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Sample records for surface-skimming oil collection

  1. Planning waste cooking oil collection systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Tânia Rodrigues Pereira; Gomes, Maria Isabel; Barbosa-Póvoa, Ana Paula

    2013-08-01

    This research has been motivated by a real-life problem of a waste cooking oil collection system characterized by the existence of multiple depots with an outsourced vehicle fleet, where the collection routes have to be plan. The routing problem addressed allows open routes between depots, i.e., all routes start at one depot but can end at the same or at a different one, depending on what minimizes the objective function considered. Such problem is referred as a Multi-Depot Vehicle Routing Problem with Mixed Closed and Open Inter-Depot Routes and is, in this paper, modeled through a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) formulation where capacity and duration constraints are taken into account. The model developed is applied to the real case study providing, as final results, the vehicle routes planning where a decrease of 13% on mileage and 11% on fleet hiring cost are achieved, when comparing with the current company solution. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. 77 FR 74659 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Oil Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-17

    ... AGENCY Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Oil Pollution... required to have a Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Plan under the Oil Pollution... facilities and all types of oil are located in part 112.1 of the regulations and apply to any owner or...

  3. Preventive conservation applied to "Casa dos Patudos" oil painting collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mafalda Fernandes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work was the identification of specific risks affecting the collection of oil paintings in the historic house "Casa dos Patudos" (Alpiarça, Portugal and the development of mitigation strategies for the risks encountered. The methodology used was proposed by the Canadian Conservation Institute. The results showed that the main risks affecting this collection result from incorrect handling, increase in paint detachment due to the maintenance of paintings with paint lifting on display, occurrence of insect pests, high fluctuations in relative humidity and, excessive exposure to ultraviolet radiation. Several preventive conservation strategies to mitigate these risks are proposed.

  4. 40 CFR 279.30 - Do-it-yourselfer used oil collection centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Do-it-yourselfer used oil collection... Aggregation Points § 279.30 Do-it-yourselfer used oil collection centers. (a) Applicability. This section applies to owners or operators of all do-it-yourselfer (DIY) used oil collection centers. A DIY used...

  5. Weathering of field-collected floating and stranded Macondo oils during and shortly after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Scott A; Payne, James R; Emsbo-Mattingly, Stephen D; Baker, Gregory

    2016-04-15

    Chemical analysis of large populations of floating (n=62) and stranded (n=1174) Macondo oils collected from the northern Gulf of Mexico sea surface and shorelines during or within seven weeks of the end of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill demonstrates the range, rates, and processes affecting surface oil weathering. Oil collected immediately upon reaching the sea surface had already lost most mass below n-C8 from dissolution of soluble aliphatics, monoaromatics, and naphthalenes during the oil's ascent with further reductions extending up to n-C13 due to the onset of evaporation. With additional time, weathering of the floating and stranded oils advanced with total PAH (TPAH50) depletions averaging 69±23% for floating oils and 94±3% for stranded oils caused by the combined effects of evaporation, dissolution, and photo-oxidation, the latter of which also reduced triaromatic steroid biomarkers. Biodegradation was not evident among the coalesced floating oils studied, but had commenced in some stranded oils.

  6. Fish Gill Inspired Crossflow for Efficient and Continuous Collection of Spilled Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Yuhai; Tian, Dongliang; Sun, Ziqi; Liu, Qiannan; Zhang, Na; Kim, Jung Ho; Jiang, Lei; Dou, Shi Xue

    2017-01-25

    Developing an effective system to clean up large-scale oil spills is of great significance due to their contribution to severe environmental pollution and destruction. Superwetting membranes have been widely studied for oil/water separation. The separation, however, adopts a gravity-driven approach that is inefficient and discontinuous due to quick fouling of the membrane by oil. Herein, inspired by the crossflow filtration behavior in fish gills, we propose a crossflow approach via a hydrophilic, tilted gradient membrane for spilled oil collection. In crossflow collection, as the oil/water flows parallel to the hydrophilic membrane surface, water is gradually filtered through the pores, while oil is repelled, transported, and finally collected for storage. Owing to the selective gating behavior of the water-sealed gradient membrane, the large pores at the bottom with high water flux favor fast water filtration, while the small pores at the top with strong oil repellency allow easy oil transportation. In addition, the gradient membrane exhibits excellent antifouling properties due to the protection of the water layer. Therefore, this bioinspired crossflow approach enables highly efficient and continuous spilled oil collection, which is very promising for the cleanup of large-scale oil spills.

  7. Prospective framework for collection and exploitation of waste cooking oil as feedstock for energy conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singhabhandhu, Ampaitepin; Tezuka, Tetsuo [Energy Economics Laboratory, Department of Socio-Environmental Energy Science, Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, Yoshida-honmachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2010-04-15

    From the viewpoint of waste-to-energy, waste cooking oil is one of the attractive and available recycled feedstocks, apart from agricultural residues. The generation of energy from waste cooking oil is considered as an effective technique for waste management, as well as a beneficial form of energy recovery. Two alternative systems and a conventional system of waste cooking oil collection and conversion are evaluated by the cost benefit analysis in order to find a suitable method for waste-to-energy conversion. The results show that the collection of waste cooking oil with waste lubricating oil (System II) a useful alternative to the management of waste cooking oil (B/C > 1). The total heat produced by the combustion of pyrolytic oil at maximum and minimum conversion rates is also determined. The separate collection of waste cooking oil, subjected to chemical pre-treatment prior to introduction in a pyrolysis reactor (System III), is considered an undesirable option (B/C < 1) due to the cost of the chemicals involved. Although the exclusion of chemical pre-treatment makes System III a desirable option, the total amount of heat of combustion generated is less. The increased electricity cost required for the process has no effect on the benefit-cost ratio of System II. However, System III, excluding chemical pre-treatment, becomes an unprofitable alternative when the electricity cost reaches 100% of the fixed capital cost at the minimum conversion rate. (author)

  8. Research on the Correlation Between Oil Menitoring and Vibration Monitoring in Information Collecting and Processing Monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Xin-ze; YAN Xin-ping; ZHAO Chun-hong; GAO Xiao-hong; XIAO Han-liang

    2004-01-01

    Oil monitoriug and vibration monitoring are two principal techniques for mechanical fault diagnosis and condition monitoring at present. They monitor the mechanical condition by different approaches, neverthelcss, oil and vibration monitoring are related in information collecting and processing. In the same mechanical system, the information obtained from the same information source can be described with the same expression form. The expressions are constituted of a structure matrix, a relative matrix and a system matrix. For oil and vibration monitoring, the information source is correlation and the collection is independent and complementary. And oil monitoring and vibration monitoring have the same process method when they yield their information. This rcsearch has provided a reasonable and useful approach to combine oil monitoring and vibration monitoring.

  9. In-situ data collection for oil palm tree height determination using synthetic aperture radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, C.; Loong, C. K.

    2016-04-01

    The oil palm is recognized as the “golden crop,” producing the highest oil yield among oil seed crops. Malaysia, the world's second largest producer of palm oil, has 16 per cent of its territory planted with oil palms. To cope with the increasing global demand on edible oil, additional areas of oil palm are forecast to increase globally by 12 to 19 million hectares by 2050. Due to the limited land bank in Malaysia, new strategies have to be developed to avoid unauthorized clearing of primary forest for the use of oil palm cultivation. Microwave remote sensing could play a part by providing relevant, timely and accurate information for a plantation monitoring system. The use of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) has the advantage of daylight- and weather-independence, a criterion that is very relevant in constantly cloud-covered tropical regions, such as Malaysia. Using interferometric SAR, (InSAR) topographical and tree height profiles of oil palm plantations can be created; such information is useful for mapping oil palm age profiles of the plantations in the country. This paper reports on the use of SAR and InSAR in a multisensory context to provide up-to-date information at plantation level. Remote sensing and in-situ data collection for tree height determination are described. Further research to be carried out over the next two years is outlined.

  10. Enrichment and isolation of crude oil degrading bacteria from some mussels collected from the Persian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayat, Zeynab; Hassanshahian, Mehdi; Hesni, Majid Askari

    2015-12-15

    To date, little is known about existing relationships between mussels and bacteria in hydrocarbon-contaminated marine environments. The aim of this study is to find crude oil degrading bacteria in some mussels at the Persian Gulf. Twenty eight crude oil degrading bacteria were isolated from three mussels species collected from oil contaminated area at Persian Gulf. According to high growth and degradation of crude oil four strains were selected between 28 isolated strains for more study. Determination the nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding for 16S rRNA show that these isolated strains belong to: Shewanella algae isolate BHA1, Micrococcus luteus isolate BHA7, Pseudoalteromonas sp. isolate BHA8 and Shewanella haliotis isolate BHA35. The residual crude oil in culture medium was analysis by Gas Chromatography (GC). The results confirmed that these strains can degrade: 47.24%, 66.08%, 27.13% and 69.17% of crude oil respectively. These strains had high emulsification activity and biosurfactant production. Also, the effects of some factors on crude oil degradation by isolated strains were studied. The results show that the optimum concentration of crude oil was 2.5% and the best degradation take place at 12% of salinity. This research is the first reports on characterization of crude oil degrading bacteria from mussels at Persian Gulf and by using of these bacteria in the field the effect of oil pollution can be reduce on this marine environment.

  11. 78 FR 64237 - Information Collection: General and Oil and Gas Production Requirements in the Outer Continental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ... balance the protection and development of OCS resources. Specifically, we use the information collected to...) (electronic/digital form submittals). Subtotal 3,514 responses 3,514 $162,750 non-hour cost burden Compliance... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Information Collection: General and Oil and Gas Production...

  12. Pristine stratospheric collection of interplanetary dust on an oil-free polyurethane foam substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messenger, Scott; Nakamura-Messenger, Keiko; Keller, Lindsay P.; Clemett, Simon J.

    2015-08-01

    We performed chemical, mineralogical, and isotopic studies of the first interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) collected in the stratosphere without the use of silicone oil. The collection substrate, polyurethane foam, effectively traps impacting particles, but the lack of an embedding medium results in significant particle fragmentation. Two dust particles found on the collector exhibit the typical compositional and mineralogical properties of chondritic porous interplanetary dust particles (CP-IDPs). Hydrogen and nitrogen isotopic imaging revealed isotopic anomalies of typical magnitude and spatial variability observed in previous CP-IDP studies. Oxygen isotopic imaging shows that individual mineral grains and glass with embedded metal and sulfide (GEMS) grains are dominated by solar system materials. No systematic differences are observed in element abundance patterns of GEMS grains from the dry collection versus silicone oil-collected IDPs. This initial study establishes the validity of a new IDP collection substrate that avoids the use of silicone oil as a collection medium, removing the need for this problematic contaminant and the organic solvents necessary to remove it. Additional silicone oil-free collections of this type are needed to determine more accurate bulk element abundances of IDPs and to examine the indigenous soluble organic components of IDPs.

  13. Fuel properties and engine performance of biodiesel from waste cooking oil collected in Dhaka city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, R. B.; Islam, R.; Uddin, M. N.; Ehsan, Md.

    2016-07-01

    Waste cooking oil can be a potential source of biodiesel that has least effect on the edible oil consumption. Increasing number of hotel-restaurants and more active monitoring by health authorities have increased the generation of waste cooking oil significantly in densely populated cities like Dhaka. If not used or disposed properly, waste cooking oil itself may generate lot of environmental issues. In this work, waste cooking oils from different restaurants within Dhaka City were collected and some relevant properties of these waste oils were measured. Based on the samples studied one with the highest potential as biodiesel feed was identified and processed for engine performance. Standard trans-esterification process was used to produce biodiesel from the selected waste cooking oil. Biodiesel blends of B20 and B40 category were made and tested on a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine. Engine performance parameters included - bhp, bsfc and exhaust emission for rated and part load conditions. Results give a quantitative assessment of the potential of using biodiesel from waste cooking oil as fuel for diesel engines in Bangladesh.

  14. 76 FR 25331 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; National Oil and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-04

    ... Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP) (Renewal) AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... throughout the Superfund process. Title: National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP... (NCP). All remedial actions covered by this ICR (e.g., Remedial Investigations/Feasibility Studies)...

  15. Chemical fingerprinting of petroleum biomarkers in Deepwater Horizon oil spill samples collected from Alabama shoreline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulabagal, V; Yin, F; John, G F; Hayworth, J S; Clement, T P

    2013-05-15

    We compare the chromatographic signatures of petroleum biomarkers in Deepwater Horizon (DH) source oil, three other reference crude oils, DH emulsified mousse that arrived on Alabama's shoreline in June 2010, and seven tar balls collected from Alabama beaches from 2011 to 2012. Characteristic hopane and sterane fingerprints show that all the tar ball samples originated from DH oil. In addition, the diagnostic ratios of various hopanes indicate an excellent match. Quantitation data for C₃₀αβ-hopane concentration levels show that most of the weathering observed in DH-related tar balls found on Alabama's beaches is likely the result of natural evaporation and dissolution that occurred during transport across the Gulf of Mexico prior to beach deposition. Based on the physical and biomarker characterization data presented in this study we conclude that virtually all fragile, sticky, brownish tar balls currently found on Alabama shoreline originated from the DH oil spill.

  16. 77 FR 9962 - Information Collection; Prospecting for Minerals Other Than Oil, Gas, and Sulphur on the Outer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Information Collection; Prospecting for Minerals Other Than Oil, Gas... paperwork requirements in the regulations under Prospecting for Minerals Other than Oil, Gas, and Sulphur on...: 30 CFR Part 580, Prospecting for Minerals Other than Oil, Gas, and Sulphur on the Outer...

  17. 76 FR 21395 - BOEMRE Information Collection Activity; 1010-0141, Subpart D, Oil and Gas Drilling Operations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-15

    ...; 1010-0141, Subpart D, Oil and Gas Drilling Operations, Extension of a Collection; Comment Request... request (ICR) concerns the paperwork requirements related to oil and gas drilling operations, and related.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: 30 CFR Part 250, Subpart D, Oil and Gas Drilling Operations. BOEMRE...

  18. Variability of seed oil content and fatty acid composition in the entire USDA sesame germplasm collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesame (Sesame indicum L.) is one of the oldest oilseed crops with a long history of cultivation for its edible seeds and oil. The U.S. sesame germplasm collection (containing about 1,232 accessions) is a useful genetic resource for improving seed quality and enhancing grain yield. Variability of se...

  19. Isolation and identification of crude oil degrading bacteria from gastropod Haustrum scobina collected from Persian Gulf (Bandar Abbas Shoreline provenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinab Bayat

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Biodegradation is a good alternative rather than chemical and physical methods for cleaning oil contaminated areas. Several factors like crude oil concentration, biosurfactant production, salinity and incubation time affect the biodegradation. Materials and methods: In this study, seawater sample and gastropod were collected from Persian Gulf. To isolate oil degrading bacteria from collected samples, ONR7a medium was used. The strains that had more growth and higher oil removal were selected and identified. The factors such as the effect of different concentrations of oil, incubation time, mixed cultures and salinity on the biodegradation were investigated. Results: Six crude oil degrading bacteria were isolated. Between these bacteria 2 strains were selected based on higher oil removal. These strains belonged to the genus Vibrio and Halomonas. Strains with higher Emulsification activity produce more biosurfactant and have higher oil biodegradation. Growth and oil degradation have increment pattern by prolonging the incubation time. Mixed culture of Vibrio and Halomonas strains have higher rates of degradation rather than culturing with one of them. Increase in crudeoil concentration to 2.5% caused reduction in growth of bacteria and degradation of oil. Discussion and conclusion: The results of this study show that crude oil degrading bacteria have high diversity in Persian Gulf. These bacteria have higher capability for oil degradation thus they can be used for remediation of oil contaminated areas.

  20. 30 CFR 253.5 - What is the authority for collecting Oil Spill Financial Responsibility (OSFR) information?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... General § 253.5 What is the authority for collecting Oil Spill Financial Responsibility (OSFR) information... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the authority for collecting Oil Spill Financial Responsibility (OSFR) information? 253.5 Section 253.5 Mineral Resources MINERALS...

  1. 75 FR 19385 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; National Oil and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-14

    ..., but are not limited to, manufacturers of bioremediation agents, dispersants, surface collecting agents...: Section 311(d)(2)(G) of the Clean Water Act (CWA), requires a Product Schedule (the Schedule), identifying... the Schedule. In addition, at 40 CFR 300.915(d), EPA requires respondents to test...

  2. Evaluating bacterial community structures in oil collected from the sea surface and sediment in the northern Gulf of Mexico after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhanfei; Liu, Jiqing

    2013-06-01

    Bacterial community structures were evaluated in oil samples using culture-independent pyrosequencing, including oil mousses collected on sea surface and salt marshes during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, and oil deposited in sediments adjacent to the wellhead 1 year after the spill. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that Erythrobacter, Rhodovulum, Stappia, and Thalassospira of Alphaproteobacteria were the prevailing groups in the oil mousses, which may relate to high temperatures and strong irradiance in surface Gulf waters. In the mousse collected from the leaves of Spartina alterniflora, Vibrio of Gammaproteobacteria represented 57% of the total operational taxonomic units, suggesting that this indigenous genus is particularly responsive to the oil contamination in salt marshes. The bacterial communities in oil-contaminated sediments were highly diversified. The relatively high abundance of the Methylococcus, Methylobacter, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Chlorofexi bacteria resembles those found in certain cold-seep sediments with gas hydrates. Bacterial communities in the overlying water of the oil-contaminated sediment were dominated by Ralstonia of Betaproteobacteria, which can degrade small aromatics, and Saccharophagus degradans of Gammaproteobacteria, a cellulose degrader, suggesting that overlying water was affected by the oil-contaminated sediments, possibly due to the dissolution of small aromatics and biosurfactants produced during biodegradation. Overall, these results provided key information needed to evaluate oil degradation in the region and develop future bioremediation strategies.

  3. Evaluating bacterial community structures in oil collected from the sea surface and sediment in the northern Gulf of Mexico after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhanfei; Liu, Jiqing

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial community structures were evaluated in oil samples using culture-independent pyrosequencing, including oil mousses collected on sea surface and salt marshes during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, and oil deposited in sediments adjacent to the wellhead 1 year after the spill. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that Erythrobacter, Rhodovulum, Stappia, and Thalassospira of Alphaproteobacteria were the prevailing groups in the oil mousses, which may relate to high temperatures and strong irradiance in surface Gulf waters. In the mousse collected from the leaves of Spartina alterniflora, Vibrio of Gammaproteobacteria represented 57% of the total operational taxonomic units, suggesting that this indigenous genus is particularly responsive to the oil contamination in salt marshes. The bacterial communities in oil-contaminated sediments were highly diversified. The relatively high abundance of the Methylococcus, Methylobacter, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Chlorofexi bacteria resembles those found in certain cold-seep sediments with gas hydrates. Bacterial communities in the overlying water of the oil-contaminated sediment were dominated by Ralstonia of Betaproteobacteria, which can degrade small aromatics, and Saccharophagus degradans of Gammaproteobacteria, a cellulose degrader, suggesting that overlying water was affected by the oil-contaminated sediments, possibly due to the dissolution of small aromatics and biosurfactants produced during biodegradation. Overall, these results provided key information needed to evaluate oil degradation in the region and develop future bioremediation strategies. PMID:23568850

  4. Comparative study of the chemical composition of essential oils of five Tagetes species collected in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas, Kaylin; Rojas, Janne; Rojas, Luis; Morales, Antonio

    2012-09-01

    The leaves and inflorescences of five species of Tagetes, family Asteraceae, were collected from different locations in Mérida state, Venezuela, and their essential oils analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Several differences were observed in the composition of these oils, mainly regarding the major components, which for T. caracasana were trans-ocimenone (64.3%) and cis-tagetone (13.7%), and for T. erecta, piperitone (35.9%) and terpinolene (22.2%). High amounts of trans-anethole (87.5%) and estragole (10.7%) were observed in T. filifolia, while T. subulata essential oil contained terpinolene (26.0%), piperitenone (13.1%) and limonene (10.8%). For T. patula, two different oil samples were analyzed, leaves (TPL) and inflorescences (TPI). The TPL oil showed terpinolene (20.9%) and piperitenone (14.0%) as main components, while the TPI sample was composed mainly of beta-caryophyllene (23.7%), terpinolene (15.6%) and cis-beta-ocimene (15.5%).

  5. Pollen grain traits of oil species from the Novi Sad collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atlagić Jovanka

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The collection of oil species in Novi Sad contains 12 species represented with 1-4 cultivars or landraces. In the continuous work on this collection in the sense of breeding of some of those species and their usage as a source of 'desirable genes' we analyzed pollen grain morphology (shape and size, as well as pollen viability. To determine mentioned pollen traits we used Axiovert 40C microscope together with a software package (AxioVision LE; Rel.4.3. for measurement of pollen length and width. Pollen viability was determined using a staining method (ALEXANDER, 1969. The results showed that species differ by pollen grain shape (round, egg-shaped, triangular and rod as well as by shape of exine (thick and spiky, thick to thin. In some species there was a specific number of apertures present (1-11. The size of viable pollen grains ranged from 29,10/12,58μ (coriander to 176,63/169,94μ (oil gourd, while non-viable pollen grains were always smaller (27,27/10,97μ to 119,62/100,86μ at the same plant species. Pollen viability of most species was around 80%. Lowest pollen viability was found in white flax (56,98%, and the highest in oil pumpkin (91,43%.

  6. Molten salt pyrolysis of milled beech wood using an electrostatic precipitator for oil collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi S. Nygård

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A tubular electrostatic precipitator (ESP was designed and tested for collection of pyrolysis oil in molten salt pyrolysis of milled beech wood (0.5-2 mm. The voltage-current (V-I characteristics were studied, showing most stable performance of the ESP when N2 was utilized as inert gas. The pyrolysis experiments were carried out in FLiNaK and (LiNaK2CO3 over the temperature range of 450-600 ℃. The highest yields of pyrolysis oil were achieved in FLiNaK, with a maximum of 34.2 wt% at 500 ℃, followed by a decrease with increasing reactor temperature. The temperature had nearly no effect on the oil yield for pyrolysis in (LiNaK2CO3 (19.0-22.5 wt%. Possible hydration reactions and formation of HF gas during FLiNaK pyrolysis were investigated by simulations (HSC Chemistry software and measurements of the outlet gas (FTIR, but no significant amounts of HF were detected.

  7. 75 FR 10301 - MMS Information Collection Activity: 1010-0006, Leasing of Sulphur or Oil and Gas in the Outer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... October 6, 2009, we published a Federal Register notice (74 FR 51316) announcing that we would submit this... Minerals Management Service MMS Information Collection Activity: 1010-0006, Leasing of Sulphur or Oil and... Management Service (MMS), Interior. ACTION: Notice of extension of an information collection...

  8. 75 FR 18545 - MMS Information Collection Activity: 1010-0067, Oil and Gas Well-Completion Operations, Extension...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-12

    ... Minerals Management Service MMS Information Collection Activity: 1010-0067, Oil and Gas Well- Completion.... ACTION: Notice of extension of an information collection (1010-0067). SUMMARY: To comply with the...; 381 Elden Street, MS-4024; Herndon, Virginia 20170-4817. Please reference ICR 1010-0067 in...

  9. 75 FR 57285 - BOEMRE Information Collection Activity: 1010-0172, Open and Nondiscriminatory Access to Oil and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-20

    ...: 1010-0172, Open and Nondiscriminatory Access to Oil and Gas Pipelines, Extension of a Collection.... ACTION: Notice of an extension of an information collection (1010- 0172). SUMMARY: To comply with the.... Please reference ICR 1010-0172 in your comment and include your name and return address....

  10. 76 FR 52006 - Information Collection Activity: Leasing of Minerals Other Than Oil, Gas and Sulphur in the Outer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-19

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Information Collection Activity: Leasing of... Leasing of Minerals Other than Oil, Gas and Sulphur in the Outer Continental Shelf (OMB No. 1010- 0082... subject collection of information. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: 30 CFR part 281, Leasing of...

  11. Collective action in a smallholder oil palm production system in Indonesia: The key to sustainable and inclusive smallholder palm oil?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jelsma, Idsert; Slingerland, Maja; Giller, Ken E.; Bijman, Jos

    2017-01-01

    Indonesian smallholder oil palm generally yield much less than corporate plantations. We analysed a smallholder oil palm production system in West Sumatra which outperformed its nucleus estate plantation, consistently producing yields far above the national average for over 25 years. Its

  12. Chemical comparison and acute toxicity of water accommodated fraction (WAF) of source and field collected Macondo oils from the Deepwater Horizon spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faksness, Liv-Guri; Altin, Dag; Nordtug, Trond; Daling, Per S; Hansen, Bjørn Henrik

    2015-02-15

    Two Source oils and five field collected oil residues from the Deepwater Horizon incident were chemically characterized. Water accommodated fractions (WAFs) of the Source oils and two of the field-weathered oils were prepared to evaluate the impact of natural weathering on the chemical composition and the acute toxicity of the WAFs. Toxicity test species representing different tropic levels were used (the primary producer Skeletonema costatum (algae) and the herbivorous copepod Acartia tonsa). The results suggest that the potential for acute toxicity is higher in WAFs from non-weathered oils than WAFs from the field weathered oils. The Source oils contained a large fraction of soluble and bioavailable components (such as BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, xylenes) and naphthalene), whereas in the surface collected oils these components were depleted by dissolution into the water column as the oil rose to the surface and by evaporative loss after reaching the sea surface.

  13. Study the symbiotic crude oil-degrading bacteria in the mussel Mactra stultorum collected from the Persian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayat, Zeynab; Hassanshahian, Mehdi; Hesni, Majid Askari

    2016-04-15

    Symbiotic associations are complex partnerships that can lead to new metabolic capabilities and the establishment of novel organisms. The diversity of these associations is very broad and there are still many mysteries about the origin and the exact relationship between the organisms that are involved in a symbiosis. The aim of the present study is to find symbiotic crude-oil degrading bacteria in the mussels that collected from the Persian Gulf. Fifteen crude-oil degrading bacteria were isolated from Mactra stultorum mussel that collected from oil contaminated area at Persian Gulf. According to high growth rate on crude oil five strains were selected from 15 isolated strains for more study. Determination of the nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding 16S rRNA show that these isolated strains belong to: Alcanivorax dieselolei strain BHA25, Idiomarina baltica strain BHA28, A. dieselolei strain BHA30, Alcanivorax sp. strain BHA32 and Vibrio azureus strain BHA36. Analysis of remaining of crude oil by Gas Chromatography (GC) confirmed that these strains can degrade: 64%, 63%, 71%, 58% and 75% of crude oil respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Inspired by Stenocara Beetles: From Water Collection to High-Efficiency Water-in-Oil Emulsion Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xinjuan; Qian, Long; Yuan, Xianxia; Zhou, Cailong; Li, Zhaowen; Cheng, Jiang; Xu, Shouping; Wang, Shuangfeng; Pi, Pihui; Wen, Xiufang

    2017-01-24

    Inspired by the water-collecting mechanism of the Stenocara beetle's back structure, we prepared a superhydrophilic bumps-superhydrophobic/superoleophilic stainless steel mesh (SBS-SSM) filter via a facile and environmentally friendly method. Specifically, hydrophilic silica microparticles are assembled on the as-cleaned stainless steel mesh surface, followed by further spin-coating with a fluoropolymer/SiO2 nanoparticle solution. On the special surface of SBS-SSM, attributed to the steep surface energy gradient, the superhydrophilic bumps (hydrophilic silica microparticles) are able to capture emulsified water droplets and collect water from the emulsion even when their size is smaller than the pore size of the stainless steel mesh. The oil portion of the water-in-oil emulsion therefore permeates through pores of the superhydrophobic/superoleophilic mesh coating freely and gets purified. We demonstrated an oil recovery purity up to 99.95 wt % for surfactant-stabilized water-in-oil emulsions on the biomimetic SBS-SSM filter, which is superior to that of the traditional superhydrophobic/superoleophilic stainless steel mesh (S-SSM) filter lacking the superhydrophilic bump structure. Together with a facile and environmentally friendly coating strategy, this tool shows great application potential for water-in-oil emulsion separation and oil purification.

  15. 75 FR 11841 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Short Supply Regulations, Petroleum (Crude Oil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... Regulations, Petroleum (Crude Oil) AGENCY: Bureau of Industry and Security. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... petroleum (crude oil) and is used by licensing officers to determine the exporter's compliance with the five...

  16. Screening of the entire USDA castor germplasm collection for oil content and fatty acid composition for optimum biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming Li; Morris, J Bradley; Tonnis, Brandon; Pinnow, David; Davis, Jerry; Raymer, Paul; Pederson, Gary A

    2011-09-14

    Castor has tremendous potential as a feedstock for biodiesel production. The oil content and fatty acid composition in castor seed are important factors determining the price for production and affecting the key fuel properties of biodiesel. There are 1033 available castor accessions collected or donated from 48 countries worldwide in the USDA germplasm collection. The entire castor collection was screened for oil content and fatty acid composition by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and gas chromatography (GC), respectively. Castor seeds on the average contain 48.2% oil with significant variability ranging from 37.2 to 60.6%. Methyl esters were prepared from castor seed by alkaline transmethylation. GC analysis of methyl esters confirmed that castor oil was composed primarily of eight fatty acids: 1.48% palmitic (C16:0), 1.58% stearic (C18:0), 4.41% oleic (C18:1), 6.42% linoleic (C18:2), 0.68% linolenic (C18:3), 0.45% gadoleic (C20:1), 84.51% ricinoleic (C18:1-1OH), and 0.47% dihydroxystearic (C18:0-2OH) acids. Significant variability in fatty acid composition was detected among castor accessions. Ricinoleic acid (RA) was positively correlated with dihydroxystearic acid (DHSA) but highly negatively correlated with the five other fatty acids except linolenic acid. The results for oil content and fatty acid composition obtained from this study will be useful for end-users to explore castor germplasm for biodiesel production.

  17. GIS Data Collection for Oil Palm (DaCOP) Mobile Application for Smart Phone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, A. F.; Muhadi, N. A.

    2015-10-01

    Nowadays, smart phone has become a necessity as it offers more than just making a phone call. Smart phone combines the features of cell phone with other mobile devices such as personal digital assistant (PDA) and GPS navigation unit that propel the popularity of smart phones. In recent years, the interest in mobile communication has been increased. Previous research using mobile application has been successfully done in varies areas of study. Areas of study that have been done are health care, education, and traffic monitoring. Besides, mobile application has also been applied in agricultural sector for various purposes such as plant pest risk management. In this study, mobile application for data collection on Ganoderma disease of oil palm has been successfully developed. The application uses several devices in a smart phone such as GPS, Wifi/ GPRS connection and accelerometer devices. The application can be installed in the smart phone and users can use the application while working on-site. The data can be updated immediately through their smart phones to the service. Besides, the application provides offline map so the user can be productive even though their network connectivity is poor or nonexistent. The data can be synced when the users online again. This paper presents an application that allows users to download features from a sync-enabled ArcGIS Feature Service, view and edit the features even when the devices fail to connect with any network connectivity while collecting data on-site.

  18. GIS DATA COLLECTION FOR OIL PALM (DaCOP MOBILE APPLICATION FOR SMART PHONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Abdullah

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, smart phone has become a necessity as it offers more than just making a phone call. Smart phone combines the features of cell phone with other mobile devices such as personal digital assistant (PDA and GPS navigation unit that propel the popularity of smart phones. In recent years, the interest in mobile communication has been increased. Previous research using mobile application has been successfully done in varies areas of study. Areas of study that have been done are health care, education, and traffic monitoring. Besides, mobile application has also been applied in agricultural sector for various purposes such as plant pest risk management. In this study, mobile application for data collection on Ganoderma disease of oil palm has been successfully developed. The application uses several devices in a smart phone such as GPS, Wifi/ GPRS connection and accelerometer devices. The application can be installed in the smart phone and users can use the application while working on-site. The data can be updated immediately through their smart phones to the service. Besides, the application provides offline map so the user can be productive even though their network connectivity is poor or nonexistent. The data can be synced when the users online again. This paper presents an application that allows users to download features from a sync-enabled ArcGIS Feature Service, view and edit the features even when the devices fail to connect with any network connectivity while collecting data on-site.

  19. Oil content among the diverse castor genetic resources in the U.S. collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castor (Ricinus communis L.) contains oil used for medicine, as an ingredient in shampoo, soap, hand lotion, high-speed lubricants, and as a coating material. Due to its high oil content, oil derived from castor seeds is currently proposed to be used as a feedstock for biodiesel production. The USDA...

  20. Cytological-cytogenetic analyses of winter flounder embryos collected from the Benthos at the barge North Cape oil spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, J.B. [Milford Laboratory, CT (United States). Northeast Fisheries Science Center

    1999-01-01

    The oil barge North Cape ran aground on Moonstone Beach in Rhode Island on January 19, 1996, spilling 828 000 gallons (US) of a combination of diesel and home heating oils. Samples of winter flounder embryos were collected from salt ponds in the area of the spill using an epibenthic sled. An examination of the field-sampled embryos based on gross morphology, levels of moribund embryos, mitotic index, and chromosomal anomalies found that a significant number exhibited high levels of one or more of these conditions when compared with flounder embryos raised under laboratory-controlled conditions. No chorion damage was noted in embryos collected from the field nor were there any significant findings of lordosis or scoliosis. The cumulative impact on winter flounder embryos of North Cape oil exposure was an estimated 51% reduction in the number of embryos surviving to the larval stage. (author)

  1. 76 FR 17430 - BOEMRE Information Collection Activities: 1010-0172, Open and Nondiscriminatory Access to Oil and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-29

    ... public consultation process, on September 20, 2010, we published a Federal Register notice (75 FR 57285...: 1010-0172, Open and Nondiscriminatory Access to Oil and Gas Pipelines; Comment Request AGENCY: Bureau... renewal of an information collection (1010-0172). SUMMARY: To comply with the Paperwork Reduction Act...

  2. 75 FR 68817 - BOEMRE Information Collection Activity: 1010-0067, Oil and Gas Well-Completion Operations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-09

    ... rulemaking that became effective June 3, 2010 (75 FR 23582), and addresses the procedures and requirements... 12, 2010, we published a Federal Register notice (75 FR 18545) announcing that we would submit this...: 1010-0067, Oil and Gas Well-Completion Operations, Extension of a Collection; Submitted for Office...

  3. Essential oil composition of five collections of Achillea biebersteinii from central Turkey and their antifungal and insecticidal activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The composition of the essential oils hydrodistilled from the aerial parts of five Achillea biebersteinii Afan samples, collected in central Turkey from Konya, Isparta and Ankara, were analyzed both by gas chromatography (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Eighty-four componen...

  4. Variation in Essential Oil and Bioactive Compounds of Curcuma kwangsiensis Collected from Natural Habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lanyue; Yang, Zhiwen; Huang, Zebin; Zhao, Mincong; Li, Penghui; Zhou, Wei; Zhang, Kun; Zheng, Xi; Lin, Li; Tang, Jian; Fang, Yanxiong; Du, Zhiyun

    2017-07-01

    The chemical compositions of essential oils (EOs) extracted from Curcuma kwangsiensis rhizomes collected from six natural habitats in P. R. China were evaluated using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Fifty-seven components were identified from the six EOs, and their main constituents were 8,9-dehydro-9-formyl-cycloisolongifolene (2.37 - 42.59%), germacrone (6.53 - 22.20%), and l-camphor (0.19 - 6.12%). The six EOs exhibited different DPPH radical-scavenging activities (IC50 , 2.24 - 31.03 μg/ml), with the activity of most of EOs being much higher than that of Trolox C (IC50 , 10.49 μg/ml) and BHT (IC50 , 54.13 μg/ml). Most EOs had potent antimicrobial effects against the tested bacteria and fungus. They also exhibited cytotoxicity against B16 (IC50 , 4.44 - 147.4 μg/ml) and LNCaP cells (IC50 , 73.94 - 429.25 μg/ml). The EOs showed excellent anti-inflammatory action by significantly downregulating expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, cyclooxygenase-2, and tumor necrosis factor-α. This study provides insight into the interrelation among growth location, phytoconstituents, and bioactivities, and the results indicate the potential of C. kwangsiensis as natural nutrients, medicines, and others additives. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  5. Oil content in seeds of the NPGS jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) germplasm collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jojoba, Simmondsia chinensis, (Link) Schneider is a shrub native to warm and arid land regions of North and Latin America. Its seeds contain vegetable oil composed of long (C20-22), straight-chain liquid wax of non-glyceride esters. Minute amounts of triglycerides in its composition make the oil a l...

  6. SCADA System for the Modeling and Optimization of Oil Collecting Pipeline Network: A Case Study of Hassi Messaoud Oilfield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Aouadj

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims are data acquisition, control and online modeling of an oil collection pipeline network using a SCADA «Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition» system, allowing the optimization of this network in real time by creating more exact models of onsite facilities. Indeed, fast development of computing systems makes obsolete usage of old systems for which maintenance became more and more expensive and their performances don’t comply any more with modern company operations. SCADA system is a telemetry and control system adapted for particular requirements of an oilfield management. Thanks to its different functions, we take advantage of this system to solve production problems especially those related to oil collecting pipeline network. In fact this network is confronted to some problems, in particular pressure losses which has significant effect on the production. This problem can be taken under control by the awareness of pipeline network operation and all its process data (especially junctions in real time. This will allow online creation of representative and accurate computerized models for the oil collecting pipeline network including producing wells, collecting pipelines, manifolds and others facilities.

  7. Effect of Collection Time on Essential Oil Composition of Lantana camara Linn (Verbenaceae Growing in Brazil Northeastern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlânio O. Sousa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To verify the composition variation of its essential oil along 24 hours, leaves of Lantana camara Linn. of medicinal plant collection of the Department of Chemical Biology of URCA-Crato–CE, were collected every three hours during one day (of the 07:00 to 19:00 h in April, 2008. The leaves had its oil extracted by hydro-distillation in Clevenger apparatus during three hours with two repetitions. The chemical composition analysis of the extracted essential oils was carried out in gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. The phytochemical profile of the essential oils presented significant difference in function of the harvest. The seven most abundant were: germacrene D (24.50-6.15%, biciclogermacrene (33.32-14.27%, spathulenol (25.04-1.06%, eremophilene (20.64-1.93%, valecene (33.70-0.84%, viridiflorene (19.46% and 1,10-di-epi-cubenol (27.93-21.32. The different result found here indicates the existence of different chemotypes of L. camara

  8. SCADA System for the Modeling and Optimization of Oil Collecting Pipeline Network: A Case Study of Hassi Messaoud Oilfield

    OpenAIRE

    M. Aouadj; F. Naceri; M. Touileb; D. Sellami; M. Boukhatem

    2015-01-01

    This study aims are data acquisition, control and online modeling of an oil collection pipeline network using a SCADA «Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition» system, allowing the optimization of this network in real time by creating more exact models of onsite facilities. Indeed, fast development of computing systems makes obsolete usage of old systems for which maintenance became more and more expensive and their performances don’t comply any more with modern company operations. SCADA sys...

  9. Automatic Data Collection Design for Real-time Detection of Oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES Obe

    economy is the petroleum sector, contributing about 90% of ... level contributes to the national economic. 53 ... contingency arrangements of oil industry operators .... samples from large populations. 3. ..... 1999-8, [Ageing Pipelines, Optimizing.

  10. Co-axial electrospun polystyrene/polyurethane fibres for oil collection from water surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jinyou; Tian, Feng; Shang, Yanwei; Wang, Fujun; Ding, Bin; Yu, Jianyong; Guo, Zhi

    2013-03-01

    The pollution arising from oil spills is a matter of great concern due to its damaging impacts on the ecological environment, which has created a tremendous need to find more efficient materials for oil spill cleanup. In this work, we reported a sorbent for oil soak-up from a water surface with a high sorption capacity, good selectivity, and excellent reusability based on the hydrophobic-oleophilic fibrous mats that were fabricated via co-axial electrospinning polystyrene (PS) solution as the shell solution and polyurethane (PU) solution as the core solution. The fine structures of as-prepared fibers were regulated by manipulating the spinning voltages, core solution concentrations, and solvent compositions in shell solutions, which were also characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption method, and synchrotron radiation small-angle X-ray scattering. The effects of inter-fiber voids and intra-fiber porosity on oil sorption capacities were well studied. A comparison of oil sorption capacity for the single fiber with different porous structures was also investigated with the help of scanning transmission X-ray microscopy. The results showed that the sorption capacities of the as-prepared sorbent with regards to motor oil and sunflower seed oil can be 64.40 and 47.48 g g-1, respectively, approximately 2-3 times that of conventional polypropylene (PP) fibers for these two same oils. Even after five sorption cycles, a comparable oil sorption capacity with PP fibers was still maintained, exhibiting an excellent reusability. We believe that the composite PS-PU fibrous mats have a great potential application in wastewater treatment, oil accident remediation and environmental protection.The pollution arising from oil spills is a matter of great concern due to its damaging impacts on the ecological environment, which has created a tremendous need to find more efficient materials for oil spill cleanup. In

  11. 78 FR 68079 - Information Collection Activities: Oil and Gas Well-Completion Operations; Submitted for Office...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-13

    ... INFORMATION: Title: 30 CFR 250, Subpart E, Oil and Gas Well-Completion Operations. OMB Control Number: 1014... driller's report. 517(d)(8) Function test ROV 10 17 wells 170 interventions on your subsea BOP stack... completions..... 13 autoshear and deadman on your subsea BOP stack during stump test; document all...

  12. 78 FR 22256 - Proposed Information Collection Request; Comment Request; The National Oil and Hazardous...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    ... Dispersants and Other Chemicals''). The use of bioremediation agents, dispersants, surface washing agents... basic categories: dispersants, surface washing agents, surface collecting agents, bioremediation agents..., manufacturers of bioremediation agents, dispersants, surface collecting agents, surface washing...

  13. Bioinspired materials for water supply and management: water collection, water purification and separation of water from oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Philip S; Bhushan, Bharat

    2016-08-06

    Access to a safe supply of water is a human right. However, with growing populations, global warming and contamination due to human activity, it is one that is increasingly under threat. It is hoped that nature can inspire the creation of materials to aid in the supply and management of water, from water collection and purification to water source clean-up and rehabilitation from oil contamination. Many species thrive in even the driest places, with some surviving on water harvested from fog. By studying these species, new materials can be developed to provide a source of fresh water from fog for communities across the globe. The vast majority of water on the Earth is in the oceans. However, current desalination processes are energy-intensive. Systems in our own bodies have evolved to transport water efficiently while blocking other molecules and ions. Inspiration can be taken from such to improve the efficiency of desalination and help purify water containing other contaminants. Finally, oil contamination of water from spills or the fracking technique can be a devastating environmental disaster. By studying how natural surfaces interact with liquids, new techniques can be developed to clean up oil spills and further protect our most precious resource.This article is part of the themed issue 'Bioinspired hierarchically structured surfaces for green science'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  14. 75 FR 54354 - BOEMRE Information Collection Activity: 1010-0106, Oil Spill Financial Responsibility for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-07

    ... process, on April 26, 2010, we published a Federal Register notice (75 FR 21648) announcing that we would... Bureau of Ocean Management, Regulation and Enforcement BOEMRE Information Collection Activity: 1010-0106..., Regulation and Enforcement (BOEMRE), Interior. ACTION: Notice of extension of an information collection...

  15. Mutagenicity of nitrogen compounds from synthetic crude oils: collection, separation and biological testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, T K; Epler, J L; Guerin, M R; Clark, B R; Ho, C H

    1980-01-01

    In order to determine the long range health effects such as carcinogenicity/mutagenicity/teratogenicity/toxicity, associated with the newly emerging energy technologies, we have utilized the Ames Salmonella assay to evaluate mutagenic properties of synthetic fuels. Coupling with class fractionation was necessary. Organic extraction and liquid/liquid partitioning was used to separate acidic and basic fraction. The neutral material was separated using Sephadex LH-20 gel filtration into saturated and aromatic fractions of various ring sizes. The alkaline fraction was subfractionated eluting with benzene and ethanol on a basic alumina column and then with isopropanol and acetone using a Sephadex LH-20 gel column. The frameshift strain TA-98 was utilized along with Aroclor-induced rat liver homogenate (S-9 mix) for the mutagenicity assay. The natural crude oils were slightly mutagenic, the polynucleararomatics constituting the activity, while the coal-derived fuels indicated mutagenicity associated with alkaline constituents as well as polyaromatics. Hydrotreated coal (H-coal, HDT) or Shale (Paraho-Shale oil, HDT) derived fuels were not mutagenic. Ninety percent of the mutagenic activity in alkaline fraction was recovered in the acetone subfraction. High resolution spectroscopy of this fraction indicates polycyclic aromatic primary amines along with azaarenes as organic constituents responsible for the mutagenic activity associated with shale- and coal-derived fuels.

