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Sample records for surface-retention storage parameters

  1. Matrix parameters and storage conditions of manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinfurtner, Karlheinz [Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology (IME), Schmallenberg (Germany)

    2011-01-15

    The literature study presents an overview of storage conditions for manure and information about important matrix parameters of manure such as dry matter content, pH value, total organic carbon, total nitrogen and ammonium nitrogen. The presented results show that for matrix parameters a dissimilarity of cattle and pig manure can be observed but no difference within the species for different production types occurred with exception of calves. A scenario for western and central European countries is derived. (orig.)

  2. Investigations on Mushroom Storage and Quality Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömür Dündar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, researchers on storage and quality properties of mushrooms cultivated in the world and Turkey have been investigated. Mushrooms contain some important minerals and vitamins such as iron, calcium, phosphorus, potassium, copper and folate, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B, C, D and also they are a good source of carbohydrate and protein. After harvest, to extend the shelf life of mushrooms, some applications such as pre-cooling, storage in appropriate temperature, use of different types of polyethylene packaging, modified atmosphere packaging, nitric oxide and UV light applications were done on mushrooms. The effects of these applications on physical and chemical features such as like weight loss, firmness, cap opening rate, cap diameter, stem diameter, browning, colour, respiration rate, enzymatic reactions, total phenols, total sugars, aminoacid content were investigated.

  3. Optimization of Storage Parameters of Selected Fruits in Passive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to determine the optimum storage parameters of selected fruit using three sets of four types of passive evaporative cooling structures made of two different materials clay and aluminium. One set consisted of four separate cooling chambers. Two cooling chambers were made with aluminium ...

  4. Optimization of Experimental Model Parameter Identification for Energy Storage Systems

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    Rosario Morello

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The smart grid approach is envisioned to take advantage of all available modern technologies in transforming the current power system to provide benefits to all stakeholders in the fields of efficient energy utilisation and of wide integration of renewable sources. Energy storage systems could help to solve some issues that stem from renewable energy usage in terms of stabilizing the intermittent energy production, power quality and power peak mitigation. With the integration of energy storage systems into the smart grids, their accurate modeling becomes a necessity, in order to gain robust real-time control on the network, in terms of stability and energy supply forecasting. In this framework, this paper proposes a procedure to identify the values of the battery model parameters in order to best fit experimental data and integrate it, along with models of energy sources and electrical loads, in a complete framework which represents a real time smart grid management system. The proposed method is based on a hybrid optimisation technique, which makes combined use of a stochastic and a deterministic algorithm, with low computational burden and can therefore be repeated over time in order to account for parameter variations due to the battery’s age and usage.

  5. A database for the storage of quality control parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, J.G.; Abrantes, J.N.; Rangel, S.; Santos, L.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The Individual Monitoring Service at ITN-DPRSN is based on a TLD dosimetry system, that consists of two 6600 Harshaw TLD readers and an the Harshaw 8814 TL card and holder containing two LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD-100) detectors for the evaluation of H p (10) and H p (0.07). A database for the storage of quality control parameters was created using MS Access and is presented in this work. At the moment, the database has a passive role and is used for storage of data and for the retrospective statistical evaluation of important parameters and their evolution with time. lt is regularly fed with the files generated by the NETREMS and/or WINREMS software from Harshaw (presently Thermo Electron Corporation), and allows a quick and user friendly visualization of the data. At present, the information stored therein is: The individual efficiency correction coefficients (ecc) for the card population determined for every TLD card prior to a first use, and their identification as quality control, zero, field and bad cards; The results of the start up daily tests, automatically performed before readouts, e.g. average and relative standard deviation of ten measurements of the temperature, high voltage, ±15 V, D/A reference, ground, internal reference light (RL) source intensity and the photomultiplier tube (PMT) noise; The daily list of readings of the pre-irradiated and unirradiated cards, inter-spaced with field cards at regular intervals, as well as the readings of the PMT noise and the RL intensity, performed at regular intervals during readouts. The average daily readings and their respective standard deviation are also stored; the reader calibration factors (RCF) determined every month at the beginning of a monitoring period; the calibration factor for the 90 Sr-- 90 Y internal irradiator, determined on a monthly basis; the linearity parameters derived from the linear regression curves, performed every month. The insertion of data is determined by each parameter

  6. Beam-beam force and storage ring parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    The fundamental aspects of the beam--beam force as it occurs in Intersecting Storage Rings are reported. The way in which the effect of the beam--particle electromagnetic force (weak--strong interaction) is different in the case of unbunched proton beams which cross each other at an angle (as in the ISR and in ISABELLE) is shown, as compared to the case of electron--positron beams where bunches collide head-on

  7. Optimization of basic parameters of cyclic operation of underground gas storages

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    Віктор Олександрович Заєць

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The problem of optimization of process parameters of cyclic operation of underground gas storages in gas mode is determined in the article. The target function is defined, expressing necessary capacity of compressor station for gas injection in the storage. Its minimization will find the necessary technological parameters, such as flow and reservoir pressure change over time. Limitations and target function are reduced to a linear form. Solution of problems is made by the simplex method

  8. Effects of inverting the position of layers eggs during storage on hatchery performance parameters

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    JCS de Lima

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Storing hatchable eggs is a common practice in commercial hatcheries. However, storage time may negative effects on several performance parameters. An experiment was carried out to evaluate inverting egg position during storage of eggs laid by young and old layer breeders. Fertile eggs of 32 and 58-week-old breeders were stored for seven, 14, and 21 days at 18ºC ± 2ºC and 80% ± 10% relative humidity (RU. The following parameters were evaluated: egg weight loss, hatchability and hatchling weight, and embryodiagnosis results. Eggs stored with the small end up lost less weight during storage compared with the control eggs. Storing eggs for 14 days with the small end up reduced early embryo mortality, improving hatchability. In addition, hatchling weight increased. These results show that the detrimental effects of long storage periods may be alleviated when eggs are stored with the small end up to 14 days of storage.

  9. Surface retention and photochemical reactivity of the diphenylether herbicide oxyfluorfen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrano, Laura; Bufo, Sabino A; Cataldi, Tommaso R I; Albanis, Triantafyllos A

    2004-01-01

    The photochemical behavior of oxyfluorfen [2-chloro-1-(3-etoxy-4-nitrophenoxy)-4-(trifluoromethyl) benzene] on two Greek soils was investigated. Soils were sampled from Nea Malgara and Preveza regions, characterized by a different organic matter content. Soils were spiked with the diphenyl-ether herbicide and irradiation experiments were performed either in the laboratory with a solar simulator (xenon lamp) or outside, under natural sunlight irradiation; other soil samples were kept in the dark to control the retention reaction. Kinetic parameters of both retention and photochemical reactions were calculated using zero-, first- and second- (Langmuir-Hinshelwood) order equations, and best fit was checked through statistical analysis. The soil behaviors were qualitatively similar but quantitatively different, with the soil sampled from the Nea Malgara region much more sorbent as compared with Preveza soil. All studied reactions followed second-order kinetics and photochemical reactions were influenced by retaining capability of the soils. The contributions of the photochemical processes to the global dissipation rates were also calculated. Two main metabolites were identified as 2-chloro-1-(3-ethoxy-4-hydroxyphenoxy)-4-(trifluoromethyl)benzene and 2-chloro-1- (3-hydroxy-4-nitrophenoxy)-4-(trifluoromethyl)benzene.

  10. Sensitivity Analysis of Depletion Parameters for Heat Load Evaluation of PWR Spent Fuel Storage Pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, In Young; Lee, Un Chul

    2011-01-01

    As necessity of safety re-evaluation for spent fuel storage facility has emphasized after the Fukushima accident, accuracy improvement of heat load evaluation has become more important to acquire reliable thermal-hydraulic evaluation results. As groundwork, parametric and sensitivity analyses of various storage conditions for Kori Unit 4 spent fuel storage pool and spent fuel depletion parameters such as axial burnup effect, operation history, and specific heat are conducted using ORIGEN2 code. According to heat load evaluation and parametric sensitivity analyses, decay heat of last discharged fuel comprises maximum 80.42% of total heat load of storage facility and there is a negative correlation between effect of depletion parameters and cooling period. It is determined that specific heat is most influential parameter and operation history is secondly influential parameter. And decay heat of just discharged fuel is varied from 0.34 to 1.66 times of average value and decay heat of 1 year cooled fuel is varied from 0.55 to 1.37 times of average value in accordance with change of specific power. Namely depletion parameters can cause large variation in decay heat calculation of short-term cooled fuel. Therefore application of real operation data instead of user selection value is needed to improve evaluation accuracy. It is expected that these results could be used to improve accuracy of heat load assessment and evaluate uncertainty of calculated heat load.

  11. Design parameters for a small storage ring optimized as an x-ray lithography source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grobman, W.D.

    1983-01-01

    This paper examines the design parameters for a ''compact storage ring'' which is matched well to x-ray lithographic requirements, but is as small as possible. This calculation uses a model of a lithographic system which obtains its input parameters from a technology of mask, resist and beam line based on the IBM program at the Brookhaven National Laboratory vacuum ultraviolet electron storage ring. Based on this lithographic system, we model exposure throughput as a function of storage ring parameters to understand which storage ring designs provide adequate but not excessive soft x-ray flux in the lithographically important region. Our scan of storage ring sources will cover a wide range of energies and magnetic fields, to permit consideration of superconducting as well as more standard strong- or weak-focusing designs. Furthermore, we will show that the results of the calculations presented here can be scaled in a simple way to cover a wide range of x-ray lithography system assumptions

  12. Change of surface colour parameters during storage of paprika (Capsicum annuum L.

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    Belović Miona M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The change of paprika surface colour during three years of storage was monitored by measuring CIEL*a*b* colour parameters once a year. Ten commercial and three branded paprika samples, originating from Hungary, Austria and Serbia, were stored in original packaging at ambient temperature in dark during the storage period. The colour of paprika powder was measured by Chroma Meter CR-400 (Konica Minolta, Japan, using attachment for granular materials CR-A50. Directly measured colour parameters were CIE L* (lightness, a* (+a* = redness, -a* = greenness, b* (+b* = yellowness, -b* = blueness and dominant wavelength (DWL, while derived colour parameters were chroma (C*, hue angle (h°, and total colour change (ΔE. Paprika samples had similar granulation, and therefore it was concluded that it did not influence the colour reflection. The change of reflected colour of paprika powder during storage can be characterized by increase of CIE L* and b* colour values and decrease of a* colour value. Therefore, chroma values remained almost unchanged, while hue angle showed shift in spectrum from red-orange to orange-yellow, similarly to dominant wavelength. The paprika samples changed their colour most rapidly during the first year of storage, except the branded paprika from Serbia. Commercial paprika samples from Serbian market changed their colour more rapidly comparing to other investigated samples.

  13. QUALIY PARAMETERS AND SHELF LIFE OF GAME MEAT DURING FROZEN STORAGE

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    M. Spaziani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effect of the duration of frozen storage at –20°C on the game meat quality parameters, namely the pH, colour, thawing and cooking losses. The oxidative stability of game meat was evaluated by the production of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS. Frozen storage duration did not extensively influence either the quality properties, or the oxidative stability of game meat. Therefore, it was hypothesized that the higher amount of a- tocopherol in the muscles of game compared to pellet-fed animals could be mainly responsible for the lower lipid oxidation and longer shelf life.

  14. Effects of egg storage on hatchability, chick quality, performance and immunocompetence parameters of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goliomytis, Michael; Tsipouzian, Theofania; Hager-Theodorides, Ariadne L

    2015-09-01

    Pre-incubation egg storage is a necessity for the poultry industry. This study evaluated the effects of pre-incubation storage length of broiler eggs on hatchability, 1-day-old chick quality, subsequent performance, and immunocompetence. To this end, a total of 360 hatching eggs were stored for 4, 12, or 16 d prior to incubation. Hatchability and chick quality were assessed at hatch, and growth performance and immunocompetence parameters were assessed during a 35 d rearing period. Hatchability of set and fertile eggs, and embryonic mortality, were not affected by egg storage. On the contrary, 1-day-old chick BW and length were linearly negatively correlated with egg storage length (P-linearegg weight prior to setting was unaffected, and corrected chick length was positively affected by storage length. One-day-old chick Tona score, navel quality, and post-hatch growth performance (BW at 7 and 35 d, cumulative feed intake, and feed conversion ratio at 35 d) were unaffected by egg storage (P, P-linear>0.05). Lymphoid organ weights at 2 and 35 d, the titre of maternal anti-NDV antibodies, most of the thymocyte subpopulations defined by CD3, CD4, and CD8 cell surface expression in the thymus of 2-d-old chicks, cellular responses to the PHA skin test, humoral responses to primary SRBC, and NDV immunizations were also not influenced by length of storage (P, P-linear>0.05). On the contrary, the length of egg storage was found to negatively influence the abundance of CD3+CD4-CD8- thymocytes that represent the majority of γδ-T cells in the thymus of 2-day-old chicks, as well as the humoral response to booster NDV immunization of the birds. In brief, pre-incubation storage of broiler hatching eggs for up to 16 d did not affect most developmental and growth parameters investigated, except for BW and length at hatch. Egg storage was found to suppress some aspects of the immunocompetence of the birds, particularly aspects of acquired immunity. © 2015 Poultry Science

  15. Stability evaluation of quality parameters for palm oil products at low temperature storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, Nur Aainaa Syahirah; Mohd Noor, Mohd Azmil; Musa, Hajar; Ghazali, Razmah

    2018-07-01

    Palm oil is one of the major oils and fats produced and traded worldwide. The value of palm oil products is mainly influenced by their quality. According to ISO 17025:2005, accredited laboratories require a quality control procedure with respect to monitoring the validity of tests for determination of quality parameters. This includes the regular use of internal quality control using secondary reference materials. Unfortunately, palm oil reference materials are not currently available. To establish internal quality control samples, the stability of quality parameters needs to be evaluated. In the present study, the stability of quality parameters for palm oil products was examined over 10 months at low temperature storage (6 ± 2 °C). The palm oil products tested included crude palm oil (CPO); refined, bleached and deodorized (RBD) palm oil (RBDPO); RBD palm olein (RBDPOo); and RBD palm stearin (RBDPS). The quality parameters of the oils [i.e. moisture content, free fatty acid content (FFA), iodine value (IV), fatty acids composition (FAC) and slip melting point (SMP)] were determined prior to and throughout the storage period. The moisture, FFA, IV, FAC and SMP for palm oil products changed significantly (P  0.05). The stability study indicated that the quality of the palm oil products was stable within the specified limits throughout the storage period at low temperature. The storage conditions preserved the quality of palm oil products throughout the storage period. These findings qualify the use of the palm oil products CPO, RBDPO, RBDPOo and RBDPS as control samples in the validation of test results. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Effect of irradiation and storage temperature on quality parameters of Kesar mango (Mangifera indica L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, M.K.; Patel, N.L.; Patel, S.R.

    2013-01-01

    An experiment was carried out to study the effect of irradiation and storage temperatures on quality parameters in Kesar mango fruits. The fruits were exposed to gamma radiation of different doses i.e. 0.00, 0.20, 0.40 and 0.60 kGy) from 60 Co source and stored at various storage environment viz., ambient temperature 27 ± 2℃ and RH 60-70 %; temperature 9℃ and RH 90 %; 12℃ and RH 90 % and control atmospheric (CA) storage at 12℃, O 2 2 %, CO 2 3 % and RH 90 %. The data indicated that highest total soluble solids, total and reducing sugars and ascorbic acid contend and minimum acidity were noted in 0.40 kGy gamma rays irradiated fruits stored at 12℃ compared to unirradiated fruits stored at ambient condition at ripening stage. (author)

  17. Studies on Prolonging Storage life and Maintaining Fruit Quality Parameters of Zaghloul Dates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElSalhy, F.T.

    2011-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effect of gamma irradiation ( 1, 2 and 3 kGy) and some natural plant extracts i.e. aloe, ambrosia, cinnamon, chamomile, clove or nigella on prolonging the storage life and some parameters of Zaghloul dates quality under cold storage (5 ±2 C, 90-95 % RH). The weight loss %, decay %, T.S.S. %, total sugars and non-reducing sugars % of Zaghloul dates were increased in most cases with prolonging the storage time. Meanwhile, titratable acidity %, reducing sugars % and tannins content were decreased during storage period (56 days). However, the lowest values of weight loss % and decay % were recorded by aloe extract treatment while the highest values of T.S.S., total sugars, non-reducing sugars, titratable acidity %, reducing sugars % and tannins content were scored by gamma irradiation at 3 kGy. It could be concluded that using irradiation at 3 kGy, aloe, cinnamon or clove can keep the dates (Zaghloul variety) fresh even after 56 days at cold storage with good quality and safety levels of microbes

  18. A Study on Criticality Safety Parameters of New Fuel Storage Rack Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Joon Gi; Kim, Hyeong Heon [KEPCO E and C, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    The dry new fuel storage rack shall maintain the subcritical condition (i.e., k-eff < 0.95) when fully flooded with water and the k-eff will not exceed 0.98 even assuming that the optimum moderation causes the highest reactivity. Thus, the design parameters of the new fuel rack are determined optimally by considering both the full density water flooding condition and the optimum moderation condition. The behavior of the keff as the variation of design parameter of the new fuel rack was investigated as the function of the moderating water density

  19. A Study on Criticality Safety Parameters of New Fuel Storage Rack Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Joon Gi; Kim, Hyeong Heon

    2012-01-01

    The dry new fuel storage rack shall maintain the subcritical condition (i.e., k-eff < 0.95) when fully flooded with water and the k-eff will not exceed 0.98 even assuming that the optimum moderation causes the highest reactivity. Thus, the design parameters of the new fuel rack are determined optimally by considering both the full density water flooding condition and the optimum moderation condition. The behavior of the keff as the variation of design parameter of the new fuel rack was investigated as the function of the moderating water density

  20. Linking xylem water storage with anatomical parameters in five temperate tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jupa, Radek; Plavcová, Lenka; Gloser, Vít; Jansen, Steven

    2016-06-01

    The release of water from storage compartments to the transpiration stream is an important functional mechanism that provides the buffering of sudden fluctuations in water potential. The ability of tissues to release water per change in water potential, referred to as hydraulic capacitance, is assumed to be associated with the anatomy of storage tissues. However, information about how specific anatomical parameters determine capacitance is limited. In this study, we measured sapwood capacitance (C) in terminal branches and roots of five temperate tree species (Fagus sylvatica L., Picea abies L., Quercus robur L., Robinia pseudoacacia L., Tilia cordata Mill.). Capacitance was calculated separately for water released mainly from capillary (CI; open vessels, tracheids, fibres, intercellular spaces and cracks) and elastic storage compartments (CII; living parenchyma cells), corresponding to two distinct phases of the moisture release curve. We found that C was generally higher in roots than branches, with CI being 3-11 times higher than CII Sapwood density and the ratio of dead to living xylem cells were most closely correlated with C In addition, the magnitude of CI was strongly correlated with fibre/tracheid lumen area, whereas CII was highly dependent on the thickness of axial parenchyma cell walls. Our results indicate that water released from capillary compartments predominates over water released from elastic storage in both branches and roots, suggesting the limited importance of parenchyma cells for water storage in juvenile xylem of temperate tree species. Contrary to intact organs, water released from open conduits in our small wood samples significantly increased CI at relatively high water potentials. Linking anatomical parameters with the hydraulic capacitance of a tissue contributes to a better understanding of water release mechanisms and their implications for plant hydraulics. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights

  1. Influence of storage temperature on quality parameters, phenols and volatile compounds of Croatian virgin olive oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brkić Bubola, K.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence of low storage temperature (+4 °C and -20 °C and conventional storage room temperature on the quality parameters, phenolic contents and volatile profiles of Buža, Črna and Rosinjola monovarietal virgin olive oils after 12 months of storage was investigated in this study. Virgin olive oils stored at low temperatures maintained better quality parameters than oils stored at room temperature. A negligible decrease in the total phenols was detected after 12 months of storage at all investigated temperatures. The total volatile compounds, aldehydes, alcohols and esters in almost all stored samples were unchanged compared to fresh oils. Total ketones increased after storage, although at a lower temperature these changes were less notable. An increase in the oxidation indicators hexanal and hexanal/E-2-hexenal ratio was the lowest in oils stored at +4 °C.Storage at temperatures lower than room temperature could help to prolong the shelf-life of extra virgin olive oil by maintaining high quality parameters and preserving the fresh oil’s volatile profile.Se ha estudiado la influencia, durante 12 meses, de temperaturas bajas (+4 °C y −20 °C y convencional (ambiente, sobre los parámetros de calidad, contenido fenólico y perfil de volátiles de aceites de oliva vírgenes monovarietales Buža, Črna y Rosinjola. Los aceites de oliva vírgenes almacenados a bajas temperaturas mantienen mejores propiedades de calidad que los aceites almacenados a temperatura ambiente. Se encontró una disminución no significativa de los fenoles totales después de 12 meses de almacenamiento a todas las temperaturas estudiadas. Los compuestos volátiles totales, aldehídos, alcoholes y ésteres, en casi todas las muestras almacenadas, se mantuvieron sin cambios en comparación con los aceites frescos. Las cetonas totales incrementaron tras el almacenamiento, aunque a temperaturasmas bajas estos cambios fueron menos notables. El incremento de los

  2. A lumped-parameter model for cryo-adsorber hydrogen storage tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senthil Kumar, V.; Raghunathan, K. [India Science Lab, General Motors R and D, Creator Building, International Technology Park, Bangalore 560066 (India); Kumar, Sudarshan [Chemical and Environmental Sciences Lab, General Motors R and D, 30500 Mound Road, Warren, MI 48090 (United States)

    2009-07-15

    One of the primary requirements for commercialization of hydrogen fuel-cell vehicles is the on-board storage of hydrogen in sufficient quantities. On-board storage of hydrogen by adsorption on nano-porous adsorbents at around liquid nitrogen temperatures and moderate pressures is considered viable and competitive with other storage technologies: liquid hydrogen, compressed gas, and metallic or complex hydrides. The four cryo-adsorber fuel tank processes occur over different time scales: refueling over a few minutes, discharge over a few hours, dormancy over a few days, and venting over a few weeks. The slower processes i.e. discharge, dormancy and venting are expected to have negligible temperature gradients within the bed, and hence are amenable to a lumped-parameter analysis. Here we report a quasi-static lumped-parameter model for the cryo-adsorber fuel tank, and discuss the results for these slower processes. We also describe an alternative solution method for dormancy and venting based on the thermodynamic state description. (author)

  3. Impact parameter sensitive study of inner-shell atomic processes in the experimental storage ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumberidze, A.; Kozhuharov, C.; Zhang, R. T.; Trotsenko, S.; Kozhedub, Y. S.; DuBois, R. D.; Beyer, H. F.; Blumenhagen, K.-H.; Brandau, C.; Bräuning-Demian, A.; Chen, W.; Forstner, O.; Gao, B.; Gassner, T.; Grisenti, R. E.; Hagmann, S.; Hillenbrand, P.-M.; Indelicato, P.; Kumar, A.; Lestinsky, M.; Litvinov, Yu. A.; Petridis, N.; Schury, D.; Spillmann, U.; Trageser, C.; Trassinelli, M.; Tu, X.; Stöhlker, Th.

    2017-10-01

    In this work, we present a pilot experiment in the experimental storage ring (ESR) at GSI devoted to impact parameter sensitive studies of inner shell atomic processes for low-energy (heavy-) ion-atom collisions. The experiment was performed with bare and He-like xenon ions (Xe54+, Xe52+) colliding with neutral xenon gas atoms, resulting in a symmetric collision system. This choice of the projectile charge states was made in order to compare the effect of a filled K-shell with the empty one. The projectile and target X-rays have been measured at different observation angles for all impact parameters as well as for the impact parameter range of ∼35-70 fm.

  4. Parameter effect of a phase change thermal energy storage unit with one shell and one finned tube on its energy efficiency ratio and heat storage rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Wei-Wei; Wang, Liang-Bi; He, Ya-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The parameter effect on the performance of PCTES unit using fins is reported. • The configurations of PCTES unit using fins in optimum performance are suggested. • Two parameters to indicate the effects of PCM and tube material properties are found. • The working conditions of PCTES unit using fins in optimum performance are analyzed. - Abstract: The performance of a phase change thermal energy storage (PCTES) unit using circular finned tube is affected by many parameters. Thorough studies of the parameter effect on the performance of PCTES unit are strongly required in its optimum design process. Based on a reported energy efficiency ratio and a newly defined parameter named the heat storage rate, the parameter effect on the performance of PCTES unit using circular finned tube is numerically investigated. When the fin pitch is greater than 4 times of the inner radius of the tube, the fin height and the fin thickness have little effect on the energy efficiency ratio and the heat storage rate. When the fin pitch is small, the performance of PCTES unit becomes better using large fin height and width. The energy efficiency ratio and the heat storage rate are more sensitive to the outer tube diameter. The performance of PCTES unit using circular finned tube is best when water is used as the heat transfer fluid (HTF). When the fluid flow of HTF is in a laminar state, the energy efficiency ratio and the heat storage rate are larger than that in a turbulent state.

  5. Heat and Moisture Transport and Storage Parameters of Bricks Affected by the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kočí, Václav; Čáchová, Monika; Koňáková, Dana; Vejmelková, Eva; Jerman, Miloš; Keppert, Martin; Maděra, Jiří; Černý, Robert

    2018-05-01

    The effect of external environment on heat and moisture transport and storage properties of the traditional fired clay brick, sand-lime brick and highly perforated ceramic block commonly used in the Czech Republic and on their hygrothermal performance in building envelopes is analyzed by a combination of experimental and computational techniques. The experimental measurements of thermal, hygric and basic physical parameters are carried out in the reference state and after a 3-year exposure of the bricks to real climatic conditions of the city of Prague. The obtained results showed that after 3 years of weathering the porosity of the analyzed bricks increased up to five percentage points which led to an increase in liquid and gaseous moisture transport parameters and a decrease in thermal conductivity. Computational modeling of hygrothermal performance of building envelopes made of the studied bricks was done using both reference and weather-affected data. The simulated results indicated an improvement in the annual energy balances and a decrease in the time-of-wetness functions as a result of the use of data obtained after the 3-year exposure to the environment. The effects of weathering on both heat and moisture transport and storage parameters of the analyzed bricks and on their hygrothermal performance were found significant despite the occurrence of warm winters in the time period of 2012-2015 when the brick specimens were exposed to the environment.

  6. Prolonged storage-induced changes in haematology parameters referred for testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise Schapkaitz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Referral of samples for the work-up of haematological disorders from remote laboratories can result in a delay in analysis. Objective: The stability of the full blood count (FBC, differential count (DIFF, reticulocyte and peripheral blood smear (PBS morphology during extended storage was evaluated. Methods: Forty blood samples stored in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA were analysed on an ADVIA® 120 haematology analyser. The samples (25% abnormal; 75% normal were stored at room temperature (RT and at 4 °C – 8 °C. Analysis of samples stored at RT was performed every 12 hours for two days. Analysis of samples stored at 4 °C – 8 °C was performed at 12 hours and subsequently every 24 hours for seven days. Results: FBC parameters (red cell count, haemoglobin and DIFF parameters (percentages of basophils, lymphocytes and monocytes were stable for at least 48 hours when stored at RT. Platelets were only stable for 12 hours and the white cell count was stable for 36 hours when stored at RT. Storing samples at 4 °C – 8 °C significantly increased the stability of most parameters, in particular, mean cell volume and percentage of reticulocytes. However, DIFF parameters were associated with lower stability at 4 °C – 8 °C. PBS morphology was compromised prior to 12 hours whether stored at RT or at 4 °C – 8 °C. Conclusion: This study provides evidence that blood samples stored in EDTA at 4 °C – 8 °C for seven days are suitable for testing on the ADVIA® 120 analyser for the FBC and percentage of reticulocyte parameters. However, storage at 4 °C – 8 °C is not a solution for samples referred for DIFF and PBS morphology review.

  7. Applying the Taguchi Method for Investigating the Phase-Locked Loop Dynamics Affected by Hybrid Storage System Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Ahmadzadeh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Storage systems play an important role in performance of micro-grids. Storage systems may decrease fluctuations caused by periodic and unpredictable nature of distributed generation resource. Some micro-grids are connected to the network via a grid-interface converter. The phase-locked loop (PLL is a commonly technique for the grid synchronization of network-connected converters. Various parameters affect the stability of PLL (including the network-side and microgrid-side parameters. The effect of the micro-grid-side parameters on the stability of the PLL has not been studied so far. In this paper, the stability of PLL influenced by microgrid-side parameters has been evaluated after a detailed analytical modeling of micro-grid components (including the production power fluctuations, energy storage system, microgrid-side loads, controller parameters etc.. This paper proposes two new stability analysis criteria for PLL affected by micro-grid and hybrid storage system parameters. Using proposed criteria for stability of PLL, optimized rate of micro-grid and hybrid storage system parameters are obtained using statistical methods (Taguchi approach. Finally, behavior of PLL affected by hybrid storage system is investigated. The simulation results and eigenvalues analysis confirm the theoretical analysis and proposed criteria.

  8. Geostatistical characterisation of geothermal parameters for a thermal aquifer storage site in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo-Ilarri, J.; Li, T.; Grathwohl, P.; Blum, P.; Bayer, P.

    2009-04-01

    The design of geothermal systems such as aquifer thermal energy storage systems (ATES) must account for a comprehensive characterisation of all relevant parameters considered for the numerical design model. Hydraulic and thermal conductivities are the most relevant parameters and its distribution determines not only the technical design but also the economic viability of such systems. Hence, the knowledge of the spatial distribution of these parameters is essential for a successful design and operation of such systems. This work shows the first results obtained when applying geostatistical techniques to the characterisation of the Esseling Site in Germany. In this site a long-term thermal tracer test (> 1 year) was performed. On this open system the spatial temperature distribution inside the aquifer was observed over time in order to obtain as much information as possible that yield to a detailed characterisation both of the hydraulic and thermal relevant parameters. This poster shows the preliminary results obtained for the Esseling Site. It has been observed that the common homogeneous approach is not sufficient to explain the observations obtained from the TRT and that parameter heterogeneity must be taken into account.

  9. Sensitivity analysis of hydrogeological parameters affecting groundwater storage change caused by sea level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, J.; Kim, K.-H.; Lee, K.-K.

    2012-04-01

    Sea level rise, which is one of the representative phenomena of climate changes caused by global warming, can affect groundwater system. The rising trend of the sea level caused by the global warming is reported to be about 3 mm/year for the most recent 10 year average (IPCC, 2007). The rate of sea level rise around the Korean peninsula is reported to be 2.30±2.22 mm/yr during the 1960-1999 period (Cho, 2002) and 2.16±1.77 mm/yr (Kim et al., 2009) during the 1968-2007 period. Both of these rates are faster than the 1.8±0.5 mm/yr global average for the similar 1961-2003 period (IPCC, 2007). In this study, we analyzed changes in the groundwater environment affected by the sea level rise by using an analytical methodology. We tried to find the most effective parameters of groundwater amount change in order to estimate the change in fresh water amount in coastal groundwater. A hypothetical island model of a cylindrical shape in considered. The groundwater storage change is bi-directional as the sea level rises according to the natural and hydrogeological conditions. Analysis of the computation results shows that topographic slope and hydraulic conductivity are the most sensitive factors. The contributions of the groundwater recharge rate and the thickness of aquifer below sea level are relatively less effective. In the island with steep seashore slopes larger than 1~2 degrees or so, the storage amount of fresh water in a coastal area increases as sea level rises. On the other hand, when sea level drops, the storage amount decreases. This is because the groundwater level also rises with the rising sea level in steep seashores. For relatively flat seashores, where the slope is smaller than around 1-2 degrees, the storage amount of coastal fresh water decreases when the sea level rises because the area flooded by the rising sea water is increased. The volume of aquifer fresh water in this circumstance is greatly reduced in proportion to the flooded area with the sea

  10. Efficient cascaded parameter scan approach for studying top-off safety in storage rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjun Li

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a new algorithm, which we call the cascaded parameter scan method, to efficiently carry out the scan over magnet parameters in the safety analysis for top-off injection in synchrotron radiation storage rings. In top-off safety analysis, one must track particles populating phase space through a beam line containing magnets and apertures and clearly demonstrate that, for all possible magnet settings and errors, all particles are lost on scrapers within the properly shielded region. In the usual approach, if one considers m magnets and scans each magnet through n setpoints, then one must carry out n^{m} tracking runs. In the cascaded parameter scan method, the number of tracking runs is reduced to n×m. This reduction of exponential to linear dependence on the number of setpoints n greatly reduces the required computation time and allows one to more densely populate phase space and to increase the number n of setpoints scanned for each magnet.

  11. Sensitivity of storage field performance to geologic and cavern design parameters in salt domes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehgartner, Brian L. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Park, Byoung Yoon

    2009-03-01

    A sensitivity study was performed utilizing a three dimensional finite element model to assess allowable cavern field sizes for strategic petroleum reserve salt domes. A potential exists for tensile fracturing and dilatancy damage to salt that can compromise the integrity of a cavern field in situations where high extraction ratios exist. The effects of salt creep rate, depth of salt dome top, dome size, caprock thickness, elastic moduli of caprock and surrounding rock, lateral stress ratio of surrounding rock, cavern size, depth of cavern, and number of caverns are examined numerically. As a result, a correlation table between the parameters and the impact on the performance of storage field was established. In general, slower salt creep rates, deeper depth of salt dome top, larger elastic moduli of caprock and surrounding rock, and a smaller radius of cavern are better for structural performance of the salt dome.

  12. Influence of Extreme Storage Conditions on Extra Virgin Olive Oil Parameters: Traceability Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Escudero

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reflects the effect of extreme storage conditions on several extra virgin olive oil (EVOO varieties (arbequina, hojiblanca, and picual. The conditions were simulated in the laboratory, by means of heating treatments in stove at different temperatures (40 and 60°C and times (two and three weeks. The aim is the evaluation of the deterioration of the quality parameters and minority components, which are responsible for the nutritional and therapeutic properties (fatty acids, polyphenols, pigments, and tocopherols, and organoleptic qualities. The quality criteria and limits used in this work are according to International Olive Council. The results contribute to the control of the traSceability for the commercialization of the EVOO.

  13. Hydrogen storage in carbon nanofibres for defence applications : the influence of growth parameters on graphitic quality and storage capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turpin, M.; Mellor, I. [Morgan Materials Technology Ltd., Worcestershire (United Kingdom); Shatwell, R.A.; Prentice, C. [QinetiQ Farnborough, Hampshire (United Kingdom); Browning, D.J. [QinetiQ Haslar, Gosport, Hampshire (United Kingdom); Lakeman, J.B. [Dstl Portsdown, Cosham, Hampshire (United Kingdom); Gerrard, M.L.; Mortimer, R.J. [Loughborough Univ. of Technology, Loughborough, Leicestershire (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry

    2002-07-01

    The results of a study on hydrogen storage in carbon or graphite nanofibres (GNFs) were presented. Graphite nanofibres used in hydrogen storage treatment were synthesized at 600 degrees C by passing ethylene over a series of Fe:Ni:Cu catalysts. It was shown that while hydrogen storage can occur for up to 6.5 wt per cent, this number can vary depending on the method of preparation and heat treatment. Hydrogen storage requires an effective method, such as Raman spectroscopy, for characterising the product. Transmission Electron Microscopy also helped in the optimisation of the process to produce highly graphitic nanofibres. The main role of heat treatment is to remove carbon from the surface of the GNFs, allowing access to the graphene planes. Hydrogen storage experiments were conducted at 120 bar, using a bespoke apparatus with differential pressure. A detailed error analysis was performed on the uptake measurement system. The rate of penetration by hydrogen into a layer of carbon capping graphene planes is found to be negligible. It is concluded that hydrogen adsorption will not be observed unless the layer is removed. A maximum uptake of 4.2 wt per cent was achieved, increasing to more than 6.5 wt per cent following heat treatment at 1000 degrees C. 32 refs., 3 tabs., 7 figs.

  14. Dynamical investigation and parameter stability region analysis of a flywheel energy storage system in charging mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wei-Ya; Li Yong-Li; Chang Xiao-Yong; Wang Nan

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the dynamic behavior analysis of the electromechanical coupling characteristics of a flywheel energy storage system (FESS) with a permanent magnet (PM) brushless direct-current (DC) motor (BLDCM) is studied. The Hopf bifurcation theory and nonlinear methods are used to investigate the generation process and mechanism of the coupled dynamic behavior for the average current controlled FESS in the charging mode. First, the universal nonlinear dynamic model of the FESS based on the BLDCM is derived. Then, for a 0.01 kWh/1.6 kW FESS platform in the Key Laboratory of the Smart Grid at Tianjin University, the phase trajectory of the FESS from a stable state towards chaos is presented using numerical and stroboscopic methods, and all dynamic behaviors of the system in this process are captured. The characteristics of the low-frequency oscillation and the mechanism of the Hopf bifurcation are investigated based on the Routh stability criterion and nonlinear dynamic theory. It is shown that the Hopf bifurcation is directly due to the loss of control over the inductor current, which is caused by the system control parameters exceeding certain ranges. This coupling nonlinear process of the FESS affects the stability of the motor running and the efficiency of energy transfer. In this paper, we investigate into the effects of control parameter change on the stability and the stability regions of these parameters based on the averaged-model approach. Furthermore, the effect of the quantization error in the digital control system is considered to modify the stability regions of the control parameters. Finally, these theoretical results are verified through platform experiments. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  15. Penalaan Parameter Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES menggunakan Firefly Algorithm (FA pada Sistem Tenaga Listrik Multimesin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herlambang Setiadi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Energi listrik yang disuplai ke konsumen harus mempunyai stabilitas dan keandalan yang tinggi. Jika terjadi sebuah gangguan pada sistem tenaga listrik dapat mengakibatkan ketidakstabilan. Gangguan tersebut dapat berupa putus jaringan (transien maupun perubahan beban (dinamik. Perubahan beban yang terjadi secara tiba-tiba dan periodik tidak dapat direspon dengan baik oleh generator sehingga dapat mempengaruhi kestabilan dinamik sistem. Hal ini menyebabkan timbul osilasi frekuensi pada generator. Respon yang kurang baik dapat menimbulkan osilasi frekuensi dalam periode yang lama. Hal itu akan mengakibatkan pengurangan kekuatan transfer daya yang ada. Pada sistem tenaga listrik multimachine, semua mesin bekerja secara sinkron se­hingga generator harus beroperasi pada frekuensi yang sama. Untuk meredam osilasi frekuensi yang terjadi dibutuhkan kontroler tambahan yaitu Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES. Agar mendapatkan koordinasi controler yang baik maka parameter pada SMES dioptimisasi dengan Firefly Algorithm (FA. Tugas Akhir ini mengajukan konsep penalaan parameter SMES menggunakan FA pada sistem tenaga listrik multimesin. Dengan diajukan metode diatas diharapkan permasalahan osilasi frekuensi akibat terdapat perubahan beban dapat diredam.

  16. Estimating the kinetic parameters of activated sludge storage using weighted non-linear least-squares and accelerating genetic algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Fang; Ni, Bing-Jie; Yu, Han-Qing

    2009-06-01

    In this study, weighted non-linear least-squares analysis and accelerating genetic algorithm are integrated to estimate the kinetic parameters of substrate consumption and storage product formation of activated sludge. A storage product formation equation is developed and used to construct the objective function for the determination of its production kinetics. The weighted least-squares analysis is employed to calculate the differences in the storage product concentration between the model predictions and the experimental data as the sum of squared weighted errors. The kinetic parameters for the substrate consumption and the storage product formation are estimated to be the maximum heterotrophic growth rate of 0.121/h, the yield coefficient of 0.44 mg CODX/mg CODS (COD, chemical oxygen demand) and the substrate half saturation constant of 16.9 mg/L, respectively, by minimizing the objective function using a real-coding-based accelerating genetic algorithm. Also, the fraction of substrate electrons diverted to the storage product formation is estimated to be 0.43 mg CODSTO/mg CODS. The validity of our approach is confirmed by the results of independent tests and the kinetic parameter values reported in literature, suggesting that this approach could be useful to evaluate the product formation kinetics of mixed cultures like activated sludge. More importantly, as this integrated approach could estimate the kinetic parameters rapidly and accurately, it could be applied to other biological processes.

  17. Detection Of Irradiated Fruits And Assessment Of Quality Parameters Of The Stone Fruits During Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Magide, A.E.A.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was carried out in order to detect the irradiated fruits and assess the quality parameters of plums (Prunus domestica L., cv. Pioneer) and peaches (Prunus persica Bausch, cv. Swilling) fruits treated with gamma irradiation. This investigation was carried out during 2010 and 2011 seasons. The fruits were harvested at commercial maturity, irradiated with the doses 0.50, 0.75 and 1.0 kGy, stored under refrigerated conditions (0±1°C, RH 80%) then evaluated at intervals of 7, 10 and 21 days (the end cold storage period) followed by 5 days of storage under market condition (20±2°C, RH 80%). Electron spin resonance (ESR) was carried out for determination of free radicals by using dried layers of plum and peach kernels. Fruit characters included weight loss %, fruit firmness (kgf), discarded fruits %, soluble solid contents (SSC, ºBrix), total titratable acidity (TA%), respiration rate and sensory evaluation tastes. ESR results proved the possibility of identification of irradiated fruits by using dried stone kernels. The results showed that ESR intensities were sensitive for all applied doses even at low doses of 0.5 or 1.0 kGy which was applied for dis infestations, to extend the shelf-life of fruits or to detect the irradiated stored fresh samples was carried out at the 7th, 10th and 21st days. The linear relationship resulted between ESR intensity and applied doses showed high significant correlation coefficient (R2) for the irradiated samples. However, ESR intensity was decreased gradually during long storage period but can identify clearly the irradiated samples. Irradiation treatment at 0.5 kGy for P ioneer p lums and at 0.5 or 0.75 kGy for S willing p eaches was effective in slowing the rate of losing of fruits weight and decreasing the discarded fruits percentage. Furthermore, it has significant effects on reducing respiration rate, maintaining higher soluble solid contents and decreasing total titratable acidity. Referring to sensory

  18. A null-parameter formula for storage-evapotranspiration relationship based on generalized proportionality hypothesis and its applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, P. F.; Wang, X. S.; Istanbulluoglu, E.

    2017-12-01

    Different formulas have been developed to estimate the mean annual evapotranspiration ratio (E/P) at catchment scale from the mean annual aridity index (Ep/P) based on the Budyko framework. A major challenge in using the Budyko framework for the inter-annual behaviors of a catchment is the missed storage in these formulas. Efforts have been contributed to modify the formulas for estimating the annual E/P from both of the annual Ep/P and the change in storage, leading to a significant increase in the number of empirical parameters. In this paper we develop a null-parameter formula of the storage-evapotranspiration relationship based on a new interpretation of the proportionality hypothesis, which takes the storage in the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum (SPAC) as the accessible water for the evapotranspiration processes. According to the formula, the annual E/P depends on the annual Ep/P and S/P values where S is the initial SPAC storage in a year. The difference between the S values of two years represents the inter-annual change in storage in the SPAC system. An annual water balance model including groundwater storage for a basin is required to estimate the annual runoff and S/P from year to year. We develop a tri-parameters model using this null-parameter formula to minimize the number of parameters and successfully applied to investigate the NLRB basin in Nebraska, USA. For mean annual water balance, the tri-parameters model results in one-parameter formulas to estimate both of the mean annual E/P and S/P so that the status of storage can be included in the Budyko framework. The tri-parameters model is further extended to a twin-zones model for the effect of irrigation in croplands and applied to reconstruct the hydrological behaviors in the natural state for 12 catchments in Illinois, USA, with different cropland areas. It is found in the Illinois examples (where Ep/P is less than 2) that the annual E/P increases with the increasing Ep/P almost in a linear

  19. Sensitivity analysis of efficiency thermal energy storage on selected rock mass and grout parameters using design of experiment method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wołoszyn, Jerzy; Gołaś, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Paper propose a new methodology to sensitivity study of underground thermal storage. • Using MDF model and DOE technique significantly shorter of calculations time. • Calculation of one time step was equal to approximately 57 s. • Sensitivity study cover five thermo-physical parameters. • Conductivity of rock mass and grout material have a significant impact on efficiency. - Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of selected parameters on the efficiency of underground thermal energy storage. In this paper, besides thermal conductivity, the effect of such parameters as specific heat, density of the rock mass, thermal conductivity and specific heat of grout material was investigated. Implementation of this objective requires the use of an efficient computational method. The aim of the research was achieved by using a new numerical model, Multi Degree of Freedom (MDF), as developed by the authors and Design of Experiment (DoE) techniques with a response surface. The presented methodology can significantly reduce the time that is needed for research and to determine the effect of various parameters on the efficiency of underground thermal energy storage. Preliminary results of the research confirmed that thermal conductivity of the rock mass has the greatest impact on the efficiency of underground thermal energy storage, and that other parameters also play quite significant role

  20. Measurement of the longitudinal parameters of an electron beam in a storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krinsky, S.

    1989-01-01

    We discuss the determination of the longitudinal parameters of a bunched beam of electrons or positrons circulating in a storage ring. From the analysis of the beam current observed at a fixed azimuthal location, one can learn much about the longitudinal behavior. We present an elementary analysis of the time-dependence of the current. In particular, we discuss the determination of the average current, bunch length, synchrotron oscillation frequency, and the coherent synchrotron oscillation modes associated with longitudinal instabilities. A brief discussion is also given of the incoherent synchrotron oscillations, or Schottky noise. We review the electromagnetic field traveling with a charge in uniform motion, and introduce some of the most common devices used to detect this field: capacitive pick-up, stripline monitor, and DC beam current transformer. Our paper is organized as follows: We discuss the analysis of the time-dependence of the beam current. Then, the measurement of the current is considered. Finally, we describe some measurements of energy spread and bunch lengthening made recently at SLAC on the SLC damping ring. 12 refs., 6 figs

  1. THE EFFECT OF IN VITRO SEMEN STORAGE TEMPERATURE AND AGE OF MALES ON SPERMATOZOA MOTILITY PARAMETERS OF TURKEYS SEMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Paluch

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This work was to evaluate the effect of in vitro storage temperature and age of males on turkey spermatozoa motility. For this purpose samples were collected from British United Turkeys (BUT Big 6 line and semen quality was assessed by using Computer Assisted Semen Analyzer (CASA system. After 60 minutes of storage spermatozoa motility, progressive motility and amplitude of lateral head displacement decreased significantly both in 4° and 41°C regardless of birds age. However the lowest values of all parameters were noted after storage in thermostat. Spermatozoa motility after 0 and 60 minutes in 4°C was higher in samples collected from turkeys of 35 – 42 weeks of age (60.94% and 53.33% respectively. Whereas the value of that parameter in semen stored in 41°C was lower in that age group. The same tendency was found in progressive motility. The results showed that higher temperature of in vitro storage (even that similar to animal body temperature, in this case 41ºC has more negative effect on spermatozoa motility parameters than lower temperature.

  2. Influence of temperature and packaging type on quality parameters and antimicrobial properties during Yateí honey storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Alejandro MARTÍNEZ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Tetragonisca fiebrigi, is a bee of the subfamily Meliponidae traditionally known as Yateí. Its honey differs from the honey produced by Apis mellifera because it is less viscous, more acidic, has sweetness and particular aromas. It is important to know the behavior of yatei honey in different storage conditions, in order to preserve the characteristics of the honey and ensure the product as harmless. The objective was to determine the influence of temperature, packaging type and storage time of Yateí honey on antimicrobial properties, microbial (Total Mesophilic Aerobic and Mold and Yeast Count and physicochemical parameters (pH, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF, acidity, moisture content and diastase, with methodology of national and international standards. The antimicrobial effect was variable against strains of the genus Staphylococcus aureus. The most significant microbiological quality levels were Mold and Yeast counts (> 102 CFU / g. The physicochemical parameters with the most significant values were acidity (to: 42.5 meq acid/kg honey, moisture content (to: 26% and HMF (to: 3.8mg/kg honey. Storage at refrigeration temperature maintained standard values close to Apis mellifera honey during 180 days; whereas at room temperature it was better to maintain antimicrobial power. No significant difference was found between plastic storage containers vs. glass.

  3. Effects of chilled-then-frozen storage (up to 52weeks) on lamb M. longissimus lumborum quality and safety parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, Cassius E O; Holman, Benjamin W B; Collins, Damian; Friend, Michael A; Hopkins, David L

    2017-12-01

    This study evaluated the effect of chilled followed by frozen storage on lamb quality and safety parameters. Experimental (n=360) M. longissimus lumborum (LL) were randomly sampled from the boning room of a commercial Australian abattoir, at 24 h post-mortem, and assigned to five chilled storage periods (0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks) and six subsequent frozen storage periods (0, 4, 8, 12, 24 and 52 weeks). Upon completion of each storage treatment combination, corresponding LL were sub-sectioned and analysed for colour stability (0, 1, 2 and 3 days), shear force, fluid losses (purge, thaw and cooking losses), intramuscular fat content, sarcomere length, water activity and microbial load (lactic acid bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae sp., Brochothrix thermosphacta, Clostridium perfringens and Escherichia coli). LL stored chilled for 2-4 weeks prior to freezing presented superior results for shear force, display colour and low levels of spoilage microbes, correlating with good eating quality and safety following more than one year of frozen storage. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Influence of ionizing radiation and storage conditions upon some quality parameters of soybeans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beczner, J.; Kiss, I.; Peredi, J.

    1983-01-01

    Soyflour produced for animal feeding in a pilot plant was occasionally contaminated to an extent exceeding the microbiological standard set for human consumption. The suitability of ionizing radiation to reduce microbiological contamination was investigated. Soybeans of different moisture content (9 and 13%) were irradiated and stored in spaces of different relative humidity (55 and 75%) at 5-15 deg C or 20-25 deg C temperature. The soybeans samples were irradiated with 1 and 5 kGy, resp. The storage experiments have shown the humidity of the storage room to be of extreme importance to the propagation of moulds. The inhibitory effect of a temperature of 5-10 deg C in itself is not sufficient, neither is the effect of the radiation dose applied during a longer storage period. It was established that the moisture content of the seeds affected strongly the quality of the extracted oil. The unfavourable effects increase at higher temperatures. The radiation doses applied in the experiments did not affect the quality of the oil. It was concluded that the microbial contamination of soybeans can be kept at the initial low value by treatment with 1 kGy radiation dose, even under unfavourable storage conditions for a period of 2 months. Thus, irradiation may be applied as a temporary solution to stabilize the microbiological state of soybeans. (author)

  5. Long-term urine biobanking: storage stability of clinical chemical parameters under moderate freezing conditions without use of preservatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remer, Thomas; Montenegro-Bethancourt, Gabriela; Shi, Lijie

    2014-12-01

    To examine the long-term stability and validity of analyte concentrations of 21 clinical biochemistry parameters in 24-h urine samples stored for 12 or 15 yr at -22°C and preservative free. Healthy children's 24-h urine samples in which the respective analytes had been measured shortly after sample collection (baseline) were reanalyzed. Second measurement was performed after 12 yr (organic acids) and 15 yr (creatinine, urea, osmolality, iodine, nitrogen, anions, cations, acid-base parameters) with the same analytical methodology. Paired comparisons and correlations between the baseline and repeated measurements were done. Recovery rates were calculated. More than half of the analytes (creatinine, urea, iodine, nitrogen, sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, ammonium, bicarbonate, citric & uric acid) showed measurement values after >10 yr of storage not significantly different from baseline. 15 of the 21 parameters were highly correlated (r=0.99) between baseline and second measurement. Poorest correlation was r=0.77 for oxalate. Recovery ranged from 73% (oxalate) to 105% (phosphate). Our results suggest high long-term stability and measurement validity for numerous clinical chemistry parameters stored at -22°C without addition of any urine preservative. Prospective storage of urine aliquots at -22°C for periods even exceeding 10 yr, appears to be an acceptable and valid tool in epidemiological settings for later quantification of several urine analytes. Copyright © 2014 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Baking quality parameters of wheat in relation to endosperm storage proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Horvat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat storage proteins of twelve winter wheat cultivars grown at the experimental field of the Agricultural Institute Osijek in 2009 were studied for their contribution to the baking quality. Composition of high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS was analyzed by SDS-PAGE method, while the proportions of endosperm storage proteins were determined by RP-HPLC method. Regarding the proportion of storage proteins, results of the linear correlation (p<0.05 showed that protein (P and wet gluten (WG content were highly negatively correlated with albumins and globulins (AG and positively with α- gliadins (GLI. A strong negative correlation between AG and water absorption (WA capacity of flour was found, while α- GLI had positive influence on this property. Dough development time (DDT was positively significantly correlated with HMW-GS and negatively with AG. Degree of dough softening (DS was strongly positively affected by γ- GLI and gliadins to glutenins ratio (GLI/GLU and negatively by total GLU and HMW-GS. Dough energy (E and maximum resistance (RMAX were significantly positively affected by Glu-1 score and negatively by GLI/GLU ratio. Resistance to extensibility ratio (R/EXT was significantly negatively correlated with total GLI. Bread volume was significantly negatively influenced by AG.

