-excitation of an atomic beam propagating above a metal surface is predicted and a theory is developed. Its underlying mechanism is positive feedback provided by the reflective surface for the atomic polarization. Under certain conditions the atomic beam flying in the near...... field of the metal surface acts as an active device that supports sustained atomic dipole oscillations, which generate, in their turn, an electromagnetic field. This phenomenon does not exploit stimulated emission and therefore does not require population inversion in atoms. An experiment with Rydberg...... atoms in which this effect should be most pronounced is proposed and the necessary estimates are given....

  3. Surface Adsorption in Nonpolarizable Atomic Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmer, Jonathan K; Joshi, Abhijeet A; Carlton, Rebecca J; Abbott, Nicholas L; de Pablo, Juan J

    2014-12-09

    Many ionic solutions exhibit species-dependent properties, including surface tension and the salting-out of proteins. These effects may be loosely quantified in terms of the Hofmeister series, first identified in the context of protein solubility. Here, our interest is to develop atomistic models capable of capturing Hofmeister effects rigorously. Importantly, we aim to capture this dependence in computationally cheap "hard" ionic models, which do not exhibit dynamic polarization. To do this, we have performed an investigation detailing the effects of the water model on these properties. Though incredibly important, the role of water models in simulation of ionic solutions and biological systems is essentially unexplored. We quantify this via the ion-dependent surface attraction of the halide series (Cl, Br, I) and, in so doing, determine the relative importance of various hypothesized contributions to ionic surface free energies. Importantly, we demonstrate surface adsorption can result in hard ionic models combined with a thermodynamically accurate representation of the water molecule (TIP4Q). The effect observed in simulations of iodide is commensurate with previous calculations of the surface potential of mean force in rigid molecular dynamics and polarizable density-functional models. Our calculations are direct simulation evidence of the subtle but sensitive role of water thermodynamics in atomistic simulations.

  4. Mechanism of yttrium atom formation in electrothermal atomization from metallic and metal-carbide surfaces of a heated graphite atomizer in atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahab, H.S.; Chakrabarti, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    Mechanism of Y atom formation from pyrocoated graphite, tantalum and tungsten metal surfaces of a graphite tube atomizer has been studied and a mechanism for the formation for Y atoms is proposed for the first time. (author)

  5. Novel operation mode for eliminating influence of inclination angle and friction in atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Fei; Wang, Yueyu; Zhou, Faquan; Zhao, Xuezeng

    2010-01-01

    The accuracy of topography imaging in contact force mode of atomic force microscopy (AFM) depends on the one-to-one corresponding relationship between the cantilever deflection and the tip-sample distance, whereas such a relationship cannot be always achieved in the presence of friction and incline angle of sample surface. Recently, we have developed a novel operation mode in which we keep the van der Waals force as constant instead of the applied normal force, to eliminate the effect of inclination angle and friction on topography imaging in the contact force mode. We have improved our AFM to enable the new operation mode for validation. Comparative experiments have been performed and the results have shown that the effect of friction and inclination angle on topography imaging in contact mode of AFM can be eliminated or at least decreased effectively by working in the new operation mode we present.

  6. Quantitative measurement of solvation shells using frequency modulated atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchihashi, T.; Higgins, M.; Nakayama, Y.; Sader, J. E.; Jarvis, S. P.

    2005-03-01

    The nanoscale specificity of interaction measurements and additional imaging capability of the atomic force microscope make it an ideal technique for measuring solvation shells in a variety of liquids next to a range of materials. Unfortunately, the widespread use of atomic force microscopy for the measurement of solvation shells has been limited by uncertainties over the dimensions, composition and durability of the tip during the measurements, and problems associated with quantitative force calibration of the most sensitive dynamic measurement techniques. We address both these issues by the combined use of carbon nanotube high aspect ratio probes and quantifying the highly sensitive frequency modulation (FM) detection technique using a recently developed analytical method. Due to the excellent reproducibility of the measurement technique, additional information regarding solvation shell size as a function of proximity to the surface has been obtained for two very different liquids. Further, it has been possible to identify differences between chemical and geometrical effects in the chosen systems.

  7. The effect of drive frequency and set point amplitude on tapping forces in atomic force microscopy: simulation and experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legleiter, Justin

    2009-01-01

    In tapping mode atomic force microscopy (AFM), a sharp probe tip attached to an oscillating cantilever is allowed to intermittently strike a surface. By raster scanning the probe while monitoring the oscillation amplitude of the cantilever via a feedback loop, topographical maps of surfaces with nanoscale resolution can be acquired. While numerous studies have employed numerical simulations to elucidate the time-resolved tapping force between the probe tip and surface, until recent technique developments, specific read-outs from such models could not be experimentally verified. In this study, we explore, via numerical simulation, the impact of imaging parameters, i.e. set point ratio and drive frequency as a function of resonance, on time-varying tip-sample force interactions, which are directly compared to reconstructed tapping forces from real AFM experiments. As the AFM model contains a feedback loop allowing for the simulation of the entire scanning process, we further explore the impact that various tip-sample force have on the entire imaging process.

  8. An atomic force microscope nanoscalpel for nanolithography and biological applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beard, J D; Burbridge, D J; Moskalenko, A V; Dudko, O; Gordeev, S N [Department of Physics, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom); Yarova, P L; Smirnov, S V, E-mail: jdb28@bath.ac.u [Department of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom)

    2009-11-04

    We present the fabrication of specialized nanotools, termed nanoscalpels, and their application for nanolithography and nanomechanical manipulation of biological objects. Fabricated nanoscalpels have the shape of a thin blade with the controlled thickness of 20-30 nm and width of 100-200 nm. They were fabricated using electron beam induced deposition at the apex of atomic force microscope probes and are hard enough for a single cut to penetrate a {approx}45 nm thick gold layer; and thus can be used for making narrow electrode gaps required for fabrication of nanoelectronic devices. As an atomic force microscope-based technique the nanoscalpel provides simultaneous control of the applied cutting force and the depth of the cut. Using mammalian cells as an example, we demonstrated their ability to make narrow incisions and measurements of local elastic and inelastic characteristics of a cell, making nanoscalpels also useful as a nanosurgical tool in cell biology. Therefore, we believe that the nanoscalpel could serve as an important tool for nanofabrication and nanosurgery on biological objects.

  9. Chiral Asymmetric Structures in Aspartic Acid and Valine Crystals Assessed by Atomic Force Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teschke, Omar; Soares, David Mendez

    2016-03-29

    Structures of crystallized deposits formed by the molecular self-assembly of aspartic acid and valine on silicon substrates were imaged by atomic force microscopy. Images of d- and l-aspartic acid crystal surfaces showing extended molecularly flat sheets or regions separated by single molecule thick steps are presented. Distinct orientation surfaces were imaged, which, combined with the single molecule step size, defines the geometry of the crystal. However, single molecule step growth also reveals the crystal chirality, i.e., growth orientations. The imaged ordered lattice of aspartic acid (asp) and valine (val) mostly revealed periodicities corresponding to bulk terminations, but a previously unreported molecular hexagonal lattice configuration was observed for both l-asp and l-val but not for d-asp or d-val. Atomic force microscopy can then be used to identify the different chiral forms of aspartic acid and valine crystals.

  10. Atomic force microscopy measurements of bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation onto clay-sized particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qiaoyun; Wu, Huayong; Cai, Peng; Fein, Jeremy B.; Chen, Wenli

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial adhesion onto mineral surfaces and subsequent biofilm formation play key roles in aggregate stability, mineral weathering, and the fate of contaminants in soils. However, the mechanisms of bacteria-mineral interactions are not fully understood. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to determine the adhesion forces between bacteria and goethite in water and to gain insight into the nanoscale surface morphology of the bacteria-mineral aggregates and biofilms formed on clay-sized minerals. This study yields direct evidence of a range of different association mechanisms between bacteria and minerals. All strains studied adhered predominantly to the edge surfaces of kaolinite rather than to the basal surfaces. Bacteria rarely formed aggregates with montmorillonite, but were more tightly adsorbed onto goethite surfaces. This study reports the first measured interaction force between bacteria and a clay surface, and the approach curves exhibited jump-in events with attractive forces of 97 ± 34 pN between E. coli and goethite. Bond strengthening between them occurred within 4 s to the maximum adhesion forces and energies of −3.0 ± 0.4 nN and −330 ± 43 aJ (10−18 J), respectively. Under the conditions studied, bacteria tended to form more extensive biofilms on minerals under low rather than high nutrient conditions. PMID:26585552

  11. Photoionization microscopy of hydrogen atom near a metal surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Hai-Feng; Wang Lei; Liu Xiao-Jun; Liu Hong-Ping

    2011-01-01

    We have studied the ionization of Rydberg hydrogen atom near a metal surface with a semiclassical analysis of photoionization microscopy. Interference patterns of the electron radial distribution are calculated at different scaled energies above the classical saddle point and at various atom—surface distances. We find that different types of trajectories contribute predominantly to different manifolds in a certain interference pattern. As the scaled energy increases, the structure of the interference pattern evolves smoothly and more types of trajectories emerge. As the atom approaches the metal surface closer, there are more types of trajectories contributing to the interference pattern as well. When the Rydberg atom comes very close to the metal surface or the scaled energy approaches the zero field ionization energy, the potential induced by the metal surface will make atomic system chaotic. The results also show that atoms near a metal surface exhibit similar properties like the atoms in the parallel electric and magnetic fields. (atomic and molecular physics)

  12. Molecular dynamics simulation of amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Xiaoli; Martini, Ashlie; Egberts, Philip; Dong, Yalin

    2015-01-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were used to model amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy (AM-AFM). In this novel simulation, the model AFM tip responds to both tip–substrate interactions and to a sinusoidal excitation signal. The amplitude and phase shift of the tip oscillation observed in the simulation and their variation with tip–sample distance were found to be consistent with previously reported trends from experiments and theory. These simulation results were also fit to an expression enabling estimation of the energy dissipation, which was found to be smaller than that in a corresponding experiment. The difference was analyzed in terms of the effects of tip size and substrate thickness. Development of this model is the first step toward using MD to gain insight into the atomic-scale phenomena that occur during an AM-AFM measurement. (paper)

  13. Atomic Force Microscopy: A Powerful Tool to Address Scaffold Design in Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrese, Marica; Guarino, Vincenzo; Ambrosio, Luigi

    2017-02-13

    Functional polymers currently represent a basic component of a large range of biological and biomedical applications including molecular release, tissue engineering, bio-sensing and medical imaging. Advancements in these fields are driven by the use of a wide set of biodegradable polymers with controlled physical and bio-interactive properties. In this context, microscopy techniques such as Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) are emerging as fundamental tools to deeply investigate morphology and structural properties at micro and sub-micrometric scale, in order to evaluate the in time relationship between physicochemical properties of biomaterials and biological response. In particular, AFM is not only a mere tool for screening surface topography, but may offer a significant contribution to understand surface and interface properties, thus concurring to the optimization of biomaterials performance, processes, physical and chemical properties at the micro and nanoscale. This is possible by capitalizing the recent discoveries in nanotechnologies applied to soft matter such as atomic force spectroscopy to measure surface forces through force curves. By tip-sample local interactions, several information can be collected such as elasticity, viscoelasticity, surface charge densities and wettability. This paper overviews recent developments in AFM technology and imaging techniques by remarking differences in operational modes, the implementation of advanced tools and their current application in biomaterials science, in terms of characterization of polymeric devices in different forms (i.e., fibres, films or particles).

  14. Atomic Force Microscopy: A Powerful Tool to Address Scaffold Design in Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marica Marrese

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Functional polymers currently represent a basic component of a large range of biological and biomedical applications including molecular release, tissue engineering, bio-sensing and medical imaging. Advancements in these fields are driven by the use of a wide set of biodegradable polymers with controlled physical and bio-interactive properties. In this context, microscopy techniques such as Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM are emerging as fundamental tools to deeply investigate morphology and structural properties at micro and sub-micrometric scale, in order to evaluate the in time relationship between physicochemical properties of biomaterials and biological response. In particular, AFM is not only a mere tool for screening surface topography, but may offer a significant contribution to understand surface and interface properties, thus concurring to the optimization of biomaterials performance, processes, physical and chemical properties at the micro and nanoscale. This is possible by capitalizing the recent discoveries in nanotechnologies applied to soft matter such as atomic force spectroscopy to measure surface forces through force curves. By tip-sample local interactions, several information can be collected such as elasticity, viscoelasticity, surface charge densities and wettability. This paper overviews recent developments in AFM technology and imaging techniques by remarking differences in operational modes, the implementation of advanced tools and their current application in biomaterials science, in terms of characterization of polymeric devices in different forms (i.e., fibres, films or particles.

  15. Direct Atomic Force Microscopy Observation of DNA Tile Crystal Growth at the Single-Molecule Level

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Constantine G.; Hariadi, Rizal F.; Winfree, Erik

    2012-01-01

    While the theoretical implications of models of DNA tile self-assembly have been extensively researched and such models have been used to design DNA tile systems for use in experiments, there has been little research testing the fundamental assumptions of those models. In this paper, we use direct observation of individual tile attachments and detachments of two DNA tile systems on a mica surface imaged with an atomic force microscope (AFM) to compile statistics of tile attachments and detach...

  16. Quantum degeneracy in atomic point contacts revealed by chemical force and conductance

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sugimoto, Y.; Ondráček, Martin; Abe, M.; Pou, P.; Morita, S.; Perez, R.; Flores, F.; Jelínek, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 111, č. 10 (2013), "106803-1"-"106803-5" ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GPP204/11/P578 Grant - others:GA AV ČR(CZ) M100101207 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : scanning tunneling microscopy * atomic force microscopy * degenerate states * silicon surface * dangling bonds Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 7.728, year: 2013

  17. Nanoindentation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacterial biofilm using atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baniasadi, Mahmoud; Xu, Zhe; Du, Yingjie; Lu, Hongbing; Minary-Jolandan, Majid; Gandee, Leah; Zimmern, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms are a source of many chronic infections. Biofilms and their inherent resistance to antibiotics are attributable to a range of health issues including affecting prosthetic implants, hospital-acquired infections, and wound infection. Mechanical properties of biofilm, in particular, at micro- and nano-scales, are governed by microstructures and porosity of the biofilm, which in turn may contribute to their inherent antibiotic resistance. We utilize atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based nanoindentation and finite element simulation to investigate the nanoscale mechanical properties of Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacterial biofilm. This biofilm was derived from human samples and represents a medically relevant model. (paper)

  18. High-speed atomic force microscopy coming of age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Toshio

    2012-01-01

    High-speed atomic force microscopy (HS-AFM) is now materialized. It allows direct visualization of dynamic structural changes and dynamic processes of functioning biological molecules in physiological solutions, at high spatiotemporal resolution. Dynamic molecular events unselectively appear in detail in an AFM movie, facilitating our understanding of how biological molecules operate to function. This review describes a historical overview of technical development towards HS-AFM, summarizes elementary devices and techniques used in the current HS-AFM, and then highlights recent imaging studies. Finally, future challenges of HS-AFM studies are briefly discussed. (topical review)

  19. High-speed atomic force microscopy coming of age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Toshio

    2012-02-01

    High-speed atomic force microscopy (HS-AFM) is now materialized. It allows direct visualization of dynamic structural changes and dynamic processes of functioning biological molecules in physiological solutions, at high spatiotemporal resolution. Dynamic molecular events unselectively appear in detail in an AFM movie, facilitating our understanding of how biological molecules operate to function. This review describes a historical overview of technical development towards HS-AFM, summarizes elementary devices and techniques used in the current HS-AFM, and then highlights recent imaging studies. Finally, future challenges of HS-AFM studies are briefly discussed.

  20. CO tip functionalization in subatomic resolution atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Minjung; Chelikowsky, James R.

    2015-01-01

    Noncontact atomic force microscopy (nc-AFM) employing a CO-functionalized tip displays dramatically enhanced resolution wherein covalent bonds of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon can be imaged. Employing real-space pseudopotential first-principles calculations, we examine the role of CO in functionalizing the nc-AFM tip. Our calculations allow us to simulate full AFM images and ascertain the enhancement mechanism of the CO molecule. We consider two approaches: one with an explicit inclusion of the CO molecule and one without. By comparing our simulations to existing experimental images, we ascribe the enhanced resolution of the CO functionalized tip to the special orbital characteristics of the CO molecule

  1. Atomic force microscopy on chromosomes, chromatin and DNA: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalle, Wouter; Strappe, Padraig

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this review is to discuss the achievements and progress that has been made in the use of atomic force microscopy in DNA related research in the last 25 years. For this review DNA related research is split up in chromosomal-, chromatin- and DNA focused research to achieve a logical flow from large- to smaller structures. The focus of this review is not only on the AFM as imaging tool but also on the AFM as measuring tool using force spectroscopy, as therein lays its greatest advantage and future. The amazing technological and experimental progress that has been made during the last 25 years is too extensive to fully cover in this review but some key developments and experiments have been described to give an overview of the evolution of AFM use from 'imaging tool' to 'measurement tool' on chromosomes, chromatin and DNA. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Atomic force microscopic imaging of Acanthamoeba castellanii and Balamuthia mandrillaris trophozoites and cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aqeel, Yousuf; Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Ateeq, Muhammad; Raza Shah, Muhammad; Kulsoom, Huma; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Light microscopy and electron microscopy have been successfully used in the study of microbes, as well as free-living protists. Unlike light microscopy, which enables us to observe living organisms or the electron microscope which provides a two-dimensional image, atomic force microscopy provides a three-dimensional surface profile. Here, we observed two free-living amoebae, Acanthamoeba castellanii and Balamuthia mandrillaris under the phase contrast inverted microscope, transmission electron microscope and atomic force microscope. Although light microscopy was of lower magnification, it revealed functional biology of live amoebae such as motility and osmoregulation using contractile vacuoles of the trophozoite stage, but it is of limited value in defining the cyst stage. In contrast, transmission electron microscopy showed significantly greater magnification and resolution to reveal the ultra-structural features of trophozoites and cysts including intracellular organelles and cyst wall characteristics but it only produced a snapshot in time of a dead amoeba cell. Atomic force microscopy produced three-dimensional images providing detailed topographic description of shape and surface, phase imaging measuring boundary stiffness, and amplitude measurements including width, height and length of A. castellanii and B. mandrillaris trophozoites and cysts. These results demonstrate the importance of the application of various microscopic methods in the biological and structural characterization of the whole cell, ultra-structural features, as well as surface components and cytoskeleton of protist pathogens. © 2014 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2014 International Society of Protistologists.

  3. Taking nanomedicine teaching into practice with atomic force microscopy and force spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Filomena A; Freitas, Teresa; Santos, Nuno C

    2015-12-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a useful and powerful tool to study molecular interactions applied to nanomedicine. The aim of the present study was to implement a hands-on atomic AFM course for graduated biosciences and medical students. The course comprises two distinct practical sessions, where students get in touch with the use of an atomic force microscope by performing AFM scanning images of human blood cells and force spectroscopy measurements of the fibrinogen-platelet interaction. Since the beginning of this course, in 2008, the overall rating by the students was 4.7 (out of 5), meaning a good to excellent evaluation. Students were very enthusiastic and produced high-quality AFM images and force spectroscopy data. The implementation of the hands-on AFM course was a success, giving to the students the opportunity of contact with a technique that has a wide variety of applications on the nanomedicine field. In the near future, nanomedicine will have remarkable implications in medicine regarding the definition, diagnosis, and treatment of different diseases. AFM enables students to observe single molecule interactions, enabling the understanding of molecular mechanisms of different physiological and pathological processes at the nanoscale level. Therefore, the introduction of nanomedicine courses in bioscience and medical school curricula is essential. Copyright © 2015 The American Physiological Society.

  4. Atomic force microscopy for university students: applications in biomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kontomaris, S V; Stylianou, A

    2017-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a powerful tool used in the investigation of the structural and mechanical properties of a wide range of materials including biomaterials. It provides the ability to acquire high resolution images of biomaterials at the nanoscale. It also provides information about the response of specific areas under controlled applied force, which leads to the mechanical characterization of the sample at the nanoscale. The wide range of information provided by AFM has established it as a powerful research tool. In this paper, we present a general overview of the basic operation and functions of AFM applications in biomaterials. The basic operation of AFM is explained in detail with a focus on the real interactions that take place at the nanoscale level during imaging. AFM’s ability to provide the mechanical characterization (force curves) of specific areas at the nanoscale is also explained. The basic models of applied mechanics that are used for processing the data obtained by the force curves are presented. The aim of this paper is to provide university students and young scientists in the fields of biophysics and nanotechnology with a better understanding of AFM. (review)

  5. Free-standing biomimetic polymer membrane imaged with atomic force microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rein, Christian; Pszon-Bartosz, Kamila Justyna; Jensen, Karin Bagger Stibius

    2011-01-01

    Fluid polymeric biomimetic membranes are probed with atomic force microscopy (AFM) using probes with both normal tetrahedrally shaped tips and nanoneedle-shaped Ag2Ga rods. When using nanoneedle probes, the collected force volume data show three distinct membrane regions which match the expected...... membrane structure when spanning an aperture in a hydrophobic scaffold. The method used provides a general method for mapping attractive fluid surfaces. In particular, the nanoneedle probing allows for characterization of free-standing biomimetic membranes with thickness on the nanometer scale suspended...... over 300-μm-wide apertures, where the membranes are stable toward hundreds of nanoindentations without breakage. © 2010 American Chemical Society....

  6. Exact expressions for colloidal plane-particle interaction forces and energies with applications to atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zypman, F R

    2006-01-01

    We begin by deriving a general useful theoretical relationship between the plane-particle interaction forces in solution, and the corresponding plane-plane interaction energies. This is the main result of the paper. It provides a simple tool to obtain closed-form particle-plane forces from knowledge of plane-plane interaction energies. To illustrate the simplicity of use of this general formalism, we apply it to find particle-plane interactions within the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) framework. Specifically, we obtain analytical expressions for forces and interaction energies in the van der Waals and the electrical double layer cases. The van der Waals expression is calculated here for benchmarking purposes and is compared with well-established expressions from Hamaker theory. The interactions for the electric double layer situation are computed in two cases: the linear superposition approximation and the constant surface potential. In both cases, our closed-form expressions were compared with existent numerical results. We also use the main result of this paper to generate an analytical force-separation expression based on atomic force microscope experiments for a tip and surface immersed in an aqueous solution, and compare it with the corresponding numerical results. Finally, based on our main result, we generalize the Derjaguin approximation by calculating the next order of approximation, thus obtaining a formula valuable for colloidal interaction estimations

  7. Competition of elastic and adhesive properties of carbon nanotubes anchored to atomic force microscopy tips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, Charlotte; Marsaudon, Sophie; Boisgard, Rodolphe; Aime, Jean-Pierre

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we address the mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes anchored to atomic force microscopy (AFM) tips in a detailed analysis of experimental results and exhaustive description of a simple model. We show that volume elastic and surface adhesive forces both contribute to the dynamical AFM experimental signals. Their respective weights depend on the nanotube properties and on an experimental parameter: the oscillation amplitude. To quantify the elastic and adhesive contributions, a simple analytical model is used. It enables analytical expressions of the resonance frequency shift and dissipation that can be measured in the atomic force microscopy dynamical frequency modulation mode. It includes the nanotube adhesive contribution to the frequency shift. Experimental data for single-wall and multi-wall carbon nanotubes compare well to the model predictions for different oscillation amplitudes. Three parameters can be extracted: the distance necessary to unstick the nanotube from the surface and two spring constants corresponding to tube compression and to the elastic force required to overcome the adhesion force

  8. MIDAS: Lessons learned from the first spaceborne atomic force microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Mark Stephen; Arends, Herman; Butler, Bart; Gavira, Jose; Jeszenszky, Harald; Mannel, Thurid; Romstedt, Jens; Schmied, Roland; Torkar, Klaus

    2016-08-01

    The Micro-Imaging Dust Analysis System (MIDAS) atomic force microscope (AFM) onboard the Rosetta orbiter was the first such instrument launched into space in 2004. Designed only a few years after the technique was invented, MIDAS is currently orbiting comet 67P Churyumov-Gerasimenko and producing the highest resolution 3D images of cometary dust ever made in situ. After more than a year of continuous operation much experience has been gained with this novel instrument. Coupled with operations of the Flight Spare and advances in terrestrial AFM a set of "lessons learned" has been produced, cumulating in recommendations for future spaceborne atomic force microscopes. The majority of the design could be reused as-is, or with incremental upgrades to include more modern components (e.g. the processor). Key additional recommendations are to incorporate an optical microscope to aid the search for particles and image registration, to include a variety of cantilevers (with different spring constants) and a variety of tip geometries.