  16. Essential-Oil Variability in a Collection of Ocimum basilicum L. (Basil) Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggio, Antonella; Roscigno, Graziana; Bruno, Maurizio; De Falco, Enrica; Senatore, Felice

    2016-10-01

    Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiaceae) is an aromatic plant of great tradition in the Mediterranean area. Its economic importance is growing up determining an expansion of cultivation. This paper evaluated the morphological traits, the chemical profiles, and antibacterial activity of 21 cultivars of basil belonging to 'Genovese', 'Napoletano', and 'Purple basil' types. The cultivars were characterized by different growth rate and morphological traits. The chemical composition of the oils analyzed by GC and GC/MS analysis, supported by the PCA analysis, underlined the strong influence of chemotype. It is noteworthy that estragole, never present in Genovese and purple basil types, occurred in Napoletano type. The high presence of eugenol, methyl eugenol, and linalool in the majority of cultivars, belonging both to Genovese and to Napoletano types was registered. Of great interest resulted the composition of the purple basil 'Opal'. All the samples tested exhibited similar antibiotic profiles with moderate antibacterial activity. The results enhanced the importance of determination of essential-oil profile in the selection of cultivars characterized by diverse morphological traits and are useful for different purposes.

  17. Aflatoxin levels in sunflower seeds and cakes collected from micro- and small-scale sunflower oil processors in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mmongoyo, Juma A; Wu, Felicia; Linz, John E; Nair, Muraleedharan G; Mugula, Jovin K; Tempelman, Robert J; Strasburg, Gale M

    2017-01-01

    Aflatoxin, a mycotoxin found commonly in maize and peanuts worldwide, is associated with liver cancer, acute toxicosis, and growth impairment in humans and animals. In Tanzania, sunflower seeds are a source of snacks, cooking oil, and animal feed. These seeds are a potential source of aflatoxin contamination. However, reports on aflatoxin contamination in sunflower seeds and cakes are scarce. The objective of the current study was to determine total aflatoxin concentrations in sunflower seeds and cakes from small-scale oil processors across Tanzania. Samples of sunflower seeds (n = 90) and cakes (n = 92) were collected across two years, and analyzed for total aflatoxin concentrations using a direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). For seed samples collected June-August 2014, the highest aflatoxin concentrations were from Dodoma (1.7-280.6 ng/g), Singida (1.4-261.8 ng/g), and Babati-Manyara (1.8-162.0 ng/g). The highest concentrations for cakes were from Mbeya (2.8-97.7 ng/g), Dodoma (1.9-88.2 ng/g), and Singida (2.0-34.3 ng/g). For seed samples collected August-October 2015, the highest concentrations were from Morogoro (2.8-662.7 ng/g), Singida (1.6-217.6 ng/g) and Mbeya (1.4-174.2 ng/g). The highest concentrations for cakes were from Morogoro (2.7-536.0 ng/g), Dodoma (1.4-598.4 ng/g) and Singida (3.2-52.8 ng/g). In summary, humans and animals are potentially at high risk of exposure to aflatoxins through sunflower seeds and cakes from micro-scale millers in Tanzania; and location influences risk.

  18. Chemical composition of the essential oil of Moluccella spinosa L. (Lamiaceae) collected wild in Sicily and its activity on microorganisms affecting historical textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casiglia, Simona; Jemia, Mariem Ben; Riccobono, Luana; Bruno, Maurizio; Scandolera, Elia; Senatore, Felice

    2015-01-01

    In this study the chemical composition of the essential oil from aerial parts of Moluccella spinosa L. collected in Sicily was evaluated by GC and GC-MS. The main components of M. spinosa L. were α-pinene (26.6%), caryophyllene oxide (16.8%) and β-caryophyllene (8.6%). A comparison with other studied oils of genus Moluccella is made. Antibacterial and antifungal activities against some microorganisms infesting historical textiles were also determined.

  19. Chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of essential oil obtained from Ferula assa-foetida oleo-gum-resin: effect of collection time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavoosi, Gholamreza; Rowshan, Vahid

    2013-06-15

    The properties of essential oils obtained from Ferula assa-foetida oleo-gum-resins (OGRs) collectioned in three collections times in 15 June (OGR1), 30 June (OGR2) and 15 July (OGR3) 2011 was investigated. Essential oil from OGR1 was constituted high levels of (E)-1-propenyl sec-butyl disulfide (23.9%) and 10-epi-γ-eudesmol (15.1%). Essential oil from OGR2 was constituted high levels of (Z)-1-propenyl sec-butyl disulfide (27.7%) and (E)-1-propenyl sec-butyl disulfide (20.3%). Essential oil from OGR3 was constituted high levels of β-pinene (47.1%) and α-pinene (21.3%). Inhibitory concentration (IC50) for radical scavenging were 0.012-0.035, 0.025-0.047 and 0.035-0.066 mg/ml of essential oil obtained from OGR1, OGR2 and OGR3, respectively. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) for Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungi grpwth were 0.028-0.111, 0.027-0.107 and 0.018-0.058 mg/ml of essential oil obtained from OGR1, OGR2 and OGR3, respectively. Essential oils obtained from different OGRs have different composition and biological activity thus have different applications in food and health industry.

  20. Embryotoxicity of mixtures of weathered crude oil collected from the Gulf of Mexico and Corexit 9500 in mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Bryson E; Wooten, Kimberly J; Faust, Derek R; Smith, Philip N

    2012-06-01

    Dispersants are applied to marine crude oil spills to enhance microbial degradation and reduce impacts of crude oils on ecosystems. In summer 2010, the dispersant Corexit 9500 was applied to crude oil in the Gulf of Mexico. The co-occurrence of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill with nesting efforts of birds in the Gulf region may have resulted in exposure of adult birds, and subsequently bird eggs, to combinations of crude oil and Corexit 9500. The objective of this study was to examine the embryotoxicity of 50:1 and 10:1 mixtures of weathered crude oil collected from the Gulf of Mexico and Corexit 9500 applied to mallard duck eggs. Combinations of weathered crude oil and Corexit 9500 were applied to eggshells of mallard ducks via paintbrush in varying masses ranging from 0.1 to 59.9 mg and 0.1 to 44.9 mg for 50:1 and 10:1 mixtures, respectively. Conservatively derived median lethal applications for 50:1 and 10:1 mixtures of weathered crude oil and Corexit 9500 were 21.3±4.9 mg/egg (321.8 μg/g egg) and 33.1±11.8 mg/egg (517.0 μg/g egg), respectively. Spleen mass of hatchlings exposed to the 50:1 mixture was the only physiological measure significantly different from controls of both mixtures. Results indicated that decreasing ratios of dispersant relative to weathered crude oil decreased toxicity to mallard embryos. In comparison to treatments of eggs with weathered crude oil alone, toxicity increased when the oil to dispersant ratio was 50:1, but decreased with the mixture that contained more dispersant (10:1).

  1. Oscillation and collective conveyor of water-in-oil droplets by microfluidic bolus flow

    CERN Document Server

    Ohmura, Takuya; Kamei, Ken-ichiro; Maeda, Yusuke T

    2015-01-01

    Microfluidic techniques have been extensively developed to realize micro-total analysis systems in a small chip. For microanalysis, the trapping or arranging of objects in a line is a critical step. Physical effects such as inertial lift force have been utilized so far, however, hydrodynamic interaction in a many body system is yet to be explored despite its relevance to pattern formation. Here, we report water-in-oil (W/O) droplets can be transported with sequential order in the grid of one-dimensional array of another large W/O droplets. As each droplet comes close to an interspace of the large droplet array, while exhibiting persistent back-and-forth motion, it is conveyed at a velocity equal to the droplet array. The droplet also makes asymmetric orbit to and from the large droplet behind, suggesting vortex like stream was involved. We confirm the appearance of closed streamlines, which called bolus flow, in numerical simulation based on lattice Boltzmann method. The existence region of bolus flow account...

  2. Methods for collection and analysis of geopressured geothermal and oil field waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lico, Michael S.; Kharaka, Yousif K.; Carothers, William W.; Wright, Victoria A.

    1982-01-01

    Present methods are described for the collection, preservation, and chemical analysis of waters produced from geopressured geothermal and petroleum wells. Detailed procedures for collection include precautions and equipment necessary to ensure that the sample is representative of the water produced. Procedures for sample preservation include filtration, acidification, dilution for silica, methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) extraction of aluminum, addition of potassium permanganate to preserve mercury, and precipitation of carbonate species as strontium carbonate for stable carbon isotopes and total dissolved carbonate analysis. Characteristics determined at the well site are sulfide, pH, ammonia, and conductivity. Laboratory procedures are given for the analysis of lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, cesium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, barium, iron, manganese, zinc, lead, aluminum, .and mercury by atomic absorption and flame emission spectroscopy. Chloride is determined by silver nitrate titration and fluoride by ion-specific electrode. Bromide and iodide concentrations are determined by the hypochlorite oxidation method. Sulfate is analyzed by titration using barium chloride with thorin indicator after pretreatment with alumina. Boron and silica are determined colorimetrically by the carmine and molybdate-blue methods, respectively. Aliphatic acid anions (C2 through C5) are determined by gas chromatography after separation and concentration in a chloroform-butanol mixture.

  3. 76 FR 52963 - Information Collection Activity: Prospecting for Minerals Other Than Oil, Gas, and Sulphur on the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-24

    ...: Prospecting for Minerals Other Than Oil, Gas, and Sulphur on the Outer Continental Shelf, Revision of a... for Minerals Other than Oil, Gas, and Sulphur on the Outer Continental Shelf (OMB No. 1010-0072), and... Minerals Other than Oil, Gas, and Sulphur on the Outer Continental Shelf. BOEMRE Form(s): 0134. OMB...

  4. 78 FR 66066 - Proposed Information Collection for OMB Review; Comment Request: Leasing of Sulphur or Oil and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ...: Leasing of Sulphur or Oil and Gas in the Outer Continental Shelf and Pipeline Rights of Way ACTION: 60-day... paperwork requirements in the regulations under 30 CFR 556, Leasing of Sulphur or Oil and Gas in the OCS; 30 CFR 550, Subpart J, Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way; and 30 CFR 560, OCS Oil and Gas...

  5. Oil collecting bees and Byrsonima cydoniifolia A. Juss. (Malpighiaceae) interactions: the prevalence of long-distance cross pollination driving reproductive success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sazan, Morgana S; Bezerra, Antonio Diego M; Freitas, Breno M

    2014-03-01

    Oil-collecting bees are the natural pollinators of oil-flower plants, but little is known about the pollination process and the effectiveness of their pollination service to the reproductive success of their host plants. In species of Byrsonima the reproductive system have been described as auto-compatible or self-incompatible. We studied the reproductive system of Byrsonima cydoniifolia, the fructification by means of short, medium and long-distance cross pollinations, the morphology and floral biology and the pollination interactions with species of oil-collecting bees. By means of controlled pollinations we found self-incompatibility caused by abortion of most self-pollinated flowers and demonstrated that the prevailing cross pollination ensuring the reproductive success of B. cydoniifolia is the long-distance cross pollination and Centridini bees; Epicharis nigrita, particularly, are the pollinators promoting the gene flow between genetically distinct populations.

  6. 75 FR 77880 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; GuLF Worker Study: Gulf Long-Term Follow-Up Study for Oil...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-14

    ... excessive heat, and possibly to stress due to widespread economic and lifestyle disruption. Exposures range... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Proposed Collection; Comment Request; GuLF Worker Study: Gulf Long-Term Follow-Up Study for Oil Spill Clean-Up Workers and Volunteers SUMMARY: Under...

  7. Oil, fatty acid, flavonoid, and resveratrol content variability in FAD2A functional SNP genotypes in the U.S. peanut mini-core collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanut seeds contain high amounts of oil and protein as well as some useful bioactive phytochemicals which can contribute to human health. The U.S. peanut mini-core collection is an important genetic resource for improving seed quality and developing new cultivars. Variability of seed chemical compo...

  8. Chemical composition of essential oils of Anthemis secundiramea Biv. subsp. secundiramea (Asteraceae) collected wild in Sicily and their activity on micro-organisms affecting historical art craft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casiglia, Simona; Bruno, Maurizio; Senatore, Felice; Rosselli, Sergio

    2016-04-04

    In the present study, the chemical composition of the essential oil from the aerial parts of Anthemis secundiramea Biv. subsp. secundiramea L. collected in Sicily was evaluated by GC and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The main components of A. secundiramea were (Z)-lyratyl acetate (14.6%), (Z)-chrysanthenyl acetate (9.9%), (Z)-chrysanthenol (8.7%) and (E)-chrysanthenyl acetate (7.7%). The comparing with other studied oils of genus Anthemis belonging to the same clade is discussed. Antibacterial and antifungal activities against some micro-organisms infesting historical art craft, were also determined.

  9. Seed oil content and fatty acid composition in a genebank collection of Cucurbita moschata Duchesne and C. argyrosperma C. Huber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data on intraspecific variability for seed oil content, fatty acid composition and seed oil characteristics in Cucurbita moschata and C. argyrosperma are lacking in the scientific literature. We examined 528 genebank accessions of C. moschata and 166 accessions of C. argyrosperma - that included mem...

  10. Unexpected Sink for Deepwater Horizon Oil May Influence Future Spill Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinner, Nancy E.; Belden, Laura; Kinner, Peter

    2014-05-01

    A town hall meeting was organized by the Marine Oil Snow Sedimentation and Flocculent Accumulation (MOSSFA) inter-consortia Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative (GoMRI) working group and the Center for Spills in the Environment in conjunction with the Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill and Ecosystem Science Conference. The meeting had the goal of evaluating sedimentation to the seafloor as a significant pathway and fate of oil after the Deepwater Horizon (DwH) well blowout in 2010. About 78,000 cubic meters of crude oil were released into the Gulf of Mexico from a depth of 1500 meters for 86 days, spreading over a large area. Natural and chemically enhanced dispersion, evaporation, dissolution, burning, surface skimming, and direct capture at the wellhead accounted for a significant proportion of the released oil, but the fate of at least 30% of the oil remains unknown. Scientists from different research consortia studying sediments and marine snow in the Gulf began to observe signs of increased sedimentation and hydrocarbon deposition. Sediment mass accumulation rates for the northern Gulf of Mexico increased sixfold to eightfold in 2010, directly following the DwH blowout.

  11. Association of SSR markers with contents of fatty acids in olive oil and genetic diversity analysis of an olive core collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipek, M; Ipek, A; Seker, M; Gul, M K

    2015-03-27

    The purpose of this research was to characterize an olive core collection using some agronomic characters and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and to determine SSR markers associated with the content of fatty acids in olive oil. SSR marker analysis demonstrated the presence of a high amount of genetic variation between the olive cultivars analyzed. A UPGMA dendrogram demonstrated that olive cultivars did not cluster on the basis of their geographic origin. Fatty acid components of olive oil in these cultivars were determined. The results also showed that there was a great amount of variation between the olive cultivars in terms of fatty acid composition. For example, oleic acid content ranged from 57.76 to 76.9% with standard deviation of 5.10%. Significant correlations between fatty acids of olive oil were observed. For instance, a very high negative correlation (-0.812) between oleic and linoleic acids was detected. A structured association analysis between the content of fatty acids in olive oil and SSR markers was performed. STRUCTURE analysis assigned olive cultivars to two gene pools (K = 2). Assignment of olive cultivars to these gene pools was not based on geographical origin. Association between fatty acid traits and SSR markers was evaluated using the general linear model of TASSEL. Significant associations were determined between five SSR markers and stearic, oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acids of olive oil. Very high associations (P olive.

  12. Scale-up considerations for surface collecting agent assisted in-situ burn crude oil spill response experiments in the Arctic: Laboratory to field-scale investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Robin J; Aggarwal, Srijan; Perkins, Robert A; Schnabel, William

    2017-04-01

    In the event of a marine oil spill in the Arctic, government agencies, industry, and the public have a stake in the successful implementation of oil spill response. Because large spills are rare events, oil spill response techniques are often evaluated with laboratory and meso-scale experiments. The experiments must yield scalable information sufficient to understand the operability and effectiveness of a response technique under actual field conditions. Since in-situ burning augmented with surface collecting agents ("herders") is one of the few viable response options in ice infested waters, a series of oil spill response experiments were conducted in Fairbanks, Alaska, in 2014 and 2015 to evaluate the use of herders to assist in-situ burning and the role of experimental scale. This study compares burn efficiency and herder application for three experimental designs for in-situ burning of Alaska North Slope crude oil in cold, fresh waters with ∼10% ice cover. The experiments were conducted in three project-specific constructed venues with varying scales (surface areas of approximately 0.09 square meters, 9 square meters and 8100 square meters). The results from the herder assisted in-situ burn experiments performed at these three different scales showed good experimental scale correlation and no negative impact due to the presence of ice cover on burn efficiency. Experimental conclusions are predominantly associated with application of the herder material and usability for a given experiment scale to make response decisions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Differential acetyl cholinesterase inhibition by volatile oils from two specimens of Marlierea racemosa (Myrtaceae) collected from different areas of the Atlantic Rain Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Amanda; Silva, Michelle C; Cardoso-Lopes, Elaine M; Cordeiro, Inês; Sobral, Marcos E G; Young, Maria Cláudia M; Moreno, Paulo R H

    2009-08-01

    The volatile oil composition and anti-acetyl cholinesterase activity were analyzed in two specimens of Marlierea racemosa growing in different areas of the Atlantic Rain Forest (Cananéia and Caraguatatuba, SP, Brazil). Component identifications were performed by GC/MS and their acetyl cholinesterase inhibitory activity was measured through colorimetric analysis. The major constituent in both specimens was spathulenol (25.1% in Cananéia and 31.9% in Caraguatatuba). However, the first one also presented monoterpenes (41.2%), while in the Carguatatuba plants, this class was not detected. The oils from the plants collected in Cananéia were able to inhibit the acetyl cholinesterase activity by up to 75%, but for oils from the other locality the maximal inhibition achieved was 35%. These results suggested that the monoterpenes are more effective in the inhibition of acetyl cholinesterase activity than sesquiterpenes as these compounds are present in higher amounts in the M. racemosa plants collected in Cananéia.

  14. Volatile Compound Profiling by HS-SPME/GC-MS-FID of a Core Olive Cultivar Collection as a Tool for Aroma Improvement of Virgin Olive Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes García-Vico

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Virgin olive oil (VOO is the only food product requiring official sensory analysis to be classified in commercial categories, in which the evaluation of the aroma plays a very important role. The selection of parents, with the aim of obtaining new cultivars with improved oil aroma, is of paramount importance in olive breeding programs. We have assessed the volatile fraction by headspace-solid-phase microextraction/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-flame ionization detection (HS-SPME/GC-MS-FID and the deduced aroma properties of VOO from a core set of olive cultivars (Core-36 which possesses most of the genetic diversity found in the World Olive Germplasm Collection (IFAPA Alameda del Obispo located in Cordoba, Spain. The VOO volatile fractions of Core-36 cultivars display a high level of variability. It is mostly made of compounds produced from polyunsaturated fatty acids through the lipoxygenase pathway, which confirms to be a general characteristic of the olive species (Olea europaea L.. The main group of volatile compounds in the oils was six straight-chain carbon compounds derived from linolenic acid, some of them being the main contributors to the aroma of the olive oils according to their odor activity values (OAV. The high level of variability found for the volatile fraction of the oils from Core-36 and, therefore, for the aroma odor notes, suggest that this core set may be a very useful tool for the choice of optimal parents in olive breeding programs in order to raise new cultivars with improved VOO aroma.

  15. Volatile Compound Profiling by HS-SPME/GC-MS-FID of a Core Olive Cultivar Collection as a Tool for Aroma Improvement of Virgin Olive Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Vico, Lourdes; Belaj, Angjelina; Sánchez-Ortiz, Araceli; Martínez-Rivas, José M; Pérez, Ana G; Sanz, Carlos

    2017-01-14

    Virgin olive oil (VOO) is the only food product requiring official sensory analysis to be classified in commercial categories, in which the evaluation of the aroma plays a very important role. The selection of parents, with the aim of obtaining new cultivars with improved oil aroma, is of paramount importance in olive breeding programs. We have assessed the volatile fraction by headspace-solid-phase microextraction/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-flame ionization detection (HS-SPME/GC-MS-FID) and the deduced aroma properties of VOO from a core set of olive cultivars (Core-36) which possesses most of the genetic diversity found in the World Olive Germplasm Collection (IFAPA Alameda del Obispo) located in Cordoba, Spain. The VOO volatile fractions of Core-36 cultivars display a high level of variability. It is mostly made of compounds produced from polyunsaturated fatty acids through the lipoxygenase pathway, which confirms to be a general characteristic of the olive species (Olea europaea L.). The main group of volatile compounds in the oils was six straight-chain carbon compounds derived from linolenic acid, some of them being the main contributors to the aroma of the olive oils according to their odor activity values (OAV). The high level of variability found for the volatile fraction of the oils from Core-36 and, therefore, for the aroma odor notes, suggest that this core set may be a very useful tool for the choice of optimal parents in olive breeding programs in order to raise new cultivars with improved VOO aroma.

  16. Chemical composition and anti-inflamatory, anti-nociceptive and antipyretic activity of rhizome essential oil of Globba sessiliflora Sims. collected from Garhwal region of Uttarakhand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravendra Kumar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aim: Family Zingiberaceae is worldwide in distribution. Plants of the zingiberaceae family are used in traditional herbal folk medicine besides their uses in spices, cosmetic, ornamental, food preservatives etc. In Uttarakhand the herbs grow from sub-tropical to temperate region. Globba sessiliflora Simsrhizomes were collected at maturity stage in November from Garhwal region of Uttarakhand, India. In present communication the medicinal use of various zingiberaceous herb provoked us to study the chemical diversity and pharmacological activity determination of this important traditional herb. Experimental: The essential oil was extracted using hydrodistillation method and analyzed by GC-MS. Anti-inflamatory, anti-nociceptive and antipyretic activities of essential oil were experimently determined using mice model. Results: The major compounds identified were β-eudesmol (27.6%, (E-β-caryophyllene (24.3%, α-humulene (3.0%, (6E-nerolidol (4.1%, caryophyllene oxide (9.7%, γ-eudesmol (6.4% and τ-muurolol (8.3% besides other minor constituents. Essential oil of G. sessiliflora rhizome showed good anti-inflamatory, anti-nociceptive and antipyretic activities at the dose level of 100 mg/kg body weight. The oral administration of the essential oil exhibited no toxicity at 400, 600 and 800 mg/kg b.wt. concentration. Ibuprofen, indomthacin and paracetamol were used as standard drugs for comparison. Recommended applications/industries: G. sessiliflora essential oil can be used as herbal remedy for its nontoxicityanti-inflamatory, anti-nociceptive and antipyretic activities.

  17. Collection of scribe databases compiled in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill incident in the Gulf of Mexico from 04/23/2010 to 11/08/2011 (NODC Accession 0086261)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Scribe Database Collection includes 14 databases containing data from the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) Oil Spill Event Response Phase. These databases are the work of...

  18. 76 FR 14980 - BOEMRE Information Collection Activity: 1010-0185, Increased Safety Measures for Oil and Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    ... Measures for Oil and Gas Drilling, Well-Completion, and Well-Workover Operations. OMB Control Number: 1010... sufficient to prevent or minimize the likelihood of blowouts, loss of well control, fires, spillages... certain drilling requirements. This includes requirements related to subsea and surface blowout...

  19. 78 FR 68082 - Information Collection Activities: Oil and Gas Well-Workover Operations; Submitted for Office of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-13

    ... INFORMATION: Title: 30 CFR Part 250, Subpart F, Oil and Gas Well-Workover Operations. OMB Control Number: 1014... Burden covered under 1014-0018. 0 begin subsea well- workover operations; submit Forms BSEE-0124 (include... and equivalent well-control fluid volume. Subtotal 306 responses...... 230...

  20. 75 FR 28052 - MMS Information Collection Activity: 1010-0051, Oil and Gas Production Measurement, Extension of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-19

    ... and regulations to administer leasing of the OCS. Such rules and regulations will apply to all... the resources of the OCS; and to preserve and maintain free enterprise competition. The Federal Oil... (74 FR 56858) announcing that we would submit this ICR to OMB for approval. The notice provided...

  1. Practice and Exploration of the Oil Blocking and Collecting Technology in Ansai Oilfield%安塞油田拦油、收油技术实践与探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴亚飞; 郭亮; 唐跃辉; 张少楠

    2013-01-01

    文章结合安塞油田在应对原油泄漏后针对不同河道、干沟及所处的地形、地貌特点开展应急抢险中拦油、收油处置的措施,总结了取得的经验及成效.同时介绍了自制、改良后的拦油和收油工具以及在抢险中的实用效果.%Ansai Oilfield took different oil blocking and oil collecting measures dealing with crude oil spill emergency according to different topographic and geomorphic characteristics of the rivers and dry ditches. This paper sums up its experiences and effectiveness. Meanwhile it introduces the homemade and improved oil blocking and oil collecting tools as well as their practical effect in the rescue.

  2. Phytomorphological and essential-oil characterization in situ and ex situ of wild biotypes of oregano collected in the Campania region (Southern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Falco, Enrica; Roscigno, Graziana; Iodice, Carmela; Senatore, Felice

    2013-11-01

    Oregano is an aromatic species of great interest, which spreads spontaneously over the Mediterranean area, but its genetic resources are not yet adequately developed. Moreover, the results of studies of wild strains of different origin - although quite numerous - are not always comparable, and, therefore, the influence of the environment and genotype on the variability cannot be distinguished. Hence, the plant morphology and the essential-oil composition of three wild, white-flowering biotypes of oregano collected in the Campania region (southern Italy) were characterized, and the effects of genotype and environment were assessed by comparison in situ and ex situ. This allowed deducing that the biotypes belonged to two different subspecies, i.e., Origanum vulgare ssp. virens and O. vulgare ssp. viridulum. The essential-oil yield was higher for the biotype belonging to ssp. virens, and it was significantly correlated with the glandular and stomatal density. The chemical composition of the oils obtained by hydrodistillation was found to be influenced by the genotype and the conditions of plant growth.

  3. Chemical Profile of the Volatile Oil from the Leaves of Erythroxylum deciduum A. St.-Hil. (Erythroxylaceae, Collected in Goiânia, Goiás

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliana Muniz Vila Verde

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Erythroxylum (Erythroxylaceae genus has about 130 species, which can be found in forest environments and cerrado. Studies with Erythroxylum species led to the isolation of secondary metabolites such as flavonóides, alkaloids, tannins, terpenes and phenylpropanoids that exhibit anti-oxidant activity, anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory activity among others to be operated with pharmaceutical purposes. In order to contribute to the chemical elucidation of Erythroxylum genus, this research aimed to evaluate the composition of the essential oil from the leaves of E. deciduum A. St.-Hil. The botanical material was collected in the peri-urban area of the city of Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil, it was identified and had a voucher specimen deposited in the Herbarium of the State University of Goiás. The essential oil extraction was performed by hydrodistillation adapted by Clevenger. The essential oil chemical composition was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/ MS. The species studied showed as major components: himachalol (3.49%, sandaracopimarinal (4.87%, ethyl 8cedren-13-ol (5.65% and ternina (6.37% whose description on the literature, points to the antimicrobial and allelopathic activity. Thus, These volatile components may be viable in obtaining bioproducts or as prototypes in the synthesis of compounds of pharmacotherapeutic, food and agricultural interest.

  4. Determination of the anionic surfactant di(ethylhexyl) sodium sulfosuccinate in water samples collected from Gulf of Mexico coastal waters before and after landfall of oil from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, May to October, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, James L.; Kanagy, Leslie K.; Furlong, Edward T.; McCoy, Jeff W.; Kanagy, Chris J.

    2011-01-01

    On April 22, 2010, the explosion on and subsequent sinking of the Deepwater Horizon oil drilling platform resulted in the release of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico. At least 4.4 million barrels had been released into the Gulf of Mexico through July 15, 2010, 10 to 29 percent of which was chemically dispersed, primarily using two dispersant formulations. Initially, the dispersant Corexit 9527 was used, and when existing stocks of that formulation were exhausted, Corexit 9500 was used. Over 1.8 million gallons of the two dispersants were applied in the first 3 months after the spill. This report presents the development of an analytical method to analyze one of the primary surfactant components of both Corexit formulations, di(ethylhexyl) sodium sulfosuccinate (DOSS), the preliminary results, and the associated quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) from samples collected from various points on the Gulf Coast between Texas and Florida. Seventy water samples and 8 field QC samples were collected before the predicted landfall of oil (pre-landfall) on the Gulf Coast, and 51 water samples and 10 field QC samples after the oil made landfall (post-landfall). Samples were collected in Teflon(Registered) bottles and stored at -20(degrees)C until analysis. Extraction of whole-water samples used sorption onto a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) filter to isolate DOSS, with subsequent 50 percent methanol/water elution of the combined dissolved and particulate DOSS fractions. High-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) was used to identify and quantify DOSS by the isotope dilution method, using a custom-synthesized 13C4-DOSS labeled standard. Because of the ubiquitous presence of DOSS in laboratory reagent water, a chromatographic column was installed in the LC/MS/MS between the system pumps and the sample injector that separated this ambient background DOSS contamination from the sample DOSS, minimizing one source of blank contamination

  5. Antidiabetic oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berraaouan, Ali; Abid, Sanae; Bnouham, Mohamed

    2013-11-01

    Many studies have demonstrated evidence of the health benefits of natural products. Plant extracts have been tested on a variety of physiological disorders, including diabetes mellitus. Studies have tested aqueous extracts, plant fractions extracts, families of active of compounds, and specific active compounds. In this review, we describe the antidiabetic effects of vegetable oils. Information was collected from ScienceDirect and PubMed databases using the following key words: Diabetes mellitus, Oils, Vegetable oils, Type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, antidiabetic effect, antihyperglycemic, antidiabetic oil. We have compiled approximately ten vegetable oils with including experimental studies that have demonstrated benefits on diabetes mellitus. There are soybean, argan, olive, palm, walnut, black cumin, safflower, Colocynth, Black seed, Rice bran, Cinnamom, and Rocket oils. For each vegetable oil, we investigated on the plant's traditional uses, their pharmacological activities and their antidiabetic effects. It seems that many vegetable oils are really interesting and can be used in the improvement of human health, particularly, to prevent or to treat diabetes mellitus complications.

  6. Essential oil composition, total phenolic, flavonoid contents, and antioxidant activity of Thymus species collected from different regions of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohidi, Behnaz; Rahimmalek, Mehdi; Arzani, Ahmad

    2017-04-01

    In this study, the essential oil (EO) composition, flavonoid and phenolic contents, and antioxidant activities of fourteen Thymus accessions belonging to ten species were evaluated. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis revealed the presence of 38 compounds with the major constituents including thymol (12.4-79.74%), carvacrol (4.37-42.14%), geraniol (0.3-22.44%), and p-cymene (0.8-12.86%). Cluster analysis identified three groups of high thymol, geraniol/linalool, and high carvacrol. The highest phenolic and flavonoid contents were detected in T. daenensis-1 (70.6mg tannic acid equivalents (TAE) g(-1) DW) and T. vulgaris (8.55mg quercetin equivalents (QE) g(-1) DW), respectively. The antioxidant activities of the samples were determined using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and reducing power assay. The results demonstrated that T. daenensis-3 (IC50=273.36), T. vulgaris (IC50=289.3), and T. fedtschenkoi-3 (IC50=339.22) possessed higher antioxidant activities than the others. Finally, the Thymus species with high bioactive compounds may be recommended for further food applications.

  7. Biological and chemical data of oil-derived elements being assimilated by oysters due to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill collected in Alabama and Mississippi coastal waters (NODC Accession 0118498)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains stable isotope ratios of carbon and nitrogen in oyster shell, suspended particulate matter (SPM), and oil from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill....

  8. Choice and design of materials collection device for picking machine of oil tea fruits%油茶果采摘机物料收集装置的选型研究与设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高自成; 李立君; 刘浩

    2011-01-01

    Oil tree is an important economic plant, also an important source of edible oil in China. With oil tea variety optimized and standardization of planting, the mechanization of harvesting fruits of oil tea become a new area of forestry machinery, the materials collection device is an important part of oil tea fruits picking machine. A collection and conveying device driven by pneumatic vacuum pressure has been decided on the basis of analyzing and comparing the three kinds of materials collection devices such as conveying the material s by helix, positive pneumatic pressure and vacuum pneumatic pressure.%随着油茶品种的优化和种植的规范化,油茶果机械化采摘成为必然,研制油茶果采摘机成为林业机械的一个新领域.油茶果收集装置是油茶果采摘机的重要组成部分之一.在实验的基础上,对3种物料收集输送方式:螺旋输送、正压气力输送和负压气力输送进行了分析比较,确定负压收集输送方式为油茶果采摘机的物料收集装置.

  9. Chemical oceanographic data collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-01 to 2010-07-09 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0084581)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical oceanographic data were collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-01 to 2010-07-09 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill...

  10. Chemical oceanographic data collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-24 to 2010-06-29 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0084580)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical oceanographic data were collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-24 to 2010-06-29 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill...

  11. Chemical oceanographic data collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-25 to 2010-07-28 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0084585)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical oceanographic data were collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-25 to 2010-07-28 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill...

  12. Chemical oceanographic data collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-13 to 2010-08-23 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0084587)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical oceanographic data were collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-13 to 2010-08-23 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill...

  13. Chemical oceanographic data collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-18 to 2010-06-23 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0084579)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical oceanographic data were collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-18 to 2010-06-23 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill...

  14. Chemical oceanographic data collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-09 to 2010-06-16 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0084578)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical oceanographic data were collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-09 to 2010-06-16 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill...

  15. Chemical oceanographic data collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-05 to 2010-06-07 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0084569)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical oceanographic data were collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-05 to 2010-06-07 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill...

  16. Chemical oceanographic data collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-21 to 2010-07-23 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0084584)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical oceanographic data were collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-21 to 2010-07-23 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill...

  17. Chemical oceanographic data collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-07 to 2010-06-09 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0084576)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical oceanographic data were collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-07 to 2010-06-09 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill...

  18. Chemical oceanographic data collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-28 to 2010-08-09 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0084586)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical oceanographic data were collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-28 to 2010-08-09 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill...

  19. Chemical oceanographic data collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-14 to 2010-07-19 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0084583)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical oceanographic data were collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-14 to 2010-07-19 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill...

  20. Unknown oceanographic data collected aboard the Ridley Thomas in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-26 to 2010-06-29 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0084612)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Unknown oceanographic data were collected aboard the Ridley Thomas in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-26 to 2010-06-29 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill...

  1. Unknown oceanographic data collected aboard NOAA Ship DELAWARE II in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-14 to 2010-07-24 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NCEI Accession 0084595)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Unknown oceanographic data were collected aboard NOAA Ship DELAWARE II in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-14 to 2010-07-24 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil...

  2. Oceanographic data collected aboard NOAA Ship PISCES in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-26 to 2010-07-29 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NCEI Accession 0084594)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic data were collected aboard NOAA Ship PISCES in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-26 to 2010-07-29 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event on...

  3. Oceanographic data collected aboard NOAA Ship Pisces in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-15 to 2010-07-21 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NCEI Accession 0084593)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic data were collected aboard NOAA Ship Pisces in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-15 to 2010-07-21 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event on...

  4. Chemical oceanographic data collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-27 to 2010-09-01 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0084588)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical oceanographic data were collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-27 to 2010-09-01 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill...

  5. Thoughts on Collection of Compensation Fees for Offshore Oil and Gas Resources in China%关于我国海上油气资源补偿费征收的几点思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娜; 李勇; 吕宾; 马强

    2014-01-01

    In China, since 1982, with the collection of mining royalty, oil and gas resources has entered the stage of paid mining. By 2012, the Ministry of Land and Resources stipulated that the mineral resource compensation should be paid in accordance with the law with regard to the exploitation of offshore oil and gas, and the mining royalty was paid no longer. So the current oil and gas resources tax and fee system was formed. This paper ifrst analyzes the problems involved in the process of collection of compensation fee for offshore oil and gas mineral resources such as localization collection without uniifed collection time; the difference of oil and gas resources has not been taken into account;and there is no clear and detailed tax credit policy. And then, it proposes that we should publish economic adjustment policy so as to support the development of offshore oil and gas industry. At the same time, we should unify reporting time and simplify the procedures;and we must promote the collection of compensation for marine oil and gas mineral resources in the manner of differentiation.%我国自1982年开始征收矿区使用费,油气资源步入有偿开采阶段,到2012年,国土资源部规定,中外合作开采海洋油气资源应依法缴纳矿产资源补偿费,不再缴纳矿区使用费,形成我国现行的油气资源税费制度。海上石油共涉及18个税费种类,海上油气矿产资源补偿费征缴过程中存在以下问题:⑴属地化征收,征缴时间不统一;⑵对油气资源差别性考虑不够;⑶没有明确详细的减免政策。对策建议:⑴出台经济调节政策,支持海洋油气产业发展;⑵统一申报时间,简化审批程序;⑶以差别化征收的方式促进海洋油气矿产资源补偿费的征收。

  6. Chemometric techniques in oil classification from oil spill fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Azimah; Toriman, Mohd Ekhwan; Juahir, Hafizan; Kassim, Azlina Md; Zain, Sharifuddin Md; Ahmad, Wan Kamaruzaman Wan; Wong, Kok Fah; Retnam, Ananthy; Zali, Munirah Abdul; Mokhtar, Mazlin; Yusri, Mohd Ayub

    2016-10-15

    Extended use of GC-FID and GC-MS in oil spill fingerprinting and matching is significantly important for oil classification from the oil spill sources collected from various areas of Peninsular Malaysia and Sabah (East Malaysia). Oil spill fingerprinting from GC-FID and GC-MS coupled with chemometric techniques (discriminant analysis and principal component analysis) is used as a diagnostic tool to classify the types of oil polluting the water. Clustering and discrimination of oil spill compounds in the water from the actual site of oil spill events are divided into four groups viz. diesel, Heavy Fuel Oil (HFO), Mixture Oil containing Light Fuel Oil (MOLFO) and Waste Oil (WO) according to the similarity of their intrinsic chemical properties. Principal component analysis (PCA) demonstrates that diesel, HFO, MOLFO and WO are types of oil or oil products from complex oil mixtures with a total variance of 85.34% and are identified with various anthropogenic activities related to either intentional releasing of oil or accidental discharge of oil into the environment. Our results show that the use of chemometric techniques is significant in providing independent validation for classifying the types of spilled oil in the investigation of oil spill pollution in Malaysia. This, in consequence would result in cost and time saving in identification of the oil spill sources.

  7. Analysis of chemical constituents and antinociceptive potential of essential oil of Teucrium Stocksianum bioss collected from the North West of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Syed Muhammad

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medicinal plants are used for the treatment of different diseases in almost all cultures. Teucrium species grow wildly at different geographical locations around the world. Teucrium stocksianum is used in folk medicine for the treatment of diarrhea, cough, jaundice and abdominal pain. Scientific study on Teucrium stocksianum shows that it possesses anthelmintic, cytotoxic and antispasmodic activity. The aim of our present study is to identify the chemical composition and antinociceptive potential of the essential oil extracted from Teucrium stocksianum bioss. Method Essential oil (EO from the aerial parts of Teucrium stocksianum were extracted by hydrodistillation process. The qualitative and quantitative composition of essential oil was determined with Gas chromatography/Mass spectrometer. Antinociceptive activity was determined by acetic acid induced writhing method. Percent inhibition of writhes of the test concentration was determined by comparing it with that of control. Tween-80 emulsion 2.5% (5 ml/kg b.w was used as a control while Diclofenic sodium 50 mg/kg (b.w was used as a standard drug. Results The chromatogram of the essential oil of Teucrium stocksianum shows differences both qualitatively and quantatively from essential oil composition reported in other countries. Hydrodistillation of Teucrium stocksianum yielded 0.4% (v/w, pale yellowish oil on dry basis. A total of 26 chemicals were identified by GC-MS accounting for 90.28% of the oil. The major components of essential oil were δ-cadinene (12.92%, α-pinene (10.3%, myrcene (8.64%, β-caryophyllene (8.23%, germacrene D (5.18% and limonene (2.36%. Essential oil of Teucrium stocksianum has shown outstanding antinociceptive activity. It has been observed that increase in percent writhe inhibition (PWI occurred from 20-80 mg/kg (b.w and maximum writhe inhibition has been noted at a concentration of 80 mg/kg (b.w, but PWI decreased at 160 mg/kg, which

  8. Oil spill cleanup method and apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayes, F.M.

    1980-06-24

    A method for removing oil from the surface of water where an oil spill has occurred, particularly in obstructed or shallow areas, which comprises partially surrounding a hovercraft with a floating oil-collecting barrier, there being no barrier at the front of the hovercraft, moving the oil-barrier-surrounded-hovercraft into oil contaminated water, and collecting oil gathered within the barrier behind the hovercraft through a suction line which carries the oil to a storage tank aboard the hovercraft. The invention also embodies the hovercraft adapted to effect an oil spill cleanup.

  9. Chemical and histological comparisons between Brevoortia sp. (menhaden) collected in fall 2010 from Barataria Bay, LA and Delaware Bay, NJ following the DeepWater Horizon (DWH) oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentivegna, Carolyn S; Cooper, Keith R; Olson, Gregory; Pena, Edwin A; Millemann, Daniel R; Portier, Ralph J

    2015-12-01

    Body burdens of PAHs were compared to histological effects in menhaden (Family: Clupeidae, Genus: Brevoortia) collected in fall 2010 from Barataria Bay, LA (BBLA) and Delaware Bay, NJ (DBNJ). Barataria Bay was heavily oiled during the DeepWater Horizon (DWH) oil spill, while Delaware Bay although urbanized had no reported recent oil spills. GCMS analyses of pre-spill 2009, BBLA and DBNJ fish found predominantly C2/C3 phenanthrene (1.28-6.52 ng/mg). However, BBLA also contained five higher molecular weight PAHs (0.06-0.34 ng/mg DW). Fluorescent aromatic compound spectroscopy (FACS) of gastrointestinal (GI) tract tissue showed statistically higher levels of hydroxypyrene-like PAHs in DBNJ than BBLA fish. Histopathologic lesions were more prevalent in BBLA than DBNJ fish. The lesion prevalence (gill, trunk kidney, epidermis, stomach) in the BBLA menhaden were significantly higher and more severe than observed in the DBNJ menhaden. Reversible lesions included gill lamellar hyperplasia, adhesions, edema, and epidermal hyperplasia. The increased pigmented macrophage centers were indicative of activated macrophages responding to connective tissue damage or other antigens. The liver hepatic necrosis and renal tissue mineralization may well have undergone repair, but damage to the kidney nephrons and hepatic/biliary regions of the liver would be slower to resolve and apparently remained after elimination of PAHs. Therefore, a direct cause and effect between DWH oil spill and increased lesion prevalence in BBLA menhaden could not be established.