  7. Impact of sample processing on the measurement of circulating microparticles: storage and centrifugation parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila-Liante, Virtudes; Sánchez-López, Verónica; Martínez-Sales, Vicenta; Ramón-Nuñez, Luis A; Arellano-Orden, Elena; Cano-Ruiz, Alejandra; Rodríguez-Martorell, Francisco J; Gao, Lin; Otero-Candelera, Remedios

    2016-11-01

    Microparticles (MPs) have been shown to be markers of cellular activation and interactions. Pre-analytical conditions such as the centrifugation protocol and sample storage conditions represent an important source of variability in determining MPs values. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the influence of sample storage conditions and centrifugation speed and temperature on the determination of MPs in plasma. Citrate-anticoagulated blood samples obtained from 21 healthy subjects were centrifuged under four different protocols involving different speeds (2500 g or 1500 g) and temperatures (4 °C or 20 °C) to isolate platelet-poor plasma (PPP). The number of MPs in fresh and frozen-thawed PPP were analyzed by flow cytometry, and MPs-mediated procoagulant activity was determined by a thrombin generation test and phospholipid-dependent procoagulant tests. The number of MPs and their procoagulant activity were affected by freeze-thaw cycling and centrifugation speed but not by centrifugation temperature. Sample freezing increased MPs number (six-fold) and thrombin generation (four-fold), and decreased clotting time (two-fold). Low centrifugation speed caused an increase in MPs number and a parallel increase in MP-mediated procoagulant activity. Sample storage conditions and centrifugation speed are important processing conditions affecting MPs number and activity. Before any study, the protocol for MPs isolation should be optimized to ensure a reliable characterization of MPs, which could provide important information for diagnostic purposes and for understanding the pathogenesis of diseases.

  8. Parameter Estimation and Prediction of a Nonlinear Storage Model: an algebraic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doeswijk, T.G.; Keesman, K.J.

    2005-01-01

    Generally, parameters that are nonlinear in system models are estimated by nonlinear least-squares optimization algorithms. In this paper, if a nonlinear discrete-time model with a polynomial quotient structure in input, output, and parameters, a method is proposed to re-parameterize the model such

  9. Physico-chemical parameters, bioactive compounds and microbial quality of thermo-sonicated carrot juice during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Flores, Héctor E; Garnica-Romo, Ma Guadalupe; Bermúdez-Aguirre, Daniela; Pokhrel, Prashant Raj; Barbosa-Cánovas, Gustavo V

    2015-04-01

    Thermosonication has been successfully tested in food for microbial inactivation; however, changes in bioactive compounds and shelf-life of treated products have not been thoroughly investigated. Carrot juice was thermo-sonicated (24 kHz, 120 μm amplitude) at 50 °C, 54 °C and 58 °C for 10 min (acoustic power 2204.40, 2155.72, 2181.68 mW/mL, respectively). Quality parameters and microbial growth were evaluated after processing and during storage at 4 °C. Control and sonicated treatments at 50 °C and 54 °C had 10, 12 and 14 d of shelf-life, respectively. Samples sonicated at 58 °C had the best quality; microbial growth remained low at around 3-log for mesophiles, 4.5-log for yeasts and molds and 2-log for enterobacteria after 20 d of storage. Furthermore, thermo-sonicated juice at 58 °C retained >98% of carotenoids and 100% of ascorbic acid. Phenolic compounds increased in all stored, treated juices. Thermo-sonication is therefore a promising technology for preserving the quality of carrot juice by minimising the physicochemical changes during storage, retarding microbial growth and retaining the bioactive compounds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. SUBSTANTIATION OF STORAGE PARAMETERS OF THE SOUR-MILK INFANT DRINK «BIOLAKT»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Tkachenko

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the quality indicators of sour-milk infant drink «Biolakt» characterized by high probiotic and immunomodulatory properties and low allergic effect that were made according to the improved technology and stored in sealed-off containers at temperature (4±2 ºС during 28 days have been studied: organoleptic properties of taste and odour, consistency and appearance; physical and chemical properties – titrated acidity, ºТ; active acidity, pH units; moisture retention property, %; microbiological properties – number of living cells of mixed cultures B. bifidum 1 + B. longum Я3 + B. infantis 512, CFU/cm3; the most probable number of living cells of monocultures L. acidophilus La-5, CFU/cm3; presence of coli form bacteria in 0.3 cm3; presence of  Salmonella in 50 cm3; biochemical properties – antioxidant activity, activity units; and maximum possible content of malondialdehyde at complete oxidation of the product ingredients, mg/100 g. It is proved that under indicated conditions in the course of 24 days the studied samples of target products possess high organoleptic and standardized for sour-milk infant drinks physical, chemical, biochemical and microbiological indicators and are, also, characterized by high content of probiotics: (0.43…8.60∙109 and (0.25…1.10∙109 CFU/cm3 of living cells of bifidus bacteria and lactobacilli, accordingly.It has been established that the limit storage period of sour-milk infant drink «Biolakt» produced according to the improved technology and stored at temperature (4±2 ºС should not exceed 12 days with due account of the safety margin for sour-milk infant drinks (provided they are kept in sealed-off containers.It has been proved that the target product formulas should include lactulose, polyunsaturated fatty acids omega-3 FT EU of «Fortitech» company (Denmark, vitamin complex FT 041081EU of «Fortitech» company (Denmark and/or complex of mineral substances FT 042836EU of

  11. Identification and determination of trapping parameters as key site parameters for CO2 storage for the active CO2 storage site in Ketzin (Germany) - Comparison of different experimental approaches and analysis of field data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemke, Kornelia; Liebscher, Axel

    2015-04-01

    Petrophysical properties like porosity and permeability are key parameters for a safe long-term storage of CO2 but also for the injection operation itself. The accurate quantification of residual trapping is difficult, but very important for both storage containment security and storage capacity; it is also an important parameter for dynamic simulation. The German CO2 pilot storage in Ketzin is a Triassic saline aquifer with initial conditions of the target sandstone horizon of 33.5 ° C/6.1 MPa at 630 m. One injection and two observation wells were drilled in 2007 and nearly 200 m of core material was recovered for site characterization. From June 2008 to September 2013, slightly more than 67 kt food-grade CO2 has been injected and continuously monitored. A fourth observation well has been drilled after 61 kt injected CO2 in summer 2012 at only 25 m distance to the injection well and new core material was recovered that allow study CO2 induced changes in petrophysical properties. The observed only minor differences between pre-injection and post-injection petrophysical parameters of the heterogeneous formation have no severe consequences on reservoir and cap rock integrity or on the injection behavior. Residual brine saturation for the Ketzin reservoir core material was estimated by different methods. Brine-CO2 flooding experiments for two reservoir samples resulted in 36% and 55% residual brine saturation (Kiessling, 2011). Centrifuge capillary pressure measurements (pc = 0.22 MPa) yielded the smallest residual brine saturation values with ~20% for the lower part of the reservoir sandstone and ~28% for the upper part (Fleury, 2010). The method by Cerepi (2002), which calculates the residual mercury saturation after pressure release on the imbibition path as trapped porosity and the retracted mercury volume as free porosity, yielded unrealistic low free porosity values of only a few percent, because over 80% of the penetrated mercury remained in the samples after

  12. Estimation of kinetic parameters of anthocyanins and color degradation in vitamin C fortified cranberry juice during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roidoung, Sunisa; Dolan, Kirk D; Siddiq, Muhammad

    2017-04-01

    Color degradation in cranberry juice during storage is the most common consumer complaint. To enhance nutritional quality, juice is typically fortified with vitamin C. This study determined effect of gallic acid, a natural antioxidant, for the preservation of anthocyanins (ACYs) and color, and estimated kinetics of ACYs and color degradation. Juice, fortified with 40-80mg/100mL vitamin C and 0-320mg/100mL gallic acid, was pasteurized at 85°C for 1min and stored at 23°C for 16days. Total monomeric anthocyanins and red color intensity were evaluated spectrophotometrically and data were used to determine degradation rate constants (k values) and order of reaction (n) of ACYs and color. Due to high correlation, k and n could not be estimated simultaneously. To overcome this difficulty, both n and k were held at different constant values in separate analyses to allow accurate estimation of each. Parameters n and k were modeled empirically as functions of vitamin C, and of vitamin C and gallic acid, respectively. Reaction order n ranged from 1.2 to 4.4, and decreased with increasing vitamin C concentration. The final model offers an effective tool that could be used for predicting ACYs and color retention in cranberry juice during storage. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Thermophysical parameters of coconut oil and its potential application as the thermal energy storage system in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putri, Widya A.; Fahmi, Zulfikar; Sutjahja, I. M.; Kurnia, D.; Wonorahardjo, S.

    2016-08-01

    The high consumption of electric energy for room air conditioning (AC) system in Indonesia has driven the research of potential thermal energy storage system as a passive temperature controller. The application of coconut oil (CO) as the potential candidate for this purpose has been motivated since its working temperature just around the human thermal comfort zone in the tropical area as Indonesia. In this research we report the time-dependent temperature data of CO, which is adopting the T-history method. The analysis of the data revealed a set of thermophysical parameters, consist of the mean specific heats of the solid and liquid, as well as the latent heat of fusion for the phase change transition. The performance of CO to decrease the air temperature was measured in the thermal chamber. From the results it is shown that the latent phase of CO related to the solid-liquid phase transition show the highest capability in heat absorption, directly showing the potential application of CO as thermal energy storage system in Indonesia.

  14. Olive mill wastewater sludge from evaporation ponds: evolution of physico-chemical parameters during storage and composting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abid, N; Aloui, F; Dhouib, A; Sayadi, S

    2006-02-01

    The evolution of analytical parameters of olive mill waste water sludge stored in evaporation ponds was investigated after one year and two years of storage. It was observed that some of the phenolic monomer compounds resisted removal and the fraction of water soluble phenols was only slightly polymerised. Co-composting of the sludge was carried out with yard trimming as bulking agent ratio and poultry manure to balance the C/N. Three turned piles with three proportions of 35%, 65% and 80% of olive mill waste water sludge were prepared. Co-composting of the sludge was possible in all the cases. Best results were obtained, however, at a proportion of 35% which permitted a shorter composting time, a higher degree of nitrification and a higher rate of total phenols decreasing. A high polymerisation of the fraction of water soluble phenols was observed at the end of composting in all the piles.

  15. Study of Baffle Boundary and System Parameters on Liquid-Solid Coupling Vibration of Rectangular Liquid-Storage Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Jing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the vibration problem of liquid-solid coupling of rectangular liquid-storage structure with horizontal elastic baffle, ignoring the influence of surface gravity wave, two different velocity potential functions corresponding to the liquid above and below the elastic baffle are assumed; based on the theory of mathematical equation and energy method, the formulas of basic frequency of liquid-solid coupling vibration system are derived, the baffle joined to the tank wall with 3 kinds of boundary conditions, namely, four edges simply supported, two opposite edges clamped and two opposite edges simply supported, and four edges clamped; the influence rules of baffle length-width ratio, the ratio of baffle height to liquid level, baffle elastic modulus, baffle density, baffle thickness, and liquid density on the coupling vibration performance are studied. The results show that the frequency of the clamped boundary is minimum; the influences of baffle length-width ratio and relative height on the basic frequency are much greater than that of the other system parameters; the relation between baffle length-width ratio and the frequency is exponential, while baffle relative height has a parabola relation with the frequency; the larger the baffle length-width ratio, the closer the baffle to the liquid level; the coupling frequency will be reduced more obviously.

  16. Effects of storage and packaging materials on some physicochemical properties and sensory and microbiological parameters of pineapple juice (ananas comosus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakpo, I.O.; Arawande, J.O.

    2010-01-01

    Physicochemical, microbiological and sensory parameters of concentrated pineapple juice stored in cans and glass bottles were studied over a period of ten weeks. There was slight increase in pH from 4.2 to 4.7 and to 4.8 and decrease in titratable acidity from 8.1 to 5.1 and to 4.6 mg/100 mL, whereas total solids (%) decreased from 76.23 to 65.47% and to 60.38% in canned and bottled pineapple concentrates, respectively. Over 90% loss of Vitamin C was observed, with the bottled samples retaining more Vitamin C than the canned samples. The microbial counts ranged from 2.0 X 103 to 2.4 X 104 cfu/mL whereas fungi and mesophilic bacteria, were not detected to 6 X 103 cfu/mL. Freshly prepared single strength juices of pineapple were better in terms of taste and colour, while the bottled reconstituted juice concentrate competed favourably with the fresh one in colour. The canned samples lost their colours within 10 weeks of storage. The glass bottled samples had a characteristic desirable aroma. Thus concentrated juice in glass bottles stored at room temperature enhanced the keeping quality of the juice and compared more favourably with the fresh juice than the canned concentrated juice. (author)

  17. Forced-air, vacuum, and hydro precooling of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis cv. Freemont: Part II. Determination of quality parameters during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilknur Alibas

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cauliflower heads, which were precooled using four different methods including vacuum, forced-air, and high and low flow hydro precooling, were stored under controlled atmosphere and room conditions. Controlled atmosphere conditions (CA were as follows: 1°C temperature, 90 ± 5% relative humidity, and 0:21 [(%CO2:%O2 – (0:21 control] atmosphere composition. Room conditions (RC were: 22±1°C temperature and 55-60% humidity. Various quality parameters of the cauliflower heads were assessed during storage (days 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 under controlled atmosphere and room conditions (days 0, 5, and 10. During storage, weight loss, deterioration rate, overall sensory quality score, hardness, and colour (L, a, b, C and α were evaluated. In the present study, the strength and quality parameters of cauliflower under CA and RC conditions were obtained. Vacuum precooling was found to be most suitable method before cauliflower was submitted to cold storage and sent to market. Furthermore, the storage of cauliflower without precooling resulted in a significant decrease in quality parameters.

  18. Effect of gamma radiation on the microbiological and physicochemical parameters and on the phenolic compounds of a fruit residue flour during storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aranha, Jessica Bomtorin; Negri, Talita Costa; Martin, José Guilherme Prado; Spoto, Marta Helena Fillet

    2017-01-01

    Agroindustrial residues have high levels of nutrients, but are little exploited for consumption because they require prior treatment to ensure microbiological safety. Irradiation is an effective process for the reduction of microbial counts with maintenance of the product characteristics. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of irradiation on the microbiological quality, physicochemical properties and phenolic compounds of a fruit residue flour during storage. The flour was obtained from dehydrated residues of pineapple, melon, papaya and apple, which were submitted to irradiation doses of (0, 1, 2 and 3 kGy). The microbiological (coliforms, moulds, yeast and Salmonella sp. counts) and physicochemical (pH, titratable acidity, soluble solids, water activity, colour parameters L⁎, a⁎ and b⁎ and phenolic compounds) parameters were evaluated after 0, 7, 14 and 21 days of storage. All the irradiation treatments reduced the microbial count, and the presence of Salmonella sp was not detected in any of the samples. The acidity and pH showed changes during storage. The soluble solids and water activity showed no significant differences between the doses during storage. The phenolic compounds were preserved by the application of irradiation. The colour of the flour samples darkened slightly with irradiation. It was concluded that the most effective doses for the maintenance of the microbiological quality and physicochemical characteristics of the flour were 2 and 3 kGy. (author)

  19. Cost Sensitivity Analysis for Consolidated Interim Storage of Spent Fuel: Evaluating the Effect of Economic Environment Parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cumberland, Riley M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Williams, Kent Alan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jarrell, Joshua J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Joseph, III, Robert Anthony [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This report evaluates how the economic environment (i.e., discount rate, inflation rate, escalation rate) can impact previously estimated differences in lifecycle costs between an integrated waste management system with an interim storage facility (ISF) and a similar system without an ISF.

  20. The effect of synthesis parameters on the lithium storage performance of LiMnPO4/C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramar, V.; Saravanan, K.; Gajjela, S.R.; Hariharan, S.; Balaya, P.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • An architecture featuring carbon coated, interconnected nano-grains was constructed with mesopores for LiMnPO 4 /C cathodes. • Mesoporous LiMnPO 4 /C delivers 140 mAh g −1 at 0.05 C, one of the best storage performances in galvanostatic charge/discharge mode. • Interdependence of storage performance on carbon, milling time, grain size, surface area, pore size and pore volume is elucidated. • Feasible full cell operation with Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 /C anode. -- Abstract: An architecture featuring carbon coated, interconnected nano-grains constructed with mesopores is developed for LiMnPO 4 cathode material. This architecture facilitates enhanced lithium ionic and electronic transports; favours improved lithium storage performance. Mesoporous LiMnPO 4 /C electrode delivers discharge capacity of 140 mAh g −1 at 0.05 C using galvanostatic cycling mode. This best electrochemical response of LiMnPO 4 /C at constant current mode is complemented by diffusion studies using cyclic voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy. Further, the interdependence of lithium storage performance on carbon content, milling time (2, 4, 6 and 10 h), grain size and porous characteristics (surface area, pore size and pore volume) is also discussed. Finally, the feasibility of LiMnPO 4 /C cathode is evaluated against Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 /C anode in a full cell

  1. Tritium storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hircq, B.

    1989-01-01

    A general synthesis about tritium storage is achieved in this paper and a particular attention is given to practical application in the Fusion Technology Program. Tritium, storage under gaseous form and solid form are discussed (characteristics, advantages, disadvantages and equipments). The way of tritium storage is then discussed and a choice established as a function of a logic which takes into account the main working parameters

  2. Liver fibrosis in type I Gaucher disease: magnetic resonance imaging, transient elastography and parameters of iron storage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anneloes E Bohte

    Full Text Available Long term liver-related complications of type-1 Gaucher disease (GD, a lysosomal storage disorder, include fibrosis and an increased incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma. Splenectomy has been implicated as a risk factor for the development of liver pathology in GD. High ferritin concentrations are a feature of GD and iron storage in Gaucher cells has been described, but iron storage in the liver in relation to liver fibrosis has not been studied. Alternatively, iron storage in GD may be the result of iron supplementation therapy or regular blood transfusions in patients with severe cytopenia. In this pilot study, comprising 14 type-1 GD patients (7 splenectomized, 7 non-splenectomized and 7 healthy controls, we demonstrate that liver stiffness values, measured by Transient Elastography and MR-Elastography, are significantly higher in splenectomized GD patients when compared with non-splenectomized GD patients (p = 0.03 and p = 0.01, respectively. Liver iron concentration was elevated (>60±30 µmol/g in 4 GD patients of whom 3 were splenectomized. No relationship was found between liver stiffness and liver iron concentration. HFE gene mutations were more frequent in splenectomized (6/7 than in non-splenectomized (2/7 participants (p = 0.10. Liver disease appeared more advanced in splenectomized than in non-splenectomized patients. We hypothesize a relationship with excessive hepatic iron accumulation in splenectomized patients. We recommend that all splenectomized patients, especially those with evidence of substantial liver fibrosis undergo regular screening for HCC, according to current guidelines.

  3. METHODOLOGY FOR ESTIMATION OF STATIONARY AND DYNAMIC PARAMETERS FOR LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS (LPG RE-LIQUEFACTION IN SPHERICAL STORAGE SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Mendoza-Acosta

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Temperature difference between the environment and the liquid contained in the liquefied petroleum gas storage spheres produces: net inward heat flow, increase in stored fuel temperature, LPG partial vaporization and consequently an increase in storage pressure. In order to maintain adequate safety conditions, since uncontrolled pressure increases could lead to risky situations and economic losses, re-liquefaction systems, consisting on auto refrigeration units, are installed; this system extracts the evaporated gas, compress it and then condense it again in a closed cooling cycle. Frequently these systems are designed using heuristic criteria, without considering the calculations necessary for correct equipment sizing; this results in costly modifications or in oversized equipment. In the present article, a simple but effective methodology for the calculation of thermal loads, daily temperature increase rate and pressure accumulation and restore times is presented, the methodology was compared with real data, through data acquisition and processing during the summer months of 2015 and 2016 for 12 storage spheres in a gas company located in a coastal state of Mexico, finding that the values predicted for the rate of daily temperature increase and recovery times are statistically consistent with the experimental data.

  4. Opportunistic Pathogens and Microbial Communities and Their Associations with Sediment Physical Parameters in Drinking Water Storage Tank Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Ke; Struewing, Ian; Domingo, Jorge Santo; Lytle, Darren

    2017-01-01

    The occurrence and densities of opportunistic pathogens (OPs), the microbial community structure, and their associations with sediment elements from eight water storage tanks in Ohio, West Virginia, and Texas were investigated. The elemental composition of sediments was measured through X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectra. The occurrence and densities of OPs and amoeba hosts (i.e., Legionella spp. and L. pneumophila, Mycobacterium spp., P. aeruginosa, V. vermiformis, Acanthamoeba spp.) were determined using genus- or species-specific qPCR assays. Microbial community analysis was performed using next generation sequencing on the Illumina Miseq platform. Mycobacterium spp. were most frequently detected in the sediments and water samples (88% and 88%), followed by Legionella spp. (50% and 50%), Acanthamoeba spp. (63% and 13%), V. vermiformis (50% and 25%), and P. aeruginosa (0 and 50%) by qPCR method. Comamonadaceae (22.8%), Sphingomonadaceae (10.3%), and Oxalobacteraceae (10.1%) were the most dominant families by sequencing method. Microbial communities in water samples were mostly separated with those in sediment samples, suggesting differences of communities between two matrices even in the same location. There were associations of OPs with microbial communities. Both OPs and microbial community structures were positively associated with some elements (Al and K) in sediments mainly from pipe material corrosions. Opportunistic pathogens presented in both water and sediments, and the latter could act as a reservoir of microbial contamination. There appears to be an association between potential opportunistic pathogens and microbial community structures. These microbial communities may be influenced by constituents within storage tank sediments. The results imply that compositions of microbial community and elements may influence and indicate microbial water quality and pipeline corrosion, and that these constituents may be important for optimal storage tank management

  5. Effects of ring-porous and diffuse-porous stem wood anatomy on the hydraulic parameters used in a water flow and storage model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steppe, Kathy; Lemeur, Raoul

    2007-01-01

    Calibration of a recently developed water flow and storage model based on experimental data for a young diffuse-porous beech tree (Fagus sylvatica L.) and a young ring-porous oak tree (Quercus robur L.) revealed that differences in stem wood anatomy between species strongly affect the calibrated values of the hydraulic model parameters. The hydraulic capacitance (C) of the stem storage tissue was higher in oak than in beech (939.8 versus 212.3 mg MPa(-1)). Model simulation of the elastic modulus (epsilon) revealed that this difference was linked to the higher elasticity of the stem storage tissue of oak compared with beech. Furthermore, the hydraulic resistance (R (x)) of beech was about twice that of oak (0.1829 versus 0.1072 MPa s mg(-1)). To determine the physiological meaning of the R (x) parameter identified by model calibration, we analyzed the stem wood anatomy of the beech and oak trees. Calculation of stem specific hydraulic conductivity (k (s)) of beech and oak with the Hagen-Poiseuille equation confirmed the differences in R (x) predicted by the model. The contributions of different vessel diameter classes to the total hydraulic conductivity of the xylem were calculated. As expected, the few big vessels contributed much more to total conductivity than the many small vessels. Compared with beech, the larger vessels of oak resulted in a higher k (s) (10.66 versus 4.90 kg m(-1) s(-1) MPa(-1)). The calculated ratio of k (s) of oak to beech was 2, confirming the R (x) ratio obtained by model calibration. Thus, validation of the R (x) parameter of the model led to identification of its physiological meaning.

  6. Change of sensory characteristics and some quality parameters of mixed milk and cocoa spreads during storage up to 180 days

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov-Raljić Jovanka V.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main role of milk and milk products in the technology of confectionery products (chocolates, caramele-candy products, dairy products, spreads, etc. is to increase the nutritional value of the final product and to influence some sensory characteristics of quality (appearance, consistence/texture, flavor. In this study, mixtures of milk and cocoa spreads of a new composition with increased content of milk components were produced, and then assessed for sensory quality traits, peroxide value, free fatty acid content and the content of heavy metals (lead, cadmium and copper during storage from 0-30 to 180 days at room temperature (18 - 20ºC. The samples were evaluated using the analytical-descriptive sensory analysis (point system with description of the dominant properties (appearance-color, surface gloss, consistence-spreadability, dynamic property of melting, the consistence in the oral cavity-oiliness and flavor-odor and taste. The results of sensory analysis were statistically analyzed using two-way analysis of variance MANOVA, LSD and Levene's test. Based on the obtained results it can be concluded that the composition of mixtures of milk and cocoa spreads significantly affects all characteristics, whereas the storage time significantly affects the appearance, consistence, i.e. spreadability and taste of the product.

  7. Influence of packaging and storage conditions on quality parameters and shelf life of solar-dried banana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Phothapaeree

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Effects of packaging materials (metalized or polylactic acid, PLA, based pouches, storage temperatures (30-50°C and time (up to 6 months on quality of solar-dried banana were investigated. At 30°C in both packaging materials, change in moisture content, water activity (a w and hardness were minimal while darkening of the surface color progressed. No microbial spoilage was found. Hedonic scores of color, flavor, taste, texture and overall acceptance of the 6th month aged samples were lowest (p≤0.05. Based on the sensory test, product packed in both packaging materials had shelf life of 5 months at 30°C. Higher storage temperature greatly induced time-dependent decrease in moisture content and a w with an increase in hardness, especially for the samples in PLA-based pouches. Fractional conversion model was used to predicted time-dependent change in total color difference (ΔE (R2 ≥ 0.84. Temperature dependence of the rate constant followed Arrhenius-type relationship (R2 ≥ 0.99.

  8. Changes in visual quality, physiological and biochemical parameters assessed during the postharvest storage at chilling or non-chilling temperatures of three sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratianni, Florinda; Cefola, Maria; Pace, Bernardo; Cozzolino, Rosaria; De Giulio, Beatrice; Cozzolino, Autilia; d'Acierno, Antonio; Coppola, Raffaele; Logrieco, Antonio Francesco; Nazzaro, Filomena

    2017-08-15

    Leaves of three different sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) cultivars (Italico a foglia larga, Cammeo, and Italiano classico) packed in macro-perforated polyethylene bags were stored at chilling (4°C) or non-chilling temperature (12°C) for 9days. During storage, visual quality, physiological (respiration rate, ethylene production, ammonium content) and chemical (antioxidant activity, total polyphenols and polyphenol profile) parameters were measured. Detached leaves stored at chilling temperature showed visual symptoms related to chilling injury, while ethylene production and ammonium content resulted associated to cultivar sensibility to damage at low temperature. Storage at 4°C caused a depletion in polyphenols content and antioxidant capability, which was preserved at 12°C. Regarding the polyphenols profile, stressful storage conditions did not enhance the phenolic metabolism. However, leaves stored at 12°C did not loss a significant amount of metabolites respect to fresh leaves, suggesting the possibility to extend the storability after the expiration date, for a possible recovery of bioactive compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. An Influence of 7.5 T Superconducting Wiggler on Beam Parameters of Siberia-2 Storage Ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korchuganov, Vladimir; Valentinov, Alexander; Mezentsev, Nikolai

    2007-01-01

    At present the dedicated synchrotron radiation source Siberia-2 in Kurchatov Institute operates with electron energy 2.5 GeV and current up to 200 mA. In order to expand spectral range of SR and to increase brightness an installation of 7.5 T 19-pole superconducting wiggler is planned at the end of 2006. Now the wiggler is under fabrication in BINP, Novosibirsk. Such high level of a magnetic field in the wiggler will have a great influence on electron beam parameters of Siberia-2. Changes of these parameters (betatron tunes, horizontal emittance of the electron beam, momentum compaction, energy spread etc.) are discussed in the report. Different methods of compensation (global and local) of betatron functions distortion are presented. Much attention is paid to dynamic aperture calculations using analytical approximation of magnetic field behavior in transverse horizontal direction

  10. Auxiliary programs for resonance parameter storage and retrieval system REPSTOR. XTOREP, ETOREP, REPTOINP, REPRENUM, REPIMRG, TREP, PASSIGN, JCONV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Tsuneo; Kikuchi, Yasuyuki; Fukahori, Tokio

    1999-06-01

    This report describes functions and usage of eight auxiliary computer programs for REPSTOR that is a computer program for collecting the resonance parameters and evaluating them. The programs are XTOREP to convert the experimental data in EXFOR to the REPSTOR input data, ETOREP to convert the data in ENDF format to the REPSTOR input data, REPTOINP to change the data in a REPSTOR file into the REPSTOR input format, REPRENUM to renumber the level number of resonance levels, REPIMRG to merge the XTOREP output data sets, TREP to calculate mean values of resonance parameters, widths of individual resonances, etc., PASSIGN to assign orbital angular momentum by using Bayse theorem, and JCONV to assign total spin. (author)

  11. Effect of different times of cold storage on some parameters of Phytoseiulus persimilis (Athias henriot) and Neoseiulus californicus. (Parasitiformes: phytoseiidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De la Pena, Adriana; Nino, Pilar; Bustos, Alexander; Cantor, Fernando; Rodriguez, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The predatory mites Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot and Neoseiulus californicus are used in programs of mass rearing for the control of phytofagous mites. the effect on survival, longevity, predator capacity and fecundity of this predators was studied after storage them to a temperature of 8 Celsius degrade and relative humidity of 85+/-5 % during different periods of time (0, 7, 14, 21, 28 y 35 days). During the time of evaluation the predators were individualized and kept at 25 Celsius degrade of temperature and relative humidity of 85+/-5 %. the survival, longevity predator capacity and fecundity presented during all the time of evaluation of P. persimilis displayed a decrease after being stored during 21 or more days, the same happened to the survival and consumption of N. californicus sp. however, the longevity and oviposition during all time of evaluation for N. californicus was reduced after storing them for 28 or more days. Daily consumption and daily fecundity of both predators had no effect, except on daily consumption of eggs for P. persimilis and daily consumption of nymphs for N. californicus after storing them for 35 days.

  12. Smoothing-based compressed state Kalman filter for joint state-parameter estimation: Applications in reservoir characterization and CO2 storage monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y. J.; Kokkinaki, Amalia; Darve, Eric F.; Kitanidis, Peter K.

    2017-08-01

    The operation of most engineered hydrogeological systems relies on simulating physical processes using numerical models with uncertain parameters and initial conditions. Predictions by such uncertain models can be greatly improved by Kalman-filter techniques that sequentially assimilate monitoring data. Each assimilation constitutes a nonlinear optimization, which is solved by linearizing an objective function about the model prediction and applying a linear correction to this prediction. However, if model parameters and initial conditions are uncertain, the optimization problem becomes strongly nonlinear and a linear correction may yield unphysical results. In this paper, we investigate the utility of one-step ahead smoothing, a variant of the traditional filtering process, to eliminate nonphysical results and reduce estimation artifacts caused by nonlinearities. We present the smoothing-based compressed state Kalman filter (sCSKF), an algorithm that combines one step ahead smoothing, in which current observations are used to correct the state and parameters one step back in time, with a nonensemble covariance compression scheme, that reduces the computational cost by efficiently exploring the high-dimensional state and parameter space. Numerical experiments show that when model parameters are uncertain and the states exhibit hyperbolic behavior with sharp fronts, as in CO2 storage applications, one-step ahead smoothing reduces overshooting errors and, by design, gives physically consistent state and parameter estimates. We compared sCSKF with commonly used data assimilation methods and showed that for the same computational cost, combining one step ahead smoothing and nonensemble compression is advantageous for real-time characterization and monitoring of large-scale hydrogeological systems with sharp moving fronts.

  13. Effect of chitosan enriched with lycopene coating on fatty acid profile and fat oxidation parameters of rainbow trout fillet during refrigerated storage(orginal reserch article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyede Samane Naghibi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Fish are the major dietary source of the polyunsaturated fatty acid for humans. Therefore, protection of fish against all types of oxidative corruption seems to be necessary. Lycopene is the source of natural antioxidant. The present study was conducted to evaluate antioxidant properties of lycopene (using the method of DPPH and the combined effect of its various doses (1.5 and 3% and chitosan on fat oxidation parameters and fatty acids composition of Rainbow trout fillet. The analysis was performed after 0, 8 and 16 days of storage of the samples at 4°C to determine peroxide value (PV and free fatty acid content (FFA. In addition, fatty acid compositions was determined by Gas chromatography assay. In control treatment, the fatty acid composition of Rainbow trout fillet was consisted of %20.6±0.03 saturated fatty acids (SFA, %43.81±0.04 monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA and %32.83±0.03 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs in 0 day. Statistical analysis showed that there were fewer changes in PV, FFA and proportion of fatty acids between chitosan and lycopene-chitosan treatment in regard to control sample during 16 days of refrigeration storage. Chitosan coated samples enriched with lycopene exhibited less rapidly lipid damages than all the other samples (p

  14. Energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter discusses the role that energy storage may have on the energy future of the US. The topics discussed in the chapter include historical aspects of energy storage, thermal energy storage including sensible heat storage, latent heat storage, thermochemical heat storage, and seasonal heat storage, electricity storage including batteries, pumped hydroelectric storage, compressed air energy storage, and superconducting magnetic energy storage, and production and combustion of hydrogen as an energy storage option

  15. Management of uncertainties on parameters elicited by experts - Applications to sea-level rise and to CO2 storage operations risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manceau, Jean-Charles; Loschetter, Annick; Rohmer, Jérémy; Le Cozannet, Gonéri; Lary Louis, de; Guénan Thomas, Le; Ken, Hnottavange-Telleen

    2017-04-01

    In a context of high degree of uncertainty, when very few data are available, experts are commonly requested to provide their opinions on input parameters of risk assessment models. Not only might each expert express a certain degree of uncertainty on his/her own statements, but the set of information collected from the pool of experts introduces an additional level of uncertainty. It is indeed very unlikely that all experts agree on exactly the same data, especially regarding parameters needed for natural risk assessments. In some cases, their opinions may differ only slightly (e.g. the most plausible value for a parameter is similar for different experts, and they only disagree on the level of uncertainties that taint the said value) while on other cases they may express incompatible opinions for a same parameter. Dealing with these different kinds of uncertainties remains a challenge for assessing geological hazards or/and risks. Extra-probabilistic approaches (such as the Dempster-Shafer theory or the possibility theory) have shown to offer promising solutions for representing parameters on which the knowledge is limited. It is the case for instance when the available information prevents an expert from identifying a unique probability law to picture the total uncertainty. Moreover, such approaches are known to be particularly flexible when it comes to aggregating several and potentially conflicting opinions. We therefore propose to discuss the opportunity of applying these new theories for managing the uncertainties on parameters elicited by experts, by a comparison with the application of more classical probability approaches. The discussion is based on two different examples. The first example deals with the estimation of the injected CO2 plume extent in a reservoir in the context of CO2 geological storage. This estimation requires information on the effective porosity of the reservoir, which has been estimated by 14 different experts. The Dempster

  16. Effect of Oregano Essential Oil (Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum) on the Storage Stability and Quality Parameters of Ground Chicken Breast Meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hijazeen, Marwan; Lee, Eun Joo; Mendonca, Aubrey; Ahn, Dong Uk

    2016-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effect of oregano essential oil on the oxidative stability and color of raw and cooked chicken breast meats. Five treatments, including (1) control (none added); (2) 100 ppm oregano essential oil; (3) 300 ppm oregano essential oil; (4) 400 ppm oregano essential oil; and (5) 5 ppm butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), were prepared with ground boneless, skinless chicken breast meat and used for both raw and cooked meat studies. For raw meat study, samples were individually packaged in oxygen-permeable bags and stored in a cold room (4 °C) for 7 days. For cooked meat study, the raw meat samples were vacuum-packaged in oxygen-impermeable vacuum bags and then cooked in-bag to an internal temperature of 75 °C. After cooling to room temperature, the cooked meats were repackaged in new oxygen-permeable bags and then stored at 4 °C for 7 days. Both raw and cooked meats were analyzed for lipid and protein oxidation, volatiles, and color at 0, 3, and 7 days of storage. Oregano essential oil significantly reduced (p oil at 400 ppm showed the strongest effect for all these parameters. Hexanal was the major aldehyde, which was decreased significantly (p oil treatment, in cooked meat. Overall, oregano essential oil at 100–400 ppm levels could be a good preservative that can replace the synthetic antioxidant in chicken meat. PMID:27338486

  17. Effect of Oregano Essential Oil (Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum) on the Storage Stability and Quality Parameters of Ground Chicken Breast Meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hijazeen, Marwan; Lee, Eun Joo; Mendonca, Aubrey; Ahn, Dong Uk

    2016-06-07

    A study was conducted to investigate the effect of oregano essential oil on the oxidative stability and color of raw and cooked chicken breast meats. Five treatments, including (1) control (none added); (2) 100 ppm oregano essential oil; (3) 300 ppm oregano essential oil; (4) 400 ppm oregano essential oil; and (5) 5 ppm butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), were prepared with ground boneless, skinless chicken breast meat and used for both raw and cooked meat studies. For raw meat study, samples were individually packaged in oxygen-permeable bags and stored in a cold room (4 °C) for 7 days. For cooked meat study, the raw meat samples were vacuum-packaged in oxygen-impermeable vacuum bags and then cooked in-bag to an internal temperature of 75 °C. After cooling to room temperature, the cooked meats were repackaged in new oxygen-permeable bags and then stored at 4 °C for 7 days. Both raw and cooked meats were analyzed for lipid and protein oxidation, volatiles, and color at 0, 3, and 7 days of storage. Oregano essential oil significantly reduced (p oil at 400 ppm showed the strongest effect for all these parameters. Hexanal was the major aldehyde, which was decreased significantly (p oil treatment, in cooked meat. Overall, oregano essential oil at 100-400 ppm levels could be a good preservative that can replace the synthetic antioxidant in chicken meat.

  18. Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, William W.

    Described are technological considerations affecting storage of energy, particularly electrical energy. The background and present status of energy storage by batteries, water storage, compressed air storage, flywheels, magnetic storage, hydrogen storage, and thermal storage are discussed followed by a review of development trends. Included are…

  19. Effect of Inulin on the Viability of L. plantarum during Storage and In Vitro Digestion and on Composition Parameters of Vegetable Fermented Juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero-Cases, Estefanía; Frutos, María José

    2017-06-01

    The prebiotic effect of different concentrations of inulin (0, 1 and 2%) on the growth and survival of Lactobacillus plantarum (LP) CECT 220 in blended carrot and orange juices was investigated after 24 h of fermentation, during 30 days of storage at 4 °C and through the phases of gastrointestinal digestion after different storage periods. Microbiological and chemical determinations were also carried out in all juices. The lactic fermentation increased the shelf life of the fermented juices with inulin. The hygienic-sanitary quality in fermented juices was better than the control juices. During storage, the inulin improved the viability of LP and the monosaccharide concentration remained higher with respect to the juice without inulin (40% lower). At 30 days, the fermented juices with 2% inulin after in vitro digestion presented the highest survival of L. plantarum.

  20. [Life quality parameters in prenosologic evaluation of health state in residents of protective measures area near objects of storage and destruction of chemical weapons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippov, V L; Nechaeva, E N

    2014-01-01

    The article presents results of life quality assessment and subjective evaluation data on health state, used for prenosologic evaluation of health state in residents of protective measures area near objects of storage and destruction of chemical weapons. Considering specific features of residence near potentially dangerous objects, the authors conducted qualitative evaluation of satisfaction with various life facets, with taking into account the objects specificity, established correlation between life quality and self-evaluation of health with factors influencing public health state.

  1. Changes during storage of quality parameters and in vitro antioxidant activity of extra virgin monovarietal oils obtained with two extraction technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadda, C; Del Caro, A; Sanguinetti, A M; Urgeghe, P P; Vacca, V; Arca, P P; Piga, A

    2012-10-01

    Extraction technology has a great effect on quality of olive oils. This paper studied 18 months of storage of two Sardinian extra virgin monovarietal oils obtained with a traditional and with a low oxidative stress technology. Oil samples were subjected to the following chemical analyses: acidity, peroxide value, ultraviolet light absorption K₂₃₂ and K₂₇₀, carotenoids, chlorophylls, tocopherols and total polyphenols. The antioxidant capacity of oils, polyphenol extract and oil extract (remaining after polyphenol extraction) was also determined as radical scavenging activity. The results show that both extraction technologies resulted in minor changes in legal and quality indices during storage, due surely to the high quality of the oils as well as to the very good storage conditions used. Oils obtained with the low oxidative stress technology showed lower peroxide value and acidity and resulted in up to 103% higher total polyphenol content as well as increased radical-scavenging activity, with respect to oils obtained with the traditional technology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Storage Rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, W.

    2010-01-01

    Storage rings are circular machines that store particle beams at a constant energy. Beams are stored in rings without acceleration for a number of reasons (Tab. 1). Storage rings are used in high-energy, nuclear, atomic, and molecular physics, as well as for experiments in chemistry, material and life sciences. Parameters for storage rings such as particle species, energy, beam intensity, beam size, and store time vary widely depending on the application. The beam must be injected into a storage ring but may not be extracted (Fig. 1). Accelerator rings such as synchrotrons are used as storage rings before and after acceleration. Particles stored in rings include electrons and positrons; muons; protons and anti-protons; neutrons; light and heavy, positive and negative, atomic ions of various charge states; molecular and cluster ions, and neutral polar molecules. Spin polarized beams of electrons, positrons, and protons were stored. The kinetic energy of the stored particles ranges from 10 -6 eV to 3.5 x 10 12 eV (LHC, 7 x 10 12 eV planned), the number of stored particles from one (ESR) to 1015 (ISR). To store beam in rings requires bending (dipoles) and transverse focusing (quadrupoles). Higher order multipoles are used to correct chromatic aberrations, to suppress instabilities, and to compensate for nonlinear field errors of dipoles and quadrupoles. Magnetic multipole functions can be combined in magnets. Beams are stored bunched with radio frequency systems, and unbunched. The magnetic lattice and radio frequency system are designed to ensure the stability of transverse and longitudinal motion. New technologies allow for better storage rings. With strong focusing the beam pipe dimensions became much smaller than previously possible. For a given circumference superconducting magnets make higher energies possible, and superconducting radio frequency systems allow for efficient replenishment of synchrotron radiation losses of large current electron or positron beams

  3. Analysis of the Impact of Storage Parameters and the Size of Orders on the Choice of the Method for Routing Order Picking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Tarczyński

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis of the impact of the number of picking aisles, slots in a rack, the size of pick lists, and the routing method on the performance of the order picking process. In the analysis, the forklift truck's maneuvers such as turns back and turns aside, omitted by some scientists, are considered. Although only random storage assignment is examined in this paper, the possible congestion effect is considered. Experiments were performed by the use of simulations. (original abstract

  4. Risk considerations for a long-term open-state of the radioactive waste storage facility Schacht Asse II. Variation of the parameter sets for radio-ecological modeling using the Monte Carlo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kueppers, Christian; Ustohalova, Veronika

    2013-01-01

    The risk considerations for a long-term open-state of the radioactive waste storage facility Schacht Asse II include the following issues: description of radio-ecological models for the radionuclide transport in the covering rock formations and determination of the radiation exposure, parameters of the radio-ecological and their variability, Monte-Carlo method application. The results of the modeling calculations include the group short-living radionuclides, long-living radionuclides, radionuclides in the frame of decay chains and sensitivity analyses with respect to the correlation of input data and results.

  5. Retention and reduction of uranium on pyrite surface; Retention et reduction de l'uranium a la surface de la pyrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eglizaud, N

    2006-12-15

    In the hypothesis of a storage of the spent fuel in a deep geological formation, understanding the uranium dispersion in the environment is important. Pyrite is a reducing mineral present in the Callovo-Oxfordian argilites, the geological formation actually studied for such a storage. However, pyrite impact on uranium migration has already been poorly studied. The aim of the study was to understand the mechanisms of uranium(VI) retention and reduction on the pyrite surface (FeS{sub 2}). Solution chemistry was therefore coupled with solid spectroscopic studies (XPS and Raman spectroscopy). All uranium-pyrite interactions experiments were performed under an anoxic atmosphere, in a glove box. Pyrite dissolution under anoxic conditions releases sulfoxy-anions and iron(II), which can then be adsorbed on the pyrite surface. This adsorption was confirmed by interaction experiments using iron(II) isotopic dilution. Uranium(VI) is retained by an exchange reaction with iron(II) adsorbed on sulphur sites, with a maximal amount of sorbed uranium at pH {>=} 5.5. Cobalt(II) and europium(III) are also adsorbed on the pyrite surface above pH 5.5 confirming then that reduction is not required for species to adsorb on pyrite. When the concentration of uranium retained is lower than 4 x 10{sup -9} mol g{sup -1}, an oxidation-reduction reaction leads to the formation of a uranium (VI) (IV) mixed oxide and to solid sulphur (d.o. {>=} -I). During this reaction, iron remains mostly at the +II oxidation degree. The reaction products seem to passivate the pyrite surface: at higher amounts of retained uranium, the oxidation-reduction reaction is no longer observed. The surface is saturated by the retention of (3.4 {+-} 0.8) x 10{sup -7} mol L{sup -1} of uranium(VI). Modelling of uranium sorption at high surface coverage ({>=} 4 x 10{sup -9} mol g{sup -1}) by the Langmuir model yields an adsorption constant of 8 x 10{sup 7} L mol{sup -1}. Finally, a great excess of uranium(VI) above the

  6. Tritium storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hircq, B.

    1990-01-01

    This document represents a synthesis relative to tritium storage. After indicating the main storage particularities as regards tritium, storages under gaseous and solid form are after examined before establishing choices as a function of the main criteria. Finally, tritium storage is discussed regarding tritium devices associated to Fusion Reactors and regarding smaller devices [fr

  7. Forced-air, vacuum, and hydro precooling of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis cv. Freemont): Part II. Determination of quality parameters during storage

    OpenAIRE

    Alibas, Ilknur; Koksal, Nezihe

    2015-01-01

    Cauliflower heads, which were precooled using four different methods including vacuum, forced-air, and high and low flow hydro precooling, were stored under controlled atmosphere and room conditions. Controlled atmosphere conditions (CA) were as follows: 1°C temperature, 90 ± 5% relative humidity, and 0:21 [(%CO2:%O2) – (0:21) control] atmosphere composition. Room conditions (RC) were: 22±1°C temperature and 55-60% humidity. Various quality parameters of the cauliflo...

  8. [RS estimation of inventory parameters and carbon storage of moso bamboo forest based on synergistic use of object-based image analysis and decision tree].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hua Qiang; Sun, Xiao Yan; Han, Ning; Mao, Fang Jie

    2017-10-01

    By synergistically using the object-based image analysis (OBIA) and the classification and regression tree (CART) methods, the distribution information, the indexes (including diameter at breast, tree height, and crown closure), and the aboveground carbon storage (AGC) of moso bamboo forest in Shanchuan Town, Anji County, Zhejiang Province were investigated. The results showed that the moso bamboo forest could be accurately delineated by integrating the multi-scale ima ge segmentation in OBIA technique and CART, which connected the image objects at various scales, with a pretty good producer's accuracy of 89.1%. The investigation of indexes estimated by regression tree model that was constructed based on the features extracted from the image objects reached normal or better accuracy, in which the crown closure model archived the best estimating accuracy of 67.9%. The estimating accuracy of diameter at breast and tree height was relatively low, which was consistent with conclusion that estimating diameter at breast and tree height using optical remote sensing could not achieve satisfactory results. Estimation of AGC reached relatively high accuracy, and accuracy of the region of high value achieved above 80%.

  9. Storage ring group summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, N.M.

    1980-01-01

    The Storage Ring Group set out to identify and pursue salient problems in accelerator physics for heavy ion fusion, divorced from any particular reference design concept. However, it became apparent that some basic parameter framework was required to correlate the different study topics. As the Workshop progressed, ring parameters were modified and updated. Consequently, the accompanying papers on individual topics will be found to refer to slightly varied parameters, according to the stage at which the different problems were tackled

  10. Energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaier, U.

    1981-04-01

    Developments in the area of energy storage are characterized, with respect to theory and laboratory, by an emergence of novel concepts and technologies for storing electric energy and heat. However, there are no new commercial devices on the market. New storage batteries as basis for a wider introduction of electric cars, and latent heat storage devices, as an aid for solar technology applications, with satisfactory performance standards are not yet commercially available. Devices for the intermediate storage of electric energy for solar electric-energy systems, and for satisfying peak-load current demands in the case of public utility companies are considered. In spite of many promising novel developments, there is yet no practical alternative to the lead-acid storage battery. Attention is given to central heat storage for systems transporting heat energy, small-scale heat storage installations, and large-scale technical energy-storage systems.

  11. Documentation of the dynamic parameter, water-use, stream and lake flow routing, and two summary output modules and updates to surface-depression storage simulation and initial conditions specification options with the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, R. Steve; LaFontaine, Jacob H.

    2017-10-05

    This report documents seven enhancements to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) hydrologic simulation code: two time-series input options, two new output options, and three updates of existing capabilities. The enhancements are (1) new dynamic parameter module, (2) new water-use module, (3) new Hydrologic Response Unit (HRU) summary output module, (4) new basin variables summary output module, (5) new stream and lake flow routing module, (6) update to surface-depression storage and flow simulation, and (7) update to the initial-conditions specification. This report relies heavily upon U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods, book 6, chapter B7, which documents PRMS version 4 (PRMS-IV). A brief description of PRMS is included in this report.

  12. Justification of parameters and selection of equipment for laboratory researches of a rammer's operating element dynamics in a soil foundation of a tank for oil and oil products storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruzin, A. V.; Gruzin, V. V.; Shalay, V. V.

    2017-08-01

    The development of technology for a directional soil compaction of tank foundations for oil and oil products storage is a relevant problem which solution will enable simultaneously provide required operational characteristics of a soil foundation and reduce time and material costs to prepare the foundation. The impact dynamics of rammers' operating elements on the soil foundation is planned to specify in the course of laboratory studies. A specialized technique is developed to justify the parameters and select the equipment for laboratory researches. The usage of this technique enabled us to calculate dimensions of the models, of a test bench and specifications of the recording equipment, and a lighting system. The necessary equipment for laboratory studies was selected. Preliminary laboratory tests were carried out. The estimate of accuracy for planned laboratory studies was given.

  13. A concept of an electricity storage system with 50 MWh storage capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Paska

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Electricity storage devices can be divided into indirect storage technology devices (involving electricity conversion into another form of energy, and direct storage (in an electric or magnetic fi eld. Electricity storage technologies include: pumped-storage power plants, BES Battery Energy Storage, CAES Compressed Air Energy Storage, Supercapacitors, FES Flywheel Energy Storage, SMES Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage, FC Fuel Cells reverse or operated in systems with electrolysers and hydrogen storage. These technologies have diff erent technical characteristics and economic parameters that determine their usability. This paper presents two concepts of an electricity storage tank with a storage capacity of at least 50 MWh, using the BES battery energy storage and CAES compressed air energy storage technologies.

  14. Thermophysical Parameters of Organic PCM Coconut Oil from T-History Method and Its Potential as Thermal Energy Storage in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silalahi, Alfriska O.; Sukmawati, Nissa; Sutjahja, I. M.; Kurnia, D.; Wonorahardjo, S.

    2017-07-01

    The thermophysical parameters of organic phase change material (PCM) of coconut oil (co_oil) have been studied by analyzing the temperature vs time data during liquid-solid phase transition (solidification process) based on T-history method, adopting the original version and its modified form to extract the values of mean specific heats of the solid and liquid co_oil and the heat of fusion related to phase transition of co_oil. We found that the liquid-solid phase transition occurs rather gradually, which might be due to the fact that co_oil consists of many kinds of fatty acids with the largest amount of lauric acid (about 50%), with relatively small supercooling degree. For this reason, the end of phase transition region become smeared out, although the inflection point in the temperature derivative is clearly observed signifying the drastic temperature variation between the phase transition and solid phase periods. The data have led to the values of mean specific heat of the solid and liquid co_oil that are comparable to the pure lauric acid, while the value for heat of fusion is resemble to those of the DSC result, both from references data. The advantage of co_oil as the potential sensible and latent TES for room-temperature conditioning application in Indonesia is discussed in terms of its rather broad working temperature range due to its mixture composition characteristic.