  9. Characterization of chemically and enzymatically treated hemp fibres using atomic force microscopy and spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, Michael; Mussone, Paolo G. [Biorefining Conversions and Fermentations Laboratory, Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada T6E 2P5 (Canada); Abboud, Zeinab [Biorefining Conversions and Fermentations Laboratory, Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada T6E 2P5 (Canada); Department of Physics, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 2W1 (Canada); Bressler, David C., E-mail: david.bressler@ualberta.ca [Biorefining Conversions and Fermentations Laboratory, Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada T6E 2P5 (Canada)

    2014-09-30

    The mechanical and moisture resistance properties of natural fibre reinforced composites are dependent on the adhesion between the matrix of choice and the fibre. The main goal of this study was to investigate the effect of NaOH swelling of hemp fibres prior to enzymatic treatment and a novel chemical sulfonic acid method on the physical properties of hemp fibres. The colloidal properties of treated hemp fibres were studied exclusively using an atomic force microscope. AFM imaging in tapping mode revealed that each treatment rendered the surface topography of the hemp fibres clean and exposed the individual fibre bundles. Hemp fibres treated with laccase had no effect on the surface adhesion forces measured. Interestingly, mercerization prior to xylanase + cellulase and laccase treatments resulted in greater enzyme access evident in the increased adhesion force measurements. Hemp fibres treated with sulfonic acid showed an increase in surface de-fibrillation and smoothness. A decrease in adhesion forces for 4-aminotoulene-3-sulfonic acid (AT3S) treated fibres suggested a reduction in surface polarity. This work demonstrated that AFM can be used as a tool to estimate the surface forces and roughness for modified fibres and that enzymatic coupled with chemical methods can be used to improve the surface properties of natural fibres for composite applications. Further, this work is one of the first that offers some insight into the effect of mercerization prior to enzymes and the effect on the surface topography. AFM will be used to selectively screen treated fibres for composite applications based on the adhesion forces associated with the colloidal interface between the AFM tip and the fibre surfaces.

  10. Observation of Atom Wave Phase Shifts Induced by Van Der Waals Atom-Surface Interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perreault, John D.; Cronin, Alexander D.

    2005-01-01

    The development of nanotechnology and atom optics relies on understanding how atoms behave and interact with their environment. Isolated atoms can exhibit wavelike (coherent) behavior with a corresponding de Broglie wavelength and phase which can be affected by nearby surfaces. Here an atom interferometer is used to measure the phase shift of Na atom waves induced by the walls of a 50 nm wide cavity. To our knowledge this is the first direct measurement of the de Broglie wave phase shift caused by atom-surface interactions. The magnitude of the phase shift is in agreement with that predicted by Lifshitz theory for a nonretarded van der Waals interaction. This experiment also demonstrates that atom waves can retain their coherence even when atom-surface distances are as small as 10 nm

  11. Examining the origins of the hydration force between lipid bilayers using all-atom simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentilcore, Anastasia N; Michaud-Agrawal, Naveen; Crozier, Paul S; Stevens, Mark J; Woolf, Thomas B

    2010-05-01

    Using 237 all-atom double bilayer simulations, we examined the thermodynamic and structural changes that occur as a phosphatidylcholine lipid bilayer stack is dehydrated. The simulated system represents a micropatch of lipid multilayer systems that are studied experimentally using surface force apparatus, atomic force microscopy and osmotic pressure studies. In these experiments, the hydration level of the system is varied, changing the separation between the bilayers, in order to understand the forces that the bilayers feel as they are brought together. These studies have found a curious, strongly repulsive force when the bilayers are very close to each other, which has been termed the "hydration force," though the origins of this force are not clearly understood. We computationally reproduce this repulsive, relatively free energy change as bilayers come together and make qualitative conclusions as to the enthalpic and entropic origins of the free energy change. This analysis is supported by data showing structural changes in the waters, lipids and salts that have also been seen in experimental work. Increases in solvent ordering as the bilayers are dehydrated are found to be essential in causing the repulsion as the bilayers come together.

  12. Nanomechanical properties of lithiated Si nanowires probed with atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyunsoo; Shin, Weonho; Choi, Jang Wook; Park, Jeong Young

    2012-01-01

    The nanomechanical properties of fully lithiated and pristine Si nanowires (NWs) deposited on a Si substrate were studied with atomic force microscopy (AFM). Si NWs were synthesized using the vapour-liquid-solid process on stainless-steel substrates using an Au catalyst. Fully lithiated Si NWs were obtained using the electrochemical method, followed by drop-casting on a Si substrate. The roughness of the Si NWs, which was derived from AFM images, is greater for the lithiated Si NWs than for the pristine Si NWs. Force spectroscopy was used to study the influence of lithiation on the tip-surface adhesion force. The lithiated Si NWs revealed a smaller tip-surface adhesion force than the Si substrate by a factor of two, while the adhesion force of the Si NWs is similar to that of the Si substrate. Young's modulus, obtained from the force-distance curve, also shows that the pristine Si NWs have a relatively higher value than the lithiated Si NWs due to the elastically soft and amorphous structures of the lithiated region. These results suggest that force spectroscopy can be used to probe the degree of lithiation at nanometer scale during the charging and discharging processes. (paper)

  13. Development of nanomanipulator using a high-speed atomic force microscope coupled with a haptic device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwata, F.; Ohashi, Y.; Ishisaki, I.; Picco, L.M.; Ushiki, T.

    2013-01-01

    The atomic force microscope (AFM) has been widely used for surface fabrication and manipulation. However, nanomanipulation using a conventional AFM is inefficient because of the sequential nature of the scan-manipulation scan cycle, which makes it difficult for the operator to observe the region of interest and perform the manipulation simultaneously. In this paper, a nanomanipulation technique using a high-speed atomic force microscope (HS-AFM) is described. During manipulation using the AFM probe, the operation is periodically interrupted for a fraction of a second for high-speed imaging that allows the topographical image of the manipulated surface to be periodically updated. With the use of high-speed imaging, the interrupting time for imaging can be greatly reduced, and as a result, the operator almost does not notice the blink time of the interruption for imaging during the manipulation. This creates a more intuitive interface with greater feedback and finesse to the operator. Nanofabrication under real-time monitoring was performed to demonstrate the utility of this arrangement for real-time nanomanipulation of sample surfaces under ambient conditions. Furthermore, the HS-AFM is coupled with a haptic device for the human interface, enabling the operator to move the HS-AFM probe to any position on the surface while feeling the response from the surface during the manipulation. - Highlights: • A nanomanipulater based on a high-speed atomic force microscope was developped. • High-speed imaging provides a valuable feedback during the manipulation operation. • Operator can feel the response from the surface via a haptic device during manipulation. • Nanofabrications under real-time monitoring were successfully performed

  14. Atomic force microscopic study of the influence of physical stresses on Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adya, Ashok K; Canetta, Elisabetta; Walker, Graeme M

    2006-01-01

    Morphological changes in the cell surfaces of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (strain NCYC 1681), and the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe (strain DVPB 1354), in response to thermal and osmotic stresses, were investigated using an atomic force microscope. With this microscope imaging, together with measurements of culture viability and cell size, it was possible to relate topological changes of the cell surface at nanoscale with cellular stress physiology. As expected, when the yeasts were exposed to thermostress or osmostress, their viability together with the mean cell volume decreased in conjunction with the increase in thermal or osmotic shock. Nevertheless, the viability of cells stressed for up to 1 h remained relatively high. For example, viabilities were >50% and >90% for the thermostressed, and >60% and >70% for the osmostressed S. cerevisiae and Schiz. pombe, respectively. Mean cell volume measurements, and bearing and roughness analyses of atomic force microscope images of stressed yeasts indicate that Schiz. pombe may be more resistant to physical stresses than S. cerevisiae. Overall, this study has highlighted the usefulness of atomic force microscope in studies of yeast stress physiology.

  15. A new ion sensing deep atomic force microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drake, Barney; Randall, Connor; Bridges, Daniel; Hansma, Paul K. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)

    2014-08-15

    Here we describe a new deep atomic force microscope (AFM) capable of ion sensing. A novel probe assembly incorporates a micropipette that can be used both for sensing ion currents and as the tip for AFM imaging. The key advance of this instrument over previous ion sensing AFMs is that it uses conventional micropipettes in a novel suspension system. This paper focuses on sensing the ion current passively while using force feedback for the operation of the AFM in contact mode. Two images are obtained simultaneously: (1) an AFM topography image and (2) an ion current image. As an example, two images of a MEMS device with a microchannel show peaks in the ion current as the pipette tip goes over the edges of the channel. This ion sensing AFM can also be used in other modes including tapping mode with force feedback as well as in non-contact mode by utilizing the ion current for feedback, as in scanning ion conductance microscopy. The instrument is gentle enough to be used on some biological samples such as plant leaves.

  16. Subharmonic Oscillations and Chaos in Dynamic Atomic Force Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantrell, John H.; Cantrell, Sean A.

    2015-01-01

    The increasing use of dynamic atomic force microscopy (d-AFM) for nanoscale materials characterization calls for a deeper understanding of the cantilever dynamics influencing scan stability, predictability, and image quality. Model development is critical to such understanding. Renormalization of the equations governing d- AFM provides a simple interpretation of cantilever dynamics as a single spring and mass system with frequency dependent cantilever stiffness and damping parameters. The renormalized model is sufficiently robust to predict the experimentally observed splitting of the free-space cantilever resonance into multiple resonances upon cantilever-sample contact. Central to the model is the representation of the cantilever sample interaction force as a polynomial expansion with coefficients F(sub ij) (i,j = 0, 1, 2) that account for the effective interaction stiffness parameter, the cantilever-to-sample energy transfer, and the amplitude of cantilever oscillation. Application of the Melnikov method to the model equation is shown to predict a homoclinic bifurcation of the Smale horseshoe type leading to a cascade of period doublings with increasing drive displacement amplitude culminating in chaos and loss of image quality. The threshold value of the drive displacement amplitude necessary to initiate subharmonic generation depends on the acoustic drive frequency, the effective damping coefficient, and the nonlinearity of the cantilever-sample interaction force. For parameter values leading to displacement amplitudes below threshold for homoclinic bifurcation other bifurcation scenarios can occur, some of which lead to chaos.

  17. Single molecule imaging of RNA polymerase II using atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhodin, Thor; Fu Jianhua; Umemura, Kazuo; Gad, Mohammed; Jarvis, Suzi; Ishikawa, Mitsuru

    2003-01-01

    An atomic force microscopy (AFM) study of the shape, orientation and surface topology of RNA polymerase II supported on silanized freshly cleaved mica was made. The overall aim is to define the molecular topology of RNA polymerase II in appropriate fluids to help clarify the relationship of conformational features to biofunctionality. A Nanoscope III atomic force microscope was used in the tapping mode with oxide-sharpened (8-10 nm) Si 3 N 4 probes in aqueous zinc chloride buffer. The main structural features observed by AFM were compared to those derived from electron-density plots based on X-ray crystallographic studies. The conformational features included a bilobal silhouette with an inverted umbrella-shaped crater connected to a reaction site. These studies provide a starting point for constructing a 3D-AFM profiling analysis of proteins such as RNA polymerase complexes

  18. Atomic force microscopy imaging to measure precipitate volume fraction in nickel-based superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourhettar, A.; Troyon, M.; Hazotte, A.

    1995-01-01

    In nickel-based superalloys, quantitative analysis of scanning electron microscopy images fails in providing accurate microstructural data, whereas more efficient techniques are very time-consuming. As an alternative approach, the authors propose to perform quantitative analysis of atomic force microscopy images of polished/etched surfaces (quantitative microprofilometry). This permits the measurement of microstructural parameters and the depth of etching, which is the main source of measurement bias. Thus, nonbiased estimations can be obtained by extrapolation of the measurements up to zero etching depth. In this article, the authors used this approach to estimate the volume fraction of γ' precipitates in a nickel-based superalloy single crystal. Atomic force microscopy images of samples etched for different times show definition, homogeneity, and contrast high enough to perform image analysis. The result after extrapolation is in very good agreement with volume fraction values available from published reports

  19. Growth mechanism and surface atomic structure of AgInSe{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena Martin, Pamela; Rockett, Angus A.; Lyding, Joseph [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1304 W. Green St., Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and the Beckman Institute, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 405 N. Matthews St., Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2012-07-15

    The growth of (112)A-oriented AgInSe{sub 2} on GaAs (111)A and its surface reconstruction were studied by scanning tunneling microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and other techniques. Films were grown by a sputtering and evaporation method. Topographic STM images reveal that the film grew by atomic incorporation into surface steps resulting from screw dislocations on the surface. The screw dislocation density was {approx}10{sup 10} cm{sup 2}. Atomically resolved images also show that the surface atomic arrangement appears to be similar to that of the bulk, with a spacing of 0.35-0.41 nm. There is no observable reconstruction, which is unexpected for a polar semiconductor surface.

  20. The application of neutron reflectometry and atomic force microscopy in the study of corrosion inhibitor films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, Douglas; Blom, Annabelle; Bailey, Stuart; Nelson, Andrew; Schulz, Jamie; De Marco, Roland; Kinsella, Brian

    2006-01-01

    Corrosion inhibitor molecules function by adsorbing to a steel surface and thus prevent oxidation of the metal. The interfacial structures formed by a range of corrosion inhibitor molecules have been investigated by in situ measurements based on atomic force microscopy and neutron reflectometry. Inhibitors investigated include molecules cetyl pyridinium chloride (CPC), dodecyl pyridinium chloride (DPC), 1-hydroxyethyl-2-oleic imidazoline (OHEI) and cetyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride (CDMBAC). This has shown that the inhibitor molecules adsorb onto a surface in micellar structures. Corrosion measurements confirmed that maximum inhibition efficiency coincides with the solution critical micelle concentration

  1. Scattering of Hyperthermal Nitrogen Atoms from the Ag(111) Surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ueta, H.; Gleeson, M. A.; Kleyn, A. W.

    2009-01-01

    Measurements on scattering of hyperthermal N atoms from the Ag(111) Surface at temperatures of 500, 600, and 730 K are presented. The scattered atoms have a two-component angular distribution. One of the N components is very broad. In contrast, scattered Ar atoms exhibit only a sharp,

  2. Refined potentials for rare gas atom adsorption on rare gas and alkali-halide surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J. W.; Heinbockel, J. H.; Outlaw, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    The utilization of models of interatomic potential for physical interaction to estimate the long range attractive potential for rare gases and ions is discussed. The long range attractive force is calculated in terms of the atomic dispersion properties. A data base of atomic dispersion parameters for rare gas atoms, alkali ion, and halogen ions is applied to the study of the repulsive core; the procedure for evaluating the repulsive core of ion interactions is described. The interaction of rare gas atoms on ideal rare gas solid and alkali-halide surfaces is analyzed; zero coverage absorption potentials are derived.

  3. Morphological changes in textile fibres exposed to environmental stresses: atomic force microscopic examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canetta, Elisabetta; Montiel, Kimberley; Adya, Ashok K

    2009-10-30

    The ability of the atomic force microscope (AFM) to investigate the nanoscopic morphological changes in the surfaces of fabrics was examined for the first time. This study focussed on two natural (cotton and wool), and a regenerated cellulose (viscose) textile fibres exposed to various environmental stresses for different lengths of times. Analyses of the AFM images allowed us to measure quantitatively the surface texture parameters of the environmentally stressed fabrics as a function of the exposure time. It was also possible to visualise at the nanoscale the finest details of the surfaces of three weathered fabrics and clearly distinguish between the detrimental effects of the imposed environmental conditions. This study confirmed that the AFM could become a very powerful tool in forensic examination of textile fibres to provide significant fibre evidence due to its capability of distinguishing between different environmental exposures or forced damages to fibres.

  4. Brown algal morphogenesis: Atomic Force Microscopy as a tool to study the role of mechanical forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit eTesson

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few years, a growing interest has been directed toward the use of macroalgae as a source of energy, food and molecules for the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. Besides this, macroalgal development remains poorly understood compared to other multicellular organisms. Brown algae (Phaeophyceae form a monophyletic lineage of usually large multicellular algae which evolved independently from land plants. In their environment, they are subjected to strong mechanical forces (current, waves and tide, in response to which they modify rapidly and reversibly their morphology. Because of their specific cellular features (cell wall composition, cytoskeleton organization, deciphering how they cope with these forces might help discover new control mechanisms of cell wall softening and cellulose synthesis. Despite the current scarcity in knowledge on brown algal cell wall dynamics and protein composition, we will illustrate, in the light of methods adapted to Ectocarpus siliculosus, to what extent atomic force microscopy can contribute to advance this field of investigation.

  5. Force and Compliance Measurements on Living Cells Using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojcikiewicz Ewa P.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the use of atomic force microscopy (AFM in studies of cell adhesion and cell compliance. Our studies use the interaction between leukocyte function associated antigen-1 (LFA-1/intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 as a model system. The forces required to unbind a single LFA-1/ICAM-1 bond were measured at different loading rates. This data was used to determine the dynamic strength of the LFA-1/ICAM-1 complex and characterize the activation potential that this complex overcomes during its breakage. Force measurements acquired at the multiple- bond level provided insight about the mechanism of cell adhesion. In addition, the AFM was used as a microindenter to determine the mechanical properties of cells. The applications of these methods are described using data from a previous study.

  6. Atomic force microscopy and force spectroscopy on the assessment of protein folding and functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Filomena A; Martins, Ivo C; Santos, Nuno C

    2013-03-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) applied to biological systems can, besides generating high-quality and well-resolved images, be employed to study protein folding via AFM-based force spectroscopy. This approach allowed remarkable advances in the measurement of inter- and intramolecular interaction forces with piconewton resolution. The detection of specific interaction forces between molecules based on the AFM sensitivity and the manipulation of individual molecules greatly advanced the understanding of intra-protein and protein-ligand interactions. Apart from the academic interest in the resolution of basic scientific questions, this technique has also key importance on the clarification of several biological questions of immediate biomedical relevance. Force spectroscopy is an especially appropriate technique for "mechanical proteins" that can provide crucial information on single protein molecules and/or domains. Importantly, it also has the potential of combining in a single experiment spatial and kinetic measurements. Here, the main principles of this methodology are described, after which the ability to measure interactions at the single-molecule level is discussed, in the context of relevant protein-folding examples. We intend to demonstrate the potential of AFM-based force spectroscopy in the study of protein folding, especially since this technique is able to circumvent some of the difficulties typically encountered in classical thermal/chemical denaturation studies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Digital phase-shifting atomic force microscope Moire method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chiaming; Chen Lienwen

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the digital atomic force microscope (AFM) Moire method with phase-shifting technology is established to measure the in-plane displacement and strain fields. The Moire pattern is generated by the interference between the specimen grating and the virtual reference grating formed by digital image processes. The overlapped image is filtered by two-dimensional wavelet transformation to obtain the clear interference Moire patterns. The four-step phase-shifting method is realized by translating the phase of the virtual reference grating from 0 to 2π. The principle of the digital AFM Moire method and the phase-shifting technology are described in detail. Experimental results show that this method is convenient to use and efficient in realizing the microscale measurement

  8. A subsurface add-on for standard atomic force microscopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verbiest, G. J., E-mail: Verbiest@physik.rwth-aachen.de [JARA-FIT and II. Institute of Physics, RWTH Aachen University, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Zalm, D. J. van der; Oosterkamp, T. H.; Rost, M. J., E-mail: Rost@physics.leidenuniv.nl [Kamerlingh Onnes Laboratory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9504, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2015-03-15

    The application of ultrasound in an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) gives access to subsurface information. However, no commercially AFM exists that is equipped with this technique. The main problems are the electronic crosstalk in the AFM setup and the insufficiently strong excitation of the cantilever at ultrasonic (MHz) frequencies. In this paper, we describe the development of an add-on that provides a solution to these problems by using a special piezo element with a lowest resonance frequency of 2.5 MHz and by separating the electronic connection for this high frequency piezo element from all other connections. In this sense, we support researches with the possibility to perform subsurface measurements with their existing AFMs and hopefully pave also the way for the development of a commercial AFM that is capable of imaging subsurface features with nanometer resolution.

  9. Measuring the elasticity of plant cells with atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braybrook, Siobhan A

    2015-01-01

    The physical properties of biological materials impact their functions. This is most evident in plants where the cell wall contains each cell's contents and connects each cell to its neighbors irreversibly. Examining the physical properties of the plant cell wall is key to understanding how plant cells, tissues, and organs grow and gain the shapes important for their respective functions. Here, we present an atomic force microscopy-based nanoindentation method for examining the elasticity of plant cells at the subcellular, cellular, and tissue level. We describe the important areas of experimental design to be considered when planning and executing these types of experiments and provide example data as illustration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A Novel Atomic Force Microscope with Multi-Mode Scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, Chun; Zhang, Haijun; Xu, Rui; Han, Xu; Wang, Shuying

    2016-01-01

    A new type of atomic force microscope (AFM) with multi-mode scanner is proposed. The AFM system provides more than four scanning modes using a specially designed scanner with three tube piezoelectric ceramics and three stack piezoelectric ceramics. Sample scanning of small range with high resolution can be realized by using tube piezos, meanwhile, large range scanning can be achieved by stack piezos. Furthermore, the combination with tube piezos and stack piezos not only realizes high-resolution scanning of small samples with large- scale fluctuation structure, but also achieves small range area-selecting scanning. Corresponding experiments are carried out in terms of four different scanning modes showing that the AFM is of reliable stability, high resolution and can be widely applied in the fields of micro/nano-technology. (paper)

  11. Nanodot deposition and its application with atomic force microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Zenglei, E-mail: liuzenglei@sia.cn; Jiao Niandong, E-mail: ndjiao@sia.cn [Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Robotics, Shenyang Institute of Automation (China); Xu Ke [Shenyang Jianzhu University (China); Wang, Zhidong [Chiba Institute of Technology (Japan); Dong Zaili; Liu Lianqing [Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Robotics, Shenyang Institute of Automation (China)

    2013-06-15

    Nanodot deposition using atomic force microscope (AFM) is investigated. To realize repeatable and precise deposition of nanodots, the detailed control method is discussed. The electric field between AFM tip and substrate is analyzed, and a convenient method to control tip-substrate separation is proposed. In experiments, two nanodot matrixes are fabricated and the heights of the nanodots are analyzed. Experimental results testify that the control method can lead to repeatable and precise fabrication of deposited nanodots. As an application of deposited nanodots, a carbon nanotube (CNT) is soldered on gold electrodes with deposited Au nanodots. After soldering, the contact resistances between the CNT and the electrodes decrease greatly. AFM-based nanodot deposition can be used to fabricate special nanopatterns; also it can be used to solder nanomaterials on substrates to improve the electrical connection, which has a promising future for nanodevice fabrication.