  10. Sterol composition of virgin olive oil of forty-three olive cultivars from the World Collection Olive Germplasm Bank of Cordoba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyçyk, Onejda; Aguilera, Maria Paz; Gaforio, José Juan; Jiménez, Antonio; Beltrán, Gabriel

    2016-09-01

    In olive oil, sterols constitute the majority of the unsaponifiable fraction. In recent years there has been increased interest in the sterols of olive oil for their health benefits and their importance to virgin olive oil (VOO) quality regulation. Forty-three olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivars from the World Olive Germplasm Bank, IFAPA Centro 'Alameda de Obispo', Cordoba, Spain were studied for their oil sterol composition and total content. The main sterols found in olive oil were β-sitosterol, Δ(5) -avenasterol, campesterol and stigmasterol, most of them showing high variability. Most cultivars showed total sterol contents within the limits established by EU regulations, although 28% of VOOs analysed were outside the limits established for total content and/or for individual sterols. Over the group of cultivars, total sterol contents ranged from 855 to 2185 mg kg(-1) . The high variability observed was due to the genetic component, since other agronomic and technological factors were similar. Because of the high variability, the sterol fraction can be considered as a useful tool to characterize and discriminate monovarietal VOOs. The results can be useful for nutritionists for VOO inclusion in nutrition studies. Furthermore, the variability observed can be applied in olive breeding projects to select the parents of new olive cultivars with an improved sterol fraction. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Palm Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm oil is obtained from the fruit of the oil palm tree. Palm oil is used for preventing vitamin A deficiency, cancer, ... blood pressure, high cholesterol, and cyanide poisoning. Palm oil is used for weight loss and increasing the ...

  12. Diesel oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil ... Diesel oil ... Diesel oil poisoning can cause symptoms in many parts of the body. EYES, EARS, NOSE, AND THROAT Loss of ... most dangerous effects of hydrocarbon (such as diesel oil) poisoning are due to inhaling the fumes. NERVOUS ...

  13. Western Canada study of animal health effects associated with exposure to emissions from oil and natural gas field facilities. Study design and data collection II. Location of study herds relative to the oil and gas industry in Western Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldner, Cheryl L

    2008-01-01

    During the late part of 2000 and early months of 2001, project veterinarians recruited 205 beef herds to participate in a study of the effects of emissions from the upstream oil and gas industry on cattle reproduction and health. Researchers developed herd-selection criteria to optimize the range of exposure to facilities, including oil and gas wells, battery sites, and gas-gathering and gas-processing facilities across the major cattle-producing areas of Western Canada. Herds were initially selected on the basis of a ranking system of exposure potential on the basis of herd-owner reports of the locations of their operations in relation to oil and gas industry facilities. At the end of the study, researchers summarized data obtained from provincial regulatory agencies on facility location and reported flaring and venting volumes for each herd and compared these data to the original rankings of herd-exposure potential. Through this selection process, the researchers were successful in obtaining statistically significant differences in exposure to various types of oil and gas facility types and reported emissions among herds recruited for the study.

  14. Peanut Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and baby care products. Sometimes the less expensive soya oil is added to peanut oil. ... are pregnant or breast-feeding. Allergy to peanuts, soybeans, and related plants: Peanut oil can cause serious ...

  15. Oil Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil spills often happen because of accidents, when people make mistakes or equipment breaks down. Other causes include natural disasters or deliberate acts. Oil spills have major environmental and economic effects. Oil ...

  16. Essential Oil Constituents and Yields from Leaves of Blepharocalyx salicifolius (Kunt O. Berg and Myracrodruon urundeuva (Allemão Collected during Daytime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olívia Bueno da Costa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the essential oil composition and yield from leaves of two Brazilian species (Myracrodruon urundeuva and Blepharocalyx salicifolius harvested during daytime. Essential oils were obtained by steam distillation and had their yield determined. Blepharocalyx salicifolius presented yields of 0.049% (9 a.m., 0.045% (1 p.m., and 0.069% (5 p.m.. For Myracrodruon urundeuva, we found 0.13% (9 a.m., 0.11% (1 p.m., and 0.08% (5 p.m.. Finally, compound identification and quantification were carried out by GC-MS and GC-FID techniques, respectively. Thirteen major compounds were identified for Blepharocalyx salicifolius, representing 91.6% of the EOs, of which p-cymene (25.9% was detected as amajor component. Nine major compounds were identified for Myracrodruon urundeuva, representing 90.3% of the EOs, whereas β-myrcene showed the greatest concentration (66.4%.

  17. Western Canada study of animal health effects associated with exposure to emissions from oil and natural gas field facilities. Study design and data collection III. Methods of assessing animal exposure to contaminants from the oil and gas industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldner, Cheryl L

    2008-01-01

    Researchers measured exposure to oil and gas industry emissions in 205 cow-calf herds located in Western Canada. They measured airborne concentrations of sulfur dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, and volatile organic compounds with passive monitors placed in each pasture, wintering, or calving area that contained study animals from the start of the breeding season in the spring of 2001 until June 30, 2002. Researchers continued air monitoring in a subset of herds to the end of the study in fall 2002. Each sampling device was exposed for 1 month and then shipped to the laboratory for analysis. New samplers were installed and the shelters relocated, as necessary, to follow the movements of herd-management groups between pastures. Researchers linked the results of the air-monitoring analysis to individual animals for the relevant month. For the 205 herds examined at pregnancy testing in 2001, monthly mean exposures on the basis of all available data were as follows: sulfur dioxide, geometric mean (GM)=0.5 ppb, geometric standard deviation (GSD)=2.2; hydrogen sulfide, GM=0.14 ppb, GSD=2.3; benzene, GM=0.247 microg/m3, GSD=2.5; and toluene, GM=0.236 microg/m3, GSD=2.7. Benzene and toluene were surrogates for volatile organic compound exposure. In addition to passive measurements of air quality, researchers obtained data from provincial regulatory agencies on the density of oil and gas field facilities and on flaring and venting from the surrounding facilities. They developed the data into additional measures of exposure that were linked to each animal at each location for each month of the study.

  18. Advanced Sorbents for Oil-Spill Cleanup: Recent Advances and Future Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jin; Zhao, Hao-Yu; Zhu, Hong-Wu; Huang, Jin; Shi, Lu-An; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2016-12-01

    Oil sorbents play a very important part in the remediation processes of oil spills. To enhance the oil-sorption properties and simplify the oil-recovery process, various advanced oil sorbents and oil-collecting devices based on them have been proposed recently. Here, we firstly discuss the design considerations for the fabrication of oil sorbents and describe recently developed oil sorbents based on modification strategy. Then, recent advances regarding oil sorbents mainly based on carbon materials and swellable oleophilic polymers are also presented. Subsequently, some additional properties are emphasized, which are required by oil sorbents to cope with oil spills under extreme conditions or to facilitate the oil-collection processes. Furthermore, some oil-collection devices based on oil sorbents that have been developed recently are shown. Finally, an outlook and challenges for the next generation of oil-spill-remediation technology based on oil-sorbents materials are given.

  19. 75 FR 62132 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; GuLF Worker Study: Gulf Long-Term Follow-Up Study for Oil...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Proposed Collection; Comment Request; GuLF Worker Study... proposed projects to be submitted to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review and approval... to create a resource for additional collaborative research on focused hypotheses or subgroups. Over...

  20. Oil risk in oil stocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, Bert; Wang, L

    2008-01-01

    We assess the oil price sensitivities and oil risk premiums of NYSE listed oil & gas firms' returns by using a two-step regression analysis under two different arbitrage pricing models. Thus, we apply the Fama and French (1992) factor returns in a study of oil stocks. In all, we find that the return

  1. Oil risk in oil stocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, Bert; Wang, L

    2008-01-01

    We assess the oil price sensitivities and oil risk premiums of NYSE listed oil & gas firms' returns by using a two-step regression analysis under two different arbitrage pricing models. Thus, we apply the Fama and French (1992) factor returns in a study of oil stocks. In all, we find that the return

  2. Concentrations of selected constituents in surface-water and streambed-sediment samples collected from streams in and near an area of oil and natural-gas development, south-central Texas, 2011-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opsahl, Stephen P.; Crow, Cassi L.

    2014-01-01

    sample collected at the Cibolo Creek near Saint Hedwig, Tex. (Cibolo St. Hedwig), site contained toluene, a fuel additive, solvent, and industrial feedstock used to produce benzene and a constituent associated with produced waters. The Cibolo St. Hedwig site is upstream from current (2014) oil and natural-gas production areas. Dichloromethane, an industrial solvent with multiple uses, was detected in surface-water samples at both the San Antonio River at State Highway 72 near Runge, Tex. (SAR 72), and SAR Goliad sites.

  3. [Laser induced fluorescence spectrum characteristics of common edible oil and fried cooking oil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Tao-tao; Chen, Si-ying; Zhang, Yin-chao; Chen, He; Guo, Pan; Ge, Xian-ying; Gao, Li-lei

    2013-09-01

    In order to detect the trench oil the authors built a trench oil rapid detection system based on laser induced fluorescence detection technology. This system used 355 nm laser as excitation light source. The authors collected the fluorescence spectrum of a variety of edible oil and fried cooking oil (a kind of trench oil) and then set up a fluorescence spectrum database by taking advantage of the trench oil detection system It was found that the fluorescence characteristics of fried cooking oil and common edible oil were obviously different. Then it could easily realize the oil recognition and trench oil rapid detection by using principal component analysis and BP neural network, and the overall recognition rate could reach as high as 97.5%. Experiments showed that laser induced fluorescence spectrum technology was fast, non-contact, and highly sensitive. Combined with BP neural network, it would become a new technique to detect the trench oil.

  4. Petroleum Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Different types of crude oil and refined product, of all different chemical compositions, have distinct physical properties. These properties affect the way oil spreads and breaks down, its hazard to marine and human life, and the likelihood of threat.

  5. Oil spills

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moghissi, A.A

    1980-01-01

    Contents: Oil spills on land as potential sources of groundwater contamination / J.J. Duffy, E. Peake and M.F. Mohtadi -- Ecological effects of experimental oil spills in eastern coastal plain estuaries...

  6. Oil Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdwell, Justin E.

    2017-01-01

    Oil shales are fine-grained sedimentary rocks formed in many different depositional environments (terrestrial, lacustrine, marine) containing large quantities of thermally immature organic matter in the forms of kerogen and bitumen. If defined from an economic standpoint, a rock containing a sufficient concentration of oil-prone kerogen to generate economic quantities of synthetic crude oil upon heating to high temperatures (350–600 °C) in the absence of oxygen (pyrolysis) can be considered an oil shale.

  7. Mineral oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furby, N. W.

    1973-01-01

    The characteristics of lubricants made from mineral oils are discussed. Types and compositions of base stocks are reviewed and the product demands and compositions of typical products are outlined. Processes for commercial production of mineral oils are examined. Tables of data are included to show examples of product types and requirements. A chemical analysis of three types of mineral oils is reported.

  8. Oil biodegradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahsepar, Shokouhalsadat; Langenhoff, Alette A.M.; Smit, Martijn P.J.; Eenennaam, van Justine S.; Murk, Tinka; Rijnaarts, Huub H.M.

    2017-01-01

    During the Deepwater Horizon (DwH) oil spill, interactions between oil, clay particles and marine snow lead to the formation of aggregates. Interactions between these components play an important, but yet not well understood, role in biodegradation of oil in the ocean water. The aim of this study

  9. System and method for preparing near-surface heavy oil for extraction using microbial degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busche, Frederick D.; Rollins, John B.; Noyes, Harold J.; Bush, James G.

    2011-04-12

    A system and method for enhancing the recovery of heavy oil in an oil extraction environment by feeding nutrients to a preferred microbial species (bacteria and/or fungi). A method is described that includes the steps of: sampling and identifying microbial species that reside in the oil extraction environment; collecting fluid property data from the oil extraction environment; collecting nutrient data from the oil extraction environment; identifying a preferred microbial species from the oil extraction environment that can transform the heavy oil into a lighter oil; identifying a nutrient from the oil extraction environment that promotes a proliferation of the preferred microbial species; and introducing the nutrient into the oil extraction environment.

  10. Are olive oil diets antithrombotic?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, L.F.; Jespersen, J; Marckmann, P.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The incidence of ischemic heart disease (IHD) in Crete was lower than expected on the basis of blood lipid concentrations of participants in the Seven Countries Study. A favorable effect of a high intake of olive oil on thrombogenesis may have contributed to this finding. OBJECTIVE: We...... compared the effects of virgin olive oil with those of rapeseed and sunflower oils on blood coagulation factor VII (FVII), a key factor in thrombogenesis. DESIGN: In a randomized and strictly controlled crossover study, 18 healthy young men consumed diets enriched with 5 g/MJ (19% of total energy) olive...... oil, sunflower oil, or rapeseed oil for periods of 3 wk. On the final day of each period, participants consumed standardized high-fat meals (42% of energy as fat). Fasting and nonfasting blood samples were collected after each period. RESULTS: Mean (+/-SEM) nonfasting peak concentrations of activated...

  11. Bio-oil fractionation and condensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Robert C.; Jones, Samuel T.; Pollard, Anthony

    2017-04-04

    The present invention relates to a method of fractionating bio-oil vapors which involves providing bio-oil vapors comprising bio-oil constituents. The bio-oil vapors are cooled in a first stage which comprises a condenser having passages for the bio-oil separated by a heat conducting wall from passages for a coolant. The coolant in the condenser of the first stage is maintained at a substantially constant temperature, set at a temperature in the range of 75 to 100.degree. C., to condense a first liquid fraction of liquefied bio-oil constituents in the condenser of the first stage. The first liquid fraction of liquified bio-oil constituents from the condenser in the first stage is collected. Also disclosed are steps for subsequently recovering further liquid fractions of liquefied bio-oil constituents. Particular compositions of bio-oil condensation products are also described.

  12. Bio-oil fractionation and condensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Robert C; Jones, Samuel T; Pollard, Anthony

    2013-07-02

    A method of fractionating bio-oil vapors which involves providing bio-oil vapors comprising bio-oil constituents is described. The bio-oil vapors are cooled in a first stage which comprises a condenser having passages for the bio-oil separated by a heat conducting wall from passages for a coolant. The coolant in the condenser of the first stage is maintained at a substantially constant temperature, set at a temperature in the range of 75 to 100.degree. C., to condense a first liquid fraction of liquefied bio-oil constituents in the condenser of the first stage. The first liquid fraction of liquified bio-oil constituents from the condenser in the first stage is collected. Also described are steps for subsequently recovering further liquid fractions of liquefied bio-oil constituents. Particular compositions of bio-oil condensation products are also described.

  13. Moringa Seed Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana O. Ilesanmi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effects of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss and moringa (Moringa oleifera seed oils on the storability of cowpea grain. Cowpea samples were treated with various concentrations (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mL/200 g cowpea of pure neem and moringa oils and their mixtures in ratios of 1:1, 1:2, and 1:3. The treated cowpea samples were stored for 180 days. Data were collected every 30 days on number of eggs laid, total weevil population, and percentage of uninfested grains and analysed statistically. Significantly different means were compared using LSD at <.05. Increasing oil concentration resulted in better cowpea protection, for example, in oviposition where the control had 6513 eggs, only 8 eggs were recorded in pure neem oil-treated sample at 0.5 mL/200 g. Generally, better results were obtained with higher oil concentrations either in their pure forms or mixtures. The control had a total weevil population of 4988, while most treated samples had none. The control samples had 0% uninfested grains, while 73–94% of uninfested grains were observed in treated samples after 6 months of storage. Therefore, mixture of the oils at 1.5 mL/200 g can be effectively used to store cowpea.

  14. 76 FR 42704 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Requirements and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    ... Universal Waste from the municipal wastestream by encouraging individuals and organizations to collect these... oils destined for recycling. The Agency codified the used oil management standards in Part 279 of 40... potential mismanagement of used oils, while not discouraging recycling. Burden Statement: The annual...

  15. Coconut Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... immune system. Despite coconut oil's high calorie and saturated fat content, some people use it by mouth to ... Coconut oil is high in a saturated fat called medium chain triglycerides. These fats work differently than other types of saturated fat in the body. However, research on the effects ...

  16. Composition of the Floral Essential Oil of Brugmansia suaveolens

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Samuel J Anthony; Willow Zuchowski; William N Setzer

    2009-01-01

      The floral essential oils of Brugmansia suaveolens, from Monteverde , Costa Rica , were collected at three different times of the day by hydrodistillation and the oils analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS...

  17. Minimal incorporation of Deepwater Horizon oil by estuarine filter feeders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Brian; Anderson, Laurie C

    2014-03-15

    Natural abundance carbon isotope analyses are sensitive tracers for fates and use of oil in aquatic environments. Use of oil carbon in estuarine food webs should lead to isotope values approaching those of oil itself, -27‰ for stable carbon isotopes reflecting oil origins and -1000‰ for carbon-14 reflecting oil age. To test for transfer of oil from the 2010 Deepwater Horizon spill into estuarine food webs, filter-feeding barnacles (Balanus sp.) and marsh mussels (Geukensia demissa) were collected from Louisiana estuaries near the site of the oil spill. Carbon-14 analyses of these animals from open waters and oiled marshes showed that oil use was <1% and near detection limits estimated at 0.3% oil incorporation. Respiration studies showed no evidence for enhanced microbial activity in bay waters. Results are consistent with low dietary impacts of oil for filter feeders and little overall impact on respiration in the productive Louisiana estuarine systems.

  18. Collection Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbour, Denise

    2002-01-01

    Explains collection mapping for library media collections. Discusses purposes for creating collection maps, including helping with selection and weeding decisions, showing how the collection supports the curriculum, and making budget decisions; and methods of data collection, including evaluating a collaboratively taught unit with the classroom…

  19. Oil Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Deepwater Horizon well blowout in the Gulf of Mexico. See a map showing the largest oil spills ... Hurricane Season Meet the New CAMEO Chemicals Mobile App Revised: Sep 25, 2017 10:35pm | Site Map | ...

  20. Oxidation of frying oils during intermittent usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totani, Nagao; Tateishi, Sayuri; Mori, Terutoshi; Hammond, Earl G

    2012-01-01

    We reported previously that in oils used for frying by commercial establishments, a high correlation was observed among their Gardner colors, polar compound contents (PC), carbonyl values (CV) and acid values (AV). However, this was not true for frying oils used in hospitals. In the present study, oils that had been used for deep-frying in hospital kitchens were collected and assayed for PC, CV, AV, and Gardner color value to determine the reason for the differences from oil used in commercial establishments. Hospitals were selected so that variation in the number of inpatients, frying oil fatty acid composition, and frying frequency was obtained. As previously observed, we did not find good correlations between the color of the frying oil and the PC, CV or AV, respectively. The extent of oxidation in batches of oil repeatedly used for deep-frying was in the following order: soybean oil > blended oil > canola oil. After use in deep-frying, where the oxygen content goes effectively to zero, allowing the oil to stand at room temperature resulted in the quick and steady absorption of oxygen until it returned to its initial content. In addition to the effect of thermal treatment of oil, standing time between usages is a significantt cause of oxidation.

  1. Geochemistry of crude oils, seepage oils and source rocks from Belize and Guatemala

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, H.I.; Holland, B.; Nytoft, H.P.;

    2012-01-01

    Mountains fault block in central Belize which separates the Corozal Basin in northern Belize from the Belize Basin to the south. Numerous petroleum seeps have been reported in both of these basins. Small-scale oil production takes place in the Corozal Basin and the North and South Petén Basins....... For this study, samples of crude oil, seepage oil and potential source rocks were collected from both countries and were investigated by organic geochemical analyses and microscopy. The oil samples consisted of non-biodegraded crude oils and slightly to severely biodegraded seepage oils, both of which were...... generated from source rocks with similar thermal maturities. The crude oils were generated from marine carbonate source rocks and could be divided into three groups: Group 1 oils come from the North Petén Basin (Guatemala) and the western part of the Corozal Basin (Belize), and have a typical carbonate...

  2. Current trends on oil refineries in Western Europe. Tendencias en las refinerias de petroleo de Europa Occidental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roocker, A. de; Dando, D.A.J.; Leeuwen, M. Van; Hopper, W.Ch.

    1993-05-01

    Summary of information collected by CONCAWE within study on wastewater effluents from oil refining plants in Europe (flows, oil content and treatment process). Data of 1990 are compared to former studies and results show that oil emissions are continuously decreasing.

  3. Recycling used palm oil and used engine oil to produce white bio oil, bio petroleum diesel and heavy fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-abbas, Mustafa Hamid; Ibrahim, Wan Aini Wan; Sanagi, Mohd. Marsin

    2012-09-01

    Recycling waste materials produced in our daily life is considered as an additional resource of a wide range of materials and it conserves the environment. Used engine oil and used cooking oil are two oils disposed off in large quantities as a by-product of our daily life. This study aims at providing white bio oil, bio petroleum diesel and heavy fuel from the disposed oils. Toxic organic materials suspected to be present in the used engine oil were separated using vacuum column chromatography to reduce the time needed for the separation process and to avoid solvent usage. The compounds separated were detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and found to contain toxic aromatic carboxylic acids. Used cooking oils (thermally cracked from usage) were collected and separated by vacuum column chromatography. White bio oil produced was examined by GC-MS. The white bio oil consists of non-toxic hydrocarbons and is found to be a good alternative to white mineral oil which is significantly used in food industry, cosmetics and drugs with the risk of containing polycyclic aromatic compounds which are carcinogenic and toxic. Different portions of the used cooking oil and used engine were mixed to produce several blends for use as heavy oil fuels. White bio oil was used to produce bio petroleum diesel by blending it with petroleum diesel and kerosene. The bio petroleum diesel produced passed the PETRONAS flash point and viscosity specification test. The heat of combustion of the two blends of heavy fuel produced was measured and one of the blends was burned to demonstrate its burning ability. Higher heat of combustion was obtained from the blend containing greater proportion of used engine oil. This study has provided a successful recycled alternative for white bio oil, bio petroleum fuel and diesel which can be an energy source.

  4. Myristica oil poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutmeg oil; Myristicin ... Myristica oil ( Myristica fragrans ) can be harmful. It comes from the seed of a nutmeg. ... Myristica oil is found in: Aromatherapy products Mace Nutmeg Other products may also contain myristica oil.

  5. All About Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fats, and low in saturated fats. Oils from plant sources (vegetable and nut oils) ... oil, and palm kernel oil, are high in saturated fats and for nutritional purposes should be considered to ...

  6. Abnormal development of Dentalium due to the Amoco Cadiz oil spill

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, A.SJ.; Biggelaar, J.A.M. van den

    1980-01-01

    A comparison was made between the development of Dentalium eggs, spawned by animals, collected before and after the Amoco Cadiz oil spill. Development of eggs from animals collected before the oil spill was significantly better than development of eggs from animals collected after the oil spill. It

  7. Abnormal development of Dentalium due to the Amoco Cadiz oil spill

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, A.SJ.; Biggelaar, J.A.M. van den

    A comparison was made between the development of Dentalium eggs, spawned by animals, collected before and after the Amoco Cadiz oil spill. Development of eggs from animals collected before the oil spill was significantly better than development of eggs from animals collected after the oil spill. It

  8. Production of polyhydroxyalkanoates from waste frying oil by Cupriavidus necator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are biopolymers, which can replace petrochemical plastics in many applications. However, these bioplastics are currently far more expensive than petrochemical plastics. Many researchers are investigating the use of inexpensive substrates derived from waste streams. Waste frying oil is abundant and can be used in PHA production without filtration. Cupriavidus necator (formerly known as Ralstonia eutropha) is a versatile organism for the production of PHAs. Small-scale batch fermentation studies have been set up, using different concentrations of pure vegetable oil, heated vegetable oil and waste frying oil. These oils are all rapeseed oils. It has been shown that Cupriavidus necator produced the homopolymer polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) from the rapeseed oils. The achieved PHB concentration from waste frying oil was 1.2 g/l, which is similar to a concentration that can be obtained from glucose. The PHB harvest from pure oil and heated oil was 0.62 g/l and 0.9 g/l respectively. A feed of waste frying oil could thus achieve more biopolymer than pure vegetable oil. While the use of a waste product is beneficial from a life-cycle perspective, PHB is not the only product that can be made from waste oil. The collection of waste frying oil is becoming more widespread, making waste oil a good alternative to purified oil or glucose for PHB production. PMID:21906352

  9. Molecular correlation of free oil and inclusion oil of reservoir rocks in the Junggar Basin, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Changchun Pan; Jiamo Fu; Guoying Sheng [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangdong (China). State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry; Jianqiang Yang [Research Institute of Exploration and Development, Xinjiang (China)

    2003-03-01

    Free oils and inclusion oils (oil-bearing fluid inclusions) of 12 samples collected from the sandstone reservoir formations in the central, eastern and northern areas of the Junggar Basin, northwest China, were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. Analytical results indicate very similar biomarker distributions within each of the free oils and their associated inclusion oils in the two samples collected, respectively, from the northwestern and eastern border of the Junggar Basin. The free oil and inclusion oil of sample MD1-1, collected from the northwestern border, correlate well with the Permian source rock of the Fencheng Formation, while those of sample DN1-1 from the eastern border correlate with the Permian source rock of the Pingdiquan Formation. In contrast, in the central area, the free and inclusion oils vary significantly in most cases, which suggests variations of sources for oil charges during the filling process. These data, and the correlation between the free and inclusion oils, are consistent with the field and seismic data, which show that in areas where samples MD1-1 and DN1-1 are located, only one available source rock exists, while in the central area, multiple source rocks are present. (author)

  10. Oil Spill Incident Tracking [ds394

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Office of Spill Prevention and Response (OSPR) Incident Tracking Database is a statewide oil spill tracking information system. The data are collected by OSPR...

  11. Detection of Oil near Shorelines during the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Using Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Garcia-Pineda

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available During any marine oil spill, floating oil slicks that reach shorelines threaten a wide array of coastal habitats. To assess the presence of oil near shorelines during the Deepwater Horizon (DWH oil spill, we scanned the library of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR imagery collected during the event to determine which images intersected shorelines and appeared to contain oil. In total, 715 SAR images taken during the DWH spill were analyzed and processed, with 188 of the images clearly showing oil. Of these, 156 SAR images showed oil within 10 km of the shoreline with appropriate weather conditions for the detection of oil on SAR data. We found detectable oil in SAR images within 10 km of the shoreline from west Louisiana to west Florida, including near beaches, marshes, and islands. The high number of SAR images collected in Barataria Bay, Louisiana in 2010 allowed for the creation of a nearshore oiling persistence map. This analysis shows that, in some areas inside Barataria Bay, floating oil was detected on as many as 29 different days in 2010. The nearshore areas with persistent floating oil corresponded well with areas where ground survey crews discovered heavy shoreline oiling. We conclude that satellite-based SAR imagery can detect oil slicks near shorelines, even in sheltered areas. These data can help assess potential shoreline oil exposure without requiring boats or aircraft. This method can be particularly helpful when shoreline assessment crews are hampered by difficult access or, in the case of DWH, a particularly large spatial and temporal spill extent.

  12. seed oils

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timothy Ademakinwa

    processes, production of biodiesel, as lubricant and in deep-frying purposes. They could also be ..... during the domestic deep-frying and pan- frying of potatoes. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 53, ... commercial edible vegetable oils. JAOCS. 84, 31-36.

  13. Waste oil: Technology, economics, and environmental, health, and safety considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    The current status of environmental information on the waste oil industry is reviewed. The sources, properties, and availability of waste oil are summarized. The topics of waste oil collection, utilization, and disposal, energy and economic considerations, and regulatory constraints are discussed, based upon the most recent data available at this time. The health and safety implications of the resource through end-use waste oil system are also presented.

  14. Oil heritage district : Lambton County Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shearer, W. [Wendy Shearer Landscape Architect, Kitchener, ON (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This paper discussed a project conducted to assess the cultural heritage values of oil field equipment in Lambton County, Ontario. Oil was discovered in the region in 1858, after which a boom and bust cycle of exploration created a large rural-industrial landscape. The region now contains a unique collection of historic oil equipment. The region's industrial footprint is interwoven with village settlements, agricultural settlements, and a railway and road network linking the region to remote refineries. Oil wells in the region still operate using a jerker line system developed in the early twentieth century. The operational oil wells are subject to fluctuating oil prices and environmental protection requirements. The project presents a rare opportunity to place industrial heritage conservation directly in the hands of business operators and regulators, while also functioning as part of a living community. 2 figs.

  15. Collection Mapping and Collection Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, William; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Describes the use of collection mapping to assess media collections of Aurora, Colorado, Public Schools. Case studies of elementary, middle, and high school media centers describe materials selection and weeding and identify philosophies that library collections should support school curriculum, and teacher-library media specialist cooperation in…

  16. Field performance of a premium heating oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santa, T. [Santa Fuels, Inc., Bridgeport, CT (United States); Jetter, S.M. [Mobil Oil R & D Corp., Paulsboro, NJ (United States)

    1996-07-01

    As part of our ongoing research to provide quality improvements to heating oil, Mobil Oil together with Santa Fuel, Inc., conducted a field trial to investigate the performance of a new premium heating oil. This premium heating oil contains an additive system designed to minimize sludge related problems in the fuel delivery system of residential home heating systems. The additive used was similar to others reported at this and earlier BNL conferences, but was further developed to enhance its performance in oil heat systems. The premium heating oil was bulk additized and delivered to a subset of the customer base. Fuel related, unscheduled service calls were monitored in this test area, as well as in a similar baseline area that did not receive the premium heating oil. Overall, the premium fuel provided a 45% reduction in the occurrence of fuel related, unscheduled service calls as compared to the baseline area. Within this population, there was a reduction of 38% in systems with 275 gallon tanks, and 55% in systems that had >275 gallon tanks showing that the additive is effective in the various configurations of residential oil heat systems. In addition, photographic documentation collected at two accounts supported this improvement by clearly showing that the equipment remained cleaner with the premium heating oil than with regular heating oil. Based on these results, a full marketing trial of this new product has been initiated by Mobil and Santa Fuel, Inc., during the 1995-1996 heating season.

  17. Submersible optical sensors exposed to chemically dispersed crude oil: wave tank simulations for improved oil spill monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conmy, Robyn N; Coble, Paula G; Farr, James; Wood, A Michelle; Lee, Kenneth; Pegau, W Scott; Walsh, Ian D; Koch, Corey R; Abercrombie, Mary I; Miles, M Scott; Lewis, Marlon R; Ryan, Scott A; Robinson, Brian J; King, Thomas L; Kelble, Christopher R; Lacoste, Jordanna

    2014-01-01

    In situ fluorometers were deployed during the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) Gulf of Mexico oil spill to track the subsea oil plume. Uncertainties regarding instrument specifications and capabilities necessitated performance testing of sensors exposed to simulated, dispersed oil plumes. Dynamic ranges of the Chelsea Technologies Group AQUAtracka, Turner Designs Cyclops, Satlantic SUNA and WET Labs, Inc. ECO, exposed to fresh and artificially weathered crude oil, were determined. Sensors were standardized against known oil volumes and total petroleum hydrocarbons and benzene-toluene-ethylbenzene-xylene measurements-both collected during spills, providing oil estimates during wave tank dilution experiments. All sensors estimated oil concentrations down to 300 ppb oil, refuting previous reports. Sensor performance results assist interpretation of DWH oil spill data and formulating future protocols.

  18. Collecting Rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙铮

    2007-01-01

    My hobby is collecting rocks.It is very special,isn’t it?I began to collect rocks about four years ago.I usually go hiking in the mountains,or near the river to look for rocks.When I find a rock,I pick it up and clean it with the brush and water.Then I put it into my bag.Most of the rocks I have collected are quartzite~*.They are really

  19. 78 FR 69125 - Renewal of Approved Information Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-18

    ... is provided for the information collection: Title: Oil and Gas Leasing: National Petroleum Reserve... to continue, the collection of information from participants in the oil and gas leasing program within the ] National Petroleum Reserve--Alaska (NPRA). The Office of Management and Budget (OMB)...

  20. Turbine oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eminov, E.A.; Bogdanov, Sh.K.; Dovgopolyi, E.E.; Gryaznov, B.V.; Ivanov, V.S.; Ivanova, Z.M.; Kozlova, E.K.; Nikolaeva, N.M.; Rozhdestvenskaya, A.A.

    1981-03-10

    In the known turbine oil (TO), for the purpose of improving the anticorrosion and demulsifying properties, a polyoxypropylene glycol ether, ethylenediamine or propylene glycol or an alkylphenol are additionally introduced, where the C/sub 8/-C/sub 12/ alkyl has a molecular weight of 2000-10,000. The proportions of the components are: 2, 6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol 0.2-1.0%, quinizarin 0.01-0.05%, an acid ester of an alkenylsuccinic acid 0.02-0.1%, a polyoxypropylene glycol ether 0.02-0.2%, polymethylsiloxane 0.003-0.005%, and petroleum oil the remainder. The TO is prepared by mixing the petroleum oil with the additives in any sequence at a temperature of 60-80/sup 0/ by mechanical stirring. On the five TO samples the antioxidative, demulsifying, and anticorrosion properties by comparison with the prototype were investigated. It was shown that the obtained TO possesses improved anticorrosion properties (time until the appearance of Kr (staining.), up to 60 h as against 35 on the prototype) and demulsifying properties (quantity of water separating on breaking the emulsion 10 mg/L as against 65 mg/L on the prototype) for an antioxidative stability equal to that of the analog. The TO is designated for use in various turbo-units, in the first place in marine steam turbine units, where there is the probability of contact of the TO with seawater. Use of the TO makes it possible to increase the service life of the mechanisms, to reduce the amount of oil mixable in the form of an emulsion (by a factor of 1.5 to 2), and to lower the operating expenses.

  1. The weathering of oil after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill: insights from the chemical composition of the oil from the sea surface, salt marshes and sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhanfei; Liu, Jiqing; Zhu, Qingzhi; Wu, Wei

    2012-09-01

    The oil released during the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill may have both short- and long-time impacts on the northern Gulf of Mexico ecosystems. An understanding of how the composition and concentration of the oil are altered by weathering, including chemical, physical and biological processes, is needed to evaluate the oil toxicity and impact on the ecosystem in the northern Gulf of Mexico. This study examined petroleum hydrocarbons in oil mousse collected from the sea surface and salt marshes, and in oil deposited in sediments adjacent to the wellhead after the DWH oil spill. Oil mousses were collected at two stations (OSS and CT, located 130 and 85 km away from the wellhead, respectively) in May 2010, and two sediment samples from stations SG and SC, within 6 km of the wellhead, in May 2011. We also collected oil mousse from salt marshes at Marsh Point (MP), Mississippi, 186 km away from the wellhead in July 2010. In these samples, n-alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), alkylated PAHs, BTEX (collective name of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and p-, m-, and o-xylenes), C3-benzenes and trace metals were measured to examine how the oil was altered chemically. The chemical analysis indicates that the oil mousses underwent different degrees of weathering with the pattern of OSS Petroleum hydrocarbon data reveal that the oil deposited in sediments underwent only light to moderate degradation one year after the DWH oil spill, as supported by the presence of short-chained n-alkanes (C10-C 15), BTEX and C 3-benzenes. The weathering of oil in sediment may result from biological degradation and dissolution, evidenced by the preferential loss of mid-chained n-alkanes C16-C 27, lower ratios of n-C 17/Pr and n-C 18/Ph , and preferential loss of PAHs relative to alkylated PAHs.

  2. Chemistry of oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iida, T.

    1974-01-01

    A review with several references covers the formation, distribution, and mining of oil shales of Fu-Shun colliery; retorting furnaces for oil shale; refining of crude shale oils; and components of oil from Fu-Shun oil shales including pyrolle, matrine, fatty acid anilides, 2,4,5-trimethylpyrrole, and middle-layer bases.

  3. Collective Enumeration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Bahador; Didino, Daniele; Frith, Chris; Butterworth, Brian; Rees, Geraint

    2013-01-01

    Many joint decisions in everyday life (e.g., Which bar is less crowded?) depend on approximate enumeration, but very little is known about the psychological characteristics of counting together. Here we systematically investigated collective approximate enumeration. Pairs of participants made individual and collective enumeration judgments in a…

  4. Collective Enumeration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Bahador; Didino, Daniele; Frith, Chris; Butterworth, Brian; Rees, Geraint

    2013-01-01

    Many joint decisions in everyday life (e.g., Which bar is less crowded?) depend on approximate enumeration, but very little is known about the psychological characteristics of counting together. Here we systematically investigated collective approximate enumeration. Pairs of participants made individual and collective enumeration judgments in a…

  5. Jay's Collectibles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappel, James J.; Gillman, Jason R., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    There is growing interest in collectibles of many types, as indicated by the popularity of television programs such as the History Channel's "Pawn Stars" and "American Pickers" and the Public Broadcasting Service's "Antiques Road Show." The availability of online auction sites such as eBay has enabled many people to collect items of interest as a…

  6. Enrichment of Fusobacteria in Sea Surface Oil Slicks from the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Tony; Berry, David; Teske, Andreas; Aitken, Michael D

    2016-07-27

    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill led to rapid microbial community shifts in the Gulf of Mexico, including the formation of unprecedented quantities of marine oil snow (MOS) and of a massive subsurface oil plume. The major taxa that bloomed in sea surface oil slicks during the spill included Cycloclasticus, and to a lesser extent Halomonas, Alteromonas, and Pseudoalteromonas-organisms that grow and degrade oil hydrocarbons aerobically. Here, we show that sea surface oil slicks at DWH contained obligate and facultative anaerobic taxa, including members of the obligate anaerobic phylum Fusobacteria that are commonly found in marine sediment environments. Pyrosequencing analysis revealed that Fusobacteria were strongly selected for when sea surface oil slicks were allowed to develop anaerobically. These organisms have been found in oil-contaminated sediments in the Gulf of Mexico, in deep marine oil reservoirs, and other oil-contaminated sites, suggesting they have putative hydrocarbon-degrading qualities. The occurrence and strong selection for Fusobacteria in a lab-based incubation of a sea surface oil slick sample collected during the spill suggests that these organisms may have become enriched in anaerobic zones of suspended particulates, such as MOS. Whilst the formation and rapid sinking of MOS is recognised as an important mechanism by which a proportion of the Macondo oil had been transported to the sea floor, its role in potentially transporting microorganisms, including oil-degraders, from the upper reaches of the water column to the seafloor should be considered. The presence of Fusobacteria on the sea surface-a highly oxygenated environment-is intriguing, and may be explained by the vertical upsurge of oil that provided a carrier to transport these organisms from anaerobic/micro-aerophilic zones in the oil plume or seabed to the upper reaches of the water column. We also propose that the formation of rapidly-sinking MOS may have re-transported these

  7. Experimental oil release on Haltenbanken 1982. Drifting and spreading of oil. [Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerstroem, S.E.; Johansen, Oe; Celius, K.K.; Audunson, T.; Steinbakke, P.

    1984-03-29

    In the experiment, 100 m/sup 3/ of Statfjord crude oil was released at Haltenbanken. The oil was followed for 7 days and projects concerning drifting and spreading of oil, microbiological decay and ecological effects, ecological studies of the impact on fish, zooplancton, fish eggs and larvae, training with equipment and control functions and experiment leading and coordination were carried out. In this project ''drifting and spreading of oil'' information on physical environment, decay of oil, mixing of oil in water, oil spill surveillance, warning and simulation and numerical modelling are collected. The results of these areas were compared to the mathematical simulation and warning models Oilsim and Sliktrak. New methods for in situ measurements for relative values of oil in water were used. It was found that most of the physical and chemical changes of oil spills occur during the first 24 hours. The drifting and alterations of the oil was recorded and a new simulation model for three-dimentional spreading of oil in water was made. 49 tables, 130 drawings, 32 references.

  8. Determination of Oil Life for Crane Liebherr LHM 500g Model 301 by Oil Condition Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payman Salami

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to choose and investigate the best oil replacement time by oil condition monitoring for crane Liebherr LHM 500G model 301 that works near the sea in marine company. This was achieved by investigating different oil sam ple analyses of crane Liebherr LHM 500G model 301. The oil analysis was initially run under regular interval during machines life. Some series of tests were then conducted under the operating hours of machine. Oil samples were regularly collected. Numerical data produced by oil analysis were compared with another sample, in order to quantify the effectiveness of the results of oil condition monitoring technique. The results from this paper have given more understanding on the dependent and independent roles of oil analysis in predicting which oil is more suitable for working machine condition. According to the results, the oil used in this crane can be used more than 130 h and the best oil running time is 160 h.

  9. Biodegradation of Bonnylight crude oil by locally isolated fungi from oil contaminated soils in Akure, Ondo state

    OpenAIRE

    Ekundayo, F. O.; Olukunle, O.F.; Ekundayo, E.A.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: This present investigation was conducted to determine the capability of fungi isolated from soil samples collected from two automobile workshopsto bioremediate Bonnylight crude oil.Methodology and Results: The fungi present on the soil samples collected from two automobile workshops in Akure, Nigeria were investigated using standard microbiological techniques. These fungal isolates were screened for the ability to degrade Bonnylight crude oil. The bioremediation of Bonnylight crude oil w...

  10. Oil spill detection using hyperspectral infrared camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hui; Wang, Qun; Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Zhi-jie; Tang, Wei; Tang, Xin; Yue, Song; Wang, Chen-sheng

    2016-11-01

    Oil spill pollution is a severe environmental problem that persists in the marine environment and in inland water systems around the world. Remote sensing is an important part of oil spill response. The hyperspectral images can not only provide the space information but also the spectral information. Pixels of interests generally incorporate information from disparate component that requires quantitative decomposition of these pixels to extract desired information. Oil spill detection can be implemented by applying hyperspectral camera which can collect the hyperspectral data of the oil. By extracting desired spectral signature from hundreds of band information, one can detect and identify oil spill area in vast geographical regions. There are now numerous hyperspectral image processing algorithms developed for target detection. In this paper, we investigate several most widely used target detection algorithm for the identification of surface oil spills in ocean environment. In the experiments, we applied a hyperspectral camera to collect the real life oil spill. The experimental results shows the feasibility of oil spill detection using hyperspectral imaging and the performance of hyperspectral image processing algorithms were also validated.

  11. Culture collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David

    2012-01-01

    Culture collections no matter their size, form, or institutional objectives play a role in underpinning microbiology, supplying the resources for study, innovation, and discovery. Their basic roles include providing a mechanism for ex situ conservation of organisms; they are repositories for strains subject to publication, taking in safe, confidential, and patent deposits from researchers. They supply strains for use; therefore, the microorganisms provided must be authentic and preserved well, and any associated information must be valid and sufficient to facilitate the confirmation of their identity and to facilitate their use. The organisms must be collected in compliance with international conventions, international and national legislation and distributed to users indicating clearly the terms and conditions under which they are received and can be used. Collections are harmonizing approaches and characterizing strains to meet user needs. No one single collection can carry out this task alone, and therefore, it is important that output and strategy are coordinated to ensure culture collections deliver the basic resources and services microbiological innovation requires. This chapter describes the types of collection and how they can implement quality management systems and operate to deliver their basic functions. The links to information sources given not only provide support for the practitioners within collections but also provide guidance to users on accessing the huge resource available and how they can help ensure microbiology has the resources and a solid platform for future development.

  12. Exploring Oil Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses damages of oil tanker spillage to the marine organisms and scientists' research in oil pollution removal techniques. Included is a list of learning activities concerning the causes and effects of oil pollution and methods of solving the problem. (CC)

  13. Rheology of Structured Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelbaliev, G. I.; Rasulov, S. R.; Rzaev, A. G.; Mustafaeva, G. R.

    2017-07-01

    Rheological models of structured oils are proposed and compared with available experimental data on oils from different deposits. It is shown that structured oils can possess properties of Bingham and power-law non-Newtonian fluids.

  14. Cedar leaf oil poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedar leaf oil is made from some types of cedar trees. Cedar leaf oil poisoning occurs when someone swallows this substance. ... The substance in cedar leaf oil that can be harmful is thujone (a hydrocarbon).

  15. Method for attaining fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) seed oil fractions with different composition and antioxidant capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) is cultivated for its seeds and foliage, which contain essential oil. We hypothesized that the collection of fennel seed oil at different time points during the distillation process may result in fennel oil with distinct composition and bioactivity. We collected ess...

