Sample records for surface-generated gas-phase radicals

  1. UV Action Spectroscopy of Gas-Phase Peptide Radicals. (United States)

    Nguyen, Huong T H; Shaffer, Christopher J; Pepin, Robert; Tureček, František


    UV photodissociation (UVPD) action spectroscopy is reported to provide a sensitive tool for the detection of radical sites in gas-phase peptide ions. UVPD action spectra of peptide cation radicals of the z-type generated by electron-transfer dissociation point to the presence of multiple structures formed as a result of spontaneous isomerizations by hydrogen atom migration. N-terminal Cα radicals are identified as the dominant components, but the content of isomers differing in the radical defect position in the backbone or side chain depends on the nature of the aromatic residue with phenylalanine being more prone to isomerization than tryptophan. These results illustrate that spontaneous hydrogen atom migrations can occur in peptide cation-radicals upon electron-transfer dissociation.

  2. Competition of charge- versus radical-directed fragmentation of gas-phase protonated cysteine sulfinyl radicals. (United States)

    Love, Chasity B; Tan, Lei; Francisco, Joseph S; Xia, Yu


    The fragmentation behavior of various cysteine sulfinyl ions (intact, N-acetylated, and O-methylated), new members of the gas-phase amino acid radical ion family, was investigated by low-energy collision-induced dissociation (CID). The dominant fragmentation channel for the protonated cysteine sulfinyl radicals ((SO•)Cys) was the radical-directed Cα-Cβ homolytic cleavage, resulting in the formation of glycyl radical ions and loss of CH2SO. This channel, however, was not observed for protonated N-acetylated cysteine sulfinyl radicals (Ac-(SO•)Cys); instead, charge-directed H2O loss followed immediately by SH loss prevailed. Counterintuitively, the H2O loss did not derive from the carboxyl group but involved the sulfinyl oxygen, a proton, and a Cβ hydrogen atom. Theoretical calculations suggested that N-acetylation significantly increases the barrier (~14 kcal mol(-1)) for the radical-directed fragmentation channel because of its reduced capability to stabilize the thus-formed glycyl radical ions via the captodative effect. N-Acetylation also assists in moving the proton to the sulfinyl site, which reduces the barrier for H2O loss. Our studies demonstrate that for cysteine sulfinyl radical ions, the stability of the product ions (glycyl radical ions) and the location of the charge (proton) can significantly modulate the competition between radical- and charge-directed fragmentation.

  3. Isomerizations of the Nitromethane Radical Cation in the Gas Phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egsgaard, Helge; Carlsen, Lars; Elbel, Susanne


    The concurrent isomerizations of the nitromethane radical cation to its aci-nitromethane and methylnitrite isomers, respectively, has been established based on metastable ion studies and collision activation mass spectrometry. The energy diagram for the ionized nitromethane/aci-nitromethane tauto......The concurrent isomerizations of the nitromethane radical cation to its aci-nitromethane and methylnitrite isomers, respectively, has been established based on metastable ion studies and collision activation mass spectrometry. The energy diagram for the ionized nitromethane...

  4. Specific generation of 1-methylcytosine radicals in the gas phase

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yao, Ch.; Cuadrado-Peinado, M. L.; Polášek, Miroslav; Tureček, F.


    Roč. 44, č. 41 (2005), s. 6708-6711 ISSN 1433-7851 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400400502 Grant - others:National Science Foundation(US) CHE-0349595; National Science Foundation(US) CHE-0342956 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : potential-energy surfaces * cytosine * mass spectrometry * radicals Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 9.596, year: 2005

  5. A catalytic reactor for the trapping of free radicals from gas phase oxidation reactions (United States)

    Conte, Marco; Wilson, Karen; Chechik, Victor


    A catalytic reactor for the trapping of free radicals originating from gas phase catalytic reactions is described and discussed. Radical trapping and identification were initially carried out using a known radical generator such as dicumyl peroxide. The trapping of radicals was further demonstrated by investigating genuine radical oxidation processes, e.g., benzaldehyde oxidation over manganese and cobalt salts. The efficiency of the reactor was finally proven by the partial oxidation of cyclohexane over MoO3, Cr2O3, and WO3, which allowed the identification of all the radical intermediates responsible for the formation of the products cyclohexanol and cyclohexanone. Assignment of the trapped radicals was carried out using spin trapping technique and X-band electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy.

  6. Direct gas-phase epoxidation of propylene to propylene oxide through radical reactions: A theoretical study (United States)

    Kizilkaya, Ali Can; Fellah, Mehmet Ferdi; Onal, Isik


    The gas-phase radical chain reactions which utilize O 2 as the oxidant to produce propylene oxide (PO) are investigated through theoretical calculations. The transition states and energy profiles were obtained for each path. The rate constants were also calculated. The energetics for the competing pathways indicate that PO can be formed selectively due to its relatively low activation barrier (9.3 kcal/mol) which is in a good agreement with the experimental value (11 kcal/mol) of gas-phase propylene epoxidation. The formation of the acrolein and combustion products have relatively high activation barriers and are not favored. These results also support the recent experimental findings.

  7. A protocol for detecting and scavenging gas-phase free radicals in mainstream cigarette smoke. (United States)

    Yu, Long-Xi; Dzikovski, Boris G; Freed, Jack H


    Cigarette smoking is associated with human cancers. It has been reported that most of the lung cancer deaths are caused by cigarette smoking (5,6,7,12). Although tobacco tars and related products in the particle phase of cigarette smoke are major causes of carcinogenic and mutagenic related diseases, cigarette smoke contains significant amounts of free radicals that are also considered as an important group of carcinogens(9,10). Free radicals attack cell constituents by damaging protein structure, lipids and DNA sequences and increase the risks of developing various types of cancers. Inhaled radicals produce adducts that contribute to many of the negative health effects of tobacco smoke in the lung(3). Studies have been conducted to reduce free radicals in cigarette smoke to decrease risks of the smoking-induced damage. It has been reported that haemoglobin and heme-containing compounds could partially scavenge nitric oxide, reactive oxidants and carcinogenic volatile nitrosocompounds of cigarette smoke(4). A 'bio-filter' consisted of haemoglobin and activated carbon was used to scavenge the free radicals and to remove up to 90% of the free radicals from cigarette smoke(14). However, due to the cost-ineffectiveness, it has not been successfully commercialized. Another study showed good scavenging efficiency of shikonin, a component of Chinese herbal medicine(8). In the present study, we report a protocol for introducing common natural antioxidant extracts into the cigarette filter for scavenging gas phase free radicals in cigarette smoke and measurement of the scavenge effect on gas phase free radicals in mainstream cigarette smoke (MCS) using spin-trapping Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) Spectroscopy(1,2,14). We showed high scavenging capacity of lycopene and grape seed extract which could point to their future application in cigarette filters. An important advantage of these prospective scavengers is that they can be obtained in large quantities from byproducts of

  8. Radical Generation from the Gas-Phase Activation of Ionized Lipid Ozonides (United States)

    Ellis, Shane R.; Pham, Huong T.; in het Panhuis, Marc; Trevitt, Adam J.; Mitchell, Todd W.; Blanksby, Stephen J.


    Reaction products from the ozonolysis of unsaturated lipids at gas-liquid interfaces have the potential to significantly influence the chemical and physical properties of organic aerosols in the atmosphere. In this study, the gas-phase dissociation behavior of lipid secondary ozonides is investigated using ion-trap mass spectrometry. Secondary ozonides were formed by reaction between a thin film of unsaturated lipids (fatty acid methyl esters or phospholipids) with ozone before being transferred to the gas phase as [M + Na]+ ions by electrospray ionization. Activation of the ionized ozonides was performed by either energetic collisions with helium buffer-gas or laser photolysis, with both processes yielding similar product distributions. Products arising from the decomposition of the ozonides were characterized by their mass-to-charge ratio and subsequent ion-molecule reactions. Product assignments were rationalized as arising from initial homolysis of the ozonide oxygen-oxygen bond with subsequent decomposition of the nascent biradical intermediate. In addition to classic aldehyde and carbonyl oxide-type fragments, carbon-centered radicals were identified with a number of decomposition pathways that indicated facile unimolecular radical migration. These findings reveal that photoactivation of secondary ozonides formed by the reaction of aerosol-bound lipids with tropospheric ozone may initiate radical-mediated chemistry within the particle resulting in surface modification.

  9. Radical Formation in the Gas-Phase Ozonolysis of Deprotonated Cysteine. (United States)

    Khairallah, George N; Maccarone, Alan T; Pham, Huong T; Benton, Timothy M; Ly, Tony; da Silva, Gabriel; Blanksby, Stephen J; O'Hair, Richard A J


    Although the deleterious effects of ozone on the human respiratory system are well-known, many of the precise chemical mechanisms that both cause damage and afford protection in the pulmonary epithelial lining fluid are poorly understood. As a key first step to elucidating the intrinsic reactivity of ozone with proteins, its reactions with deprotonated cysteine [Cys-H](-) are examined in the gas phase. Reaction proceeds at near the collision limit to give a rich set of products including 1) sequential oxygen atom abstraction reactions to yield cysteine sulfenate, sulfinate and sulfonate anions, and significantly 2) sulfenate radical anions formed by ejection of a hydroperoxy radical. The free-radical pathway occurs only when both thiol and carboxylate moieties are available, implicating electron-transfer as a key step in this reaction. This novel and facile reaction is also observed in small cys-containing peptides indicating a possible role for this chemistry in protein ozonolysis. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. UV spectra and kinetics of radicals produced in the gas phase reactions of Cl, F and OH with toluene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markert, F.; Pagsberg, P.


    The gas phase reactions of Cl, F and OH with toluene have been studied by pulse radiolysis combined with time-resolved UV spectroscopy. The formation of benzyl radicals via the abstraction reactions C6H5-CH3 + X --> C6H5-CH2 + HX was observed with X = Cl, F and OH. In the reaction with chlorine...

  11. Combining UV photodissociation action spectroscopy with electron transfer dissociation for structure analysis of gas-phase peptide cation-radicals. (United States)

    Shaffer, Christopher J; Pepin, Robert; Tureček, František


    We report the first example of using ultraviolet (UV) photodissociation action spectroscopy for the investigation of gas-phase peptide cation-radicals produced by electron transfer dissociation. z-Type fragment ions (●) Gly-Gly-Lys(+), coordinated to 18-crown-6-ether (CE), are generated, selected by mass and photodissociated in the 200-400 nm region. The UVPD action spectra indicate the presence of valence-bond isomers differing in the position of the Cα radical defect, (α-Gly)-Gly-Lys(+) (CE), Gly-(α-Gly)-Lys(+) (CE) and Gly-Gly-(α-Lys(+))(CE). The isomers are readily distinguishable by UV absorption spectra obtained by time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations. In contrast, conformational isomers of these radical types are calculated to have similar UV spectra. UV photodissociation action spectroscopy represents a new tool for the investigation of transient intermediates of ion-electron reactions. Specifically, z-type cation radicals are shown to undergo spontaneous hydrogen atom migrations upon electron transfer dissociation. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Aging of biogenic secondary organic aerosol via gas-phase OH radical reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donahue, Neil M.; Henry, Kaytlin M.; Mentel, Thomas F.


