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Sample records for surface-sterilized banana roots

  1. Desulfovibrio zosterae sp. nov., a new sulfate reducer isolated from surface-sterilized roots of the seagrass Zostera marina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, J T; Liesack, W; Finster, K

    1999-04-01

    A sulfate-reducing bacterium, designated strain lacT, was isolated from surface-sterilized roots of the benthic macrophyte Zostera marina. Cells were motile by means of a single polar flagellum. Strain lacT utilized lactate, pyruvate, malate, ethanol, L-alanine, fumarate, choline and fructose with sulfate as electron acceptor. In addition, fumarate, pyruvate and fructose were also degraded without an external electron acceptor. Sulfate could be substituted with thiosulfate, sulfite and elemental sulfur. Optimal growth was observed between 32.5 and 34.5 degrees C, at an NaCl concentration of 0.2 M and in a pH range between 6.8 and 7.3. The G + C content of the DNA was 42.7 +/- 0.2 mol%. Desulfoviridin and catalase were present. Strain lacT contained c-type cytochromes. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and the fatty acid pattern grouped this isolate into the genus Desulfovibrio. However, strain lacT differs from all other described Desulfovibrio species on the bases of its 16S rRNA gene sequence, the G + C content, its cellular lipid pattern and the utilization pattern of substrates. These characteristics establish strain lacT (= DSM 11974T) as a novel species of the genus Desulfovibrio, for which the name Desulfovibrio zosterae sp. nov. is proposed.

  2. Micrococcus endophyticus sp. nov., isolated from surface-sterilized Aquilaria sinensis roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hua-Hong; Zhao, Guo-Zhen; Park, Dong-Jin; Zhang, Yu-Qin; Xu, Li-Hua; Lee, Jae-Chan; Kim, Chang-Jin; Li, Wen-Jun

    2009-05-01

    A Gram-positive bacterial strain, designated YIM 56238(T), was isolated from plant roots (Aquilaria sinensis), and characterized by using a polyphasic approach. Strain YIM 56238(T) grew optimally at pH 7.0-8.0 and at 28 degrees C. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain YIM 56238(T) indicated that it belongs to the genus Micrococcus. Chemotaxonomic data strongly supported the classification of this strain within the genus Micrococcus: the cell-wall peptidoglycan contained lysine, glutamic acid, alanine and glycine; the predominant menaquinones were MK-8(H(2)) (63.6 %) and MK-7(H(2)) (21.1 %); the phospholipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol and an unknown ninhydrin-negative phospholipid; and the major cellular fatty acids were iso-C(15 : 0) (30.95 %) and anteiso-C(15 : 0) (53.75 %). The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 72.9 mol%. A number of physiological features were found that clearly distinguished strain YIM 56238(T) from recognized species of the genus Micrococcus. DNA-DNA hybridization studies suggested that the novel strain represents a separate genomic species. On the basis of the data, therefore, strain YIM 56238(T) represents a novel species of the genus Micrococcus, for which the name Micrococcus endophyticus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YIM 56238(T) (=DSM 17945(T)=KCTC 19156(T)).

  3. Micrococcus yunnanensis sp. nov., a novel actinobacterium isolated from surface-sterilized Polyspora axillaris roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guo-Zhen; Li, Jie; Qin, Sheng; Zhang, Yu-Qin; Zhu, Wen-Yong; Jiang, Cheng-Lin; Xu, Li-Hua; Li, Wen-Jun

    2009-10-01

    In this study, strain YIM 65004(T), isolated from roots of Polyspora axillaris, was shown to represent a novel species of the genus Micrococcus by means of a polyphasic approach. Chemotaxonomic data gathered for peptidoglycan type, menaquinones, phospholipids and fatty acids strongly supported the classification of this strain within the genus Micrococcus: the cell-wall peptidoglycan contained lysine, glutamic acid, alanine, glycine and aspartic acid, the predominant menaquinones were MK-8(H(2)) (66.97 %) and MK-7(H(2)) (23.26 %), the phospholipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol and an unknown ninhydrin-negative phospholipid, and the major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C(15 : 0) (61.98 %), iso-C(16 : 0) (14.25 %) and iso-C(15 : 0) (13.04 %). The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 71.7 mol%. A number of physiological features were found that clearly distinguished strain YIM 65004(T) from recognized Micrococcus species. DNA-DNA hybridization studies suggested that the novel strain represents a separate genomic species. Based on the above data, a novel species of the genus Micrococcus, Micrococcus yunnanensis sp. nov., is proposed, with the type strain YIM 65004(T) (=CCTCC AA 208060(T)=DSM 21948(T)).

  4. Infestation of the banana root borer among different banana plant genotypes

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    Fernando Teixeira de Oliveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: In this study, we aimed to investigate Cosmopolites sordidus (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae infestation among different banana genotypes in a commercial banana orchard over the course of 30 months. Banana root borer infestation was compared in 20 banana genotypes, including five varieties and 15 hybrids. Overall, we observed that 94.17% of pest infestation cases occurred in the cortex region, and only 5.83% occurred in the central cylinder. Genotypes least sensitive to infestation were the Prata Anã (AAB and Pacovan (AAB varieties, where no damage was recorded. Among the hybrid genotypes, PV 9401 and BRS Fhia 18 showed intermediate levels of sensitivity, while BRS Tropical hybrids (AAAB, PA 9401 (AAAB, BRS Vitoria (AAAB, YB 4203 (AAAB, and Bucaneiro (AAAA were the most sensitive to attack by banana root borer. This study demonstrated that the infestation of the banana root borer varies according banana plant genotype, and the utilization of less susceptible genotypes could reduce infestation rates of C. sordidus.

  5. Root activity pattern of banana under irrigated and rain conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobhana, A.; Aravindakshan, M.; Wahid, P.A.

    1989-01-01

    Root morphology by excavation method and root activity pattern by 32 P soil-injection technique have been studied in banana var., Nendran under rainfed/irrigated conditions. The number of roots, length and diameter of roots and dry weight of roots were found to be more for the rainfed banana crop compared to the irrigated. The results of the radiotracer studies indicated that about 60 per cent of the active roots of irrigated banana lie within 20 cm distance and about 90 per cent of the total root activity is found within 40 cm distance from the plant. In the case of rainfed crop about 85 per cent of the active roots were found within a radius of 40 cm around the plant. Active roots were found to be more concentrated at 15 to 30 cm depth under rainfed conditions while the density of active roots was more or less uniform along the profile upto a dpeth of 60 cm in irrigated banana. (author). 4 refs., 3 figs

  6. Water extraction and implications on soil moisture sensor placement in the root zone of banana

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    Alisson Jadavi Pereira da Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The knowledge on spatial and temporal variations of soil water storage in the root zone of crops is essential to guide the studies to determine soil water balance, verify the effective zone of water extraction in the soil and indicate the correct region for the management of water, fertilizers and pesticides. The objectives of this study were: (i to indicate the zones of highest root activity for banana in different development stages; (ii to determine, inside the zone of highest root activity, the adequate position for the installation of soil moisture sensors. A 5.0 m3 drainage lysimeter was installed in the center of an experimental area of 320 m2. Water extraction was quantified inside the lysimeter using a 72 TDR probe. The concept of time stability was applied to indicate the position for sensor installation within the limits of effective water extraction. There are two patterns of water extraction distribution during the development of banana and the point of installation of sensors for irrigation management inside the zone of highest root activity is not constant along the crop development.

  7. Development of an efficient pheromone-based trapping method for the banana root borer Cosmopolites sordidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, G V P; Cruz, Z T; Guerrero, A

    2009-01-01

    The banana root borer Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a major pest of bananas throughout the world. Chemical control is both undesirable and expensive, where biological control alternatives are limited, and pheromone-based trapping results in low captures. In this study, several important factors that affect pheromone-based catches, such as trap type, trap dimensions, and color and position of the traps, were optimized. Ground traps were found to be superior to ramp and pitfall traps, and larger traps (40 x 25 cm and above) were more efficient than smaller ones (30 x 15 cm). In a color-choice test, the banana weevil clearly preferred brown traps over yellow, red, gray, blue, black, white, and green, with mahogany being more attractive than other shades of brown. In addition, pheromone baited ground traps positioned in the shade of the canopy caught significantly more adults than those placed in sunlight. Therefore, mahogany-brown ground traps 40 x 25 cm appear to be the most efficient at catching C. sordidus adults and have the greatest potential for use in mass trapping and programs for eradication of this pest.

  8. Endophytic bacterial diversity in banana 'Prata Anã' (Musa spp. roots

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    Suzane A. Souza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The genetic diversity of endophytic bacteria in banana 'Prata Anã' roots was characterized. Two hundred and one endophytic bacteria were isolated, 151 of which were classified as Gram-positive and 50 as Gram-negative. No hypersensitivity response was observed in any of the isolates. The rep-PCR technique generated different molecular profiles for each primer set (REP, ERIC and BOX. Fifty readable loci were obtained and all of the fragments were polymorphic. Amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA of the isolates based on cleavage with four restriction enzymes yielded 45 polymorphic bands and no monomorphic bands. PCR amplified the nifH gene in 24 isolates. 16S rDNA sequencing of the 201 bacterial isolates yielded 102 high-quality sequences. Sequence analyses revealed that the isolates were distributed among ten bacterial genera (Agrobacterium, Aneurinibacillus, Bacillus, Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Lysinibacillus, Micrococcus, Paenibacillus, Rhizobium and Sporolactobacillus and included 15 species. The greatest number of isolates belonged to the genus Bacillus. The bacteria identified in this study may be involved in promoting growth, phosphate solubilization, biological control and nitrogen fixation in bananas.

  9. The nematicidal effect of camellia seed cake on root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica of banana.

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    Xiujuan Yang

    Full Text Available Suppression of root-knot nematodes is crucially important for maintaining the worldwide development of the banana industry. Growing concerns about human and environmental safety have led to the withdrawal of commonly used nematicides and soil fumigants, thus motivating the development of alternative nematode management strategies. In this study, Meloidogyne javanica was isolated, and the nematicidal effect of Camellia seed cake on this pest was investigated. The results showed that in dish experiments, Camellia seed cake extracts under low concentration (2 g/L showed a strong nematicidal effect. After treatment for 72 h, the eggs of M. javanica were gradually dissolved, and the intestine of the juveniles gradually became indistinct. Nematicidal compounds, including saponins identified by HPLC-ESI-MS and 8 types of volatile compounds identified by GC-MS, exhibited effective nematicidal activities, especially 4-methylphenol. The pot experiments demonstrated that the application of Camellia seed cake suppressed M. javanica, and promoted the banana plant growth. This study explored an effective nematicidal agent for application in soil and revealed its potential mechanism of nematode suppression.

  10. Isolation of Antagonistic Endophytes from Banana Roots against Meloidogyne javanica and Their Effects on Soil Nematode Community

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    Lanxi Su

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Banana production is seriously hindered by Meloidogyne spp. all over the world. Endophytes are ideal candidates compared to pesticides as an environmentally benign agent. In the present study, endophytes isolated from banana roots infected by Meloidogyne spp. with different disease levels were tested in vitro, and in sterile and nature banana monoculture soils against Meloidogyne javanica. The proportion of antagonistic endophytes were higher in the roots of middle and high disease levels. Among those, bacteria were dominant, and Pseudomonas spp., Bacillus spp. and Streptomyces spp. showed more abundant populations. One strain, named as SA, with definite root inner-colonization ability was isolated and identified as Streptomyces sp. This strain showed an inhibiting rate of >50% in vitro and biocontrol efficiency of 70.7% in sterile soil against Meloidogyne javanica, compared to the control. Greenhouse experiment results showed that the strain SA exhibits excellent biological control ability for plant-parasites both in roots and in root-knot nematode infested soil. SA treatment showed a higher number of bacterivores, especially Mesorhabditis and Cephalobus. The maturity index was significantly lower, while enrichment index (EI was significantly higher in the SA treatment. In conclusion, this study presents an important potential application of the endophytic strain Streptomyces sp. for the control of plant-parasitic nematodes, especially Meloidogyne javanica, and presents the effects on the associated variation of the nematode community.

  11. Transcriptome profiling of resistant and susceptible Cavendish banana roots following inoculation with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4

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    Li Chun-yu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fusarium wilt, caused by the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4 (Foc TR4, is considered the most lethal disease of Cavendish bananas in the world. The disease can be managed in the field by planting resistant Cavendish plants generated by somaclonal variation. However, little information is available on the genetic basis of plant resistance to Foc TR4. To a better understand the defense response of resistant banana plants to the Fusarium wilt pathogen, the transcriptome profiles in roots of resistant and susceptible Cavendish banana challenged with Foc TR4 were compared. Results RNA-seq analysis generated more than 103 million 90-bp clean pair end (PE reads, which were assembled into 88,161 unigenes (mean size = 554 bp. Based on sequence similarity searches, 61,706 (69.99% genes were identified, among which 21,273 and 50,410 unigenes were assigned to gene ontology (GO categories and clusters of orthologous groups (COG, respectively. Searches in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database (KEGG mapped 33,243 (37.71% unigenes to 119 KEGG pathways. A total of 5,008 genes were assigned to plant-pathogen interactions, including disease defense and signal transduction. Digital gene expression (DGE analysis revealed large differences in the transcriptome profiles of the Foc TR4-resistant somaclonal variant and its susceptible wild-type. Expression patterns of genes involved in pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP recognition, activation of effector-triggered immunity (ETI, ion influx, and biosynthesis of hormones as well as pathogenesis-related (PR genes, transcription factors, signaling/regulatory genes, cell wall modification genes and genes with other functions were analyzed and compared. The results indicated that basal defense mechanisms are involved in the recognition of PAMPs, and that high levels of defense-related transcripts may contribute to Foc TR4 resistance in

  12. Evaluation of different protein extraction methods for banana (Musa spp.) root proteome analysis by two-dimensional electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaganan, M Mayil; Sarumathi, S; Nandakumar, A; Ravi, I; Mustaffa, M M

    2015-02-01

    Four protocols viz., the trichloroacetic acid-acetone (TCA), phenol-ammonium acetate (PAA), phenol/SDS-ammonium acetate (PSA) and trisbase-acetone (TBA) were evaluated with modifications for protein extraction from banana (Grand Naine) roots, considered as recalcitrant tissues for proteomic analysis. The two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) separated proteins were compared based on protein yield, number of resolved proteins, sum of spot quantity, average spot intensity and proteins resolved in 4-7 pI range. The PAA protocol yielded more proteins (0.89 mg/g of tissues) and protein spots (584) in 2-DE gel than TCA and other protocols. Also, the PAA protocol was superior in terms of sum of total spot quantity and average spot intensity than TCA and other protocols, suggesting phenol as extractant and ammonium acetate as precipitant of proteins were the most suitable for banana rooteomics analysis by 2-DE. In addition, 1:3 ratios of root tissue to extraction buffer and overnight protein precipitation were most efficient to obtain maximum protein yield.

  13. Surface sterilization and duration of seed storage influenced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of factorial combinations of four storage duration (in days after seed extraction) and surface sterilization with three dilution levels of sodium hypochlorite on seedling emergence and seedling quality of African breadfruit were studied. Storage duration significantly influenced days to seedling emergence, ...

  14. Surface sterilization method for reducing microbial contamination of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An effective disinfection method for strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) cv. Senga Sengana micropropagation using runner tips and nodal segments as explants was developed. The explants were surface sterilized with different sterilants for different durations. The present studies on the effect of different regimes of ...

  15. In vitro multiplication of banana (Musa sp.) cv. Grand Naine | Ahmed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A micropropagation method is described for banana (Musa Spp.) Cv. Grand Naine. Suckers were surface sterilized with HgCl2 (0.1%) for 6 min which gave minimum contamination with maximum culture establishment. Of various treatment combinations, Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium + BAP 4.00 mg/l with IAA 2.00 ...

  16. UV-C 13-50 ultraviolet irradiation unit for surface sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachmann, R.

    1979-01-01

    Brown Boveri have developed new watertight ultraviolet irradiation units for surface sterilization. Their main application is in packing techniques in the foodstuffs and pharmaceutical industries. This article describes the construction, germicidal effect, and applications of these irradiation units. (Auth.)

  17. Better bananas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This is a public relations film describing problems associated with the genetic improvement of bananas and plantains. These fruit and food crops have a large economic and nutritional value for tropical regions. The vulnerability of bananas to disease epidemics urgently requires breeding for resistance to black Sigatoka (leaf spot disease). The joint FAO/IAEA division has initiated a programme and developed a biotechnological strategy for genetic improvement of bananas and plantains

  18. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi associated with roots of banana cultivated in the Submédio São Francisco Valley

    OpenAIRE

    Melo, Adriana Mayumi Yano de; Maia, Leonor Costa; Morgado, Luiz Balbino

    1997-01-01

    Na região do Vale do São Francisco, onde a exploração da agricultura irrigada é a principal responsável pela alta produção de frutas para exportação, a banana é uma das culturas que mais tem se expandido em área cultivada. Com o objetivo de registrar os fungos micorrízicos arbusculares associados a essa cultura, foram coletadas, sob a parte aérea da bananeira, amostras de solo da rizosfera, em quatro áreas com diferentes características de solo, sendo identificadas as espécies: Acaulospora lo...

  19. Densidade do sistema radicular da bananeira 'Pacovan' sob irrigação por aspersão Root system density of 'Pacovan' banana plant under sprinkler irrigation

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    Raimundo Lacerda Filho

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi realizado no município de Governador Dix-Sept Rosado, microrregião Açu-Apodi, no Estado do Rio Grande do Norte, tendo como objetivo verificar os efeitos do sistema de irrigação por aspersão na densidade do sistema radicular da bananeira 'Pacovan'. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados, em esquema de parcelas subdivididas, com cinco repetições. Os tratamentos foram duas amostragens por planta, realizadas do lado contrário ao da emissão da inflorescência, formando um ângulo de 45º. Em cada amostragem, foram realizadas quatro retiradas do material de solo a distâncias de 20 cm, sendo a primeira a 30 cm e a última a 90 cm do pseudocaule. A análise dos dados demonstrou que ocorreu redução linear no peso fresco e na densidade de comprimento de raízes da bananeira em função da profundidade do solo. Em relação à distância do pseudocaule da bananeira, tanto o peso fresco quanto a densidade de comprimento de raízes não mostraram resultados significativos.The present work was conducted at Governador Dix-Sept Rosado County, microregion Açu-Apodi, in the state of Rio Grande do Norte and its objective was to study the effects of sprinkler irrigation system on the density of the root system of 'Pacovan' banana plants. The experiment followed a completely randomized block design, in a split-plot scheme, with five replications. The treatments were two sampling groups, taken per plant, and in the opposite side of the inflorescence emission, forming between them an angle of 45°. In each sampling group, four samples containing soil material were collected at intervals of 20 cm, so the first was distant 30 cm and the last 90 cm from the pseudostem. Data analysis showed that occurred a linear reduction in root fresh weight and in lenght of roots density, in replications to soil depth. For the distance from the plant pseudostem there were no significant differences between samples, both

  20. Ancient microbes from halite fluid inclusions: optimized surface sterilization and DNA extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaranarayanan, Krithivasan; Timofeeff, Michael N; Spathis, Rita; Lowenstein, Tim K; Lum, J Koji

    2011-01-01

    Fluid inclusions in evaporite minerals (halite, gypsum, etc.) potentially preserve genetic records of microbial diversity and changing environmental conditions of Earth's hydrosphere for nearly one billion years. Here we describe a robust protocol for surface sterilization and retrieval of DNA from fluid inclusions in halite that, unlike previously published methods, guarantees removal of potentially contaminating surface-bound DNA. The protocol involves microscopic visualization of cell structures, deliberate surface contamination followed by surface sterilization with acid and bleach washes, and DNA extraction using Amicon centrifugal filters. Methods were verified on halite crystals of four different ages from Saline Valley, California (modern, 36 ka, 64 ka, and 150 ka), with retrieval of algal and archaeal DNA, and characterization of the algal community using ITS1 sequences. The protocol we developed opens up new avenues for study of ancient microbial ecosystems in fluid inclusions, understanding microbial evolution across geological time, and investigating the antiquity of life on earth and other parts of the solar system.

  1. Banana (Musa. spp.) strain HD-1 appraisal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longyan, G.; Xinguo, L.; Lingxia, W.; Xuefei, J.

    2016-01-01

    Being one of the important tropical and subtropical fruit trees, banana (Musa spp.) belongs to the family Musaceae and the order Scitaminae with two genera, Musa and Ensete. In a field survey, research team has discovered a potential banana mutant strain HD-1 with a sound economic value. The results of the finding are as follows: based on Simmonds classification, the pseudostem of banana strain HD-1 is relatively short and purplish red; its upright outward petiole groove has red edges and wraps its pseudostem loosely. Its ploidy is 3, AAA type. Karyotype analysis shows that the number of chromosomes is 33, the karyotype formula is 2n=3x=33=2L + 3 M2 + 4 M1 + 2 S, HD-1 is classified as 1B type. With the help of ISSR molecular markers, we find thatbanana HD-1 has the closest relationship with Pubei and Tianbao dwarf banana; the similarity coefficient is 0.81. In an artificial simulation tests of cold, drought and salt resistance environment changes of physiological and biochemical indexes indicate that HD-1 exhibits stronger defense capability than Brazil banana. By way of inoculation with injury of root dipping method, we respectively treat two kinds of banana seedlings inoculated Banana Fusarium wilt race 4 small species. The results show that their resistance evaluation scores are 3 and 4, disease levels are susceptible and high sensitivity respectively. We conclude that HD-1 has stronger resistance ability to Fusarium wilt than Brazil banana. (author)

  2. Evolutionary Expansion of WRKY Gene Family in Banana and Its Expression Profile during the Infection of Root Lesion Nematode, Pratylenchus coffeae

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    Suthanthiram, Backiyarani; Subbaraya, Uma; Marimuthu Somasundram, Saraswathi; Muthu, Mayilvaganan

    2016-01-01

    The WRKY family of transcription factors orchestrate the reprogrammed expression of the complex network of defense genes at various biotic and abiotic stresses. Within the last 96 million years, three rounds of Musa polyploidization events had occurred from selective pressure causing duplication of MusaWRKYs with new activities. Here, we identified a total of 153 WRKY transcription factors available from the DH Pahang genome. Based on their phylogenetic relationship, the MusaWRKYs available with complete gene sequence were classified into the seven common WRKY sub-groups. Synteny analyses data revealed paralogous relationships, with 17 MusaWRKY gene pairs originating from the duplication events that had occurred within the Musa lineage. We also found 15 other MusaWRKY gene pairs originating from much older duplication events that had occurred along Arecales and Poales lineage of commelinids. Based on the synonymous and nonsynonymous substitution rates, the fate of duplicated MusaWRKY genes was predicted to have undergone sub-functionalization in which the duplicated gene copies retain a subset of the ancestral gene function. Also, to understand the regulatory roles of MusaWRKY during a biotic stress, Illumina sequencing was performed on resistant and susceptible cultivars during the infection of root lesion nematode, Pratylenchus coffeae. The differential WRKY gene expression analysis in nematode resistant and susceptible cultivars during challenged and unchallenged conditions had distinguished: 1) MusaWRKYs participating in general banana defense mechanism against P.coffeae common to both susceptible and resistant cultivars, 2) MusaWRKYs that may aid in the pathogen survival as suppressors of plant triggered immunity, 3) MusaWRKYs that may aid in the host defense as activators of plant triggered immunity and 4) cultivar specific MusaWRKY regulation. Mainly, MusaWRKY52, -69 and -92 are found to be P.coffeae specific and can act as activators or repressors in a

  3. Evolutionary Expansion of WRKY Gene Family in Banana and Its Expression Profile during the Infection of Root Lesion Nematode, Pratylenchus coffeae.

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    Raja Kaliyappan

    Full Text Available The WRKY family of transcription factors orchestrate the reprogrammed expression of the complex network of defense genes at various biotic and abiotic stresses. Within the last 96 million years, three rounds of Musa polyploidization events had occurred from selective pressure causing duplication of MusaWRKYs with new activities. Here, we identified a total of 153 WRKY transcription factors available from the DH Pahang genome. Based on their phylogenetic relationship, the MusaWRKYs available with complete gene sequence were classified into the seven common WRKY sub-groups. Synteny analyses data revealed paralogous relationships, with 17 MusaWRKY gene pairs originating from the duplication events that had occurred within the Musa lineage. We also found 15 other MusaWRKY gene pairs originating from much older duplication events that had occurred along Arecales and Poales lineage of commelinids. Based on the synonymous and nonsynonymous substitution rates, the fate of duplicated MusaWRKY genes was predicted to have undergone sub-functionalization in which the duplicated gene copies retain a subset of the ancestral gene function. Also, to understand the regulatory roles of MusaWRKY during a biotic stress, Illumina sequencing was performed on resistant and susceptible cultivars during the infection of root lesion nematode, Pratylenchus coffeae. The differential WRKY gene expression analysis in nematode resistant and susceptible cultivars during challenged and unchallenged conditions had distinguished: 1 MusaWRKYs participating in general banana defense mechanism against P.coffeae common to both susceptible and resistant cultivars, 2 MusaWRKYs that may aid in the pathogen survival as suppressors of plant triggered immunity, 3 MusaWRKYs that may aid in the host defense as activators of plant triggered immunity and 4 cultivar specific MusaWRKY regulation. Mainly, MusaWRKY52, -69 and -92 are found to be P.coffeae specific and can act as activators or

  4. Ancient microbes from halite fluid inclusions: optimized surface sterilization and DNA extraction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krithivasan Sankaranarayanan

    Full Text Available Fluid inclusions in evaporite minerals (halite, gypsum, etc. potentially preserve genetic records of microbial diversity and changing environmental conditions of Earth's hydrosphere for nearly one billion years. Here we describe a robust protocol for surface sterilization and retrieval of DNA from fluid inclusions in halite that, unlike previously published methods, guarantees removal of potentially contaminating surface-bound DNA. The protocol involves microscopic visualization of cell structures, deliberate surface contamination followed by surface sterilization with acid and bleach washes, and DNA extraction using Amicon centrifugal filters. Methods were verified on halite crystals of four different ages from Saline Valley, California (modern, 36 ka, 64 ka, and 150 ka, with retrieval of algal and archaeal DNA, and characterization of the algal community using ITS1 sequences. The protocol we developed opens up new avenues for study of ancient microbial ecosystems in fluid inclusions, understanding microbial evolution across geological time, and investigating the antiquity of life on earth and other parts of the solar system.

  5. Development of an in vitro culture system adapted to banana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-17

    Jun 17, 2009 ... The beneficial impact of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi on banana nutrition and resistance against abiotic and biotic stresses is well documented. However, most studies were conducted under greenhouse or field conditions and none reported the life cycle of the AM fungi on banana roots. It is obvious ...

  6. Development of an in vitro culture system adapted to banana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The beneficial impact of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi on banana nutrition and resistance against abiotic and biotic stresses is well documented. However, most studies were conducted under greenhouse or field conditions and none reported the life cycle of the AM fungi on banana roots. It is obvious that any system ...

  7. Fungos micorrízicos arbusculares em bananeiras cultivadas no Vale do Submédio São Francisco Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi associated with roots of banana cultivated in the Submédio São Francisco Valley

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    Adriana Mayumi Yano de Melo

    1997-12-01

    Scutellospora sp. The rate of colonization of banana roots by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the investigated areas was around 55%.

  8. Influence of triadimefon on the growth and development of banana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dessert banana cultivars (Hindi, Basrai and Williams) were affected compared to the control. The optimum culture conditions for root formation were obtained in the case of sub-culturing. The excised shoot cultures into Murashige and Skoog ...

  9. Halophilic archaea cultivated from surface sterilized middle-late eocene rock salt are polyploid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salla T Jaakkola

    Full Text Available Live bacteria and archaea have been isolated from several rock salt deposits of up to hundreds of millions of years of age from all around the world. A key factor affecting their longevity is the ability to keep their genomic DNA intact, for which efficient repair mechanisms are needed. Polyploid microbes are known to have an increased resistance towards mutations and DNA damage, and it has been suggested that microbes from deeply buried rock salt would carry several copies of their genomes. Here, cultivable halophilic microbes were isolated from a surface sterilized middle-late Eocene (38-41 million years ago rock salt sample, drilled from the depth of 800 m at Yunying salt mine, China. Eight unique isolates were obtained, which represented two haloarchaeal genera, Halobacterium and Halolamina. We used real-time PCR to show that our isolates are polyploid, with genome copy numbers of 11-14 genomes per cell in exponential growth phase. The ploidy level was slightly downregulated in stationary growth phase, but the cells still had an average genome copy number of 6-8. The polyploidy of halophilic archaea living in ancient rock salt might be a factor explaining how these organisms are able to overcome the challenge of prolonged survival during their entombment.

  10. Response of banana cultivars to banana weevil attack | Kiggundu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    East African Highland Bananas (EAHB) (Musa AAA, 'Matooke' group) are a major staple food in the East African region. However, banana weevil (Cosmopolites sorllidus) is a major production constraint to bananas and may cause damage levels of up to 100%. Pesticides can effectively control banana weevil but these are ...

  11. Fermentation of Foc TR4-infected bananas and Trichoderma spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J; Li, B; Liu, S W; Biswas, M K; Liu, S; Wei, Y R; Zuo, C W; Deng, G M; Kuang, R B; Hu, C H; Yi, G J; Li, C Y

    2016-10-17

    Fusarium wilt (also known as Panama disease) is one of the most destructive banana diseases, and greatly hampers the global production of bananas. Consequently, it has been very detrimental to the Chinese banana industry. An infected plant is one of the major causes of the spread of Fusarium wilt to nearby regions. It is essential to develop an efficient and environmentally sustainable disease control method to restrict the spread of Fusarium wilt. We isolated Trichoderma spp from the rhizosphere soil, roots, and pseudostems of banana plants that showed Fusarium wilt symptoms in the infected areas. Their cellulase activities were measured by endoglucanase activity, β-glucosidase activity, and filter paper activity assays. Safety analyses of the Trichoderma isolates were conducted by inoculating them into banana plantlets. The antagonistic effects of the Trichoderma spp on the Fusarium pathogen Foc tropical Race 4 (Foc TR4) were tested by the dual culture technique. Four isolates that had high cellulase activity, no observable pathogenicity to banana plants, and high antagonistic capability were identified. The isolates were used to biodegrade diseased banana plants infected with GFP-tagged Foc TR4, and the compost was tested for biological control of the infectious agent; the results showed that the fermentation suppressed the incidence of wilt and killed the pathogen. This study indicates that Trichoderma isolates have the potential to eliminate the transmission of Foc TR4, and may be developed into an environmentally sustainable treatment for controlling Fusarium wilt in banana plants.

  12. Micropropagation of banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaçar, Yıldız Aka; Faber, Ben

    2012-01-01

    Banana (Musa spp. AAA) is propagated vegetatively and can be rapidly and efficiently propagated by micropropagation. Conventional micropropagation techniques, however, may be too costly for commercial purposes. Our laboratory has found that depending on the combination of culture vessel and gelling agent more economic methods can be chosen for successfully micropropagating banana.

  13. Bananas go paraelectric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loidl, A; Krohns, S; Hemberger, J; Lunkenheimer, P

    2008-01-01

    Using a banana as an example, we demonstrate how the ferroelectric-like hysteresis loops measured in inhomogeneous, conducting materials can easily be identified as non-intrinsic. With simple experiments, the response of a banana to electric fields is revealed as characteristic for an inhomogeneous paraelectric ion conductor. Not even absolute beginners in dielectrics should identify this biological matter as ferroelectric. (viewpoint)

  14. Bananas and plantains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The film shows the germplasm diversity within the Genus Musa and the evolution of cultivated forms of bananas and plantains. Cultivation history and geographical distribution are depicted; features of plant morphology and the floral biology are demonstrated. Economic and nutritional impact and importance of bananas and plantains for developing countries are briefly discussed. The second part of the film surveys problems in the propagation and genetic improvement of bananas and plantains: fruits of these vegetatively propagated plants are usually seedless which complicate the application of conventional plant breeding methods. In-vitro techniques are shown to be useful for plant propagation and germplasm conservation. Cross breeding with some semi-sterile clones of bananas has not led so far to lines which are resistant to the most harmful diseases, e.g. panama disease, black sigatoka. The Joint FAO/IAEA division has initiated an in-vitro mutation breeding programme to improve disease resistance in bananas

  15. The Banana Genome Hub

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droc, Gaëtan; Larivière, Delphine; Guignon, Valentin; Yahiaoui, Nabila; This, Dominique; Garsmeur, Olivier; Dereeper, Alexis; Hamelin, Chantal; Argout, Xavier; Dufayard, Jean-François; Lengelle, Juliette; Baurens, Franc-Christophe; Cenci, Alberto; Pitollat, Bertrand; D’Hont, Angélique; Ruiz, Manuel; Rouard, Mathieu; Bocs, Stéphanie

    2013-01-01

    Banana is one of the world’s favorite fruits and one of the most important crops for developing countries. The banana reference genome sequence (Musa acuminata) was recently released. Given the taxonomic position of Musa, the completed genomic sequence has particular comparative value to provide fresh insights about the evolution of the monocotyledons. The study of the banana genome has been enhanced by a number of tools and resources that allows harnessing its sequence. First, we set up essential tools such as a Community Annotation System, phylogenomics resources and metabolic pathways. Then, to support post-genomic efforts, we improved banana existing systems (e.g. web front end, query builder), we integrated available Musa data into generic systems (e.g. markers and genetic maps, synteny blocks), we have made interoperable with the banana hub, other existing systems containing Musa data (e.g. transcriptomics, rice reference genome, workflow manager) and finally, we generated new results from sequence analyses (e.g. SNP and polymorphism analysis). Several uses cases illustrate how the Banana Genome Hub can be used to study gene families. Overall, with this collaborative effort, we discuss the importance of the interoperability toward data integration between existing information systems. Database URL: http://banana-genome.cirad.fr/ PMID:23707967

  16. Alcohol from bananas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammond, J.B.; Egg, Richard; Coble, C.G. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Agricultural Engineering; Diggins, Drew

    1996-04-01

    Laboratory studies were conducted to assess the ethanol production potential from waste bananas. Over a 10-day ripening period, there was a 9% loss of fresh weight by day 6 and a 15% loss by day 10. Ethanol yields from normal ripe bananas were: whole fruit - 0.091, pulp -0.082, and peel -0.006 l/kg of whole fruit. Ripeness effects on ethanol yield were measured as green - 0.090, normal ripe - 0.082, and overripe - 0.069 l/kg of green whole bananas. Enzymatic hydrolysis was necessary for maximum yields. Dilution water was not essential for effective fermentation. Waste parameters of the banana stillage were measured. (Author)

  17. Natural Radioactivity in Bananas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagatto, V. A. B.; Medina, N. H.; Okuno, E.; Umisedo, N. K.

    2008-08-01

    The content of 40K natural radionuclide in bananas (Musa sapientum) from the Vale do Ribeira region, São Paulo, Brazil, has been measured. We have collected several samples of bananas prata and nanica, its peels, leaves, and also different soils where the banana tree was planted, such as soil with a standard amount of fertilizer, the fertilizer itself and also soil without fertilizer for comparison. We have used the gamma-ray spectroscopy technique with a NaI(T1) crystal inside a 12 cm thick lead shield to detect the gamma-radiation. The results indicate that only part of the available potassium is absorbed by the plant, which is mainly concentrated in the banana peel.

  18. Natural Radioactivity in Bananas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagatto, V. A. B.; Medina, N. H.; Okuno, E.; Umisedo, N. K.

    2008-01-01

    The content of 40 K natural radionuclide in bananas (Musa sapientum) from the Vale do Ribeira region, Sao Paulo, Brazil, has been measured. We have collected several samples of bananas prata and nanica, its peels, leaves, and also different soils where the banana tree was planted, such as soil with a standard amount of fertilizer, the fertilizer itself and also soil without fertilizer for comparison. We have used the gamma-ray spectroscopy technique with a NaI(T1) crystal inside a 12 cm thick lead shield to detect the gamma-radiation. The results indicate that only part of the available potassium is absorbed by the plant, which is mainly concentrated in the banana peel

  19. The radurisation of bananas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huyzers, C.J.; Basson, R.

    1985-01-01

    Early studies on the radurisation of bananas indicated that this commodity did not benefit substantially from the treatment. This work, which was carried out at Pelindaba, indicated a low threshold dose for radiation damage and little shelf-life extension at this dose. In a second study carried out at Tzaneen more promising results were obtained. The reason for the differences seemed to be due to the time between harvesting and treatment which was much shorter in the Tzaneen study. Consequently it was decided to undertake a third and much larger trial in which the bananas would be treated in Tzaneen and then dispatched to Pretoria for storage and evaluation by a joint Nucor/Banana Board team. Parameters investigated included colour, firmness (by penatrometer testing) and sensory qualities. The bananas were stored for various periods at 15 o C, ripened by exposure to ethylene gas under commerical conditons and then stored at ambient temperature for the remainder of the experiment. Bananas we re irradiated at various doses between 0,3 kGy and 1,5kGy and were compared with control batches which were stored under the same conditions

  20. Banana (Musa spp.) Production Characteristics and Performance in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagamba, F.; Burger, C.P.J.; Tushemereirwe, W.K.

    2010-01-01

    The highland cooking banana (Musa spp., AAA-EA genome) is the most important crop in the East African Great Lakes region. In Uganda, production has expanded and productivity increased in the country’s southwest and declined in the Central region where the crop has traditional roots. Analyzing crop

  1. The "Blue Banana" Revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faludi, A.K.F.

    2015-01-01

    This essay is about the “Blue Banana”. Banana is the name given subsequently by others to a Dorsale européenne (European backbone) identified empirically by Roger Brunet. In a background study to the Communication of the European Commission ‘Europe 2000’, Klaus Kunzmann and Michael Wegener put

  2. Ply tensile properties of banana stem and banana bunch fibres

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-03-01

    Mar 1, 2012 ... BANANA BUNCH FIBRES REINFORCED NATURAL RUBBER. COMPOSITE ... National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology, (NIIST) CSIR Trivandrum, India. ..... Handbook of Ceramics and Composites,. Vol.

  3. A procedure to evaluate the efficiency of surface sterilization methods in culture-independent fungal endophyte studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.J. Burgdorf

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Extraneous DNA interferes with PCR studies of endophytic fungi. A procedure was developed with which to evaluate the removal of extraneous DNA. Wheat (Triticum aestivum leaves were sprayed with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and then subjected to physical and chemical surface treatments. The fungal ITS1 products were amplified from whole tissue DNA extractions. ANOVA was performed on the DNA bands representing S. cerevisiae on the agarose gel. Band profile comparisons using permutational multivariate ANOVA (PERMANOVA and non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS were performed on DGGE gel data, and band numbers were compared between treatments. Leaf surfaces were viewed under variable pressure scanning electron microscopy (VPSEM. Yeast band analysis of the agarose gel showed that there was no significant difference in the mean band DNA quantity after physical and chemical treatments, but they both differed significantly (p < 0.05 from the untreated control. PERMANOVA revealed a significant difference between all treatments (p < 0.05. The mean similarity matrix showed that the physical treatment results were more reproducible than those from the chemical treatment results. The NMDS showed that the physical treatment was the most consistent. VPSEM indicated that the physical treatment was the most effective treatment to remove surface microbes and debris. The use of molecular and microscopy methods for the post-treatment detection of yeast inoculated onto wheat leaf surfaces demonstrated the effectiveness of the surface treatment employed, and this can assist researchers in optimizing their surface sterilization techniques in DNA-based fungal endophyte studies.

  4. A procedure to evaluate the efficiency of surface sterilization methods in culture-independent fungal endophyte studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgdorf, R J; Laing, M D; Morris, C D; Jamal-Ally, S F

    2014-01-01

    Extraneous DNA interferes with PCR studies of endophytic fungi. A procedure was developed with which to evaluate the removal of extraneous DNA. Wheat (Triticum aestivum) leaves were sprayed with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and then subjected to physical and chemical surface treatments. The fungal ITS1 products were amplified from whole tissue DNA extractions. ANOVA was performed on the DNA bands representing S. cerevisiae on the agarose gel. Band profile comparisons using permutational multivariate ANOVA (PERMANOVA) and non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) were performed on DGGE gel data, and band numbers were compared between treatments. Leaf surfaces were viewed under variable pressure scanning electron microscopy (VPSEM). Yeast band analysis of the agarose gel showed that there was no significant difference in the mean band DNA quantity after physical and chemical treatments, but they both differed significantly (p PERMANOVA revealed a significant difference between all treatments (p < 0.05). The mean similarity matrix showed that the physical treatment results were more reproducible than those from the chemical treatment results. The NMDS showed that the physical treatment was the most consistent. VPSEM indicated that the physical treatment was the most effective treatment to remove surface microbes and debris. The use of molecular and microscopy methods for the post-treatment detection of yeast inoculated onto wheat leaf surfaces demonstrated the effectiveness of the surface treatment employed, and this can assist researchers in optimizing their surface sterilization techniques in DNA-based fungal endophyte studies.

  5. Response of banana hybrids to the banana weevil (Cosmopolites ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Response of banana hybrids to the banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus Germar) .... A number of physical and chemical factors are .... The total number of weevils trapped were then counted and recorded. Agronomic characteristics. Bunch weight, girth and height. In addition to corm damage assesment, data was also ...

  6. Banana Gold: Problem or Solution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Garnet

    1992-01-01

    Since 1955, the British banana industry has dominated the lives of the Caribs and other peoples in Dominica. Banana growing supplants other economic activities, including local food production; toxic chemicals and fertilizers pollute the land; community is dwindling; suicide is common; and child labor diminishes school attendance. (SV)

  7. Combating the Sigatoka disease complex on banana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banana is the fourth most important staple food in the world behind rice, wheat and maize, with more than 100 million tons produced annually. Although the majority of bananas produced are consumed locally, banana export is a multi-billion dollar business. Bananas are grown in more than 100 countri...

  8. FRUIT JUICES AS AN ALTERNATIVE TECHNIQUE FOR CONSERVATION OF FRESH-CUT BANANA

    OpenAIRE

    ANDERSON ADRIANO MARTINS MELO; LEONARDO THOMAZ DINIZ; ADRIANO DO NASCIMENTO SIMÕES; ROLF PUSCHMANN

    2014-01-01

    Browning discoloration after cutting is detrimental for the quality of a number of fruits and vegetables, such as banana, apple, pear, potato, and some roots such as cassava, yam, and others. Browning and softening compromise banana after cut shelf-life in a few hours under cold storage. Therefore, anti-browning compounds have been applied to slices before packing. Some commonly used substances are calcium chloride, ascorbic acid, cysteine and citric acid, in immersed inchemical mixtures. Rec...

  9. Root activity patterns of some tree crops. Results of a five-year co-ordinated research programme of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture. [32p; injection into banana trees, orange trees, cacao trees, coffee trees, and oil palms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-01-01

    A coordinated research program was followed using a soil injection method which employed /sup 32/P-labelled superphosphate solution. The technique was applied for determining the root activity distribution of various crops. Field experiments were carried out in Uganda on bananas, Spain and Taiwan on citrus, Ghana on cocoa, Columbia and Kenya on coffee, and Ivory Coast and Malaysia on oil palms, to study the patterns of root activity as a function of depth and distance from the tree base, soil type, tree age and season. A few weeks after injection, leaf samples of similar age were taken from well-defined morphological positions on the tree and analyzed for /sup 32/P. The activity of the label in the sample reflects the root activity at the various positions in the soil. Some preliminary experiments were also carried out using /sup 32/P-superphosphate to evaluate the efficiency of different methods of fertilizer placement in relation to phosphate uptake by the plantation as a whole.

  10. Beyond the double banana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenzweig, Ivana; Fogarasi, András; Johnsen, Birger

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate whether extending the 10-20 array with 6 electrodes in the inferior temporal chain and constructing computed montages increases the diagnostic value of ictal EEG activity originating in the temporal lobe. In addition, the accuracy of computer-assisted spectral source......). Spectral source analysis used source montage to calculate density spectral array, defining the earliest oscillatory onset. From this, phase maps were calculated for localization. The reference standard was the decision of the multidisciplinary epilepsy surgery team on the seizure onset zone. Clinical...... performance was compared with the double banana (longitudinal bipolar montage, 10-20 array). RESULTS: Adding the inferior temporal electrode chain, computed montages (reference free, common average, and source derivation), and voltage maps significantly increased the sensitivity. Phase maps had the highest...

  11. Differential response of banana cultivars to F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense infection for Chitinase activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morpurgo, R.; Duren, M. Van; Grasso, G.; Afza, R.

    1997-01-01

    Six banana clones with varying levels of resistance were inoculated with conidial suspension of races 1 and 4 of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense. Chitanase activity in the corm and root tissues was monitored before and after infection to relate with the field resistance or susceptibility of banana cultivars. Resistant clones showed high constitutive chitinase activity in roots and a rapid response to infection. The results suggest that chitinase could be considered as part of a complex mechanism leading to disease resistance. (author). 5 refs, 8 figs

  12. Differential response of banana cultivars to F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense infection for Chitinase activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morpurgo, R; Duren, M Van; Grasso, G; Afza, R [Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory, International Atomic Energy Agency, Seibersdorf (Austria)

    1997-07-01

    Six banana clones with varying levels of resistance were inoculated with conidial suspension of races 1 and 4 of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense. Chitanase activity in the corm and root tissues was monitored before and after infection to relate with the field resistance or susceptibility of banana cultivars. Resistant clones showed high constitutive chitinase activity in roots and a rapid response to infection. The results suggest that chitinase could be considered as part of a complex mechanism leading to disease resistance. (author). 5 refs, 8 figs.

  13. In vitro digestibility of banana starch cookies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello-Pérez, Luis A; Sáyago-Ayerdi, Sonia G; Méndez-Montealvo, Guadalupe; Tovar, Juscelino

    2004-01-01

    Banana starch was isolated and used for preparation of two types of cookies. Chemical composition and digestibility tests were carried out on banana starch and the food products, and these results were compared with corn starch. Ash, protein, and fat levels in banana starch were higher than in corn starch. The high ash amount in banana starch could be due to the potassium content present in this fruit. Proximal analysis was similar between products prepared with banana starch and those based on corn starch. The available starch content of the banana starch preparation was 60% (dmb). The cookies had lower available starch than the starches while banana starch had lower susceptibility to the in vitro alpha-amylolysis reaction. Banana starch and its products had higher resistant starch levels than those made with corn starch.

  14. Study on Banana Cooperatives in Hainan Province

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Huide; Zhang, Wanzhen; Liu, Enping; Zhang, Xizhu

    2013-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the distribution, member scale, production and operation of banana cooperatives in Hainan Province, and points out the market risk and natural risk faced by the production of banana cooperatives in Hainan Province. In order to promote the banana cooperatives to form new agricultural management system integrating organization and intensification, this paper puts forth the production and operation recommendations, such as joint production of banana cooperatives, ...

  15. Variable content and distribution of arabinogalactan proteins in banana (Musa spp.) under low temperature stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yonglian; Takáč, Tomáš; Li, Xiaoquan; Chen, Houbin; Wang, Yingying; Xu, Enfeng; Xie, Ling; Su, Zhaohua; Šamaj, Jozef; Xu, Chunxiang

    2015-01-01

    Information on the spatial distribution of arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) in plant organs and tissues during plant reactions to low temperature (LT) is limited. In this study, the extracellular distribution of AGPs in banana leaves and roots, and their changes under LT stress were investigated in two genotypes differing in chilling tolerance, by immuno-techniques using 17 monoclonal antibodies against different AGP epitopes. Changes in total classical AGPs in banana leaves were also tested. The results showed that AGP epitopes recognized by JIM4, JIM14, JIM16, and CCRC-M32 antibodies were primarily distributed in leaf veins, while those recognized by JIM8, JIM13, JIM15, and PN16.4B4 antibodies exhibited predominant sclerenchymal localization. Epitopes recognized by LM2, LM14, and MAC207 antibodies were distributed in both epidermal and mesophyll cells. Both genotypes accumulated classical AGPs in leaves under LT treatment, and the chilling tolerant genotype contained higher classical AGPs at each temperature treatment. The abundance of JIM4 and JIM16 epitopes in the chilling-sensitive genotype decreased slightly after LT treatment, and this trend was opposite for the tolerant one. LT induced accumulation of LM2- and LM14-immunoreactive AGPs in the tolerant genotype compared to the sensitive one, especially in phloem and mesophyll cells. These epitopes thus might play important roles in banana LT tolerance. Different AGP components also showed differential distribution patterns in banana roots. In general, banana roots started to accumulate AGPs under LT treatment earlier than leaves. The levels of AGPs recognized by MAC207 and JIM13 antibodies in the control roots of the tolerant genotype were higher than in the chilling sensitive one. Furthermore, the chilling tolerant genotype showed high immuno-reactivity against JIM13 antibody. These results indicate that several AGPs are likely involved in banana tolerance to chilling injury.

  16. Relação entre o tempo de enraizamento in vitro e o crescimento de plantas de bananeira na aclimatização Relationship between the in vitro rooting time and the growth of banana plants in the aclimatization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Henrique da Silva Costa

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho objetivou avaliar a influência do tempo de permanência em meio de enraizamento sobre o crescimento in vitro e ex vitro de plantas de bananeira. Como explantes, foram utilizadas brotações axilares provenientes do estabelecimento e multiplicação in vitro de ápices caulinares das cultivares Caipira (AAA, Preciosa (AAAB e Japira (AAAB. Para o enraizamento, empregou-se o meio MS reduzido a 50% da concentração de sais, adicionado de 30 g.L-1 de sacarose, 1 mg.L-1 de AIB e 6 g.L-1 de ágar. Os tratamentos foram dispostos em esquema fatorial 3x4, com três cultivares (Caipira, Preciosa e Japira e quatro períodos de enraizamento in vitro (7; 14; 21 e 28 dias, num total de 12 tratamentos. Ao final de cada período, a altura da parte aérea, o número e o comprimento de raízes foram avaliados, e as plantas, submetidas ao processo de aclimatização por 90 dias. Após esse período, as plantas foram avaliadas quanto à sobrevivência, número e comprimento de raízes, diâmetro do pseudocaule e massa seca de raízes, parte aérea e total. De modo geral, observou-se que a fase de indução de raízes nas brotações de bananeira in vitro ocorreu até os 14 dias de cultivo em meio de enraizamento, havendo apenas crescimento em tamanho das raízes após esse período. Entre as cultivares, verificou-se que, com exceção do diâmetro de pseudocaule, a cultivar Caipira apresentou crescimento vegetativo in vitro e durante a aclimatização (altura de plantas, número e comprimento de raízes e massa seca da parte aérea, raízes e total superior às cultivares Preciosa e Japira. Após 21 dias de permanência em meio de enraizamento, a taxa de sobrevivência das plantas, observada em casa de vegetação, alcançou 100%, independentemente da cultivar testada.The objective of the present study was to assess the influence of the exposition time to rooting medium on the in vitro and ex vitro growth of banana plants. As explants, new axillaries

  17. Antioxidant activity of banana flavonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, S; Presannakumar, G; Vijayalakshmi, N R

    2008-06-01

    The antioxidant activity of flavonoids from banana (Musa paradisiaca) was studied in rats fed normal as well as high fat diets. Concentrations of peroxidation products namely malondialdehyde, hydroperoxides and conjugated diens were significantly decreased whereas the activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase were enhanced significantly. Concentrations of glutathione were also elevated in the treated animals.

  18. Effects of covering highland banana stumps with soil on banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) oviposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masanza, M.; Gold, C.S.; Huis, van A.; Ragama, P.E.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of covering post-harvest banana stumps with soil on banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) oviposition levels was investigated at three locations, Sendusu, Kawanda Agricultural Research Institute (KARI) and Ntungamo district of southwestern Uganda. In the first experiment

  19. Marketing of banana and banana products in Uganda: Results of a rapid rural appraisal

    OpenAIRE

    Digges, Philip

    1994-01-01

    This report concerns a survey undertaken by NRI in Uganda during September and December 1993, which sought to characterise the banana and banana beer marketing systems. The study follows on from the recommendations of the Banana Based Cropping System Rapid Rural Appraisal (1991), and focuses upon the Kampala market.

  20. Production of ethyl alcohol from bananas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, R.L.; Towns, T.

    1983-12-01

    The production of ethyl alcohol from waste bananas presents many special problems. During cooking, matting of the latex fibers from the banana peel recongeal when cooled and left untreated. This problem has been addressed by Alfaro by the use of CaC1/sub 2/. Separation of solids prior to distillation of the mashes in an economical fashion and use of the by product are also of concern to banana processors.

  1. Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin as an endophyte in tissue culture banana (Musa spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akello, Juliet; Dubois, Thomas; Gold, Clifford S; Coyne, Daniel; Nakavuma, Jessica; Paparu, Pamela

    2007-09-01

    Beauveria bassiana is considered a virulent pathogen against the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus. However, current field application techniques for effective control against this pest remain a limitation and an alternative method for effective field application needs to be investigated. Three screenhouse experiments were conducted to determine the ability of B. bassiana to form an endophytic relationship with tissue culture banana (Musa spp.) plants and to evaluate the plants for possible harmful effects resulting from this relationship. Three Ugandan strains of B. bassiana (G41, S204 and WA) were applied by dipping the roots and rhizome in a conidial suspension, by injecting a conidial suspension into the plant rhizome and by growing the plants in sterile soil mixed with B. bassiana-colonized rice substrate. Four weeks after inoculation, plant growth parameters were determined and plant tissue colonization assessed through re-isolation of B. bassiana. All B. bassiana strains were able to colonize banana plant roots, rhizomes and pseudostem bases. Dipping plants in a conidial suspension achieved the highest colonization with no negative effect on plant growth or survival. Beauveria bassiana strain G41 was the best colonizer (up to 68%, 79% and 41% in roots, rhizome and pseudostem base, respectively) when plants were dipped. This study demonstrated that, depending on strain and inoculation method, B. bassiana can form an endophytic relationship with tissue culture banana plants, causing no harmful effects and might provide an alternative method for biological control of C. sordidus.

  2. Modifying Bananas: From Transgenics to Organics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Dale

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Bananas are one of the top ten world food crops. Unlike most other major food crops, bananas are difficult to genetically improve. The challenge is that nearly all banana cultivars and landraces are triploids, with high levels of male and female infertility. There are a number of international conventional breeding programs and many of these are developing new cultivars. However, it is virtually impossible to backcross bananas, thus excluding the possibility of introgressing new traits into a current cultivar. The alternative strategy is to “modify” the cultivar itself. We have been developing the capacity to modify Cavendish bananas and other cultivars for both disease resistance and enhanced fruit quality. Initially, we were using transgenes; genes that were derived from species outside of the Musa or banana genus. However, we have recently incorporated two banana genes (cisgenes into Cavendish; one to enhance the level of pro-vitamin A and the other to increase the resistance to Panama disease. Modified Cavendish with these cisgenes have been employed in a field trial. Almost certainly, the next advance will be to edit the Cavendish genome, to generate the desired traits. As these banana cultivars are essentially sterile, transgene flow and the outcrossing of modified genes into wild Musa species. are highly unlikely and virtually impossible in other triploid cultivars. Therefore, genetic changes in bananas may be compatible with organic farming.

  3. Enhancing banana weevil ( Cosmopolites sordidus ) resistance by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enhancing banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus) resistance by plant genetic modification: A perspective. Andrew Kiggundu, Michael Pillay, Altus Viljoen, Clifford Gold, Wilberforce Tushemereirwe, Karl Kunert ...