  16. Particles at Oil-Air Surfaces: Powdered Oil, Liquid Oil Marbles, and Oil Foam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binks, Bernard P; Johnston, Shaun K; Sekine, Tomoko; Tyowua, Andrew T

    2015-07-08

    The type of material stabilized by four kinds of fluorinated particles (sericite and bentonite platelet clays and spherical zinc oxide) in air-oil mixtures has been investigated. It depends on the particle wettability and the degree of shear. Upon vigorous agitation, oil dispersions are formed in all the oils containing relatively large bentonite particles and in oils of relatively low surface tension (γla cyclomethicone containing the other fluorinated particles. Particle-stabilized oil foams were obtained in oils having γla > 26 mN m(-1) where the advancing air-oil-solid contact angle θ lies between ca. 90° and 120°. Gentle shaking, however, gives oil-in-air liquid marbles with all the oil-particle systems except for cases where θ is 24 mN m(-1) with omniphobic zinc oxide and sericite particles for which advancing θ ≥ 90°, dry oil powders consisting of oil drops in air which do not leak oil could be made upon gentle agitation up to a critical oil:particle ratio (COPR). Above the COPR, catastrophic phase inversion of the dry oil powders to air-in-oil foams was observed. When sheared on a substrate, the dry oil powders containing at least 60 wt % of oil release the encapsulated oil, making these materials attractive formulations in the cosmetic and food industries.

  17. Factors affecting the forensic examination of automotive lubricating oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbard, Ryan; Goodpaster, John V; Evans, Michelle R

    2011-05-01

    Lubricating oil comparisons impact a variety of forensic investigations, including cases where oil was transferred from a suspect vehicle to the crime scene or victim. In this study, high-temperature gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to examine the influence of oil mixtures and oil changes over time on the comparison of known and questioned lubricating oils. Varying concentrations of oil mixtures were prepared and showed the potential for identifying individual components. Motor oils from 18 automobiles monitored over a 2-month period did not demonstrate significant changes in the chromatographic data. Chemometric analysis of motor oil mass spectral data provided little information regarding differentiation of, or changes in, the samples. Power steering fluid (PSF) from a naturally occurring leak collected from several locations was consistent with the PSF in the automobile's reservoir, and the PSF composition did not change over time.

  18. Geomorphic factors related to the persistence of subsurface oil from the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Zachary; Michel, Jacqueline; Hayes, Miles O.; Irvine, Gail V.; Short, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Oil from the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill has persisted along shorelines of Prince William Sound, Alaska, for more than two decades as both surface and subsurface oil residues. To better understand the distribution of persistent subsurface oil and assess the potential need for further restoration, a thorough and quantitative understanding of the geomorphic factors controlling the presence or absence of subsurface oil is required. Data on oiling and geomorphic features were collected at 198 sites in Prince William Sound to identify and quantify the relationships among these geomorphic factors and the presence and absence of persistent subsurface oil. Geomorphic factors associated with the presence of subsurface oil were initial oil exposure, substrate permeability, topographic slope, low exposure to waves, armoring on gravel beaches, tombolos, natural breakwaters, and rubble accumulations. Geomorphic factors associated with the absence of subsurface oil were impermeable bedrock; platforms with thin sediment veneer; fine-grained, well-sorted gravel beaches with no armor; and low-permeability, raised bay-bottom beaches. Relationships were found between the geomorphic and physical site characteristics and the likelihood of encountering persistent subsurface oiling at those sites. There is quantitative evidence of more complex interactions between the overall wave energy incident at a site and the presence of fine-scale geomorphic features that may have provided smaller, local wave energy sheltering of oil. Similarly, these data provide evidence for interactions between the shoreline slope and the presence of angular rubble, with decreased likelihood for encountering subsurface oil at steeply sloped sites except at high-angle sheltered rubble shoreline locations. These results reinforce the idea that the interactions of beach permeability, stability, and site-specific wave exposure are key drivers for subsurface oil persistence in exposed and intermittently exposed mixed

  19. Preparing near-surface heavy oil for extraction using microbial degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busche, Frederick D.; Rollins, John B.; Noyes, Harold J.; Bush, James G.

    2017-05-30

    In one embodiment, the invention provides a system including at least one computing device for enhancing the recovery of heavy oil in an underground, near-surface crude oil extraction environment by performing a method comprising sampling and identifying microbial species (bacteria and/or fungi) that reside in the underground, near-surface crude oil extraction environment; collecting rock and fluid property data from the underground, near-surface crude oil extraction environment; collecting nutrient data from the underground, near-surface crude oil extraction environment; identifying a preferred microbial species from the underground, near-surface crude oil extraction environment that can transform the heavy oil into a lighter oil; identifying a nutrient from the underground, near-surface crude oil extraction environment that promotes a proliferation of the preferred microbial species; and introducing the nutrient into the underground, near-surface crude oil extraction environment.

  20. Quantitative analysis of peanut oil content in ternary blended edible oil using near infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huacai; Liu, Fuli; Wang, Zhilan; Jin, Shangzhong

    2008-03-01

    Calibration models of quantitative analysis of peanut oil content in ternary blended edible oil by near infrared spectroscopy were built using partial least square (PLS) regression. A total of 92 samples blended with three kinds of pure oil in different proportion (V/V) were prepared. Near infrared diffuse reflectance spectra of the samples were collected over 4 000 cm -1-10 000 cm -1 spectral region with a FT-NIR spectrometer. A calibration model of prediction to the peanut oil content was established with PLS using the original spectra and validated with leave-one-out cross validation method. The correlation coefficient and the RMSEC of the model were 0.9926 and 2.91%, respectively. The result showed that near infrared spectroscopy could be an ideal tool for fast determination to the peanut oil content in blended edible oil.

  1. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-18 to 2010-08-22 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069105)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-18 to 2010-08-22 in...

  2. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-26 to 2010-07-29 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069101)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-26 to 2010-07-29 in...

  3. Chemical, physical and profile oceanographic data collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-05-26 to 2010-05-30 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069092)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-05-26 to 2010-05-30 in response to the...

  4. Chemical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the Ferrel in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-03 to 2010-07-07 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0074854)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the Ferrel in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-03 to 2010-07-07 in response to the...

  5. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-23 to 2010-09-28 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069080)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-23 to 2010-09-28 in...

  6. Chemical, physical and profile oceanographic data collected aboard NOAA Ship THOMAS JEFFERSON in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-15 to 2010-06-28 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NCEI Accession 0069083)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected aboard NOAA Ship THOMAS JEFFERSON in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-15 to 2010-06-28 in response to...

  7. Chemical, physical, profile and other oceanographic data collected aboard NOAA Ship THOMAS JEFFERSON in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-03 to 2010-07-18 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NCEI Accession 0069082)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile, tows and underway oceanographic data were collected aboard NOAA Ship THOMAS JEFFERSON in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-03 to...

  8. NRDA-processed CTD data from the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico, Cruise 1 Leg 1, collected from 2004-05-27 to 2004-05-30, associated with the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NCEI Accession 0128169)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conductivity Temperature and Depth (CTD) measurements were collected aboard the R/V Ocean Veritas 01 to determine physical oceanographic parameters of the water...

  9. NRDA-processed CTD data from the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico, Cruise 9 Leg 1, collected from 2010-07-14 to 2010-07-17, associated with the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NCEI Accession 0128211)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conductivity Temperature and Depth (CTD) measurements were collected aboard the R/V Ocean Veritas 07 to determine physical oceanographic parameters of the water...

  10. NRDA-processed CTD data from the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico, Cruise 4 Leg 1, collected from 2010-06-14 to 2010-06-16, associated with the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NCEI Accession 0128170)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conductivity Temperature and Depth (CTD) measurements were collected aboard the R/V Ocean Veritas 04 to determine physical oceanographic parameters of the water...

  11. NRDA-processed CTD data from the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico, Cruise 6 Leg 1, collected from 2010-06-26 to 2010-06-28, associated with the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NCEI Accession 0128184)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conductivity Temperature and Depth (CTD) measurements were collected aboard the R/V Ocean Veritas 06 to determine physical oceanographic parameters of the water...

  12. NRDA-processed CTD data from the HOS Davis in the Gulf of Mexico, Cruise 2 Leg 1, collected from 2010-08-26 to 2010-09-02, associated with the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NCEI Accession 0128093)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conductivity Temperature and Depth (CTD) measurements were collected aboard the R/V HOS Davis, Cruise 02, to determine physical oceanographic parameters of the water...

  13. NRDA-processed CTD data from the JACK FITZ in the Gulf of Mexico, Cruise 1 Leg 1, collected from 2010-05-10 to 2010-05-13, associated with the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NCEI Accession 0128137)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conductivity Temperature and Depth (CTD) measurements were collected aboard the R/V Jack Fitz, Cruise 01, to determine physical oceanographic parameters of the water...

  14. NRDA-processed CTD data from the HOS Davis in the Gulf of Mexico, Cruise 1 Leg 1, collected from 2010-08-13 to 2010-08-22, associated with the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NCEI Accession 0128072)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conductivity Temperature and Depth (CTD) measurements were collected aboard the R/V HOS Davis, Cruise 01, to determine physical oceanographic parameters of the water...

  15. NRDA-processed CTD data from the ENDEAVOR in the Gulf of Mexico, Cruise 1 Leg 1, collected from 2010-06-19 to 2010-06-29, associated with the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NCEI Accession 0127970)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conductivity Temperature and Depth (CTD) measurements were collected aboard the R/V Endeavor to determine physical oceanographic parameters of the water column, and...

  16. NRDA-processed CTD data from the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico, Cruise 7 Leg 1, collected from 2010-07-02 to 2010-07-04, associated with the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NCEI Accession 0128185)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conductivity Temperature and Depth (CTD) measurements were collected aboard the R/V Ocean Veritas 07 to determine physical oceanographic parameters of the water...

  17. NRDA-processed CTD data from the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico, Cruise 5 Leg 1, collected from 2010-06-21 to 2010-06-22, associated with the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NCEI Accession 0128183)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conductivity Temperature and Depth (CTD) measurements were collected aboard the R/V Ocean Veritas 05 to determine physical oceanographic parameters of the water...

  18. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-07 to 2010-06-11 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069094)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-07 to 2010-06-11 in...

  19. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-31 to 2010-08-03 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069102)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-31 to 2010-08-03 in...

  20. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-07 to 2010-07-11 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069099)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-07 to 2010-07-11 in...

  1. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-13 to 2010-06-17 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069095)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-13 to 2010-06-17 in...

  2. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-07 to 2010-10-16 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069109)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-07 to 2010-10-16 in...

  3. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-25 to 2010-08-29 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069106)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-25 to 2010-08-29 in...

  4. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-03 to 2010-09-07 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069108)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-03 to 2010-09-07 in...

  5. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-25 to 2010-06-29 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069097)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-25 to 2010-06-29 in...

  6. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-12 to 2010-08-16 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069104)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-12 to 2010-08-16 in...

  7. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-29 to 2010-07-05 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069098)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-29 to 2010-07-05 in...

  8. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-19 to 2010-07-23 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069100)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-19 to 2010-07-23 in...

  9. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-30 to 2010-09-03 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069107)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-30 to 2010-09-03 in...

  10. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-19 to 2010-06-23 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069096)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-19 to 2010-06-23 in...

  11. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-01 to 2010-06-05 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069093)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-01 to 2010-06-05 in...

  12. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-11 to 2010-09-13 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069110)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-11 to 2010-09-13 in...

  13. Chemical, laboratory analyses, physical and profile oceanographic data collected aboard the JACK FITZ in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-18 to 2010-08-23 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069119)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, laboratory analyses, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected aboard the JACK FITZ in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-18 to 2010-08-23 in...

  14. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-23 to 2010-07-17 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069128)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-23 to 2010-07-17 in...

  15. NRDA-processed CTD data from NOAA Ship PISCES in the Gulf of Mexico, Cruise 10 Leg 2, collected from 2011-06-26 to 2011-07-13, associated with the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NCEI Accession 0130071)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conductivity Temperature and Depth (CTD) measurements were collected aboard NOAA Ship Pisces to determine physical oceanographic parameters of the water column, and...

  16. NRDA-processed CTD data from the American Diver in the Gulf of Mexico, Cruise 1 Leg 1, collected from 2010-07-21 to 2010-08-04, associated with the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NCEI Accession 0130007)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conductivity Temperature and Depth (CTD) measurements were collected aboard the R/V American Diver, Cruise 01, to determine physical oceanographic parameters of the...

  17. Chemical, physical and profile oceanographic data collected aboard NOAA Ship Pisces in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-18 to 2010-09-02 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NCEI Accession 0069112)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected aboard NOAA Ship Pisces in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-18 to 2010-09-02 in response to the...

  18. Chemical, physical and profile oceanographic data collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-04 to 2010-09-08 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069120)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-04 to 2010-09-08 in response to the...

  19. Chemical, physical and profile oceanographic data collected aboard NOAA Ship Pisces in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-09 to 2010-09-17 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NCEI Accession 0069113)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected aboard NOAA Ship Pisces in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-09 to 2010-09-17 in response to the...

  20. Chemical, physical and profile oceanographic data collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-09 to 2010-09-15 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069126)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-09 to 2010-09-15 in response to the...

  1. Chemical, physical and profile oceanographic data collected aboard the CAPE HATTERAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-21 to 2010-09-02 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069058)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected aboard the CAPE HATTERAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-21 to 2010-09-02 in response to the...

  2. Chemical, physical and profile oceanographic data collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-11 to 2010-07-13 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0084582)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-11 to 2010-07-13 in response to the...

  3. NRDA-processed CTD data from NOAA Ship PISCES in the Gulf of Mexico, Cruise 10 Leg 1, collected from 2011-06-23 to 2011-06-30, associated with the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NCEI Accession 0130070)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conductivity Temperature and Depth (CTD) measurements were collected aboard NOAA Ship Pisces to determine physical oceanographic parameters of the water column, and...

  4. Chemical, physical and profile oceanographic data collected aboard the PELICAN in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-05-10 to 2010-07-21 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069087)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected aboard the PELICAN in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-05-10 to 2010-07-21 in response to the Deepwater...

  5. Chemical and physical oceanographic profile data collected from CTD casts aboard the American Diver in the Gulf of Mexico on 2010-08-04 in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill event (NODC Accession 0069088)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical and physical oceanographic profile data were collected aboard the American Diver in the Gulf of Mexico on 2010-08-04 in response to the Deepwater Horizon...

  6. NRDA-processed CTD data from NOAA Ship PISCES in the Gulf of Mexico, Cruise 3 Leg 1, collected from 2010-08-06 to 2010-08-14, associated with the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NCEI Accession 0128212)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conductivity Temperature and Depth (CTD) measurements were collected aboard NOAA Ship Pisces to determine physical oceanographic parameters of the water column, and...

  7. NRDA-processed CTD data from the Sarah Bordelon in the Gulf of Mexico, Cruise 7 Leg 1, collected from 2010-12-04 to 2010-12-19, associated with the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NCEI Accession 0130702)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conductivity Temperature and Depth (CTD) measurements were collected aboard the M/V Sarah Bordelon, Cruise 07 to determine physical oceanographic parameters of the...

  8. Chemical, physical, profile and other oceanographic data collected aboard NOAA Ship Pisces in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-25 to 2010-10-03 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NCEI Accession 0069114)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile, imagery, laboratory analysis, sediment analysis and underway oceanographic data were collected aboard NOAA Ship Pisces in the Gulf of...

  9. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the Ferrel in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-13 to 2010-08-17 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069064)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the Ferrel in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-13 to 2010-08-17 in...

  10. Physical and profile oceanographic data collected aboard the WEATHERBIRD II in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-05-22 to 2010-05-27 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0084597)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical and profile oceanographic data were collected aboard the WEATHERBIRD II in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-05-22 to 2010-05-27 in response to the Deepwater...

  11. Chemical, physical, profile and other oceanographic data collected aboard NOAA Ship GORDON GUNTER in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-24 to 2010-09-10 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NCEI Accession 0070532)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile, meteorological, navigational and underway oceanographic data were collected aboard NOAA Ship GORDON GUNTER in the Gulf of Mexico from...

  12. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the Ferrel in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-15 to 2010-07-23 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069060)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the Ferrel in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-15 to 2010-07-23 in...

  13. NRDA-processed CTD data from the JACK FITZ in the Gulf of Mexico, Cruise 3 Leg 1, collected from 2010-06-12 to 2010-06-20, associated with the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NCEI Accession 0128139)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conductivity Temperature and Depth (CTD) measurements were collected aboard the R/V Jack Fitz, Cruise 03, to determine physical oceanographic parameters of the water...

  14. NRDA-processed CTD data from the SEWARD JOHNSON in the Gulf of Mexico, Cruise 1 Leg 3, collected from 2010-07-24 to 2010-08-02, associated with the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NCEI Accession 0128343)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conductivity Temperature and Depth (CTD) measurements were collected aboard the R/V Seward Johnson, Cruise 1, Leg 3, to determine physical oceanographic parameters...

  15. NRDA-processed CTD data from the American Diver in the Gulf of Mexico, Cruise 2 Leg 1, collected on 2010-08-31, associated with the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NCEI Accession 0127969)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conductivity Temperature and Depth (CTD) measurements were collected aboard the R/V American Diver, Cruise 02, to determine physical oceanographic parameters of the...

  16. NRDA-processed CTD data from the JACK FITZ in the Gulf of Mexico, Cruise 2 Leg 1, collected from 2010-05-22 to 2010-05-31, associated with the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NCEI Accession 0128138)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conductivity Temperature and Depth (CTD) measurements were collected aboard the R/V Jack Fitz, Cruise 02, to determine physical oceanographic parameters of the water...

  17. NRDA-processed CTD data from the BUNNY BORDELON in the Gulf of Mexico, Cruise 1 Leg 1, collected from 2010-05-31 to 2010-06-02, associated with the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NCEI Accession 0130016)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conductivity Temperature and Depth (CTD) measurements were collected aboard the R/V Bunny Bordelon to determine physical oceanographic parameters of the water...

  18. NRDA-processed CTD data from NOAA Ship PISCES in the Gulf of Mexico, Cruise 12 Leg 1, collected from 2011-09-08 to 2011-09-15, associated with the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NCEI Accession 0130082)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conductivity Temperature and Depth (CTD) measurements were collected aboard NOAA Ship Pisces, Cruise 12, Leg 1, to determine physical oceanographic parameters of the...

  19. Near-realtime oceanographic profile data collected by Floats from 20100524 to 20101206 as part of the GTSPP in response to the 20100420 Deepwater Horizon oil spill event (NODC Accession 0065725)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data products and in situ oceanographic data collected in response to the Deepwater Horizon Event in the Gulf of Mexico (May 2010). The Global Temperature and...

  20. Near-realtime oceanographic profile data collected by XBT's aboard the Walton Smith from 20100607 to 20100610 as part of the GTSPP in response to the 20100420 Deepwater Horizon oil spill event (NODC Accession 0065727)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data products and in situ oceanographic data collected in response to the Deepwater Horizon Event in the Gulf of Mexico (May 2010). The Global Temperature and...

  1. Chemical, physical and profile oceanographic data collected aboard NOAA Ship PISCES in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-05 to 2010-08-14 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NCEI Accession 0069111)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected aboard NOAA Ship PISCES in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-05 to 2010-08-14 in response to the...

  2. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-15 to 2010-09-22 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069079)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-15 to 2010-09-22 in...

  3. Chemical, physical, profile and underway oceanographic data collected aboard NOAA Ship GORDON GUNTER in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-05-27 to 2010-06-04 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NCEI Accession 0069067)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and underway oceanographic data were collected aboard NOAA Ship GORDON GUNTER in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-05-27 to 2010-06-04 in...

  4. Profile and underway oceanographic data collected aboard NOAA Ship GORDON GUNTER in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-21 to 2010-07-24 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NCEI Accession 0081186)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Profile and underway oceanographic data were collected aboard NOAA Ship GORDON GUNTER in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-21 to 2010-07-24 in response to the...

  5. Chemical, physical, profile and underway oceanographic data collected aboard NOAA Ship GORDON GUNTER in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-01 to 2010-07-06 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NCEI Accession 0069068)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and underway oceanographic data were collected aboard NOAA Ship GORDON GUNTER in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-01 to 2010-07-06 in...

  6. Chemical, physical, profile and underway oceanographic data collected aboard NOAA Ship GORDON GUNTER in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-08 to 2010-07-16 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NCEI Accession 0070331)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and underway oceanographic data were collected aboard NOAA Ship GORDON GUNTER in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-08 to 2010-07-16 in...

  7. Chemical, physical and profile oceanographic data collected aboard NOAA Ship GORDON GUNTER in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-25 to 2010-07-31 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NCEI Accession 0070332)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected aboard NOAA Ship GORDON GUNTER in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-25 to 2010-07-31 in response to...

  8. Near-realtime oceanographic profile data collected by AXBT's and AXCTD's from NOAA Aircraft from 20100508 to 20100724 as part of the GTSPP in response to the 20100420 Deepwater Horizon oil spill event (NODC Accession 0065723)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data products and in situ oceanographic data collected in response to the Deepwater Horizon Event in the Gulf of Mexico (May 2010). The Global Temperature and...

  9. Near-realtime oceanographic profile data collected by Multiple Unidentified Platforms from 20100422 to 20100724 as part of the GTSPP in response to the 20100420 Deepwater Horizon oil spill event (NODC Accession 0065726)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data products and in situ oceanographic data collected in response to the Deepwater Horizon Event in the Gulf of Mexico (May 2010). The Global Temperature and...

  10. NRDA-processed CTD data from NOAA Ship PISCES in the Gulf of Mexico, Cruise 6 Leg 1, collected from 2010-09-25 to 2010-10-03, associated with the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NCEI Accession 0130227)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conductivity Temperature and Depth (CTD) measurements were collected aboard NOAA Ship Pisces to determine physical oceanographic parameters of the water column, and...

  11. NRDA-processed CTD data from NOAA Ship PISCES in the Gulf of Mexico, Cruise 4 Leg 1, collected from 2010-08-19 to 2010-09-02, associated with the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NCEI Accession 0128249)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conductivity Temperature and Depth (CTD) measurements were collected aboard NOAA Ship Pisces to determine physical oceanographic parameters of the water column, and...

  12. NRDA-processed CTD data from NOAA Ship PISCES in the Gulf of Mexico, Cruise 9 Leg 1, collected from 2011-03-23 to 2011-04-10, associated with the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NCEI Accession 0130229)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conductivity Temperature and Depth (CTD) measurements were collected aboard NOAA Ship Pisces to determine physical oceanographic parameters of the water column, and...

  13. Near-realtime oceanographic profile data collected by Gliders from 20100528 to 20100830 as part of the GTSPP in response to the 20100420 Deepwater Horizon oil spill event (NODC Accession 0065724)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data products and in situ oceanographic data collected in response to the Deepwater Horizon Event in the Gulf of Mexico (May 2010). The Global Temperature and...

  14. NRDA-processed CTD data from NOAA Ship PISCES in the Gulf of Mexico, Cruise 8 Leg 1, collected from 2010-12-02 to 2010-12-19, associated with the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NCEI Accession 0130228)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conductivity Temperature and Depth (CTD) measurements were collected aboard NOAA Ship Pisces to determine physical oceanographic parameters of the water column, and...

  15. NRDA-processed CTD data from the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico, Cruise 11 Leg 1, collected from 2010-07-27 to 2010-07-28, associated with the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NCEI Accession 0128140)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conductivity Temperature and Depth (CTD) measurements were collected aboard the R/V Ocean Veritas 11 to determine physical oceanographic parameters of the water...

  16. Imagery, laboratory analysis and sediment analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the GYRE in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-13 to 2010-09-16 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0084568)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Imagery, laboratory analysis and sediment analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the GYRE in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-13 to 2010-09-16 in response...

  17. Chemical, physical, profile and underway oceanographic data collected aboard NOAA Ship GORDON GUNTER in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-15 to 2010-06-25 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NCEI Accession 0070330)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and underway oceanographic data were collected aboard NOAA Ship GORDON GUNTER in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-15 to 2010-06-25 in...

  18. Physical and profile oceanographic data collected aboard the ENDEAVOR in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-17 to 2010-06-30 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0084592)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical and profile oceanographic data were collected aboard the ENDEAVOR in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-17 to 2010-06-30 in response to the Deepwater Horizon...

  19. NRDA-processed CTD data from the SEWARD JOHNSON in the Gulf of Mexico, Cruise 1 Leg 1, collected from 2010-07-10 to 2010-07-14, associated with the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NCEI Accession 0128341)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conductivity Temperature and Depth (CTD) measurements were collected aboard the R/V Seward Johnson, Cruise 1, Leg 1, to determine physical oceanographic parameters...

  20. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the Ferrel in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-07 to 2010-08-27 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069066)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the Ferrel in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-07 to 2010-08-27 in...

  1. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the Ferrel in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-30 to 2010-08-03 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069062)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the Ferrel in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-30 to 2010-08-03 in...

  2. Chemical and physical oceanographic profile data collected from CTD casts aboard the Arctic in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-09 to 2010-09-14 in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill event (NODC Accession 0068955)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical and physical oceanographic profile data were collected aboard the Arctic in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-09 to 2010-09-14 in response to the Deepwater...

  3. Unknown oceanographic data collected aboard NOAA Ship THOMAS JEFFERSON in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-05-23 to 2010-05-28 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NCEI Accession 0084596)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Unknown oceanographic data were collected aboard NOAA Ship THOMAS JEFFERSON in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-05-23 to 2010-05-28 in response to the Deepwater Horizon...

  4. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-06 to 2010-08-10 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069103)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-06 to 2010-08-10 in...

  5. Chemical, physical, profile and other oceanographic data collected aboard NOAA Ship GORDON GUNTER in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-02 to 2010-08-08 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NCEI Accession 0070333)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile, laboratory analysis and underway oceanographic data were collected aboard NOAA Ship GORDON GUNTER in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-02...

  6. Chemical and laboratory analyses oceanographic data collected aboard the Wes Bordelon in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-18 to 2010-08-22 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0074863)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical and laboratory analyses oceanographic data were collected aboard the Wes Bordelon in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-18 to 2010-08-22 in response to the...

  7. Chemical, laboratory analyses, physical and profile oceanographic data collected aboard the BUNNY BORDELON in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-18 to 2010-08-23 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069118)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, laboratory analyses, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected aboard the BUNNY BORDELON in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-18 to 2010-08-23...

  8. Chemical, laboratory analyses, physical and profile oceanographic data collected aboard the JACK FITZ in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-12 to 2010-06-20 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069074)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, laboratory analyses, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected aboard the JACK FITZ in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-12 to 2010-06-20 in...

  9. NRDA-processed CTD data from NOAA Ship PISCES in the Gulf of Mexico, Cruise 12 Leg 2, collected from 2011-09-20 to 2011-09-27, associated with the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NCEI Accession 0130083)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conductivity Temperature and Depth (CTD) measurements were collected aboard NOAA Ship Pisces, Cruise 12, Leg 2, to determine physical oceanographic parameters of...

  10. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the Ferrel in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-25 to 2010-07-30 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069061)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the Ferrel in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-25 to 2010-07-30 in...

  11. NRDA-processed CTD data from the SEWARD JOHNSON in the Gulf of Mexico, Cruise 1 Leg 4, collected from 2010-08-04 to 2010-08-08, associated with the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NCEI Accession 0128344)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conductivity Temperature and Depth (CTD) measurements were collected aboard the R/V Seward Johnson, Cruise 1, Leg 4, to determine physical oceanographic parameters...

  12. NRDA-processed CTD data from NOAA Ship PISCES in the Gulf of Mexico, Cruise 5 Leg 1, collected from 2010-09-10 to 2010-09-17, associated with the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NCEI Accession 0130223)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conductivity Temperature and Depth (CTD) measurements were collected aboard NOAA Ship Pisces, Cruise 05, to determine physical oceanographic parameters of the water...

  13. Chemical, physical, profile and other oceanographic data collected aboard the GYRE in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-25 to 2010-09-28 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0074905)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile, imagery, laboratory analysis and sediment analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the GYRE in the Gulf of Mexico from...

  14. Chemical, physical, profile and other oceanographic data collected aboard the GYRE in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-10-01 to 2010-10-03 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0074906)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile, imagery, laboratory analysis and sediment analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the GYRE in the Gulf of Mexico from...

  15. Chemical, physical, profile and other oceanographic data collected aboard the GYRE in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-10-07 to 2010-10-20 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069127)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile, imagery, laboratory analysis and sediment analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the GYRE in the Gulf of Mexico from...

  16. Chemical, physical, profile and other oceanographic data collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-22 to 2010-10-24 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069615)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile, imagery, laboratory analysis and sediment analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from...

  17. Chemical, physical, profile and other oceanographic data collected aboard the GYRE in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-19 to 2010-09-28 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0074904)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile, imagery, laboratory analysis and sediment analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the GYRE in the Gulf of Mexico from...

  18. Chemical, physical, profile and other oceanographic data collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-10-07 to 2010-10-17 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069356)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile, imagery, laboratory analysis and sediment analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from...

  19. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the Ferrel in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-18 to 2010-08-23 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069065)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the Ferrel in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-18 to 2010-08-23 in...

  20. Chemical, physical and profile oceanographic data collected aboard the CAPE HATTERAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-04 to 2010-09-15 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069059)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected aboard the CAPE HATTERAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-04 to 2010-09-15 in response to the...

  1. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the Ferrel in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-03 to 2010-08-11 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069063)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the Ferrel in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-03 to 2010-08-11 in...

  2. NRDA-processed CTD data from the SEWARD JOHNSON in the Gulf of Mexico, Cruise 1 Leg 2, collected from 2010-07-16 to 2010-07-22, associated with the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NCEI Accession 0128342)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conductivity Temperature and Depth (CTD) measurements were collected aboard the R/V Seward Johnson, Cruise 1, Leg 2, to determine physical oceanographic parameters...

  3. Exocrine pancreatic secretion is stimulated in piglets fed fish oil compared with those fed coconut oil or lard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedemann, M S; Pedersen, A R; Engberg, R M

    2001-12-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the effect of feeding diets containing fat sources with different fatty acid composition (fish oil, coconut oil or lard, 10 g/100 g diet) on exocrine pancreatic secretion in piglets after weaning. A total of 16 barrows were weaned at 4 wk of age; 3 d later, they were surgically fitted with a catheter in the pancreatic duct for continuous collection of pancreatic juice. Collections of pancreatic juice were made every other day starting 4 d postsurgically. Piglets fed the fish oil diet secreted a significantly greater volume of pancreatic juice than piglets fed the coconut oil or lard diets. The output [U/(h. kg(0.75))] of lipase was higher in piglets fed fish oil than in piglets fed lard or coconut oil. The output of colipase was greater in piglets fed fish oil and coconut oil than in those fed lard. The dietary treatments did not affect the output of carboxylester hydrolase. The output of trypsin was significantly lower in piglets fed lard than in piglets fed fish oil or coconut oil diets and the output of carboxypeptidase B was greater in those fed the fish oil diet. Protein, chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidase A, elastase and amylase outputs did not differ among the dietary treatment groups. The apparent digestibilities of nutrients and energy were measured in feces and did not differ among groups. Thus, the greater output of lipase in fish oil-fed piglets did not result in a greater digestibility of fat in this diet.

  4. [MICROBIAL DESTRUCTION MINERAL (OIL) MOTOR OIL].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homenko, L A; Nogina, T M

    2015-01-01

    In a review information is presented about composition of mineral motor oils and their negative impact on the environment and the ability of microorganisms, in particular actinobacteria, to assimilate hydrocarbon oil components. The role of bacteria is described in the process of cleaning up polluted environments motor oils and the prospect of their use in biotechnology, environmental clean-up of these pollutants.

  5. Yemen: oil and politics mix explosively

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stauffer, T.

    1998-11-01

    Oil is an inflammatory issue in the Yemen - literally as well as figuratively. Saboteurs are repeatedly attacking the oil pipeline to the Red Sea, most recently producing impressive pyrotechnics, and also highlighting their bargaining power vis-a-vis the central government. The political impact is no less impressive - Yemen`s oil income is seen to be upsetting the political balance in the Arabian Peninsula, to the detriment of the Saudis. Each million dollars collected from oil by the central government in Sana`a dilutes the influence of Saudi money amongst the tribes in the provinces, so that ``oil`` in the Yemen is as important to Riyadh as it is to Sana`a, in spite of the relatively small volumes. (author)

  6. Extent and degree of shoreline oiling: Deepwater Horizon oil spill, Gulf of Mexico, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Jacqueline; Owens, Edward H; Zengel, Scott; Graham, Andrew; Nixon, Zachary; Allard, Teresa; Holton, William; Reimer, P Doug; Lamarche, Alain; White, Mark; Rutherford, Nicolle; Childs, Carl; Mauseth, Gary; Challenger, Greg; Taylor, Elliott

    2013-01-01

    The oil from the 2010 Deepwater Horizon spill in the Gulf of Mexico was documented by shoreline assessment teams as stranding on 1,773 km of shoreline. Beaches comprised 50.8%, marshes 44.9%, and other shoreline types 4.3% of the oiled shoreline. Shoreline cleanup activities were authorized on 660 km, or 73.3% of oiled beaches and up to 71 km, or 8.9% of oiled marshes and associated habitats. One year after the spill began, oil remained on 847 km; two years later, oil remained on 687 km, though at much lesser degrees of oiling. For example, shorelines characterized as heavily oiled went from a maximum of 360 km, to 22.4 km one year later, and to 6.4 km two years later. Shoreline cleanup has been conducted to meet habitat-specific cleanup endpoints and will continue until all oiled shoreline segments meet endpoints. The entire shoreline cleanup program has been managed under the Shoreline Cleanup Assessment Technique (SCAT) Program, which is a systematic, objective, and inclusive process to collect data on shoreline oiling conditions and support decision making on appropriate cleanup methods and endpoints. It was a particularly valuable and effective process during such a complex spill.

  7. Extent and degree of shoreline oiling: Deepwater Horizon oil spill, Gulf of Mexico, USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Michel

    Full Text Available The oil from the 2010 Deepwater Horizon spill in the Gulf of Mexico was documented by shoreline assessment teams as stranding on 1,773 km of shoreline. Beaches comprised 50.8%, marshes 44.9%, and other shoreline types 4.3% of the oiled shoreline. Shoreline cleanup activities were authorized on 660 km, or 73.3% of oiled beaches and up to 71 km, or 8.9% of oiled marshes and associated habitats. One year after the spill began, oil remained on 847 km; two years later, oil remained on 687 km, though at much lesser degrees of oiling. For example, shorelines characterized as heavily oiled went from a maximum of 360 km, to 22.4 km one year later, and to 6.4 km two years later. Shoreline cleanup has been conducted to meet habitat-specific cleanup endpoints and will continue until all oiled shoreline segments meet endpoints. The entire shoreline cleanup program has been managed under the Shoreline Cleanup Assessment Technique (SCAT Program, which is a systematic, objective, and inclusive process to collect data on shoreline oiling conditions and support decision making on appropriate cleanup methods and endpoints. It was a particularly valuable and effective process during such a complex spill.

  8. Extent and Degree of Shoreline Oiling: Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill, Gulf of Mexico, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Jacqueline; Owens, Edward H.; Zengel, Scott; Graham, Andrew; Nixon, Zachary; Allard, Teresa; Holton, William; Reimer, P. Doug; Lamarche, Alain; White, Mark; Rutherford, Nicolle; Childs, Carl; Mauseth, Gary; Challenger, Greg; Taylor, Elliott

    2013-01-01

    The oil from the 2010 Deepwater Horizon spill in the Gulf of Mexico was documented by shoreline assessment teams as stranding on 1,773 km of shoreline. Beaches comprised 50.8%, marshes 44.9%, and other shoreline types 4.3% of the oiled shoreline. Shoreline cleanup activities were authorized on 660 km, or 73.3% of oiled beaches and up to 71 km, or 8.9% of oiled marshes and associated habitats. One year after the spill began, oil remained on 847 km; two years later, oil remained on 687 km, though at much lesser degrees of oiling. For example, shorelines characterized as heavily oiled went from a maximum of 360 km, to 22.4 km one year later, and to 6.4 km two years later. Shoreline cleanup has been conducted to meet habitat-specific cleanup endpoints and will continue until all oiled shoreline segments meet endpoints. The entire shoreline cleanup program has been managed under the Shoreline Cleanup Assessment Technique (SCAT) Program, which is a systematic, objective, and inclusive process to collect data on shoreline oiling conditions and support decision making on appropriate cleanup methods and endpoints. It was a particularly valuable and effective process during such a complex spill. PMID:23776444

  9. [Rapid discriminating hogwash oil and edible vegetable oil using near infrared optical fiber spectrometer technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bing-Fang; Yuan, Li-Bo; Kong, Qing-Ming; Shen, Wei-Zheng; Zhang, Bing-Xiu; Liu, Cheng-Hai

    2014-10-01

    In the present study, a new method using near infrared spectroscopy combined with optical fiber sensing technology was applied to the analysis of hogwash oil in blended oil. The 50 samples were a blend of frying oil and "nine three" soybean oil according to a certain volume ratio. The near infrared transmission spectroscopies were collected and the quantitative analysis model of frying oil was established by partial least squares (PLS) and BP artificial neural network The coefficients of determina- tion of calibration sets were 0.908 and 0.934 respectively. The coefficients of determination of validation sets were 0.961 and 0.952, the root mean square error of calibrations (RMSEC) was 0.184 and 0.136, and the root mean square error of predictions (RMSEP) was all 0.111 6. They conform to the model application requirement. At the same time, frying oil and qualified edible oil were identified with the principal component analysis (PCA), and the accurate rate was 100%. The experiment proved that near infrared spectral technology not only can quickly and accurately identify hogwash oil, but also can quantitatively detect hog- wash oil. This method has a wide application prospect in the detection of oil.

  10. Evaluation and Characterization of Malabar Tamarind [Garcinia cambogia (Gaertn.) Desr.] Seed Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Choppa, Tharachand; Selvaraj, Chinnadurai Immanuel; Zachariah, Abraham

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the chemical compounds present in the Malabar tamarind seed oil. The oil was extracted from the seeds of Malabar tamarind fruits collected from NBPGR Regional station, Thrissur. The seeds yielded 46.5 % of oil. Parameters such as the peroxide value, iodine value, saponification value, and acid value of the extracted Malabar tamarind seed oil were determined. These values were used to predict the quality of fatty acid methyl esters present in the oil....

  11. Locals Collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Hastings-King

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A locals collection is a set of parameters that are used to delimit data-mining operations. This piece uses a collection of locals from around Essex Massachusetts to shape and delimit an interrogation of post-reality in contemporary America. It explores the notion of crisis, the possibility of a crisis of empire that may or may not emerge in a media-space that does not allow crisis of empire to be mentioned and relations this maybe-crisis to the various levels of economic dysfunction that have become evident since late 2008. But mostly this piece explores ways in which particular stories about particular people do and do not link/link to these larger-scale narratives. This is the first of a potential series of locals collections that will mine the American post-real.

  12. Collecting Fever

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The 2008 Beijing Olympics stirred up another wave of enthusiasmfor private collecting in China, a pastime that has become very popu-lar in recent years. Commemorative banknotes, stamps related to theOlympics as well as prize medals, torches, publicity pictures, badges,costumes, emblems and mascots are all hot items for collectors. Theprice of many of these has doubled or even risen tenfold. This trendseems to have confirmed that, despite China’s consumer prices con-tinuing to sky rocket and living pressure becoming tougher, it is stillpossible for the public to maintain a keen interest in collecting.

  13. COLLECTION SCORING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skiba S. A.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the most popular methodologies of credit indebtedness management is used by banks, financial institutions and the collection agency has been considered in this article based on the experiment. This experiment demonstrates the methods of estimations of the client’s solvency and the way to impact to debitors. The article is accompanied with explanations and conclusion

  14. Collective intentions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dunin-Keplicz, B; Verbrugge, L.C.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper the notion of collective intention in teams of agents involved in cooperative problem solving (CPS) in multiagent systems (MAS) is investigated. Starting from individual intentions, goals, and beliefs defining agents' local asocial motivational and informational attitudes, we arrive at

  15. Wastewater Collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Samar; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastewater collection systems and components. This review covers: (1) planning, (2) construction; (3) sewer system evaluation; (4) maintenance; (5) rehabilitation; (6) overview prevention; and (7) wastewater pumping. A list of 111 references is also presented. (HM)

  16. IEA Response System for Oil Supply Emergencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-12-15

    Emergency response to oil supply disruptions has remained a core mission of the International Energy Agency since its founding in 1974. This information pamphlet explains the decisionmaking process leading to an IEA collective action, the measures available -- focusing on stockdraw -- and finally, the historical background of major oil supply disruptions and the IEA response to them. It also demonstrates the continuing need for emergency preparedness, including the growing importance of engaging key transition and emerging economies in dialogue about energy security.

  17. IEA Response System for Oil Supply Emergencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-15

    Emergency response to oil supply disruptions has remained a core mission of the International Energy Agency since its founding in 1974. This information pamphlet explains the decisionmaking process leading to an IEA collective action, the measures available -- focusing on stockdraw -- and finally, the historical background of major oil supply disruptions and the IEA response to them. It also demonstrates the continuing need for emergency preparedness, including the growing importance of engaging key transition and emerging economies in dialogue about energy security.

  18. Oil Price Fluctuations and Industry Stock Return

    OpenAIRE

    Reza Tahmoorespour; Marjan Rezvani; Meysam Safari; Elias Randjbarand

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of oil price variation on 14 industries in six markets, including Canada, China, France, India, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Panel weekly data were collected from June 1998 to December 2011. The results indicate that price fluctuations primarily affect the Oil and Gas as well as the Mining industries and have the least influence on the Food and Beverage industry. Furthermore, in three out of six of these countries (Canada, France, and the U.K.)...

  19. Non-Petroleum Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    These include synthetics such as silicone fluids and tung oils, wood-derivative oils such as resin/rosin, animal fats/oil, and seed oils. Many have similar physical properties to petroleum-based, such as water insolubility and formation of slicks.

  20. CONTAGIOUS EFFECTS OF OIL PRICES ON ASIAN STOCK MARKETS’ BEHAVIOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jok-Tong Wan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to examine the stock markets’ shock due to the effect of the price of oil in the East Asia Region. Particularly, this study examines if there is stock market interdependence during global oil price shocks (sudden changes for a sample of five total oil importers (the Philippines, Hong Kong SAR, Taiwan, South Korea, and Japan, four net oil importers (Indonesia, Singapore, Thailand, and China, and one net oil exporter (Malaysia between 1999 and 2014. From the result, an oil price change is collectively found to have a small but significant positive impact on the stock markets, in particular where a sudden decrease in oil prices tends to cause a stock market downturn and volatility. The world economy’s spending, financial investments in oil futures and foreign investment by oil rich nations are some underlying motives for inducing this oil-stock positive relation. The same direction of time-varying conditional correlations is found across East Asian stock markets during negative oil price shocks. The integration among East Asian stock markets is inducing the oil shock contagion to be transmitted from direct oil-affected countries (South Korea, Hong Kong, and Singapore to non-direct oil affected countries’ (Japan and Taiwan stock markets. In spite of a long practiced ASEAN+3 macroeconomics surveillance process and Early Warning System (EWS which can be customized for stock markets to prevent or detect the oil risk, hedging against initial oil-affected stock markets and a stronger influence by the East Asian countries in the global world of oil and capital investment are strongly suggested.

  1. Status and tasks of oil refinery industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ku, I.M. [Korea Petroleum Association, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-05-01

    The oil refinery industry is currently undergoing more difficulties than other industries. Since crude oil is all imported, whose import amount is the biggest as single item, and usance financing that once extended up to one hundred eighty (180) days is not easy to get under the current exchange and financial crisis, there are many hardships in import of crude oil. With this, domestic petroleum products demand shows sudden decline trend while competition gets more intensified due to remarkable regulation relief and liberalization measures in oil refinery industry such as the liberalization of domestic oil prices, etc. It is estimated that it entered the low growth stage as high-growth age of double-digit ends due to several complicated factors and rapid changes of economic environment. Under these crisis situations, domestic oil refinery industry drives super retrenchment management and restructuring for survival, but they are bombarded with piled up tasks while faced with liberalization and outward opening of imminent oil refinery business and domestic petroleum market. Domestic oil refinery industry should provide petroleum energy, which is blood of national economy and industries steadily without interruption overcoming wisely the worst management crisis with collective wisdom based on the accumulated management know-how and experience for the past first generation, and I also firmly believe that they can do that. 21 tabs.