    The Multiple Chamber Aerosol Chemical Aging Study (MUCHACHAS) tested the hypothesis that hydroxyl radical (OH) aging significantly increases the concentration of first-generation biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA). OH is the dominant atmospheric oxidant, and MUCHACHAS employed environmental...

  13. Glutathione radical cation in the gas phase; generation, structure and fragmentation. (United States)

    Zhao, Junfang; Siu, K W Michael; Hopkinson, Alan C


    Two different chemical methods have been used to form glutathione radical cations: (1) collision-induced dissociations (CIDs) of the ternary complex [Cu(II)(tpy)(M)]˙(2+) (M = GSH, tpy = 2,2':6',2''-terpyridine) and (2) homolysis of the S-NO bond in protonated S-nitrosoglutathione. The radical cations, M˙(+), were trapped and additional CIDs were performed. They gave virtually identical CID spectra, suggesting a facile interconversion between initial structures prior to fragmentation. DFT calculations at the B3LYP/6-31++G(d,p) level of theory have been used to study interconversion between different isomers of the glutathione radical cation and to examine mechanisms by which these ions fragment. The N-terminal α-carbon-centred radical cation, strongly stabilized by the captodative effect, is at the global minimum, which is 8.5 kcal mol(-1) lower in enthalpy than the lowest energy conformer of the S-centred radical cation. The barrier against interconversion is 18.1 kcal mol(-1) above the S-centred radical.

  14. Reaction of chlorine radical with tetrahydrofuran: a theoretical investigation on mechanism and reactivity in gas phase. (United States)

    Begum, Samiyara; Subramanian, Ranga


    Reaction of chlorine (Cl) radical with heterocyclic saturated ether, tetrahydrofuran has been studied. The detailed reactivity and mechanism of this reaction is analyzed using hybrid density functional theory (DFT), B3LYP and BB1K methods, and aug-cc-pVTZ basis set. To explore the mechanism of the reaction of tetrahydrofuran with Cl radical, four possible sites of hydrogen atom (H) abstraction pathways in tetrahydrofuran were analyzed. The barrier height and rate constants are calculated for the four H-abstraction channels. The BB1K calculated rate constant for α-axial H-abstraction is comparable with the experimentally determined rate constant. It reflects that α-axial H-abstraction is the main degradation pathway of tetrahydrofuran with Cl radical. DFT-based reactivity descriptors are also calculated and these values describe α-axial H-abstraction as the main reaction channel.

  15. The formation of urea in space. I. Ion-molecule, neutral-neutral, and radical gas-phase reactions (United States)

    Brigiano, Flavio Siro; Jeanvoine, Yannick; Largo, Antonio; Spezia, Riccardo


    Context. Many organic molecules have been observed in the interstellar medium thanks to advances in radioastronomy, and very recently the presence of urea was also suggested. While those molecules were observed, it is not clear what the mechanisms responsible to their formation are. In fact, if gas-phase reactions are responsible, they should occur through barrierless mechanisms (or with very low barriers). In the past, mechanisms for the formation of different organic molecules were studied, providing only in a few cases energetic conditions favorable to a synthesis at very low temperature. A particularly intriguing class of such molecules are those containing one N-C-O peptide bond, which could be a building block for the formation of biological molecules. Urea is a particular case because two nitrogen atoms are linked to the C-O moiety. Thus, motivated also by the recent tentative observation of urea, we have considered the synthetic pathways responsible to its formation. Aims: We have studied the possibility of forming urea in the gas phase via different kinds of bi-molecular reactions: ion-molecule, neutral, and radical. In particular we have focused on the activation energy of these reactions in order to find possible reactants that could be responsible for to barrierless (or very low energy) pathways. Methods: We have used very accurate, highly correlated quantum chemistry calculations to locate and characterize the reaction pathways in terms of minima and transition states connecting reactants to products. Results: Most of the reactions considered have an activation energy that is too high; but the ion-molecule reaction between NH2OHNH2OH2+ and formamide is not too high. These reactants could be responsible not only for the formation of urea but also of isocyanic acid, which is an organic molecule also observed in the interstellar medium.

  16. Kinetics of the reaction of F atoms with O2 and UV spectrum of FO2 radicals in the gas phase at 295 K

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellermann, T.; Sehested, J.; Nielsen, O.J.


    The ultraviolet absorption spectrum of FO2 radicals and the kinetics of the reaction of F atoms with O2 have been studied in the gas phase at 295 K using pulse radiolysis combined with kinetic UV spectroscopy. At 230 nm, sigma(FO2) = (5.08 +/- 0.70) X 10(-18) cm2 molecule-1. The kinetics...

  17. Gas phase kinetics and equilibrium of allyl radical reactions with NO and NO2. (United States)

    Rissanen, Matti P; Amedro, Damien; Krasnoperov, Lev; Marshall, Paul; Timonen, Raimo S


    Allyl radical reactions with NO and NO(2) were studied in direct, time-resolved experiments in a temperature controlled tubular flow reactor connected to a laser photolysis/photoionization mass spectrometer (LP-PIMS). In the C(3)H(5) + NO reaction 1 , a dependence on the bath gas density was observed in the determined rate coefficients and pressure falloff parametrizations were performed. The obtained rate coefficients vary between 0.30-14.2 × 10(-12) cm(3) s(-1) (T = 188-363 K, p = 0.39-23.78 Torr He) and possess a negative temperature dependence. The rate coefficients of the C(3)H(5) + NO(2) reaction 2 did not show a dependence on the bath gas density in the range used (p = 0.47-3.38 Torr, T = 201-363 K), and they can be expressed as a function of temperature with k(C(3)H(5) + NO(2)) = (3.97 ± 0.84) × 10(-11) × (T/300 K) (-1.55±0.05) cm(3) s(-1). In the C(3)H(5) + NO reaction, above 410 K the observed C(3)H(5) radical signal did not decay to the signal background, indicating equilibrium between C(3)H(5) + NO and C(3)H(5)NO. This allowed the C(3)H(5) + NO ⇄ C(3)H(5)NO equilibrium to be studied and the equilibrium constants of the reaction between 414 and 500 K to be determined. With the standard second- and third-law analysis, the enthalpy and entropy of the C(3)H(5) + NO ⇄ C(3)H(5)NO reaction were obtained. Combined with the calculated standard entropy of reaction (ΔS°(298) = 137.2 J mol(-1)K(-1)), the third-law analysis resulted in ΔH°(298) = 102.4 ± 3.2 kJ mol(-1) for the C(3)H(5)-NO bond dissociation enthalpy.

  18. Theoretical investigations of the gas phase reaction of limonene (C10H16) with OH radical (United States)

    Ranjan Dash, Manas; Rajakumar, B.


    The rate coefficients of hydroxyl radical (OH) reaction with limonene were computed using canonical variational transition state theory with small-curvature tunnelling between 275 and 400 K. The geometries and frequencies of all the stationary points are calculated using hybrid density functional theory methods M06-2X and MPWB1K with 6-31+G(d,p), 6-311++G(d,p), and 6-311+G(2df,2p) basis sets. Both addition and abstraction channels of the title reaction were explored. The rate coefficients obtained over the temperature range of 275-400 K were used to derive the Arrhenius expressions: k(T) = 4.06×10-34 T7.07 exp[4515/T] and k(T) = 7.37×10-25 T3.9 exp[3169/T] cm3 molecule-1 s-1 at M06-2X/6-311+G(2df,2p) and MPWB1K/6-311+G(2df,2p) levels of theory, respectively. Kinetic study indicated that addition reactions are major contributors to the total reaction in the studied temperature range. The atmospheric lifetime (τ) of limonene due to its reactions with various tropospheric oxidants was calculated and concluded that limonene is lost in the atmosphere within a few hours after it is released. The ozone production potential of limonene was computed to be (14-18) ppm, which indicated that degradation of limonene would lead to a significant amount of ozone production in the troposphere.

  19. Rate Constants and Activation Energies for Gas-Phase Reactions of Three Cyclic Volatile Methyl Siloxanes with the Hydroxyl Radical. (United States)

    Safron, Andreas; Strandell, Michael; Kierkegaard, Amelie; Macleod, Matthew


    Reaction with hydroxyl radicals (OH) is the major pathway for removal of cyclic volatile methyl siloxanes (cVMS) from air. We present new measurements of second-order rate constants for reactions of the cVMS octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D 4 ), decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D 5 ), and dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane (D 6 ) with OH determined at temperatures between 313 and 353 K. Our measurements were made using the method of relative rates with cyclohexane as a reference substance and were conducted in a 140-mL gas-phase reaction chamber with online mass spectrometry analysis. When extrapolated to 298 K, our measured reaction rate constants of D 4 and D 5 with the OH radical are 1.9 × 10 -12 (95% confidence interval (CI): (1.7-2.2) × 10 -12 ) and 2.6 × 10 -12 (CI: (2.3-2.9) × 10 -12 ) cm 3 molecule -1 s -1 , respectively, which are 1.9× and 1.7× faster than previous measurements. Our measured rate constant for D 6 is 2.8 × 10 -12 (CI: (2.5-3.2) × 10 -12 ) cm 3 molecule -1 s -1 and to our knowledge there are no comparable laboratory measurements in the literature. Reaction rates for D 5 were 33% higher than for D 4 (CI: 30-37%), whereas the rates for D 6 were only 8% higher than for D 5 (CI: 5-10%). The activation energies of the reactions of D 4 , D 5 , and D 6 with OH were not statistically different and had a value of 4300 ± 2800 J/mol.

  20. Atmospheric chemistry of trans-CF3CH=CHCl: Kinetics of the gas-phase reactions with Cl atoms, OH radicals, and O3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads Peter Sulbaek; Nilsson, Elna Johanna Kristina; Nielsen, Ole John


    Long path length Fourier transform infrared (FTIR)–smog chamber techniques were used to study the kinetics of the gas-phase reactions of Cl atoms, OH radicals and O3 with trans-3,3,3-trifluoro-1-chloropropene, t-CF3CH CHCl, in 700 Torr total pressure at 295±2K. Values of k(Cl + t-CF3CH CHCl) = (5...

  1. Atmospheric chemistry of trans-CF3CH=CHCl: Kinetics of the gas-phase reactions with Cl atoms, OH radicals, and O3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads Peter Sulbaek; Nilsson, Elna Johanna Kristina; Nielsen, Ole John


    Long path length Fourier transform infrared (FTIR)–smog chamber techniques were used to study the kinetics of the gas-phase reactions of Cl atoms, OH radicals and O3 with trans-3,3,3-trifluoro-1-chloropropene, t-CF3CH CHCl, in 700 Torr total pressure at 295±2K. Values of k(Cl + t-CF3CH CHCl) = (5...... CHCl is determined by reaction with OH radicals and is approximately 26 days. The global warming potential of t-CF3CH CHCl is approximately 7 for a 100-year time horizon....