  4. Social Interactions in Growing Bananas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Den Broeck, Katleen; Dercon, Stefan

    This paper analyses whether agricultural information flows give rise to social learning effects in banana cultivation in Nyakatoke, a small Tanzanian village. Based on a village census, full information is available on socio-economic characteristics and banana production of farmer kinship members......, neighbours and informal insurance group members. This allows a test for social learning within these groups and the identification of different types of social effects. Controlling for exogenous group characteristics, the effect of group behaviour on individual farmer output is studied. The results show...... that social effects are strongly dependent on the definition of the reference group. It emerges that no social effects are found in distance based groups, exogenous social effects linked to group education exist in informal insurance groups, and only kinship related groups generate the endogenous social...

  5. SOIL CHEMICAL ATTRIBUTES AND LEAF NUTRIENTS OF ‘PACOVAN’ BANANA UNDER TWO COVER CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ EGÍDIO FLORI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Banana is one of the most consumed fruits in the world, which is grown in most tropical countries. The objective of this work was to evaluate the main attributes of soil fertility in a banana crop under two cover crops and two root development locations. The work was conducted in Curaçá, BA, Brazil, between October 2011 and May 2013, using a randomized block design in split plot with five repetitions. Two cover crops were assessed in the plots, the cover 1 consisting of Pueraria phaseoloides, and the cover 2 consisting of a crop mix with Sorghum bicolor, Ricinus communis L., Canavalia ensiformis, Mucuna aterrima and Zea mays, and two soil sampling locations in the subplots, between plants in the banana rows (location 1 and between the banana rows (location 2. There were significant and independent effects for the cover crop and sampling location factors for the variables organic matter, Ca and P, and significant effects for the interaction between cover crops and sampling locations for the variables potassium, magnesium and total exchangeable bases. The cover crop mix and the between-row location presented the highest organic matter content. Potassium was the nutrient with the highest negative variation from the initial content and its leaf content was below the reference value, however not reducing the crop yield. The banana crop associated with crop cover using the crop mix provided greater availability of nutrients in the soil compared to the coverage with tropical kudzu.

  6. FRUIT JUICES AS AN ALTERNATIVE TECHNIQUE FOR CONSERVATION OF FRESH-CUT BANANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDERSON ADRIANO MARTINS MELO

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Browning discoloration after cutting is detrimental for the quality of a number of fruits and vegetables, such as banana, apple, pear, potato, and some roots such as cassava, yam, and others. Browning and softening compromise banana after cut shelf-life in a few hours under cold storage. Therefore, anti-browning compounds have been applied to slices before packing. Some commonly used substances are calcium chloride, ascorbic acid, cysteine and citric acid, in immersed inchemical mixtures. Recent studies have demonstrated the possibility of preserving fresh-cut banana immersed in sweetened fruit juice for relatively longer periods, favoring commercialization. This type of conservation, although widely used in Brazil for fruit salads, consists of a more complex system in a physiological basis, requiring adjustment of the solution parameters, such as sugar concentration, pH and acidity, considering the viability and freshness of the plant tissue. In this short review, we discuss some experimental data and present a new method for preserving fresh-cut banana. Reduction of enzymatic activity, either in temporary dipping treatment or permanent immersion of banana slices is regarded as a key factor for maintaining its quality during cold storage.

  7. Diseases threatening banana biodiversity in Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recent on station and on-farm studies suggest the major diseases threatening banana biodiversity in Uganda include: 1)Black sigatoka which severely affects all East African Highland (EA-AAA) banana cultivars and a range of introduced genotypes; 2) Fusarium wilt which affects several introduced genotypes though all EA ...

  8. 33 CFR 117.263 - Banana River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Banana River. 117.263 Section 117.263 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.263 Banana River. (a) The draw of the Mathers (SR...

  9. Market opportunities for Ugandan banana products: National ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    the decade between 1991 and 2001, banana consumption has increased by three ... obtain only 17 % of the retail price per bunch of banana, whereas the rest ..... The Middle and Far East will experience the biggest growth rates in terms of ...

  10. Banana orchard inventory using IRS LISS sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishant, Nilay; Upadhayay, Gargi; Vyas, S. P.; Manjunath, K. R.

    2016-04-01

    Banana is one of the major crops of India with increasing export potential. It is important to estimate the production and acreage of the crop. Thus, the present study was carried out to evolve a suitable methodology for estimating banana acreage. Area estimation methodology was devised around the fact that unlike other crops, the time of plantation of banana is different for different farmers as per their local practices or conditions. Thus in order to capture the peak signatures, biowindow of 6 months was considered, its NDVI pattern studied and the optimum two months were considered when banana could be distinguished from other competing crops. The final area of banana for the particular growing cycle was computed by integrating the areas of these two months using LISS III data with spatial resolution of 23m. Estimated banana acreage in the three districts were 11857Ha, 15202ha and 11373Ha for Bharuch, Anand and Vadodara respectively with corresponding accuracy of 91.8%, 90% and 88.16%. Study further compared the use of LISS IV data of 5.8m spatial resolution for estimation of banana using object based as well as per-pixel classification and the results were compared with statistical reports for both the approaches. In the current paper we depict the various methodologies to accurately estimate the banana acreage.

  11. Anatomy and morphology character of five Indonesian banana cultivars (Musa spp. of different ploidy level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ISSIREP SUMARDI

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Sumardi I, Wulandari M (2011 Anatomy and morphology character of five Indonesian banana cultivars (Musa spp. of different ploidy level. Biodiversitas 12: 167-175. In Indonesia there are many cultivars of banana, and some of them produce edible fruits. Beside their morphology, the character which necessary as a tool for classification is anatomical character. The aim of this research were to describe the anatomical character and morphology of fives Indonesian banana cultivars based on their level of ploidy. The cultivars were collected from Banana Germplasm Plantation, Yogyakarta District, Indonesia. The samples of roots, rhizome, and leaf were collected from five banana cultivars i.e.: Musa acuminata cv Penjalin, M.balbisiana cv Kluthuk warangan, M.acuminata cv Ambon warangan, M.paradisiaca cv Raja nangka , and M. paradisiaca cv Kluthuk susu. For anatomy observation samples were prepared using paraffin method, stained with 1% safranin in 70% ethanol. To observe the structure of stomata and epidermis surface, slide were prepared using modification of whole mount method. Slides were observed using Olympus BHB microscope completed with Olympus camera BM-10A. Stem and leaf morphology character of diploid level (AA and BB genome is different with triploid level (AAA, AAB, and ABB genome. Anatomy and morphology character of root and rhizome of banana in diploid level (AA and BB genome and triploid level (AAA, AAB, and ABB genome is quite similar. Distribution of stomata is found in leaf and pseudostem. Stomata is found in adaxial and abaxial epidermis layer. The size of guard cells in triploid cultivars was longer than that diploid cultivars. The root composse of epidermis layer, cortex and cylinder vascular of five cultivar’s root show anomalous structure. Rhizome consist of peripheric and centre zone. Anatomically, this was no differences in the rizome structur among five banana cultivars. The row of vascular bundles act as demarcation area

  12. A screening method for banana weevil ( Cosmopolites sordidus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus Germar) is a serious pest in most banana-growing areas of the world. Host-plant resistance is considered to be the most feasible and sustainable method for its control. However, a quick and effective method for screening banana genotypes for resistance against the banana ...

  13. Streptomyces halophytocola sp. nov., an endophytic actinomycete isolated from the surface-sterilized stems of a coastal halophyte Tamarix chinensis Lour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Sheng; Bian, Guang-Kai; Tamura, Tomohiko; Zhang, Yue-Ji; Zhang, Wen-Di; Cao, Cheng-Liang; Jiang, Ji-Hong

    2013-08-01

    A novel actinomycete, designated KLBMP 1284(T), was isolated from the surface-sterilized stems of a coastal halophyte Tamarix chinensis Lour. collected from the city of Nantong, Jiangsu Province, east China. The strain was found to have morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics typical of members of the genus Streptomyces. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain KLBMP 1284(T) revealed that the strain formed a distinct clade within the phylogenetic tree based on 16S rRNA gene sequences and the highest sequence similarity (99.43 %) was to Streptomyces sulphureus NRRL B-1627(T). 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to other species of the genus Streptomyces was lower than 97 %. Based on DNA-DNA hybridization values and comparison of morphological and phenotypic data, KLBMP 1284(T) could be distinguished from the closest phylogenetically related species, Streptomyces sulphureus NRRL B-1627(T). Thus, based on these data, it is evident that strain KLBMP 1284(T) represents a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces halophytocola sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is KLBMP 1284(T) (= KCTC 19890(T) = NBRC 108770(T)).

  14. Number, Position, Diameter and Initial Direction of Growth of Primary Roots in Musa

    OpenAIRE

    LECOMPTE, FRANCOIS; VAUCELLE, AURELIEN; PAGES, LOIC; OZIER‐LAFONTAINE, HARRY

    2002-01-01

    To understand soil colonization by a root system, information is needed on the architecture of the root system. In monocotyledons, soil exploration is mainly due to the growth of adventitious primary roots. Primary root emergence in banana was quantified in relation to shoot and corm development. Root emergence kinetics were closely related to the development of aerial organs. Root position at emergence on the corm followed an asymptotic function of corm dry weight, so that the age of each ro...

  15. Effect of utilization of tomato extract and foliar fertilizer as media on shoots multiplication of banana cv Ambon in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidhari, L. A.; Purwanto, E.; Yunus, A.

    2018-03-01

    The good quality banana seeds are still difficult to obtain. There are two ways to provide seeds, namely conventional and tissue culture (in vitro). Tomato extract contains natural ZPT or phytohormone which can be utilized in modification of banana tissue culture media. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of media types and tomato extracts in various concentrations for multiplication of banana cv. Ambon in vitro. The study was conducted from October - December 2016 at the Tissue Culture Laboratory of Horticulture Seed Center, Salaman, Magelang. The experimental design used was completely randomized design with two treatment factors. The firs factor was media type with the addition of foliar fertilizer, the second factor was modification of tomato extract with 4 levels. The results showed that the different of the treated media treatment did not affect the emerge of leaf and leaf length, the number of roots and root length. The emerge of the leaves of all treatments occurred at 6 days after planting with the highest average length was obtained in MS treatment with a combination of tomato extract 50 ml/l (10.3 cm). The use of MS medium with a combination of tomato extract 50 ml/l generated the average root number 15.5 with a root lengths 7.5 cm. Substitution of MS medium with tomato extract and foliar fertilizer did not show better results compared to the use of MS media in the multiplication of banana shoots in tissue culture.

  16. Radiation enhances shelf life of Nendra bananas without changing the lectin content of raw and steamed Nendra banana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coelho, Neil Renault; Nivas, Shashikiran; D'Souza, L.

    2016-01-01

    Our study shows that the shelf life of bananas is increased with low doses of radiation (300 Gy, 400 Gy, 500 Gy). However, there is no decrease in the lectin content. This improves the keeping quality of nendra bananas without affecting their lectin content. Hence, radiation can be used safely for the bananas distributed to HIV children. The present study was also to compare the lectin content of raw and steamed Nendra bananas with the gamma irradiated bananas

  17. Phenylphenalenones Accumulate in Plant Tissues of Two Banana Cultivars in Response to Herbivory by the Banana Weevil and Banana Stem Weevil

    OpenAIRE

    H?lscher, Dirk; Buerkert, Andreas; Schneider, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Phenylphenalenone-type compounds accumulated in the tissues of two banana cultivars—Musa acuminata cv. “Grande Naine” (AAA) and Musa acuminata × balbisiana Colla cv. “Bluggoe” (ABB)—when these were fed on by the banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus (Germ.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)) and the banana stem weevil (Odoiporus longicollis (Oliver) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)). The chemical constituents of the banana material were separated by means of chromatographic techniques and identified by N...

  18. PROPOLIS EXTRACT IN POSTHARVEST CONSERVATION BANANA ' PRATA'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLÁVIA REGINA PASSOS

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the present work were evaluated the effects of propolis coatings of various botanical sources on quality traits of bananas cv. Prata (Musa sapientum L. stored at room temperature. ´Prata´ bananas were selected and submitted to five postharvest treatments: four coatings applied by immersion in propolis extracts at a concentration of 2.5% (w/v and a control (without coating. Propolis extracts were applied as 1 a wild type aqueous propolis extract, 2 a wild type hydroalcoholic propolis extract, 3 a rosemary green type hydroalcoholic propolis extract and 4 a red type hydroalcoholic propolis extract. The bananas were evaluated at three-day intervals along 12 days for fresh weight losses, flesh firmness, soluble solids (SS, titratable acidity (TA, the ratio SS/TA and pH. Sensory analyses were performed after three and six days of storage by 55 not trained panelists designed for acceptability. At the end of the twelve-day storage period, bananas coated either with the rosemary green hydroalcoholic extract or with the aqueous extract presented lower fresh weight losses in comparison to the bananas of the control treatment. No differences were determined in relation to flesh firmness and along the storage period TA values decreased and pH values increased in bananas of all treatments. SS contents increased towards the end of the storage period that, consequently, contributed to increases in the SS/TA ratio. The most significant increase in SS/TA ratio was determined in bananas coated with the red type hydroalcoholic extract. Taste panelists did not detect significant differences amongst coated and not coated cv. Prata bananas up to six days of storage.

  19. In vivo fertilization of banana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taliane Leila Soares

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the in vivo fertilization process of banana cultivars. The diploid hybrid (AA 091087-01 was the male progenitor. Flower samples were checked for fertilization from the first to the twentieth day after pollination. The size of the diploid ovules increased gradually at the beginning of the seed formation process. On the other hand, in the AAA triploids (Cavendish subgroup, the not fertilized ovules were aborted. In the AAB triploids (Prata subgroup some ovules were fertilized. The flowers of Grand Naine, Nanicão and 'Pacovan' cultivars presented necrosis in the distal part of the ovary on the first day after pollination. Necrosis can hinder pollen tube growth towards the ovule, which might be related to the low seed yield in 'Pacovan' cultivars and to the absence of seeds in the Cavendish subgroup cultivars.

  20. Genome and Transcriptome Analysis of the Fungal Pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense Causing Banana Vascular Wilt Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huicai; Fan, Dingding; Zhu, Yabin; Feng, Yue; Wang, Guofen; Peng, Chunfang; Jiang, Xuanting; Zhou, Dajie; Ni, Peixiang; Liang, Changcong; Liu, Lei; Wang, Jun; Mao, Chao

    2014-01-01

    Background The asexual fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc) causing vascular wilt disease is one of the most devastating pathogens of banana (Musa spp.). To understand the molecular underpinning of pathogenicity in Foc, the genomes and transcriptomes of two Foc isolates were sequenced. Methodology/Principal Findings Genome analysis revealed that the genome structures of race 1 and race 4 isolates were highly syntenic with those of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici strain Fol4287. A large number of putative virulence associated genes were identified in both Foc genomes, including genes putatively involved in root attachment, cell degradation, detoxification of toxin, transport, secondary metabolites biosynthesis and signal transductions. Importantly, relative to the Foc race 1 isolate (Foc1), the Foc race 4 isolate (Foc4) has evolved with some expanded gene families of transporters and transcription factors for transport of toxins and nutrients that may facilitate its ability to adapt to host environments and contribute to pathogenicity to banana. Transcriptome analysis disclosed a significant difference in transcriptional responses between Foc1 and Foc4 at 48 h post inoculation to the banana ‘Brazil’ in comparison with the vegetative growth stage. Of particular note, more virulence-associated genes were up regulated in Foc4 than in Foc1. Several signaling pathways like the mitogen-activated protein kinase Fmk1 mediated invasion growth pathway, the FGA1-mediated G protein signaling pathway and a pathogenicity associated two-component system were activated in Foc4 rather than in Foc1. Together, these differences in gene content and transcription response between Foc1 and Foc4 might account for variation in their virulence during infection of the banana variety ‘Brazil’. Conclusions/Significance Foc genome sequences will facilitate us to identify pathogenicity mechanism involved in the banana vascular wilt disease development. These will thus advance

  1. Cloning of an ADP-ribosylation factor gene from banana (Musa acuminata) and its expression patterns in postharvest ripening fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan; Wu, Jing; Xu, Bi-Yu; Liu, Ju-Hua; Zhang, Jian-Bin; Jia, Cai-Hong; Jin, Zhi-Qiang

    2010-08-15

    A full-length cDNA encoding an ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) from banana (Musa acuminata) fruit was cloned and named MaArf. It contains an open reading frame encoding a 181-amino-acid polypeptide. Sequence analysis showed that MaArf shared high similarity with ARF of other plant species. The genomic sequence of MaArf was also obtained using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Sequence analysis showed that MaArf was a split gene containing five exons and four introns in genomic DNA. Reverse-transcriptase PCR was used to analyze the spatial expression of MaArf. The results showed that MaArf was expressed in all the organs examined: root, rhizome, leaf, flower and fruit. Real-time quantitative PCR was used to explore expression patterns of MaArf in postharvest banana. There was differential expression of MaArf associated with ethylene biosynthesis. In naturally ripened banana, expression of MaArf was in accordance with ethylene biosynthesis. However, in 1-methylcyclopropene-treated banana, the expression of MaArf was inhibited and changed little. When treated with ethylene, MaArf expression in banana fruit significantly increased in accordance with ethylene biosynthesis; the peak of MaArf was 3 d after harvest, 11 d earlier than for naturally ripened banana fruits. These results suggest that MaArf is induced by ethylene in regulating postharvest banana ripening. Finally, subcellular localization assays showed the MaArf protein in the cytoplasm. Copyright 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Molecular Characterization of Cocoa, Mango, Banana and Yam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molecular Characterization of Cocoa, Mango, Banana and Yam Isolates of Botryodiplodia theobromae in Ghana. ... A total of 25 fungal isolates were sampled from cocoa, mango, banana and yam within four ... HOW TO USE AJOL.

  3. Detection of banana streak virus (BSV) Tamil Nadu isolate (India ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-10-09

    641 003, Tamil Nadu, India. 2Department of Fruit Crops, ... Hence, attempts were made for diagnosis of BSV and to study the serological relationship with ... Among the five virus diseases of banana, disease caused by banana ...

  4. Value-adding post harvest processing of cooking bananas (Musa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2010-12-29

    Dec 29, 2010 ... It is estimated that more than 30% of the banana production are lost after harvest. The losses .... nutritional qualities are important factors in the production of banana flour and ..... Agriculture (IITA), Ibadan, Nigeria, VII, p. 166.

  5. Transgenic approaches for development of disease resistance in banana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shekhawat, Upendra K.S.; Ghag, Siddhesh B.; Ganapathi, Thumballi R.

    2014-01-01

    Banana (Musa spp.) is an important food and cash crop worldwide. Diseases and pests pose the most serious constraint to banana cultivation. Among the diseases, Fusarium wilt and Banana Bunchy Top Virus (BBTV) are the most important economically. We have explored different transgenic approaches for development of efficient resistance in banana against these two diseases. For countering Fusarium wilt, we have over expressed Petunia floral defensins using a strong constitutive promoter in transgenic banana plants. We have also tested a host induced gene silencing strategy targeting two vital fungal genes to obtain Fusarium resistant banana plants. For development of BBTV resistant banana plants also, we have used a host-induced gene silencing approach utilizing the full and partial coding sequence of the viral replication initiation protein. Successful bioassays performed in controlled greenhouse conditions have shown the efficacy of using these strategies to develop disease resistant banana plants. (author)

  6. Effect of fermented Banana peel on Broiler Carcass

    OpenAIRE

    Koni TNI

    2013-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to examine effect of inclusion of fermented banana peel by Rhyzopus oligosporus in diets on slaughter weight, carcass weight and carcass percentage, weight and percentage abdominal fat of broiler. The experiment was done based on Completely Randomized Design with four treatments and four replications and each replication consisted of six chickens. The treatment were R0 = without banana peel fermented, R1 = 5% banana peel fermented, R2 = 10% banana peel fermented...

  7. Research on Risks and Forecasting Countermeasures of Hainan Banana Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yan-qun; Zeng, Xiao-hong; Fang, Jia

    2011-01-01

    Based on the overviews of the current conditions of Hainan banana industry, the research makes an analysis of the risks faced by Hainan banana industry. They are respectively marketing risks, natural risks, information risks and production risks. In order to promote a sustainable and rapid development of Hainan banana industry, Countermeasures are proposed in the research. The first is to strengthen the leading organization of forecasting mechanisms on banana industry. The second is to establ...

  8. 7 CFR 318.13-22 - Bananas from Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bananas from Hawaii. 318.13-22 Section 318.13-22... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE OF HAWAII AND TERRITORIES QUARANTINE NOTICES Regulated Articles From Hawaii and the Territories § 318.13-22 Bananas from Hawaii. (a) Green bananas (Musa spp.) of the...

  9. Weed management in banana production: The use of Nelsonia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During a survey of weeds in the Tiko banana plantations, the plant Nelsonia canescens (Lam.) Spreng was found to have invaded large areas of the plantation with no visible adverse effects on the banana crop. The effects of this Acanthaceae on banana yield parameters, snails' population and weed species diversity and ...

  10. I Have a Banana Tree in My Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Patricia A.

    2007-01-01

    When the banana is growing, the broadest part of the banana is located at the bottom, while the tapered end points upward. It appears upside down, however, from the banana tree's perspective, it is growing right side up. The author observes that the students in her classroom labeled by society as "at risk," are also, in a sense, "upside down."…

  11. Analysis of genetic variation in different banana ( Musa species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The banana (Musa acuminata Colla) is considered as an important crop plant due to its high economic value as good dietary source. Here, we analyze the genetic relationship of four different banana varieties that are cultivated in south India. Random amplified polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs) fingerprinting of these banana ...

  12. Farmer evaluation of dried banana based products | Pekke | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A farmer participatory evaluation of dried banana based products was conducted in various districts of Uganda. Bananas were dried using a tunnel solar dryer developed by Post Harvest Handling and Storage project (PHHS) of Kawanda Post-harvest Programme and improved by the National Banana Research ...

  13. Compositional changes in banana ( Musa ssp. ) fruits during ripening

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    overripe banana fruits, respectively. The results showed that the nutritional composition of banana pulp was diversely affected by ripening. Changes in mineral composition varied and were not consistent with the stages of ripeness. Bananas are considered a good source of Mg in the diet, and the data obtained herein ...

  14. Certain growth related attributes of bunchy top virus infected banana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) on morpho-physiological characteristics of banana (Musa sp.) cv., Basrai plants was assessed. Healthy and BBTV infected samples of banana were collected from its open fields and micro-propagated aseptically. These plantlets were established in wire-house for three months.

  15. Remote quality monitoring in the banana chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedermann, Reiner; Praeger, Ulrike; Geyer, Martin; Lang, Walter

    2014-06-13

    Quality problems occurring during or after sea transportation of bananas in refrigerated containers are mainly caused by insufficient cooling and non-optimal atmospheric conditions, but also by the heat generated by respiration activity. Tools to measure and evaluate these effects can largely help to reduce losses along the banana supply chain. The presented green life model provides a tool to predict the effect of deviating temperature, relative humidity, and CO2 and O2 gas concentrations on the storage stability of bananas. A second thermal model allows evaluation of the cooling efficiency, the effect of changes in packaging and stowage and the amount of respiration heat from the measured temperature curves. Spontaneous ripening causes higher respiration heat and CO2 production rate. The resulting risk for creation of hot spots increases in positions in which the respiration heat exceeds the available cooling capacity. In case studies on the transport of bananas from Costa Rica to Europe, we validated the models and showed how they can be applied to generate automated warning messages for containers with reduced banana green life or with temperature problems and also for remote monitoring of the ripening process inside the container.

  16. Olfactory responses of banana weevil predators to volatiles from banana pseudostem tissue and synthetic pheromone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinzaara, W; Gold, C S; Dicke, M; van Huis, A

    2005-07-01

    As a response to attack by herbivores, plants can emit a variety of volatile substances that attract natural enemies of these insect pests. Predators of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) such as Dactylosternum abdominale (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae) and Pheidole megacephala (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), are normally found in association with weevil-infested rotten pseudostems and harvested stumps. We investigated whether these predators are attracted to such environments in response to volatiles produced by the host plant, by the weevil, or by the weevil plant complex. We evaluated predator responses towards volatiles from banana pseudostem tissue (synomones) and the synthetic banana weevil aggregation pheromone Cosmolure+ in a two-choice olfactometer. The beetle D. abdominale was attracted to fermenting banana pseudostem tissue and Cosmolure+, whereas the ant P. megacephala was attracted only to fermented pseudostem tissue. Both predators were attracted to banana pseudostem tissue that had been damaged by weevil larvae irrespective of weevil presence. Adding pheromone did not enhance predator response to volatiles from pseudostem tissue fed on by weevils. The numbers of both predators recovered with pseudostem traps in the field from banana mats with a pheromone trap were similar to those in pseudostem traps at different distance ranges from the pheromone. Our study shows that the generalist predators D. abdominale and P. megacephala use volatiles from fermented banana pseudostem tissue as the major chemical cue when searching for prey.

  17. Expression Study of Banana Pathogenic Resistance Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenny M. Dwivany

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Banana is one of the world's most important trade commodities. However, infection of banana pathogenic fungi (Fusarium oxysporum race 4 is one of the major causes of decreasing production in Indonesia. Genetic engineering has become an alternative way to control this problem by isolating genes that involved in plant defense mechanism against pathogens. Two of the important genes are API5 and ChiI1, each gene encodes apoptosis inhibitory protein and chitinase enzymes. The purpose of this study was to study the expression of API5 and ChiI1 genes as candidate pathogenic resistance genes. The amplified fragments were then cloned, sequenced, and confirmed with in silico studies. Based on sequence analysis, it is showed that partial API5 gene has putative transactivation domain and ChiI1 has 9 chitinase family GH19 protein motifs. Data obtained from this study will contribute in banana genetic improvement.

  18. Physicochemical characterization of purple banana fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, A.P.B.; Guimaraes, D.H.; Miranda, C.S.; Oliveira, J.C.; Cruz, A.M.F.; Luporini, S.; Jose, N.M.

    2014-01-01

    Due to the environmental appeal that has grown in recent years, researches involving the use of renewable sources raw materials reaffirm this need. The vegetable fibers has excelled as promising materials with possibilities in different applications. The objective of this work is the evaluation of the physicochemical properties of banana fiber. These fibers were extracted from the banana pseudostem of a species not yet reported in the literature, Musa velutina, known as purple banana. For this experiment were used in natura fibers and processed fibers with NaOH 5% which were characterized by TGA, DSC, DRX and FTIR analysis. In the thermal analysis, both tested fibers showed good thermal properties. In DRX analysis, the processed fibers showed higher crystallinity. The use of these materials implies adding value to an agricultural waste in addition to being a more ecologically correct proposal. (author)

  19. Unfolding energetics and stability of banana lectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Garima; Sinha, Sharmistha; Surolia, Avadhesha

    2008-08-01

    The unfolding pathway of banana lectin from Musa paradisiaca was determined by isothermal denaturation induced by the chaotrope GdnCl. The unfolding was found to be a reversible process. The data obtained by isothermal denaturation provided information on conformational stability of banana lectin. The high values of DeltaG of unfolding at various temperatures indicated the strength of intersubunit interactions. It was found that banana lectin is a very stable and denatures at high chaotrope concentrations only. The basis of the stability may be attributed to strong hydrogen bonds of the order 2.5-3.1 A at the dimeric interface along with the presence of water bridges. This is perhaps very unique example in proteins where subunit association is not a consequence of the predominance of hydrophobic interactions. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Hydrolysis of alkaline pretreated banana peel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatmawati, A.; Gunawan, K. Y.; Hadiwijaya, F. A.

    2017-11-01

    Banana peel is one of food wastes that are rich in carbohydrate. This shows its potential as fermentation substrate including bio-ethanol. This paper presented banana peel alkaline pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. The pretreatment was intended to prepare banana peel in order to increase hydrolysis performance. The alkaline pretreatment used 10, 20, and 30% w/v NaOH solution and was done at 60, 70 and 80°C for 1 hour. The hydrolysis reaction was conducted using two commercial cellulose enzymes. The reaction time was varied for 3, 5, and 7 days. The best condition for pretreatment process was one conducted using 30% NaOH solution and at 80°C. This condition resulted in cellulose content of 90.27% and acid insoluble lignin content of 2.88%. Seven-day hydrolysis time had exhibited the highest reducing sugar concentration, which was7.2869 g/L.

  1. Biomethanation of banana peel and pineapple waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardiya, N.; Somayaji, D.; Khanna, S. [Tata Energy Research Inst., New Delhi (India)

    1997-10-01

    Biomethanation of banana peel and pineapple wastes studied at various HRTs showed a higher rate of gas production at lower retention time. The lowest possible HRT for banana peel was 25 days, resulting in a maximum rate of gas production of 0.76 vol/vol/day with 36% substrate utilization, while pineapple-processing waste digesters could be operated at 10 days HRT, with a maximum rate of gas production of 0.93 vol/vol/day and 58% substrate utilization. For pineapple-processing waste lowering of retention time did not affect the methane content significantly; however, with banana peel an HRT below 25 days showed a drastic reduction in methane content. (author)

  2. Root rots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathryn Robbins; Philip M. Wargo

    1989-01-01

    Root rots of central hardwoods are diseases caused by fungi that infect and decay woody roots and sometimes also invade the butt portion of the tree. By killing and decaying roots, root rotting fungi reduce growth, decrease tree vigor, and cause windthrow and death. The most common root diseases of central hardwoods are Armillaria root rot, lnonotus root rot, and...

  3. Effect of fermented Banana peel on Broiler Carcass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koni TNI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to examine effect of inclusion of fermented banana peel by Rhyzopus oligosporus in diets on slaughter weight, carcass weight and carcass percentage, weight and percentage abdominal fat of broiler. The experiment was done based on Completely Randomized Design with four treatments and four replications and each replication consisted of six chickens. The treatment were R0 = without banana peel fermented, R1 = 5% banana peel fermented, R2 = 10% banana peel fermented, R3 = 15% banana peel fermented. Data of the experiment were analyzed, using ANOVA and then continued with Duncan's Multiple Range Test. Result showed that level of fermented banana peel affected slaughter weight and carcass weight. However carcass persentage, weight and percentage of abdominal fat was not affected by treatment. Banana peel fermented by Rhizopus oligosporus could can be used maximally 10% in broiler ration.

  4. banana juice as an alternative energy source for banana in vitro

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2015-02-23

    Feb 23, 2015 ... Corresponding author: sbmukasa@caes.mak.ac.ug, sbmukasa@yahoo.com ... However, the cost of tissue culture grade energy sources is high, thus making tissue ..... Treatment (banana juice from different Cvs at 50 ml l-1).

  5. Olfactory responses of banana weevil predators to volatiles from banana pseudostem tissue and synthetic pheromone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinzaara, W.; Gold, C.S.; Dicke, M.; Huis, van A.

    2005-01-01

    As a response to attack by herbivores, plants can emit a variety of volatile substances that attract natural enemies of these insect pests. Predators of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) such as Dactylosternum abdominale (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae) and

  6. Substituting Wheat Flour with Banana Skin Flour from Mixture Various Skin Types of Banana on Making Donuts

    OpenAIRE

    Renny Futeri; Pharmayeni Pharmayeni

    2014-01-01

    Tropical forest plants is a very rich source of chemical compounds or bioactive efficacious . Many of the compounds potential as a source of raw materials in food processing . One is the banana plant , West Sumatra Padang and Bukittinggi is one area in Indonesia with banana . Generally people in West Sumatra just consume or eat the fruit and throw banana skin just because it is considered as waste ( waste banana peel ) . When the banana peel waste is left alone so do not rule out the possibil...

  7. Elucidation of the compatible interaction between banana and Meloidogyne incognita via high-throughput proteome profiling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisyafaznim Al-Idrus

    Full Text Available With a diverse host range, Meloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode is listed as one of the most economically important obligate parasites of agriculture. This nematode species establishes permanent feeding sites in plant root systems soon after infestation. A compatible host-nematode interaction triggers a cascade of morphological and physiological process disruptions of the host, leading to pathogenesis. Such disruption is reflected by altered gene expression in affected cells, detectable using molecular approaches. We employed a high-throughput proteomics approach to elucidate the events involved in a compatible banana- M. incognita interaction. This study serves as the first crucial step in developing natural banana resistance for the purpose of biological-based nematode management programme. We successfully profiled 114 Grand naine root proteins involved in the interaction with M. incognita at the 30th- and 60th- day after inoculation (dai. The abundance of proteins involved in fundamental biological processes, cellular component organisation and stress responses were significantly altered in inoculated root samples. In addition, the abundance of proteins in pathways associated with defence and giant cell maintenance in plants such as phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, glycolysis and citrate cycle were also implicated by the infestation.

  8. On the road to quantitative genetic/genomic analyses of root growth and development components underlying root architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draye, X.; Dorlodot, S. de; Lavigne, T.

    2006-01-01

    The quantitative genetic and functional genomic analyses of root development, growth and plasticity will be instrumental in revealing the major regulatory pathways of root architecture. Such knowledge, combined with in-depth consideration of root physiology (e.g. uptake, exsudation), form (space-time dynamics of soil exploration) and ecology (including root environment), will settle the bases for designing root ideotypes for specific environments, for low-input agriculture or for successful agricultural production with minimal impact on the environment. This report summarizes root research initiated in our lab between 2000 and 2004 in the following areas: quantitative analysis of root branching in bananas, high throughput characterisation of root morphology, image analysis, QTL mapping of detailed features of root architecture in rice, and attempts to settle a Crop Root Research Consortium. (author)

  9. BIOMASS ACCUMULATION AND NUTRITION IN MICROPROPAGATED PLANTS OF THE BANANA ‘PRATA CATARINA’ UNDER BIOFERTILISERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDER DE OLIVEIRA SANTOS

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Banana farming is an activity of great economic and social importance, and is carried out in most tropical countries. The aim of this work was to evaluate the biomass accumulation and levels of nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P, potassium (K, calcium (Ca and magnesium (Mg in micropropagated plants of the banana “Prata Catarina” during the acclimatization phase, under different types and doses of biofertilisers. The experimental design included randomised blocks in a 2 × 5 + (2 factorial scheme, with two types of liquid biofertilisers (bovine biofertiliser with anaerobic and aerobic fermentation and five biofertiliser doses (0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00, and 1.25 L plant-1 week-1, as well as two additional treatments (control and recommended mineral fertilisation. The following variables were analysed: dry weight of the leaves and roots, and mineral element content (N, P, K, Ca, and Mg in different parts of the plant (leaf and root. During 90 days of acclimatization, the nutritional contribution of bovine biofertiliser with anaerobic fermentation was greater in comparison with the biofertiliser with aerobic fermentation and the control, but lower in comparison with mineral fertilisation. The 1000-mL dose of the biofertiliser with anaerobic fermentation promoted greater dry weight accumulation in the leaves and roots of the banana “Prata Catarina”. The biofertiliser with anaerobic fermentation promoted higher levels of N, K, and Ca in the leaves, whereas the biofertiliser with aerobic fermentation promoted higher levels of P in the leaves and roots.

  10. Phenylphenalenones Accumulate in Plant Tissues of Two Banana Cultivars in Response to Herbivory by the Banana Weevil and Banana Stem Weevil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölscher, Dirk; Buerkert, Andreas; Schneider, Bernd

    2016-08-25

    Phenylphenalenone-type compounds accumulated in the tissues of two banana cultivars-Musa acuminata cv. "Grande Naine" (AAA) and Musa acuminata × balbisiana Colla cv. "Bluggoe" (ABB)-when these were fed on by the banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus (Germ.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)) and the banana stem weevil (Odoiporus longicollis (Oliver) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)). The chemical constituents of the banana material were separated by means of chromatographic techniques and identified by NMR spectroscopy. One new compound, 2-methoxy-4-phenylphenalen-1-one, was found exclusively in the corm material of "Bluggoe" that had been fed on by the weevils.

  11. Phenylphenalenones Accumulate in Plant Tissues of Two Banana Cultivars in Response to Herbivory by the Banana Weevil and Banana Stem Weevil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Hölscher

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Phenylphenalenone-type compounds accumulated in the tissues of two banana cultivars—Musa acuminata cv. “Grande Naine” (AAA and Musa acuminata × balbisiana Colla cv. “Bluggoe” (ABB—when these were fed on by the banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus (Germ. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae and the banana stem weevil (Odoiporus longicollis (Oliver (Coleoptera: Curculionidae. The chemical constituents of the banana material were separated by means of chromatographic techniques and identified by NMR spectroscopy. One new compound, 2-methoxy-4-phenylphenalen-1-one, was found exclusively in the corm material of “Bluggoe” that had been fed on by the weevils.

  12. Accumulation of New Polypeptides in Ri T-DNA-Transformed Roots of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) during the Development of Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoneau, P; Louisy-Louis, N; Plenchette, C; Strullu, D G

    1994-06-01

    Root-inducing transferred-DNA (Ri T-DNA)-transformed roots of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) were in vitro inoculated with surface-sterilized vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal leek root pieces. About 1 week after inoculation, the infection of the transformed root culture by the fungal endophyte was confirmed by photonic microscopy. Total proteins were extracted from the mycorrhizal roots and analyzed by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Control gels were run with proteins extracted from noninoculated roots mixed with purified intraradical vesicles and extraradical hyphae. Comparison of the resulting patterns revealed the presence of two polypeptides with estimated apparent masses of 24 and 39 kDa that were detected only in infected roots. Polypeptides with similar migration parameters were not detected in roots challenged with spore extracts, suggesting that the accumulation of the polypeptides was directly linked to root colonization by the fungus rather than to induction by fungus-derived elicitors.

  13. ''In vivo'' methodology for mutation induction in banana, cultivar ''Maca''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tulmann Neto, A.; Domingues, E.T.; Alvarez, A.L.F.; Mendez, B.M.J.; Ando, A.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: The ''Maca'' cultivar is a banana of high acceptability in the south west of Brazil. However, it is very susceptible to several diseases. Due to the difficulties in the application of the traditional plant breeding methods, the Radiation Genetics Section of CENA is utilising the ''in vivo'', and the ''in vitro'' mutation breeding approach. The ''in vivo'' methodology is based on the work of HAMILTON. This method is being utilised in Brazil for rapid banana propagation. Rhizomes (20 cm diameter) were obtained from young field grown plants before flower differentiation. In these rhizomes, only 5-6 leaf sheaths were retained, the others being removed. The rhizomes were maintained in a greenhouse in boxes with vermiculite, covered with plastic. After one week, all leaf sheaths were removed, until the exposure of the meristematic apex with about 2 mm size. This apex was cut off with a scalpel and a cross shaped cut (2,5 cm) was made. This stimulates the development of lateral buds. After four months, the meristematic apices of these new buds were cut off in the same way and immediately the rhizomes were irradiated with gamma rays. Around the eliminated lateral buds callus developed and new lateral buds were formed. The LD 50 in relation to the number of these new buds produced was around 30 Gy. According to the author of the original method, from the callus one can obtain axillary or adventitious buds. In the early stages it is possible, based on the shape, to distinguish both types. The advantage of utilising adventitious buds originating from only one cell to avoid chimerism is well known in mutation breeding. However, it is not certain whether this is the case in the present method. After detachment from rhizomes and rooting in soil, plants with 15-20 cm height were inoculated with Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense. After 3 weeks the plants showed symptoms of the Panama disease and screening could be done at this stage. The total time between the removal of

  14. ''In vivo'' methodology for mutation induction in banana, cultivar ''Maca''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tulmann Neto, A; Domingues, E T; Alvarez, A L.F.; Mendez, B M.J.; Ando, A [Centre for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture (CENA), University of Sao Paulo, Piracicaba, SP. (Brazil)

    1990-07-01

    Full text: The ''Maca'' cultivar is a banana of high acceptability in the south west of Brazil. However, it is very susceptible to several diseases. Due to the difficulties in the application of the traditional plant breeding methods, the Radiation Genetics Section of CENA is utilising the ''in vivo'', and the ''in vitro'' mutation breeding approach. The ''in vivo'' methodology is based on the work of HAMILTON. This method is being utilised in Brazil for rapid banana propagation. Rhizomes (20 cm diameter) were obtained from young field grown plants before flower differentiation. In these rhizomes, only 5-6 leaf sheaths were retained, the others being removed. The rhizomes were maintained in a greenhouse in boxes with vermiculite, covered with plastic. After one week, all leaf sheaths were removed, until the exposure of the meristematic apex with about 2 mm size. This apex was cut off with a scalpel and a cross shaped cut (2,5 cm) was made. This stimulates the development of lateral buds. After four months, the meristematic apices of these new buds were cut off in the same way and immediately the rhizomes were irradiated with gamma rays. Around the eliminated lateral buds callus developed and new lateral buds were formed. The LD{sub 50} in relation to the number of these new buds produced was around 30 Gy. According to the author of the original method, from the callus one can obtain axillary or adventitious buds. In the early stages it is possible, based on the shape, to distinguish both types. The advantage of utilising adventitious buds originating from only one cell to avoid chimerism is well known in mutation breeding. However, it is not certain whether this is the case in the present method. After detachment from rhizomes and rooting in soil, plants with 15-20 cm height were inoculated with Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense. After 3 weeks the plants showed symptoms of the Panama disease and screening could be done at this stage. The total time between the

  15. Review on postharvest technology of banana fruit

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mu

    2013-02-13

    Feb 13, 2013 ... The aim of this review is in threefold: First, to explore the effect of different preharvest treatments on postharvest ... biochemical changes in banana during development, maturation, ripening and storage were reviewed. Third, postharvest ..... at full mature stage for local domestic market (Gowen,. 1995).

  16. introduction and evaluation of improved banana cultivars

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jen

    important parameters in banana marketing thus the reason they were considered in this study. The data were analysed using Statistics Analysis. System (SAS) for analysis of variance (ANOVA) and means were separated by the Student-. Newman-Keuls test. RESULTS. The differences in growth parameters of the 10.

  17. Relative susceptibility of banana cultivars to Xanthomonas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-19

    Oct 19, 2009 ... African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 8 (20), pp. 5343-5350, 19 ... and Central Africa. The disease was first reported about. 40 years ago in Ethiopia on Ensete, which is closely related to banana (Yirgou et al., 1968). Outside Ethiopia,. BXW was ... Economic impact of the disease is manifested as result of ...

  18. Towards improving highland ban.anas

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The most fertile land races belonged to 'Nakabululu' and 'Nfuuka' clone sets. Viable seeds were obtained from several land races indicating that genetic improvement ofthese highland bananas through cross breeding is possible. The fertile Iandraces should be cross-pollinated with improved diploids to produce resistant ...

  19. Love Is Like a Squished Banana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Stephen

    1976-01-01

    An unemployed poet obtained a CETA public service job as a teacher's aide in Marin County, California, where he has guided elementary children's imaginative projects. His experiences are described. He has published a volume of the children's verse under the title "Love Is Like a Squished Banana." (AJ)

  20. Ecuadorian Banana Farms Should Consider Organic Banana with Low Price Risks in Their Land-Use Portfolios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Luz Maria; Calvas, Baltazar; Knoke, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Organic farming is a more environmentally friendly form of land use than conventional agriculture. However, recent studies point out production tradeoffs that often prevent the adoption of such practices by farmers. Our study shows with the example of organic banana production in Ecuador that economic tradeoffs depend much on the approach of the analysis. We test, if organic banana should be included in economic land-use portfolios, which indicate how much of the land is provided for which type of land-use. We use time series data for productivity and prices over 30 years to compute the economic return (as annualized net present value) and its volatility (with standard deviation as risk measure) for eight crops to derive land-use portfolios for different levels of risk, which maximize economic return. We find that organic banana is included in land-use portfolios for almost every level of accepted risk with proportions from 1% to maximally 32%, even if the same high uncertainty as for conventional banana is simulated for organic banana. A more realistic, lower simulated price risk increased the proportion of organic banana substantially to up to 57% and increased annual economic returns by up to US$ 187 per ha. Under an assumed integration of both markets, for organic and conventional banana, simulated by an increased coefficient of correlation of economic return from organic and conventional banana (ρ up to +0.7), organic banana holds significant portions in the land-use portfolios tested only, if a low price risk of organic banana is considered. We conclude that uncertainty is a key issue for the adoption of organic banana. As historic data support a low price risk for organic banana compared to conventional banana, Ecuadorian farmers should consider organic banana as an advantageous land-use option in their land-use portfolios. PMID:25799506

  1. Micropropagation of Banana Varieties (Musa spp.) Using Shoot-Tip ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    propagation method appears to be unable to supply the increasing demand for ... Explant Preparation and Surface Sterilization. Explants were excised ... of the medium was adjusted to 5.7 using NaOH or HCl (0.1 or 1N) before autoclaving.

  2. Radiosensitivity of in vitro Cultured Banana Shoot-Tips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elagamawy, M.R.

    2002-01-01

    Longitudinally dissected shoot apices of Grand Nain, Williams and Maghrabi banana cultivars were exposed to gamma irradiation with Cobalt 60 source at the doses of 0, 20, 40 and 60 Gy and immediately placed into proliferation medium. A number of micropropagation cycles after irradiation were necessary up to M1 V2 to M1 V4 stage to let mutated sectors developing into non-chimeric shoots. Radiosensitivity was evaluated by the rate of shoot proliferation and by the shoot fresh weight increase. Increasing gamma doses caused reduction in survival rates and average number of shoots. Grand Nain exhibited the highest multiplication- rate (3.1). The lower dose (20 Gy) enhanced shoot multiplication ratio specially in Williams and Maghrabi, which however decreased with increased doses. The doses of 20-40 Gy yielded Ld50, with sensible degree of shoot multiplication, which occurred hardly ever beyond 40 Gy. The dose of 60 Gy resulted 80% lethal shoot growth. Linear decrease in fresh weight was observed in post-irradiation recovery, notably in the Maghrabi. In contradictory vulnerable damage was observed in Williams which showed the highest fresh weight value. Shoot proliferation appeared generally on the surface of the corm. Root formation was observed without additional hormone. The roots were dark colored and was decreased with the increased of dosage

  3. Improvement of banana through biotechnology and mutation breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, P.S.; Ganapathi, T.R.; Bapat, V.A.; Kulkarni, V.M.; Suprasanna, P.

    1998-01-01

    Protocols were standardized for in vitro propagation of several elite and diverse banana accessions using shoot tip explants. Tissue culture raised plants were field planted at multiple locations. Studies were undertaken for the induction of mutations using multiple shoot cultures of six selected cultivars, Shreemanti (AAA), Basrai (AAA), Lal Kela (AAA), Rasthali (AAB), Karibale Monthan (ABB) and a wild diploid (BB). These shoot cultures were irradiated at different doses of gamma rays (0-100 Gy) and subcultured thrice (up to M 1 V 3 ) to separate shimeras, followed by induction of rooting (M 1 V 4 ). In general, the rate of multiplication had a negative association with the dose of gamma rays. Enhanced multiplication of shoots was noticed at lower doses. The proliferation of shoots was arrested beyond 50 Gy and a dose of 70 Gy was completely lethal for all the genotypes studied. The rooted plantlets were hardened in the green house and in the early stages of field growth, a few cholorophyll and morphological variants have been noticed. Preliminary studies have been made with DNA samples of different varieties and variants for DNA quality and restriction digestion. Studies are underway to characterize these using PCR based methods. (author)

  4. Salt stress aggravates boron toxicity symptoms in banana leaves by impairing guttation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira, O R; Israeli, Yair; Shani, Uri; Schwartz, Amnon

    2013-02-01

    Boron (B) is known to accumulate in the leaf margins of different plant species, arguably a passive consequence of enhanced transpiration at the ends of the vascular system. However, transpiration rate is not the only factor affecting ion distribution. We examine an alternative hypothesis, suggesting the participation of the leaf bundle sheath in controlling radial water and solute transport from the xylem to the mesophyll in analogy to the root endodermis. In banana, excess B that remains confined to the vascular system is effectively disposed of via dissolution in the guttation fluid; therefore, impairing guttation should aggravate B damage to the leaf margins. Banana plants were subjected to increasing B concentrations. Guttation rates were manipulated by imposing a moderate osmotic stress. Guttation fluid was collected and analysed continuously. The distribution of ions across the lamina was determined. Impairing guttation indeed led to increased B damage to the leaf margins. The kinetics of ion concentration in guttation samples revealed major differences between ion species, corresponding to their distribution in the lamina dry matter. We provide evidence that the distribution pattern of B and other ions across banana leaves depends on active filtration of the transpiration stream and on guttation. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Number, position, diameter and initial direction of growth of primary roots in Musa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecompte, Francois; Vaucelle, Aurelien; Pages, Loic; Ozier-Lafontaine, Harry

    2002-07-01

    To understand soil colonization by a root system, information is needed on the architecture of the root system. In monocotyledons, soil exploration is mainly due to the growth of adventitious primary roots. Primary root emergence in banana was quantified in relation to shoot and corm development. Root emergence kinetics were closely related to the development of aerial organs. Root position at emergence on the corm followed an asymptotic function of corm dry weight, so that the age of each root at a given time could be deduced from its position. Root diameter at emergence was related to the position of the roots on the corm, with younger roots being thicker than older ones. However, root diameters were not constant along a given root, but instead decreased with the distance to the base; roots appear to be conical in their basal and apical parts. Root growth directions at emergence were variable, but a high proportion of the primary roots emerged with a low angle to the horizontal. Further research is needed to evaluate whether these initial trajectories are conserved during root development. Results presented in this study are in good agreement with those reported for other monocotyledons such as maize and rice. They give quantitative information that will facilitate the development of models of root system architecture in banana.

  6. Growth Promotion and Disease Suppression Ability of a Streptomyces sp. CB-75 from Banana Rhizosphere Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yufeng; Zhou, Dengbo; Qi, Dengfeng; Gao, Zhufen; Xie, Jianghui; Luo, Yanping

    2018-01-01

    An actinomycete strain, CB-75, was isolated from the soil of a diseased banana plantation in Hainan, China. Based on phenotypic and molecular characteristics, and 99.93% sequence similarity with Streptomyces spectabilis NBRC 13424 (AB184393), the strain was identified as Streptomyces sp. This strain exhibited broad-spectrum antifungal activity against 11 plant pathogenic fungi. Type I polyketide synthase (PKS-I) and non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) were detected, which were indicative of the antifungal compounds that Streptomyces sp. CB-75 could produce. An ethyl acetate extract from the strain exhibited the lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against Colletotrichum musae (ATCC 96167) (0.78 μg/ml) and yielded the highest antifungal activity against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (ATCC 16330) (50.0 μg/ml). Also, spore germination was significantly inhibited by the crude extract. After treatment with the crude extract of Streptomyces sp. CB-75 at the concentration 2 × MIC, the pathogenic fungi showed deformation, shrinkage, collapse, and tortuosity when observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). By gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) of the crude extract, 18 chemical constituents were identified; (Z)-13-docosenamide was the major constituent. Pot experiments showed that the incidence of banana seedlings was reduced after using Streptomyces sp. CB-75 treatment. The disease index was 10.23, and the prevention and control effect was 83.12%. Furthermore, Streptomyces sp. CB-75 had a growth-promoting effect on banana plants. The chlorophyll content showed 88.24% improvement, the leaf area, root length, root diameter, plant height, and stem showed 88.24, 90.49, 136.17, 61.78, and 50.98% improvement, respectively, and the shoot fresh weight, root fresh weight, shoot dry weight, and root dry weight showed 82.38, 72.01, 195.33, and 113.33% improvement, respectively, compared with treatment of fermentation broth without Streptomyces sp. CB-75

  7. Physicochemical evaluation of cooking and dessert bananas (Musa sp.) varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Rosales-Reynoso, O. Lidia; Agama-Acevedo, Edith; Aguirre-Cruz, Andres; Bello-Perez, Luis A.; Dufour, Dominique; Gibert, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    In México, banana (Musa sp.) varieties ate used for human consumption as well as for traditional medicine, but the literature lacks information on local diversity and functional justification for their use. Three varieties of dessert bananas (Valery, Morado, and Enano) and one cooking banana (Macho) were collected in a commercial farm in Tuxtepec, Oaxaca, México, at the agronomic maturity stage, and they were physically and chemically evaluated. A random sampling, ANOVA, and Tukey tests were ...

  8. Experimentally reduced root-microbe interactions reveal limited plasticity in functional root traits in Acer and Quercus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mei-Ho; Comas, Louise H; Callahan, Hilary S

    2014-02-01

    Interactions between roots and soil microbes are critical components of below-ground ecology. It is essential to quantify the magnitude of root trait variation both among and within species, including variation due to plasticity. In addition to contextualizing the magnitude of plasticity relative to differences between species, studies of plasticity can ascertain if plasticity is predictable and whether an environmental factor elicits changes in traits that are functionally advantageous. To compare functional traits and trait plasticities in fine root tissues with natural and reduced levels of colonization by microbial symbionts, trimmed and surface-sterilized root segments of 2-year-old Acer rubrum and Quercus rubra seedlings were manipulated. Segments were then replanted into satellite pots filled with control or heat-treated soil, both originally derived from a natural forest. Mycorrhizal colonization was near zero in roots grown in heat-treated soil; roots grown in control soil matched the higher colonization levels observed in unmanipulated root samples collected from field locations. Between-treatment comparisons revealed negligible plasticity for root diameter, branching intensity and nitrogen concentration across both species. Roots from treated soils had decreased tissue density (approx. 10-20 %) and increased specific root length (approx. 10-30 %). In contrast, species differences were significant and greater than treatment effects in traits other than tissue density. Interspecific trait differences were also significant in field samples, which generally resembled greenhouse samples. The combination of experimental and field approaches was useful for contextualizing trait plasticity in comparison with inter- and intra-specific trait variation. Findings that root traits are largely species dependent, with the exception of root tissue density, are discussed in the context of current literature on root trait variation, interactions with symbionts and recent

  9. Colonization of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) on Two Different Root Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhry, M. Z.; Naz, A. U.; Nawaz, A.; Nawaz, A.; Mukhtar, H.

    2016-01-01

    Phytohormones producing bacteria enhance the plants growth by positively affecting growth of the root. Plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPR) must colonize the plant roots to contribute to the plant's endogenous pool of phytohormones. Colonization of these plant growth promoting rhizobacteria isolated from rhizosplane and soil of different crops was evaluated on different root types to establish if the mechanism of host specificity exist. The bacteria were isolated from maize, wheat, rice, canola and cotton and phytohormone production was detected and quantified by HPLC. Bacteria were inoculated on surface sterilized seeds of different crops and seeds were germinated. After 7 days the bacteria were re-isolated from the roots and the effect of these bacteria was observed by measuring increase in root length. Bacteria isolated from one plant family (monocots) having fibrous root performed well on similar root system and failed to give significant results on other roots (tap root) of dicots. Some aggressive strains were able to colonize both root systems. The plant growth promoting activities of the bacteria were optimum on the same plant from whom roots they were isolated. The results suggest that bacteria adapt to the root they naturally inhabit and colonize the same plant root systems preferably. Although the observe trend indicate host specificity but some bacteria were aggressive colonizers which grew on all the plants used in experiment. (author)

  10. Expression profiles of a MhCTR1 gene in relation to banana fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Huei-Lin; Do, Yi-Yin; Huang, Pung-Ling

    2012-07-01

    The banana (Musa spp.) is a typical climacteric fruit of high economic importance. The development of bananas from maturing to ripening is characterized by increased ethylene production accompanied by a respiration burst. To elucidate the signal transduction pathway involved in the ethylene regulation of banana ripening, a gene homologous to Arabidopsis CTR1 (constitutive triple response 1) was isolated from Musa spp. (Hsien Jin Chiao, AAA group) and designated as MhCTR1. MhCTR1 spans 11.5 kilobases and consists of 15 exons and 14 introns with consensus GT-AG nucleotides situated at their boundaries. MhCTR1 encodes a polypeptide of 805 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular weight of 88.6 kDa. The deduced amino acid sequence of MhCTR1 demonstrates 55%, 56% and 55% homology to AtCTR1, RhCTR1, and LeCTR1, respectively. MhCTR1 is expressed mostly in the mature green pulp and root organs. During fruit development MhCTR1 expression increases just before ethylene production rises. Moreover, MhCTR1 expression was detected mainly in the pulps at ripening stage 3, and correlated with the onset of peel yellowing, while MhCTR1 was constitutively expressed in the peels. MhCTR1 expression could be induced by ethylene treatment (0.01 μL L(-1)), and MhCTR1 expression decreased in both peel and pulp 24 h after treatment. Overall, changes observed in MhCTR1 expression in the pulp closely related to the regulation of the banana ripening process. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  11. Generalized ripple-banana transport in a tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yushmanov, P.N.