  2. Oil Reserve Center Established

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Like other countries,China has started to grow its strategic oil reserve in case oil supplies are cut On December 18,2007,the National Development and Reform Commission(NDRC),China’s top economic planner,announced that the national oil reserve center has been officially launched.The supervisory system over the oil reserves has three levels: the energy department of the NDRC,the oil reserve center,and the reserve bases.

  3. Oil spill contingency planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kip, S.H. (Sarawak Shell Bhd/Saban Shell Petroleum Co. Ltd. (MY))

    1988-01-01

    Oil spill contingency planning is an essential feature required in present day activities involving oil and gas exploration, production and transportation. A well through out continency plan will not only eliminate or minimize the sense of panic, normally associated with oil spill emergency, but also can minimize damage and cost involved. Oil spill contingency planning is a process of predetermining a response to an oil spill emergency. The process of preparing a contingency plan is discussed in this paper.

  4. Developments in Oil Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-17

    demonstration (RD&D). The ongoing program will confirm whether an economically significant shale oil volume can be extracted under current operating...Petroleum Trade, [http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/pdf/pages/sec1_15.pdf]. 2 Oil sands yield a bitumen substantially heavier most crude oils and shale oil. 3...hydrocarbon products that can be extracted from the shale. The most promising oil shales occur in the Green River formation that underlies 16,000 square

  5. Physical and profile oceanographic data collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-29 to 2010-09-02 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0084589)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical and profile oceanographic data were collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-29 to 2010-09-02 in response to the Deepwater...

  6. Chemical, physical and profile oceanographic data collected aboard NOAA Ship HENRY B. BIGELOW in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-28 to 2010-08-10 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NCEI Accession 0069091)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected aboard NOAA Ship HENRY B. BIGELOW in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-28 to 2010-08-10 in response to...

  7. Chemical, physical and profile oceanographic data collected aboard NOAA Ship HENRY B. BIGELOW in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-13 to 2010-08-22 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NCEI Accession 0068954)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected aboard NOAA Ship HENRY B. BIGELOW in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-13 to 2010-08-22 in response to...

  8. Chemical, physical and profile oceanographic data collected aboard the F. G. Walton Smith in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-01 to 2010-06-06 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069115)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected aboard the F. G. Walton Smith in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-01 to 2010-06-06 in response to the...

  9. Physical and profile oceanographic data collected aboard NOAA Ship DELAWARE II in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-26 to 2010-07-08 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NCEI Accession 0084591)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical and profile oceanographic data were collected aboard NOAA Ship DELAWARE II in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-26 to 2010-07-08 in response to the Deepwater...

  10. Physical and profile oceanographic data collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-02 to 2010-09-06 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0084590)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical and profile oceanographic data were collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-02 to 2010-09-06 in response to the Deepwater...

  11. Collective Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galster, Kjeld

    , but while creation of defensive alliances appears unrealistic, new defence laws appearing 1909 show strong resolve to defend Denmark’s status as a neutral power. The Great War proves that these laws provided an adequate tool to be wielded by the politicians actually in office during that conflict. Following....... Moreover, they estimated that armed defence was a priori hopeless and possibly even dangerous as it might attract unnecessary attention by a would-be belligerent. Collective Security: National Egotism (Abstract) In Danish pre-World War I defence debate the notion of collective security is missing. During...... the early years of the 19th century, the political work is influenced by a pervasive feeling of rising tension and danger on the continent of Europe, but while creation of defensive alliances appears unrealistic, new defence laws appearing 1909 show strong resolve to defend Denmark’s status as a neutral...

  12. Concurrent Collections

    OpenAIRE

    Zoran Budimlić; Michael Burke; Vincent Cavé; Kathleen Knobe; Geoff Lowney; Ryan Newton; Jens Palsberg; David Peixotto; Vivek Sarkar; Frank Schlimbach; Sağnak Taşırlar

    2010-01-01

    We introduce the Concurrent Collections (CnC) programming model. CnC supports flexible combinations of task and data parallelism while retaining determinism. CnC is implicitly parallel, with the user providing high-level operations along with semantic ordering constraints that together form a CnC graph. We formally describe the execution semantics of CnC and prove that the model guarantees deterministic computation. We evaluate the performance of CnC implementations on several applications an...

  13. Life-Cycle Assessment of Pyrolysis Bio-Oil Production*

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steele, Philip; Puettmann, Maureen E.; Penmetsa, Venkata Kanthi; Cooper, Jerome E.

    2012-07-01

    As part ofthe Consortium for Research on Renewable Industrial Materials' Phase I life-cycle assessments ofbiofuels, lifecycle inventory burdens from the production of bio-oil were developed and compared with measures for residual fuel oil. Bio-oil feedstock was produced using whole southern pine (Pinus taeda) trees, chipped, and converted into bio-oil by fast pyrolysis. Input parameters and mass and energy balances were derived with Aspen. Mass and energy balances were input to SimaPro to determine the environmental performance of bio-oil compared with residual fuel oil as a heating fuel. Equivalent functional units of 1 MJ were used for demonstrating environmental preference in impact categories, such as fossil fuel use and global warming potential. Results showed near carbon neutrality of the bio-oil. Substituting bio-oil for residual fuel oil, based on the relative carbon emissions of the two fuels, estimated a reduction in CO2 emissions by 0.075 kg CO2 per MJ of fuel combustion or a 70 percent reduction in emission over residual fuel oil. The bio-oil production life-cycle stage consumed 92 percent of the total cradle-to-grave energy requirements, while feedstock collection, preparation, and transportation consumed 4 percent each. This model provides a framework to better understand the major factors affecting greenhouse gas emissions related to bio-oil production and conversion to boiler fuel during fast pyrolysis.

  14. Enhanced oil spill detection sensors in low-light environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allik, Toomas H.; Ramboyong, Len; Roberts, Mark; Walters, Mark; Soyka, Thomas J.; Dixon, Roberta; Cho, Jay

    2016-05-01

    Although advances have been made in oil spill remote detection, many electro-optic sensors do not provide real-time images, do not work well under degraded visual environments, nor provide a measure of extreme oil thickness in marine environments. A joint program now exists between BSEE and NVESD that addresses these capability gaps in remote sensing of oil spills. Laboratory experiments, calibration techniques, and field tests were performed at Fort Belvoir, Virginia; Santa Barbara, California; and the Ohmsett Test Facility in Leonardo, New Jersey. Weathered crude oils were studied spectroscopically and characterized with LWIR, and low-light-level visible/NIR, and SWIR cameras. We designed and fabricated an oil emulsion thickness calibration cell for spectroscopic analysis and ground truth, field measurements. Digital night vision cameras provided real-time, wide-dynamic-range imagery, and were able to detect and recognize oil from full sun to partial moon light. The LWIR camera provided quantitative oil analysis (identification) for >1 mm thick crude oils both day and night. Two filtered, co-registered, SWIR cameras were used to determine whether oil thickness could be measured in real time. Spectroscopic results revealed that oil emulsions vary with location and weathered state and some oils (e.g., ANS and Santa Barbara seeps) do not show the spectral rich features from archived Deep Water Horizon hyperspectral data. Multi-sensor imagery collected during the 2015 USCG Airborne Oil Spill Remote Sensing and Reporting Exercise and the design of a compact, multiband imager are discussed.

  15. Pumping through porous hydrophobic/oleophilic materials: an alternative technology for oil spill remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jin; Ye, Yin-Dong; Yao, Hong-Bin; Zhu, Xi; Wang, Xu; Wu, Liang; Wang, Jin-Long; Ding, Hang; Yong, Ni; He, Ling-Hui; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2014-04-01

    Recently, porous hydrophobic/oleophilic materials (PHOMs) have been shown to be the most promising candidates for cleaning up oil spills; however, due to their limited absorption capacity, a large quantity of PHOMs would be consumed in oil spill remediation, causing serious economic problems. In addition, the complicated and time-consuming process of oil recovery from these sorbents is also an obstacle to their practical application. To solve the above problems, we apply external pumping on PHOMs to realize the continuous collection of oil spills in situ from the water surface with high speed and efficiency. Based on this novel design, oil/water separation and oil collection can be simultaneously achieved in the remediation of oil spills, and the oil sorption capacity is no longer limited to the volume and weight of the sorption material. This novel external pumping technique may bring PHOMs a step closer to practical application in oil spill remediation.

  16. Genotoxicity of fumes from heated cooking oils produced in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, P F; Chiang, T A; Ko, Y C; Lee, H

    1999-02-01

    Epidemiologic investigations of lung cancer among Taiwanese nonsmoking women have found that exposure to fumes from cooking oils may be an important risk factor. Fume samples from three different commercial cooking oils (lard, soybean, and peanut oils) often used in Taiwan for preparing Chinese meals were collected for genotoxicity analysis in SOS chromotest and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) assays. The induction factors of the SOS chromotest in Escherichia coli PQ 37 were dependent on the concentrations of lard and soybean cooking oil extracts without S9 mix. In addition, when CHO-K1 cells were exposed to condensates of cooking oil fumes for 12 h, SCEs showed a dose-related increase in extracts of lard and soybean oil fumes. This result provides experimental evidence and is in accordance with the findings of epidemiologic studies that women exposed to the emitted fumes of cooking oils are at an increase risk of contracting lung cancer. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  17. Concurrent Collections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Budimlić

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the Concurrent Collections (CnC programming model. CnC supports flexible combinations of task and data parallelism while retaining determinism. CnC is implicitly parallel, with the user providing high-level operations along with semantic ordering constraints that together form a CnC graph. We formally describe the execution semantics of CnC and prove that the model guarantees deterministic computation. We evaluate the performance of CnC implementations on several applications and show that CnC offers performance and scalability equivalent to or better than that offered by lower-level parallel programming models.

  18. Collective instabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K.Y. Ng

    2003-08-25

    The lecture covers mainly Sections 2.VIII and 3.VII of the book ''Accelerator Physics'' by S.Y. Lee, plus mode-coupling instabilities and chromaticity-driven head-tail instability. Besides giving more detailed derivation of many equations, simple interpretations of many collective instabilities are included with the intention that the phenomena can be understood more easily without going into too much mathematics. The notations of Lee's book as well as the e{sup jwt} convention are followed.

  19. Collective Success or Collective Failure?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fayyaz, Anjum

    In this article, I make a contribution to the literature on how industrial clusters in developing countries respond to corporate responsibility demands from international buyers in Europe and North America. I outline an analytical framework that integrates insights from the global value chain......, industrial cluster, and corporate social responsibility literatures with the aim of explaining why collective cluster action through industry associations and/or public private partnerships succeed or fail in facilitating cluster-wide compliance with CSR standards. I then use this framework to analyze a case...... study of soccer village project to learn how various attempts at facilitating joint CSR action in the Pakistani football manufacturing have consistently failed in addressing international CSR compliance demands. I conclude that this form of collective failure – along with technological changes, lack...

  20. Cheap Oil and the Impact on Rebuilding Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-30

    other provision of law , no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a...oil per day; however, the Syrian populace consumed most of the oil with only 70,000 barrels per day being exported. Oil exports brought in over $3...at least five years. 26 Similar to Saudi Arabia, Kuwait and United Arab Emirates ( UAE ) also have significant cash reserves, which were bolstered

  1. In vitro activity of ten essential oils against Sarcoptes scabiei

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Fang; Candy, Kerdalidec; Melloul, Elise; Bernigaud, Charlotte; Chai, Ling; Darmon, Céline; Durand, Rémy; Botterel, Françoise; Chosidow, Olivier; Izri, Arezki; Huang, Weiyi; GUILLOT, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Background The development of alternative approaches in ectoparasite management is currently required. Essential oils have been demonstrated to exhibit fumigant and topical toxicity to a number of arthropods. The aim of the present study was to assess the potential efficacy of ten essential oils against Sarcoptes scabiei. Methods The major chemical components of the oils were identified by GC-MS analysis. Contact and fumigation bioassays were performed on Sarcoptes mites collected from experi...

  2. Citrus bergamia essential oil: from basic research to clinical application

    OpenAIRE

    Michele eNavarra; Carmen eMannucci; Marisa eDelbò; Gioacchino eCalapai

    2015-01-01

    Citrus bergamia Risso et Poiteau, also known as Bergamot, is a plant belonging to the Rutaceae family, defined as a hybrid of bitter orange and lemon. It is an endemic plant of the Calabria region (Italy). Bergamot fruit is primarily used for the extraction of its essential oil (bergamot essential oil: BEO), employed in perfume, cosmetics, food and confections.The aim of this review was to collect recent data from the literature on Citrus bergamia essential oil and, through a critical analysi...

  3. Oil and gas field code master list, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-16

    This document contains data collected through October 1993 and provides standardized field name spellings and codes for all identified oil and/or gas fields in the United States. Other Federal and State government agencies, as well as industry, use the EIA Oil and Gas Field Code Master List as the standard for field identification. A machine-readable version of the Oil and Gas Field Code Master List is available from the National Technical Information Service.

  4. Collective drawing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Grossa

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is referred to the experiences run at Iuav in the framework of the EU-FSE founded Courses of Collaborative Composition. In these courses we built up some work/game thought as meaning of a distance collaborative game. Rally around these games, we delivered specific knowledge and portions of technical knowledge referred to the issue of formal structure, shape grammar, and codify of “behaviours role” for a networked distance collaboration. The subject of this didactic experience is the composition and of a collective figurative opera (an image processed by the whole group of students. The themes of the image have been different in each Course: a figurative opera, a facade of an urban street or a small square. The students shared a repertory of figures coming from the break down of paintings or pictures of palaces and used the repertory as a source in order to compose the final collective opera. On the other side we worked on the shape grammar roles, experimented tools and protocols of communication, analysed the best practice in this field and defined evaluation systems.

  5. Collective motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicsek, Tamás; Zafeiris, Anna

    2012-08-01

    We review the observations and the basic laws describing the essential aspects of collective motion - being one of the most common and spectacular manifestation of coordinated behavior. Our aim is to provide a balanced discussion of the various facets of this highly multidisciplinary field, including experiments, mathematical methods and models for simulations, so that readers with a variety of background could get both the basics and a broader, more detailed picture of the field. The observations we report on include systems consisting of units ranging from macromolecules through metallic rods and robots to groups of animals and people. Some emphasis is put on models that are simple and realistic enough to reproduce the numerous related observations and are useful for developing concepts for a better understanding of the complexity of systems consisting of many simultaneously moving entities. As such, these models allow the establishing of a few fundamental principles of flocking. In particular, it is demonstrated, that in spite of considerable differences, a number of deep analogies exist between equilibrium statistical physics systems and those made of self-propelled (in most cases living) units. In both cases only a few well defined macroscopic/collective states occur and the transitions between these states follow a similar scenario, involving discontinuity and algebraic divergences.

  6. Modeling of oil mist and oil vapor concentration in the shale shaker area on offshore drilling installations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bråtveit, Magne; Steinsvåg, Kjersti; Lie, Stein Atle; Moen, Bente E

    2009-11-01

    The objective of this study was to develop regression models to predict concentrations of oil mist and oil vapor in the workplace atmosphere in the shale shaker area of offshore drilling installations. Collection of monitoring reports of oil mist and oil vapor in the mud handling areas of offshore drilling installations was done during visits to eight oil companies and five drilling contractors. A questionnaire was sent to the rig owners requesting information about technical design of the shaker area. Linear mixed-effects models were developed using concentration of oil mist or oil vapor measured by stationary sampling as dependent variables, drilling installation as random effect, and potential determinants related to process technical parameters and technical design of the shale shaker area as fixed effects. The dataset comprised stationary measurements of oil mist (n = 464) and oil vapor (n = 462) from the period 1998 to 2004. The arithmetic mean concentrations of oil mist and oil vapor were 3.89 mg/m(3) and 39.7 mg/m(3), respectively. The air concentration models including significant determinants such as viscosity of base oil, mud temperature, well section, type of rig, localization of shaker, mechanical air supply, air grids in outer wall, air curtain in front of shakers, and season explained 35% and 17% of the total variance in oil vapor and oil mist, respectively. The developed models could be used to indicate what impact differences in technical design and changes in process parameters have on air concentrations of oil mist and oil vapor. Thus, the models will be helpful in planning control measures to reduce the potential for occupational exposure.

  7. 75 FR 44007 - Renewal and Revision of Approved Information Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    ... 8,000 Gas Flaring (43 CFR 3164.2 and 43 CFR 3162.7-1(d)) Notice to 100 16 1,600 Lessees--4A: Royalty... number includes paperwork requirements in 43 CFR part 3160, which cover onshore oil and gas operations... INFORMATION: The following information is provided for the information collection: Title: Onshore Oil and Gas...

  8. Method for Attaining Caraway Seed Oil Fractions with Different Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiwakoti, Santosh; Poudyal, Shital; Saleh, Osama; Astatkie, Tess; Zheljazkov, Valtcho D

    2016-06-01

    Caraway (Carum carvi L.) is a medicinal and aromatic plant; its seeds (fruits) are used as spice and they contain essential oils. We hypothesized that by collecting caraway oil at different time points during the extraction process, we could obtain oil fractions with distinct chemical composition. A hydrodistillation time (HDT) study was conducted to test the hypothesis. The caraway seed oil fractions were collected at eight different HDT (at 0 - 2, 2 - 7, 7 - 15, 15 - 30, 30 - 45, 45 - 75, 75 - 105, and 105 - 135 min). Additionally, a non-stop HD for 135 min was conducted as a control. Most of the oil was eluted early in the HD process. The non-stop HDT treatment yielded 2.76% oil by weight. Of the 24 essential oil constituents, limonene (77 - 19% of the total oil) and carvone (20 - 79%) were the major ones. Other constituents included myrcene (0.72 - 0.16%), trans-carveol (0.07 - 0.39%), and β-caryophyllene (0.07 - 0.24%). Caraway seed oil with higher concentration of limonene can be obtained by sampling oil fractions early in HD process; conversely, oil with high concentration of carvone can be obtained by excluding the fractions eluted early in the HD process. We demonstrated a method of obtaining caraway seed oil fractions with various and unique composition. These novel oil fractions with unique composition are not commercially available and could have much wider potential uses, and also target different markets compared to the typical caraway essential oil.

  9. Mexican oil industry: Shifting to difficult oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazan G., Gerardo; Gonzalez, Cristobal J.

    2010-09-15

    Mexico has stepped into an important transition of declining oil fields and new challenging oil projects. The aim of this paper is to show a new perspective of the oil resources that have been exploited throughout the Mexican territory, as well as the remaining resources yet to be exploited. We have developed a resources/production-costs chart that illustrates the historical and future development of the Mexican oil industry, showing the shift that the industry will face in the coming years; this chart was taken from a model already in use by the most prestige energy agencies in the world.

  10. SUITABILITY OF SOYBEAN SEED OIL AS TRANSFORMER OIL

    OpenAIRE

    Egbuna, S.O.*, Ude, O.C., Ude, C.N.

    2016-01-01

    In search of solution to the harmful ecological problems due to toxicity and non-biodegradability posed by conventional transformer insulation oil (mineral oil), the production of transformer oil from soybean seed oil (vegetable oil) was carried out. The oil was extracted using n-hexane and was refined. The transformer oil was produced by transesterification and was characterized using American Society for Testing Material (ASTM) standard test. The solvent employed gave good yield of oil from...

  11. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon body residues and lysosomal membrane destabilization in mussels exposed to the Dubai Star bunker fuel oil (intermediate fuel oil 380) spill in San Francisco Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Hyun-Min; Stanton, Beckye; McBride, Toby; Anderson, Michael J

    2014-05-01

    Following the spill of bunker fuel oil (intermediate fuel oil 380, approximately 1500-3000 L) into San Francisco Bay in October 2009, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in mussels from moderately oiled areas increased up to 87 554 ng/g (dry wt) and, 3 mo later, decreased to concentrations found in mussels collected prior to oiling, with a biological half-life of approximately 16 d. Lysosomal membrane destabilization increased in mussels with higher PAH body burdens.

  12. HEAVY OIL DEVELOPMENT KEY TO CHINA'S OIL PRODUCTION GROWTH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Chunpeng

    2006-01-01

    @@ How to raise the heavy oil production rate has long been a difficult research project focused by international oil giants while the super-heavy oil development is particularly a world-class bottleneck for many oil producers. However, China's main oil companies will give priority to heavy oil exploration and production in the next decade to meet China's increasing energy needs.

  13. Noise exposure in oil mills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna Kumar G

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Noise of machines in various agro-based industries was found to be the major occupational hazard for the workers of industries. The predominant noise sources need to be identified and the causes of high noise need to be studied to undertake the appropriate measures to reduce the noise level in one of the major agro-based industries, oil mills. Aims: To identify the predominant noise sources in the workrooms of oil mills. To study the causes of noise in oil mills. To measure the extent of noise exposure of oil mill workers. To examine the response of workers towards noise, so that appropriate measures can be undertaken to minimize the noise exposure. Settings and Design: A noise survey was conducted in the three renowned oil mills of north-eastern region of India. Materials and Methods: Information like output capacity, size of power source, maintenance condition of the machines and workroom configurations of the oil mills was collected by personal observations and enquiry with the owner of the mill. Using a Sound Level Meter (SLM (Model-824, Larson and Davis, USA, equivalent SPL was measured at operator′s ear level in the working zone of the workers near each machine of the mills. In order to study the variation of SPL in the workrooms of the oil mill throughout its operation, equivalent SPL was measured at two appropriate locations of working zone of the workers in each mill. For conducting the noise survey, the guidelines of Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety (CCOHS were followed. Grid points were marked on the floor of the workroom of the oil mill at a spacing of 1 m x 1 m. SPL at grid points were measured at about 1.5 m above the floor. The direction of the SLM was towards the nearby noisy source. To increase accuracy, two replications were taken at each grid point. All the data were recorded for 30 sec. At the end of the experiment, data were downloaded to a personal computer. With the help of utility software of

  14. Considering Oil Production Variance as an Indicator of Peak Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-07

    geophysicist Dr. M. King Hubbert mathematically calculated that the United States would reach its maximum crude oil production capacity in 1970. His...Jean Laherrere) have presented data that indicate all nations together will reach collective maximum crude oil production capacity between 2004 and

  15. Production, properties and utilisation of pyrolysis oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sipilae, K.; Oasmaa, A.; Arpiainen, V.; Solantausta, Y.; Leppaemaeki, E.; Kuoppala, E.; Levander, J.; Kleemola, J.; Saarimaeki, P. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1997-12-01

    In this project VTT Energy co-ordinates the EU JOULE Project `Biofuel oil for power plants and boilers` supporting the development projects of Finnish enterprises, and participates in the Pyrolysis Project of IEA Bioenergy Agreement. Presently two pyrolysis devices with capacities of 150 g/h and 1 kg/h are used for the project. Hot gas filtering tests by using one ceramic candle equipment have been carried out with the 1 kg/h device for pyrolysis oil. The solids and alkali contents of the product oil were reduced clearly. Suitable conditions are being defined for continuous hot gas filtering. A PDU device of 20 kg/h is being commissioned. The main aim of the chemical characterisation of pyrolysis oil was to develop as simple a method as possible for differentiating pyrolysis oils and for finding correlations between the characteristics and behaviour of pyrolysis oils. Pyrolysis oils produced from various raw materials (hardwood, pine, straw) were analysed and compared with each other. VTT Energy participates in the pyrolysis network (EU/PYNE) of EU, the aim of which is to collect and disseminate research results of pyrolysis studies, i.e., through a journal with a wide circulation. VTT also participates in the pyrolysis activity of IEA (PYRA), the other partners being Great Britain, EU, Canada and the United States. I.e., quality criteria and improvement, occupational safety and pyrolysis kinetics are discussed in IEA/PYRA

  16. Software design of data collection and transmission layer about remote measurement and control system in oil well based on RTU%基于RTU油井远程测控系统的数据采集与传输层软件设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董明明; 孙万蓉; 陈梓馥; 程璐璐; 王政; 贾海龙

    2012-01-01

    A software design of data collection and transmission layer about remote measurement and control system in oil well based on RTU is introduced. The software design to achieve data collection, data transmission and outside relay control in various sensors is discussed. Modbus/RTU and Modbus/TCP communication are also analyzed. The results show that with the help of configuration software, the system can work in more than one mode, which makes it available in different occasions.%提出了一种基于RTU油井远程测控系统的数据采集和传输层软件设计方案。介绍了实现各种传感器的数据采集、传输以及外部继电器控制的软件设计方法,并对实现Modbus/RTU和Modbus/TCP的通信进行了详细分析。分析结果显示:通过软件配置,可实现多种工作方式,有利于该系统在不同场合下的应用。

  17. efficacy of olive oil, groundnut oil, soybean oil and palm kernel oil in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AGROSEARCH UIL

    Although food grains are commonly protected by insecticidal application and fumigation, ... (1978) reported that groundnut oil applied to cowpeas has no effect on mortality or .... Effectiveness of vegetable oil fractions in controlling the Mexican.

  18. 不同采收期栽培宽叶羌活挥发性成分的研究%Comparison Analysis of Contents and Constituents of Volatile Oils Extracted from Cultivated Notopterygium forbesii H.Boiss Collected in Different Months

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春丽; 周玉碧; 周国英; 徐文华; 杨路存

    2012-01-01

    采用水蒸气蒸馏法提取不同采收时间(5、6、7、8和9月)栽培宽叶羌活药材中的挥发油,测定其含量;通过GC-MS对挥发油成分进行了分析鉴定,并采用面积归一化法计算各组分的相对含量.实验结果表明,不同采收时间,栽培宽叶羌活挥发油含量存在差异,以8月份采收的药材挥发油含量最高;挥发油经GC-MS分析,共鉴定出39个化合物,有31种共有成分;对共有组分进行主成分分析显示,香桧烯、a-蒎烯、莰烯、β-蒎烯、γ-萜品烯、乙酸龙脑酯、α-红没药醇等15种成分可作为挥发油季节变化的特征组分.不同季节采集的羌活生药材,其挥发油含量和成分具有一定的差别,在一定程度上反映了其药用价值的微妙差异,可为羌活药材药理药用价值的进一步开发利用提供一定的参考.%To determine the contents and constituents of volatile oils extracted from cultivated Notopterygium forbesii H. Boiss vegetated in different months. Analyzed their seasonal dynamics and provided experiment foundation for reasonable utilization of Rhizoma et Radix Notopteiygii. Volatile oils were extracted by steam distillation. The chemical constituents were separated and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The relative content of each component was determined by area normalization. The difference of volatile oil contents was significant at the 0. 01 level between different samples. The content was highest in the sample collected in August,and lowest in the sample vegetated in May. Thirty nine constituents were identified by GC-MS analysis .and there were thirty one same compounds in the five samples. The principal components analysis of SPSS was applied to the study of characteristic compounds and separated 15 kinds of compounds as characteristic constituents of volatile oil extracted from cultivated N. forbesii H. Boiss. vegetated in different months. The contents and constituents of

  19. China Aviation Oil Acquires Overseas Oil Company

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ China Aviation Oil (Singapore) announced an acquisition of a 20.6 percent stake in Singapore Petroleum Company (SPC) from Satya Capital Inc Ltd, the largest investment the company has ever made in its history. China Aviation Oil (Singapore),which is the largest Chinese enterprise Singapore,will become the second largest shareholder of SPC after the acquisition.

  20. Oil Module Working Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-12-01

    in any a^regate sense, or (b) to be "valid" for crude oil production in all countries. Neither, however, is it to provide detailed point... oil production by the oil companies through their regular channels. Such oil is said to be "sold back" by the countries to the coirpanies...a royalty to the producing country government. revenue received by the producing country government as a result of sales of its share of crude

  1. Indonesia's palm oil subsector

    OpenAIRE

    Larson, Donald F.

    1996-01-01

    Debate on Indonesia's palm oil policy was stimulated by a sharp increase in cooking oil prices in 1994-95 and a resulting increase in the export tax rate on crude palm oil. Palm oil has been one of the fastest growing subsectors in Indonesia. Using a quantitative model, the author analyzes the effect of government policies, including the export tax, buffer stock operations by the BULOG (the national logistics agency), and directed sales from public estates. The author acknowledges the export ...

  2. Soluble oil cutting fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rawlinson, A.P.; White, J.

    1987-06-23

    A soluble oil, suitable when diluted with water, for use as a cutting fluid comprises an alkali or alkaline-earth metal alkyl benzene sulphonate, a fatty acid diethanolamide, a mixed alkanolamine borate, a polyisobutenesuccinimide and a major proportion of mineral oil. The soluble oil is relatively stable without the need for a conventional coupling agent and some soluble oil emulsions are bio-static even though conventional biocides are not included.

  3. Chemical composition and biological activity of haplophyllum tuberculatum juss. essential oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    The essential oil of Haplophyllum tuberculatum was prepared by hydrodistillation of the fresh flowering aerial parts of the plant collected from Saudi Arabia. The oil was subsequently analyzed by GC and GC-MS. Thirty seven compounds, accounting for 96.4 % of the oil composition were identified. The ...

  4. Oil Spill Cleanup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauble, Christena Ann

    2011-01-01

    Several classroom activities using a model of a seashore and an oil spill demonstrate the basic properties of oil spills in oceans. Students brainstorm about how to best clean up the mess. They work in teams, and after agreeing on how they will proceed, their method is tested by measuring the amount of oil removed and by rating the cleanliness of…

  5. Natural oils as lubricants

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is currently an availability of vegetable oil lubricants, with the exception of engine oils. Vegetable oils are environmentally friendly, renewable, contribute to the reduction of our dependence on imported petroleum, and add value to the farmer. However, there are inherent weaknesses in veg...

  6. Oil Spill Response Manual

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marieke Zeinstra; Sandra Heins; Wierd Koops

    2014-01-01

    A two year programme has been carried out by the NHL University of Applied Sciences together with private companies in the field of oil and chemical spill response to finalize these manuals on oil and chemical spill response. These manuals give a good overview of all aspects of oil and chemical

  7. OIL AS POLITICAL WEAPON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana, BUICAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Oil (called by some black gold has not always been as coveted and used, but only in the last hundred years has established itself as a highly sought after as an indispensable proper functioning of modern economic activity that an important factor in international politics. International oil regime has changed in the last decades. In 1960, oil regime was a private oligopol which had links with governments main consuming countries. By then the price of a barrel of oil was two U.S. dollars and seven major transnational oil companies decided the amount of oil that will be produced. Meanwhile the world region with the largest oil exports were more strongly expressed nationalism and decolonization. Result, it was so in the late 60s in the region occur independent states. They have created an organization aim of this resource to their advantage - OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. Thus since 1973 there have been changes in the international regime governing oil field, namely producing countries were fixed production rate and price. After this time the oil weapon has become increasingly important in the management of international relations. Oil influenced the great powers to Middle East conflicts that occurred in the last century, but their attitude about the emergence of new sources of oil outside OPEC. In the late 90's, Russia has become a major supplier of oil to the West.

  8. Oil Spill Cleanup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauble, Christena Ann

    2011-01-01

    Several classroom activities using a model of a seashore and an oil spill demonstrate the basic properties of oil spills in oceans. Students brainstorm about how to best clean up the mess. They work in teams, and after agreeing on how they will proceed, their method is tested by measuring the amount of oil removed and by rating the cleanliness of…

  9. Lubricating oil; Junkatsuyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, H.

    1999-07-20

    As a reflection of business recession, sales amount of lubricating oils in 1998 in Japan was 2.334 million kl that is 96.1% of that in the previous year. In addition, export amount was 394 thousand kl that also decreased sharply to 81.9% of that in the previous year. In this situation, researches and developments of environment-adaptable lubricating oils such as fuel consumption-saving engine oils, new mechanism-corresponding drive system oils (AFT, CVT), refrigerating machine oils for substitute coolants, biodegradable oils and greases, environment corresponding processing oils (non-chlorine type cutting oils), and so on have been executed actively. In respect to lubricating oils for vehicles, numerous researches and developments of engine oils are executed while putting stress on the improvement of fuel consumption saving for reducing CO{sub 2} exhaust; improvement of adaptability to exhaust treating apparatus for purging harmful components from exhaust gas; and environmental corresponding of long drain for reducing waste oils. In respect to lubricating oils for industry, basic characteristics and utility characteristics of fire-resistant working fluids and biodegradable working fluids; and utility characteristics of new functional fluids and electric viscous fluids are reported in view of their relationship with environmental protection. (NEDO)

  10. Composición química y actividad biológica de aceites esenciales de Calycolpus moritzianus recolectado en el Norte de Santander, Colombia Chemical composition and biological activity of essential oils Calycolpus moritzianus collected in the Norte de Santander, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiomara Yáñez-Rueda

    2009-12-01

    chemical characterization and evaluation of antifungal, antiviral and cytotoxic activity of 40 essential oils extracted from Calycolpus moritzianus, commonly called "arrayán" or "cínaro", collected in several areas of Norte de Santander, Colombia. Materials and methods: antifungal activity was determined following the protocols AFST-EUCAST for Candida krusei and C. parasilopsis, and CLSI-M38A for Aspergillus fumigatus and A. flavus. Cytotoxicity was evaluated on tumoral (HeLa and Jurkat, and non tumoral (Vero cell lines by the MTT photo-colorimetric technique The in vitro antiviral activity against Herpes simplex virus HSV-1 was determined by the end-point titration technique (EPTT. Results and Discussion: X38 and X39 oils of plants collected in regions of Chinácota and Salazar regions showed activity against C. krusei with minimal inhibitory concentration values of 500 μg/mL. None of the oils was cytotoxic in no-tumor (Vero cells . Oils X9 and X10 of plants from regions of Salazar and Pamplonita were the most cytotoxic on HeLa cells at concentrations of 37.8 ± 2.4 and 40.6 ± 2.6 μg/mL, respectively. The reduction of viral load in cell cultures only was showed by X11 oil. Antifungal and antitumor activity of these oils was correlated with the composition of the major components showing activity for Terpinen-4-ol, (- Limonene, Linalool and a-Pinene. Salud UIS 2009; 41: 259-267.

  11. Effect of selected essential oil plants on bacterial wilt disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2014-03-25

    Mar 25, 2014 ... Key words: Essential oil plants, Potatoes, Ralstonia solanacearum, Wilt incidence ... the soil level to collect stems, leaves, flowers and the side branches. Harvesting ..... to other factors such as pH, organic matter content and.

  12. Chemical Analysis of Essential Oils from Ocotea gomezii W.C. Burger and Ocotea morae Gómez-Laur. (Lauraceae) Collected at "Reserva Biológica Alberto M. Brenes" in Costa Rica and their Cytotoxic Activity on Tumor Cell Lines

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oils of the leaves, bark and wood of Ocotea gomezii and O. morae from Costa Rica, were analyzed by capillary GC-FID and GC-MS. The oils of O. gomezii were predominantly composed by sesquiterpenoids whereas the oils of O. morae had both monoterpenoids and sesquiterpenoids. Analysis by GC/MS and GC/FID resulted in the identification of 166 compounds, representing about 89.4"98.1% of the total oils. When we compared the effect of the oils on cell lines (...

  13. Análise dos óleos essenciais de três espécies de Piper coletadas na região do Distrito Federal (Cerrado e comparação com óleos de plantas procedentes da região de Paraty, RJ (Mata Atlântica Analysis of the essential oil of three species of Piper collected in the region of the Distrito Federal (Cerrado - Brazilian Savannah and comparison with oils of plants from region of Paraty, State of Rio de Janeiro (Atlantic Rain Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Cristina Leone Potzernheim

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Foi determinada a composição química dos óleos essenciais de 3 espécies do gênero Piper coletadas em Matas de Galeria no Cerrado, e comparada com composição dos óleos das mesmas espécies oriundas da Mata Atlântica. A composição química do óleo de Piper arboreum subsp arboreum, P. dilatatum e P. hispidum foi determinada por cromatografia gasosa em coluna capilar HP-5 e espectrometria de massas. As três espécies do Cerrado apresentaram predominância de sesquiterpenos. Piper arboreum subsp arboreum apresentou como constituintes majoritários biciclogermacreno (12,1%, 10-epi-g-eudesmol (11,6% e óxido de cariofileno (10,1%. Em P. dilatatum os constituintes em maior quantidade foram cis-b-ocimeno (19,6% e b-cariofileno (11,3% e em P. hispidum foram b-pineno (19,7%, a-pineno (9,0%.The chemical composition of the essential oils of three species of Piper, namely Piper arboretum subsp arboretum, P. dilatatum and P. hispidum, from the Cerrado (Brazillian savannah was determined and compared with the composition of the oils from the same species collected in the Atlantic Rain Forest. Analyses were performed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry using a HP5 capillary column. Sesquiterpenes were the major constituents of the oils. In P. arboreum subsp arboreum, bicyclogermacre (12.1%, 10-epi-g-eudesmol (11.6% and caryophyllene oxide (10.1% were the main constituents. For P. dilatatum cis-b-ocimene (19.6 and b-caryophyllene (11.3% were the major compounds. The main components in P. hispidum oil were b-pinene (19.7% and a-pinene (9.0%.

  14. Effect of Hydrogen Peroxide Concentration in Remediation of Oil-contaminated Soils with Use of Fenton Reaction

    OpenAIRE

    A. S. Yousefi; A. Bostani

    2013-01-01

    Refining oil-contaminated soils has a great importance especially in oil producer countries such as Iran. Different methods have been provided to eliminate oil contaminations from soil. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Hydrogen peroxide concentration in refining oil-contaminated soils with Fenton chemical method. To do this, a calcareous soil complex sample was collected around the Tehran oil refinery and treated with 10 and 20 percent petroleum in three replications. Af...

  15. Remote Detection of Oil Slicks at the Ocean Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number...Percepción Remota y Sistemas de Información Espacial Capítulo Colombia 1 REMOTE DETECTION OF OIL SLICKS AT THE OCEAN SURFACE DETECCIÓN REMOTA DE...oil leakage are inherent casualties of the business of extracting oil. Even if these were to be totally controlled , oil and gas seeps naturally at

  16. [Chemical composition of the essential oil from melissa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tittel, G; Wagner, H; Bos, R

    1982-10-01

    Different oil-samples of Melissa officinalis L. were analysed by capillary GC/MS, using fused silica columns and E.I.-Mass-spectrometry. Comparing the observed mass-spectra with those of a spectral collection, 70 compounds of the oil were identified. Geranial, neral, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, citronellal, geranyl-acetate, beta-caryophyllene, and beta-caryophyllene-oxide comprise about 96%. The fingerprint of the capillary gas-chromatogramm permitted differentiation of the essential oil of Melissa officinalis, Cymbopogon winterianus and Nepeta cataria var. citriodora., as well as a standardisation of pharmaceutical preparations containing Melissa oil.

  17. Utah Heavy Oil Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Bauman; S. Burian; M. Deo; E. Eddings; R. Gani; R. Goel; C.K. Huang; M. Hogue; R. Keiter; L. Li; J. Ruple; T. Ring; P. Rose; M. Skliar; P.J. Smith; J.P. Spinti; P. Tiwari; J. Wilkey; K. Uchitel

    2009-10-20

    The Utah Heavy Oil Program (UHOP) was established in June 2006 to provide multidisciplinary research support to federal and state constituents for addressing the wide-ranging issues surrounding the creation of an industry for unconventional oil production in the United States. Additionally, UHOP was to serve as an on-going source of unbiased information to the nation surrounding technical, economic, legal and environmental aspects of developing heavy oil, oil sands, and oil shale resources. UHOP fulGilled its role by completing three tasks. First, in response to the Energy Policy Act of 2005 Section 369(p), UHOP published an update report to the 1987 technical and economic assessment of domestic heavy oil resources that was prepared by the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission. The UHOP report, entitled 'A Technical, Economic, and Legal Assessment of North American Heavy Oil, Oil Sands, and Oil Shale Resources' was published in electronic and hard copy form in October 2007. Second, UHOP developed of a comprehensive, publicly accessible online repository of unconventional oil resources in North America based on the DSpace software platform. An interactive map was also developed as a source of geospatial information and as a means to interact with the repository from a geospatial setting. All documents uploaded to the repository are fully searchable by author, title, and keywords. Third, UHOP sponsored Give research projects related to unconventional fuels development. Two projects looked at issues associated with oil shale production, including oil shale pyrolysis kinetics, resource heterogeneity, and reservoir simulation. One project evaluated in situ production from Utah oil sands. Another project focused on water availability and produced water treatments. The last project considered commercial oil shale leasing from a policy, environmental, and economic perspective.

  18. Measuring the importance of oil-related revenues in total fiscal income for Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes-Loya, Manuel Lorenzo; Blanco, Lorenzo [Facultad de Economia, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Loma Redonda 1515 Pte., Col. Loma Larga, C.P. 64710, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon (Mexico)

    2008-09-15

    Revenues from oil exports are an important part of government budgets in Mexico. A time-series analysis is conducted using monthly data from 1990 to 2005 examining three different specifications to determine how international oil price fluctuations and government income generated from oil exports influence fiscal policy in Mexico. The behavior of government spending and taxation is consistent with the spend-tax hypothesis. The results show that there is an inverse relationship between oil-related revenues and tax revenue from non-oil sources. Fiscal policy reform is urgently needed in order to improve tax collection as oil reserves in Mexico become more and more depleted. (author)

  19. OCULAR COMPLICATIONS OF SILICONE OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Kamran Khalid

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Silicone oil (SO is an invaluable tool in the management of complex retinal detachments (RDs. Injection of silicone oil is associated with a variety of ocular complications specially when it is kept for a long time and its removal is endangering retinal re-detachment. The objective of this study was to determine the frequencies of different ocular complications associated with silicone oil injection in our setup. Study Design: Case series. Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted at Vitreo-retina division of Al-Shifa Trust Eye Hospital, Rawalpindi from January 2014 to June 2014. Material and Methods: A total of 30 patients were included in the study who underwent pars-planavitrectomy (PPV with silicone oil injection for complex retinal detachments. The patients who had reached between 3 months & 6 months of their postoperative period and were presenting with some complications related to silicone oil injection were included in the study. Their records were reviewed and pre-operative data were collected regarding state of the eye preoperatively. Then the post-operative complications were noted. The descriptive and analytical statistics of different variables were measured using SPSS-17.0 software. Results: Out of thirty patients included in our study 23 (76.7% were male and 7 (23.3% were female. The mean age was 21.53 ± 16.004 years and range was 66 years. The mean pre-operative intra-ocular pressure ( IOP was 14.0 ± 2.150 mmHg and range 8 mmHg and the mean post-operative IOP was 24.93 ± 13.889 mmHg and range 45 mmHg (p=0.001. The pre-operative PVR grade-C was absent in 12 (40% patients and was present in 18 (60% patients and post-operative PVR grade-C was absent in 24 (80% patients and was present in 6 (20% patients (p=0.004; McNemar test. Band keratopathy was seen in 8 (26.7% and corneal decompensation in 2 (6.7% patients. Emulsification of silicone oil was seen in 14 (46.7% patients. Rubeosisiridis was present in 2

  20. Reconnaissance of Macondo-1 well oil in sediment and tarballs from the northern Gulf of Mexico shoreline, Texas to Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Campbell, Pamela L.; Lam, Angela; Lorenson, T.D.; Hostettler, Frances D.; Thomas, Burt; Wong, Florence L.

    2010-01-01

    Hydrocarbons were extracted and analyzed from sediment and tarballs collected from the northern Gulf of Mexico (nGOM) coast that is potentially impacted by Macondo-1 (M-1) well oil. The samples were analyzed for a suite of diagnostic geochemical biomarkers. Aided by multivariate statistical analysis, the M-1 well oil has been identified in sediment and tarballs collected from Louisiana, Alabama, Mississippi, and Florida. None of the sediment hydrocarbon extracts from Texas correlated with the M-1 well oil. Oil-impacted sediments are confined to the shoreline adjacent to the cumulative oil slick of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, and no impact was observed outside of this area.