  2. Isolation and characterization of charge-tagged phenylperoxyl radicals in the gas phase: direct evidence for products and pathways in low temperature benzene oxidation. (United States)

    Kirk, Benjamin B; Harman, David G; Kenttämaa, Hilkka I; Trevitt, Adam J; Blanksby, Stephen J


    The phenylperoxyl radical has long been accepted as a critical intermediate in the oxidation of benzene and an archetype for arylperoxyl radicals in combustion and atmospheric chemistry. Despite being central to many contemporary mechanisms underpinning these chemistries, reports of the direct detection or isolation of phenylperoxyl radicals are rare and there is little experimental evidence connecting this intermediate with expected product channels. We have prepared and isolated two charge-tagged phenyl radical models in the gas phase [i.e., 4-(N,N,N-trimethylammonium)phenyl radical cation and 4-carboxylatophenyl radical anion] and observed their reactions with dioxygen by ion-trap mass spectrometry. Measured reaction rates show good agreement with prior reports for the neutral system (k(2)[(Me(3)N(+))C(6)H(4)˙ + O(2)] = 2.8 × 10(-11) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), Φ = 4.9%; k(2)[((-)O(2)C)C(6)H(4)˙ + O(2)] = 5.4 × 10(-11) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), Φ = 9.2%) and the resulting mass spectra provide unequivocal evidence for the formation of phenylperoxyl radicals. Collisional activation of isolated phenylperoxyl radicals reveals unimolecular decomposition by three pathways: (i) loss of dioxygen to reform the initial phenyl radical; (ii) loss of atomic oxygen yielding a phenoxyl radical; and (iii) ejection of the formyl radical to give cyclopentadienone. Stable isotope labeling confirms these assignments. Quantum chemical calculations for both charge-tagged and neutral phenylperoxyl radicals confirm that loss of formyl radical is accessible both thermodynamically and entropically and competitive with direct loss of both hydrogen atom and carbon dioxide.

  3. Gas phase pulse radiolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonah, C.D.; Andong Liu; Mulac, W.A.


    Gas phase pulse radiolysis, a technique which can be used to study many different phenomena in chemistry and physics, is discussed. As a source of small radicals, pulse radiolysis is important to the field of chemistry, particularly to combustion and atmospheric kinetics. The reactions of 1,3-butadiene, allene, ethylene and acetylene with OH are presented. 52 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  4. Gas-phase chemical dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weston, R.E. Jr.; Sears, T.J.; Preses, J.M. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)


    Research in this program is directed towards the spectroscopy of small free radicals and reactive molecules and the state-to-state dynamics of gas phase collision, energy transfer, and photodissociation phenomena. Work on several systems is summarized here.

  5. Laboratory and Ambient Studies of the Products of Gas-Phase Hydroxyl and Nitrate Ion Radical-Initiated Reactions with Selected PAHs (United States)

    Zimmermann, Kathryn Jean

    Nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (nitro-PAH) product distributions from the gas-phase hydroxyl (OH) and nitrate (NO3) radical-initiated reactions with selected PAHs, as well as the heterogeneous reactions of surface-bound PAHs with N2O5 and HNO3, were investigated. Chapter 2 presents formation yields of nitro-PAHs from the gas-phase OH radical-initiated reactions of 1,7- and 2,7-dimethylnaphthalene (DMN) as a function of NO 2 concentration over the range 0.04-0.14 ppmv. The measured formation yields of dimethylnitronaphthalenes (DMNNs) under conditions that the OH-DMN adducts reacted solely with NO2 were 0.252 ± 0.094% for Σ1,7-DMNNs and 0.010 ± 0.005% for Σ2,7-DMNNs. 1,7-dimethyl-5-nitronaphthalene (1,7DM5NN) was the major nitro-isomer formed, with a limiting high-NO 2 concentration yield of 0.212 ± 0.080% and with equal reactions of the 1,7-DMN-OH adduct with NO2 and O2 occurring in air at 60 ± 39 ppbv of NO2, indicating that the OH-DMN adduct reaction with NO2 can be important at NO2 concentrations commonly found in urban atmospheres. Although the yields of the DMNNs are low, ≤0.3%, the DMNN (and ethylnitronaphthalene) profiles from chamber experiments match well with those observed in polluted urban areas under conditions where OH radical-initiated chemistry is dominant, such as Mexico City, Mexico. Chapter 3 examines the nitro-PAH products of gas-phase OH and NO 3 radicals and heterogeneous N2O5 reactions with fluoranthene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, chrysene, and triphenylene. Analysis of nitro-PAHs in the NIST diesel particulate SRM (1975) and selected ambient samples are also presented. 2-Nitrofluoranthene (2-NFL) was the most abundant nitro-PAH in Riverside, CA and Mexico City, and the mw 273 nitro-PAHs were observed in lower concentrations. However, in Tokyo, Japan, concentrations of 1- + 2-nitrotriphenylene (NTP) were more similar to those of 2-NFL. Comparing specific nitro-PAH ratios in ambient particulate samples from Tokyo, Mexico City

  6. UV-visible spectrum of the phenyl radical and kinetics of its reaction with NO in the gas phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallington, T.J.; Egsgaard, H.; Nielsen, O.J.


    Pulse radiolysis transient UV-visible absorption spectroscopy was used to study the UV-visible absorption spectrum (225-575 nm) of the phenyl radical, C6H5(.), and kinetics of its reaction with NO. Phenyl radicals have a strong broad featureless absorption in the region of 225-340 nm...

  7. Products of the gas-phase reactions of 1,3-butadiene with OH and NO{sub 3} radicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuazon, E.C.; Alvarado, A.; Aschmann, S.M.; Atkinson, R.; Arey, J.


    1,3-Butadiene is emitted into the atmosphere from a number of sources including combustion sources and is listed in the US as a hazardous air pollutant. In the atmosphere, 1,3-butadiene reacts with OH radicals, NO{sub 3} radicals, and O{sub 3} with the dominant tropospheric removal processes being daytime reaction with the OH radical and nighttime reaction with the NO{sub 3} radical. The authors have used gas chromatography, in situ Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) absorption spectroscopy, and in situ atmospheric pressure ionization tandem mass spectrometry (API-MS) to identify and quantify the products formed from the reactions of 1,3-butadiene with OH radicals (in the presence of NO) and NO{sub 3} radicals. Acrolein, formaldehyde, and furan were identified and quantified from the OH radical-initiated reaction, with formation yields of 0.58 {+-} 0.04, 0.62 {+-} 0.05, and 0.03--0.04, respectively. Organic nitrates were observed by FT-IR spectroscopy with an estimated yield of 0.07 {+-} 0.03, and the API-MS analyses indicated that these organic nitrates are mainly the hydroxynitrate HOCH{sub 2}CH=CHCH{sub 2}ONO{sub 2} and/or its isomers. API-MS analyses showed the formation of a hydroxycarbonyl with the formula C{sub 4}H{sub 6}O{sub 2}, attributed to HOCH{sub 2}CH=CHCHO and/or its isomers. The major products of the NO{sub 3} radical-initiated reaction were organic nitrates; the API-MS analyses indicated the formation of acrolein, 1,2-epoxy-3-butene, and unsaturated C{sub 4}-hydroxycarbonyls, hydroxynitrates, carbonyl nitrates, and nitrooxyhydroperoxides. Acrolein, HCHO, and furan were again quantified by gas chromatographic and FT-IR analyses. The data is compared with previous literature studies, and detailed reaction mechanisms are presented and discussed.

  8. UV absorption spectra, kinetics and mechanisms of the self-reaction of CHF2O2 radicals in the gas phase at 298-K

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O.J.; Ellermann, T.; Bartkiewicz, E.


    The ultraviolet-absorption spectrum and the self-reaction of CHF2O2 radicals have been studied in the gas phase at 298 K using the pulse radiolysis technique and long-pathlength Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Absorption cross sections were quantified over the wavelength range 220-280 nm....... The measured cross section near the absorption maximum was sigma(CHF2O2)(240 nm) = (2.66 +/- 0.46) x 10(-18) cm2 molecule-1. The absorption cross section data were used to derive the observed self-reaction rate constant for the reaction CHF2O2 + CHF2O2 --> products, defined as d[R]/dt = 2k(1obs)[CHF2O2]2, k(1...

  9. Cytosine Radical Cations: A Gas-Phase Study Combining IRMPD Spectroscopy, UVPD Spectroscopy, Ion-Molecule Reactions, and Theoretical Calculations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lesslie, M.; Lawler, J. T.; Dang, A.; Korn, J. A.; Bím, Daniel; Steinmetz, V.; Maitre, P.; Tureček, F.; Ryzhov, V.


    Roč. 18, č. 10 (2017), s. 1293-1301 ISSN 1439-4235 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : ion- molecule reactions * IRMPD spectroscopy * nucleobases * radical ions * UVPD spectroscopy Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 3.075, year: 2016

  10. UV absorption spectrum and kinetics of the self-reaction of neopentyl radicals in the gas phase at 298 K

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O.J.; Ellermann, T.; Wallington, T.J.


    , sigma((CH3)3CCH2) (240 nm) = (4.88 +/- 0.42) x 10(-18) cm2 molecule-1, has been obtained based on absolute yields using CH3O2 as a reference. The decay of neopentyl radicals was found to follow second-order kinetics in accordance with the self-reaction 2(CH3)3CCH2--> products, with an absolute...

  11. First principles based group additive values for the gas phase standard entropy and heat capacity of hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon radicals. (United States)

    Sabbe, Maarten K; De Vleeschouwer, Freija; Reyniers, Marie-Françoise; Waroquier, Michel; Marin, Guy B


    In this work a complete and consistent set of 95 Benson group additive values (GAVs) for standard entropies S(o) and heat capacities C(p)(o) of hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon radicals is presented. These GAVs include 46 groups, among which 25 radical groups, which, to the best of our knowledge, have not been reported before. The GAVs have been determined from a set of B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) ideal gas statistical thermodynamics values for 265 species, consistently with previously reported GAVs for standard enthalpies of formation. One-dimensional hindered rotor corrections for all internal rotations are included. The computational methodology has been compared to experimental entropies (298 K) for 39 species, with a mean absolute deviation (MAD) between experiment and calculation of 1.2 J mol(-1) K(-1), and to 46 experimental heat capacities (298 K) with a resulting MAD = 1.8 J mol(-1) K(-1). The constructed database allowed evaluation of corrections on S(o) and C(p)(o) for non-nearest-neighbor effects, which have not been determined previously. The group additive model predicts the S(o) and C(p)(o) within approximately 5 J mol(-1) K(-1) of the ab initio values for 11 of the 14 molecules of the test set, corresponding to an acceptable maximal deviation of a factor of 1.6 on the equilibrium coefficient. The obtained GAVs can be applied for the prediction of S(o) and C(p)(o) for a wide range of hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon radicals. The constructed database also allowed determination of a large set of hydrogen bond increments, which can be useful for the prediction of radical thermochemistry.