  15. An investigation of reaction parameters on geochemical storage of non-pure CO2 streams in iron oxides-bearing formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Susana; Liu, Q.; Bacon, Diana H.; Maroto-Valer, M. M.

    2014-08-26

    Hematite deposit that is the main FeIII-bearing mineral in sedimentary red beds was proposed as a potential host repository for converting CO2 into carbonate minerals such as siderite (FeCO3), when CO2–SO2 gas mixtures are co-injected. This work investigated CO2 mineral trapping using hematite and sensitivity of the reactive systems to different parameters, including particle size, gas composition, temperature, pressure, and solid-to-liquid ratio. Experimental and modelling studies of hydrothermal experiments were conducted, which emulated a CO2 sequestration scenario by injecting CO2-SO2 gas streams into a NaCl-NaOH brine hosted in iron oxide-containing aquifer. This study provides novel information on the mineralogical changes and fluid chemistry derived from the co-injection of CO2-SO2 gas mixtures in hematite deposit. It can be concluded that the amount of siderite precipitate depends primarily on the SO2 content of the gas stream. Increasing SO2 content in the system could promote the reduction of Fe3+ from the hematite sample to Fe2+, which will be further available for its precipitation as siderite. Moreover, siderite precipitation is enhanced at low temperatures and high pressures. The influence of the solid to liquid ratio on the overall carbonation reaction suggests that the conversion increases if the system becomes more diluted.

  16. Energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    After having outlined the importance of energy storage in the present context, this document outlines that it is an answer to economic, environmental and technological issues. It proposes a brief overview of the various techniques of energy storage: under the form of chemical energy (hydrocarbons, biomass, hydrogen production), thermal energy (sensitive or latent heat storage), mechanical energy (potential energy by hydraulic or compressed air storage, kinetic energy with flywheels), electrochemical energy (in batteries), electric energy (super-capacitors, superconductor magnetic energy storage). Perspectives are briefly evoked

  17. Neutron storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strelkov, A.V.

    2004-01-01

    The report is devoted to neutron storage (NS) and describes the history of experiments on the NS development. Great attention is paid to ultracold neutron (UCN) storage. The experiments on the UCN generation, transport, spectroscopy, storage and detection are described. Experiments on searching the UCN electric-dipole moment and electric charge are continued. Possible using of UCN for studying the nanoparticles is discussed [ru

  18. Energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odru, P.

    2010-01-01

    This book proposes a broad overview of the technologies developed in the domains of on-board electricity storage (batteries, super-capacitors, flywheels), stationary storage (hydraulic dams, compressed air, batteries and hydrogen), and heat storage (sensible, latent and sorption) together with their relative efficiency, their expected developments and what advantages they can offer. Eminent specialists of this domain have participated to the redaction of this book, all being members of the Tuck's Foundation 'IDees' think tank. (J.S.)

  19. Energy storage

    CERN Document Server

    Brunet, Yves

    2013-01-01

    Energy storage examines different applications such as electric power generation, transmission and distribution systems, pulsed systems, transportation, buildings and mobile applications. For each of these applications, proper energy storage technologies are foreseen, with their advantages, disadvantages and limits. As electricity cannot be stored cheaply in large quantities, energy has to be stored in another form (chemical, thermal, electromagnetic, mechanical) and then converted back into electric power and/or energy using conversion systems. Most of the storage technologies are examined: b

  20. Probe Storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gemelli, Marcellino; Abelmann, Leon; Engelen, Johannes Bernardus Charles; Khatib, M.G.; Koelmans, W.W.; Zaboronski, Olog; Campardo, Giovanni; Tiziani, Federico; Laculo, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview of probe-based data storage research over the last three decades, encompassing all aspects of a probe recording system. Following the division found in all mechanically addressed storage systems, the different subsystems (media, read/write heads, positioning, data

  1. Proton storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rau, R.R.

    1978-04-01

    A discussion is given of proton storage ring beam dynamic characteristics. Topics considered include: (1) beam energy; (2) beam luminosity; (3) limits on beam current; (4) beam site; (5) crossing angle; (6) beam--beam interaction; (7) longitudinal instability; (8) effects of scattering processes; (9) beam production; and (10) high magnetic fields. Much of the discussion is related to the design parameters of ISABELLE, a 400 x 400 GeV proton---proton intersecting storage accelerator to be built at Brookhaven National Laboratory

  2. Energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1962-07-01

    The papers on energy storage problems, given to the United Nations Conference on New Sources of Energy, Rome, 1961, are reviewed. Many aspects of the subject are discussed: comparisons between the costs of storing energy in batteries and in fuel cells; the use, efficiency and expected improvement of fuel cells; the principles involved in the chemical conversion of solar energy to chemical energy; the use of metal hydride fuel cells; the chemical conversion and storage of concentrated solar energy for which the solar furnace is used for photochemical reactions. Finally, the general costs of storing energy in any form and delivering it are analyzed with particular reference to storage batteries and fuel cells.

  3. Electricity storage using a thermal storage scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Alexander, E-mail: ajw36@cam.ac.uk [Hopkinson Laboratory, Cambridge University Engineering Department, Trumpington Street, Cambridge. CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-22

    The increasing use of renewable energy technologies for electricity generation, many of which have an unpredictably intermittent nature, will inevitably lead to a greater demand for large-scale electricity storage schemes. For example, the expanding fraction of electricity produced by wind turbines will require either backup or storage capacity to cover extended periods of wind lull. This paper describes a recently proposed storage scheme, referred to here as Pumped Thermal Storage (PTS), and which is based on “sensible heat” storage in large thermal reservoirs. During the charging phase, the system effectively operates as a high temperature-ratio heat pump, extracting heat from a cold reservoir and delivering heat to a hot one. In the discharge phase the processes are reversed and it operates as a heat engine. The round-trip efficiency is limited only by process irreversibilities (as opposed to Second Law limitations on the coefficient of performance and the thermal efficiency of the heat pump and heat engine respectively). PTS is currently being developed in both France and England. In both cases, the schemes operate on the Joule-Brayton (gas turbine) cycle, using argon as the working fluid. However, the French scheme proposes the use of turbomachinery for compression and expansion, whereas for that being developed in England reciprocating devices are proposed. The current paper focuses on the impact of the various process irreversibilities on the thermodynamic round-trip efficiency of the scheme. Consideration is given to compression and expansion losses and pressure losses (in pipe-work, valves and thermal reservoirs); heat transfer related irreversibility in the thermal reservoirs is discussed but not included in the analysis. Results are presented demonstrating how the various loss parameters and operating conditions influence the overall performance.

  4. Concentração de anticoagulante, tempo e temperatura de armazenagem sobre os parâmetros hematológicos no hemograma automatizado Anticoagulant concentration, time and storage temperature on hematological parameters in automated blood count

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aécio Carlos de Oliveira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O estudo teve como objetivo identificar os efeitos do tempo de estocagem, da temperatura de armazenamento e da quantidade de anticoagulante sobre parâmetros hematológicos de cães. Foram utilizadas amostras do sangue de dez cães de raças variadas, clinicamente hígidos. As alíquotas foram colhidas com 1,8mg; 3,6mg; 7,2mg e 14,4mg de ácido etilenodiaminotetracético (EDTA por mL de sangue, distribuídas em dois grupos: de 2°C a 8°C e temperatura ambiente. Após a coleta, foram avaliadas em quatro tempos: 0, 12, 24 e 48 horas. Usando um contador automático de células, foram avaliados leucócitos, eritrócitos, hemoglobina, hematócrito, volume corpuscular médio (VCM, índice de anisocitose eritrocitária (RDW, plaquetas e plaquetócrito (PCT. O valor do VCM diminuiu nas maiores concentrações de EDTA (7,2mg mL-1 e 14,4mg mL-1, com decréscimo de 2,36% na maior concentração. A temperatura e o tempo de armazenagem também ocasionaram alteração nesse parâmetro, ou seja, houve decréscimo no tempo 12 horas à temperatura de 2 a 8°C e aumento nos tempos 24 e 48 horas à temperatura ambiente (PThe study aimed to identify the effects of time, temperature of storage and excess of anticoagulant on hematological parameters of dogs. Blood samples of ten, clinically healthy dogs, of different breeds were utilized. Aliquots were stored with 1.8mg, 3.6mg, 7.2mg and 14.4mg of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA per mL of blood, divided into two groups: 2°C to 8°C and room temperature. Right after collection, they were evaluated in four times: 0h, 12h, 24h and 48h. White blood cells, red blood cells, hemoglobin, packed cell volume (PCV, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, red cell distribution width (RDW, platelet and thrombocrit (PCT were evaluated in the automatic cell counter. In the automatic cell counter analysis, the MCV increased significantly with higher concentrations of EDTA (7.2mg mL-1 and 14.4mg mL-1 peaking at 2.36%, in the highest

  5. Energy Storage

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bladergroen, B

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In commercial arena, the most recent developments in EES are in electrochemical storage, singling out Li-ion batteries and Vanadium Redox flow batteries, while power-to-gas/-fuels (electrolysis of water into hydrogen and subsequent methanisation...

  6. Liver Storage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1971-10-23

    Oct 23, 1971 ... The need for whole-organ preservation has become in- cre.asingly important ... ideally fulfil the same purpose as the circulation of blood through the body, ... Hepatic hypothermia produced by the introduction of cold electrolyte ... Recently, we reported successful hypothermic immersion storage for up to 8 ...

  7. Dry storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnott, Don.

    1985-01-01

    The environmental movement has consistently argued against disposal of nuclear waste. Reasons include its irretrievability in the event of leakage, the implication that reprocessing will continue and the legitimacy attached to an expanding nuclear programme. But there is an alternative. The author here sets out the background and a possible future direction of a campaign based on a call for dry storage. (author)

  8. Effect of gamma radiation on the microbiological and physicochemical parameters and on the phenolic compounds of a fruit residue flour during storage; Efeito da radiação gama nos parâmetros microbiológicos, físico-químicos e compostos fenólicos de farinha de resíduos de frutas durante armazenamento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aranha, Jessica Bomtorin; Negri, Talita Costa; Martin, José Guilherme Prado; Spoto, Marta Helena Fillet, E-mail: jessica.aranha@usp.br [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Agroindústria, Alimentos e Nutrição

    2017-07-01

    Agroindustrial residues have high levels of nutrients, but are little exploited for consumption because they require prior treatment to ensure microbiological safety. Irradiation is an effective process for the reduction of microbial counts with maintenance of the product characteristics. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of irradiation on the microbiological quality, physicochemical properties and phenolic compounds of a fruit residue flour during storage. The flour was obtained from dehydrated residues of pineapple, melon, papaya and apple, which were submitted to irradiation doses of (0, 1, 2 and 3 kGy). The microbiological (coliforms, moulds, yeast and Salmonella sp. counts) and physicochemical (pH, titratable acidity, soluble solids, water activity, colour parameters L⁎, a⁎ and b⁎ and phenolic compounds) parameters were evaluated after 0, 7, 14 and 21 days of storage. All the irradiation treatments reduced the microbial count, and the presence of Salmonella sp was not detected in any of the samples. The acidity and pH showed changes during storage. The soluble solids and water activity showed no significant differences between the doses during storage. The phenolic compounds were preserved by the application of irradiation. The colour of the flour samples darkened slightly with irradiation. It was concluded that the most effective doses for the maintenance of the microbiological quality and physicochemical characteristics of the flour were 2 and 3 kGy. (author)

  9. Underground Storage Tanks - Storage Tank Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — A Storage Tank Location is a DEP primary facility type, and its sole sub-facility is the storage tank itself. Storage tanks are aboveground or underground, and are...

  10. Fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios, C.; Alvarez-Miranda, A.

    2009-01-01

    ENSA is a well known manufacturer of multi-system primary components for the nuclear industry and is totally prepared to satisfy future market requirements in this industry. At the same time that ENSA has been gaining a reputation world wider for the supply of primary components, has been strengthening its commitment and experience in supplying spent fuel components, either pool racks or storage and transportation casks, and offers not only fabrication but also design capabilities for its products. ENSA has supplied Spent Fuel Pool Racks, in spain, Finland, Taiwan, Korea, China, and currently it is in the process of licensing its own rack design in the United States of America for the ESBWR along with Ge-Hitachi. ENSA has supplied racks for 20 pools and 22 different reactors and it has also manufactured racks under all available technologies and developed a design known as Interlock Cell Matrix whose main features are outlined in this article. Another ENSA achievement in rack technology is the use of remote control for re-racking activities instead of using divers, which improves the ALARA requirements. Regarding casks for storage and transportation, ENSA also has al leading worldwide position, with exports prevailing over the Spanish market where ENSA has supplied 16 storage and transportation casks to the Spanish nuclear power Trillo. In some cases, ENSA acts as subcontractor for other clients. Foreign markets are still a major challenge for ENSA. ENSA-is well known for its manufacturing capabilities in the nuclear industry, but has been always involved in design activities through its engineering division, which carries out different tasks: components Design; Tooling Design; Engineering and Documentation; Project Engineering; Calculations, Design and Development Engineering. (Author)

  11. Underground storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1965-06-10

    A procedure is described for making an underground storage cavity in a soluble formation. Two holes are drilled, and fluid is pumped into the first hole. This fluid is a non-solute for the formation material. Then pressure is applied to the fluid until the formation is fractured in the direction of the second hole. More non-solute fluid is injected to complete the fracture between the 2 holes. A solute fluid is then circulated between the 2 holes, which results in removal of that part of the formation next to the fracture and the forming of a chamber.

  12. Pumped storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, P.L.

    1991-01-01

    The privately financed 1,000 MW Rocky Point Pumped Storage Project located in central Colorado, USA, will be one of the world's highest head, 2,350 feet reversible pump/turbine projects. The project will offer an economical supply of peaking power and spinning reserve power to Colorado and other southwestern states. This paper describes how the project will be made compatible with the environmental conditions in the project area and the type of terrestrial mitigation measures that are being proposed for those situations where the project impacts the environment, either temporarily or permanently

  13. Gas storage materials, including hydrogen storage materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohtadi, Rana F; Wicks, George G; Heung, Leung K; Nakamura, Kenji

    2013-02-19

    A material for the storage and release of gases comprises a plurality of hollow elements, each hollow element comprising a porous wall enclosing an interior cavity, the interior cavity including structures of a solid-state storage material. In particular examples, the storage material is a hydrogen storage material such as a solid state hydride. An improved method for forming such materials includes the solution diffusion of a storage material solution through a porous wall of a hollow element into an interior cavity.

  14. Mixed Solutions of Electrical Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chioncel Cristian Paul

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents electrical energy storage solutions using electricbatteries and supercapacitors powered from photovoltaic solarmodules, with possibilities of application in electric and hybrid vehicles.The future development of electric cars depends largely on electricalenergy storage solutions that should provide a higher range of roadand operating parameters comparable to those equipped with internalcombustion engines, that eliminate pollution.

  15. Parameter Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sales-Cruz, Mauricio; Heitzig, Martina; Cameron, Ian

    2011-01-01

    of optimisation techniques coupled with dynamic solution of the underlying model. Linear and nonlinear approaches to parameter estimation are investigated. There is also the application of maximum likelihood principles in the estimation of parameters, as well as the use of orthogonal collocation to generate a set......In this chapter the importance of parameter estimation in model development is illustrated through various applications related to reaction systems. In particular, rate constants in a reaction system are obtained through parameter estimation methods. These approaches often require the application...... of algebraic equations as the basis for parameter estimation.These approaches are illustrated using estimations of kinetic constants from reaction system models....

  16. Analysis of transient thermal behaviors during the charging process in stratified heat storage tanks. 2nd Report. Effects of characteristic parameters; Seiso chikunetsu sonai deno juten katei no kato netsuteki kyodo ni kansuru kaiseki. 2. Tokusei inshi no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, H; Hong, H; Pak, E

    1997-11-25

    The mixing effect deteriorates performance in a stratified heat storage tank. In the present study, the effect of characteristic factors during the charging process was analyzed, based on the analytical solution in the previous study in which a strict boundary condition was applied and a mixing effect was included. Also, the usefulness of the solution was verified and the method of application to a real system was examined by comparing it to other experimental results. It was concluded that the depth of the perfectly mixed region is dominant unless the Peclet number is very small. 10 refs., 8 figs.

  17. Hydrogen Storage for Aircraft Applications Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colozza, Anthony J.; Kohout, Lisa (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Advances in fuel cell technology have brought about their consideration as sources of power for aircraft. This power can be utilized to run aircraft systems or even provide propulsion power. One of the key obstacles to utilizing fuel cells on aircraft is the storage of hydrogen. An overview of the potential methods of hydrogen storage was compiled. This overview identifies various methods of hydrogen storage and points out their advantages and disadvantages relative to aircraft applications. Minimizing weight and volume are the key aspects to storing hydrogen within an aircraft. An analysis was performed to show how changes in certain parameters of a given storage system affect its mass and volume.

  18. Development of a computerized system for the storage, retrieval and optimization of optical model parameters for nuclear data computations. Final report for IAEA technical contract No. 7408/RB/TC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avrigeanu, M.; Avrigeanu, V.

    1994-09-01

    A proposal for an optical potential parameter compilation format like-EXFOR system is presented, in total agreement with the structure of EXFOR. With respect to the primary RIPL objectives, an extended subroutine SYSPOT of the widely-used optical model code SCAT2, which is actually a library of global and regional optical potential parameter sets, could be well-suited. A version which allows the use of a great part of published potentials is also given. (Author) 1 Tab., 21 Refs

  19. Biomarker for Glycogen Storage Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-03

    Fructose Metabolism, Inborn Errors; Glycogen Storage Disease; Glycogen Storage Disease Type I; Glycogen Storage Disease Type II; Glycogen Storage Disease Type III; Glycogen Storage Disease Type IV; Glycogen Storage Disease Type V; Glycogen Storage Disease Type VI; Glycogen Storage Disease Type VII; Glycogen Storage Disease Type VIII

  20. An Empirical Model for Energy Storage Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosewater, David Martin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Scott, Paul [TransPower, Poway, CA (United States)

    2016-03-17

    Improved models of energy storage systems are needed to enable the electric grid’s adaptation to increasing penetration of renewables. This paper develops a generic empirical model of energy storage system performance agnostic of type, chemistry, design or scale. Parameters for this model are calculated using test procedures adapted from the US DOE Protocol for Uniformly Measuring and Expressing the Performance of Energy Storage. We then assess the accuracy of this model for predicting the performance of the TransPower GridSaver – a 1 MW rated lithium-ion battery system that underwent laboratory experimentation and analysis. The developed model predicts a range of energy storage system performance based on the uncertainty of estimated model parameters. Finally, this model can be used to better understand the integration and coordination of energy storage on the electric grid.

  1. Yam Storability and Economic Benefits of Storage Under the Modern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines yam storability and the economic benefits of storage under the modern (underground) and the traditional (yam barn) storage technologies in Southeastern Nigeria. Data were collected mainly from 55 respondents who were interviewed, as well as from measurement of storage parameters on yam ...

  2. Protein and solute distribution in drug substance containers during frozen storage and post-thawing: a tool to understand and define freezing-thawing parameters in biotechnology process development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolhe, Parag; Badkar, Advait

    2011-01-01

    Active pharmaceutical ingredient for biotechnology-based drugs, commonly known as drug substance (DS), is often stored frozen for longer shelf-life. Freezing DS enhances stability by slowing down reaction rates that lead to protein instability, minimizes the risk of microbial growth, and eliminates the risk of transport-related stress. High density polyethylene bottles are commonly used for storing monoclonal antibody DS due to good mechanical stress/strain resistant properties even at low temperatures. Despite the aforementioned advantages for frozen storage of DS, this is not devoid of risks. Proteins are known to undergo ice-water surface denaturation, cryoconcentration, and cold denaturation during freezing. A systematic investigation was performed to better understand the protein and solute distribution along with potential of aggregate formation during freeze and thaw process. A significant solute and protein concentration gradient was observed for both frozen and thawed DS bottles. In case of thawed DS, cryoconcentration was localized in the bottom layer and a linear increase in concentration as a function of liquid depth was observed. On the other hand, for frozen DS, a "bell shaped" cryoconcentration distribution was observed between the bottom layers and centre position. A cryoconcentration of almost three-fold was observed for frozen DS in the most concentrated part when freezing was conducted at -20 and -40 °C and 2.5-fold cryoconcentration was observed in the thawed DS before mixing. The information obtained in this study is critical to design freeze thaw experiments, storage condition determination, and process improvement in manufacturing environment. Copyright © 2011 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  3. Economic analysis of using above ground gas storage devices for compressed air energy storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinchao; Zhang, Xinjing; Xu, Yujie; Chen, Zongyan; Chen, Haisheng; Tan, Chunqing

    2014-12-01

    Above ground gas storage devices for compressed air energy storage (CAES) have three types: air storage tanks, gas cylinders, and gas storage pipelines. A cost model of these gas storage devices is established on the basis of whole life cycle cost (LCC) analysis. The optimum parameters of the three types are determined by calculating the theoretical metallic raw material consumption of these three devices and considering the difficulties in manufacture and the influence of gas storage device number. The LCCs of the three types are comprehensively analyzed and compared. The result reveal that the cost of the gas storage pipeline type is lower than that of the other two types. This study may serve as a reference for designing large-scale CAES systems.

  4. Storage and distribution/Linear programming for storage operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, D

    1978-07-15

    The techniques of linear programing to solve storage problems as applied in a tank farm tie-in with refinery throughput operation include: (1) the time-phased model which works on storage and refinery operations input parameters, e.g., production, distribution, cracking, etc., and is capable of representing product stockpiling in slack periods to meet future peak demands, and investigating alternative strategies such as exchange deals and purchase and leasing of additional storage, and (2) the Monte Carlo simulation method, which inputs parameters, e.g., arrival of crude products at refinery, tankage size, likely demand for products, etc., as probability distributions rather than single values, and is capable of showing the average utilization of facilities, potential bottlenecks, investment required to achieve an increase in utilization, and to enable the user to predict total investment, cash flow, and profit emanating from the original financing decision. The increasing use of computer techniques to solve refinery and storage problems is attributed to potential savings resulting from more effective planning, reduced computer costs, ease of access and more usable software. Diagrams.

  5. Opportunities for electricity storage in deregulating markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graves, F.; Jenkin, T.; Murphy, D.

    1999-01-01

    This article addresses the value of electricity storage and its ability to take advantage of emerging energy arbitrage opportunities: buying power when it is inexpensive, and reselling it at a higher price. The focus of this article is on electricity markets and the opportunities they present for a merchant storage device, rather than on storage technologies themselves. There are a number of existing and emerging storage technologies: pumped hydro, various batteries, compressed air energy storage (CAES), superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES), flywheels--even conventional hydro has storage-like properties. However, all these technologies operated on the same basic principle of exploiting short-term differentials in electricity prices: buy low, sell high (a strategy that is actually meaningful in electricity markets, unlike in financial markets). The object of this article is to develop and demonstrate a means for assessing the potential value of storage in different electricity markets, rather than to attempt to assess the prospects of a particular technology. The approach taken here is to look at price data from a number of actual electricity markets to determine what opportunities they might offer to a generic storage device. A storage technology is described here by its basic performance parameters--charge and generate capacity, energy inventory limits, and efficiency--which are sufficient to assess the basic economic potential of storage in a given market. The authors look primarily at US markets, but also compare and contrast findings with the situation in foreign markets in the U.K., Norway, Canada, and Australia, and discuss how market structure can influence the value of storage. Moreover, the authors use empirically observed relationships between hourly and 5 x 16 blocked prices to infer a rule for adjusting the value of storage assets in regions where only blocked price information is available

  6. Inventory parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Sanjay

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a detailed overview of various parameters/factors involved in inventory analysis. It especially focuses on the assessment and modeling of basic inventory parameters, namely demand, procurement cost, cycle time, ordering cost, inventory carrying cost, inventory stock, stock out level, and stock out cost. In the context of economic lot size, it provides equations related to the optimum values. It also discusses why the optimum lot size and optimum total relevant cost are considered to be key decision variables, and uses numerous examples to explain each of these inventory parameters separately. Lastly, it provides detailed information on parameter estimation for different sectors/products. Written in a simple and lucid style, it offers a valuable resource for a broad readership, especially Master of Business Administration (MBA) students.

  7. Impedance aspect of charge storage at graphite and glassy carbon electrodes in potassium hexacyanoferrate (II redox active electrolyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Magdić

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Different types of charge storage mechanisms at unmodified graphite vs. glassy carbon electrodes in acid sulphate supporting solution containing potassium hexacyanoferrate (II redox active electrolyte, have been revealed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and supported by cyclic voltammetry experiments. Reversible charge transfer of Fe(CN63-/4- redox reaction detected by assessment of CVs of glassy carbon electrode, is in impedance spectra indicated by presence of bulk diffusion impedance and constant double-layer/pseudocapacitive electrode impedance compared to that measured in the pure supporting electrolyte. Some surface retention of redox species detected by assessment of CVs of graphite electrode is in impedance spectra indicated by diffusion impedance coupled in this case by diminishing of double-layer/pseudo­capacitive impedance compared to that measured in the pure supporting electrolyte. This phenomenon is ascribed to contribution of additional pseudocapacitive impedance generated by redox reaction of species confined at the electrode surface.

  8. Emergence of a phase transition for the required amount of storage in highly renewable electricity systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tue Vissing; Greiner, Martin

    2014-01-01

    -up of the required amount of storage, with renewable penetration being the control parameter and average relative storage filling level being the order parameter. A singularity appears for the required storage energy capacity at a renewable penetration determined by the parameters of the storage. For an ideal...... storage with no roundtrip losses the transition occurs at 100% renewable penetration. Moreover, the required storage energy capacity is strongly enhanced by temporal correlations on the synoptic weather time scale. A Markov process is proposed, which reproduces these findings....

  9. Energy storage systems cost update : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenung, Susan M. (Longitude 122 West, Menlo Park, CA)

    2011-04-01

    This paper reports the methodology for calculating present worth of system and operating costs for a number of energy storage technologies for representative electric utility applications. The values are an update from earlier reports, categorized by application use parameters. This work presents an update of energy storage system costs assessed previously and separately by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Storage Systems Program. The primary objective of the series of studies has been to express electricity storage benefits and costs using consistent assumptions, so that helpful benefit/cost comparisons can be made. Costs of energy storage systems depend not only on the type of technology, but also on the planned operation and especially the hours of storage needed. Calculating the present worth of life-cycle costs makes it possible to compare benefit values estimated on the same basis.

  10. Onsite storage facility for low level radwaste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, M.G.

    1984-01-01

    The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) has designed and constructed an onsite storage facility for low level radwaste (LLRW) at its Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant in northern Alabama. The paper addresses the function of this facility and provides a complete description of the reinforced concrete storage modules which are the principal structural elements of the facility. The loads and loading combinations for the design of the storage modules are defined to include the foundation design parameters. Other aspects of the modules that are addressed are; the structural roof elements that provide access to the modules, shielding requirements for the LLRW, and tornado missile considerations

  11. Fuel assembly storage pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiranuma, Hiroshi.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To remove limitation of the number of storage of fuel assemblies to increase the number of storage thereof so as to relatively reduce the water depth required for shielding radioactive rays. Structure: Fuel assembly storage rack containers for receiving a plurality of spent fuel assembly racks are stacked in multi-layer fashion within a storage pool filled with water for shielding radioactive rays and removing heat. (Furukawa, Y.)

  12. Heat transport and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despois, J.

    1977-01-01

    Recalling the close connections existing between heat transport and storage, some general considerations on the problem of heat distribution and transport are presented 'in order to set out the problem' of storage in concrete form. This problem is considered in its overall plane, then studied under the angle of the different technical choices it involves. The two alternatives currently in consideration are described i.e.: storage in a mined cavity and underground storage as captive sheet [fr

  13. Storage in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabanes, J.M.; Rottenberg, J.; Abiad, A.; Caudron, S.; Girault, Ph.

    2007-01-01

    Storage represents one of the key elements among the different modulation tools. How the problem of storage is put forward in Europe in front of the increasing uncertainty of the gas demand and prices? What are the policies implemented by storage facility operators? To what extend storage can amortize gas prices volatility or allow the market actors to take the best profit of this volatility? These are the questions debated at this workshop by four specialists of this domain. (J.S.)

  14. Bomb parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, George D.; Young, Rebert W.; Cullings, Harry M.; Christry, Robert F.

    2005-01-01

    The reconstruction of neutron and gamma-ray doses at Hiroshima and Nagasaki begins with a determination of the parameters describing the explosion. The calculations of the air transported radiation fields and survivor doses from the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs require knowledge of a variety of parameters related to the explosions. These various parameters include the heading of the bomber when the bomb was released, the epicenters of the explosions, the bomb yields, and the tilt of the bombs at time of explosion. The epicenter of a bomb is the explosion point in air that is specified in terms of a burst height and a hypocenter (or the point on the ground directly below the epicenter of the explosion). The current reassessment refines the energy yield and burst height for the Hiroshima bomb, as well as the locations of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki hypocenters on the modern city maps used in the analysis of the activation data for neutrons and TLD data for gamma rays. (J.P.N.)

  15. Inductive line energy storage generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, P [Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France). Laboratoire de Physique des Milieux Ionises

    1997-12-31

    The inductive energy storage (IES) generator has long been considered to be the most efficient system for energy usage in large pulsed power system at the MA level. A number of parameters govern the efficiency of energy transfer between the storage capacitors and the load, and the level of current deliverable to the load. For high power system, the energy storage capacitors are arranged as a Marx generator. The primary constraints are the inductances in the various parts of the circuit, in particular, the upstream inductance between the Marx and the POS, and the downstream inductance between the POS and the load. This paper deals with the effect of replacing part of the upstream inductance with a transmission line and introduces the new concept of an inductive line for energy storage (ILES). Extensive parametric scans were carried out on circuit simulations to investigate the effect of this upstream transmission line. A model was developed to explain the operation of the ILES design based on the data obtained. Comparison with an existing IES generator shows that the ILES design offers a significant improvement in the maximum current and hence energy delivered to an inductive load. (author). 5 figs., 1 ref.

  16. Smart storage technologies applied to fresh foods: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingyu; Zhang, Min; Gao, Zhongxue; Adhikari, Benu

    2017-06-30

    Fresh foods are perishable, seasonal and regional in nature and their storage, transportation, and preservation of freshness are quite challenging. Smart storage technologies can online detection and monitor the changes of quality parameters and storage environment of fresh foods during storage, so that operators can make timely adjustments to reduce the loss. This article reviews the smart storage technologies from two aspects: online detection technologies and smartly monitoring technologies for fresh foods. Online detection technologies include electronic nose, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), hyperspectral imaging and computer vision. Smartly monitoring technologies mainly include some intelligent indicators for monitoring the change of storage environment. Smart storage technologies applied to fresh foods need to be highly efficient and nondestructive and need to be competitively priced. In this work, we have critically reviewed the principles, applications, and development trends of smart storage technologies.

  17. Pit Water Storage Ottrupgaard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Alfred

    2000-01-01

    The pit water storage, a seasonal thermal storage, was built in 1993 with floating lid and hybrid clay-polymer for pit lining. The storage was leaking severe and solutions were to be found. In the paper solutions for pit lining and floating lids are discussed, cost estimations given and coming...

  18. Wind turbine storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, H.; Ilinca, A.; Perron, J.

    2005-01-01

    Electric power is often produced in locations far from the point of utilization which creates a challenge in stabilizing power grids, particularly since electricity cannot be stored. The production of decentralized electricity by renewable energy sources offers a greater security of supply while protecting the environment. Wind power holds the greatest promise in terms of environmental protection, competitiveness and possible applications. It is known that wind energy production is not always in phase with power needs because of the uncertainty of wind. For that reason, energy storage is the key for the widespread integration of wind energy into the power grids. This paper proposed various energy storage methods that can be used in combination with decentralized wind energy production where an imbalance exists between electricity production and consumption. Energy storage can play an essential role in bringing value to wind energy, particularly if electricity is to be delivered during peak hours. Various types of energy storage are already in use or are being developed. This paper identified the main characteristics of various electricity storage techniques and their applications. They include stationary or embarked storage for long or short term applications. A comparison of characteristics made it possible to determine which types of electricity storage are best suited for wind energy. These include gravity energy; thermal energy; compressed air energy; coupled storage with natural gas; coupled storage with liquefied gas; hydrogen storage for fuel cells; chemical energy storage; storage in REDOX batteries; storage by superconductive inductance; storage in supercondensers; and, storage as kinetic energy. 21 refs., 21 figs

  19. Fuel storage tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peehs, M.; Stehle, H.; Weidinger, H.

    1979-01-01

    The stationary fuel storage tank is immersed below the water level in the spent fuel storage pool. In it there is placed a fuel assembly within a cage. Moreover, the storage tank has got a water filling and a gas buffer. The water in the storage tank is connected with the pool water by means of a filter, a surge tank and a water purification facility, temperature and pressure monitoring being performed. In the buffer compartment there are arranged catalysts a glow plugs for recombination of radiolysis products into water. The supply of water into the storage tank is performed through the gas buffer compartment. (DG) [de

  20. Assessing storage adequacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amirault, P.

    2004-01-01

    Government policy encourages the use of natural gas. It is expected that liquefied natural gas (LNG) and Arctic gas will make up 20 to 25 per cent of supply. This presentation provided an outlook of storage value based on a technical analysis by the National Petroleum Counsel (NPC) report. A moderately robust growth is expected in the residential and commercial load which may be partially offset by robust growth in electricity. The net result is an increase in storage requirements. It was concluded that there is a strong case for growth in storage demand but a lack of good sites for additional capacity. This will lead to higher storage values. The NPC sees the need for 1 Tcf more storage use by 2025, of which 700 Bcf will need to come from new storage. In particular, current storage levels may not be sufficient to meet a colder than normal winter, and deliverability is affected by field inventory. Most storage capacity was built before 1985, mostly by regulated entities. It is expected that only 250 to 400 Bcf will be added over the next 25 years in North America. If storage becomes scarce, prices will move to the marginal cost of new additions, and the upper limit on price will be determined by salt cavern storage. An increase of $1.00 in the price of leasing storage would add about $0.11 to the average price of consumed gas. tabs., figs

  1. Spent fuel storage rack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morikawa, Matsuo; Uchiyama, Yuichi.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the safety and facilitate the design by limiting the relative displacement in a storage rack. Constitution: The outer wall of a storage rack disposed in water within a fuel pool, the pool wall opposing to the storage rack and the structure between the opposing storages racks are made as a space for confining the pool water or a structure formed with a slight gap, for example, a combination of a recessed structure and a protruded structure. In such a constitution, a space for confirming the pool water is established and the pool water thus confined forms a flow resistance when the storage rack vibrates upon earthquakes, serves as a damper and significantly reduces the responsivity. Furthermore, the relative displacement in the storage rack is limited to inhibit excess earthquake forces to exert on setting bolts and rack clamping bolts of the storage rack. (Sekiya, K.)

  2. ACRR fuel storage racks criticality safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodette, D.E.; Naegeli, R.E.

    1997-10-01

    This document presents the criticality safety analysis for a new fuel storage rack to support modification of the Annular Core Research Reactor for production of molybdenum-99 at Sandia National Laboratories, Technical Area V facilities. Criticality calculations with the MCNP code investigated various contingencies for the criticality control parameters. Important contingencies included mix of fuel element types stored, water density due to air bubbles or water level for the over-moderated racks, interaction with existing fuel storage racks and fuel storage holsters in the fuel storage pool, neutron absorption of planned rack design and materials, and criticality changes due to manufacturing tolerances or damage. Some limitations or restrictions on use of the new fuel storage rack for storage operations were developed through the criticality analysis and are required to meet the double contingency requirements of criticality safety. As shown in the analysis, this system will remain subcritical under all credible upset conditions. Administrative controls are necessary for loading, moving, and handling the storage rack as well as for control of operations around it. 21 refs., 16 figs., 4 tabs

  3. Modeling of greenhouse with PCM energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najjar, Atyah; Hasan, Afif

    2008-01-01

    Greenhouses provide a controlled environment that is suitable for plants growth and cultivation. In this paper the maximum temperature change inside the greenhouse is to be reduced by the use of energy storage in a phase change material PCM. A mathematical model is developed for the storage material and for the greenhouse. The coupled models are solved using numerical methods and Java code program. The effect of different parameters on the inside greenhouse temperature is investigated. The temperature swing between maximum and minimum values during 24 h can be reduced by 3-5 deg. C using the PCM storage. This can be improved further by enhancing the heat transfer between the PCM storage and the air inside the greenhouse

  4. Modeling of greenhouse with PCM energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najjar, Atyah [Computation Science, Birzeit University, Birzeit (PS); Hasan, Afif [Mechanical Engineering Department, Birzeit University, Birzeit (PS)

    2008-11-15

    Greenhouses provide a controlled environment that is suitable for plants growth and cultivation. In this paper the maximum temperature change inside the greenhouse is to be reduced by the use of energy storage in a phase change material PCM. A mathematical model is developed for the storage material and for the greenhouse. The coupled models are solved using numerical methods and Java code program. The effect of different parameters on the inside greenhouse temperature is investigated. The temperature swing between maximum and minimum values during 24 h can be reduced by 3-5 C using the PCM storage. This can be improved further by enhancing the heat transfer between the PCM storage and the air inside the greenhouse. (author)

  5. Burnup credit in a dry storage module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thornton, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    Comparison of spent fuel storage expansion options available to Oconee Nuclear Station revealed that dry storage could be economically competitive with transshipment and rod consolidation. Economic competitiveness, however, mandated large unit capacity while existing cask handling facilities at Oconee severely limited size and weight. The dry storage concept determined to best satisfy these conflicting criteria is a 24 pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuel assembly capacity NUTECH Horizontal Modular Storage (NUHOMS) system. The Oconee version of the NUHOMS system takes advantage of burnup credit in demonstrating criticality safety. The burnup credit criticality analysis was performed by Duke Power Company's Design Engineering Department. This paper was prepared to summarize the criticality control design features employed in the Oconee NUHOMS-24P DSC basket and to describe the incentives for pursuing a burnup credit design. Principal criticality design parameters, criteria, and analysis methodology are also presented

  6. PC-Cluster based Storage System Architecture for Cloud Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Yee, Tin Tin; Naing, Thinn Thu

    2011-01-01

    Design and architecture of cloud storage system plays a vital role in cloud computing infrastructure in order to improve the storage capacity as well as cost effectiveness. Usually cloud storage system provides users to efficient storage space with elasticity feature. One of the challenges of cloud storage system is difficult to balance the providing huge elastic capacity of storage and investment of expensive cost for it. In order to solve this issue in the cloud storage infrastructure, low ...

  7. Longitudinal dynamics in storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colton, E.P.

    1986-01-01

    The single-particle equations of motion are derived for charged particles in a storage ring. Longitudinal space charge is included in the potential assuming an infinitely conducting circular beam pipe with a distributed inductance. The framework uses Hamilton's equations with the canonical variables phi and W. The Twiss parameters for longitudinal motion are also defined for the small amplitude synchrotron oscillations. The space-charge Hamiltonian is calculated for both parabolic bunches and ''matched'' bunches. A brief analysis including second-harmonic rf contributions is also given. The final sections supply calculations of dynamical quantities and particle simulations with the space-charge effects neglected

  8. Physiological parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natera, E.S.

    1998-01-01

    The physiological characteristics of man depend on the intake, metabolism and excretion of stable elements from food, water, and air. The physiological behavior of natural radionuclides and radionuclides from nuclear weapons testing and from the utilization of nuclear energy is believed to follow the pattern of stable elements. Hence information on the normal physiological processes occurring in the human body plays an important role in the assessment of the radiation dose received by man. Two important physiological parameters needed for internal dose determination are the pulmonary function and the water balance. In the Coordinated Research Programme on the characterization of Asian population, five participants submitted data on these physiological characteristics - China, India, Japan, Philippines and Viet Nam. During the CRP, data on other pertinent characteristics such as physical and dietary were simultaneously being collected. Hence, the information on the physiological characteristics alone, coming from the five participants were not complete and are probably not sufficient to establish standard values for the Reference Asian Man. Nonetheless, the data collected is a valuable contribution to this research programme

  9. Large mass storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peskin, A.M.

    1978-01-01

    The report of a committee to study the questions surrounding possible acquisition of a large mass-storage device is presented. The current computing environment at BNL and justification for an online large mass storage device are briefly discussed. Possible devices to meet the requirements of large mass storage are surveyed, including future devices. The future computing needs of BNL are prognosticated. 2 figures, 4 tables

  10. Value and cost analyses for solar thermal-storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luft, W.; Copeland, R.J.

    1983-04-01

    Value and cost data for thermal energy storage are presented for solar thermal central receiver systems for which thermal energy storage appears to be attractive. Both solar thermal electric power and industrial process heat applications are evaluated. The value of storage is based on the cost for fossil fuel and solar thermal collector systems in 1990. The costing uses a standard lifetime methodology with the storage capacity as a parameter. Both value and costs are functions of storage capacity. However, the value function depends on the application. Value/cost analyses for first-generation storage concepts for five central receiver systems (molten salt, water/steam, organic fluid, air, and liquid metal) established the reference against which new systems were compared. Some promising second-generation energy storage concepts have been identified, and some more advanced concepts have also been evaluated.

  11. Behaviour of Spent WWER fuel under long term storage conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadarmetov, I M [A.A.Bochvar All-Russia Research Institute of Inorganic Materials, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1999-07-02

    Results of experimental investigation into thermomechanical properties of pre-irradiated Zr-1%Nb alloy over a range temperatures 500-570 grad C are presented. Safety examination of the Ventilation Storage Casks dry storage system has been carried out. Preliminary safety criteria under dry storage conditions in an environment of inert gas are follows: maximum cladding temperature under normal conditions of dry storage should not exceed 330 grad C after 5-year cooling in water-filled pools; maximum allowable temperature of spent fuel rod cladding under operational mode with infringement of heat removal should not exceed 440 grad C over 8 hours. As each SFA dry storage project comprises its individual technology of spent fuel management, it is necessary to evaluate allowable parameters (terms of storage, maximum temperatures of fuel) for each project respectively. The programme of experimental investigations for the justification of safety criteria for WWER-1000 dry spent fuel storage systems is underway. (author)

  12. Benchmarking Cloud Storage Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xing

    2014-01-01

    With the rise of cloud computing, many cloud storage systems like Dropbox, Google Drive and Mega have been built to provide decentralized and reliable file storage. It is thus of prime importance to know their features, performance, and the best way to make use of them. In this context, we introduce BenchCloud, a tool designed as part of this thesis to conveniently and efficiently benchmark any cloud storage system. First, we provide a study of six commonly-used cloud storage systems to ident...

  13. Pregnancies in glycogen storage disease type Ia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martens, Danielle H. J.; Rake, Jan Peter; Schwarz, Martin; Ullrich, Kurt; Weinstein, David A.; Merkel, Martin; Sauer, Pieter J. J.; Smit, G. Peter A.

    OBJECTIVE: Reports on pregnancies in women with glycogen storage disease type Ia (GSD-Ia) are scarce. Because of improved life expectancy, pregnancy is becoming an important issue. We describe 15 pregnancies by focusing on dietary treatment, biochemical parameters, and GSD-Ia complications. STUDY

  14. Heat storage in the Andaman Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RameshBabu, V.; Sastry, J.S.

    Heat storage in the Andaman Sea in upper 20 m, where a strong halocline seems to inhibit vertical heat transport has been evaluated and discussed in relation to the other parameters of heat budget. Estimation of annual evaporation gives rise to 137...

  15. A new storage-ring light source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, Alex [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-06-01

    A recently proposed technique in storage ring accelerators is applied to provide potential high-power sources of photon radiation. The technique is based on the steady-state microbunching (SSMB) mechanism. As examples of this application, one may consider a high-power DUV photon source for research in atomic and molecular physics or a high-power EUV radiation source for industrial lithography. A less challenging proof-of-principle test to produce IR radiation using an existing storage ring is also considered.

  16. Canister storage building design basis accident analysis documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KOPELIC, S.D.

    1999-01-01

    This document provides the detailed accident analysis to support HNF-3553, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Final Safety Analysis Report, Annex A, ''Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report.'' All assumptions, parameters, and models used to provide the analysis of the design basis accidents are documented to support the conclusions in the Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report

  17. Canister storage building design basis accident analysis documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KOPELIC, S.D.

    1999-02-25

    This document provides the detailed accident analysis to support HNF-3553, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Final Safety Analysis Report, Annex A, ''Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report.'' All assumptions, parameters, and models used to provide the analysis of the design basis accidents are documented to support the conclusions in the Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report.

  18. Canister Storage Building (CSB) Design Basis Accident Analysis Documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CROWE, R.D.

    1999-01-01

    This document provides the detailed accident analysis to support ''HNF-3553, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Final Safety, Analysis Report, Annex A,'' ''Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report.'' All assumptions, parameters, and models used to provide the analysis of the design basis accidents are documented to support the conclusions in the Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report

  19. Pressure bump instability in very large cold bore storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limon, P.

    1983-12-01

    Calculations have been done to estimate the circulating current necessary to induce the onset of a pressure bump instability in a cold bore storage ring. For a wide range of storage ring parameters, the instability threshold current is more than an order of magnitude higher than the operating current. 4 references, 2 tables

  20. Canister Storage Building (CSB) Design Basis Accident Analysis Documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CROWE, R.D.; PIEPHO, M.G.

    2000-01-01

    This document provided the detailed accident analysis to support HNF-3553, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Final Safety Analysis Report, Annex A, ''Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report''. All assumptions, parameters, and models used to provide the analysis of the design basis accidents are documented to support the conclusions in the Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report

  1. Influence of rural processing methods and postharvest storage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    About 0.45 kg of kola nuts (coated and uncoated) numbering 20 nuts were put in each storage container. Sensory quality of the nuts after storage was determined with quantitative descriptive analysis in expert panel, using six quality attributes. Physical parameters measured were; weight loss, pest incidence and sprouting ...

  2. Water Storage: Quo Vadis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smakhtin, V.

    2017-12-01

    Humans stored water - in various forms - for ages, coping with water resources variability, and its extremes - floods and droughts. Storage per capita, and other storage-related indicators, have essentially become one way of reflecting the progress of economic development. Massive investments went into large surface water reservoirs that have become the characteristic feature of the earth's landscapes, bringing both benefits and controversy. As water variability progressively increases with changing climate, globally, on one hand, and the idea of sustainable development receives strong traction, on another - it may be worth the while to comprehensively examine current trends and future prospects for water storage development. The task is surely big, to say the least. The presentation will aim to initiate a structured discussion on this multi-facet issue and identify which aspects and trends of water storage development may be most important in the context of Sustainable Development Goals, Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction, Paris Agreement on Climate Change, and examine how, where and to what extent water storage planning can be improved. It will cover questions like i) aging of large water storage infrastructure, the current extent of this trend in various geographical regions, and possible impacts on water security and security of nations; ii) improved water storage development planning overall in the context of various water development alternatives and storage options themselves and well as their combinations iii) prospects for another "storage revolution" - speed increase in dam numbers, and where, if at all this is most likely iv) recent events in storage development, e.g. is dam decommissioning a trend that picks pace, or whether some developing economies in Asia can do without going through the period of water storage construction, with alternatives, or suggestions for alleviation of negative impacts v) the role of subsurface storage as an

  3. Effect of variety on the storage of Nigeria indigenous okra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , condensed tannin, total phenol, vitamin C and reducing power of the Okra were determined on alternate days. 'Lokoja' okra pods experienced the least percentage loss in all the determined parameters. At the end of the storage period, pods ...

  4. Energy Storage Economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elgqvist, Emma M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-07

    This presentation provides an overview on energy storage economics including recent market trends, battery terminology and concepts, value streams, challenges, and an example of how photovoltaics and storage can be used to lower demand charges. It also provides an overview of the REopt Lite web tool inputs and outputs.

  5. System for secure storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2005-01-01

    A system (100) comprising read means (112) for reading content data and control logic data from a storage medium (101), the control logic data being uniquely linked to the storage medium (101), processing means (113-117), for processing the content data and feeding the processed content data to an

  6. Grain Handling and Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Troy G.; Minor, John

    This text for a secondary- or postecondary-level course in grain handling and storage contains ten chapters. Chapter titles are (1) Introduction to Grain Handling and Storage, (2) Elevator Safety, (3) Grain Grading and Seed Identification, (4) Moisture Control, (5) Insect and Rodent Control, (6) Grain Inventory Control, (7) Elevator Maintenance,…

  7. Wind-energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, L. H.

    1980-01-01

    Program SIMWEST can model wind energy storage system using any combination of five types of storage: pumped hydro, battery, thermal, flywheel, and pneumatic. Program is tool to aid design of optional system for given application with realistic simulation for further evaluation and verification.

  8. Optical storage networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Ulrich

    2001-11-01

    For efficient business continuance and backup of mission- critical data an inter-site storage network is required. Where traditional telecommunications costs are prohibitive for all but the largest organizations, there is an opportunity for regional carries to deliver an innovative storage service. This session reveals how a combination of optical networking and protocol-aware SAN gateways can provide an extended storage networking platform with the lowest cost of ownership and the highest possible degree of reliability, security and availability. Companies of every size, with mainframe and open-systems environments, can afford to use this integrated service. Three mayor applications are explained; channel extension, Network Attached Storage (NAS), Storage Area Networks (SAN) and how optical networks address the specific requirements. One advantage of DWDM is the ability for protocols such as ESCON, Fibre Channel, ATM and Gigabit Ethernet, to be transported natively and simultaneously across a single fiber pair, and the ability to multiplex many individual fiber pairs over a single pair, thereby reducing fiber cost and recovering fiber pairs already in use. An optical storage network enables a new class of service providers, Storage Service Providers (SSP) aiming to deliver value to the enterprise by managing storage, backup, replication and restoration as an outsourced service.

  9. Electrochemical hydrogen Storage Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Digby Macdonald

    2010-08-09

    As the global need for energy increases, scientists and engineers have found a possible solution by using hydrogen to power our world. Although hydrogen can be combusted as a fuel, it is considered an energy carrier for use in fuel cells wherein it is consumed (oxidized) without the production of greenhouse gases and produces electrical energy with high efficiency. Chemical storage of hydrogen involves release of hydrogen in a controlled manner from materials in which the hydrogen is covalently bound. Sodium borohydride and aminoborane are two materials given consideration as chemical hydrogen storage materials by the US Department of Energy. A very significant barrier to adoption of these materials as hydrogen carriers is their regeneration from 'spent fuel,' i.e., the material remaining after discharge of hydrogen. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) formed a Center of Excellence for Chemical Hydrogen Storage, and this work stems from that project. The DOE has identified boron hydrides as being the main compounds of interest as hydrogen storage materials. The various boron hydrides are then oxidized to release their hydrogen, thereby forming a 'spent fuel' in the form of a lower boron hydride or even a boron oxide. The ultimate goal of this project is to take the oxidized boron hydrides as the spent fuel and hydrogenate them back to their original form so they can be used again as a fuel. Thus this research is essentially a boron hydride recycling project. In this report, research directed at regeneration of sodium borohydride and aminoborane is described. For sodium borohydride, electrochemical reduction of boric acid and sodium metaborate (representing spent fuel) in alkaline, aqueous solution has been investigated. Similarly to literature reports (primarily patents), a variety of cathode materials were tried in these experiments. Additionally, approaches directed at overcoming electrostatic repulsion of borate anion from the cathode, not

  10. Electrochemical hydrogen Storage Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, Digby

    2010-01-01

    As the global need for energy increases, scientists and engineers have found a possible solution by using hydrogen to power our world. Although hydrogen can be combusted as a fuel, it is considered an energy carrier for use in fuel cells wherein it is consumed (oxidized) without the production of greenhouse gases and produces electrical energy with high efficiency. Chemical storage of hydrogen involves release of hydrogen in a controlled manner from materials in which the hydrogen is covalently bound. Sodium borohydride and aminoborane are two materials given consideration as chemical hydrogen storage materials by the US Department of Energy. A very significant barrier to adoption of these materials as hydrogen carriers is their regeneration from 'spent fuel,' i.e., the material remaining after discharge of hydrogen. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) formed a Center of Excellence for Chemical Hydrogen Storage, and this work stems from that project. The DOE has identified boron hydrides as being the main compounds of interest as hydrogen storage materials. The various boron hydrides are then oxidized to release their hydrogen, thereby forming a 'spent fuel' in the form of a lower boron hydride or even a boron oxide. The ultimate goal of this project is to take the oxidized boron hydrides as the spent fuel and hydrogenate them back to their original form so they can be used again as a fuel. Thus this research is essentially a boron hydride recycling project. In this report, research directed at regeneration of sodium borohydride and aminoborane is described. For sodium borohydride, electrochemical reduction of boric acid and sodium metaborate (representing spent fuel) in alkaline, aqueous solution has been investigated. Similarly to literature reports (primarily patents), a variety of cathode materials were tried in these experiments. Additionally, approaches directed at overcoming electrostatic repulsion of borate anion from the cathode, not described in the

  11. ERDA's Chemical Energy Storage Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swisher, J. H.; Kelley, J. H.

    1977-01-01

    The Chemical Energy Storage Program is described with emphasis on hydrogen storage. Storage techniques considered include pressurized hydrogen gas storage, cryogenic liquid hydrogen storage, storage in hydride compounds, and aromatic-alicyclic hydrogen storage. Some uses of energy storage are suggested. Information on hydrogen production and hydrogen use is also presented. Applications of hydrogen energy systems include storage of hydrogen for utilities load leveling, industrial marketing of hydrogen both as a chemical and as a fuel, natural gas supplementation, vehicular applications, and direct substitution for natural gas.