  1. Oil shale commercialization study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, M.M.

    1981-09-01

    Ninety four possible oil shale sections in southern Idaho were located and chemically analyzed. Sixty-two of these shales show good promise of possible oil and probable gas potential. Sixty of the potential oil and gas shales represent the Succor Creek Formation of Miocene age in southwestern Idaho. Two of the shales represent Cretaceous formations in eastern Idaho, which should be further investigated to determine their realistic value and areal extent. Samples of the older Mesozonic and paleozoic sections show promise but have not been chemically analyzed and will need greater attention to determine their potential. Geothermal resources are of high potential in Idaho and are important to oil shale prospects. Geothermal conditions raise the geothermal gradient and act as maturing agents to oil shale. They also might be used in the retorting and refining processes. Oil shales at the surface, which appear to have good oil or gas potential should have much higher potential at depth where the geothermal gradient is high. Samples from deep petroleum exploration wells indicate that the succor Creek shales have undergone considerable maturation with depth of burial and should produce gas and possibly oil. Most of Idaho's shales that have been analyzed have a greater potential for gas than for oil but some oil potential is indicated. The Miocene shales of the Succor Creek Formation should be considered as gas and possibly oil source material for the future when technology has been perfectes. 11 refs.

  2. Oil palm mapping for Malaysia using PALSAR-2 dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, P.; Qi, C. Y.; Yu, L.; Cracknell, A.

    2016-12-01

    Oil palm is one of the most productive vegetable oil crops in the world. The main oil palm producing areas are distributed in humid tropical areas such as Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, western and central Africa, northern South America, and central America. Increasing market demands, high yields and low production costs of palm oil are the primary factors driving large-scale commercial cultivation of oil palm, especially in Malaysia and Indonesia. Global demand for palm oil has grown exponentially during the last 50 years, and the expansion of oil palm plantations is linked directly to the deforestation of natural forests. Satellite remote sensing plays an important role in monitoring expansion of oil palm. However, optical remote sensing images are difficult to acquire in the Tropics because of the frequent occurrence of thick cloud cover. This problem has led to the use of data obtained by synthetic aperture radar (SAR), which is a sensor capable of all-day/all-weather observation for studies in the Tropics. In this study, the ALOS-2 (Advanced Land Observing Satellite) PALSAR-2 (Phased Array type L-band SAR) datasets for year 2015 were used as an input to a support vector machine (SVM) based machine learning algorithm. Oil palm/non-oil palm samples were collected using a hexagonal equal-area sampling design. High-resolution images in Google Earth and PALSAR-2 imagery were used in human photo-interpretation to separate oil palm from others (i.e. cropland, forest, grassland, shrubland, water, hard surface and bareland). The characteristics of oil palms from various aspects, including PALSAR-2 backscattering coefficients (HH, HV), terrain and climate by using this sample set were further explored to post-process the SVM output. The average accuracy of oil palm type is better than 80% in the final oil palm map for Malaysia.

  3. Histograms showing variations in oil yield, water yield, and specific gravity of oil from Fischer assay analyses of oil-shale drill cores and cuttings from the Piceance Basin, northwestern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, John D.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Johnson, Ronald C.; Mercier, Tracey J.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that the Piceance Basin in northwestern Colorado contains over 1.5 trillion barrels of oil in place, making the basin the largest known oil-shale deposit in the world. Previously published histograms display oil-yield variations with depth and widely correlate rich and lean oil-shale beds and zones throughout the basin. Histograms in this report display oil-yield data plotted alongside either water-yield or oil specific-gravity data. Fischer assay analyses of core and cutting samples collected from exploration drill holes penetrating the Eocene Green River Formation in the Piceance Basin can aid in determining the origins of those deposits, as well as estimating the amount of organic matter, halite, nahcolite, and water-bearing minerals. This report focuses only on the oil yield plotted against water yield and oil specific gravity.

  4. Biodegradation of crude oil dispersions by marine bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juarez, Gabriel; Fernandez, Vicente; Stocker, Roman

    2016-11-01

    Dispersants are used to break up marine oil slicks and increase the available surface area for bacteria to degrade oil hydrocarbons. However, this common view neglects key elements of the microscale interactions between bacteria and oil droplets, namely encounters and growth. Utilizing experimental observations of bacteria colonizing oil droplets, we model the interactions affecting hydrocarbon consumption between a collection of oil droplets with varying sizes and a single bacterial pool. The results show that degradation time is minimized for intermediate droplet sizes and that reducing droplet size too much can lead to years in increased degradation time. This mechanical model provides a baseline for understanding oil biodegradation and mitigation strategies in open marine systems.

  5. Combustion of soybean oil and diesel mixtures for heating purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Adriana Correa; Sanz, Jose Francisco [European University Miguel de Cervantes, Valladolid (Spain)], E-mail: acorrea@uemc.es; Hernandez, Salvador; Navas, Luis Manuel; Rodriguez, Elena; Ruiz, Gonzalo [University of Valladolid (Spain). Dept. of Agricultural and Forest Engineering; San Jose, Julio [University of Valladolid (Spain). Dept. of Energetic Engineering; Gomez, Jaime [University of Valladolid (Spain). Dept. of Communications and Signal Theory and Telematics Engineering

    2008-07-01

    Using blends of vegetable oils with petroleum derivates for heating purposes has several advantages over other energy application for vegetable oils. This paper presents the results of an investigation by use of soybean oil and diesel mixture as fuel for producing heat in conventional diesel installation. The paper is set out as follows: properties characterization of soybean oil as fuel and of diesel oil, as well as the mixture of both; selection of the mixture according to their physical chemical properties and how they adapt to conventional combustion installation; experimentation with the selected mixture, allowing the main combustion parameters to be measured; processing the collected data, values of combustion, efficiency and reduction of emissions. Conclusions show that the use of soybean oil and diesel mixture for producing heat energy in conventional equipment is feasible and beneficial for reduction emissions. (author)

  6. Design of Intelligent Control System of Transformer Oil Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caijun Xu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available in working process of power transformer, which directly affects the safe operation of transformer oil temperature as well as the stability of the network, so vital to transformer oil temperature detection and control. Based on single chip and chip design of digital temperature measurement transformer oil temperature of an intelligent control system. The system uses a digital temperature sensor DS18B20 collection transformer oil temperature, improves the accuracy of the system. The low power consumption, strong anti-jamming ability of the SCM STC89C51 as the main controller to achieve control and real-time monitoring of transformer oil temperature, and input control module is designed for different transformer oil temperature preset control during normal operation, improving system usability and human-computer interaction.

  7. Transcutaneous absorption of oil in preterm babies--a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, A R; Krishnamoorthy, G; Patil, N; Mondkar, J A; Swar, B D

    2005-03-01

    This study was conducted to determine transcutaneous absorption of oil in preterm neonates. A mixture of coconut oil and Meadowfoam oil which contains unique fatty acids, which acted as marker fatty acids was applied to the skin of babies. One mL blood was collected before and one hour after post oil application. Both pre and post oil application serum samples were hydrolysed and derivatised with 2-phenyl hydrazine hydrochloride in order to detect fatty acids by HPLC analysis on C-8 column. None of the pre oil application serum sample showed the presence of the marker fatty acids. The post oil application serum sample of all the 12 babies showed the presence of marker fatty acids of Meadowfoam oil which indicates transcutaneous absorption of oil in preterm babies.

  8. The oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DeGrange A.R.

    1990-02-01

    Full Text Available Following the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound Alaska, on March 24, 1989, treatment centres for sea otters were set up at Valdez, Seward and Homer. Otter survival rates were lower at Valdez than at Seward, probably because the animals collected were closer to the spill in time and space, and oil toxicity was at a maximum. Otters collected in Prince William Sound were predominantly female and pregnant or lactating. Weathered oil persists in otter habitats throughout the spill zone - long term studies are underway to assess the effects of this.

  9. Multitissue molecular, genomic, and developmental effects of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill on resident Gulf killifish (Fundulus grandis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubansky, Benjamin; Whitehead, Andrew; Miller, Jeffrey T; Rice, Charles D; Galvez, Fernando

    2013-05-21

    The Deepwater Horizon oil rig disaster resulted in crude oil contamination along the Gulf coast in sensitive estuaries. Toxicity from exposure to crude oil can affect populations of fish that live or breed in oiled habitats as seen following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. In an ongoing study of the effects of Deepwater Horizon crude oil on fish, Gulf killifish ( Fundulus grandis ) were collected from an oiled site (Grande Terre, LA) and two reference locations (coastal MS and AL) and monitored for measures of exposure to crude oil. Killifish collected from Grande Terre had divergent gene expression in the liver and gill tissue coincident with the arrival of contaminating oil and up-regulation of cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) protein in gill, liver, intestine, and head kidney for over one year following peak landfall of oil (August 2011) compared to fish collected from reference sites. Furthermore, laboratory exposures of Gulf killifish embryos to field-collected sediments from Grande Terre and Barataria Bay, LA, also resulted in increased CYP1A and developmental abnormalities when exposed to sediments collected from oiled sites compared to exposure to sediments collected from a reference site. These data are predictive of population-level impacts in fish exposed to sediments from oiled locations along the Gulf of Mexico coast.

  10. Nutritional properties of poppyseed oil relative to some other oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beare-Rogers, J L; Gray, L; Nera, E A; Levin, O L

    1979-01-01

    Male Wistar rats were fed a purified basal diet with 20% lard and corn oil (3:1), sunflower oil, poppyseed oil, low-erucic rapeseed oil from Brassica napus, cultivar Tower, or mixtures of these oils, for 1 or 26 weeks. None of the hearts exhibited lipidosis at 1 week. At 26 weeks, the level of serum triglycerides was higher in rats fed the mixture of lard and corn oil than in those fed only vegetable oil, and the incidence of cardiac necrosis and fibrosis was higher in rats fed the rapeseed oil than in the other animals. Cardiac phospholipids in rats fed the rapeseed oil contained an elevated level of omega 3 docosahexaenoic acid, particularly in phosphatidylethanolamine. Poppyseed oil exhibited properties similar to those of sunflower oil, was absorbed as well as olive oil, and appeared to be a promising oil for human consumption.

  11. Learning and performance in multidisciplinary teams : The importance of collective team identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Vegt, Gerben S.; Bunderson, J. Stuart

    2005-01-01

    In multidisciplinary teams in the oil and gas industry, we examined expertise diversity's relationship with team learning and team performance under varying levels of collective team identification. In teams with low collective identification, expertise diversity was negatively related to team

  12. In vitro scolicidal effect of Satureja khuzistanica (Jamzad) essential oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Moazeni; Mohammad Jamal Saharkhiz; Ali Akbar Hoseini; Amir Mootabi Alavi

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the scolicidal effect of the Satureja khuzistanica (S. khuzistanica) essential oil from aerial parts of this herbal plant. Methods: The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation method. Gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were employed to determine the chemical composition of the essential oil. Protoscolices were collected aseptically from sheep livers containing hydatid cyst. Protoscolices were exposed to various concentrations of the oil (3, 5 and 10 mg/mL) for 10, 20, 30, and 60 min. Viability of protoscolices was confirmed by 0.1% eosin staining. Results: A total of 19 compounds representing 97.6% of the total oil, were identified. Carvacrol (94.9%) was found to be the major essential oil constituent. Scolicidal activity of S. khuzistanica essential oil at concentration of 3 mg/mL was 28.58, 32.71, 37.20 and 42.02%, respectively. This essential oil at concentration of 5 mg/mL killed 51.33, 66.68, 81.12, and 100% of protoscolices after 10, 20, 30 and 60 min, respectively. One hundred scolicidal effect was observed with S. khuzistanica essential oil at the concentration of 10 mg/mL after 10 min (comparing with 7.19% for control group). Conclusions: The essential oil of S. khuzistanica is rich in carvacrol and may be used as a natural scolicidal agent.

  13. Tarim Oil Field Company Oil Output Exceeds 5 Million Tons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    PetroChina Tarim Oil Field Company (Tarim Oil Field), located in the hinterland of Takelamagan Desert in Northwest Xinjiang Autonomous Region,produced 5.006 million tons of crude oil in 2002,ranking it as the sixth largest onshore oil field in China. This is the first time Tarim Oil Field has topped 5 million tons for its crude production.

  14. Constituents of south Indian vetiver oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallavarapu, Gopal Rao; Syamasundar, Kodakandla V; Ramesh, S; Rao, Bhaskaruni R Rajeswara

    2012-02-01

    The essential oils isolated from vetiver [Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash.] roots collected from four locations in south India were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Eighty constituents, representing 94.5-97.8% of the oils, have been identified. The oils from Bangalore, Hyderabad, Kundapur, and Mettupalayam were rich in sesquiterpenes and oxygenated sesquiterpenes with cedrane, bisabolane, eudesmane, eremophilane, and zizaane skeletons. The main components of the four essential oils were: eudesma-4,6-diene (delta-selinene) + beta-vetispirene (3.9-6.1%), beta-vetivenene (0.9-9.4%), 13-nor-trans-eudesma-4(15),7-dien-11-one + amorph-4-en-10-ol (5.0-6.4%), trans-eudesma-4(15),7-dien-12-ol (vetiselinenol) + (E)-opposita-4(15),7(11)-dien-12-ol (3.7-5.9%), eremophila-1 (10),11-dien-2alpha-ol (nootkatol) + ziza-6(13)-en-12-ol (khusimol) (16.1-19.2%), and eremophila-1(10),7(11)-dien-2alpha-ol (isonootkatol) + (E)-eremophila-1(10),7(11)-12-ol (isovalencenol) (5.6-6.9%). The important compounds that impart the characteristic vetiver odor are: khusimene, delta-selinene, beta-vetivenene, cyclocopacamphan-12-ol (epimers A and B), vetiselinenol, khusimol, isovalencenol, khusimone, alpha-vetivone, and beta-vetivone. The chemical profiles of the oils are comparable to Haitian vetiver oil.

  15. Oil: Economics and politics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayoub, A. (Laval Univ., PQ (Canada))

    1994-01-01

    A review is presented of the evolution of the international petroleum sector since 1973 with a special emphasis on the interdependence between the economic and political factors that influence it. Two issues are focused on: the effects of the nationalization of oil companies on the sharing of oil rents and on changes in the structure of the oil market; and the determination of oil prices. Definitions are presented of oil rents, and the reasons for OPEC nationalization of oil companies are explored. The effects of nationalization on market structures, expansion of free markets, and vertical integration are discussed. The existence of an oil price floor and the reasons for such a floor are examined. It is shown that nationalization induced an internalization of rents by the producing countries, leading to the emergence of a differential rent supported by the politics of the industrialized countries. Nationalization led to the breakup of systems of vertical and horizontal integration, with replacement by a new dual structure with OPEC controlling the upstream activities of the oil sector and oil companies controlling the downstream ones. Prices move between a floor price set by the costs of substitute deposits in the U.S., while the determination of ceiling levels by OPEC rests on successive fragile compromises. Overall oil is still a strategic product, despite the existence of spot markets, forward trading options, etc. 29 refs.

  16. Pilot oil atlas for Louisiana. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourgoyne, A.T. Jr.; Kimbrell, C.; Gao, Weigang

    1993-01-01

    An interdisciplinary research team of engineers, geologists, and computer scientists was assembled at LSU to develop unproved methods for prospecting for bypassed oil and to support oil and gas producers in Louisiana. The overall objective of the project was to develop methods for extending the producing life of several types of reservoirs by reducing the amount of oil being bypassed and abandoned. As part of this work, the team collected information available from public sources for several example reservoirs. One task of the project was to develop a format for the compilation of the extensive but cumbersome Louisiana reservoir data so that it could be used by government and industry to evaluate the resource and plan future activities. The existing information system maintained by Louisiana is a Production Audit Reporting System (PARS). It was designed to allow auditing of oil and gas production and severance taxes associated with this production. It was not intended to be used as a database for determining reservoir recovery efficiency or prospecting for oil and gas. Its use for these purposes, however, has been increasing. The database format suggested in this report would allow production information to be easily displayed by reservoir as well as by lease, unit, or well. The data collected as part of the bypassed-oil study was used to illustrate the proposed new format. This pilot database, or atlas, contains information available for 15 reservoirs. It is recommended that LSU continue to compile and publish database information on the potential for bypassed oil in Louisiana`s active reservoirs. This technology-transfer activity should focus each year on those active reservoirs involved in hearings of the Louisiana Office of Conservation. It should also focus on reservoirs being screened by LSU for EOR.

  17. Increasing oil recovery from heavy oil waterfloods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brice, B.W. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Canadian Section, Calgary, AB (Canada)]|[BP Exploration, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-10-15

    In an effort to optimize waterflood strategies in Alaska, the authors examined the results of up to 50 years of waterflooding on 166 western Canadian waterfloods recovering oil of less than 30 degrees API. The study determined the best operating practices for heavy oil waterflooding by investigating the difference between waterflooding of heavy oil and lighter oil counterparts. Operators of light oil waterflooding are advised to begin waterflooding early and maintain the voidage replacement ratio (VRR) at 1. However, this study showed that it is beneficial to delay the start of waterflooding until a certain fraction of the original oil in place was recovered. Varying the VRR was also shown to correlate with increased ultimate recovery. This statistical study of 166 western Canadian waterfloods also examined the effect of injection strategy and the effect of primary production before waterflooding. Some pre-waterflood production and under injection time is advantageous for ultimate recovery by waterfloods. Specific recommendations were presented for waterfloods in reservoirs with both high and low API gravity ranges. Each range showed a narrow sweet spot window where improved recovery occurred. 27 refs., 13 figs.

  18. The Power of Annotating and Indicating in the Symbol of Color——An Case Study of Oil Painting Collection Atmosphere originated from your feeling by GONG Hao%色彩符号的意蕴能指与力显——龚浩油画作品集《情至境生》品读

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖萍

    2011-01-01

    作为置身于自然符号体系中的色彩符号,因为其所具有的卓越的涵容性、多元化和自然文化意蕴的丰富能指而被艺术家们广泛地运用于各自的绘画艺术创作中,再兼艺术家们的色彩价值取向、审美情感传达和艺术表现方式的不尽相同,其作品中的色彩符号便更富有了变异性、丰富性、综合性的审美质征。龚浩油画作品集《情至境生》中的不少作品所表达出的色彩符号正是凸显出了这样的审美质征。%The symbol of color,as part of the symbol system of nature,has profound meaning,possibility and cultural annotation and finds position in the paintings of artists.The color expresses more nature of change,profoundness and comprehensiveness due to the different aesthetics,values of color and painting styles of different artists.The oil painting collection "Atmosphere originated from your feeling" by GONG Hao is an excellent illustration of this doctrine.

  19. Radiological assessment of natural radionuclides in soil within and around crude oil flow and gas compression stations in the Niger Delta, Nigeria; Evaluation radiologique de radionucleides naturels dans le sol collectes a l'interieur et autour des stations de compression des gaz dans le delta du Niger, Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ademola, J.A.; Atare, E.E. [University of Ibadan, Department of Physics, Ibadan (Nigeria)

    2010-04-15

    Natural radionuclide concentrations in soil samples collected within and around crude oil flow and gas compression stations in the Niger Delta, Nigeria, were determined using gamma-ray spectroscopy. The mean activity concentrations of {sup 40}K, {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th varied from 30.1 +- 3.0 to 59.0 +- 17.1, B.D.L. to 8.8 +- 2.3 and 7.9 +- 3.7 to 10.9 +- 1.9 Bq.kg-1, respectively. The {sup 40}K, {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th contents of the soil samples are very low compared with the world average for natural background area. The absorbed dose rate and effective dose ranged from 6.9 to 11.1 n Gy.h-1 and 8.5 to 13.6 muSv.y-1, respectively. The annual gonadal dose equivalent rate ranged from 48.9 to 77.5 muSv.y-1, which is lower than the world average of 0.30 mSv.y-1. The radium equivalent activity and the external hazard index of the soil samples were below the recommended limits of 370 Bq.kg-1 and unity, respectively. The results obtained reveal that there is no significant radiation hazard due to natural radionuclides of the soil samples in the studied areas. (authors)

  20. Spectroscopic study of Mentha oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, A. K.; Singh, A. K.

    The visible fluorescence and excitation spectra of Mentha oils (Japanese mint oil, peppermint oil and spearmint oil) have been recorded. Different physical constants which are characteristic of the fluorescent molecules have been calculated for all three oils. Results reveal that the same group of organic compounds dominate in the oils of peppermint and spearmint, whereas some different compound is present in Japanese mint oil. It is also found that the fluorescence intensity of these oils is comparable to that of Rhodamine 6G dye in methanol solution. Our studies suggest that Mentha oils may be a useful lasing material in the 450-600 nm wavelength range.

  1. Characteristics of bicyclic sesquiterpanes in crude oils and petroleum products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chun; Wang, Zhendi; Hollebone, Bruce P; Brown, Carl E; Landriault, Mike

    2009-05-15

    This study presents a quantitative gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of bicyclic sesquiterpanes (BSs) in numerous crude oils and refined petroleum products including light and mid-range distillate fuels, residual fuels, and lubricating oils collected from various sources. Ten commonly recognized bicyclic sesquiterpanes were determined in all the studied crude oils and diesel range fuels with principal dominance of BS3 (C(15)H(28)), BS5 (C(15)H(28)) and BS10 (C(16)H(30)), while they were generally not detected or in trace in light fuel oils like gasoline and kerosene and most lubricating oils. Laboratory distillation of crude oils demonstrated that sesquiterpanes were highly enriched in the medium distillation fractions of approximately 180 to 481 degrees C and were generally absent or very low in the light distillation fraction (boiling point to approximately 180 degrees C) and the heavy residual fraction (>481 degrees C). The effect of evaporative weathering on a series of diagnostic ratios of sesquiterpanes, n-alkanes, and biomarkers was evaluated with two suites of weathered oil samples. The change of abundance of sesquiterpanes was used to determine the extent of weathering of artificially evaporated crude oils and diesel. In addition to the pentacyclic biomarker C(29) and C(30) alphabeta-hopane, C(15) and C(16) sesquiterpanes might be alternative internal marker compounds to provide a direct way to estimate the depletion of oils, particularly diesels, in oil spill investigations. These findings may offer potential applications for both oil identification and oil-source correlation in cases where the tri- to pentacyclic biomarkers are absent due to refining or environmental weathering of oils.

  2. Tea tree oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, David; Jacob, Sharon E

    2012-01-01

    Tea tree oil is an increasingly popular ingredient in a variety of household and cosmetic products, including shampoos, massage oils, skin and nail creams, and laundry detergents. Known for its potential antiseptic properties, it has been shown to be active against a variety of bacteria, fungi, viruses, and mites. The oil is extracted from the leaves of the tea tree via steam distillation. This essential oil possesses a sharp camphoraceous odor followed by a menthol-like cooling sensation. Most commonly an ingredient in topical products, it is used at a concentration of 5% to 10%. Even at this concentration, it has been reported to induce contact sensitization and allergic contact dermatitis reactions. In 1999, tea tree oil was added to the North American Contact Dermatitis Group screening panel. The latest prevalence rates suggest that 1.4% of patients referred for patch testing had a positive reaction to tea tree oil.

  3. Evaluation of diagnostic ratios of medium and serious weathered oils from five different oil sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Shijie; WANG Chuanyuan; LI Yantai; YU Hongjun; HAN Bin

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to simulate oil weathering process, a medium to long term weathering process for 210-d, using samples collected from five different oil resources. Based on relative deviation and repeatability limit analysis about indexes of these samples, the results show there had been significant changes in diagnostic ratios among the initial and weathered samples of different oils during this process. Changes of selectedn-alkane diagnostic ratios of all oil samples displayed more obviously than diagnostic ratios of terpanes, steranes and PAHs in this process. Almost all selected diagnostic ratios of terpanes, steranes and PAHs can be efficiently used in tracking sources of hydrocarbon pollution, differentiating from then-alkane diagnostic ratios. In these efficient diagnostic ratios, only four ratios maintained good stability in the weathering processes and are more suitable because their relative deviation (RSD) are lower than 5%.

  4. Sequential extraction and compositional analysis of oil-bearing fluid inclusions in reservoir rocks from Kuche Depression, Tarim Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The free oils, adsorbed oils and oil-bearing fluid inclusions have been extracted separately and analyzed by GC and GC-MS in reservoir rock samples collected from the Kuche Depression. The results demonstrate that the molecular compositions of oil-bearing fluid inclusions are significantly different from those of the free oils (the current oils). Compared with the current oil, the oil-bearing fluid inclusions are characterized by relatively high values of parameters Pr/nC17and Ph/nC18, low values of Pr/Ph, hopanes/steranes, C30-diahopane/C30-hopane and Ts/Tm, low content of C29Ts terpane and high maturities as indicated by C29 steranes 20S/(20R+20S). In addition, the oil-bearing fluid inclusions correlate very well with the oils in northern and central Tarim Basin, which were derived from Cambrian-Ordovician marine source rocks. The adsorbedoils appear to be an intermediate type between free oils and oil-bearing fluid inclusions. The above analytical data indicate that there are at least two oil-charging episodes for these reservoir rock samples. The early charging oils were derived from Cambrian-Ordovician marine source rocks, and the later charging oils, from Triassic-Jurassic terrestrial source rocks. The primary marine oils were overwhelmingly diluted by the following terrestrial oils.

  5. Essentials of essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manion, Chelsea R; Widder, Rebecca M

    2017-05-01

    Information to guide clinicians in educating and advising patients using or intending to use essential oils for self-administered aromatherapy or other medicinal purposes is presented. The term essential oils refers to highly concentrated, aromatic oils extracted from plants by steam distillation, hydrodiffusion, or pressure. Market reports indicate strong growth in the use of essential oils in the United States in recent decades. Therapeutic claims made in the marketing of essential oils have led the Food and Drug Administration to caution a number of suppliers. Along with rapid growth in sales of essential oils to consumers there has been an increase in the amount of published evidence regarding aromatherapy and essential oils; the annual number of relevant articles indexed using Medical Subject Headings terminology has doubled since 2004. In order to help ensure proper application and safe use of essential oils as a self-care modality, healthcare professionals can benefit from a general knowledge of the terminology and foundational concepts of medicinal use of essential oils, as well as resources to facilitate evaluations of appropriateness of use. Because of the increasing popularity of essential oils and the prevalence of essential oil-based self-care practices targeting a wide variety of ailments in the United States, healthcare professionals must be prepared to address concerns about the agents' safety and efficacy. Proper literature evaluation requires the ability to discern the quality of an oil, the safety of administration, and the validity of its use. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Treatment of vegetable oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bessler, T.R.

    1986-05-13

    A process is described for preparing an injectable vegetable oil selected from the group consisting of soybean oil and sunflower oil and mixtures thereof which comprise: (a) first treating the vegetable oil at a temperature of 80/sup 0/C to about 130/sup 0/C with an acid clay; (b) deodorizing the vegetable oil with steam at a temperature of 220/sup 0/C to about 280/sup 0/C and applying a vacuum to remove volatilized components; (c) treating the deodorized vegetable oil, at a temperature of from about 10/sup 0/C to about 60/sup 0/C, with an acid clay to reduce the content of a member selected from the group consisting of diglycerides, tocopherol components, and trilinolenin and mixtures thereof, wherein the acid clay is added in a weight ratio to the deoderized vegetable oil of from about 1:99 to about 1:1; and (d) thereafter conducting a particulate filtration to remove a substantial portion of the acid clay from the vegetable oil, wherein the filtration is accomplished with filters having a pore size of from about 0.1 to 0.45 microns, thereby obtaining the injectable oil.

  7. Oil:SOS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Chinese economy will be hit hard if the recent oil shortage is not eased quickly This year’s oil shortage was reminis- cent of the previous one in 2005. Cargo drivers drove gingerly with half-full tanks,diesel generators sat silently waiting for oil that wasn’t there,and many taxis even stopped running because of the shortage. This time the oil shortage,which first started in southern cities like Guangzhou and Shenzhen in August,spread to northern cities like Zhengzhou and Taiyuan in November.

  8. Locating spilled oil with airborne laser fluorosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Carl E.; Fingas, Mervin F.; Nelson, Robert D.; Mullin, Joseph V.

    1999-02-01

    Locating oil in marine and terrestrial environments is a daunting task. There are commercially available off the shelf (COTS) sensors with a wide field-of-view (FOV) which can be used to map the overall extent of the spill. These generic sensors, however, lack the specificity required to positively identify oil and related products. The problem is exacerbated along beach and shoreline environments where a variety of organic and inorganic substrates are present. One sensor that can detect and classify oil in these environments is the laser fluorosensor. Laser fluorosensors have been under development by several agencies around the world for the past two decades. Environment Canada has been involved with laser fluorosensor development since the early 1990s. The prototype system was known as the Laser Environmental Airborne Fluorosensor (LEAF). The LEAF has recently been modified to provide real-time oil spill detection and classification. Fluorescence spectra are collected and analyzed at the rate of 100 Hz. Geo-referenced maps showing the locations of oil contamination are produced in real-time onboard the aircraft. While the LEAF has proven to be an excellent prototype sensor and a good operational tool, it has some deficiencies when it comes to oil spill response operations. A consortium including Environment Canada and the Minerals Management Service has recently funded the development of a new fluorosensor, called the Scanning Laser Environmental Airborne Fluorosensor (SLEAF). The SLEAF was designed to detect and map oil in shoreline environments where other non-specific sensors experience difficulty. Oil tends to pile up in narrow bands along the high tide line on beaches. A nadir-looking, small footprint sensor such as the LEAF would have difficulty locating oil in this situation. The SLEAF employs a pair of conical scanning mirrors to direct the laser beam in a circular pattern below the aircraft. With a sampling rate of 400 Hz and real-time spectral analysis

  9. Development of methods for avian oil toxicity studies using the double crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Fred; Dean, Karen; Hanson-Dorr, Katie; Harr, Kendal; Healy, Kate; Horak, Katherine; Link, Jane; Shriner, Susan; Bursian, Steven; Dorr, Brian

    2017-07-01

    Oral and external dosing methods replicating field exposure were developed using the double crested cormorant (DCCO) to test the toxicity of artificially weathered Deepwater Horizon Mississippi Canyon 252 oil. The majority of previous oil dosing studies conducted on wild-caught birds used gavage methods to dose birds with oil and determine toxicity. However, rapid gut transit time of gavaged oil likely reduces oil absorption. In the present studies, dosing relied on injection of oil into live feeder fish for oral dosing of these piscivorous birds, or applying oil to body contour feathers resulting in transdermal oil exposure and oral exposure through preening. Both oral and external oil dosing studies identified oil-related toxicity endpoints associated with oxidative stress such as hemolytic anemia, liver and kidney damage, and immuno-modulation or compromise. External oil application allowed for controlled study of thermoregulatory stress as well. Infrared thermal images indicated significantly greater surface temperatures and heat loss in treated birds following external oil applications; however, measurements collected by coelomically implanted temperature transmitters showed that internal body temperatures were stable over the course of the study period. Birds exposed to oil externally consumed more fish than control birds, indicating metabolic compensation for thermal stress. Conversely, birds orally dosed with oil experienced hypothermia and consumed less fish compared to control birds. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Oil-based paint poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paint - oil based - poisoning ... Hydrocarbons are the primary poisonous ingredient in oil paints. Some oil paints have heavy metals such as lead, mercury, cobalt, and barium added as pigment. These heavy metals can cause additional ...

  11. Crude Oil Spills and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Environmental Enforcement, U.S. Department of the Interior Emergency Management: Oil Spills U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Oil Spill Preparation and Response U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Return to top Oil Spills and Wildlife ...

  12. Workforce Competitiveness Collection. "LINCS" Resource Collection News

    Science.gov (United States)

    Literacy Information and Communication System, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This edition of "'LINCS' Resource Collection News" features the Workforce Competitiveness Collection, covering the topics of workforce education, English language acquisition, and technology. Each month Collections News features one of the three "LINCS" (Literacy Information and Communication System) Resource Collections--Basic…

  13. Program Management Collection. "LINCS" Resource Collection News

    Science.gov (United States)

    Literacy Information and Communication System, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This edition of "'LINCS' Resource Collection News" features the Program Management Collection, which covers the topics of Assessment, Learning Disabilities, and Program Improvement. Each month Collections News features one of the three "LINCS" (Literacy Information and Communication System) Resource Collections--Basic Skills, Program Management,…

  14. Chemical Composition and Radical Scavenging Activity of Citrus Limon Peel Essential Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Ghoorchibeigi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The water distillated essential oil of Citruslimon collected from Ramsar, Province of Mazandaran, North of Iran collected in December 2013, was analyzed using gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS. The yield of oil was 0.23% w/w. Twenty-one components representing 100% of the essential oil were characterized. Limonene (61.4%, b-pinene (13.1% and g-terpinene (11.3% were identified as the main constituents in the volatile oil. The antioxidant ability of the oil was examined by free radical scavenging method using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical at different concentration of the oil. The Citruslimon oil exhibited free-radical-scavenging properties with IC50 value of 284.71µg ml-1.

  15. Oil supply security -- Emergency response of IEA countries 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-11-29

    When Hurricane Katrina hit the Gulf of Mexico in 2005, the region's oil production and refining infrastructure was devastated and world energy markets were disrupted. The International Energy Agency decided in a matter of days to bring 60 million barrels of additional oil to the market. The emergency response system worked - the collective action helped to stabilise global markets. Since its founding in 1974, oil supply security has been a core mission of the IEA and the Agency has improved its mechanisms to respond to short-term oil supply disruptions. Nevertheless, numerous factors will continue to test the delicate balance of supply and demand. Oil demand growth will continue to accelerate in Asia; oil will be increasingly produced by a shrinking number of countries; and capacities in the supply chain will need to expand. These are just a few of the challenges facing an already tight market. What are the emergency response systems of IEA countries? How are their emergency structures organised? How prepared is the IEA to deal with an oil supply disruption? This publication addresses these questions. It presents another cycle of rigorous reviews of the emergency response mechanisms of IEA member countries. The goal of these reviews is to ensure that the IEA stays ready to respond effectively to oil supply disruptions. This publication also includes overviews of how China, India and countries of Southeast Asia are progressing with domestic policies to improve oil supply security, based on emergency stocks.

  16. Essays on oil price volatility and irreversible investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, Daniel J.

    In chapter 1, we provide an extensive and systematic evaluation of the relative forecasting performance of several models for the volatility of daily spot crude oil prices. Empirical research over the past decades has uncovered significant gains in forecasting performance of Markov Switching GARCH models over GARCH models for the volatility of financial assets and crude oil futures. We find that, for spot oil price returns, non-switching models perform better in the short run, whereas switching models tend to do better at longer horizons. In chapter 2, I investigate the impact of volatility on firms' irreversible investment decisions using real options theory. Cost incurred in oil drilling is considered sunk cost, thus irreversible. I collect detailed data on onshore, development oil well drilling on the North Slope of Alaska from 2003 to 2014. Volatility is modeled by constructing GARCH, EGARCH, and GJR-GARCH forecasts based on monthly real oil prices, and realized volatility from 5-minute intraday returns of oil futures prices. Using a duration model, I show that oil price volatility generally has a negative relationship with the hazard rate of drilling an oil well both when aggregating all the fields, and in individual fields.

  17. Measurements in support of the Deepwater Horizon (MC-252) oil spill response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crout, Richard L.

    2011-06-01

    The explosion of the Deepwater Horizon (MC-252) drilling platform on 20 April 2010 began a long response by the United Area Command. Previous responses to oil spills were limited in time due to the amount of oil spilled and were generally confined to the surface. Some of the oil from the Deepwater Horizon wellhead in 1500 meters of water broke into smaller droplets, whose density caused much of the oil to stay within a zone from 1000 to 1300 meters depth. The remainder of the oil rose to the surface. The two primary locations of oil required a broad collection of remote sensing techniques to locate and monitor the oil spill. Surface oil was monitored primarily from the air using aircraft and satellite assets. Satellite visible, infra-red, and radar satellite imagery helped to locate oil in the northern Gulf of Mexico and help predict its movement away from the spill site. Daily over-flights by aircraft provided higher spatial and temporal resolution data that were assimilated into daily products. These remote sensing assets were able to track the surface oil, but the subsurface oil required different techniques. In addition to salinity and temperature profiles to determine the subsurface structure, fluorometry and dissolved oxygen measurements provided information related to oil and its consumption by microorganisms. Water samples collected from CTD casts were analyzed on-board and returned to on-shore laboratories.

  18. Oil spill statistics and oil spill monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viebahn, C. von [Greifswald Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Geography

    2001-09-01

    The main parts of the report describe the analysis and it's results of German and international oil spill data (North Sea and Baltic Sea). In order to improve the current oil spill monitoring of the Baltic Sea regarding oil spill data, the report proposes the establishment of a combined monitoring system; its suitability is shown on selected examples. This contains today's pollution control aircraft plus in-service aircraft and satellites. (orig.) [German] Der Schwerpunkt der Arbeit liegt in der Analyse von Daten ueber marine Oelschadensfaelle in deutschen und internationalen Gewaessern (Nord- und Ostsee). Um die heutige Ueberwachung der Ostsee im Hinblick auf Oelschadensfaelle zu verbessern, wird die Einrichtung eines kombinierten Ueberwachungssystems vorgeschlagen und dessen Eignung an ausgewaehlten Beispielen dargestellt. Dieses umfasst sowohl die heute eingesetzten Ueberwachungsflugzeuge sowie zusaetzlich Linienflugzeuge und Satelliten. (orig.)

  19. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oils from the Aerial Parts of Salvia pinnata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nehir Unver Somer

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The composition of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of Salvia pinnata L. (Labiatae, collected during flowering and fruiting periods, were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. 37 compounds were identified representing 96.1 % of the essential oil obtained from the plant material collected during flowering period. 30 compounds were detected constituting 94.7 % of the essential oil of the plant material collected in fruiting period. The main components of the essential oils were characterized as bornyl acetate, camphor, camphene, bornyl formate, a -pinene and borneol. The oils were screened for antimicrobial activity by the micro-dilution assay against standard bacteria (Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis and yeast (Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis. Both of the oils showed antimicrobial activity against the tested organisms.

  20. Oil supply and demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rech, O

    2004-07-01

    World oil demand, driven by economic development in China, posted the highest growth rate in 20 years. In a context of geopolitical uncertainty, prices are soaring, encouraged by low inventory and the low availability of residual production capacity. Will 2004 bring a change in the oil market paradigm? (author)

  1. Another Oil Disaster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN PUMIN

    2010-01-01

    @@ More than 800 fishing boats in Dalian,a coastal city in northeast China's Liaoning Province,joined the effort on July 20 to clean up crude oil that gushed into the sea after two oil pipelines exploded at Dalian Xingang Harbor four days earlier.

  2. Krill oil: new nutraceuticals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beuy Joob

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Krill oil is a new available health product which is produced from deep marine species. Its property is to promote good health. The good lipid composition and antioxidant enrichment make krill oil a new nutraceutical for reducing health problems.

  3. Tree nut oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    The major tree nuts include almonds, Brazil nuts, cashew nuts, hazelnuts, macadamia nuts, pecans, pine nuts, pistachio nuts, and walnuts. Tree nut oils are appreciated in food applications because of their flavors and are generally more expensive than other gourmet oils. Research during the last de...

  4. An environmental approach for used oil management in Asian cities: a Bangkok's experience

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHING TET LEONG; PREECHA LAORTANAKUL

    2003-01-01

    This paper addresses increasing concern about the pollution threat of used oil being illegally dumped and the impact of oil on air pollution and freshwater ecosystems in Asian countries. Used oil is a very serious waste management problem. These results call for management action such as maximising the collection and recovery of used oil. The Thai government recognizes the need to recycle used oil and has been active in encouraging programs to accomplish this goal. Thus unless new approaches and incentives are developed, used oil generation may become an increasing serious problem to our environment. The purpose of this study is to examine the technical and economic feasibility, of recycling used oils. In addition, this paper briefly discusses the problems to be overcome and outlines potential mechanisms for providing the necessary disposal controls in order to maximize the protection to public health and environmental quality from potential hazards posed by used lube oil disposal.

  5. Fish oil supplementation during pregnancy and allergic respiratory disease in the adult offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Susanne; Strøm, Marin; Maslova, Ekaterina

    2017-01-01

    randomly assigned to receive fish oil during the third trimester of pregnancy, olive oil, or no oil in the ratio 2:1:1. The offspring were followed in a mandatory national prescription register, with complete follow-up for prescriptions related to the treatment of asthma and allergic rhinitis as primary...... in the fish oil group compared with the olive oil group (hazard ratio, 0.54, 95% CI, 0.32-0.90; P = .02). The probability of having had allergic rhinitis medication prescribed was also reduced in the fish oil group compared with the olive oil group (hazard ratio, 0.70, 95% CI, 0.47-1.05; P = .09......), but the difference was not statistically significant. Self-reported information collected at age 18 to 19 years supported these findings. No associations were detected with respect to lung function outcomes or allergic sensitization at 18 to 19 years of age. Conclusion Maternal supplementation with fish oil might...

  6. Versatile fabrication of magnetic carbon fiber aerogel applied for bidirectional oil-water separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Zhu, Xiaotao; Ge, Bo; Men, Xuehu; Li, Peilong; Zhang, Zhaozhu

    2015-09-01

    Fabricating functional materials that can solve environmental problems resulting from oil or organic solvent pollution is highly desired. However, expensive materials or complicated procedures and unidirectional oil-water separation hamper their applications. Herein, a magnetic superhydrophobic carbon fiber aerogel with high absorption capacity was developed by one-step pyrolysis of Fe(NO3)3-coated cotton in an argon atmosphere. The obtained aerogel can selectively collect oils from oil-polluted region by a magnet bar owing to its magnetic properties and achieves fast oil-water separation for its superhydrophobicity and superoleophilicity. Furthermore, the aerogel performs recyclable oil absorption capacity even after ten cycles of oil-water separation and bears organic solvent immersion. Importantly, the obtained aerogel turns to superhydrophilic and underwater superoleophobic after thermal treatment, allowing it as a promising and efficient material for bidirectional oil-water separation and organic contaminants removal.

  7. A high performance liquid chromatography method for determination of furfural in crude palm oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loi, Chia Chun; Boo, Huey Chern; Mohammed, Abdulkarim Sabo; Ariffin, Abdul Azis

    2011-09-01

    A modified steam distillation method was developed to extract furfural from crude palm oil (CPO). The collected distillates were analysed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with an ultraviolet diode detector at 284nm. The HPLC method allowed identification and quantification of furfural in CPO. The unique thermal extraction of CPO whereby the fresh fruit bunches (FFB) are first subjected to steam treatment, distinguishes itself from other solvent-extracted or cold-pressed vegetable oils. The presence of furfural was also determined in the fresh palm oil from FFB (without undergoing the normal extraction process), palm olein, palm stearin, olive oil, coconut oil, sunflower oil, soya oil and corn oil. The chromatograms of the extracts were compared to that of standard furfural. Furfural was only detected in CPO. The CPO consignments obtained from four mills were shown to contain 7.54 to 20.60mg/kg furfural.

  8. An environmental approach for used oil management in Asian cities: a Bangkok' s experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Shing Tet; Laortanakul, Preecha

    2003-11-01

    This paper addresses increasing concern about the pollution threat of used oil being illegally dumped and the impact of oil on air pollution and freshwater ecosystems in Asian countries. Used oil is a very serious waste management problem. These results call for management action such as maximising the collection and recovery of used oil. The Thai government recognizes the need to recycle used oil and has been active in encouraging programs to accomplish this goal. Thus unless new approaches and incentives are developed, used oil generation may become an increasing serious problem to our environment. The purpose of this study is to examine the technical and economic feasibility, of recycling used oils. In addition, this paper briefly discusses the problems to be overcome and outlines potential mechanisms for providing the necessary disposal controls in order to maximize the protection to public health and environmental quality from potential hazards posed by used lube oil disposal.