  12. Kinetics and mechanism of the gas-phase reaction of Cl atoms and OH radicals with fluorobenzene at 296 K

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads Peter Sulbæk; Nielsen, Ole John; Hurley, MD


    Smog chamber/FTIR techniques were used to study the kinetics and mechanism of the reaction of Cl atoms and OH radicals with fluorobenzene, C6H5F, in 700 Torr of N-2 or air diluent at 296 K. Reaction of Cl atoms with C6H5F proceeds via two pathways: H-atom abstraction to give HCl and the C6H4F...

  13. Kinetic of the gas-phase reactions of OH radicals and Cl atoms with Diethyl Ethylphosphonate and Triethyl Phosphate

    KAUST Repository

    Laversin, H.


    In this paper, the relative-rate technique has been used to obtain rate coefficients for the reaction of two organophosphorus compounds: Triethyl phosphate (TEP) and Diethyl ethylphosphonate (DEEP) with OH radicals and Cl atoms at atmospheric pressure and at different temperatures. The calculated rate constants were fitted to the Arrhenius expression over the temperature range 298 – 352 K. The following expressions (in cm3molecule-1s-1) were obtained for the reactions of OH and CL with DEEP and TEP: kOH+DEEP= (7.84±0.65)x10-14exp((1866±824)/T), kOH+TEP = (6.54±0.42)x10-14exp((1897±626)/T), kCl+DEEP = (5.27± 0.80)x10−11exp(765±140/T) and kCl+TEP = (5.23± 0.80)x10−11exp(736± 110/T). These results show that the reaction of the studied compounds with Cl atoms proceeds more rapidly than that with OH radicals. The related tropospheric lifetimes suggest that once emitted into the atmosphere, TEP and DEEP can be removed within a few hours in areas close to their emission sources. TEP and DEEP are principally removed by OH radicals. However, in coastal areas where the Cl atoms’ concentration is higher, TEP and DEEP removal by reaction with Cl atoms could be a competitive process.

  14. Theoretical study on the gas phase reaction of sulfuric acid with hydroxyl radical in the presence of water. (United States)

    Long, Bo; Zhang, Wei-Jun; Tan, Xing-Feng; Long, Zheng-Wen; Wang, Yi-Bo; Ren, Da-Sen


    The reactions of H2SO4 with the OH radical without water and with water are investigated employing the quantum chemical calculations at the B3LYP/6-311+G(2df,2p) and MP2/aug-cc-pv(T+d)z levels of theory, respectively. The calculated results show that the reaction of H2SO4 with OH and H2O is a very complex mechanism because of the formation of the prereactive complex prior to the transition state and product. There are two prereactive complexes with stabilization energies being -20.28 and -20.67 kcal/mol, respectively. In addition, the single water can lower the energy barriers of the hydrogen abstraction and the proton transfer to 7.51 and 6.37 kcal/mol, respectively from 13.79 and 8.82 kcal/mol with respect to the corresponding prereactive complex. The computed rate constants indicate that the water-assisted reaction of sulfuric acid with OH radical is of greater importance than the reaction of the naked sulfuric acid with the OH radical because the rate constant of the water-assisted process is about 10(3) faster than that of the reaction sulfuric acid with OH. Therefore, the conclusion is obtained that the water-assisted process plays an important role in the sink for the gaseous sulfuric acid in the clean area.

  15. Kinetics and Mechanism of the Oxidation of Cyclic Methylsiloxanes by Hydroxyl Radical in the Gas Phase: An Experimental and Theoretical Study. (United States)

    Xiao, Ruiyang; Zammit, Ian; Wei, Zongsu; Hu, Wei-Ping; MacLeod, Matthew; Spinney, Richard


    The ubiquitous presence of cyclic volatile methylsiloxanes (cVMS) in the global atmosphere has recently raised environmental concern. In order to assess the persistence and long-range transport potential of cVMS, their second-order rate constants (k) for reactions with hydroxyl radical ((•)OH) in the gas phase are needed. We experimentally and theoretically investigated the kinetics and mechanism of (•)OH oxidation of a series of cVMS, hexamethylcyclotrisiloxane (D3), octamethycyclotetrasiloxane (D4), and decamethycyclopentasiloxane (D5). Experimentally, we measured k values for D3, D4, and D5 with (•)OH in a gas-phase reaction chamber. The Arrhenius activation energies for these reactions in the temperature range from 313 to 353 K were small (-2.92 to 0.79 kcal·mol(-1)), indicating a weak temperature dependence. We also calculated the thermodynamic and kinetic behaviors for reactions at the M06-2X/6-311++G**//M06-2X/6-31+G** level of theory over a wider temperature range of 238-358 K that encompasses temperatures in the troposphere. The calculated Arrhenius activation energies range from -2.71 to -1.64 kcal·mol(-1), also exhibiting weak temperature dependence. The measured k values were approximately an order of magnitude higher than the theoretical values but have the same trend with increasing size of the siloxane ring. The calculated energy barriers for H-atom abstraction at different positions were similar, which provides theoretical support for extrapolating k for other cyclic siloxanes from the number of abstractable hydrogens.

  16. Temperature Dependent Rate Coefficients for the Gas-Phase Reaction of the OH Radical with Linear (L2, L3) and Cyclic (D3, D4) Permethylsiloxanes. (United States)

    Bernard, François; Papanastasiou, Dimitrios K; Papadimitriou, Vassileios C; Burkholder, James B


    Permethylsiloxanes are emitted into the atmosphere during production and use as personal care products, lubricants, and cleaning agents. The predominate atmospheric loss process for permethylsiloxanes is expected to be via gas-phase reaction with the OH radical. In this study, rate coefficients, k(T), for the OH radical gas-phase reaction with the two simplest linear and cyclic permethylsiloxanes were measured using a pulsed laser photolysis-laser induced fluorescence technique over the temperature range of 240-370 K and a relative rate method at 294 K: hexamethyldisiloxane ((CH 3 ) 3 SiOSi(CH 3 ) 3 , L 2 ), k 1 ; octamethyltrisiloxane ([(CH 3 ) 3 SiO] 2 Si(CH 3 ) 2 , L 3 ), k 2 ; hexamethylcyclotrisiloxane ([-Si(CH 3 ) 2 O-] 3 , D 3 ), k 3 ; and octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane ([-Si(CH 3 ) 2 O-] 4 , D 4 ), k 4 . The obtained k(294 K) values and temperature-dependence expressions for the 240-370 K temperature range are (cm 3 molecule -1 s -1 , 2σ absolute uncertainties): k 1 (294 K) = (1.28 ± 0.08) × 10 -12 , k 1 ( T) = (1.87 ± 0.18) × 10 -11 exp(-(791 ± 27)/ T); k 2 (294 K) = (1.72 ± 0.10) × 10 -12 , k 2 ( T) = 1.96 × 10 -13 (T/298) 4.34 exp(657/ T); k 3 (294 K) = (0.82 ± 0.05) × 10 -12 , k 3 ( T) = (1.29 ± 0.19) × 10 -11 exp(-(805 ± 43)/ T); and k 4 (294 K) = (1.12 ± 0.10) × 10 -12 , k 4 ( T) = (1.80 ± 0.26) × 10 -11 exp(-(816 ± 43)/ T). The cyclic molecules were found to be less reactive than the analogous linear molecule with the same number of -CH 3 groups, while the linear and cyclic permethylsiloxane reactivity both increase with the increasing number of CH 3 - groups. The present results are compared with previous rate coefficient determinations where available. The permethylsiloxanes included in this study are atmospherically short-lived compounds with estimated atmospheric lifetimes of 11, 8, 17, and 13 days, respectively.

  17. A self-consistent, multivariate method for the determination of gas-phase rate coefficients, applied to reactions of atmospheric VOCs and the hydroxyl radical (United States)

    Shaw, Jacob T.; Lidster, Richard T.; Cryer, Danny R.; Ramirez, Noelia; Whiting, Fiona C.; Boustead, Graham A.; Whalley, Lisa K.; Ingham, Trevor; Rickard, Andrew R.; Dunmore, Rachel E.; Heard, Dwayne E.; Lewis, Ally C.; Carpenter, Lucy J.; Hamilton, Jacqui F.; Dillon, Terry J.


    Gas-phase rate coefficients are fundamental to understanding atmospheric chemistry, yet experimental data are not available for the oxidation reactions of many of the thousands of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) observed in the troposphere. Here, a new experimental method is reported for the simultaneous study of reactions between multiple different VOCs and OH, the most important daytime atmospheric radical oxidant. This technique is based upon established relative rate concepts but has the advantage of a much higher throughput of target VOCs. By evaluating multiple VOCs in each experiment, and through measurement of the depletion in each VOC after reaction with OH, the OH + VOC reaction rate coefficients can be derived. Results from experiments conducted under controlled laboratory conditions were in good agreement with the available literature for the reaction of 19 VOCs, prepared in synthetic gas mixtures, with OH. This approach was used to determine a rate coefficient for the reaction of OH with 2,3-dimethylpent-1-ene for the first time; k = 5.7 (±0.3) × 10-11 cm3 molecule-1 s-1. In addition, a further seven VOCs had only two, or fewer, individual OH rate coefficient measurements available in the literature. The results from this work were in good agreement with those measurements. A similar dataset, at an elevated temperature of 323 (±10) K, was used to determine new OH rate coefficients for 12 aromatic, 5 alkane, 5 alkene and 3 monoterpene VOC + OH reactions. In OH relative reactivity experiments that used ambient air at the University of York, a large number of different VOCs were observed, of which 23 were positively identified. Due to difficulties with detection limits and fully resolving peaks, only 19 OH rate coefficients were derived from these ambient air samples, including 10 reactions for which data were previously unavailable at the elevated reaction temperature of T = 323 (±10) K.