  12. Electricity Storage. Technology Brief

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simbolotti, G. [Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development ENEA, Rome (Italy); Kempener, R. [International Renewable Energy Agency IRENA, Bonn (Germany)

    2012-04-15

    Electricity storage is a key technology for electricity systems with a high share of renewables as it allows electricity to be generated when renewable sources (i.e. wind, sunlight) are available and to be consumed on demand. It is expected that the increasing price of fossil fuels and peak-load electricity and the growing share of renewables will result in electricity storage to grow rapidly and become more cost effective. However, electricity storage is technically challenging because electricity can only be stored after conversion into other forms of energy, and this involves expensive equipment and energy losses. At present, the only commercial storage option is pumped hydro power where surplus electricity (e.g. electricity produced overnight by base-load coal or nuclear power) is used to pump water from a lower to an upper reservoir. The stored energy is then used to produce hydropower during daily high-demand periods. Pumped hydro plants are large-scale storage systems with a typical efficiency between 70% and 80%, which means that a quarter of the energy is lost in the process. Other storage technologies with different characteristics (i.e. storage process and capacity, conversion back to electricity and response to power demand, energy losses and costs) are currently in demonstration or pre-commercial stages and discussed in this brief report: Compressed air energy storage (CAES) systems, Flywheels; Electrical batteries; Supercapacitors; Superconducting magnetic storage; and Thermal energy storage. No single electricity storage technology scores high in all dimensions. The technology of choice often depends on the size of the system, the specific service, the electricity sources and the marginal cost of peak electricity. Pumped hydro currently accounts for 95% of the global storage capacity and still offers a considerable expansion potential but does not suit residential or small-size applications. CAES expansion is limited due to the lack of suitable

  13. Plutonium storage criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, D. [Scientech, Inc., Germantown, MD (United States); Ascanio, X. [Dept. of Energy, Germantown, MD (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The Department of Energy has issued a technical standard for long-term (>50 years) storage and will soon issue a criteria document for interim (<20 years) storage of plutonium materials. The long-term technical standard, {open_quotes}Criteria for Safe Storage of Plutonium Metals and Oxides,{close_quotes} addresses the requirements for storing metals and oxides with greater than 50 wt % plutonium. It calls for a standardized package that meets both off-site transportation requirements, as well as remote handling requirements from future storage facilities. The interim criteria document, {open_quotes}Criteria for Interim Safe Storage of Plutonium-Bearing Solid Materials{close_quotes}, addresses requirements for storing materials with less than 50 wt% plutonium. The interim criteria document assumes the materials will be stored on existing sites, and existing facilities and equipment will be used for repackaging to improve the margin of safety.

  14. Compact nuclear fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiselev, V.V.; Churakov, Yu.A.; Danchenko, Yu.V.; Bylkin, B.K.; Tsvetkov, S.V.

    1983-01-01

    Different constructions of racks for compact storage of spent fuel assemblies (FA) in ''coolin''g pools (CP) of NPPs with the BWR and PWR type reactors are described. Problems concerning nuclear and radiation safety and provision of necessary thermal conditions arising in such rack design are discussed. It is concluded that the problem of prolonged fuel storage at NPPs became Very actual for many countries because of retapdation of the rates of fuel reprocessing centers building. Application of compact storage racks is a promising solution of the problem of intermediate FA storage at NPPs. Such racks of stainless boron steel and with neutron absorbers in the from of boron carbide panels enable to increase the capacity of the present CP 2-2.6 times, and the period of FA storage in them up to 5-10 years

  15. Estimating the Competitive Storage Model with Trending Commodity Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Gouel , Christophe; LEGRAND , Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    We present a method to estimate jointly the parameters of a standard commodity storage model and the parameters characterizing the trend in commodity prices. This procedure allows the influence of a possible trend to be removed without restricting the model specification, and allows model and trend selection based on statistical criteria. The trend is modeled deterministically using linear or cubic spline functions of time. The results show that storage models with trend are always preferred ...

  16. Rethinking the economics of centralized spent fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, T.W.; Short, S.M.; Dippold, D.G.; Rod, S.R.; Williams, J.W.

    1991-04-01

    The technology for extended storage of spent nuclear fuel (SNF), either at-reactor or in a centralized facility such as a monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility, is well-developed and proven from an engineering and safety perspective. The question of whether spent fuel should await its final geologic disposal while at a reactor site or in an MRS facility is essentially an economic one. While intuition and previous results suggest that centralized storage will be more economical than at-reactor storage beyond some break-even quantity of SNF, the incremental costs of pool storage at-reactor are close to zero as long as pool capacity is generally available. Thus, if economics is the prime motivator, the quantity of spent fuel required to warrant centralized storage could be quite large. The economics of centralizing the storage of spent fuel at a single site, as opposed to continued storage at over 100 reactor sites, has been the subject of several recent analyses. Most of these analyses involved calculating the benefits of an MRS facility with a pre-defined MRS operating scenario. This paper reverses this approach to economic analysis of the MRS by seeking the optimal MRS operating scenario (in terms of the parameters listed above) implied by the economic incentives arising from the relative costs of at-reactor storage and centralized storage. This approach treats an MRS as a possible storage location that will be used according to its economic value in system operation. 5 refs., 5 figs

  17. Bases for extrapolating materials durability in fuel storage pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, A.B. Jr.

    1994-12-01

    A major body of evidence indicates that zirconium alloys have the most consistent and reliable durability in wet storage, justifying projections of safe wet storage greater than 50 y. Aluminum alloys have the widest range of durabilities in wet storage; systematic control and monitoring of water chemistry have resulted in low corrosion rates for more than two decades on some fuels and components. However, cladding failures have occurred in a few months when important parameters were not controlled. Stainless steel is extremely durable when stress, metallurgical and water chemistry factors are controlled. LWR SS cladding has survived for 25 y in wet storage. However, sensitized, stressed SS fuels and components have seriously degraded in fuel storage pools (FSPs) at ∼ 30 C. Satisfactory durability of fuel assembly and FSP component materials in extended wet storage requires investments in water quality management and surveillance, including chemical and biological factors. The key aspect of the study is to provide storage facility operators and other decision makers a basis to judge the durability of a given fuel type in wet storage as a prelude to basing other fuel management plans (e.g. dry storage) if wet storage will not be satisfactory through the expected period of interim storage

  18. Development of volatile compounds in processed cheese during storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunesen, Lars Oddershede; Lund, Pia; Sørensen, J.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this work teas to study tire impact of storage conditions, such as light and temperature, on the development of volatile compounds to processed cheese. Cheese in glass containers was stored at 5, 20 or 37 degreesC in light or darkness for up to 1 yr. Dynamic headspace and gas...... chromatography/mass spectrometry leas used for quantifying 28 volatile organic compounds at eight stages during tree storage period. Through principal component analysis, three important storage parameters could be identified. Principal components 1, 2 and 3 reflected storage tinge, conditions of light...

  19. Ultrafine hydrogen storage powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Iver E.; Ellis, Timothy W.; Pecharsky, Vitalij K.; Ting, Jason; Terpstra, Robert; Bowman, Robert C.; Witham, Charles K.; Fultz, Brent T.; Bugga, Ratnakumar V.

    2000-06-13

    A method of making hydrogen storage powder resistant to fracture in service involves forming a melt having the appropriate composition for the hydrogen storage material, such, for example, LaNi.sub.5 and other AB.sub.5 type materials and AB.sub.5+x materials, where x is from about -2.5 to about +2.5, including x=0, and the melt is gas atomized under conditions of melt temperature and atomizing gas pressure to form generally spherical powder particles. The hydrogen storage powder exhibits improved chemcial homogeneity as a result of rapid solidfication from the melt and small particle size that is more resistant to microcracking during hydrogen absorption/desorption cycling. A hydrogen storage component, such as an electrode for a battery or electrochemical fuel cell, made from the gas atomized hydrogen storage material is resistant to hydrogen degradation upon hydrogen absorption/desorption that occurs for example, during charging/discharging of a battery. Such hydrogen storage components can be made by consolidating and optionally sintering the gas atomized hydrogen storage powder or alternately by shaping the gas atomized powder and a suitable binder to a desired configuration in a mold or die.

  20. Storage of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-07-01

    Even if the best waste minimization measures are undertaken throughout radioisotope production or usage, significant radioactive wastes arise to make management measures essential. For developing countries with low isotope usage and little or no generation of nuclear materials, it may be possible to handle the generated waste by simply practicing decay storage for several half-lives of the radionuclides involved, followed by discharge or disposal without further processing. For those countries with much larger facilities, longer lived isotopes are produced and used. In this situation, storage is used not only for decay storage but also for in-process retention steps and for the key stage of interim storage of conditioned wastes pending final disposal. The report will serve as a technical manual providing reference material and direct step-by-step know-how to staff in radioisotope user establishments and research centres in the developing Member States without nuclear power generation. Considerations are limited to the simpler storage facilities. The restricted quantities and low activity associated with the relevant wastes will generally permit contact-handling and avoid the need for shielding requirements in the storage facilities or equipment used for handling. A small quantity of wastes from some radioisotope production cells and from reactor cooling water treatment may contain sufficient short lived activity from activated corrosion products to require some separate decay storage before contact-handling is suitable. 16 refs, 12 figs, 8 tabs

  1. Aflatoxins & Safe Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe eVillers

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines both field experience and research on the prevention of the exponential growth of aflatoxins during multi-month post harvest storage in hot, humid countries. The approach described is the application of modern safe storage methods using flexible, Ultra Hermetic™ structures that create an unbreatheable atmosphere through insect and microorganism respiration alone, without use of chemicals, fumigants, or pumps. Laboratory and field data are cited and specific examples are given describing the uses of Ultra Hermetic storage to prevent the growth of aflatoxins with their significant public health consequences. Also discussed is the presently limited quantitative information on the relative occurrence of excessive levels of aflatoxin (>20 ppb before versus after multi-month storage of such crops as maize, rice and peanuts when under high humidity, high temperature conditions and, consequently, the need for further research to determine the frequency at which excessive aflatoxin levels are reached in the field versus after months of post-harvest storage. The significant work being done to reduce aflatoxin levels in the field is mentioned, as well as its probable implications on post harvest storage. Also described is why, with some crops such as peanuts, using Ultra Hermetic storage may require injection of carbon dioxide or use of an oxygen absorber as an accelerant. The case of peanuts is discussed and experimental data is described.

  2. OPTIMUM HEAT STORAGE DESIGN FOR SDHW SYSTEMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Louise Jivan; Furbo, Simon

    1997-01-01

    Two simulation models have been used to analyse the heat storage design’s influence on the thermal performance of solar domestic hot water (SDHW) systems. One model is especially designed for traditional SDHW systems based on a heat storage design where the solar heat exchanger is a built-in spiral....... The other model is especially designed for low flow SDHW systems based on a mantle tank.The tank design’s influence on the thermal performance of the SDHW systems has been investigated in a way where only one tank parameter has been changed at a time in the calculations. In this way a direct analysis...

  3. Optimum heat storage design for SDHWsystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Louise Jivan; Furbo, Simon

    1997-01-01

    -in spiral. The other model is especially designed for low flow SDHWsystems based on a mantle tank.The tank design's influence on the thermal performance of the SDHWsystems has been investigated in a way where only one tank parameter has been changed at a time in the calculations. In this way a direct......Two simulation models have been used to analyse the heat storage design's influence on the thermal performance of solar domestic hot water systems, SDHWsystems. One model is especially designed for traditional SDHWsystems based on a heat storage design where the solar heat exchanger is a built...

  4. Customized electric power storage device for inclusion in a microgrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Steven Y.; Wilson, David; Robinett, III, Rush D.

    2017-08-01

    An electric power storage device included in a microgrid is described herein. The electric power storage device has at least one of a charge rate, a discharge rate, or a power retention capacity that has been customized for the microgrid. The at least one of the charge rate, the discharge rate, or the power retention capacity of the electric power storage device is computed based at least in part upon specified power source parameters in the microgrid and specified load parameters in the microgrid.

  5. Spent-fuel-storage alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The Spent Fuel Storage Alternatives meeting was a technical forum in which 37 experts from 12 states discussed storage alternatives that are available or are under development. The subject matter was divided into the following five areas: techniques for increasing fuel storage density; dry storage of spent fuel; fuel characterization and conditioning; fuel storage operating experience; and storage and transport economics. Nineteen of the 21 papers which were presented at this meeting are included in this Proceedings. These have been abstracted and indexed

  6. Magnox waste storage complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    This article looks at the design and construction of British Nuclear Fuel Limited's (BNFL) Magnox waste storage complex by Costain Engineering Limited. Magnox swarf from fuel decanning is stored underwater in specially designed silos. Gas processing capabilities from Costain Engineering Limited and the experience of BNFL combined in this project to provide the necessary problem-solving skills necessary for this waste storage upgrading and extension project. A retrofitted inerting facility was fitted to an existing building and a new storage extension was fitted, both without interrupting reprocessing operations at Sellafield. (UK)

  7. Tiered Storage For LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Hanushevsky, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    For more than a year, the ATLAS Western Tier 2 (WT2) at SLAC National Accelerator has been successfully operating a two tiered storage system based on Xrootd's flexible cross-cluster data placement framework, the File Residency Manager. The architecture allows WT2 to provide both, high performance storage at the higher tier to ATLAS analysis jobs, as well as large, low cost disk capacity at the lower tier. Data automatically moves between the two storage tiers based on the needs of analysis jobs and is completely transparent to the jobs.

  8. Next generation storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlesser, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    With diminishing requirements for plutonium, a substantial quantity of this material requires special handling and ultimately, long-term storage. To meet this objective, we at Los Alamos, have been involved in the design of a storage facility with the goal of providing storage capabilities for this and other nuclear materials. This paper presents preliminary basic design data, not for the structure and physical plant, but for the container and arrays which might be configured within the facility, with strong emphasis on criticality safety features

  9. Monitored retrievable storage design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, W.D.

    1985-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA) established a national policy for the safe storage and disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The NWPA requires that DOE... ''submit a proposal to Congress on the need for and feasibility of one or more Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) Facilities''... In subsequent evaluations of the commercial nuclear waste management system, DOE has identified important advantages in providing an MRS Facility as an integral part of the total system. The integral MRS Facility serves as an independent, centralized spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste handling and packaging facility with a safe temporary storage capacity

  10. Hybrid Hydrogen and Mechanical Distributed Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Ubertini

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Effective energy storage technologies represent one of the key elements to solving the growing challenges of electrical energy supply of the 21st century. Several energy storage systems are available, from ones that are technologically mature to others still at a research stage. Each technology has its inherent limitations that make its use economically or practically feasible only for specific applications. The present paper aims at integrating hydrogen generation into compressed air energy storage systems to avoid natural gas combustion or thermal energy storage. A proper design of such a hybrid storage system could provide high roundtrip efficiencies together with enhanced flexibility thanks to the possibility of providing additional energy outputs (heat, cooling, and hydrogen as a fuel, in a distributed energy storage framework. Such a system could be directly connected to the power grid at the distribution level to reduce power and energy intermittence problems related to renewable energy generation. Similarly, it could be located close to the user (e.g., office buildings, commercial centers, industrial plants, hospitals, etc.. Finally, it could be integrated in decentralized energy generation systems to reduce the peak electricity demand charges and energy costs, to increase power generation efficiency, to enhance the security of electrical energy supply, and to facilitate the market penetration of small renewable energy systems. Different configurations have been investigated (simple hybrid storage system, regenerate system, multistage system demonstrating the compressed air and hydrogen storage systems effectiveness in improving energy source flexibility and efficiency, and possibly in reducing the costs of energy supply. Round-trip efficiency up to 65% can be easily reached. The analysis is conducted through a mixed theoretical-numerical approach, which allows the definition of the most relevant physical parameters affecting the system

  11. Economic feasibility of thermal energy storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habeebullah, B.A. [Faculty of Engineering, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

    2007-07-01

    This paper investigates the economic feasibility of both building an ice thermal storage and structure a time of rate tariff for the unique air conditioning (A/C) plant of the Grand Holy Mosque of Makkah, Saudi Arabia. The features of the building are unique where the air-conditioned 39,300 m{sup 2} zone is open to the atmosphere and the worshippers fully occupy the building five times a day, in addition hundreds of thousands of worshippers attend the blessed weekend's prayer at noontime, which escalates the peak electricity load. For economic analysis, the objective function is the daily electricity bill that includes the operation cost and the capital investment of the ice storage system. The operation cost is function of the energy imported for operating the plant in which the tariff structure, number of operating hours and the ambient temperature are parameters. The capital recovery factor is calculated for 10% interest rate and payback period of 10 years. Full and partial load storage scenarios are considered. The results showed that with the current fixed electricity rate (0.07 $/kWh), there is no gain in introducing ice storage systems for both storage schemes. Combining energy storage and an incentive time structured rate showed reasonable daily bill savings. For base tariff of 0.07 $/kWh during daytime operation and 0.016 $/kWh for off-peak period, savings were achieved for full load storage scenario. Different tariff structure is discussed and the break-even nighttime rate was determined (varies between 0.008 and 0.03 $/kWh). Partial load storage scenario showed to be unattractive where the savings for the base structured tariff was insignificant. (author)

  12. Storage-ring FEL for the vuv

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, J.M.; Bisognano, J.J.; Garren, A.A.; Halbach, K.; Kim, K.J.; Sah, R.C.

    1984-09-01

    A free-electron laser for the vuv operating in a storage ring requires an electron beam of high density and low energy spread and a short wavelength, narrow-gap undulator. These conditions tend to produce longitudinal and transverse beam instabilities, excessive beam growth through multiple intrabeam scattering, and a short gas-scattering lifetime. Passing the beam only occasionally through the undulator in a by-pass straight section, as proposed by Murphy and Pellegrini, allows operation in a high-gain, single-pass mode and a long gas-scattering lifetime. Several storage ring designs have been considered to see how best to satisfy the several requirements. Each features a by-pass, a low-emittance lattice, and built-in wigglers for enhanced damping to counteract the intra-beam scattering. 15 references, 3 figures, 2 tables

  13. The Advanced Photon Source list of parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bizek, H.M.

    1996-07-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) is a third-generation synchrotron radiation source that stores positrons in a storage ring. The choice of positrons as accelerating particles was motivated by the usual reason: to eliminate the degradation of the beam caused by trapping of positively charged dust particles or ions. The third-generation synchrotron radiation sources are designed to have low beam emittance and many straight sections for insertion devices. The parameter list is comprised of three basic systems: the injection system, the storage ring system, and the experimental facilities system. The components of the injection system are listed according to the causal flow of positrons. Below we briefly list the individual components of the injection system, with the names of people responsible for managing these machines in parentheses: the linac system; electron linac-target-positron linac (Marion White); low energy transport line from linac to the PAR (Michael Borland); positron accumulator ring or PAR (Michael Borland); low energy transport line from PAR to injector synchrotron (Michael Borland); injector synchrotron (Stephen Milton); high energy transport line from injector synchrotron to storage ring (Stephen Milton). The storage ring system, managed by Glenn Decker, uses the Chasman-Green lattice. The APS storage ring, 1104 m in circumference, has 40 periodic sectors. Six are used to house hardware and 34 serve as insertion devices. Another 34 beamlines emit radiation from bending magnets. The experimental facilities system's parameters include parameters for both an undulator and a wiggler

  14. Inventory extension considerations for long-term storage at the nuclear materials storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olinger, C.T.; Stanbro, W.D.; Longmire, V.; Argo, P.E.; Nielson, S.M.

    1996-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is in the process of modifying its nuclear materials storage facility to a long-term storage configuration. In support of this effort, we examined technical and administrative means to extend periods between physical inventories. Both the frequency and sample size during a physical inventory could significantly impact required sizing of the non-destructive assay (NDA) laboratory as well as material handling capabilities. Several options are being considered, including (1) treating each storage location as a separate vault, (2) minimizing the number of items returned for quantitative analysis by optimizing the use of in situ confirmatory measurements, and (3) utilizing advanced monitoring technologies. Careful consideration of these parameters should allow us to achieve and demonstrate safe and secure storage while minimizing the impact on facility operations and without having to increase the size of the NDA laboratory beyond that required for anticipated shipping and receiving activities

  15. Storage of strawberry pollen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafet Aslantaş

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine storage ability of strawberry pollen at different temperatures for three different strawberry cultivars 'Aliso', 'Brio', and 'Cruz'. Strawberry pollen was stored at room temperature (22 ±2°C, +4°C, -4°C and -18°C in stabile humidity conditions. Strawberry poIlen was germinated using the hanging drop method in a 20% sucrose solution. Pollen germination rate increased because of low temperature storage. Pollen stored at room temperature and +4°C, -4°C, and -18°C was kept for 8 months, about one year, and 20 months, respectively. Pollen germination rates decreased as the length of storage period increased. The reaction of all cultivars tested on the duration and temperature of storage was similar.

  16. Hydrogen storage compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen; Vajo, John J.; Cumberland, Robert W.; Liu, Ping

    2011-04-19

    Compositions for hydrogen storage and methods of making such compositions employ an alloy that exhibits reversible formation/deformation of BH.sub.4.sup.- anions. The composition includes a ternary alloy including magnesium, boron and a metal and a metal hydride. The ternary alloy and the metal hydride are present in an amount sufficient to render the composition capable of hydrogen storage. The molar ratio of the metal to magnesium and boron in the alloy is such that the alloy exhibits reversible formation/deformation of BH.sub.4.sup.- anions. The hydrogen storage composition is prepared by combining magnesium, boron and a metal to prepare a ternary alloy and combining the ternary alloy with a metal hydride to form the hydrogen storage composition.

  17. Memory mass storage

    CERN Document Server

    Campardo, Giovanni; Iaculo, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    Covering all the fundamental storage technologies such as semiconductor, magnetic, optical and uncommon, this volume details their core characteristics. In addition, it includes an overview of the 'biological memory' of the human brain and its organization.

  18. Cryptography from noisy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehner, Stephanie; Schaffner, Christian; Terhal, Barbara M

    2008-06-06

    We show how to implement cryptographic primitives based on the realistic assumption that quantum storage of qubits is noisy. We thereby consider individual-storage attacks; i.e., the dishonest party attempts to store each incoming qubit separately. Our model is similar to the model of bounded-quantum storage; however, we consider an explicit noise model inspired by present-day technology. To illustrate the power of this new model, we show that a protocol for oblivious transfer is secure for any amount of quantum-storage noise, as long as honest players can perform perfect quantum operations. Our model also allows us to show the security of protocols that cope with noise in the operations of the honest players and achieve more advanced tasks such as secure identification.

  19. Center for Hydrogen Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    The main goals of this project were to (1) Establish a Center for Hydrogen Storage Research at Delaware State University for the preparation and characterization of selected complex metal hydrides and the determination their suitability for hydrogen ...

  20. Hydrogen storage using borohydrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard BONNETOT; Laetitia LAVERSENNE

    2006-01-01

    The possibilities of hydrogen storage using borohydrides are presented and discussed specially in regard of the recoverable hydrogen amount and related to the recovering conditions. A rapid analysis of storage possibilities is proposed taking in account the two main ways for hydrogen evolution: the dehydrogenation obtained through thermal decomposition or the hydrolysis of solids or solutions. The recoverable hydrogen is related to the dehydrogenation conditions and the real hydrogen useful percentage is determined for each case of use. The high temperature required for dehydrogenation even when using catalyzed compounds lead to poor outlooks for this storage way. The hydrolysis conditions direct the chemical yield of the water consuming, and this must be related to the experimental conditions which rule the storage capacity of the 'fuel' derived from the borohydride. (authors)

  1. Wet storage integrity update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, W.J.; Johnson, A.B. Jr.

    1983-09-01

    This report includes information from various studies performed under the Wet Storage Task of the Spent Fuel Integrity Project of the Commercial Spent Fuel Management (CSFM) Program at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. An overview of recent developments in the technology of wet storage of spent water reactor fuel is presented. Licensee Event Reports pertaining to spent fuel pools and the associated performance of spent fuel and storage components during wet storage are discussed. The current status of fuel that was examined under the CSFM Program is described. Assessments of the effect of boric acid in spent fuel pool water on the corrosion and stress corrosion cracking of stainless steel and the stress corrosion cracking of stainless steel piping containing stagnant water at spent fuel pools are discussed. A list of pertinent publications is included. 84 references, 21 figures, 11 tables

  2. Spent fuel storage requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, J.

    1982-06-01

    Spent fuel storage requirements, as projected through the year 2000 for U.S. LWRs, were calculated using information supplied by the utilities reflecting plant status as of December 31, 1981. Projections through the year 2000 combined fuel discharge projections of the utilities with the assumed discharges of typical reactors required to meet the nuclear capacity of 165 GWe projected by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) for the year 2000. Three cases were developed and are summarized. A reference case, or maximum at-reactor (AR) capacity case, assumes that all reactor storage pools are increased to their maximum capacities as estimated by the utilities for spent fuel storage utilizing currently licensed technologies. The reference case assumes no transshipments between pools except as currently licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This case identifies an initial requirement for 13 MTU of additional storage in 1984, and a cumulative requirement for 14,490 MTU additional storage in the year 2000. The reference case is bounded by two alternative cases. One, a current capacity case, assumes that only those pool storage capacity increases currently planned by the operating utilities will occur. The second, or maximum capacity with transshipment case, assumes maximum development of pool storage capacity as described above and also assumes no constraints on transshipment of spent fuel among pools of reactors of like type (BWR, PWR) within a given utility. In all cases, a full core discharge capability (full core reserve or FCR) is assumed to be maintained for each reactor, except that only one FCR is maintained when two reactors share a common pool. For the current AR capacity case the indicated storage requirements in the year 2000 are indicated to be 18,190 MTU; for the maximum capacity with transshipment case they are 11,320 MTU

  3. Flywheel energy storage; Schwungmassenspeicher

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bornemann, H.J. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    Energy storages may be chemical systems such as batteries, thermal systems such as hot-water tanks, electromagnetic systems such as capacitors and coils, or mechanical systems such as pumped storage power systems or flywheel energy storages. In flywheel energy storages the energy is stored in the centrifugal mass in the form of kinetic energy. This energy can be converted to electricity via a motor/generator unit and made available to the consumer. The introduction of magnetic bearings has greatly enhanced the potential of flywheel energy storages. As there is no contact between the moving parts of magnetic bearings, this technology provides a means of circumventing the engineering and operational problems involved in the we of conventional bearings (ball, roller, plain, and gas bearings). The advantages of modern flywheel energy storages over conventional accumulators are an at least thousandfold longer service life, low losses during long-time storage, greater power output in the case of short-time storage, and commendable environmental benignity. (orig./HW) [Deutsch] Als Enegiespeicher kommen chemische Systeme, z.B. Batterien, thermische Systeme, z.B. Warmwassertanks, elektromagnetische Systeme, z.B. Kondensatoren und Spulen, sowie mechanische Systeme, z.B. Pumpspeicherwerke und Schwungmassenspeicher in Frage. In einem Schwungmassenspeicher wird Energie in Form von kinetischer Energie in der Schwungmasse gespeichert. Ueber eine Moter/Generator Einheit wird diese Energie in elektrischen Strom umgewandelt und dem Verbraucher zugefuehrt. Mit der Einfuehrung von magnetischen Lagern konnte die Leistungsfaehigkeit von Schwungmassenspeichern erheblich gesteigert werden. Da in einem Magnetlager keine Beruehrung zwischen sich bewegenden Teilen besteht, wird ein Grossteil der mit dem Einsatz konventioneller Lager (Kugel- und Rollenlager, Gleitlager und Gaslager) verbundenen ingenieurtechnischen und betriebstechnischen Probleme vermieden. Die Vorteile von modernen

  4. Optimization of Munitions Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    zones of land around each facility place a significant economic cost on the storage of munitions (Schreyer, 1970: 1). Munitions storage is a subject...ADDTOT, BTOTAL 353 REAL MPH,MW ,MPD, MPU ,4,MPNEW,MCD 354 IF (SW2.NE.0) GO TO 1 355 SW2 - 1 356 WRITE (6,2) 357 GO TO 3 358 1 IF (REC.EQ.0) GO TO 4 359 IF

  5. Spent fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huppert

    1976-01-01

    To begin with, the author explains the reasons for intermediate storage of fuel elements in nuclear power stations and in a reprocessing plant and gives the temperature and radioactivity curves of LWR fuel elements after removal from the reactor. This is followed by a description of the facilities for fuel element storage in a reprocessing plant and of their functions. Futher topics are criticality and activity control, the problem of cooling time and safety systems. (HR) [de

  6. Analog storage integrated circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, J.T.; Larsen, R.S.; Shapiro, S.L.

    1989-03-07

    A high speed data storage array is defined utilizing a unique cell design for high speed sampling of a rapidly changing signal. Each cell of the array includes two input gates between the signal input and a storage capacitor. The gates are controlled by a high speed row clock and low speed column clock so that the instantaneous analog value of the signal is only sampled and stored by each cell on coincidence of the two clocks. 6 figs.

  7. Annual Report: Carbon Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strazisar, Brian [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Guthrie, George [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States)

    2012-09-30

    Activities include laboratory experimentation, field work, and numerical modeling. The work is divided into five theme areas (or first level tasks) that each address a key research need: Flow Properties of Reservoirs and Seals, Fundamental Processes and Properties, Estimates of Storage Potential, Verifying Storage Performance, and Geospatial Data Resources. The project also includes a project management effort which coordinates the activities of all the research teams.

  8. Storage of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlstroem, P.E.

    1988-01-01

    The Swedish system of handling and storage of nuclear wastes is well-developed. Existing plants and systems provide great freedom of action and flexibility regarding future development and decisions of ultimate storage of the spent fuel. The interim storage in CLAB - Central interim storage facility for spent nuclear fuel - could continue without any safety related problems for more than 40 years. In practice the choice of ultimate treatment system is not locked until the encapsulation of the fuel starts. At the same time it is of importance that the generation benefiting by the nuclear power production also be responsible for the development of the ultimate storage system and not unnecessarily postpones important decisions. The ultimate storage system for spent fuel could and should be developed within existing schedule. At the same time is should be worked out to provide coming generations with possibilities to do the type of supervision they like without maintenance and supervision requiring to become a prerequisite for a safe function. (O.S.)

  9. Energy Storage Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, David

    2017-07-01

    As renewable energy use expands there will be a need to develop ways to balance its variability. Storage is one of the options. Presently the main emphasis is for systems storing electrical power in advanced batteries (many of them derivatives of parallel developments in the electric vehicle field), as well as via liquid air storage, compressed air storage, super-capacitors and flywheels, and, the leader so far, pumped hydro reservoirs. In addition, new systems are emerging for hydrogen generation and storage, feeding fuel cell power production. Heat (and cold) is also a storage medium and some systems exploit thermal effects as part of wider energy management activity. Some of the more exotic ones even try to use gravity on a large scale. This short book looks at all the options, their potentials and their limits. There are no clear winners, with some being suited to short-term balancing and others to longer-term storage. The eventual mix adopted will be shaped by the pattern of development of other balancing measures, including smart-grid demand management and super-grid imports and exports.

  10. Superconducting magnetic energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, J.D.; Boenig, H.J.

    1978-01-01

    Superconducting inductors provide a compact and efficient means of storing electrical energy without an intermediate conversion process. Energy storage inductors are under development for diurnal load leveling and transmission line stabilization in electric utility systems and for driving magnetic confinement and plasma heating coils in fusion energy systems. Fluctuating electric power demands force the electric utility industry to have more installed generating capacity than the average load requires. Energy storage can increase the utilization of base-load fossil and nuclear power plants for electric utilities. Superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) systems, which will store and deliver electrical energy for load leveling, peak shaving, and the stabilization of electric utility networks are being developed. In the fusion area, inductive energy transfer and storage is also being developed by LASL. Both 1-ms fast-discharge theta-pinch and 1-to-2-s slow tokamak energy transfer systems have been demonstrated. The major components and the method of operation of an SMES unit are described, and potential applications of different size SMES systems in electric power grids are presented. Results are given for a 1-GWh reference design load-leveling unit, for a 30-MJ coil proposed stabilization unit, and for tests with a small-scale, 100-kJ magnetic energy storage system. The results of the fusion energy storage and transfer tests are also presented. The common technology base for the systems is discussed

  11. Secure Storage Architectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aderholdt, Ferrol [Tennessee Technological University; Caldwell, Blake A [ORNL; Hicks, Susan Elaine [ORNL; Koch, Scott M [ORNL; Naughton, III, Thomas J [ORNL; Pogge, James R [Tennessee Technological University; Scott, Stephen L [Tennessee Technological University; Shipman, Galen M [ORNL; Sorrillo, Lawrence [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to clarify the challenges associated with storage for secure enclaves. The major focus areas for the report are: - review of relevant parallel filesystem technologies to identify assets and gaps; - review of filesystem isolation/protection mechanisms, to include native filesystem capabilities and auxiliary/layered techniques; - definition of storage architectures that can be used for customizable compute enclaves (i.e., clarification of use-cases that must be supported for shared storage scenarios); - investigate vendor products related to secure storage. This study provides technical details on the storage and filesystem used for HPC with particular attention on elements that contribute to creating secure storage. We outline the pieces for a a shared storage architecture that balances protection and performance by leveraging the isolation capabilities available in filesystems and virtualization technologies to maintain the integrity of the data. Key Points: There are a few existing and in-progress protection features in Lustre related to secure storage, which are discussed in (Chapter 3.1). These include authentication capabilities like GSSAPI/Kerberos and the in-progress work for GSSAPI/Host-keys. The GPFS filesystem provides native support for encryption, which is not directly available in Lustre. Additionally, GPFS includes authentication/authorization mechanisms for inter-cluster sharing of filesystems (Chapter 3.2). The limitations of key importance for secure storage/filesystems are: (i) restricting sub-tree mounts for parallel filesystem (which is not directly supported in Lustre or GPFS), and (ii) segregation of hosts on the storage network and practical complications with dynamic additions to the storage network, e.g., LNET. A challenge for VM based use cases will be to provide efficient IO forwarding of the parallel filessytem from the host to the guest (VM). There are promising options like para-virtualized filesystems to

  12. Spent nuclear fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanato, Luiz Sergio

    2005-01-01

    When a country becomes self-sufficient in part of the nuclear cycle, as production of fuel that will be used in nuclear power plants for energy generation, it is necessary to pay attention for the best method of storing the spent fuel. Temporary storage of spent nuclear fuel is a necessary practice and is applied nowadays all over the world, so much in countries that have not been defined their plan for a definitive repository, as well for those that already put in practice such storage form. There are two main aspects that involve the spent fuels: one regarding the spent nuclear fuel storage intended to reprocessing and the other in which the spent fuel will be sent for final deposition when the definitive place is defined, correctly located, appropriately characterized as to several technical aspects, and licentiate. This last aspect can involve decades of studies because of the technical and normative definitions at a given country. In Brazil, the interest is linked with the storage of spent fuels that will not be reprocessed. This work analyses possible types of storage, the international panorama and a proposal for future construction of a spent nuclear fuel temporary storage place in the country. (author)

  13. Reference Physiological Ranges for Serum Biochemical Parameters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drugs includes measurement of changes in physiological parameters of subjects from known established baseline ... Methods: After informed consent, blood and urine samples were collected from a total of 576 ... a major public health problem in Cameroon with a .... sample collection, processing, storage and handling.

  14. Nonlinear dynamics aspects of modern storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helleman, R.H.G.; Kheifets, S.A.

    1986-01-01

    It is argued that the nonlinearity of storage rings becomes an essential problem as the design parameters of each new machine are pushed further and further. Yet the familiar methods of classical mechanics do not allow determination of single particle orbits over reasonable lengths of time. It is also argued that the single particle dynamics of a storage ring is possibly one of the cleanest and simplest nonlinear dynamical systems available with very few degrees of freedom. Hence, reasons are found for accelerator physicists to be interested in nonlinear dynamics and for researchers in nonlinear dynamics to be interested in modern storage rings. The more familiar methods of treating nonlinear systems routinely used in acclerator theory are discussed, pointing out some of their limitations and pitfalls. 39 refs., 1 fig

  15. Neutrino Signals in Electron-Capture Storage-Ring Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avraham Gal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Neutrino signals in electron-capture decays of hydrogen-like parent ions P in storage-ring experiments at GSI are reconsidered, with special emphasis placed on the storage-ring quasi-circular motion of the daughter ions D in two-body decays P → D + ν e . It is argued that, to the extent that daughter ions are detected, these detection rates might exhibit modulations with periods of order seconds, similar to those reported in the GSI storage-ring experiments for two-body decay rates. New dedicated experiments in storage rings, or using traps, could explore these modulations.

  16. SOLID-STATE STORAGE DEVICE WITH PROGRAMMABLE PHYSICAL STORAGE ACCESS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    a storage device action request, and the storage device evaluating a first rule of the one or more rules by determining if the received request fulfills request conditions comprised in the first rule, and in the affirmative the storage device performing request actions comprised in the first rule......Embodiments of the present invention includes a method of operating a solid-state storage device, comprising a storage device controller in the storage device receiving a set of one or more rules, each rule comprising (i) one or more request conditions to be evaluated for a storage device action...... request received from a host computer, and (ii) one or more request actions to be performed on a physical address space of a non-volatile storage unit in the solid-state storage device in case the one or more request conditions are fulfilled; the method further comprises: the storage device receiving...

  17. Developing new transportable storage casks for interim dry storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, K.; Iwasa, K.; Araki, K.; Asano, R.

    2004-01-01

    Transportable storage metal casks are to be consistently used during transport and storage for AFR interim dry storage facilities planning in Japan. The casks are required to comply with the technical standards of regulations for both transport (hereinafter called ''transport regulation'') and storage (hereafter called ''storage regulation'') to maintain safety functions (heat transfer, containment, shielding and sub-critical control). In addition to these requirements, it is not planned in normal state to change the seal materials during storage at the storage facility, therefore it is requested to use same seal materials when the casks are transported after storage period. The dry transportable storage metal casks that satisfy the requirements have been developed to meet the needs of the dry storage facilities. The basic policy of this development is to utilize proven technology achieved from our design and fabrication experience, to carry out necessary verification for new designs and to realize a safe and rational design with higher capacity and efficient fabrication

  18. Glass packages in interim storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquet-Francillon, N.

    1994-10-01

    This report summarize the current state of knowledge concerning the behavior of type C waste packages consisting of vitrified high-level solutions produced by reprocessing spent fuel. The composition and the physical and chemical properties of the feed solutions are reviewed, and the vitrification process is described. Sodium alumino-borosilicate glass compositions are generally employed - the glass used at la Hague for LWR fuel solutions, for example, contains 45 % SiO 2 . The major physical, chemical, mechanical and thermal properties of the glass are reviewed. In order to allow their thermal power to diminish, the 3630 glass packages produced (as of January 1993) in the vitrification facilities at Marcoule and La Hague are placed in interim storage for several decades. The actual interim storage period has not been defined, as it is closely related to the concept and organization selected for the final destination of the packages: a geological repository. The glass behavior under irradiation is described. Considerable basic and applied research has been conducted to assess the aqueous leaching behavior of nuclear containment glass. The effects of various repository parameters (temperature, flow rate, nature of the environmental materials) have been investigated. The experimental findings have been used to specify a model describing the kinetics of aqueous corrosion of the glass. More generally all the ''source term'' models developed in France by the CEA or by ANDRA are summarized. (author). 152 refs., 33 figs

  19. PROCESS CONTROL STORAGE SMOKELESS TOBACCO (SNUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Don

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An important aim during smokeless tobacco product (snus storage is keeping its quantitative and qualitative properties. Another significant factor is its biological safety due to its oral way of consumption. The main factors affecting quality during storage are: temperature, relative humidity, air composition, ventilation rate, surrounding products and package. Snus consumption is growing, but till present it was slightly spread in Russia and as a result little studied, thus studying process of its storage is an actual question. The aims of the research were: studying terms and methods of storage that provide constant product’s quality. Samples with different composition were taken for carrying research. Quality evaluation was carried according to standard for tobacco branch methods and to new methods developed in the laboratory of technologies for manufacturing tobacco products. Products were stored at lowered and room temperatures. It is discovered that snus with herbs added can be stored at room temperature and humidity not more than three months. Snus with coffee added can be stored not more than four months without changing its taste. Adding honey to this product slightly decreases its score by sensory evaluation, but remains it possible for consumption. Sensory testing score after storage at lowered temperature has remained unchanged. Optimal terms of storage were found. For room temperature they are: temperature 17-25 °C, relative air humidity 65 – 75 %, for lowered temperature – 5 °C and relative air humidity 50 -60 %. It was discovered that composition of snus and environmental parameters affect its storage duration.

  20. TEE-Based Trusted Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez, Javier; Bonnet, Philippe

    Today, it is safe to assume that any program or data can be compromised, if they are not protected by hardware within a secure area. Systems based on crypto-processors (e.g., a trusted platform module, a smart card or a hardware security module) rely on the properties of tamper resistant hardware...... to establish a tight security parameter around a reduced set of predefined functionalities. Such systems are very secure, but they impose strong constraints on the functionalities, the connectivity or the resources available within the secure area. They have not proven versatile enough to provide mainstream...... trusted storage for personal data. We believe that this role can be taken over by systems equipped with Trusted Execution Environments (TEE), such as ARM’s TrustZone. Indeed, even if TEEs provide weaker security guarantees than crypto-processors, they already provide a secure area on many personal devices...

  1. Thermodynamic analysis of pumped thermal electricity storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, Alexander; Parks, Geoff; Markides, Christos N.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing use of renewable energy technologies for electricity generation, many of which have an unpredictably intermittent nature, will inevitably lead to a greater need for electricity storage. Although there are many existing and emerging storage technologies, most have limitations in terms of geographical constraints, high capital cost or low cycle life, and few are of sufficient scale (in terms of both power and storage capacity) for integration at the transmission and distribution levels. This paper is concerned with a relatively new concept which will be referred to here as Pumped Thermal Electricity Storage (PTES), and which may be able to make a significant contribution towards future storage needs. During charge, PTES makes use of a high temperature ratio heat pump to convert electrical energy into thermal energy which is stored as ‘sensible heat’ in two thermal reservoirs, one hot and one cold. When required, the thermal energy is then converted back to electricity by effectively running the heat pump backwards as a heat engine. The paper focuses on thermodynamic aspects of PTES, including energy and power density, and the various sources of irreversibility and their impact on round-trip efficiency. It is shown that, for given compression and expansion efficiencies, the cycle performance is controlled chiefly by the ratio between the highest and lowest temperatures in each reservoir rather than by the cycle pressure ratio. The sensitivity of round-trip efficiency to various loss parameters has been analysed and indicates particular susceptibility to compression and expansion irreversibility

  2. GAS STORAGE TECHNOLOGY CONSORTIUM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert W. Watson

    2004-10-18

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. To accomplish this objective, the project is divided into three phases that are managed and directed by the GSTC Coordinator. The first phase, Phase 1A, was initiated on September 30, 2003, and was completed on March 31, 2004. Phase 1A of the project included the creation of the GSTC structure, development and refinement of a technical approach (work plan) for deliverability enhancement and reservoir management. This report deals with Phase 1B and encompasses the period July 1, 2004, through September 30, 2004. During this time period there were three main activities. First was the

  3. Aboveground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizzo, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    With the 1988 promulgation of the comprehensive Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations for underground storage of petroleum and hazardous substances, many existing underground storage tank (UST) owners have been considering making the move to aboveground storage. While on the surface, this may appear to be the cure-all to avoiding the underground leakage dilemma, there are many other new and different issues to consider with aboveground storage. The greatest misconception is that by storing materials above ground, there is no risk of subsurface environmental problems. it should be noted that with the aboveground storage tank (AGST) systems, there is still considerable risk of environmental contamination, either by the failure of onground tank bottoms or the spillage of product onto the ground surface where it subsequently finds its way to the ground water. In addition, there are added safety concerns that must be addressed. So what are the other specific areas of concern besides environmental to be addressed when making the decision between underground and aboveground tanks? The primary issues that will be addressed in this paper are: Safety, Product Losses, Cost Comparison of USTs vs AGSTs, Space Availability/Accessibility, Precipitation Handling, Aesthetics and Security, Pending and Existing Regulations

  4. Radioactive waste storage issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunz, D.E.

    1994-01-01

    In the United States we generate greater than 500 million tons of toxic waste per year which pose a threat to human health and the environment. Some of the most toxic of these wastes are those that are radioactively contaminated. This thesis explores the need for permanent disposal facilities to isolate radioactive waste materials that are being stored temporarily, and therefore potentially unsafely, at generating facilities. Because of current controversies involving the interstate transfer of toxic waste, more states are restricting the flow of wastes into - their borders with the resultant outcome of requiring the management (storage and disposal) of wastes generated solely within a state's boundary to remain there. The purpose of this project is to study nuclear waste storage issues and public perceptions of this important matter. Temporary storage at generating facilities is a cause for safety concerns and underscores, the need for the opening of permanent disposal sites. Political controversies and public concern are forcing states to look within their own borders to find solutions to this difficult problem. Permanent disposal or retrievable storage for radioactive waste may become a necessity in the near future in Colorado. Suitable areas that could support - a nuclear storage/disposal site need to be explored to make certain the health, safety and environment of our citizens now, and that of future generations, will be protected

  5. High temperature storage loop :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, David Dennis; Kolb, William J.

    2013-07-01

    A three year plan for thermal energy storage (TES) research was created at Sandia National Laboratories in the spring of 2012. This plan included a strategic goal of providing test capability for Sandia and for the nation in which to evaluate high temperature storage (>650ÀC) technology. The plan was to scope, design, and build a flow loop that would be compatible with a multitude of high temperature heat transfer/storage fluids. The High Temperature Storage Loop (HTSL) would be reconfigurable so that it was useful for not only storage testing, but also for high temperature receiver testing and high efficiency power cycle testing as well. In that way, HTSL was part of a much larger strategy for Sandia to provide a research and testing platform that would be integral for the evaluation of individual technologies funded under the SunShot program. DOEs SunShot program seeks to reduce the price of solar technologies to 6/kWhr to be cost competitive with carbon-based fuels. The HTSL project sought to provide evaluation capability for these SunShot supported technologies. This report includes the scoping, design, and budgetary costing aspects of this effort

  6. Energy storage connection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Eric L.; Borland, Nicholas P.; Dale, Magdelena; Freeman, Belvin; Kite, Kim A.; Petter, Jeffrey K.; Taylor, Brendan F.

    2012-07-03

    A power system for connecting a variable voltage power source, such as a power controller, with a plurality of energy storage devices, at least two of which have a different initial voltage than the output voltage of the variable voltage power source. The power system includes a controller that increases the output voltage of the variable voltage power source. When such output voltage is substantially equal to the initial voltage of a first one of the energy storage devices, the controller sends a signal that causes a switch to connect the variable voltage power source with the first one of the energy storage devices. The controller then causes the output voltage of the variable voltage power source to continue increasing. When the output voltage is substantially equal to the initial voltage of a second one of the energy storage devices, the controller sends a signal that causes a switch to connect the variable voltage power source with the second one of the energy storage devices.

  7. Technology Roadmap: Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-03-01

    Energy storage technologies are valuable components in most energy systems and could be an important tool in achieving a low-carbon future. These technologies allow for the decoupling of energy supply and demand, in essence providing a valuable resource to system operators. There are many cases where energy storage deployment is competitive or near-competitive in today's energy system. However, regulatory and market conditions are frequently ill-equipped to compensate storage for the suite of services that it can provide. Furthermore, some technologies are still too expensive relative to other competing technologies (e.g. flexible generation and new transmission lines in electricity systems). One of the key goals of this new roadmap is to understand and communicate the value of energy storage to energy system stakeholders. This will include concepts that address the current status of deployment and predicted evolution in the context of current and future energy system needs by using a ''systems perspective'' rather than looking at storage technologies in isolation.

  8. Nuclear fuel storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Takashi; Isaka, Shinji.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To increase the spent fuel storage capacity and reduce the installation cost in a nuclear fuel storage facility. Constitution: Fuels handled in the nuclear fuel storage device of the present invention include the following four types: (1) fresh fuels, (2) 100 % reactor core charged fuels, (3) spent fuels just after taking out and (4) fuels after a certain period (for example one half-year) from taking out of the reactor. Reactivity is high for the fuels (1), and some of fuels (2), while low in the fuels (3) (4), Source intensity is strong for the fuels (3) and some of the fuels (2), while it is low for the fuels (1) and (4). Taking notice of the fact that the reactivity, radioactive source intensity and generated after heat are different in the respective fuels, the size of the pool and the storage capacity are increased by the divided storage control. While on the other hand, since the division is made in one identical pool, the control method becomes important, and the working range is restricted by means of a template, interlock, etc., the operation mode of the handling machine is divided into four, etc. for preventing errors. (Kamimura, M.)

  9. WWER spent fuel storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bower, C C; Lettington, C [GEC Alsthom Engineering Systems Ltd., Whetstone (United Kingdom)

    1994-12-31

    Selection criteria for PAKS NPP dry storage system are outlined. They include the following: fuel temperature in storage; sub-criticality assurance (avoidance of criticality for fuel in the unirradiated condition without having to take credit for burn-up); assurance of decay heat removal; dose uptake to the operators and public; protection of environment; volume of waste produced during operation and decommissioning; physical protection of stored irradiated fuel assemblies; IAEA safeguards assurance; storage system versus final disposal route; cost of construction and extent of technology transfer to Hungarian industry. Several available systems are evaluated against these criteria, and as a result the GEC ALSTHOM Modular Vault Dry Store (MVDS) system has been selected. The MVDS is a passively cooled dry storage facility. Its most important technical, safety, licensing and technology transfer characteristics are outlined. On the basis of the experience gained some key questions and considerations related to the East European perspective in the field of spent fuel storage are discussed. 8 figs.

  10. WWER spent fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bower, C.C.; Lettington, C.

    1994-01-01

    Selection criteria for PAKS NPP dry storage system are outlined. They include the following: fuel temperature in storage; sub-criticality assurance (avoidance of criticality for fuel in the unirradiated condition without having to take credit for burn-up); assurance of decay heat removal; dose uptake to the operators and public; protection of environment; volume of waste produced during operation and decommissioning; physical protection of stored irradiated fuel assemblies; IAEA safeguards assurance; storage system versus final disposal route; cost of construction and extent of technology transfer to Hungarian industry. Several available systems are evaluated against these criteria, and as a result the GEC ALSTHOM Modular Vault Dry Store (MVDS) system has been selected. The MVDS is a passively cooled dry storage facility. Its most important technical, safety, licensing and technology transfer characteristics are outlined. On the basis of the experience gained some key questions and considerations related to the East European perspective in the field of spent fuel storage are discussed. 8 figs

  11. The methods of hydrogen storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joubert, J.M.; Cuevas, F.; Latroche, M.; Percheron-Guegan, A.

    2005-01-01

    Hydrogen may be an excellent energy vector owing to its high specific energy. Its low density is however a serious drawback for its storage. Three techniques exist to store hydrogen. Storage under pressure is now performed in composite tanks under pressures around 700 bar. Liquid storage is achieved at cryogenic temperatures. Solid storage is possible in reversible metal hydrides or on high surface area materials. The three storage means are compared in terms of performance, energetic losses and risk. (authors)

  12. Storage and transmission of secondary energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taube, M.

    1979-09-01

    In the area of the total energy flow, possibilities and limits of shifts in time (storage) and in space (transfer) of secondary energy, i.e. electrical, chemical and thermal energy are examined and formulated. These shifts are linked to the qualitative conversions of secondary energy. The multiple technological possibilities, the spectrum of governing factors and the numerous technical and economical parameters show that only a complex optimization is possible. (Auth.)