  12. Unlocking higher harmonics in atomic force microscopy with gentle interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Sergio; Barcons, Victor; Font, Josep; Verdaguer, Albert

    2014-01-01

    In dynamic atomic force microscopy, nanoscale properties are encoded in the higher harmonics. Nevertheless, when gentle interactions and minimal invasiveness are required, these harmonics are typically undetectable. Here, we propose to externally drive an arbitrary number of exact higher harmonics above the noise level. In this way, multiple contrast channels that are sensitive to compositional variations are made accessible. Numerical integration of the equation of motion shows that the external introduction of exact harmonic frequencies does not compromise the fundamental frequency. Thermal fluctuations are also considered within the detection bandwidth of interest and discussed in terms of higher-harmonic phase contrast in the presence and absence of an external excitation of higher harmonics. Higher harmonic phase shifts further provide the means to directly decouple the true topography from that induced by compositional heterogeneity.

  13. Progress in the Correlative Atomic Force Microscopy and Optical Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lulu Zhou

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Atomic force microscopy (AFM has evolved from the originally morphological imaging technique to a powerful and multifunctional technique for manipulating and detecting the interactions between molecules at nanometer resolution. However, AFM cannot provide the precise information of synchronized molecular groups and has many shortcomings in the aspects of determining the mechanism of the interactions and the elaborate structure due to the limitations of the technology, itself, such as non-specificity and low imaging speed. To overcome the technical limitations, it is necessary to combine AFM with other complementary techniques, such as fluorescence microscopy. The combination of several complementary techniques in one instrument has increasingly become a vital approach to investigate the details of the interactions among molecules and molecular dynamics. In this review, we reported the principles of AFM and optical microscopy, such as confocal microscopy and single-molecule localization microscopy, and focused on the development and use of correlative AFM and optical microscopy.

  14. Visualising the Micro World of Chemical/Geochemical Interactions Using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, G M; Sorbie, K S

    1997-12-31

    Scanning force microscopy, in particular AFM (Atomic Force Microscopy), provides a particular useful and interesting tool for the examination of surface structure at the near-atomic level. AFM is particularly well suited to the study of interactions at the surface in aqueous solutions using real time in-situ measurements. In this paper there is presented AFM images showing in situ crystal growth from supersaturated BaSO{sub 4} solutions onto the surface of barite. Growth structures in the form of spiral crystal growth features, presumably originating from screw dislocations, are illustrated. AFM images of novel scale crystal growth inhibition experiments are presented. Examination of the manner in which generically different species adsorb onto growth structures may help to explain mechanistic differences in the way which different inhibitor species perform against barium sulphate scale formation. Adsorption of polyacrylamide species onto mica surfaces have been viewed. The general utility of AFM to a number of other common surface interactions in oil field chemistry will be discussed. 17 refs., 3 figs.

  15. A simulation of atomic force microscope microcantilever in the tapping mode utilizing couple stress theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Mohammad

    2018-04-01

    The nonlinear vibration behavior of a Tapping mode atomic force microscopy (TM-AFM) microcantilever under acoustic excitation force has been modeled and investigated. In dynamic AFM, the tip-surface interactions are strongly nonlinear, rapidly changing and hysteretic. First, the governing differential equation of motion and boundary conditions for dynamic analysis are obtained using the modified couple stress theory. Afterwards, closed-form expressions for nonlinear frequency and effective nonlinear damping ratio are derived utilizing perturbation method. The effect of tip connection position on the vibration behavior of the microcantilever are also analyzed. The results show that nonlinear frequency is size dependent. According to the results, an increase in the equilibrium separation between the tip and the sample surface reduces the overall effect of van der Waals forces on the nonlinear frequency, but its effect on the effective nonlinear damping ratio is negligible. The results also indicate that both the change in the distance between tip and cantilever free end and the reduction of tip radius have significant effects on the accuracy and sensitivity of the TM-AFM in the measurement of surface forces. The hysteretic behavior has been observed in the near resonance frequency response due to softening and hardening of the forced vibration response. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A compact atomic force-scanning tunneling microscope for studying microelectronics and environmental aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, G.

    1996-06-01

    This dissertation describes the characteristics and the construction of a compact atomic force/scanning tunneling microscope (AFM/STM). The basics and the method of preparing a tunneling junction between a chemically etched tunneling tip and a micro-manufactured cantilever is outlined by analyzing the forces between tunneling tip and cantilever as well as between force-sensing tip and sample surfaces. To our best knowledge this instrument is the first one using a commercial cantilever with only one piezoelectric tube carrying the whole tunneling sensor. The feedback control system has been optimized after a careful analysis of the electronic loop characteristics. The mode of operation has been determined by analyzing the dynamic characteristics of the scan heads and by investigating the time characteristics of the data acquisition system. The vibration isolation system has been calibrated by analyzing the characteristics of the damping setup and the stiffness of the scan head. The calculated results agree well with the measured ones. Also, a software package for data acquisition and real time display as well as for image processing and three-dimensional visualization has been developed. With this home-made software package, the images can be processed by means of a convolution filter, a Wiener filter and other 2-D FFT filters, and can be displayed in different ways. Atomic resolution images of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) and graphite surfaces have been obtained in AFM and STM mode. New theoretical explanations have been given for the observed anomalous STM and AFM images of graphite by calculating the asymmetric distribution of quantum conductance and tip-surface forces on a graphite surface. This not only resolved the theoretical puzzles of STM and AFM of graphite, but also revealed the relation between atomic force microscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy of graphite. Applications of STM and AFM to micro-electronic devices have been investigated

  17. Observation of He bubbles in ion irradiated fusion materials by conductive atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Hongyu [School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian 116600 (China); Li, Ruihuan [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Yang, Deming [School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian 116600 (China); School of Science, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun, Jilin 130022 (China); Wu, Yunfeng; Niu, Jinhai; Yang, Qi [School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian 116600 (China); Zhao, Jijun [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Liu, Dongping, E-mail: dongping.liu@dlnu.edu.cn [School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian 116600 (China); Fujian Key Laboratory for Plasma and Magnetic Resonance, Department of Electronic Science, Aeronautics, School of Physics and Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China)

    2013-10-15

    Using a non-destructive conductive atomic force microscope combined with the Ar{sup +} etching technique, we demonstrate that nanoscale and conductive He bubbles are formed in the implanted layer of single-crystalline 6H-SiC irradiated with 100 keV He{sup +}. We find that the surface swelling of irradiated SiC samples is well correlated with the growth of elliptic He bubbles in the implanted layer. First-principle calculations are performed to estimate the internal pressure of the He bubble in the void of SiC. Analysis indicates that nanoscale He bubbles acting as a captor capture the He atoms diffusing along the implanted layer at an evaluated temperature and result in the surface swelling of irradiated SiC materials.

  18. Identification of 6H-SiC polar faces with pull-off force of atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gan, Di; Song, Youting; Yang, Junwei; Chen, Hongxiang [Research & development Center for Functional Crystals, Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Guo, Liwei, E-mail: lwguo@iphy.ac.cn [Research & development Center for Functional Crystals, Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Chen, Xiaolong, E-mail: chenx29@iphy.ac.cn [Research & development Center for Functional Crystals, Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing (China)

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • A new method is proposed and demonstrated to distinguish the polar faces of 6H-SiC by pull-off forces which are clearly different on the Si-face and the C-face of 6H-SiC. • The reliability of this method is confirmed on 6H-SiC samples treated with different surface processing procedures. • The essence of different pull-off forces on different polar faces of 6H-SiC is that the surface energies between them are obviously different. • Theoretical calculations are consistent with our experimental results. - Abstract: Distinguishing SiC (0001) Si-face from SiC (000-1) C-face without any damages is extremely important because the two polar faces have different physical and chemical properties which seriously influence the quality of a homoepitaxy or heteroepitaxy thin film on it. Here, a convenient and nondestructive detection method is developed to distinguish the Si-face and C-face of a (0001) oriented SiC wafer by employing a pull-off force measurement using atomic force microscopy. It is found that the pull-off force from a Si-face of 6H-SiC is about two times of that from a C-face, no matter it is a two-face chemical mechanical polishing or etched 6H-SiC wafer. The method developed here is suitable to identify polar faces of materials only if the two polar faces having different surface energy.

  19. Influence of Poisson's ratio variation on lateral spring constant of atomic force microscopy cantilevers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, M.-K.; Tai, N.-Ha; Chen, B.-Y.

    2008-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) can be used to measure the surface morphologies and the mechanical properties of nanostructures. The force acting on the AFM cantilever can be obtained by multiplying the spring constant of AFM cantilever and the corresponding deformation. To improve the accuracy of force experiments, the spring constant of AFM cantilever must be calibrated carefully. Many methods, such as theoretical equations, the finite element method, and the use of reference cantilever, were reported to obtain the spring constant of AFM cantilevers. For the cantilever made of single crystal, the Poisson's ratio varies with different cantilever-crystal angles. In this paper, the influences of Poisson's ratio variation on the lateral spring constant and axial spring constant of rectangular and V-shaped AFM cantilevers, with different tilt angles and normal forces, were investigated by the finite element analysis. When the cantilever's tilt angle is 20 deg. and the Poisson's ratio varies from 0.02 to 0.4, the finite element results show that the lateral spring constants decrease 11.75% for the rectangular cantilever with 1 μN landing force and decrease 18.60% for the V-shaped cantilever with 50 nN landing force, respectively. The influence of Poisson's ratio variation on axial spring constant is less than 3% for both rectangular and V-shaped cantilevers. As the tilt angle increases, the axial spring constants for rectangular and V-shaped cantilevers decrease substantially. The results obtained can be used to improve the accuracy of the lateral force measurement when using atomic force microscopy

  20. Improving tapping mode atomic force microscopy with piezoelectric cantilevers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, B.; Manning, L.; Sulchek, T.; Adams, J.D.

    2004-01-01

    This article summarizes improvements to the speed, simplicity and versatility of tapping mode atomic force microscopy (AFM). Improvements are enabled by a piezoelectric microcantilever with a sharp silicon tip and a thin, low-stress zinc oxide (ZnO) film to both actuate and sense deflection. First, we demonstrate self-sensing tapping mode without laser detection. Similar previous work has been limited by unoptimized probe tips, cantilever thicknesses, and stress in the piezoelectric films. Tests indicate self-sensing amplitude resolution is as good or better than optical detection, with double the sensitivity, using the same type of cantilever. Second, we demonstrate self-oscillating tapping mode AFM. The cantilever's integrated piezoelectric film serves as the frequency-determining component of an oscillator circuit. The circuit oscillates the cantilever near its resonant frequency by applying positive feedback to the film. We present images and force-distance curves using both self-sensing and self-oscillating techniques. Finally, high-speed tapping mode imaging in liquid, where electric components of the cantilever require insulation, is demonstrated. Three cantilever coating schemes are tested. The insulated microactuator is used to simultaneously vibrate and actuate the cantilever over topographical features. Preliminary images in water and saline are presented, including one taken at 75.5 μm/s - a threefold improvement in bandwidth versus conventional piezotube actuators

  1. Atomic force microscopy of pea starch: origins of image contrast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridout, Michael J; Parker, Mary L; Hedley, Cliff L; Bogracheva, Tatiana Y; Morris, Victor J

    2004-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been used to image the internal structure of pea starch granules. Starch granules were encased in a nonpenetrating matrix of rapid-set Araldite. Images were obtained of the internal structure of starch exposed by cutting the face of the block and of starch in sections collected on water. These images have been obtained without staining, or either chemical or enzymatic treatment of the granule. It has been demonstrated that contrast in the AFM images is due to localized absorption of water within specific regions of the exposed fragments of the starch granules. These regions swell, becoming "softer" and higher than surrounding regions. The images obtained confirm the "blocklet model" of starch granule architecture. By using topographic, error signal and force modulation imaging modes on samples of the wild-type pea starch and the high amylose r near-isogenic mutant, it has been possible to demonstrate differing structures within granules of different origin. These architectural changes provide a basis for explaining the changed appearance and functionality of the r mutant. The growth-ring structure of the granule is suggested to arise from localized "defects" in blocklet distribution within the granule. It is proposed that these defects are partially crystalline regions devoid of amylose.

  2. Nanomechanical cutting of boron nitride nanotubes by atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Meng; Chen, Xiaoming; Ke, Changhong; Park, Cheol; Fay, Catharine C; Pugno, Nicola M

    2013-01-01

    The length of nanotubes is a critical structural parameter for the design and manufacture of nanotube-based material systems and devices. High-precision length control of nanotubes by means of mechanical cutting using a scriber has not materialized due to the lack of the knowledge of the appropriate cutting conditions and the tube failure mechanism. In this paper, we present a quantitative nanomechanical study of the cutting of individual boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) using atomic force microscopy (AFM) probes. In our nanotube cutting measurements, a nanotube standing still on a flat substrate was laterally scribed by an AFM tip. The tip–tube collision force deformed the tube, and eventually fractured the tube at the collision site by increasing the cutting load. The mechanical response of nanotubes during the tip–tube collision process and the roles of the scribing velocity and the frictional interaction on the tip–tube collision contact in cutting nanotubes were quantitatively investigated by cutting double-walled BNNTs of 2.26–4.28 nm in outer diameter. The fracture strength of BNNTs was also quantified based on the measured collision forces and their structural configurations using contact mechanics theories. Our analysis reports fracture strengths of 9.1–15.5 GPa for the tested BNNTs. The nanomechanical study presented in this paper demonstrates that the AFM-based nanomechanical cutting technique not only enables effective control of the length of nanotubes with high precision, but is also promising as a new nanomechanical testing technique for characterizing the mechanical properties of tubular nanostructures. (paper)

  3. Diameter measurements of polystyrene particles with atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnaes, J

    2011-01-01

    The size of (nano) particles is a key parameter used in controlling their function. The particle size is also important in order to understand their physical and chemical properties and regulate their number in health and safety issues. In this work, the geometric diameters of polystyrene spheres of nominal diameter 100 nm are measured using atomic force microscopy. The measurements are based on the apex height and on the average distance between neighbouring spheres when they form a close-packed monolayer on a flat mica substrate. The most important influence parameters for the determination of the geometric diameter are the lateral air gaps and deformation of the spheres. The lateral air gaps are caused by significant size variations of the individual spheres, and a correction is calculated based on the simulation of packing of spheres. The deformation of the spheres is caused mainly by capillary forces acting when they are in contact with each other or with the mica substrate. Based on calculated capillary forces and the literature values of the elastic properties of the polystyrene and mica, the deformation is estimated to be 2 nm with a standard uncertainty of 2 nm. The geometric diameter of the polystyrene spheres was measured with a combined standard uncertainty of ≈3 nm. The measured vertical diameter of 92.3 nm and the certified mobility equivalent diameter measured by differential mobility analysis (DMA) are marginally consistent at a confidence level of 95%. However, the measured lateral geometric diameter was 98.9 nm and is in good agreement with DMA

  4. Specialized probes based on hydroxyapatite calcium for heart tissues research by atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhukov, Mikhail; Golubok, Alexander; Gulyaev, Nikolai

    2016-01-01

    The new specialized AFM-probes with hydroxyapatite structures for atomic force microscopy of heart tissues calcification were created and studied. A process of probe fabrication is demonstrated. The adhesive forces between specialized hydroxyapatite probe and endothelium/subendothelial layers were investigated. It was found that the adhesion forces are significantly higher for the subendothelial layers. We consider that it is connected with the formation and localization of hydroxyapatite in the area of subendothelial layers of heart tissues. In addition, the roughness analysis and structure visualization of the endothelial surface of the heart tissue were carried out. The results show high efficiency of created specialized probes at study a calcinations process of the aortic heart tissues.

  5. Effectiveness of Modal Decomposition for Tapping Atomic Force Microscopy Microcantilevers in Liquid Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Il Kwang; Lee, Soo Il

    2016-05-01

    The modal decomposition of tapping mode atomic force microscopy microcantilevers in liquid environments was studied experimentally. Microcantilevers with different lengths and stiffnesses and two sample surfaces with different elastic moduli were used in the experiment. The response modes of the microcantilevers were extracted as proper orthogonal modes through proper orthogonal decomposition. Smooth orthogonal decomposition was used to estimate the resonance frequency directly. The effects of the tapping setpoint and the elastic modulus of the sample under test were examined in terms of their multi-mode responses with proper orthogonal modes, proper orthogonal values, smooth orthogonal modes and smooth orthogonal values. Regardless of the stiffness of the microcantilever under test, the first mode was dominant in tapping mode atomic force microscopy under normal operating conditions. However, at lower tapping setpoints, the flexible microcantilever showed modal distortion and noise near the tip when tapping on a hard sample. The stiff microcantilever had a higher mode effect on a soft sample at lower tapping setpoints. Modal decomposition for tapping mode atomic force microscopy can thus be used to estimate the characteristics of samples in liquid environments.

  6. Optimization of Easy Atomic Force Microscope (ezAFM) Controls for Semiconductor Nanostructure Profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    ARL-MR-0965 ● SEP 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Optimization of Easy Atomic Force Microscope (ezAFM) Controls for... Optimization of Easy Atomic Force Microscope (ezAFM) Controls for Semiconductor Nanostructure Profiling by Satwik Bisoi Science and...REPORT TYPE Memorandum Report 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 2017 July 05–2017 August 18 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Optimization of Easy Atomic Force

  7. Characterization of age-hardening behavior of eutectic surface on rheo-cast A356-T5 alloy by using nano/micro-indentation, scratching and atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youn, S.W. [Department of Precision and Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University, Pusan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: youn.sung-won@aist.go.jp; Kang, C.G. [National Research Laboratory of Thixo/Rheo Forming, School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University, JangJun-Dong, Gumjung-Gu, Pusan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: cgkang@pusan.ac.kr

    2006-11-10

    This study investigates the nano/microstructure, the aging response (in T5 heat treatment), and the mechanical/tribological properties of the eutectic regions in rheo-cast A356 alloy parts using nano/micro-indentation and mechanical scratching, combined with optical microscopy and atomic force microscope (AFM). Most eutectic Si crystals in the A356 alloy showed a modified morphology as fine-fibers. The loading curve for the eutectic region was more irregular than that of the primary Al region due to the presence of various particles of varying strength. The aging responses of the eutectic regions in the rheo-cast A356 alloys aged at 150 deg. C for different times (0, 2, 4, 8, 10, 16, 24, 36, and 72 h) were investigated. Both Vickers hardness and indentation test results showed a similar trend of aging curves, and the peak was obtained at the same aging time of 10 h. A remarkable size-dependence of the tests was found. The friction coefficient for the eutectic region was lower than that for the primary Al region.

  8. Sub-nanometer-resolution imaging of peptide nanotubes in water using frequency modulation atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugihara, Tomoki; Hayashi, Itsuho; Onishi, Hiroshi [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai-cho, Nada-ku, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Kimura, Kenjiro, E-mail: kimura@gold.kobe-u.ac.jp [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai-cho, Nada-ku, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Tamura, Atsuo [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai-cho, Nada-ku, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)

    2013-06-20

    Highlights: ► Peptide nanotubes were aligned on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite surface. ► We visualized sub-nanometer-scale structure on peptide nanotube surface in water. ► We observed hydration structure at a peptide nanotube/water interface. - Abstract: Peptide nanotubes are self-assembled fibrous materials composed of cyclic polypeptides. Recently, various aspects of peptide nanotubes have been studied, in particular the utility of different methods for making peptide nanotubes with diverse designed functions. In order to investigate the relationship between formation, function and stability, it is essential to analyze the precise structure of peptide nanotubes. Atomic-scale surface imaging in liquids was recently achieved using frequency modulation atomic force microscopy with improved force sensing. Here we provide a precise surface structural analysis of peptide nanotubes in water without crystallizing them obtained by imaging the nanotubes at the sub-nanometer scale in water. In addition, the local hydration structure around the peptide nanotubes was observed at the nanotube/water interface.

  9. Effects of substrates on biofilm formation observed by atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Y.J.; Lee, N.R.; Jo, W.; Jung, W.K.; Lim, J.S.

    2009-01-01

    Formation of biofilm is known to be strongly dependent on substrates including topography, materials, and chemical treatment. In this study, a variety of substrates are tested for understanding biofilm formation. Sheets of aluminum, steel, rubber, and polypropylene have been used to examine their effects on formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm. In particular, the morphological variation, transition, and adhesiveness of biofilm were investigated through local measurement by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Mechanism of removing biofilm from adhering to substrate is also analyzed, thus the understanding of the mechanism can be potentially useful to prevent the biofilm formation. The results reveal that formation of biofilm can remain on rough surface regardless of substrates in hot water, which may easily induce extra-polymeric substances detachment from bacterial surface. By probing using AFM, local force-distance characterization of extra-cellular materials extracted from the bacteria can exhibit the progress of the biofilm formation and functional complexities.

  10. Tunable atomic force microscopy bias lithography on electron beam induced carbonaceous platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendra Kurra

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Tunable local electrochemical and physical modifications on the carbonaceous platforms are achieved using Atomic force microscope (AFM bias lithography. These carbonaceous platforms are produced on Si substrate by the technique called electron beam induced carbonaceous deposition (EBICD. EBICD is composed of functionalized carbon species, confirmed through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS analysis. AFM bias lithography in tapping mode with a positive tip bias resulted in the nucleation of attoliter water on the EBICD surface under moderate humidity conditions (45%. While the lithography in the contact mode with a negative tip bias caused the electrochemical modifications such as anodic oxidation and etching of the EBICD under moderate (45% and higher (60% humidity conditions respectively. Finally, reversible charge patterns are created on these EBICD surfaces under low (30% humidity conditions and investigated by means of electrostatic force microscopy (EFM.

  11. Studying the Adhesion Force and Glass Transition of Thin Polystyrene Films by Atomic Force Microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kang, Hua; Qian, Xiaoqin; Guan, Li

    2018-01-01

    microscopy (AFM)-based forcedistance curve to study the relaxation dynamics and the film thickness dependence of glass transition temperature (T-g) for normal thin polystyrene (PS) films supported on silicon substrate. The adhesion force (F-ad) between AFM tip and normal thin PS film surfaces...