  18. Gas phase ion chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Bowers, Michael T


    Gas Phase Ion Chemistry, Volume 2 covers the advances in gas phase ion chemistry. The book discusses the stabilities of positive ions from equilibrium gas-phase basicity measurements; the experimental methods used to determine molecular electron affinities, specifically photoelectron spectroscopy, photodetachment spectroscopy, charge transfer, and collisional ionization; and the gas-phase acidity scale. The text also describes the basis of the technique of chemical ionization mass spectrometry; the energetics and mechanisms of unimolecular reactions of positive ions; and the photodissociation

  19. Observation of covalent and electrostatic bonds in nitrogen-containing polycyclic ions formed by gas phase reactions of the benzene radical cation with pyrimidine. (United States)

    Attah, Isaac Kwame; Soliman, Abdel-Rahman; Platt, Sean P; Meot-Ner Mautner, Michael; Aziz, Saaudallah G; Samy El-Shall, M


    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polycyclic aromatic nitrogen heterocyclics (PANHs) are present in ionizing environments, including interstellar clouds and solar nebulae, where their ions can interact with neutral PAH and PANH molecules leading to the formation of a variety of complex organics including large N-containing ions. Herein, we report on the formation of a covalently-bonded (benzene·pyrimidine) radical cation dimer by the gas phase reaction of pyrimidine with the benzene radical cation at room temperature using the mass-selected ion mobility technique. No ligand exchange reactions with benzene and pyrimidine are observed indicating that the binding energy of the (benzene·pyrimidine)˙ + adduct is significantly higher than both the benzene dimer cation and the proton-bound pyrimidine dimer. The (benzene·pyrimidine)˙ + adduct shows thermal stability up to 541 K. Thermal dissociation of the (C 6 D 6 ·C 4 H 4 N 2 )˙ + adduct at temperatures higher than 500 K produces C 4 H 4 N 2 D + (m/z 82) suggesting the transfer of a D atom from the C 6 D 6 moiety to the C 4 H 4 N 2 moiety before the dissociation of the adduct. Mass-selected ion mobility of the (benzene·pyrimidine)˙ + dimer reveals the presence of two families of isomers formed by electron impact ionization of the neutral (benzene·pyrimidine) dimer. The slower mobility peak corresponds to a non-covalent family of isomers with larger collision cross sections (76.0 ± 1.8 Å 2 ) and the faster peak is consistent with a family of covalent isomers with more compact structures and smaller collision cross sections (67.7 ± 2.2 Å 2 ). The mobility measurements at 509 K show only one peak corresponding to the family of stable covalently bonded isomers characterized by smaller collision cross sections (66.9 ± 1.9 Å 2 at 509 K). DFT calculations at the M06-2X/6-311++G** level show that the most stable (benzene·pyrimidine)˙ + isomer forms a covalent C-N bond with a binding energy of 49

  20. Gas phase ion chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Bowers, Michael T


    Gas Phase Ion Chemistry, Volume 1 covers papers on the advances of gas phase ion chemistry. The book discusses the advances in flow tubes and the measurement of ion-molecule rate coefficients and product distributions; the ion chemistry of the earth's atmosphere; and the classical ion-molecule collision theory. The text also describes statistical methods in reaction dynamics; the state selection by photoion-photoelectron coincidence; and the effects of temperature and pressure in the kinetics of ion-molecule reactions. The energy distribution in the unimolecular decomposition of ions, as well

  1. Gas-Phase Thermolyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Lars; Egsgaard, Helge


    The unimolecular gas-phase thermolyses of the four methyl and ethyl monothioacetates (5)–(8) have been studied by the flash vacuum thermolysis–field ionization mass spectrometry technique in the temperature range 883–1 404 K. The types of reactions verified were keten formation, thiono–thiolo rea......The unimolecular gas-phase thermolyses of the four methyl and ethyl monothioacetates (5)–(8) have been studied by the flash vacuum thermolysis–field ionization mass spectrometry technique in the temperature range 883–1 404 K. The types of reactions verified were keten formation, thiono...

  2. Mechanisms for formation of organic acids in gas-phase reactions of ozone and hydroxyl radical with dialkenes and unsaturated carbonyls (United States)

    Chien, Chao-Jung


    Carboxylic acids are ubiquitous throughout the troposphere and may contribute significant fractions of the free acidity in some remote areas. One of the important sources of these carboxylic acids is thought to be photochemical transformation of biogenic hydrocarbons such as isoprene. For the work reported here, atmospheric samples from University of North Carolina dual outdoor environmental chamber under simulated urban atmospheric conditions were analyzed for carboxylic acids. Both OH radicals and O3 initiated photooxidation reaction experiments were performed for isoprene, along with its structural analogs, 1,3-butadiene and 2,3-dimethyl-1,3-butadiene, and their primary photooxidation products, methacrolein, acrolein, and methyl vinyl ketone. Among the detected carboxylic acids were formic, acetic, and several multifunctional carboxylic acids, including methacrylic, acrylic, glyoxylic, and glycolic acids. Quantification of most carboxylic acid products was also established. Formation yields of carboxylic acids from the reactions of O3 with studied compounds were determined, and time-concentration series of the reactants and carboxylic acid products were measured to facilitate mechanism formulation. While the reaction mechanisms of Criegee biradicals arising from decomposition of primary ozonides are proposed to account for the observed carboxylic acid products in the ozonolysis of unsaturated hydrocarbons, reactions of peroxy acyl radicals with HO2 and/or other peroxy radicals are thought to be responsible for the formation of carboxylic acids during the OH-initiated reactions in the presence of NOx. In this study, smog chamber simulations have also been performed for selected compounds using Morpho, a photochemical kinetic simulation software package. Explicit photochemical mechanisms with O 3 and OH radicals that lead to formation of carboxylic acids were elaborated and implemented, and the simulation results were compared with those from other chemical

  3. Atmospheric chemistry of cyc-CF2CF2CF2CH=CH-: Kinetics, products, and mechanism of gas-phase reaction with OH radicals, and atmospheric implications (United States)

    Guo, Qin; Zhang, Ni; Uchimaru, Tadafumi; Chen, Liang; Quan, Hengdao; Mizukado, Junji


    The rate constants for the gas-phase reactions of cyc-CF2CF2CF2CH=CH- with OH radicals were determined by a relative rate method between 253 and 328 K. The rate constant k1 at 298 K was measured to be (1.08 ± 0.04) × 10-13 cm3 molecule-1 s-1, and the Arrhenius expression was k1 = (3.72 ± 0.14) × 10-13 exp [(-370 ± 12)/T]. The atmospheric lifetime of cyc-CF2CF2CF2CH=CH- was calculated to be 107 d. The products and mechanism for the reaction of cyc-CF2CF2CF2CH=CH- with OH radicals were also investigated. CO, CO2, and COF2 were identified as the main carbon-containing products following the OH-initiated reaction. Moreover, the radiative efficiency (RE) was determined to be 0.143 W m-2 ppb-1, and the global warming potentials (GWPs) for 20, 100, and 500 yr were 54, 15, and 4, respectively. The photochemical ozone creation potential of the title compound was estimated to be 1.3.

  4. Studies of the gas phase reactions of linalool, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-ol and 3-methyl-1-penten-3-ol with O3 and OH radicals. (United States)

    Bernard, François; Daële, Véronique; Mellouki, Abdelwahid; Sidebottom, Howard


    The reactions of three unsaturated alcohols (linalool, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-ol, and 3-methyl-1-penten-3-ol) with ozone and OH radicals have been studied using simulation chambers at T ∼ 296 K and P ∼ 760 Torr. The rate coefficient values (in cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1)) determined for the three compounds are linalool, k(O3) = (4.1 ± 1.0) × 10(-16) and k(OH) = (1.7 ± 0.3) × 10(-10); 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-ol, k(O3) = (3.8 ± 1.2) × 10(-16) and k(OH) = (1.0 ± 0.3) × 10(-10); and 3-methyl-1-penten-3-ol, k(O3) = (5.2 ± 0.6) × 10(-18) and k(OH) = (6.2 ± 1.8) × 10(-11). From the kinetic data it is estimated that, for the reaction of O(3) with linalool, attack at the R-CH═C(CH(3))(2) group represents around (93 ± 52)% (k(6-methyl-5-hepten-2-ol)/k(linalool)) of the overall reaction, with reaction at the R-CH═CH(2) group accounting for about (1.3 ± 0.5)% (k(3-methyl-1-penten-3-ol)/k(linalool)). In a similar manner it has been calculated that for the reaction of OH radicals with linalool, attack of the OH radical at the R-CH═C(CH(3))(2) group represents around (59 ± 18)% (k(6-methyl-5-hepten-2-ol)/k(linalool)) of the total reaction, while addition of OH to the R-CH═CH(2) group is estimated to be around (36 ± 6)% (k(3-methyl-1-penten-3-ol)/k(linalool)). Analysis of the products from the reaction of O(3) with linalool confirmed that addition to the R-CH═C(CH(3))(2) group is the predominant reaction pathway. The presence of formaldehyde and hydroxyacetone in the reaction products together with compelling evidence for the generation of OH radicals in the system indicates that the hydroperoxide channel is important in the loss of the biradical [(CH(3))(2)COO]* formed in the reaction of O(3) with linalool. Studies on the reactions of O(3) with the unsaturated alcohols showed that the yields of secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) are higher in the absence of OH scavengers compared to the yields in their presence. However, even under low-NO(X) concentrations, the

  5. Radical routes to interstellar glycolaldehyde. The possibility of stereoselectivity in gas-phase polymerization reactions involving CH(2)O and ˙CH(2)OH. (United States)

    Wang, Tianfang; Bowie, John H


    A previous report that the interstellar molecule glycolaldehyde (HOCH(2)CHO) can be made from hydroxymethylene (HOCH:) and formaldehyde has been revisited at the CCSD(T)/6-311++G(3df,2p)//MP2/6-311++G(3df,2p) level of theory. This reaction competes with the formation of acetic acid and methylformate, molecules which have also been detected in interstellar clouds. Other possible modes of formation of glycolaldehyde by radical/radical reactions have been shown to be viable theoretically as follows: HO˙+˙CH2CHO -->HOCH2CHO [ΔG(Γ)(298K)=-303kJ mol⁻¹] HOCH2˙+˙CHO-->HOCH2CHO (-259kJ mol⁻¹). The species in these two processes are known interstellar molecules. Key radicals ˙CH(2)CHO and ˙CH(2)OH in these sequences have been shown to be stable for the microsecond duration of neutralization/reionization experiments in the dual collision cells of a VG ZAB 2HF mass spectrometer. The polymerization reaction HOCH(2)CH˙OH + nCH(2)O → HOCH(2)[CH(OH)](n)˙CHOH (n = 1 to 3) has been studied theoretically and shown to be energetically feasible, as is the cyclization reaction of HOCH(2)[(CH(2)OH)(4)]˙CHOH (in the presence of one molecule of water at the reacting centre) to form glucose. The probability of such a reaction sequence is small even if polymerization were to occur in interstellar ice containing a significant concentration of CH(2)O. The large number of stereoisomers produced by such a reaction sequence makes the formation of a particular sugar, again for example glucose, an inefficient synthesis. The possibility of stereoselectivity occurring during the polymerization was investigated for two diastereoisomers of HOCH(2)[(CHOH)](2)˙CHOH. No significant difference was found in the transition state energies for addition of CH(2)O to these two diastereoisomers, but a barrier difference of 12 kJ mol(-1) was found for the H transfer reactions ˙OCH(2)[(CHOH)](2)CH(2)OH → HOCH(2)[(CHOH)(2)˙CHOH of the two diastereoisomers.