  13. FLSR - The Frankfurt low energy storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiebing, K.E.; Alexandrov, V.; Doerner, R.; Enz, S.; Kazarinov, N.Yu.; Kruppi, T.; Schempp, A.; Schmidt Boecking, H.; Voelp, M.; Ziel, P.; Dworak, M.; Dilfer, W.

    2010-01-01

    An electrostatic storage ring for low-energy ions with a design energy of 50 keV is presently being set up at the Institut fuer Kernphysik der Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt am Main, Germany (IKF). This new device will provide a basis for new experiments on the dynamics of ionic and molecular collisions, as well as for high precision and time resolved laser spectroscopy. In this article, the design parameters of this instrument are reported.

  14. Federal Interim Storage program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.R.; McBride, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    The DOE has developed a program for providing Federal Interim Storage servies for spent nuclear fuel which complies with the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. Although very little constructive activity in providing storage facilities can be undertaken by DOE until fuel has been certified by NRC as eligible for FIS, DOE planning and background information is such as to provide reasonable assurance that its obligations can be fulfilled when the required certifications have been issued. A fee structure providing fuel recovery of all costs associated with the FIS program, as required by the Act, has been developed. It provides for an equitable distribution of costs among users, based on the quantity of fuel requiring storage

  15. Evolution of clustered storage

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Van de Vyvre, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    The session actually featured two presentations: * Evolution of clustered storage by Lance Hukill, Quantum Corporation * ALICE DAQ - Usage of a Cluster-File System: Quantum StorNext by Pierre Vande Vyvre, CERN-PH the second one prepared at short notice by Pierre (thanks!) to present how the Quantum technologies are being used in the ALICE experiment. The abstract to Mr Hukill's follows. Clustered Storage is a technology that is driven by business and mission applications. The evolution of Clustered Storage solutions starts first at the alignment between End-users needs and Industry trends: * Push-and-Pull between managing for today versus planning for tomorrow * Breaking down the real business problems to the core applications * Commoditization of clients, servers, and target devices * Interchangeability, Interoperability, Remote Access, Centralized control * Oh, and yes, there is a budget and the "real world" to deal with This presentation will talk through these needs and trends, and then ask the question, ...

  16. Costs of Archival Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders Bo; Thirifays, Alex; Kejser, Ulla Bøgvad

    2012-01-01

    to determine the costs of establishing and maintaining a preservation solution destined for long-term preservation of digital materials and to develop a tool capable of doing this operation. In order to fulfill the purposes, the project employed a combination of own and external experience as well as the OAIS......This paper presents an analysis of the cost of archival storage. The study is part of a project conducted by The Danish National Archives, The Royal Library, and The State and University Library to develop a generic cost model for digital preservation (CMDP). The purposes of the study were...... Reference Model as a framework to fully understand and identify the cost critical activities of bit-preservation as described in Archival Storage. We found that the costs of Archival Storage are obviously closely linked to the data volume, but also to the required preservation quality, especially...

  17. Plutonium storage phenomenology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szempruch, R.

    1995-12-01

    Plutonium has been produced, handled, and stored at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities since the 1940s. Many changes have occurred during the last 40 years in the sources, production demands, and end uses of plutonium. These have resulted in corresponding changes in the isotopic composition as well as the chemical and physical forms of the processed and stored plutonium. Thousands of ordinary food pack tin cans have been used successfully for many years to handle and store plutonium. Other containers have been used with equal success. This paper addressees the exceptions to this satisfactory experience. To aid in understanding the challenges of handling plutonium for storage or immobilization the lessons learned from past storage experience and the necessary countermeasures to improve storage performance are discussed

  18. Setting parameters in the cold chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Rodríguez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Breaks in the cold chain are important economic losses in food and pharmaceutical companies. Many of the failures in the cold chain are due to improper adjustment of equipment parameters such as setting the parameters for theoretical conditions, without a corresponding check in normal operation. The companies that transport refrigeratedproducts must be able to adjust the parameters of the equipment in an easy and quick to adapt their functioning to changing environmental conditions. This article presents the results of a study carried out with a food distribution company. The main objective of the study is to verify the effectiveness of Six Sigma as a methodological toolto adjust the equipment in the cold chain. The second objective is more speciÞ c and is to study the impact of: reducing the volume of storage in the truck, the initial temperature of the storage areain the truck and the frequency of defrost in the transport of refrigerated products.

  19. Extended storage of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    This document is the final report on the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme on the Behaviour of Spent Fuel and Storage Facility Components during Long Term Storage (BEFAST-II, 1986-1991). It contains the results on wet and dry spent fuel storage technologies obtained from 16 organizations representing 13 countries who participated in the co-ordinated research programme. Considerable quantities of spent fuel continue to arise and accumulate. Many countries are investigating the option of extended spent fuel storage prior to reprocessing or fuel disposal. Wet storage continues to predominate as an established technology with the construction of additional away-from-reactor storage pools. However, dry storage is increasingly used with most participants considering dry storage concepts for the longer term. Depending on the cladding type options of dry storage in air or inert gas are proposed. Dry storage is becoming widely used as a supplement to wet storage for zirconium alloy clad oxide fuels. Storage periods as long as under wet conditions appear to be feasible. Dry storage will also continue to be used for Al clad and Magnox type fuel. Enhancement of wet storage capacity will remain an important activity. Rod consolidation to increase wet storage capacity will continue in the UK and is being evaluated for LWR fuel in the USA, and may start in some other countries. High density storage racks have been successfully introduced in many existing pools and are planned for future facilities. For extremely long wet storage (≥50 years), there is a need to continue work on fuel integrity investigations and LWR fuel performance modelling. it might be that pool component performance in some cases could be more limiting than the FA storage performance. It is desirable to make concerted efforts in the field of corrosion monitoring and prediction of fuel cladding and poll component behaviour in order to maintain good experience of wet storage. Refs, figs and tabs

  20. Electrochemical energy storage

    CERN Document Server

    Tarascon, Jean-Marie

    2015-01-01

    The electrochemical storage of energy has become essential in assisting the development of electrical transport and use of renewable energies. French researchers have played a key role in this domain but Asia is currently the market leader. Not wanting to see history repeat itself, France created the research network on electrochemical energy storage (RS2E) in 2011. This book discusses the launch of RS2E, its stakeholders, objectives, and integrated structure that assures a continuum between basic research, technological research and industries. Here, the authors will cover the technological

  1. Nuclear fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevilacqua, F.

    1979-01-01

    A method and apparatus for the storage of fuel in a stainless steel egg crate structure within a storage pool are described. Fuel is initially stored in a checkerboard pattern or in each opening if the fuel is of low enrichment. Additional fuel (or fuel of higher enrichment) is later stored by adding stainless steel angled plates within each opening, thereby forming flux traps between the openings. Still higher enrichment fuel is later stored by adding poison plates either with or without the stainless steel angles. 8 claims

  2. FFTF vertical sodium storage tank preliminary thermal analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irwin, J.J.

    1995-01-01

    In the FFTF Shutdown Program, sodium from the primary and secondary heat transport loops, Interim Decay Storage (IDS), and Fuel Storage Facility (FSF) will be transferred to four large storage tanks for temporary storage. Three of the storage tanks will be cylindrical vertical tanks having a diameter of 28 feet, height of 22 feet and fabricated from carbon steel. The fourth tank is a horizontal cylindrical tank but is not the subject of this report. The storage tanks will be located near the FFTF in the 400 Area and rest on a steel-lined concrete slab in an enclosed building. The purpose of this work is to document the thermal analyses that were performed to ensure that the vertical FFTF sodium storage tank design is feasible from a thermal standpoint. The key criterion for this analysis is the time to heat up the storage tank containing frozen sodium at ambient temperature to 400 F. Normal operating conditions include an ambient temperature range of 32 F to 120 F. A key parameter in the evaluation of the sodium storage tank is the type of insulation. The baseline case assumed six inches of calcium silicate insulation. An alternate case assumed refractory fiber (Cerablanket) insulation also with a thickness of six inches. Both cases assumed a total electrical trace heat load of 60 kW, with 24 kW evenly distributed on the bottom head and 36 kW evenly distributed on the tank side wall

  3. CHEMICAL STORAGE: MYTHS VERSUS REALITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, F.

    2007-01-01

    A large number of resources explaining proper chemical storage are available. These resources include books, databases/tables, and articles that explain various aspects of chemical storage including compatible chemical storage, signage, and regulatory requirements. Another source is the chemical manufacturer or distributor who provides storage information in the form of icons or color coding schemes on container labels. Despite the availability of these resources, chemical accidents stemming from improper storage, according to recent reports (1) (2), make up almost 25% of all chemical accidents. This relatively high percentage of chemical storage accidents suggests that these publications and color coding schemes although helpful, still provide incomplete information that may not completely mitigate storage risks. This manuscript will explore some ways published storage information may be incomplete, examine the associated risks, and suggest methods to help further eliminate chemical storage risks

  4. Terrestrial carbon storage dynamics: Chasing a moving target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Y.; Shi, Z.; Jiang, L.; Xia, J.; Wang, Y.; Kc, M.; Liang, J.; Lu, X.; Niu, S.; Ahlström, A.; Hararuk, O.; Hastings, A.; Hoffman, F. M.; Medlyn, B. E.; Rasmussen, M.; Smith, M. J.; Todd-Brown, K. E.; Wang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems have been estimated to absorb roughly 30% of anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Past studies have identified myriad drivers of terrestrial carbon storage changes, such as fire, climate change, and land use changes. Those drivers influence the carbon storage change via diverse mechanisms, which have not been unified into a general theory so as to identify what control the direction and rate of terrestrial carbon storage dynamics. Here we propose a theoretical framework to quantitatively determine the response of terrestrial carbon storage to different exogenous drivers. With a combination of conceptual reasoning, mathematical analysis, and numeric experiments, we demonstrated that the maximal capacity of an ecosystem to store carbon is time-dependent and equals carbon input (i.e., net primary production, NPP) multiplying by residence time. The capacity is a moving target toward which carbon storage approaches (i.e., the direction of carbon storage change) but usually does not attain. The difference between the capacity and the carbon storage at a given time t is the unrealized carbon storage potential. The rate of the storage change is proportional to the magnitude of the unrealized potential. We also demonstrated that a parameter space of NPP, residence time, and carbon storage potential can well characterize carbon storage dynamics quantified at six sites ranging from tropical forests to tundra and simulated by two versions (carbon-only and coupled carbon-nitrogen) of the Australian Community Atmosphere-Biosphere Land Ecosystem (CABLE) Model under three climate change scenarios (CO2 rising only, climate warming only, and RCP8.5). Overall this study reveals the unified mechanism unerlying terrestrial carbon storage dynamics to guide transient traceability analysis of global land models and synthesis of empirical studies.

  5. Duke storage rink UV/VUV FEL: Status and prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litvinenko, V.N.; Burnham, B.; Madey, J.M.J. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The 1 GeV Duke storage ring was successfully commissioned with parameters exceeding initial specification. The OK-4 FEL has arrived at the Duke FEL laboratory from the Novosibirsk Institute of Nuclear Physics. The OK-4 installation and commissioning is in progress. In this paper we describe the up-to-date status of the Duke storage ring and the OK-4 FEL. The projected performance of the OK-4 UV/VUV FEL is presented based on the electron beam parameters achieved. Initial plans to operate the OK-4 UV/VUV FEL at the Duke 1 GeV storage ring are outlined. Future plans and prospects of both the OK-4 FEL and the Duke storage ring are discussed.

  6. Kinetic energy storage system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeggi, M.; Folini, P.

    1983-09-03

    A flywheel system for the purpose of energy storage in decentral solar- or wind energy plants is introduced. The system comprises a rotor made out of plastic fibre, a motor/generator serving as electro-mechanical energy converter and a frequency-voltage transformer serving as electric adapter. The storable energy quantity amounts to several kWh.

  7. Solar Energy: Heat Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Henry H., III

    This module on heat storage is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy technologies. The module…

  8. Benchmarking personal cloud storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drago, Idilio; Bocchi, Enrico; Mellia, Marco; Slatman, Herman; Pras, Aiko

    2013-01-01

    Personal cloud storage services are data-intensive applications already producing a significant share of Internet traffic. Several solutions offered by different companies attract more and more people. However, little is known about each service capabilities, architecture and - most of all -

  9. DPM: Future Proof Storage

    CERN Document Server

    Alvarez, Alejandro; Furano, Fabrizio; Hellmich, Martin; Keeble, Oliver; Rocha, Ricardo; CERN. Geneva. IT Department

    2012-01-01

    The Disk Pool Manager (DPM) is a lightweight solution for grid enabled disk storage management. Operated at more than 240 sites it has the widest distribution of all grid storage solutions in the WLCG infrastructure. It provides an easy way to manage and configure disk pools, and exposes multiple interfaces for data access (rfio, xroot, nfs, gridftp and http/dav) and control (srm). During the last year we have been working on providing stable, high performant data access to our storage system using standard protocols, while extending the storage management functionality and adapting both configuration and deployment procedures to reuse commonly used building blocks. In this contribution we cover in detail the extensive evaluation we have performed of our new HTTP/WebDAV and NFS 4.1 frontends, in terms of functionality and performance. We summarize the issues we faced and the solutions we developed to turn them into valid alternatives to the existing grid protocols - namely the additional work required to prov...

  10. Energy Storage and Retrieval

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Annual Meetings · Mid Year Meetings · Discussion Meetings · Public Lectures · Lecture Workshops · Refresher Courses · Symposia · Live Streaming. Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 6. Energy Storage and Retrieval The Secondary Battery Route. A K Shukla P Vishnu Kamath.

  11. Tuber storage proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewry, Peter R

    2003-06-01

    A wide range of plants are grown for their edible tubers, but five species together account for almost 90 % of the total world production. These are potato (Solanum tuberosum), cassava (Manihot esculenta), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatus), yams (Dioscorea spp.) and taro (Colocasia, Cyrtosperma and Xanthosoma spp.). All of these, except cassava, contain groups of storage proteins, but these differ in the biological properties and evolutionary relationships. Thus, patatin from potato exhibits activity as an acylhydrolase and esterase, sporamin from sweet potato is an inhibitor of trypsin, and dioscorin from yam is a carbonic anhydrase. Both sporamin and dioscorin also exhibit antioxidant and radical scavenging activity. Taro differs from the other three crops in that it contains two major types of storage protein: a trypsin inhibitor related to sporamin and a mannose-binding lectin. These characteristics indicate that tuber storage proteins have evolved independently in different species, which contrasts with the highly conserved families of storage proteins present in seeds. Furthermore, all exhibit biological activities which could contribute to resistance to pests, pathogens or abiotic stresses, indicating that they may have dual roles in the tubers.

  12. Fuel storage rack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mollon, L.

    1977-01-01

    Disclosed is a storage rack for spent nuclear fuel elements comprising a multiplicity of elongated hollow containers of uniform cross-section, preferably square,some of said containers having laterally extending continuous flanges extending between adjacent containers and defining continuous elongated chambers therebetween for the reception of neutron absorbing panels. 18 claims, 7 figures

  13. Carbon Capture and Storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benson, S.M.; Bennaceur, K.; Cook, P.; Davison, J.; Coninck, H. de; Farhat, K.; Ramirez, C.A.; Simbeck, D.; Surles, T.; Verma, P.; Wright, I.

    2012-01-01

    Emissions of carbon dioxide, the most important long-lived anthropogenic greenhouse gas, can be reduced by Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS). CCS involves the integration of four elements: CO 2 capture, compression of the CO2 from a gas to a liquid or a denser gas, transportation of pressurized CO 2

  14. Storage of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pittman, F.K.

    1974-01-01

    Four methods for managing radioactive waste in order to protect man from its potential hazards include: transmutation to convert radioisotopes in waste to stable isotopes; disposal in space; geological disposal; and surface storage in shielded, cooled, and monitored containers. A comparison of these methods shows geologic disposal in stable formations beneath landmasses appears to be the most feasible with today's technology. (U.S.)

  15. NGLW RCRA Storage Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waters, R.J.; Ochoa, R.; Fritz, K.D.; Craig, D.W.

    2000-01-01

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory contains radioactive liquid waste in underground storage tanks at the INTEC Tank Farm Facility (TFF). INTEC is currently treating the waste by evaporation to reduce the liquid volume for continued storage, and by calcination to reduce and convert the liquid to a dry waste form for long-term storage in calcine bins. Both treatment methods and activities in support of those treatment operations result in Newly Generated Liquid Waste (NGLW) being sent to TFF. The storage tanks in the TFF are underground, contained in concrete vaults with instrumentation, piping, transfer jets, and managed sumps in case of any liquid accumulation in the vault. The configuration of these tanks is such that Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations apply. The TFF tanks were assessed several years ago with respect to the RCRA regulations and they were found to be deficient. This study considers the configuration of the current tanks and the RCRA deficiencies identified for each. The study identifies four potential methods and proposes a means of correcting the deficiencies. The cost estimates included in the study account for construction cost; construction methods to minimize work exposure to chemical hazards, radioactive contamination, and ionizing radiation hazards; project logistics; and project schedule. The study also estimates the tank volumes benefit associated with each corrective action to support TFF liquid waste management planning

  16. NGLW RCRA Storage Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. J. Waters; R. Ochoa; K. D. Fritz; D. W. Craig

    2000-06-01

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory contains radioactive liquid waste in underground storage tanks at the INTEC Tank Farm Facility (TFF). INTEC is currently treating the waste by evaporation to reduce the liquid volume for continued storage, and by calcination to reduce and convert the liquid to a dry waste form for long-term storage in calcine bins. Both treatment methods and activities in support of those treatment operations result in Newly Generated Liquid Waste (NGLW) being sent to TFF. The storage tanks in the TFF are underground, contained in concrete vaults with instrumentation, piping, transfer jets, and managed sumps in case of any liquid accumulation in the vault. The configuration of these tanks is such that Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations apply. The TFF tanks were assessed several years ago with respect to the RCRA regulations and they were found to be deficient. This study considers the configuration of the current tanks and the RCRA deficiencies identified for each. The study identifies four potential methods and proposes a means of correcting the deficiencies. The cost estimates included in the study account for construction cost; construction methods to minimize work exposure to chemical hazards, radioactive contamination, and ionizing radiation hazards; project logistics; and project schedule. The study also estimates the tank volumes benefit associated with each corrective action to support TFF liquid waste management planning.

  17. A solar air collector with integrated latent heat thermal storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimes Lubomir

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Simulations of the behaviour of a solar air collector with integrated latent heat thermal storage were performed. The model of the collector was created with the use of coupling between TRNSYS 17 and MATLAB. Latent heat storage (Phase Change Material - PCM was integrated with the solar absorber. The model of the latent heat storage absorber was created in MATLAB and the model of the solar air collector itself was created in TRNSYS with the use of TYPE 56. The model of the latent heat storage absorber allows specification of the PCM properties as well as other parameters. The simulated air collector was the front and back pass collector with the absorber in the middle of the air cavity. Two variants were considered for comparison; the light-weight absorber made of sheet metal and the heat-storage absorber with the PCM. Simulations were performed for the climatic conditions of the Czech Republic (using TMY weather data.

  18. Spent-fuel-storage alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The Spent Fuel Storage Alternatives meeting was a technical forum in which 37 experts from 12 states discussed storage alternatives that are available or are under development. The subject matter was divided into the following five areas: techniques for increasing fuel storage density; dry storage of spent fuel; fuel characterization and conditioning; fuel storage operating experience; and storage and transport economics. Nineteen of the 21 papers which were presented at this meeting are included in this Proceedings. These have been abstracted and indexed. (ATT)

  19. Economics of dry storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, G.R.; Winders, R.C.

    1980-01-01

    This paper postulates a dry storage application suitable as a regional away-from-reactor storage (AFR), develops an economical system design concept and estimates system costs. The system discussed uses the experience gained in the dry storage research activities and attempts to present a best foot forward system concept. The major element of the system is the Receiving and Packaging Building. In this building fuel assemblies are removed from transportation casks and encapsulated for storage. This facility could be equally applicable to silo, vault, or caisson storage. However the caisson storage concept has been chosen for discussion purposes

  20. The energy efficiency ratio of heat storage in one shell-and-one tube phase change thermal energy storage unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Wei-Wei; Wang, Liang-Bi; He, Ya-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A parameter to indicate the energy efficiency ratio of PCTES units is defined. • The characteristics of the energy efficiency ratio of PCTES units are reported. • A combined parameter of the physical properties of the working mediums is found. • Some implications of the energy efficiency ratio in design of PCTES units are analyzed. - Abstract: From aspect of energy consuming to pump heat transfer fluid, there is no sound basis on which to create an optimum design of a thermal energy storage unit. Thus, it is necessary to develop a parameter to indicate the energy efficiency of such unit. This paper firstly defines a parameter that indicates the ratio of heat storage of phase change thermal energy storage unit to energy consumed in pumping heat transfer fluid, which is called the energy efficiency ratio, then numerically investigates the characteristics of this parameter. The results show that the energy efficiency ratio can clearly indicate the energy efficiency of a phase change thermal energy storage unit. When the fluid flow of a heat transfer fluid is in a laminar state, the energy efficiency ratio is larger than in a turbulent state. The energy efficiency ratio of a shell-and-tube phase change thermal energy storage unit is more sensitive to the outer tube diameter. Under the same working conditions, within the heat transfer fluids studied, the heat storage property of the phase change thermal energy storage unit is best for water as heat transfer fluid. A combined parameter is found to indicate the effects of both the physical properties of phase change material and heat transfer fluid on the energy efficiency ratio

  1. Silo Storage Preconceptual Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephanie L. Austad; Patrick W. Bragassa; Kevin M Croft; David S Ferguson; Scott C Gladson; Annette L Shafer; John H Weathersby

    2012-09-01

    The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) has a need to develop and field a low-cost option for the long-term storage of a variety of radiological material. The storage option’s primary requirement is to provide both environmental and physical protection of the materials. Design criteria for this effort require a low initial cost and minimum maintenance over a 50-year design life. In 1999, Argonne National Laboratory-West was tasked with developing a dry silo storage option for the BN-350 Spent Fuel in Aktau Kazakhstan. Argon’s design consisted of a carbon steel cylinder approximately 16 ft long, 18 in. outside diameter and 0.375 in. wall thickness. The carbon steel silo was protected from corrosion by a duplex coating system consisting of zinc and epoxy. Although the study indicated that the duplex coating design would provide a design life well in excess of the required 50 years, the review board was concerned because of the novelty of the design and the lack of historical use. In 2012, NNSA tasked Idaho National Laboratory (INL) with reinvestigating the silo storage concept and development of alternative corrosion protection strategies. The 2012 study, “Silo Storage Concepts, Cathodic Protection Options Study” (INL/EST-12-26627), concludes that the option which best fits the design criterion is a passive cathotic protection scheme, consisting of a carbon steel tube coated with zinc or a zinc-aluminum alloy encapsulated in either concrete or a cement grout. The hot dipped zinc coating option was considered most efficient, but the flame-sprayed option could be used if a thicker zinc coating was determined to be necessary.

  2. Feasibility study and economic analysis of pumped hydro storage and battery storage for a renewable energy powered island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Tao; Yang, Hongxing; Lu, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Batteries and pumped hydro storage schemes are examined. • Sizing procedure for each option is investigated in detail. • The two schemes are compared in terms of life cycle cost and technical viability. • Sensitivity analyses are conducted on five key input parameters. - Abstract: This study examined and compared two energy storage technologies, i.e. batteries and pumped hydro storage (PHS), for the renewable energy powered microgrid power supply system on a remote island in Hong Kong. The problems of energy storage for off-grid renewable energy were analyzed. The sizing methods and economic models were developed, and finally applied in the real project (case study). The results provide the most suitable energy storage scheme for local decision-makers. The two storage schemes were further divided into 4 options. Accordingly, the life-cycle costs (LCC), levelized costs for the renewable energy storage system (LCRES) and the LCC ratios between all options were calculated and compared. It was found that the employment of conventional battery (Option 2) had a higher LCC value than the advanced deep cycle battery (Option 1), indicating that using deep cycle batteries is more suitable for a standalone renewable power supply system. The pumped storage combined with battery bank option (Option 3) had only 55% LCC of that of Option 1, making this combined option more cost-competitive than the sole battery option. The economic benefit of pumped storage is even more significant in the case of purely pumped storage with a hydraulic controller (Option 4), with the lowest LCC among all options at 29–48% of Option 1. Sensitivity analysis demonstrates that PHS is even more cost competitive by controlling some adjustments such as increasing energy storage capacity and days of autonomy. Therefore, the renewable energy system coupled with pumped storage presents technically feasible opportunities and practical potential for continuous power supply in remote

  3. Canister Storage Building (CSB) Design Basis Accident Analysis Documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CROWE, R.D.

    1999-09-09

    This document provides the detailed accident analysis to support ''HNF-3553, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Final Safety, Analysis Report, Annex A,'' ''Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report.'' All assumptions, parameters, and models used to provide the analysis of the design basis accidents are documented to support the conclusions in the Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report.

  4. CHARACTERISTICS OFBENTHIC FISH COMMUNITY OF DNIEPER STORAGE POOL LITTORAL ZONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novitskiy R. A.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Specific composition of bull-calves is analyzed together with their quantitative and quality parameters in the littoral zone of the Dnepr storage pool. The structural-functional features of organization of littoral communities of bull-calves were studied. The patterns of spatial distribution of Bull-calf (Gobiidae representatives were analyzed for the storage pool; their role in the littoral fish communities was clarified.

  5. NV Energy Electricity Storage Valuation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellison, James F.; Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Samaan, Nader A.; Jin, Chunlian

    2013-06-30

    This study examines how grid-level electricity storage may benet the operations of NV Energy in 2020, and assesses whether those benets justify the cost of the storage system. In order to determine how grid-level storage might impact NV Energy, an hourly production cost model of the Nevada Balancing Authority (\\BA") as projected for 2020 was built and used for the study. Storage facilities were found to add value primarily by providing reserve. Value provided by the provision of time-of-day shifting was found to be limited. If regulating reserve from storage is valued the same as that from slower ramp rate resources, then it appears that a reciprocating engine generator could provide additional capacity at a lower cost than a pumped storage hydro plant or large storage capacity battery system. In addition, a 25-MW battery storage facility would need to cost $650/kW or less in order to produce a positive Net Present Value (NPV). However, if regulating reserve provided by storage is considered to be more useful to the grid than that from slower ramp rate resources, then a grid-level storage facility may have a positive NPV even at today's storage system capital costs. The value of having storage provide services beyond reserve and time-of-day shifting was not assessed in this study, and was therefore not included in storage cost-benefit calculations.

  6. Storage Policies and Optimal Shape of a Storage System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaerpour, N.; De Koster, René; Yu, Yugang

    2013-01-01

    The response time of a storage system is mainly influenced by its shape (configuration), the storage assignment and retrieval policies, and the location of the input/output (I/O) points. In this paper, we show that the optimal shape of a storage system, which minimises the response time for single

  7. Energetic and economic evaluations on hydrogen storage technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arca, S.; Di Profio, P.; Germani, R. [Perugia Univ., Perugia (Italy). Centro di Eccellenza Materiali Innovativi Nanostrutturati, Dip. Chimica; Savelli, G.; Cotana, F.; Rossi, F.; Amantini, M. [Universita degli Studi di Perugia, Perugia (Italy). Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, Sezione di Fisica Tecnica

    2008-07-01

    With the development of the hydrogen economy and fuel cell vehicles, a major technological issue has emerged regarding the storage and delivery of large amounts of hydrogen. Several hydrogen storage methodologies are available while other technologies are being developed aside from the classical compression and liquefaction of hydrogen. A novel technology is also in rapid process, which is based on clathrate hydrates of hydrogen. The features and performances of available storage systems were evaluated in an effort to determine the best technology throughout the hydrogen chain. For each of the storage solutions presented, the key parameters were compared. These key parameters included interaction energy between hydrogen and support; real and practical storage capacity; and specific energy consumption. The paper presented the study methods and discussed hydrogen storage technologies using compressed hydrogen; metal hydrides; liquefied hydrogen; carbon nanotubes; ammonia; and gas hydrates. Carbon dioxide emissions were also evaluated for each storage system analyzed. The paper also presented the worst scenario. It was concluded that a technology based on clathrate hydrates of hydrogen, while being far from optimized, was highly competitive with the classical approaches. 21 refs., 9 figs.

  8. PARÁMETROS FISICOQUÍMICOS DURANTE EL ALMACENAMIENTO DE SALCHICHAS ELABORADAS A PARTIR DE TILAPIA ROJA (Oreochromis sp. PARÂMETROS FISICO-QUÍMICOS DURANTE O ARMAZENAMENTO DE SALSICHAS FEITAS DE TILAPIA VERMELHA (Oreochromis sp. PHYSICOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS DURING STORAGE OF SAUSAGES MADE FROM RED TILAPIA (Oreochromis sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ IGOR HLEAP Z.

    2012-06-01

    ísico-químicos. As salsichas foram preparadas seguindo o procedimento desenvolvido no Laboratório de Tecnologia de Carnes, da Universidade Nacional da Colômbia - Palmira de um colar de tilapia previamente preparado. Determinada umidade, proteína, carboidrato, gordura, cinzas, valor energético, pH, capacidade de retenção de umidade e atividade de água. As descobertas sugerem que o valor nutricional e funcional da salsicha não e alterada durante os primeiros 30 dias de armazenamento, que são consistentes com os dados relatados na literatura, para salsichas feitas de carne crua demais.The growth of aquaculture of red tilapia (Oreochromis sp. in Colombia has allowed the development of food products of higher added value. One of these products are sausages Frankfurt. The aim of this study was to analyze the physicochemical parameters that affect the shelf life of sausages, prepared with addition of sagu starch (Maranthaarundinacea as a binder or extender material. The raised design allowed evaluation of sausages packed under vacuum and under refrigeration (2 °C ± 2 °C at 0, 2, 6, 10, 15, 22, 27, 31, 45, 58, 100 and 120 days of storage for physicochemical parameters. The sausages were prepared following the procedure developed at the Laboratory of Meat Technology, National University of Colombia - Palmira from a previously prepared tilapia paste. Determined moisture, protein, fat carbohydrate, ash, energy, value, pH, moisture holding capacity and water activity. The findings suggest that the nutritional and functional value of the sausage is not altered during first 30 days of storage, which are consistent with data reported in the literature, for sausages made from other raw meat.

  9. Trigenerative micro compressed air energy storage: Concept and thermodynamic assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facci, Andrea L.; Sánchez, David; Jannelli, Elio; Ubertini, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The trigenerative-CAES concept is introduced. • The thermodynamic feasibility of the trigenerative-CAES is assessed. • The effects of the relevant parameter on the system performances are dissected. • Technological issues on the trigenerative-CAES are highlighted. - Abstract: Energy storage is a cutting edge front for renewable and sustainable energy research. In fact, a massive exploitation of intermittent renewable sources, such as wind and sun, requires the introduction of effective mechanical energy storage systems. In this paper we introduce the concept of a trigenerative energy storage based on a compressed air system. The plant in study is a simplified design of the adiabatic compressed air energy storage and accumulates mechanical and thermal (both hot and cold) energy at the same time. We envisage the possibility to realize a relatively small size trigenerative compressed air energy storage to be placed close to the energy demand, according to the distributed generation paradigm. Here, we describe the plant concept and we identify all the relevant parameters influencing its thermodynamic behavior. Their effects are dissected through an accurate thermodynamic model. The most relevant technological issues, such as the guidelines for a proper choice of the compressor, expander and heat exchangers are also addressed. Our results show that T-CAES may have an interesting potential as a distributed system that combines electricity storage with heat and cooling energy production. We also show that the performances are significantly influenced by some operating and design parameters, whose feasibility in real applications must be considered.

  10. Synthetic methane for power storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botta, G.; Barankin, Michael; Walspurger, S.

    2013-01-01

    With increased share of energy generated from variable renewable sources, storage becomes a critical issue to ensure constantly balanced supply/demand. Methane is a promising vector for energy storage and transport.

  11. Hydrogen Storage Technical Team Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-06-01

    The mission of the Hydrogen Storage Technical Team is to accelerate research and innovation that will lead to commercially viable hydrogen-storage technologies that meet the U.S. DRIVE Partnership goals.

  12. Underground Storage Tanks in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Underground storage tank (UST) sites which store petroleum in Iowa. Includes sites which have been reported to DNR, and have active or removed underground storage...

  13. Storage Viability and Optimization Web Service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Christ; Lai, Judy; Siddiqui, Afzal; Limpaitoon, Tanachai; Phan, Trucy; Megel, Olivier; Chang, Jessica; DeForest, Nicholas

    2010-10-11

    Non-residential sectors offer many promising applications for electrical storage (batteries) and photovoltaics (PVs). However, choosing and operating storage under complex tariff structures poses a daunting technical and economic problem that may discourage potential customers and result in lost carbon and economic savings. Equipment vendors are unlikely to provide adequate environmental analysis or unbiased economic results to potential clients, and are even less likely to completely describe the robustness of choices in the face of changing fuel prices and tariffs. Given these considerations, researchers at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) have designed the Storage Viability and Optimization Web Service (SVOW): a tool that helps building owners, operators and managers to decide if storage technologies and PVs merit deeper analysis. SVOW is an open access, web-based energy storage and PV analysis calculator, accessible by secure remote login. Upon first login, the user sees an overview of the parameters: load profile, tariff, technologies, and solar radiation location. Each parameter has a pull-down list of possible predefined inputs and users may upload their own as necessary. Since the non-residential sectors encompass a broad range of facilities with fundamentally different characteristics, the tool starts by asking the users to select a load profile from a limited cohort group of example facilities. The example facilities are categorized according to their North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) code. After the load profile selection, users select a predefined tariff or use the widget to create their own. The technologies and solar radiation menus operate in a similar fashion. After these four parameters have been inputted, the users have to select an optimization setting as well as an optimization objective. The analytic engine of SVOW is LBNL?s Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM), which is a mixed

  14. Data storage as a service

    OpenAIRE

    Tomšič, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the thesis was comparison of interfaces to network attached file systems and object storage. The thesis describes network file system and mounting procedure in Linux operating system. Object storage and distributed storage systems are explained with examples of usage. Amazon S3 is an example of object store with access trough REST interface. Ceph, a system for distributed object storage, is explained in detail, and a Ceph cluster was deployed for the purpose of this thesis. Cep...

  15. Mass storage for microprocessor farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Areti, H.

    1990-01-01

    Experiments in high energy physics require high density and high speed mass storage. Mass storage is needed for data logging during the online data acquisition, data retrieval and storage during the event reconstruction and data manipulation during the physics analysis. This paper examines the storage and speed requirements at the first two stages of the experiments and suggests a possible starting point to deal with the problem. 3 refs., 3 figs

  16. Guidebook on spent fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The Guidebook summarizes the experience and information in various areas related to spent fuel storage: technological aspects, the transport of spent fuel, economical, regulatory and institutional aspects, international safeguards, evaluation criteria for the selection of a specific spent fuel storage concept, international cooperation on spent fuel storage. The last part of the Guidebook presents specific problems on the spent fuel storage in the United Kingdom, Sweden, USSR, USA, Federal Republic of Germany and Switzerland

  17. Dependable Benchmarking for Storage Systems in High-Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Fleri Soler, Edward

    2017-01-01

    In high-energy physics, storage systems play a crucial role to store and secure very valuable data produced by complex experiments. The effectiveness and efficiency of data acquisition systems of such experiments depends directly on those of these storage systems. Coping with present day rates and reliability requirements of such experiments implies operating high-performance hardware under the best possible conditions, with a broad set of hardware and software parameters existing along the hierarchical levels, from networks down to drives. An extensive number of tests are required for the tuning of parameters to achieve optimised I/O operations. Current approaches to I/O optimisation generally consist of manual test execution and result taking. This approach lacks appropriate modularity, durability and reproducibility, attainable through dedicated testing facilities. The aim of this project is to conceive a user-friendly, dedicated storage benchmarking tool for the improved comparison of I/O parameters in re...

  18. Concrete storage cask for interim storage of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabemoto, Toyonobu; Fujiwara, Hiroaki; Kobayashi, Shunji; Shionaga, Ryosuke

    2004-01-01

    Experiments and analytical evaluation of the fabrication, non-destructive inspection and structural integrity of reinforced concrete body for storage casks were carried out to demonstrate the concrete storage cask for spent fuel generated from nuclear power plants. Analytical survey on the type of concrete material and fabrication method of the storage cask was performed and the most suitable fabrication method for the concrete body was identified to reduce concrete cracking. The structural integrity of the concrete body of the storage cask under load conditions during storage was confirmed and the long term integrity of concrete body against degradation dependent on environmental factors was evaluated. (author)

  19. A Novel Pumped Hydro Combined with Compressed Air Energy Storage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erren Yao

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A novel pumped hydro combined with compressed air energy storage (PHCA system is proposed in this paper to resolve the problems of bulk energy storage in the wind power generation industry over an area in China, which is characterised by drought and water shortages. Thermodynamic analysis of the energy storage system, which focuses on the pre-set pressure, storage volume capacity, water air volume ratio, pump performance, and water turbine performance of the storage system, is also presented. This paper discovers how such parameters affect the performance of the whole system. The ideal performance of this novel system has the following advantages: a simple, highly effective and low cost structure, which is comparable to the efficiency of a traditional pumped hydro storage system. Research results show a great solution to the current storage constraints encountered in the development of the wind power industry in China, which have been widely recognised as a bottleneck in the wind energy storage industry.

  20. Analysis of multi cloud storage applications for resource constrained mobile devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Kumar Bedi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cloud storage, which can be a surrogate for all physical hardware storage devices, is a term which gives a reflection of an enormous advancement in engineering (Hung et al., 2012. However, there are many issues that need to be handled when accessing cloud storage on resource constrained mobile devices due to inherent limitations of mobile devices as limited storage capacity, processing power and battery backup (Yeo et al., 2014. There are many multi cloud storage applications available, which handle issues faced by single cloud storage applications. In this paper, we are providing analysis of different multi cloud storage applications developed for resource constrained mobile devices to check their performance on the basis of parameters as battery consumption, CPU usage, data usage and time consumed by using mobile phone device Sony Xperia ZL (smart phone on WiFi network. Lastly, conclusion and open research challenges in these multi cloud storage apps are discussed.

  1. Normal matter storage of antiprotons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, L.J.

    1987-01-01

    Various simple issues connected with the possible storage of anti p in relative proximity to normal matter are discussed. Although equilibrium storage looks to be impossible, condensed matter systems are sufficiently rich and controllable that nonequilibrium storage is well worth pursuing. Experiments to elucidate the anti p interactions with normal matter are suggested. 32 refs

  2. Digital device for synchronous storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobzar', Yu.M.; Kovtun, V.G.; Pashechko, N.I.

    1991-01-01

    Synchronous storage digital device for IR electron-photon emission spectrometer operating with analogue-to-digital converter F4223 or monocrystal converter K572PV1 is described. The device accomplished deduction of noise-background in each storage cycle. Summation and deduction operational time equals 90 ns, device output code discharge - 20, number of storages -2 23

  3. Volatile liquid storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laverman, R.J.; Winters, P.J.; Rinehart, J.K.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a method of collecting and abating emission from a volatile liquid in an above ground storage tank. It comprises the liquid storage tank having a bottom, a vertical cylindrical circular wall having a lower edge portion joined to the bottom, and an external fixed roof, the tank having an internal floating roof floating on a volatile liquid stored in the tank, and air vent means in the tank in communication with a vapor space in the tank constituting at least the space above the floating roof when the floating roof floats on a predetermined maximum volume of volatile liquid in the tank; permitting ambient air; pumping emission laden air from the tank vapor space above the floating roof; and by means of the emissions abatement apparatus eliminating most of the emission from the emissions laden air with formation of a gaseous effluent and then discharging the resulting gaseous effluent to the atmosphere

  4. Superconducting magnetic energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, J.D.

    1976-01-01

    Fusion power production requires energy storage and transfer on short time scales to create confining magnetic fields and for heating plasmas. The theta-pinch Scyllac Fusion Test Reactor (SFTR) requires 480 MJ of energy to drive the 5-T compression field with a 0.7-ms rise time. Tokamak Experimental Power Reactors (EPR) require 1 to 2 GJ of energy with a 1 to 2-s rise time for plasma ohmic heating. The design, development, and testing of four 300-kJ energy storage coils to satisfy the SFTR needs are described. Potential rotating machinery and homopolar energy systems for both the Reference Theta-Pinch Reactor (RTPR) and tokamak ohmic-heating are presented

  5. Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassenzahl, W.

    1989-01-01

    Recent programmatic developments in Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) have prompted renewed and widespread interest in this field. In mid 1987 the Defense Nuclear Agency, acting for the Strategic Defense Initiative Office issued a request for proposals for the design and construction of SMES Engineering Test Model (ETM). Two teams, one led by Bechtel and the other by Ebasco, are now engaged in the first phase of the development of a 10 to 20 MWhr ETM. This report presents the rationale for energy storage on utility systems, describes the general technology of SMES, and explains the chronological development of the technology. The present ETM program is outlined; details of the two projects for ETM development are described in other papers in these proceedings. The impact of high Tc materials on SMES is discussed

  6. Entangled Cloud Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ateniese, Giuseppe; Dagdelen, Özgür; Damgård, Ivan Bjerre

    2012-01-01

    keeps the files in it private but still lets each client P_i recover his own data by interacting with S; no cooperation from other clients is needed. At the same time, the cloud provider is discouraged from altering or overwriting any significant part of c as this will imply that none of the clients can......Entangled cloud storage enables a set of clients {P_i} to “entangle” their files {f_i} into a single clew c to be stored by a (potentially malicious) cloud provider S. The entanglement makes it impossible to modify or delete significant part of the clew without affecting all files in c. A clew...... recover their files. We provide theoretical foundations for entangled cloud storage, introducing the notion of an entangled encoding scheme that guarantees strong security requirements capturing the properties above. We also give a concrete construction based on privacy-preserving polynomial interpolation...

  7. Optical information storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woike, T.

    1996-01-01

    In order to increase storage capacity and data transfer velocity by about three orders of magnitude compared to CD or magnetic disc it is necessary to work with optical techniques, especially with holography. About 100 TByte can be stored in a waver of an area of 50 cm 2 via holograms which corresponds to a density of 2.10 9 Byte/mm 2 . Every hologram contains data of 1 MByte, so that parallel-processing is possible for read-out. Using high-speed CCD-arrays a read-out velocity of 1 MByte/μsec can be reached. Further, holographic technics are very important in solid state physics. We will discuss the existence of a space charge field in Sr 1-x Ba x Nb 2 O 6 doped with cerium and the physical properties of metastable states, which are suited for information storage. (author) 19 figs., 9 refs

  8. Alternatives for water basin spent fuel storage using pin storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viebrock, J.M.; Carlson, R.W.

    1979-09-01

    The densest tolerable form for storing spent nuclear fuel is storage of only the fuel rods. This eliminates the space between the fuel rods and frees the hardware to be treated as non-fuel waste. The storage density can be as much as 1.07 MTU/ft 2 when racks are used that just satisfy the criticality and thermal limitations. One of the major advantages of pin storage is that it is compatible with existing racks; however, this reduces the storage density to 0.69 MTU/ft 2 . Even this is a substantial increase over the 0.39 MTU/ft 2 that is achievable with current high capacity stainless steel racks which have been selected as the bases for comparison. Disassembly requires extensive operation on the fuel assembly to remove the upper end fitting and to extract the fuel rods from the assembly skeleton. These operations will be performed with the aid of an elevator to raise the assembly where each fuel rod is grappled. Lowering the elevator will free the fuel rod for transfer to the storage canister. A storage savings of $1510 per MTU can be realized if the pin storage concept is incorporated at a new away-from-reactor facility. The storage cost ranges from $3340 to $7820 per MTU of fuel stored with the lower cost applying to storage at an existing away-from-reactor storage facility and the higher cost applying to at-reactor storage

  9. Energy Storage Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Carolyn R.; Jankovsky, Amy L.; Reid, Concha M.; Miller, Thomas B.; Hoberecht, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Exploration Technology Development Program funded the Energy Storage Project to develop battery and fuel cell technology to meet the expected energy storage needs of the Constellation Program for human exploration. Technology needs were determined by architecture studies and risk assessments conducted by the Constellation Program, focused on a mission for a long-duration lunar outpost. Critical energy storage needs were identified as batteries for EVA suits, surface mobility systems, and a lander ascent stage; fuel cells for the lander and mobility systems; and a regenerative fuel cell for surface power. To address these needs, the Energy Storage Project developed advanced lithium-ion battery technology, targeting cell-level safety and very high specific energy and energy density. Key accomplishments include the development of silicon composite anodes, lithiated-mixed-metal-oxide cathodes, low-flammability electrolytes, and cell-incorporated safety devices that promise to substantially improve battery performance while providing a high level of safety. The project also developed "non-flow-through" proton-exchange-membrane fuel cell stacks. The primary advantage of this technology set is the reduction of ancillary parts in the balance-of-plant--fewer pumps, separators and related components should result in fewer failure modes and hence a higher probability of achieving very reliable operation, and reduced parasitic power losses enable smaller reactant tanks and therefore systems with lower mass and volume. Key accomplishments include the fabrication and testing of several robust, small-scale nonflow-through fuel cell stacks that have demonstrated proof-of-concept. This report summarizes the project s goals, objectives, technical accomplishments, and risk assessments. A bibliography spanning the life of the project is also included.

  10. DPM: Future Proof Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Alejandro; Beche, Alexandre; Furano, Fabrizio; Hellmich, Martin; Keeble, Oliver; Rocha, Ricardo

    2012-12-01

    The Disk Pool Manager (DPM) is a lightweight solution for grid enabled disk storage management. Operated at more than 240 sites it has the widest distribution of all grid storage solutions in the WLCG infrastructure. It provides an easy way to manage and configure disk pools, and exposes multiple interfaces for data access (rfio, xroot, nfs, gridftp and http/dav) and control (srm). During the last year we have been working on providing stable, high performant data access to our storage system using standard protocols, while extending the storage management functionality and adapting both configuration and deployment procedures to reuse commonly used building blocks. In this contribution we cover in detail the extensive evaluation we have performed of our new HTTP/WebDAV and NFS 4.1 frontends, in terms of functionality and performance. We summarize the issues we faced and the solutions we developed to turn them into valid alternatives to the existing grid protocols - namely the additional work required to provide multi-stream transfers for high performance wide area access, support for third party copies, credential delegation or the required changes in the experiment and fabric management frameworks and tools. We describe new functionality that has been added to ease system administration, such as different filesystem weights and a faster disk drain, and new configuration and monitoring solutions based on the industry standards Puppet and Nagios. Finally, we explain some of the internal changes we had to do in the DPM architecture to better handle the additional load from the analysis use cases.

  11. Tuber Storage Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    SHEWRY, PETER R.

    2003-01-01

    A wide range of plants are grown for their edible tubers, but five species together account for almost 90 % of the total world production. These are potato (Solanum tuberosum), cassava (Manihot esculenta), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatus), yams (Dioscorea spp.) and taro (Colocasia, Cyrtosperma and Xanthosoma spp.). All of these, except cassava, contain groups of storage proteins, but these differ in the biological properties and evolutionary relationships. Thus, patatin from potato exhibits act...

  12. Large mass storage facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peskin, Arnold M.

    1978-08-01

    This is the final report of a study group organized to investigate questions surrounding the acquisition of a large mass storage facility. The programatic justification for such a system at Brookhaven is reviewed. Several candidate commercial products are identified and discussed. A draft of a procurement specification is developed. Some thoughts on possible new directions for computing at Brookhaven are also offered, although this topic was addressed outside of the context of the group's deliberations. 2 figures, 3 tables.

  13. Compact Holographic Data Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, T. H.; Reyes, G. F.; Zhou, H.

    2001-01-01

    NASA's future missions would require massive high-speed onboard data storage capability to Space Science missions. For Space Science, such as the Europa Lander mission, the onboard data storage requirements would be focused on maximizing the spacecraft's ability to survive fault conditions (i.e., no loss in stored science data when spacecraft enters the 'safe mode') and autonomously recover from them during NASA's long-life and deep space missions. This would require the development of non-volatile memory. In order to survive in the stringent environment during space exploration missions, onboard memory requirements would also include: (1) survive a high radiation environment (1 Mrad), (2) operate effectively and efficiently for a very long time (10 years), and (3) sustain at least a billion write cycles. Therefore, memory technologies requirements of NASA's Earth Science and Space Science missions are large capacity, non-volatility, high-transfer rate, high radiation resistance, high storage density, and high power efficiency. JPL, under current sponsorship from NASA Space Science and Earth Science Programs, is developing a high-density, nonvolatile and rad-hard Compact Holographic Data Storage (CHDS) system to enable large-capacity, high-speed, low power consumption, and read/write of data in a space environment. The entire read/write operation will be controlled with electrooptic mechanism without any moving parts. This CHDS will consist of laser diodes, photorefractive crystal, spatial light modulator, photodetector array, and I/O electronic interface. In operation, pages of information would be recorded and retrieved with random access and high-speed. The nonvolatile, rad-hard characteristics of the holographic memory will provide a revolutionary memory technology meeting the high radiation challenge facing the Europa Lander mission. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  14. Disk Storage Server

    CERN Multimedia

    This model was a disk storage server used in the Data Centre up until 2012. Each tray contains a hard disk drive (see the 5TB hard disk drive on the main disk display section - this actually fits into one of the trays). There are 16 trays in all per server. There are hundreds of these servers mounted on racks in the Data Centre, as can be seen.

  15. Microbiological and physicochemical profile of traditional Salsiccia toscana during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Preziuso

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the evolution during refrigerated storage of the main microbiological and physicochemical parameters of a traditional Italian fresh sausage, salsiccia toscana. The following parameters were analyzed at Days 0, 6 and 9 of storage: total aerobic mesophilic and psychrotrophic counts, Brochothrix thermosphacta, lactic acid bacteria, Pseudomonadaceae, Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli, Micrococcaceae, yeasts and moulds, Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes; pH, Aw, moisture, protein, total lipids, ash, fatty acid composition, Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances, colour measurement. The results revealed a statistically significant increase in the main microbiological parameters between Days 0 and 9 of refrigerated storage, with total bacterial counts exceeding 107 CFU/g after nine days and Brochothrix thermosphacta representing the main spoilage microorganism. Among physicochemical parameters, discolouration was noted during the time of storage, with a significantly paler colour on the surface of sausages with casings after nine days of storage. Considering that the initial bacterial counts were higher than 105 CFU/g for Brochothrix thermosphacta, Pseudomonadaceae, lactic acid bacteria and Enterobacteriaceae, and that the product is traditionally purchased loose without any packaging, it is fundamental to improve the good manufacturing practices, particularly measures to control processing temperatures.

  16. SXLS storage ring design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    X-ray lithography has emerged as a strong candidate to meet the demands of ever finer linewidths on integrated circuits, particularly for linewidths less than .25 microns. Proximity printing X-ray lithography makes use of soft X-rays to shadow print an image of a mask onto a semiconductor wafer to produce integrated circuits. To generate the required X-rays in sufficient quantities to make commercial production viable, electron storage rings have been proposed as the soft X-ray sources. Existing storage rings have been used to do the initial development work and the success of these efforts has led the lithographers to request that new rings be constructed that are dedicated to X-ray lithography. As a result of a series of workshops held at BNL [10.3] which were attended by both semiconductor and accelerator scientists, the following set of zeroth order specifications' on the light and electron beam of a storage ring for X-ray lithography were developed: critical wavelength of light: λ c = 6 to 10 angstroms, white light power: P = 0.25 to 2.5 watts/mrad, horizontal collection angle per port: θ = 10 to 50 mrad, electron beam sizes: σ x ∼ σ y y ' < 1 mrad

  17. Maui energy storage study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellison, James; Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Karlson, Benjamin

    2012-12-01

    This report investigates strategies to mitigate anticipated wind energy curtailment on Maui, with a focus on grid-level energy storage technology. The study team developed an hourly production cost model of the Maui Electric Company (MECO) system, with an expected 72 MW of wind generation and 15 MW of distributed photovoltaic (PV) generation in 2015, and used this model to investigate strategies that mitigate wind energy curtailment. It was found that storage projects can reduce both wind curtailment and the annual cost of producing power, and can do so in a cost-effective manner. Most of the savings achieved in these scenarios are not from replacing constant-cost diesel-fired generation with wind generation. Instead, the savings are achieved by the more efficient operation of the conventional units of the system. Using additional storage for spinning reserve enables the system to decrease the amount of spinning reserve provided by single-cycle units. This decreases the amount of generation from these units, which are often operated at their least efficient point (at minimum load). At the same time, the amount of spinning reserve from the efficient combined-cycle units also decreases, allowing these units to operate at higher, more efficient levels.