    1983-01-01

    The paper considers the transport of banana particles in a rippled magnetic field over the entire energy range. It is shown that all familiar regimes of ripple transport - ripple-plateau, banana-drift and stochastic - can be described in a unified manner. The general expression obtained for the rippled fluxes of banana particles describes, apart from the already familiar regimes, also the as yet unstudied energy region between the drift and stochastic regimes. A generalized ripple-banana thermal conductivity coefficient, chisub(i)sup(RB), is calculated. (author)

  12. Suitability of banana peels for biogas production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meseguer, C.M.; Silesky, F.; Chacon, G.

    1983-01-01

    Banana (Musa cavendishii) peel in the ripe state (yellow with sufficient spots) has the potential to produce by anaerobic fermentation 0.22 plus or minus 0.03 cubic m biogas/kg dry material. Inhibition of the process can be prevented if the peel is pretreated by oxidation or if the process is carried out at approximately 35 degrees. The inoculate used must be acclimated to the medium.

  13. Physicochemical and sensorial quality of banana genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronielli Cardoso Reis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite the diversity of banana varieties in Brazil, only a few cultivars have the proper agronomic traits and fruit quality for commercial exploitation. This study aimed at evaluating the physicochemical traits and sensorial acceptance of banana genotypes, in order to identify those with potential for commercial growing. Six improved banana genotypes were assessed (BRS Maravilha, PC 0101, FHIA 18, TM 2803, YB 4203 and BRS Caipira, as well as three commercial cultivars (Grand Naine, Pacovan and Prata Anã. Analyses of peel and pulp color, peel thickness, pulp yield, moisture, pH, soluble solids, titratable acidity, total carotenoids and sensorial acceptance were performed. The BRS Maravilha, FHIA 18, YB 4203 and BRS Caipira genotypes presented physicochemical traits similar to the Grand Naine, Pacovan and Prata Anã commercial cultivars. The BRS Maravilha and TM 2803 genotypes had sensorial acceptance similar to the Prata Anã and Grand Naine cultivars, and are therefore promising for commercial growing, with the advantage of being resistant to the black Sigatoka and Panama disease.

  14. Some factors affecting the in vitro culture of banana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zadi, T.A.N.; Khan, N.H.; Rehman, Z.U.

    2006-01-01

    Factors affecting in vitro regeneration of shoots in shoot tip explant cultures of banana cultivar 'Basrai', such as solid and liquid media, growth regulators, vitamins, and antioxidants were studied. Three-quarters strength of MS liquid medium supplemented with 17.75 micro m 6-benzyladenine (BA), 11.42 micro M indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and 205 micro M adenine sulphate induced the formation of mean number of 12.3 shoots, with the mean length of 3.0 cm, after three weeks of culture. Maximum shoot multiplication (14.33) occurred in liquid medium containing 22.19 micro M BA. Addition of 2.0% activated charcoal (AC) to the liquid medium improved quality of the regenerated plants with expanded and glossy leaves, though the number of shoots was reduced (13.66). Profuse formation of roots was characteristically induced by AC. Addition of citric acid (CA) to the medium caused decline in morphogenetic expression of the cultures. (author)

  15. Temperature effects on peel spotting in "Sucrier banana" fruit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trakulnaleumsai, C.; Ketsa, S.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2006-01-01

    Banana fruit of the cultivar `Sucrier¿ (Musa acuminata, AA Group) develops peel spotting at a relatively early stage of development (when the peel is about as slightly more yellow than green). Holding ripening bananas at 15 and 18 °C instead of room temperature (26¿27 °C) only temporarily reduced

  16. Determinants of market production of cooking banana in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The factors that influence farmers' decisions to produce cooking banana for market in southeast Nigeria were examined. Data were collected from a ... Results of the study indicate that about 80% of the farmers interviewed produce cooking banana both for household consumption and for sale. The proportion of cooking ...

  17. Small scale banana farmers' awareness level and adoption of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Descriptive statistics and binary logit regression were employed for data analyses. The results show that although majority of the farmers (96.67%) were aware of and had access to improved banana varieties, only 15.83% of them adopted the use of improved planting materials. Gros mitchel, Cavendish and sweet bananas ...

  18. Farmer acceptance of introduced banana genotypes in Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The same cultivars were acceptable mainly as dessert but also as cooking bananas during food shortages in central and western parts, especially, in areas where the growing of traditional cultivars is progressively declining. There was little interest in the new bananas in western parts of the country. Major considerations for ...

  19. Cultural control of banana weevils in Ntungamo, southwestern Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okech, S.H.; Gold, C.S.; Bagamba, F.; Masanza, M.; Tushemereirwe, W.; Ssennyonga, J.

    2005-01-01

    The International Institute of Tropical Agriculture and the Uganda National Banana Research Programme tested and evaluated selected cultural management options for the banana weevil through on-farm farmer participatory research in Ntungamo district, Uganda between 1996 and 003. A farmer adoption

  20. Effects of relative humidity on banana fruit drop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saengpook, C.; Ketsa, S.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2007-01-01

    Commercial ripening of banana fruit occurs at high relative humidity (RH), which prevents browning of damaged skin areas. In experiments with ripening at high RH (94 ± 1%) the individual fruit (fingers) of `Sucrier¿ (Musa acuminata, AA Group) banana exhibited a high rate of drop. The falling off of

  1. REACTION OF Musa balbisiana TO BANANA BACTERIAL WILT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    2Makerere University, Department of Agricultural Production, P. O. Box 7062, Kampala, Uganda. Corresponding author: kumalfred@gmail.com. (Received 7 February, 2012; accepted 3 September, 2013). ABSTRACT. Banana bacterial wilt (Xanthomonas campestris) is an emerging disease of bananas in Uganda.

  2. Ethical perception of human gene in transgenic banana | Amin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Transgenic banana has been developed to prevent hepatitis B through vaccination. Its production seems to be an ideal alternative for cheaper vaccines. The objective of this paper is to assess the ethical perception of transgenic banana which involved the transfer of human albumin gene, and to compare their ethical ...

  3. Egg and banana sign of severe pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veean, Satyam; Nixon, William; Keshavamurthy, Jayanth

    2018-01-01

    The egg and banana sign can be seen on chest computed tomography (CT) in patients with severe pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). It is identified by the presence of the pulmonary artery (PA) lateral to the aortic arch with the aortic arch being described as the banana and the PA as the egg.

  4. Agronomic performance of five banana cultivars under protected cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banana has been grown both in open-field and protected cultivation in Turkey. So far protected cultivation is very popular due to the high yield and quality. The objective of the study was to evaluate agronomic performance of five new banana cultivars under plastic greenhouse. ‘MA 13’, ‘Williams’, ‘...

  5. Leaf anatomy of genotypes of banana plant grown under coloured ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of spectral light quality on different anatomical features of banana tree plantlets grown under coloured shade nets. Banana plants of five genotypes obtained from micropropagation, were grown under white, blue, red and black nets, with shade of 50%, in a completely randomized ...

  6. Banana peel: A novel substrate for cellulase production under solid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These results indicated that banana peel provided necessary nutrients for cell growth and cellulase synthesis. It can be used as a potential substrate for cellulase production by T. viride GIM 3.0010 under solid-state fermentation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on cellulase production using banana peel.

  7. Production and evaluation of precooked dehydrated unripe banana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No significant change in total aerobic counts or yeasts and moulds counts occurred in dehydrated banana slices packaged in 250 gauge polyethylene bags and stored at ambient temperature for 3 months. The slices were found to be high in starch (~68.5%) and minerals. When shallow fried, the dehydrated banana slices ...

  8. Urban consumer willingness to pay for introduced dessert bananas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... therefore have a market potential. It is recommended that market development activities including organising and training farmers in improved agronomic methods, handling bananas for local markets; and promotional studies of the introduced dessert bananas among the urban consumers be done to widen their demand.

  9. Banana Xanthomonas wilt in Ethiopia: Occurrence and insect vector ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacterial wilt caused by Xanthomonas vasicola pv. musacearum (Xvm) is an important disease of enset and banana in south and south-western Ethiopia where, the diversity of the insect fauna on banana inflorescences was unknown and the role of insects as vectors of the disease had not been studied. The objectives of ...

  10. Preliminary evaluation of improved banana varieties in Mozambique ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Banana (Musa spp.) production in Mozambique is largely confined to the Cavendish variety that is eaten as a dessert. On the other hand, banana is a staple food crop in many countries in sub-Saharan Africa. The introduction of a range of high yielding and disease resistant cooking and dessert varieties in Mozambique ...

  11. Eggshells – assisted hydrolysis of banana pulp for biogas production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KARAKANA

    In this study, pretreatment of banana pulp using eggshells in both calcined and un-calcined forms to examine the ... Key words: Anaerobic digestion, banana pulp hydrolysis biogas, eggshells. .... obtain fine powder. ..... using pig waste and cassava peels. ... from bioethanol waste: the effect of pH and urea addition to biogas.

  12. Genetic Diversity Among East African Highland Bananas For ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There are 84 distinct cultivars of highland bananas (Musa spp.) in Uganda, grouped in five clone sets and it is not known which among these are female fertile. The objective of the study reported herein was to identify female fertile highland bananas that can be used in a cross breeding program and to determine the ...

  13. Screening of in vitro derived mutants of banana against nematodes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rest of the mutants namely Ro Im V4 6-1-2 and Si Im V4 6-2-5 were found to be susceptible to nematodes. The resistant and moderately resistant mutants of banana could be further used in breeding programmes as well as being recognized as potential cultivars of commerce. Key words: Banana, nematode, resistance, ...

  14. 33 CFR 334.570 - Banana River near Orsino, Fla.; restricted area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Banana River near Orsino, Fla... THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.570 Banana River near Orsino, Fla.; restricted area. (a) The area. That part of Banana River N of the NASA Banana River...

  15. Banana Algebra: Compositional syntactic language extension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jacob; Brabrand, Claus; Christiansen, David Raymond

    2013-01-01

    We propose an algebra of languages and transformations as a means of compositional syntactic language extension. The algebra provides a layer of high-level abstractions built on top of languages (captured by context-free grammars) and transformations (captured by constructive catamorphisms...... algebra as presented in the paper is implemented as the Banana Algebra Tool which may be used to syntactically extend languages in an incremental and modular fashion via algebraic composition of previously defined languages and transformations. We demonstrate and evaluate the tool via several kinds...

  16. Fertilizantes comerciais e polpa de banana no cultivo in vitro de um híbrido de Phalaenopsis (Orchidaceae Commercial fertilizers and banana pulp for in vitro cultivation of a Phalaenopsis hybrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronan Carlos Colombo

    2012-12-01

    addition of 'Nanica' banana pulp in a culture medium for in vitro cultivation of a hybrid of Phalaenopsis. Seedlings germinated in vitro, in MS medium, were subcultivated in culture media with a basis of commercial fertilizers and MS medium modified with half the concentration of macronutrients. The culture media were evaluated with and without the addition of the banana pulp (100g L-1 during the stage of maturation 4. The basis of these culture media was composed of sucrose (30g L-1, activated charcoal (1g L-1 and agar (9g L-1. After 180 days the following variables were analyzed: leaf area, number of leaves and roots, root length and dry weight of leaves and roots. We were able to conclude that the treatment composed by Biofert® supplemented with banana pulp presented the best results for the hybrid development in vitro, and actually presented statistically superior results in relation to MS without banana.

  17. Identification of genes differentially expressed during ripening of banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manrique-Trujillo, Sandra Mabel; Ramírez-López, Ana Cecilia; Ibarra-Laclette, Enrique; Gómez-Lim, Miguel Angel

    2007-08-01

    The banana (Musa acuminata, subgroup Cavendish 'Grand Nain') is a climacteric fruit of economic importance. A better understanding of the banana ripening process is needed to improve fruit quality and to extend shelf life. Eighty-four up-regulated unigenes were identified by differential screening of a banana fruit cDNA subtraction library at a late ripening stage. The ripening stages in this study were defined according to the peel color index (PCI). Unigene sequences were analyzed with different databases to assign a putative identification. The expression patterns of 36 transcripts confirmed as positive by differential screening were analyzed comparing the PCI 1, PCI 5 and PCI 7 ripening stages. Expression profiles were obtained for unigenes annotated as orcinol O-methyltransferase, putative alcohol dehydrogenase, ubiquitin-protein ligase, chorismate mutase and two unigenes with non-significant matches with any reported sequence. Similar expression profiles were observed in banana pulp and peel. Our results show differential expression of a group of genes involved in processes associated with fruit ripening, such as stress, detoxification, cytoskeleton and biosynthesis of volatile compounds. Some of the identified genes had not been characterized in banana fruit. Besides providing an overview of gene expression programs and metabolic pathways at late stages of banana fruit ripening, this study contributes to increasing the information available on banana fruit ESTs.

  18. Development of environmental friendly lost circulation material from banana peel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauki, Arina; Hasan, Nur â.€˜Izzati; Naimi, Fardelen Binti Md; Othman, Nur Hidayati

    2017-12-01

    Loss of expensive mud could lead to major financial problem in executing a drilling project and is one of the biggest problems that need to be tackled during drilling. Synthetic Based Mud (SBM) is the most stable state of the art drilling mud used in current drilling technologies. However, the problem with lost circulation is still inevitable. The focus of this project is to develop a new potential waste material from banana peel in order to combat lost circulation in SBM. Standard industrial Lost Circulation Material (LCM) is used to compare the performance of banana peel as LCM in SBM. The effects of different sizing of banana peels (600 micron, 300 micron and 100 micron) were studied on the rheological and filtration properties of SBM and the bridging performance of banana peel as LCM additive. The tests were conducted using viscometer, HTHP filter press and sand bed tester. Thermal analysis of banana peel was also studied using TGA. According to the results obtained, 300 and 100 micron size of banana peel LCM exhibited an improved bridging performance by 65% as compared to industrial LCM. However, banana peel LCM with the size of 600 micron failed to act as LCM due to the total invasion of mud into the sand bed.

  19. Batch biomethanation of banana trash and coir path

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deivanai, K.; Bai, R.K. [Madurai Kamaraj Univ. (India)

    1995-08-01

    Anaerobic digestion of banana trash and coir pith was carried out for a period of one month by batch digestion. During biomethanation reduction of total- and volatile-solids was, respectively, 25.3 and 39.6% in banana trash and 13.6 and 21.6% in coir pith. A production of 9.22 l and 1.69 l (per kg TS added) of biogas with average methane content of 72 and 80% was achieved from banana trash and coir pith, respectively. (author)

  20. Tissue culture regeneration and radiation induced mutagenesis in banana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, V.M.; Ganapathi, T.R.

    2009-01-01

    Radiation induced mutagenesis is an important tool for banana genetic improvement. At BARC, protocols for shoo-tip multiplication of commercial banana varieties have been developed and transferred to user agencies for commercial production. Excellent embryogenic cell suspensions were established in banana cvs. Rasthali and Rajeli, and were maintained at low temperatures for long-term storage. Normal plantlets were successfully regenerated from these cell suspensions. The cell suspensions and shoot-tip cultures were gamma-irradiated for mutagenesis. The mutagenized populations were field screened and a few interesting mutants have been isolated. The existence of genetic variation was confirmed using DNA markers. Further evaluation of these mutants is in progress. (author)

  1. Colonization of lettuce rhizosphere and roots by tagged Streptomyces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eBonaldi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Beneficial microorganisms are increasingly used in agriculture, but their efficacy often fails due to limited knowledge of their interactions with plants and other microorganisms present in rhizosphere. We studied spatio-temporal colonization dynamics of lettuce roots and rhizosphere by genetically modified Streptomyces spp. Five Streptomyces strains, strongly inhibiting in vitro the major soil-borne pathogen of horticultural crops, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, were transformed with pIJ8641 plasmid harboring an enhanced green fluorescent protein marker and resistance to apramycin. The fitness of transformants was compared to the wild-type strains and all of them grew and sporulated at similar rates and retained the production of enzymes and selected secondary metabolites as well as in vitro inhibition of S. sclerotiorum. The tagged ZEA17I strain was selected to study the dynamics of lettuce roots and rhizosphere colonization in non-sterile growth substrate. The transformed strain was able to colonize soil, developing roots and rhizosphere. When the strain was inoculated directly on the growth substrate, significantly more t-ZEA17I was re-isolated both from the rhizosphere and the roots when compared to the amount obtained after seed coating. The re-isolation from the rhizosphere and the inner tissues of surface-sterilized lettuce roots demonstrated that t-ZEA17I is both rhizospheric and endophytic.

  2. Colonization of lettuce rhizosphere and roots by tagged Streptomyces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaldi, Maria; Chen, Xiaoyulong; Kunova, Andrea; Pizzatti, Cristina; Saracchi, Marco; Cortesi, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Beneficial microorganisms are increasingly used in agriculture, but their efficacy often fails due to limited knowledge of their interactions with plants and other microorganisms present in rhizosphere. We studied spatio-temporal colonization dynamics of lettuce roots and rhizosphere by genetically modified Streptomyces spp. Five Streptomyces strains, strongly inhibiting in vitro the major soil-borne pathogen of horticultural crops, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, were transformed with pIJ8641 plasmid harboring an enhanced green fluorescent protein marker and resistance to apramycin. The fitness of transformants was compared to the wild-type strains and all of them grew and sporulated at similar rates and retained the production of enzymes and selected secondary metabolites as well as in vitro inhibition of S. sclerotiorum. The tagged ZEA17I strain was selected to study the dynamics of lettuce roots and rhizosphere colonization in non-sterile growth substrate. The transformed strain was able to colonize soil, developing roots, and rhizosphere. When the strain was inoculated directly on the growth substrate, significantly more t-ZEA17I was re-isolated both from the rhizosphere and the roots when compared to the amount obtained after seed coating. The re-isolation from the rhizosphere and the inner tissues of surface-sterilized lettuce roots demonstrated that t-ZEA17I is both rhizospheric and endophytic.

  3. Root fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jens Ove; Christensen, Søren Steno Ahrensburg; Tsilingaridis, Georgios

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze tooth loss after root fractures and to assess the influence of the type of healing and the location of the root fracture. Furthermore, the actual cause of tooth loss was analyzed....

  4. The effects of banana peel preparations on the properties of banana peel dietary fibre concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phatcharaporn Wachirasiri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Four different preparation methods of banana peel, dry milling, wet milling, wet milling and tap water washing, and wet milling and hot water washing were investigated on their effects on the chemical composition and properties of the banana peel dietary fibre concentrate (BDFC. The dry milling process gave the BDFC a significant higher fat, protein, and starch content than the wet milling process, resulting in a lower water holding capacity (WHC and oil holding capacity(OHC. Washing after wet milling could enhance the concentration of total dietary fibre by improving the removal of protein and fat. Washing with hot water after wet milling process caused a higher loss of soluble fibre fraction, resulting in a lower WHC and OHC of the obtained BDFC when compared to washing with tap water. Wet milling and tap water washing gave the BDFC the highest concentration of total and soluble dietary fibre, WHC and OHC.

  5. Transcripts and MicroRNAs Responding to Salt Stress in Musa acuminata Colla (AAA Group cv. Berangan Roots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Sin Lee

    Full Text Available Physiological responses to stress are controlled by expression of a large number of genes, many of which are regulated by microRNAs. Since most banana cultivars are salt-sensitive, improved understanding of genetic regulation of salt induced stress responses in banana can support future crop management and improvement in the face of increasing soil salinity related to irrigation and climate change. In this study we focused on determining miRNA and their targets that respond to NaCl exposure and used transcriptome sequencing of RNA and small RNA from control and NaCl-treated banana roots to assemble a cultivar-specific reference transcriptome and identify orthologous and Musa-specific miRNA responding to salinity. We observed that, banana roots responded to salinity stress with changes in expression for a large number of genes (9.5% of 31,390 expressed unigenes and reduction in levels of many miRNA, including several novel miRNA and banana-specific miRNA-target pairs. Banana roots expressed a unique set of orthologous and Musa-specific miRNAs of which 59 respond to salt stress in a dose-dependent manner. Gene expression patterns of miRNA compared with those of their predicted mRNA targets indicated that a majority of the differentially expressed miRNAs were down-regulated in response to increased salinity, allowing increased expression of targets involved in diverse biological processes including stress signaling, stress defence, transport, cellular homeostasis, metabolism and other stress-related functions. This study may contribute to the understanding of gene regulation and abiotic stress response of roots and the high-throughput sequencing data sets generated may serve as important resources related to salt tolerance traits for functional genomic studies and genetic improvement in banana.

  6. Banana Musa tissue culture plants enhanced by endophytic fungi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    Merging biotechnology with biological control: Banana Musa tissue culture plants enhanced by endophytic .... While working in the laminar flow cabinet, sterile filter papers were placed in ..... University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany. Niere, B., 2001.

  7. Policy Issues in the Structure, Conduct and Performance of Banana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Madukwe

    **Department of Agricultural Economics University of Nigeria, Nsukka ... stated that banana is playing a crucial food security role in many developing countries. ... upon the infrastructure and social services of a country's towns and cities ...

  8. Micropropagation of some Malaysian banana and plantain (Musa sp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-04-19

    Apr 19, 2010 ... As one of the origins of bananas, Malaysia has a great variety of them, that is, ... reduces contamination rate during micropropagation as compared to soil ..... 42. Faostat (2005). Food and Agricultural Organization of the United.

  9. urban consumer willingness to pay for introduced dessert bananas

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    National Agricultural Research Organization (NARO) P.O. Box 7065, Kampala, ... the introduced dessert bananas among the urban consumers be done to widen their demand. Key Words: Fusarium wilt, Gros Michel, hedonic model, Musa spp.

  10. Acetylation and characterization of banana (Musa paradisiaca) starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello-Pérez, L A; Contreras-Ramos, S M; Jìmenez-Aparicio, A; Paredes-López, O

    2000-01-01

    Banana native starch was acetylated and some of its functional properties were evaluated and compared to corn starch. In general, acetylated banana starch presented higher values in ash, protein and fat than corn acetylated starch. The modified starches had minor tendency to retrogradation assessed as % transmittance of starch pastes. At high temperature acetylated starches presented a water retention capacity similar to their native counterpart. The acetylation considerably increased the solubility of starches, and a similar behavior was found for swelling power. When freeze-thaw stability was studied, acetyl banana starch drained approximately 60% of water in the first and second cycles, but in the third and fourth cycles the percentage of separated water was low. However, acetyl corn starch showed lower freeze-thaw stability than the untreated sample. The modification increased the viscosity of banana starch pastes.

  11. Influence of triadimefon on the growth and development of banana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-04-16

    Apr 16, 2014 ... cultures of the three-dessert banana cultivars (Hindi, Basrai and Williams) were affected compared to ..... includes reduce in surface area of leaves and .... reflect a type of particular stress conditions exhibit ... Emirates J. Food.

  12. Characterisation of colletotrichum species associated with anthracnose of banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Latiffah; Sahak, Shamsiah; Zakaria, Maziah; Salleh, Baharuddin

    2009-12-01

    A total of 13 Colletotrichum isolates were obtained from different banana cultivars (Musa spp.) with symptoms of anthracnose. Colletotrichum isolates from anthracnose of guava (Psidium guajava) and water apple (Syzygium aqueum) were also included in this study. Based on cultural and morphological characteristics, isolates from banana and guava were identified as Colletotrichum musae and from water apple as Colletotrichum gloeosporiodes. Isolates of C. musae from banana and guava had similar banding patterns in a randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis with four random primers, and they clustered together in a UPGMA analysis. C. gloeosporiodes from water apple was clustered in a separate cluster. Based on the present study, C. musae was frequently isolated from anthracnose of different banana cultivars and the RAPD banding patterns of C. musae isolates were highly similar but showed intraspecific variations.

  13. In Vivo Digestibility of Molasses-Treated Fresh Banana Leaves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    treated fresh banana leaves in West African Dwarf sheep was conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm and Animal Nutrition Laboratory of the University of Dschang between August and September 2009. For this, six sheep were used and ...

  14. Sustainable Banana Production and Pesticides in Costa Rica | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Large multinational producers employ thousands of workers, who live near ... in the banana industry is high and constitutes a health hazard for the farm workers, ... and assess the effects of these levels on the health and neurodevelopment of ...

  15. Use of gamma radiation (Co60) as quarentenary treatment, to control the moth Opogona sacchari (Bojer, 1856) (Lepidoptera: Tineidade) on banana (Musa sp.) and Dracaena fragans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potenza, Marcos Roberto

    1999-01-01

    This research had the aim at evaluating the physical treatment by gamma radiation as an alternative method to disinfestate bananas and Dracaena fragans stalks without roots, to exportation, infested with the moth Opogona sacchari. The moth rearing was initiated from infested D. fragans originated from Juquia, state of Sao Paulo. Gammacell 220 with Cobalt-60 with activity of 537, 82 Ci was used as an irradiator. Tests on artificial diet, bananas variety Nanicao and D. fragans stalks without roots were done, with doses varying form 5,0 to 500,0 Gy. The doses of of 140,0; 240,0 and 450,0 Gy fitted the rules of absence of adults emergency, affecting eggs with seven days old, twenty two days old larvae and eleven days old pupae, irradiated on artificial diet, respectively. The dose to disinfestate twenty two days old O. sacchari infesting D. fragans stalk sheaves without roots and bananas in bunch, used to exportation, was 300,0 Gy and to eleven days old pupae, in the some conditions, was of 450,0 Gy. The dose of gamma radiation from 50,0 to 500,0 Gy affected sprouting. (author)

  16. Wound-induced pectin methylesterases enhance banana (Musa spp. AAA) susceptibility to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li; Jiang, Shuang; Lin, Guimei; Cai, Jianghua; Ye, Xiaoxi; Chen, Houbin; Li, Minhui; Li, Huaping; Takác, Tomás; Samaj, Jozef; Xu, Chunxiang

    2013-05-01

    Recent studies suggest that plant pectin methylesterases (PMEs) are directly involved in plant defence besides their roles in plant development. However, the molecular mechanisms of PME action on pectins are not well understood. In order to understand how PMEs modify pectins during banana (Musa spp.)-Fusarium interaction, the expression and enzyme activities of PMEs in two banana cultivars, highly resistant or susceptible to Fusarium, were compared with each other. Furthermore, the spatial distribution of PMEs and their effect on pectin methylesterification of 10 individual homogalacturonan (HG) epitopes with different degrees of methylesterification (DMs) were also examined. The results showed that, before pathogen treatment, the resistant cultivar displayed higher PME activity than the susceptible cultivar, corresponding well to the lower level of pectin DM. A significant increase in PME expression and activity and a decrease in pectin DM were observed in the susceptible cultivar but not in the resistant cultivar when plants were wounded, which was necessary for successful infection. With the increase of PME in the wounded susceptible cultivar, the JIM5 antigen (low methyestrified HGs) increased. Forty-eight hours after pathogen infection, the PME activity and expression in the susceptible cultivar were higher than those in the resistant cultivar, while the DM was lower. In conclusion, the resistant and the susceptible cultivars differ significantly in their response to wounding. Increased PMEs and thereafter decreased DMs acompanied by increased low methylesterified HGs in the root vascular cylinder appear to play a key role in determination of banana susceptibility to Fusarium.

  17. Visually suboptimal bananas: How ripeness affects consumer expectation and perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symmank, Claudia; Zahn, Susann; Rohm, Harald

    2018-01-01

    One reason for the significant amount of food that is wasted in developed countries is that consumers often expect visually suboptimal food as being less palatable. Using bananas as example, the objective of this study was to determine how appearance affects consumer overall liking, the rating of sensory attributes, purchase intention, and the intended use of bananas. The ripeness degree (RD) of the samples was adjusted to RD 5 (control) and RD 7 (more ripened, visually suboptimal). After preliminary experiments, a total of 233 participants were asked to judge their satisfaction with the intensity of sensory attributes that referred to flavor, taste, and texture using just-about-right scales. Subjects who received peeled samples were asked after tasting, whereas subjects who received unpeeled bananas judged expectation and, after peeling and tasting, perception. Expected overall liking and purchase intention were significantly lower for RD 7 bananas. Purchase intention was still significantly different between RD 5 and RD 7 after tasting, whereas no difference in overall liking was observed. Significant differences between RD 5 and RD 7 were observed when asking participants for their intended use of the bananas. Concerning the sensory attributes, penalty analysis revealed that only the firmness of the RD 7 bananas was still not just-about-right after tasting. The importance that consumers attribute to the shelf-life of food had a pronounced impact on purchase intention of bananas with different ripeness degree. In the case of suboptimal bananas, the results demonstrate a positive relationship between the sensory perception and overall liking and purchase intention. Convincing consumers that visually suboptimal food is still tasty is of high relevance for recommending different ways of communication. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Elucidating the resistance response of irradiated banana cv. Lakatan to banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) infection transmitted by the banana aphid Pentalonia nigronervosa Coquerol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dela Cueva, F.M.; Sison, M.L.J.; Dinglasan, E.G.; Damasco, O.P.

    2014-01-01

    Development of banana bunchy top virus (BBTV)-resistant banana variety Lakatan through gamma-irradiation had been successfully done as part of integrated management strategies against the disease. Ten irradiated Lakatan lines exhibited resistance to BBTV. Resistance of these lines was evaluated based on symptomatology and host-virus relationship. Insect colony development on Lakatan banana irradiated lines was monitored by artificially inoculating viruliferous banana aphids, Pentalonia nigronervosa, and counting the resulting number of aphids per plant at weekly intervals. Resistance to virus multiplication of Lakatan irradiated lines was characterized by quantifying the virus titer through Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Results showed that not all lines were suitable as hosts in establishing aphid population. The reaction of the mutant lines to the vector and the pathogen varied to some extent. Disease incidence in some cases was correlated with aphid preference. Disease incidence was significantly higher (50%) on lines that were preferred by aphids and lower (50%) in those that were not colonized. Some mutant lines with very low aphid colony count, however showed high BBTV incidence. Variability in the results could be affected by other factors such as the developmental stage of the plant and prevailing environmental conditions during the conduct of the experiment. Virus titer was also reduced on these mutant lines, thus reduced virus multiplication. Non-irradiated (control) Lakatan banana had comparably high population of aphids, high disease incidence, and high virus titer

  19. MECHANICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND ANALYSIS OF RANDOMLY DISTRIBUTED SHORT BANANA FIBER REINFORCED EPOXY COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Misra

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Short banana fiber reinforced composites have been prepared in laboratory to determine mechanical properties. It has been observed that as soon as the percentage of the banana fiber increases slightly there is a tremendous increase in ultimate tensile strength, % of strain and young modulus of elasticity. Reinforcement of banana fibers in epoxy resin increases stiffness and decreases damping properties of the composites. Therefore, 2.468% banana fiber reinforced composite plate stabilizes early as compared to 7.7135 % banana fiber reinforced composite plate but less stiff as compared to 7.7135 % banana fiber reinforced composite plate

  20. In Vitro Proliferation and Cryoconservation of Banana and Plantain Elite Clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyes Guillermo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture and modern biotechnology are increasingly becoming interdependent, and many new techniques have brought new opportunities for enhancing production and marketing. Germplasm storage is an alternative for the conservation of plant genetic diversity, contributing to the improvement and maintenance of propagation programs for species of interest. In this work, banana corms were collected as plant material from relatively young commercial plantations of three different cultivars: ‘Williams’, Valery (AAA genome; Cavendish subgroup, and ‘Barraganete’ (AAB genome; Plantain subgroup. Their shoot tips were introduced into in vitro conditions, and subcultured monthly to obtain the required number of shoots. The shoots were subsequently rooted and stimulated to invigoration in order to extract apical meristems (0.8–1.0 mm, which were prepared for cryopreservion in liquid nitrogen (−196 °C following pre-conditioning in PVS2 vitrification solution. Thereafter, the explants were rapidly thawed and then recovered and regenerated using two different methods – by Panis (2009 and Korneva et al. (2009 – consisting of two different sets of recovery and subsequent regeneration media. Statistical analysis of the results showed that the banana cultivar ‘Williams’ demonstrated higher survival and regeneration rates after cry-opreservation using the Korneva method, whereas in cultivars ‘Valery’ and ‘Barraganete’, there were no significant differences between the tested methods. The ‘Barraganete’ cultivar had the lowest survival and regeneration rates, regardless of the applied method.

  1. Banana peel: an effective biosorbent for aflatoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shar, Zahid Hussain; Fletcher, Mary T; Sumbal, Gul Amer; Sherazi, Syed Tufail Hussain; Giles, Cindy; Bhanger, Muhammad Iqbal; Nizamani, Shafi Muhammad

    2016-05-01

    This work reports the application of banana peel as a novel bioadsorbent for in vitro removal of five mycotoxins (aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2) and ochratoxin A). The effect of operational parameters including initial pH, adsorbent dose, contact time and temperature were studied in batch adsorption experiments. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and point of zero charge (pHpzc) analysis were used to characterise the adsorbent material. Aflatoxins' adsorption equilibrium was achieved in 15 min, with highest adsorption at alkaline pH (6-8), while ochratoxin has not shown any significant adsorption due to surface charge repulsion. The experimental equilibrium data were tested by Langmuir, Freundlich and Hill isotherms. The Langmuir isotherm was found to be the best fitted model for aflatoxins, and the maximum monolayer coverage (Q0) was determined to be 8.4, 9.5, 0.4 and 1.1 ng mg(-1) for AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2 respectively. Thermodynamic parameters including changes in free energy (ΔG), enthalpy (ΔH) and entropy (ΔS) were determined for the four aflatoxins. Free energy change and enthalpy change demonstrated that the adsorption process was exothermic and spontaneous. Adsorption and desorption study at different pH further demonstrated that the sorption of toxins was strong enough to sustain pH changes that would be experienced in the gastrointestinal tract. This study suggests that biosorption of aflatoxins by dried banana peel may be an effective low-cost decontamination method for incorporation in animal feed diets.

  2. Biossorption of uranium on banana pith

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boniolo, Milena Rodrigues

    2008-01-01

    Banana pith was characterized by Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy, and investigated as a low cost bio sorbent for the removal of uranium ions from nitric solutions. Influences variable as were studied: adsorbent particle size, contact time, pH and temperature were studied. The removal percentage was increased from 13 to 57% when the particle size was decreased from 6.000 to 0.074 mm. The determined contact time was 40 minutes with 60% mean removal. The removal was increased from 40 to 55% when the pH varied from 2 to 5. The Langmuir and Freundlich linear isotherm models were applied to describe the adsorption equilibrium. The kinetic of the process was studied using the pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order models. Thermodynamics parameters such as ΔG, ΔS and ΔH were calculated. In concentration range of 50 - 500 mg.L -1 , the adsorption process was described better by the Freundlich equation. The adsorption capacity at equilibrium of uranium ions was determined from the Langmuir equation, and it was found 11.50 mg.g -1 at 25 ± 2 deg C. The kinetic was better represented by the pseudo-second order model. The bio sorption process for uranium removal from the solutions was considered an exothermic reaction, and the values of ΔH and ΔS obtained were -9.61 kJ.mol''- 1 and 1.37 J.mol''- 1 , respectively. The values of the Gibbs free energy changed from -10.03 to -10.06 kJ.mol -1 when the temperature was increased from 30 to 50 deg C. This study showed the potential application of the banana pith as bio sorbent of uranium ions. (author)

  3. AMIDO RESISTENTE EM FARINHAS DE BANANA VERDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayana Portes RAMOS

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o teor de amido resistente (AR em farinhas de banana verde produzidas a partir de treze genótipos de bananeira. Para a produção da farinha foram separadas a 1ª, 3ª e 5ª pencas de cada genótipo, na qual cada penca correspondeu a uma repetição. Os frutos de cada penca no estádio 1 (casca completamente verde de maturação foram descascados manualmente, cortados em fatias circulares de 0,5 cm e desidratados em estufa com circulação de ar a 40ºC por 48 horas, sendo em seguida moídos. A análise de AR consistiu em um processo enzimático, calculando-se o conteúdo final pela concentração de glicose liberada. Os resultados foram submetidos à análise estatística e mostraram diferenças significativas para o teor de AR nas farinhas obtidas dos genótipos de bananeira, sendo que a farinha com maior teor de AR foi a produzida a partir do cultivar ‘Nam’ (40,25% e a menor pelo híbrido ‘Fhia 01’ (10,01%. Pode-se concluir que o conteúdo de AR varia em relação ao genótipo utilizado para a confecção da farinha e que a banana pode ser uma boa opção de estudo de alimento funcional.

  4. Physical and biochemical properties of green banana flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suntharalingam, S; Ravindran, G

    1993-01-01

    Banana flour prepared from two cooking banana varieties, namely 'Alukehel' and 'Monthan', were evaluated for their physical and biochemical characteristics. The yields of flour averaged 31.3% for 'Alukehel' and 25.5% for 'Monthan'. The pH of the flour ranged from 5.4 to 5.7. The bulk density and particle size distribution were also measured. The average chemical composition (% dry matter) of the flours were as follows: crude protein, 3.2; crude fat, 1.3; ash, 3.7; neutral detergent fiber, 8.9; acid detergent fiber, 3.8; cellulose, 3.1; lignin, 1.0 and hemicellulose, 5.0. Carbohydrate composition indicated the flour to contain 2.8% soluble sugars, 70.0% starch and 12.0% non-starch polysaccharides. Potassium is the predominant mineral in banana flour. Fresh green banana is a good source of vitamin C, but almost 65% is lost during the preparation of flour. Oxalate content (1.1-1.6%) of banana flour is probably nutritionally insignificant. The overall results are suggestive of the potential of green bananas as a source of flour.

  5. Severity of banana leaf spot in an intercropping system in two cycles of banana Prata Anã

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdeir Dias Gonçalves

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Prata Anã is the most planted banana cultivar in northern Minas Gerais, Brazil. It is however susceptible toseveral pathogens. This study was carried out to evaluate the disease severity of banana leaf spot in the Prata Anã cv. in thefirst and second cycle under six different planting systems. The randomized block experimental design was used with sixtreatments and four replications. In an evaluation of the severity of banana leaf spot, no disease symptoms were found onThap Maeo and Caipira. The evolution curve of the disease indicated seasonal effects in the first and second cycles. Theseverity of banana leaf spot was highest soon after the regional rainy period from November to March. A comparison of themeans of the evaluations indicated a reduction in disease severity from the first to the second cycle.

  6. The effects of compost prepared from waste material of banana plants on the nutrient contents of banana leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Ilhan; Sen, Bahtiyar; Kaya, Zülküf

    2003-10-01

    In this study, the possible utilization of removed shoots and plant parts of banana as compost after fruit harvest were investigated. Three doses (15-30-45 kg plan(-1)) of the compost prepared from the clone of Dwarf Cavendish banana were compared with Farmyard manure (50 kg plant(-1), Mineral fertilizers (180 g N + 150 g P + 335 g K plant(-1)) and Farmyard manure + Mineral fertilizers (25 kg FM + 180 g N + 150 g P + 335 g K plant(-1)) which determined positive effects on the nutrient contents of banana leaves. The banana plants were grown under a heated glasshouse and in a soil with physical and chemical properties suitable for banana growing. The contents of N, P, K and Mg in compost and in farmyard manure were found to be similar. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium contents of leaves in all applications except control, and Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu contents in all applications were determined between optimum levels of reference values. There were positive correlations among some nutrient contents of leaves, growth, yield and fruit quality characteristics. Farmyard manure, Farmyard manure + Mineral fertilizers and 45 kg plant(-1) of compost increased the nutrient contents of banana leaves. According to obtained results, 45 kg plant(-1) of compost was determined more suitable in terms of economical production and organic farming than the other fertiliser types.

  7. Roots & Hollers

    OpenAIRE

    Kollman, Patrick L; Gorman, Thomas A

    2011-01-01

    Roots & Hollers, 2011 A documentary by Thomas Gorman & Patrick Kollman Master’s Project Abstract: Roots & Hollers uncovers the wild American ginseng trade, revealing a unique intersection between Asia and rural America. Legendary in Asia for its healing powers, ginseng helps sustain the livelihoods of thousands in Appalachia. A single root can sell for thousands of dollars at auction. Shot on-location in the mountains of Kentucky and West Virginia, this student doc...

  8. Surface sterilization by low energy electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekiguchi, Masayuki; Tabei, Masae

    1989-01-01

    The germicidal effectiveness of low energy electron beams (175 KV) against bacterial cells was investigated. The dry spores of Bacillus pumilus ATCC 27142 and Bacillus globigii ATCC 9372 inoculated on carrier materials and irradiated by gamma rays showed the exponential type of survival curves whereas they showed sigmoidal ones when exposed to low energy electron beams. When similarly irradiated, the wet spores inoculated on membrane filter showed the same survival curves as the dry spores inoculated on carrier materials. The wet vegetative cells of Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 showed exponential curves when exposed to gamma and electron beam irradiation. Low energy electron beams in air showed little differences from nitrogen stream in their germicidal effectiveness against dry spores of B. pumilus. The D values of B. pumilus spores inoculated on metal plates decreased as the amounts of backscattering electrons from the plates increased. There was adequate correlation between the D value (linear region of survival curve), average D value (6D/6) and 1% survival dose and backscattering factor. Depth dose profile and backscatterig dose of low energy electron beams were measured by radiochromic dye film dosimeter (RCD). These figures were not always in accord with the observed germicidal effectiveness against B. pumilus spores because of varying thickness of RCD and spores inoculated on carrier material. The dry spores were very thin and this thinness was useful in evaluating the behavior of low energy electrons. (author)

  9. EB surface sterilization of food material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, H.; Mizutani, A.; Kato, K.; Nishikimi, T.; Taniguchi, S.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a food irradiation with low energetic, lower than 300keV, electrons (so-called SOFT ELECTRON) as a rather new method of food sterilization. It is also a physical sterilization method, and free from the problems mentioned above. Low energetic electrons have small penetration power (50-200micron) through raw materials, and by selecting a proper energy of electrons we can sterilize only the surfaces or skins of target materials

  10. Caracterização da farinha de banana verde Green banana flour characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia de Maria Borges

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou a obtenção, a caracterização físico-química e o controle microbiológico durante o processamento da farinha de banana (Musa spp. verde, cv. Prata, visando o seu aproveitamento na panificação, produtos dietéticos e alimentos infantis. Para obtenção da farinha, os frutos foram cortados, imersos em metabissulfito de sódio, desidratados e triturados, sendo em seguida, feitas as seguintes determinações: umidade; extrato etéreo; proteína bruta; fibra bruta; cinzas; fração glicídica; amido; valor calórico; pH; acidez total titulável; vitamina C; macrominerais (K, P, Ca, Mg, S e N; microminerais (B, Cu, Mn, Zn e Fe; coliformes a 45 °C; fungos filamentosos e leveduras; Bacillus cereus; Salmonella sp.; Staphylococcus aureus; e contagem de aeróbios mesófilos. Os resultados indicaram que a banana 'Prata' verde é viável para o processo de obtenção da farinha de banana, tendo em vista que é rica em amido, proteína, potássio, fósforo, magnésio, zinco, cobre e tem um alto valor calórico. O pH, a acidez total titulável e a vitamina C estão compatíveis com os valores encontrados em outras farinhas. Quanto ao uso de boas práticas no processamento, a farinha encontra-se dentro do padrão microbiológico ideal e, portanto, está apta para o consumo.The objective of the present study was the physicochemical characterization and the microbiological control during the processing of the green banana flour (Musa spp., Prata cultivar, aiming at the use of the flour in bread-making, dietary products and children's food. To obtain the flour, the fruits were cut, immersed in sodium meta-bisulfite, dehydrated, and ground. The following criteria were determined: humidity; ethereal extract; raw protein; raw fiber; ash; glicidic fraction; starch; caloric value; pH; total titratable acidity; vitamin C; macrominerals (K, P, Ca, Mg, S and N; microminerals (B, Cu, Mn, Zn and Fe; coliforms at 45 °C; filamentous

  11. Characterization of Heavy metals from banana farming soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Dian; Huang, Cheng He; Huang, Dong Yi [College of Agronomy, Hainan University, Haikou City, Hainan Province (China); Ouyang, Ying [Department of Water Resources, St. Johns River Water Management District, Palatka, FL (United States)

    2010-06-15

    There is a growing public concern about the contamination of heavy metals in agricultural soils in China due to the increasingly applications of chemical fertilizers and pesticides during the last two decades. This study characterized the variability of heavy metals, including copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and nickel (Ni), from the banana farming soils in western Hainan Island, China. Five banana farms from different locations in the island were selected to collect 69 mixed-soil samples in this study. Experimental data showed that concentrations of Cu ranged from 3.38 to 54.52, Zn from 24.0 to 189.8, Pb from 15.98 to 58.42, Cd from 0.43 to 3.21, and Ni from 3.47 to 121.86 mg kg{sup -1} dry wt. In general, concentrations of the heavy metals varied with metal species and changed from location to location, which occurred presumably due to the variations of soil parent materials and to a certain extent due to the use of different types of agrochemicals. Our study further revealed that concentrations of Cu and Zn were higher in the banana farming soils than in the natural (control) soils among all of the five locations, whereas mixed results were observed for Pb, Cd, and Ni in both the banana farming and control soils, depending on the locations. Comparisons of the heavy metal concentrations with the Chinese Soil Quality Standards (CSQSs) showed that Cu, Zn, and Pb contents were lower but Cd and Ni contents were higher in the banana farming soils than the Class II standard of the CSQSs. Results suggested that accumulation of Cu, Zn, and Pb in the soils is safe for banana fruit production, whereas accumulation of Cd and Ni in the same soils could potentially pose threats to banana fruit safety. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  12. Potency of six isolates of biocontrol agents endophytic Trichoderma against fusarium wilt on banana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Taribuka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium wilt caused by F. oxysporum f.sp. cubense is one of very damaging banana plant diseases which can cause plant death. Disease control using intensive chemical fungicides will have negative impacts on the environment and humans. Endophytic Trichoderma is one of the biological control agents which can reduce the amount of inoculum of pathogens, so it can reduce disease intensity. The objectives of this study was to assess the ability of endophytic Trichoderma in inducing plant resistance against fusarium wilt. Endophytic Trichoderma was obtained from healthy roots of banana from three regencies in Yogyakarta, namely Trichoderma harzianum.swn-1, T. harzianum.swn-2, T. harzianum.psr-1, T. asperrellum, T. gamsii, and T. koningiopsis. Research on induced resintance was conducted in the greenhouse with polybag using Completely Randomized Design with 14 treatments and 3 replications. The results showed that the ability of Trichoderma gamsii antagonism against F. oxysporum f.sp. cubense was 60.61%. T. asperellum and T. harzianum.swn-2 could suppress this disease resulted in disease intensity of 8.33% which categorize as resistant. Trichoderma harzianum.psr-1 was significantly different in stimulating plant vegetative growth. Induced resistance by using endophytic Trichoderma spp. against  F. oxysporum f.sp. cubense showed increase in total phenolic compounds on the third and fourth weeks as well as peroxidase activity on the third, fourth and fifth weeks.  Observation of lignification on  the fifth week  showed that lignification occurred in root xylem

  13. Root patterning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheres, Ben; Laskowski, Marta

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms that pattern lateral root primordial are essential for the elaboration of root system architecture, a trait of key importance for future crop breeding. But which are most important: periodic or local cues? In this issue of Journal of Experimental Botany (pages 1411-1420), Kircher

  14. A Simple Diffraction Experiment Using Banana Stem as a Natural Grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aji, Mahardika Prasetya; Karunawan, Jotti; Chasanah, Widyastuti Rochimatun; Nursuhud, Puji Iman; Wiguna, Pradita Ajeng; Sulhadi

    2017-01-01

    A simple diffraction experiment was designed using banana stem as natural grating. Coherent beams of lasers with wavelengths of 632.8 nm and 532 nm that pass through banana stem produce periodic diffraction patterns on a screen. The diffraction experiments were able to measure the distances between the slit of the banana stem, i.e. d = (28.76 ±…

  15. Host plant odours enhance the responses of adult banana weevil to the synthetic aggregation pheromone Cosmolure+

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinzaara, W.; Gold, C.S.; Dicke, M.; Huis, van A.; Ragama, P.E.

    2007-01-01

    Attraction of adult banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus to volatiles from banana pseudostem tissue and the synthetic pheromone Cosmolure+ presented singly or in combination, was studied in the laboratory and in the field. Olfactometric studies in the laboratory showed that 50 g of fermented banana

  16. Evaluation of Information and Communication Technology Utilization by Small Holder Banana Farmers in Gatanga District, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwombe, Simon O. L.; Mugivane, Fred I.; Adolwa, Ivan S.; Nderitu, John H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The study was carried out to identify information communication technologies (ICTs) used in production and marketing of bananas, to determine factors influencing intensity of use of ICT tools and to assess whether use of ICT has a significant influence on adoption of tissue culture bananas by small-scale banana farmers in Gatanga…

  17. Enhancing rooting consistency in Rosa damascena scions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-11-21

    Nov 21, 2011 ... 3Pharmaceutics Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Science, Kerman, Iran. Accepted 14 ... containing; sand, soil, organic materials and vermiculite. ... tap water followed by surface sterilization of scions using an.

  18. Production of Banana Fiber Yarns for Technical Textile Reinforced Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaida Ortega

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural fibers have been used as an alternative to synthetic ones for their greener character; banana fibers have the advantage of coming from an agricultural residue. Fibers have been extracted by mechanical means from banana tree pseudostems, as a strategy to valorize banana crops residues. To increase the mechanical properties of the composite, technical textiles can be used as reinforcement, instead of short fibers. To do so, fibers must be spun and woven. The aim of this paper is to show the viability of using banana fibers to obtain a yarn suitable to be woven, after an enzymatic treatment, which is more environmentally friendly. Extracted long fibers are cut to 50 mm length and then immersed into an enzymatic bath for their refining. Conditions of enzymatic treatment have been optimized to produce a textile grade of banana fibers, which have then been characterized. The optimum treating conditions were found with the use of Biopectinase K (100% related to fiber weight at 45 °C, pH 4.5 for 6 h, with bath renewal after three hours. The first spinning trials show that these fibers are suitable to be used for the production of yarns. The next step is the weaving process to obtain a technical fabric for composites production.

  19. Comparative analysis of pigments in red and yellow banana fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiumin; Cheng, Sihua; Liao, Yinyin; Huang, Bingzhi; Du, Bing; Zeng, Wei; Jiang, Yueming; Duan, Xuewu; Yang, Ziyin

    2018-01-15

    Color is an important characteristic determining the fruit value. Although ripe bananas usually have yellow peels, several banana cultivars have red peels. As details of the pigments in banana fruits are unknown, we investigated these pigments contents and compositions in the peel and pulp of red cultivar 'Hongjiaowang' and yellow cultivar 'Baxijiao' by UPLC-PDA-QTOF-MS and HPLC-PDA techniques. The 'Hongjiaowang' peel color was mainly determined by the presence of anthocyanin-containing epidermal cells. Rutinoside derivatives of cyanidin, peonidin, petunidin, and malvidin were unique to the red peel, and possibly responsible for the red color. 'Hongjiaowang' contained higher total content of carotenoids than 'Baxijiao' in both pulp and peel. Lutein, α-carotene, and β-carotene were main carotenoids, which might play a more important role than flavonoids in producing the yellow banana color owing to the properties and distribution in the fruit. The information will help us understand a complete profile of pigments in banana. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Ethanol production of banana shell and cassava starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monsalve G, John F; Medina de Perez, Victoria Isabel; Ruiz colorado, Angela Adriana

    2006-01-01

    In this work the acid hydrolysis of the starch was evaluated in cassava and the cellulose shell banana and its later fermentation to ethanol, the means of fermentation were adjusted for the microorganisms saccharomyces cerevisiae nrrl y-2034 and zymomonas mobilis cp4. The banana shell has been characterized, which possesses a content of starch, cellulose and hemicelluloses that represent more than 80% of the shell deserve the study of this as source of carbon. The acid hydrolysis of the banana shell yield 20g/l reducing sugar was obtained as maximum concentration. For the cassava with 170 g/l of starch to ph 0.8 in 5 hours complete conversion is achieved to you reducing sugars and any inhibitory effect is not noticed on the part of the cultivations carried out with banana shell and cassava by the cyanide presence in the cassava and for the formation of toxic compounds in the acid hydrolysis the cellulose in banana shell. For the fermentation carried out with saccharomyces cerevisiae a concentration of ethanol of 7.92± 0.31% it is achieved and a considerable production of ethanol is not appreciated (smaller than 0.1 g/l) for none of the means fermented with zymomonas mobilis

  1. Antioxidant and Antihyperglycemic Properties of Three Banana Cultivars (Musa spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adedayo, Bukola C; Oboh, Ganiyu; Oyeleye, Sunday I; Olasehinde, Tosin A

    2016-01-01

    Background . This study sought to investigate the antioxidant and antihyperglycemic properties of Musa sapientum (Latundan banana) (MSL), Musa acuminata (Cavendish banana) (MAC), and Musa acuminate (Red Dacca) (MAR). Materials and Methods. The sugar, starch, amylose, and amylopectin contents and glycemic index (GI) of the three banana cultivars were determined. Furthermore, total phenol and vitamin C contents and α -amylase and α -glucosidase inhibitory effects of banana samples were also determined. Results . MAC and MAR had the highest starch, amylose, and amylopectin contents and estimated glycemic index (eGI) with no significant different while MSL had the lowest. Furthermore, MAR (1.07 mg GAE/g) had a higher total phenol content than MAC (0.94 mg GAE/g) and MSL (0.96 mg GAE/g), while there was no significant difference in the vitamin C content. Furthermore, MAR had the highest α -amylase (IC 50 = 3.95 mg/mL) inhibitory activity while MAC had the least (IC 50 = 4.27 mg/mL). Moreover, MAC and MAR inhibited glucosidase activity better than MSL (IC 50 3.47 mg/mL). Conclusion . The low sugar, GI, amylose, and amylopectin contents of the three banana cultivars as well as their α -amylase and α -glucosidase inhibitory activities could be possible mechanisms and justification for their recommendation in the management of type-2 diabetes.

  2. Production of bioethanol using agricultural waste: banana pseudo stem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snehal Ingale

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available India is amongst the largest banana (Musa acuminata producing countries and thus banana pseudo stem is commonly available agricultural waste to be used as lignocellulosic substrate. Present study focuses on exploitation of banana pseudo stem as a source for bioethanol production from the sugars released due to different chemical and biological pretreatments. Two fungal strains Aspergillus ellipticus and Aspergillus fumigatus reported to be producing cellulolytic enzymes on sugarcane bagasse were used under co-culture fermentation on banana pseudo stem to degrade holocellulose and facilitate maximum release of reducing sugars. The hydrolysate obtained after alkali and microbial treatments was fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae NCIM 3570 to produce ethanol. Fermentation of cellulosic hydrolysate (4.1 g% gave maximum ethanol (17.1 g/L with yield (84% and productivity (0.024 g%/h after 72 h. Some critical aspects of fungal pretreatment for saccharification of cellulosic substrate using A. ellipticus and A. fumigatus for ethanol production by S. cerevisiae NCIM 3570 have been explored in this study. It was observed that pretreated banana pseudo stem can be economically utilized as a cheaper substrate for ethanol production.