  6. Kinetic Analysis of the Gas-Phase Reactions of Methyl Vinyl Ketone with the OH Radical in the Presence of NOx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pimentel André Silva


    Full Text Available An explicit chemical mechanism for the reaction of methyl vinyl ketone (MVK with OH radicals in NOx-air systems, was simulated by solving the corresponding ordinary differential equations using Runge-Kutta-4-semi-implicit method. The simulated results are consistent with the published experimental data and the model accounts for all the major pathways by which MVK reacts in NOx-air systems. An eigenvalue-eigenvector analysis is used to extract meaningful kinetic information from linear sensitivity coefficients computed for all species of the chemical mechanism at several time points. This method is used to get an objective condition for constructing a minimal reaction set. Also, a classic method called rate of production analysis (ROPA was used for the study of the reactions relevance. Using the principal component information as well as the rate of production analysis the main paths of reaction are identified and discussed.

  7. Gas-Phase Intercluster Thiyl-Radical Induced C-H Bond Homolysis Selectively Forms Sugar C2-Radical Cations of Methyl D-Glucopyranoside: Isotopic Labeling Studies and Cleavage Reactions (United States)

    Osburn, Sandra; Speciale, Gaetano; Williams, Spencer J.; O'Hair, Richard A. J.


    A suite of isotopologues of methyl D-glucopyranosides is used in conjunction with multistage mass spectrometry experiments to determine the radical site and cleavage reactions of sugar radical cations formed via a recently developed `bio-inspired' method. In the first stage of CID (MS2), collision-induced dissociation (CID) of a protonated noncovalent complex between the sugar and S-nitrosocysteamine, [H3NCH2CH2SNO + M]+, unleashes a thiyl radical via bond homolysis to give the noncovalent radical cation, [H3NCH2CH2S• + M]+. CID (MS3) of this radical cation complex results in dissociation of the noncovalent complex to generate the sugar radical cation. Replacement of all exchangeable OH and NH protons with deuterons reveals that the sugar radical cation is formed in a process involving abstraction of a hydrogen atom from a C-H bond of the sugar coupled with proton transfer to the sugar, to form [M - H• + D+]. Investigation of this process using individual C-D labeled sugars reveals that the main site of H/D abstraction is the C2 position, since only the C2-deuterium labeled sugar yields a dominant [M - D• + H+] product ion. The fragmentation reactions of the distonic sugar radical cation, [M - H•+ H+], were studied by another stage of CID (MS4). 13C-labeling studies revealed that a series of three related fragment ions each contain the C1-C3 atoms; these arise from cross-ring cleavage reactions of the sugar.

  8. Infrared spectroscopy of ionized corannulene in the gas phase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alvaro Galué, H.; Rice, C.A.; Steill, J.D.; Oomens, J.


    The gas-phase infrared spectra of radical cationic and protonated corannulene were recorded by infrared multiple-photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy using the IR free electron laser for infrared experiments. Electrospray ionization was used to generate protonated corannulene and an IRMPD

  9. Reactive intermediates in the gas phase generation and monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Setser, D W


    Reactive Intermediates in the Gas Phase: Generation and Monitoring covers methods for reactive intermediates in the gas phase. The book discusses the generation and measurement of atom and radical concentrations in flow systems; the high temperature flow tubes, generation and measurement of refractory species; and the electronically excited long-lived states of atoms and diatomic molecules in flow systems. The text also describes the production and detection of reactive species with lasers in static systems; the production of small positive ions in a mass spectrometer; and the discharge-excite

  10. Formation of 9,10-phenanthrenequinone by atmospheric gas-phase reactions of phenanthrene (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Atkinson, Roger; Arey, Janet

    Phenanthrene is a 3-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon which exists mainly in the gas-phase in the atmosphere. Recent concern over the presence of 9,10-phenanthrenequinone in ambient particles led us to study the products of the gas-phase reactions of phenanthrene with hydroxyl radicals, nitrate radicals and ozone. The formation yields of 9,10-phenanthrenequinone were measured to be ˜3%, 33±9%, and ˜2% from the OH radical, NO 3 radical and O 3 reactions, respectively. Calculations suggest that daytime OH radical-initiated and nighttime NO 3 radical-initiated reactions of gas-phase phenanthrene may be significant sources of 9,10-phenanthrenequinone in ambient atmospheres. In contrast, the ozone reaction with phenanthrene is unlikely to contribute significantly to ambient 9,10-phenanthrenequinone.

  11. Iodine removal from a gas phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikis, A. Ch.


    Iodine, e.g. radioactive iodine, present as one or more organic iodides, optionally with elemental iodine, in a gas phase (e.g. air) are removed by photochemically decomposing the organic iodides to elemental iodine, reacting the iodine produced, and any initially present with excess ozone, preferably photochemically produced in situ in the gas phase to produce solid iodine oxides, and removing the solid oxides from the gas phase. (author)

  12. Iodine removal from a gas phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikis, A.C.


    Iodine, e.g. radioactive iodine, present as one or more organic iodides, optionally with elemental iodine, in a gas phase (e.g. air) are removed by photochemically decomposing the organic iodides to elemental iodine, reacting the iodine produced, and any initially present with excess ozone, preferably photochemically produced in situ in the gas phase to produce solid iodine oxides, and removing the solid oxides from the gas phase

  13. Hydroxyl radical reactivity with diethylhydroxylamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorse, R.A. Jr.; Lii, R.R.; Saunders, B.B.


    Diethylhydroxylamine (DEHA) reacts with gas-phase hydroxyl radicals on every third collision, whereas the corresponding reaction in aqueous solution is considerably slower. The high gas-phase reactivity explains the predicted inhibitory effect of DEHA in atmospheric smog processes. Results from the studies in the aqueous phase are helpful in predicting the mechanism of the reaction of DEHA with hydroxyl radicals

  14. Rate processes in gas phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, C.F.


    Reaction-rate theory and experiment are given a critical review from the engineers' point of view. Rates of heavy-particle, collision-induced reaction in gas phase are formulated in terms of the cross sections and activation energies of the reaction. The effect of cross section function shape and of excited state contributions to the reaction both cause the slope of Arrhenius plots to differ from the true activation energy, except at low temperature. The master equations for chemically reacting gases are introduced, and dissociation and ionization reactions are shown to proceed primarily from excited states about kT from the dissociation or ionization limit. Collision-induced vibration, vibration-rotation, and pure rotation transitions are treated, including three-dimensional effects and conservation of energy, which have usually been ignored. The quantum theory of transitions at potential surface crossing is derived, and results are found to be in fair agreement with experiment in spite of some questionable approximations involved

  15. Gas-phase advanced oxidation for effective, efficient in situ control of pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Matthew Stanley; Nilsson, Elna Johanna Kristina; Svensson, Erik Anders


    In this article, gas-phase advanced oxidation, a new method for pollution control building on the photo-oxidation and particle formation chemistry occurring in the atmosphere, is introduced and characterized. The process uses ozone and UV-C light to produce in situ radicals to oxidize pollution...

  16. Ionization of Gas-Phase Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Electrospray Ionization Coupled with Gas Chromatography. (United States)

    Cha, Eunju; Jeong, Eun Sook; Han, Sang Beom; Cha, Sangwon; Son, Junghyun; Kim, Sunghwan; Oh, Han Bin; Lee, Jaeick


    Herein, gas-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as nonpolar compounds were ionized to protonated molecular ions [M + H] + without radical cations and simultaneously analyzed using gas chromatography (GC)/electrospray ionization (ESI)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The ionization profile, dissociation, and sensitivity were first investigated to understand the significant behavior of gas-phase PAHs under ESI. The formation of protonated molecular ions of PAHs was distinguished according to the analyte phase and ESI spray solvents. The protonated PAHs exhibited characteristic dissociations, such as H-loss, H 2 -loss, and acetylene-loss, via competition of internal energy. In addition, GC/ESI-MS/MS resulted in relatively lower concentration levels (better sensitivity) for the limits-of-detection (LODs) of PAHs than liquid chromatography (LC)/ESI-MS/MS, and it seems to result from the characteristic ionization mechanism of the gas-phase analyte under ESI. Furthermore, the LODs of gas-phase PAHs depended on molecular weight and proton affinity (PA). Consequently, we demonstrated the relationship among the analyte phases, sensitivities, and structural characteristics (molecular weight and PA) under ESI. The gas-phase PAHs provided enhanced protonation efficiency and sensitivity using GC/ESI-MS/MS, as their molecular weight and PA increased. Based on these results, we offered important information regarding the behavior of gas-phase analytes under ESI. Therefore, the present GC/ESI-MS/MS method has potential as an alternative method for simultaneous analysis of PAHs.

  17. Gas-Phase Infrared; JCAMP Format (United States)

    SRD 35 NIST/EPA Gas-Phase Infrared; JCAMP Format (PC database for purchase)   This data collection contains 5,228 infrared spectra in the JCAMP-DX (Joint Committee for Atomic and Molecular Physical Data "Data Exchange") format.

  18. Product analysis of the gas-phase reaction of β-caryophyllene with ozone (United States)

    Calogirou, A.; Kotzias, D.; Kettrup, A.

    The semivolatile ketoaldehydes 3,3-dimethyl-y-methylene-2-(3-oxobutyl)-cyclobutanebutanal 1 and 3,3-dimethyl-γ-oxo-2-(3-oxobutyl)-cyclobutanebutanal 2 and formaldehyde have been identified as the main products of the reaction of ß-caryophyllene with ozone in the gas phase. In minor amounts 9-methylene-,t,12,12-trimethyl-5-oxabicyclo[]dodecane 3 was also formed. Nature and yields of these carbonyl products are discussed in terms of oxidation mechanisms involving the gas-phase reaction with ozone and OH radicals.

  19. Gas Phase Sulfur, Chlorine and Potassium Chemistry in Biomass Combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løj, Lusi Hindiyarti


    the uncertainties. In the present work, the detailed kinetic model for gas phase sulfur, chlorine, alkali metal, and their interaction has been updated. The K/O/H/Cl chemistry, S chemistry, and their interaction can reasonably predict a range of experimental data. In general, understanding of the interaction...... between K-containing species and radical pool under combustion conditions has been improved. The available K/O/H/Cl chemistry has been updated by using both experimental work and detailed kinetic modeling. The experimental work was done by introducing gaseous KCl to CO oxidation system under reducing...... level, but the effect levels off at high concentrations. The experimental data were interpreted in terms of a detailed chemical kinetic model and used to update the K/O/H/Cl chemistry. The oxidation of SO2 to SO3 under combustion conditions has been suggested to be the rate limiting step in the gaseous...