  18. Underground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Environmental contamination from leaking underground storage tanks poses a significant threat to human health and the environment. An estimated five to six million underground storage tanks containing hazardous substances or petroleum products are in use in the US. Originally placed underground as a fire prevention measure, these tanks have substantially reduced the damages from stored flammable liquids. However, an estimated 400,000 underground tanks are thought to be leaking now, and many more will begin to leak in the near future. Products released from these leaking tanks can threaten groundwater supplies, damage sewer lines and buried cables, poison crops, and lead to fires and explosions. As required by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA), the EPA has been developing a comprehensive regulatory program for underground storage tanks. The EPA proposed three sets of regulations pertaining to underground tanks. The first addressed technical requirements for petroleum and hazardous substance tanks, including new tank performance standards, release detection, release reporting and investigation, corrective action, and tank closure. The second proposed regulation addresses financial responsibility requirements for underground petroleum tanks. The third addressed standards for approval of state tank programs

  19. Underground storage of heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despois, J.; Nougarede, F.

    1976-01-01

    The interest laying in heat storage is envisaged taking account of the new energy context, with a view to optimizing the use of production means of heat sources hardly modulated according to the demand. In such a way, a natural medium, without any constructions cost but only an access cost is to be used. So, porous and permeable rocky strata allowing the use of a pressurized water flow as a transfer fluid are well convenient. With such a choice high temperatures (200 deg C) may be obtained, that are suitable for long transmissions. A mathematical model intended for solving the conservation equations in the case of heat storage inside a confined water layer is discussed. An approach of the operating conditions of storage may involve either a line-up arrangement (with the hot drilling at the center, the cold drillings being aligned on both sides) or a radial arrangement (with cold drillings at the peripheral edge encircling the hot drilling at the center of the layer). The three principal problems encountered are: starting drilling, and the circuit insulation and control [fr

  20. Mass storage at NSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Michael F.

    1993-01-01

    The need to manage large amounts of data on robotically controlled devices has been critical to the mission of this Agency for many years. In many respects this Agency has helped pioneer, with their industry counterparts, the development of a number of products long before these systems became commercially available. Numerous attempts have been made to field both robotically controlled tape and optical disk technology and systems to satisfy our tertiary storage needs. Custom developed products were architected, designed, and developed without vendor partners over the past two decades to field workable systems to handle our ever increasing storage requirements. Many of the attendees of this symposium are familiar with some of the older products, such as: the Braegen Automated Tape Libraries (ATL's), the IBM 3850, the Ampex TeraStore, just to name a few. In addition, we embarked on an in-house development of a shared disk input/output support processor to manage our every increasing tape storage needs. For all intents and purposes, this system was a file server by current definitions which used CDC Cyber computers as the control processors. It served us well and was just recently removed from production usage.

  1. Customized electric power storage device for inclusion in a collective microgrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinett, III, Rush D.; Wilson, David G.; Goldsmith, Steven Y.

    2016-02-16

    An electric power storage device is described herein, wherein the electric power storage device is included in a microgrid. The electric power storage device has at least one of a charge rate, a discharge rate, or a power retention capacity that has been customized for a collective microgrid. The collective microgrid includes at least two connected microgrids. The at least one of the charge rate, the discharge rate, or the power retention capacity of the electric power storage device is computed based at least in part upon specified power source parameters in the at least two connected microgrids and specified load parameters in the at least two connected microgrids.

  2. Developing semi-analytical solution for multiple-zone transient storage model with spatially non-uniform storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Baoqing; Si, Yinbing; Wang, Jia

    2017-12-01

    Transient storages may vary along the stream due to stream hydraulic conditions and the characteristics of storage. Analytical solutions of transient storage models in literature didn't cover the spatially non-uniform storage. A novel integral transform strategy is presented that simultaneously performs integral transforms to the concentrations in the stream and in storage zones by using the single set of eigenfunctions derived from the advection-diffusion equation of the stream. The semi-analytical solution of the multiple-zone transient storage model with the spatially non-uniform storage is obtained by applying the generalized integral transform technique to all partial differential equations in the multiple-zone transient storage model. The derived semi-analytical solution is validated against the field data in literature. Good agreement between the computed data and the field data is obtained. Some illustrative examples are formulated to demonstrate the applications of the present solution. It is shown that solute transport can be greatly affected by the variation of mass exchange coefficient and the ratio of cross-sectional areas. When the ratio of cross-sectional areas is big or the mass exchange coefficient is small, more reaches are recommended to calibrate the parameter.

  3. Scalable cloud without dedicated storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batkovich, D. V.; Kompaniets, M. V.; Zarochentsev, A. K.

    2015-05-01

    We present a prototype of a scalable computing cloud. It is intended to be deployed on the basis of a cluster without the separate dedicated storage. The dedicated storage is replaced by the distributed software storage. In addition, all cluster nodes are used both as computing nodes and as storage nodes. This solution increases utilization of the cluster resources as well as improves fault tolerance and performance of the distributed storage. Another advantage of this solution is high scalability with a relatively low initial and maintenance cost. The solution is built on the basis of the open source components like OpenStack, CEPH, etc.

  4. Holographic Optical Data Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timucin, Dogan A.; Downie, John D.; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Although the basic idea may be traced back to the earlier X-ray diffraction studies of Sir W. L. Bragg, the holographic method as we know it was invented by D. Gabor in 1948 as a two-step lensless imaging technique to enhance the resolution of electron microscopy, for which he received the 1971 Nobel Prize in physics. The distinctive feature of holography is the recording of the object phase variations that carry the depth information, which is lost in conventional photography where only the intensity (= squared amplitude) distribution of an object is captured. Since all photosensitive media necessarily respond to the intensity incident upon them, an ingenious way had to be found to convert object phase into intensity variations, and Gabor achieved this by introducing a coherent reference wave along with the object wave during exposure. Gabor's in-line recording scheme, however, required the object in question to be largely transmissive, and could provide only marginal image quality due to unwanted terms simultaneously reconstructed along with the desired wavefront. Further handicapped by the lack of a strong coherent light source, optical holography thus seemed fated to remain just another scientific curiosity, until the field was revolutionized in the early 1960s by some major breakthroughs: the proposition and demonstration of the laser principle, the introduction of off-axis holography, and the invention of volume holography. Consequently, the remainder of that decade saw an exponential growth in research on theory, practice, and applications of holography. Today, holography not only boasts a wide variety of scientific and technical applications (e.g., holographic interferometry for strain, vibration, and flow analysis, microscopy and high-resolution imagery, imaging through distorting media, optical interconnects, holographic optical elements, optical neural networks, three-dimensional displays, data storage, etc.), but has become a prominent am advertising

  5. Fuel performance in water storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoskins, A.P.; Scott, J.G.; Shelton-Davis, C.V.; McDannel, G.E.

    1993-11-01

    Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company operates the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for the Department of Energy (DOE). A variety of different types of fuels have been stored there since the 1950's prior to reprocessing for uranium recovery. In April of 1992, the DOE decided to end fuel reprocessing, changing the mission at ICPP. Fuel integrity in storage is now viewed as long term until final disposition is defined and implemented. Thus, the condition of fuel and storage equipment is being closely monitored and evaluated to ensure continued safe storage. There are four main areas of fuel storage at ICPP: an original underwater storage facility (CPP-603), a modern underwater storage facility (CPP-666), and two dry fuel storage facilities. The fuels in storage are from the US Navy, DOE (and its predecessors the Energy Research and Development Administration and the Atomic Energy Commission), and other research programs. Fuel matrices include uranium oxide, hydride, carbide, metal, and alloy fuels. In the underwater storage basins, fuels are clad with stainless steel, zirconium, and aluminum. Also included in the basin inventory is canned scrap material. The dry fuel storage contains primarily graphite and aluminum type fuels. A total of 55 different fuel types are currently stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. The corrosion resistance of the barrier material is of primary concern in evaluating the integrity of the fuel in long term water storage. The barrier material is either the fuel cladding (if not canned) or the can material

  6. Dry storage of Magnox fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-09-01

    This work, commissioned by the CEGB, studies the feasibility of a combination of short-term pond storage and long-term dry storage of Magnox spent fuel as a cheaper alternative to reprocessing. Storage would be either at the reactor site or a central site. Two designs are considered, based on existing design work done by GEC-ESL and NNC; the capsule design developed by NNC and with storage in passive vaults for up to 100 yrs and the GEC-ESL tube design developed at Wylfa for the interim storage of LWR. For the long-term storage of Magnox spent fuel the GEC-ESL tubed vault all-dry storage method is recommended and specifications for this method are given. (U.K.)

  7. Booster parameter list

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsa, Z.

    1986-10-01

    The AGS Booster is designed to be an intermediate synchrotron injector for the AGS, capable of accelerating protons from 200 MeV to 1.5 GeV. The parameters listed include beam and operational parameters and lattice parameters, as well as parameters pertaining to the accelerator's magnets, vacuum system, radio frequency acceleration system, and the tunnel. 60 refs., 41 figs

  8. Lumped-parameter models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Liingaard, M.

    2006-12-15

    A lumped-parameter model represents the frequency dependent soil-structure interaction of a massless foundation placed on or embedded into an unbounded soil domain. In this technical report the steps of establishing a lumped-parameter model are presented. Following sections are included in this report: Static and dynamic formulation, Simple lumped-parameter models and Advanced lumped-parameter models. (au)

  9. Developing new transportable storage casks for interim dry storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, K.; Iwasa, K.; Araki, K.; Asano, R. [Hitachi Zosen Diesel and Engineering Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    Transportable storage metal casks are to be consistently used during transport and storage for AFR interim dry storage facilities planning in Japan. The casks are required to comply with the technical standards of regulations for both transport (hereinafter called ''transport regulation'') and storage (hereafter called ''storage regulation'') to maintain safety functions (heat transfer, containment, shielding and sub-critical control). In addition to these requirements, it is not planned in normal state to change the seal materials during storage at the storage facility, therefore it is requested to use same seal materials when the casks are transported after storage period. The dry transportable storage metal casks that satisfy the requirements have been developed to meet the needs of the dry storage facilities. The basic policy of this development is to utilize proven technology achieved from our design and fabrication experience, to carry out necessary verification for new designs and to realize a safe and rational design with higher capacity and efficient fabrication.

  10. Efficient numerical simulation of heat storage in subsurface georeservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boockmeyer, A.; Bauer, S.

    2015-12-01

    The transition of the German energy market towards renewable energy sources, e.g. wind or solar power, requires energy storage technologies to compensate for their fluctuating production. Large amounts of energy could be stored in georeservoirs such as porous formations in the subsurface. One possibility here is to store heat with high temperatures of up to 90°C through borehole heat exchangers (BHEs) since more than 80 % of the total energy consumption in German households are used for heating and hot water supply. Within the ANGUS+ project potential environmental impacts of such heat storages are assessed and quantified. Numerical simulations are performed to predict storage capacities, storage cycle times, and induced effects. For simulation of these highly dynamic storage sites, detailed high-resolution models are required. We set up a model that accounts for all components of the BHE and verified it using experimental data. The model ensures accurate simulation results but also leads to large numerical meshes and thus high simulation times. In this work, we therefore present a numerical model for each type of BHE (single U, double U and coaxial) that reduces the number of elements and the simulation time significantly for use in larger scale simulations. The numerical model includes all BHE components and represents the temporal and spatial temperature distribution with an accuracy of less than 2% deviation from the fully discretized model. By changing the BHE geometry and using equivalent parameters, the simulation time is reduced by a factor of ~10 for single U-tube BHEs, ~20 for double U-tube BHEs and ~150 for coaxial BHEs. Results of a sensitivity study that quantify the effects of different design and storage formation parameters on temperature distribution and storage efficiency for heat storage using multiple BHEs are then shown. It is found that storage efficiency strongly depends on the number of BHEs composing the storage site, their distance and

  11. Energy Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    SatCon Technology Corporation developed the drive train for use in the Chrysler Corporation's Patriot Mark II, which includes the Flywheel Energy Storage (FES) system. In Chrysler's experimental hybrid- electric car, the hybrid drive train uses an advanced turboalternator that generates electricity by burning a fuel; a powerful, compact electric motor; and a FES that eliminates the need for conventional batteries. The FES system incorporates technology SatCon developed in more than 30 projects with seven NASA centers, mostly for FES systems for spacecraft attitude control and momentum recovery. SatCon will continue to develop the technology with Westinghouse Electric Corporation.

  12. Interim storage study report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rawlins, J.K.

    1998-02-01

    High-level radioactive waste (HLW) stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) in the form of calcine and liquid and liquid sodium-bearing waste (SBW) will be processed to provide a stable waste form and prepare the waste to be transported to a permanent repository. Because a permanent repository will not be available when the waste is processed, the waste must be stored at ICPP in an Interim Storage Facility (ISF). This report documents consideration of an ISF for each of the waste processing options under consideration.

  13. CLOUD STORAGE SERVICES

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Cloud computing is a hot topic in recent research and applications. Because it is widely used in various fields. Up to now, Google, Microsoft, IBM, Amazon and other famous co partnership have proposed their cloud computing application. Look upon cloud computing as one of the most important strategy in the future. Cloud storage is the lower layer of cloud computing system which supports the service of the other layers above it. At the same time, it is an effective way to store and manage heavy...

  14. Compact electron storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, G.P.

    1987-01-01

    There have been many recent developments in the area of compact storage rings. Such rings would have critical wavelengths of typically 10 A, achieved with beam energies of several hundreds of MeV and superconducting dipole fields of around 5 Tesla. Although the primary motivation for progress in this area is that of commercial x-ray lithography, such sources might be an attractive source for college campuses to operate. They would be useful for many programs in materials science, solid state, x-ray microscopy and other biological areas. We discuss the properties of such sources and review developments around the world, primarily in the USA, japan and W. Germany

  15. SALES, STORAGE AND SALVAGE

    CERN Multimedia

    Division SPL, groupe logistique; A. Notar

    2000-01-01

    From 3 January 2000 there will be a security barrier in front of the storage-recycling area in bldg 133, which will be accessible only to authorised staff and contractors.You are reminded that the equipment delivered to this area must be unpolluted and non-radioactive. The cost of recycling the equipment will be debited to the budget code of the Division concerned, with the prior approval of the Group Leader.Reminder relating to equipment salesThe Sales Section is open on Thursdays from 13.30 to 15.00 hours only.SPL DivisionLogistics GroupA. Notari

  16. Energy storage financing :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, Richard

    2016-08-01

    Project financing is emerging as the linchpin for the future health, direction, and momentum of the energy storage industry. Market leaders have so far relied on selffunding or captive lending arrangements to fund projects. New lenders are proceeding hesitantly as they lack a full understanding of the technology, business, and credit risks involved in this rapidly changing market. The U.S. Department of Energy is poised to play a critical role in expanding access to capital by reducing the barriers to entry for new lenders, and providing trusted analytical benchmarks to better judge and price the risk in systematic ways.

  17. Interim storage report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawlins, J.K.

    1998-02-01

    High-level radioactive waste (HLW) stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) in the form of calcine and liquid and liquid sodium-bearing waste (SBW) will be processed to provide a stable waste form and prepare the waste to be transported to a permanent repository. Because a permanent repository will not be available when the waste is processed, the waste must be stored at ICPP in an Interim Storage Facility (ISF). This report documents consideration of an ISF for each of the waste processing options under consideration

  18. TEXT Energy Storage System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weldon, W.F.; Rylander, H.G.; Woodson, H.H.

    1977-01-01

    The Texas Experimental Tokamak (TEXT) Enery Storage System, designed by the Center for Electromechanics (CEM), consists of four 50 MJ, 125 V homopolar generators and their auxiliaries and is designed to power the toroidal and poloidal field coils of TEXT on a two-minute duty cycle. The four 50 MJ generators connected in series were chosen because they represent the minimum cost configuration and also represent a minimal scale up from the successful 5.0 MJ homopolar generator designed, built, and operated by the CEM

  19. Magnesium for Hydrogen Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Allan Schrøder; Kjøller, John; Larsen, B.

    1983-01-01

    A study of the hydrogenation characteristics of fine magnesium powder during repeated cycling has been performed using a high-pressure microbalance facility. No effect was found from the cycling regarding kinetics and storage capacity. The reaction rate of the absorption process was fast...... at temperatures around 600 K and above, but the reversed reaction showed somewhat slower kinetics around 600 K. At higher temperatures the opposite was found. The enthalpy and entropy change by the hydrogenation, derived from pressure-concentration isotherms, agree fairly well with those reported earlier....

  20. Plutonium storage study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This Spanish study gives a more detailed analysis of a possible store for plutonium oxide. The capacity of the store is assumed to be 30 t Pu and the minimum storage time 2 years. The study includes a general description of the store and its design philosophy; comments on the quality and properties of the material stored; a detailed criticality study and comments on gas and heat generation and shielding requirements; and a brief cost evaluation. Costs are estimated to be about $110/kg PuO 2 /year

  1. Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel Morrison; Elizabeth Wood; Barbara Robuck

    2010-09-30

    The EMS Energy Institute at The Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) has managed the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC) since its inception in 2003. The GSTC infrastructure provided a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance the operational flexibility and deliverability of the nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost-effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. The GSTC received base funding from the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Oil & Natural Gas Supply Program. The GSTC base funds were highly leveraged with industry funding for individual projects. Since its inception, the GSTC has engaged 67 members. The GSTC membership base was diverse, coming from 19 states, the District of Columbia, and Canada. The membership was comprised of natural gas storage field operators, service companies, industry consultants, industry trade organizations, and academia. The GSTC organized and hosted a total of 18 meetings since 2003. Of these, 8 meetings were held to review, discuss, and select proposals submitted for funding consideration. The GSTC reviewed a total of 75 proposals and committed co-funding to support 31 industry-driven projects. The GSTC committed co-funding to 41.3% of the proposals that it received and reviewed. The 31 projects had a total project value of $6,203,071 of which the GSTC committed $3,205,978 in co-funding. The committed GSTC project funding represented an average program cost share of 51.7%. Project applicants provided an average program cost share of 48.3%. In addition to the GSTC co-funding, the consortium provided the domestic natural gas storage industry with a technology transfer and outreach infrastructure. The technology transfer and outreach were conducted by having project mentoring teams and a GSTC website, and by working closely with the Pipeline Research Council International (PRCI) to

  2. Solar energy storage

    CERN Document Server

    Sorensen, Bent

    2015-01-01

    While solar is the fastest-growing energy source in the world, key concerns around solar power's inherent variability threaten to de-rail that scale-up . Currently, integration of intermittent solar resources into the grid creates added complication to load management, leading some utilities to reject it altogether, while other operators may penalize the producers via rate increases or force solar developers to include storage devices on-site to smooth out power delivery at the point of production. However these efforts at mitigation unfold, it is increasingly clear to parties on all sides th

  3. Monitored retrievable storage status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is preparing a proposal for Congressional consideration of the inclusion of a monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility as part of the Federal Nuclear Waste Management System. The DOE plans to submit the proposal package to the Congress by January 15, 1986. The proposed preferred location of the MRS facility is the former Clinch River Breeder site in the state of Tennessee. If the Congress approves implementation of the MRS proposal, it is estimated that the facility could be licensed and operational in ten years

  4. Regulated underground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    This guidance package is designed to assist DOE Field operations by providing thorough guidance on the underground storage tank (UST) regulations. [40 CFR 280]. The guidance uses tables, flowcharts, and checklists to provide a ''roadmap'' for DOE staff who are responsible for supervising UST operations. This package is tailored to address the issues facing DOE facilities. DOE staff should use this guidance as: An overview of the regulations for UST installation and operation; a comprehensive step-by-step guidance for the process of owning and operating an UST, from installation to closure; and a quick, ready-reference guide for any specific topic concerning UST ownership or operation

  5. Heavy ion storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuch, R.

    1987-01-01

    A brief overview of synchrotron storage rings for heavy ions, which are presently under construction in different accelerator laboratories is given. Ions ranging from protons up to uranium ions at MeV/nucleon energies will be injected into these rings using multiturn injection from the accelerators available or being built in these laboratories. After injection, it is planned to cool the phase space distribution of the ions by merging them with cold electron beams or laser beams, or by using stochastic cooling. Some atomic physics experiments planned for these rings are presented. 35 refs

  6. Storage array reflection considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haire, M.J.; Jordan, W.C.; Taylor, R.G.

    1997-01-01

    The assumptions used for reflection conditions of single containers are fairly well established and consistently applied throughout the industry in nuclear criticality safety evaluations. Containers are usually considered to be either fully water-reflected (i.e. surrounded by 6 to 12 in. of water) for safety calculations or reflected by 1 in. of water for nominal (structural material and air) conditions. Tables and figures are usually available for performing comparative evaluations of containers under various loading conditions. Reflection considerations used for evaluating the safety of storage arrays of fissile material are not as well established

  7. Femtoslicing in Storage Rings

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Shaukat

    2005-01-01

    The generation of ultrashort synchrotron radiation pulses by laser-induced energy modulation of electrons and their subsequent transverse displacement, now dubbed "femtoslicing," was demonstrated at the Advanced Light Source in Berkeley. More recently, a femtoslicing user facility was commissioned at the BESSY storage ring in Berlin, and another project is in progress at the Swiss Light Source. The paper reviews the principle of femtoslicing, its merits and shortcomings, as well as the variations of its technical implementation. Various diagnostics techniques to detect successful laser-electron interaction are discussed and experimental results are presented.

  8. ACCEPTABILITY ENVELOPE FOR METAL HYDRIDE-BASED HYDROGEN STORAGE SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, B.; Corgnale, C.; Tamburello, D.; Garrison, S.; Anton, D.

    2011-07-18

    The design and evaluation of media based hydrogen storage systems requires the use of detailed numerical models and experimental studies, with significant amount of time and monetary investment. Thus a scoping tool, referred to as the Acceptability Envelope, was developed to screen preliminary candidate media and storage vessel designs, identifying the range of chemical, physical and geometrical parameters for the coupled media and storage vessel system that allow it to meet performance targets. The model which underpins the analysis allows simplifying the storage system, thus resulting in one input-one output scheme, by grouping of selected quantities. Two cases have been analyzed and results are presented here. In the first application the DOE technical targets (Year 2010, Year 2015 and Ultimate) are used to determine the range of parameters required for the metal hydride media and storage vessel. In the second case the most promising metal hydrides available are compared, highlighting the potential of storage systems, utilizing them, to achieve 40% of the 2010 DOE technical target. Results show that systems based on Li-Mg media have the best potential to attain these performance targets.

  9. Energy Storage and Retrieval

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    devices which convert chemical energy into electrical energy. A K Shukla is ... Table 1. Desirable features in a battery. Battery performance. Definition parameter .... enhanced performance characteristics for communication, space, automotive,.

  10. Radioactive gas storage device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Eiji; Kobayashi, Yoshihiro.

    1989-01-01

    The present invention concerns a device of ionizing radioactive gases to be processed in gaseous nuclear fission products in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants, etc., and injecting them into metal substrates for storage. The device comprises a vessel for a tightly closed type outer electrode in which gases to be processed are introduced, an electrode disposed to the inside of the vessel and the target material, a high DC voltage power source for applying high voltage to the electrodes, etc. There are disposed a first electric discharging portion for preparting discharge plasma for ion injection of different electrode distance and a second electric discharging portion for causing stable discharge between the vessel and the electrode. The first electric discharging portion for the ion injection provides an electrode distance suitable to acceleration sputtering and the second electric discharging portion is used for stable discharge. Accordingly, if the gas pressure in the radioactive gas storage device is reduced by the external disturbance, etc., since the second electric discharging portion satisfies the electric discharging conditions, the device can continue electric discharge. (K.M.)

  11. Flywheel energy storage workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Kain, D.; Carmack, J. [comps.

    1995-12-31

    Since the November 1993 Flywheel Workshop, there has been a major surge of interest in Flywheel Energy Storage. Numerous flywheel programs have been funded by the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), by the Department of Energy (DOE) through the Hybrid Vehicle Program, and by private investment. Several new prototype systems have been built and are being tested. The operational performance characteristics of flywheel energy storage are being recognized as attractive for a number of potential applications. Programs are underway to develop flywheels for cars, buses, boats, trains, satellites, and for electric utility applications such as power quality, uninterruptible power supplies, and load leveling. With the tremendous amount of flywheel activity during the last two years, this workshop should again provide an excellent opportunity for presentation of new information. This workshop is jointly sponsored by ARPA and DOE to provide a review of the status of current flywheel programs and to provide a forum for presentation of new flywheel technology. Technology areas of interest include flywheel applications, flywheel systems, design, materials, fabrication, assembly, safety & containment, ball bearings, magnetic bearings, motor/generators, power electronics, mounting systems, test procedures, and systems integration. Information from the workshop will help guide ARPA & DOE planning for future flywheel programs. This document is comprised of detailed viewgraphs.

  12. Stationary flywheel energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilhaus, A; Hau, E; Gassner, G; Huss, G; Schauberger, H

    1981-01-01

    The aim of this system study is to find out industrial applications of stationary flywheel energy accumulators. The economic value for the consumer and the effects on the power supply grid are investigated. Up to now, stationary flywheel energy accumulators have only been used in a small range. The main reason for thinking of the application in a wider range was the hope that those could be used economically for lowering the maximum output demand of the power supply grid. The possible savings in energy costs, however, proved to be too small for paying back the investment costs. Further benefits are necessary for advantageous application. As to overall economy, compensation of short time maximum power output seems to be more favorable at the power stations. An additional possibility for energy storage by flywheels is given where otherwise lost energy can be used effectively, according to the successful brake energy storage in vehicles. Under this aspect the future use of flywheels in wind-power-plants seems to be promising. Attractive savings of energy can be obtained by introducing modern flywheel technology for emergency power supply units which are employed for instance in telecommunication systems. Especially the application for emergency power supply, in power stations and in combustion with wind energy converters need further investigation.

  13. Nuclear fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevilacqua, F.

    1981-01-01

    A nuclear fuel storage apparatus for use in a water-filled pool is fabricated of a material such as stainless steel in the form of an egg crate structure having vertically extending openings. Fuel may be stored in this basic structure in a checkerboard pattern with high enrichment fuel, or in all openings when the fuel is of low effective enrichment. Inserts of a material such as stainless steel are adapted to fit within these openings so that a water gap and, therefore, a flux trap is formed between adjacent fuel storage locations. These inserts may be added at a later time and fuel of a higher enrichment may be stored in each opening. When it is desired to store fuel of still greater enrichment, poison plates may be added to the water gap formed by the installed insert plates, or substituted for the insert plates. Alternately, or in addition, fuel may be installed in high neutron absorption poison boxes which surround the fuel assembly. The stainless steel inserts and the poison plates are each not required until the capacity of the basic egg crate structure is approached. Purchase of these items can, therefore, be deferred for many years. Should the fuel to be stored be of higher enrichment than initially forecast, the deferred decision on the poison plates makes it possible to obtain increased poison in the plates to satisfy the newly discovered requirement

  14. Storage array reflection considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haire, M.J.; Jordan, W.C.; Taylor, R.G.

    1997-01-01

    The assumptions used for reflection conditions of single containers are fairly well established and consistently applied throughout the industry in nuclear criticality safety evaluations. Containers are usually considered to be either fully water reflected (i.e., surrounded by 6 to 12 in. of water) for safety calculations or reflected by 1 in. of water for nominal (structural material and air) conditions. Tables and figures are usually available for performing comparative evaluations of containers under various loading conditions. Reflection considerations used for evaluating the safety of storage arrays of fissile material are not as well established. When evaluating arrays, it has become more common for analysts to use calculations to demonstrate the safety of the array configuration. In performing these calculations, the analyst has considerable freedom concerning the assumptions made for modeling the reflection of the array. Considerations are given for the physical layout of the array with little or no discussion (or demonstration) of what conditions are bounded by the assumed reflection conditions. For example, an array may be generically evaluated by placing it in a corner of a room in which the opposing walls are far away. Typically, it is believed that complete flooding of the room is incredible, so the array is evaluated for various levels of water mist interspersed among array containers. This paper discusses some assumptions that are made regarding storage array reflection

  15. Spent fuel interim storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilegan, Iosif C.

    2003-01-01

    The official inauguration of the spent fuel interim storage took place on Monday July 28, 2003 at Cernavoda NNP. The inaugural event was attended by local and central public authority representatives, a Canadian Government delegation as well as newsmen from local and central mass media and numerous specialists from Cernavoda NPP compound. Mr Andrei Grigorescu, State Secretary with the Economy and Commerce Ministry, underlined in his talk the importance of this objective for the continuous development of nuclear power in Romania as well as for Romania's complying with the EU practice in this field. Also the excellent collaboration between the Canadian contractor AECL and the Romanian partners Nuclear Montaj, CITON, UTI, General Concret in the accomplishment of this unit at the planned terms and costs. On behalf of Canadian delegation, spoke Minister Don Boudria. He underlined the importance which the Canadian Government affords to the cooperation with Romania aiming at specific objectives in the field of nuclear power such as the Cernavoda NPP Unit 2 and spent fuel interim storage. After traditional cutting of the inaugural ribbon by the two Ministers the festivities continued on the Cernavoda NPP Compound with undersigning the documents regarding the project completion and a press conference

  16. Lysosomal lipid storage diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Heike; Sandhoff, Konrad

    2011-06-01

    Lysosomal lipid storage diseases, or lipidoses, are inherited metabolic disorders in which typically lipids accumulate in cells and tissues. Complex lipids, such as glycosphingolipids, are constitutively degraded within the endolysosomal system by soluble hydrolytic enzymes with the help of lipid binding proteins in a sequential manner. Because of a functionally impaired hydrolase or auxiliary protein, their lipid substrates cannot be degraded, accumulate in the lysosome, and slowly spread to other intracellular membranes. In Niemann-Pick type C disease, cholesterol transport is impaired and unesterified cholesterol accumulates in the late endosome. In most lysosomal lipid storage diseases, the accumulation of one or few lipids leads to the coprecipitation of other hydrophobic substances in the endolysosomal system, such as lipids and proteins, causing a "traffic jam." This can impair lysosomal function, such as delivery of nutrients through the endolysosomal system, leading to a state of cellular starvation. Therapeutic approaches are currently restricted to mild forms of diseases with significant residual catabolic activities and without brain involvement.

  17. Optical information storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woike, T [Koeln Univ., Inst. fuer Kristallography, Koeln (Germany)

    1996-11-01

    In order to increase storage capacity and data transfer velocity by about three orders of magnitude compared to CD or magnetic disc it is necessary to work with optical techniques, especially with holography. About 100 TByte can be stored in a waver of an area of 50 cm{sup 2} via holograms which corresponds to a density of 2.10{sup 9} Byte/mm{sup 2}. Every hologram contains data of 1 MByte, so that parallel-processing is possible for read-out. Using high-speed CCD-arrays a read-out velocity of 1 MByte/{mu}sec can be reached. Further, holographic technics are very important in solid state physics. We will discuss the existence of a space charge field in Sr{sub 1-x}Ba{sub x}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 6} doped with cerium and the physical properties of metastable states, which are suited for information storage. (author) 19 figs., 9 refs.

  18. Spent fuel storage rack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurokawa, Hideaki; Kumagaya, Naomi; Oda, Masashi; Matsuda, Masami; Maruyama, Hiromi; Yamanaka, Tsuneyasu.

    1997-01-01

    The structure of a spent fuel storage rack is determined by the material, thickness, size of square cylindrical tubes (the gap between spent fuel assemblies and the square cylindrical tubes) and pitch of the arrangement (the gap between each of the square cylindrical tubes). In the present invention, the thickness and the pitch of the arrangement of the square tubes are optimized while evaluating subcriticality. Namely, when the sum of the thickness of the water gap at the outer side (the pitch of arrangement of the cylindrical tubes) and the thickness of the cylindrical tubes is made constant, the storage rack is formed by determining the thickness of the cylindrical tubes which is smaller than the optimum value among the combination of the thickness of the water gap at the outer side and that of the cylindrical tube under the effective multiplication factor to be performed. Then, the weight of the rack can be reduced, and the burden of the load on the bottom of the pool can be reduced. Further, the amount of the constitutional materials of the rack itself can be reduced thereby capable of reducing the cost for the materials of the rack. (T.M.)

  19. Magnetic energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    The fusion program embraces low loss superconductor strand development with integration into cables capable of carrying 50 kA in pulsed mode at high fields. This evolvement has been paralleled with pulsed energy storage coil development and testing from tens of kJ at low fields to a 20 MJ prototype tokamak induction coil at 7.5 T. Energy transfer times have ranged from 0.7 ms to several seconds. Electric utility magnetic storage for prospective application is for diurnal load leveling with massive systems to store 10 GWh at 1.8 K in a dewar structure supported on bedrock underground. An immediate utility application is a 30 MJ system to be used to damp power oscillations on the Bonneville Power Administration electric transmission lines. An off-shoot of this last work is a new program for electric utility VAR control with the potential for use to suppress subsynchronous resonance. This paper presents work in progress, work planned, and recently completed unusual work

  20. Underground storage tank program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, M.W.

    1994-01-01

    Underground storage tanks, UST'S, have become a major component of the Louisville District's Environmental Support Program. The District's Geotechnical and Environmental Engineering Branch has spear-headed an innovative effort to streamline the time, effort and expense for removal, replacement, upgrade and associated cleanup of USTs at military and civil work installations. This program, called Yank-A-Tank, creates generic state-wide contracts for removal, remediation, installation and upgrade of storage tanks for which individual delivery orders are written under the basic contract. The idea is to create a ''JOC type'' contract containing all the components of work necessary to remove, reinstall or upgrade an underground or above ground tank. The contract documents contain a set of generic specifications and unit price books in addition to the standard ''boiler plate'' information. Each contract requires conformance to the specific regulations for the state in which it is issued. The contractor's bid consists of a bid factor which in the multiplier used with the prices in the unit price book. The solicitation is issued as a Request for Proposal (RPP) which allows the government to select a contractor based on technical qualification an well as bid factor. Once the basic contract is awarded individual delivery orders addressing specific areas of work are scoped, negotiated and awarded an modifications to the original contract. The delivery orders utilize the prepriced components and the contractor's factor to determine the value of the work

  1. Physalis peruviana seed storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia L. M. de Souza

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Physalis peruviana belongs to Solanaceae family and has a high nutritional and nutraceutical potential. The production is intended for fruit consumption and the propagation is mainly by seeds. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of priming on the kinetics of germination of P. peruviana seeds stored at different temperatures. The seeds were stored at 5 and 25 °C in a chamber saturated with zinc chloride solution and in liquid nitrogen (-196 °C. Every 4 months, the seeds were removed from storage for evaluation of germination and moisture content in the laboratory and emergence and development of seedlings in greenhouse. During the last evaluation at 16 months, the seeds under the same conditions were subjected to salt stress. The moisture content varied during the storage period, but was always higher for seeds kept at -196 ºC. These seeds kept high germination percentage in water until 16 months, regardless of the tested temperature; however, in salt solution the germination percentage was significantly reduced.

  2. Carbon capture and storage-Investment strategies for the future?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rammerstorfer, Margarethe; Eisl, Roland

    2011-01-01

    The following article deals with real options modeling for investing into carbon capture and storage technologies. Herein, we derive two separate models. The first model incorporates a constant convenience yield and dividend for the investment project. In the second model, the convenience yield is allowed to follow a mean reverting process which seems to be more realistic, but also increases the model's complexity. Both frameworks are to be solved numerically. Therefore, we calibrate our model with respect to empirical data and provide insights into the models' sensitivity toward the chosen parameter values. We found that given the recently observable prices for carbon dioxide, an investment into C O2-storage facilities is not profitable. - Highlights: → Real options modeling for investing into carbon capture and storage technologies. → Given the recently observable prices for carbon dioxide, an investment into CO 2 -storage facilities is not profitable. → Investment decision is mainly affected by risk free rate and volatility.

  3. Optimal scheduling of coproduction with a storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravn, H.F.; Rygard, J.M.

    1993-02-01

    We consider the problem of optimal scheduling of a system with combined heat and heat (CHP) units and a heat storege. The purpose of the heat storage is to permit a partial decoupling of the variations in the demand for heat and electrical power. We formulate the problem of optimal scheduling as that of minimizing the total costs over the planning period. The heat demand from the district heating system and the ''shadow prices'' for the electrical power system are taken as externally given parameters. The resulting model is solved by dynamic programming. We describe implementation details and we give examples of result of the optimization. (au) (12 refs.)

  4. FLSR - The Frankfurt low energy storage ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiebing, K. E.; Alexandrov, V.; Dörner, R.; Enz, S.; Kazarinov, N. Yu.; Kruppi, T.; Schempp, A.; Schmidt Böcking, H.; Völp, M.; Ziel, P.; Dworak, M.; Dilfer, W.

    2010-02-01

    An electrostatic storage ring for low-energy ions with a design energy of 50 keV is presently being set up at the Institut für Kernphysik der Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main, Germany (IKF). This new device will provide a basis for new experiments on the dynamics of ionic and molecular collisions, as well as for high precision and time resolved laser spectroscopy. In this article, the design parameters of this instrument are reported.

  5. Gas hydrate cool storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ternes, M.P.; Kedl, R.J.

    1984-09-12

    The invention presented relates to the development of a process utilizing a gas hydrate as a cool storage medium for alleviating electric load demands during peak usage periods. Several objectives of the invention are mentioned concerning the formation of the gas hydrate as storage material in a thermal energy storage system within a heat pump cycle system. The gas hydrate was formed using a refrigerant in water and an example with R-12 refrigerant is included. (BCS)

  6. The circular RFQ storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggiero, A.G.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a novel idea of storage ring for the accumulation of intense beams of light and heavy ions at low energy. The new concept is a natural development of the combined features used in a conventional storage ring and an ion trap, and is basically a linear RFQ bend on itself. In summary the advantages are: smaller beam dimensions, higher beam intensity, and a more compact storage device

  7. The Circular RFQ Storage Ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggiero, A. G.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a novel idea of storage ring for the accumulation of intense beams of light and heavy ions at low energy. The new concept is a natural development of the combined features of conventional storage rings and ion traps, and is basically a linear RFQ bent on itself. The advantages are: smaller beam dimensions, higher beam intensity, and a more compact storage device

  8. The Petascale Data Storage Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, Garth [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Long, Darrell [The Regents of the University of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Honeyman, Peter [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Grider, Gary [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kramer, William [National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center, Berkeley, CA (United States); Shalf, John [National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center, Berkeley, CA (United States); Roth, Philip [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Felix, Evan [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ward, Lee [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Petascale computing infrastructures for scientific discovery make petascale demands on information storage capacity, performance, concurrency, reliability, availability, and manageability.The Petascale Data Storage Institute focuses on the data storage problems found in petascale scientific computing environments, with special attention to community issues such as interoperability, community buy-in, and shared tools.The Petascale Data Storage Institute is a collaboration between researchers at Carnegie Mellon University, National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, University of Michigan, and the University of California at Santa Cruz.

  9. HTGR spent fuel storage study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgoyne, R.M.; Holder, N.D.

    1979-04-01

    This report documents a study of alternate methods of storing high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) spent fuel. General requirements and design considerations are defined for a storage facility integral to a fuel recycle plant. Requirements for stand-alone storage are briefly considered. Three alternate water-cooled storage conceptual designs (plug well, portable well, and monolith) are considered and compared to a previous air-cooled design. A concept using portable storage wells in racks appears to be the most favorable, subject to seismic analysis and economic evaluation verification

  10. Advanced materials for energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang; Li, Feng; Ma, Lai-Peng; Cheng, Hui-Ming

    2010-02-23

    Popularization of portable electronics and electric vehicles worldwide stimulates the development of energy storage devices, such as batteries and supercapacitors, toward higher power density and energy density, which significantly depends upon the advancement of new materials used in these devices. Moreover, energy storage materials play a key role in efficient, clean, and versatile use of energy, and are crucial for the exploitation of renewable energy. Therefore, energy storage materials cover a wide range of materials and have been receiving intensive attention from research and development to industrialization. In this Review, firstly a general introduction is given to several typical energy storage systems, including thermal, mechanical, electromagnetic, hydrogen, and electrochemical energy storage. Then the current status of high-performance hydrogen storage materials for on-board applications and electrochemical energy storage materials for lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors is introduced in detail. The strategies for developing these advanced energy storage materials, including nanostructuring, nano-/microcombination, hybridization, pore-structure control, configuration design, surface modification, and composition optimization, are discussed. Finally, the future trends and prospects in the development of advanced energy storage materials are highlighted.

  11. Advanced materials for energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Chang; Li, Feng; Ma, Lai-Peng; Cheng, Hui-Ming [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2010-02-23

    Popularization of portable electronics and electric vehicles worldwide stimulates the development of energy storage devices, such as batteries and supercapacitors, toward higher power density and energy density, which significantly depends upon the advancement of new materials used in these devices. Moreover, energy storage materials play a key role in efficient, clean, and versatile use of energy, and are crucial for the exploitation of renewable energy. Therefore, energy storage materials cover a wide range of materials and have been receiving intensive attention from research and development to industrialization. In this review, firstly a general introduction is given to several typical energy storage systems, including thermal, mechanical, electromagnetic, hydrogen, and electrochemical energy storage. Then the current status of high-performance hydrogen storage materials for on-board applications and electrochemical energy storage materials for lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors is introduced in detail. The strategies for developing these advanced energy storage materials, including nanostructuring, nano-/microcombination, hybridization, pore-structure control, configuration design, surface modification, and composition optimization, are discussed. Finally, the future trends and prospects in the development of advanced energy storage materials are highlighted. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  12. The Fermilab data storage infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jon A Bakken et al.

    2003-01-01

    Fermilab, in collaboration with the DESY laboratory in Hamburg, Germany, has created a petabyte scale data storage infrastructure to meet the requirements of experiments to store and access large data sets. The Fermilab data storage infrastructure consists of the following major storage and data transfer components: Enstore mass storage system, DCache distributed data cache, ftp and Grid ftp for primarily external data transfers. This infrastructure provides a data throughput sufficient for transferring data from experiments' data acquisition systems. It also allows access to data in the Grid framework

  13. Disorder parameter of confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, N.; Ejiri, S.; Matsubara, Y.; Suzuki, T.

    1996-01-01

    The disorder parameter of confinement-deconfinement phase transition based on the monopole action determined previously in SU(2) QCD are investigated. We construct an operator which corresponds to the order parameter defined in the abelian Higgs model. The operator shows proper behaviors as the disorder parameter in the numerical simulations of finite temperature QCD. (orig.)

  14. European resource assessment for geothermal energy and CO2 storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wees, J.D. van; Neele, F.

    2013-01-01

    Geothermal Energy and CO2 Capture and Storage (CCS) are both considered major contributors to the global energy transition. Their success critically depends on subsurface resource quality, which in turn depends on specific subsurface parameters. For CCS and Geothermal Energy these in some respect

  15. Development of HF-systems for electron storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Androsov, V.P.; Karnaukhov, I.M.; Popkov, Yu.P.; Reva, S.N.; Telegin, Yu.N.

    1999-01-01

    Development of HF systems for electron storages is described. Its final task is construction of 100 kW HF station at 699,3 MHz frequency consisting from low-power HF system, klystron amplifier, wave line for HF power transmission and accelerating section. Functional parameters of HF station are given

  16. Thermal simulation of storage in TSS-Galleries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lain Huerta, R.; Martinez Santiago, T.; Ramirez Oyangueren, P.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes the experiment ''thermal simulation of storage in TSS-galleries'' what is been developed in salt mine of Asse, Germany. The report has 3 part: 1) Analysis of objectives and general description of boundary layers. 2) Geomechanics parameters of salt mine. 3) Thermal modelization, thermomechanics modelization and data acquisition

  17. In vitro storage of synthetic seeds: Effect of different storage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro derived shoots of olive cv. Moraiolo were employed in synthetic seeds preparation by alginate encapsulation, and then stored in artificial endosperm solution at cold (4°C) and room storage (21 ± 2°C) conditions in interaction with different storage intervals of 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 days to evaluate the comparative ...

  18. Effects of storage conditions and storage period on nutritional and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this work, the effects of storage conditions and storage period on the nutritional and other qualities of stored yam tubers were investigated. ... environment, signs of deterioration of the tuber such as sprouting, weight loss and rotting and some ...

  19. THE QUALITY OFSUMBAWAHORSE MILKATROOM TEMPERATURE STORAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nengah Kerta Besung

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Research has been conducted to determine the quality of Sumbawa horse milk at room temperature storage. Each sample (of 5 horse was divided into 5 cups Beaker and then stored at room temperature. Observations were made as many as 6 times to checked and tested on parameters including pH, alcohol, smell and a flavor test. This study uses a randomized block design (RBD, using 5 horses as a group, and time observations on days 0, 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 5th as a treatment, so tested 30 samples. The results showed that the pH of milk has significantly (P>0,05 lower quality. On the alcohol test showed positive results and the test on the smell and flavor test shaved changes quality after the 2nd day. Of observations Sumbawa horse milk quality decrease very markedly decreased pH (P0.05 decreased from day 2 to day 3 during storage. Alcohol test resistance at Sumbawa horse milk increasingly distorted and react positively. On the smell and flavor test Sumbawa horse milk taste very significant (P<0.01 deviates smells during storage at room temperature begins 2nd day. To maintain the quality of Sumbawa horse milk should be stored no more than 2 days at room.

  20. Storage envelopes or sleeves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freshwater, J.R.; Wagman, P.I.

    1980-01-01

    A storage envelope or sleeve particularly for processed X-ray films is described. It consists of front and back panels joined together at a hinge line and connected along the intermediate sides by connecting flaps. An inner pocket is formed from a third flap which is folded to lie against the inner face of the back panel. The panels may have additional score lines parallel to the closed sides of the envelope and the inner pocket so that the envelope and the inner pocket can accommodate bulky contents. The free edge of the pocket is inset from the open side of the envelope, and finger cut-outs may be provided to facilitate access to the contents of the envelope and the pocket. (author)

  1. Reversible hydrogen storage materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, James A [Lexington, SC; Wang, Tao [Columbia, SC; Ebner, Armin D [Lexington, SC; Holland, Charles E [Cayce, SC

    2012-04-10

    In accordance with the present disclosure, a process for synthesis of a complex hydride material for hydrogen storage is provided. The process includes mixing a borohydride with at least one additive agent and at least one catalyst and heating the mixture at a temperature of less than about 600.degree. C. and a pressure of H.sub.2 gas to form a complex hydride material. The complex hydride material comprises MAl.sub.xB.sub.yH.sub.z, wherein M is an alkali metal or group IIA metal, Al is the element aluminum, x is any number from 0 to 1, B is the element boron, y is a number from 0 to 13, and z is a number from 4 to 57 with the additive agent and catalyst still being present. The complex hydride material is capable of cyclic dehydrogenation and rehydrogenation and has a hydrogen capacity of at least about 4 weight percent.

  2. Inductive energy storage commutator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrilov, I.M.

    1987-01-01

    An inductive energy storage commutator is described. The value of commutated current is up to 800 A, the voltage amplitude in the load is up to 50 kV, the working frequency is equal to 1-50 Hz, the commutated power is up to 40 MW. The commutating device comprises of the first stage commutator having two in-series connected modules of the BTSV - 800/235 high-voltage thyristor unit, the second stage commutator containing three GMI-43A parallel connected powerful pulsed triodes, a commutating capacitor, an induction coil, two supplementary high-voltage thyristor keys (20 in-series connected thyristors T2-300 (13 class)), load, control pulse shapers, thyristor keys, power supply

  3. Radioactive gas storage device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sano, Yuji.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To easily and reliably detect the consumption of a sputtered cathode in a radioactive gas storage device using ion injection method. Constitution: Inert gases are sealed to the inside of a cathode. As the device is operated, the cathode is consumed and, if it is scraped to some extent, inert gases in the cathode gases are blown out to increase the inner pressure of the device. The pressure elevation is detected by a pressure detector connected with a gas introduction pipe or discharge pipe. Further, since the discharge current in the inside is increased along with the elevation of the pressure, it is possible to detect the increase of the electrical current. In this way, the consumption of the cathode can be recognized by detecting the elevation in the pressure or increase in the current. (Ikeda, J.)

  4. Terrestrial Water Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodell, M.; Chambers, D. P.; Famiglietti, J. S.

    2015-01-01

    During 2014 dryness continued in the Northern Hemisphere and relative wetness continued in the Southern Hemisphere (Fig. 2.21; Plate 2.1g). These largely canceled out such that the global land surface began and ended the year with a terrestrial water storage (TWS) anomaly slightly below 0 cm (equivalent height of water; Fig. 2.22). TWS is the sum of groundwater, soil moisture, surface water, snow, and ice. Groundwater responds more slowly to meteorological phenomena than the other components because the overlying soil acts as a low pass filter, but often it has a larger range of variability on multiannual timescales (Rodell and Famiglietti 2001; Alley et al. 2002).In situ groundwater data are only archived and made and Tanzania. The rest of the continent experienced mixed to dry conditions. Significant reductions in TWS in Greenland, Antarctica, and southern coastal Alaska reflect ongoing ice sheet and glacier ablation, not groundwater depletion.

  5. Lysosomal storage diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Carlos R.; Gahl, William A.

    2016-01-01

    Lysosomes are cytoplasmic organelles that contain a variety of different hydrolases. A genetic deficiency in the enzymatic activity of one of these hydrolases will lead to the accumulation of the material meant for lysosomal degradation. Examples include glycogen in the case of Pompe disease, glycosaminoglycans in the case of the mucopolysaccharidoses, glycoproteins in the cases of the oligosaccharidoses, and sphingolipids in the cases of Niemann-Pick disease types A and B, Gaucher disease, Tay-Sachs disease, Krabbe disease, and metachromatic leukodystrophy. Sometimes, the lysosomal storage can be caused not by the enzymatic deficiency of one of the hydrolases, but by the deficiency of an activator protein, as occurs in the AB variant of GM2 gangliosidosis. Still other times, the accumulated lysosomal material results from failed egress of a small molecule as a consequence of a deficient transporter, as in cystinosis or Salla disease. In the last couple of decades, enzyme replacement therapy has become available for a number of lysosomal storage diseases. Examples include imiglucerase, taliglucerase and velaglucerase for Gaucher disease, laronidase for Hurler disease, idursulfase for Hunter disease, elosulfase for Morquio disease, galsulfase for Maroteaux-Lamy disease, alglucosidase alfa for Pompe disease, and agalsidase alfa and beta for Fabry disease. In addition, substrate reduction therapy has been approved for certain disorders, such as eliglustat for Gaucher disease. The advent of treatment options for some of these disorders has led to newborn screening pilot studies, and ultimately to the addition of Pompe disease and Hurler disease to the Recommended Uniform Screening Panel (RUSP) in 2015 and 2016, respectively. PMID:29152458

  6. Spent fuel storage - dry storage options and issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akins, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    The increase in the number of nuclear energy power generation facilities will require the ability to store the spent nuclear fuel for a long period until the host countries develop reprocessing or disposal options. Plants have storage pools which are closely associated with the operating units. These are excellent for short term storage, but require active maintenance and operations support which are not desirable for the long term. Over the past 25 years, dry storage options have been developed and implemented throughout the world. In recent years, protection against terrorist attack has become an increasing source of design objectives for these facilities, as well as the main nuclear plant. This paper explores the current design options of dry storage cask systems and examines some of the current design issues for above ground , in-ground, or below-ground storage of spent fuel in dry casks. (author)

  7. Equivalent electricity storage capacity of domestic thermostatically controlled loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sossan, Fabrizio

    2017-01-01

    A method to quantify the equivalent storage capacity inherent the operation of thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs) is developed. Equivalent storage capacity is defined as the amount of power and electricity consumption which can be deferred or anticipated in time with respect to the baseline consumption (i.e. when no demand side event occurs) without violating temperature limits. The analysis is carried out for 4 common domestic TCLs: an electric space heating system, freezer, fridge, and electric water heater. They are simulated by applying grey-box thermal models identified from measurements. They describe the heat transfer of the considered TCLs as a function of the electric power consumption and environment conditions. To represent typical TCLs operating conditions, Monte Carlo simulations are developed, where models inputs and parameters are sampled from relevant statistical distributions. The analysis provides a way to compare flexible demand against competitive storage technologies. It is intended as a tool for system planners to assess the TCLs potential to support electrical grid operation. In the paper, a comparison of the storage capacity per unit of capital investment cost is performed considering the selected TCLs and two grid-connected battery storage systems (a 720 kVA/500 kWh lithium-ion unit and 15 kVA/120 kWh Vanadium flow redox) is performed. - Highlights: • The equivalent storage capacity of domestic TCLs is quantified • A comparison with battery-based storage technologies is performed • We derive metrics for system planners to plan storage in power system networks • Rule-of-thumb cost indicators for flexible demand and battery-based storage

  8. Quantifying induced effects of subsurface renewable energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Sebastian; Beyer, Christof; Pfeiffer, Tilmann; Boockmeyer, Anke; Popp, Steffi; Delfs, Jens-Olaf; Wang, Bo; Li, Dedong; Dethlefsen, Frank; Dahmke, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    New methods and technologies for energy storage are required for the transition to renewable energy sources. Subsurface energy storage systems such as salt caverns or porous formations offer the possibility of hosting large amounts of energy or substance. When employing these systems, an adequate system and process understanding is required in order to assess the feasibility of the individual storage option at the respective site and to predict the complex and interacting effects induced. This understanding is the basis for assessing the potential as well as the risks connected with a sustainable usage of these storage options, especially when considering possible mutual influences. For achieving this aim, in this work synthetic scenarios for the use of the geological underground as an energy storage system are developed and parameterized. The scenarios are designed to represent typical conditions in North Germany. The types of subsurface use investigated here include gas storage and heat storage in porous formations. The scenarios are numerically simulated and interpreted with regard to risk analysis and effect forecasting. For this, the numerical simulators Eclipse and OpenGeoSys are used. The latter is enhanced to include the required coupled hydraulic, thermal, geomechanical and geochemical processes. Using the simulated and interpreted scenarios, the induced effects are quantified individually and monitoring concepts for observing these effects are derived. This presentation will detail the general investigation concept used and analyze the parameter availability for this type of model applications. Then the process implementation and numerical methods required and applied for simulating the induced effects of subsurface storage are detailed and explained. Application examples show the developed methods and quantify induced effects and storage sizes for the typical settings parameterized. This work is part of the ANGUS+ project, funded by the German Ministry

  9. Licensing of spent fuel dry storage and consolidated rod storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, W.J.