  3. Rhizobacteria in mycorrhizosphere improved plant health and yield of banana by offering proper nourishment and protection against diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phirke, Niteen V; Kothari, Raman M; Chincholkar, Sudhir B

    2008-12-01

    The corporate R&D banana orchards of Musa paradisiaca (dwarf Cavendish AAA, var. shrimanti) on a medium black alluvial soil with low nutrients harboured diversified species of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi. These fungi infected the roots severely (69.2%), showed elevated (69.8 g(-1) soil) spore density, increased soil bacterial density (245 x 10(8) cfu g(-1)), produced siderophores (58.2%) and reduced nematode population (2.3 g(-1)) in the mycorrhizosphere of plants for integrated plant nutrition management (IPNM) system as compared to traditional treatment of applying chemical fertilisers alone and other test treatments. The interactions of plant roots with native VAM and local and applied rhizobacteria in the matrix of soil conditioner enabled proper nourishment and protection of crop in IPNM treatment as compared to traditional way. Hence, exploitation of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria through judiciously designed IPNM system revealed the (a) relatively increased banana productivity (21.6%, 76 MT ha(-1)), (b) least occurrence of fusarial wilt and negligible evidence of Sigatoka, (c) saving of 50% chemical fertilisers and (d) permitted control over soil fertility in producer's favour over traditional cultivation practices. These findings are discussed in detail.

  4. Relative susceptibility of Musa genotypes to banana bunchy top disease in Cameroon and implication for disease management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banana bunchy top disease (BBTD) is a serious threat to banana and plantain (Musa spp.) production. BBTD is caused by the Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV, genus Babuvirus) which is spread through infected plant propagules and banana aphid, Pentalonia nigronervosa. A high level of resistance to BBTD in...

  5. Evolution of endogenous sequences of banana streak virus: what can we learn from banana (Musa sp.) evolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayral, Philippe; Blondin, Laurence; Guidolin, Olivier; Carreel, Françoise; Hippolyte, Isabelle; Perrier, Xavier; Iskra-Caruana, Marie-Line

    2010-07-01

    Endogenous plant pararetroviruses (EPRVs) are viral sequences of the family Caulimoviridae integrated into the nuclear genome of numerous plant species. The ability of some endogenous sequences of Banana streak viruses (eBSVs) in the genome of banana (Musa sp.) to induce infections just like the virus itself was recently demonstrated (P. Gayral et al., J. Virol. 83:6697-6710, 2008). Although eBSVs probably arose from accidental events, infectious eBSVs constitute an extreme case of parasitism, as well as a newly described strategy for vertical virus transmission in plants. We investigated the early evolutionary stages of infectious eBSV for two distinct BSV species-GF (BSGFV) and Imové (BSImV)-through the study of their distribution, insertion polymorphism, and structure evolution among selected banana genotypes representative of the diversity of 60 wild Musa species and genotypes. To do so, the historical frame of host evolution was analyzed by inferring banana phylogeny from two chloroplast regions-matK and trnL-trnF-as well as from the nuclear genome, using 19 microsatellite loci. We demonstrated that both BSV species integrated recently in banana evolution, circa 640,000 years ago. The two infectious eBSVs were subjected to different selective pressures and showed distinct levels of rearrangement within their final structure. In addition, the molecular phylogenies of integrated and nonintegrated BSVs enabled us to establish the phylogenetic origins of eBSGFV and eBSImV.

  6. Banana leaf and glucose mineralization and soil organic matter in microhabitats of banana plantations under long-term pesticide use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blume, Elena; Reichert, José Miguel

    2015-06-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) and microbial activity are key components of soil quality and sustainability. In the humid tropics of Costa Rica 3 pesticide regimes were studied-fungicide (low input); fungicide and herbicide (medium input); and fungicide, herbicide, and nematicide (high input)-under continuous banana cultivation for 5 yr (young) or 20 yr (old) in 3 microhabitats-nematicide ring around plants, litter pile of harvested banana, and bare area between litter pile and nematicide ring. Soil samples were incubated sequentially in the laboratory: unamended, amended with glucose, and amended with ground banana leaves. Soil organic matter varied with microhabitat, being greatest in the litter pile, where microbes had the greatest basal respiration with ground banana leaf, whereas microbes in the nematicide ring had the greatest respiration with glucose. These results suggest that soil microbes adapt to specific microhabitats. Young banana plantations had similar SOM compared with old plantations, but the former had greater basal microbial respiration in unamended and in glucose-amended soil and greater first-order mineralization rates in glucose-amended soil, thus indicating soil biological quality decline over time. High pesticide input did not decrease microbial activity or mineralization rate in surface soil. In conclusion, microbial activity in tropical volcanic soil is highly adaptable to organic and inorganic inputs. © 2015 SETAC.

  7. Nitrogen-fixing bacteria in Mediterranean seagrass (Posidonia oceanica) roots

    KAUST Repository

    Garcias Bonet, Neus

    2016-03-09

    Biological nitrogen fixation by diazotrophic bacteria in seagrass rhizosphere and leaf epiphytic community is an important source of nitrogen required for plant growth. However, the presence of endophytic diazotrophs remains unclear in seagrass tissues. Here, we assess the presence, diversity and taxonomy of nitrogen-fixing bacteria within surface-sterilized roots of Posidonia oceanica. Moreover, we analyze the nitrogen isotopic signature of seagrass tissues in order to notice atmospheric nitrogen fixation. We detected nitrogen-fixing bacteria by nifH gene amplification in 13 out of the 78 roots sampled, corresponding to 9 locations out of 26 meadows. We detected two different types of bacterial nifH sequences associated with P. oceanica roots, which were closely related to sequences previously isolated from the rhizosphere of a salt marsh cord grass and a putative anaerobe. Nitrogen content of seagrass tissues showed low isotopic signatures in all the sampled meadows, pointing out the atmospheric origin of the assimilated nitrogen by seagrasses. However, this was not related with the presence of endophytic nitrogen fixers, suggesting the nitrogen fixation occurring in rhizosphere and in the epiphytic community could be an important source of nitrogen for P. oceanica. The low diversity of nitrogen-fixing bacteria reported here suggests species-specific relationships between diazotrophs and P. oceanica, revealing possible symbiotic interactions that could play a major role in nitrogen acquisition by seagrasses in oligotrophic environments where they form lush meadows.

  8. Green banana pasta: an alternative for gluten-free diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandonadi, Renata Puppin; Botelho, Raquel Braz Assunção; Gandolfi, Lenora; Ginani, Janini Selva; Montenegro, Flávio Martins; Pratesi, Riccardo

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to develop and analyze a gluten-free pasta made with green banana flour. The study was divided into five steps: preparation/selection, chemical, sensory, technological, and statistical analysis. The modified sample presented greater acceptance (84.5% for celiac individuals and 61.2% for nonceliac) than standard samples (53.6% for nonceliac individuals). There was no significant difference between the modified and the standard samples in terms of appearance, aroma, flavor, and overall quality. The modified pastas presented approximately 98% less lipids. Green bananas are considered a subproduct of low commercial value with little industrial use. The possibility of developing gluten-free products with green banana flour can expand the product supply for people with celiac disease and contribute to a more diverse diet. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Hyperspectral imaging system for disease scanning on banana plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Daniel; Cevallos, Juan; Vargas, German; Criollo, Ronald; Romero, Dennis; Castro, Rodrigo; Bayona, Oswaldo

    2016-05-01

    Black Sigatoka (BS) is a banana plant disease caused by the fungus Mycosphaerella fijiensis. BS symptoms can be observed at late infection stages. By that time, BS has probably spread to other plants. In this paper, we present our current work on building an hyper-spectral (HS) imaging system aimed at in-vivo detection of BS pre-symptomatic responses in banana leaves. The proposed imaging system comprises a motorized stage, a high-sensitivity VIS-NIR camera and an optical spectrograph. To capture images of the banana leaf, the stage's speed and camera's frame rate must be computed to reduce motion blur and to obtain the same resolution along both spatial dimensions of the resulting HS cube. Our continuous leaf scanning approach allows imaging leaves of arbitrary length with minimum frame loss. Once the images are captured, a denoising step is performed to improve HS image quality and spectral profile extraction.

  10. Biosynthesis of CdS nanoparticles in banana peel extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guang Ju; Li, Shuo Hao; Zhang, Yu Cang; Fu, Yun Zhi

    2014-06-01

    Cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by using banana peel extract as a convenient, non-toxic, eco-friendly 'green' capping agent. Cadmium nitrate and sodium sulfide are main reagents. A variety of CdS NPs are prepared through changing reaction conditions (banana extracts, the amount of banana peel extract, solution pH, concentration and reactive temperature). The prepared CdS colloid displays strong fluorescence spectrum. X-ray diffraction analysis demonstrates the successful formation of CdS NPs. Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectrogram indicates the involvement of carboxyl, amine and hydroxyl groups in the formation of CdS NPs. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) result reveals that the average size of the NPs is around 1.48 nm.

  11. Root resorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Inger

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This paper summarizes the different conditions, which have a well-known influence on the resorption of tooth roots, exemplified by trauma and orthodontic treatment. The concept of the paper is to summarize and explain symptoms and signs of importance for avoiding resorption during...... orthodontic treatment. The Hypothesis: The hypothesis in this paper is that three different tissue layers covering the root in the so-called periroot sheet can explain signs and symptoms of importance for avoiding root resorption during orthodontic treatment. These different tissue layers are; outermost...... processes provoked by trauma and orthodontic pressure. Inflammatory reactions are followed by resorptive processes in the periroot sheet and along the root surface. Evaluation of the Hypothesis: Different morphologies in the dentition are signs of abnormal epithelium or an abnormal mesodermal layer. It has...

  12. Gamma radiation effects on the viscosity of green banana flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uehara, Vanessa B.; Inamura, Patricia Y.; Mastro, Nelida L. Del

    2009-01-01

    Banana (Musa sp) is a tropical fruits with great acceptability among consumers and produced in Brazil in a large scale. Bananas are not being as exploited as they could be in prepared food, and research could stimulate greater interest from industry. The viscosity characteristics and a product consistency can determine its acceptance by the consumer. Particularly the starch obtained from green banana had been studied from the nutritional point of view since the concept of Resistant Starch was introduced. Powder RS with high content of amylose was included in an approved food list with alleged functional properties in Brazilian legislation. Ionizing radiation can be used as a public health intervention measure for the control of food-borne diseases. Radiation is also a very convenient tool for polymer materials modification through degradation, grafting and crosslinking. In this work the influence of ionizing radiation on the rheological behavior of green banana pulp was investigated. Samples of green banana pulp flour were irradiated in a 60 Co Gammacell 220 (AECL) with doses of 0 kGy,1 kGy, 3 kGy, 5 kGy and 10 kGy in glass recipients. After irradiation 3% and 5% aqueous dilution were prepared and viscosity measurements performed in a Brooksfield, model DVIII viscometer using spindle SC4-18 and SC4-31. There was a reduction of the initial viscosity of the samples as a consequence of radiation processing, being the reduction inversely proportional to the flour concentration. The polysaccharide content of the banana starch seems to be degraded by radiation in solid state as shown by the reduction of viscosity as a function of radiation dose. (author)

  13. Banana production systems: identification of alternative systems for more sustainable production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellamy, Angelina Sanderson

    2013-04-01

    Large-scale, monoculture production systems dependent on synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, increase yields, but are costly and have deleterious impacts on human health and the environment. This research investigates variations in banana production practices in Costa Rica, to identify alternative systems that combine high productivity and profitability, with reduced reliance on agrochemicals. Farm workers were observed during daily production activities; 39 banana producers and 8 extension workers/researchers were interviewed; and a review of field experiments conducted by the National Banana Corporation between 1997 and 2002 was made. Correspondence analysis showed that there is no structured variation in large-scale banana producers' practices, but two other banana production systems were identified: a small-scale organic system and a small-scale conventional coffee-banana intercropped system. Field-scale research may reveal ways that these practices can be scaled up to achieve a productive and profitable system producing high-quality export bananas with fewer or no pesticides.

  14. Chemical and physical characterization of Musa sepientum and Musa balbisiana fibers of banana tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albinante, Sandra R.; Pacheco, Elen B.A.V.; Visconte, Leila L.Y.; Batista, Luciano do N.

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to characterize the fibers of cavendish and silver banana trunks (Musa sepientum and Musa balbisiana, respectively) concerning their density, lignin and moisture contents, and chemical structure by using the techniques of infrared spectroscopy and low field solid state nuclear magnetic resonance, NMR. From NMR analysis, it was possible to observe the morphological differences between cavendish and silver types of banana fibers. FTIR technique did not allow the observation of any important difference in the banana fibers spectra. The cavendish banana fiber showed higher moisture and lignin contents than the silver banana fiber The NMR technique showed that relaxation times for silver banana fiber were higher than those for cavendish banana fiber, which can be credited to the lower moisture content values found in the silver fibers. (author)

  15. Biossorption of uranium on banana pith; Biossorcao de uranio nas cascas de banana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boniolo, Milena Rodrigues

    2008-07-01

    Banana pith was characterized by Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy, and investigated as a low cost bio sorbent for the removal of uranium ions from nitric solutions. Influences variable as were studied: adsorbent particle size, contact time, pH and temperature were studied. The removal percentage was increased from 13 to 57% when the particle size was decreased from 6.000 to 0.074 mm. The determined contact time was 40 minutes with 60% mean removal. The removal was increased from 40 to 55% when the pH varied from 2 to 5. The Langmuir and Freundlich linear isotherm models were applied to describe the adsorption equilibrium. The kinetic of the process was studied using the pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order models. Thermodynamics parameters such as {delta}G, {delta}S and {delta}H were calculated. In concentration range of 50 - 500 mg.L{sup -1}, the adsorption process was described better by the Freundlich equation. The adsorption capacity at equilibrium of uranium ions was determined from the Langmuir equation, and it was found 11.50 mg.g{sup -1} at 25 {+-} 2 deg C. The kinetic was better represented by the pseudo-second order model. The bio sorption process for uranium removal from the solutions was considered an exothermic reaction, and the values of {delta}H and {delta}S obtained were -9.61 kJ.mol''-{sup 1} and 1.37 J.mol''-{sup 1}, respectively. The values of the Gibbs free energy changed from -10.03 to -10.06 kJ.mol{sup -1} when the temperature was increased from 30 to 50 deg C. This study showed the potential application of the banana pith as bio sorbent of uranium ions. (author)

  16. Biossorption of uranium on banana pith; Biossorcao de uranio nas cascas de banana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boniolo, Milena Rodrigues

    2008-07-01

    Banana pith was characterized by Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy, and investigated as a low cost bio sorbent for the removal of uranium ions from nitric solutions. Influences variable as were studied: adsorbent particle size, contact time, pH and temperature were studied. The removal percentage was increased from 13 to 57% when the particle size was decreased from 6.000 to 0.074 mm. The determined contact time was 40 minutes with 60% mean removal. The removal was increased from 40 to 55% when the pH varied from 2 to 5. The Langmuir and Freundlich linear isotherm models were applied to describe the adsorption equilibrium. The kinetic of the process was studied using the pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order models. Thermodynamics parameters such as {delta}G, {delta}S and {delta}H were calculated. In concentration range of 50 - 500 mg.L{sup -1}, the adsorption process was described better by the Freundlich equation. The adsorption capacity at equilibrium of uranium ions was determined from the Langmuir equation, and it was found 11.50 mg.g{sup -1} at 25 {+-} 2 deg C. The kinetic was better represented by the pseudo-second order model. The bio sorption process for uranium removal from the solutions was considered an exothermic reaction, and the values of {delta}H and {delta}S obtained were -9.61 kJ.mol''-{sup 1} and 1.37 J.mol''-{sup 1}, respectively. The values of the Gibbs free energy changed from -10.03 to -10.06 kJ.mol{sup -1} when the temperature was increased from 30 to 50 deg C. This study showed the potential application of the banana pith as bio sorbent of uranium ions. (author)

  17. Fontes de nitrogênio, polpa de banana e ágar no desenvolvimento in vitro de plântulas de orquídea Nitrogen sources, banana pulp and agar in the orchid seedlings in vitro development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moacir Pasqual

    2009-06-01

    mol m-2 s-1, 25±1ºC temperature and 16-hour photoperiod for 90 days. The NH4NO3 formulation added to culture medium at 17,5 to 41,16% provides best development of Cattleya loddigesii plantlets based on plantlets fresh mass, number of roots, largest root length and aerial part length. Larger number of leaves was obtained at 100% of the original formulation of NH4NO3 and 50% of KNO3 in MS medium. The best results for in vitro multiplication of Cattleya loddigesii orchid seedlings occurred in liquid Knudson C medium with 128,42 g L-1 banana nanica pulp.

  18. Assessment of insect invaders of decaying banana and plantain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Insect invaders of decaying banana and plantain pseudo stems in Umuagwo, Ohaji-Egbema, Imo State were investigated in randomly selected crop plots near living homes (<500 m) and far from living homes (.500m). Investigation was done by the use of trapping systems, dissections of cut decaying pseudo stems and ...

  19. Review on postharvest technology of banana fruit | Hailu | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These include disinfecting, packaging and storage temperature. Pre- and postharvest treatments were found to have an effect on postharvest quality of banana, suggesting that postharvest quality of produce subjected to preharvest treatments should be assessed from a quality improvement, maintenance and consumer ...

  20. Banana peel: A novel substrate for cellulase production under solid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-05

    Dec 5, 2011 ... The feasibility of using banana peel for the production of cellulase by Trichoderma viride GIM 3.0010 in solid-state fermentation was evaluated in this study. The effect of incubation time, incubation temperature, initial moisture content of the medium, inoculum size and supplementation of carbon sources ...

  1. Effect of gamma irradiation on Hom Tong banana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1971-01-01

    This report contains research on the use of gamma irradiation to retard the ripening and extend the shelf life of bananas. The major concerns were the effects that irradiation would have on the nutritional content, the organoleptic properties and the pigment of the fruit

  2. In vitro multiplication of banana (Musa sp.) cv. Grand Naine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-07-02

    Jul 2, 2014 ... with IAA 2.00 mg/l resulted in maximum establishment of cultures in lesser time. MS medium + BAP. 4.00 mg/l + ... is, Musa acuminata (Malaysia) and Musa balbsiana. (India) (Georget et al., 2000). Banana plantlets produced.

  3. Household uses of the banana plant in eastern Democratic Republic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2015-11-30

    Nov 30, 2015 ... use of other banana plant parts other than the fruit pulp, has been widely reported. This has not been ... prevalent uses across plant parts included use for mulch and compost, feed for livestock, construction materials, ropes for ... pharmaceutical and the food industry (Oliveira et al.,. 2007). In Malaysia and ...

  4. Molecular diagnostics for the Sigatoka disease complex of banana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arzanlou, M.; Abeln, E.C.A.; Kema, G.H.J.; Waalwijk, C.; Carlier, J.; Crous, P.W.

    2007-01-01

    The Sigatoka disease complex of banana involves three related ascomycetous fungi, Mycosphaerella fijiensis, M. musicola, and M. eumusae. The exact distribution of these three species and their disease epidemiology remain unclear, because their symptoms and life cycles are rather similar. Disease

  5. Sequencing the Major Mycosphaerella Pathogens of Wheat and Banana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kema, G.H.J.

    2009-01-01

    Mycosphaerella is one of the largest genera of plant-pathogenic fungi with more than 1,000 named species, many of which are important pathogens causing leaf spotting diseases in a wide variety of crops including cereals, citrus, banana, eucalypts, soft fruits and horticultural crops. A few species

  6. Sequencing the Major Mycosphaerella Pathogens of Wheat and Banana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kema, G.H.; Dunkle, L.D.; Churchill, A.C.; Carlier, J.; James, A.; Souza, M.T.; Crous, P.W.; Roux, N.; Lee, T.A. van der; Wiitenberg, A.; Lindquist, E.; Grigoriev, I.; Bristow, J.; Goodwin, S.B.

    2007-01-01

    Mycosphaerella is one of the largest genera of plant pathogenic fungi with more than 1,000 named species, many of which are important pathogens causing leaf spotting diseases in a wide variety of crops including cereals, citrus, banana, eucalypts, soft fruits, and horticultural crops. A few species

  7. Factors influencing the diffusion of cooking banana in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As an interim measure in combating the incidence of black Sigatoka disease on plantain, the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture introduced cooking banana in Southeast Nigeria in the late 1980s. This was multiplied and distributed to farmers through the extension systems of both governmental and ...

  8. Did backcrossing contribute to the origin of hybrid edible bananas?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    De Langhe, E.; Hřibová, Eva; Carpentier, S.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Swennen, R.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 106, č. 6 (2010), s. 849-857 ISSN 0305-7364 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600380703 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Backcrossing * banana * breeding Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.388, year: 2010

  9. Factors driving the adoption of cooking banana processing and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As part of efforts in realising her aim of introducing cooking banana into Nigeria, the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) mounted training and awareness campaigns on its utilisation in collaboration with Shell and Agip Oil companies between 1991 and 1997. This study looked into the adoption profile of the ...

  10. Fabrication of Biomembrane from Banana Stem for Lead Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afianti Sulastri

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metal (i.e. lead (Pb is one of the environmental issues recently due to its danger for human health. Therefore, strategy for removing Pb from waste water treatment is important. One of the prospective methods to remove Pb is membrane biofilter. Here, the purpose of this study was to prepare the membrane biofilter for Pb removal process. In this study, membrane biofilter was produced from banana stem. Banana stem was selected because of its abundant availability   in Indonesia. And, for somewhat, this banana stem can be environmental problems (become waste since Indonesia is one of the top producers in the world. In short of the experimental procedure, we conducted three steps of experiments: (1 Preparation of microbial cellulose using Acetobacter xylinum using banana stem for a main source; (2 Synthesis of cellulose acetate; and (3 Preparation of biomembrane from obtained cellulose acetate. To produce membrane biofilter, the cellulose acetate was dissolved into dichloromethane to form a dope solution. Then, the doped solution was printed in Petri dish. Some biomembrane properties were characterized for identification, i.e. infrared spectra, electron microscope, and elemental analysis. Experimental results showed that we succeeded to prepare biomembrane with a pore size of 5 μm. The filtration efficiency of our prepared membrane was 93.7% of Pb when using Pb with a concentration of 10 ppm.

  11. Banana-shaped molecules derived from substituted isophthalic acids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Different precursors inducing the bending angle of the banana-shaped molecules. Figure 2. ... Pramana – J. Phys., Vol. 61, No. 2, August ... isotropic liquid; N: nematic; SmA: smectic A; SmC: smectic C. For other phase assign- ments, see text.

  12. Household uses of the banana plant in eastern Democratic Republic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2015-11-30

    Nov 30, 2015 ... ... food, feed and medicine. Other uses included extraction of fibre, arts and crafts and use as medicine. .... used banana peels as livestock feed was not significantly different (P ≤ 0.05). ..... Glass Fiber Woven Fabric-Reinforced Polyester. Composite. Journal ... chemical resistance of natural fibres reinforced.

  13. Nutrient-enhancement of Matooke banana for improved nutrient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 173 PLHIVregistered with Rakai Health Science Project were chosen and interviewed using structured questionnaires to determine the current contribution of banana to the household food security. Nutrient intake data were collected using Gibson s 24-hour recall method and food frequency questionnaires.

  14. Physiological and biochemical changes during banana ripening and finger drop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Imsabai, W.; Ketsa, S.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2006-01-01

    Fruit drop of banana is due to breaking at the junction of the pedicel and pulp, and we found no true abscission zone. The breakage seems therefore due to weakening of the peel. We investigated pectin hydrolysis and some properties at the rupture zone, using `Hom Thong` (Musa acuminata, AAA Group)

  15. Hot water treatments delay cold-induced banana peel blackening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Promyou, S.; Ketsa, S.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2008-01-01

    Banana fruit of cv. Gros Michel (Musa acuminata, AAA Group, locally called cv. Hom Thong) and cv. Namwa (Musa x paradisiaca, ABB Group) were immersed for 5, 10 and 15 min in water at 42 degrees C, or in water at 25 degrees C (control), and were then stored at 4 degrees C. Hot water treatment for 15

  16. A molecular diagnostic for tropical race 4 of the banana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dita Rodriguez, M.A.; Waalwijk, C.; Buddenhagen, I.W.; Souza, M.T.; Kema, G.H.J.

    2010-01-01

    This study analysed genomic variation of the translation elongation factor 1 (TEF-1) and the intergenic spacer region (IGS) of the nuclear ribosomal operon of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc) isolates, from different banana production areas, representing strains within the known races,

  17. Effects of potassium deficiency, drought and weevils on banana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    yields, but the mean benefit-cost ratio is still low (1.6) when N and P fertilizer costs ... high. We recommend testing the use of mulch to decrease drought risk and enhance fertilizer use efficiency. ... Bananas are a major food and cash crop in.

  18. Banana-shaped molecules derived from substituted isophthalic acids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper we present a review of five-rings banana-shaped molecules derived from isophthalic acids. This study deals with about a hundred compounds and most of them have not been published. By a combination of several linking groups and different selected substituents either on the outer rings or on the central core ...

  19. Agronomic performance of introduced banana varieties in lowlands ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most of Rwandan banana cultivars are low-yielding and susceptible to pests and diseases. High yielding and pest/disease resistant varieties have been obtained in advanced breeding centers recently. Introduction, evaluation and adoption of such varieties by local producers may be one of the options to boost yields.

  20. Lipophilic phytochemicals from banana fruits of several Musa species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela, Carla; Santos, Sónia A O; Villaverde, Juan J; Oliveira, Lúcia; Nunes, Alberto; Cordeiro, Nereida; Freire, Carmen S R; Silvestre, Armando J D

    2014-11-01

    The chemical composition of the lipophilic extract of ripe pulp of banana fruit from several banana cultivars belonging to the Musa acuminata and Musa balbisiana species (namely 'Chinese Cavendish', 'Giant Cavendish', 'Dwarf Red', 'Grand Nain', 'Eilon', 'Gruesa', 'Silver', 'Ricasa', 'Williams' and 'Zelig') was studied by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the first time. The banana cultivars showed similar amounts of lipophilic extractives (ca. 0.4% of dry material weight) as well as qualitative chemical compositions. The major groups of compounds identified in these fractions were fatty acids and sterols making up 68.6-84.3% and 11.1-28.0%, respectively, of the total amount of lipophilic components. Smaller amounts of long chain aliphatic alcohols and α-tocopherol were also identified. These results are a relevant contribution for the valorisation of these banana cultivars as sources of valuable phytochemicals (ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids, and sterols) with well-established beneficial nutritional and health effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of genetic diversity between 27 banana cultivars (Musa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cultivated bananas (Musa spp.) are mostly diploid or triploid cultivars with various combinations of the A and B genomes inherited from their diploid ancestors Musa acuminata Colla. and Musa balbisiana. Colla. respectively. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to establish the relatedness of 27 ...

  2. Factors Affecting Utilization of Cooking Banana among Households ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated factors affecting utilization of cooking banana among households in Oguta area of Imo State, Nigeria. Data were collected from 84 randomly selected respondents from six communities in the study area who were administered with structured questionnaire. Data analysis was by use of descriptive ...

  3. Prospects and determinants of adoption of IITA plantain and banana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High yielding and disease resistant plantain and banana hybrids and its associated technologies generated by IITA to combat the menace of black Sigatoka disease (Mycosphaerella fijiensis) were massively disseminated in year 2000. Since the hybrids were slightly different from the existing varieties in fruit size there was ...

  4. Efficient regeneration of the endangered banana cultivar 'Virupakshi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plantlets of the banana cultivar 'Virupakshi' (AAB) were regenerated from somatic embryos derived from embryogenic cells of calli from immature male flower explants. Induction of calli from explants was favored by a relatively moderate concentration of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) (4 mg/L), high concentrations of ...

  5. Anthelmintic effects of dried ground banana plant leaves ( Musa spp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Helminths is a endoparasites that cause the major losses for profitable sheep production in Brazil. The increased development of resistant strains of endoparasites have enforced the search for sustainable alternatives. The aim of this paper was to provide information about endoparasites control with banana ...

  6. Characteristics of micro-propagated banana (Musa spp.) cultures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-05-23

    May 23, 2011 ... was conducted to assess the effect of NaCl and PEG separately as well as in combination on plant micro- propagation efficiency of banana (Musa spp.) cv., Basrai. In this experiment, 4-weeks old plantlets of the 3rd sub- culture with well propagation on MS2b nutrient were sub- cultured on three differentially ...

  7. Optimization of biogas production from banana peels: Effect of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... The matooke processing industry being set up by the Presidential Initiative on Banana Industrial Development ... a solution to that waste, but information on the pre-treatment of the matooke peel waste is inadequate. ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  8. Strategy to increase Barangan Banana production in Kabupaten Deli Serdang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhany, I.; Chalil, D.; Ginting, R.

    2018-02-01

    This study was conducted to analyze internal and external factors in increasing Barangan Banana production in Kabupaten Deli Serdang. Samples were determined by snowball sampling technique and purposive sampling method. Using SWOT analysis method, this study found that there were 6 internal strategic factors and 9 external strategic factors. Among that strategic factors, support for production facilities appears as the most important internal strategic factor, while the demand for Barangan Banana. as the most important external strategic factor. Based on the importance and existing condition of these strategic factors, using support for production facilities and realization of supporting facilities with farming experience are the strategies covering strength-opportunity (SO), organizing mentoring to meet the demand for Barangan Banana are the strategies covering weakness-opportunity (WO), making use of funding support and subsidies to widen the land, using tissue culture seeds and facilities and infrastructures are the strategies covering strength-threat (ST), increas the funding support to widen the land, the use of tissue culture seeds and facilities and infrastructures are the strategies covering weakness-threat (WT) are discussed and proposed to increase Barangan Banana productivity in Kabupaten Deli Serdang.

  9. Sheep fed with banana leaf hay reduce ruminal protozoa population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Cláudio Eduardo Silva; Duarte, Eduardo Robson; Alves, Dorismar David; Martinele, Isabel; D'Agosto, Marta; Cedrola, Franciane; de Moura Freitas, Angélica Alves; Dos Santos Soares, Franklin Delano; Beltran, Makenzi

    2017-04-01

    A ciliate protozoa suppression can reduce methane production increasing the energy efficiency utilization by ruminants. The physicochemical characteristics of rumen fluid and the profile of the rumen protozoa populations were evaluated for sheep fed banana leaf hay in replacement of the Cynodon dactylon cv. vaqueiro hay. A total of 30 male sheep were raised in intensive system during 15 days of adaptation and 63 days of experimental period. The animals were distributed in a completely randomized design that included six replicates of five treatments with replacement levels (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100%) of the grass vaquero for the banana leaf hay. Samples of fluid were collected directly from the rumen with sterile catheters. Color, odor, viscosity, and the methylene blue reduction potential (MBRP) were evaluated and pH estimated using a digital potentiometer. After decimal dilutions, counts of genus protozoa were performed in Sedgewick Rafter chambers. The averages of pH, MBRP, color, odor, and viscosity were not influenced by the inclusion of the banana leaf hay. However, the total number of protozoa and Entodinium spp. population significantly decreased at 75 and 100% inclusions of banana leaf hay as roughage.

  10. Investigation of waste banana peels and radish leaves for their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article is mainly based on the production of biodiesel and bioethanol from waste banana peels and radish leaves. The oily content from both the samples were converted to biodiesel by acid catalyzed and base catalyzed transesterification using methanol and ethanol. The biodiesel so obtained was subjected to ...

  11. Optimization of in vitro multiplication for exotic banana (Musa spp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    win7

    2015-06-17

    Jun 17, 2015 ... drought stress and plants diseases, the banana production in Pakistan has ..... evaluated that hormonal response is specific genotypic dependent. ... BAP 4.0 mg/L-1 in interaction with 1.0 mg/L-1 IAA was suggested as optimal ...

  12. Metal analyses of ash derived alkalis from banana and plantain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this work was to determine the metal content of plantain and banana peels ash derived alkali and the possibility of using it as alternate and cheap source of alkali in soap industry. This was done by ashing the peels and dissolving it in de-ionised water to achieve the corresponding hydroxides with pH above ...

  13. Coculture fermentation of banana agro-waste to ethanol by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Banana is a major cash crop of many regions generating good amount of waste after harvest. This agro waste which is left for natural degradation is used as substrate for single step ethanol fermentation by thermophilic, cellulolytic, ethanologenic Clostridium thermocellum CT2, a new culture isolated from elephant ...

  14. Experimentally reduced root–microbe interactions reveal limited plasticity in functional root traits in Acer and Quercus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mei-Ho; Comas, Louise H.; Callahan, Hilary S.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Interactions between roots and soil microbes are critical components of below-ground ecology. It is essential to quantify the magnitude of root trait variation both among and within species, including variation due to plasticity. In addition to contextualizing the magnitude of plasticity relative to differences between species, studies of plasticity can ascertain if plasticity is predictable and whether an environmental factor elicits changes in traits that are functionally advantageous. Methods To compare functional traits and trait plasticities in fine root tissues with natural and reduced levels of colonization by microbial symbionts, trimmed and surface-sterilized root segments of 2-year-old Acer rubrum and Quercus rubra seedlings were manipulated. Segments were then replanted into satellite pots filled with control or heat-treated soil, both originally derived from a natural forest. Mycorrhizal colonization was near zero in roots grown in heat-treated soil; roots grown in control soil matched the higher colonization levels observed in unmanipulated root samples collected from field locations. Key Results Between-treatment comparisons revealed negligible plasticity for root diameter, branching intensity and nitrogen concentration across both species. Roots from treated soils had decreased tissue density (approx. 10–20 %) and increased specific root length (approx. 10–30 %). In contrast, species differences were significant and greater than treatment effects in traits other than tissue density. Interspecific trait differences were also significant in field samples, which generally resembled greenhouse samples. Conclusions The combination of experimental and field approaches was useful for contextualizing trait plasticity in comparison with inter- and intra-specific trait variation. Findings that root traits are largely species dependent, with the exception of root tissue density, are discussed in the context of current literature on root

  15. Increased root production in soybeans grown under space flight conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, H. G.; Piastuch, W. C.

    The GENEX ({Gen}e {Ex}pression) spaceflight experiment (flown on STS-87) was developed to investigate whether direct and/or indirect effects of microgravity are perceived as an external stimulus for soybean seedling response. Protocols were designed to optimize root and shoot formation, gas exchange and moisture uniformity. Six surface sterilized soybean seeds (Glycine max cv McCall) were inserted into each of 32 autoclaved plastic seed growth pouches containing an inner germination paper sleeve (for a total of 192 seeds). The pouches were stowed within a mid-deck locker until Mission Flight Day 10, at which time an astronaut added water to each pouch (thereby initiating the process of seed germination on-orbit), and subsequently transferred them to four passive, light-tight aluminum canisters called BRIC-60s (Biological Research In Canisters). We report here on the morphological characteristics of: (1) the recovered flight material, (2) the corresponding ground control population, plus (3) additional controls grown on the ground under clinostat conditions. No significant growth differences were found between the flight, ground control and clinorotated treatments for either the cotyledons or hypocotyls. There were, however, significantly longer primary roots produced in the flight population relative to the ground control population, which in turn had significantly longer primary roots than the clinorotated population. This same pattern was observed relative to the production of lateral roots (flight > control > clinorotated). Taken together with previous literature reports, we believe that there is now sufficient evidence to conclude that plants grown under conditions of microgravity will generally exhibit enhanced root production relative to their ground control counterparts. The mechanism underlying this phenomenon is open to speculation. Funded under NASA Contract NAS10-12180.

  16. Application of Cold Storage for Raja Sere Banana (Musa acuminata colla)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crismas, S. R. S.; Purwanto, Y. A.; Sutrisno

    2018-05-01

    Raja Sere is one of the indigenous banana cultivars in Indonesia. This cultivar has a yellow color when ripen, small size and sweet taste. Traditionally, the growers market this banana cultivar to the market without any treatment to delay the ripening process. Banana fruits are commonly being harvested at the condition of hard green mature. At this condition of hard green mature, banana fruits can be stored for a long-term period. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of cold storage on the quality of raja sere banana that stored at 13°C. Banana fruits cultivar Raja Sere were harvested from local farmer field at the condition of hard green mature (about 14 weeks age after the flower bloom). Fifteen bunches of banana were stored in cold storage with a temperature of 13°C for 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 days, respectively. For the control, room temperature storage (28°C) was used. At a storage period, samples of banana fruits ripened in the ripening chamber by injecting 100 ppm of ethylene gas at 25°C for 24 hours. The quality parameters namely respiration rate, hardness, total soluble solids (TSS), change in color, and weight loss were measured. For those banana fruits stored at room temperature, the shelf-life of banana was only reached up to 6 days. For those banana fruits stored in cold storage, the condition of banana fruits was reached up to 12 days. After cold storage and ripening, the third day measurement was the optimal time for bananas to be consumed which indicated by the yellow color (lightness value = 68.51, a* = 4.74 and value b* = 62.63), TSS 24.30 °Brix and hardness 0.48 kgf, weight loss about 7.53-16.45% and CO2 respiration rate of 100.37 mLCO2 / kg.hr.

  17. Distribution, timing of attack, and oviposition of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus, on banana crop residues in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masanza, M.; Gold, C.S.; Huis, van A.

    2005-01-01

    Crop sanitation (removal and chopping of residue corms and pseudostems following plant harvest) has been recommended as a 'best bet' means of reducing banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), populations. However, it has been unclear when such practices should be

  18. Phylogeny of Banana Streak Virus reveals recent and repetitive endogenization in the genome of its banana host (Musa sp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayral, Philippe; Iskra-Caruana, Marie-Line

    2009-07-01

    Banana streak virus (BSV) is a plant dsDNA pararetrovirus (family Caulimoviridae, genus badnavirus). Although integration is not an essential step in the BSV replication cycle, the nuclear genome of banana (Musa sp.) contains BSV endogenous pararetrovirus sequences (BSV EPRVs). Some BSV EPRVs are infectious by reconstituting a functional viral genome. Recent studies revealed a large molecular diversity of episomal BSV viruses (i.e., nonintegrated) while others focused on BSV EPRV sequences only. In this study, the evolutionary history of badnavirus integration in banana was inferred from phylogenetic relationships between BSV and BSV EPRVs. The relative evolution rates and selective pressures (d(N)/d(S) ratio) were also compared between endogenous and episomal viral sequences. At least 27 recent independent integration events occurred after the divergence of three banana species, indicating that viral integration is a recent and frequent phenomenon. Relaxation of selective pressure on badnaviral sequences that experienced neutral evolution after integration in the plant genome was recorded. Additionally, a significant decrease (35%) in the EPRV evolution rate was observed compared to BSV, reflecting the difference in the evolution rate between episomal dsDNA viruses and plant genome. The comparison of our results with the evolution rate of the Musa genome and other reverse-transcribing viruses suggests that EPRVs play an active role in episomal BSV diversity and evolution.

  19. Root (Botany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert R. Ziemer

    1981-01-01

    Plant roots can contribute significantly to the stability of steep slopes. They can anchor through the soil mass into fractures in bedrock, can cross zones of weakness to more stable soil, and can provide interlocking long fibrous binders within a weak soil mass. In deep soil, anchoring to bedrock becomes negligible, and lateral reinforcement predominates

  20. Automated Root Tracking with "Root System Analyzer"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnepf, Andrea; Jin, Meina; Ockert, Charlotte; Bol, Roland; Leitner, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Crucial factors for plant development are water and nutrient availability in soils. Thus, root architecture is a main aspect of plant productivity and needs to be accurately considered when describing root processes. Images of root architecture contain a huge amount of information, and image analysis helps to recover parameters describing certain root architectural and morphological traits. The majority of imaging systems for root systems are designed for two-dimensional images, such as RootReader2, GiA Roots, SmartRoot, EZ-Rhizo, and Growscreen, but most of them are semi-automated and involve mouse-clicks in each root by the user. "Root System Analyzer" is a new, fully automated approach for recovering root architectural parameters from two-dimensional images of root systems. Individual roots can still be corrected manually in a user interface if required. The algorithm starts with a sequence of segmented two-dimensional images showing the dynamic development of a root system. For each image, morphological operators are used for skeletonization. Based on this, a graph representation of the root system is created. A dynamic root architecture model helps to determine which edges of the graph belong to an individual root. The algorithm elongates each root at the root tip and simulates growth confined within the already existing graph representation. The increment of root elongation is calculated assuming constant growth. For each root, the algorithm finds all possible paths and elongates the root in the direction of the optimal path. In this way, each edge of the graph is assigned to one or more coherent roots. Image sequences of root systems are handled in such a way that the previous image is used as a starting point for the current image. The algorithm is implemented in a set of Matlab m-files. Output of Root System Analyzer is a data structure that includes for each root an identification number, the branching order, the time of emergence, the parent

  1. Biomass waste-to-energy valorisation technologies: a review case for banana processing in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumisiriza, Robert; Hawumba, Joseph Funa; Okure, Mackay; Hensel, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Uganda's banana industry is heavily impeded by the lack of cheap, reliable and sustainable energy mainly needed for processing of banana fruit into pulp and subsequent drying into chips before milling into banana flour that has several uses in the bakery industry, among others. Uganda has one of the lowest electricity access levels, estimated at only 2-3% in rural areas where most of the banana growing is located. In addition, most banana farmers have limited financial capacity to access modern solar energy technologies that can generate sufficient energy for industrial processing. Besides energy scarcity and unreliability, banana production, marketing and industrial processing generate large quantities of organic wastes that are disposed of majorly by unregulated dumping in places such as swamps, thereby forming huge putrefying biomass that emit green house gases (methane and carbon dioxide). On the other hand, the energy content of banana waste, if harnessed through appropriate waste-to-energy technologies, would not only solve the energy requirement for processing of banana pulp, but would also offer an additional benefit of avoiding fossil fuels through the use of renewable energy. The potential waste-to-energy technologies that can be used in valorisation of banana waste can be grouped into three: Thermal (Direct combustion and Incineration), Thermo-chemical (Torrefaction, Plasma treatment, Gasification and Pyrolysis) and Biochemical (Composting, Ethanol fermentation and Anaerobic Digestion). However, due to high moisture content of banana waste, direct application of either thermal or thermo-chemical waste-to-energy technologies is challenging. Although, supercritical water gasification does not require drying of feedstock beforehand and can be a promising thermo-chemical technology for gasification of wet biomass such as banana waste, it is an expensive technology that may not be adopted by banana farmers in Uganda. Biochemical conversion technologies are

  2. Evaluation of Banana Hypersensitivity Among a Group of Atopic Egyptian Children: Relation to Parental/Self Reports

    OpenAIRE

    El-Sayed, Zeinab A.; El-Ghoneimy, Dalia H.; El-Shennawy, Dina; Nasser, Manar W.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the frequency of banana sensitization and allergy among a group of atopic Egyptian children in relation to parental/self reports. Methods This is a case-control study included 2 groups of allergic children with and without history of banana allergy, each included 40 patients. They were subjected to skin prick test (SPT) using commercial banana allergen extract and prick-prick test (PPT) using raw banana, in addition to measuring the serum banana-specific IgE. Oral banana c...

  3. Characterization of a new pathovar of Agrobacterium vitis causing banana leaf blight in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Siliang; Long, Mengling; Fu, Gang; Lin, Shanhai; Qin, Liping; Hu, Chunjin; Cen, Zhenlu; Lu, Jie; Li, Qiqin

    2015-01-01

    A new banana leaf blight was found in Nanning city, China, during a 7-year survey (2003-2009) of the bacterial diseases on banana plants. Eight bacterial strains were isolated from affected banana leaves, and identified as an intraspecific taxon of Agrobacterium vitis based on their 16S rDNA sequence similarities with those of 37 randomly selected bacterial strains registered in GenBank database. The representative strain Ag-1 was virulent on banana leaves and shared similar growth and biochemical reactions with the reference strain IAM14140 of A. vitis. The strains causing banana leaf blight were denominated as A. vitis pv. musae. The traditional A. vitis strains virulent to grapevines were proposed to be revised as A. vitis pv. vitis. This is the first record of a new type of A. vitis causing banana leaf blight in China. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Application of mutation breeding technique for producing NaCl tolerant plants of banana in tissue culture and greenhouse conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vedadi, C.; Rahimi, M.; Naserian, B.; Rahmani, E.; Neshan, N.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: To study of possibility to induce salt tolerant clones in banana by using mutation technique, an experiment was conducted with factorial (gamma irradiation and salt concentration factors) in a CRD design. In this research, plantlets of banana cv. Dwarf Cavendish were produced by subculture of irradiated shoot tips. It deserves to mention that consequent subculturing was aimed at getting rid of chimera. Next, these explants were transferred to MS medium containing 2.5 mg. l- 1 BAP and NaCl concentrations of 0, 6, 7, 8, 9 g.l -1 for 2 months .Then, living buds were transferred to medium without salt. After one month, we repeated the first stage. All living buds rooted and were transferred to potted soil. Acclimatized plants were irrigated weekly with above NaCl solution. Other irrigation was done with salt-free water. There was also a negative relation between salt concentration and survival - proliferation. In second salinity stress, salt had no significant difference on survival percentage. No-significant difference of effect salt on survival in second salinity stress was observed. (author)

  5. Ky'osimba Onaanya: Understanding Productivity of East African Highland Banana

    OpenAIRE

    Taulya, G.

    2016-01-01

    Over 30 million people in East Africa depend on East African highland bananas for food and income. The bananas are grown with limited additions of nutrients and no irrigation, despite widespread poor soil fertility and regular dry seasons. This thesis describes the effect of increasing rainfall and application of potassium and nitrogen fertilizers on banana growth and yields. In areas that receive less than 1100 mm of rainfall per year, additional rainfall increases yields by 65%. Application...

  6. The influence of gamma irradiation on shelf-life extension of banana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiravat, K.

    1971-01-01

    Effect of various doses of gamma radiation on shelf-life extension of Hom Tong banana stored at 17 0 C, 20 0 C, and 23 0 C was described. Irradiated banana stored at 20 0 C and 23 0 C did not show any retardation in ripening. Doses from 20-40 Krad appeared to delay ripening of the banana stored at 17 0 C for 3-5 days. No significant difference in weight losses between irradiated and non-irradiated banana was detected during storage

  7. Nitrogen and potassium fertilization on 'Caipira' and 'BRS Princesa' bananas in the Ribeira Valley.

    OpenAIRE

    NOMURA, E. S.; CUQUEL, F. L.; DAMATTO JUNIOR, E. R.; FUZITANI, E. J.; BORGES, A. L.; SAES, L. A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT ‘BRS Princesa’ (AAAB) and ‘Caipira’ (AAA) banana cultivars have similar sensorial features in comparison to the ‘Maçã’ banana. They are resistant to Panama disease, which allows them to grow in the Ribeira Valley, the largest banana plantation area in the São Paulo State. However, there is no information on how to fertilize crop under these edaphoclimatic conditions. This study aimed to evaluate the development and production of ‘Caipira’ and ‘BRS Princesa’ bananas, by applying four ...

  8. Tobacco arabinogalactan protein NtEPc can promote banana (Musa AAA) somatic embryogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, H; Xu, L; Li, Z; Li, J; Jin, Z; Chang, S

    2014-12-01

    Banana is an important tropical fruit worldwide. Parthenocarpy and female sterility made it impossible to improve banana varieties through common hybridization. Genetic transformation for banana improvement is imperative. But the low rate that banana embryogenic callus was induced made the transformation cannot be performed in many laboratories. Finding ways to promote banana somatic embryogenesis is critical for banana genetic transformation. After tobacco arabinogalactan protein gene NtEPc was transformed into Escherichia coli (DE3), the recombinant protein was purified and filter-sterilized. A series of the sterilized protein was added into tissue culture medium. It was found that the number of banana immature male flowers developing embryogenic calli increased significantly in the presence of NtEPc protein compared with the effect of the control medium. Among the treatments, explants cultured on medium containing 10 mg/l of NtEPc protein had the highest chance to develop embryogenic calli. The percentage of lines that developed embryogenic calli on this medium was about 12.5 %. These demonstrated that NtEPc protein can be used to promote banana embryogenesis. This is the first paper that reported that foreign arabinogalactan protein (AGP) could be used to improve banana somatic embryogenesis.

  9. Biochemical effects of gamma irradiation on banana fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Motaium, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    It is of important to study the extension of shelf-life at ambient temperature. This study would be of significant in the case of non- refrigerated transport, practices within the country and transhipment to distant countries. studies have therefore extended to assess the shelf-life of irradiated banana stored under-room temperature. Extension of shelf -life have been achieved by many methods, the most modern one is using gamma irradiation as a promising technology for developing nations. the aim of this investigation is to study the biochemical effects of gamma irradiation on G ros Michel m ature green banana fruits and also to determine the optimum dose level and the optimum storage conditions which resulted in, keeping the organoleptic qualities as it is and maximum extension in shelf-life

  10. Locally Finite Root Supersystems

    OpenAIRE

    Yousofzadeh, Malihe

    2013-01-01

    We introduce the notion of locally finite root supersystems as a generalization of both locally finite root systems and generalized root systems. We classify irreducible locally finite root supersystems.

  11. High oxygen levels promote peel spotting in banana fruit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maneenuam, T.; Ketsa, S.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2007-01-01

    We studied the effect of high oxygen on early peel spotting in `Sucrier¿ bananas held at 25 °C and 90% RH. Fruit first ripened to colour index 3¿4 (about as yellow as green) and were then held in containers with a continuous gas flow of 18 ± 2 kPa (control) or 90 ± 2 kPa oxygen. High oxygen promoted

  12. Biological control of banana black Sigatoka disease with Trichoderma

    OpenAIRE

    Poholl Adan Sagratzki Cavero; Rogério Eiji Hanada; Luadir Gasparotto; Rosalee Albuquerque Coelho Neto; Jorge Teodoro de Souza

    2015-01-01

    Black Sigatoka disease caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis is the most severe banana disease worldwide. The pathogen is in an invasive phase in Brazil and is already present in most States of the country. The potential of 29 isolates of Trichoderma spp. was studied for the control of black Sigatoka disease under field conditions. Four isolates were able to significantly reduce disease severity and were further tested in a second field experiment. Isolate 2.047 showed the best results in both f...

  13. Interaction of Spatially Localized LHW with Banana Particles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krlín, Ladislav; Fuchs, Vladimír; Pánek, Radomír; Papřok, Richard; Seidl, Jakub

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 3 (2014), s. 166-168 ISSN 2336-2626. [SPPT 2014 - 26th Symposium on Plasma Physics and Technology/26./. Prague, 16.06.2014-19.06.2014] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/11/2341 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : anomalous acceleration * stochasticity * lower hybrid waves * banana particles * tokamaks Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics http://fyzika.feld.cvut.cz/misc/ppt/articles/2014/krlin.pdf

  14. Manual transportation within the plot and physical damages to bananas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magalhães Mário Jorge Maia de

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The manual transportation of banana bunches within plots provokes physical damages to fruits compromising their quality. To assess the influence of the distance banana bunches travel on the shoulders of harvesters within the plot, on the incidence of physical damages present on the peel of fruits of the Nanicão cultivar, two experiments were carried out in the Vale do Ribeira region (SP, in sites with slope < 1%. Each experiment divided the plot in different distance bands, two of which were included in this study: one located far away from the collection roads (30-50 m and 80-100 m distance bands and another in an intermediate position (70-80 m and 130-150 m distance bands. For each distance band, six banana bunches of 36 mm gauged fruits were randomly sampled. Four banana hands were cut from the middle region of each bunch and ten fruits were assessed per hand, totaling 240 fruits per treatment. Bunches were harvested at the same maturity degree and those served as control were not transported. A total of 1440 fruits was assessed in the two experiments. The physical damages on the fruit surface were graded on a scale with 6 divisions: 0-0.25 cm²; 0.25-0.5 cm²; 0.5-1.0 cm²; 1.0-1.5 cm²; 1.5-2.0 cm²; 2.0-2.5 cm². The bunches transported on the shoulders of harvesters on distances over 70 m suffered increased (P < 0.01 damaged area. Most damages presented areas up to 0.5 cm².

  15. The radurisation of bananas under commercial conditions: Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodrick, H.T.; Strydom, G.J.

    1984-01-01

    In a large scale trial with bananas, a doubling of storage life in the ripening rooms (from 14 to 29 d) was achieved using irradiation treatment to an average dose of 0,85 kGy. Both colour development and fruit softening were significantly reduced in the irradiated fruits compared with the untreated batch. A slight phytotoxic effect to the fruit was noticed at the dose of 0,85 kGy

  16. Molecular diagnostics for the sigatoka disease complex of banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzanlou, Mahdi; Abeln, Edwin C A; Kema, Gert H J; Waalwijk, Cees; Carlier, Jean; Vries, Ineke de; Guzmán, Mauricio; Crous, Pedro W

    2007-09-01

    ABSTRACT The Sigatoka disease complex of banana involves three related ascomycetous fungi, Mycosphaerella fijiensis, M. musicola, and M. eumusae. The exact distribution of these three species and their disease epidemiology remain unclear, because their symptoms and life cycles are rather similar. Disease diagnosis in the Mycosphaerella complex of banana is based on the presence of host symptoms and fungal fruiting structures, which hamper preventive management strategies. In the present study, we have developed rapid and robust species-specific molecular-based diagnostic tools for detection and quantification of M. fijiensis, M. musicola, and M. eumusae. Conventional species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers were developed based on the actin gene that detected DNA at as little as 100, 1, and 10 pg/mul from M. fijiensis, M. musicola, and M. eumusae, respectively. Furthermore, TaqMan real-time quantitative PCR assays were developed based on the beta-tubulin gene and detected quantities of DNA as low as 1 pg/mul for each Mycosphaerella sp. from pure cultures and DNA at 1.6 pg/mul per milligram of dry leaf tissue for M. fijiensis that was validated using naturally infected banana leaves.

  17. Ripening influences banana and plantain peels composition and energy content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emaga, Thomas Happi; Bindelle, Jérôme; Agneesens, Richard; Buldgen, André; Wathelet, Bernard; Paquot, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Musa sp. peels are widely used by smallholders as complementary feeds for cattle in the tropics. A study of the influence of the variety and the maturation stage of the fruit on fermentability and metabolisable energy (ME) content of the peels was performed using banana (Yangambi Km5) and plantain (Big Ebanga) peels at three stages of maturation in an in vitro model of the rumen. Peel samples were analysed for starch, free sugars and fibre composition. Samples were incubated in the presence of rumen fluid. Kinetics of gas production were modelled, ME content was calculated using prediction equation and short-chain fatty acids production and molar ratio were measured after 72 h of fermentation. Final gas production was higher in plantain (269-339 ml g(-1)) compared to banana (237-328 ml g(-1)) and plantain exhibited higher ME contents (8.9-9.7 MJ/kg of dry matter, DM) compared to banana (7.7-8.8 MJ/kg of DM). Butyrate molar ratio decreased with maturity of the peels. The main influence of the variety and the stage of maturation on all fermentation parameters as well as ME contents of the peels was correlated to changes in the carbohydrate fraction of the peels, including starch and fibre.

  18. Banana fertigation with treated sanitary wastewater: postharvest and microbiological quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Fernando Santos Alves

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sewage may serve as a source of water and nutrients for plants. In this study, the effects of fertigation with treated sanitary wastewater from Janaúba Sewage Treatment Plant were evaluated on the postharvest and microbiological quality of ‘Prata-Anã’ banana. A randomized block experimental design was used. Four concentrations of wastewater were tested (70, 130, 170, and 200% of 150 kg ha-1 sodium. A wastewater-free control treatment was used for comparison. Two crop cycles were assessed for postharvest and microbiological quality. The parameters measured included total soluble solids, titratable acidity, total soluble solids/titratable acidity ratio, pH, total coliforms, and fecal coliforms on both the peel and the pulp. In the first crop cycle, both soluble solids and fruit pulp pH decreased as wastewater level increased up to a maximum of 141.5%. These correlations were not observed in the second cycle. Wastewater management did not affect the titratable acidity of the soluble solids. The agricultural application of treated sanitary wastewater provided banana fruits with a microbiological profile similar to that obtained with the control (pure water and with mineral fertilizers. A microbial balance is necessary to maintain the nutritional status of the banana crop.