  12. Atomic-force microscopy: a powerful, multipurpose technique for the investigation of materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cousty, J.

    2010-01-01

    An atomic-force microscope (AFM) comprises a probe (a tip) mounted at the free extremity of a spring of known stiffness, a control system, and a scanning system, which moves the probe across the sample's surface. The interaction between probe and surface (forces, or force gradient) is kept equal to a set value, by continuously adjusting the separation distance, via a feedback loop. An AFM image thus corresponds to a constant-interaction contour, obtained by moving the tip along the surface. This contour matches, as a rule, the topography of the sample. The image obtained is then the topography of the surface. The contribution made by AFM to materials science is illustrated in 4 examples. The first example concerns the first observations of irradiation damage in an electrical insulator material, thus one not readily observable by means of conventional electron microscopes. The second illustration relates to monitoring the emergence of defects due to plastic deformation observed in metals. The third example serves as an illustration of the capability afforded by AFM, of ensuring the acquisition of two types of information. Using an AFM fitted with a special module, the electrical resistivity of the passive layer that covers the surface of stainless steels was measured, concurrently with the sample's topography. The final illustration concerns the 3-dimensional self-organization of molecules at the interface between a solid and a liquid. (A.C.)

  13. The possibility of multi-layer nanofabrication via atomic force microscope-based pulse electrochemical nanopatterning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Uk Su; Morita, Noboru; Lee, Deug Woo; Jun, Martin; Park, Jeong Woo

    2017-05-01

    Pulse electrochemical nanopatterning, a non-contact scanning probe lithography process using ultrashort voltage pulses, is based primarily on an electrochemical machining process using localized electrochemical oxidation between a sharp tool tip and the sample surface. In this study, nanoscale oxide patterns were formed on silicon Si (100) wafer surfaces via electrochemical surface nanopatterning, by supplying external pulsed currents through non-contact atomic force microscopy. Nanoscale oxide width and height were controlled by modulating the applied pulse duration. Additionally, protruding nanoscale oxides were removed completely by simple chemical etching, showing a depressed pattern on the sample substrate surface. Nanoscale two-dimensional oxides, prepared by a localized electrochemical reaction, can be defined easily by controlling physical and electrical variables, before proceeding further to a layer-by-layer nanofabrication process.

  14. Adsorption and manipulation of carbon onions on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite studied with atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Jianfeng; Shen Ziyong; Hou Shimin; Zhao Xingyu; Xue Zengquan; Shi Zujin; Gu Zhennan

    2007-01-01

    Carbon onions produced by DC arc discharge method were deposited on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) surface and their adsorption and manipulation was studied using an atomic force microscopy (AFM). Well-dispersed adsorption of carbon onions on HOPG surface was obtained and aggregations of onions were not observed. The van der Waals interaction between the onion and HOPG surface and that between two onions, were calculated and discussed using Hamaker's theory. The manipulation of adsorbed onions on HOPG surface was realized using the AFM in both the raster mode and the vector mode. The controllability and precision of two manipulation modes were compared and the vector mode manipulation was found superior, and is a useful technique for the construction of nano-scale devices based on carbon onions

  15. Immobilization method of yeast cells for intermittent contact mode imaging using the atomic force microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De, Tathagata; Chettoor, Antony M.; Agarwal, Pranav; Salapaka, Murti V.; Nettikadan, Saju

    2010-01-01

    The atomic force microscope (AFM) is widely used for studying the surface morphology and growth of live cells. There are relatively fewer reports on the AFM imaging of yeast cells (Kasas and Ikai, 1995), (Gad and Ikai, 1995). Yeasts have thick and mechanically strong cell walls and are therefore difficult to attach to a solid substrate. In this report, a new immobilization technique for the height mode imaging of living yeast cells in solid media using AFM is presented. The proposed technique allows the cell surface to be almost completely exposed to the environment and studied using AFM. Apart from the new immobilization protocol, for the first time, height mode imaging of live yeast cell surface in intermittent contact mode is presented in this report. Stable and reproducible imaging over a 10-h time span is observed. A significant improvement in operational stability will facilitate the investigation of growth patterns and surface patterns of yeast cells.

  16. Measurements of dispersion forces between colloidal latex particles with the atomic force microscope and comparison with Lifshitz theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elzbieciak-Wodka, Magdalena; Ruiz-Cabello, F. Javier Montes; Trefalt, Gregor; Maroni, Plinio; Borkovec, Michal, E-mail: michal.borkovec@unige.ch [Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, University of Geneva, Sciences II, 30, Quai Ernest-Ansermet, 1205 Geneva (Switzerland); Popescu, Mihail N. [Ian Wark Research Institute, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia)

    2014-03-14

    Interaction forces between carboxylate colloidal latex particles of about 2 μm in diameter immersed in aqueous solutions of monovalent salts were measured with the colloidal probe technique, which is based on the atomic force microscope. We have systematically varied the ionic strength, the type of salt, and also the surface charge densities of the particles through changes in the solution pH. Based on these measurements, we have accurately measured the dispersion forces acting between the particles and estimated the apparent Hamaker constant to be (2.0 ± 0.5) × 10{sup −21} J at a separation distance of about 10 nm. This value is basically independent of the salt concentration and the type of salt. Good agreement with Lifshitz theory is found when roughness effects are taken into account. The combination of retardation and roughness effects reduces the value of the apparent Hamaker constant and its ionic strength dependence with respect to the case of ideally smooth surfaces.

  17. Synchronizing atomic force microscopy force mode and fluorescence microscopy in real time for immune cell stimulation and activation studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazaux, Séverine; Sadoun, Anaïs; Biarnes-Pelicot, Martine; Martinez, Manuel; Obeid, Sameh [Aix Marseille Université, LAI UM 61, Marseille F-13288 (France); Inserm, UMR-S 1067, Marseille F-13288 (France); CNRS, UMR 7333, Marseille F-13288 (France); Bongrand, Pierre [Aix Marseille Université, LAI UM 61, Marseille F-13288 (France); Inserm, UMR-S 1067, Marseille F-13288 (France); CNRS, UMR 7333, Marseille F-13288 (France); APHM, Hôpital de la Conception, Laboratoire d’Immunologie, Marseille F-13385 (France); Limozin, Laurent [Aix Marseille Université, LAI UM 61, Marseille F-13288 (France); Inserm, UMR-S 1067, Marseille F-13288 (France); CNRS, UMR 7333, Marseille F-13288 (France); Puech, Pierre-Henri, E-mail: pierre-henri.puech@inserm.fr [Aix Marseille Université, LAI UM 61, Marseille F-13288 (France); Inserm, UMR-S 1067, Marseille F-13288 (France); CNRS, UMR 7333, Marseille F-13288 (France)

    2016-01-15

    A method is presented for combining atomic force microscopy (AFM) force mode and fluorescence microscopy in order to (a) mechanically stimulate immune cells while recording the subsequent activation under the form of calcium pulses, and (b) observe the mechanical response of a cell upon photoactivation of a small G protein, namely Rac. Using commercial set-ups and a robust signal coupling the fluorescence excitation light and the cantilever bending, the applied force and activation signals were very easily synchronized. This approach allows to control the entire mechanical history of a single cell up to its activation and response down to a few hundreds of milliseconds, and can be extended with very minimal adaptations to other cellular systems where mechanotransduction is studied, using either purely mechanical stimuli or via a surface bound specific ligand. - Highlights: • A signal coupling AFM and fluorescence microscopy was characterized for soft cantilevers. • It can be used as an intrinsic timer to synchronize images and forces. • Mechanical stimulation of single immune cells while recording calcium fluxes was detailed. • Light-induced mechanical modifications of lymphocytes using a PA-Rac protein were demonstrated. • The precautions and limitations of use of this effect were presented.

  18. Imaging of Au nanoparticles deeply buried in polymer matrix by various atomic force microscopy techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Kuniko; Kobayashi, Kei; Matsushige, Kazumi; Yamada, Hirofumi

    2013-01-01

    Recently, some papers reported successful imaging of subsurface features using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Some theoretical studies have also been presented, however the imaging mechanisms are not fully understood yet. In the preceeding papers, imaging of deeply buried nanometer-scale features has been successful only if they were buried in a soft matrix. In this paper, subsurface features (Au nanoparticles) buried in a soft polymer matrix were visualized. To elucidate the imaging mechanisms, various AFM techniques; heterodyne force microscopy, ultrasonic atomic force microscopy (UAFM), 2nd-harmonic UAFM and force modulation microscopy (FMM) were employed. The particles buried under 960 nm from the surface were successfully visualized which has never been achieved. The results elucidated that it is important for subsurface imaging to choose a cantilever with a suitable stiffness range for a matrix. In case of using the most suitable cantilever, the nanoparticles were visualized using every technique shown above except for FMM. The experimental results suggest that the subsurface features buried in a soft matrix with a depth of at least 1 µm can affect the local viscoelasticity (mainly viscosity) detected as the variation of the amplitude and phase of the tip oscillation on the surface. This phenomenon presumably makes it possible to visualize such deeply buried nanometer-scale features in a soft matrix. - Highlights: • We visualized subsurface features buried in soft matrix, and investigated its imaging mechanism. • AFM techniques; UAFM, FMM, HFM and 2nd-harmonic UAFM were applied to elucidate the mechanism. • Au nanoparticles buried under 960 nm from surface were visualized, which has never been achieved. • Imaging at contact resonance using a cantilever of suitable stiffness is important. • Subsurface features in a soft matrix affect surface viscoelasticity, which are detected by AFM

  19. Atomization of Impinging Droplets on Superheated Superhydrophobic Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Preston; Crockett, Julie; Maynes, Daniel

    2017-11-01

    Water droplets impinging smooth superheated surfaces may be characterized by dynamic vapor bubbles rising to the surface, popping, and causing a spray of tiny droplets to erupt from the droplet. This spray is called secondary atomization. Here, atomization is quantified experimentally for water droplets impinging superheated superhydrophobic surfaces. Smooth hydrophobic and superhydrophobic surfaces with varying rib and post microstructuring were explored. Each surface was placed on an aluminum heating block, and impingement events were captured with a high speed camera at 3000 fps. For consistency among tests, all events were normalized by the maximum atomization found over a range of temperatures on a smooth hydrophobic surface. An estimate of the level of atomization during an impingement event was created by quantifying the volume of fluid present in the atomization spray. Droplet diameter and Weber number were held constant, and atomization was found for a range of temperatures through the lifetime of the impinging droplet. The Leidenfrost temperature was also determined and defined to be the lowest temperature at which atomization ceases to occur. Both atomization and Leidenfrost temperature increase with decreasing pitch (distance between microstructures).

  20. An open source/real-time atomic force microscope architecture to perform customizable force spectroscopy experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Materassi, Donatello; Baschieri, Paolo; Tiribilli, Bruno; Zuccheri, Giampaolo; Samorì, Bruno

    2009-08-01

    We describe the realization of an atomic force microscope architecture designed to perform customizable experiments in a flexible and automatic way. Novel technological contributions are given by the software implementation platform (RTAI-LINUX), which is free and open source, and from a functional point of view, by the implementation of hard real-time control algorithms. Some other technical solutions such as a new way to estimate the optical lever constant are described as well. The adoption of this architecture provides many degrees of freedom in the device behavior and, furthermore, allows one to obtain a flexible experimental instrument at a relatively low cost. In particular, we show how such a system has been employed to obtain measures in sophisticated single-molecule force spectroscopy experiments [Fernandez and Li, Science 303, 1674 (2004)]. Experimental results on proteins already studied using the same methodologies are provided in order to show the reliability of the measure system.

  1. Binding activity of patterned concanavalin A studied by atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebed, Kateryna; Pyka-Fosciak, Grazyna; Raczkowska, Joanna; Lekka, Malgorzata; Styczen, Jan

    2005-01-01

    The mode of protein immobilization plays a crucial role in the preparation of protein microarrays used for a wide spectrum of applications in analytical biochemistry. The microcontact printing technique was used to form a protein pattern using concanavalin A (Con A) since Con A belongs to a group of proteins widely used in analytical assays due to their selectivity as regards different kinds of carbohydrates. Atomic force microscopy was used to image surface topography, delivering information about the quality of the protein pattern. The force spectroscopy mode was used to verify the functional activity of deposited proteins via determination of the forces of interaction between Con A and carboxypeptidase Y bearing carbohydrate structure recognized by Con A. The calculated binding force between Con A and CaY was 105 ± 2 pN and it was compared with that measured for Con A deposited directly from the protein solution. The similarity of the value obtained for the interaction force was independent of the mode of protein deposition, thereby verifying that the microcontact printing technique did not influence the carbohydrate binding activity of Con A. The correlation between the surface topography of patterned samples and adhesion maps obtained showed the possible use of AFM for studying the chemical properties of different regions of the micropatterns produced

  2. Characterizing absolute piezoelectric microelectromechanical system displacement using an atomic force microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.; Chapman, S.

    2014-01-01

    Piezoresponse Force Microscopy (PFM) is a popular tool for the study of ferroelectric and piezoelectric materials at the nanometer level. Progress in the development of piezoelectric MEMS fabrication is highlighting the need to characterize absolute displacement at the nanometer and Ångstrom scales, something Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) might do but PFM cannot. Absolute displacement is measured by executing a polarization measurement of the ferroelectric or piezoelectric capacitor in question while monitoring the absolute vertical position of the sample surface with a stationary AFM cantilever. Two issues dominate the execution and precision of such a measurement: (1) the small amplitude of the electrical signal from the AFM at the Ångstrom level and (2) calibration of the AFM. The authors have developed a calibration routine and test technique for mitigating the two issues, making it possible to use an atomic force microscope to measure both the movement of a capacitor surface as well as the motion of a micro-machine structure actuated by that capacitor. The theory, procedures, pitfalls, and results of using an AFM for absolute piezoelectric measurement are provided

  3. Characterizing absolute piezoelectric microelectromechanical system displacement using an atomic force microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, J., E-mail: radiant@ferrodevices.com; Chapman, S., E-mail: radiant@ferrodevices.com [Radiant Technologies, Inc., 2835C Pan American Fwy NE, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87107 (United States)

    2014-08-14

    Piezoresponse Force Microscopy (PFM) is a popular tool for the study of ferroelectric and piezoelectric materials at the nanometer level. Progress in the development of piezoelectric MEMS fabrication is highlighting the need to characterize absolute displacement at the nanometer and Ångstrom scales, something Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) might do but PFM cannot. Absolute displacement is measured by executing a polarization measurement of the ferroelectric or piezoelectric capacitor in question while monitoring the absolute vertical position of the sample surface with a stationary AFM cantilever. Two issues dominate the execution and precision of such a measurement: (1) the small amplitude of the electrical signal from the AFM at the Ångstrom level and (2) calibration of the AFM. The authors have developed a calibration routine and test technique for mitigating the two issues, making it possible to use an atomic force microscope to measure both the movement of a capacitor surface as well as the motion of a micro-machine structure actuated by that capacitor. The theory, procedures, pitfalls, and results of using an AFM for absolute piezoelectric measurement are provided.

  4. Development of Tuning Fork Based Probes for Atomic Force Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalilian, Romaneh; Yazdanpanah, Mehdi M.; Torrez, Neil; Alizadeh, Amirali; Askari, Davood

    2014-03-01

    This article reports on the development of tuning fork-based AFM/STM probes in NaugaNeedles LLC for use in atomic force microscopy. These probes can be mounted on different carriers per customers' request. (e.g., RHK carrier, Omicron carrier, and tuning fork on a Sapphire disk). We are able to design and engineer tuning forks on any type of carrier used in the market. We can attach three types of tips on the edge of a tuning fork prong (i.e., growing Ag2Ga nanoneedles at any arbitrary angle, cantilever of AFM tip, and tungsten wire) with lengths from 100-500 μm. The nanoneedle is located vertical to the fork. Using a suitable insulation and metallic coating, we can make QPlus sensors that can detect tunneling current during the AFM scan. To make Qplus sensors, the entire quartz fork will be coated with an insulating material, before attaching the nanoneedle. Then, the top edge of one prong is coated with a thin layer of conductive metal and the nanoneedle is attached to the fork end of the metal coated prong. The metal coating provides electrical connection to the tip for tunneling current readout and to the electrodes and used to read the QPlus current. Since the amount of mass added to the fork is minimal, the resonance frequency spectrum does not change and still remains around 32.6 KHz and the Q factor is around 1,200 in ambient condition. These probes can enhance the performance of tuning fork based atomic microscopy.

  5. An Analytical Model for Adsorption and Diffusion of Atoms/Ions on Graphene Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Zi Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical investigations are made on adsorption and diffusion of atoms/ions on graphene surface based on an analytical continuous model. An atom/ion interacts with every carbon atom of graphene through a pairwise potential which can be approximated by the Lennard-Jones (L-J potential. Using the Fourier expansion of the interaction potential, the total interaction energy between the adsorption atom/ion and a monolayer graphene is derived. The energy-distance relationships in the normal and lateral directions for varied atoms/ions, including gold atom (Au, platinum atom (Pt, manganese ion (Mn2+, sodium ion (Na1+, and lithium-ion (Li1+, on monolayer graphene surface are analyzed. The equilibrium position and binding energy of the atoms/ions at three particular adsorption sites (hollow, bridge, and top are calculated, and the adsorption stability is discussed. The results show that H-site is the most stable adsorption site, which is in agreement with the results of other literatures. What is more, the periodic interaction energy and interaction forces of lithium-ion diffusing along specific paths on graphene surface are also obtained and analyzed. The minimum energy barrier for diffusion is calculated. The possible applications of present study include drug delivery system (DDS, atomic scale friction, rechargeable lithium-ion graphene battery, and energy storage in carbon materials.

  6. Multi-MHz micro-electro-mechanical sensors for atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legrand, Bernard; Salvetat, Jean-Paul; Walter, Benjamin; Faucher, Marc; Théron, Didier; Aimé, Jean-Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Silicon ring-shaped micro-electro-mechanical resonators have been fabricated and used as probes for dynamic atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments. They offer resotnance frequency above 10 MHz, which is notably greater than that of usual cantilevers and quartz-based AFM probes. On-chip electrical actuation and readout of the tip oscillation are obtained by means of built-in capacitive transducers. Displacement and force resolutions have been determined from noise analysis at 1.5 fm/√Hz and 0.4 pN/√Hz, respectively. Despite the high effective stiffness of the probes, the tip-surface interaction force is kept below 1 nN by using vibration amplitude significantly below 100 pm and setpoint close to the free vibration conditions. Imaging capabilities in amplitude- and frequency-modulation AFM modes have been demonstrated on block copolymer surfaces. Z-spectroscopy experiments revealed that the tip is vibrating in permanent contact with the viscoelastic material, with a pinned contact line. Results are compared to those obtained with commercial AFM cantilevers driven at large amplitudes (>10 nm). - Highlights: • Silicon MEMS resonators are used as AFM probes above 10 MHz. • Integrated capacitive transducers drive and sense sub-nanometer tip oscillation. • Force resolution is below 1 pN/√Hz. • Block copolymer surface is imaged using AM and FM AFM modes. • Probes are operated at small vibration amplitude in permanent viscoelastic contact.

  7. Multi-MHz micro-electro-mechanical sensors for atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legrand, Bernard, E-mail: bernard.legrand@laas.fr [LAAS-CNRS, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, 7 avenue du colonel Roche, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Salvetat, Jean-Paul [CRPP, 115 avenue Schweitzer, F-33600 Pessac (France); Walter, Benjamin; Faucher, Marc; Théron, Didier [IEMN, avenue Henri Poincaré, F-59652 Villeneuve d’Ascq (France); Aimé, Jean-Pierre [CBMN, allée Geoffroy Saint Hilaire, Bât. B14, F-33600 Pessac (France)

    2017-04-15

    Silicon ring-shaped micro-electro-mechanical resonators have been fabricated and used as probes for dynamic atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments. They offer resotnance frequency above 10 MHz, which is notably greater than that of usual cantilevers and quartz-based AFM probes. On-chip electrical actuation and readout of the tip oscillation are obtained by means of built-in capacitive transducers. Displacement and force resolutions have been determined from noise analysis at 1.5 fm/√Hz and 0.4 pN/√Hz, respectively. Despite the high effective stiffness of the probes, the tip-surface interaction force is kept below 1 nN by using vibration amplitude significantly below 100 pm and setpoint close to the free vibration conditions. Imaging capabilities in amplitude- and frequency-modulation AFM modes have been demonstrated on block copolymer surfaces. Z-spectroscopy experiments revealed that the tip is vibrating in permanent contact with the viscoelastic material, with a pinned contact line. Results are compared to those obtained with commercial AFM cantilevers driven at large amplitudes (>10 nm). - Highlights: • Silicon MEMS resonators are used as AFM probes above 10 MHz. • Integrated capacitive transducers drive and sense sub-nanometer tip oscillation. • Force resolution is below 1 pN/√Hz. • Block copolymer surface is imaged using AM and FM AFM modes. • Probes are operated at small vibration amplitude in permanent viscoelastic contact.

  8. Analyzing the Effect of Capillary Force on Vibrational Performance of the Cantilever of an Atomic Force Microscope in Tapping Mode with Double Piezoelectric Layers in an Air Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahavandi, Amir; Korayem, Moharam Habibnejad

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to determine the effects of forces exerted on the cantilever probe tip of an atomic force microscope (AFM). These forces vary according to the separation distance between the probe tip and the surface of the sample being examined. Hence, at a distance away from the surface (farther than d(on)), these forces have an attractive nature and are of Van der Waals type, and when the probe tip is situated in the range of a₀≤ d(ts) ≤ d(on), the capillary force is added to the Van der Waals force. At a distance of d(ts) ≤ a₀, the Van der Waals and capillary forces remain constant at intermolecular distances, and the contact repulsive force repels the probe tip from the surface of sample. The capillary force emerges due to the contact of thin water films with a thickness of h(c) which have accumulated on the sample and probe. Under environmental conditions a layer of water or hydrocarbon often forms between the probe tip and sample. The capillary meniscus can grow until the rate of evaporation equals the rate of condensation. For each of the above forces, different models are presented. The smoothness or roughness of the surfaces and the geometry of the cantilever tip have a significant effect on the modeling of forces applied on the probe tip. Van der Waals and the repulsive forces are considered to be the same in all the simulations, and only the capillary force is altered in order to evaluate the role of this force in the AFM-based modeling. Therefore, in view of the remarkable advantages of the piezoelectric microcantilever and also the extensive applications of the tapping mode, we investigate vibrational motion of the piezoelectric microcantilever in the tapping mode. The cantilever mentioned is entirely covered by two piezoelectric layers that carry out both the actuation of the probe tip and the measuringof its position.