  9. Cooking with Healthier Fats and Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... use fats and oils, choose those with less saturated fat, trans fat, and cholesterol. Choose Less Often Choose More Often Percent of Saturated Fat Canola Oil Safflower Oil Sesame Oil Sunflower Oil ...

  10. Impact of heavy metals on the oil products biodegradation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukauskaite, Audrone; Jakubauskaite, Viktorija; Belous, Olga; Ambrazaitiene, Dalia; Stasiskiene, Zaneta

    2008-12-01

    Oil products continue to be used as a principal source of energy. Wide-scale production, transport, global use and disposal of petroleum have made them major contaminants in prevalence and quantity in the environment. In accidental spills, actions are taken to remove or remediate or recover the contaminants immediately, especially if they occur in environmentally sensitive areas, for example, in coastal zones. Traditional methods to cope with oil spills are confined to physical containment. Biological methods can have an advantage over the physical-chemical treatment regimes in removing spills in situ as they offer biodegradation of oil fractions by the micro-organisms. Recently, biological methods have been known to play a significant role in bioremediation of oil-polluted coastal areas. Such systems are likely to be of significance in the effective management of sensitive coastal ecosystems chronically subjected to oil spillage. For this reason the aim of this paper is to present an impact of Mn, Cu, Co and Mo quantities on oil biodegradation effectiveness in coastal soil and to determine the relationship between metal concentrations and degradation of two oil products (black oil and diesel fuel). Soil was collected in the Baltic Sea coastal zone oil products degradation area (Klaipeda, Lithuania). The experiment consisted of two parts: study on the influence of micro-elements on the oil product biodegradation process; and analysis of the influence of metal concentration on the number of HDMs. The analysis performed and results obtained address the following areas: impact of metal on a population of hydrocarbon degrading micro-organisms, impact of metals on residual concentrations of oil products, influence of metals on the growth of micro-organisms, inter-relation of metal concentrations with degradation rates. Statistical analysis was made using ;Statgraphics plus' software. The influence of metals on the growth of micro-organisms, the biodegradation process

  11. Feasibility Process for Remediation of the Crude Oil Contaminated Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keum, H.; Choi, H.; Heo, H.; Lee, S.; Kang, G.

    2015-12-01

    More than 600 oil wells were destroyed in Kuwait by Iraqi in 1991. During the war, over 300 oil lakes with depth of up to 2m at more than 500 different locations which has been over 49km2. Therefore, approximately 22 million m3was crude oil contaminated. As exposure of more than 20 years under atmospheric conditions of Kuwait, the crude oil has volatile hydrocarbons and covered heavy oily sludge under the crude oil lake. One of crude oil contaminated soil which located Burgan Oilfield area was collected by Kuwait Oil Company and got by H-plus Company. This contaminated soil has about 42% crude oil and could not biodegraded itself due to the extremely high toxicity. This contaminated soil was separated by 2mm sieve for removal oil sludge ball. Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) was analysis by GC FID and initial TPH concentration was average 48,783 mg/kg. Ten grams of the contaminated soil replaced in two micro reactors with 20mL of bio surfactant produce microorganism. Reactor 1 was added 0.1g powder hemoglobin and other reactor was not added hemoglobin at time 0 day. Those reactors shake 120 rpm on the shaker for 7 days and CO2 produced about 150mg/L per day. After 7 days under the slurry systems, the rest days operated by hemoglobin as primary carbon source for enhanced biodegradation. The crude oil contaminated soil was degraded from 48,783mg/kg to 20,234mg/kg by slurry process and final TPH concentration degraded 11,324mg/kg for 21days. Therefore, highly contaminated soil by crude oil will be combined bio slurry process and biodegradation process with hemoglobin as bio catalytic source. Keywords: crude-oil contaminated soil, bio slurry, biodegradation, hemoglobin ACKOWLEDGEMENTS This project was supported by the Korea Ministry of Environment (MOE) GAIA Program

  12. Organic geochemistry of mid-continent Ordovician oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, S.E.

    1985-01-01

    Early Paleozoic oils retain the biochemical imprint of oceanic life prior to evolution of land plants and vertebrates. Thus, these oils have geochemical features which make them unique with respect to younger oils, but also share some common properties with the latter. Characteristic mid-continent Ordovician oil features include predominance of n-C/sub 14/ to n-C/sub 19/ over n-C/sub 20/+ alkanes in the C/sub 15/+ saturate hydrocarbon fraction, low amounts of isoprenoids and abundant C/sub 27/ and C/sub 29/ diasteranes relative to normal steranes. Properties common to both Ordovician and younger oils are: nearly equal amounts of C/sub 15/+ n-alkanes, cycloalkanes, and aromatics and pristane/phytane ratios of 0.7 to 1.6. Collectively, these Ordovician oils have a relatively negative stable carbon isotopic composition but are not unique with respect to other marine oils. Although terpane distributions are generally similar to geologically-younger oils, the Ordovician oils contain significant amounts of C/sub 19/, C/sub 20/, and C/sub 21/ tricyclic diterpanes relative to the C/sub 23/ homolog as well as large contributions by C/sub 31/+ pentacyclic triterpanes. Presence of long-chained n-alkanes, C/sub 29/ steranes, and C/sub 24/ tetracyclic terpanes, which are generally accepted as input from land plants in, e.g., Tertiary deposits, are also present in Ordovician oils. The characteristics listed above describe oils from the Williston and Michigan basins as well as Ordovician oils from Kansas and Oklahoma.

  13. Histopathologic and biochemical responses in Arctic marine bivalve molluscs exposed to experimentally spilled oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neff, J.M.; Hillman, R.E.; Carr, R.S.; Buhl, R.L.; Lahey, J.I.

    1987-01-01

    Following two experimental spills of chemically dispersed and undispersed crude oil in shallow bays on the northwest coast of Baffin Island bivalve molluscs accumulated significant amounts of petroleum hydrocarbons in bay receiving dispersed oil and in those receiving crude oil alone. Specimens of Mya truncata and Macoma calcarea for histopathologic examination were collected immediately before, immediately after and one year after the experimental oil spills. Immediately after there was increased gill and digestive tract necrosis in Mya from the chemically dispersed oil. After one year a few clams had granulocytomas throughout the tissues. Three clams receiving oil alone collected one year after the spill had invasive neoplasias. There were few lesions in Macoma immediatelly after or one year after the spill; animals had a high incidence of vacuolization of the digestive tubule epithelium. The incidence of parasitism and hemocytic infiltration also was higher in Maccoma. Clams Mya truncata were collected for biochemical analysis before, after and two weeks after the simulated oil spills. Concentations in the clam tissues of glucose, glycogen, trehalose, total lipid, and free amino acids were measured; free amino acids in adductor muscles were the most useful indices of pollutant stress. The results of the biochemical analyses indicate that Mya were not severely stressed by either dispersed oil or oil alone. After two weeks, clams from the dispersed oil bays were nearly normal, while those from the bay receiving oil alone appeared stressed. These results seem to corroborate results that the acute effects of dispersed oil are greater than those of undispersed oil, but effects of undispersed oil on infaunal molluscs develop more slowly and persist longer than those from dispersed oil. 43 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  14. An ex vivo, assessor blind, randomised, parallel group, comparative efficacy trial of the ovicidal activity of three pediculicides after a single application - melaleuca oil and lavender oil, eucalyptus oil and lemon tea tree oil, and a "suffocation" pediculicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altman Phillip M

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are two components to the clinical efficacy of pediculicides: (i efficacy against the crawling-stages (lousicidal efficacy; and (ii efficacy against the eggs (ovicidal efficacy. Lousicidal efficacy and ovicidal efficacy are confounded in clinical trials. Here we report on a trial that was specially designed to rank the clinical ovicidal efficacy of pediculicides. Eggs were collected, pre-treatment and post-treatment, from subjects with different types of hair, different coloured hair and hair of different length. Method Subjects with at least 20 live eggs of Pediculus capitis (head lice were randomised to one of three treatment-groups: a melaleuca oil (commonly called tea tree oil and lavender oil pediculicide (TTO/LO; a eucalyptus oil and lemon tea tree oil pediculicide (EO/LTTO; or a "suffocation" pediculicide. Pre-treatment: 10 to 22 live eggs were taken from the head by cutting the single hair with the live egg attached, before the treatment (total of 1,062 eggs. Treatment: The subjects then received a single treatment of one of the three pediculicides, according to the manufacturers' instructions. Post-treatment: 10 to 41 treated live eggs were taken from the head by cutting the single hair with the egg attached (total of 1,183 eggs. Eggs were incubated for 14 days. The proportion of eggs that had hatched after 14 days in the pre-treatment group was compared with the proportion of eggs that hatched in the post-treatment group. The primary outcome measure was % ovicidal efficacy for each of the three pediculicides. Results 722 subjects were examined for the presence of eggs of head lice. 92 of these subjects were recruited and randomly assigned to: the "suffocation" pediculicide (n = 31; the melaleuca oil and lavender oil pediculicide (n = 31; and the eucalyptus oil and lemon tea tree oil pediculicide (n = 30 subjects. The group treated with eucalyptus oil and lemon tea tree oil had an ovicidal efficacy of 3.3% (SD

  15. Application of a Step-by-Step Fingerprinting Identification Method on a Spilled Oil Accident in the Bohai Sea Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Peiyan; GAO Zhenhui; CAO Lixin; WANG Xinping; ZHOU Qing; ZHAO Yuhui; LI Guangmei

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, oil spill accidents occur frequently in the marine area of China. Finding out the spilled oil source is a key step in the relevant investigation. In this paper, a step-by-step fingerprinting identification method was used in a spilled oil accident in the Bohai Sea in 2002. Advanced chemical fingerprinting and data interpretation techniques were used to characterize the chemical composition and determine the possible sources of two spilled oil samples. The original gas chromatography -flame ionization detection (GC-FID) chromatogram of saturated hydrocarbons was compared. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS)chromatograms of aromatic hydrocarbons terpane and sterane, n-alkane and poly-aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed. The correlation analysis on diagnostic ratios was performed with Student's t-test. It is found that the oil fingerprinting of the spilled oil (designated as szl) from the polluted sand beach was identical with the suspected oil (designated as kyl) from a nearby crude oil refinery factory. They both showed the fingerprinting character of mixed oil. The oil fingerprinting of the spilled oil (designated as msl) collected from the port was significantly different from oil kyl and oil szl and was with a lubricating oil fingerprint character. The identification result not only gave support for the spilled oil investigation, but also served as an example for studying spilled oil accidents.

  16. Rheology of waxy oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alicke, Alexandra A.; Marchesini, Flavio H.; Mendes, Paulo R. de Souza [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil)], e-mails: fhmo@puc-rio.br, pmendes@puc-rio.br; Ziglio, Claudio [Petrobras Research Center, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: ziglio@petrobras.com.br

    2010-07-01

    It is well known that below the crystallization temperature the rheology of waxy oils changes from Newtonian to an extremely complex non-Newtonian behavior, which is shear-rate and temperature-history dependent. Along the last decades a lot of effort has been put into obtaining reliable rheological measurements from different oils so as to understand the yielding of waxy oils as well as the effects of shear and temperature histories on rheological properties, such as viscosity, yield stress, storage and loss moduli. In this paper we examine in detail the related literature, discussing the main reasons for some disagreements concerning the history effects on the flow properties of waxy oils. In addition, we performed temperature ramps and stress-amplitude-sweep tests and compared the results obtained with the main trends observed, highlighting the effects of cooling and shear on the microstructure and consequently on the rheological properties of these oils. (author)

  17. Chinese Oil Giants Eye Canadian Oil Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miao Bin

    2005-01-01

    @@ SinoCanada, a subsidiary of Sinopec International Petroleum Exploration and Development Corporation, and Canada-based Synenco Energy Inc announced on May 31 that they have inked a series of agreements to launch a joint venture for common development of the oil sand project located in Athabasca region of Northeast Canada's Alberta Province. Based on the agreements, Sinopec will pay 105 million Canadian dollars (US$84 million) for a stake in Canada's Northern Lights oil sands project while Synenco owns the remaining 60 percent share,and will operate the project as the managing partner.

  18. 75 FR 49411 - Consumer Price Index Adjustments of Oil Pollution Act of 1990 Limits of Liability-Vessels and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... Index Adjustments of Oil Pollution Act of 1990 Limits of Liability--Vessels and Deepwater Ports'' (74 FR... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 138 RIN 1625-AB25 Consumer Price Index Adjustments of Oil Pollution Act of...; information collection approval. SUMMARY: On July 1, 2009, the Coast Guard amended the Oil Pollution Act...

  19. Victims, villains or heroes? : the local community perception of oil bunkering in the Niger delta

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Grounded on a political ecology approach, this study sheds light on oil bunkering activity that is done by local militants in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Such oil bunkering is used as a euphemism for oil theft in Nigeria. The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the perception of oil bunkering that is done by groups (militants) of the local communities of the Niger Delta. By collecting and comparing the narratives of the three actors linked to so-called illegal oil b...

  20. Aflatoxin B1 levels in groundnut and sunflower oils in different Sudanese states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariod, Abdalbasit Adam; Idris, Yousif Mohamed Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the level of contamination of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in groundnut and sunflower oils was determined. The 241 oil samples were collected from Khartoum, Gezira, Kordofan and Algadarif states of Sudan and assessed for AFB1 using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). AFB1 levels in groundnut oil samples ranged from 0.5 to 70 µg/kg and were 0.7 to 35 µg/kg in sunflower oil samples. High contamination was found in unrefined samples. It was concluded that AFB1 levels in oil samples indicated that growing, harvesting, handling and storage of the crops were not done properly.

  1. The Study of Oils Consumption Pattern and Its Related Factors in east Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Jafari

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Inappropriate use of fat in diets is a significant risk factor that can cause cardiovascular diseases, morbidity, and mortality in the world. This study was designed to determine the fat consumption pattern in east Tehran habitants. Materials & Methods: In this cross sectional study 500 east Tehran habitants were evaluated. Data was collected by a questionnaire designed by the authors of the present study. The validity and reliability of the questionnaire was confirmed in a pilot study. The Data was analyzed with SPSS software. Results: The average of family members was 3.9±1.4. The highest amount ofoil consumed was that of solid candy oil, while The lowest was animal oil. For cooking, 36.8% and 31% of samples were using liquid oil and solid candy oil, respectively. For fraying 33.8%, 20%, 32.4% of samples were using liquid oil, solid candy oil and frying oil, respectively. a relationship was found between higher educational level and mothers working out of the house and higher consumption of liquid oil, fraying oil and olive oil (p<0.001. High age, housekeeper mothers and higher family span were associated with the higher consumption of solid oils, butter and ghee (p<0.02. Conclusion: This study revealed that the significant portion of daily oil consumption of Tehran habitants consist of solid oils. It seems to be necessary to organize proper training programs to increase social awareness about the hazards of solid saturated fats.

  2. Response to heavy, non-floating oil spilled in a Great Lakes river environment: a multiple-lines-of-evidence approach for submerged oil assessment and recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollhopf, Ralph H.; Fitzpatrick, Faith A.; Kimble, Jeffrey W.; Capone, Daniel M.; Graan, Thomas P.; Zelt, Ronald B.; Johnson, Rex

    2014-01-01

    The Enbridge Line 6B pipeline release of diluted bitumen into the Kalamazoo River downstream of Marshall, MI in July 2010 is one of the largest freshwater oil spills in North American history. The unprecedented scale of impact and massive quantity of oil released required the development and implementation of new approaches for detection and recovery. At the onset of cleanup, conventional recovery techniques were employed for the initially floating oil and were successful. However, volatilization of the lighter diluent, along with mixing of the oil with sediment during flooded, turbulent river conditions caused the oil to sink and collect in natural deposition areas in the river. For more than three years after the spill, recovery of submerged oil has remained the predominant operational focus of the response. The recovery complexities for submerged oil mixed with sediment in depositional areas and long-term oil sheening along approximately 38 miles of the Kalamazoo River led to the development of a multiple-lines-of-evidence approach comprising six major components: geomorphic mapping, field assessments of submerged oil (poling), systematic tracking and mapping of oil sheen, hydrodynamic and sediment transport modeling, forensic oil chemistry, and net environmental benefit analysis. The Federal On-Scene Coordinator (FOSC) considered this information in determining the appropriate course of action for each impacted segment of the river. New sources of heavy crude oils like diluted bitumen and increasing transportation of those oils require changes in the way emergency personnel respond to oil spills in the Great Lakes and other freshwater ecosystems. Strategies to recover heavy oils must consider that the oils may suspend or sink in the water column, mix with fine-grained sediment, and accumulate in depositional areas. Early understanding of the potential fate and behavior of diluted bitumen spills when combined with timely, strong conventional recovery methods can

  3. A Qualitative Approach of Identifying Major Cost Influencing Factors in Palm Oil Mills and the Relations towards Production Cost of Crude Palm Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine L.Y. Man

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The oil palm industry, which heavily depends on the world market, is an export oriented industry. Worlds palm oil consumption was growing over the years. In addition, Indonesia and Malaysia dominated the oil palm industry. The oil palm industry in Malaysia is very competitive and become one of the major economic sectors contributing to the total revenue of the country. In year 2009, there was a total of 22.40 million tons of oil palm products including palm oil, palm kernel oil, palm kernel cake, oleo-chemicals and finished products, equivalent to RM 49.59 billion of export revenue. However, cost of production for Crude Palm Oil (CPO varies in a big gap. Therefore, it is essential to identify the major cost influencing factors in the production of CPO. Approach: The study system started with collection of Fresh Fruits Bunches (FFB from oil palm plantation to the production of CPO at palm oil mills. Two palm oil mills of different production capacity were chosen for this study. Statistical analysis was done to identify the major cost influencing factors of production cost for CPO. Results: The production cost of CPO for small scale palm oil mills preferably lied between RM 45 to RM 50 per metric tons while large scale palm oil mills lied below RM 45 per metric tons. Conclusion: Palm oil mills with higher production capacity were efficient in producing CPO than lower production capacity palm oil mills. Thus, the production cost of CPO was lower compared to that of small scale palm oil mills.

  4. Oil Detection in a Coastal Marsh with Polarimetric SAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, E., III; Rangoonwala, A.; Suzuoki, Y.; Bannister, T.

    2011-09-01

    The NASA UAVSAR was deployed June 2010 to support Deep Water Horizon oil spill response activities specifically, oil detection and characterization, oil extent mapping in wetlands, coastal resource impact detection, and ecosystem recovery. The UAVSAR platform demonstrated enhanced capability to act rapidly and provide targeted mapping response. Our research focused on the effectiveness of high spatial resolution and fully polarimetric L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PolSAR) for mapping oil in wetlands, specifically within Barataria Bay in eastern coastal Louisiana. Barataria Bay contained a numerous site observations confirming spatially extensive shoreline oil impacts, multiple oil spill UAVSAR collections, and a near anniversary 2009 collection. PolSAR oil detection relied on decomposition and subsequent classifications of the single look complex (SLC) calibrated radar cross sections representing the complex elements of the scattering matrix. Initial analyses results found that shoreline marsh structural damage as well as oil on marsh plants and sediments without canopy structural damage were exhibited as anomalous features on post-spill SLC scenes but were not evident on the pre-spill SLC scene collected in 2009. Pre-spill and post-spill Freeman-Durden (FD) and Cloude-Pottier (CP) decompositions and the Wishart classifications seeded with the FD and CP classes (Wishart-FD) also highlighted these nearshore features as a change in dominate scatter from pre-spill to post-spill. SLC analyses also indicated penetration of oil ladened waters into interior marshes well past the immediate shorelines; however, these post-spill SLC analyses results could not be validated due to the lack of observational data and possible flooding in the pre-spill SLC scene.

  5. Detection of argan oil adulterated with vegetable oils: New markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ourrach, I.; Rada, M.; Perez-Camino, M. C.; Benaissa, M.; Guinda, A

    2012-07-01

    This work aims to contribute to controlling the authenticity of pure argan oil, a valuable Moroccan product. Fatty acids, hydrocarbon fraction, 3,5-stigmastadiene, the alkyl esters of fatty acids, chlorophyllic pigments and physical properties such as viscosity, density and refractive index were studied in order to detect the adulteration of argan oil with edible vegetable oils. The results found in this study show that 3,5-stigmastadiene, kaurene and pheophytin-a can be used as possible new markers for argan oil blends of up to 5% with refined, sunflower and virgin olive oils. Due to the similarity of the fatty acid compositions of the edible oils studied and argan oil, fatty acids can be employed as markers for the detection of argan oil adulteration at levels higher than 10%. Among the physical properties studied, the refractive index shows significant differences for sunflower oil and its blend at 10% with argan oil. (Author) 35 refs.

  6. A study on the essential oil of Ferulago campestris: how much does extraction method influence the oil composition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riela, Serena; Bruno, Maurizio; Rosselli, Sergio; Saladino, Maria L; Caponetti, Eugenio; Formisano, Carmen; Senatore, Felice

    2011-02-01

    The essential oil of different parts of Ferulago campestris (Bess.) collected in Sicily has been extracted by microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (MAHD) and by classic hydrodistillation (HD). A comparative qualitative-quantitative study on the composition of the oils was carried out. A total of 100 compounds were identified in the oils obtained by MAHD, whereas 88 compounds characterized the HD oils. The most prominent components were, in all different parts of F. campestris and in both extraction methods, 2,4,5-trimethylbenzaldehyde and 2,4,6-trimethylbenzaldehyde isomers; the latter was not previously found. The attempt to evaluate where the oil components are located in all parts of the plant was carried out by means of a kinetic study. Then, electron microscopy observation on the different parts before and after MAHD and HD was performed.

  7. GOOD OLD OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akula Annapurna

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays everybody is getting puzzled and confused about choosing right oil for daily use. Most of the ads in the market revolving around sunflower oil only with different brand names claiming it is heart friendly. In recent years, younger generation may not be familiar much with our age old traditional oils like sesame oil. Sesame oil is also called as gingelly oil or til oil is rich in vitamin E and B. It is a good source of minerals like calcium, manganese and phosphorous and promotes healing. It contains high amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids and decreases high blood pressure. Because of its antioxidant property, it decreases cholesterol and good for heart. It acts like a sedative, relieves mental fatigue and promotes sleep when it is used for head massage. It is having laxative nature, relieving constipation. When applied topically on to the skin it is acting as an excellent moisturizer and an emollient. Because of its natural antibacterial, antiviral and anti-inflammatory properties it keeps away the skin and tooth infections. Hence, it can be used by one and all without any hesitation for regular cooking. However, it is not preferred for deep frying. Let us once again say OLD IS GOLD

  8. Jojoba oil and derivates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wisniak, T.

    1977-01-01

    Jojoba oil differs from all known seed oils by its almost complete absence of glycerides, making it more a liquid wax than a fat. It has become important as a possible substitute for sperm-whale oil to produce lubricants, lubricant additives and other products. The plant occurs naturally in southern Arizona and N.W. Mexico and its oil has long been used by Indians for medicinal, culinary, ritual and other purposes. It tolerates extreme daily fluctuations of temperature and grows well under the difficult soil and moisture conditions of the region. In the first part of this review the plant and its uses are described, including its floral, fruit and seed anatomy and the use of liquid wax during germination. Stored coryledon wax is used up by the embryo as a linear function of time during the first 30 days of germination and growth. Before germination, seeds weight about 0.59 mg and contain about 54% wax. The second and greater part of the review deals with jojoba oil (its extraction, properties, molecular description, toxicity and composition), jojoba meal, which remains after the oil has been extracted, and the chemical modification of the oil.

  9. IEA Response System for Oil Supply Emergencies (2012 update)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-05

    Emergency response to oil supply disruptions has remained a core mission of the International Energy Agency since its founding in 1974. This information pamphlet explains the decisionmaking process leading to an IEA collective action, the measures available -- focusing on stockdraw -- and finally, the historical background of major oil supply disruptions and the IEA response to them. It also demonstrates the continuing need for emergency preparedness, including the growing importance of engaging key transition and emerging economies in dialogue about energy security.

  10. UK Oil and Gas Industry: Risks and Risk Management

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Oil and gas industry is a developing industry, which faces multiple risks. A brief review of the industry is presented, followed by an overview of the risk management. A literature review which includes empirical studies and theories is provided. The purpose of this paper is the identification and quantification of risks in oil and gas industry. Also the impact of the existing risk management on the performance and value of the firms is examined. The data for the research were collected fro...

  11. China Offshore Oil Logging Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Duan Kang

    1996-01-01

    @@ China offshore oil logging business entered a faster developing stage sin-ce 1982 with the beginning of international cooperation in its offshore oil exploration. Nearly 90% of the logging expertises of China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC)are in China Offshore Oil Logging Company (COOLC), headquartered in Yanjiao, Hebei Province.

  12. Yield gaps in oil palm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woittiez, Lotte S.; Wijk, van Mark T.; Slingerland, Maja; Noordwijk, van Meine; Giller, Ken E.

    2017-01-01

    Oil palm, currently the world's main vegetable oil crop, is characterised by a large productivity and a long life span (≥25 years). Peak oil yields of 12 t ha−1 yr−1 have been achieved in small plantations, and maximum theoretical yields as calculated with simulation models are 18.5 t oil ha−1 yr−1,

  13. An evaluation of oil spill responses for offshore oil production projects in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada: Implications for seabird conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Gail S; Racine, Vincent

    2016-06-15

    Seabirds are vulnerable to oil pollution, particularly in cold-water regions. We investigated the response of small spills (oil production operations Environment Canada requested monitoring and mitigation of small spills potentially impacting seabird populations; suggestions supported by two independent reviews. An industry spill response plan states that operators would collect systematic observations on spills and deploy countermeasures where possible. Operators' spill reports were obtained under an Access to Information request. There were 220 daytime spills with sheens (out of 381 spills; 1997-2010). Of these, six reported time to oil dispersion and eleven the presence or absence of seabirds. Industry self-reporting has not permitted an evaluation of the impact of chronic oil spills on seabirds. We recommend that independent observers be placed on platforms to systematically collect data on spills and seabirds.

  14. Biodiesel from waste cooking oil in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheinbaum, Claudia; Balam, Marco V; Robles, Guillermo; Lelo de Larrea, Sebastian; Mendoza, Roberto

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this article is to evaluate the potential use of biodiesel produced from waste cooking oil in Mexico City. The study is divided in two main areas: the analysis of a waste cooking oil collection pilot project conducted in food markets of a Mexico City region; and the exhaust emissions performance of biodiesel blends measured in buses of the Mexico City public bus transportation network (RTP). Results from the waste cooking oil collection pilot project show that oil quantities disposed depend upon the type of food served and the operational practices in a cuisine establishment. Food markets' waste cooking oil disposal rate from fresh oil is around 10%, but with a very high standard deviation. Emission tests were conducted using the Ride-Along-Vehicle-Emissions-Measuring System in two different types of buses while travelling a regular route. Results shows that the use of biodiesel blends reduces emissions only for buses that have exhaust gas recirculation systems, as analysed by repeated measure analysis of variance. The potential use in Mexico City of waste cooking oil for biodiesel is estimated to cover 2175 buses using a B10 blend. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. 21 CFR 172.861 - Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm... substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils. The food additive, cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils, may be safely used in food in accordance with the...

  16. Microwave Radiometry for Oil Pollution Monitoring, Measurements, and Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Niels

    1986-01-01

    Work is presently carried out in Europe to change the Status of the microwave radiometer, namely, to develop it from a research instrument to an operational instrument-especially for measuring oil pollution on the sea surface. The Technical University of Denmark (TUD), with its long experience...... in airborne microwave radiometry, is heavily involved in this process. The TUD multichannel imaging radiometer system has been flown in several large-scale oil-pollution experiments, the collected data have been analyzed, and they have revealed that care must be exercised to obtain accurate oil volume...

  17. Precious Oil, New Equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The oil price is flying sky high, not only with respect to the purchase price, but also in oil futures and stock. On November 7, the International oil future price reached a new high of US$ 98.62 per barrel in New York.Just two days before the peak day, on November 5, the China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) was back in China's A-share market with a new offering. The opening quotation on the first day of this new issue reached RMB 48.60 yuan per share.

  18. OIL DISPLACEMENT IN MISCIBLE CONDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanka Juttner

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available After primary oil recovery in reservoirs remains about 70% of unexploited oil. To improve the recovery of the remaining reserves, injection of a fluid provide the extra energy in a mchunical form. Oil displacement can he achieved by gas injection of lean natural gas, mainly methane, carbon dioxide etc. Oil displacement can be in immiscible or miscible conditions. This paper deals with mechanism of miscible gas drive. On the basis of simulation of the oil displacement process by gas injection into oil field Žutica the character of process, i. c. a degree of miscibility or immiscibility between the injected fluid and reservoir oil was determined.

  19. MOC encourages private oil companies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The Ministry of Commerce issued a guideline in late June, encouraging private oil companies to take part in refined oil's processing, transportation and retail. The government will support competitive and large companies to integrate into asset-based oil groups and technology service-based oil companies, according to the guideline. Private business will be encouraged to obtain stable access to refined oil resources, technology and management service. China's refined oil market is largely controlled by three State-owned heavyweights: PetroChina, the largest oil producer in Asia; Sinopec,

  20. Laser In-Situ Scattering and Transmissometer (LISST) and Conductivity Temperature Depth (CTD) measurements and supporting data collected in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill Incident from multiple vessels in the Gulf of Mexico from 21/04/2010 to 24/08/2010 (NODC Accession 0086284)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — At the request of the United States (U.S.) government and BP, research scientists and technicians from the Centre for Offshore Oil Gas and Energy Research (COOGER),...

  1. Chemical and physical oceanographic data collected from numerous vessels in the Gulf of Mexico in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event and compiled for the Joint Analysis Group summary report: NOAA Technical Report NOS OR&R 27 (NODC Accession 0087872)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Deepwater Horizon Joint Analysis Group (JAG) for Surface and Sub-Surface Oceanography, Oil and Dispersant Data was a working group with membership from federal...

  2. Microbial enhanced oil recovery and wettability research program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, C.P.; Bala, G.A.; Duvall, M.L.

    1991-07-01

    This report covers research results for the microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) and wettability research program conducted by EG G Idaho, Inc. at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The isolation and characterization of microbial species collected from various locations including target oil field environments is underway to develop more effective oil recovery systems for specific applications. The wettability research is a multi-year collaborative effort with the New Mexico Petroleum Recovery Research Center (NMPRRC), to evaluate reservoir wettability and its effects on oil recovery. Results from the wettability research will be applied to determine if alteration of wettability is a significant contributing mechanism for MEOR systems. Eight facultatively anaerobic surfactant producing isolates able to function in the reservoir conditions of the Minnelusa A Sands of the Powder River Basin in Wyoming were isolated from naturally occurring oil-laden environments. Isolates were characterized according to morphology, thermostability, halotolerance, growth substrates, affinity to crude oil/brine interfaces, degradative effects on crude oils, and biochemical profiles. Research at the INEL has focused on the elucidation of microbial mechanisms by which crude oil may be recovered from a reservoir and the chemical and physical properties of the reservoir that may impact the effectiveness of MEOR. Bacillus licheniformis JF-2 (ATCC 39307) has been used as a benchmark organism to quantify MEOR of medium weight crude oils (17.5 to 38.1{degrees}API) the capacity for oil recovery of Bacillus licheniformis JF-2 utilizing a sucrose-based nutrient has been elucidated using Berea sandstone cores. Spacial distribution of cells after microbial flooding has been analyzed with scanning electron microscopy. Also the effect of microbial surfactants on the interfacial tensions (IFT) of aqueous/crude oil systems has been measured. 87 refs., 60 figs., 15 tabs.

  3. Transfer of terpenes from essential oils into cow milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejonklev, J; Løkke, M M; Larsen, M K; Mortensen, G; Petersen, M A; Weisbjerg, M R

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the transfer of volatile terpenes from caraway seed and oregano plant essential oils into cow's milk through respiratory and gastrointestinal exposure. Essential oils have potential applications as feed additives because of their antimicrobial properties, but very little work exists on the transfer of their volatile compounds into milk. Lactating Danish Holstein cows with duodenum cannula were used. Gastrointestinal exposure was facilitated by infusing the essential oils, mixed with deodorized sesame oil, into the duodenum cannula. Two levels were tested for each essential oil. Respiratory exposure was facilitated by placing the animal in a chamber together with a sponge soaked in the essential oils. All exposures were spread over 9h. Milk samples were collected immediately before and after exposure, as well as the next morning. Twelve monoterpenes and 2 sesquiterpenes were analyzed in essential oils and in milk samples using dynamic headspace sampling and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In the essential oils, almost all of the terpenes were detected in both essential oils at various levels. For caraway, the monoterpenes limonene, carvone, and carvacrol were most abundant; in oregano, the monoterpenes carvacrol and ρ-cymene were most abundant. For almost all treatments, an immediate effect was detected in milk, whereas little or no effect was detected in milk the following day. This suggests that the transfer into milk of these volatile terpenes is fast, and that the milk will not be influenced when treatment is discontinued. Principal component analysis was used to elucidate the effect of the treatments on the terpene profile of the milk. Terpene content for treatment milk samples was characterized by the same terpenes found in the treatment essential oil used for that animal, regardless of pathway of exposure. The terpenes appear to be transferred unaltered into the milk, regardless of the pathway of exposure

  4. Validation Results for Core-Scale Oil Shale Pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staten, Josh; Tiwari, Pankaj

    2015-03-01

    This report summarizes a study of oil shale pyrolysis at various scales and the subsequent development a model for in situ production of oil from oil shale. Oil shale from the Mahogany zone of the Green River formation was used in all experiments. Pyrolysis experiments were conducted at four scales, powdered samples (100 mesh) and core samples of 0.75”, 1” and 2.5” diameters. The batch, semibatch and continuous flow pyrolysis experiments were designed to study the effect of temperature (300°C to 500°C), heating rate (1°C/min to 10°C/min), pressure (ambient and 500 psig) and size of the sample on product formation. Comprehensive analyses were performed on reactants and products - liquid, gas and spent shale. These experimental studies were designed to understand the relevant coupled phenomena (reaction kinetics, heat transfer, mass transfer, thermodynamics) at multiple scales. A model for oil shale pyrolysis was developed in the COMSOL multiphysics platform. A general kinetic model was integrated with important physical and chemical phenomena that occur during pyrolysis. The secondary reactions of coking and cracking in the product phase were addressed. The multiscale experimental data generated and the models developed provide an understanding of the simultaneous effects of chemical kinetics, and heat and mass transfer on oil quality and yield. The comprehensive data collected in this study will help advance the move to large-scale in situ oil production from the pyrolysis of oil shale.

  5. Largest US oil and gas fields, August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-06

    The Largest US Oil and Gas Fields is a technical report and part of an Energy Information Administration (EIA) series presenting distributions of US crude oil and natural gas resources, developed using field-level data collected by EIA`s annual survey of oil and gas proved reserves. The series` objective is to provide useful information beyond that routinely presented in the EIA annual report on crude oil and natural gas reserves. These special reports also will provide oil and gas resource analysts with a fuller understanding of the nature of US crude oil and natural gas occurrence, both at the macro level and with respect to the specific subjects addressed. The series` approach is to integrate EIA`s crude oil and natural gas survey data with related data obtained from other authoritative sources, and then to present illustrations and analyses of interest to a broad spectrum of energy information users ranging from the general public to oil and gas industry personnel.

  6. Effective distribution of emulsified edible oil for enhanced anaerobic bioremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borden, Robert C.

    2007-10-01

    Recent laboratory and field studies have shown that injection of emulsified edible oils can provide an effective, low-cost alternative for stimulating anaerobic biodegradation processes. A pilot-scale permeable reactive bio-barrier (PRBB) was installed at a perchlorate and chlorinated solvent impacted site by injecting 380 L of commercially available emulsion (EOS ®) containing emulsified soybean oil, food-grade surfactants, lactate, and yeast extract through ten direct push injection wells over a two day period. Soil cores collected six months after emulsion injection indicate the oil was distributed up to 5 m downgradient of the injection wells. A previously developed emulsion transport model was used to simulate emulsion transport and retention using independently estimated model parameters. While there was considerable variability in the soil sampling results, the model simulations generally agreed with the observed oil distribution at the field site. Model sensitivity analyses indicate that increasing the injection flow rate or diluting the oil with more water will have little effect on final oil distribution in the aquifer. The only effective approach for enhancing the spread of emulsified oil away from the injection well appears to be injecting a greater mass of oil.

  7. 7 CFR 985.4 - Spearmint oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... oil. Spearmint oil, hereinafter referred to as oil, means essential oil extracted by distillation from... the production area, that produce a spearmint flavored oil. Oil shall be segregated into the following... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spearmint oil. 985.4 Section 985.4...

  8. Quality controlled water, sediment, tissue, and tar/oil chemistry analyses from the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill event in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-04 to 2011-06, sourced from NOAA's Query Manager data management system (NODC Accession 0108924)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This collection includes 4 data files (one each for water, sediment, tissue, and tar/oil analyses) containing data from the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) Oil Spill Event...

  9. Oil Rig Weather Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Weather observations taken at offshore platforms along the United States coastlines. The majority are located in oil-rich areas of the Gulf of Mexico, Gulf of...

  10. Enhanced oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakma, A.; Rafiq Islam, M.; Berruti, F.

    1991-01-01

    Some forty to sixty percent of the original oil in place typically remains trapped in the reservoir after primary and secondary recoveries. Enhanced oil recovery refers to the recovery of the residual oil by different techniques. Many of the existing and proposed enhanced oil recovery techniques require sound understanding of basic chemical engineering principles such as fluid flow, heat and mass transfer, interfacial phenomena etc. Chemical EOR techniques require a good understanding of interfacial phenomena, chemical reaction, multicomponent absorption. Understanding of the fundamentals of the various EOR processes is not adequate. EOR is increasingly attracting a growing number of chemical engineers and, as a result, some of the fundamental aspect of EOR are now being investigated. However, much more remains to be done and chemical engineers can play an important role in providing a better understanding of EOR fundamentals. This volume presents selected papers on EOR presented at AICHE meetings.

  11. Peak oil and gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziegler, W. H. [W. H. Ziegler, Av. des Mousquines 40bis, Lausanne (Switzerland); Campbell, C. J. [Stabbal Hill, Ballydehob, County Cork (Ireland); Zagar, J.J. [Four Blues, Schull, County Cork (Ireland)

    2009-07-01

    Oil and gas were formed under exceptional conditions in the geological past, meaning that they are subject to natural depletion, such that the past growth in production must give way to decline. Although depletion is a simple concept to grasp, public data on the resource base are extremely unreliable due to ambiguous definitions and lax reporting. The oil industry is reluctant to admit to an onset of decline carrying obvious adverse financial consequences. There are several different categories of oil and gas, from tar sands to deep water fields, each with specific characteristics that need to be evaluated. It is important to build a global model on a country by country basis in order that anomalous statistics may be identified and evaluated. Such a study suggests that the world faces the onset of decline, with far-reaching consequences given the central role of oil-based energy. It is accordingly an important subject deserving detailed consideration by policy makers. (author)

  12. Oil Spills Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA monitors impacts and mitigates the effects of spilled oil, which threatens public health and safety, contaminates drinking water, causes fire and explosion, diminishes air and water quality, harms ecosystems, and more.

  13. Extracting oil from coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elkin Mauricio López Fontal

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes oil being extracted from toasted coffee by the extrusion method; two products are obtained from this process: coffee oil and pulp. Toasted coffee was used which has a high amount of sensorial compounds. It should be noted that a significant criterion in evaluating the quality of coffee lies in its aroma. When extracting oil from coffee, a significant part of toasted coffee’s aromatic content leaves with it, varying according to the extraction method. A fixed oil having a high volatile load is thus obtained, presenting favourable sensory characteristics. The pulp was physically and chemically analysed to show its benefit and particular properties and, according to the results so obtained, it is a product having potential usefulness.

  14. Crude oil burning mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Malmquist, Linus Mattias Valdemar; Jomaas, Grunde

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve predictions for the burning efficiency and the residue composition of in-situ burning of crude oil, the burning mechanism of crude oil was studied in relation to the composition of its hydrocarbon mixture, before, during and after the burning. The surface temperature, flame...... height, mass loss rate and residues of three hydrocarbon liquids (n-octane, dodecane and hexadecane), two crude oils (DUC and REBCO) and one hydrocarbon liquid mixture of the aforementioned hydrocarbon liquids were studied using the Crude Oil Flammability Apparatus. The experimental results were compared...... to the predictions of four conceptual models that describe the burning mechanism of multicomponent fuels. Based on the comparisons, hydrocarbon liquids were found to be best described by the Equilibrium Flash Vaporization model, showing a constant gas composition and gasification rate. The multicomponent fuels...

  15. Economic Geology (Oil & Gas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geotimes, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Briefly reviews the worldwide developments in petroleum geology in 1971, including exploration, new fields, and oil production. This report is condensed from the October Bulletin of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists. (PR)

  16. Economic Geology (Oil & Gas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geotimes, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Briefly reviews the worldwide developments in petroleum geology in 1971, including exploration, new fields, and oil production. This report is condensed from the October Bulletin of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists. (PR)

  17. Authentication of vegetable oils.

    OpenAIRE

    Cunha, S.C.; Amaral, J S; Oliveira, M.B.P.P.

    2011-01-01

    Authenticity of vegetable oils continues to be a challenge and the target of many studies. Consumers expectancy on healthier products that conform to the labelled information, and the vast amount of legislation a bout the correct characterisation and classification of vegetable oils have boosted a number of scientific works on this subject. Analytical t echniques to face this challenge are, at least, as manifold as ar e the ways of adulteration, ranging fro...

  18. Shoreline oiling from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Zachary; Zengel, Scott; Baker, Mary; Steinhoff, Marla; Fricano, Gail; Rouhani, Shahrokh; Michel, Jacqueline

    2016-06-15

    We build on previous work to construct a comprehensive database of shoreline oiling exposure from the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) spill by compiling field and remotely-sensed datasets to support oil exposure and injury quantification. We compiled a spatial database of shoreline segments with attributes summarizing habitat, oiling category and timeline. We present new simplified oil exposure classes for both beaches and coastal wetland habitats derived from this database integrating both intensity and persistence of oiling on the shoreline over time. We document oiling along 2113km out of 9545km of surveyed shoreline, an increase of 19% from previously published estimates and representing the largest marine oil spill in history by length of shoreline oiled. These data may be used to generate maps and calculate summary statistics to assist in quantifying and understanding the scope, extent, and spatial distribution of shoreline oil exposure as a result of the DWH incident.

  19. Quantification of rice bran oil in oil blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, R.; Sharma, H. K.; Sengar, G.

    2012-11-01

    Blends consisting of physically refined rice bran oil (PRBO): sunflower oil (SnF) and PRBO: safflower oil (SAF) in different proportions were analyzed for various physicochemical parameters. The quantification of pure rice bran oil in the blended oils was carried out using different methods including gas chromatographic, HPLC, ultrasonic velocity and methods based on physico-chemical parameters. The physicochemical parameters such as ultrasonic velocity, relative association and acoustic impedance at 2 MHz, iodine value, palmitic acid content and oryzanol content reflected significant changes with increased proportions of PRBO in the blended oils. These parameters were selected as dependent parameters and % PRBO proportion was selected as independent parameters. The study revealed that regression equations based on the oryzanol content, palmitic acid composition, ultrasonic velocity, relative association, acoustic impedance, and iodine value can be used for the quantification of rice bran oil in blended oils. The rice bran oil can easily be quantified in the blended oils based on the oryzanol content by HPLC even at a 1% level. The palmitic acid content in blended oils can also be used as an indicator to quantify rice bran oil at or above the 20% level in blended oils whereas the method based on ultrasonic velocity, acoustic impedance and relative association showed initial promise in the quantification of rice bran oil. (Author) 23 refs.