  19. PROTOCOL FOR HARVESTING ‘BRS PRINCESS’ BANANA FRUITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIZ FERNANDO GANASSALI DE OLIVEIRA JUNIOR

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to develop a protocol to determine the ideal harvest time for ‘BRS Princess’ banana, using the number of aborted bracts. The bananas were selected according to the number of aborted bracts since the flowering until the time of harvest, yield clusters with 90, 95, 100 and 105 aborted bracts. The physical and chemical analyzes were performed every 3 days on fruits: soluble solids, titratable acidity, weight loss, length and diameter, pH, firmness, skin color (CIELab and pectin enzyme activity. The statistical design was completely randomized in a 4x5 factorial, with 4 points and 5 periods of harvest analysis and data were evaluated using analysis of variance and regression. For all parameters, fruits harvested at 90 and 105 aborted bracts had unwanted changes in its metabolism when compared to the other treatments, while fruits harvested at 95 and 100 aborted bracts had the best post-harvest characteristics. This method was effective in determining the point of harvest in ‘BRS Princess’ banana fruits, since it allows to obtain fruit quality after storage, and is a simple and objective method.

  20. Mechanical properties of woven banana fibre reinforced epoxy composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapuan, S.M.; Leenie, A.; Harimi, M.; Beng, Y.K.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the experiments of tensile and flexural (three-point bending) tests were carried out using natural fibre with composite materials (Musaceae/epoxy). Three samples prepared from woven banana fibre composites of different geometries were used in this research. From the results obtained, it was found that the maximum value of stress in x-direction is 14.14 MN/m 2 , meanwhile the maximum value of stress in y-direction is 3.398 MN/m 2 . For the Young's modulus, the value of 0.976 GN/m 2 in x-direction and 0.863 GN/m 2 in y-direction were computed. As for the case of three-point bending (flexural), the maximum load applied is 36.25 N to get the deflection of woven banana fibre specimen beam of 0.5 mm. The maximum stress and Young's modulus in x-direction was recorded to be 26.181 MN/m 2 and 2.685 GN/m 2 , respectively. Statistical analysis using ANOVA-one way has showed that the differences of results obtained from those three samples are not significant, which confirm a very stable mechanical behaviour of the composites under different tests. This shows the importance of this product and allows many researchers to develop an adequate system for producing a good quality of woven banana fibre composite which maybe used for household utilities

  1. Chemical compositions and glycemic responses to banana varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettiaratchi, U P K; Ekanayake, S; Welihinda, J

    2011-06-01

    Chemical compositions and glycemic indices of four varieties of banana (Musa spp.) (kolikuttu-Silk AAB, embul-Mysore AAB, anamalu-Gros Michel AAA, seeni kesel-Pisang Awak ABB) were determined. Silk, Gros Michel, Pisang Awak and Mysore contained the highest percentages of starch (14%), sucrose (38%), free glucose (29%) and fructose (58%) as a percentage of the total available carbohydrate content respectively. Total dietary fiber contents of four varieties ranged from 2.7 to 5.3%. Glycemic indices of Silk, Mysore, Gros Michel and Pisang Awak were 61 ± 5, 61 ± 6, 67 ± 7, 69 ± 9 and can be categorized as low against white bread as the standard. A single banana of the four varieties elicited a low glycemic load. Thus, consumption of a banana from any of these varieties can be recommended as a snack for healthy or diabetic patients who are under dietary management or pharmacological drugs to regulate blood glucose responses in between meals.

  2. Adsorption of Cu, As, Pb and Zn by Banana Trunk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurzulaifa Shaheera Erne Mohd Yasim; Zitty Sarah Ismail; Suhanom Mohd Zaki; Mohd Fahmi Abd Azis

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of banana trunk as an adsorbent in removal of heavy metals in aqueous solution. Functional groups of adsorbent were determined using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Batch experiments were conducted to determine the adsorption percentage of heavy metals (Cu, As, Pb and Zn). The optimum adsorption using banana trunk was based on pH difference, contact time and dosage. Adsorption percentage was found to be proportional to pH, contact time and dosage. Maximum adsorption percentage of Cu, As, Pb and Zn at pH 6, 100 minutes and 8 gram of dosage are 95.80 %, 75.40 %, 99.36 % and 97.24 %, respectively. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were used to determine the equilibrium state for heavy metals ion adsorption experiments. All equilibrium heavy metals were well explained by the Freundlich isotherm model with R"2= 0.9441, R"2= 0.8671, R"2= 0.9489 and R"2= 0.9375 for Cu, As, Pb and Zn respectively. It is concluded that banana trunk has considerable potential for the removal of heavy metals from aqueous solution. (author)

  3. The use of aggregation pheromone to enhance dissemination of Beauveria bassiana for the control of the banana weevil in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinzaara, W.; Gold, C.S.; Dicke, M.; Huis, van A.; Nankinga, C.M.; Kagezi, G.H.; Ragama, P.E.

    2007-01-01

    Candidate strains of Beauveria bassiana were identified for use in integrated pest management of the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus. Horizontal field transmission of B. bassiana between banana weevils using different delivery systems, including aggregation pheromones, was investigated. We

  4. The influence of crop management on banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) populations and yield of highland cooking banana (cv. Atwalira) in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukazambuga, N D T M; Gold, C S; Gowen, S R; Ragama, P

    2002-10-01

    A field study was undertaken in Uganda using highland cooking banana (cv. Atwalira) to test the hypothesis that bananas grown under stressed conditions are more susceptible to attack by Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar). Four banana treatments were employed to create different levels of host-plant vitality: (1) high stress: intercrop with finger millet; (2) moderate stress: monoculture without soil amendments; (3) low stress: monoculture with manure; (4) high vigour: monoculture with continuous mulch and manure. Adult C. sordidus were released at the base of banana mats 11 months after planting and populations were monitored for three years using mark and recapture methods. Cosmopolites sordidus density was greatest in the mulched plots which may have reflected increased longevity and/or longer tenure time in moist soils. Lowest C. sordidus numbers were found in intercropped banana. Damage, estimated as percentage corm tissue consumed by larvae, was similar among treatments. However, the total amount of tissue consumed was greater in mulched banana than in other systems. Plants supporting the heaviest levels of C. sordidus damage displayed bunch size reductions of 40-55%. Banana yield losses ranged from 14-20% per plot with similar levels in the intercropped and mulched systems. Yield reductions, reported as t ha-1, were twice as high in the mulched system as in the intercrop. The results from this study indicate that C. sordidus problems are not confined to stressed banana systems or those with low levels of management, but that the weevil can also attain pest status in well-managed and productive banana stands.

  5. Cooking Banana Consumption Patterns in the Plantain-growing Area of Southeastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tshiunza, M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Cooking bananas (Musa spp., ABB genome were intro-duced into Southeastern Nigeria by the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA in the mid-1980s as an interim measure to reduce the incidence of black sigatoka disease (caused by the fungus Mycosphaerel-la fijiensis Morelet on plantain. However, the people of this region were not familiar with their utilisation methods. To address this lack of the knowledge and thereby sustain cooking banana cultivation, IITA, in collaboration with the Shell Petroleum Development Company (SPDC and the Nigeria Agip OU Company (NAOC commenced a training campaign on cooking banana processing methods. This study examined the patterns of utilisation of cooking bananas ten years after the training took place and compared them with plantain. About 95 % of the households interviewed are consuming cooking banana, indicating a broad acceptance of the crop in the region. Overall, two ripening stages termed green and ripe are the most popular ripening stages for the consumption of both plantain and cooking banana, followed by partially ripe maturity stage. The most common forms of consumption for green plantain are, in decreasing order of importance, pottage, boiled, roasted, and fried. Green cooking banana is also mostly eaten in pottage and boiled forms, and less frequently in fried and pounded forms. Ripe plantain is mostly eaten in fried and pottage forms, while ripe cooking banana is mostly eaten in fried and raw forms. Partially ripe plantain is mostly eaten in pottage, fried, boiled, and roasted forms, while partially ripe cooking banana is eaten in fried, pottage and boiled forms. These results indicate that the consumption patterns of plantain and cooking banana are very similar. This similarity has greatly contributed to the rapid integration of cooking banana within the existing plantain consumption and cropping systems.

  6. Root activity patterns of some tree crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    A coordinated research programme was followed using a soil injection method which employed 32 P-labelled superphosphate solution. The technique was applied for determining the root activity distribution of various crops. Field experiments were carried out in Uganda on bananas, Spain and Taiwan on citrus, Ghana on cocoa, Columbia and Kenya on coffee, and Ivory Coast and Malaysia on oil palms, to study the patterns of root activity as a function of depth and distance from the tree base, soil type, tree age and season. A few weeks after injection, leaf samples of similar age were taken from well-defined morphological positions on the tree and analyzed for 32 P. The activity of the label in the sample reflects the root activity at the various positions in the soil. Some preliminary experiments were also carried out using 32 P-superphosphate to evaluate the efficiency of different methods of fertilizer placement in relation to phosphate uptake by the plantation as a whole

  7. Pectinase production by Aspergillus niger using banana (Musa balbisiana) peel as substrate and its effect on clarification of banana juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Sumi; Sit, Nandan; Badwaik, Laxmikant S; Deka, Sankar C

    2015-06-01

    Optimization of substrate concentration, time of incubation and temperature for crude pectinase production from A. niger was carried out using Bhimkol banana (Musa balbisiana) peel as substrate. The crude pectinase produced was partially purified using ethanol and effectiveness of crude and partially purified pectinase was studied for banana juice clarification. The optimum substrate concentration, incubation time and temperature of incubation were 8.07 %, 65.82 h and 32.37 °C respectively, and the polygalacturonase (PG) activity achieved was 6.6 U/ml for crude pectinase. The partially purified enzyme showed more than 3 times of polygalacturonase activity as compared to the crude enzyme. The SDS-PAGE profile showed that the molecular weight of proteins present in the different pectinases varied from 34 to 42 kDa. The study further revealed that highest clarification was achieved when raw banana juice was incubated for 60 min with 2 % concentration of partially purified pectinase and the absorbance obtained was 0.10.

  8. Shoot and root proliferation in 'Williams' banana: are the topolins better cytokinins?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aremu, A.O.; Bairu, M. W.; Szüčová, Lucie; Doležal, Karel; Finnie, J.F.; van Staden, J.

    Roč. 111, č. 2 ( 2012 ), s. 209-218 ISSN 0167-6857 R&D Projects: GA MZe QI92A247 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) ED0007/01/01 Program:ED Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Auxins * Karrikinolide * Musa spp. Subject RIV: GK - Forestry Impact factor: 3.633, year: 2012

  9. Evidence for the presence of a female produced sex pheromone in the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus Germar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behavior-modifying chemicals such as pheromones and kairomones have great potential in pest management. Studies reported here investigated chemical cues involved in mating and aggregation behavior of banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus, a major insect pest of banana in every country where bananas a...

  10. "The Rotten Banana" Fires Back: The Story of a Danish Discourse of "Inclusive" Rurality in the Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winther, Malene Brandt; Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase

    2012-01-01

    The popularity of a particular term--the Rotten Banana--has paralleled the one-sided centralisation of public services since the Danish Municipal Reform of 2007. The Rotten Banana denotes peripheral Denmark, which takes a geographically curved form that resembles a banana, and it symbolises the belief that rural areas are backward and (too)…

  11. Molecular Characterization of Geographically Different Banana bunchy top virus Isolates in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvarajan, R; Mary Sheeba, M; Balasubramanian, V; Rajmohan, R; Dhevi, N Lakshmi; Sasireka, T

    2010-10-01

    Banana bunchy top disease (BBTD) caused by Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) is one of the most devastating diseases of banana and poses a serious threat for cultivars like Hill Banana (Syn: Virupakshi) and Grand Naine in India. In this study, we have cloned and sequenced the complete genome comprised of six DNA components of BBTV infecting Hill Banana grown in lower Pulney hills, Tamil Nadu State, India. The complete genome sequence of this hill banana isolate showed high degree of similarity with the corresponding sequences of BBTV isolates originating from Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh State, India, and from Fiji, Egypt, Pakistan, and Australia. In addition, sixteen coat protein (CP) and thirteen replicase genes (Rep) sequences of BBTV isolates collected from different banana growing states of India were cloned and sequenced. The replicase sequences of 13 isolates showed high degree of similarity with that of South Pacific group of BBTV isolates. However, the CP gene of BBTV isolates from Shervroy and Kodaikanal hills of Tamil Nadu showed higher amino acid sequence variability compared to other isolates. Another hill banana isolate from Meghalaya state had 23 nucleotide substitutions in the CP gene but the amino acid sequence was conserved. This is the first report of the characterization of a complete genome of BBTV occurring in the high altitudes of India. Our study revealed that the Indian BBTV isolates with distinct geographical origins belongs to the South Pacific group, except Shervroy and Kodaikanal hill isolates which neither belong to the South Pacific nor the Asian group.

  12. Effect of thidiazuron on in vivo shoot proliferation of popular banana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2014-09-30

    Sep 30, 2014 ... Mzuzu underscore the need for further studies to determine alternative best cytokine-based growth regulators. Key words: Thidiazuron, in vivo proliferation, Sucker growth, Banana. INTRODUCTION. In vivo macropropagation is an alternative technique for mass production of banana planting materials.

  13. Effect of age, female mating status and density on the banana weevil response to aggregation pheromone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinzaara, W.; Gold, C.S.; Dicke, M.; Huis, van A.; Ragama, P.E.

    2011-01-01

    The banana (Musa spp.) weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a major pest in East Africa causing yield losses of up to 14 metric tonnes per hectare annually. Laboratory and field experiments were conducted to determine whether the response of the banana weevil,

  14. Effect of mulching on banana weevil movement relative to pheromone traps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinzaara, W.; Gold, C.S.; Dicke, M.; Huis, van A.; Ragama, P.E.

    2008-01-01

    Banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus) is a major pest in East Africa causing yield losses of up to 14 metric tonnes per hectare annually. A study was conducted in Uganda to determine the effect of mulching on banana (Musa spp. L.) weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae),

  15. Arabidopsis and Musa cyclin D2 expressed in banana (cv. “Sukali ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic transformation of banana is important because of its polyploidy, sterility and long generation time of most cultivars which limit conventional breeding. However, transformability and regeneration of transgenic lines remains low in bananas. This research reports on the potential of CycD2 genes to improve ...

  16. Effect of age, female mating status and density on the banana weevil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The banana (Musa spp.) weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a major pest in East Africa causing yield losses of up to 14 metric tonnes per hectare annually. Laboratory and field experiments were conducted to determine whether the response of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus ...

  17. Anti-nutrients and heavy metals in some new plantain and banana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plantain and banana flour are important raw material in the baking and confectionery industry, and complementary food formulation. Five new plantain and banana hybrids developed by the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) at Highrainfall Station, Onne, Nigeria were screened for certain anti-nutritional ...

  18. 33 CFR 334.560 - Banana River at Patrick Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Banana River at Patrick Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted area. 334.560 Section 334.560 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.560 Banana...

  19. The Draft Genome Sequence of Mycosphaerella fijiensis, the Black Sigatoka Pathogen of Banana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycosphaerella fijiensis is a fungal pathogen of banana and the causal agent of the devastating Black Sigatoka or black leaf streak disease. Its control requires weekly fungicide applications when bananas are grown under disease-conducive conditions, which mostly represent precarious tropical enviro...

  20. Exploring the Potential of Banana SAP as Dye for the Adinkra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out to explore the potential of banana sap as a dye for the Adinkra industry in Ghana. Pseudostem extract of banana and stem bark extract of Bridelia micratha were compared as dyeing stuff. A consumer preference study was also conducted to assess the acceptability of the products developed.

  1. Impacts of Climate Variability and Change on Banana Yields in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Climate variability and change are existing sets of conditions which affect crop productivity. An evaluation of their impacts on banana yield in the CDC-DelMonte Banana Project at Tiko is fundamental in conceiving adaptation strategies towards coping with, and minimizing their deleterious impacts for maximum productivity ...

  2. Attitudes, perceptions, and trust. Insights from a consumer survey regarding genetically modified banana in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kikulwe, E.M.; Wesseler, J.H.H.; Falck-Zepeda, J.

    2011-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops and food are still controversial. This paper analyzes consumers’ perceptions and institutional awareness and trust toward GM banana regulation in Uganda. Results are based on a study conducted among 421 banana-consuming households between July and August 2007. Results

  3. The banana (Musa acuminata) genome and the evolution of monocotyledonous plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hont, D' A.; Denoeud, F.; Aury, J.M.; Kema, G.H.J.; Dita Rodriguez, M.A.; Waalwijk, C.

    2012-01-01

    Bananas (Musa spp.), including dessert and cooking types, are giant perennial monocotyledonous herbs of the order Zingiberales, a sister group to the well-studied Poales, which include cereals. Bananas are vital for food security in many tropical and subtropical countries and the most popular fruit

  4. Effect of crop sanitation on banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) populations and associated damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masanza, M.

    2003-01-01

    The banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a serious pest of bananas. However, its ecology is not well elucidated especially in East Africa where plantations are up to 50 years old and are under various management and cropping systems. No single

  5. Ky’osimba Onaanya: understanding productivity of East African Highland banana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taulya, G.

    2015-01-01

    Over 30 million people in East Africa depend on East African highland bananas for food and income. The bananas are grown with limited additions of nutrients and no irrigation, despite widespread poor soil fertility and regular dry seasons. This thesis describes the effect of increasing rainfall

  6. Cereal bars produced with banana peel flour: evaluation of acceptability and sensory profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Vania Silva; Conti-Silva, Ana Carolina

    2018-01-01

    A mixture design was used to investigate the effects of banana peel flour, rice flakes and oat flour on sensory acceptability of cereal bars, with subsequent evaluation of sensory profile of products identified as having high acceptability. Regions of greater response for acceptability of the cereal bars, which are dependent on the three investigated components, were found. Although having good acceptability, sensory profiles of cereal bars were different. A cereal bar with the lowest quantity of banana peel flour was described as having a higher amount of rice flakes, chewiness and crispness, while formulations with intermediate and highest quantities of banana peel flour were described by darker color, higher banana aroma and bitter taste. Contrary to expectations, banana flavor of cereal bar with highest quantity of banana peel flour was lower than cereal bars with intermediate quantities. Cereal bars were not different in terms of hardness and adhesiveness and they also had a similar sweet taste and oat flavor. The use of banana peel flour in production of cereal bars is feasible and, even with different sensory profiles, cereal bars with banana peel flour are acceptable, which may favor the development of new products for different market niches. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Effect of green banana pulp on physicochemical and sensory properties of probiotic yoghurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabete Lourenço da COSTA

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to investigate the potential of the green banana as a prebiotic, and for its content of resistant starch, fermented yogurts were produced by cultures composed of Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Streptococcus thermophilus, Bifidobacterium bifidum and Lactobacillus acidophilus as well as being enriched with three concentrations of industrialized green banana pulp (GBP (3%, 5% and 10% w/v. The green banana pulp added to the yogurt stimulated the multiplication of L. acidophilus after the first day of fermentation and B. bifidum after seven days in cold storage compared to the control that consisted of yogurt without the addition of green banana pulp. The dose-response effect was not observed; however, the results show that the green banana pulp has a prebiotic potential without interfering with either the physicochemical or sensorial characteristics.

  8. It is only a banana-Traveltime sensitivity kernels using the unwrapped phase

    KAUST Repository

    Djebbi, Ramzi; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2012-01-01

    Traveltime sensitivity kernels for finite-frequency traveltimes computed using the Born or Rytov approximations admits hallow banana shaped responses in the plane of propagation and a circular doughnut shaped responses in the cross section. This suggests that finite-frequency traveltimes are insensitive to velocity information along the infinite-frequency ray path, which is obviously inaccurate and creates a disconnect in the traveltime dependency on frequency. Using the instantaneous traveltime of the wavefield, which is capable of unwrapping the phase function, we obtain traveltime sensitivity kernels that have plain banana shape responses, with the thickness of the banana governed by the investigated frequency. This result confirms that the hallow banana shape is simply a result of the wrapping of the phase of the wavefield, in which Born nor Rytov approximations can properly deal with. The instantaneous traveltime can, thus, mitigate the nonlinearity problem encountered in finite-frequency traveltime inversions that may arise from these hallow banana sensitivity kernels.

  9. Effect of physiological harvest stages on the composition of bioactive compounds in Cavendish bananas*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno Bonnet, Christelle; Hubert, Olivier; Mbeguie-A-Mbeguie, Didier; Pallet, Dominique; Hiol, Abel; Reynes, Max; Poucheret, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The combined influence of maturation, ripening, and climate on the profile of bioactive compounds was studied in banana (Musa acuminata, AAA, Cavendish, cv. Grande Naine). Their bioactive compounds were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay and high-performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method. The polyphenol content of bananas harvested after 400 degree days remained unchanged during ripening, while bananas harvested after 600 and 900 degree days exhibited a significant polyphenol increase. Although dopamine was the polyphenol with the highest concentration in banana peels during the green developmental stage and ripening, its kinetics differed from the total polyphenol profile. Our results showed that this matrix of choice (maturation, ripening, and climate) may allow selection of the banana (M. acuminata, AAA, Cavendish, cv. Grande Naine) status that will produce optimal concentrations of identified compounds with human health relevance. PMID:23549844

  10. Effects of Increasing Levels of Dietary Cooked and Uncooked Banana Meal on Growth Performance and Carcass Parameters of Broiler Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S.B.M Atapattu* and T.S.M.S. Senevirathne

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Discarded banana is a valuable feed ingredient for poultry feed formulations. However, due to the presence of resistant starches, inclusion of more than 10% banana meal in poultry rations reduces the growth performance. The objective of this study was to determine whether higher levels of banana meal could be included in broiler diets if raw banana is cooked before being processed into meal. Discarded banana (Cavendish collected at harvesting was processed into two types of banana meals. Cooked banana meal was prepared by cooking banana at 100oC for 15 minutes and subsequent drying. Uncooked banana meal was prepared by drying at 800C for three days. Giving a 2 x 4 factorial arrangement, 144 broiler chicks in 48 cages received one of the eight experimental diets containing either cooked or uncooked banana meal at 0, 10, 20 or 30% ad libitum from day 21-42. Birds fed cooked banana meal were significantly heavier on day 28 and 35. Live weight on day 42, weight gain, feed intake or feed conversion efficiency were not affected either by the type or level of banana meal and their interaction. Cooked banana meal increased the weights of the crop and liver significantly. Weight of the small intestine, proventriculus, gizzard abdominal fat pad and the fat free tibia ash contents were not affected by the dietary treatments. It was concluded that uncooked banana meal produced using peeled raw banana can be included up to 30% in nutritionally balanced broiler finisher diets without any adverse effects on performance.

  11. Seedling root targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diane L. Haase

    2011-01-01

    Roots are critical to seedling performance after outplanting. Although root quality is not as quick and simple to measure as shoot quality, target root characteristics should be included in any seedling quality assessment program. This paper provides a brief review of root characteristics most commonly targeted for operational seedling production. These are: root mass...

  12. DISTRIBUTION AND INCIDENCE LEAF DISEASES OF BANANA IN SEVERAL BANANA PRODUCTION CENTERS IN NORTH SUMATRA, WEST SUMATRA BENGKULU AND WEST JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahlan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The research was aimed to determine the type, the distribution and the incidence of banana leaf diseases in several production centers in West Sumatra, Bengkulu, North Sumatra and West Java. Direct observations on banana orchards were conducted in some districts in Simalungun, Deli Serdang and Medan (North Sumatra, Tanah Datar, Limapuluh Kota, Agam, Pariaman and Pasaman (West Sumatra, Rejang Lebong and Kepahyang (Bengkulu, Sukabumi, Purwakarta and Subang (West Java from November to December 2006. Two banana orchards were randomly selected in each district. Plant population at the selected orchard was at least 100 plants. From each sampled orchard, if banana population consisted of similar or only one variety, 10 plants were randomly chosen according to wind direction. Meanwhile, when the banana varieties were varied, five plants were randomly selected. The result showed that Black Sigatoka and Eumusae leaf spot were found in West Sumatra, Bengkulu and North Sumatra at severity level of between 15 % to 62.31%, whilst speckle disease was mainly found in North Sumatra and in parts of West Sumatra at severity level of between 72,72% to 100% and 15 to 30%, respectively. Banana varieties that were primarily attacked by leaf diseases were Cavendish, Telor, Barangan and Emas.

  13. Mechanical properties of woven banana fibre reinforced epoxy composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sapuan, S.M. [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)]. E-mail: sapuan@eng.upm.my; Leenie, A. [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Harimi, M. [School of Engineering and Information Technology, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, 88999 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah (Malaysia); Beng, Y.K. [School of Engineering and Information Technology, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, 88999 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah (Malaysia)

    2006-07-01

    In this paper, the experiments of tensile and flexural (three-point bending) tests were carried out using natural fibre with composite materials (Musaceae/epoxy). Three samples prepared from woven banana fibre composites of different geometries were used in this research. From the results obtained, it was found that the maximum value of stress in x-direction is 14.14 MN/m{sup 2}, meanwhile the maximum value of stress in y-direction is 3.398 MN/m{sup 2}. For the Young's modulus, the value of 0.976 GN/m{sup 2} in x-direction and 0.863 GN/m{sup 2} in y-direction were computed. As for the case of three-point bending (flexural), the maximum load applied is 36.25 N to get the deflection of woven banana fibre specimen beam of 0.5 mm. The maximum stress and Young's modulus in x-direction was recorded to be 26.181 MN/m{sup 2} and 2.685 GN/m{sup 2}, respectively. Statistical analysis using ANOVA-one way has showed that the differences of results obtained from those three samples are not significant, which confirm a very stable mechanical behaviour of the composites under different tests. This shows the importance of this product and allows many researchers to develop an adequate system for producing a good quality of woven banana fibre composite which maybe used for household utilities.

  14. Boron toxicity in banana (Musa AAA) plantations of Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas, Alfonso; Serrano, Edgardo; Arias, Fulvio; Arias M, Oscar

    2007-01-01

    A marginal, irregular and continuous necrosis was observed in the leaves of in banana plants (Musa AAA, cvs. Grande Naine and Valery), This necrosis was developed from an irregular chlorotic area, from the edge towards the internal part of the leaf blade. The central portion of the leaf kept the original green color. Soil and foliar analyses showed that symptoms were caused by high boron concentrations, probably due to excessive soil or foliage applications of the nutriment, or to the effect of very frequent applications of boron during fertigation, combined with a decrease of calcium in the leaf. (author) [es

  15. Assessment of RNAi-induced silencing in banana (Musa spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Tuong Vi T; Windelinckx, Saskia; Henry, Isabelle M; De Coninck, Barbara; Cammue, Bruno P A; Swennen, Rony; Remy, Serge

    2014-09-18

    In plants, RNA- based gene silencing mediated by small RNAs functions at the transcriptional or post-transcriptional level to negatively regulate target genes, repetitive sequences, viral RNAs and/or transposon elements. Post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) or the RNA interference (RNAi) approach has been achieved in a wide range of plant species for inhibiting the expression of target genes by generating double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). However, to our knowledge, successful RNAi-application to knock-down endogenous genes has not been reported in the important staple food crop banana. Using embryogenic cell suspension (ECS) transformed with ß-glucuronidase (GUS) as a model system, we assessed silencing of gusAINT using three intron-spliced hairpin RNA (ihpRNA) constructs containing gusAINT sequences of 299-nt, 26-nt and 19-nt, respectively. Their silencing potential was analysed in 2 different experimental set-ups. In the first, Agrobacterium-mediated co-transformation of banana ECS with a gusAINT containing vector and an ihpRNA construct resulted in a significantly reduced GUS enzyme activity 6-8 days after co-cultivation with either the 299-nt and 19-nt ihpRNA vectors. In the second approach, these ihpRNA constructs were transferred to stable GUS-expressing ECS and their silencing potential was evaluated in the regenerated in vitro plants. In comparison to control plants, transgenic plants transformed with the 299-nt gusAINT targeting sequence showed a 4.5 fold down-regulated gusA mRNA expression level, while GUS enzyme activity was reduced by 9 fold. Histochemical staining of plant tissues confirmed these findings. Northern blotting used to detect the expression of siRNA in the 299-nt ihpRNA vector transgenic in vitro plants revealed a negative relationship between siRNA expression and GUS enzyme activity. In contrast, no reduction in GUS activity or GUS mRNA expression occurred in the regenerated lines transformed with either of the two gusAINT oligo target

  16. Banana regime pressure anisotropy in a bumpy cylinder magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Perciante, A.L.; Callen, J.D.; Shaing, K.C.; Hegna, C.C.

    2006-01-01

    The pressure anisotropy is calculated for a plasma in a bumpy cylindrical magnetic field in the low collisionality (banana) regime for small magnetic-field modulations (ε≡ΔB/2B parallel is then calculated and is shown to exceed the flux-surface-averaged parallel viscous force parallel > by a factor of O(1/ε). A high-frequency limit (ω>>ν) for the pressure anisotropy is also determined and the calculation is then extended to include the full frequency dependence by using an expansion in Cordey eigenfunctions

  17. Effect of banana pulp and peel flour on physicochemical properties and in vitro starch digestibility of yellow alkaline noodles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, Saifullah; Alkarkhi, Abbas F M; Shin Yong, Yeoh; Min-Tze, Liong; Easa, Azhar Mat

    2009-01-01

    The present study describes the utilization of banana--Cavendish (Musa acuminata L., cv cavendshii) and Dream (Musa acuminata colla. AAA, cv 'Berangan')--pulp and peel flours as functional ingredients in yellow alkaline noodles. Noodles were prepared by partial substitution of wheat flour with ripe banana pulp or peel flours. In most cases, the starch hydrolysis index, predicted glycaemic index (pGI) and physicochemical properties of cooked noodles were affected by banana flour addition. In general, the pGI values of cooked noodles were in the order; banana peel noodles banana pulp noodles peel flour was higher in total dietary fibre but lower in resistant starch contents than the pulp flour, the low pGI of banana peel noodles was mainly due to its high dietary fibre content. In conclusion, banana pulp and peel flour could be useful for controlling starch hydrolysis of yellow noodles, even though some physicochemical properties of the noodles were altered.

  18. Influence of ripeness of banana on the blood glucose and insulin response in type 2 diabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermansen, K; Rasmussen, O; Gregersen, S; Larsen, S

    1992-10-01

    Banana is a popular and tasty fruit which often is restricted in the diet prescribed for diabetic patients owing to the high content of free sugars. However, in under-ripe bananas starch constitutes 80-90% of the carbohydrate content, which as the banana ripens changes into free sugars. To study the effect of ripening on the postprandial blood glucose and insulin responses to banana, 10 type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic subjects consumed three meals, consisting of 120 g under-ripe banana, 120 g over-ripe banana or 40 g white bread on separate days. The mean postprandial blood glucose response area to white bread (181 +/- 45 mmol l-1 x 240 min) was significantly higher compared with under-ripe banana (62 +/- 17 mmol l-1 x 240 min: p alfa-amylase in humans.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Effect of LED irradiation on the ripening and nutritional quality of postharvest banana fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jen-Yi; Xu, Fengying; Zhou, Weibiao

    2018-04-24

    With the ability to tailor wavelengths necessary to the photosynthetically active radiation spectrum of plant pigments, light-emitting diodes (LEDs) offer vast possibilities in horticultural lighting. The influence of LED light irradiation on major postharvest features of banana was investigated. Mature green bananas were treated daily with selected blue (464-474 nm), green (515-525 nm) and red (617-627 nm) LED lights for 8 days, and compared with non-illuminated control. The positive effect of LED lighting on the acceleration of ripening in bananas was greatest for blue, followed by red and green. Under the irradiation of LED lights, faster peel de-greening and flesh softening, and increased ethylene production and respiration rate in bananas were observed during storage. Furthermore, the accumulations of ascorbic acid, total phenols, and total sugars in banana fruit were enhanced by LED light exposure. LED light treatment can induce the ripening of bananas and improve their quality and nutrition potential. These findings might provide new chemical-free strategies to shorten the time to ripen banana after harvest by using LED light source. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Bacterial Diseases of Bananas and Enset: Current State of Knowledge and Integrated Approaches Toward Sustainable Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Blomme

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial diseases of bananas and enset have not received, until recently, an equal amount of attention compared to other major threats to banana production such as the fungal diseases black leaf streak (Mycosphaerella fijiensis and Fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense. However, bacteria cause significant impacts on bananas globally and management practices are not always well known or adopted by farmers. Bacterial diseases in bananas and enset can be divided into three groups: (1 Ralstonia-associated diseases (Moko/Bugtok disease caused by Ralstonia solanacearum and banana blood disease caused by R. syzygii subsp. celebesensis; (2 Xanthomonas wilt of banana and enset, caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum and (3 Erwinia-associated diseases (bacterial head rot or tip-over disease Erwinia carotovora ssp. carotovora and E. chrysanthemi, bacterial rhizome and pseudostem wet rot (Dickeya paradisiaca formerly E. chrysanthemi pv. paradisiaca. Other bacterial diseases of less widespread importance include: bacterial wilt of abaca, Javanese vascular wilt and bacterial fingertip rot (probably caused by Ralstonia spp., unconfirmed. This review describes global distribution, symptoms, pathogenic diversity, epidemiology and the state of the art for sustainable disease management of the major bacterial wilts currently affecting banana and enset.

  1. Effect of Banana Stalk Organic Fertilizer on the Growth of Chinese Cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheli; DING; Lina; HAN; Zhiqiang; JIN; Bizun; WANG; Huicai; ZENG; Wei; ZHENG; Yingdui; HE; Xiaoping; ZANG

    2016-01-01

    In order to solve the problem of waste disposal after banana harvest,we use banana stalk to produce banana stalk organic fertilizer,through a plot experiment. We compare the influence of normal organic fertilizer( Wanlubao) and banana stalk organic fertilizer as base fertilizers on Chinese cabbage growth,and evaluate the economic benefits of banana stalk organic fertilizer. The results show that organic fertilizer has little effect on water content and nutrient content of Chinese cabbage,but has significant effect on plant height and leaf width. Using organic fertilizer can increase the production of Chinese cabbage by 22. 50%- 43. 10%. With 6750 kg / ha normal organic fertilizer,Chinese cabbage gets the highest yield,which reaches 30135 kg / ha,followed by the treatment of 6750 kg / ha stalk organic fertilizer. At farmers’ conventional fertilization level( 4500 kg / ha),stalk organic fertilizer can increase the yield by more than 3. 50% in comparison with the normal organic fertilizer,and the economic benefit increases by 1800 yuan / ha. As a kind of banana waste cycling product,banana stalk organic fertilizer is of low cost and good effect,and can be used instead of normal organic fertilizer.

  2. Lipophilic extracts from banana fruit residues: a source of valuable phytosterols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Lúcia; Freire, Carmen S R; Silvestre, Armando J D; Cordeiro, Nereida

    2008-10-22

    The chemical composition of the lipophilic extracts of unripe pulp and peel of banana fruit 'Dwarf Cavendish' was studied by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Fatty acids, sterols, and steryl esters are the major families of lipophilic components present in banana tissues, followed by diacylglycerols, steryl glucosides, long chain fatty alcohols, and aromatic compounds. Fatty acids are more abundant in the banana pulp (29-90% of the total amount of lipophilic extract), with linoleic, linolenic, and oleic acids as the major compounds of this family. In banana peel, sterols represent about 49-71% of the lipophilic extract with two triterpenic ketones (31-norcyclolaudenone and cycloeucalenone) as the major components. The detection of high amounts of steryl esters (469-24405 mg/kg) and diacylglycerols (119-878 mg/kg), mainly present in the banana peel extract, explains the increase in the abundance of fatty acids and sterols after alkaline hydrolysis. Several steryl glucosides were also found in significative amounts (273-888 mg/kg), particularly in banana pulp (888 mg/kg). The high content of sterols (and their derivatives) in the 'Dwarf Cavendish' fruit can open new strategies for the valorization of the banana residues as a potential source of high-value phytochemicals with nutraceutical and functional food additive applications.

  3. Prediction of textural attributes using color values of banana (Musa sapientum) during ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Pranita; Jha, Shyam Narayan; Kaur, Poonam Preet; Bhardwaj, Rishi; Singh, Ashish Kumar; Wadhawan, Vishakha

    2014-06-01

    Banana is an important sub-tropical fruit in international trade. It undergoes significant textural and color transformations during ripening process, which in turn influence the eating quality of the fruit. In present study, color ('L', 'a' and 'b' value) and textural attributes of bananas (peel, fruit and pulp firmness; pulp toughness; stickiness) were studied simultaneously using Hunter Color Lab and Texture Analyser, respectively, during ripening period of 10 days at ambient atmosphere. There was significant effect of ripening period on all the considered textural characteristics and color properties of bananas except color value 'b'. In general, textural descriptors (peel, fruit and pulp firmness; and pulp toughness) decreased during ripening except stickiness, while color values viz 'a' and 'b' increased with ripening barring 'L' value. Among various textural attributes, peel toughness and pulp firmness showed highest correlation (r) with 'a' value of banana peel. In order to predict textural properties using color values of banana, five types of equations (linear/polynomial/exponential/logarithmic/power) were fitted. Among them, polynomial equation was found to be the best fit (highest coefficient of determination, R(2)) for prediction of texture using color properties for bananas. The pulp firmness, peel toughness and pulp toughness showed R(2) above 0.84 with indicating its potentiality of the fitted equations for prediction of textural profile of bananas non-destructively using 'a' value.

  4. A study on effect of ATH on Euphorbia coagulum modified polyester banana fiber composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Sanju; Rai, Bhuvneshwar; Kumar, Gulshan

    2018-02-01

    Fiber reinforced polymer composites are used for building and structural applications due to their high strength. In conventional composites both the binder and the reinforcing fibers are synthetic or either one of the material is natural. In the present study coagulum of Euphorbia royleana has been used for replacing polyester resinas binder in polyester banana composite. Euphorbia coagulum (driedlatex) is rich in resinous mass (60-80%), which are terpenes and polyisoprene (10-20%). Effect of varying percentage of coagulum content on various physico-mechanical properties of polyester-banana composites has been studied. Since banana fiber is sensitive to water due to presence of polar group, banana composite undergoes delamination and deterioration under humid condition. Alkali treated banana fiber along with coagulum content has improved overall mechanical properties and reduction in water absorption. The best physico-mechanical properties have been achieved on replacing 40% of polyester resin by coagulum. An increase of 50% in bending strength, 30% bending modulus and 45% impact strength as well as 68% decrease in water absorption was observed. Incorporation of 20% ATH as flame retardant in coagulum modified banana polyester composite enhanced limiting oxygen index from 20.6 to 26.8% and smoke density reduced up to 40%. This study presents the possibility of utilization of renewable materials for environmental friendly composite development as well as to find out alternative feedstock for petroleum products. Developed Euphorbia latex modified banana polyester composites can have potential utility in hardboard, partition panel, plywood and automotive etc.

  5. Inventory of Musa paradisiaca L. (banana kepok in Lumajang regency, Malang regency, and Magelang regency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhadi Suhadi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Banana is fruit containing fairly high nutrition and provides quick reserve enegy. The crop grows in tropical area with average rainfall all the year and banana produces at any season. One of the bananas which has high value sale and high competable potency is subvariety of kepok banana. Kepok banana has various subvarieties, these subvarieties have the same morphologies but have different texture appearances thus uneasy to differenciate among them. The texture appearance determines the quality and price of the banana. Often the buyer makes a mistake in choosing subvariety of kepok he wants to, whereas the seller gives him the cheapiest subvariety of kepok. Methods we used was method of exploration using free exploration technique step by step without any certain path. There were two phases in the research namely the fi rst phase was carried out in field and the second phase was done in the laboratory. Subvarieties of kepok found in Lumajang Regency are 4 subcultivars, Malang Regency there are 3 and Magelang Regency are subcultivars subcultivars, The sequence of the qulity of kapok subcultivars are as follows, red kepok, yellow kepok, big (gede, gilo, gembrot kepok, and white kepok. Sugestion, organic ferlitilizer should be used in the fertilization of banana cultivation, and conservation of red kepok is highly required.

  6. Black leaf streak disease affects starch metabolism in banana fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, Lorenzo de Amorim; Castelan, Florence Polegato; Shitakubo, Renata; Hassimotto, Neuza Mariko Aymoto; Purgatto, Eduardo; Chillet, Marc; Cordenunsi, Beatriz Rosana

    2013-06-12

    Black leaf streak disease (BLSD), also known as black sigatoka, represents the main foliar disease in Brazilian banana plantations. In addition to photosynthetic leaf area losses and yield losses, this disease causes an alteration in the pre- and postharvest behavior of the fruit. The aim of this work was to investigate the starch metabolism of fruits during fruit ripening from plants infected with BLSD by evaluating carbohydrate content (i.e., starch, soluble sugars, oligosaccharides, amylose), phenolic compound content, phytohormones, enzymatic activities (i.e., starch phosphorylases, α- and β-amylase), and starch granules. The results indicated that the starch metabolism in banana fruit ripening is affected by BLSD infection. Fruit from infested plots contained unusual amounts of soluble sugars in the green stage and smaller starch granules and showed a different pattern of superficial degradation. Enzymatic activities linked to starch degradation were also altered by the disease. Moreover, the levels of indole-acetic acid and phenolic compounds indicated an advanced fruit physiological age for fruits from infested plots.

  7. Resistance selection on banana CV. Ambon Kuning Against Fusarium Wilt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutarto, Ismiyarti; Meldia, Yeni; Jumjunidang

    1998-01-01

    This research was conducted in order to study the occurrence of mutation on irradiated plantlets and their resistance of plants of banana cv. Ambon Kuning against Fusarium wilt. Plantlets of banana cv. Ambon Kuning sized 5 cm were exposed to gamma rays at the doses 5 - 35 Gy intervals, then were subcultured for obtained M 1 V 5 plantlets. More over, the planlets were acclimatized and were planted in the field was already infected by Fasarium (f).culbense (FOC). The result indicated that irradiated plantlets of the doses 20 - 35 Gy were not able to survive up to 6 months after exposing to gamma rays. Abnormalities of M 1 V 5 plantlets originated from irradiated plantlets at the doses 10 and 15 Gy were shown on rossette plantlets with rigid and dark green leaves, and the formation of smooth mass morphologically shaped like calculus. The appearance of plant height and number of suckers of suckers of M 1 V 5 plants in the field was quite various. The number of survival plants after 8 moths planting was 8, 7, 15, and 28, respectively originated from untreated plants and irradiated plantlets at the doses 5, 10, and 15 Gy. After one year planting , only 2 plants were able to survive from irradiated plantlet at the dose 15 Gy. The plants could produce 27 plantlets obtained from culturing their shoot tips. Further study of these plantlets was needed in order create the stability of their resistance to FOC. (author)

  8. Post harvest changes gamma-irradiated banana Prata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilas Boas, E.V. de; Chitarra, A.B.; Chitarra, M.I.F.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of the gamma-irradiation was evaluated at 0.25 and 0.50 kGy, on the development of peel coloration, CO 2 and ethylene evolution, conversion of starch to sugars, pulp-to-peel ratio, pectic solubilization and activities of enzymes of the cell wall, pectin methylesterase (PME), and polygalacturonase (PG), during maturation of 'Prata' bananas. The gamma-irradiation did not affect the normal colour development of the fruits. An increase in the ethylene peak and a decrease in the CO 2 peak was observed. The gamma-irradiation did not affect the degradation of starch, while a delay in soluble sugar accumulation was noted on the 6 and 7 colour grades. The fruits subjected to 0.25 kGy had the highest increase in the pulp-to-peel relation, beginning with colour grade 5, due to a possible stress effect of that dose. An increase of pectin solubilization was observed. Higher PME activities were exhibited by irradiated fruits, although the gamma-irradiation suppressed the PG activity throughout the maturation period. The gamma-irradiation did not extend the post-harvest life of 'Prata' bananas. (author) [pt

  9. Response of the banana passion fruit (Passiflora tripartita var. mollissima to different levels of nitrogen, potassium and magnesium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ánge Lizarazo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to observe the effects of N, K, and Mg on dry mass (DM allocation, canopy growth and nutritional deficiency symptom expression of the banana passion fruit (Passiflora tripartita var. mollissima, three levels of fertilization were evaluated: none (0, low (1 and high (2 of each element, and compared to complete fertilization (control, arranged in a randomized complete block design. Banana passion fruit plants were transplanted to plastic pots, containing a substrate of quartz sand, with irrigation twice a week and fertigation once a week. The evaluated variables were total dry weight (TDW, percentage of dry mass allocation, leaf area (LA, number of leaves (NL, specific leaf area (SLA and leaf area ratio (LAR. In addition, a photographic record was taken to recognize the symptomatology in the leaves. The absence of N, K and Mg affected the accumulation of DM, whereas the high nutrient level allowed for the greatest gain in DM only with N, while with K and Mg, it was reduced, indicating that these doses may be too excessive. The distribution pattern of DM with the N treatments corresponded to the model proposed by Thornley, accumulating more DM in the root. With the K and Mg levels, the distribution pattern was similar with the absence of these nutrients causing higher DM accumulation in the above-ground plant parts. The leaf variables NL and LA were reduced with all three elements at the zero nutrient level, whereas the high indices of SLA and LAR revealed a low gain of DM. Deprivation of each nutrient showed characteristic symptoms on the leaves, mainly chlorosis with different patterns, necrosis and reduced LA

  10. Chemical composition and physicochemical properties of green banana (Musa acuminata x balbisiana Colla cv. Awak) flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslinda, W H; Cheng, L H; Chong, L C; Noor Aziah, A A

    2009-01-01

    Flour was prepared from peeled and unpeeled banana Awak ABB. Samples prepared were subjected to analysis for determination of chemical composition, mineral, dietary fibre, starch and total phenolics content, antioxidant activity and pasting properties. In general, flour prepared from unpeeled banana was found to show enhanced nutrition values with higher contents of mineral, dietary fibre and total phenolics. Hence, flour fortified with peel showed relatively higher antioxidant activity. On the other hand, better pasting properties were shown when banana flour was blended with peel. It was found that a relatively lower pasting temperature, peak viscosity, breakdown, final viscosity and setback were evident in a sample blended with peel.

  11. K40 y Cs137 in bananas exported from Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loria, L. G.; Mora, P.; Badilla, M.

    1999-01-01

    Using low level gamma spectroscopy, the specific activity of K 4 0 and Cs 1 37 in banana samples is quantified during the period 1996-1998. The bananas were supplied by the export companies that operate in Costa Rica. The calculated derived intervention level (DIL) for Cs 1 37 was 4000 times greater than the specific activity measured in the fruit due to worldwide nuclear events. This result permits its free commercialization. Banana is an excellent source of potassium, since it was determined that each kg of the fruit has 3.8 g of this element. (Author) [es

  12. ROOT Reference Documentation

    CERN Document Server

    Fuakye, Eric Gyabeng

    2017-01-01

    A ROOT Reference Documentation has been implemented to generate all the lists of libraries needed for each ROOT class. Doxygen has no option to generate or add the lists of libraries for each ROOT class. Therefore shell scripting and a basic C++ program was employed to import the lists of libraries needed by each ROOT class.

  13. Marketing de banana: preferências do consumidor quanto aos atributos de qualidade dos frutos Marketing of banana: consumer preferences relating to fruit quality attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando César Akira Urbano Matsuura

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available O Brasil produz aproximadamente seis milhões de toneladas por ano de banana (Musa spp., com consumo médio da ordem de 35 kg/ habitante / ano. A aceitação da banana deve-se, principalmente, a seus aspectos sensoriais, valor nutricional e conveniência. A identificação das necessidades e desejos dos clientes consiste em uma atividade crítica do marketing. O objetivo deste trabalho foi o de pesquisar as preferências do consumidor de um mercado local (município de Cruz das Almas - Estado da Bahia considerando os atributos de qualidade dos frutos frescos de banana madura. A metodologia utilizada foi a da pesquisa descritiva por método estatístico. Os dados foram coletados por questionário, na forma de entrevista pessoal com 400 pessoas. Os atributos de qualidade (variáveis questionados e avaliados foram relacionados com a aparência, cor, textura, aroma, sabor e vida útil esperada dos frutos de banana. De acordo com a preferência dos consumidores entrevistados, o fruto de banana maduro ideal deve apresentar características como: penca contendo 10 a 12 dedos (frutos, dedos de tamanho médio ou grande, diâmetro médio, quina presente, ausência de pintas pretas na casca, cor da polpa amarelo-clara ou média, textura firme, aroma e sabor de intensidade média, mediamente doce e vida útil de 7 a 10 dias em condição ambiente. O sabor, vida útil e aparência dos frutos de banana são considerados os mais importantes atributos na escolha ou compra da banana, segundo os consumidores entrevistados.Brazil has an approximate production of six million annual tons of banana (Musa spp., with a consumption close to 35 kg / inhabitant / year. The acceptance of the banana fruit is due, mainly, to its sensorial aspects, nutritional value and convenience. The identification of the customers' needs and desires consists of a critical activity of the marketing. The objective of this work was to research the consumer preferences of a local market (Cruz

  14. Conjoined lumbosacral nerve roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyoshima, Kazumitsu; Nishiura, Iwao; Koyama, Tsunemaro

    1986-01-01

    Several kinds of the lumbosacral nerve root anomalies have already been recognized, and the conjoined nerve roots is the most common among them. It does not make symptoms by itself, but if there is a causation of neural entrapment, for example, disc herniation, lateral recessus stenosis, spondylolisthesis, etc., so called ''biradicular syndrome'' should occur. Anomalies of the lumbosacral nerve roots, if not properly recognized, may lead to injury of these nerves during operation of the lumbar spine. Recently, the chance of finding these anomalous roots has been increased more and more with the use of metrizamide myelography and metrizamide CT, because of the improvement of the opacification of nerve roots. We describe the findings of the anomalous roots as revealed by these two methods. They demonstrate two nerve roots running parallel and the asymmetrical wide root sleeve. Under such circumstances, it is important to distinguish the anomalous roots from the normal ventral and dorsal roots. (author)

  15. Root canal irrigants

    OpenAIRE

    Kandaswamy, Deivanayagam; Venkateshbabu, Nagendrababu

    2010-01-01

    Successful root canal therapy relies on the combination of proper instrumentation, irrigation, and obturation of the root canal. Of these three essential steps of root canal therapy, irrigation of the root canal is the most important determinant in the healing of the periapical tissues. The primary endodontic treatment goal must thus be to optimize root canal disinfection and to prevent reinfection. In this review of the literature, various irrigants and the interactions between irrigants are...

  16. Transgenic Cavendish bananas with resistance to Fusarium wilt tropical race 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, James; James, Anthony; Paul, Jean-Yves; Khanna, Harjeet; Smith, Mark; Peraza-Echeverria, Santy; Garcia-Bastidas, Fernando; Kema, Gert; Waterhouse, Peter; Mengersen, Kerrie; Harding, Robert

    2017-11-14

    Banana (Musa spp.) is a staple food for more than 400 million people. Over 40% of world production and virtually all the export trade is based on Cavendish banana. However, Cavendish banana is under threat from a virulent fungus, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4 (TR4) for which no acceptable resistant replacement has been identified. Here we report the identification of transgenic Cavendish with resistance to TR4. In our 3-year field trial, two lines of transgenic Cavendish, one transformed with RGA2, a gene isolated from a TR4-resistant diploid banana, and the other with a nematode-derived gene, Ced9, remain disease free. Transgene expression in the RGA2 lines is strongly correlated with resistance. Endogenous RGA2 homologs are also present in Cavendish but are expressed tenfold lower than that in our most resistant transgenic line. The expression of these homologs can potentially be elevated through gene editing, to provide non-transgenic resistance.

  17. Detection of DNA methylation changes in micropropagated banana plants using methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peraza-Echeverria, S; Herrera-Valencia, V A.; Kay, A -J.

    2001-07-01

    The extent of DNA methylation polymorphisms was evaluated in micropropagated banana (Musa AAA cv. 'Grand Naine') derived from either the vegetative apex of the sucker or the floral apex of the male inflorescence using the methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP) technique. In all, 465 fragments, each representing a recognition site cleaved by either or both of the isoschizomers were amplified using eight combinations of primers. A total of 107 sites (23%) were found to be methylated at cytosine in the genome of micropropagated banana plants. In plants micropropagated from the male inflorescence explant 14 (3%) DNA methylation events were polymorphic, while plants micropropagated from the sucker explant produced 8 (1.7%) polymorphisms. No DNA methylation polymorphisms were detected in conventionally propagated banana plants. These results demonstrated the usefulness of MSAP to detect DNA methylation events in micropropagated banana plants and indicate that DNA methylation polymorphisms are associated with micropropagation.

  18. In vitro mutation induction for resistance to Fusarium wilt in the banana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tulmann Neto, A; Mendes, B M.J.; Latado, R [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Cesar Santos, P dos; Boliani, A [Universidade Estadual Paulista, Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Agronomia

    1995-11-01

    In Brazil, which is one of the world`s principal banana production regions, almost all production is consumed within the country. Consumers show high preference for the cultivar Maca (AAB group). However, it is becoming increasingly difficult to produce bananas of this type because of their high susceptibility to Fusarium wilt, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense. Sexual breeding, which consists of recombination and selection, is limited in the banana because of polyploidy and sterility. Spontaneous somatic mutations are an important source of new cultirvars, and mutation breeding might be particularly important to generate genetic variation. Because of this, the mutation breeding approach has been used in Brazil. The objective of this research was to induce gamma ray mutations for resistance or to increase the level of tolerance to Fusarium wilt in the banana cultivar Maca on the basis of screening under field conditions. 4 refs.

  19. Discrete Dynamical Systems Meet the Classic Monkey-and-the-Bananas Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannon, Gerald E.; Martelli, Mario U.

    2001-01-01

    Presents a solution of the three-sailors-and-the-bananas problem and attempts a generalization. Introduces an interesting way of looking at the mathematics with an idea drawn from discrete dynamical systems. (KHR)

  20. Focused ion beam analysis of banana peel and its application for arsenate ion removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memon, J.R.

    2015-01-01

    Banana peel, a common fruit waste, has been investigated for its ability to remove arsenate ions from ground water as a function of pH, contact time, and initial metal ion concentration. Focused ion beam (FIB) analysis revealed the internal morphology of the banana peels. Arsenate ions were entered into micropores of banana peel. pH was seen to have no effect on the sorption process. Retained species were eluted using 5 mL of 2 M H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. The kinetics of sorption were observed to follow the pseudo first order rate equation. The sorption data followed Freundlich and D-R isotherms. The energy value obtained from the D-R isotherms indicated that the sorption was physical in nature for arsenate species. Our study has shown that banana peel has the ability to remove arsenate species from ground water samples. (author)

  1. Mechanical and water absorption behaviour of banana/sisal reinforced hybrid composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkateshwaran, N.; ElayaPerumal, A.; Alavudeen, A.; Thiruchitrambalam, M.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → It explores the utilization of waste banana fiber. → Improving the mechanical property by hybridization. → Results show its usefulness to low cost application. -- Abstract: The tensile, flexural, impact and water absorption tests were carried out using banana/epoxy composite material. Initially, optimum fiber length and weight percentage were determined. To improve the mechanical properties, banana fiber was hybridised with sisal fiber. This study showed that addition of sisal fiber in banana/epoxy composites of up to 50% by weight results in increasing the mechanical properties and decreasing the moisture absorption property. Morphological analysis was carried out to observe fracture behaviour and fiber pull-out of the samples using scanning electron microscope.