  9. Novel parallel plate condenser for single particle electrostatic force measurements in atomic force microscope

    KAUST Repository

    Kwek, Jin Wang

    2011-07-01

    A combination of small parallel plate condenser with Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) glass slides as electrodes and an atomic force microscope (AFM) is used to characterize the electrostatic behavior of single glass bead microparticles (105-150 μm) glued to the AFM cantilever. This novel setup allows measurements of the electrostatic forces acting on a particle in an applied electrical field to be performed in ambient air conditions. By varying the position of the microparticle between the electrodes and the strength of the applied electric field, the relative contributions of the particle net charge, induced and image charges were investigated. When the microparticle is positioned in the middle of the electrodes, the force acting on the microparticle was linear with the applied electric field and proportional to the microparticle net charge. At distances close to the bottom electrode, the force follows a parabolic relationship with the applied electric field reflecting the contributions of induced and image charges. The method can be used for the rapid evaluation of the charging and polarizability properties of the microparticle as well as an alternative to the conventional Faraday\\'s pail technique. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  10. Quantitative comparison of two independent lateral force calibration techniques for the atomic force microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkley, Sarice S.; Cannara, Rachel J.; Deng Zhao; Gates, Richard S.; Reitsma, Mark G.

    2012-01-01

    Two independent lateral-force calibration methods for the atomic force microscope (AFM)--the hammerhead (HH) technique and the diamagnetic lateral force calibrator (D-LFC)--are systematically compared and found to agree to within 5% or less, but with precision limited to about 15%, using four different tee-shaped HH reference probes. The limitations of each method, both of which offer independent yet feasible paths toward traceable accuracy, are discussed and investigated. We find that stiff cantilevers may produce inconsistent D-LFC values through the application of excessively high normal loads. In addition, D-LFC results vary when the method is implemented using different modes of AFM feedback control, constant height and constant force modes, where the latter is more consistent with the HH method and closer to typical experimental conditions. Specifically, for the D-LFC apparatus used here, calibration in constant height mode introduced errors up to 14 %. In constant force mode using a relatively stiff cantilever, we observed an ≅ 4 % systematic error per μN of applied load for loads ≤ 1 μN. The issue of excessive load typically emerges for cantilevers whose flexural spring constant is large compared with the normal spring constant of the D-LFC setup (such that relatively small cantilever flexural displacements produce relatively large loads). Overall, the HH method carries a larger uncertainty, which is dominated by uncertainty in measurement of the flexural spring constant of the HH cantilever as well as in the effective length dimension of the cantilever probe. The D-LFC method relies on fewer parameters and thus has fewer uncertainties associated with it. We thus show that it is the preferred method of the two, as long as care is taken to perform the calibration in constant force mode with low applied loads.

  11. Hydrophilization of Poly(ether ether ketone) Films by Surface-initiated Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fristrup, Charlotte Juel; Eskimergen, Rüya; Burkrinsky, J.T.

    2008-01-01

    and confirmed by ATR FTIR, water contact ang;le, and Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA). The surface topography was evaluated by "Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) has been used to investigate the degree of functionalization. The performed modification allowed for successful...

  12. Lateral force calibration in atomic force microscopy: A new lateral force calibration method and general guidelines for optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannara, Rachel J.; Eglin, Michael; Carpick, Robert W.

    2006-01-01

    Proper force calibration is a critical step in atomic and lateral force microscopies (AFM/LFM). The recently published torsional Sader method [C. P. Green et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 1988 (2004)] facilitates the calculation of torsional spring constants of rectangular AFM cantilevers by eliminating the need to obtain information or make assumptions regarding the cantilever's material properties and thickness, both of which are difficult to measure. Complete force calibration of the lateral signal in LFM requires measurement of the lateral signal deflection sensitivity as well. In this article, we introduce a complete lateral force calibration procedure that employs the torsional Sader method and does not require making contact between the tip and any sample. In this method, a colloidal sphere is attached to a 'test' cantilever of the same width, but different length and material as the 'target' cantilever of interest. The lateral signal sensitivity is calibrated by loading the colloidal sphere laterally against a vertical sidewall. The signal sensitivity for the target cantilever is then corrected for the tip length, total signal strength, and in-plane bending of the cantilevers. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of this approach in comparison with the other established lateral force calibration techniques, and make a direct comparison with the 'wedge' calibration method. The methods agree to within 5%. The propagation of errors is explicitly considered for both methods and the sources of disagreement discussed. Finally, we show that the lateral signal sensitivity is substantially reduced when the laser spot is not centered on the detector

  13. Atomic species recognition on oxide surfaces using low temperature scanning probe microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Zong Min, E-mail: mzmncit@163.com [National Key Laboratory for Electronic Measurement Technology, North University of China, Taiyuan, 030051 (China); Key Laboratory of Instrumentation Science & Dynamic Measurement, North University of China, Ministry of Education, Taiyuan, 030051 (China); School of Instrument and Electronics, North University of China, Taiyuan, 030051 (China); Shi, Yun Bo; Mu, Ji Liang; Qu, Zhang; Zhang, Xiao Ming; Qin, Li [National Key Laboratory for Electronic Measurement Technology, North University of China, Taiyuan, 030051 (China); Key Laboratory of Instrumentation Science & Dynamic Measurement, North University of China, Ministry of Education, Taiyuan, 030051 (China); School of Instrument and Electronics, North University of China, Taiyuan, 030051 (China); Liu, Jun, E-mail: liuj@nuc.edu.cn [National Key Laboratory for Electronic Measurement Technology, North University of China, Taiyuan, 030051 (China); Key Laboratory of Instrumentation Science & Dynamic Measurement, North University of China, Ministry of Education, Taiyuan, 030051 (China); School of Instrument and Electronics, North University of China, Taiyuan, 030051 (China)

    2017-02-01

    Highlights: • The coexisted phase of p(2 × 1)and c(6 × 2) on Cu(110)-O surface using AFM under UHV at low temperature. • Two different c(6 × 2) phase depending on the status of the tip apex. • Electronic state of tip seriously effect the resolution and stability of the sample surface. - Abstract: In scanning probe microscopy (SPM), the chemical properties and sharpness of the tips of the cantilever greatly influence the scanning of a sample surface. Variation in the chemical properties of the sharp tip apex can induce transformation of the SPM images. In this research, we explore the relationship between the tip and the structure of a sample surface using dynamic atomic force microscopy (AFM) on a Cu(110)-O surface under ultra-high vacuum (UHV) at low temperature (78 K). We observed two different c(6 × 2) phase types in which super-Cu atoms show as a bright spot when the tip apex is of O atoms and O atoms show as a bright spot when the tip apex is of Cu atoms. We also found that the electronic state of the tip has a serious effect on the resolution and stability of the sample surface, and provide an explanation for these phenomena. This technique can be used to identify atom species on sample surfaces, and represents an important development in the SPM technique.

  14. Local elasticity and adhesion of nanostructures on Drosophila melanogaster wing membrane studied using atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Ryan, E-mail: rbwagner@purdue.edu [School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette (United States); Brick Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette (United States); Pittendrigh, Barry R. [Department of Entomology, University of Illinois, Champaign (United States); Raman, Arvind, E-mail: raman@purdue.edu [School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette (United States); Brick Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette (United States)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We studied the wing membrane of Drosophila melanogaster with atomic force microscopy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We report the structure, elasticity, and adhesion on the wing membrane in air and nitrogen environments. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results provide insight into the nature of the wing membrane enabling the development of biomimetic surface and micro air vehicles. - Abstract: Insect wings have a naturally occurring, complex, functional, hierarchical microstructure and nanostructure, which enable a remarkably water-resistant and self-cleaning surface. Insect wings are used as a basis for engineering biomimetic materials; however, the material properties of these nanostructures such as local elastic modulus and adhesion are poorly understood. We studied the wings of the Canton-S strain of Drosophila melanogaster (hereafter referred to as Drosophila) with atomic force microscopy (AFM) to quantify the local material properties of Drosophila wing surface nanostructures. The wings are found to have a hierarchical structure of 10-20 {mu}m long, 0.5-1 {mu}m diameter hair, and at a much smaller scale, 100 nm diameter and 30-60 nm high bumps. The local properties of these nanoscale bumps were studied under ambient and dry conditions with force-volume AFM. The wing membrane was found to have a elastic modulus on the order of 1000 MPa and the work of adhesion between the probe and wing membrane surface was found to be on the order of 100 mJ/m{sup 2}, these properties are the same order of magnitude as common thermoplastic polymers such as polyethylene. The difference in work of adhesion between the nanoscale bump and membrane does not change significantly between ambient (relative humidity of 30%) or dry conditions. This suggests that the nanoscale bumps and the surrounding membrane are chemically similar and only work to increase hydrophobicity though surface roughening or the geometric lotus effect.

  15. Local elasticity and adhesion of nanostructures on Drosophila melanogaster wing membrane studied using atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, Ryan; Pittendrigh, Barry R.; Raman, Arvind

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We studied the wing membrane of Drosophila melanogaster with atomic force microscopy. ► We report the structure, elasticity, and adhesion on the wing membrane in air and nitrogen environments. ► Results provide insight into the nature of the wing membrane enabling the development of biomimetic surface and micro air vehicles. - Abstract: Insect wings have a naturally occurring, complex, functional, hierarchical microstructure and nanostructure, which enable a remarkably water-resistant and self-cleaning surface. Insect wings are used as a basis for engineering biomimetic materials; however, the material properties of these nanostructures such as local elastic modulus and adhesion are poorly understood. We studied the wings of the Canton-S strain of Drosophila melanogaster (hereafter referred to as Drosophila) with atomic force microscopy (AFM) to quantify the local material properties of Drosophila wing surface nanostructures. The wings are found to have a hierarchical structure of 10–20 μm long, 0.5–1 μm diameter hair, and at a much smaller scale, 100 nm diameter and 30–60 nm high bumps. The local properties of these nanoscale bumps were studied under ambient and dry conditions with force-volume AFM. The wing membrane was found to have a elastic modulus on the order of 1000 MPa and the work of adhesion between the probe and wing membrane surface was found to be on the order of 100 mJ/m 2 , these properties are the same order of magnitude as common thermoplastic polymers such as polyethylene. The difference in work of adhesion between the nanoscale bump and membrane does not change significantly between ambient (relative humidity of 30%) or dry conditions. This suggests that the nanoscale bumps and the surrounding membrane are chemically similar and only work to increase hydrophobicity though surface roughening or the geometric lotus effect.

  16. Technique to measure contact angle of micro/nanodroplets using atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Yong Chae; Bhushan, Bharat

    2008-01-01

    Contact angle is the primary parameter that characterizes wetting; however, the measurement techniques have been limited to droplets with a diameter as low as about 50 μm. The authors developed an atomic force microscopy-based technique to measure the contact angle of micro- and nanodroplets deposited using a modified nanoscale dispensing tip. The obtained contact angle results were compared with those of a macrodroplet (2.1 mm diameter). It was found that the contact angle on various surfaces decreases with decreasing the droplet size

  17. Direct atomic force microscopy observation of DNA tile crystal growth at the single-molecule level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Constantine G; Hariadi, Rizal F; Winfree, Erik

    2012-06-27

    While the theoretical implications of models of DNA tile self-assembly have been extensively researched and such models have been used to design DNA tile systems for use in experiments, there has been little research testing the fundamental assumptions of those models. In this paper, we use direct observation of individual tile attachments and detachments of two DNA tile systems on a mica surface imaged with an atomic force microscope (AFM) to compile statistics of tile attachments and detachments. We show that these statistics fit the widely used kinetic Tile Assembly Model and demonstrate AFM movies as a viable technique for directly investigating DNA tile systems during growth rather than after assembly.

  18. Real-time nanofabrication with high-speed atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicary, J A; Miles, M J

    2009-01-01

    The ability to follow nanoscale processes in real-time has obvious benefits for the future of material science. In particular, the ability to evaluate the success of fabrication processes in situ would be an advantage for many in the semiconductor industry. We report on the application of a previously described high-speed atomic force microscope (AFM) for nanofabrication. The specific fabrication method presented here concerns the modification of a silicon surface by locally oxidizing the region in the vicinity of the AFM tip. Oxide features were fabricated during imaging, with relative tip-sample velocities of up to 10 cm s -1 , and with a data capture rate of 15 fps.

  19. Silicon Nano fabrication by Atomic Force Microscopy-Based Mechanical Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyake, Sh.; Wang, M.; Kim, J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews silicon nano fabrication processes using atomic force microscopy (AFM). In particular, it summarizes recent results obtained in our research group regarding AFM-based silicon nano fabrication through mechanochemical local oxidation by diamond tip sliding, as well as mechanical, electrical, and electromechanical processing using an electrically conductive diamond tip. Microscopic three-dimensional manufacturing mainly relies on etching, deposition, and lithography. Therefore, a special emphasis was placed on nano mechanical processes, mechanochemical reaction by potassium hydroxide solution etching, and mechanical and electrical approaches. Several important surface characterization techniques consisting of scanning tunneling microscopy and related techniques, such as scanning probe microscopy and AFM, were also discussed.

  20. Note: Design of FPGA based system identification module with application to atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosal, Sayan; Pradhan, Sourav; Salapaka, Murti

    2018-05-01

    The science of system identification is widely utilized in modeling input-output relationships of diverse systems. In this article, we report field programmable gate array (FPGA) based implementation of a real-time system identification algorithm which employs forgetting factors and bias compensation techniques. The FPGA module is employed to estimate the mechanical properties of surfaces of materials at the nano-scale with an atomic force microscope (AFM). The FPGA module is user friendly which can be interfaced with commercially available AFMs. Extensive simulation and experimental results validate the design.

  1. Characterization of Structural and Configurational Properties of DNA by Atomic Force Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meroni, Alice; Lazzaro, Federico; Muzi-Falconi, Marco; Podestà, Alessandro

    2018-01-01

    We describe a method to extract quantitative information on DNA structural and configurational properties from high-resolution topographic maps recorded by atomic force microscopy (AFM). DNA molecules are deposited on mica surfaces from an aqueous solution, carefully dehydrated, and imaged in air in Tapping Mode. Upon extraction of the spatial coordinates of the DNA backbones from AFM images, several parameters characterizing DNA structure and configuration can be calculated. Here, we explain how to obtain the distribution of contour lengths, end-to-end distances, and gyration radii. This modular protocol can be also used to characterize other statistical parameters from AFM topographies.

  2. Theoretical study of the effect of probe shape on adhesion force between probe and substrate in atomic force microscope experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Li; Hu, Junhui; Kong, Lingjiang

    2017-01-01

    The quantitative description of adhesion force dependence on the probe shapes are of importance in many scientific and industrial fields. In order to elucidate how the adhesion force varied with the probe shape in atomic force microscope manipulation experiment, we performed a theoretical study of the influences of the probe shape (the sphere and parabolic probe) on the adhesion force at different humidity. We found that the combined action of the triple point and the Kelvin radius guiding th...

  3. The Use of Atomic Force Microscopy as a Technique for the Identification of Cancerous Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lekka, M.

    2007-11-01

    The monograph presents the use of atomic force microscopy (AFM) as a tool for the identification of cancerous cells by studies of the expression of different types of molecules directly on the surface of living cells. The full quantitative description (that is not accessible by other techniques) performed for a given type of molecular interactions has been obtained by using the following quantities: an unbinding force, probability, rupture length and the effective spring constant taking into account the stiffness of a single complex. All, these parameters were extracted from AFM measurements The analysis of the interaction forces performed by AFM allows the quantitative determination of: i) the static properties of a single molecular complex where its strength of interaction and stiffness of the studied complex can be obtained, ii) dynamic properties, on the basis of which the kinetic properties of the unbinding process can be delivered, and iii) properties of adhesion clusters, where the interrelation between single complexes can be characterized, in particular the mechanism of the unbinding can be obtained. The presented characterization of the interaction force between single molecules demonstrates that atomic force microscopy can be used as exceptional technique to study the expression of molecules on a cell surface. Such measurements are not limited to a typical interactions occurring between single molecules but also it is possible to study the interactions between parts of molecules. The results presented in this monograph point to a novel approach to identify cancer-related changes in a quantitative way what can be used for describing and confirming the pathological state of a single cell. (author)

  4. Actuation of atomic force microscopy microcantilevers using contact acoustic nonlinearities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torello, D.; Degertekin, F. Levent, E-mail: levent.degertekin@me.gatech.edu [George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States)

    2013-11-15

    A new method of actuating atomic force microscopy (AFM) cantilevers is proposed in which a high frequency (>5 MHz) wave modulated by a lower frequency (∼300 kHz) wave passes through a contact acoustic nonlinearity at the contact interface between the actuator and the cantilever chip. The nonlinearity converts the high frequency, modulated signal to a low frequency drive signal suitable for actuation of tapping-mode AFM probes. The higher harmonic content of this signal is filtered out mechanically by the cantilever transfer function, providing for clean output. A custom probe holder was designed and constructed using rapid prototyping technologies and off-the-shelf components and was interfaced with an Asylum Research MFP-3D AFM, which was then used to evaluate the performance characteristics with respect to standard hardware and linear actuation techniques. Using a carrier frequency of 14.19 MHz, it was observed that the cantilever output was cleaner with this actuation technique and added no significant noise to the system. This setup, without any optimization, was determined to have an actuation bandwidth on the order of 10 MHz, suitable for high speed imaging applications. Using this method, an image was taken that demonstrates the viability of the technique and is compared favorably to images taken with a standard AFM setup.

  5. A more comprehensive modeling of atomic force microscope cantilever

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahdavi, M.H.; Farshidianfar, A.; Tahani, M.; Mahdavi, S.; Dalir, H.

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on the development of a complete model of an atomic force microscope (AFM) micro-cantilever beam, based on considering the effects of four major factors in modeling the cantilever. They are: rotary inertia and shear deformation of the beam and mass and rotary inertia of the tip. A method based on distributed-parameter modeling approach is proposed to solve the governing equations. The comparisons generally show a very good agreement between the present results and the results of other investigators. As expected, rotary inertia and shear deformation of the beam decrease resonance frequency especially at high ratio of cantilever thickness to its length, and it is relatively more pronounced for higher-order frequencies, than lower ones. Mass and rotary inertia of the tip have similar effects when the mass-ratio of the tip to the cantilever is high. Moreover, the influence of each of these four factors, thickness of the cantilever, density of the tip and inclination of the cantilever on the resonance frequencies has been investigated, separately. It is felt that this work might help the engineers in reducing AFM micro-cantilever design time, by providing insight into the effects of various parameters with the micro-cantilever.

  6. Medical applications of atomic force microscopy and Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Samjin; Jung, Gyeong Bok; Kim, Kyung Sook; Lee, Gi-Ja; Park, Hun-Kuk

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the recent research and application of atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Raman spectroscopy techniques, which are considered the multi-functional and powerful toolkits for probing the nanostructural, biomechanical and physicochemical properties of biomedical samples in medical science. We introduce briefly the basic principles of AFM and Raman spectroscopy, followed by diagnostic assessments of some selected diseases in biomedical applications using them, including mitochondria isolated from normal and ischemic hearts, hair fibers, individual cells, and human cortical bone. Finally, AFM and Raman spectroscopy applications to investigate the effects of pharmacotherapy, surgery, and medical device therapy in various medicines from cells to soft and hard tissues are discussed, including pharmacotherapy--paclitaxel on Ishikawa and HeLa cells, telmisartan on angiotensin II, mitomycin C on strabismus surgery and eye whitening surgery, and fluoride on primary teeth--and medical device therapy--collagen cross-linking treatment for the management of progressive keratoconus, radiofrequency treatment for skin rejuvenation, physical extracorporeal shockwave therapy for healing of Achilles tendinitis, orthodontic treatment, and toothbrushing time to minimize the loss of teeth after exposure to acidic drinks.

  7. Single atom self-diffusion on nickel surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tung, R.T.; Graham, W.R.

    1980-01-01

    Results of a field ion microscope study of single atom self-diffusion on Ni(311), (331), (110), (111) and (100) planes are presented, including detailed information on the self-diffusion parameters on (311), (331), and (110) surfaces, and activation energies for diffusion on the (111), and (100) surfaces. Evidence is presented for the existence of two types of adsorption site and surface site geometry for single nickel atoms on the (111) surface. The presence of adsorbed hydrogen on the (110), (311), and (331) surfaces is shown to lower the onset temperature for self-diffusion on these planes. (orig.)

  8. Going Vertical To Improve the Accuracy of Atomic Force Microscopy Based Single-Molecule Force Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walder, Robert; Van Patten, William J; Adhikari, Ayush; Perkins, Thomas T

    2018-01-23

    Single-molecule force spectroscopy (SMFS) is a powerful technique to characterize the energy landscape of individual proteins, the mechanical properties of nucleic acids, and the strength of receptor-ligand interactions. Atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based SMFS benefits from ongoing progress in improving the precision and stability of cantilevers and the AFM itself. Underappreciated is that the accuracy of such AFM studies remains hindered by inadvertently stretching molecules at an angle while measuring only the vertical component of the force and extension, degrading both measurements. This inaccuracy is particularly problematic in AFM studies using double-stranded DNA and RNA due to their large persistence length (p ≈ 50 nm), often limiting such studies to other SMFS platforms (e.g., custom-built optical and magnetic tweezers). Here, we developed an automated algorithm that aligns the AFM tip above the DNA's attachment point to a coverslip. Importantly, this algorithm was performed at low force (10-20 pN) and relatively fast (15-25 s), preserving the connection between the tip and the target molecule. Our data revealed large uncorrected lateral offsets for 100 and 650 nm DNA molecules [24 ± 18 nm (mean ± standard deviation) and 180 ± 110 nm, respectively]. Correcting this offset yielded a 3-fold improvement in accuracy and precision when characterizing DNA's overstretching transition. We also demonstrated high throughput by acquiring 88 geometrically corrected force-extension curves of a single individual 100 nm DNA molecule in ∼40 min and versatility by aligning polyprotein- and PEG-based protein-ligand assays. Importantly, our software-based algorithm was implemented on a commercial AFM, so it can be broadly adopted. More generally, this work illustrates how to enhance AFM-based SMFS by developing more sophisticated data-acquisition protocols.

  9. Application fo tunneling and atomic force detection to machines and scientific instruments. Tunnel gensho ya genshikan no mechatronics eno oyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawakatsu, H. (The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Institute of Industrial Science)

    1991-11-01

    It is now about ten years since the scanning tunnel microscope (STM) and the atomic force microscope (AFM) were invented. These microscopes are used very importantly today as a surface analyzer capable of atomic order analysis for their very high resolution. The STM and AFM obtain images of atomic orders by means of mechanical scanning of the probes. This means that the microscopes can control positioning, force detection and displacement in regions of sub-nanometer orders. Examples of researches may include detection of acceleration, length measurement, positioning, force detection, nano-tripology, processing and gravitational wave detection. As described above, this paper notes the researches derived from the operational principles of the STM and AFM, rather than the researches on the observation objects. The great diversity of the researches taken up and the greatness in the number of researches in the STM and AFM gather how superbly germinative these were. 34 refs.