  20. A method for quantitative mapping of thick oil spills using imaging spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Roger N.; Swayze, Gregg A.; Leifer, Ira; Livo, K. Eric; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Hoefen, Todd; Lundeen, Sarah; Eastwood, Michael; Green, Robert O.; Pearson, Neil; Sarture, Charles; McCubbin, Ian; Roberts, Dar; Bradley, Eliza; Steele, Denis; Ryan, Thomas; Dominguez, Roseanne; ,

    2010-01-01

    In response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, a method of near-infrared imaging spectroscopic analysis was developed to map the locations of thick oil floating on water. Specifically, this method can be used to derive, in each image pixel, the oil-to-water ratio in oil emulsions, the sub-pixel areal fraction, and its thicknesses and volume within the limits of light penetration into the oil (up to a few millimeters). The method uses the shape of near-infrared (NIR) absorption features and the variations in the spectral continuum due to organic compounds found in oil to identify different oil chemistries, including its weathering state and thickness. The method is insensitive to complicating conditions such as moderate aerosol scattering and reflectance level changes from other conditions, including moderate sun glint. Data for this analysis were collected by the NASA Airborne Visual Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) instrument, which was flown over the oil spill on May 17, 2010. Because of the large extent of the spill, AVIRIS flight lines could cover only a portion of the spill on this relatively calm, nearly cloud-free day. Derived lower limits for oil volumes within the top few millimeters of the ocean surface directly probed with the near-infrared light detected in the AVIRIS scenes were 19,000 (conservative assumptions) to 34,000 (aggressive assumptions) barrels of oil. AVIRIS covered about 30 percent of the core spill area, which consisted of emulsion plumes and oil sheens. Areas of oil sheen but lacking oil emulsion plumes outside of the core spill were not evaluated for oil volume in this study. If the core spill areas not covered by flight lines contained similar amounts of oil and oil-water emulsions, then extrapolation to the entire core spill area defined by a MODIS (Terra) image collected on the same day indicates a minimum of 66,000 to 120,000 barrels of oil was floating on the surface. These estimates are preliminary and

  1. Detection of adulterated copaiba (Copaifera multijuga Hayne oil-resins by refractive index and thin layer chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol de S. Barbosa

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The refractive indices (RI of the eight samples of copaiba oils, collected for this study at RDS Tupé ranged from 1.50284 to 1.50786. The thin layer chromatography (TLC plates of these oils revealed with anisaldehyde-sulphuric acid reagent showed dark lilac stains with several small stains at low Rf and a large rounded stain at high Rf. On the other hand, the twelve copaiba oils purchased at local markets presented RI between 1.48176 and 1.50886, and the TLC plates, showed as general profile blue stains, with smaller superimposed stains at low Rf, bigger superimposed stains like elongated stain at high Rf and a colorless rounded stain at middle Rf. Among 12 purchased oils at local markets, a three oil-resins presented similar RI and TLC profile to those observed for collected copaiba oils; b six oils showed same RI and TLC profiles to those observed for soybean oil; c three samples presented RI near to those showed by copaiba oil-resin, however the TLC profile was near to profile observed for a prepared mixture soybean oil: copaiba oil, two samples with 3:1 proportion and one sample with 1:3 proportion. Therefore, the RI determination and the TLC profiles could be considered rapid and efficient procedures for detection of vegetal oil in the copaiba oil-resins.

  2. Estimating Potential Effects of Hypothetical Oil Spills on Polar Bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amstrup, Steven C.; Durner, G.M.; McDonald, T.L.; Johnson, W.R.

    2006-01-01

    Much is known about the transport and fate of oil spilled into the sea and its toxicity to exposed wildlife. Previously, however, there has been no way to quantify the probability that wildlife dispersed over the seascape would be exposed to spilled oil. Polar bears, the apical predator of the arctic, are widely dispersed near the continental shelves of the Arctic Ocean, an area also undergoing considerable hydrocarbon exploration and development. We used 15,308 satellite locations from 194 radiocollared polar bears to estimate the probability that polar bears could be exposed to hypothetical oil spills. We used a true 2 dimensional Gausian kernel density estimator, to estimate the number of bears likely to occur in each 1.00 km2 cell of a grid superimposed over near shore areas surrounding 2 oil production facilities: the existing Northstar oil production facility, and the proposed offshore site for the Liberty production facility. We estimated the standard errors of bear numbers per cell with bootstrapping. Simulated oil spill footprints for September and October, the times during which we hypothesized effects of an oil-spill would be worst, were estimated using real wind and current data collected between 1980 and 1996. We used ARC/Info software to calculate overlap (numbers of bears oiled) between simulated oil-spill footprints and polar bear grid-cell values. Numbers of bears potentially oiled by a hypothetical 5912 barrel spill (the largest spill thought probable from a pipeline breach) ranged from 0 to 27 polar bears for September open water conditions, and from 0 to 74 polar bears in October mixed ice conditions. Median numbers oiled by the 5912 barrel hypothetical spill from the Liberty simulation in September and October were 1 and 3 bears, equivalent values for the Northstar simulation were 3 and 11 bears. In October, 75% of trajectories from the 5912 barrel simulated spill at Liberty oiled 9 or fewer bears while 75% of the trajectories affected 20 or

  3. Evaluation and Characterization of Malabar Tamarind [Garcinia cambogia (Gaertn.) Desr.] Seed Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choppa, Tharachand; Selvaraj, Chinnadurai Immanuel; Zachariah, Abraham

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the chemical compounds present in the Malabar tamarind seed oil. The oil was extracted from the seeds of Malabar tamarind fruits collected from NBPGR Regional station, Thrissur. The seeds yielded 46.5 % of oil. Parameters such as the peroxide value, iodine value, saponification value, and acid value of the extracted Malabar tamarind seed oil were determined. These values were used to predict the quality of fatty acid methyl esters present in the oil. UV absorption spectroscopy of the oil showed hypsochromic shift, and the maximum absorbance was at 269 nm. The Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrum revealed the presence of olefin hydrogen and carbonyl group of ester compounds in the oil sample. The evaluation of the chemical compounds in the oil using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) revealed that, a total of five fatty acid methyl esters were present in the oil sample. Among the five fatty acid esters present in the Malabar tamarind seed oil, Methyl 16-methyl heptadecanoate (54.57 %) was found to be the predominant compound. This study also supports the presence of olefins in the long chain fatty acids from Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) data. There is a significant correlation between the properties and the characteristic profile of the oil sample. This study is the first report that shows Malabar tamarind as a promising source of oil seeds.

  4. Detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in raw menhaden fish oil using fluorescence spectroscopy: Method development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, Edwin A; Ridley, Lauren M; Murphy, Wyatt R; Sowa, John R; Bentivegna, Carolyn S

    2015-09-01

    Raw menhaden fish oil was developed for biomonitoring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using fluorescence spectroscopy. Menhaden (Genus Brevoortia) were collected in 2010 and/or 2011 from Delaware Bay, New Jersey, USA; James River, Virginia, USA; Vermillion Bay, Louisiana, USA (VBLA); and Barataria Bay, Louisiana, USA (BBLA). Barataria Bay, Louisiana received heavy oiling from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Method development included determining optimal wavelengths for PAH detection, fish oil matrix interferences, and influence of solvent concentration on extraction. Results showed that some fish oils contained high molecular weight PAH-like compounds in addition to other fluorescent compounds such as albumin and vitamin A and vitamin E. None of these naturally occurring compounds interfered with detection of high molecular weight PAHs. However, data suggested that the lipid component of fish oil was altering fluorescence spectra by supporting the formation of PAH excimers. For example, the most intense excitation wavelength for hydroxypyrene shifted from Ex285/Em430 to Ex340/Em430. Comparison of Deepwater Horizon crude oil and fish oil spectra indicated that some fish oils contained crude oil-like PAHs. Using wavelengths of Ex360/Em430, fish oil concentrations were calculated as 3.92 μg/g, 0.61 μg/g, and 0.14 μg/g for a Delaware Bay sample, BBLA 2011, and VBLA 2011, respectively. Overall, these results supported using menhaden fish oil to track PAH exposures spatially and temporally.

  5. Production of bio-oil from fixed bed pyrolysis of bagasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Asadullah; M.A. Rahman; M.M. Ali; M.S. Rahman; M.A. Motin; M.B. Sultan; M.R. Alam [University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi (Bangladesh). Department of Applied Chemistry and Chemical Technology

    2007-11-15

    The objective of this work was to produce renewable liquid fuel (bio-oil) from locally produced bagasse by pyrolysis in a batch feeding and fixed bed reactor. The experiments were performed at different temperatures ranging from 300 to 600{sup o}C. The bio-oil was collected from two condensers of different temperatures and defined as oil-1 and oil-2. The maximum total yield of bio-oil was found to be 66.0 wt% based on bagasse. The carbon based non-condensable gases were CO, CO{sub 2}, methane, ethane, ethene, propane and propene. The density and viscosity of oil-1 were found to be 1130 kg/m{sup 3} and 19.32 centipoise and that were 1050 kg/m{sup 3} and 4.25 centipoise for oil-2, respectively. The higher heating values (HHV) of them were 17.25 and 19.91 MJ/kg, respectively. The pH of the bio-oils was found to be around 3.5 and 4.5 for oil-1 and oil-2, respectively. The water, solid and ash contents of oil-1 and oil-2 were determined and found to be around 15, 0.02 and 0.03 wt% and 11, 0.01 and 0.02 wt%, respectively based on bagasse. 22 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Poly(dimethylsiloxane) oil absorbent with a three-dimensionally interconnected porous structure and swellable skeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Aijuan; Chen, Mingjie; Du, Can; Guo, Huizhang; Bai, Hua; Li, Lei

    2013-10-23

    Cleanup of oil spills is a worldwide challenge to prevent serious environmental pollution. A new kind of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) oil absorbent with high absorption capacity and excellent reusability was prepared and used for oil/water separation. The preparation process of PDMS oil absorbents involves direct curing of a PDMS prepolymer in a p-xylene solution in the presence of commercial sugar particles, which is simple and economic. PDMS oil absorbents have interconnected pores and a swellable skeleton, combining the advantages of porous materials and gels. Absorption capacities of PDMS oil absorbents are 4-34 g/g for various oils and organic solvents, which are 3 times that reported previously. Owing to their hydrophobicity and oleophilicity, the as-obtained PDMS oil absorbents can selectively collect oils or organic solvents from water. The absorption process can be finished within tens of seconds. Furthermore, the absorbed oils or organic solvents can be recovered by compressing the oil absorbents, and after 20 absorbing/recovering cycles, PDMS oil absorbents show little loss of their absorption capacities and own weights.

  7. Crude oil as a microbial seed bank with unexpected functional potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Man; Nie, Yong; Chi, Chang-Qiao; Tang, Yue-Qin; Li, Yan; Wang, Xing-Biao; Liu, Ze-Shen; Yang, Yunfeng; Zhou, Jizhong; Wu, Xiao-Lei

    2015-11-01

    It was widely believed that oil is a harsh habitat for microbes because of its high toxicity and hydrophobicity. However, accumulating evidence has revealed the presence of live microbes in crude oil. Therefore, it’s of value to conduct an in-depth investigation on microbial communities in crude oil. To this end, microorganisms in oil and water phases were collected from four oil-well production mixtures in Qinghai Oilfield, China, and analyzed for their taxonomic and functional compositions via pyrosequencing and GeoChip, respectively. Hierarchical clustering of 16S rRNA gene sequences and functional genes clearly separated crude oil and water phases, suggestive of distinct taxonomic and functional gene compositions between crude oil and water phases. Unexpectedly, Pseudomonas dominated oil phase where diverse functional gene groups were identified, which significantly differed from those in the corresponding water phases. Meanwhile, most functional genes were significantly more abundant in oil phase, which was consistent with their important roles in facilitating survival of their host organisms in crude oil. These findings provide strong evidence that crude oil could be a “seed bank” of functional microorganisms with rich functional potentials. This offers novel insights for industrial applications of microbial-enhanced oil recovery and bioremediation of petroleum-polluted environments.

  8. Short-chain chlorinated paraffins in cooking oil and related products from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yang; Harada, Kouji H; Liu, Wanyang; Yan, Junxia; Zhao, Can; Niisoe, Tamon; Adachi, Ayumu; Fujii, Yukiko; Nouda, Chihiro; Takasuga, Takumi; Koizumi, Akio

    2015-11-01

    Short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) are emerging persistent organic pollutants. It has been found that dietary intakes of SCCPs in China have recently increased and are now higher than in Japan and Korea. The contribution of cooking oil to dietary exposure to SCCPs in China was evaluated by analyzing SCCPs in cooking oil, raw seeds used to produce cooking oil, and fried confectionery products collected in China in 2010 and 2012. Detectable amounts of SCCP homologs were found in 48 out of the 49 cooking oil samples analyzed, and the SCCP concentrations varied widely, from cooking oil ranged from Cooking oil might therefore be one of the sources of SCCPs to Chinese diets. SCCPs were also detected in raw seeds used to produce cooking oil, but the concentrations varied widely. The SCCP homolog patterns in the raw seed and cooking oil samples were different, implying that the seeds used to produce the oil (and therefore the soil on which the seeds were produced) were unlikely to be the sources of SCCPs in cooking oil. Further investigations are needed to determine the routes through which cooking oil becomes contaminated with SCCPs during the production and processing of the oil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. 78 FR 48895 - Information Collection Activities: Oil and Gas Well-Workover Operations; Proposed Collection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-12

    ... Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement [Docket ID BSEE-2013-0006; OMB Control Number 1014-0001... Gas Well-Workover Operations. OMB Control Number: 1014-0001. Abstract: The Outer Continental Shelf...). Request 0 approval to begin subsea well-workover operations; submit Forms BSEE-0124 (include, if...

  10. 78 FR 48893 - Information Collection Activities: Oil and Gas Well-Completion Operations; Proposed Collection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-12

    ... Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement [Docket ID BSEE-2013-0004; OMB Control Number 1014-0004... Gas Well-Completion Operations. OMB Control Number: 1014-0004. Abstract: The Outer Continental Shelf... interventions on your 10 subsea BOP stack; document all test results; make available to BSEE upon request....

  11. 77 FR 59209 - Information Collection Activities: Oil and Gas Production Requirements; Proposed Collection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-26

    ... Appropriations Bill (Pub. L. 104-133, 110 Stat. 1321, April 26, 1996), and OMB Circular A-25, authorize Federal... the burdens, we assumed that respondents perform certain requirements in the normal course of...

  12. Hazelnut oil consumption of families in the central town of Ordu province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat SAYILI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a comparative analysis of consumption of edible oil of families in Central Town of OrduProvince. In addition, factor analysis was conducted on factors which affect the consumption of hazelnut oil. The data used in the study in January 2013 was a result of a survey conducted with 272 people. According to the survey, the most consumed oils, butter (71.32% and hazelnut oil (61.76%, which is the amount of total fatconsumption of 6.71 kg/month per family and 1.89 kg/month per person. Families with more than 5 littercontainers prefer buying oil. Hazelnut oil is thought to be healthy and of good quality too much is consumed by local people. As a result of factor analysis, three factors (image and highly attractive, odour and low weight, quality and health affecting hazelnut oil consumption has been collected under the title.

  13. Contaminants, water quality, and wildlife mortality on oil production sites in western South Dakota. Interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, C.J.; Ruelle, R.

    1993-04-01

    The objectives of the study were to evaluate oil pits and other hazards at oil production sites to (1) document the magnitude of wildlife mortality due to exposure to oil and other chemicals, (2) determine the physical and toxic effects of oil pit contents on wildlife, and (3) identify methods to prevent sublethal and lethal impacts to wildlife. Pits at oil production sites in Fall River and Harding Counties of western South Dakota were surveyed for wildlife carcasses by searching the shorelines and raking underwater around the pit edges in April, July, and October 1992. In July, composite water and sediment samples were collected from 26 pits, and analyzed for oil and grease. Bioassays were conducted with two life stages of Hyalella azteca and Daphnia magna to determine pit water toxicity. Seed germination tests were conducted using radish seeds exposed to pit water. Oil and poor water quality appeared to be the primary causes of pit liquid toxicity.

  14. ARKTOS amphibious oil spill response craft for mixed ice/water conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seligman, Bruce H.J.W. [ARKTOS International S.A., Tavannes (Switzerland)], email: bruce.seligman@arktoscraft.com; Hall, T.A. [Hall Marine Design Ltd., Vancouver B.C. (Canada)], email: thallhmd@telus.net

    2010-07-01

    The oil spill which occurred recently in the Gulf of Mexico highlighted the lack of efficient oil spill clean-up equipment for an offshore environment. With the increase in industrial operations in the Arctic Seas it is of high importance to develop an efficient oil spill response as the absence of reliable oil spill contingency plans will not be tolerated in such environmentally sensitive areas. The aim of this paper is to present the use of the ARKTOS amphibious craft for cleaning up an oil spill in the Arctic. This craft is usually used for logistical services and evacuation purposes; its use for clean-up purposes has been under study since 2000. This study showed that the ARKTOS craft could be an efficient means for oil spill clean-up in the Arctic because of its proven ice capable amphibious platforms and its hydraulic power; however oil collection trials should be performed to validate it.

  15. Leaf Collection Posting Log

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — This dataset contains leaf collection dates for area and subarea where leaf collection service is provided by Montgomery County Department of Transportation. Update...

  16. Mechanical - physical treatment of used motor oil within a sustainable waste management system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đukić Veljko N.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Waste oils are all mineral or synthetic oils that cannot be used for the purpose for which they were originally produced. These are: hydraulic oils, motor oils, ship oils, liquids for the transfer of heat or insulation, oily remains from reservoirs, oil-water emulsions and various oil-water mixtures. In its chemical makeup used motor oil contains hydrocarbons, organic minerals, heavy metals (cobalt, magnesium, iron, zinc, sulfur, chlorine, nitrogen, phosphorus, compounds from additives and other products that are dangerous as they have cancerous effects on health. As it is considered the biggest contaminant of the environment and classified as hazardous waste; special attention must be given in the handling of used motor oil to ensure its appropriate disposal. Setting up of a viable system for Mechanical-Physical Treatment of used motor oil makes it possible to re-use it as a secondary raw material i.e. the problem of collection, transportation, treatment and storing of the used motor oil is being solved. . The subject of this research is the advantage of the mechanical-physical treatment of used motor oil. Re- refined motor oil can be used for multiple purposes such as a base for the other synthetic oils, for heating etc. Improper disposal of used motor oil causes multiple damage; firstly, losing the valuable secondary base which, with the addition of certain additives, can be used as the basis for the other synthetic oils; secondly, causing damage to the environment by the pollution with inability to repair the damage to all environmental components.

  17. Correlation, path coefficient analysis and heritability for agronomic characters of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaumongkol, Y.

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available A study of correlation, path coefficient analysis and heritablity for some agronomic characters of oil palm was investigated during February 1998 to January 2002. The oil palm population used in this experiment was derived from F1 tenera hybrids which were collected from various oil palm plantations in Southern Thailand. One good performance bunch (i.e., big bunch, thin shell was selected from each plantation and four to six seeds per selected bunch were used for cultivation. One thousand thirty eight plants were grown at Klong Hoi Khong Research Station, Faculty of Natural Resources, Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla, in 1989. Forty five palms consisted of Dura, Tenera and Pisifera types with 18, 18 and 9 plants respectively, were selected by randomization and tagged for investigation. The oil palm bunch yield and yield component characters were observed from individual palm for 4 years (February 1998 to January 2002. The bunch composition characters were analysed from a single bunch of each palm, sampled between June to October 1999. The results showed that in F2 plants of oil palm, the correlation and the path coefficient between characters relating to oil yield and %oil/bunch varied according to oil palm types (Dura, Tenera and Pisifera. In Dura and Tenera palms, the characters which gave highly positive correlation with a large direct and indirect positive effects on oil yield and %oil/bunch were total bunch weight, %oil/bunch, %fruit/bunch and %oil/fruit. In case of Pisifera palms, the characters which gave highly positive correlation with a large direct and indirect positive effects on oil yield and %oil/bunch were total bunch weight, number of bunches, single bunch weight, %oil/bunch and %fruit/bunch. However, from all investigated characters in F2 plants, only %mesocarp/fruit, %oil/fruit and %fruit/bunch showed the high values of broad sense heritabilities.

  18. Is the increase in oil pollution a possibility of the presence of diverse microorganisms? An experimental dataset on oil prevalent areas of Goa, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekadwad, Bhagwan N; Khobragade, Chandrahaysa N

    2016-12-01

    Survey data and wet lab reports presented in this paper were collected from Western coastlines of India from Goan beaches. Oil polluted areas were captured on camera as evidence for oil and tar pollution. Several microorganisms showing diverse characteristics such as pigment producers, salt tolerant and hydrocarbon resistance were isolated and cultured in the laboratory. The dataset presented in this paper supports "A case study on effects of oil spills and tar-ball pollution on beaches of Goa (India)" (Rekadwad and Khobragade, 2015) [1] and "Microbial diversity of oil spills and tar resistant bacteria isolated from beaches of Goa (India)" (Rekadwad and Khobragade, 2016) [2].

  19. Is the increase in oil pollution a possibility of the presence of diverse microorganisms? An experimental dataset on oil prevalent areas of Goa, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhagwan N. Rekadwad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Survey data and wet lab reports presented in this paper were collected from Western coastlines of India from Goan beaches. Oil polluted areas were captured on camera as evidence for oil and tar pollution. Several microorganisms showing diverse characteristics such as pigment producers, salt tolerant and hydrocarbon resistance were isolated and cultured in the laboratory. The dataset presented in this paper supports “A case study on effects of oil spills and tar-ball pollution on beaches of Goa (India” (Rekadwad and Khobragade, 2015 [1] and “Microbial diversity of oil spills and tar resistant bacteria isolated from beaches of Goa (India” (Rekadwad and Khobragade, 2016 [2].

  20. Composição química do óleo essencial de duas amostras de carqueja (Baccharis sp. coletadas em Paty do Alferes - Rio de Janeiro Chemical composition of essential oil from two samples of carqueja (Baccharis sp. collected in Paty do Alferes - Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A.S. Morais

    2011-01-01

    ão foram observados nestas amostras de óleo essencial, o que pode ser um indicativo que esta espécie não é B. trimera. Os resultados apresentados apontaram que as amostras coletadas em Paty do Alferes apresentam composição química similar e podem ser a mesma espécie vegetal, com grande indicativo de ser B. crispa (B cylindrica.Brazil presents the highest vegetable genetic diversity of the world. Among the native plants of Brazil is some species of genus Baccharis (Asteraceae family and popularly known as "carqueja". This medicinal specie has been used as diuretic, tonic, digestive, protective and stimulate of the liver, antianemic, anti-rheumatic, obesity control, diabetes, hepatitis and gastroenteritis. Samples of two different populations of plants were collected in a privet property in Paty do Alferes district (Rio de Janeiro State in 11/2010, and dried at room temperature (28ºC +- 2 at shade conditions. Essential oil was extracted by hydrodistillation (Clevenger-type apparatus for 4h and analyzed by GC-MS (Shimadzu, QP 5050-DB-5 capillary column - 30mx0.25µmx0.25mm. Carrier gas was Helium (1.7mL/min; split ratio: 1:30. Temperature program: 60º C - 240º C (3ºC/ min, rising to 240ºC at 3ºC/min. Injector temperature: 240ºC and detector temperature: 230ºC. Identifications of chemical compounds were made by matching their mass spectra and Kovat's indices (IK values with known compounds reported in the literature. Were found 19 compounds in these essential oils. The major compound founded was trans-caryophyllene (22.0 % and 18.1%, followed by germacrene-D (7.0%, bicyclogermacrene (8.5%, ledol (13.7%, spathulenol (13.8% and 20.7% and caryophyllene oxide (8.3% and 12.0%. Carquejol and carquejyl acetate were not observed in these essential oil. These results showed that these samples present similar chemical composition and they can be the same vegetal specie (B. crispa/ B cylindrica.

  1. Spreading of oil and the concept of average oil thickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodman, R. [Innovative Ventures Ltd., Cochrane, AB (Canada); Quintero-Marmol, A.M. [Pemex E and P, Campeche (Mexico); Bannerman, K. [Radarsat International, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Stevenson, G. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    The area of on oil slick on water can be readily measured using simple techniques ranging from visual observations to satellite-based radar systems. However, it is necessary to know the volume of spilled oil in order to determine the environmental impacts and best response strategy. The volume of oil must be known to determine spill quantity, response effectiveness and weathering rates. The relationship between volume and area is the average thickness of the oil over the spill area. This paper presents the results of several experiments conducted in the Gulf of Mexico that determined if average thickness of the oil is a characteristic of a specific crude oil, independent of spill size. In order to calculate the amount of oil on water from the area of slick requires information on the oil thickness, the inhomogeneity of the oil thickness and the oil-to-water ratio in the slick if it is emulsified. Experimental data revealed that an oil slick stops spreading very quickly after the application of oil. After the equilibrium thickness has been established, the slick is very sensitive to disturbances on the water surface, such as wave action, which causes the oil circle to dissipate into several small irregular shapes. It was noted that the spill source and oceanographic conditions are both critical to the final shape of the spill. 31 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs.

  2. Phenolation of vegetable oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZORAN S. PETROVIĆ

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Novel bio-based compounds containing phenols suitable for the syn­thesis of polyurethanes were prepared. The direct alkylation of phenols with different vegetable oils in the presence of superacids (HBF4, triflic acid as ca­talysts was studied. The reaction kinetics was followed by monitoring the de­crease of the double bond content (iodine value with time. In order to under­stand the mechanism of the reaction, phenol was alkylated with model com­pounds. The model compounds containing one internal double bond were 9-oc­tadecene and methyl oleate and those with three double bonds were triolein and high oleic safflower oil (82 % oleic acid. It was shown that the best structures for phenol alkylation are fatty acids with only one double bond (oleic acid. Fatty acids with two double bonds (linoleic acid and three double bonds (lino­lenic acid lead to polymerized oils by a Diels–Alder reaction, and to a lesser extent to phenol alkylated products. The reaction product of direct alkylation of phenol with vegetable oils is a complex mixture of phenol alkylated with poly­merized oil (30–60 %, phenyl esters formed by transesterification of phenol with triglyceride ester bonds (<10 % and unreacted oil (30 %. The phenolated vegetable oils are new aromatic–aliphatic bio-based raw materials suitable for the preparation of polyols (by propoxylation, ethoxylation, Mannich reactions for the preparation of polyurethanes, as intermediates for phenolic resins or as bio-based antioxidants.

  3. Microbial enhanced heavy crude oil recovery through biodegradation using bacterial isolates from an Omani oil field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sayegh, Abdullah; Al-Wahaibi, Yahya; Al-Bahry, Saif; Elshafie, Abdulkadir; Al-Bemani, Ali; Joshi, Sanket

    2015-09-16

    Biodegradation is a cheap and environmentally friendly process that could breakdown and utilizes heavy crude oil (HCO) resources. Numerous bacteria are able to grow using hydrocarbons as a carbon source; however, bacteria that are able to grow using HCO hydrocarbons are limited. In this study, HCO degrading bacteria were isolated from an Omani heavy crude oil field. They were then identified and assessed for their biodegradation and biotransformation abilities under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Bacteria were grown in five different minimum salts media. The isolates were identified by MALDI biotyper and 16S rRNA sequencing. The nucleotide sequences were submitted to GenBank (NCBI) database. The bacteria were identified as Bacillus subtilis and B. licheniformis. To assess microbial growth and biodegradation of HCO by well-assay on agar plates, samples were collected at different intervals. The HCO biodegradation and biotransformation were determined using GC-FID, which showed direct correlation of microbial growth with an increased biotransformation of light hydrocarbons (C12 and C14). Among the isolates, B. licheniformis AS5 was the most efficient isolate in biodegradation and biotransformation of the HCO. Therefore, isolate AS5 was used for heavy crude oil recovery experiments, in core flooding experiments using Berea core plugs, where an additional 16 % of oil initially in place was recovered. This is the first report from Oman for bacteria isolated from an oil field that were able to degrade and transform HCO to lighter components, illustrating the potential use in HCO recovery. The data suggested that biodegradation and biotransformation processes may lead to additional oil recovery from heavy oil fields, if bacteria are grown in suitable medium under optimum growth conditions.

  4. Morphology and protein molecular weight analysis from three variant of oil palm pollen; Dura, Pisifera, and Tenera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priambodo, R.; Witarto, A. B.; Salamah, A.; Setiorini, Triyono, D.; Bowolaksono, A.

    2017-07-01

    Oil palm is a plant that widely cultivated in Indonesia, with an area of about 11 million hectares in 2014. There are three main variants that most cultivated; Dura, Pisifera, and Tenera. Oil palm pollen was spread through the wind. The very wide area of oil palm plantation and those characteristics of oil palm pollen dispersion makes oil palm pollen may give negative effect to the people around plantation, such as an allergy. The research on the morphology and protein characters of the oil palm pollen from three variants has not done yet. This research aims to observe the morphology and protein character from three variants of oil palm pollen. The study begins with the pollen collection from three variants of oil palm. Oil palm pollen was observed using the light and scanning electron microscope. Oil palm pollen protein was extracted and the molecular weight of these proteins was analyzed. The result of this research was the morphology character from three variants of oil palm pollen have successfully been observed. Those three variant of oil palm have no differences structures; triangular shaped with round edge, tricolpate with connected colpus aperture, psilate exine ornamentation at the front side and peripheral side, while at the back side has microreticulate exine ornamentation. Three variants of oil palm pollen protein show the same characteristics. The molecular weight of the protein was ranged from 10-00 KDa. The information can be useful for the next research to figure out component of proteins inside the oil palm pollen.

  5. Fossil-fuel process oils as continuous fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasian-Amin, M.J.

    1986-01-01

    The oils produced by fossil fuel conversion processes consist of such a large number of components that their only proper description is as continuous fluids (i.e., continuum of components). A methodology is presented here to describe the vapor liquid equilibrium processes involving continuous oils. It describes the oil in terms of one or more continuous distribution functions (fractional continuous oils) of some measurable quantity (i.e., characteristic variable) that, in the view of the equilibrium ratio relationship, maintain their functional form in equilibrium processes. Parameters of the distributions of the product streams in any equilibrium process (i.e., vapor and liquid) are determined in terms of the parameters of the feed stream and the operating condition (e.g., T,P). In general, the procedure can be applied to both ideal and non-ideal systems, but in view of the experimental results indicating ideality, only those systems were analyzed. An ambient pressure batch distillation system was constructed to collect vapor-liquid equilibrium data of continuous test oils. Two test oils, a shale oil and a coal oil were studied in this work. From measurement of the equilibrium ratios of the test oils it was determined that both oils behave ideally and the equilibrium ratio was independent of the liquid composition. A simple and definable function of the boiling point provided to be a suitable characteristic variable for the proposed methodology to the sequential operation has shown that if the functions are chosen properly, then the error incurred will not propagate at a significant rate and at the same level of accuracy can be maintained.

  6. In vitro activity of ten essential oils against Sarcoptes scabiei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Fang; Candy, Kerdalidec; Melloul, Elise; Bernigaud, Charlotte; Chai, Ling; Darmon, Céline; Durand, Rémy; Botterel, Françoise; Chosidow, Olivier; Izri, Arezki; Huang, Weiyi; Guillot, Jacques

    2016-11-22

    The development of alternative approaches in ectoparasite management is currently required. Essential oils have been demonstrated to exhibit fumigant and topical toxicity to a number of arthropods. The aim of the present study was to assess the potential efficacy of ten essential oils against Sarcoptes scabiei. The major chemical components of the oils were identified by GC-MS analysis. Contact and fumigation bioassays were performed on Sarcoptes mites collected from experimentally infected pigs. For contact bioassays, essential oils were diluted with paraffin to get concentrations at 10, 5, and even 1% for the most efficient ones. The mites were inspected under a stereomicroscope 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180min after contact. For fumigation bioassay, a filter paper was treated with 100 μL of the pure essential oil. The mites were inspected under a stereomicroscope for the first 5min, and then every 5min until 1h. Using contact bioassays, 1% clove and palmarosa oil killed all the mites within 20 and 50min, respectively. The oils efficacy order was: clove > palmarosa > geranium > tea tree > lavender > manuka > bitter orange > eucalyptus > Japanese cedar. In fumigation bioassays, the efficacy order was: tea tree > clove > eucalyptus > lavender > palmarosa > geranium > Japanese cedar > bitter orange > manuka. In both bioassays, cade oil showed no activity. Essential oils, especially tea tree, clove, palmarosa, and eucalyptus oils, are potential complementary or alternative products to treat S. scabiei infections in humans or animals, as well as to control the mites in the environment.

  7. Oil & Community Welfare: A Case Study on People Oil Mining in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nugroho Trisnu Brata

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Usually in the oil mining area was exploited by oil company that under licensed from the state. Nevertheless on an oil mining field in East Java Province in Indonesia there is people oil mining that exploited and distributed by the people. They are working on the people oil mining area. Working is a phenomenon inherent to adults in satisfying their needs. People work for a multitude of motivation. Working may lead a particular worker to occupy certain social status within the society. This paper aims to examine the phenomenon of people working in the oil distribution link from people oil mining  to consumer. More specifically, this study aims to describe the impacts of working in the oil mining on the miners’ social and economic life. The method used in this research is ethnography. Data were collected through observation, in-depth interviews, note taking, and recording. The location of research is in a petroleum artisanal mining area in East Java Province. The results showed that the impact of working in the oil distribution link from people oil mining to consumer is the generation of income used to meet the basic needs, to purchase personal means of transportation, to purchase some piece of land, and to pay for the children’s education.Biasanya ladang minyak dieksploitasi perusahaan yang memperolehy ijin dari negara. Akan tetapi ada ladang minyak di Jawa Timur yang dieksploitasi oleh masyarakat. Mereka bekerja pada ladang seperti  itu. Pekerja memiliki motivasi bermacam-macam dalam pekerjaanya. Bekerja membantu seseorang memperoleh status tertentu dalam masyarakat. Artikel ini bertujuan untuk menelaah fenomena pekerja ladang minyak. Pertanyaan yang ingin dijawab dalam penelitian ini adalah: (1 mengapa orang bekerja di ladang minyak?; (2 bagaimana kesejahteraan mereka?; dan (3 bagaimana pengaruh bekerja di ladang minyak pada kehidupan sosial dan ekonomi para pekerja?. Penelitian menggunakan metode etnografi. Penelitian dilakukan di Jawa

  8. 77 FR 52708 - Request to Revise a Currently-Approved Data Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-30

    ... OMB Control Number 1905-0129. The Form EIA-861 proposal is to modify the survey frame from a census of... the reporting requirements for only Schedule 2, which collects cost and quality data of fossil fuel..., distillate fuel oil, and residual fuel oil. EIA will remove the reporting requirement for self-produced and...

  9. Abundance quantification by independent component analysis of hyperspectral imagery for oil spill coverage calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhongzhi; Wan, Jianhua; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Hande

    2016-08-01

    The estimation of oil spill coverage is an important part of monitoring of oil spills at sea. The spatial resolution of images collected by airborne hyper-spectral remote sensing limits both the detection of oil spills and the accuracy of estimates of their size. We consider at-sea oil spills with zonal distribution in this paper and improve the traditional independent component analysis algorithm. For each independent component we added two constraint conditions: non-negativity and constant sum. We use priority weighting by higher-order statistics, and then the spectral angle match method to overcome the order nondeterminacy. By these steps, endmembers can be extracted and abundance quantified simultaneously. To examine the coverage of a real oil spill and correct our estimate, a simulation experiment and a real experiment were designed using the algorithm described above. The result indicated that, for the simulation data, the abundance estimation error is 2.52% and minimum root mean square error of the reconstructed image is 0.030 6. We estimated the oil spill rate and area based on eight hyper-spectral remote sensing images collected by an airborne survey of Shandong Changdao in 2011. The total oil spill area was 0.224 km2, and the oil spill rate was 22.89%. The method we demonstrate in this paper can be used for the automatic monitoring of oil spill coverage rates. It also allows the accurate estimation of the oil spill area.

  10. Brine crude oil interactions at the oil-water interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakravarty, Krishna Hara; Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup; Thomsen, Kaj

    2015-01-01

    mechanisms. The ion specific interaction between fines and polar fractions of crude oil at the oil-water interface has been less explored. In this study the relative affinity between different ions and the oil surface was determined. The experiments prove the importance of Ca2+, SO42-, and HPO42- ions...... emulsion formation at 0.05 mol/1. The amount of emulsion formation showed significant dependency on the type of acid doped in oil. Experiments demonstrate that the brine solution can alter the micro forces at the oil-water interface, and this ion specific interaction leads to oil emulsion formation......The impact of brine salinity and its ionic composition on oil displacement efficiency has been investigated extensively in recent years due to the potential of enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Wettability alterations through relative interactions at the mineral surface have been the basis of proposed...

  11. Abandoned Texas oil fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-01

    Data for Texas abandoned oil fields were primarily derived from two sources: (1) Texas Railroad Commission (TRRC), and (2) Dwight's ENERGYDATA. For purposes of this report, abandoned oil fields are defined as those fields that had no production during 1977. The TRRC OILMASTER computer tapes were used to identify these abandoned oil fields. The tapes also provided data on formation depth, gravity of oil production, location (both district and county), discovery date, and the cumulative production of the field since its discovery. In all, the computer tapes identified 9211 abandoned fields, most of which had less than 250,000 barrel cumulative production. This report focuses on the 676 abandoned onshore Texas oil fields that had cumulative production of over 250,000 barrels. The Dwight's ENERGYDATA computer tapes provided production histories for approximately two-thirds of the larger fields abandoned in 1966 and thereafter. Fields which ceased production prior to 1966 will show no production history nor abandonment date in this report. The Department of Energy hopes the general availability of these data will catalyze the private sector recovery of this unproduced resource.

  12. Pyrolysis Oil Biorefinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Dietrich

    2017-03-14

    In biorefineries several conversion processes for biomasses may be applied to obtain maximum value from the feed materials. One viable option is the liquefaction of lignocellulosic feedstocks or residues by fast pyrolysis. The conversion technology requires rapid heating of the biomass particles along with rapid cooling of the hot vapors and aerosols. The main product, bio-oil, is obtained in yields of up to 75 wt% on a dry feed basis, together with by-product char and gas which are used within the process to provide the process heat requirements; there are no waste streams other than flue gas and ash. Bio-oils from fast pyrolysis have a great potential to be used as renewable fuel and/or a source for chemical feedstocks. Existing technical reactor designs are presented together with actual examples. Bio-oil characterization and various options for bio-oil upgrading are discussed based on the potential end-use. Existing and potential utilization alternatives for bio-oils are presented with respect to their use for heat and power generation as well as chemical and material use.

  13. Anthelmintic Activity of Grapeseed Oil and Linseed Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goswami J

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the anthelminthic activity of vegetable fixed oils,grapeseed and linseed oil using adult earthworm, Pheritima posthuma. The oils were tested at differentconcentrations for the determination of paralysis time and death time of the earthworms. Albendazole isused as standard and it was found that grapeseed and linseed oil showed a better anthelminthic activityin comparison with the standard.

  14. Electronic collection management

    CERN Document Server

    Mcginnis, Suzan D

    2013-01-01

    Build and manage your collection of digital resources with these successful strategies! This comprehensive volume is a practical guide to the art and science of acquiring and organizing electronic resources. The collections discussed here range in size from small college libraries to large research libraries, but all are facing similar problems: shrinking budgets, increasing demands, and rapidly shifting formats. Electronic Collection Management offers new ideas for coping with these issues. Bringing together diverse aspects of collection development, Electronic Collection

  15. In vitro and in vivo effect of Citrus limon essential oil against sarcoptic mange in rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of lemon oil (Citrus limon) on Sarcoptes scabiei var. cuniculi was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The mite samples were collected from naturally infected rabbits. The lemon oil was prepared in six concentrations by dilution with distilled water (2.5, 5, 10, 20, 50, and 100 %). In vitro a...

  16. Olive oil and pomace olive oil processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siragakis, George

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil processing is introduced in food industry at the end of the nineteenth century and a lot of improvements have been initialized since. The steps for refining are, settling, neutralizing, bleaching and deodorizing. Monitoring of effective refining and the use of processes that remove less minor components of olive oil, like polyphenols and tocopherols are some issues for the process. The stringent environmental requirements and the target of industry for continuous improvements and cost savings, forcing equipment manufacturers to innovations and new products. The complete removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during pomace oil process and the utilization of distillates are also important areas for research and development.El procesado del aceite de oliva se introdujo en la industria alimentaria a finales del siglo diecinueve y desde entonces se han realizado considerables mejoras. Los pasos de refinación son: decantado, neutralización, decoloración, y desodorización. La monitorización de una refinación efectiva así como el uso de procesos que eliminen una menor proporción de componentes menores del aceite de oliva, tales como polifenoles y tocoferoles, son algunos de los objetivos del proceso. La rigurosa normativa medioambiental y el interés de la industria por introducir mejoras y ahorro de costes han forzado a los fabricantes de equipos a innovar y desarrollar nuevos productos. La eliminación completa de los hidrocarburos aromáticos policíclicos durante el refinado del aceite de orujo y la utilización de los destilados son también áreas importantes de investigación y desarrollo.

  17. RECENT OIL PRICE DECLINE BENEFITS OIL GIANTS LIMITEDLY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Sinopec, Asia's largest refiner, hasn't really benefited from recent declines in global crude oil prices, because its refining costs still far exceed domestic oil product prices. China caps refined oil product prices at relatively low levels by world standards.

  18. Microbial surfactant-enhanced mineral oil recovery under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordoloi, N K; Konwar, B K

    2008-05-01

    Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is potentially useful to recover incremental oil from a reservoir being beyond primary and secondary recovery operations. Effort has been made to isolate and characterize natural biosurfactant produced by bacterial isolates collected from various oil fields of ONGC in Assam. Production of biosurfactant has been considered to be an effective major index for the purpose of enhanced oil recovery. On the basis of the index, four promising bacterial isolates: Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MTCC7815), P. aeruginosa (MTCC7814), P. aeruginosa (MTCC7812) and P. aeruginosa (MTCC8165) were selected for subsequent testing. Biosurfactant produced by the promising bacterial isolates have been found to be effective in the recovery of crude oil from saturated column under laboratory conditions. Two bacterial strains: P. aeruginosa (MTCC7815) and P. aeruginosa (MTCC7812) have been found to be the highest producer of biosurfactant. Tensiometer studies revealed that biosurfactants produced by these bacterial strains could reduce the surface tension (sigma) of the growth medium from 68 to 30 mN m(-1) after 96 h of growth. The bacterial biosurfactants were found to be functionally stable at varying pH (2.5-11) conditions and temperature of 100 degrees C. The treatment of biosurfactant containing, cell free culture broth in crude oil saturated sand pack column could release about 15% more crude oil at 90 degrees C than at room temperature and 10% more than at 70 degrees C under laboratory condition.

  19. Oil scenarios; Escenarios petroleros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quiros Corradi, Alberto [Oxford Energy Policy Club (United States)

    2003-04-15

    If there is a war in Middle East affecting the Saudi Arabian crude oil production, the crude oil prices will increase at unimaginable levels. This is due to both the current decrease of the production capacity of Venezuela and the Nigeria's political fragility. Therefore, despite the fact that the majority of the reasons why the United States invade Irak are unknown, it is clear that the crude oil is one of them and is playing a major role. [Spanish] Cualesquiera que sean las verdaderas razones de Estados Unidos para invadir Irak, esta claro que el petroleo tiene un papel muy importante. Una guerra en Medio Oriente que afectara la produccion petrolera de Arabia Saudita elevaria los precios del crudo a niveles nunca vistos, debido al actual descenso de la capacidad de produccion de Venezuela y a la fragilidad politica de Nigeria.

  20. Power from oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yerushalmi, J.; Wohlfarth, A.; Schwartz, M.; Luria, S.

    1988-02-01

    The possibilities for burning oil shale directly to generate a substantial fraction of Israel's electric power are to be investigated by means of a demonstration plant. The plant incorporates a fluidized bed reactor in which combustion tests have shown Israeli oil-shale will burn with high carbon utilization and without the need for supplementary fuel. Sulphur dioxide emissions are nearly all absorbed by the limestone that makes up about 50% of the shale. The design is for co-generation, supplying low pressure process steam for a chemical plant and electricity to the grid. Economic evaluation suggests that oil shale power generation in Israel could in the future be at least competitive with coal and under some circumstances have a cost advantage.