  2. Bio solids Application on Banana Production: Soil Chemical Properties and Plant Nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, L.A.J; Berton, R.S.B; Coscione, A.R; Saes, L.A

    2011-01-01

    Bio solids are relatively rich in N, P, and S and could be used to substitute mineral fertilization for banana crop. A field experiment was carried out in a Yellow Oxisol to investigate the effects of bio solids application on soil chemical properties and on banana leaf's nutrient concentration during the first cropping cycle. Soil analysis (ph, organic matter, resin P, exchangeable Ca and K, available B, DTPA-extracted micro nutrients, and heavy metals) and index-leaf analysis (B, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cd, Cr, Ni, and Pb) were evaluated. Bio solids can completely substitute mineral N and P fertilizer to banana growth. Soil exchangeable K and leaf-K concentration must be monitored in order to avoid K deficiency in banana plants. No risk of heavy metal (Cr, Ni, Pb, and Cd) concentration increase in the index leaf was observed when bio solids were applied at the recommended N rate.

  3. Molecular Diagnostics in the Mycosphaerella Leaf Spot Disease Complex of Banana and for Radopholus similis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arzanlou, M.; Kema, G.H.J.; Waalwijk, C.; Carlier, I.; Vries, de P.M.; Guzmán, M.; Araya Vargas, M.; Helder, J.; Crous, P.W.

    2009-01-01

    Mycosphaerella leaf spots and nematodes threaten banana cultivation worldwide. The Mycosphaerella disease complex involves three related ascomycetous fungi: Mycosphaerella fijiensis, M. musicola and M. eumusae. The exact distribution of these three species and their disease epidemiology remain

  4. Biochemical and molecular tools reveal two diverse Xanthomonas groups in bananas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriko, John; Aritua, V.; Mortensen, Carmen Nieves

    2016-01-01

    Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum (Xcm) causing the banana Xanthomonas wilt (BXW) disease has been the main xanthomonad associated with bananas in East and Central Africa based on phenotypic and biochemical characteristics. However, biochemical methods cannot effectively distinguish between...... pathogenic and non-pathogenic xanthomonads. In this study, gram-negative and yellow-pigmented mucoid bacteria were isolated from BXW symptomatic and symptomless bananas collected from different parts of Uganda. Biolog, Xcm-specific (GspDm), Xanthomonas vasicola species-specific (NZ085) and Xanthomonas genus......-specific (X1623) primers in PCR, and sequencing of ITS region were used to identify and characterize the isolates. Biolog tests revealed several isolates as xanthomonads. The GspDm and NZ085 primers accurately identified three isolates from diseased bananas as Xcm and these were pathogenic when re...

  5. Focused Ion Beam Analysis of Banana Peel and Its Application for Arsenate Ion Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamil R. Memon

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Banana peel, a common fruit waste, has been investigated for its ability to remove arsenate ions from ground water as a function of pH, contact time, and initial metal ion concentration. Focused ion beam (FIB analysis revealed the internal morphology of the banana peels. Arsenate ions were entered into micropores of banana peel. pH was seen to have no effect on the sorption process. Retained species were eluted using 5 mL of 2 M H2SO4. The kinetics of sorption were observed to follow the pseudo first order rate equation. The sorption data followed Freundlich and D-R isotherms. The energy value obtained from the D-R isotherms indicated that the sorption was physical in nature for arsenate species. Our study has shown that banana peel has the ability to remove arsenate species from ground water samples.

  6. [Banana peel: a possible source of infection in the treatment of nipple fissures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Franz Reis; de Almeida, João Aprígio Guerra; de Souza e Silva, Rosana

    2003-01-01

    To study the microbiology of banana peel being sold in the city of Rio de Janeiro, in an attempt to determine the possibility that the peel may represent a source of infection for women who use it to treat nipple fissures. The following microorganisms were studied in 20 banana peel samples: mesophiles, total coliforms, fecal coliforms, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, lipolytic and proteolytic microorganisms, molds and yeasts, lactic bacteria, and coagulase-positive staphylococcus. The microbiological analyses revealed the occurrence of several typical groups of microorganisms, with the following distribution of positive results being detected in banana peel samples: mesophiles, 100%; total coliforms, 20%; coagulase-positive staphylococcus, 25%; molds and yeasts, 30%; proteolytic microorganisms, 70%; lipolytic microorganisms, 30%, and lactic bacteria, 95%. Fecal coliforms and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were not isolated. The results show the presence of potentially pathogenic microorganisms in levels which could compromise the microbiological quality of the banana peel. Its use for the treatment of nipple fissures can initiate an infectious process.

  7. Physicochemical quality and antioxidant changes in ‘Leb Mue Nang’ banana fruit during ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pannipa Youryon

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The physicochemical and antioxidant changes of ‘Kluai Leb Mue Nang’ banana fruit (Musa AA group were investigated during ripening. The visual appearance, peel and pulp color, firmness, total soluble solids concentration (TSS, total acidity (TA and bioactive compounds of the fruit at three stages of ripening (mature green, ripe and overripe were monitored. Changes in both the peel and pulp color, texture, TSS and TA contents during banana ripening were similar to those of other banana fruits. Interestingly, the highest total antioxidants capacity and total phenols concentration were found in the ripe banana fruit. 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity remained constant and the highest total flavonoids concentration was found in the mature green fruit.

  8. Studies on physico-chemical changes during artificial ripening of banana (Musa sp) variety 'Robusta'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Shyamrao Gururao; Kudachikar, V B; Keshava Prakash, M N

    2011-12-01

    Banana (Musa sp var 'Robusta') fruits harvested at 75-80% maturity were dip treated with different concentrations of ethrel (250-1,000 ppm) solution for 5 min. Ethrel at 500 ppm induced uniform ripening without impairing taste and flavour of banana. Untreated control banana fruits remained shriveled, green and failed to ripen evenly even after 8 days of storage. Fruits treated with 500 ppm of ethrel ripened well in 6 days at 20 ± 1 °C. Changes in total soluble solids, acidity, total sugars and total carotenoids showed increasing trends up to 6 days during ripening whereas fruit shear force values, pulp pH and total chlorophyll in peel showed decreasing trends. Sensory quality of ethrel treated banana fruits (fully ripe) were excellent with respect to external colour, taste, flavour and overall quality.

  9. Bacillus spp as a biological control agent against panama disease in banana

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gumede, WHN

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The decreased productivity levels in crop production as a consequence of disease infection have been a great concern amongst agricultural communities. A similar threat is facing the banana-cultivating community due to Panama disease. Panama disease...

  10. Treatment of banana and potato plants with a new antifungal composition (European patent specification)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stark, J.; Rijn, van F.T.J.; Krieken, van der W.M.; Stevens, L.H.

    2010-01-01

    International publication number: WO 2009/077613 (25.06.2009 Gazette 2009/26) The present invention relates to the treatment of banana and potato plants with a composition containing natamycin and at least one phosphite containing compound

  11. Natural Variation in Banana Varieties Highlights the Role of Melatonin in Postharvest Ripening and Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wei; Yang, Hai; Tie, Weiwei; Yan, Yan; Ding, Zehong; Liu, Yang; Wu, Chunlai; Wang, Jiashui; Reiter, Russel J; Tan, Dun-Xian; Shi, Haitao; Xu, Biyu; Jin, Zhiqiang

    2017-11-22

    This study aimed to investigate the role of melatonin in postharvest ripening and quality in various banana varieties with contrasting ripening periods. During the postharvest life, endogenous melatonin showed similar performance with ethylene in connection to ripening. In comparison to ethylene, melatonin was more correlated with postharvest banana ripening. Exogenous application of melatonin resulted in a delay of postharvest banana ripening. Moreover, this effect is concentration-dependent, with 200 and 500 μM treatments more effective than the 50 μM treatment. Exogenous melatonin also led to elevated endogenous melatonin content, reduced ethylene production through regulation of the expression of MaACO1 and MaACS1, and delayed sharp changes of quality indices. Taken together, this study highlights that melatonin is an indicator for banana fruit ripening in various varieties, and the repression of ethylene biosynthesis and postharvest ripening by melatonin can be used for biological control of postharvest fruit ripening and quality.

  12. Ion thermal conductivity and ion distribution function in the banana regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taguchi, Masayoshi

    1988-01-01

    A method for calculating the ion thermal conductivity and the ion distribution function in the banana regime is formulated for an axisymmetric toroidal plasma of arbitrary aspect ratio. A simple expression for this conductivity is also derived. (author)

  13. Extraction and characterization of proteins from banana (Musa Sapientum L) flower and evaluation of antimicrobial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitthiya, Kewalee; Devkota, Lavaraj; Sadiq, Muhammad Bilal; Anal, Anil Kumar

    2018-02-01

    Ultrasonic assisted alkaline extraction of protein from banana flower was optimized using response surface methodology. The extracted proteins were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and molecular weight distribution was determined by gel electrophoresis. The maximum protein yield of 252.25 mg/g was obtained under optimized extraction conditions: temperature 50 °C, 30 min extraction time and 1 M NaOH concentration. The alkaline extraction produced a significantly high protein yield compared to enzymatic extraction of banana flower. Chemical finger printing of proteins showed the presence of tyrosine, tryptophan and amide bonds in extracted protein. Alkaline and pepsin assisted extracted banana flower proteins showed characteristic bands at 40 and 10 kDA, respectively. The extracted proteins showed antibacterial effects against both gram positive and gram negative bacteria. The high protein content and antimicrobial activity indicate the potential applications of banana flower in the food and feed industry.

  14. Attitudes, perceptions, and trust. Insights from a consumer survey regarding genetically modified banana in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikulwe, Enoch M; Wesseler, Justus; Falck-Zepeda, Jose

    2011-10-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops and food are still controversial. This paper analyzes consumers' perceptions and institutional awareness and trust toward GM banana regulation in Uganda. Results are based on a study conducted among 421 banana-consuming households between July and August 2007. Results show a high willingness to purchase GM banana among consumers. An explanatory factor analysis is conducted to identify the perceptions toward genetic modification. The identified factors are used in a cluster analysis that grouped consumers into segments of GM skepticism, government trust, health safety concern, and food and environmental safety concern. Socioeconomic characteristics differed significantly across segments. Consumer characteristics and perception factors influence consumers' willingness to purchase GM banana. The institutional awareness and trust varied significantly across segments as well. The findings would be essential to policy makers when designing risk-communication strategies targeting different consumer segments to ensure proper discussion and addressing potential concerns about GM technology. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of gamma radiation treatment on some fungi causing storage diseases of banana fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-Ashmawi, A.M.M.

    1982-01-01

    Banana is one of the most popular fruits in many tropical and sub-tropical countries. in recent years, the quality of egyptian banana markedly declined. A major factor contributing to this decline is the development of fruit rot, which is the most widely occurring disease either in the field or in storage. Different fungi attack banana fruits causing considerable losses. Most of the fungi responsible for post harvest rots of banana are usually carried from the field, on the surface of the fruit itself or in injured and rotting fruits causing severe rats during storage. These rots make the fruits difficult to handle and undesirable to the consumers. Botryodiplodia theobromae is known to be the most important pathogen responsible for the infection in storage

  16. Public-domain software for root image analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirian Cristina Gomes Costa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the search for high efficiency in root studies, computational systems have been developed to analyze digital images. ImageJ and Safira are public-domain systems that may be used for image analysis of washed roots. However, differences in root properties measured using ImageJ and Safira are supposed. This study compared values of root length and surface area obtained with public-domain systems with values obtained by a reference method. Root samples were collected in a banana plantation in an area of a shallower Typic Carbonatic Haplic Cambisol (CXk, and an area of a deeper Typic Haplic Ta Eutrophic Cambisol (CXve, at six depths in five replications. Root images were digitized and the systems ImageJ and Safira used to determine root length and surface area. The line-intersect method modified by Tennant was used as reference; values of root length and surface area measured with the different systems were analyzed by Pearson's correlation coefficient and compared by the confidence interval and t-test. Both systems ImageJ and Safira had positive correlation coefficients with the reference method for root length and surface area data in CXk and CXve. The correlation coefficient ranged from 0.54 to 0.80, with lowest value observed for ImageJ in the measurement of surface area of roots sampled in CXve. The IC (95 % revealed that root length measurements with Safira did not differ from that with the reference method in CXk (-77.3 to 244.0 mm. Regarding surface area measurements, Safira did not differ from the reference method for samples collected in CXk (-530.6 to 565.8 mm² as well as in CXve (-4231 to 612.1 mm². However, measurements with ImageJ were different from those obtained by the reference method, underestimating length and surface area in samples collected in CXk and CXve. Both ImageJ and Safira allow an identification of increases or decreases in root length and surface area. However, Safira results for root length and surface area are

  17. ''In vitro'' mutation breeding methodology for Fusarium wilt resistance in banana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tulmann Neto, A.; Domingues, E.T.; Mendes, B.M.J.; Ando, A.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Besides ''in vivo'' methods, the Radiation Genetics Section of CENA/USP is also using ''in vitro'' methods for mutation breeding to obtain resistance to Panama disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense in the banana cultivar ''Maca''. A protocol has been established for the ''in vitro'' development of shoot tips, obtained from plants in the field or already cultivated under i n vitro'' conditions. For both cases, only one culture medium was used during all steps of ''in vitro'' cultivation. New buds were formed and these buds grew and developed to form roots. The medium was composed of macro and micro nutrients, with added Morel vitamines, BAP (5 mg/l), saccharose (30 g/l) and agar (6.5 g/l), at pH 5.7. Cultures were allowed to grow in a controlled environment at 27 deg. C and 16 h illumination. Shoot tips which originated from ''in vitro'' plantlets, were cut longitudinally down the middle. This was done to avoid a tendency of regeneration of the original tissue instead of the formation of new lateral buds. To resolve the chimerism resulting when mutagenic treatment is applied to shoot tips, there is a need of vegetative propagation of new lateral buds. Selection can then be done at M 1 V 4 generation. Once the protocol was established, the gamma ray sensitivity was determined. The dose that produced a 50% decrease in the number of new lateral buds was around 40 Gy and this dose will be utilised. The methodology was completed by soil inoculation with Fusarium of young plants 15 cm in height, obtained from ''in vitro'' cultures. After 3 weeks all inoculated plants showed symptoms of wilt, demonstrating the possibility of screening. The method is now being utilised on a large scale in an attempt to induce a resistant mutant. (author)

  18. ''In vitro'' mutation breeding methodology for Fusarium wilt resistance in banana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tulmann Neto, A; Domingues, E T; Mendes, B M.J.; Ando, A [Centre for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture (CENA), Piracicaba, SP. (Brazil)

    1990-07-01

    Full text: Besides ''in vivo'' methods, the Radiation Genetics Section of CENA/USP is also using ''in vitro'' methods for mutation breeding to obtain resistance to Panama disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense in the banana cultivar ''Maca''. A protocol has been established for the ''in vitro'' development of shoot tips, obtained from plants in the field or already cultivated under {sup i}n vitro'' conditions. For both cases, only one culture medium was used during all steps of ''in vitro'' cultivation. New buds were formed and these buds grew and developed to form roots. The medium was composed of macro and micro nutrients, with added Morel vitamines, BAP (5 mg/l), saccharose (30 g/l) and agar (6.5 g/l), at pH 5.7. Cultures were allowed to grow in a controlled environment at 27 deg. C and 16 h illumination. Shoot tips which originated from ''in vitro'' plantlets, were cut longitudinally down the middle. This was done to avoid a tendency of regeneration of the original tissue instead of the formation of new lateral buds. To resolve the chimerism resulting when mutagenic treatment is applied to shoot tips, there is a need of vegetative propagation of new lateral buds. Selection can then be done at M{sub 1}V{sub 4} generation. Once the protocol was established, the gamma ray sensitivity was determined. The dose that produced a 50% decrease in the number of new lateral buds was around 40 Gy and this dose will be utilised. The methodology was completed by soil inoculation with Fusarium of young plants 15 cm in height, obtained from ''in vitro'' cultures. After 3 weeks all inoculated plants showed symptoms of wilt, demonstrating the possibility of screening. The method is now being utilised on a large scale in an attempt to induce a resistant mutant. (author)

  19. The Design and Research of Deep Loosening Vibration Machine for the Tropical Banana Field%热带香蕉地振动深松机的设计与研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘声豹; 张喜瑞; 李粤; 梁栋

    2015-01-01

    针对香蕉地地形特殊,传统深松机作业方式单一、造价高、牵引阻力大、松土效果不理想及作业不稳定等问题,研制了一种热带香蕉地振动深松机,设计了该机的总体方案及主要部件的结构。该机具有结构简单紧凑、深松效果好、省力、耕深大的特点,其可保证在不翻动土壤前提下有效促进作物根系发育生长,对香蕉的抗旱增产具有很好的效果。%In view of the banana special terrain and the problems of traditional subsoiler:single practices、high cost、large traction resistance ,cultivators not ideal and working instability .Developed a vibrating subsoiler for the tropical banana , structure the main components of the over all program .The machine has a simple and compact structure ,good deep loose-ning effect,effort,characterized by deep plowing .It implementation can be guaranteed under the premise of not turning the soil effectively promote crop growth and root development , and drought on banana yield with very good results .

  20. Species of beetles (Coleoptera; Scarabaeidae associated to banana (Musa spp. in Ceballos, Ciego de Avila, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa Sisne Luis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A white light trap was placed in bananas plantations, according to Sisne, 2009 and MINAG, 1985, in the Citric enterprise of Ciego de Ávila during the period between May and July of 2010 with the objective of determining the composition of genus and species of the order Coleoptera family Scarabaeidae associated to the agroecosystem. The species Cyclocephala cubana Chapin, Phyllophaga puberula Duval, and Phyllophaga patruelis Chev. are associated to bananas crops in these areas.

  1. Effectiveness of ambon banana stem juice as immunostimulatory against Aeromonas hydrophila infections in catfish Clarias gariepinus

    OpenAIRE

    Qorie Astria; Sri Nuryati; Kukuh Nirmala; Alimuddin Alimuddin

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Outbreaks of infectious diseases due to Aeromonas hydrophila in catfish can cause high death rates (80–100%). Fish disease control can be done using phytopharmaceutical to prevent or treat diseases of fish. One of the phytopharmaceutical that known to prevent the fish diseases is ambon banana stem Musa cavendishii var. dwarf Paxton. This study was conducted to test the effectiveness of catfish immersion using banana stem juice as an immunostimulant against bacterial infections A. hyd...

  2. Anti-nutrients and heavy metals in some new plantain and banana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plantain and banana flour are important raw material in the baking and confectionery industry, and complementary food formulation. Five new plantain and banana ... PITA\\'s 14, 24 and Agbagba contained 4.0x10-5% cyanide, while 4.0x10-5 was obtained for PITA\\'s 17, 26 and BITA 3. The phenolic content of PITA\\'s 14 and ...

  3. A Socio-Economic History of the International Banana Trade, 1870-1930

    OpenAIRE

    ABBOTT, Roderick

    2009-01-01

    The genesis, and even more the growth, of the international banana industry is intimately bound up with the development of steamships (from 1850 onwards) and with the spread of railway construction around the world. The coming of steam, which ensured consistent and swifter passage from the Caribbean and Central America to the United States, and later to Europe, meant that bananas could be delivered in good condition rather than rotten, as had happened in earlier days. Later, when refrigerated...

  4. Sulphate Potasium Extraction From Banana Stem Ash with Bleaching Earth Waste Liquid

    OpenAIRE

    Edahwati, Luluk

    2010-01-01

    Sulphate potassium is one of the important chemistry compound for industrial at our country, usually for fertilizerindustry. Therefore, necessary done sulphate potassium maker watchfulness from various ingredient that containsulphate potassium compound. Among others with extract banana stem ash. Watchfulness methodology that is withmix banana stem ash with aquadest (20 gram ash/1 water litre) in temperature 100oc during 30 minutes and stirringrotation 300 rpm. Ash extract that got reaction wi...

  5. Biology, etiology, and control of virus diseases of banana and plantain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P Lava; Selvarajan, Ramasamy; Iskra-Caruana, Marie-Line; Chabannes, Matthieu; Hanna, Rachid

    2015-01-01

    Banana and plantain (Musa spp.), produced in 10.3 million ha in the tropics, are among the world's top 10 food crops. They are vegetatively propagated using suckers or tissue culture plants and grown almost as perennial plantations. These are prone to the accumulation of pests and pathogens, especially viruses which contribute to yield reduction and are also barriers to the international exchange of germplasm. The most economically important viruses of banana and plantain are Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV), a complex of banana streak viruses (BSVs) and Banana bract mosaic virus (BBrMV). BBTV is known to cause the most serious economic losses in the "Old World," contributing to a yield reduction of up to 100% and responsible for a dramatic reduction in cropping area. The BSVs exist as episomal and endogenous forms are known to be worldwide in distribution. In India and the Philippines, BBrMV is known to be economically important but recently the virus was discovered in Colombia and Costa Rica, thus signaling its spread into the "New World." Banana and plantain are also known to be susceptible to five other viruses of minor significance, such as Abaca mosaic virus, Abaca bunchy top virus, Banana mild mosaic virus, Banana virus X, and Cucumber mosaic virus. Studies over the past 100 years have contributed to important knowledge on disease biology, distribution, and spread. Research during the last 25 years have led to a better understanding of the virus-vector-host interactions, virus diversity, disease etiology, and epidemiology. In addition, new diagnostic tools were developed which were used for surveillance and the certification of planting material. Due to a lack of durable host resistance in the Musa spp., phytosanitary measures and the use of virus-free planting material are the major methods of virus control. The state of knowledge on BBTV, BBrMV, and BSVs, and other minor viruses, disease spread, and control are summarized in this review. © 2015 Elsevier Inc

  6. Repetitive part of the banana (Musa acuminata) genome investigated by low-depth 454 sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hribová, Eva; Neumann, Pavel; Matsumoto, Takashi; Roux, Nicolas; Macas, Jirí; Dolezel, Jaroslav

    2010-09-16

    Bananas and plantains (Musa spp.) are grown in more than a hundred tropical and subtropical countries and provide staple food for hundreds of millions of people. They are seed-sterile crops propagated clonally and this makes them vulnerable to a rapid spread of devastating diseases and at the same time hampers breeding improved cultivars. Although the socio-economic importance of bananas and plantains cannot be overestimated, they remain outside the focus of major research programs. This slows down the study of nuclear genome and the development of molecular tools to facilitate banana improvement. In this work, we report on the first thorough characterization of the repeat component of the banana (M. acuminata cv. 'Calcutta 4') genome. Analysis of almost 100 Mb of sequence data (0.15× genome coverage) permitted partial sequence reconstruction and characterization of repetitive DNA, making up about 30% of the genome. The results showed that the banana repeats are predominantly made of various types of Ty1/copia and Ty3/gypsy retroelements representing 16 and 7% of the genome respectively. On the other hand, DNA transposons were found to be rare. In addition to new families of transposable elements, two new satellite repeats were discovered and found useful as cytogenetic markers. To help in banana sequence annotation, a specific Musa repeat database was created, and its utility was demonstrated by analyzing the repeat composition of 62 genomic BAC clones. A low-depth 454 sequencing of banana nuclear genome provided the largest amount of DNA sequence data available until now for Musa and permitted reconstruction of most of the major types of DNA repeats. The information obtained in this study improves the knowledge of the long-range organization of banana chromosomes, and provides sequence resources needed for repeat masking and annotation during the Musa genome sequencing project. It also provides sequence data for isolation of DNA markers to be used in genetic

  7. Banana NAC transcription factor MusaNAC042 is positively associated with drought and salinity tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tak, Himanshu; Negi, Sanjana; Ganapathi, T R

    2017-03-01

    Banana is an important fruit crop and its yield is hampered by multiple abiotic stress conditions encountered during its growth. The NAC (NAM, ATAF, and CUC) transcription factors are involved in plant response to biotic and abiotic stresses. In the present study, we studied the induction of banana NAC042 transcription factor in drought and high salinity conditions and its overexpression in transgenic banana to improve drought and salinity tolerance. MusaNAC042 expression was positively associated with stress conditions like salinity and drought and it encoded a nuclear localized protein. Transgenic lines of banana cultivar Rasthali overexpressing MusaNAC042 were generated by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of banana embryogenic cells and T-DNA insertion was confirmed by PCR and Southern blot analysis. Our results using leaf disc assay indicated that transgenic banana lines were able to tolerate drought and high salinity stress better than the control plants and retained higher level of total chlorophyll and lower level of MDA content (malondialdehyde). Transgenic lines analyzed for salinity (250 mM NaCl) and drought (Soil gravimetric water content 0.15) tolerance showed higher proline content, better Fv/Fm ratio, and lower levels of MDA content than control suggesting that MusaNAC042 may be involved in responses to higher salinity and drought stresses in banana. Expression of several abiotic stress-related genes like those coding for CBF/DREB, LEA, and WRKY factors was altered in transgenic lines indicating that MusaNAC042 is an efficient modulator of abiotic stress response in banana.

  8. Banana Cultivar Mapping and Constraints Identification With Farmers in Southwest Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onyago, M.; Makworo, S.; Njue, E.; Rees, D.

    1999-01-01

    Southwest Kenya is one of the major banana growing ares of Kenya and contributes about 40% of the country's production. Banana is an important crop in Kenya providing the small-scale resource poor farmers with food and the much-needed income. In southwest Kenya, Banana is a priority crop that is grown in a wide range of farms from backyard gardens to medium farms. Rapid Rural Appraisal (RRP) and Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) were conducted between January, 1996 and December 1997. The overall objective was to identify major constraints in specific areas, rank them with farmers and determine suitable interventions. The RRA and PRA revealed that farmers grow banana as a pure stand, intercropped with crops like maize, beans and groundnuts, in addition along the contour lines for soil conservation purpose. Diverse banana cultivars are grown in the region, of which some are localised while others are widespread. The major cultivars grown include 'Ekeganda', Kisukari', 'Ng'ombe' and 'Pisang Awak'. Pisang Awak was found prevalent in drier areas of Kendu Bay (LM 3 ) and very cold areas of Bomet (LH 1 ). Ekeganda is the most popular cooking type while Kisukari is a dessert type and is the second most popular banana cultivar in the region. Some of the constraints cut across the AEZs and include a complex of pests and diseases, poor orchard management, soil exhaustion because of land pressure, lack of superior cultivars and socioeconomic factors such as poor infrastructure. Panama disease, nematodes and banana weevil are prevalent at the medium and lower AEZs while moles are menace in the upper midlands and highland areas. To address some of the major constraints, on-farm banana cultivar evaluation trials were initiated in four AEZs namely LM 3-4 , LH 1 , UM 1 and LM 2 , respectively. Monitoring and evaluation of these cultivars by both researchers, extension and farmers is on-going

  9. Holographic entanglement entropy for hollow cones and banana shaped regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorn, Harald [Institut für Physik und IRIS Adlershof, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin,Zum Großen Windkanal 6, D-12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2016-06-09

    We consider banana shaped regions as examples of compact regions, whose boundary has two conical singularities. Their regularised holographic entropy is calculated with all divergent as well as finite terms. The coefficient of the squared logarithmic divergence, also in such a case with internally curved boundary, agrees with that calculated in the literature for infinite circular cones with their internally flat boundary. For the otherwise conformally invariant coefficient of the ordinary logarithmic divergence an anomaly under exceptional conformal transformations is observed. The construction of minimal submanifolds, needed for the entanglement entropy of cones, requires fine-tuning of Cauchy data. Perturbations of such fine-tuning leads to solutions relevant for hollow cones. The divergent parts for the entanglement entropy of hollow cones are calculated. Increasing the difference between the opening angles of their outer and inner boundary, one finds a transition between connected solutions for small differences to disconnected solutions for larger ones.

  10. Structure analysis and laxative effects of oligosaccharides isolated from bananas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juan; Huang, Hui Hua; Cheng, Yan Feng; Yang, Gong Ming

    2012-10-01

    Banana oligosaccharides (BOS) were extracted with water, and then separated and purified using column chromatography. Gel penetration chromatography was used to determine the molecular weights. Thin layer chromatogram and capillary electrophoresis were employed to analyze the monosaccharide composition. The indican bond and structure of the BOS molecule were determined using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance. Results showed that BOS were probably composed of eight β-D-pyran glucose units linked with 1→6 indican bonds. The laxative effects of BOS were investigated in mice using the method described in "Handbook of Technical Standards for Testing and Assessment of Health Food in China." The length of the small intestine over which a carbon suspension solution advanced in mice treated with low-, middle-, and high-dose BOS was significantly greater than that in the model group, suggesting that BOS are effective in accelerating the movement of the small intestine.

  11. Biological control of banana black Sigatoka disease with Trichoderma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poholl Adan Sagratzki Cavero

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Black Sigatoka disease caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis is the most severe banana disease worldwide. The pathogen is in an invasive phase in Brazil and is already present in most States of the country. The potential of 29 isolates of Trichoderma spp. was studied for the control of black Sigatoka disease under field conditions. Four isolates were able to significantly reduce disease severity and were further tested in a second field experiment. Isolate 2.047 showed the best results in both field experiments and was selected for fungicide sensitivity tests and mass production. This isolate was identified as Trichoderma atroviride by sequencing fragments of the ITS region of the rDNA and tef-1α of the RNA polymerase. Trichoderma atroviride was as effective as the fungicide Azoxystrobin, which is recommended for controlling black Sigatoka. This biocontrol agent has potential to control the disease and may be scaled-up for field applications on rice-based solid fermentation

  12. Improvement of bananas (Musa cvs.) through in vitro anther culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perea Dallos, M [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota (Colombia). Dept. de Biologia

    1995-06-01

    Agricultural products play a great role in the Colombian economy, and the banana is one of the most important. Since 1981, one of the more serious problems effecting production of this crop is the fungus Mycosphaerella fijensis sp. difformis, that causes black sigatoka disease. Most of the recent efforts to control this disease have been directed towards the identification of clones tolerant or resistant to this disease. One alternative approach is the use of anther culture to obtain resistant haploid plants. Diploid clones (Musa - AA) have been used as a model in this study. The results presented here identify the most appropriate stage of anther development for callus induction and proliferation, and treatments that reduce tissue browning. (author). 12 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab.

  13. Production and storage stability of non alcoholic banana beverage powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugula, J K; Lyimo, M H; Kessy, F L

    1994-02-01

    Powder for an instant, non-alcoholic beverage formulation was manufactured by sundrying and ovendrying of a popular dessert ('silk') banana variety. The reconstituted beverage was organoleptically acceptable. The effect of traditional sundrying on mats and ovendrying methods on product quality was investigated. Sundrying resulted in losses of Vitamin A, C and total sugar contents by 74, 91 and 63%, while ovendrying losses were 73, 90 and 62%, respectively. Nutrient losses during storage for three months in transparent polythene bags reached 93, 93 and 70% in sundried samples and 84, 99 and 55% in ovendried samples, respectively. The moisture content of sundried and ovendried samples increased by 12 and 17%, respectively, during storage. The increase in microbial load in this period was higher in sundried samples.

  14. 32-Channel banana-avg montage is better than 16-channel double banana montage to detect epileptiform discharges in routine EEGs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Juan; Gonzalez, Walter; Bautista, Ramon; DeCerce, John

    2008-10-01

    We designed a study, comparing the yield of standard 16-channel longitudinal bipolar montage (double banana) versus a combined 32-channel longitudinal bipolar plus average referential montage (banana-plus), to detect epileptic abnormalities. We selected 25 consecutive routine EEG samples with a diagnosis of spike or sharp waves in the temporal regions and 25 consecutive focal slowing and 50 normal EEGs. A total of 100 samples were printed in both montages and randomized for reading. Thirty independent EEG readers blinded from the EEG diagnosis were invited to participate. Twenty-two readers successfully completed the test for a total of 4400 answers collected for analysis. The average sensitivity to detect epileptiform discharges for 16 and 32-channel montages was 36.5% and 61%, respectively (Pdouble banana montage. Residents and EEG fellows could improve EEG-reading accuracy if taught on a combined 32-channel montage.

  15. Natural Ecosystem Surrounding a Conventional Banana Crop Improves Plant Health and Fruit Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence P. Castelan

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Natural ecosystems near agricultural landscapes may provide rich environments for growing crops. However, the effect of a natural ecosystem on crop health and fruit quality is poorly understood. In the present study, it was investigated whether the presence of a natural ecosystem surrounding a crop area influences banana plant health and fruit postharvest behavior. Plants from two conventional banana crop areas with identical planting time and cultural practices were used; the only difference between banana crop areas is that one area was surrounded by a natural forest (Atlantic forest fragment (Near-NF, while the other area was inserted at the center of a conventional banana crop (Distant-NF. Results showed that bananas harvested from Near-NF showed higher greenlife and a more homogeneous profile during ripening compared to fruits harvested from Distant-NF. Differences in quality parameters including greenlife, carbohydrate profile, and pulp firmness between fruits harvested from Near-NF and Distant-NF are explained, at least partly, by differences in the balance of plant growth regulators (indole-3-acetic acid and abscisic acid in bananas during ripening. Furthermore, plants from Near-NF showed a lower severity index of black leaf streak disease (BLSD and higher levels of phenolic compounds in leaves compared to plants from Distant-NF. Together, the results provide additional evidence on how the maintenance of natural ecosystems near conventional crop areas could be a promising tool to improve plant health and fruit quality.

  16. Effect of chitosan coating and bamboo FSC (fruit storage chamber) to expand banana shelf life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratiwi, Aksarani'Sa; Dwivany, Fenny M.; Larasati, Dwinita; Islamia, Hana Cahya; Martien, Ronny

    2015-09-01

    Chitosan has been widely used as fruit preserver and proven to extend the shelf life of many fruits, such as banana. However, banana producers and many industries in Indonesia still facing storage problems which may lead to mechanical damage of the fruits and ripening acceleration. Therefore, we have designed food storage chamber (FSC) based on bamboo material. Bamboo was selected because of material abundance in Indonesia, economically effective, and not causing an autocatalytic reaction to the ethylene gas produced by the banana. In this research, Cavendish banana that has reached the maturity level of mature green were coated with 1% chitosan and placed inside the FSC. As control treatments, uncoated banana was also placed inside the FSC as well as uncoated banana that were placed at open space. All of the treatments were placed at 25°C temperature and observed for 9 days. Water produced by respiration was reduced by the addition of charcoal inside a fabric pouch. The result showed that treatment using FSC and chitosan can delay ripening process.

  17. Identification of genes encoding granule-bound starch synthase involved in amylose metabolism in banana fruit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxia Miao

    Full Text Available Granule-bound starch synthase (GBSS is responsible for amylose synthesis, but the role of GBSS genes and their encoded proteins remains poorly understood in banana. In this study, amylose content and GBSS activity gradually increased during development of the banana fruit, and decreased during storage of the mature fruit. GBSS protein in banana starch granules was approximately 55.0 kDa. The protein was up-regulated expression during development while it was down-regulated expression during storage. Six genes, designated as MaGBSSI-1, MaGBSSI-2, MaGBSSI-3, MaGBSSI-4, MaGBSSII-1, and MaGBSSII-2, were cloned and characterized from banana fruit. Among the six genes, the expression pattern of MaGBSSI-3 was the most consistent with the changes in amylose content, GBSS enzyme activity, GBSS protein levels, and the quantity or size of starch granules in banana fruit. These results suggest that MaGBSSI-3 might regulate amylose metabolism by affecting the variation of GBSS levels and the quantity or size of starch granules in banana fruit during development or storage.

  18. Fermentative characteristics and nutritional value of elephant grass silage added with dehydrated banana peel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Maria Santos Brant

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the fermentative losses and nutritional value of elephant grass silages with the increasing of inclusion levels of dehydrated banana peel. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design, with six treatments and four replications, being the silage exclusively from elephant grass, and five levels of inclusion of banana peel to the elephant grass silage, as the following - 5; 10; 15; 20 and 25%, being added based on natural matter. The addition of the banana peel in the silage reduced linearly (p < 0.05 the pH, the ammoniacal nitrogen and the losses of the fermentative process. In addition, the inclusion of banana peel increased linearly (p < 0.05 the dry matter and non-fibrous carbohydrates. On the other hand, the neutral detergent fiber and the acid detergent fiber were linearly reduced with the inclusion of the banana peel (p < 0.05, but there was no change in the dry matter digestibility in situ. The inclusion of dehydrated banana peel in elephant grass silage reduces the losses of the fermentation process with more consistent results at the 25% inclusion level, however, it reduces the silage nutritional value due to fibrous and protein quality.

  19. Dietary fibre components and pectin chemical features of peels during ripening in banana and plantain varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happi Emaga, Thomas; Robert, Christelle; Ronkart, Sébastien N; Wathelet, Bernard; Paquot, Michel

    2008-07-01

    The effects of the ripeness stage of banana (Musa AAA) and plantain (Musa AAB) peels on neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre, cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin, pectin contents, and pectin chemical features were studied. Plantain peels contained a higher amount of lignin but had a lower hemicellulose content than banana peels. A sequential extraction of pectins showed that acid extraction was the most efficient to isolate banana peel pectins, whereas an ammonium oxalate extraction was more appropriate for plantain peels. In all the stages of maturation, the pectin content in banana peels was higher compared to plantain peels. Moreover, the galacturonic acid and methoxy group contents in banana peels were higher than in plantain peels. The average molecular weights of the extracted pectins were in the range of 132.6-573.8 kDa and were not dependant on peel variety, while the stage of maturation did not affect the dietary fibre yields and the composition in pectic polysaccharides in a consistent manner. This study has showed that banana peels are a potential source of dietary fibres and pectins.

  20. Use of Banana (Musa acuminata Colla AAA) Peel Extract as an Antioxidant Source in Orange Juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Lucía; Dorta, Eva; Gloria Lobo, M; González-Mendoza, L Antonio; Díaz, Carlos; González, Mónica

    2017-03-01

    Using banana peel extract as an antioxidant in freshly squeezed orange juices and juices from concentrate was evaluated. Free radical scavenging capacity increased by adding banana peel extracts to both types of orange juice. In addition, remarkable increases in antioxidant capacity using 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical were observed when equal or greater than 5 mg of banana peel extract per ml of freshly squeezed juice was added. No clear effects were observed in the capacity to inhibit lipid peroxidation. Adding 5 mg banana peel extract per ml of orange juice did not substantially modify the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of either type of juice. However, undesirable changes in the sensory characteristics (in-mouth sensations and colour) were detected when equal or greater than 10 mg banana peel extract per ml of orange juice was added. These results confirm that banana peel is a promising natural additive that increases the capacity to scavenge free radicals of orange juice with acceptable sensory and physicochemical characteristics for the consumer.

  1. Agroforestry leads to shifts within the gammaproteobacterial microbiome of banana plants cultivated in Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köberl, Martina; Dita, Miguel; Martinuz, Alfonso; Staver, Charles; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Bananas (Musa spp.) belong to the most important global food commodities, and their cultivation represents the world's largest monoculture. Although the plant-associated microbiome has substantial influence on plant growth and health, there is a lack of knowledge of the banana microbiome and its influencing factors. We studied the impact of (i) biogeography, and (ii) agroforestry on the banana-associated gammaproteobacterial microbiome analyzing plants grown in smallholder farms in Nicaragua and Costa Rica. Profiles of 16S rRNA genes revealed high abundances of Pseudomonadales, Enterobacteriales, Xanthomonadales, and Legionellales. An extraordinary high diversity of the gammaproteobacterial microbiota was observed within the endophytic microenvironments (endorhiza and pseudostem), which was similar in both countries. Enterobacteria were identified as dominant group of above-ground plant parts (pseudostem and leaves). Neither biogeography nor agroforestry showed a statistically significant impact on the gammaproteobacterial banana microbiome in general. However, indicator species for each microenvironment and country, as well as for plants grown in Coffea intercropping systems with and without agri-silvicultural production of different Fabaceae trees (Inga spp. in Nicaragua and Erythrina poeppigiana in Costa Rica) could be identified. For example, banana plants grown in agroforestry systems were characterized by an increase of potential plant-beneficial bacteria, like Pseudomonas and Stenotrophomonas, and on the other side by a decrease of Erwinia. Hence, this study could show that as a result of legume-based agroforestry the indigenous banana-associated gammaproteobacterial community noticeably shifted.

  2. Effects of Green Banana Flour on the Physical, Chemical and Sensory Properties of Ice Cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz Yangılar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, possible eff ects of the addition of banana flour at different mass fractions (1 and 2 % are investigated on physical (overrun, viscosity, chemical (dry matter, fat and ash content, acidity, pH, water and oil holding capacity and colour, mineral content (Ca, K, Na, P, S, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn and Ni and sensory properties of ice cream. Fibre-rich banana pieces were found to contain 66.8 g per 100 g of total dietary fibre, 58.6 g per 100 g of which were insoluble dietary fi bre, while 8.2 g per 100 g were soluble dietary fi bre. It can be concluded from these results that banana is a valuable dietary fi bre source which can be used in food production. Flour obtained from green banana pulp and peel was found to have signifi cant (p<0.05 effect on the chemical composition of ice creams. Sulphur content increased while calcium content decreased in ice cream depending on banana flour content. Sensory results indicated that ice cream sample containing 2 % of green banana pulp flour received the highest score from panellists.

  3. Hyperkalemia and hyperdopaminemia induced by an obsessive eating of banana in an anorexia nervosa adolescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazoe, Mami; Narita, Masaaki; Sakuta, Ryoichi; Nagai, Toshiro; Narita, Naoko

    2007-07-01

    Banana is known as a dopamine-rich and potassium-rich food, however no previous data regarding biochemical or psychological alteration induced by excess intake of banana has been reported. We have experienced an adolescent female case of Anorexia nervosa (AN) who denied eating anything but maximum 20 bananas and less than 500 ml mineral water per day for more than two years. During the period of massive banana eating habit, she showed increase of serum potassium (from 4.7 mEq/l to 6.1 mEq/l) and whole blood dopamine (from 11 ng/ml to 210 ng/ml; normal range 0.5-6.2 ng/ml), and obvious dysthymia that is inexplicable only by the pathology of AN. When the patient resumed other food ingestion after 26 months of obsessive and restricted eating of banana, the abnormalities in her blood data and her psychological state were all corrected toward normal. We conclude that in this case, the obsessive and restricted habit of banana ingestion resulted in hyperkalemia, hyperdopaminemia, and psychological change.

  4. Socioeconomic importance of the banana tree (Musa spp.) in the Guinean Highland Savannah agroforests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapongmetsem, Pierre Marie; Nkongmeneck, Bernard Aloys; Gubbuk, Hamide

    2012-01-01

    Home gardens are defined as less complex agroforests which look like and function as natural forest ecosystems but are integrated into agricultural management systems located around houses. Investigations were carried out in 187 households. The aim of the study was to identify the different types of banana home gardens existing in the periurban zone of Ngaoundere town. The results showed that the majority of home gardens in the area were very young (less than 15 years old) and very small in size (less than 1 ha). Eleven types of home gardens were found in the periurban area of Ngaoundere town. The different home garden types showed important variations in all their structural characteristics. Two local species of banana are cultivated in the systems, Musa sinensis and Musa paradisiaca. The total banana production is 3.57 tons per year. The total quantity of banana consumed in the periurban zone was 3.54 tons (93.5%) whereas 1.01 tons were sold in local or urban markets. The main banana producers belonged to home gardens 2, 4, 7, and 9. The quantity of banana offered to relatives was more than what the farmers received from others. Farmers, rely on agroforests because the flow of their products helps them consolidate friendship and conserve biodiversity at the same time.

  5. Socioeconomic Importance of the Banana Tree (Musa Spp. in the Guinean Highland Savannah Agroforests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Marie Mapongmetsem

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Home gardens are defined as less complex agroforests which look like and function as natural forest ecosystems but are integrated into agricultural management systems located around houses. Investigations were carried out in 187 households. The aim of the study was to identify the different types of banana home gardens existing in the periurban zone of Ngaoundere town. The results showed that the majority of home gardens in the area were very young (less than 15 years old and very small in size (less than 1 ha. Eleven types of home gardens were found in the periurban area of Ngaoundere town. The different home garden types showed important variations in all their structural characteristics. Two local species of banana are cultivated in the systems, Musa sinensis and Musa paradisiaca. The total banana production is 3.57 tons per year. The total quantity of banana consumed in the periurban zone was 3.54 tons (93.5% whereas 1.01 tons were sold in local or urban markets. The main banana producers belonged to home gardens 2, 4, 7, and 9. The quantity of banana offered to relatives was more than what the farmers received from others. Farmers, rely on agroforests because the flow of their products helps them consolidate friendship and conserve biodiversity at the same time.

  6. The antagonistic effect of Banana bunchy top virus multifunctional protein B4 against Fusarium oxysporum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Jun; Coates, Christopher J; Mao, Qianzhuo; Wu, Zujian; Xie, Lianhui

    2016-06-01

    The viral-induced banana bunchy top disease and the fungal-induced banana blight are two major causes of concern for industrial scale production of bananas. Banana blight is particularly troublesome, affecting ∼80% of crops worldwide. Strict guidelines and protocols are in place in order to ameliorate the effects of this devastating disease, yet little success has been achieved. From the data presented here, we have found that Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV)-infected bananas are more resistant to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc). BBTV appears to be antagonistic towards Foc, thus improving the survivability of plants against blight. The BBTV suppressor of RNA silencing, namely protein B4, displays fungicidal properties in vitro. Furthermore, transgenic tomatoes expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged protein B4 demonstrate enhanced resistance to F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol). Differential gene expression analysis indicates that increased numbers of photogenesis-related gene transcripts are present in dark-green leaves of B4-GFP-modified tomato plants relative to those found in WT plants. Conversely, the transcript abundance of immunity-related genes is substantially lower in transgenic tomatoes compared with WT plants, suggesting that plant defences may be influenced by protein B4. This viral-fungal interaction provides new insights into microbial community dynamics within a single host and has potential commercial value for the breeding of transgenic resistance to Fusarium-related blight/wilt. © 2016 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  7. Identification of Genes Encoding Granule-Bound Starch Synthase Involved in Amylose Metabolism in Banana Fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weixin; Xu, Biyu; Jin, Zhiqiang

    2014-01-01

    Granule-bound starch synthase (GBSS) is responsible for amylose synthesis, but the role of GBSS genes and their encoded proteins remains poorly understood in banana. In this study, amylose content and GBSS activity gradually increased during development of the banana fruit, and decreased during storage of the mature fruit. GBSS protein in banana starch granules was approximately 55.0 kDa. The protein was up-regulated expression during development while it was down-regulated expression during storage. Six genes, designated as MaGBSSI-1, MaGBSSI-2, MaGBSSI-3, MaGBSSI-4, MaGBSSII-1, and MaGBSSII-2, were cloned and characterized from banana fruit. Among the six genes, the expression pattern of MaGBSSI-3 was the most consistent with the changes in amylose content, GBSS enzyme activity, GBSS protein levels, and the quantity or size of starch granules in banana fruit. These results suggest that MaGBSSI-3 might regulate amylose metabolism by affecting the variation of GBSS levels and the quantity or size of starch granules in banana fruit during development or storage. PMID:24505384

  8. Continous application of bioorganic fertilizer induced resilient culturable bacteria community associated with banana Fusarium wilt suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Lin; Ruan, Yunze; Tao, Chengyuan; Li, Rong; Shen, Qirong

    2016-06-01

    Fusarium wilt of banana always drives farmers to find new land for banana cultivation due to the comeback of the disease after a few cropping years. A novel idea for solving this problem is the continuous application of bioorganic fertilizer (BIO), which should be practiced from the beginning of banana planting. In this study, BIO was applied in newly reclaimed fields to pre-control banana Fusarium wilt and the culturable rhizobacteria community were evaluated using Biolog Ecoplates and culture-dependent denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (CD-DGGE). The results showed that BIO application significantly reduced disease incidences and increased crop yields, respectivly. And the stabilized general bacterial metabolic potential, especially for the utilization of carbohydrates, carboxylic acids and phenolic compounds, was induced by BIO application. DGGE profiles demonstrated that resilient community structure of culturable rhizobacteria with higher richness and diversity were observed in BIO treated soils. Morever, enriched culturable bacteria affiliated with Firmicutes, Gammaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria were also detected. In total, continuous application of BIO effectively suppressed Fusarium wilt disease by stabilizing culturable bacterial metabolic potential and community structure. This study revealed a new method to control Fusarium wilt of banana for long term banana cultivation.

  9. Ripe Banana Flour as a Source of Antioxidants in Layer and Sponge Cakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segundo, Cristina; Román, Laura; Lobo, Manuel; Martinez, Mario M; Gómez, Manuel

    2017-12-01

    About one-fifth of all bananas harvested become culls that are normally disposed of improperly. However, ripe banana pulp contains significant amounts of fibre and polyphenol compounds as well as a high content of simple sugars (61.06 g/100 g), making it suitable for sucrose replacement in bakery products. This work studied the feasibility of incorporating ripe banana flour (20 and 40% of replacement) in cake formulation. Physical, nutritional and sensory attributes of sponge and layer cakes were evaluated. The inclusion of ripe banana flour generally led to an increased batter consistency that hindered cake expansion, resulting in a slightly lower specific volume and higher hardness. This effect was minimised in layer cakes where differences in volume were only evident with the higher level of replacement. The lower volume and higher hardness contributed to the decline of the acceptability observed in the sensory test. Unlike physical attributes, the banana flour inclusion significantly improved the nutritional properties of the cakes, bringing about an enhancement in dietary fibre, polyphenols and antioxidant capacity (up to a three-fold improvement in antioxidant capacity performance). Therefore, results showed that sugar replacement by ripe banana flour enhanced the nutritional properties of cakes, but attention should be paid to its inclusion level.

  10. Effects of Green Banana Flour on the Physical, Chemical and Sensory Properties of Ice Cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yangılar, Filiz

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, possible effects of the addition of banana flour at different mass fractions (1 and 2%) are investigated on physical (overrun, viscosity), chemical (dry matter, fat and ash content, acidity, pH, water and oil holding capacity and colour), mineral content (Ca, K, Na, P, S, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn and Ni) and sensory properties of ice cream. Fibre--rich banana pieces were found to contain 66.8 g per 100 g of total dietary fibre, 58.6 g per 100 g of which were insoluble dietary fibre, while 8.2 g per 100 g were soluble dietary fibre. It can be concluded from these results that banana is a valuable dietary fibre source which can be used in food production. Flour obtained from green banana pulp and peel was found to have significant (pice creams. Sulphur content increased while calcium content decreased in ice cream depending on banana flour content. Sensory results indicated that ice cream sample containing 2% of green banana pulp flour received the highest score from panellists.

  11. Standardization of a molecular diagnostic method for Cucumber mosaic virus (cmv in Ecuadorian bananas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Liseth Buitrón-Bustamante

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Several pests and diseases affect banana crop in Ecuador and Cucumber mosaic virus (cmv is one of the most important pathogens. The aim of this research was to standardize a new molecular approach to achieve a sensitive and highly specific detection of cmv in Ecuadorian bananas. Specific primers were designed from the sequence encodingResumoA cultura da banana no Equador vê-se afetada por uma série de doenças, das quais o cucumber mosaic vírus(cmv é um dos fitopatógenos mais impor-tantes. Com este estudo procurou-se padronizar uma técnica molecular para a detecção sensível e altamente específica deste agente viral na banana equatoriana. Para este fim, realizou-se o desenho de primers específicos, a partir da sequência que se codifica para a proteína da cápside do vírus. for the virus capsid protein. PC-F1, PC-R D1 and K-F primers, obtained from cDNA replicated from R NA of infected banana, allowed accurate virus detection by Reverse transcription and Hemi-nested PCR. Virus detection was possible even in asymptomatic plants, providing a tech-nology with potential use for the Ecuadorian banana producers.

  12. Ig Nobel Prize-winning episode: Trip from a slip on a banana peel to the mysterious world of mucus

    OpenAIRE

    K. Mabuchi; R. Sakai; M. Honna; M. Ujihira

    2016-01-01

    Slip on a banana peel is not only a gag seed but also a genuinely tribological phenomenon. We measured the frictional coefficient under banana skin on floor material. The measured frictional coefficient was much lower than the value on common materials and similar one on well lubricated surfaces. Some deductions on mystery of organics were leaded from the similarity of gel function in banana peels and in articular joints. Every polymers are only synthesized by organisms. Furthermore, viscous ...

  13. Sensory and chemical interactions of food pairings (basmati rice, bacon and extra virgin olive oil) with banana

    OpenAIRE

    Traynor, Mark; Burke, Roisin; O'Sullivan, Maurice G; Hannon, John; Barry-Ryan, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study aimed to investigate food pairings as an important sensory phenomenon in order to determine how different components in the selected food pairings affect and interact with other components. Three novel food pairings (banana and bacon, banana and olive oil, and banana and rice) were selected. A conjoint approach utilising qualitative (organic volatile analysis and descriptive sensory analysis) and quantitative (comparable semi quantitative organic volatile analysis and af...

  14. (2R,5S)-Theaspirane Identified as the Kairomone for the Banana Weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus, from Attractive Senesced Leaves of the Host Banana, Musa spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abagale, Samson A; Woodcock, Christine M; Hooper, Antony M; Caulfield, John C; Withall, David; Chamberlain, Keith; Acquaah, Samuel O; Van Emden, Helmut; Braimah, Haruna; Pickett, John A; Birkett, Michael A

    2018-04-12

    The principal active component produced by highly attractive senesced host banana leaves, Musa spp., for the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus, is shown by coupled gas chromatography-electroantennography (GC-EAG), coupled GC-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), chemical synthesis and coupled enantioselective (chiral) GC-EAG to be (2R,5S)-theaspirane. In laboratory behaviour tests, the synthetic compound is as attractive as natural host leaf material and presents a new opportunity for pest control. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Utilization Of The Visceral Organsof Catfish (Pangasius Hypoptalmus) Added To Banana Peel (Musa Acuminata Balbisiana) To Produceliquid Organic Fertilizer

    OpenAIRE

    Fryathama, Ilham; Sukmiwati, Mery; ', Sumarto

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to obtain liquid organic fertilizer produced from the visceral organs of catfish added to banana skin for enriching the macro elements N, P, and K.The method used in this study was the experimental. Parameters used were the value of pH, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. The experimentwas composed as completely randomized design (CRD), and the treatment was addition of banana peel which varied into 4 different amoun, namely: without the banana peel (K0), banana peel 100 g (K...

  16. Detection of antimicrobial activity of banana peel (Musa paradisiaca L.) on Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapadia, Suraj Premal; Pudakalkatti, Pushpa S; Shivanaikar, Sachin

    2015-01-01

    Banana is used widely because of its nutritional values. In past, there are studies that show banana plant parts, and their fruits can be used to treat the human diseases. Banana peel is a part of banana fruit that also has the antibacterial activity against microorganisms but has not been studied extensively. Since, there are no studies that relate the antibacterial activity of banana peel against periodontal pathogens. Hence, the aim of this study is to determine the antimicrobial activity of banana peel extract on Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (A. actinomycetemcomitans). Standard strains of P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans were used in this study which was obtained from the in-house bacterial bank of Department of Molecular Biology and Immunology at Maratha Mandal's Nathajirao G. Halgekar Institute of Dental Sciences and Research Centre. The banana peel extract was prepared, and the antibacterial activity was assessed using well agar diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration was assessed using serial broth dilution method. In the current study, both the tested microorganisms showed antibacterial activity. In well diffusion method, P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans showed 15 mm and 12 mm inhibition zone against an alcoholic extract of banana peel, respectively. In serial broth dilution method P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans were sensitive until 31.25 μg/ml dilutions. From results of the study, it is suggested that an alcoholic extract of banana peel has antimicrobial activity against P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans.