  10. Atomic Force Microscopy as a Tool for Asymmetric Polymeric Membrane Characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Wahab Mohammad; Pei, L.Y.; Indok Nurul Hasyimah Mohd Amin; Rafeqah Raslan

    2011-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has a wide range of applications and is rapidly growing in research and development. This powerful technique has been used to visualize surfaces both in liquid or gas media. It has been considered as an effective tool to investigate the surface structure for its ability to generate high-resolution 3D images at a subnanometer range without sample pretreatment. In this paper, the use of AFM to characterize the membrane roughness is presented for commercial and self-prepared membranes for specific applications. Surface roughness has been regarded as one of the most important surface properties, and has significant effect in membrane permeability and fouling behaviour. Several scan areas were used to compare surface roughness for different membrane samples. Characterization of the surfaces was achieved by measuring the average roughness (R a ) and root mean square roughness (R rms ) of the membrane. AFM image shows that the membrane surface was composed entirely of peaks and valleys. Surface roughness is substantially greater for commercial available hydrophobic membranes, in contrast to self-prepared membranes. This study also shows that foulants deposited on membrane surface would increase the membrane roughness. (author)

  11. Atomic Force Microscopy Techniques for Nanomechanical Characterization: A Polymeric Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reggente, Melania; Rossi, Marco; Angeloni, Livia; Tamburri, Emanuela; Lucci, Massimiliano; Davoli, Ivan; Terranova, Maria Letizia; Passeri, Daniele

    2015-04-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a versatile tool to perform mechanical characterization of surface samples at the nanoscale. In this work, we review two of such methods, namely contact resonance AFM (CR-AFM) and torsional harmonics AFM (TH-AFM). First, such techniques are illustrated and their applicability on materials with elastic moduli in different ranges are discussed, together with their main advantages and limitations. Then, a case study is presented in which we report the mechanical characterization using both CR-AFM and TH-AFM of polyaniline and polyaniniline doped with nanodiamond particles tablets prepared by a pressing process. We determined the indentation modulus values of their surfaces, which were found in fairly good agreement, thus demonstrating the accuracy of the techniques. Finally, the determined surface elastic moduli have been compared with the bulk ones measured through standard indentation testing.

  12. The Use of Atomic-Force Microscopy for Studying the Crystallization Process of Amorphous Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmanov, G. N.; Ivanitskaya, E. A.; Dzhumaev, P. S.; Skrytniy, V. I.

    The crystallization process of amorphous alloys is accompanied by the volume changes as a result of structural phase transitions. This leads to changes in the surface topography, which was studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The changes of the surface topography, structure and phase composition during multistage crystallization process of the metallic glasses with composition Ni71,5Cr6,8Fe2,7B11,9Si7,1 and Ni63,4Cr7,4Fe4,3Mn0,8B15,6Si8,5 (AWS BNi2) has been investigated. The obtained results on changing of the surface topography in crystallization process are in good agreement with the data of X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). The nature of redistribution of some alloy components in the crystallization process has been suggested.

  13. Atomic force microscopy employed as the final imaging stage for soft x-ray contact microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotton, R.A.; Stead, A.D.; Ford, T.W.; Fletcher, J.H.

    1993-01-01

    Soft X-ray contact microscopy (SXCM) enables a high resolution image of a living biological specimen to be recorded in an X-ray sensitive photoresist at unity magnification. Until recently scanning electron microscopes (SEM) have been employed to obtain the final magnified image. Although this has been successful in producing many high resolution images, this method of viewing the resist has several disadvantages. Firstly, a metallic coating has to be applied to the resist surface to provide electrical conductivity, rendering further development of the resist impossible. Also, electron beam damage to the resist surface can occur, in addition to poor resolution and image quality. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) allows uncoated resists to be imaged at a superior resolution, without damage to the surface. The use of AFM is seen as a major advancement in SXCM. The advantages and disadvantages of the two technologies are discussed, with illustrations from recent studies of a wide variety of hydrated biological specimens imaged using SXCM

  14. The Use of Atomic Force Microscopy for 3D Analysis of Nucleic Acid Hybridization on Microarrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubrovin, E V; Presnova, G V; Rubtsova, M Yu; Egorov, A M; Grigorenko, V G; Yaminsky, I V

    2015-01-01

    Oligonucleotide microarrays are considered today to be one of the most efficient methods of gene diagnostics. The capability of atomic force microscopy (AFM) to characterize the three-dimensional morphology of single molecules on a surface allows one to use it as an effective tool for the 3D analysis of a microarray for the detection of nucleic acids. The high resolution of AFM offers ways to decrease the detection threshold of target DNA and increase the signal-to-noise ratio. In this work, we suggest an approach to the evaluation of the results of hybridization of gold nanoparticle-labeled nucleic acids on silicon microarrays based on an AFM analysis of the surface both in air and in liquid which takes into account of their three-dimensional structure. We suggest a quantitative measure of the hybridization results which is based on the fraction of the surface area occupied by the nanoparticles.

  15. Direct observation of atoms on surfaces by scanning tunnelling microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldeschwieler, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    The scanning tunnelling microscope is a non-destructive means of achieving atomic level resolution of crystal surfaces in real space to elucidate surface structures, electronic properties and chemical composition. Scanning tunnelling microscope is a powerful, real space surface structure probe complementary to other techniques such as x-ray diffraction. 21 refs., 8 figs

  16. Atomic structure of the SnO2 (110) surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godin, T.J.; LaFemina, J.P.

    1991-12-01

    Using a tight-binding, total-energy model, we examine atomic relaxations of the ideal stoichiometric and reduced tin oxide (11) surfaces. In both cases we find a nearly bond-length conserving rumple of the top layer, and a smaller counter-relaxation of the second layer. These calculations show no evidence of surface states in the band gap for either surface

  17. Atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy analysis of daily disposable limbal ring contact lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Kathrine Osborn; Kakkassery, Joseph; Boree, Danielle; Pinto, David

    2014-09-01

    Limbal ring (also known as 'circle') contact lenses are becoming increasingly popular, especially in Asian markets because of their eye-enhancing effects. The pigment particles that give the eye-enhancing effects of these lenses can be found on the front or back surface of the contact lens or 'enclosed' within the lens matrix. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the pigment location and surface roughness of seven types of 'circle' contact lenses. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) analysis was performed using a variable pressure Hitachi S3400N instrument to discern the placement of lens pigments. Atomic force microscopy (Dimension Icon AFM from Bruker Nano) was used to determine the surface roughness of the pigmented regions of the contact lenses. Atomic force microscopic analysis was performed in fluid phase under contact mode using a Sharp Nitride Lever probe (SNL-10) with a spring constant of 0.06 N/m. Root mean square (RMS) roughness values were analysed using a generalised linear mixed model with a log-normal distribution. Least square means and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals were estimated for each brand, location and pigment combination. SEM cross-sectional images at 500× and 2,000× magnification showed pigment on the surface of six of the seven lens types tested. The mean depth of pigment for 1-DAY ACUVUE DEFINE (1DAD) lenses was 8.1 μm below the surface of the lens, while the remaining lens types tested had pigment particles on the front or back surface. Results of the atomic force microscopic analysis indicated that 1DAD lenses had significantly lower root mean square roughness values in the pigmented area of the lens than the other lens types tested. SEM and AFM analysis revealed pigment on the surface of the lens for all types tested with the exception of 1DAD. Further research is required to determine if the difference in pigment location influences on-eye performance. © 2014 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental

  18. Single atom and-molecules chemisorption on solid surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anda, E.V.; Ure, J.E.; Majlis, N.

    1981-01-01

    A simplified model for the microscopic interpretation of single atom and- molecules chemisorption on metallic surfaces is presented. An appropriated hamiltonian for this problem is resolved, through the Green's function formalism. (L.C.) [pt

  19. Algorithms for Reconstruction of Undersampled Atomic Force Microscopy Images Supplementary Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    Two Jupyter Notebooks showcasing reconstructions of undersampled atomic force microscopy images. The reconstructions were obtained using a variety of interpolation and reconstruction methods.......Two Jupyter Notebooks showcasing reconstructions of undersampled atomic force microscopy images. The reconstructions were obtained using a variety of interpolation and reconstruction methods....

  20. Conditions to minimize soft single biomolecule deformation when imaging with atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godon, Christian; Teulon, Jean-Marie; Odorico, Michael; Basset, Christian; Meillan, Matthieu; Vellutini, Luc; Chen, Shu-Wen W; Pellequer, Jean-Luc

    2017-03-01

    A recurrent interrogation when imaging soft biomolecules using atomic force microscopy (AFM) is the putative deformation of molecules leading to a bias in recording true topographical surfaces. Deformation of biomolecules comes from three sources: sample instability, adsorption to the imaging substrate, and crushing under tip pressure. To disentangle these causes, we measured the maximum height of a well-known biomolecule, the tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), under eight different experimental conditions positing that the maximum height value is a specific indicator of sample deformations. Six basic AFM experimental factors were tested: imaging in air (AIR) versus in liquid (LIQ), imaging with flat minerals (MICA) versus flat organic surfaces (self-assembled monolayers, SAM), and imaging forces with oscillating tapping mode (TAP) versus PeakForce tapping (PFT). The results show that the most critical parameter in accurately measuring the height of TMV in air is the substrate. In a liquid environment, regardless of the substrate, the most critical parameter is the imaging mode. Most importantly, the expected TMV height values were obtained with both imaging with the PeakForce tapping mode either in liquid or in air at the condition of using self-assembled monolayers as substrate. This study unambiguously explains previous poor results of imaging biomolecules on mica in air and suggests alternative methodologies for depositing soft biomolecules on well organized self-assembled monolayers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. SASP - Symposium on atomic, cluster and surface physics `94

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maerk, T D; Schrittwieser, R; Smith, D

    1994-12-31

    This international symposium (Founding Chairman: W. Lindinger, Innsbruck) is one in a continuing biennial series of conferences which seeks to promote the growth of scientific knowledge and its effective exchange among scientists in the field of atomic, molecular, cluster and surface physics and related areas. The symposium deals in particular with interactions between ions, electrons, photons, atoms, molecules, and clusters and their interactions with surfaces. (author).

  2. Removal of foreign atoms from a metal surface bombarded with fast atomic particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolotov, S.K.; Evstigneev, S.A.; Luk' yanov, S.Yu.; Martynenko, Yu.V.; Chicherov, V.M.

    1976-07-01

    A metal surface coated with foreign atoms was irradiated with periodically repeating ion current pulses. The energy of the ions bombarding the target was 20 to 30 keV, and inert gas ions were used. A study of the time dependences of the current of the dislodged foreign atoms showed that the rate of their removal from the target surface is determined by the sputtering coefficient of the substrate metal.

  3. Removal of foreign atoms from a metal surface bombarded with fast atomic particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolotov, S.K.; Evstigneev, S.A.; Luk'yanov, S.Yu.; Martynenko, Yu.V.; Chicherov, V.M.

    A metal surface coated with foreign atoms was irradiated with periodically repeating ion current pulses. The energy of the ions bombarding the target was 20 to 30 keV, and inert gas ions were used. A study of the time dependences of the current of the dislodged foreign atoms showed that the rate of their removal from the target surface is determined by the sputtering coefficient of the substrate metal

  4. Casimir Forces and Quantum Friction from Ginzburg Radiation in Atomic Bose-Einstein Condensates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Jamir; Recati, Alessio; Carusotto, Iacopo

    2017-01-27

    We theoretically propose an experimentally viable scheme to use an impurity atom in an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate, in order to realize condensed-matter analogs of quantum vacuum effects. In a suitable atomic level configuration, the collisional interaction between the impurity atom and the density fluctuations in the condensate can be tailored to closely reproduce the electric-dipole coupling of quantum electrodynamics. By virtue of this analogy, we recover and extend the paradigm of electromagnetic vacuum forces to the domain of cold atoms, showing in particular the emergence, at supersonic atomic speeds, of a novel power-law scaling of the Casimir force felt by the atomic impurity, as well as the occurrence of a quantum frictional force, accompanied by the Ginzburg emission of Bogoliubov quanta. Observable consequences of these quantum vacuum effects in realistic spectroscopic experiments are discussed.

  5. The effect of cigarette smoke extract on thrombomodulin-thrombin binding: an atomic force microscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yujie; Zhang, Xuejie; Xu, Li; Yi, Shaoqiong; Li, Yi; Fang, Xiaohong; Liu, Huiliang

    2012-10-01

    Cigarette smoking is a well-known risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Smoking can cause vascular endothelial dysfunction and consequently trigger haemostatic activation and thrombosis. However, the mechanism of how smoking promotes thrombosis is not fully understood. Thrombosis is associated with the imbalance of the coagulant system due to endothelial dysfunction. As a vital anticoagulation cofactor, thrombomodulin (TM) located on the endothelial cell surface is able to regulate intravascular coagulation by binding to thrombin, and the binding results in thrombosis inhibition. This work focused on the effects of cigarette smoke extract (CSE) on TM-thrombin binding by atomic force microscopy (AFM) based single-molecule force spectroscopy. The results from both in vitro and live-cell experiments indicated that CSE could notably reduce the binding probability of TM and thrombin. This study provided a new approach and new evidence for studying the mechanism of thrombosis triggered by cigarette smoking.

  6. Techniques for imaging human metaphase chromosomes in liquid conditions by atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ushiki, Tatsuo; Hoshi, Osamu [Division of Microscopic Anatomy and Bio-imaging, Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 1-757 Asahimachi-dori, Chuo-ku, Niigata 951-8510 (Japan); Shigeno, Masatsugu [SII NanoTechnology Incorporated, RBM Tsukiji Building, Shintomi 2-15-5, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0041 (Japan)], E-mail: t-ushiki@med.niigata-u.ac.jp

    2008-09-24

    The purpose of this study was to obtain three-dimensional images of wet chromosomes by atomic force microscopy (AFM) in liquid conditions. Human metaphase chromosomes-obtained either by chromosome spreads or by an isolation technique-were observed in a dynamic mode by AFM in a buffer solution. Under suitable operating conditions with a soft triangular cantilever (with the spring constant of 0.08-0.4 N m{sup -1}), clear images of fixed chromosomes in the chromosome spread were obtained by AFM. For imaging isolated chromosomes with the height of more than 400 nm, a cantilever with a high aspect ratio probing tip was required. The combination of a Q-control system and the sampling intelligent scan (SIS) system in dynamic force mode AFM was useful for obtaining high-quality images of the isolated chromosomes, in which globular or cord-like structures about 50 nm thick were clearly observed on the surface of each chromatid.

  7. AtomicJ: An open source software for analysis of force curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermanowicz, Paweł; Sarna, Michał; Burda, Kvetoslava; Gabryś, Halina

    2014-06-01

    We present an open source Java application for analysis of force curves and images recorded with the Atomic Force Microscope. AtomicJ supports a wide range of contact mechanics models and implements procedures that reduce the influence of deviations from the contact model. It generates maps of mechanical properties, including maps of Young's modulus, adhesion force, and sample height. It can also calculate stacks, which reveal how sample's response to deformation changes with indentation depth. AtomicJ analyzes force curves concurrently on multiple threads, which allows for high speed of analysis. It runs on all popular operating systems, including Windows, Linux, and Macintosh.

  8. AtomicJ: An open source software for analysis of force curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermanowicz, Paweł; Gabryś, Halina; Sarna, Michał; Burda, Kvetoslava

    2014-01-01

    We present an open source Java application for analysis of force curves and images recorded with the Atomic Force Microscope. AtomicJ supports a wide range of contact mechanics models and implements procedures that reduce the influence of deviations from the contact model. It generates maps of mechanical properties, including maps of Young's modulus, adhesion force, and sample height. It can also calculate stacks, which reveal how sample's response to deformation changes with indentation depth. AtomicJ analyzes force curves concurrently on multiple threads, which allows for high speed of analysis. It runs on all popular operating systems, including Windows, Linux, and Macintosh

  9. Autopilot for frequency-modulation atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuchuk, Kfir; Schlesinger, Itai; Sivan, Uri, E-mail: phsivan@tx.technion.ac.il [Department of Physics and the Russell Berrie Nanotechnology Institute, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

    2015-10-15

    One of the most challenging aspects of operating an atomic force microscope (AFM) is finding optimal feedback parameters. This statement applies particularly to frequency-modulation AFM (FM-AFM), which utilizes three feedback loops to control the cantilever excitation amplitude, cantilever excitation frequency, and z-piezo extension. These loops are regulated by a set of feedback parameters, tuned by the user to optimize stability, sensitivity, and noise in the imaging process. Optimization of these parameters is difficult due to the coupling between the frequency and z-piezo feedback loops by the non-linear tip-sample interaction. Four proportional-integral (PI) parameters and two lock-in parameters regulating these loops require simultaneous optimization in the presence of a varying unknown tip-sample coupling. Presently, this optimization is done manually in a tedious process of trial and error. Here, we report on the development and implementation of an algorithm that computes the control parameters automatically. The algorithm reads the unperturbed cantilever resonance frequency, its quality factor, and the z-piezo driving signal power spectral density. It analyzes the poles and zeros of the total closed loop transfer function, extracts the unknown tip-sample transfer function, and finds four PI parameters and two lock-in parameters for the frequency and z-piezo control loops that optimize the bandwidth and step response of the total system. Implementation of the algorithm in a home-built AFM shows that the calculated parameters are consistently excellent and rarely require further tweaking by the user. The new algorithm saves the precious time of experienced users, facilitates utilization of FM-AFM by casual users, and removes the main hurdle on the way to fully automated FM-AFM.

  10. Controlled evaluation of silver nanoparticle dissolution using atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Ronald D; Vikesland, Peter J

    2012-07-03

    Incorporation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) into an increasing number of consumer products has led to concern over the potential ecological impacts of their unintended release to the environment. Dissolution is an important environmental transformation that affects the form and concentration of AgNPs in natural waters; however, studies on AgNP dissolution kinetics are complicated by nanoparticle aggregation. Herein, nanosphere lithography (NSL) was used to fabricate uniform arrays of AgNPs immobilized on glass substrates. Nanoparticle immobilization enabled controlled evaluation of AgNP dissolution in an air-saturated phosphate buffer (pH 7.0, 25 °C) under variable NaCl concentrations in the absence of aggregation. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to monitor changes in particle morphology and dissolution. Over the first day of exposure to ≥10 mM NaCl, the in-plane AgNP shape changed from triangular to circular, the sidewalls steepened, the in-plane radius decreased by 5-11 nm, and the height increased by 6-12 nm. Subsequently, particle height and in-plane radius decreased at a constant rate over a 2-week period. Dissolution rates varied linearly from 0.4 to 2.2 nm/d over the 10-550 mM NaCl concentration range tested. NaCl-catalyzed dissolution of AgNPs may play an important role in AgNP fate in saline waters and biological media. This study demonstrates the utility of NSL and AFM for the direct investigation of unaggregated AgNP dissolution.

  11. Autopilot for frequency-modulation atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchuk, Kfir; Schlesinger, Itai; Sivan, Uri

    2015-10-01

    One of the most challenging aspects of operating an atomic force microscope (AFM) is finding optimal feedback parameters. This statement applies particularly to frequency-modulation AFM (FM-AFM), which utilizes three feedback loops to control the cantilever excitation amplitude, cantilever excitation frequency, and z-piezo extension. These loops are regulated by a set of feedback parameters, tuned by the user to optimize stability, sensitivity, and noise in the imaging process. Optimization of these parameters is difficult due to the coupling between the frequency and z-piezo feedback loops by the non-linear tip-sample interaction. Four proportional-integral (PI) parameters and two lock-in parameters regulating these loops require simultaneous optimization in the presence of a varying unknown tip-sample coupling. Presently, this optimization is done manually in a tedious process of trial and error. Here, we report on the development and implementation of an algorithm that computes the control parameters automatically. The algorithm reads the unperturbed cantilever resonance frequency, its quality factor, and the z-piezo driving signal power spectral density. It analyzes the poles and zeros of the total closed loop transfer function, extracts the unknown tip-sample transfer function, and finds four PI parameters and two lock-in parameters for the frequency and z-piezo control loops that optimize the bandwidth and step response of the total system. Implementation of the algorithm in a home-built AFM shows that the calculated parameters are consistently excellent and rarely require further tweaking by the user. The new algorithm saves the precious time of experienced users, facilitates utilization of FM-AFM by casual users, and removes the main hurdle on the way to fully automated FM-AFM.

  12. Dimensional characterization of extracellular vesicles using atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebaihi, N; De Boeck, B; Pétry, J; Yuana, Y; Nieuwland, R

    2017-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EV) are small biological entities released from cells into body fluids. EV are recognized as mediators in intercellular communication and influence important physiological processes. It has been shown that the concentration and composition of EV in body fluids may differ from healthy subjects to patients suffering from particular disease. So, EV have gained a strong scientific and clinical interest as potential biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis of disease. Due to their small size, accurate detection and characterization of EV remain challenging. The aim of the presented work is to propose a characterization method of erythrocyte-derived EV using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The vesicles are immobilized on anti-CD235a-modified mica and analyzed by AFM under buffer liquid and dry conditions. EV detected under both conditions show very similar sizes namely ∼30 nm high and ∼90 nm wide. The size of these vesicles remains stable over drying time as long as 7 d at room temperature. Since the detected vesicles are not spherical, EV are characterized by their height and diameter, and not only by the height as is usually done for spherical nanoparticles. In order to obtain an accurate measurement of EV diameters, the geometry of the AFM tip was evaluated to account for the lateral broadening artifact inherent to AFM measurements. To do so, spherical polystyrene (PS) nanobeads and EV were concomitantly deposited on the same mica substrate and simultaneously measured by AFM under dry conditions. By applying this procedure, direct calibration of the AFM tip could be performed together with EV characterization under identical experimental conditions minimizing external sources of uncertainty on the shape and size of the tip, thus allowing standardization of EV measurement. (paper)

  13. Scanning tunneling microscopy and atomic force microscopy: application to biology and technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansma, P K; Elings, V B; Marti, O; Bracker, C E

    1988-10-14

    The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) and the atomic force microscope (AFM) are scanning probe microscopes capable of resolving surface detail down to the atomic level. The potential of these microscopes for revealing subtle details of structure is illustrated by atomic resolution images including graphite, an organic conductor, an insulating layered compound, and individual adsorbed oxygen atoms on a semiconductor. Application of the STM for imaging biological materials directly has been hampered by the poor electron conductivity of most biological samples. The use of thin conductive metal coatings and replicas has made it possible to image some biological samples, as indicated by recently obtained images of a recA-DNA complex, a phospholipid bilayer, and an enzyme crystal. The potential of the AFM, which does not require a conductive sample, is shown with molecular resolution images of a nonconducting organic monolayer and an amino acid crystal that reveals individual methyl groups on the ends of the amino acids. Applications of these new microscopes to technology are demonstrated with images of an optical disk stamper, a diffraction grating, a thin-film magnetic recording head, and a diamond cutting tool. The STM has even been used to improve the quality of diffraction gratings and magnetic recording heads.

  14. Quantum reflection of fast atoms from insulator surfaces: Eikonal description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gravielle, M S; Miraglia, J E, E-mail: msilvia@iafe.uba.a, E-mail: miraglia@iafe.uba.a [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, CONICET, Casilla de Correo 67, Sucursal 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina) and Dpto. de Fisica, FCEN, Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2009-11-01

    Interference effects recently observed in grazing scattering of swift atoms from insulator surfaces are studied within a distorted-wave method - the surface eikonal approximation. This approach makes use of the eikonal wave function, involving axial channeled trajectories. The theory is applied to helium atoms colliding with a LiF(001) surface along low-index crystallographic directions. The roles played by the projectile polarization and the surface rumpling are investigated, finding that both effects are important for the description of the experimental projectile distributions.