    1990-02-01

    The results of this study, performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), respond to the nuclear industry's recommendation that a report be prepared that collects and describes the licensing issues (and their resolutions) that confront a new applicant requesting approval from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for dry storage of spent fuel or for large-scale storage of consolidated spent fuel rods in pools. The issues are identified in comments, questions, and requests from the NRC during its review of applicants' submittals. Included in the report are discussions of (1) the 18 topical reports on cask and module designs for dry storage fuel that have been submitted to the NRC, (2) the three license applications for dry storage of spent fuel at independent spent fuel storage installations (ISFSIs) that have been submitted to the NRC, and (3) the three applications (one of which was later withdrawn) for large-scale storage of consolidated fuel rods in existing spent fuel storage pools at reactors that were submitted tot he NRC. For each of the applications submitted, examples of some of the issues (and suggestions for their resolutions) are described. The issues and their resolutions are also covered in detail in an example in each of the three subject areas: (1) the application for the CASTOR V/21 dry spent fuel storage cask, (2) the application for the ISFSI for dry storage of spent fuel at Surry, and (3) the application for full-scale wet storage of consolidated spent fuel at Millstone-2. The conclusions in the report include examples of major issues that applicants have encountered. Recommendations for future applicants to follow are listed. 401 refs., 26 tabs

  10. Optical Storage and Optical Information Held in Taipei, Taiwan on 26-27 July 2000

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shieh, H.-P. D

    2000-01-01

    .... In the area of data storage, topics include devices to improve the performance of optical heads, measurement of optical media parameters, new superresolution techniques, three-dimensional memory, and near-field devices...

  11. Status of US storage efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leasburg, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    Tasks involved in the implementation of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act are discussed. The need for speedy action on applications to deal with spent fuel storage problems is stressed. The problems faced by the Virginia Electric and Power Company, where full core discharge capability at the 1600-megawatt Surry power station is expected to be reached in early 1986, are reviewed. It is pointed out that although the Nuclear Waste Policy Act does not apply in this case, the problems illustrate the situation that may be faced after the Act is implemented. Problems involved in intro-utility transhipments and dry cask storage of spent fuel from Surry, including transportation ordinances at state and local levels and approval for the use of dry casks for storage, are reported. The suggestion that dry casks be used for interim storage and eventual transport to monitored retrievable storage facilities or permanent storage sites is considered. It is pointed out that data from a proposed 3-utility demonstration program of dry cask storage of consolidated fuels and the storage of fuels in air should give information applicable to the timely implementation of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act

  12. Tribology of magnetic storage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhushan, Bharat

    1992-01-01

    The construction and the materials used in different magnetic storage devices are defined. The theories of friction and adhesion, interface temperatures, wear, and solid-liquid lubrication relevant to magnetic storage systems are presented. Experimental data are presented wherever possible to support the relevant theories advanced.

  13. Glycogen Storage Disease Type IV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendroth-Asmussen, Lisa; Aksglaede, Lise; Gernow, Anne B

    2016-01-01

    molecular genetic analyses confirmed glycogen storage disease Type IV with the finding of compound heterozygosity for 2 mutations (c.691+2T>C and c.1570C>T, p.R524X) in the GBE1 gene. We conclude that glycogen storage disease Type IV can cause early miscarriage and that diagnosis can initially be made...

  14. Spent fuel storage facility, Kalpakkam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shreekumar, B.; Anthony, S.

    2017-01-01

    Spent Fuel Storage Facility (SFSF), Kalpakkam is designed to store spent fuel arising from PHWRs. Spent fuel is transported in AERB qualified/authorized shipping cask by NPCIL to SFSF by road or rail route. The spent fuel storage facility at Kalpakkam was hot commissioned in December 2006. All systems, structures and components (SSCs) related to safety are designed to meet the operational requirements

  15. Nanostructured materials for hydrogen storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Andrew J.; Reboredo, Fernando A.

    2007-12-04

    A system for hydrogen storage comprising a porous nano-structured material with hydrogen absorbed on the surfaces of the porous nano-structured material. The system of hydrogen storage comprises absorbing hydrogen on the surfaces of a porous nano-structured semiconductor material.

  16. Hydrogen storage in carbon nanostruc

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirscher, M.; Becher, M.; Haluska, M.; Quintel, A.; Skakalova, V.; Choi, M.; Dettlaff-Weglikowska, U.; Roth, S.; Stepanek, I.; Bernier, P.; Leonhardt, A.; Fink, J.

    2002-01-01

    The paper gives a critical review of the literature on hydrogen storage in carbon nanostructures. Furthermore, the hydrogen storage of graphite, graphite nanofibers (GNFs), and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) was measured by thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS). The samples were ball milled

  17. Study of mined storage caverns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-06-01

    All available information concerning 75 mined storage caverns as well as the investigative techniques utilized to determine the feasibility of a cavern site is presented. Potential new storage caverns may be for products such as high or low vapor pressure petroleum products, other chemical products, aid industrial or nuclear waste

  18. Dry spent fuel storage licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturz, F.C.

    1995-01-01

    In the US, at-reactor-site dry spent fuel storage in independent spent fuel storage installations (ISFSI) has become the principal option for utilities needing storage capacity outside of the reactor spent fuel pools. Delays in the geologic repository operational date at or beyond 2010, and the increasing uncertainty of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) being able to site and license a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility by 1998 make at-reactor-site dry storage of spent nuclear fuel increasingly desirable to utilities and DOE to meet the need for additional spent fuel storage capacity until disposal, in a repository, is available. The past year has been another busy year for dry spent fuel storage licensing. The licensing staff has been reviewing 7 applications and 12 amendment requests, as well as participating in inspection-related activities. The authors have licensed, on a site-specific basis, a variety of dry technologies (cask, module, and vault). By using certified designs, site-specific licensing is no longer required. Another new cask has been certified. They have received one new application for cask certification and two amendments to a certified cask design. As they stand on the brink of receiving multiple applications from DOE for the MPC, they are preparing to meet the needs of this national program. With the range of technical and licensing options available to utilities, the authors believe that utilities can meet their need for additional spent fuel storage capacity for essentially all reactor sites through the next decade

  19. Neuroimaging of Lipid Storage Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, Deborah; Auerbach, Sarah; Robinson, Paul; Gropman, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Lipid storage diseases, also known as the lipidoses, are a group of inherited metabolic disorders in which there is lipid accumulation in various cell types, including the central nervous system, because of the deficiency of a variety of enzymes. Over time, excessive storage can cause permanent cellular and tissue damage. The brain is particularly…

  20. Block storage subsystem performance analysis

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    You feel that your service is slow because of the storage subsystem? But there are too many abstraction layers between your software and the raw block device for you to debug all this pile... Let's dive on the platters and check out how the block storage sees your I/Os! We can even figure out what those patterns are meaning.

  1. Southern company energy storage study :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellison, James; Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Black, Clifton; Jenkins, Kip

    2013-03-01

    This study evaluates the business case for additional bulk electric energy storage in the Southern Company service territory for the year 2020. The model was used to examine how system operations are likely to change as additional storage is added. The storage resources were allowed to provide energy time shift, regulation reserve, and spinning reserve services. Several storage facilities, including pumped hydroelectric systems, flywheels, and bulk-scale batteries, were considered. These scenarios were tested against a range of sensitivities: three different natural gas price assumptions, a 15% decrease in coal-fired generation capacity, and a high renewable penetration (10% of total generation from wind energy). Only in the elevated natural gas price sensitivities did some of the additional bulk-scale storage projects appear justifiable on the basis of projected production cost savings. Enabling existing peak shaving hydroelectric plants to provide regulation and spinning reserve, however, is likely to provide savings that justify the project cost even at anticipated natural gas price levels. Transmission and distribution applications of storage were not examined in this study. Allowing new storage facilities to serve both bulk grid and transmission/distribution-level needs may provide for increased benefit streams, and thus make a stronger business case for additional storage.

  2. Spent fuel storage and isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bensky, M.S.; Kurzeka, W.J.; Bauer, A.A.; Carr, J.A.; Matthews, S.C.

    1979-02-01

    The principal spent fuel activities conducted within the commercial waste and spent fuel within the Commercial Waste and Spent Fuel Packaging Program are: simulated near-surface (drywell) storage demonstrations at Hanford and the Nevada Test Site; surface (sealed storage cask) and drywell demonstrations at the Nevada Test Site; and spent fuel receiving and packaging facility conceptual design. These investigations are described

  3. Storage arrangements for nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ealing, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    A storage arrangement for nuclear fuel has a plurality of storage tubes connected by individual pipes to manifolds which are connected, in turn, to an exhaust system for maintaining the tubes at sub-atmospheric pressure, and means for producing a flow of a cooling fluid, such as air, over the exterior surfaces of the tubes. (author)

  4. Electrochemistry and Storage Panel Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stedman, J. K.; Halpert, G.

    1984-01-01

    Design and performance requirements for electrochemical power storage systems are discussed and some of the approaches towards satisfying these constraints are described. Geosynchronous and low Earth orbit applications, radar type load constraints, and high voltage systems requirements are addressed. In addition, flywheel energy storage is discussed.

  5. Different types of intermediate storages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spilker, H.

    1982-01-01

    Spent nuclear fuel elements require a period of ''cooling'' after withdrawal from a nuclear reactor. This is done in water storage pools located at the reactor facility. The minimum storage time prior to subsequent operations with the spent fuel is recognized as six to twelve months. After the initial storage period for cooling, the subsequent storage time in water pools could vary from a few years to several decades. Up to 1980, about 15.700 MTHM of spent LWR and HWR fuel have been discharged from nuclear stations. Since only a small fraction thereof has been already reprocessed. The spent fuel assemblies are stored at the reactor-side (AR) in reactor basins in normal or compact racks and away from reactor (AFR) in water pool storages awaiting either reprocessing or final disposal depending on the fuel cycle concept chosen by the individual countries. (orig.)

  6. Anthology of dry storage solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allimann, Nathalie; Otton, Camille [AREVA, Paris (France)

    2012-03-15

    Around 35,000 PWR, BWR or Veer used fuel elements with various enrichment value up to 5%, various cooling time down to 2 years and various burn-ups up to 60,000 Mwd/tU are currently stored in AREVA dry storage solutions. These solutions are delivered in the United States, in Japan and in many European countries like Belgium, Switzerland, Italy, Armenia and Germany. With more than 1000 dry storage solutions delivered all over the world AREVA is the leader on this market. Dealing with dry storage is not an easy task. Products have to be flexible, to be adapted to customer needs and to the national regulations which may stipulate very strict tests such as airplane crash or simulation of earthquake. To develop a dry storage solution for a foreign country means to deal with its national competent authorities. All the national competent authorities do not have the same requirements. Storage conditions may also be different.

  7. Anthology of dry storage solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allimann, Nathalie; Otton, Camille

    2012-01-01

    Around 35,000 PWR, BWR or Veer used fuel elements with various enrichment value up to 5%, various cooling time down to 2 years and various burn-ups up to 60,000 Mwd/tU are currently stored in AREVA dry storage solutions. These solutions are delivered in the United States, in Japan and in many European countries like Belgium, Switzerland, Italy, Armenia and Germany. With more than 1000 dry storage solutions delivered all over the world AREVA is the leader on this market. Dealing with dry storage is not an easy task. Products have to be flexible, to be adapted to customer needs and to the national regulations which may stipulate very strict tests such as airplane crash or simulation of earthquake. To develop a dry storage solution for a foreign country means to deal with its national competent authorities. All the national competent authorities do not have the same requirements. Storage conditions may also be different

  8. Increasing CO2 storage in oil recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jessen, K.; Kovscek, A.R.; Orr, F.M. Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Oil fields offer a significant potential for storing CO 2 and will most likely be the first large scale geological targets for sequestration as the infrastructure, experience and permitting procedures already exist. The problem of co-optimizing oil production and CO 2 storage differs significantly from current gas injection practice due to the cost-benefit imbalance resulting from buying CO 2 for enhanced oil recovery projects. Consequently, operators aim to minimize the amount of CO 2 required to sweep an oil reservoir. For sequestration purposes, where high availability of low cost CO 2 is assumed, the design parameters of enhanced oil recovery processes must be re-defined to optimize the amount of CO 2 left in the reservoir at the time of abandonment. To redefine properly the design parameters, thorough insight into the mechanisms controlling the pore scale displacement efficiency and the overall sweep efficiency is essential. We demonstrate by calculation examples the different mechanisms controlling the displacement behavior of CO 2 sequestration schemes, the interaction between flow and phase equilibrium and how proper design of the injection gas composition and well completion are required to co-optimize oil production and CO 2 storage. [Author

  9. Color Changes of UHT Milk During Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Višnja M. Sikimić

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study measurements of color parameters of UHT milk were performed, by using a MOM-color 100 photoelectric tristimulus colorimeter. Colors of UHT milk samples containing 3.2% and 1.6% milk fat, processed under industrial conditions, packed in polyethylene terephtalate (PET based packages, and stored for 0, 15, 30, 45, 60 and 90 days at ambient temperature (20±5°C were examined. Results are shown in four different systems that define measurement of color parameters expressed in: CIE, CIE L*a*b*, Hünter and ANLAB – Adams Nickerson systems. Average value of mean reflectance of UHT milk determined in CIE system statistically is highly significantly changed, (p < 0.01 depending on duration of storaging, percentage of milk fat, as well as on the interaction of the mentioned factors. For the UHT milk with 1.6% milk fat statistically significant (p < 0.05 decrease of psychometric chroma b* occurs after 60 days, and for milk with 3.2% milk fat established on 45th day of storage.

  10. Increasing CO2 storage in oil recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jessen, Kristian; Kovscek, Anthony R.; Orr, Franklin M.

    2005-01-01

    Oil fields offer a significant potential for storing CO 2 and will most likely be the first large scale geological targets for sequestration as the infrastructure, experience and permitting procedures already exist. The problem of co-optimizing oil production and CO 2 storage differs significantly from current gas injection practice due to the cost-benefit imbalance resulting from buying CO 2 for enhanced oil recovery projects. Consequently, operators aim to minimize the amount of CO 2 required to sweep an oil reservoir. For sequestration purposes, where high availability of low cost CO 2 is assumed, the design parameters of enhanced oil recovery processes must be re-defined to optimize the amount of CO 2 left in the reservoir at the time of abandonment. To redefine properly the design parameters, thorough insight into the mechanisms controlling the pore scale displacement efficiency and the overall sweep efficiency is essential. We demonstrate by calculation examples the different mechanisms controlling the displacement behavior of CO 2 sequestration schemes, the interaction between flow and phase equilibrium and how proper design of the injection gas composition and well completion are required to co-optimize oil production and CO 2 storage

  11. A review of pumped energy storage schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unsworth, G.N.

    1975-07-01

    The comparative advantages and costs of pumped water storage, steam accumulators, storage of boiler feedwater , and compressed air storage in caverns are described. Boiler feedwater storage in caverns and pumped water storage are most economical. All systems are costly enough to justify developing reactors with load following capabilities. (E.C.B.)

  12. Locally Minimum Storage Regenerating Codes in Distributed Cloud Storage Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Wang; Wei Luo; Wei Liang; Xiangyang Liu; Xiaodai Dong

    2017-01-01

    In distributed cloud storage sys-tems, inevitably there exist multiple node fail-ures at the same time. The existing methods of regenerating codes, including minimum storage regenerating (MSR) codes and mini-mum bandwidth regenerating (MBR) codes, are mainly to repair one single or several failed nodes, unable to meet the repair need of distributed cloud storage systems. In this paper, we present locally minimum storage re-generating (LMSR) codes to recover multiple failed nodes at the same time. Specifically, the nodes in distributed cloud storage systems are divided into multiple local groups, and in each local group (4, 2) or (5, 3) MSR codes are constructed. Moreover, the grouping method of storage nodes and the repairing process of failed nodes in local groups are studied. The-oretical analysis shows that LMSR codes can achieve the same storage overhead as MSR codes. Furthermore, we verify by means of simulation that, compared with MSR codes, LMSR codes can reduce the repair bandwidth and disk I/O overhead effectively.

  13. Economic issues of storage technologies in different applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beurskens, L.W.M.; De Noord, M.

    2004-09-01

    For evaluating energy storage technologies, economical parameters are of considerable importance. A qualitative assessment is given of storage technologies in general, contributing to success or failure of their use. Based on data of nine storage technologies that are defined in the INVESTIRE Network (Investigation on storage technologies for intermittent renewable energies: evaluation and recommended R and D strategy), results of a quantitative cost analysis are presented, based on device-specific key parameters. The costs have been defined as additional costs, effected by the required investments and operation and maintenance expenditures, the efficiency of a device and its lifetime. In order to compare the technologies properly, categories of typical use have been defined, ranging from stand-alone small applications (typical storage capacity of 0.1 kWh) to levelling of power production (approximately 1 MWh). The outcome is presented in such a way that for each category of typical use, the best technological options are identified, based on a cost analysis

  14. Cathodic Protection Design Algorithms for Refineries Aboveground Storage Tanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosay Abdul sattar Majbor

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Storage tanks condition and integrity is maintained by joint application of coating and cathodic protection. Iraq southern region rich in oil and petroleum product refineries need and use plenty of aboveground storage tanks. Iraq went through conflicts over the past thirty five years resulting in holding the oil industry infrastructure behind regarding maintenance and modernization. The primary concern in this work is the design and implementation of cathodic protection systems for the aboveground storage tanks farm in the oil industry. Storage tank external base area and tank internal surface area are to be protected against corrosion using impressed current and sacrificial anode cathodic protection systems. Interactive versatile computer programs are developed to provide the necessary system parameters data including the anode requirements, composition, rating, configuration, etc. Microsoft-Excel datasheet and Visual Basic.Net developed software were used throughout the study in the design of both cathodic protection systems. The case study considered in this work is the eleven aboveground storage tanks farm situated in al-Shauiba refinery in southern IRAQ. The designed cathodic protection systems are to be installed and monitored realistically in the near future. Both systems were designed for a life span of (15-30 years, and all their parameters were within the internationally accepted standards.

  15. Operating experience of vault type dry storage and its relevance to future storage needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, E.O.; Deacon, D.

    1982-01-01

    An outline description of the early passive cooled vault type dry stores for irradiated magnox fuel at the Wylfa Nuclear Power Station together with the valuable operating experience gained over many years. An outline description of the world's first air-cooled vault type dry store (350 Te) and comments on its construction and successful operation. A description of the basic principles that were used in the design of this store and how these principles have been developed for use on vault type storage systems for oxide fuel and vitrified waste. An examination of the basic parameters that the author's consider should be used to measure the adequacy of the many storage options currently being considered around the world is included in order that a better assessment of the various systems may be obtained

  16. Thermochemical Heat Storage: from Reaction Storage Density to System Storage Density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, A.J. de; Vliet, L.D. van; Hoegaerts, C.L.G.; Roelands, C.P.M.; Cuypers, R.

    2016-01-01

    Long-term and compact storage of solar energy is crucial for the eventual transition to a 100% renewable energy economy. For this, thermochemical materials provide a promising solution. The compactness of a long-term storage system is determined by the thermochemical reaction, operating conditions,

  17. Estimating the maximum potential revenue for grid connected electricity storage :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrne, Raymond Harry; Silva Monroy, Cesar Augusto.

    2012-12-01

    The valuation of an electricity storage device is based on the expected future cash flow generated by the device. Two potential sources of income for an electricity storage system are energy arbitrage and participation in the frequency regulation market. Energy arbitrage refers to purchasing (stor- ing) energy when electricity prices are low, and selling (discharging) energy when electricity prices are high. Frequency regulation is an ancillary service geared towards maintaining system frequency, and is typically procured by the independent system operator in some type of market. This paper outlines the calculations required to estimate the maximum potential revenue from participating in these two activities. First, a mathematical model is presented for the state of charge as a function of the storage device parameters and the quantities of electricity purchased/sold as well as the quantities o ered into the regulation market. Using this mathematical model, we present a linear programming optimization approach to calculating the maximum potential revenue from an elec- tricity storage device. The calculation of the maximum potential revenue is critical in developing an upper bound on the value of storage, as a benchmark for evaluating potential trading strate- gies, and a tool for capital nance risk assessment. Then, we use historical California Independent System Operator (CAISO) data from 2010-2011 to evaluate the maximum potential revenue from the Tehachapi wind energy storage project, an American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) energy storage demonstration project. We investigate the maximum potential revenue from two di erent scenarios: arbitrage only and arbitrage combined with the regulation market. Our analysis shows that participation in the regulation market produces four times the revenue compared to arbitrage in the CAISO market using 2010 and 2011 data. Then we evaluate several trading strategies to illustrate how they compare to the

  18. Measurements of Fundamental Fluid Physics of SNF Storage Canisters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Condie, Keith Glenn; Mc Creery, Glenn Ernest; McEligot, Donald Marinus

    2001-09-01

    With the University of Idaho, Ohio State University and Clarksean Associates, this research program has the long-term goal to develop reliable predictive techniques for the energy, mass and momentum transfer plus chemical reactions in drying / passivation (surface oxidation) operations in the transfer and storage of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from wet to dry storage. Such techniques are needed to assist in design of future transfer and storage systems, prediction of the performance of existing and proposed systems and safety (re)evaluation of systems as necessary at later dates. Many fuel element geometries and configurations are accommodated in the storage of spent nuclear fuel. Consequently, there is no one generic fuel element / assembly, storage basket or canister and, therefore, no single generic fuel storage configuration. One can, however, identify generic flow phenomena or processes which may be present during drying or passivation in SNF canisters. The objective of the INEEL tasks was to obtain fundamental measurements of these flow processes in appropriate parameter ranges.

  19. Energy storage systems: a strategic road-book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Dealing with the development and deployment of thermal and electric energy storage systems, this report first identifies four main challenges: to take environmental challenges into account during all the storage system life (design, production, use, end of life), to integrate the issue of economic valorization of the device into its design phase, to promote the development of standards, to make an institutional and legal framework emerge. It defines the geographical scope and the time horizon for the development of these systems. It evokes research and development programs in the United States, Japan, China, Germany and the European Union. These programs concern: mobile electric storage systems, electric storage systems in support of energy networks and renewable energies, heat storage systems. The authors outline that business models are now favourable to the deployment of storage systems. They discuss some key technological and economical parameters. They propose some prospective visions by 2050 with different possible orientations for this sector. They also identify and discuss the possible technological and socio-economical obstacles, research priorities, and stress the importance of implementing experimental platforms and research demonstrators

  20. Attenuation of Red Blood Cell Storage Lesions with Vitamin C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly Sanford

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Stored red blood cells (RBCs undergo oxidative stress that induces deleterious metabolic, structural, biochemical, and molecular changes collectively referred to as “storage lesions”. We hypothesized that vitamin C (VitC, reduced or oxidized would reduce red cell storage lesions, thus prolonging their storage duration. Whole-blood-derived, leuko-reduced, SAGM (saline-adenine-glucose-mannitol-preserved RBC concentrates were equally divided into four pediatric storage bags and the following additions made: (1 saline (saline; (2 0.3 mmol/L reduced VitC (Lo VitC; (3 3 mmol/L reduced VitC (Hi VitC; or (4 0.3 mmol/L oxidized VitC (dehydroascorbic acid, DHA as final concentrations. Biochemical and rheological parameters were serially assessed at baseline (prior to supplementation and Days 7, 21, 42, and 56 for RBC VitC concentration, pH, osmotic fragility by mechanical fragility index, and percent hemolysis, LDH release, glutathione depletion, RBC membrane integrity by scanning electron microscopy, and Western blot for β-spectrin. VitC exposure (reduced and oxidized significantly increased RBC antioxidant status with varying dynamics and produced trends in reduction in osmotic fragility and increases in membrane integrity. Conclusion: VitC partially protects RBC from oxidative changes during storage. Combining VitC with other antioxidants has the potential to improve long-term storage of RBC.

  1. Theoretical maximal storage of hydrogen in zeolitic frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitillo, Jenny G; Ricchiardi, Gabriele; Spoto, Giuseppe; Zecchina, Adriano

    2005-12-07

    Physisorption and encapsulation of molecular hydrogen in tailored microporous materials are two of the options for hydrogen storage. Among these materials, zeolites have been widely investigated. In these materials, the attained storage capacities vary widely with structure and composition, leading to the expectation that materials with improved binding sites, together with lighter frameworks, may represent efficient storage materials. In this work, we address the problem of the determination of the maximum amount of molecular hydrogen which could, in principle, be stored in a given zeolitic framework, as limited by the size, structure and flexibility of its pore system. To this end, the progressive filling with H2 of 12 purely siliceous models of common zeolite frameworks has been simulated by means of classical molecular mechanics. By monitoring the variation of cell parameters upon progressive filling of the pores, conclusions are drawn regarding the maximum storage capacity of each framework and, more generally, on framework flexibility. The flexible non-pentasils RHO, FAU, KFI, LTA and CHA display the highest maximal capacities, ranging between 2.86-2.65 mass%, well below the targets set for automotive applications but still in an interesting range. The predicted maximal storage capacities correlate well with experimental results obtained at low temperature. The technique is easily extendable to any other microporous structure, and it can provide a method for the screening of hypothetical new materials for hydrogen storage applications.

  2. Four-channel high speed synchronized acquisition multiple trigger storage measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Jian; Wang Wenlian; Zhang Zhijie

    2010-01-01

    A new storage measurement system based on the CPLD, MCU and FLASH (large-capacity flash memory) is proposed. The large capacity storage characteristic of the FLASH MEMORY is used to realize multi channel synchronized acquisition and the function of multiple records and read once. The function of multi channel synchronization, high speed data acquisition, the triggering several times, and the adjustability of working parameters expands the application of storage measurement system. The storage measurement system can be used in a variety of pressure and temperature test in explosion field. (authors)

  3. Submersible energy storage apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mccartney, J.F.; Rowe, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    A submersible energy storage apparatus for an electrical power source is provided which includes an electrolysis unit feed water gas collection assembly and a fuel cell. The electrolysis unit feed water gas collection assembly includes a hydrogen container and an oxygen container wherein each container has a gas outlet and is capable of containing feed water as well as hydrogen and oxygen gases respectively. An electrolysis cell is provided which has a hydrogen outlet, an oxygen outlet and a feed water inlet. The hydrogen outlet is located in the hydrogen container, the oxygen outlet is located in the oxygen container, and the feed water inlet is located in one of the containers. Each of the containers has an opening to the submersible environment so as to be pressure responsive thereto. A barrier device is provided in association with the opening in each container for isolating the feed water in the container from water in the submersible environment. The fuel cell is operatively connected to the hydrogen and oxygen containers, and the electrical power source is operatively connected to the electrolysis cell. With this arrangement the electrolysis cell is capable of utilizing power from the power source during low electrical energy demand, and the fuel cell is capable of utilizing the hydrogen and oxygen gases for generating electricity during high demand periods

  4. Lipid storage myopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Claudio; Dimauro, Salvatore

    2008-10-01

    The aim of this review is to provide an update on disorders of lipid metabolism affecting skeletal muscle exclusively or predominantly and to summarize recent clinical, genetic, and therapeutic studies in this field. Over the past 5 years, new clinical phenotypes and genetic loci have been described, unusual pathogenic mechanisms have been elucidated, and novel pharmacological approaches have been developed. At least one genetic defect responsible for the myopathic form of CoQ10 deficiency has been identified, causing a disorder that is allelic with the late-onset riboflavine-responsive form of multiple acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenation deficiency. Novel mechanisms involved in the lipolytic breakdown of cellular lipid depots have been described and have led to the identification of genes and mutations responsible for multisystemic neutral lipid storage disorders, characterized by accumulation of triglyceride in multiple tissues, including muscle. Defects in lipid metabolism can affect either the mitochondrial transport and oxidation of exogenous fatty acid or the catabolism of endogenous triglycerides. These disorders impair energy production and almost invariably involve skeletal muscle, causing progressive myopathy with muscle weakness, or recurrent acute episodes of rhabdomyolysis triggered by exercise, fasting, or infections. Clinical and genetic characterization of these disorders has important implications both for accurate diagnostic approach and for development of therapeutic strategies.

  5. Tritium Storage Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowgill, Donald F.; Luo, Weifang; Smugeresky, John E.; Robinson, David B.; Fares, Stephen James; Ong, Markus D.; Arslan, Ilke; Tran, Kim L.; McCarty, Kevin F.; Sartor, George B.; Stewart, Kenneth D.; Clift, W. Miles

    2008-01-01

    Nano-structured palladium is examined as a tritium storage material with the potential to release beta-decay-generated helium at the generation rate, thereby mitigating the aging effects produced by enlarging He bubbles. Helium retention in proposed structures is modeled by adapting the Sandia Bubble Evolution model to nano-dimensional material. The model shows that even with ligament dimensions of 6-12 nm, elevated temperatures will be required for low He retention. Two nanomaterial synthesis pathways were explored: de-alloying and surfactant templating. For de-alloying, PdAg alloys with piranha etchants appeared likely to generate the desired morphology with some additional development effort. Nano-structured 50 nm Pd particles with 2-3 nm pores were successfully produced by surfactant templating using PdCl salts and an oligo(ethylene oxide) hexadecyl ether surfactant. Tests were performed on this material to investigate processes for removing residual pore fluids and to examine the thermal stability of pores. A tritium manifold was fabricated to measure the early He release behavior of this and Pd black material and is installed in the Tritium Science Station glove box at LLNL. Pressure-composition isotherms and particle sizes of a commercial Pd black were measured.

  6. Disk storage at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Mascetti, L; Chan, B; Espinal, X; Fiorot, A; Labrador, H Gonz; Iven, J; Lamanna, M; Presti, G Lo; Mościcki, JT; Peters, AJ; Ponce, S; Rousseau, H; van der Ster, D

    2015-01-01

    CERN IT DSS operates the main storage resources for data taking and physics analysis mainly via three system: AFS, CASTOR and EOS. The total usable space available on disk for users is about 100 PB (with relative ratios 1:20:120). EOS actively uses the two CERN Tier0 centres (Meyrin and Wigner) with 50:50 ratio. IT DSS also provide sizeable on-demand resources for IT services most notably OpenStack and NFS-based clients: this is provided by a Ceph infrastructure (3 PB) and few proprietary servers (NetApp). We will describe our operational experience and recent changes to these systems with special emphasis to the present usages for LHC data taking, the convergence to commodity hardware (nodes with 200-TB each with optional SSD) shared across all services. We also describe our experience in coupling commodity and home-grown solution (e.g. CERNBox integration in EOS, Ceph disk pools for AFS, CASTOR and NFS) and finally the future evolution of these systems for WLCG and beyond.

  7. Disk storage at CERN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascetti, L.; Cano, E.; Chan, B.; Espinal, X.; Fiorot, A.; González Labrador, H.; Iven, J.; Lamanna, M.; Lo Presti, G.; Mościcki, JT; Peters, AJ; Ponce, S.; Rousseau, H.; van der Ster, D.

    2015-12-01

    CERN IT DSS operates the main storage resources for data taking and physics analysis mainly via three system: AFS, CASTOR and EOS. The total usable space available on disk for users is about 100 PB (with relative ratios 1:20:120). EOS actively uses the two CERN Tier0 centres (Meyrin and Wigner) with 50:50 ratio. IT DSS also provide sizeable on-demand resources for IT services most notably OpenStack and NFS-based clients: this is provided by a Ceph infrastructure (3 PB) and few proprietary servers (NetApp). We will describe our operational experience and recent changes to these systems with special emphasis to the present usages for LHC data taking, the convergence to commodity hardware (nodes with 200-TB each with optional SSD) shared across all services. We also describe our experience in coupling commodity and home-grown solution (e.g. CERNBox integration in EOS, Ceph disk pools for AFS, CASTOR and NFS) and finally the future evolution of these systems for WLCG and beyond.

  8. Storage of sunflower seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise de Castro Lima

    Full Text Available The sunflower is among the top five crops in the world for the production of edible vegetable oil. The species displays rustic behavior, with an excellent edaphic and climatic adaptability index, being able to be cultivated throughout Brazil. Seed quality is the key to increasing production and productivity in the sunflower. The objective of this work was to monitor the viability of sunflower seeds with a view to their conservation when stored in different environments and packaging. The seeds were packed in paper bags, multilayered paper, black polyethylene and PET bottles; and stored for a period of twelve months in the following environments: dry cold room (10 ºC and 55% RH, the ambient conditions of Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil (30-32 ºC and 75% RH, refrigerator (4 ºC and 38-43% RH and freezer (-20 ºC. Every three months, the water content of the seeds was determined and germination, accelerated ageing, speed of emergence index, and seedling dry weight were evaluated. The experimental design was completely randomized, in a scheme of split-lots, with four replications. It can be concluded that the natural environment is not suitable for the storage of sunflower seeds. Sunflower seeds remain viable for 12 months when stored in a dry cold room, refrigerator or freezer, irrespective of the type of packaging used.

  9. Superconducting energy storage magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boom, Roger W. (Inventor); Eyssa, Yehia M. (Inventor); Abdelsalam, Mostafa K. (Inventor); Huang, Xianrui (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A superconducting magnet is formed having composite conductors arrayed in coils having turns which lie on a surface defining substantially a frustum of a cone. The conical angle with respect to the central axis is preferably selected such that the magnetic pressure on the coil at the widest portion of the cone is substantially zero. The magnet structure is adapted for use as an energy storage magnet mounted in an earthen trench or tunnel where the strength the surrounding soil is lower at the top of the trench or tunnel than at the bottom. The composite conductor may be formed having a ripple shape to minimize stresses during charge up and discharge and has a shape for each ripple selected such that the conductor undergoes a minimum amount of bending during the charge and discharge cycle. By minimizing bending, the working of the normal conductor in the composite conductor is minimized, thereby reducing the increase in resistance of the normal conductor that occurs over time as the conductor undergoes bending during numerous charge and discharge cycles.

  10. Nuclear materials management storage study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, G.W. Jr.

    1994-02-01

    The Office of Weapons and Materials Planning (DP-27) requested the Planning Support Group (PSG) at the Savannah River Site to help coordinate a Departmental complex-wide nuclear materials storage study. This study will support the development of management strategies and plans until Defense Programs' Complex 21 is operational by DOE organizations that have direct interest/concerns about or responsibilities for nuclear material storage. They include the Materials Planning Division (DP-273) of DP-27, the Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Facilities (DP-60), the Office of Weapons Complex Reconfiguration (DP-40), and other program areas, including Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM). To facilitate data collection, a questionnaire was developed and issued to nuclear materials custodian sites soliciting information on nuclear materials characteristics, storage plans, issues, etc. Sites were asked to functionally group materials identified in DOE Order 5660.1A (Management of Nuclear Materials) based on common physical and chemical characteristics and common material management strategies and to relate these groupings to Nuclear Materials Management Safeguards and Security (NMMSS) records. A database was constructed using 843 storage records from 70 responding sites. The database and an initial report summarizing storage issues were issued to participating Field Offices and DP-27 for comment. This report presents the background for the Storage Study and an initial, unclassified summary of storage issues and concerns identified by the sites

  11. Interim and final storage casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stumpfrock, L.; Kockelmann, H.

    2012-01-01

    The disposal of radioactive waste is a huge social challenge in Germany and all over the world. As is well known the search for a site for a final repository for high-level waste in Germany is not complete. Therefore, interim storage facilities for radioactive waste were built at plant sites in Germany. The waste is stored in these storage facilities in appropriate storage and transport casks until the transport in a final repository can be carried out. Licensing of the storage and transport casks aimed for use in the public space is done according to the traffic laws and for handling in the storage facility according to nuclear law. Taking into account the activity of the waste to be stored, different containers are in use, so that experience is available from the licensing and operation in interim storage facilities. The large volume of radioactive waste to be disposed of after the shut-down of power generation in nuclear power stations makes it necessary for large quantities of licensed storage and transport casks to be provided soon.

  12. Opportunities in independent gas storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel, R.

    1999-01-01

    The range of business opportunities currently available for the midstream oil and gas business were discussed with particular focus on storage opportunities. Alberta Energy Co. (AEC) Ltd.'s two midstream business units include AEC Pipelines and Gas Processing, and AEC Storage and Hub Services. These two businesses provide the company with good investment returns, stable cash flow, and some significant strategic synergies with their exploration and production businesses. In 1988, the AECO C Hub in southeastern Alberta was created as an outgrowth of AEC's gas production operations on the Suffield block, where they had depleted gas reservoirs with high rock quality suitable for high deliverability storage. With the AECO C Hub, AEC was able to offer firm storage contracts of from 1 to 20 years, and to introduce short term interruptible parking and lending services, title exchange, a spot price index for greater price discovery, and an electronic nomination system. AEC is currently completing construction of their second commercial storage facility, the Wild Goose project, in northern California. D ebottlenecking' the Western Canada supply basin should provide additional opportunities for further expansion not only for AEC but also for other midstream service providers. Opportunities are especially available in the areas of new storage facilities to serve location-specific needs, replacement of declining storage capacity, replacement of retiring facilities, technological optimization of existing facilities, more flexible, higher deliverability facilities and commercial optimization of existing facilities. A map of the hubs and market centres of North America are included. 5 figs

  13. Lithium ion storage between graphenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Yue

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this article, we investigate the storage of lithium ions between two parallel graphene sheets using the continuous approximation and the 6-12 Lennard-Jones potential. The continuous approximation assumes that the carbon atoms can be replaced by a uniform distribution across the surface of the graphene sheets so that the total interaction potential can be approximated by performing surface integrations. The number of ion layers determines the major storage characteristics of the battery, and our results show three distinct ionic configurations, namely single, double, and triple ion forming layers between graphenes. The number densities of lithium ions between the two graphenes are estimated from existing semi-empirical molecular orbital calculations, and the graphene sheets giving rise to the triple ion layers admit the largest storage capacity at all temperatures, followed by a marginal decrease of storage capacity for the case of double ion layers. These two configurations exceed the maximum theoretical storage capacity of graphite. Further, on taking into account the charge-discharge property, the double ion layers are the most preferable choice for enhanced lithium storage. Although the single ion layer provides the least charge storage, it turns out to be the most stable configuration at all temperatures. One application of the present study is for the design of future high energy density alkali batteries using graphene sheets as anodes for which an analytical formulation might greatly facilitate rapid computational results.

  14. Safety considerations for compressed hydrogen storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gleason, D.

    2006-01-01

    An overview of the safety considerations for various hydrogen storage options, including stationary, vehicle storage, and mobile refueling technologies. Indications of some of the challenges facing the industry as the demand for hydrogen fuel storage systems increases. (author)

  15. Ultra-High Density Spectral Storage Materials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hasan, Zameer U

    2002-01-01

    .... Being atomic scale storage, spectral storage has the potential of providing orders of magnitude denser memories than present day memories that depend on the hulk properties of the storage medium...

  16. The SERI solar energy storage program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, R. J.; Wright, J. D.; Wyman, C. E.

    1980-01-01

    In support of the DOE thermal and chemical energy storage program, the solar energy storage program (SERI) provides research on advanced technologies, systems analyses, and assessments of thermal energy storage for solar applications in support of the Thermal and Chemical Energy Storage Program of the DOE Division of Energy Storage Systems. Currently, research is in progress on direct contact latent heat storage and thermochemical energy storage and transport. Systems analyses are being performed of thermal energy storage for solar thermal applications, and surveys and assessments are being prepared of thermal energy storage in solar applications. A ranking methodology for comparing thermal storage systems (performance and cost) is presented. Research in latent heat storage and thermochemical storage and transport is reported.

  17. Freezing and refrigerated storage in fisheries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnston, W. A

    1994-01-01

    ...; the factors affecting cold storage conditions, etc. In addition, the publication describes the methods used to calculate cold storage refrigeration loads as well as the costs of freezing and cold storage...

  18. Effect of freezing and storage time of blood serum of lambs in the determination of biochemical parametersEfeito do congelamento e do tempo de armazenamento do soro sanguíneo de cordeiros na determinação de parâmetros bioquímicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Emy Ishiy

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of freezing (- 20 ºC and time of storage of serum in the determination of biochemical values in sheep. It was held at the Universidade Estadual do Centro-Oeste in Guarapuava – PR. The serum was obtained from 32 Corriedale x Ille de France crossbred lambs, four months old. Nine hundred and sixty tests were performed, the first immediately after sampling (time zero, after 7, 14, 21, 28 days after blood collection. The analytes tested were aspartate aminotranferase (AST, urea, total protein, cholesterol, phosphorus and magnesium. The results showed that the time of storage of frozen samples (-20 ºC was able to alter results of total protein, phosphorus, and magnesium. The serum measurements of AST, cholesterol and urea did not differ in different storage times.Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito do congelamento (- 20 ºC e o tempo de armazenamento do soro na determinação de valores bioquímicos em ovinos. Foi realizado na Universidade Estadual do Centro-Oeste em Guarapuava – PR. O soro foi obtido de 32 cordeiros da raça Ile de France x Corriedale, com 4 meses de idade. Foram realizadas análises, imediatamente após a obtenção da amostra, tempo zero e após 7, 14, 21, 28 dias da colheita do sangue. Os analitos testados foram aspartato-amino-transferase (AST, uréia, proteína total, colesterol, fósforo e magnésio. Os resultados permitiram concluir que o tempo de armazenamento das amostras congeladas (- 20 ºC causou alterações nos resultados para as análises de proteína total, fósforo, e magnésio. As determinações séricas AST, colesterol e uréia não diferiram estatisticamente nos diferentes tempos de armazenamento.

  19. ICI optical data storage tape: An archival mass storage media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddick, Andrew J.

    1993-01-01

    At the 1991 Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies, ICI Imagedata presented a paper which introduced ICI Optical Data Storage Tape. This paper placed specific emphasis on the media characteristics and initial data was presented which illustrated the archival stability of the media. More exhaustive analysis that was carried out on the chemical stability of the media is covered. Equally important, it also addresses archive management issues associated with, for example, the benefits of reduced rewind requirements to accommodate tape relaxation effects that result from careful tribology control in ICI Optical Tape media. ICI Optical Tape media was designed to meet the most demanding requirements of archival mass storage. It is envisaged that the volumetric data capacity, long term stability and low maintenance characteristics demonstrated will have major benefits in increasing reliability and reducing the costs associated with archival storage of large data volumes.

  20. Cosmological Parameters 2000

    OpenAIRE

    Primack, Joel R.

    2000-01-01

    The cosmological parameters that I emphasize are the age of the universe $t_0$, the Hubble parameter $H_0 \\equiv 100 h$ km s$^{-1}$ Mpc$^{-1}$, the average matter density $\\Omega_m$, the baryonic matter density $\\Omega_b$, the neutrino density $\\Omega_\

  1. Fire propagation through arrays of solid-waste storage drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, S.T.; Hinkle, A.W.

    1995-01-01

    The extent of propagation of a fire through drums of solid waste has been an unresolved issue that affects all solid-waste projects and existing solid-waste storage and handling facilities at the Hanford site. The issue involves the question of how many drums of solid waste within a given fire area will be consumed in a design-basis fire for given parameters such as drum loading, storage arrays, initiating events, and facility design. If the assumption that all drums of waste within a given fire area are consumed proves valid, then the construction costs of solid waste facilities may be significantly increased

  2. Workshop on compact storage ring technology: applications to lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    Project planning in the area of x-ray lithography is discussed. Three technologies that are emphasized are the light source, the lithographic technology, and masking technology. The needs of the semiconductor industry in the lithography area during the next decade are discussed, particularly as regards large scale production of high density dynamic random access memory devices. Storage ring parameters and an overall exposure tool for x-ray lithography are addressed. Competition in this area of technology from Germany and Japan is discussed briefly. The design of a storage ring is considered, including lattice design, magnets, and beam injection systems

  3. Simulation of Porous Medium Hydrogen Storage - Estimation of Storage Capacity and Deliverability for a North German anticlinal Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B.; Bauer, S.; Pfeiffer, W. T.

    2015-12-01

    Large scale energy storage will be required to mitigate offsets between electric energy demand and the fluctuating electric energy production from renewable sources like wind farms, if renewables dominate energy supply. Porous formations in the subsurface could provide the large storage capacities required if chemical energy carriers such as hydrogen gas produced during phases of energy surplus are stored. This work assesses the behavior of a porous media hydrogen storage operation through numerical scenario simulation of a synthetic, heterogeneous sandstone formation formed by an anticlinal structure. The structural model is parameterized using data available for the North German Basin as well as data given for formations with similar characteristics. Based on the geological setting at the storage site a total of 15 facies distributions is generated and the hydrological parameters are assigned accordingly. Hydraulic parameters are spatially distributed according to the facies present and include permeability, porosity relative permeability and capillary pressure. The storage is designed to supply energy in times of deficiency on the order of seven days, which represents the typical time span of weather conditions with no wind. It is found that using five injection/extraction wells 21.3 mio sm³ of hydrogen gas can be stored and retrieved to supply 62,688 MWh of energy within 7 days. This requires a ratio of working to cushion gas of 0.59. The retrievable energy within this time represents the demand of about 450000 people. Furthermore it is found that for longer storage times, larger gas volumes have to be used, for higher delivery rates additionally the number of wells has to be increased. The formation investigated here thus seems to offer sufficient capacity and deliverability to be used for a large scale hydrogen gas storage operation.

  4. Polarized particles in storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derbenev, Ya.S.; Kondratenko, A.M.; Serednyakov, S.I.; Skrinskij, A.N.; Tumajkin, G.M.; Shatunov, Yu.M.

    1977-01-01

    Experiments with polarized beams on the VEPP-2M and SPEAK storage rings are described. Possible methods of producing polarized particle beams in storage rings as well as method of polarization monitoring are counted. Considered are the processes of radiation polarization of electrons and positrons. It is shown, that to preserve radiation polarization the introduction of regions with a strong sign-variable magnetic field is recommended. Methods of polarization measurement are counted. It is suggested for high energies to use dependence of synchrotron radiation power on transverse polarization of electrons and positrons. Examples of using polarizability of colliding beams in storage rings are presented

  5. Grand Challenges facing Storage Systems

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2004-01-01

    In this talk, we will discuss the future of storage systems. In particular, we will focus on several big challenges which we are facing in storage, such as being able to build, manage and backup really massive storage systems, being able to find information of interest, being able to do long-term archival of data, and so on. We also present ideas and research being done to address these challenges, and provide a perspective on how we expect these challenges to be resolved as we go forward.

  6. Carbon material for hydrogen storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourlinos, Athanasios; Steriotis, Theodore; Stubos, Athanasios; Miller, Michael A

    2016-09-13

    The present invention relates to carbon based materials that are employed for hydrogen storage applications. The material may be described as the pyrolysis product of a molecular precursor such as a cyclic quinone compound. The pyrolysis product may then be combined with selected transition metal atoms which may be in nanoparticulate form, where the metals may be dispersed on the material surface. Such product may then provide for the reversible storage of hydrogen. The metallic nanoparticles may also be combined with a second metal as an alloy to further improve hydrogen storage performance.

  7. Troubleshooting vSphere storage

    CERN Document Server

    Preston, Mike

    2013-01-01

    This is a step-by-step example-oriented tutorial aimed at showing the reader how to troubleshoot a variety of vSphere storage problems, and providing the reader with solutions that can be completed with minimal effort and time in order to limit damage to work.If you are a vSphere administrator, this is the book for you. This book will provide you with 'need to know' information about the various storage transports that ESXi utilizes, the tools and techniques we can use to identify problems, and the fundamental knowledge and steps to take to troubleshoot storage-related issues. Prior knowledge

  8. Energy storage for sustainable microgrid

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, David Wenzhong

    2015-01-01

    Energy Storage for Sustainable Microgrid addresses the issues related to modelling, operation and control, steady-state and dynamic analysis of microgrids with ESS. This book discusses major electricity storage technologies in depth along with their efficiency, lifetime cycles, environmental benefits and capacity, so that readers can envisage which type of storage technology is best for a particular microgrid application. This book offers solutions to numerous difficulties such as choosing the right ESS for the particular microgrid application, proper sizing of ESS for microgrid, as well as

  9. International Symposium on Site Characterization for CO2Geological Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2006-02-23

    Several technological options have been proposed to stabilize atmospheric concentrations of CO{sub 2}. One proposed remedy is to separate and capture CO{sub 2} from fossil-fuel power plants and other stationary industrial sources and to inject the CO{sub 2} into deep subsurface formations for long-term storage and sequestration. Characterization of geologic formations for sequestration of large quantities of CO{sub 2} needs to be carefully considered to ensure that sites are suitable for long-term storage and that there will be no adverse impacts to human health or the environment. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage (Final Draft, October 2005) states that ''Site characterization, selection and performance prediction are crucial for successful geological storage. Before selecting a site, the geological setting must be characterized to determine if the overlying cap rock will provide an effective seal, if there is a sufficiently voluminous and permeable storage formation, and whether any abandoned or active wells will compromise the integrity of the seal. Moreover, the availability of good site characterization data is critical for the reliability of models''. This International Symposium on Site Characterization for CO{sub 2} Geological Storage (CO2SC) addresses the particular issue of site characterization and site selection related to the geologic storage of carbon dioxide. Presentations and discussions cover the various aspects associated with characterization and selection of potential CO{sub 2} storage sites, with emphasis on advances in process understanding, development of measurement methods, identification of key site features and parameters, site characterization strategies, and case studies.

  10. Monitored Retrievable Storage conceptual system study: metal storage casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unterzuber, R.; Cross, T.E.; Krasicki, B.R.