  17. Genome-Wide Identification and Expression Analyses of Aquaporin Gene Family during Development and Abiotic Stress in Banana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wei; Hou, Xiaowan; Huang, Chao; Yan, Yan; Tie, Weiwei; Ding, Zehong; Wei, Yunxie; Liu, Juhua; Miao, Hongxia; Lu, Zhiwei; Li, Meiying; Xu, Biyu; Jin, Zhiqiang

    2015-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) function to selectively control the flow of water and other small molecules through biological membranes, playing crucial roles in various biological processes. However, little information is available on the AQP gene family in bananas. In this study, we identified 47 banana AQP genes based on the banana genome sequence. Evolutionary analysis of AQPs from banana, Arabidopsis, poplar, and rice indicated that banana AQPs (MaAQPs) were clustered into four subfamilies. Conserved motif analysis showed that all banana AQPs contained the typical AQP-like or major intrinsic protein (MIP) domain. Gene structure analysis suggested the majority of MaAQPs had two to four introns with a highly specific number and length for each subfamily. Expression analysis of MaAQP genes during fruit development and postharvest ripening showed that some MaAQP genes exhibited high expression levels during these stages, indicating the involvement of MaAQP genes in banana fruit development and ripening. Additionally, some MaAQP genes showed strong induction after stress treatment and therefore, may represent potential candidates for improving banana resistance to abiotic stress. Taken together, this study identified some excellent tissue-specific, fruit development- and ripening-dependent, and abiotic stress-responsive candidate MaAQP genes, which could lay a solid foundation for genetic improvement of banana cultivars. PMID:26307965

  18. Banana infecting fungus, Fusarium musae, is also an opportunistic human pathogen: are bananas potential carriers and source of fusariosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triest, David; Stubbe, Dirk; De Cremer, Koen; Piérard, Denis; Detandt, Monique; Hendrickx, Marijke

    2015-01-01

    During re-identification of Fusarium strains in the BCCM™/IHEM fungal collection by multilocus sequence-analysis we observed that five strains, previously identified as Fusarium verticillioides, were Fusarium musae, a species described in 2011 from banana fruits. Four strains were isolated from blood samples or biopsies of immune-suppressed patients and one was isolated from the clinical environment, all originating from different hospitals in Belgium or France, 2001-2008. The F. musae identity of our isolates was confirmed by phylogenetic analysis using reference sequences of type material. Absence of the gene cluster necessary for fumonisin biosynthesis, characteristic to F. musae, was also the case for our isolates. In vitro antifungal susceptibility testing revealed no important differences in their susceptibility compared to clinical F. verticillioides strains and terbinafine was the most effective drug. Additional clinical F. musae strains were searched by performing BLAST queries in GenBank. Eight strains were found, of which six were keratitis cases from the U.S. multistate contact lens-associated outbreak in 2005 and 2006. The two other strains were also from the U.S., causing either a skin infection or sinusitis. This report is the first to describe F. musae as causative agent of superficial and opportunistic, disseminated infections in humans. Imported bananas might act as carriers of F. musae spores and be a potential source of infection with F. musae in humans. An alternative hypothesis is that the natural distribution of F. musae is geographically a lot broader than originally suspected and F. musae is present on different plant hosts. © 2015 by The Mycological Society of America.

  19. Evaluation of Pochonia chlamydosporia and Purpureocillium lilacinum for Suppression of Meloidogyne enterolobii on Tomato and Banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Silas D; Carneiro, Regina M D G; Faria, Marcos; Souza, Daniela A; Monnerat, Rose G; Lopes, Rogerio B

    2017-03-01

    Meloidogyne enterolobii is one of the most important root-knot nematode in tropical regions, due to its ability to overcome resistance mechanisms of a number of host plants. The lack of new and safe active ingredients against this nematode has restricted control alternatives for growers. Egg-parasitic fungi have been considered as potential candidates for the development of bionematicides. In tissue culture plates, Pochonia chlamydosporia (var. catenulata and chlamydosporia ) and Purpureocillium lilacinum strains were screened for their ability to infect eggs of the root-knot nematode M. enterolobii on water-agar surfaces. Reduction in the hatching of J2 varied from 13% to 84%, depending on strain. The more efficacious strains reduced hatchability of J2 by 57% to 84% when compared to untreated eggs, but average reductions were only 37% to 55% when the same strains were applied to egg masses. Combinations of fungal isolates (one of each species) did not increase the control efficacy in vitro. In experiments in which 10,000 nematode eggs were inoculated per plant, reductions in the number of eggs after 12 months were seen in three of four treatments in banana plants, reaching 34% for P. chlamydosporia var. catenulata . No significant reductions were seen in tomato plants after 3 mon. In another experiment with tomato plants using either P. chlamydosporia var. catenulata or P. lilacinum , the number of eggs was reduced by 34% and 44%, respectively, when initial infestation level was low (500 nematode eggs per plant), but tested strains were not effective under a moderate infestation level (5,000 eggs per plant). Under all infestation levels tested in this work, gall and egg mass indexes (MI) did not differ from the untreated controls, bringing concerns related to the practical adoption of this control strategy by farmers. In our opinion, if the fungi P . chlamydosporia and P . lilacinum are to be used as biocontrol tools toward M. entorolobii , they should focus on

  20. Effect of packaging materials on shelf life and quality of banana cultivars (Musa spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailu, M; Seyoum Workneh, T; Belew, D

    2014-11-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of packaging materials on the shelf life of three banana cultivars. Four packaging materials, namely, perforated low density polyethylene bag, perforated high density polyethylene bag, dried banana leaf, teff straw and no packaging materials (control) were used with three banana cultivars, locally known as, Poyo, Giant Cavendish and Williams I. The experiment was carried out in Randomized Complete Block Design in a factorial combination with three replications. Physical parameters including weight loss, peel colour, peel thickness, pulp thickness, pulp to peel ratio, pulp firmness, pulp dry matter, decay, loss percent of marketability were assessed every 3 days. Banana remained marketable for 36 days in the high density polyethylene and low density polyethylene bags, and for 18 days in banana leaf and teff straw packaging treatments. Unpackaged fruits remained marketable for 15 days only. Fruits that were not packaged lost their weight by 24.0 % whereas fruits packaged in banana leaf and teff straw became unmarketable with final weight loss of 19.8 % and 20.9 %, respectively. Packaged fruits remained well until 36th days of storage with final weight loss of only 8.2 % and 9.20 %, respectively. Starting from green mature stage, the colour of the banana peel changed to yellow and this process was found to be fast for unpackaged fruits. Packaging maintained the peel and the pulp thickness, firmness, dry matter and pulp to peel ratio was kept lower. Decay loss for unpackaged banana fruits was16 % at the end of date 15, whereas the decay loss of fruits packaged using high density and low density polyethylene bags were 43.0 % and 41.2 %, respectively at the end of the 36th day of the experiment. It can, thus, be concluded that packaging of banana fruits in high density and low density polyethylene bags resulted in longer shelf life and improved quality of the produce followed by packaging in dried banana leaf

  1. Origins and Domestication of Cultivated Banana Inferred from Chloroplast and Nuclear Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cui; Wang, Xin-Feng; Shi, Feng-Xue; Chen, Wen-Na; Ge, Xue-Jun

    2013-01-01

    Background Cultivated bananas are large, vegetatively-propagated members of the genus Musa. More than 1,000 cultivars are grown worldwide and they are major economic and food resources in numerous developing countries. It has been suggested that cultivated bananas originated from the islands of Southeast Asia (ISEA) and have been developed through complex geodomestication pathways. However, the maternal and parental donors of most cultivars are unknown, and the pattern of nucleotide diversity in domesticated banana has not been fully resolved. Methodology/Principal Findings We studied the genetics of 16 cultivated and 18 wild Musa accessions using two single-copy nuclear (granule-bound starch synthase I, GBSS I, also known as Waxy, and alcohol dehydrogenase 1, Adh1) and two chloroplast (maturase K, matK, and the trnL-F gene cluster) genes. The results of phylogenetic analyses showed that all A-genome haplotypes of cultivated bananas were grouped together with those of ISEA subspecies of M. acuminata (A-genome). Similarly, the B- and S-genome haplotypes of cultivated bananas clustered with the wild species M. balbisiana (B-genome) and M. schizocarpa (S-genome), respectively. Notably, it has been shown that distinct haplotypes of each cultivar (A-genome group) were nested together to different ISEA subspecies M. acuminata. Analyses of nucleotide polymorphism in the Waxy and Adh1 genes revealed that, in comparison to the wild relatives, cultivated banana exhibited slightly lower nucleotide diversity both across all sites and specifically at silent sites. However, dramatically reduced nucleotide diversity was found at nonsynonymous sites for cultivated bananas. Conclusions/Significance Our study not only confirmed the origin of cultivated banana as arising from multiple intra- and inter-specific hybridization events, but also showed that cultivated banana may have not suffered a severe genetic bottleneck during the domestication process. Importantly, our findings

  2. Why rooting fails

    OpenAIRE

    Creutz, Michael

    2007-01-01

    I explore the origins of the unphysical predictions from rooted staggered fermion algorithms. Before rooting, the exact chiral symmetry of staggered fermions is a flavored symmetry among the four "tastes." The rooting procedure averages over tastes of different chiralities. This averaging forbids the appearance of the correct 't Hooft vertex for the target theory.

  3. Rooting gene trees without outgroups: EP rooting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinsheimer, Janet S; Little, Roderick J A; Lake, James A

    2012-01-01

    Gene sequences are routinely used to determine the topologies of unrooted phylogenetic trees, but many of the most important questions in evolution require knowing both the topologies and the roots of trees. However, general algorithms for calculating rooted trees from gene and genomic sequences in the absence of gene paralogs are few. Using the principles of evolutionary parsimony (EP) (Lake JA. 1987a. A rate-independent technique for analysis of nucleic acid sequences: evolutionary parsimony. Mol Biol Evol. 4:167-181) and its extensions (Cavender, J. 1989. Mechanized derivation of linear invariants. Mol Biol Evol. 6:301-316; Nguyen T, Speed TP. 1992. A derivation of all linear invariants for a nonbalanced transversion model. J Mol Evol. 35:60-76), we explicitly enumerate all linear invariants that solely contain rooting information and derive algorithms for rooting gene trees directly from gene and genomic sequences. These new EP linear rooting invariants allow one to determine rooted trees, even in the complete absence of outgroups and gene paralogs. EP rooting invariants are explicitly derived for three taxon trees, and rules for their extension to four or more taxa are provided. The method is demonstrated using 18S ribosomal DNA to illustrate how the new animal phylogeny (Aguinaldo AMA et al. 1997. Evidence for a clade of nematodes, arthropods, and other moulting animals. Nature 387:489-493; Lake JA. 1990. Origin of the metazoa. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 87:763-766) may be rooted directly from sequences, even when they are short and paralogs are unavailable. These results are consistent with the current root (Philippe H et al. 2011. Acoelomorph flatworms are deuterostomes related to Xenoturbella. Nature 470:255-260).

  4. Heat and mass transfer coefficients and modeling of infrared drying of banana slices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Machado Baptestini

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Banana is one of the most consumed fruits in the world, having a large part of its production performed in tropical countries. This product possesses a wide range of vitamins and minerals, being an important component of the alimentation worldwide. However, the shelf life of bananas is short, thus requiring procedures to prevent the quality loss and increase the shelf life. One of these procedures widely used is drying. This work aimed to study the infrared drying process of banana slices (cv. Prata and determine the heat and mass transfer coefficients of this process. In addition, effective diffusion coefficient and relationship between ripening stages of banana and drying were obtained. Banana slices at four different ripening stages were dried using a dryer with infrared heating source with four different temperatures (65, 75, 85, and 95 ºC. Midilli model was the one that best represented infrared drying of banana slices. Heat and mass transfer coefficients varied, respectively, between 46.84 and 70.54 W m-2 K-1 and 0.040 to 0.0632 m s-1 for temperature range, at the different ripening stages. Effective diffusion coefficient ranged from 1.96 to 3.59 × 10-15 m² s-1. Activation energy encountered were 16.392, 29.531, 23.194, and 25.206 kJ mol-1 for 2nd, 3rd, 5th, and 7th ripening stages, respectively. Ripening stages did not affect the infrared drying of bananas.

  5. Global Transcriptomic Analysis of Targeted Silencing of Two Paralogous ACC Oxidase Genes in Banana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yan; Kuan, Chi; Chiu, Chien-Hsiang; Chen, Xiao-Jing; Do, Yi-Yin; Huang, Pung-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Among 18 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) oxidase homologous genes existing in the banana genome there are two genes, Mh-ACO1 and Mh-ACO2, that participate in banana fruit ripening. To better understand the physiological functions of Mh-ACO1 and Mh-ACO2, two hairpin-type siRNA expression vectors targeting both the Mh-ACO1 and Mh-ACO2 were constructed and incorporated into the banana genome by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The generation of Mh-ACO1 and Mh-ACO2 RNAi transgenic banana plants was confirmed by Southern blot analysis. To gain insights into the functional diversity and complexity between Mh-ACO1 and Mh-ACO2, transcriptome sequencing of banana fruits using the Illumina next-generation sequencer was performed. A total of 32,093,976 reads, assembled into 88,031 unigenes for 123,617 transcripts were obtained. Significantly enriched Gene Oncology (GO) terms and the number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) with GO annotation were ‘catalytic activity’ (1327, 56.4%), ‘heme binding’ (65, 2.76%), ‘tetrapyrrole binding’ (66, 2.81%), and ‘oxidoreductase activity’ (287, 12.21%). Real-time RT-PCR was further performed with mRNAs from both peel and pulp of banana fruits in Mh-ACO1 and Mh-ACO2 RNAi transgenic plants. The results showed that expression levels of genes related to ethylene signaling in ripening banana fruits were strongly influenced by the expression of genes associated with ethylene biosynthesis. PMID:27681726

  6. Production of transgenic banana plants conferring tolerance to salt stress (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, I.A.; Salama, M.; Hamid, A.A.; Sadiq, A.S.

    2005-01-01

    Production of bananas is limited in areas that have soils with excess sodium. In this study, a transformation system in banana Grand Nain cultivar was established using the apical meristem explant and plasmid pAB6 containing the herbicide-resistant gene (bar) as a selectable marker and gus reporter gene. The micro projectile bombardment transformation system using 650 psi was successfully used for introducing the studied genes in banana explants. The expression of the introduced genes was detected using leaf painting and GUS histochemical tests, respectively. The present results showed that among the selection stage, 36.5% of the bombarded explants survived on the BI3 medium supplemented with 3 mg/L bialaphos, while, 26.6% of the tested explants showed a positive reaction in the GUS assay. To detect the presence of bar and gus genes the PCR was successfully used. These results encourage the idea of possibility of banana crop improvement using in vitro technique through micro projectile bombardment. Therefore, the plasmid pNM1 that carries the bar and P5CS (delta 1 l-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase for proline accumulation) genes was introduced in banana Grand Nain cultivar to produce transgenic plants expressing the salt tolerance gene. Results showed that the majority of herbicide-resistant banana plaptlets were successfully acclimatized. In studying the effects of different salt concentrations on the produced transgenic banana plants, results showed lower decrease in the percentage of survived plants, pseudostem diameter and leaf area with an increase of salt concentrations in case of transgenic plants compared with the controls. (author)

  7. Direct Effects Of Chronic Gamma Radiation On Musa Acuminata Var. Berangan, A Local Malaysia Banana Cultivar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maimum Tahir; Azhar Mohamad; Rozeita Laboh; Umikalsum Mohd Bahari

    2014-01-01

    Musa acuminata var. Berangan, is a popular variety of our local banana known as Pisang Berangan. The variety is a triploid banana, use mainly for dessert and has a great value for commodity fruit crops. However, production of PisangBerangan has been threatened by diseases such as Fusarium wilt, black sigatoka, Fusarium wilt, burrowing nematodes and viral diseases like Banana streak virus, Banana bunch top virus and Banana bract mosaic virus. The scenario becoming worst as Musa has a narrow genetic background for breeding and/or selection program. The banana breeding program of edible bananas is hampered by high sterility, and very limited amounts of seeds. Mutation induction via chronic gamma radiation is an alternative ways in creating more variants for selections towards a better quality and disease tolerance. A total number of 75 samples at nursery stage (1 month) were exposed to chronic gamma radiation in Gamma Greenhouse at Malaysian Nuclear Agency for 28 weeks. The samples were accordingly arranged with distance ranging from 1 m to 15 m from gamma source (Cesium-137). Plant height and new buds were used as measurement parameters in evaluating the direct effects of the chronic gamma radiation. Results showed effective dose of chronic gamma radiation in Pisang Berangan was 20 Gy. Number of new emerging sucker was ranging from 1-3 pieces with the highest at ring-4 and ring-5. Plant height was observed ranging from 22.1 to 110.5 cm. Effects of chronic radiation were observed after 3-4 months in the GGH. The samples revealed as striking leaves, short inter node and new emergence of suckers. The objective of this work is to get a dose response for chronic gamma radiation in Pisang Berangan. As for selection of potential mutant variants, new emerging suckers were tissue cultured in segregating chimeras and to get required numbers of samples for further field evaluation. (author)

  8. Análise do comércio de bananas em Lavras: Minas Gerais Analysis of banana trade in Lavras: Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lair Victor Pereira

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A participação de Lavras na oferta de banana no mercado local é muito pequena, considerando-se que o Brasil é o segundo país maior produtor com 6,6 milhões de toneladas e Minas Gerais é o quarto entre os Estados produtores dessa fruta. Visando a quantificar a participação de Lavras e região na oferta de banana no mercado local, realizou-se esse trabalho em duas etapas: 2002/2003 e 2004/2005. A aplicação mensal de questionários nos principais estabelecimentos comerciais de hortifruti e feiras - livre de Lavras, permitiu conhecer o volume comercializado, procedência e perdas das principais cultivares de banana. Os resultados obtidos mostram que em 2002/2003 foram comercializados 945,24 t e em 2004/2005 foi de 1.001,98 t. Desse volume, 6,56% em 2002/2003 e 14,62% em 2004/2005 tiveram como origem Lavras. O consumo per capita anual manteve-se em torno de 11,8 kg nos dois períodos pesquisados. As bananas tipo 'Prata', foram as mais comercializadas nas duas etapas, 54,7% no primeiro período e 58,7% no segundo, sendo que 7,91% e 18,35% , respectivamente, tiveram como origem Lavras. O volume de banana 'Marmelo' e do tipo 'Nanicão', foram de 1,91% e 28,4%, respectivamente, sendo que 84,0% da 'Marmelo' e 3,43% da tipo 'Nanicão' na segunda etapa foram procedentes de Lavras. A banana 'Maçã' teve uma redução de 125,30 t para 107,47 t, correspondendo a 13,26%, sendo que a oferta dessa cultivar, originada de Lavras, manteve-se em 13,8%. As bananas 'Maçã' e 'Marmelo' apresentaram as menores perdas, 3,56% e 4,78% e as dos tipos 'Prata'e 'Nanicão'as maiores perdas, 9,39% e 10, 75%, respectivamente.The participation of Lavras in the banana production offered to the local commerce is still very low considering that Brazil is the second banana producer of the world, with a production around 6.6 ton/year and per-capita consumption of 24.4 kg/year. Minas Gerais ranks in the fifth place among the most important Brazilian state producers. This

  9. Development of VNTR Markers to Assess Genetic Diversity of Mycosphaerella Fijiensis, the Causal Agent of Black Leaf Streak Disease in Bananas (Musa spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycosphaerella fijiensis is the causal agent of black leaf streak (BLS) disease in bananas. This pathogen threatens global banana production as the main export cultivars are highly susceptible. As a consequence, commercial banana plantations must be protected chemically with fungicides; up to 40 app...

  10. 33 CFR 334.540 - Banana River at the Eastern Range, 45th Space Wing, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Banana River at the Eastern Range... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.540 Banana River at the Eastern Range, 45th Space Wing, Cape... navigable waters of the United States, as defined at 33 CFR part 329, within the Banana River contiguous to...

  11. SUSCETIBILIDADE VARIETAL DE FRUTOS DE BANANEIRA AO FRIO COLD DAMAGE IN BANANAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIZ ALBERTO LICHTEMBERG

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available No Sul do Brasil, os danos causados pelo frio depreciam a qualidade da banana que permanece no campo durante o outono e inverno, dificultando a sua comercialização. Visando a verificar diferenças entre cultivares quanto à resistência ao frio no campo e em pós-colheita, foram realizados três experimentos em Itajaí-SC. No primeiro, foram avaliados os danos de frio em 13 cultivares do grupo AAA, 7 cultivares do grupo AAB, 6 híbridos do grupo AAAB e 1 cultivar do grupo ABB, em cachos colhidos em outubro de 1997. No segundo experimento, foram avaliados danos de frio em cultivares dos grupos AAA, AAB, ABB e AAAB, em cachos colhidos de 07-05-99 a 27-08-99. No terceiro experimento, foram avaliados danos de frio em bananas de quatro cultivares, armazenadas a 10°C, durante 5, 10 e 20 dias. O genoma B conferiu maior resistência da fruta às baixas temperaturas, tanto a campo quanto na armazenagem. Verificaram-se diferenças quanto a danos de frio tanto entre grupos genômicos, quanto entre cultivares do mesmo grupo. A maior resistência às baixas temperaturas pode permitir o transporte de bananas dos grupos AAB, ABB e AAAB a longas distâncias, em temperaturas inferiores a 12°C.In Southern Brazil, banana bunches that remain in the field during the Fall and Winter are subject to cold damage. Three experiments were carried out in Itajaí, SC, Brazil, with the purpose of investigating the differences among banana cultivars as to their resistance to cold damage. In the first experiment, 13 AAA group cultivars, 7 AAB group cultivars, 6 AAAB hybrids and 1 ABB group cultivar were evaluated as to the level of cold damage. The second experiment evaluated banana bunches of cultivars of AAA, AAB, ABB, and AAAB groups, harvested from May 07/99 to August 27/99. The third experiment examined cold damage to banana clusters stored at 10°C during 5, 10 and 20 days. The B genome appeared to confer the greatest cold resistance to banana fruits, both in the

  12. Kinetic study on ferulic acid production from banana stem waste via mechanical extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainol, Norazwina; Masngut, Nasratun; Khairi Jusup, Muhamad

    2018-04-01

    Banana is the tropical plants associated with lots of medicinal properties. It has been reported to be a potential source of phenolic compounds such as ferulic acid (FA). FA has excellent antioxidant properties higher than vitamin C and E. FA also have a wide range of biological activities, such as antioxidant activities and anti-microbial activities. This paper presents an experimental and kinetic study on ferulic acid (FA) production from banana stem waste (BSW) via mechanical extraction. The objective of this research is to determine the kinetic parameters in the ferulic acid production. The banana stem waste was randomly collected from the local banana plantation in Felda Lepar Hilir, Pahang. The banana stem juice was mechanically extracted by using sugarcane press machine (KR3176) and further analyzed in high performance liquid chromatography. The differential and integral method was applied to determine the kinetic parameter of the extraction process and the data obtained were fitted into the 0th, 1st and 2nd order of extraction process. Based on the results, the kinetic parameter and R2 value from were 0.05 and 0.93, respectively. It was determined that the 0th kinetic order fitted the reaction processes to best represent the mechanical extraction.

  13. Effects of gamma radiation on banana 'nanica' (Musa sp., group AAA) irradiated in pre climacteric phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Simone Faria; Dionisio, Ana Paula; Walder, Julio Marcos Melges

    2007-01-01

    The present work verified the effect of gamma radiation on physical and chemical parameters of banana 'nanica', analyzing possible alterations on the period of conservation and the possibility of commercial irradiation aiming the exportation. The results had demonstrated that the radiations had not produced effect on pH and total acidity. However, the bananas of the 'control group' and those that had received 0,75 kGy, had presented greater maturation degree and, radiated with 0,30 kGy, had presented greater firmness. In accordance with the results of the organoleptic analysis, can be perceived that the bananas most mature, especially of the 'control group', had had greater acceptance. The bananas of treatments 0,30 and 0,60 kGy had had minors notes for presenting minor maturation stadium. Knowing that the irradiation in adequate dose and fruits of good quality brings benefits to the storage and the process of exportation, we conclude that the dose most appropriate for the control of the maturation of the 'nanica' banana is 0,30 kGy. (author)

  14. Image analysis to evaluate the browning degree of banana (Musa spp.) peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jeong-Seok; Lee, Hyeon-Jeong; Park, Jung-Hoon; Sung, Jun-Hyung; Choi, Ji-Young; Moon, Kwang-Deog

    2016-03-01

    Image analysis was applied to examine banana peel browning. The banana samples were divided into 3 treatment groups: no treatment and normal packaging (Cont); CO2 gas exchange packaging (CO); normal packaging with an ethylene generator (ET). We confirmed that the browning of banana peels developed more quickly in the CO group than the other groups based on sensory test and enzyme assay. The G (green) and CIE L(∗), a(∗), and b(∗) values obtained from the image analysis sharply increased or decreased in the CO group. And these colour values showed high correlation coefficients (>0.9) with the sensory test results. CIE L(∗)a(∗)b(∗) values using a colorimeter also showed high correlation coefficients but comparatively lower than those of image analysis. Based on this analysis, browning of the banana occurred more quickly for CO2 gas exchange packaging, and image analysis can be used to evaluate the browning of banana peels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of Green Banana Flour on the Physical, Chemical and Sensory Properties of Ice Cream

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Summary In the present study, possible effects of the addition of banana flour at different mass fractions (1 and 2%) are investigated on physical (overrun, viscosity), chemical (dry matter, fat and ash content, acidity, pH, water and oil holding capacity and colour), mineral content (Ca, K, Na, P, S, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn and Ni) and sensory properties of ice cream. Fibre--rich banana pieces were found to contain 66.8 g per 100 g of total dietary fibre, 58.6 g per 100 g of which were insoluble dietary fibre, while 8.2 g per 100 g were soluble dietary fibre. It can be concluded from these results that banana is a valuable dietary fibre source which can be used in food production. Flour obtained from green banana pulp and peel was found to have significant (pbanana flour content. Sensory results indicated that ice cream sample containing 2% of green banana pulp flour received the highest score from panellists. PMID:27904363

  16. Antioxidant effcacy of unripe banana (Musa acuminata Colla) peel extracts in sunflower oil during accelerated storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Stella Sye Chee; Chang, Sui Kiat; Sia, Winne Chiaw Mei; Yim, Hip Seng

    2015-01-01

    Sunflower oil is prone to oxidation during storage time, leading to production of toxic compounds that might affect human health. Synthetic antioxidants are used to prevent lipid oxidation. Spreading interest in the replacement of synthetic food antioxidants by natural ones has fostered research on fruit and vegetables for new antioxidants. In this study, the efficacy of unripe banana peel extracts (100, 200 and 300 ppm)  in stabilizing sunflower oil was tested under accelerated storage (65°C) for a period of 24 days. BHA and α-tocopherol served as comparative standards besides the control. Established parameters such as peroxide value (PV), iodine value (IV), p-anisidine value (p-AnV), total oxidation value (TOTOX), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and free fatty acid (FFA) content were used to assess the extent of oil deterioration. After 24 days storage at 65°C, sunflower oil containing 200 and 300 ppm extract of unripe banana peel showed significantly lower PV and TOTOX compared to BHA and α-tocopherol. TBARS, p-AnV and FFA values of sunflower oil containing 200 and 300 ppm of unripe banana peel extract exhibited comparable inhibitory effects with BHA. Unripe banana peel extract at 200 and 300 ppm demonstrated inhibitory effect against both primary and secondary oxidation up to 24 days under accelerated storage conditions. Unripe banana peel extract may be used as a potential source of natural antioxidants in the application of food industry to suppress lipid oxidation.

  17. Vomiting, abdominal distention and early feeding of banana (Musa paradisiaca) in neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiryo, Hananto; Hakimi, M; Wahab, A Samik; Soeparto, Pitono

    2003-09-01

    The objective of this cohort study was to assess the relationship between banana given as early solid food with the symptoms of intestinal obstruction (SIO) among neonates, in a rural community in West Lombok District, West Nusa Tenggara Province, Indonesia. Mothers having newborn infants were interviewed and 3,420 neonates were followed for 28 days. Compared with infants who were not given solid food, the relative risk (RR) for infants given food other than banana as early solid food was 1.87, 95% CI 0.48-8.24, p=0.4, while for infants given banana only as early solid food the RR was 9.15, 95% CI 1.96-42.58, p 0.0005. After adjustment for birthweight, colostrum, and breastfeeding, the odds ratio for infants given banana and the appearance of SIO was 2.99, 95% CI 2.65-5.14; p=0.0012. These data indicate that banana given as early solid food is an important risk factor for the appearance of SIO in neonates.

  18. CARCASS YIELD OF BROILER CHICKENS FED BANANA (Musa paradisiaca LEAVES FERMENTED WITH Trichoderma viride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Mandey

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of level of banana (Musa paradisiaca leaves fermented with Trichoderma viride at different days on the carcass yield of broiler chickens. A hundred and eighty 3-weeks-old broiler chicks were used in this present experiment based on factorial design (3×4. The birds were randomly allocated into three experimental diets containing of 5, 10 and 15% of banana leaves fermented within 0, 5, 10 and 15 days. Each treatment was divided into three replicates of five chicks in each. The experiment was terminated after 4 weeks or when the birds were 7-weeks-old. Feed intake, body weight gain, feed efficiency and carcass yield were measured during the study. The data were subjected to the analysis of variance test followed by least significant difference (LSD test. Results showed that daily feed intake was significantly affected (P˂0.01 by the dietary treatments, in which feed intake was highest in broilers fed diet containing 10% banana leaves fermented for 10 days. The daily weight gain, feed efficiency and carcass yield were significantly affected (P˂0.01 by the treatments, in which the highest values of daily weight gain, feed efficiency, and carcass yield were observed in birds fed diet containing 10% banana leaves fermented for 10 days. It can be concluded that diet containing 10% banana leaves fermented for 10 days can be included in broiler ration without detrimental effects on the performance and carcass yield. 

  19. In vitro colonic fermentation and glycemic response of different kinds of unripe banana flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Elizabete Wenzel; Dan, Milana C T; Cardenette, Giselli H L; Goñi, Isabel; Bello-Pérez, Luis Arturo; Lajolo, Franco M

    2010-12-01

    This work aimed to study the in vitro colonic fermentation profile of unavailable carbohydrates of two different kinds of unripe banana flour and to evaluate their postprandial glycemic responses. The unripe banana mass (UBM), obtained from the cooked pulp of unripe bananas (Musa acuminata, Nanicão variety), and the unripe banana starch (UBS), obtained from isolated starch of unripe banana, plantain type (Musa paradisiaca) in natura, were studied. The fermentability of the flours was evaluated by different parameters, using rat inoculum, as well as the glycemic response produced after the ingestion by healthy volunteers. The flours presented high concentration of unavailable carbohydrates, which varied in the content of resistant starch, dietary fiber and indigestible fraction (IF). The in vitro colonic fermentation of the flours was high, 98% for the UBS and 75% for the UBM when expressed by the total amount of SCFA such as acetate, butyrate and propionate in relation to lactulose. The increase in the area under the glycemic curve after ingestion of the flours was 90% lower for the UBS and 40% lower for the UBM than the increase produced after bread intake. These characteristics highlight the potential of UBM and UBS as functional ingredients. However, in vivo studies are necessary in order to evaluate the possible benefit effects of the fermentation on intestinal health.

  20. Ethanol production process from banana fruit and its lignocellulosic residues: Energy analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velasquez-Arredondo, H.I. [Grupo de Investigacion Bioprocesos y Flujos Reactivos, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Medellin, Calle 59 A N 63-20 (Colombia); Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica, Escola Politecnica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Avenida Professor Mello Moraes 2231 (Brazil); Ruiz-Colorado, A.A. [Grupo de Investigacion Bioprocesos y Flujos Reactivos, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Medellin, Calle 59 A N 63-20 (Colombia); De Oliveira, S. Jr. [Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica, Escola Politecnica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Avenida Professor Mello Moraes 2231 (Brazil)

    2010-07-15

    Tropical countries, such as Brazil and Colombia, have the possibility of using agricultural lands for growing biomass to produce bio-fuels such as biodiesel and ethanol. This study applies an energy analysis to the production process of anhydrous ethanol obtained from the hydrolysis of starch and cellulosic and hemicellulosic material present in the banana fruit and its residual biomass. Four different production routes were analyzed: acid hydrolysis of amylaceous material (banana pulp and banana fruit) and enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic material (flower stalk and banana skin). The analysis considered banana plant cultivation, feedstock transport, hydrolysis, fermentation, distillation, dehydration, residue treatment and utility plant. The best indexes were obtained for amylaceous material for which mass performance varied from 346.5 L/t to 388.7 L/t, Net Energy Value (NEV) ranged from 9.86 MJ/L to 9.94 MJ/L and the energy ratio was 1.9 MJ/MJ. For lignocellulosic materials, the figures were less favorable; mass performance varied from 86.1 to 123.5 L/t, NEV from 5.24 to 8.79 MJ/L and energy ratio from 1.3 to 1.6 MJ/MJ. The analysis showed, however, that both processes can be considered energetically feasible. (author)

  1. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of Colletotrichum species associated with anthracnose of banana (Musa spp) in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intan Sakinah, M A; Suzianti, I V; Latiffah, Z

    2014-05-09

    Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum species is a common postharvest disease of banana fruit. We investigated and identified Colletotrichum species associated with anthracnose in several local banana cultivars based on morphological characteristics and sequencing of ITS regions and of the β-tubulin gene. Thirty-eight Colletotrichum isolates were encountered in anthracnose lesions of five local banana cultivars, 'berangan', 'mas', 'awak', 'rastali', and 'nangka'. Based on morphological characteristics, 32 isolates were identified as Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and 6 isolates as C. musae. C. gloeosporioides isolates were divided into two morphotypes, with differences in colony color, shape of the conidia and growth rate. Based on ITS regions and β-tubulin sequences, 35 of the isolates were identified as C. gloeosporioides and only 3 isolates as C. musae; the percentage of similarity from BLAST ranged from 95-100% for ITS regions and 97-100% for β-tubulin. C. gloeosporioides isolates were more prevalent compared to C. musae. This is the first record of C. gloeosporioides associated with banana anthracnose in Malaysia. In a phylogenetic analysis of the combined dataset of ITS regions and β-tubulin using a maximum likelihood method, C. gloeosporioides and C. musae isolates were clearly separated into two groups. We concluded that C. gloeosporioides and C. musae isolates are associated with anthracnose in the local banana cultivars and that C. gloeosporioides is more prevalent than C. musae.

  2. Improved tolerance toward fungal diseases in transgenic Cavendish banana (Musa spp. AAA group) cv. Grand Nain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnevetsky, Jane; White, Thomas L; Palmateer, Aaron J; Flaishman, Moshe; Cohen, Yuval; Elad, Yigal; Velcheva, Margarita; Hanania, Uri; Sahar, Nachman; Dgani, Oded; Perl, Avihai

    2011-02-01

    The most devastating disease currently threatening to destroy the banana industry worldwide is undoubtedly Sigatoka Leaf spot disease caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis. In this study, we developed a transformation system for banana and expressed the endochitinase gene ThEn-42 from Trichoderma harzianum together with the grape stilbene synthase (StSy) gene in transgenic banana plants under the control of the 35S promoter and the inducible PR-10 promoter, respectively. The superoxide dismutase gene Cu,Zn-SOD from tomato, under control of the ubiquitin promoter, was added to this cassette to improve scavenging of free radicals generated during fungal attack. A 4-year field trial demonstrated several transgenic banana lines with improved tolerance to Sigatoka. As the genes conferring Sigatoka tolerance may have a wide range of anti-fungal activities we also inoculated the regenerated banana plants with Botrytis cinerea. The best transgenic lines exhibiting Sigatoka tolerance were also found to have tolerance to B. cinerea in laboratory assays.

  3. Genetic resources in Musa bananas and improvement of their disease resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges Fuentes, O.L.

    1977-01-01

    The cultivated bananas belong to the genus Musa and it is the wild species Musa acuminata and Musa balbisiana which contributed to the origin of the sorts used as food. Most of these are triploids and possess a high degree of sterility. The sources of variation that are of importance for genetic improvement of the bananas are (1) hereditary differences between the cultivated clones; (2) difference between species and sub-species; (3) differences between the primitive cultivars derived from Musa acuminata, and (4) mutations that can be artiificially induced. The bananas are attacked by many diseases. Their vulnerability to certain diseases is highly significant in view of the extreme genetic uniformity of the commercial crops and the absence of resistant genes. In the past the wild species and the diploids used as food served as sources of resistance. However, efforts to induce resistance in the cultivated triploid bananas have not been successful. The use of mutagenic agents is proposed as a possible way of improving genetic variability in banana cultivation. (author)

  4. Antioxidant activity test on ambonese banana stem sap (Musa parasidiaca var. sapientum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik Setia Budi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polymorphonuclear cells (PMN release oxygen free radicals or reactive oxygen species (ROS during inflammation. As a result, ROS level is higher than antioxidant level in our body during oxidative stress leading to prolong inflammation or continuous tissue damage. Indonesia, on the other hand, is a country with various herbal medicines. For instance, ambonese banana (Musa parasidiaca var. sapientum is often used as herbal medicine. Ambonese banana, moreover, has flavonoid, polyphenol, tannin, and saponin as antioxidants to reduce free radicals by transferring their hydrogen atom. Medicine used to reduce the impact of free radicals is known as antioxidant. Antioxidant is proved to accelerate wound healing. Purpose: This research aims to analyze the effects of the antioxidant activity of Ambonese banana stem sap extract. Method: Antioxidant activities in this research were examined with 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hidrazyl (DPPH method by reacting with stable radical compounds. Spectrophotometry with a wavelength of 517 nm was used to measure absorption results shown in purple. The absorption results then were calculated by IC50 reduction activity. Result: There were significant differences of Ambonese banana stem sap antioxidant activity (p50%. Conclusion: Ambonese banana stem sap extract has antioxidant activities.

  5. Carbon footprint of premium quality export bananas: case study in Ecuador, the world's largest exporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriarte, Alfredo; Almeida, Maria Gabriela; Villalobos, Pablo

    2014-02-15

    Nowadays, the new international market demands challenge the food producing countries to include the measurement of the environmental impact generated along the production process for their products. In order to comply with the environmentally responsible market requests the measurement of the greenhouse gas emissions of Ecuadorian agricultural goods has been promoted employing the carbon footprint concept. Ecuador is the largest exporter of bananas in the world. Within this context, this study is a first assessment of the carbon footprint of the Ecuadorian premium export banana (Musa AAA) using a considerable amount of field data. The system boundaries considered from agricultural production to delivery in a European destination port. The data collected over three years permitted identifying the hot spot stages. For the calculation, the CCaLC V3.0 software developed by the University of Manchester is used. The carbon footprint of the Ecuadorian export banana ranged from 0.45 to 1.04 kg CO2-equivalent/kg banana depending on the international overseas transport employed. The principal contributors to the carbon footprint are the on farm production and overseas transport stages. Mitigation and reduction strategies were suggested for the main emission sources in order to achieve sustainable banana production. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Nanocomposites of rice and banana flours blend with montmorillonite: Partial characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodríguez-Marín, María L.; Bello-Pérez, Luis A. [Centro de Desarrollo de Productos Bióticos, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Km 6 carr Yautepec-Jojutla, Calle Ceprobi No. 8, Colonia San Isidro, Apartado Postal 24, C.P 62731, Yautepec, Morelos (Mexico); Yee-Madeira, Hernani [Departamento de Física, Escuela Superior de Física y Matemáticas-IPN, Edificio 9, U.P., ‘Adolfo López Mateos’ Col. Lindavista, C.P. 07738, México, D. F. (Mexico); Zhong, Qixin [Department of Food science and Technology, the University of Tennessee, Knoxville (United States); González-Soto, Rosalía A., E-mail: rsoto@ipn.mx [Centro de Desarrollo de Productos Bióticos, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Km 6 carr Yautepec-Jojutla, Calle Ceprobi No. 8, Colonia San Isidro, Apartado Postal 24, C.P 62731, Yautepec, Morelos (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    Rice and banana flours are inexpensive starchy materials that can form films with more improved properties than those made with their starch because flour and starch present different hydrophobicity. Montmorillonite (MMT) can be used to further improve the properties of starch-based films, which has not received much research attention for starchy flours. The aim of this work was to evaluate the mechanical and barrier properties of nanocomposite films of banana and rice flours as matrix material with addition of MMT as a nanofiller. MMT was modified using citric acid to produce intercalated structures, as verified by the X-ray diffraction pattern. The intercalated MMT was blended with flour slurries, and films were prepared by casting. Nanocomposite films of banana and rice flours presented an increase in the tensile at break and elongation percentage, respectively, more than their respective control films without MMT. This study showed that banana and rice flours could be alternative raw materials to use in making nanocomposite films. - Highlights: • Flour films presented adequate mechanical and barrier properties. • Addition of montmorillonite modified the mechanical and barrier properties of flour films. • The mechanical properties of the films were influenced by the different components of the flours. • The fiber of the banana flour improved the mechanical properties of the films.

  7. Nanocomposites of rice and banana flours blend with montmorillonite: Partial characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodríguez-Marín, María L.; Bello-Pérez, Luis A.; Yee-Madeira, Hernani; Zhong, Qixin; González-Soto, Rosalía A.

    2013-01-01

    Rice and banana flours are inexpensive starchy materials that can form films with more improved properties than those made with their starch because flour and starch present different hydrophobicity. Montmorillonite (MMT) can be used to further improve the properties of starch-based films, which has not received much research attention for starchy flours. The aim of this work was to evaluate the mechanical and barrier properties of nanocomposite films of banana and rice flours as matrix material with addition of MMT as a nanofiller. MMT was modified using citric acid to produce intercalated structures, as verified by the X-ray diffraction pattern. The intercalated MMT was blended with flour slurries, and films were prepared by casting. Nanocomposite films of banana and rice flours presented an increase in the tensile at break and elongation percentage, respectively, more than their respective control films without MMT. This study showed that banana and rice flours could be alternative raw materials to use in making nanocomposite films. - Highlights: • Flour films presented adequate mechanical and barrier properties. • Addition of montmorillonite modified the mechanical and barrier properties of flour films. • The mechanical properties of the films were influenced by the different components of the flours. • The fiber of the banana flour improved the mechanical properties of the films

  8. TRADE ENHANCEMENT CHARACTERISTICS OF DESSERT BANANA FRUITS AND ESTIMATES OF TRANSACTION COSTS IN OKIGWE METROPOLIS, IMO STATE NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ogbonna Emerole

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study on trade enhancement Characteristics of sweet (dessert banana fruit and estimation of transaction costs was conducted in Okigwe Metropolis of Imo State, Nigeria. Stratified random sampling technique was adopted in selecting 80 respondents comprising 40 dessert banana traders (panelists and 40 dessert banana consumers. Monthly trade data was collected from the respondents using pretested semi-structured questionnaire during dry season (November-April and rain season (May-October for the year 2012. Data collected were subjected to descriptive statistical analysis; with transaction costs estimated as ex ante and ex post components. Hedonic pricing regression model was used in determining buyer socioeconomic/banana attributes that influenced willingness to pay price. Fruit characteristics that significantly enhanced trade of sweet banana in descending order were taste (3.83, fruit variety (3.57, and fruit skin colour (3.50. Other significant factors were level of ripeness (3.49, availability in off-season (3.46, fruit size (3.20 and cleanliness (3.20. Mean ex-ante transaction costs for sweet banana was N77, 800.00/trader and its mean ex-post transaction cost was N25,080.00/trader. We recommended that traders should take advantage of Global Mobile System (GSM to overcome information barriers on banana trading. Government and health institutions should intensify consumer safety education, and encourage horticultural unions to heighten postharvest monitoring of stored and displayed dessert banana fruits to enforce observance of ripening standards.

  9. Enhancing dissemination of Beauveria bassiana with host plant base incision trapfor the management of the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinzaara, W.; Emudong, P.; Nankinga, C.; Tushemereirwe, W.; Kagezi, G.H.; Gold, C.S.; Dicke, M.; Huis, van A.; Karamura, E.

    2015-01-01

    The banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is an important pest of highland banana in East and central Africa. It causes yield loss of up to 100% in heavily infested fields. Studies were carried out in Uganda to evaluate the efficacy of the the plant base incision

  10. Endophytic control of Cosmopolites sordidus and Radopholus similis using Fusarium oxysporum V5w2 in tissue culture banana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ochieno, D.M.W.

    2010-01-01

    Banana plants are being inoculated with Fusarium oxysporum V5w2 and Beauveria bassiana G41 for endophytic control of pests. The effects of F. oxysporum V5w2 and B. bassiana G41, soil sterility, fertilizer, and mulching, on Cosmopolites sordidus and Radopholus similis in banana plants, are

  11. Identification and evaluation of two diagnostic markers linked to Fusarium wilt resistance (race 4) in banana (Musa spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Hu, Yulin; Sun, Dequan; Staehelin, Christian; Xin, Dawei; Xie, Jianghui

    2012-01-01

    Fusarium wilt caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense race 4 (FOC4) results in vascular tissue damage and ultimately death of banana (Musa spp.) plants. Somaclonal variants of in vitro micropropagated banana can hamper success in propagation of genotypes resistant to FOC4. Early identification of FOC4 resistance in micropropagated banana plantlets is difficult, however. In this study, we identified sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers of banana associated with resistance to FOC4. Using pooled DNA from resistant or susceptible genotypes and 500 arbitrary 10-mer oligonucleotide primers, 24 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) products were identified. Two of these RAPD markers were successfully converted to SCAR markers, called ScaU1001 (GenBank accession number HQ613949) and ScaS0901 (GenBank accession number HQ613950). ScaS0901 and ScaU1001 could be amplified in FOC4-resistant banana genotypes ("Williams 8818-1" and Goldfinger), but not in five tested banana cultivars susceptible to FOC4. The two SCAR markers were then used to identify a somaclonal variant of the genotype "Williams 8818-1", which lost resistance to FOC4. Hence, the identified SCAR markers can be applied for a rapid quality control of FOC4-resistant banana plantlets immediately after the in vitro micropropagation stage. Furthermore, ScaU1001 and ScaS0901 will facilitate marker-assisted selection of new banana cultivars resistant to FOC4.

  12. Effect of 1-Methylcyclopropene coupled with controlled atmosphere storage on the ripening and quality of ‘Cavendish’ bananas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresh-fruit banana is well known to have a short-life after harvest. A short pre-pilot study was carried out to test the effect of atmospheric condition exposure to 1-MCP on the quality, limited to cosmetic and peel appearance, and shelf life of fresh-fruit bananas. Low level of O2 (3 kPa) and high ...

  13. Production and Characterization of a Distilled Alcoholic Beverage Obtained by Fermentation of Banana Waste (Musa cavendishii from Selected Yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Eli de Matos

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Banana is one of the most important fruits in the Brazilian diet and is mainly consumed naturally. Losses from crop to final consumer are high and estimated in about 30%. The aim of this work was to elaborate a distilled alcoholic beverage from discarded banana and to compare with commercial trademarks. Initially, yeast strains were isolated from banana fruit and characterized by their production of volatile aroma compounds. The highest aroma-producing yeast isolate was identified by ITS-rRNA gene sequencing as Pichia kluyveri. Pasteurized banana pulp and peel was fermented by the selected P. kluyveri at approximately 107 cells/mL. The sugars were converted quickly, and a high ethanol concentration (413 mg/L was achieved after 24 h of fermentation. The fermented banana must was distilled in a Femel Alambic, and the head, heart and tail fractions were collected. The banana brandy produced had highest concentration of volatile compounds compared to trademarks, such as isoamyl acetate (13.5 mg/L, ethyl hexanoate (0.8 mg/L and others. The results showed that whole banana must could be a good substrate for fermentation and distillation, and the sensory analysis performed revealed that the produced beverage had good acceptance by the tasters. This study demonstrates the potential of banana as a possible alternative to reduce waste and increase income to farmers.

  14. Hyperspectral Surface Analysis for Ripeness Estimation and Quick UV-C Surface Treatments for Preservation of Bananas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, W.; Yang, Zh.; Chen, Zh.; Liu, J.; Wang, W. Ch.; Zheng, W. Yu.

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to determine the ripeness of bananas using hyperspectral surface analysis and how a rapid UV-C (ultraviolet-C light) surface treatment could reduce decay. The surface of the banana fruit and its stages of maturity were studied using a hyperspectral imaging technique in the visible and near infrared (370-1000 nm) regions. The vselected color ratios from these spectral images were used for classifying the whole banana into immature, ripe, half-ripe and overripe stages. By using a BP neural network, models based on the wavelengths were developed to predict quality attributes. The mean discrimination rate was 98.17%. The surface of the fresh bananas was treated with UV-C at dosages from 15-55 μW/cm2. The visual qualities with or without UV-C treatment were compared using the image, the chromatic aberration test, the firmness test and the area of black spot on the banana skin. The results showed that high dosages of UV-C damaged the banana skin, while low dosages were more efficient at delaying changes in the relative brightness of the skin. The maximum UV-C treatment dose for satisfactory banana preservation was between 21 and 24 μW/cm2. These results could help to improve the visual quality of bananas and to classify their ripeness more easily.

  15. A sarabande of tropical fruit proteomics: Avocado, banana, and mango.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righetti, Pier Giorgio; Esteve, Clara; D'Amato, Alfonsina; Fasoli, Elisa; Luisa Marina, María; Concepción García, María

    2015-05-01

    The present review highlights the progress made in plant proteomics via the introduction of combinatorial peptide ligand libraries (CPLL) for detecting low-abundance species. Thanks to a novel approach to the CPLL methodology, namely, that of performing the capture both under native and denaturing conditions, identifying plant species in the order of thousands, rather than hundreds, is now possible. We report here data on a trio of tropical fruits, namely, banana, avocado, and mango. The first two are classified as "recalcitrant" tissues since minute amounts of proteins (in the order of 1%) are embedded on a very large matrix of plant-specific material (e.g., polysaccharides and other plant polymers). Yet, even under these adverse conditions we could report, in a single sweep, from 1000 to 3000 unique gene products. In the case of mango the investigation has been extended to the peel too, since this skin is popularly used to flavor dishes in Far East cuisine. Even in this tough peel 330 proteins could be identified, whereas in soft peels, such as in lemons, one thousand unique species could be detected. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Banana peel extract mediated synthesis of gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankar, Ashok; Joshi, Bhagyashree; Kumar, Ameeta Ravi; Zinjarde, Smita

    2010-10-01

    Gold nanoparticles were synthesized by using banana peel extract (BPE) as a simple, non-toxic, eco-friendly 'green material'. The boiled, crushed, acetone precipitated, air-dried peel powder was used to reduce chloroauric acid. A variety of nanoparticles were formed when the reaction conditions were altered with respect to pH, BPE content, chloroauric acid concentration and temperature of incubation. The reaction mixtures displayed vivid colors and UV-vis spectra characteristic of gold nanoparticles. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) studies revealed that the average size of the nanoparticles under standard synthetic conditions was around 300nm. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) confirmed these results. A coffee ring phenomenon, led to the aggregation of the nanoparticles into microcubes and microwire networks towards the periphery of the air-dried samples. X-ray diffraction studies of the samples revealed spectra that were characteristic for gold. Fourier transform infra red (FTIR) spectroscopy indicated the involvement of carboxyl, amine and hydroxyl groups in the synthetic process. The BPE mediated nanoparticles displayed efficient antimicrobial activity towards most of the tested fungal and bacterial cultures.

  17. Experimental Investigations on Thermal Conductivity of Fenugreek and Banana Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujari, Satish; Venkatesh, Talari; Seeli, Hepsiba

    2018-04-01

    The use of composite materials in manufacturing has significantly increased in the past decade. Research is being done to identify natural fibers that can be used as composites. Several natural fibers are already being used in the industry as composites. The appealing advantages of using natural fibers are reflected in lower density when compared to synthetic fibers and also in saving costs. This research paper highlights the experiment that analyses the use of biodegradable fenugreek composite as natural fiber and concludes that fenugreek natural fibers are an excellent substitute to the synthetic fibers in terms of reinforcement properties for the polymers. These fenugreek fibers are naturally sourced, renewable, cost effective and bio-friendly. In thermal energy storage systems as well as in air conditioning systems, thermal insulators are predominantly used to enhance the storage properties. An experiment was created to investigate the thermal properties of fenugreek banana composites for different fiber concentrations. The experimental results showed that the thermal conductivity of the composites decrease with an increase in the fiber content. The experimental results were compared with the theoretical models to describe the variation of thermal conductivity with the volume fraction of the fiber. Good agreement between theoretical and experimental results was observed.

  18. Results of Ageing Tests on the Forward MSGC 'BANANA' Prototype

    CERN Document Server

    Boimska, B; Capéans-Garrido, M; Claes, S; Hoch, Michael; Million, Gilbert; Ropelewski, Leszek; Sharma, Abhishek; Shekhtman, L I; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Lancker, Luc

    1996-01-01

    The forward tracker of the CMS experiment at CERN will consist of a large number of MicroStrip Gas Chambers ( MSGCs), expected to operate for several years in the high luminosity environment of LHC with an accumulated dose rate of ~ 10 mC/yr per cm of strip. They are planned to be arranged around the interaction point in modular wheels which contain several MSGCs. The 'open'option of a forward CMS 'banana' module includes the electronics inside the gas volume. Long term tests of one such prototype containing two plates, one with gold and the other with chromium strips on diamond-like coated D263 glass with representative electronics and surface mount components inside the gas volume have been performed; the satisfactory results are reported here. A first test has been made with a gas flow rate of 60 cc/min in the prototype ( corresponding to 5 gas renewals per hour) and has shown no gain drop up to 85 mC/cm of accumulated charge per strip. A second test has been performed with a gas flow rate of 6 cc/min corr...

  19. ECONOMIC VIABILITY OF NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT PRACTICES FOR BANANA CROP VIABILIDADE ECONÔMICA DE MANEJOS NUTRICIONAIS NA CULTURA DE BANANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura Seiko Tsutsui Esperancini

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Proper fertilizing management, in order to optimize fruit quality and yield, is a relevant stage on the production process to the rural entrepreneur profitability. So, the aim of this study was to analyze the economic feasibility of five nutrient management practices for banana crop, Cavendish cultivars, in the Médio Paranapanema region, São Paulo State, Brazil, in 2009/2010. The effective operational cost (EOC and total operational cost (TOC structures and three profitability indicators were used. Significant differences were observed among the management systems, and the system that resulted in major economic advantage to the producer provided an average profit rate 25.6% higher than other treatments, with total net revenue about 29.5% higher than other management types. The unitary cost was lower for the most profitable nutrient management practice, although the yield was 9.5% lower than the management system that presented the highest yield levels.

    KEY-WORDS: Musa sp.; banana crop; fertilization; production cost; profitability.