  15. Quantitative measurement of local elasticity of SiOx film by atomic force acoustic microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cun-Fu, He; Gai-Mei, Zhang; Bin, Wu

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the elastic properties of SiO x film are investigated quantitatively for local fixed point and qualitatively for overall area by atomic force acoustic microscopy (AFAM) in which the sample is vibrated at the ultrasonic frequency while the sample surface is touched and scanned with the tip contacting the sample respectively for fixed point and continuous measurements. The SiO x films on the silicon wafers are prepared by the plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD). The local contact stiffness of the tip-SiO x film is calculated from the contact resonance spectrum measured with the atomic force acoustic microscopy. Using the reference approach, indentation modulus of SiO x film for fixed point is obtained. The images of cantilever amplitude are also visualized and analysed when the SiO x surface is excited at a fixed frequency. The results show that the acoustic amplitude images can reflect the elastic properties of the sample. (classical areas of phenomenology)

  16. Photodesorption of Na atoms from rough Na surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balzer, Frank; Gerlach, R.; Manson, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    We investigate the desorption of Na atoms from large Na clusters deposited on dielectric surfaces. High-resolution translational energy distributions of the desorbing atoms are determined by three independent methods, two-photon laser-induced fluorescence, as well as single-photon and resonance......-enhanced two-photon ionization techniques. Upon variation of surface temperature and for different substrates (mica vs lithium fluoride) clear non-Maxwellian time-of-flight distributions are observed with a cos θ angular dependence and most probable kinetic energies below that expected of atoms desorbing from...... atoms are scattered by surface vibrations. Recent experiments providing time constants for the decay of the optical excitations in the clusters support this model. The excellent agreement between experiment and theory indicates the importance of both absorption of the laser photons via direct excitation...

  17. Local adhesive surface properties studied by force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lekka, M.; Lekki, J.; Marszalek, M.; Stachura, Z.; Cleff, B.

    1998-01-01

    Scanning force microscopy was used in the contact mode to determine the adhesion force between a mica surface and a silicon nitride tip. The measurements were performed in an aqueous solution of sodium and calcium chlorides. The adhesion force according to the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek theory depends on the competition between two kinds of forces: van der Waals and electrostatic 'double layer'. Two different curves of adhesion force versus salt concentration were obtained from the experiment with monovalent and divalent ions. The tip-surface adhesion force was determined from a statistical analysis of data obtained from the force vs. distance retracting curves. (author)

  18. Energy shift and Casimir-Polder force for an atom out of thermal equilibrium near a dielectric substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wenting; Yu, Hongwei

    2014-09-01

    We study the energy shift and the Casimir-Polder force of an atom out of thermal equilibrium near the surface of a dielectric substrate. We first generalize, adopting the local source hypothesis, the formalism proposed by Dalibard, Dupont-Roc, and Cohen-Tannoudji [J. Phys. (Paris) 43, 1617 (1982), 10.1051/jphys:0198200430110161700; J. Phys. (Paris) 45, 637 (1984), 10.1051/jphys:01984004504063700], which separates the contributions of thermal fluctuations and radiation reaction to the energy shift and allows a distinct treatment of atoms in the ground and excited states, to the case out of thermal equilibrium, and then we use the generalized formalism to calculate the energy shift and the Casimir-Polder force of an isotropically polarizable neutral atom. We identify the effects of the thermal fluctuations that originate from the substrate and the environment and discuss in detail how the Casimir-Polder force out of thermal equilibrium behaves in three different distance regions in both the low-temperature limit and the high-temperature limit for both the ground-state and excited-state atoms, with special attention devoted to the distinctive features as opposed to thermal equilibrium. In particular, we recover the distinctive behavior of the atom-wall force out of thermal equilibrium at large distances in the low-temperature limit recently found in a different theoretical framework, and furthermore we give a concrete region where this behavior holds.

  19. An in vitro atomic force microscopic study of commercially available dental luting materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordje, Antonijevic; Denis, Brajkovic; Nenadovic, Milos; Petar, Milovanovic; Marija, Djuric; Zlatko, Rakocevic

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the surface roughness parameters of four different types of dental luting agents used for cementation of implant restorations. Five specimens (8 mm high and 1 mm thick) of each cement were made using metal ring steelless molds. Atomic Force Microscope was employed to analyze different surface texture parameters of the materials. Bearing ratio analysis was used to calculate the potential microgap size between the cement and implant material and to calculate the depth of the valleys on the cement surface, while power spectral density (PSD) measurements were performed to measure the percentage of the surface prone to bacterial adhesion. Glass ionomer cement showed significantly lower value of average surface roughness then the other groups of the materials (P cement experience the lowest percentage of the surface which promote bacterial colonization. Glas ionomer cements present the surface roughness parameters that are less favorable for bacterial adhesion than that of zinc phosphate, resin-modified glass ionomer and resin cements. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Observation of nuclear track in organic material by atomic force microscopy in real time during etching

    CERN Document Server

    Palmino, F; Labrune, J C

    1999-01-01

    The developments of Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) allow to investigated solid surfaces with a nanometer scale. These techniques are useful methods allowing direct observation of surface morphologies. Particularly in the nuclear track fields, they offer a new tool to give many new informations on track formation. In this paper we present the preliminary results of a new use of this technique to characterize continuously the formation of the revealed track in a cellulose nitrate detector (LR115) after an alpha particle irradiation. For that, a specific cell has been used to observe, by nano-observations, the evolution of track shapes simultaneously with chemical treatment. Thus, the track shape evolution has been studied; visualizing the evolution of the tracks in real time, in situ during the chemical etching process.

  1. Characterization of virus-like particles by atomic force microscopy in ambient conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oropesa, Reinier; Ramos, Jorge R; Falcón, Viviana; Felipe, Ariel

    2013-01-01

    Recombinant virus-like particles (VLPs) are attractive candidates for vaccine design since they resemble native viroids in size and morphology, but they are non-infectious due to the absence of a viral genome. The visualization of surface morphologies and structures can be used to deepen the understanding of physical, chemical, and biological phenomena. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a useful tool for the visualization of soft biological samples in a nanoscale resolution. In this work we have investigated the morphology of recombinant surface antigens of hepatitis B (rHBsAg) VLPs from Cuban vaccine against hepatitis B. The rHBsAg VLPs sizes estimated by AFM between 15 and 30 nm are similar to those reported on previous transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies. (paper)

  2. Real time drift measurement for colloidal probe atomic force microscope: a visual sensing approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yuliang, E-mail: wangyuliang@buaa.edu.cn; Bi, Shusheng [Robotics Institute, School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Wang, Huimin [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University, 2041 College Rd., Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2014-05-15

    Drift has long been an issue in atomic force microscope (AFM) systems and limits their ability to make long time period measurements. In this study, a new method is proposed to directly measure and compensate for the drift between AFM cantilevers and sample surfaces in AFM systems. This was achieved by simultaneously measuring z positions for beads at the end of an AFM colloidal probe and on sample surface through an off-focus image processing based visual sensing method. The working principle and system configuration are presented. Experiments were conducted to validate the real time drift measurement and compensation. The implication of the proposed method for regular AFM measurements is discussed. We believe that this technique provides a practical and efficient approach for AFM experiments requiring long time period measurement.

  3. A new united atom force field for adsorption of alkenes in zeolites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, B.; Smit, B.; Rey, F.; Valencia, S.; Calero, S.

    2008-01-01

    A new united atom force field was developed that accurately describes the adsorption properties of linear alkenes in zeolites. The force field was specifically designed for use in the inhomogeneous system and therefore a truncated and shifted potential was used. With the determined force field, we

  4. Low temperature corneal laser welding investigated by atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matteini, Paolo; Sbrana, Francesca; Tiribilli, Bruno; Pini, Roberto

    2009-02-01

    The structural modifications in the stromal matrix induced by low-temperature corneal laser welding were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). This procedure consists of staining the wound with Indocyanine Green (ICG), followed by irradiation with a near-infrared laser operated at low-power densities. This induces a local heating in the 55-65 °C range. In welded tissue, extracellular components undergo heat-induced structural modifications, resulting in a joining effect between the cut edges. However, the exact mechanism generating the welding, to date, is not completely understood. Full-thickness cuts, 3.5 mm in length, were made in fresh porcine cornea samples, and these were then subjected to laser welding operated at 16.7 W/cm2 power density. AFM imaging was performed on resin-embedded semi-thin slices once they had been cleared by chemical etching, in order to expose the stromal bulk of the tissue within the section. We then carried out a morphological analysis of characteristic fibrillar features in the laser-treated and control samples. AFM images of control stromal regions highlighted well-organized collagen fibrils (36.2 +/- 8.7 nm in size) running parallel to each other as in a typical lamellar domain. The fibrils exhibited a beaded pattern with a 22-39 nm axial periodicity. Laser-treated corneal regions were characterized by a significant disorganization of the intralamellar architecture. At the weld site, groups of interwoven fibrils joined the cut edges, showing structural properties that were fully comparable with those of control regions. This suggested that fibrillar collagen is not denatured by low-temperature laser welding, confirming previous transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations, and thus it is probably not involved in the closure mechanism of corneal cuts. The loss of fibrillar organization may be related to some structural modifications in some interfibrillar substance as proteoglycans or collagen VI. Furthermore, AFM

  5. Tip Effect of the Tapping Mode of Atomic Force Microscope in Viscous Fluid Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Hua-Ju; Shih, Po-Jen

    2015-07-28

    Atomic force microscope with applicable types of operation in a liquid environment is widely used to scan the contours of biological specimens. The contact mode of operation allows a tip to touch a specimen directly but sometimes it damages the specimen; thus, a tapping mode of operation may replace the contact mode. The tapping mode triggers the cantilever of the microscope approximately at resonance frequencies, and so the tip periodically knocks the specimen. It is well known that the cantilever induces extra liquid pressure that leads to drift in the resonance frequency. Studies have noted that the heights of protein surfaces measured via the tapping mode of an atomic force microscope are ~25% smaller than those measured by other methods. This discrepancy may be attributable to the induced superficial hydrodynamic pressure, which is worth investigating. In this paper, we introduce a semi-analytical method to analyze the pressure distribution of various tip geometries. According to our analysis, the maximum hydrodynamic pressure on the specimen caused by a cone-shaped tip is ~0.5 Pa, which can, for example, pre-deform a cell by several nanometers in compression before the tip taps it. Moreover, the pressure calculated on the surface of the specimen is 20 times larger than the pressure without considering the tip effect; these results have not been motioned in other papers. Dominating factors, such as surface heights of protein surface, mechanical stiffness of protein increasing with loading velocity, and radius of tip affecting the local pressure of specimen, are also addressed in this study.

  6. Surface modification of polystyrene with atomic oxygen radical anions-dissolved solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lian; Yan Lifeng; Zhao Peitao; Torimoto, Yoshifumi; Sadakata, Masayoshi; Li Quanxin

    2008-01-01

    A novel approach to surface modification of polystyrene (PS) polymer with atomic oxygen radical anions-dissolved solution (named as O - water) has been investigated. The O - water, generated by bubbling of the O - (atomic oxygen radical anion) flux into the deionized water, was characterized by UV-absorption spectroscopy and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The O - water treatments caused an obvious increase of the surface hydrophilicity, surface energy, surface roughness and also caused an alteration of the surface chemical composition for PS surfaces, which were indicated by the variety of contact angle and material characterization by atomic force microscope (AFM) imaging, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and attenuated total-reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) measurements. Particularly, it was found that some hydrophilic groups such as hydroxyl (OH) and carbonyl (C=O) groups were introduced onto the polystyrene surfaces via the O - water treatment, leading to the increases of surface hydrophilicity and surface energy. The active oxygen species would react with the aromatic ring molecules on the PS surfaces and decompose the aromatic compounds to produce hydrophilic hydroxyl and carbonyl compounds. In addition, the O - water is also considered as a 'clean solution' without adding any toxic chemicals and it is easy to be handled at room temperature. Present method may suit to the surface modification of polymers and other heat-sensitive materials potentially

  7. Effects on energetic impact of atomic clusters with surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popok, V.N.; Vuchkovich, S.; Abdela, A.; Campbell, E.E.B.

    2007-01-01

    A brief state-of-the-art review in the field of cluster ion interaction with surface is presented. Cluster beams are efficient tools for manipulating agglomerates of atoms providing control over the synthesis as well as modification of surfaces on the nm-scale. The application of cluster beams for technological purposes requires knowledge of the physics of cluster-surface impact. This has some significant differences compared to monomer ion - surface interactions. The main effects of cluster-surface collisions are discussed. Recent results obtained in experiments on silicon surface nanostructuring using keV-energy implantation of inert gas cluster ions are presented and compared with molecular dynamics simulations. (authors)

  8. Bi-harmonic cantilever design for improved measurement sensitivity in tapping-mode atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loganathan, Muthukumaran; Bristow, Douglas A., E-mail: dbristow@mst.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, Missouri 65401 (United States)

    2014-04-15

    This paper presents a method and cantilever design for improving the mechanical measurement sensitivity in the atomic force microscopy (AFM) tapping mode. The method uses two harmonics in the drive signal to generate a bi-harmonic tapping trajectory. Mathematical analysis demonstrates that the wide-valley bi-harmonic tapping trajectory is as much as 70% more sensitive to changes in the sample topography than the standard single-harmonic trajectory typically used. Although standard AFM cantilevers can be driven in the bi-harmonic tapping trajectory, they require large forcing at the second harmonic. A design is presented for a bi-harmonic cantilever that has a second resonant mode at twice its first resonant mode, thereby capable of generating bi-harmonic trajectories with small forcing signals. Bi-harmonic cantilevers are fabricated by milling a small cantilever on the interior of a standard cantilever probe using a focused ion beam. Bi-harmonic drive signals are derived for standard cantilevers and bi-harmonic cantilevers. Experimental results demonstrate better than 30% improvement in measurement sensitivity using the bi-harmonic cantilever. Images obtained through bi-harmonic tapping exhibit improved sharpness and surface tracking, especially at high scan speeds and low force fields.

  9. Bi-harmonic cantilever design for improved measurement sensitivity in tapping-mode atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loganathan, Muthukumaran; Bristow, Douglas A

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents a method and cantilever design for improving the mechanical measurement sensitivity in the atomic force microscopy (AFM) tapping mode. The method uses two harmonics in the drive signal to generate a bi-harmonic tapping trajectory. Mathematical analysis demonstrates that the wide-valley bi-harmonic tapping trajectory is as much as 70% more sensitive to changes in the sample topography than the standard single-harmonic trajectory typically used. Although standard AFM cantilevers can be driven in the bi-harmonic tapping trajectory, they require large forcing at the second harmonic. A design is presented for a bi-harmonic cantilever that has a second resonant mode at twice its first resonant mode, thereby capable of generating bi-harmonic trajectories with small forcing signals. Bi-harmonic cantilevers are fabricated by milling a small cantilever on the interior of a standard cantilever probe using a focused ion beam. Bi-harmonic drive signals are derived for standard cantilevers and bi-harmonic cantilevers. Experimental results demonstrate better than 30% improvement in measurement sensitivity using the bi-harmonic cantilever. Images obtained through bi-harmonic tapping exhibit improved sharpness and surface tracking, especially at high scan speeds and low force fields.

  10. Functional dependence of resonant harmonics on nanomechanical parameters in dynamic mode atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramazio, Federico; Lorenzoni, Matteo; Pérez-Murano, Francesc; Rull Trinidad, Enrique; Staufer, Urs; Fraxedas, Jordi

    2017-01-01

    We present a combined theoretical and experimental study of the dependence of resonant higher harmonics of rectangular cantilevers of an atomic force microscope (AFM) as a function of relevant parameters such as the cantilever force constant, tip radius and free oscillation amplitude as well as the stiffness of the sample's surface. The simulations reveal a universal functional dependence of the amplitude of the 6th harmonic (in resonance with the 2nd flexural mode) on these parameters, which can be expressed in terms of a gun-shaped function. This analytical expression can be regarded as a practical tool for extracting qualitative information from AFM measurements and it can be extended to any resonant harmonics. The experiments confirm the predicted dependence in the explored 3-45 N/m force constant range and 2-345 GPa sample's stiffness range. For force constants around 25 N/m, the amplitude of the 6th harmonic exhibits the largest sensitivity for ultrasharp tips (tip radius below 10 nm) and polymers (Young's modulus below 20 GPa).

  11. Modeling and boundary force control of microcantilevers utilized in atomic force microscopy for cellular imaging and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, Sohrab

    This dissertation undertakes the theoretical and experimental developments microcantilevers utilized in Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) with applications to cellular imaging and characterization. The capability of revealing the inhomogeneties or interior of ultra-small materials has been of most interest to many researchers. However, the fundamental concept of signal and image formation remains unexplored and not fully understood. For his, a semi-empirical nonlinear force model is proposed to show that virtual frequency generation, regarded as the simplest synthesized subsurface probe, occurs optimally when the force is tuned to the van der Waals form. This is the first-time observation of a novel theoretical dynamic multi-frequency force microscopy that has not been already reported. Owing to the broad applications of microcantilevers in the nanoscale imaging and microscopic techniques, there is an essential feeling to study and propose a comprehensive model of such systems. Therefore, in the theoretical part of this dissertation, a distributed-parameters representation modeling of the microcantilever along with a general interaction force comprising of two attractive and repulsive components with general amplitude and power terms is studied. This model is investigated in a general 2D Cartesian coordinate to consider the motions of the probe with a tip mass. There is an excitation at the microcantilever's base such that the end of the beam is subject to the proposed general force. These forces are very sensitive to the amplitude and power terms of these parts; on the other hand, atomic intermolecular force is a function of the distance such that this distance itself is also a function of the interaction force that will result in a nonlinear implicit equation. From a parametric study in the probe-sample excitation, it is shown that the predicted behavior of the generated difference-frequency oscillation amplitude agrees well with experimental measurements. Following

  12. Thermal Casimir-Polder forces on a V-type three-level atom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chen-Ran; Xu, Jing-Ping; Al-amri, M.; Zhu, Cheng-Jie; Xie, Shuang-Yuan; Yang, Ya-Ping

    2017-09-01

    We study the thermal Casimir-Polder (CP) forces on a V-type three-level atom. The competition between the thermal effect and the quantum interference of the two transition dipoles on the force is investigated. To shed light onto the role of the quantum interference, we analyze two kinds of initial states of the atom, i.e., the superradiant state and the subradiant state. Considering the atom being in the thermal reservoir, the resonant CP force arising from the real photon emission dominates in the evolution of the CP force. Under the zero-temperature condition, the quantum interference can effectively modify the amplitude and the evolution of the force, leading to a long-time force or even the cancellation of the force. Our results reveal that in the finite-temperature case, the thermal photons can enhance the amplitude of all force elements, but have no influence on the net resonant CP force in the steady state, which means that the second law of thermodynamics still works. For the ideal degenerate V-type atom with parallel dipoles under the initial subradiant state, the robust destructive quantum interference overrides the thermal fluctuations, leading to the trapping of the atom in the subradiant state and the disappearance of the CP force. However, in terms of a realistic Zeeman atom, the thermal photons play a significant role during the evolution of the CP force. The thermal fluctuations can enhance the amplitude of the initial CP force by increasing the temperature, and weaken the influence of the quantum interference on the evolution of the CP force from the initial superradiant (subradiant) state to the steady state.

  13. Surface chemical reactions probed with scanning force microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werts, M.P L; van der Vegte, E.W.; Hadziioannou, G

    1997-01-01

    In this letter we report the study of surface chemical reactions with scanning force microscopy (SFM) with chemical specificity. Using chemically modified SFM probes, we can determine the local surface reaction conversion during a chemical surface modification. The adhesion forces between a

  14. The influence of physical and physiological cues on atomic force microscopy-based cell stiffness assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Wei Chiou

    Full Text Available Atomic force microscopy provides a novel technique for differentiating the mechanical properties of various cell types. Cell elasticity is abundantly used to represent the structural strength of cells in different conditions. In this study, we are interested in whether physical or physiological cues affect cell elasticity in Atomic force microscopy (AFM-based assessments. The physical cues include the geometry of the AFM tips, the indenting force and the operating temperature of the AFM. All of these cues show a significant influence on the cell elasticity assessment. Sharp AFM tips create a two-fold increase in the value of the effective Young's modulus (E(eff relative to that of the blunt tips. Higher indenting force at the same loading rate generates higher estimated cell elasticity. Increasing the operation temperature of the AFM leads to decreases in the cell stiffness because the structure of actin filaments becomes disorganized. The physiological cues include the presence of fetal bovine serum or extracellular matrix-coated surfaces, the culture passage number, and the culture density. Both fetal bovine serum and the extracellular matrix are critical for cells to maintain the integrity of actin filaments and consequently exhibit higher elasticity. Unlike primary cells, mouse kidney progenitor cells can be passaged and maintain their morphology and elasticity for a very long period without a senescence phenotype. Finally, cell elasticity increases with increasing culture density only in MDCK epithelial cells. In summary, for researchers who use AFM to assess cell elasticity, our results provide basic and significant information about the suitable selection of physical and physiological cues.

  15. The influence of physical and physiological cues on atomic force microscopy-based cell stiffness assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Yu-Wei; Lin, Hsiu-Kuan; Tang, Ming-Jer; Lin, Hsi-Hui; Yeh, Ming-Long

    2013-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy provides a novel technique for differentiating the mechanical properties of various cell types. Cell elasticity is abundantly used to represent the structural strength of cells in different conditions. In this study, we are interested in whether physical or physiological cues affect cell elasticity in Atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based assessments. The physical cues include the geometry of the AFM tips, the indenting force and the operating temperature of the AFM. All of these cues show a significant influence on the cell elasticity assessment. Sharp AFM tips create a two-fold increase in the value of the effective Young's modulus (E(eff)) relative to that of the blunt tips. Higher indenting force at the same loading rate generates higher estimated cell elasticity. Increasing the operation temperature of the AFM leads to decreases in the cell stiffness because the structure of actin filaments becomes disorganized. The physiological cues include the presence of fetal bovine serum or extracellular matrix-coated surfaces, the culture passage number, and the culture density. Both fetal bovine serum and the extracellular matrix are critical for cells to maintain the integrity of actin filaments and consequently exhibit higher elasticity. Unlike primary cells, mouse kidney progenitor cells can be passaged and maintain their morphology and elasticity for a very long period without a senescence phenotype. Finally, cell elasticity increases with increasing culture density only in MDCK epithelial cells. In summary, for researchers who use AFM to assess cell elasticity, our results provide basic and significant information about the suitable selection of physical and physiological cues.

  16. Measurement of near neighbor separations of surface atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, P.I.

    Two techniques are being developed to measure the nearest neighbor distances of atoms at the surfaces of solids. Both measures extended fine structure in the excitation probability of core level electrons which are excited by an incident electron beam. This is an important problem because the structures of most surface systems are as yet unknown, even though the location of surface atoms is the basis for any quantitative understanding of the chemistry and physics of surfaces and interfaces. These methods would allow any laboratory to make in situ determinations of surface structure in conjunction with most other laboratory probes of surfaces. Each of these two techniques has different advantages; further, the combination of the two will increase confidence in the results by reducing systematic error in the data analysis

  17. Calibrated atomic force microscope measurements of vickers hardness indentations and tip production and characterisation for scanning tunelling microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Carsten P.