  20. Gas phase thermochemistry of organogermanium compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engel, John P. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    A variety of silyl- and alkyl-germylene precursors have been synthesized and subsequently pyrolyzed in the gas phase. Arrhenius parameters were obtained employing a pulsed-stirred flow reactor for these unimolecular decompositions. These precursors are divided into two major categories by mechanism of germylene extrusion: α-elimination precursors and germylacetylenes. The extrusion of germylenes from germylacetylene precursors is of primary interest. A mechanism is proposed employing a germacyclopropene intermediate. Evidence supporting this mechanism is presented. In the process of exploring germylacetylenes as germylene precursors, an apparent dyatropic rearrangement between germanium and silicon was observed. This rearrangement was subsequently explored.

  1. Gas phase reactive collisions, experimental approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canosa A.


    Full Text Available Since 1937 when the first molecule in space has been identified, more than 150 molecules have been detected. Understanding the fate of these molecules requires having a perfect view of their photochemistry and reactivity with other partners. It is then crucial to identify the main processes that will produce and destroy them. In this chapter, a general view of experimental techniques able to deliver gas phase chemical kinetics data at low and very low temperatures will be presented. These techniques apply to the study of reactions between neutral reactants on the one hand and reactions involving charge species on the other hand.

  2. Unexpected epoxide formation in the gas-phase photooxidation of isoprene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulot, Fabien; Crounse, John D; Kjaergaard, Henrik G


      Emissions of nonmethane hydrocarbon compounds to the atmosphere from the biosphere exceed those from anthropogenic activity. Isoprene, a five-carbon diene, contributes more than 40% of these emissions. Once emitted to the atmosphere, isoprene is rapidly oxidized by the hydroxyl radical OH. We...... per year-of these epoxides to the atmosphere. The discovery of these highly soluble epoxides provides a missing link tying the gas-phase degradation of isoprene to the observed formation of organic aerosols....

  3. Gas phase equilibrium structure of histamine. (United States)

    Tikhonov, Denis S; Rykov, Anatolii N; Grikina, Olga E; Khaikin, Leonid S


    The first gas electron diffraction (GED) experiment for histamine was carried out. The equilibrium structure of histamine in the gas phase was determined on the basis of the data obtained. The refinement was also supported by the rotational constants obtained in previous studies [B. Vogelsanger, et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1991, 113, 7864-7869; P. Godfrey, et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1998, 120, 10724-10732] and quantum chemical calculations. The proposed mechanism of tautomerization by simultaneous intermolecular transfer of hydrogens in a histamine dimer helps to explain the distribution of tautomers in different experiments. The estimations of the conformational interconversion times provided the explanation for the absence of some conformers in the rotational spectroscopy experiments.

  4. Visible and ultraviolet spectroscopy of gas phase protein ions. (United States)

    Antoine, Rodolphe; Dugourd, Philippe


    Optical spectroscopy has contributed enormously to our knowledge of the structure and dynamics of atoms and molecules and is now emerging as a cornerstone of the gas phase methods available for investigating biomolecular ions. This article focuses on the UV and visible spectroscopy of peptide and protein ions stored in ion traps, with emphasis placed on recent results obtained on protein polyanions, by electron photodetachment experiments. We show that among a large number of possible de-excitation pathways, the relaxation of biomolecular polyanions is mainly achieved by electron emission following photo-excitation in electronically excited states. Electron photodetachment is a fast process that occurs prior to relaxation on vibrational degrees of freedom. Electron photodetachment yield can then be used to record gas phase action spectra for systems as large as entire proteins, without the limitation of system size that would arise from energy redistribution on numerous modes and prevent fragmentation after the absorption of a photon. The optical activity of proteins in the near UV is directly related to the electronic structure and optical absorption of aromatic amino acids (Trp, Phe and Tyr). UV spectra for peptides and proteins containing neutral, deprotonated and radical aromatic amino acids were recorded. They displayed strong bathochromic shifts. In particular, the results outline the privileged role played by open shell ions in molecular spectroscopy which, in the case of biomolecules, is directly related to their reactivity and biological functions. The optical shifts observed are sufficient to provide unambiguous fingerprints of the electronic structure of chromophores without the requirement of theoretical calculations. They constitute benchmarks for calculating the absorption spectra of chromophores embedded in entire proteins and could be used in the future to study biochemical processes in the gas phase involving charge transfer in aromatic amino acids

  5. Gas-phase advanced oxidation as an integrated air pollution control technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getachew A. Adnew


    Full Text Available Gas-phase advanced oxidation (GPAO is an emerging air cleaning technology based on the natural self-cleaning processes that occur in the Earth’s atmosphere. The technology uses ozone, UV-C lamps and water vapor to generate gas-phase hydroxyl radicals that initiate oxidation of a wide range of pollutants. In this study four types of GPAO systems are presented: a laboratory scale prototype, a shipping container prototype, a modular prototype, and commercial scale GPAO installations. The GPAO systems treat volatile organic compounds, reduced sulfur compounds, amines, ozone, nitrogen oxides, particles and odor. While the method covers a wide range of pollutants, effective treatment becomes difficult when temperature is outside the range of 0 to 80 °C, for anoxic gas streams and for pollution loads exceeding ca. 1000 ppm. Air residence time in the system and the rate of reaction of a given pollutant with hydroxyl radicals determine the removal efficiency of GPAO. For gas phase compounds and odors including VOCs (e.g. C6H6 and C3H8 and reduced sulfur compounds (e.g. H2S and CH3SH, removal efficiencies exceed 80%. The method is energy efficient relative to many established technologies and is applicable to pollutants emitted from diverse sources including food processing, foundries, water treatment, biofuel generation, and petrochemical industries.

  6. Resolving Gas-Phase Metallicity In Galaxies (United States)

    Carton, David


    Chapter 2: As part of the Bluedisk survey we analyse the radial gas-phase metallicity profiles of 50 late-type galaxies. We compare the metallicity profiles of a sample of HI-rich galaxies against a control sample of HI-'normal' galaxies. We find the metallicity gradient of a galaxy to be strongly correlated with its HI mass fraction {M}{HI}) / {M}_{\\ast}). We note that some galaxies exhibit a steeper metallicity profile in the outer disc than in the inner disc. These galaxies are found in both the HI-rich and control samples. This contradicts a previous indication that these outer drops are exclusive to HI-rich galaxies. These effects are not driven by bars, although we do find some indication that barred galaxies have flatter metallicity profiles. By applying a simple analytical model we are able to account for the variety of metallicity profiles that the two samples present. The success of this model implies that the metallicity in these isolated galaxies may be in a local equilibrium, regulated by star formation. This insight could provide an explanation of the observed local mass-metallicity relation. Chapter 3 We present a method to recover the gas-phase metallicity gradients from integral field spectroscopic (IFS) observations of barely resolved galaxies. We take a forward modelling approach and compare our models to the observed spatial distribution of emission line fluxes, accounting for the degrading effects of seeing and spatial binning. The method is flexible and is not limited to particular emission lines or instruments. We test the model through comparison to synthetic observations and use downgraded observations of nearby galaxies to validate this work. As a proof of concept we also apply the model to real IFS observations of high-redshift galaxies. From our testing we show that the inferred metallicity gradients and central metallicities are fairly insensitive to the assumptions made in the model and that they are reliably recovered for galaxies

  7. Comparison of catalytic ethylene polymerization in slurry and gas phase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daftaribesheli, Majid


    Polyethylene (PE) with the annual consumption of 70 million tones in 2007 is mostly produced in slurry, gas-phase or combination of both processes. This work focuses on a comparison between the slurry and gas phase processes. Why does PE produced in theses two processes can show extremely different

  8. The nature of ionic liquids in the gas phase. (United States)

    Leal, João P; Esperança, José M S S; da Piedade, Manuel E Minas; Lopes, José N Canongia; Rebelo, Luís P N; Seddon, Kenneth R


    Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS) experiments showed that when aprotic ionic liquids vaporize under pressure and temperature conditions similar to those of a reduced-pressure distillation, the gas phase is composed of discrete anion-cation pairs. The evolution of the mass spectrometric signals recorded during fractional distillations of binary ionic liquid mixtures allowed us to monitor the changes of the gas-phase composition and the relative volatility of the components. In addition, we have studied a protic ionic liquid, and demonstrated that it exists as separated neutral molecules in the gas phase.

  9. Diurnal variability of gas phase and surface water ethanol in southeastern North Carolina, USA (United States)

    Kieber, R. J.; Powell, J. P.; Foley, L.; Mead, R. N.; Willey, J. D.; Avery, G. B.


    Diurnal variations in gas phase and surface water concentrations of ethanol and acetaldehyde were investigated at five locations in southeastern North Carolina, USA. There were distinct diurnal oscillations observed in gas phase concentrations with maxima occurring in late afternoon suggesting that photochemical production is an important process in the cycling of these analytes in the troposphere. The rapid decrease in concentrations after the mid day maximum suggests that there is also an atmospheric photochemical sink for both analytes most likely involving photo produced hydroxyl radicals with a half-life on the order of hours rather than days at ground level. Ethanol concentrations in the surface microlayer taken at the same time as gas phase samples had a very similar diurnal profile suggesting photochemical processes, in addition to atmospheric deposition, play a role in the aqueous phase cycling of both analytes. The concentration of ethanol and acetaldehyde increased significantly in flasks containing freshwater collected from the Cape Fear River exposed to simulated sunlight for 6 h underscoring the importance of in situ photochemical production. Results of this study are significant because they represent the first simultaneous analyses of the temporal variability of ethanol and acetaldehyde concentrations in the gas and aqueous phases. These measurements are essential in order to better define the processes involved in the global biogeochemical cycling of ethanol both now and in the future as our use of the biofuel continues to grow.

  10. Reticulated Vitreous Carbon Electrodes for Gas Phase Pulsed Corona Reactors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Locke, B


    A new design for gas phase pulsed corona reactors incorporating reticulated vitreous carbon electrodes is demonstrated to be effective for the removal of nitrogen oxides from synthetic air mixtures...

  11. Reticulated Vitreous Carbon Electrodes for Gas Phase Pulsed Corona Reactors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    LOCKE, B


    A new design for gas phase pulsed corona reactors incorporating reticulated vitreous carbon electrodes is demonstrated to be effective for the removal of nitrogen oxides from synthetic air mixtures...

  12. Adsorption and reaction of trace gas-phase organic compounds on atmospheric water film surfaces: a critical review. (United States)

    Donaldson, D J; Valsaraj, Kalliat T


    The air-water interface in atmospheric water films of aerosols and hydrometeors (fog, mist, ice, rain, and snow) presents an important surface for the adsorption and reaction of many organic trace gases and gaseous reactive oxidants (hydroxyl radical (OH(.)), ozone (O(3)), singlet oxygen (O(2)((1)Delta(g))), nitrate radicals (NO(3)(.)), and peroxy radicals (RO(2)(.)). Knowledge of the air-water interface partition constant of hydrophobic organic species is necessary for elucidating the significance of the interface in atmospheric fate and transport. Various methods of assessing both experimental and theoretical values of the thermodynamic partition constant and adsorption isotherm are described in this review. Further, the reactivity of trace gases with gas-phase oxidants (ozone and singlet oxygen) at the interface is summarized. Oxidation products are likely to be more water-soluble and precursors for secondary organic aerosols in hydrometeors. Estimation of characteristic times shows that heterogeneous photooxidation in water films can compete effectively with homogeneous gas-phase reactions for molecules in the atmosphere. This provides further support to the existing thesis that reactions of organic compounds at the air-water interface should be considered in gas-phase tropospheric chemistry.