    O manejo adequado da adubação, visando à otimização da produtividade e qualidade dos frutos, é uma etapa representativa do processo produtivo para rentabilidade do empreendedor rural. Neste contexto, objetivou-se analisar a viabilidade econômica de cinco tipos de manejo nutricional de bananeiras de cultivares do subgrupo Cavendish, na região do Médio Paranapanema (SP, em 2009/2010. Foram utilizadas estruturas do custo operacional efetivo (COE e custo operacional total (COT e três indicadores de rentabilidade. Diferenças significativas foram observadas entre os manejos, sendo que o sistema de manejo que resultou em maior vantagem econômica para o produtor proporcionou índice médio de lucratividade 25,6% superior aos demais

  20. Effects on Glomus mosseae Root Colonization by Paenibacillus polymyxa and Paenibacillus brasilensis Strains as Related to Soil P-Availability in Winter Wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthurson, V; Granhall, U; Derlund, L; Hjort, K; Muleta, D

    2011-01-01

    Greenhouse experiments were conducted to assess the effects of inoculating winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) of the genus Paenibacillus under phosphate P-limited soil conditions in the presence or absence of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) Glomus mosseae. Four P. polymyxa strains and one P. brasilensis strain were compared at two cell concentrations (10 6 and 10 8 cells g -1 seeds) of inoculation, and surface sterilized AMF spores were added to pots. Mycorrhizal root colonization, plant growth, and plant uptake of phosphorus were analyzed. Bacterial phosphate solubilization was examined separately in vitro. Most P. polymyxa strains, isolated from wheat, had dramatic effects per se on root growth and root P-content. No treatment gave significant effect on shoot growth. AMF root colonization levels and total plant uptake of P were much stimulated by the addition of most P. polymyxa strains. The AM fungus alone and the P. brasilensis, alone or in combination with the fungus, did not affect total plant P-levels. Our results indicate that practical application of inoculation with plant host-specific rhizobacteria (i.e., P. polymyxa) could positively influence uptake of phosphorus in P-

  1. An alternative safer and cost effective surface sterilization method for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2013-10-30

    Oct 30, 2013 ... 110 countries and 50% of the production occurs in Brazil and India (FAO, 2008). ... capital formation, agriculture and other industries develop- ment, urbanization and ... Moreover, the method requires large nursery space: one.

  2. Soft electron processor for surface sterilization of food material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, Takashi; Kaneko, Hiromi; Taniguchi, Shuichi

    2004-01-01

    As frozen or chilled foods have become popular nowadays, it has become very important to provide raw materials with lower level microbial contamination to food processing companies. Consequently, the sterilization of food material is one of the major topics for food processing. Dried materials like grains, beans and spices, etc., are not typically deeply contaminated by microorganisms, which reside on the surfaces of materials, so it is very useful to take low energetic, lower than 300 keV, electrons with small penetration power (Soft-Electrons), as a sterilization method for such materials. Soft-Electrons is researched and named by Dr. Hayashi et al. This is a non-thermal method, so one can keep foods hygienic without serious deterioration. It is also a physical method, so is free from residues of chemicals in foods. Recently, Nissin-High Voltage Co., Ltd. have developed and manufactured equipment for commercial use of Soft-Electrons (Soft Electron Processor), which can process 500 kg/h of grains. This report introduces the Soft Electron Processor and shows the results of sterilization of wheat and brown rice by the equipment

  3. Surface sterilization and duration of seed storage influenced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2006-08-03

    Aug 3, 2006 ... probably due to little or no compaction of the potting medium (ricehull). A previous study (Baiyeri, 2003) and a more recent one (Baiyeri and Mbah, 2006), using soil- based and soilless media recorded relatively lower percent seedling emergence, probably because germinated seeds in those studies could ...

  4. Simple, effective and economical explant-surface sterilization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-19

    Oct 19, 2009 ... recommend this technique due to its simplicity and economy. Key words: Explant ... mercuric chloride, hydrogen peroxide, silver nitrate and bromine water (Rai ... actually within the structure that is being surface steri- lized.

  5. Increasing sustainability through the use of organic matters/manures in banana production. cv. harichal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miano, T.F.; Baloch, M.A.; Baloch, A.F.; Miano, T.F.

    2005-01-01

    A banana experiment was carried out with cv. Harichal under the ecological conditions of Tando Jam to study the effect of organic manures/matter on the growth and bunch weight (yield) of banana. The treatments applied were ; FYM, Dry leaves, Stalk of the banana bunch and control with constant doses of NPK (136g + 57g + 148g per plant). Minimum days (490.33) from planting to harvest were observed under the treatment of FYM followed by stalk of the bunch and dried leaves. The highest single fruit weight (107 g), fruit length( 18.30 cm) bunch weight (25.46 kg) and calculated yield per hectare (33.80 tons) were observed under FYM with NPK fertilizer followed by stalk of the bunch and dried leaves. (author)

  6. Growth Performance of Pekin Ducks Fed with Golden Snail and Fresh Banana Peelings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulep, LJL.

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth performance and economics of feeding confined Pekin ducks with three different levels of golden snail fresh meat and banana peelings in equal percentage for replacing 50 %, 70 % or 90 % of the commercial feed of the diet was studied. Body weight gains and feed consumption of ducks, cost of feed and profit above feed and stock cost different significantly among treatments. Feed conversion varied during the first month of feeding but became comparable after the second month. Ducks fed the diet with 45 % banana peel and 45 % golden snail meat gave the best performance, were the most economical and yielded the highest profit. Snail meat and banana peeling utilization as replacement to commercial diet for ducks is advantageaous in terms of growth performance and cost benefit.

  7. Fungi associated with fruit crown rot in organic banana (Musa spp. L. in Piura, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Aguilar Anccota

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The department of Piura is the principal banana-producing zone in Peru, sharing 87% of exportations. In this zone, one of the most important postharvest diseases is crown rot. The economic loses attributed to this disease are estimated to be between 25 and 30% of organic bananas exported. The objective of this study was to identify the causal agents associated with this disease. Samples taken refrigerated fruit from the areas of Querecotillo, Salitral and Mallares were taken and selected after the fact. Thielaviopsis paradoxa, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Colletotrichum musae and Fusarium verticilloides. In order to demonstrate the pathogenicity of the isolated species, inoculations were given in the area of the crown of the fruit on healthy bananas. These fungi caused symptoms of infection in different proportions, concluding that crown rot is a disease with a complex etiology.

  8. The Effect of Consuming Ambon Banana (Musa paradisiaca Var. Sapientum on Sleep Latency of Elderly Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvi Ria Ristania

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Elderly hypertension often reported that their latency elongated was less compared to healthy elderly. The increase of latency impact on health, it causes susceptibility to illness, stress, confusion, disorientation, mood disorders, less fresh, decrease ability to make decisions. The aim of this research was to explain the effect of consuming Ambon banana on sleep latency of elderly hypertension in Mulyorejo, Surabaya. Time series one group pre-test post test design was used in this research. Affordable population in this research was elderly hypertension in RW 2 and RW 3 Mulyorejo Surabaya. Total sample was 15 respondents and taken by total sampling technique. The independent variable was consuming Ambon banana, and dependent variable was sleep latency of elderly hypertension. Every day the latency and blood pressure on elderly was monitored. Data was collected using questionnaire, and then analyzed using Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test. The result showed that consuming Ambon banana affect sleep latency (p=0.009.

  9. BANANAS: providing child care services to a multi-ethnic community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Catherine M; Schwartz, Sara L; Austin, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    BANANAS, Inc. is a nonprofit organization that has provided child care resource and referral services for over 35 years. BANANAS emerged as a grassroots effort initiated by a group of female volunteers who sought to build a network of women with children who needed childcare. As the organization developed, its leaders recognized and responded to additional needs, including resource and information sharing, workshops and classes, and political advocacy. Beginning as a collective, BANANAS has grown into a multifaceted service delivery and advocacy nonprofit operating with an annual budget of $12 million. This history of the agency reflects the development of a unique community-based effort, its challenges and rewards, and the multiple successes that this pioneering nonprofit has experienced.

  10. Combined effects of pectic enzymes on the degradation of pectin polysaccharides of banana fruit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jheng, G.; Jiang, Y.; Ghen, Y.; Yang, S.

    2011-01-01

    Pectin polysaccharide is one of the major components of the primary cellular wall in the middle lamella of plant tissues. The degradation of pectin polysaccharide contributes to fruit softening. In this study, water-soluble pectin (WSP) and acid-soluble pectin (ASP) were isolated from pulp tissues of banana fruit at various ripening stages, and combinations of the enzymes such as polygalcturonase (PG), pectin methylesterase (PME) and beta-galactosidase (beta-Gal) were used to investigate the effect on the degradation of WSP and ASP. PG promoted the degradation of pectin polysaccharides, especially in ASP. An enhanced effect of the degradation of WSP and ASP from various ripening banana fruit was observed in the presence of PME. In addition, beta-Gal accelerated slightly the degradation of WSP and ASP in the presence of PG. Overall, PG, PME and beta-Gal can coordinate to promote the degradation of pectin polysaccharides of banana fruit, resulting in fruit softening. (author)

  11. Banana fluxes in the plateau regime for a nonaxisymmetrically confined plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balescu, R.; Fantechi, S.

    1990-01-01

    The banana (or banana-plateau) fluxes, related to the generalized stresses left-angle B·∇·π α(n) right-angle, left-angle B T ·∇·π α(n) right-angle have been determined in the plateau regime, for a plasma confined by a toroidal magnetic field of arbitrary geometry. The complete set of transport coefficients for both the ''parallel'' (ambipolar) and ''toroidal'' (nonambipolar) banana fluxes was obtained in the 13-moment (13M) approximation, going beyond the previously known expressions in the nonaxisymmetric case. The main emphasis is laid on the structure of the transport matrix and of its coefficients. It is shown that the Onsager symmetry of this matrix partly breaks down (for the mixed electron--ion coefficients) in a nonaxisymmetrically confined plasma

  12. Suitability of combination of calcium propionate and chitosan for preserving minimally processed banana quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirshekari, Amin; Madani, Babak; Golding, John B

    2017-08-01

    The marketability of fresh-cut banana slices is limited by the rapid rate of fruit softening and browning. However, there is no scientific literature available about the role of postharvest calcium propionate and chitosan treatment on the quality attributes of fresh-cut banana. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate these effects. The application of calcium propionate plus chitosan (CaP+Chit) retained higher firmness, higher ascorbic acid content, higher total antioxidant activity and higher total phenolic compounds, along with lower browning, lower polyphenol oxidase, lower peroxidase, lower polygalacturonase and lower pectin methyl esterase activities and microbial growth, compared to control banana slices after 5 days of cold storage. The results of the present study show that CaP+Chit could be used to slow the loss of quality at the same time as maintaining quality and inhibiting microbial loads. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Process Engineering App lied to the Production of Bioethanol Using Banana Rejection Urabá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Flórez Alvarado

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Most countries either financially or in advanced stages of development are faced with the problem of disposal and treatment of waste and organic waste; these can be treated in different ways, for example by reducing its volume or processing any useful substance using physicochemical transformation processesbananas in bioethanol and analyzing environmental impacts to meet sanitary standards.The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential for ethanol production from banana and the study and application of process engineering in ethanol production using banana rejection as feedstock in the region of Urabá.Bioethanol is obtained by fermentation and distillation of rejected bananas where the results are reflected in the operational controls and leaf pattern obtained in the standardization process.

  14. Optimization of process parameter for graft copolymerization of glycidyl methacrylate onto delignified banana fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selambakkannu, S.; Nor Azillah Fatimah Othman; Siti Fatahiyah Mohamad

    2016-01-01

    This paper focused on pre-treated banana fibers as a trunk polymer for optimization of radiation-induced graft copolymerization process parameters. Pre-treated banana fiber was grafted with glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) via electron beam irradiation. Optimization of grafting parameters in term of grafting yield was analyzed at numerous radiation dose, monomer concentration and reaction time. Grafting yield had been calculated gravimetrically against all the process parameters. The grafting yield at 40 kGy had increases from 14 % to 22.5 % at 1 h and 24 h of reaction time respectively. Grafting yield at 1 % of GMA was about 58 % and it increases to 187 % at 3 % GMA. The grafting of GMA onto pre-treated banana fibers confirmed with the characterization using FTIR, SEM and TGA. Grafting of GMA onto pre-treated fibers was successfully carried out and it was confirmed by the results obtained via the characterization. (author)

  15. Banana peel: a green and economical sorbent for Cr(III) removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memon, J.R.; Bhanger, M.I.; Memon, S.Q.

    2008-01-01

    Banana peel, a common fruit waste has been investigated to remove and preconcentrate Cr(III) from industrial wastewater. It was characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy. The parameters pH, contact time, initial metal ion concentration and temperature were investigated and the maximum sorption was found to be 95%. The binding of metal ions was found to be pH dependent with the optimal sorption occurring at pH 4. The retained species were eluted using 5 ml of 2 M HNO/sub 3/. The mechanism for the binding of Cr(III) on the banana peel surface was also studied in detail. The Langmuir and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherms were used to describe the partitioning behavior for the system at different temperatures. Kinetic and thermodynamic measurements of the banana peel for chromium ions were also studied. The method was applied for the removal and preconcentration of Cr(III) from industrial wastewater. (author)

  16. Genetic association among root morphology, root quality and root yield in ashwagandha (Withania somnifera)

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar Ramesh R.; Reddy Anjaneya Prasanna L.; Subbaiah Chinna J.; Kumar Niranjana A.; Prasad Nagendra H.N.; Bhukya Balakishan

    2011-01-01

    Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) is a dryland medicinal crop and roots are used as valuable drug in traditional systems of medicine. Morphological variants (morphotypes) and the parental populations were evaluated for root - morphometric, quality and yield traits to study genetic association among them. Root morphometric traits (root length, root diameter, number of secondary roots/ plant) and crude fiber content exhibited strong association among them and ...

  17. REGULATION OF BLOOD PRESSURE IN PATIENTS WITH PRIMARY HYPERTENSION WITH SMOOTHIE BANANA (MUSA PARADISIACA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eni Puji Lestari

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hypertension is a major problem that often happen in Indonesia. Hypertension can cause many complications. In Indonesia almost patients with hypertension got farmacologic therapy, but there is no difference. Banana smoothie is one of nonfarmacologic therapy that can be used to lower blood pressure. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of banana smoothie on regulation in patients with primary hypertension. Method: This study used quasy experimental design. The population in this study were patients with primary hypertension in Kedungturi village Taman Sidoarjo. The sampling technique used nonprobability sampling type of purposive sampling. The total number of sample were 16 respondents who were selected based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. Result:The Result of paired t-test at the systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure in experiment group showed p value = 0.000. Independent t test between experiment group post-test and control group post-test showed p value = 0.000 for systolic blood pressure and p value = 0.002 for diastolic blood pressure. This result showed that there was a difference value of pretest and post-test systolic and diastolic blood pressure. With the result of independen t-test we know that there is a difference value between exsperiment and control blood pressure. Discussion: This study explain that there was significant effect of banana smoothie to regulate blood pressure in patients with primary hypertention. Banana smoothie can regulate the blood pressure because of high kalium substance. The function of kalium is to reduce the effect of natrium so the blood pressure can down. It can be conclude that banana smoothie can regulate the blood pressure in patients with primary hypertention. In further day patients with hypertension can choose banana smoothie to regulate their blood pressure.

  18. Co-extrusion of food grains-banana pulp for nutritious snacks: optimization of process variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mridula, D; Sethi, Swati; Tushir, Surya; Bhadwal, Sheetal; Gupta, R K; Nanda, S K

    2017-08-01

    Present study was undertaken to optimize the process conditions for development of food grains (maize, defatted soy flour, sesame seed)-banana based nutritious expanded snacks using extrusion processing. Experiments were designed using Box-Behnken design with banana pulp (8-24 g), screw speed (300-350 rpm) and feed moisture (14-16% w.b.). Seven responses viz. expansion ratio (ER), bulk density (BD), water absorption index (WAI), protein, minerals, iron and sensory acceptability were considered for optimizing independent parameters. ER, BD, WAI, protein content, total minerals, iron content, and overall acceptability ranged 2.69-3.36, 153.43-238.83 kg/m 3 , 4.56-4.88 g/g, 15.19-15.52%, 2.06-2.27%, 4.39-4.67 mg/100 g (w.b.) and 6.76-7.36, respectively. ER was significantly affected by all three process variables while BD was influenced by banana pulp and screw speed only. Studied process variables did not affected colour quality except 'a' value with banana pulp and screw speed. Banana pulp had positive correlation with water solubility index, total minerals and iron content and negative with WAI, protein and overall acceptability. Based upon multiple response analysis, optimized conditions were 8 g banana pulp, 350 rpm screw speed and 14% feed moisture indicating the protein, calorie, iron content and overall sensory acceptability in sample as 15.46%, 401 kcal/100 g, 4.48 mg/100 g and 7.6 respectively.

  19. Deleterious effects of plant cystatins against the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiggundu, Andrew; Muchwezi, Josephine; Van der Vyver, Christell; Viljoen, Altus; Vorster, Juan; Schlüter, Urte; Kunert, Karl; Michaud, Dominique

    2010-02-01

    The general potential of plant cystatins for the development of insect-resistant transgenic plants still remains to be established given the natural ability of several insects to compensate for the loss of digestive cysteine protease activities. Here we assessed the potential of cystatins for the development of banana lines resistant to the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus, a major pest of banana and plantain in Africa. Protease inhibitory assays were conducted with protein and methylcoumarin (MCA) peptide substrates to measure the inhibitory efficiency of different cystatins in vitro, followed by a diet assay with cystatin-infiltrated banana stem disks to monitor the impact of two plant cystatins, oryzacystatin I (OC-I, or OsCYS1) and papaya cystatin (CpCYS1), on the overall growth rate of weevil larvae. As observed earlier for other Coleoptera, banana weevils produce a variety of proteases for dietary protein digestion, including in particular Z-Phe-Arg-MCA-hydrolyzing (cathepsin L-like) and Z-Arg-Arg-MCA-hydrolyzing (cathepsin B-like) proteases active in mildly acidic conditions. Both enzyme populations were sensitive to the cysteine protease inhibitor E-64 and to different plant cystatins including OsCYS1. In line with the broad inhibitory effects of cystatins, OsCYS1 and CpCYS1 caused an important growth delay in young larvae developing for 10 days in cystatin-infiltrated banana stem disks. These promising results, which illustrate the susceptibility of C. sordidus to plant cystatins, are discussed in the light of recent hypotheses suggesting a key role for cathepsin B-like enzymes as a determinant for resistance or susceptibility to plant cystatins in Coleoptera. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Molecular characterization of Banana streak virus isolate from Musa Acuminata in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Jun; Wang, Jian-Hua; Zhang, Xin; Liu, Zhi-Xin

    2011-12-01

    Banana streak virus (BSV), a member of genus Badnavirus, is a causal agent of banana streak disease throughout the world. The genetic diversity of BSVs from different regions of banana plantations has previously been investigated, but there are relatively few reports of the genetic characteristic of episomal (non-integrated) BSV genomes isolated from China. Here, the complete genome, a total of 7722bp (GenBank accession number DQ092436), of an isolate of Banana streak virus (BSV) on cultivar Cavendish (BSAcYNV) in Yunnan, China was determined. The genome organises in the typical manner of badnaviruses. The intergenic region of genomic DNA contains a large stem-loop, which may contribute to the ribosome shift into the following open reading frames (ORFs). The coding region of BSAcYNV consists of three overlapping ORFs, ORF1 with a non-AUG start codon and ORF2 encoding two small proteins are individually involved in viral movement and ORF3 encodes a polyprotein. Besides the complete genome, a defective genome lacking the whole RNA leader region and a majority of ORF1 and which encompasses 6525bp was also isolated and sequenced from this BSV DNA reservoir in infected banana plants. Sequence analyses showed that BSAcYNV has closest similarity in terms of genome organization and the coding assignments with an BSV isolate from Vietnam (BSAcVNV). The corresponding coding regions shared identities of 88% and -95% at nucleotide and amino acid levels, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis also indicated BSAcYNV shared the closest geographical evolutionary relationship to BSAcVNV among sequenced banana streak badnaviruses.

  1. Endoscopic root canal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshonov, Joshua; Michaeli, Eli; Nahlieli, Oded

    2009-10-01

    To describe an innovative endoscopic technique for root canal treatment. Root canal treatment was performed on 12 patients (15 teeth), using a newly developed endoscope (Sialotechnology), which combines an endoscope, irrigation, and a surgical microinstrument channel. Endoscopic root canal treatment of all 15 teeth was successful with complete resolution of all symptoms (6-month follow-up). The novel endoscope used in this study accurately identified all microstructures and simplified root canal treatment. The endoscope may be considered for use not only for preoperative observation and diagnosis but also for active endodontic treatment.

  2. RUNTIME DICTIONARIES FOR ROOT

    CERN Document Server

    Wind, David Kofoed

    2013-01-01

    ROOT is the LHC physicists' common tool for data analysis; almost all data is stored using ROOT's I/O system. This system benefits from a custom description of types (a so-called dictionary) that is optimised for the I/O. Until now, the dictionary cannot be provided at run-time; it needs to be prepared in a separate prerequisite step. This project will move the generation of the dictionary to run-time, making use of ROOT 6's new just-in-time compiler. It allows a more dynamic and natural access to ROOT's I/O features especially for user code.

  3. Traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology of wild banana (Musa acuminata Colla): A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Nimisha Sarah; Negi, Pradeep Singh

    2017-01-20

    Musa acuminata, the wild species of banana is a plant of the tropical and subtropical regions. Over the past few decades, the health benefits of M. acuminata have received much attention. All parts of the plant including fruits, peel, pseudostem, corm, flowers, leaves, sap and roots have found their use in the treatment of many diseases in traditional medicine. Literature review have indicated use of M. acuminata in the treatment of various diseases such as fever, cough, bronchitis, dysentery, allergic infections, sexually transmitted infections, and some of the non-communicable diseases. The reported pharmacological activities of M. acuminata include antioxidant, antidiabetic, immunomodulatory, hypolipidemic, anticancer, and antimicrobial especially anti-HIV activity. This review presents information on the phytochemicals and pharmacological studies to validate the traditional use of different parts of M. acuminata in various diseases and ailments. A comprehensive assessment of the biological activities of M. acuminata extracts is included and possible mechanisms and phytochemicals involved have also been correlated to provide effective intervention strategies for preventing or managing diseases. A literature search was performed on M. acuminata using ethnobotanical textbooks, published articles in peer-reviewed journals, local magazines, unpublished materials, and scientific databases such as Pubmed, Scopus, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar. The Plant List, Promusa, Musalit, the Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) databases were used to validate the scientific names and also provide information on the subspecies and cultivars of M. acuminata. The edible part of M. acuminata provides energy, vitamins and minerals. All other parts of the plant have been used in the treatment of many diseases in traditional medicine. The rich diversity of phytochemicals present in them probably contributes to their beneficial effects, and validates the

  4. Extraction of Cellulose from Kepok Banana Peel (Musa parasidiaca L. for Adsorption Procion Dye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poedji Loekitowati Hariani

    2016-05-01

    cellulose. The morphology of cellulose more homogenous than kepok banana peel powder. It was observed that the optimum adsorption of Procion dye by cellulose was on the initial concentration of 30 mg/L, pH solution of 5 and contact time within 30 minutes. The obtained result that cellulose has removal percentage to adsorp Procion dye more higher than kepok banana peel powder. The adsorption equilibrium showed the Langmuir isotherm was described well for adsorption process (R2 = 0.991 than Freundlich isotherm (R2 = 0.922.

  5. Banana peel extract suppressed prostate gland enlargement in testosterone-treated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akamine, Kiichiro; Koyama, Tomoyuki; Yazawa, Kazunaga

    2009-09-01

    A methanol extract of banana peel (BPEx, 200 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly suppressed the regrowth of ventral prostates and seminal vesicles induced by testosterone in castrated mice. Further studies in the androgen-responsive LNCaP human prostate cancer cell line showed that BPEx inhibited dose-dependently testosterone-induced cell growth, while the inhibitory activities of BPEx did not appear against dehydrotestosterone-induced cell growth. These results indicate that methanol extract of banana peel can inhibit 5alpha-reductase and might be useful in the treatment of benign prostate hyperplasia.

  6. Effects of temperature anisotropy on neoclassical transport in the plateau and banana-plateau regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taguchi, Masayoshi

    1999-01-01

    The neoclassical transport theory in a presence of temperature anisotropy is investigated in the low to the intermediate collision frequency regimes for a large aspect-ratio tokamak plasma. The standard procedure for an isotropic plasma in the plateau regime is extended to an anisotropic plasma, and the neoclassical transport coefficients in this regime are explicitly calculated. By interpolating the results in the plateau regime and the previously obtained ones in the banana regime, the expressions for the neoclassical transport coefficients which are continuously valid from the banana to the plateau regimes are presented. (author)

  7. Genome-wide identification, phylogeny, and expression analyses of the 14-3-3 family reveal their involvement in the development, ripening and abiotic stress response in banana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    meiying li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant 14-3-3 proteins act as critical components of various cellular signaling processes and play an important role in regulating multiple physiological processes. However, less information is known about the 14-3-3 gene family in banana. In this study, 25 14-3-3 genes were identified from the banana genome. Based on the evolutionary analysis, banana 14-3-3 proteins were clustered into ε and non-ε groups. Conserved motif analysis showed that all identified banana 14-3-3 genes had the typical 14-3-3 motif. The gene structure of banana 14-3-3 genes showed distinct class-specific divergence between the ε group and the non-ε group. Most banana 14-3-3 genes showed strong transcript accumulation changes during fruit development and postharvest ripening in two banana varieties, indicating that they might be involved in regulating fruit development and ripening. Moreover, some 14-3-3 genes also showed great changes after osmotic, cold, and salt treatments in two banana varieties, suggested their potential role in regulating banana response to abiotic stress. Taken together, this systemic analysis reveals the involvement of banana 14-3-3 genes in fruit development, postharvest ripening, and response to abiotic stress and provides useful information for understanding the functions of 14-3-3 genes in banana.

  8. Pemanfaatan Kulit Pisang Hasil Fermentasi Rhyzopus oligosporus dalam Ransum Terhadap Pertumbuhan Ayam Pedaging (UTILIZING OF FERMENTED BANANA PEELS BY RHYZOPUS OLIGOSPORUS IN RATION ON GROWTH OF BROILER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresia Nur Indah Koni

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available An experiment has  conducted to investigate the effect level of fermented banana peels by Rhyzopusoligosporus   in  ration to growth of broiler. The experiment was designed use Completely RandomizedDesign with four treatments: as a control ration (0%  fermented banana peel; 5% fermented banana peel;10%  fermented banana peel; 15% fermented banana peel, with four replicates. There were six ayampedagings a weeks with average   weight  112.30 ± 2.74 g in each replicate. The result there was a 15%fermented banana peels in broiler ration was not significant (P>0,05  to feed consumption, but itsignificantly (P<0,01 effected gain, and feed conversion . Fermented banana peels by R. oligosporus couldbe used as much as 10% in broiler ration.

  9. Strategi Perancangan Mutu Ripe Banana Chip (RBC Berbasis Harapan Konsumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Herry P

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ripe Banana Chip (RBC, merupakan salah satu jenis kripik yang dibuat dari pisang masak. RBC dapat dilakukan dengan menggunakan teknologi penggorengan vakum (vacum frying ataupun pembekuan (freezing. RBC pisang mas cukup banyak memiliki keunggulan dari nilai gizinya. Produk ini masih belum diketahui tingkat kesesuain mutunya dengan keinginan konsumen dilihat dari aspek fisik ataupun organoleptik. Tujuan penelitian ini agar dapat mengetahui rancangan mutu yang tepat untuk produk RBC pisang mas. Penelitian ini menggunakan tiga metode, diantaranya metode skoring, Customer Satisfaction Index (CSI, dan metode diagram tulang ikan. Hasil dari penelitian, yaitu : warna RBC dengan intensitas 5,56 (kuning dan skor 3,862 (suka ; informasi kemasan dengan intensitas 4,5 (setuju dan skor 3,534 (suka ; kenyamanan kemasan dengan intensitas 8,58 (nyaman dan skor 4,155 (suka ; keamanan kemasan dengan intensitas 8,15 (sangat aman dan skor 4,086 (suka ; ketebalan dengan intensitas 8,31(sangat tebal dan skor 1,604 (sangat tidak suka ; Oil dengan intensitas 4,86 (banyak dan skor 2,483 (tidak suka ; kerenyahan dengan intensitas 7,32 (keras dan skor 2,843 (cukup suka ; Easy of breaking dengan intensitas 5,17 (mudah dipatahkan dan skor 3,158 (cukup suka ; rasa manis dengan intensitas 7,89 (manis dan skor 3,208 (cukup suka ; rasa asam dengan intensitas 4,84 (agak asam dan skor 3,309 (cukup suka. Nilai CSI yang dihasilkan, yaitu sebesar 64% (puas. Strategi untuk meningkatkan mutu RBC diantaranya: mengurangi ukuran ketebalan bahan baku sebelum diproses; lebih dipertimbangkan lagi tingkat kematangan pisang; memberi pengarahan dan motivasi kepada pekerja; melakukan pengawasan saat produksi berlangsung; lebih memperhatikan keseragaman ukuran pisang, dan menggunakan alternatif lain dalam penirisan minyak, misalnya sentrifuse agar keberadaan minyak berkurang.

  10. Irrational Square Roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misiurewicz, Michal

    2013-01-01

    If students are presented the standard proof of irrationality of [square root]2, can they generalize it to a proof of the irrationality of "[square root]p", "p" a prime if, instead of considering divisibility by "p", they cling to the notions of even and odd used in the standard proof?

  11. Caracterização microclimática em cultivo consorciado café/banana Microclimatic characterization in coffee and banana intercrop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José R. M. Pezzopane

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Medições de radiação solar global, velocidade do vento, temperatura e umidade relativa do ar, foram realizadas em cafeeiros (Coffea arabica L. cv. Icatu Vermelho IAC 4045, cultivados a pleno sol e consorciados com bananeira (MusaspAAB 'Prata Anã', em Mococa, SP (21º 28' S, 47º 01' W, altitude 665 m, entre outubro de 2001 e setembro de 2002. Os elementos foram monitorados em um ponto do cultivo a pleno sol e em dois pontos do cultivo consorciado, sendo um próximo à planta de banana e outro situado em uma condição central, entre as plantas de banana. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que o cultivo consorciado de café promoveu atenuação dos valores médios da radiação solar global, tendo sido mais evidente no ponto amostral situado próximo às bananeiras. Verificou-se, ainda, uma redução média de 48% na velocidade do vento no cultivo consorciado, influenciada pela época do ano, além do desbaste das bananeiras. Com relação à temperatura e umidade do ar, foram encontradas diferenças apenas na temperatura máxima no ponto central da parcela do cultivo consorciado que, por sua vez, apresentou médias superiores em relação ao cultivo a pleno sol no verão e outono e em relação ao ponto situado próximo às bananeiras na primavera, verão e outono; essas diferenças foram mais significativas em dias com condição ensolarada e de pouca ocorrência de vento.Microclimatic measurements (solar radiation, wind speed, air temperature and relative humidity were taken on a daily and hourly basis, from October, 2001 to September, 2002 in a coffee crop (Coffea arabica L. cv. Icatu Verrmelho IAC 4045, grown in two different conditions: shaded by banana (Musa sp AAB 'Prata Anã' and unshaded. The experiment was carried out at Mococa, São Paulo State, Brazil (21º 28' S, 47º 01' W, altitude 665 m. The microclimatic measurements were taken in one position of the unshaded coffee crop and in two different positions of the shaded coffee crop

  12. The Effects of Treatments on Batu Banana Flour and Percentage of Wheat Substitution on The Resistant Starch, In Vitro Starch Digestibility Content and Palatability of Cookies Made with Banana (Musa balbisiana Colla) Flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnasari, D.; Rustanti, N.; Arifan, F.; Afifah, DN

    2018-02-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is the most common endocrine disease worldwide. Resistant starch is polysaccharide that is recommended for DM patient diets. One of the staple crops containing resistant starch is banana. It is the fourth most important staple crop in the world and critical for food security, best suited plant in warm, frost-free, and coastal climates area. Among banana varieties, Batu bananas (Musa balbisiana Colla) had the highest content of resistant starch (~39%), but its use as a food ingredient is limited. Inclusion of Batu banana flour into cookies manufacturing would both increase the economic value of Batu bananas and provide alternative snacks for DM patients. Here we sought to examine whether cookies made with modified Batu banana flour would be a suitable snack for DM patients. This study used a completely randomized design with two factors: substitution of Batu banana flour (25%, 50%,75%) for wheat-based flour and Batu banana flour treatment methods (no treatment, autoclaving-cooling, autoclaving-cooling-spontaneous fermentation). The resistant starch and in vitro starch digestibility levels were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey test, whereas the acceptance level was analyzed by Friedman and Wilcoxon tests. The content of resistant starch and in vitro starch digestibility of the different treatments ranged from 3.10 to 15.79% and 16.03 to 52.59%, respectively. Both factors differed significantly (p0.05). Meanwhile, palatability in terms of color, aroma, texture, and flavor differed significantly among the different treatments and starch contents (ppatients. Keywords: Batu banana, cookies, resistant starch, in vitro starch digestibility

  13. Root Fungal Endophytes Enhance Heavy-Metal Stress Tolerance of Clethra barbinervis Growing Naturally at Mining Sites via Growth Enhancement, Promotion of Nutrient Uptake and Decrease of Heavy-Metal Concentration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiko Yamaji

    Full Text Available Clethra barbinervis Sieb. et Zucc. is a tree species that grows naturally at several mine sites and seems to be tolerant of high concentrations of heavy metals, such as Cu, Zn, and Pb. The purpose of this study is to clarify the mechanism(s underlying this species' ability to tolerate the sites' severe heavy-metal pollution by considering C. barbinervis interaction with root fungal endophytes. We measured the heavy metal concentrations of root-zone soil, leaves, branches, and fine roots collected from mature C. barbinervis at Hitachi mine. We isolated fungal endophytes from surface-sterilized root segments, and we examined the growth, and heavy metal and nutrient absorption of C. barbinervis seedlings growing in sterilized mine soil with or without root fungal endophytes. Field analyses showed that C. barbinervis contained considerably high amounts of Cu, Zn, and Pb in fine roots and Zn in leaves. The fungi, Phialocephala fortinii, Rhizodermea veluwensis, and Rhizoscyphus sp. were frequently isolated as dominant fungal endophyte species. Inoculation of these root fungal endophytes to C. barbinervis seedlings growing in sterilized mine soil indicated that these fungi significantly enhanced the growth of C. barbinervis seedlings, increased K uptake in shoots and reduced the concentrations of Cu, Ni, Zn, Cd, and Pb in roots. Without root fungal endophytes, C. barbinervis could hardly grow under the heavy-metal contaminated condition, showing chlorosis, a symptom of heavy-metal toxicity. Our results indicate that the tree C. barbinervis can tolerate high heavy-metal concentrations due to the support of root fungal endophytes including P. fortinii, R. veluwensis, and Rhizoscyphus sp. via growth enhancement, K uptake promotion and decrease of heavy metal concentrations.

  14. Induced systemic resistance against Botrytis cinerea by Micromonospora strains isolated from root nodules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar eMartínez-Hidalgo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Micromonospora is a Gram positive bacterium that can be isolated from nitrogen fixing nodules from healthy leguminous plants, where they could be beneficial to the plant. Their plant growth promoting activity in legume and non-legume plants has been previously demonstrated. The present study explores the ability of Micromonospora strains to control fungal pathogens and to stimulate plant immunity. Micromonospora strains isolated from surface sterilized nodules of alfalfa showed in vitro antifungal activity against several pathogenic fungi. Moreover, root inoculation of tomato plants with these Micromonospora strains effectively reduced leaf infection by the fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea, despite spatial separation between both microorganisms. This induced systemic resistance, confirmed in different tomato cultivars, is long lasting. Gene expression analyses evidenced that Micromonospora stimulates the plant capacity to activate defense mechanisms upon pathogen attack. The defensive response of tomato plants inoculated with Micromonospora spp. differs from that of non-inoculated plants, showing a stronger induction of jasmonate-regulated defenses when the plant is challenged with a pathogen. The hypothesis of jasmonates playing a key role in this defense priming effect was confirmed using defense-impaired tomato mutants, since the JA-deficient line def1 was unable to display a long term induced resistance upon Micromonospora spp. inoculation.In conclusion, nodule isolated Micromonospora strains should be considered excellent candidates as biocontrol agents as they combine both direct antifungal activity against plant pathogens and the ability to prime plant immunity.

  15. Effect of different nematicide applications per year on banana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relationship between cost and benefit of the nematicide applications was also ... Methodology and results: A field experiment was conducted in a 40 years old ... Averaging the 12 root nematode samplings, the lowest R. similis (P= 0.0008), ... Rotation of the nematicides according to their physic-chemical properties and ...

  16. Propagating quality planting material to improve plant health and crop performance, key practices for dessert banana, plantain and cooking banana: illustrated guide

    OpenAIRE

    Staver, Charles; Lescot, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Available in English, French, Spanish and Arabic, on line and on CD-ROM, this illustrated guide summarizes the key practices for producing clean planting material of banana with a high yield potential for smallholders, depending on the pests and diseases which are present. The guide is also designed to contribute to better planning of the propagation of planting material for rural development and disaster relief projects. (Résumé d'auteur)

  17. Physical Characteristics, Chemical Composition, Organoleptic Test And The Number Of Microbes In The Biscuits With Addition Of Flour Banana Peels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernawati; Aryani, A.; Shintawati, R.

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study to analyze the physical characteristics, chemical composition and organoleptic test of biscuit flour with the addition of flour banana peel. Materials used are banana peels Kepok. Kepok banana peel has been found to contain high fiber food. Biscuit-making stage includes the formation of cream, adding flour and wheat flour dietary fiber from banana peels to concentrations of 0% as control, 25%, 50% and 75% of 100 grams of wheat flour; mixing; molding; baking in the oven for 20-25 minutes with a temperature of 180°C. Parameters to be measured, namely the physical characteristics include: hardness, softness, consistency, crispness. Furthermore, the biscuits were tested by chemical analysis (proximate). Organoleptic test include: aroma, taste, mouthfeel, aftertaste. Data were analyzed statistically using SAS computing programs. Physical and organoleptic test results biscuits with the addition of flour banana peels has sufficient level of preference between like-liked. Based on the results of the proximate analysis of biscuits with the addition of flour banana peels has generally been in accordance with the National Standards of Indonesia (SNI). Conclusion of the study that the addition of flour banana peels in biscuits has the potential to become functional foods that contain high fiber.

  18. Effect of banana peel cellulose as a dietary fiber supplement on baking and sensory qualities of butter cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiraporn Sodchit

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Banana peels are a waste product of the banana industry that have caused an environmental problem. Conversion of banana peels to a food ingredient might be an alternative way of value-adding to this waste. This study aimed to extract cellulose from banana peels and use it as an ingredient in butter cake to increase dietary fiber content and to improve cake quality. The selection and optimization of extraction conditions of cellulose from banana peels employed chemical extractions. Banana peel cellulose (BPC was added to butter cake at 3 levels; 1.5, 3.0 and 4.5% w/w of flour compared with 3.0% commercial cellulose (CC and the control (no cellulose added. The sensory, chemical, physical and microbiological properties of the butter cakes were then determined. The odor, tenderness and moistness acceptance scores of the butter cake by 50 panelists ranged from “like moderately” to “like very much”, indicating that addition of BPC improved the sensory quality of the cake. The butter cake with added CC and BPC had significantly higher (pd”0.05 moisture and fiber contents than those of the control. Microorganism levels found in the butter cake conformed to the butter cake standard (OTOP standard product of Thailand 459/2549. The optimum concentration of added BPC was 1.5%. Thus, the addition of BPC extracted from banana peels to butter cake increased the fiber content and improve the cake quality.

  19. The use of green banana (Musa balbisiana pulp and peel flour as an ingredient for tagliatelle pasta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Naciuk Castelo-Branco

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Green banana flour shows good potential as a functional ingredient for special-purpose foods, but there are no data in the literature concerning the use of a green banana pulp and peel flour for the development of products such as pasta. The aim of the present study was to develop tagliatelle pasta substituting the wheat flour with different concentrations of a green banana mixed pulp and peel flour. The pasta formulations were prepared replacing the wheat flour by the green banana mixed pulp and peel flour in two concentrations: 15% and 30%. A control formulation with wheat flour was also prepared. The green banana mixed pulp and peel flour presented higher ash, total fibre and total phenolic compound contents than traditional wheat flour. The pasta formulation with the addition of 15% green banana flour showed the highest ash content and the best sensory acceptability of all the formulations. It was concluded that it was possible to develop a tagliatelle pasta with satisfactory acceptance replacing the wheat flour by a green banana mixed pulp and peel flour.

  20. The Efficacies of Banana Stem Extract as a Candidate of Coccidiostat Against Rabbit Eimeria Stiedaio Ocysts: an in Vitro Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Indrasanti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to investigatethe ability of banana stem (Musa paradisiaca to inhibitsporulation of Eimeria stiedaioocystsderived fromrabbit by in vitroanalysis.Analyze the active substance proximate analysis and active substancesin this research were performed too. Banana stem extract were used in this experiment andsulfaquinoxalline(Coxy ®was run as acontrol. The Eimeria stiedaioocystswere incubated prior the presence of  different concentration from banana stem extract  0%, 1%, 2%, 4%, 8%for 1, 2 and 3 daysat 26°C. In addition,Factorial patterned Completely Randomized Design (CRD with five replicates wasapplied on the experiment. Result analysis was performed by using Analysis of Variance and following by Honestly Significant Difference (HSD post hoc test. Here, we identified that banana stem extract contain different type of active substance such as tannin, saponin, and alkaloid. Banana stem extract significantly affected the oocysts sporulation included the amount of sporulatedoocysts (P<0.01, unsporulatedoocysts (P<0.01, and transformed oocysts (P<0.01. In conclusion banana stem could inhibit the development of Eimeria stiedaioocysts on in vitroexperiment. HSD test showed that the optimum potential efficacy of banana stem toinhibit sporulation was at 4% and 8% concentration during three days incubation.

  1. Chromatic roots and hamiltonian paths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Carsten

    2000-01-01

    We present a new connection between colorings and hamiltonian paths: If the chromatic polynomial of a graph has a noninteger root less than or equal to t(n) = 2/3 + 1/3 (3)root (26 + 6 root (33)) + 1/3 (3)root (26 - 6 root (33)) = 1.29559.... then the graph has no hamiltonian path. This result...

  2. Banana (Musa spp) from peel to pulp: ethnopharmacology, source of bioactive compounds and its relevance for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Aline; Maraschin, Marcelo

    2015-02-03

    Banana is a fruit with nutritional properties and also with acclaimed therapeutic uses, cultivated widely throughout the tropics as source of food and income for people. Banana peel is known by its local and traditional use to promote wound healing mainly from burns and to help overcome or prevent a substantial number of illnesses, as depression. This review critically assessed the phytochemical properties and biological activities of Musa spp fruit pulp and peel. A survey on the literature on banana (Musa spp, Musaceae) covering its botanical classification and nomenclature, as well as the local and traditional use of its pulp and peel was performed. Besides, the current state of art on banana fruit pulp and peel as interesting complex matrices sources of high-value compounds from secondary metabolism was also approached. Dessert bananas and plantains are systematic classified into four sections, Eumusa, Rhodochlamys, Australimusa, and Callimusa, according to the number of chromosomes. The fruits differ only in their ploidy arrangement and a single scientific name can be given to all the edible bananas, i.e., Musa spp. The chemical composition of banana's peel and pulp comprise mostly carotenoids, phenolic compounds, and biogenic amines. The biological potential of those biomasses is directly related to their chemical composition, particularly as pro-vitamin A supplementation, as potential antioxidants attributed to their phenolic constituents, as well as in the treatment of Parkinson's disease considering their contents in l-dopa and dopamine. Banana's pulp and peel can be used as natural sources of antioxidants and pro-vitamin A due to their contents in carotenoids, phenolics, and amine compounds, for instance. For the development of a phytomedicine or even an allopathic medicine, e.g., banana fruit pulp and peel could be of interest as raw materials riches in beneficial bioactive compounds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Detection of antimicrobial activity of banana peel (Musa paradisiaca L. on Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suraj Premal Kapadia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Aim: Banana is used widely because of its nutritional values. In past, there are studies that show banana plant parts, and their fruits can be used to treat the human diseases. Banana peel is a part of banana fruit that also has the antibacterial activity against microorganisms but has not been studied extensively. Since, there are no studies that relate the antibacterial activity of banana peel against periodontal pathogens. Hence, the aim of this study is to determine the antimicrobial activity of banana peel extract on Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (A. actinomycetemcomitans. Material and Methods: Standard strains of P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans were used in this study which was obtained from the in-house bacterial bank of Department of Molecular Biology and Immunology at Maratha Mandal's Nathajirao G. Halgekar Institute of Dental Sciences and Research Centre. The banana peel extract was prepared, and the antibacterial activity was assessed using well agar diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration was assessed using serial broth dilution method. Results: In the current study, both the tested microorganisms showed antibacterial activity. In well diffusion method, P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans showed 15 mm and 12 mm inhibition zone against an alcoholic extract of banana peel, respectively. In serial broth dilution method P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans were sensitive until 31.25 μg/ml dilutions. Conclusion: From results of the study, it is suggested that an alcoholic extract of banana peel has antimicrobial activity against P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans.

  4. Phosphate fertilization changes the characteristics of 'Maçã' banana starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Camila de Barros; Garcia, Émerson Loli; Bolfarini, Ana Carolina Batista; Leonel, Sarita; Franco, Célia Maria L; Leonel, Magali

    2018-06-01

    The unripe banana has been studied as a potential source of starch for use in various applications. Considering the importance of phosphorus in the biosynthesis of the starch and also the interference of this mineral in starch properties, in this study it was evaluated the effect of rates of phosphate fertilizer applied in the cultivation of 'Maçã' banana on the characteristics of the starch. Starches extracted from fruits from different treatments were analyzed for morphological characteristics, X-ray diffraction pattern, relative crystallinity, granule size, amylose, resistant starch and phosphorus levels, as well as, for pasting and thermal properties. Results showed that the phosphate fertilization has interference on the characteristics of the banana starch led to increase of phosphorus content and size of the granules, reduction of crystallinity and resistant starch content, decrease of viscosity peak, breakdown, final viscosity, setback, transitions temperatures and enthalpy. These changes caused by phosphate fertilizer conditions can be increase the applications of the 'Maçã' banana starch. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Register of new fruit and nut cultivars list 48. Banana, cacao, plantain

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Register of New Fruit and Nut Varieties 48 is a compilation of descriptions of new fruit and nut cultivars from around the world. In this edition, newly released banana, plantain, and cacao cultivars are described in terms of their origins, important fruit traits and yield. ...

  6. Pesticides in surface waters in areas influenced by banana production in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillo, L.E.; Ruepert, C.; Solis, E.

    1999-01-01

    Banana production in Costa Rica is highly dependent on pesticide use. However, only a few studies have been undertaken regarding the presence and environmental impact of the agrochemical substances used in the banana culture on the aquatic ecosystem of the Atlantic Region of Costa Rica. This study was, therefore, undertaken in Rio Suerte Basin that drains into the 'Nature Conservation Area' of Tortuguero in the Atlantic lowlands of the country from June 1993 to December 1994. In order to investigate further the occurrence of pesticides in the water bodies located near the possible sources especially during worst-case situations, water samples were analysed following pesticide applications during 1995-1997. Pesticide residues were determined by GC equipped with an electron capture detector (ECD) and a nitrogen phosphorous detector (NPD). The study targeted 11 of the 21 pesticides used in banana production, the others were not analyzed. The most frequently found compounds during the 1993-94 survey were the fungicide propiconazole and the nematocide cadusafos. Maximum concentrations measured after the pesticide applications were found in the main drainage canal and these were 2.1 ug/L carbofuran, 1.2 ug/L terbufos and 0.48 ug/L cadusafos. The peak concentration found shortly after the aerial application of the fungicide propiconazole was 13 ug/L in the creek leaving the banana plantation. (author)

  7. Inhibition of bananas ripening by gamma radiation: physical, chemical and sensory aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domarco, Raquel Elisabeth; Walder, Julio Marcos Melges; Spoto, Marta Helena Fillet; Blumer, Lucimara; Matraia, Clarice

    1996-01-01

    In order to extend the shelf-life, nanica bananas (Musa AAA group, Caverdish subgroup), packed and not in polyethylene bags (o,03 mm thickness) were irradiated with 0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 kGy. A cobalt-60 source, with an activity of 109.71 Gbq was used at a dose rate of 1,71 kGy/h. The experiment was developed on three different storage conditions: a) room temperature, without packaging, for 15 days; b) 17 deg C, without packaging, for 21 days; c) 17 deg C, with packaging, for 42 days. The chemical analysis were done on soluble solids, tirable acidity, pH and ratio. The bananas were subjected to sensorial evaluation by visual and flavor analysis. The results were analysed using SAS-ANOVA. Bananas irradiated with 0,4 kGy could be storage for 15 days on room temperatures without packaging. Dose of 0,6 kGy and 17 deg C temperature were enough to conservate bananas, without packaging for 21 days and with packaging for 42 days. (author)

  8. Living with AIDS in Uganda : impacts on banana-farming households in two districts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karuhanga, M.

    2008-01-01

    The research was carried out among banana-farming households in the districts of Masaka and Kabarole in Uganda. A gendered livelihood approach was used. The research focused on the identification of critical factors that need to be taken into consideration in the development of relevant policies for

  9. banana cultivar distribution in rwanda abstract résumé

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Gisubi (ABB), Gros Michel (AAA), and 'Kamaramasenge'. (AAB) were the most abundant. Farms with a higher proportion of Gisubi contained fewer other cultivars. Also, new cultivars were identified and these should be added to the National Banana germplasm collection. Key Words: Cultivars, diversity indexes, germplasm, ...

  10. Effect of surface coating on ripening and early peel spotting in 'Sucrier' banana (Musa acuminata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Promyou, S.; Ketsa, S.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2007-01-01

    Sucrier¿ bananas (Musa acuminata, AA Group) show peel spotting when the peel is just about as yellow as green, which coincides with optimum eating quality. As consumers might relate the spotting to overripe fruit, early spotting is considered undesirable, especially for export markets. Fruit were

  11. Using possibilities of some agricultural wastes in open-field banana cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet ÖTEN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Usage of farmyard manure is the one of the major factors to increase production cost in banana cultivation. Besides increasing the production costs, other disadvantages of farmyard manure are playing active role on carrying diseases and pests and also difficulty in obtaining. Due to the stated disadvantages, the use farmyard manure of banana farmers is decreasing. Therefore, we need alternative ways to increase the organic matter capacity of the soil. The effects of alternative applications to farmyard manure, namely banana waste and mushroom compost were investigated. The objective of the study was to evaluate effects of these applications on some morphological properties (plant height, plant circumference and number of leaves, yield (number of hands, number of fingers, bunch weight, finger weight and length and quality properties (flesh/skin ratio, total soluble solids matter, sugars etc. under open-field banana cultivation. The experiment was conducted in Kargıcak location of Alanya in randomized complete block design (RCBD with 3 replications. Experimental results revealed that using of farmyard manure and waste treatments positively affected the yield parameters like the number of hands and fingers, finger length, finger weight and bunch weight. On the other hand, treatments did not have a statistically significant effect on fruit quality parameters like soluble solids content, titratable acidity, pH and ash.

  12. Involvement of WRKY Transcription Factors in Abscisic-Acid-Induced Cold Tolerance of Banana Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Dong-Lan; Ba, Liang-Jie; Shan, Wei; Kuang, Jian-Fei; Lu, Wang-Jin; Chen, Jian-Ye

    2017-05-10

    Phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) and plant-specific WRKY transcription factors (TFs) have been implicated to play important roles in various stress responses. The involvement of WRKY TFs in ABA-mediated cold tolerance of economical fruits, such as banana fruit, however remains largely unknown. Here, we reported that ABA application could induce expressions of ABA biosynthesis-related genes MaNCED1 and MaNCED2, increase endogenous ABA contents, and thereby enhance cold tolerance in banana fruit. Four banana fruit WRKY TFs, designated as MaWRKY31, MaWRKY33, MaWRKY60, and MaWRKY71, were identified and characterized. All four of these MaWRKYs were nuclear-localized and displayed transactivation activities. Their expressions were induced by ABA treatment during cold storage. More importantly, the gel mobility shift assay and transient expression analysis revealed that MaWRKY31, MaWRKY33, MaWRKY60, and MaWRKY71 directly bound to the W-box elements in MaNCED1 and MaNCED2 promoters and activated their expressions. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that banana fruit WRKY TFs are involved in ABA-induced cold tolerance by, at least in part, increasing ABA levels via directly activating NECD expressions.

  13. Market access and agricultural production : the case of banana production in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagamba, F.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords: Smallholder poor farmers, market access, bananas, productivity, efficiency, labour demand, labour supply,Uganda.This study investigates the effects of factor and commodity markets on the

  14. Effects of HIV/AIDS on the livelihood of banana-farming households in Central Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguthi, F.N.; Niehof, A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the effects of HIV/AIDS on the livelihoods of banana-farming households in Maragua district, Central Kenya. It is based on the results of a field study carried out during 2004-2005. The study applied the sustainable livelihood approach, using both quantitative and qualitative

  15. Structural properties and digestion of green banana flour as a functional ingredient in pasta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zeqi; Stanley, Roger; Gidley, Michael J; Dhital, Sushil

    2016-02-01

    Gluten free pasta was made from raw banana flour in combination with vegetable gums and protein for comparison to pasta similarly made from wheat flour. After cooking, it was found that the banana flour pasta was less susceptible to alpha-amylase digestion compared to conventional wheat flour pasta. Release of glucose by alpha-amylase digestion followed first order kinetics with an initial rapid rate of digestion and a subsequent second slower phase. The structure of green banana pasta starch at the inner and outer pasta surfaces was observed under confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and the viscosities of the flour mixtures were measured by a Rapid Visco Analyser (RVA). The digestibility of banana flour pasta was found to be related, not only to the properties of the starch granules, but also to the protein network of the surrounding food matrix. The effects of gums and proteins on pasta formation and digestibility are discussed in the context of its potential use as a gluten free lower glycaemic alternative to conventional wheat based pastas.

  16. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Mycosphaerella fijiensis, the devastating Black Sigatoka pathogen of bananas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Díaz-Trujillo, C.; Adibon, H.; Kobayashi, K.; Zwiers, L.H.; Souza, M.T.; Kema, G.H.J.

    2010-01-01

    Mycosphaerella fijiensis, M. musicola en M. eumusae veroorzaken de Sigatoka-ziekte in banaan. Op dit moment is de toepassing van fungiciden de enige optie om deze ziekte te bestrijden. Het PRPB (Pesticide Reduction Program for Banana) investeert in de ontwikkeling van technieken voor de genotype- en

  17. Evolutionary dynamics of mating-type loci of Mycosphaerella spp. occurring on banana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arzanlou, M.; Crous, P.W.; Zwiers, L.H.

    2010-01-01

    The devastating Sigatoka disease complex of banana is primarily caused by three closely related heterothallic fungi belonging to the genus Mycosphaerella: M. fijiensis, M. musicola, and M. eumusae. Previous phylogenetic work showing common ancestry led us to analyze the mating-type loci of these

  18. Same Disease—different research strategies: Bananas and Black Sigatoka in Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cordoba, D.M.; Jansen, K.

    2014-01-01

    Fungal disease epidemics have the potential to bring about drastic innovations. However, in the case of the Black Sigatoka (Mycosphaerella fijiensis) fungus in bananas, producers and international traders are still awaiting a breakthrough in crop protection research. Using the cases of Brazil and

  19. Consumer Perceptions towards Introducing a Genetically Modified Banana (Musa spp.) in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kikulwe, E.M.; Wesseler, J.H.H.; Falck-Zepeda, J.

    2010-01-01

    The introduction of a genetically modified (GM) banana (Musa spp.) in Uganda is not without controversy. It is likely to generate a wide portfolio of concerns as the technology of genetic engineering is still in its early stages of development in Uganda. The purpose of this study is to show how

  20. Neocordana gen. nov.,the causal organism of Cordana leaf spot on banana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernández-Restrepo, Margarita; Groenewald, Johannes Z.; Crous, Pedro W.

    2015-01-01

    Cordana leaf spot of banana is shown to be associated with several species of a new genus described here as Neocordana gen. nov. Furthermore, Neocordana belongs to Pyriculariaceae (Magnaporthales) rather than Cordanaceae where the type species of Cordana, C. pauciseptata resides. Neocordana is