    Calibrated atomic force microscope measurements of vickers hardness indentations and tip production and characterisation for scanning tunelling microscope......Calibrated atomic force microscope measurements of vickers hardness indentations and tip production and characterisation for scanning tunelling microscope...

  18. Morphology of compressed dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine monolayers investigated by atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Y.-P.; Tsay, R.-Y.

    2007-01-01

    The effectiveness of a substitute of natural lung surfactants on replacement therapy strongly depends on the stability of the monolayer of those substitute molecules. An atomic force microscope is utilized to investigate the microstructure of the films of the major components of natural lung surfactants, dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine-DPPC, which are transferred to mica substrates by the Langmuir-Blodgett film technique. A concave deformation structure was first observed for DPPC in solid phase. The depth of the concave domain was about 6 nm and was remarkably uniform. For a collapsed DPPC monolayer, the surface film consists of a granular convex multilayer structure and a disc-like concave structure. Dynamic cyclic compression-expansion experiments indicate that the formation of the concave domain is a reversible process while the process for convex multilayer formation is irreversible. This gives direct evidence that convex grain is the collapsed structure of DPPC monolayer and the concave shallow disc corresponds to the elastic deformation of a DPPC solid film. Results of atomic force microscopy indicate that the nucleation and growth model instead of the fracture model can better describe the collapse behavior of a DPPC monolayer

  19. Single-molecule studies of DNA transcription using atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billingsley, Daniel J; Crampton, Neal; Thomson, Neil H; Bonass, William A; Kirkham, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) can detect single biomacromolecules with a high signal-to-noise ratio on atomically flat biocompatible support surfaces, such as mica. Contrast arises from the innate forces and therefore AFM does not require imaging contrast agents, leading to sample preparation that is relatively straightforward. The ability of AFM to operate in hydrated environments, including humid air and aqueous buffers, allows structure and function of biological and biomolecular systems to be retained. These traits of the AFM are ensuring that it is being increasingly used to study deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) structure and DNA–protein interactions down to the secondary structure level. This report focuses in particular on reviewing the applications of AFM to the study of DNA transcription in reductionist single-molecule bottom-up approaches. The technique has allowed new insights into the interactions between ribonucleic acid (RNA) polymerase to be gained and enabled quantification of some aspects of the transcription process, such as promoter location, DNA wrapping and elongation. More recently, the trend is towards studying the interactions of more than one enzyme operating on a single DNA template. These methods begin to reveal the mechanics of gene expression at the single-molecule level and will enable us to gain greater understanding of how the genome is transcribed and translated into the proteome. (topical review)

  20. High-speed adaptive contact-mode atomic force microscopy imaging with near-minimum-force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Juan; Zou, Qingze

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, an adaptive contact-mode imaging approach is proposed to replace the traditional contact-mode imaging by addressing the major concerns in both the speed and the force exerted to the sample. The speed of the traditional contact-mode imaging is largely limited by the need to maintain precision tracking of the sample topography over the entire imaged sample surface, while large image distortion and excessive probe-sample interaction force occur during high-speed imaging. In this work, first, the image distortion caused by the topography tracking error is accounted for in the topography quantification. Second, the quantified sample topography is utilized in a gradient-based optimization method to adjust the cantilever deflection set-point for each scanline closely around the minimal level needed for maintaining stable probe-sample contact, and a data-driven iterative feedforward control that utilizes a prediction of the next-line topography is integrated to the topography feeedback loop to enhance the sample topography tracking. The proposed approach is demonstrated and evaluated through imaging a calibration sample of square pitches at both high speeds (e.g., scan rate of 75 Hz and 130 Hz) and large sizes (e.g., scan size of 30 μm and 80 μm). The experimental results show that compared to the traditional constant-force contact-mode imaging, the imaging speed can be increased by over 30 folds (with the scanning speed at 13 mm/s), and the probe-sample interaction force can be reduced by more than 15% while maintaining the same image quality

  1. High-speed adaptive contact-mode atomic force microscopy imaging with near-minimum-force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Juan; Zou, Qingze, E-mail: qzzou@rci.rutgers.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Rutgers University, 98 Brett Rd, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States)

    2014-07-15

    In this paper, an adaptive contact-mode imaging approach is proposed to replace the traditional contact-mode imaging by addressing the major concerns in both the speed and the force exerted to the sample. The speed of the traditional contact-mode imaging is largely limited by the need to maintain precision tracking of the sample topography over the entire imaged sample surface, while large image distortion and excessive probe-sample interaction force occur during high-speed imaging. In this work, first, the image distortion caused by the topography tracking error is accounted for in the topography quantification. Second, the quantified sample topography is utilized in a gradient-based optimization method to adjust the cantilever deflection set-point for each scanline closely around the minimal level needed for maintaining stable probe-sample contact, and a data-driven iterative feedforward control that utilizes a prediction of the next-line topography is integrated to the topography feeedback loop to enhance the sample topography tracking. The proposed approach is demonstrated and evaluated through imaging a calibration sample of square pitches at both high speeds (e.g., scan rate of 75 Hz and 130 Hz) and large sizes (e.g., scan size of 30 μm and 80 μm). The experimental results show that compared to the traditional constant-force contact-mode imaging, the imaging speed can be increased by over 30 folds (with the scanning speed at 13 mm/s), and the probe-sample interaction force can be reduced by more than 15% while maintaining the same image quality.

  2. Interactions of germanium atoms with silica surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanley, Scott K.; Coffee, Shawn S.; Ekerdt, John G.

    2005-01-01

    GeH 4 is thermally cracked over a hot filament depositing 0.7-15 ML Ge onto 2-7 nm SiO 2 /Si(1 0 0) at substrate temperatures of 300-970 K. Ge bonding changes are analyzed during annealing with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Ge, GeH x , GeO, and GeO 2 desorption is monitored through temperature programmed desorption in the temperature range 300-1000 K. Low temperature desorption features are attributed to GeO and GeH 4 . No GeO 2 desorption is observed, but GeO 2 decomposition to Ge through high temperature pathways is seen above 750 K. Germanium oxidization results from Ge etching of the oxide substrate. With these results, explanations for the failure of conventional chemical vapor deposition to produce Ge nanocrystals on SiO 2 surfaces are proposed

  3. Influence of culture conditions on Escherichia coli O157:H7 biofilm formation by atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Y.J.; Jo, W.; Yang, Y.; Park, S.

    2007-01-01

    Biofilms are complex microbial communities that are resistant against attacks by bacteriophages and removal by drugs and chemicals. In this study, biofilms of Escherichia coli O157:H7, a bacterial pathogen, were investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM) in terms of the dynamic transition of morphology and surface properties of bacterial cells over the development of biofilms. The physical and topographical properties of biofilms are different, depending on nutrient availability. Compared to biofilms formed in a high nutrient medium, biofilms form faster and a higher number of bacterial cells were recovered on glass surface in a low nutrient medium. We demonstrate that AFM can obtain high-resolution images and the elastic information about biofilms. As E. coli biofilm becomes mature, the magnitude of the force between a tip and the surface of the biofilm gets stronger, suggesting that extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs), sticky components of biofilms, accumulate over the surface of cells upon the initial attachment of bacterial cells to surfaces

  4. Entanglement generation between two atoms via surface modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Jingping; Yang Yaping; Al-Amri, M.; Zhu Shiyao; Zubairy, M. Suhail

    2011-01-01

    We discuss the coupling of two identical atoms, separated by a metal or metamaterial slab, through surface modes. We show that the coupling through the surface modes can induce entanglement. We discuss how to control the coupling for the metal or metamaterial slab by adjusting the symmetrical and antisymmetrical property of the surface modes. We analyze the dispersion relation of the surface modes and study the parameter ranges that support the surface modes with the same properties. Our results have potential applications in quantum communication and quantum computation.

  5. Passivation of CdZnTe surfaces by oxidation in low energy atomic oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, H.; Chattopadhyay, K.; Chen, K.; Burger, A.; George, M.A.; Gregory, J.C.; Nag, P.K.; Weimer, J.J.; James, R.B.

    1999-01-01

    A method of surface passivation of Cd 1-x Zn x Te (CZT) x-ray and gamma ray detectors has been established by using microwave-assisted atomic oxygen bombardment. Detector performance is significantly enhanced due to the reduction of surface leakage current. CZT samples were exposed to an atomic oxygen environment at the University of Alabama in Huntsville close-quote s Thermal Atomic Oxygen Facility. This system generates neutral atomic oxygen species with kinetic energies of 0.1 - 0.2 eV. The surface chemical composition and its morphology modification due to atomic oxygen exposure were studied by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy and the results were correlated with current-voltage measurements and with room temperature spectral responses to 133 Ba and 241 Am radiation. A reduction of leakage current by about a factor of 2 is reported, together with significant improvement in the gamma-ray line resolution. copyright 1999 American Vacuum Society

  6. The relationship between local liquid density and force applied on a tip of atomic force microscope: a theoretical analysis for simple liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Ken-ichi; Suzuki, Kazuhiro; Fukuma, Takeshi; Takahashi, Ohgi; Onishi, Hiroshi

    2013-12-14

    The density of a liquid is not uniform when placed on a solid. The structured liquid pushes or pulls a probe employed in atomic force microscopy, as demonstrated in a number of experimental studies. In the present study, the relation between the force on a probe and the local density of a liquid is derived based on the statistical mechanics of simple liquids. When the probe is identical to a solvent molecule, the strength of the force is shown to be proportional to the vertical gradient of ln(ρDS) with the local liquid's density on a solid surface being ρDS. The intrinsic liquid's density on a solid is numerically calculated and compared with the density reconstructed from the force on a probe that is identical or not identical to the solvent molecule.

  7. The relationship between local liquid density and force applied on a tip of atomic force microscope: A theoretical analysis for simple liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amano, Ken-ichi, E-mail: aman@tohoku-pharm.ac.jp; Takahashi, Ohgi [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tohoku Pharmaceutical University, 4-4-1 Komatsushima, Aoba-ku, Sendai 981-8558 (Japan); Suzuki, Kazuhiro [Department of Electronic Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Katsura, Nishikyo, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan); Fukuma, Takeshi [Bio-AFM Frontier Research Center, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan); Onishi, Hiroshi [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Kobe University, Nada-ku, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)

    2013-12-14

    The density of a liquid is not uniform when placed on a solid. The structured liquid pushes or pulls a probe employed in atomic force microscopy, as demonstrated in a number of experimental studies. In the present study, the relation between the force on a probe and the local density of a liquid is derived based on the statistical mechanics of simple liquids. When the probe is identical to a solvent molecule, the strength of the force is shown to be proportional to the vertical gradient of ln(ρ{sub DS}) with the local liquid's density on a solid surface being ρ{sub DS}. The intrinsic liquid's density on a solid is numerically calculated and compared with the density reconstructed from the force on a probe that is identical or not identical to the solvent molecule.

  8. The relationship between local liquid density and force applied on a tip of atomic force microscope: A theoretical analysis for simple liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Ken-ichi; Takahashi, Ohgi; Suzuki, Kazuhiro; Fukuma, Takeshi; Onishi, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    The density of a liquid is not uniform when placed on a solid. The structured liquid pushes or pulls a probe employed in atomic force microscopy, as demonstrated in a number of experimental studies. In the present study, the relation between the force on a probe and the local density of a liquid is derived based on the statistical mechanics of simple liquids. When the probe is identical to a solvent molecule, the strength of the force is shown to be proportional to the vertical gradient of ln(ρ DS ) with the local liquid's density on a solid surface being ρ DS . The intrinsic liquid's density on a solid is numerically calculated and compared with the density reconstructed from the force on a probe that is identical or not identical to the solvent molecule

  9. Casimir-Polder forces on atoms in the presence of magnetoelectronic bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buhmann, S.Y.

    2007-01-01

    In this work, the CP force between a single neutral atom or molecule and neutral magnetoelectric bodies is studied. The focus lies on the pure vacuum CP force, i.e., the electromagnetic field is in general understood to be in its ground state. Furthermore, we assume that the atom-body separation is sufficiently large to ensure that the atom is adequately characterised as an electric dipole, while the body can be described by its macroscopic magnetoelectric properties; and that repulsive exchange forces due to the overlap between the electronic wave functions of the atom and the bodies can be neglected. Interactions due to non-vanishing net charges, permanent electric dipole moments, magnetisability, quadrupole (or higher multipole) polarisabilities of the atom and those resulting from non-local or anisotropic magnetoelectric properties of the bodies are ignored. (orig.)

  10. Casimir-Polder forces on atoms in the presence of magnetoelectronic bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buhmann, S Y

    2007-07-05

    In this work, the CP force between a single neutral atom or molecule and neutral magnetoelectric bodies is studied. The focus lies on the pure vacuum CP force, i.e., the electromagnetic field is in general understood to be in its ground state. Furthermore, we assume that the atom-body separation is sufficiently large to ensure that the atom is adequately characterised as an electric dipole, while the body can be described by its macroscopic magnetoelectric properties; and that repulsive exchange forces due to the overlap between the electronic wave functions of the atom and the bodies can be neglected. Interactions due to non-vanishing net charges, permanent electric dipole moments, magnetisability, quadrupole (or higher multipole) polarisabilities of the atom and those resulting from non-local or anisotropic magnetoelectric properties of the bodies are ignored. (orig.)

  11. Current mapping of low-energy (120 eV) helium and hydrogen irradiated tungsten by conductive atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Hongyu [School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian (China); Endo, Takashi [Nano-micro Materials Analysis Laboratory, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Bi, Zhenghua; Yan, Weibin [School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian (China); Ohnuki, Somei [Nano-micro Materials Analysis Laboratory, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Yang, Qi; Ni, Weiyuan [School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian (China); Liu, Dongping, E-mail: dongping.liu@dlnu.edu.cn [School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian (China)

    2017-04-01

    Both conductive atomic force microscopy (CAFM) and transmission electron microscopy have been used to characterize the defects or He bubbles in low-energy (120 eV) H and He irradiated tungsten (W). By a comparative study, we find that the current mapping from CAFM is very sensitive in the detection of nanometer-sized defects in low-energy H and He irradiated W. Our calculation confirms that the resistance change in H and He irradiated W is strongly affected by the distance between atomic force microscopy tip and defects/He bubbles. CAFM can accurately detect defects/He bubbles in the W surface layer, however, it is infeasible to measure them in the deep layer (>20 nm), especially due to the existence of defects in the surface layer.

  12. Microstructural and micromechanical characterisation of TiAl alloys using atomic force microscopy and nanoindentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gebhard, S.; Pyczak, F.; Goeken, M.

    2009-01-01

    Different microstructures were generated in the Ti-45Al-4.6Nb-0.2B-0.2C and Ti-45Al-1Cr alloys (at.%) by heat treatment. The microstructures were investigated using nanoindentation and atomic force microscopy which was compared with transmission electron microscopy. Topographic contrast is usually used for phase identification in the atomic force microscope. However, it was found that the topographic order of the phases changes with different microstructures and specimen preparations. Nanoindentation measurements provided local hardness values not obtainable by other methods and enabled clear distinction of the phases. The hardness values can give information on surrounding microstructure and solid solution hardening. The mean lamellar spacing of the colonies was measured using both atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Atomic force microscopy was found to be suitable to determine the spacing between α 2 /γ-interfaces offering the advantages of easier sample preparation and fewer specimens compared to evaluation by TEM analysis.

  13. Chromatin Structure in Bands and Interbands of Polytene Chromosomes Imaged by Atomic Force Microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Grauw, C.J.; de Grauw, C.J.; Avogadro, A.; van den Heuvel, D.J.; van den Heuvel, D.J.; van der Werf, Kees; Otto, Cornelis; Kraan, Yvonne M.; van Hulst, N.F.; Greve, Jan

    1998-01-01

    Polytene chromosomes from Drosophila melanogaster, observed from squash preparations, and chromosomes from Chironomus thummi thummi, investigated under physiological conditions, are imaged using an Atomic Force Microscope. Various chromatin fiber structures can be observed with high detail in fixed

  14. Classical theory of atom-surface scattering: The rainbow effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miret-Artés, Salvador; Pollak, Eli

    2012-07-01

    The scattering of heavy atoms and molecules from surfaces is oftentimes dominated by classical mechanics. A large body of experiments have gathered data on the angular distributions of the scattered species, their energy loss distribution, sticking probability, dependence on surface temperature and more. For many years these phenomena have been considered theoretically in the framework of the “washboard model” in which the interaction of the incident particle with the surface is described in terms of hard wall potentials. Although this class of models has helped in elucidating some of the features it left open many questions such as: true potentials are clearly not hard wall potentials, it does not provide a realistic framework for phonon scattering, and it cannot explain the incident angle and incident energy dependence of rainbow scattering, nor can it provide a consistent theory for sticking. In recent years we have been developing a classical perturbation theory approach which has provided new insight into the dynamics of atom-surface scattering. The theory includes both surface corrugation as well as interaction with surface phonons in terms of harmonic baths which are linearly coupled to the system coordinates. This model has been successful in elucidating many new features of rainbow scattering in terms of frictions and bath fluctuations or noise. It has also given new insight into the origins of asymmetry in atomic scattering from surfaces. New phenomena deduced from the theory include friction induced rainbows, energy loss rainbows, a theory of super-rainbows, and more. In this review we present the classical theory of atom-surface scattering as well as extensions and implications for semiclassical scattering and the further development of a quantum theory of surface scattering. Special emphasis is given to the inversion of scattering data into information on the particle-surface interactions.

  15. Conductive atomic force microscopy study of InAs growth kinetics on vicinal GaAs (110)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tejedor, Paloma; Diez-Merino, Laura; Beinik, Igor; Teichert, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Conductive atomic force microscopy has been used to investigate the effect of atomic hydrogen and step orientation on the growth behavior of InAs on GaAs (110) misoriented substrates. Samples grown by conventional molecular beam epitaxy exhibit higher conductivity on [110]-multiatomic step edges, where preferential nucleation of InAs nanowires takes place by step decoration. On H-terminated substrates with triangular terraces bounded by [115]-type steps, three-dimensional InAs clusters grow selectively at the terrace apices as a result of a kinetically driven enhancement in upward mass transport via AsH x intermediate species and a reduction in the surface free energy.

  16. Automation of the CHARMM General Force Field (CGenFF) I: bond perception and atom typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanommeslaeghe, K; MacKerell, A D

    2012-12-21

    Molecular mechanics force fields are widely used in computer-aided drug design for the study of drug-like molecules alone or interacting with biological systems. In simulations involving biological macromolecules, the biological part is typically represented by a specialized biomolecular force field, while the drug is represented by a matching general (organic) force field. In order to apply these general force fields to an arbitrary drug-like molecule, functionality for assignment of atom types, parameters, and charges is required. In the present article, which is part I of a series of two, we present the algorithms for bond perception and atom typing for the CHARMM General Force Field (CGenFF). The CGenFF atom typer first associates attributes to the atoms and bonds in a molecule, such as valence, bond order, and ring membership among others. Of note are a number of features that are specifically required for CGenFF. This information is then used by the atom typing routine to assign CGenFF atom types based on a programmable decision tree. This allows for straightforward implementation of CGenFF's complicated atom typing rules and for equally straightforward updating of the atom typing scheme as the force field grows. The presented atom typer was validated by assigning correct atom types on 477 model compounds including in the training set as well as 126 test-set molecules that were constructed to specifically verify its different components. The program may be utilized via an online implementation at https://www.paramchem.org/ .

  17. Reversal of atomic contrast in scanning probe microscopy on (111) metal surfaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ondráček, Martin; González, C.; Jelínek, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 24, 08 (2012), 084003/1-084003/7 ISSN 0953-8984 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GPP204/11/P578; GA ČR GAP204/10/0952; GA ČR GA202/09/0545; GA MŠk(CZ) ME10076 Grant - others:AVČR(CZ) M100100904 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : atomic force microscopy * metallic surfaces * atomic contrast * scanning tunneling microscopy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.355, year: 2012 http://iopscience.iop.org/0953-8984/24/8/084003

  18. Multiscale modeling of interaction of alane clusters on Al(111) surfaces : a reactive force field and infrared absorbtion spectroscopy approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ojwang, J.G.O.; Chaudhuri, S.; Duin, van A.C.T.; Chabal, Y.J.; Veyan, J.-F.; Santen, van R.A.; Kramer, G.J.; Goddard III, W.A.

    2010-01-01

    We have used reactive force field (ReaxFF) to investigate the mechanism of interaction of alanes on Al(111) surface. Our simulations show that, on the Al(111) surface, alanes oligomerize into larger alanes. In addition, from our simulations, adsorption of atomic hydrogen on Al(111) surface leads to

  19. Reorganization energy upon charging a single molecule on an insulator measured by atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatayer, Shadi; Schuler, Bruno; Steurer, Wolfram; Scivetti, Ivan; Repp, Jascha; Gross, Leo; Persson, Mats; Meyer, Gerhard

    2018-05-01

    Intermolecular single-electron transfer on electrically insulating films is a key process in molecular electronics1-4 and an important example of a redox reaction5,6. Electron-transfer rates in molecular systems depend on a few fundamental parameters, such as interadsorbate distance, temperature and, in particular, the Marcus reorganization energy7. This crucial parameter is the energy gain that results from the distortion of the equilibrium nuclear geometry in the molecule and its environment on charging8,9. The substrate, especially ionic films10, can have an important influence on the reorganization energy11,12. Reorganization energies are measured in electrochemistry13 as well as with optical14,15 and photoemission spectroscopies16,17, but not at the single-molecule limit and nor on insulating surfaces. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), with single-charge sensitivity18-22, atomic-scale spatial resolution20 and operable on insulating films, overcomes these challenges. Here, we investigate redox reactions of single naphthalocyanine (NPc) molecules on multilayered NaCl films. Employing the atomic force microscope as an ultralow current meter allows us to measure the differential conductance related to transitions between two charge states in both directions. Thereby, the reorganization energy of NPc on NaCl is determined as (0.8 ± 0.2) eV, and density functional theory (DFT) calculations provide the atomistic picture of the nuclear relaxations on charging. Our approach presents a route to perform tunnelling spectroscopy of single adsorbates on insulating substrates and provides insight into single-electron intermolecular transport.

  20. Low Temperature Scanning Force Microscopy of the Si(111)-( 7x7) Surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lantz, M. A.; Hug, H. J.; Schendel, P. J. A. van; Hoffmann, R.; Martin, S.; Baratoff, A.; Abdurixit, A.; Guentherodt, H.-J.; Gerber, Ch.

    2000-01-01

    A low temperature scanning force microscope (SFM) operating in a dynamic mode in ultrahigh vacuum was used to study the Si(111)-(7x7) surface at 7.2 K. Not only the twelve adatoms but also the six rest atoms of the unit cell are clearly resolved for the first time with SFM. In addition, the first measurements of the short range chemical bonding forces above specific atomic sites are presented. The data are in good agreement with first principles computations and indicate that the nearest atoms in the tip and sample relax significantly when the tip is within a few Angstrom of the surface. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society