    1983-08-01

    A description of the metal cask storage facility concept is presented with the operations required to handle the spent fuel or high-level wastes and transuranic wastes. A generic Receiving and Handling Facility, provided by PNL, has been used for this study. Modifications to the storage delivery side of the handling facility, necessary to couple the Receiving and Handling Facility with the storage facility, are described. The equipment and support facilities needed for the storage facility are also described. Two separate storage facilities are presented herein: one for all spent fuel storage, and one for storage of high-level waste (HLW) and transuranic waste (TRU). Each facility is described for the capacities and rates defined by PNL in the Concept Technical Performance Criteria and Base Assumptions (see Table 1.3-1). Estimates of costs and time-distributions of expenditures have been developed to construct, operate, and decommission the conceptual MRS facilities in mid-1983 dollars, for the base cases given using the cost categories and percentages provided by PNL. Cost estimates and time-distributions of expenditures have also been developed to expand the facility throughput rate from 1800 MTU to 3000 MTU, and to expand the facility storage capacity from 15,000 MTU to 72,00 MTU. The life cycle cost of the facility for the bounding cases of all spent fuel and all HLW and TRU, using the time-distributions of costs developed above and assuming a two percent per year discount rate, are also presented. 3 references, 16 figures, 18 tables

  11. Optimization Design of Multi-Parameters in Rail Launcher System

    OpenAIRE

    Yujiao Zhang; Weinan Qin; Junpeng Liao; Jiangjun Ruan

    2014-01-01

    Today the energy storage systems are still encumbering, therefore it is useful to think about the optimization of a railgun system in order to achieve the best performance with the lowest energy input. In this paper, an optimal design method considering 5 parameters is proposed to improve the energy conversion efficiency of a simple railgun. In order to avoid costly trials, the field- circuit method is employed to analyze the operations of different structural railguns with different paramete...

  12. Identification of the Area for Proper Integration of Three Current Storage Objects into One Complex Logistics Point

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Chenguang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an option to identify the suitable area for locating the specific storage object in order to integrate three current storage objects into one complex logistics point. Initial chapters of the paper are focused on overview of theoretical terms related to the storage objects, their activities, services, parameters as well as their location and allocation. Other parts of this paper outline specific methods regarding the issue of storage objects location. Its main part describes individual steps for identifying the suitable storage object location in the certain area using the specific method.

  13. The European Market for Seasonal Gas Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahan, A.

    2006-02-01

    European demand for gas will grow in the years to come. Simultaneously, gas production in Europe will decrease and imported gas will be needed to replace indigenous production. Gas demand is not constant during the year. There are variations in demand on different timescales ranging from seasonal to hourly. Variations in demand are characterised by two main parameters: working volume and deliverability. Working volume - the amount of gas that can be supplied above the baseload production volume during a long (cold) period- is primarily needed to cope with the summer-winter pattern of gas consumption. Most of the summer-winter pattern comes from the temperature sensitive gas consumption by households and service industries. Gas usage by industry and the power sector are more evenly spread throughout the year and need less working volume. Deliverability - the amount of gas per hour that can be generated on a (very) cold day above the baseload capacity - is the ability to produce large volumes during short periods, e.g. for extremely cold days, or during peak periods during a day. In this paper we argue that a large amount of additional working volume will be required over the coming years. First, flexible European production will be replaced by long-distance import gas, and second, the gas market is expected to grow further. Todays market appears focus mainly on cavems for storage volume. Cavems have little working volume but are ideal for trading purposes. Consequently, Europe may be facing a deficit in working volume, i.e. the ability to cope with seasonal changes in demand. This paper aims to widen the discussion of this matter and give rise to this concern by setting out a broad analysis, exploring the market drivers for seasonal storage and identifying the public interest issues for this market. Chapter 2 gives an overview of demand for and supply characteristics of gas flexibility. Chapter 3 describes the role of gas storage facilities in the gas market

  14. Phenomena and parameters important to burnup credit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parks, C.V.; Dehart, M.D.; Wagner, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    Since the mid-1980s, a significant number of studies have been directed at understanding the phenomena and parameters important to implementation of burnup credit in out-of-reactor applications involving pressurized-water- reactor (PWR) spent fuel. The efforts directed at burnup credit involving boiling-water-reactor (BWR) spent fuel have been more limited. This paper reviews the knowledge and experience gained from work performed in the United States and other countries in the study of burnup credit. Relevant physics and analysis phenomenon are identified, and an assessment of their importance to burnup credit implementation for transport and dry cask storage is given. (author)

  15. Dynamic analysis of a pumped-storage hydropower plant with random power load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Chen, Diyi; Xu, Beibei; Patelli, Edoardo; Tolo, Silvia

    2018-02-01

    This paper analyzes the dynamic response of a pumped-storage hydropower plant in generating mode. Considering the elastic water column effects in the penstock, a linearized reduced order dynamic model of the pumped-storage hydropower plant is used in this paper. As the power load is always random, a set of random generator electric power output is introduced to research the dynamic behaviors of the pumped-storage hydropower plant. Then, the influences of the PI gains on the dynamic characteristics of the pumped-storage hydropower plant with the random power load are analyzed. In addition, the effects of initial power load and PI parameters on the stability of the pumped-storage hydropower plant are studied in depth. All of the above results will provide theoretical guidance for the study and analysis of the pumped-storage hydropower plant.

  16. Effects of Extraction Process Parameters on the Quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Akorede

    for the first time the effects of extraction process parameters on the properties of parinari seed oil. The parinari seeds ... soya oil used in the production of alkyd polymer resin, a main ... relatively lower acid value implies better storage and shell life of the oil. ... Little work has been done on parinari oil, the variation in lipid.

  17. Evaluation of quality parameters of strawberry fruits in modified ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the present study is to evaluate the effect of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) during storage on some quality parameters of strawberries. Strawberries (cv. Camarosa) were harvested when mature, forced air cooled and divided into two groups as fruits in MAP and control. After packaging, fruits were ...

  18. Type I Glycogen Storage Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Legacy Society Make Gifts of Stock Donate Your Car Personal Fundraising Partnership & Support Share Your Story Spread the Word Give While You Shop Contact Us Donate Now Glycogen Storage Disease Type ...

  19. Autumn study on storage rings

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    The first two weeks of October have seen storage ring people from accelerator Laboratories throughout the world at CERN to study the fundamental problems of very high energy protonproton colliding beam machines.

  20. Solid-State Hydrogen Storage

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will develop a method for converting metals to metal hydrides at low pressures for hydrogen storage systems with high efficiency with respect to volume...

  1. Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Space Flight Demonstration development has been canceled in favor of a ground test bed development for of passive/active cryogenic propellant storage, transfer, and...

  2. Type I Glycogen Storage Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the most common form of glycogen storage disease, accounting for 25% of all cases. It is an ... Links Videos Webinars About ALF OVERVIEW Programs About Liver Disease Ask the Experts People ALF ...

  3. Storage Tank Legionella and Community

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Storage Tank Legionella and Community. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Qin, K., I. Struewing, J. Santodomingo, D. Lytle, and J. Lu....

  4. ALICE bags data storage accolades

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    ComputerWorld has recognized CERN with an award for the 'Best Practices in Storage' for ALICE's data acquisition system, in the category of 'Systems Implementation'. The award was presented to the ALICE DAQ team on 18 April at a ceremony in San Diego, CA. (Top) ALICE physicist Ulrich Fuchs. (Bottom) Three of the five storage racks for the ALICE Data Acquisition system (Photo Antonio Saba). Between 16 and19 April, one thousand people from data storage networks around the world gathered to attend the biannual Storage Networking World Conference. Twenty-five companies and organizations were celebrated as finalists, and five of those were given honorary awards-among them CERN, which tied for first place in the category of Systems Implementation for the success of the ALICE Data Acquisition System. CERN was one of five finalists in this category, which recognizes the winning facility for 'the successful design, implementation and management of an interoperable environment'. 'Successful' could include documentati...

  5. Complex Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slattery, Darlene; Hampton, Michael

    2003-03-10

    This report describes research into the use of complex hydrides for hydrogen storage. The synthesis of a number of alanates, (AIH4) compounds, was investigated. Both wet chemical and mechano-chemical methods were studied.

  6. Old radioactive waste storage sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    After a recall of the regulatory context for the management of old sites used for the storage of radioactive wastes with respect with their activity, the concerned products, the disposal or storage type, this document describes AREVA's involvement in the radioactive waste management process in France. Then, for the different kinds of sites (currently operated sites having radioactive waste storage, storage sites for uranium mineral processing residues), it indicates their location and name, their regulatory status and their control authority, the reference documents. It briefly presents the investigation on the long term impact of uranium mineral processing residues on health and environment, evokes some aspects of public information transparency, and presents the activities of an expertise group on old uranium mines. The examples of the sites of Bellezane (uranium mineral processing residues) and COMURHEX Malvesi (assessment of underground and surface water quality at the vicinity of this installation) are given in appendix

  7. Storage facility for radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Kyo

    1998-01-01

    Canisters containing high level radioactive wastes are sealed in overpacks in a receiving building constructed on the ground. A plurality of storage pits are formed in a layered manner vertically in multi-stages in deep underground just beneath the receiving building, for example underground of about 1000m from the ground surface. Each of the storage pits is in communication with a shaft which vertically communicates the receiving building and the storage pits, and is extended plainly in a horizontal direction from the shaft. The storage pit comprises an overpack receiving chamber, a main gallery and a plurality of galleries. A plurality of holes for burying the overpacks are formed on the bottom of the galleries in the longitudinal direction of the galleries. A plurality of overpack-positioning devices which run in the main gallery and the galleries by remote operation are disposed in the main gallery and the galleries. (I.N.)

  8. Photovoltaic power systems energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buldini, P.L.

    1991-01-01

    Basically, the solar photovoltaic power system consists of: Array of solar panels; Charge/voltage stabilizer; Blocking diode and Storage device. The storage device is a very important part of the system due to the necessity to harmonize the inevitable time shift between energy supply and demand. As energy storage, different devices can be utilized, such as hydropumping, air or other gas compression, flywheel, superconducting magnet, hydrogen generation and so on, but actually secondary (rechargeable) electrochemical cells appear to be the best storage device, due to the direct use for recharge of the d.c. current provided by the solar panels, without any intermediate step of energy transformation and its consequent loss of efficiency

  9. Magnetic S-parameter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannino, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    We propose a direct test of the existence of gauge duals for nonsupersymmetric asymptotically free gauge theories developing an infrared fixed point by computing the S-parameter in the electric and dual magnetic description. In particular we show that at the lower bound of the conformal window...... the magnetic S-parameter, i.e. the one determined via the dual magnetic gauge theory, assumes a simple expression in terms of the elementary magnetic degrees of freedom. The results further support our recent conjecture of the existence of a universal lower bound on the S parameter and indicates...

  10. Prediction of chemical, physical and sensory data from process parameters for frozen cod using multivariate analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechmann, Iben Ellegaard; Jensen, H.S.; Bøknæs, Niels

    1998-01-01

    Physical, chemical and sensory quality parameters were determined for 115 cod (Gadus morhua) samples stored under varying frozen storage conditions. Five different process parameters (period of frozen storage, frozen storage. temperature, place of catch, season for catching and state of rigor) were...... varied systematically at two levels. The data obtained were evaluated using the multivariate methods, principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS) regression. The PCA models were used to identify which process parameters were actually most important for the quality of the frozen cod....... PLS models that were able to predict the physical, chemical and sensory quality parameters from the process parameters of the frozen raw material were generated. The prediction abilities of the PLS models were good enough to give reasonable results even when the process parameters were characterised...

  11. AB Levitator and Electricity Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Bolonkin, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    The author researched this new idea - support of flight by any aerial vehicles at significant altitude solely by the magnetic field of the planet. It is shown that current technology allows humans to create a light propulsion (AB engine) which does not depend on air, water or ground terrain. Simultaniosly, this revolutionary thruster is a device for the storage of electricity which is extracted and is replenished (during braking) from/into the storage with 100 percent efficiency. The relative...

  12. Compressed air energy storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Frederick W.; Kartsounes, George T.

    1981-01-01

    An internal combustion reciprocating engine is operable as a compressor during slack demand periods utilizing excess power from a power grid to charge air into an air storage reservoir and as an expander during peak demand periods to feed power into the power grid utilizing air obtained from the air storage reservoir together with combustible fuel. Preferably the internal combustion reciprocating engine is operated at high pressure and a low pressure turbine and compressor are also employed for air compression and power generation.

  13. Superconductive energy storage magnet study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhee, S.W.

    1982-01-01

    Among many methods of energy storages the superconducting energy storage has been considered as the most promising method. Many related technical problems are still unsolved. One of the problems is the magnetizing and demagnetizing loss of superconducting coil. This loss is mainly because of hysteresis of pinning force. In this paper the hysteresis loss is calculated and field dependence of the a.c. losses is explained. The ratio of loss and stored energy is also calculated. (Author)

  14. Hydrogen Storage In Nanostructured Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Assfour, Bassem

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogen is an appealing energy carrier for clean energy use. However, storage of hydrogen is still the main bottleneck for the realization of an energy economy based on hydrogen. Many materials with outstanding properties have been synthesized with the aim to store enough amount of hydrogen under ambient conditions. Such efforts need guidance from material science, which includes predictive theoretical tools. Carbon nanotubes were considered as promising candidates for hydrogen storag...

  15. Temporary storage area characterization report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The preferred alternative identified in the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) for the Weldon Spring Quarry Bulk Wastes is to remove the wastes from the quarry and transport them by truck to temporary storage facility at the chemical plant site. To support the RI/FS, this report provides data to characterize the temporary storage area (TSA) site and to ensure the suitability of the proposed location. 31 refs., 14 figs., 7 tabs

  16. Development of spent fuel dry storage technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruoka, Kunio; Matsunaga, Kenichi; Kunishima, Shigeru

    2000-01-01

    The spent fuels are the recycle fuel resources, and it is very important to store the spent fuels in safety. There are two types of the spent fuel interim storage system. One is wet storage system and another is dry storage system. In this study, the dry storage technology, dual purpose metal cask storage and canister storage, has been developed. For the dual purpose metal cask storage, boronated aluminum basket cell, rational cask body shape and shaping process have been developed, and new type dual purpose metal cask has been designed. For the canister storage, new type concrete cask and high density vault storage technology have been developed. The results of this study will be useful for the spent fuel interim storage. Safety and economical spent fuel interim storage will be realized in the near future. (author)

  17. Storage of Human Breast Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamze Can

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Storage of human breast milk by freezing or refrigeration of milk has been recommended especially at some social circumstances of most mothers who are regularly separated from their infants because of work. The greatest fear that has hindered the prospects of in - vitro storage of breast milk for any considerable period of time is the possibility of bacterial contamination and growth of infectious pathogens in the stored milk, there by rendering them unsafe for human consumption. The storage container can influence the cell content of milk, as the cells adhere to the walls of a glass container but not to polyethylene or polypropylene containers. Bacteriological examination of refrigerated milks has proven their safety for human consumption for even up to 72 h. For a storage over longer periods up to 1 month, freezing at - 20 0C could be recommended, but the most preferred method, especially for longer storage would be fresh freezing at - 70 0C, if affordable or available. The nutrient value of human milk is essentially unchanged, but the immunological properties are reduced by various storage techniques. Boiling and microwave radiation have not been recommended. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(5.000: 375-379

  18. Geological storage of CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czernichowski-Lauriol, I.

    2005-01-01

    The industrial storage of CO 2 is comprised of three steps: - capture of CO 2 where it is produced (power plants, cement plants, etc.); - transport (pipe lines or boats); - storage, mainly underground, called geological sequestration... Three types of reservoirs are considered: - salted deep aquifers - they offer the biggest storage capacity; - exhausted oil and gas fields; - non-exploited deep coal mine streams. The two latter storage types may allow the recovery of sellable products, which partially or totally offsets the storage costs. This process is largely used in the petroleum industry to improve the productivity of an oil field, and is called FOR (Enhanced Oil Recovery). A similar process is applied in the coal mining industry to recover the imprisoned gas, and is called ECBM (Enhanced Coal Bed methane). Two storage operations have been initiated in Norway and in Canada, as well as research programmes in Europe, North America, Australia and Japan. International organisations to stimulate this technology have been created such as the 'Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum' and 'the Intergovernmental Group for Climate Change'. This technology will be taken into account in the instruments provided by the Tokyo Protocol. (author)

  19. NV energy electricity storage valuation :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellison, James F.; Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Samaan, Nader; Jin, Chunlian

    2013-06-01

    This study examines how grid-level electricity storage may benefit the operations of NV Energy, and assesses whether those benefits are likely to justify the cost of the storage system. To determine the impact of grid-level storage, an hourly production cost model of the Nevada Balancing Authority ("BA") as projected for 2020 was created. Storage was found to add value primarily through the provision of regulating reserve. Certain storage resources were found likely to be cost-effective even without considering their capacity value, as long as their effectiveness in providing regulating reserve was taken into account. Giving fast resources credit for their ability to provide regulating reserve is reasonable, given the adoption of FERC Order 755 ("Pay-for-performance"). Using a traditional five-minute test to determine how much a resource can contribute to regulating reserve does not adequately value fast-ramping resources, as the regulating reserve these resources can provide is constrained by their installed capacity. While an approximation was made to consider the additional value provided by a fast-ramping resource, a more precise valuation requires an alternate regulating reserve methodology. Developing and modeling a new regulating reserve methodology for NV Energy was beyond the scope of this study, as was assessing the incremental value of distributed storage.

  20. SATELLITE CONSTELLATION DESIGN PARAMETER

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. SATELLITE CONSTELLATION DESIGN PARAMETER. 1. ORBIT CHARACTERISTICS. ORBITAL HEIGHT >= 20,000 KM. LONGER VISIBILITY; ORBITAL PERIOD. PERTURBATIONS(MINIMUM). SOLAR RADIATION PRESSURE (IMPACTS ECCENTRICITY); LUNI ...

  1. Optimal design and application of a compound cold storage system combining seasonal ice storage and chilled water storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, C.; Shi, W.; Li, X.; Zhao, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Seasonal cold storage using natural cold sources for cooling is a sustainable cooling technique. However, this technique suffers from limitations such as large storage space and poor reliability. Combining seasonal storage with short-term storage might be a promising solution while it is not

  2. Model calibration and beam control systems for storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbett, W.J.; Lee, M.J.; Ziemann, V.

    1993-04-01

    Electron beam storage rings and linear accelerators are rapidly gaining worldwide popularity as scientific devices for the production of high-brightness synchrotron radiation. Today, everybody agrees that there is a premium on calibrating the storage ring model and determining errors in the machine as soon as possible after the beam is injected. In addition, the accurate optics model enables machine operators to predictably adjust key performance parameters, and allows reliable identification of new errors that occur during operation of the machine. Since the need for model calibration and beam control systems is common to all storage rings, software packages should be made that are portable between different machines. In this paper, we report on work directed toward achieving in-situ calibration of the optics model, detection of alignment errors, and orbit control techniques, with an emphasis on developing a portable system incorporating these tools

  3. Reassessment of safeguards parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakkila, E.A.; Richter, J.L.; Mullen, M.F.

    1994-07-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency is reassessing the timeliness and goal quantity parameters that are used in defining safeguards approaches. This study reviews technology developments since the parameters were established in the 1970s and concludes that there is no reason to relax goal quantity or conversion time for reactor-grade plutonium relative to weapons-grade plutonium. For low-enriched uranium, especially in countries with advanced enrichment capability there may be an incentive to shorten the detection time.

  4. Safeguards systems parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avenhaus, R.; Heil, J.

    1979-01-01

    In this paper analyses are made of the values of those parameters that characterize the present safeguards system that is applied to a national fuel cycle; those values have to be fixed quantitatively so that all actions of the safeguards authority are specified precisely. The analysis starts by introducing three categories of quantities: The design parameters (number of MBAs, inventory frequency, variance of MUF, verification effort and false-alarm probability) describe those quantities whose values have to be specified before the safeguards system can be implemented. The performance criteria (probability of detection, expected detection time, goal quantity) measure the effectiveness of a safeguards system; and the standards (threshold amount and critical time) characterize the magnitude of the proliferation problem. The means by which the values of the individual design parameters can be determined with the help of the performance criteria; which qualitative arguments can narrow down the arbitrariness of the choice of values of the remaining parameters; and which parameter values have to be fixed more or less arbitrarily, are investigated. As a result of these considerations, which include the optimal allocation of a given inspection effort, the problem of analysing the structure of the safeguards system is reduced to an evaluation of the interplay of only a few parameters, essentially the quality of the measurement system (variance of MUF), verification effort, false-alarm probability, goal quantity and probability of detection

  5. Optimization of the radioactive waste storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dellamano, Jose Claudio

    2005-01-01

    Radioactive waste storage is the practice adopted in countries where the production of small quantities of radioactive waste does not justify the immediate investment in the construction of a repository. Accordingly, at IPEN, treated radioactive wastes, mainly solid compacted, have been stored for more than 20 years, in 200 dm 3 drums. The storage facility is almost complete and must be extended. Taking into account that a fraction of these wastes has decayed to a very low level due to the short half - life of some radionuclides and considering that 'retrieval for disposal as very low level radioactive waste' is one of the actions suggested to radioactive waste managers, the Laboratory of Waste Management of IPEN started a project to apply the concepts of clearance levels and exemption limits to optimize the radioactive waste storage capacity . This study has been carried out by determining the doses and costs related to two main options: either to maintain the present situation or to open the packages and segregate the wastes that may be subject to clearance, using the national, two international clearance levels and the annual public limit. Doses and costs were evaluated as well as the collective dose and the detriment cost. The analytical solution among the evaluated options was determined by using the technique to aid decision making known as cost-benefit analysis. At last, it was carried out the sensitivity analysis considering all criteria and parameters in order to assess the robustness of the analytical solution. This study can be used as base to other institutions or other countries with similar nuclear programs. (author)

  6. Occupational dose estimates for a monitored retrievable storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harty, R.; Stoetzel, G.A.

    1986-06-01

    Occupational doses were estimated for radiation workers at the monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility. This study provides an estimate of the occupational dose based on the current MRS facility design, examines the extent that various design parameters and assumptions affect the dose estimates, and identifies the areas and activities where exposures can be reduced most effectively. Occupational doses were estimated for both the primary storage concept and the alternate storage concept. The dose estimates indicate the annual dose to all radiation workers will be below the 5 rem/yr federal dose equivalent limit. However, the estimated dose to most of the receiving and storage crew (the workers responsible for the receipt, storage, and surveillance of the spent fuel and its subsequent retrieval), to the crane maintenance technicians, and to the cold and remote maintenance technicians is above the design objective of 1 rem/yr. The highest annual dose is received by the riggers (4.7 rem) in the receiving and storage crew. An indication of the extent to which various design parameters and assumptions affect the dose estimates was obtained by changing various design-based assumptions such as work procedures, background dose rates in radiation zones, and the amount of fuel received and stored annually. The study indicated that a combination of remote operations, increased shielding, and additional personnel (for specific jobs) or changes in operating procedures will be necessary to reduce worker doses below 1.0 rem/yr. Operations that could be made at least partially remote include the removal and replacement of the tiedowns, impact limiters, and personnel barriers from the shipping casks and the removal or installation of the inner closure bolts. Reductions of the background dose rates in the receiving/shipping and the transfer/discharge areas may be accomplished with additional shielding

  7. UPSILON'(10.01) resonance parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niczyporuk, B.; Zeludziewicz, T.; Chen, K.W.; Hartung, R.

    1980-09-01

    The resonance parameters of the UPSILON'(10.01) were measured using the LENA detector at the DORIS e + e - storage ring. We obtained a mass of M(UPSILON') = (10 013.6 +- 1.2 +- 10.0) MeV and an electronic width of GAMMAsub(ee)(UPSILON') = (0.53 +- 0.07sup(+0.09)sub(-0.05) keV. The upper limit set to the μ-pair branching ratio is 3.8% which implies a lower limit on the total UPSILON' widUPSILON parameters we obtain a mass difference M(UPSILON') - M(UPSILON) = (552.0 +- 1.3 +- 10.0) MeV and GAMMAsub(ee)UPSILON')/ = 0.43 +- 0.07sup(+0.05)sub(-0.00). (orig.)

  8. Storage and security of supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svensson, B.R.

    1990-01-01

    The paper considers the relationship between energy security and the consumption, supply and storage of natural gas, as agreed between the IEA Member countries. Additional supplies of natural gas should be obtained from as diverse sources as possible with emphasis on indigenous OECD sources. Instruments for coping with supply disruptions, such as underground storage of gas, interruptible gas sales, and dual-fired capabilities should be strengthened. These instruments, however, in combination with contractual swing factors, are also used to cope with fluctuations in demand for natural gas. The future demand and supply of natural gas in OECD Europe and North America is discussed. In OECD Europe the growth in residential and commercial demand is expected to be sustained, and, in both OECD Europe and North America, there is a further potential demand for gas for electricity generation. As residential and commercial demand (which is very temperature-dependent) grows, the need for storage facilities, interruptible sales contracts, dual-fired capabilities and swing factors in contracts will increase in order to balance the load. An expansion of gas demand for baseload electricity generation could, however, increase the load factor. Figures for the size of the storage capacity in 1987 and plans for future increases show that storage capacity is increasing. It is concluded that new underground storage represents an important contribution to the strengthening of each country's ability both to balance loads and to deal with supply disruptions. The IEA countries rely on the gas utilities to provide storage and other instruments for both purposes. (author). 2 figs, 3 tabs

  9. Development of Seasonal Storage in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Alfred

    2000-01-01

    National survey on seasonal (thermal, large-scale) storage activities in Denmark. A storage programme under the Danish Energy Agency. Programme background, objectives, activities, projects and results.Technologies presented: Pit water storage, gravel water storage with pipe heat exchangers, lining...... materials for pit and lid designs....

  10. Combined solar collector and energy storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, R. N. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A combined solar energy collector, fluid chiller and energy storage system is disclosed. A movable interior insulated panel in a storage tank is positionable flush against the storage tank wall to insulate the tank for energy storage. The movable interior insulated panel is alternately positionable to form a solar collector or fluid chiller through which the fluid flows by natural circulation.

  11. Central solar heating plants with seasonal storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuard, D; Hadorn, J C; Van Gilst, J; Aranovitch, E; Hardacre, A G; Ofverholm, E [eds.

    1982-09-14

    On May 9, 1979, the Federal Department for Buildings released instructions concerning the use of alternative energies. The federal energy policy is to be as much as possible independent on oil imports. The canton Fribourg decided to equip the new maintenance and service center for the national high-road N12, with alternative energy, resources, and to apply new concepts with respect to passive and active solar energy. The project uses active solar energy with an earth-storage and heat pump. A conventional oil-heating system provides energy for peak-loads and can be operated in stand-by. A delay in the construction of the earth storage sub system was requested because it was intended to optimize the system with respect to the solar sub system, and heat pump sub system. The design work was done by SORANE which also is the coordinator for Switzerland in the I.E.A. Task VII. However, the preplanning of the project started in 1978 before the I.E.A. Task VII started. As a consequence, many design parameters were determined before 1980. The optimization of the solar collector, heat-pump etc. sub system was performed by a simulation approach developed by SORANE. The Vaulruz service center has been commissioned during the winter 1981/82.

  12. Storage fee analysis for a retrievable surface storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, B.B.; Rosnick, C.K.

    1973-12-01

    Conceptual design studies are in progress for a Water Basin Concept (WBC) and an alternative Sealed Storage Cask Concept (SSCC) of a Retrievable Surface Storage Facility (RSSF) intended as a Federal government facility for storing high-level radioactive wastes until a permanent disposal method is established. The RSSF will be a man-made facility with a design life of at least 100 y, and will have capacity to store all of the high-level waste from the reprocessing of nuclear power plant spent fuels generated by the industry through the year 2000. This report is a basic version of ARH-2746, ''Retrievable Surface Storage Facility, Water Basin Concept, User Charge Analysis.'' It is concerned with the issue of establishing a fee to cover the cost of storing nuclear wastes both in the RSSF and at the subsequent disposal facility. (U.S.)

  13. Compartmentalized storage tank for electrochemical cell system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piecuch, Benjamin Michael (Inventor); Dalton, Luke Thomas (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A compartmentalized storage tank is disclosed. The compartmentalized storage tank includes a housing, a first fluid storage section disposed within the housing, a second fluid storage section disposed within the housing, the first and second fluid storage sections being separated by a movable divider, and a constant force spring. The constant force spring is disposed between the housing and the movable divider to exert a constant force on the movable divider to cause a pressure P1 in the first fluid storage section to be greater than a pressure P2 in the second fluid storage section, thereby defining a pressure differential.

  14. Experimental study of hydrogen isotopes storage on titanium bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasut, Felicia; Zamfirache, Marius; Bornea, Anisia; Pearsica, Claudia; Bidica, Nicolae

    2002-01-01

    As known, the Nuclear Power Plant Cernavoda equipped with a Canadian reactor, of CANDU type, is the most powerful tritium source from Europe. On long term, due to a 6·10 16 Bq/year, Cernavoda area will be contaminated due to the increasing tritium quantity. Also, the continuous contamination of heavy water from the reactor, induces a reduction of moderation's capacity. Therefore, one considers that it is improperly to use heavy water if its activity level is higher than 40 Ci/kg in the moderator and 2 Ci/kg in the cooling fluid. For these reasons, we have developed a detritiation technology, based on catalytic isotopic exchange and cryogenic distillation. Tritium will be removed from the tritiated heavy water, so it appears the necessity of storage of tritium in a special vessel that can provide a high level of protection and safety of environment and personal. There several metals were tested as storage beds for hydrogen isotopes. One of the reference materials used for storage of hydrogen isotopes is uranium, a material with a great storage capacity, but unfortunately it is a radioactive metal and also can react with the impurities from the stored gas. Other metals and alloys as ZrCo, Ti, FeTi are also adequate as storage beds at normal temperature. The paper presents studies about the reaction between hydrogen and titanium used as storage bed for the hydrogen isotopes resulted after the detritiation of tritiated heavy water. The experiments that were carried out used protium and mixture of deuterium and protium at different storage parameters as process gas. (authors)

  15. Characteristic mega-basin water storage behavior using GRACE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reager, J T; Famiglietti, James S

    2013-06-01

    [1] A long-standing challenge for hydrologists has been a lack of observational data on global-scale basin hydrological behavior. With observations from NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission, hydrologists are now able to study terrestrial water storage for large river basins (>200,000 km 2 ), with monthly time resolution. Here we provide results of a time series model of basin-averaged GRACE terrestrial water storage anomaly and Global Precipitation Climatology Project precipitation for the world's largest basins. We address the short (10 year) length of the GRACE record by adopting a parametric spectral method to calculate frequency-domain transfer functions of storage response to precipitation forcing and then generalize these transfer functions based on large-scale basin characteristics, such as percent forest cover and basin temperature. Among the parameters tested, results show that temperature, soil water-holding capacity, and percent forest cover are important controls on relative storage variability, while basin area and mean terrain slope are less important. The derived empirical relationships were accurate (0.54 ≤  E f  ≤ 0.84) in modeling global-scale water storage anomaly time series for the study basins using only precipitation, average basin temperature, and two land-surface variables, offering the potential for synthesis of basin storage time series beyond the GRACE observational period. Such an approach could be applied toward gap filling between current and future GRACE missions and for predicting basin storage given predictions of future precipitation.

  16. Application of flywheel energy storage for heavy haul locomotives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiryagin, Maksym; Wolfs, Peter; Szanto, Frank; Sun, Yan Quan; Cole, Colin; Nielsen, Dwayne

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel design for heavy haul locomotive equipped with a flywheel energy storage system is proposed. • The integrated intelligent traction control system was developed. • A flywheel energy storage system has been tested through a simulation process. • The developed hybrid system was verified using an existing heavy haul railway route. • Fuel efficiency analysis confirms advantages of the hybrid design. - Abstract: At the present time, trains in heavy haul operations are typically hauled by several diesel-electric locomotives coupled in a multiple unit. This paper studies the case of a typical consist of three Co–Co diesel-electric locomotives, and considers replacing one unit with an alternative version, with the same design parameters, except that the diesel-electric plant is replaced with flywheel energy storage equipment. The intelligent traction and energy control system installed in this unit is integrated into the multiple-unit control to allow redistribution of the power between all units. In order to verify the proposed design, a three-stage investigation has been performed as described in this paper. The initial stage studies a possible configuration of the flywheel energy storage system by detailed modelling of the proposed intelligent traction and energy control system. The second stage includes the investigation and estimation of possible energy flows using a longitudinal train dynamics simulation. The final stage compares the conventional and the proposed locomotive configurations considering two parameters: fuel efficiency and emissions reduction.

  17. Design of Dimensional Model for Clinical Data Storage and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipankar SENGUPTA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Current research in the field of Life and Medical Sciences is generating chunk of data on daily basis. It has thus become a necessity to find solutions for efficient storage of this data, trying to correlate and extract knowledge from it. Clinical data generated in Hospitals, Clinics & Diagnostics centers is falling under a similar paradigm. Patient’s records in various hospitals are increasing at an exponential rate, thus adding to the problem of data management and storage. Major problem being faced corresponding to storage, is the varied dimensionality of the data, ranging from images to numerical form. Therefore there is a need for development of efficient data model which can handle this multi-dimensionality data issue and store the data with historical aspect.For the stated problem lying in façade of clinical informatics we propose a clinical dimensional model design which can be used for development of a clinical data mart. The model has been designed keeping in consideration temporal storage of patient's data with respect to all possible clinical parameters which can include both textual and image based data. Availability of said data for each patient can be then used for application of data mining techniques for finding the correlation of all the parameters at the level of individual and population.

  18. Detention storage volume for combined sewer overflow into a river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temprano, J; Tejero, I

    2002-06-01

    This article discusses the storage volume needed in a combined sewer system tank in order to preserve the water quality. There are a lot of design criteria which do not take into account the conditions of the receiving water, and as a result are inappropriate. A model was used to simulate the performance of a theoretical combined sewer system where a tank was located downstream. Results were obtained from the overflows produced by the rain recorded in Santander (Spain) for 11 years, with several combinations of storage volume and treatment capacity in the wastewater treatment plant. Quality criteria were also proposed for faecal coliforms, BOD, and total nitrogen to evaluate the effects from the overflows in the river water quality. Equations have been obtained which relate the number of overflows, the storage volume and the treatment plant capacity. The bacteriological pollution, quantified by means of faecal coliforms, was the analytical parameter which produced the most adverse effects in the river, so that more storage volume is needed (45 to 180 m3 ha(-1) net) than with other simulated pollutants (5 to 50 m3 ha(-1) net for BOD, and less than 4 m3 ha(-1) net for the total nitrogen). The increase in the treatment plant's capacity, from two to three times the flow in dry weather, reduces the impact on the river water in a more effective way, allowing a reduction of up to 65% in the number of overflows rather than increasing the storage volume.

  19. Experimental investigation for the optimization of heat pipe performance in latent heat thermal storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ladekar, Chandrakishor; Choudhary, S. K. [RTM Nagpur University, Wardha (India); Khandare, S. S. [B. D. College of Engineering, Wardha (India)

    2017-06-15

    We investigated the optimum performance of heat pipe in Latent heat thermal energy storage (LHTES), and compared it with copper pipe. Classical plan of experimentation was used to optimize the parameters of heat pipe. Heat pipe fill ratio, evaporator section length to condenser section length ratio i.e., Heat pipe length ratio (HPLR) and heat pipe diameter, was the parameter used for optimization, as result of parametric analysis. Experiment with flow rate of 10 lit./min. was conducted for different fill ratio, HPLR and different diameter. Fill ratio of 80 %, HPLR of 0.9 and heat pipe with diameter of 18 mm showed better trend in charging and discharging. Comparison between the storage tank with optimized heat pipe and copper pipe showed almost 186 % improvement in charging and discharging time compared with the copper pipe embedded thermal storage. Heat transfer between Heat transferring fluid (HTF) and Phase change material (PCM) increased with increase in area of heat transferring media, but storage density of storage tank decreased. Storage tank with heat pipe embedded in place of copper pipe is a better option in terms of charging and discharging time as well heat storage capacity due to less heat lost. This justifies the better efficiency and effectiveness of storage tank with embedded optimized heat pipe.

  20. Thermo-aeraulics of high level waste storage facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagrave, Herve; Gaillard, Jean-Philippe; Laurent, Franck; Ranc, Guillaume; Duret, Bernard

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the research undertaken in response to axis 3 of the 1991 radioactive waste management act, and possible solutions concerning the processes under consideration for conditioning and long-term interim storage of long-lived radioactive waste. The notion of 'long-term' is evaluated with respect to the usual operating lifetime of a basic nuclear installation, about 50 years. In this context, 'long-term' is defined on a secular time scale: the lifetime of the facility could be as long as 300 years. The waste package taken into account is characterized notably by its high thermal power release. Studies were carried out in dedicated facilities for vitrified waste and for spent UOX and MOX fuel. The latter are not considered as wastes, owing to the value of the reusable material they contain. Three primary objectives have guided the design of these long-term interim storage facilities: - ensure radionuclide containment at all times; - permit retrieval of the containers at any time; - minimize surveillance; - maintenance costs. The CEA has also investigated surface and subsurface facilities. It was decided to work on generic sites with a reasonable set of parameters values that should be applicable at most sites in France. All the studies and demonstrations to date lead to the conclusion that long-term interim storage is technically feasible. The paper addresses the following items: - Long-term interim storage concepts for high-level waste; - Design principles and options for the interim storage facilities; - General architecture; - Research topics, Storage facility ventilation, Dimensioning of the facility; - Thermo-aeraulics of a surface interim storage facility; - VALIDA surface loop, VALIDA single container test campaign, Continuation of the VALIDA program; - Thermo-aeraulics of a network of subsurface interim storage galleries; - SIGAL subsurface loop; - PROMETHEE subsurface loop; - Temperature behaviour of the concrete structures; - GALATEE

  1. Thermo-aeraulics of high level waste storage facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagrave, Herve; Gaillard, Jean-Philippe; Laurent, Franck; Ranc, Guillaume [CEA/Valrho, B.P. 17171, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France); Duret, Bernard [CEA Grenoble, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble cedex 9 (France)

    2006-07-01

    This paper discusses the research undertaken in response to axis 3 of the 1991 radioactive waste management act, and possible solutions concerning the processes under consideration for conditioning and long-term interim storage of long-lived radioactive waste. The notion of 'long-term' is evaluated with respect to the usual operating lifetime of a basic nuclear installation, about 50 years. In this context, 'long-term' is defined on a secular time scale: the lifetime of the facility could be as long as 300 years. The waste package taken into account is characterized notably by its high thermal power release. Studies were carried out in dedicated facilities for vitrified waste and for spent UOX and MOX fuel. The latter are not considered as wastes, owing to the value of the reusable material they contain. Three primary objectives have guided the design of these long-term interim storage facilities: - ensure radionuclide containment at all times; - permit retrieval of the containers at any time; - minimize surveillance; - maintenance costs. The CEA has also investigated surface and subsurface facilities. It was decided to work on generic sites with a reasonable set of parameters values that should be applicable at most sites in France. All the studies and demonstrations to date lead to the conclusion that long-term interim storage is technically feasible. The paper addresses the following items: - Long-term interim storage concepts for high-level waste; - Design principles and options for the interim storage facilities; - General architecture; - Research topics, Storage facility ventilation, Dimensioning of the facility; - Thermo-aeraulics of a surface interim storage facility; - VALIDA surface loop, VALIDA single container test campaign, Continuation of the VALIDA program; - Thermo-aeraulics of a network of subsurface interim storage galleries; - SIGAL subsurface loop; - PROMETHEE subsurface loop; - Temperature behaviour of the concrete

  2. Robust holographic storage system design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takahiro; Watanabe, Minoru

    2011-11-21

    Demand is increasing daily for large data storage systems that are useful for applications in spacecraft, space satellites, and space robots, which are all exposed to radiation-rich space environment. As candidates for use in space embedded systems, holographic storage systems are promising because they can easily provided the demanded large-storage capability. Particularly, holographic storage systems, which have no rotation mechanism, are demanded because they are virtually maintenance-free. Although a holographic memory itself is an extremely robust device even in a space radiation environment, its associated lasers and drive circuit devices are vulnerable. Such vulnerabilities sometimes engendered severe problems that prevent reading of all contents of the holographic memory, which is a turn-off failure mode of a laser array. This paper therefore presents a proposal for a recovery method for the turn-off failure mode of a laser array on a holographic storage system, and describes results of an experimental demonstration. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  3. Hydrogen storage in carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirscher, M; Becher, M

    2003-01-01

    The article gives a comprehensive overview of hydrogen storage in carbon nanostructures, including experimental results and theoretical calculations. Soon after the discovery of carbon nanotubes in 1991, different research groups succeeded in filling carbon nanotubes with some elements, and, therefore, the question arose of filling carbon nanotubes with hydrogen by possibly using new effects such as nano-capillarity. Subsequently, very promising experiments claiming high hydrogen storage capacities in different carbon nanostructures initiated enormous research activity. Hydrogen storage capacities have been reported that exceed the benchmark for automotive application of 6.5 wt% set by the U.S. Department of Energy. However, the experimental data obtained with different methods for various carbon nanostructures show an extreme scatter. Classical calculations based on physisorption of hydrogen molecules could not explain the high storage capacities measured at ambient temperature, and, assuming chemisorption of hydrogen atoms, hydrogen release requires temperatures too high for technical applications. Up to now, only a few calculations and experiments indicate the possibility of an intermediate binding energy. Recently, serious doubt has arisen in relation to several key experiments, causing considerable controversy. Furthermore, high hydrogen storage capacities measured for carbon nanofibers did not survive cross-checking in different laboratories. Therefore, in light of today's knowledge, it is becoming less likely that at moderate pressures around room temperature carbon nanostructures can store the amount of hydrogen required for automotive applications.

  4. Mass storage technology in networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Katsunori; Takeda, Toru; Itao, Kiyoshi; Kaneko, Reizo

    1990-08-01

    Trends and features of mass storage subsystems in network are surveyed and their key technologies spotlighted. Storage subsystems are becoming increasingly important in new network systems in which communications and data processing are systematically combined. These systems require a new class of high-performance mass-information storage in order to effectively utilize their processing power. The requirements of high transfer rates, high transactional rates and large storage capacities, coupled with high functionality, fault tolerance and flexibility in configuration, are major challenges in storage subsystems. Recent progress in optical disk technology has resulted in improved performance of on-line external memories to optical disk drives, which are competing with mid-range magnetic disks. Optical disks are more effective than magnetic disks in using low-traffic random-access file storing multimedia data that requires large capacity, such as in archive use and in information distribution use by ROM disks. Finally, it demonstrates image coded document file servers for local area network use that employ 130mm rewritable magneto-optical disk subsystems.

  5. Feasibility of a subsurface storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-11-01

    This report analyses the notion of subsurface storage under the scientifical, technical and legal aspects. This reflection belongs to the studies about long duration storage carried out in the framework of the axis 3 of the December 30, 1991 law. The report comprises 3 parts. The first part is a synthesis of the complete subsurface storage study: definitions, aim of the report, very long duration storage paradigm, description files of concepts, thematic synthesis (legal aspects, safety, monitoring, sites, seismicity, heat transfers, corrosion, concretes, R and works, handling, tailings and dismantlement, economy..), multi-criteria/multi-concept cross-analysis. The second part deals with the technical aspects of the subsurface storage: safety approach (long duration impact, radiation protection, mastery of effluents), monitoring strategy, macroscopic inventory of B-type waste packages, inventory of spent fuels, glasses, hulls and nozzles, geological contexts in the French territory (sites selection and characterization), on-site activities, hydrogeological and geochemical aspects, geo-technical works and infrastructures organization, subsurface seismic effects, cooling modes (ventilation, heat transfer with the geologic environment), heat transfer research programs (convection, poly-phase cooling in porous media), handling constraints, concretes (use, behaviour, durability), corrosion of metallic materials, technical-economical analysis, international context (experience feedback from Sweden (CLAB) and the USA (Yucca Mountain), other European and French facilities). The last part of the report is a graphical appendix with 3-D views and schemes of the different concepts. (J.S.)

  6. Archival storage solutions for PACS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunn, Timothy

    1997-05-01

    While they are many, one of the inhibitors to the wide spread diffusion of PACS systems has been robust, cost effective digital archive storage solutions. Moreover, an automated Nearline solution is key to a central, sharable data repository, enabling many applications such as PACS, telemedicine and teleradiology, and information warehousing and data mining for research such as patient outcome analysis. Selecting the right solution depends on a number of factors: capacity requirements, write and retrieval performance requirements, scaleability in capacity and performance, configuration architecture and flexibility, subsystem availability and reliability, security requirements, system cost, achievable benefits and cost savings, investment protection, strategic fit and more.This paper addresses many of these issues. It compares and positions optical disk and magnetic tape technologies, which are the predominant archive mediums today. Price and performance comparisons will be made at different archive capacities, plus the effect of file size on storage system throughput will be analyzed. The concept of automated migration of images from high performance, high cost storage devices to high capacity, low cost storage devices will be introduced as a viable way to minimize overall storage costs for an archive. The concept of access density will also be introduced and applied to the selection of the most cost effective archive solution.

  7. Radioactive waste interim storage in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-12-01

    The short summary on the radioactive waste interim storage in Germany covers the following issues: importance of interim storage in the frame of radioactive waste management, responsibilities and regulations, waste forms, storage containers, transport of vitrified high-level radioactive wastes from the reprocessing plants, central interim storage facilities (Gorleben, Ahaus, Nord/Lubmin), local interim storage facilities at nuclear power plant sites, federal state collecting facilities, safety, radiation exposure in Germany.

  8. Phase Change Materials for Thermal Energy Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Stiebra, L; Cabulis, U; Knite, M

    2014-01-01

    Phase change materials (PCMs) for thermal energy storage (TES) have become an important subject of research in recent years. Using PCMs for thermal energy storage provides a solution to increase the efficiency of the storage and use of energy in many domestic and industrial sectors. Phase change TES systems offer a number of advantages over other systems (e.g. chemical storage systems): particularly small temperature distance between the storage and retrieval cycles, small unit sizes and lo...

  9. FEL radiation power available in electron storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyahara, Yoshikazu

    1994-01-01

    FEL radiation power available in electron storage rings was studied in the small signal regime in considering the increase of the energy spread of the electron beam caused by the FEL interaction and the decrease of the FEL gain with the increase of the energy spread in addition to the radiation damping and the quantum excitation. All these effects were considered separately, and combined with FEL power equations. The radiation power available was expressed explicitly with the parameters of the storage ring, the wiggler and the mirrors. The transient process of FEL lasing is simulated with the power equations. A rough estimation is made of the radiation power available by the FEL at different beam energies, and optimization of FEL parameters for a higher radiation power is discussed. ((orig.))

  10. Electroweak interaction parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marciano, W.J.

    1984-01-01

    After a presentation of the experimentally determined parameters of the standard SU(3) x SU(2) x U(1) model the author discusses the definition of the Weinberg angle. Then masses and widths of the intermediate vector bosons are considered in the framework of the Weinberg-Salam theory with radiative corrections. Furthermore the radiative decays of these bosons are discussed. Then the relations between the masses of the Higgs boson and the top quark are considered. Thereafter grand unification is briefly discussed with special regards to the SU(5) prediction of some observable parameters. Finally some speculations are made concerning the observation of radiative decays in the UA1 experiments. (HSI)

  11. Band parameters of phosphorene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lew Yan Voon, L C; Wang, J; Zhang, Y; Willatzen, M

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorene is a two-dimensional nanomaterial with a direct band-gap at the Brillouin zone center. In this paper, we present a recently derived effective-mass theory of the band structure in the presence of strain and electric field, based upon group theory. Band parameters for this theory are computed using a first-principles theory based upon the generalized-gradient approximation to the density-functional theory. These parameters and Hamiltonian will be useful for modeling physical properties of phosphorene. (paper)

  12. Band parameters of phosphorene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lew Yan Voon, L. C.; Wang, J.; Zhang, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorene is a two-dimensional nanomaterial with a direct band-gap at the Brillouin zone center. In this paper, we present a recently derived effective-mass theory of the band structure in the presence of strain and electric field, based upon group theory. Band parameters for this theory...... are computed using a first-principles theory based upon the generalized-gradient approximation to the density-functional theory. These parameters and Hamiltonian will be useful for modeling physical properties of phosphorene....

  13. Bunch lengthening with bifurcation in electron storage rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun-San; Hirata, Kohji [National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1996-08-01

    The mapping which shows equilibrium particle distribution in synchrotron phase space for electron storage rings is discussed with respect to some localized constant wake function based on the Gaussian approximation. This mapping shows multi-periodic states as well as double bifurcation in dynamical states of the equilibrium bunch length. When moving around parameter space, the system shows a transition/bifurcation which is not always reversible. These results derived by mapping are confirmed by multiparticle tracking. (author)

  14. Magnetic energy storage devices for small scale applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper covers basic principles of magnetic energy storage, structure requirements and limitations, configurations of inductors, attributes of high-T c superconducting materials including thermal instabilities, a relative comparison with the state-of-the-art high energy density power sources, and refrigeration requirements. Based on these fundamental considerations, the design parameters of a micro superconducting magnetic energy unit for Air Force applications is presented and discussed

  15. Fluid manifold design for a solar energy storage tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, W. R.; Hewitt, H. C.; Griggs, E. I.

    1975-01-01

    A design technique for a fluid manifold for use in a solar energy storage tank is given. This analytical treatment generalizes the fluid equations pertinent to manifold design, giving manifold pressures, velocities, and orifice pressure differentials in terms of appropriate fluid and manifold geometry parameters. Experimental results used to corroborate analytical predictions are presented. These data indicate that variations in discharge coefficients due to variations in orifices can cause deviations between analytical predictions and actual performance values.

  16. Physics and technology of superthin internal targets in storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, S.G.

    1989-01-01

    The new generation of accelerators for coincidence electronuclear investigations is discussed. The luminosity and beam parameters are calculated for an electron storage ring with an internal target operating in the superthin regime. The advantages and disadvantages in comparison with conventional operation using an external beam and target are described. The intermediate results for 2 GeV electron scattering on polarized internal deuterium target are given (joint Novosibirsk-Argonne experiment). 32 refs.; 5 figs

  17. Liquid Storage of Boar Semen Using Commercial Extenders

    OpenAIRE

    Liviu BOGDAN; Mihai CENARIU; Mihai BORZAN; Simona CIUPE; Lehel SZABO; Emoke PALL

    2018-01-01

    The research was focused on the modern evaluation of boar semen parameters, using computer assisted sperm analysis (CASA), before and after liquid storage at 15ºC. Semen was collected from 15 sexually mature boars by manual stimulation. Macroscopical and microscopical evaluation of semen was performed, followed by a detailed CASA analysis of all ejaculates. Subsequently, semen was diluted using 4 different extenders (Semtest, Androstar, MIII and Cronos) and stored at 15ºC for 24 hours. Next, ...

  18. Analysis of LDPE-ZnO-clay nanocomposites using novel cumulative rheological parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kracalik, Milan

    2017-05-01

    Polymer nanocomposites exhibit complex rheological behaviour due to physical and also possibly chemical interactions between individual phases. Up to now, rheology of dispersive polymer systems has been usually described by evaluation of viscosity curve (shear thinning phenomenon), storage modulus curve (formation of secondary plateau) or plotting information about dumping behaviour (e.g. Van Gurp-Palmen-plot, comparison of loss factor tan δ). On the contrary to evaluation of damping behaviour, values of cot δ were calculated and called as "storage factor", analogically to loss factor. Then values of storage factor were integrated over specific frequency range and called as "cumulative storage factor". In this contribution, LDPE-ZnO-clay nanocomposites with different dispersion grades (physical networks) have been prepared and characterized by both conventional as well as novel analysis approach. Next to cumulative storage factor, further cumulative rheological parameters like cumulative complex viscosity, cumulative complex modulus or cumulative storage modulus have been introduced.

  19. Superconductivity, energy storage and switching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laquer, H.L.

    1974-01-01

    The phenomenon of superconductivity can contribute to the technology of energy storage and switching in two distinct ways. On one hand the zero resistivity of the superconductor can produce essentially infinite time constants so that an inductive storage system can be charged from very low power sources. On the other hand, the recovery of finite resistivity in a normal-going superconducting switch can take place in extremely short times, so that a system can be made to deliver energy at a very high power level. Topics reviewed include: physics of superconductivity, limits to switching speed of superconductors, physical and engineering properties of superconducting materials and assemblies, switching methods, load impedance considerations, refrigeration economics, limitations imposed by present day and near term technology, performance of existing and planned energy storage systems, and a comparison with some alternative methods of storing and switching energy. (U.S.)

  20. Digital storage of repeated signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prozorov, S.P.

    1984-01-01

    An independent digital storage system designed for repeated signal discrimination from background noises is described. The signal averaging is performed off-line in the real time mode by means of multiple selection of the investigated signal and integration in each point. Digital values are added in a simple summator and the result is recorded the storage device with the volume of 1024X20 bit from where it can be output on an oscillograph, a plotter or transmitted to a compUter for subsequent processing. The described storage is reliable and simple device on one base of which the systems for the nuclear magnetic resonapce signal acquisition in different experiments are developed