  13. Contributions of gas-phase plasma chemistry to surface modifications and gas-surface interactions: investigations of fluorocarbon rf plasmas (United States)

    Cuddy, Michael F., II

    The fundamental aspects of inductively coupled fluorocarbon (FC) plasma chemistry were examined, with special emphasis on the contributions of gas-phase species to surface modifications. Characterization of the gas-phase constituents of single-source CF4-, C2F6-, C3F 8-, and C3F6-based plasmas was performed using spectroscopic and mass spectrometric techniques. The effects of varying plasma parameters, including applied rf power (P) and system pressure (p) were examined. Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) spectroscopy were employed to monitor the behavior of excited and ground CFx (x = 1,2) radicals, respectively. Mass spectrometric techniques, including ion energy analyses, elucidated behaviors of nascent ions in the FC plasmas. These gas-phase data were correlated with the net effect of substrate processing for Si and ZrO2 surfaces. Surface-specific analyses were performed for post-processed substrates via x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and contact angle goniometry. Generally, precursors with lower F/C ratios tended to deposit robust FC films of high surface energy. Precursors of higher F/C ratio, such as CF4, were associated with etching or removal of material from surfaces. Nonetheless, a net balance between deposition of FC moieties and etching of material exists for each plasma system. The imaging of radicals interacting with surfaces (IRIS) technique provided insight into the phenomena occurring at the interface of the plasma gas-phase and substrate of interest. IRIS results demonstrate that CFx radicals scatter copiously, with surface scatter coefficients, S, generally greater than unity under most experimental conditions. Such considerable S values imply surface-mediated production of the CFx radicals at FC-passivated sites. It is inferred that the primary route to surface production of CFx arises from energetic ion bombardment and ablation of surface FC films. Other factors which may influence the observed CFx

  14. SVOC partitioning between the gas phase and settled dust indoors (United States)

    Weschler, Charles J.; Nazaroff, William W.


    Semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) are a major class of indoor pollutants. Understanding SVOC partitioning between the gas phase and settled dust is important for characterizing the fate of these species indoors and the pathways by which humans are exposed to them. Such knowledge also helps in crafting measurement programs for epidemiological studies designed to probe potential associations between exposure to these compounds and adverse health effects. In this paper, we analyze published data from nineteen studies that cumulatively report measurements of dustborne and airborne SVOCs in more than a thousand buildings, mostly residences, in seven countries. In aggregate, measured median data are reported in these studies for 66 different SVOCs whose octanol-air partition coefficients ( Koa) span more than five orders of magnitude. We use these data to test a simple equilibrium model for estimating the partitioning of an SVOC between the gas phase and settled dust indoors. The results demonstrate, in central tendency, that a compound's octanol-air partition coefficient is a strong predictor of its abundance in settled dust relative to its gas phase concentration. Using median measured results for each SVOC in each study, dustborne mass fractions predicted using Koa and gas-phase concentrations correlate reasonably well with measured dustborne mass fractions ( R2 = 0.76). Combined with theoretical understanding of SVOC partitioning kinetics, the empirical evidence also suggests that for SVOCs with high Koa values, the mass fraction in settled dust may not have sufficient time to equilibrate with the gas phase concentration.

  15. Post-flame gas-phase sulfation of potassium chloride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Bo; Sun, Zhiwei; Li, Zhongshan


    The sulfation of KCl during biomass combustion has implications for operation and emissions: it reduces the rates of deposition and corrosion, it increases the formation of aerosols, and it leads to higher concentrations of HCl and lower concentrations of SO2 in the gas phase. Rigorously homogene......The sulfation of KCl during biomass combustion has implications for operation and emissions: it reduces the rates of deposition and corrosion, it increases the formation of aerosols, and it leads to higher concentrations of HCl and lower concentrations of SO2 in the gas phase. Rigorously...... homogeneous systems are required to characterize the gas-phase formation of alkali sulfates. We have measured the temperature and gas-phase concentrations of KCl and HCl, and detected the presence of aerosols in the post-flame region of a range of hydrocarbon flames seeded with KCl, with and without...... and HCl and aerosols formed, most pronounced in flames with the lowest post-flame temperatures. This shows that KCl is sulfated in the gas phase to K2SO4, and this is followed by homogeneous nucleation of K2SO4 to form aerosols. Predictions from a kinetic model of the S/Cl/K chemistry agreed well...

  16. SVOC partitioning between the gas phase and settled dust indoors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weschler, Charles J.; Nazaroff, W. W.


    for estimating the partitioning of an SVOC between the gas phase and settled dust indoors. The results demonstrate, in central tendency, that a compound's octanol-air partition coefficient is a strong predictor of its abundance in settled dust relative to its gas phase concentration. Using median measured...... in crafting measurement programs for epidemiological studies designed to probe potential associations between exposure to these compounds and adverse health effects. In this paper, we analyze published data from nineteen studies that cumulatively report measurements of dustborne and airborne SVOCs in more...

  17. Uncatalyzed thermal gas phase aziridination of alkenes by organic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Alkene aziridination by azides through uncatalyzed thermal gas phase routes has been studiedusing the DFT B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) method, where the possible role of discrete nitrene intermediates is emphasized.The thermal decomposition of azides is studied using the MP2/aug-cc-pVDZ strategy as well. The MP2(but not the ...

  18. Precursor-Less Coating of Nanoparticles in the Gas Phase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pfeiffer, T.V.; Kedia, P.; Messing, M.E.; Valvo, M.; Schmidt-Ott, A.


    This article introduces a continuous, gas-phase method for depositing thin metallic coatings onto (nano)particles using a type of physical vapor deposition (PVD) at ambient pressure and temperature. An aerosol of core particles is mixed with a metal vapor cloud formed by spark ablation by passing

  19. Condensed phase decomposition and gas phase combustion of hydrazinium nitroformate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dragomir, O.E.; Tummers, M.J.; Veen, E.H. van; Heijden, A.E.D.M. van der; Roekaerts, D.J.E.M.


    This paper presents the results of a series of experiments on the condensed phase decomposition and the gas phase combustion of hydrazinium nitroformate (HNF). The experiments include SEM analysis of quenched samples that showed evidence of the formation of a foam layer. FTIR spectrometry and mass

  20. Nanoparticles-chemistry, new synthetic approaches, gas phase ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper, an overview of the synthesis, chemistry and applications of nanosystems carried out in our laboratory is presented. The discussion is divided into four sections, namely (a) chemistry of nanoparticles, (b) development of new synthetic approaches, (c) gas phase clusters and (d) device structures and ...

  1. Nanoparticles-chemistry, new synthetic approaches, gas phase ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 65; Issue 4. Nanoparticles-chemistry ... in our laboratory is presented. The discussion is divided into four sections, namely (a) chemistry of nanoparticles, (b) development of new synthetic approaches, (c) gas phase clusters and (d) device structures and applications.

  2. Gas phase and solution structures of 1-methoxyallenyllithium. (United States)

    Dixon, Darryl D; Tius, Marcus A; Pratt, Lawrence M


    A combined computational and (13)C NMR study was used to determine the solution structures of 1-methoxyallenyllithium. The gas phase calculations indicated that this species is aggregated as a hexamer. The NMR spectra in THF solution, together with the calculated aggregation energies and chemical shifts, are consistent with a dimer-tetramer equilibrium.

  3. Gas phase toluene isopropylation over high silica mordenite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mordenite (HM) catalysts with three different Si/Al ratios were compared for their activity and selectivities in gas phase toluene isopropylation with isopropanol. Catalyst with Si/Al ratio 44.9 offered better cumene selectivity, hence, it was chosen for detailed kinetic investigations. The influence of various process parameters ...

  4. Gas-Phase IR Spectroscopy of Deprotonated Amino Acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oomens, J.; Steill, J. D.; Redlich, B.


    Gas-phase infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectra have been recorded for the conjugate bases of a series of amino acids (Asp, Cys, Glu, Phe, Set, Trp, Tyr). The spectra are dominated by strong symmetric and antisymmetric carboxylate stretching modes around 1300 and 1600 cm(-1),

  5. Gas-phase fragmentation of peptides to increase the spatial resolution of the Hydrogen Exchange Mass Spectrometry experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Foged; Rand, Kasper Dyrberg


    are produced after precursor ion selection and thus do not add complexity to the LC-MS analysis. The key to obtaining optimal spatial resolution in a hydrogen exchange mass spectrometry (HX-MS) experiment is the fragmentation efficiency. This chapter discusses common fragmentation techniques like collision......-induced dissociation (CID) occur with complete Hydrogen-deuterium (H/D) scrambling, while other techniques that induce dissociation on a faster timescale through radical-based fragmentation channels, like electron-capture dissociation (ECD) and electron-transfer dissociation (ETD), occur inherently without H......Generation of overlapping peptides in solution via multiple proteases requires a very high peak capacity for the LC-MS analysis to minimize signal overlap. An inherent advantage of a gas-phase fragmentation step is that the additional gas-phase fragment ions used to sublocalize deuterium...

  6. D Surface Generation from Aerial Thermal Imagery (United States)

    Khodaei, B.; Samadzadegan, F.; Dadras Javan, F.; Hasani, H.


    Aerial thermal imagery has been recently applied to quantitative analysis of several scenes. For the mapping purpose based on aerial thermal imagery, high accuracy photogrammetric process is necessary. However, due to low geometric resolution and low contrast of thermal imaging sensors, there are some challenges in precise 3D measurement of objects. In this paper the potential of thermal video in 3D surface generation is evaluated. In the pre-processing step, thermal camera is geometrically calibrated using a calibration grid based on emissivity differences between the background and the targets. Then, Digital Surface Model (DSM) generation from thermal video imagery is performed in four steps. Initially, frames are extracted from video, then tie points are generated by Scale-Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) algorithm. Bundle adjustment is then applied and the camera position and orientation parameters are determined. Finally, multi-resolution dense image matching algorithm is used to create 3D point cloud of the scene. Potential of the proposed method is evaluated based on thermal imaging cover an industrial area. The thermal camera has 640×480 Uncooled Focal Plane Array (UFPA) sensor, equipped with a 25 mm lens which mounted in the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). The obtained results show the comparable accuracy of 3D model generated based on thermal images with respect to DSM generated from visible images, however thermal based DSM is somehow smoother with lower level of texture. Comparing the generated DSM with the 9 measured GCPs in the area shows the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) value is smaller than 5 decimetres in both X and Y directions and 1.6 meters for the Z direction.

  7. Molecular dynamics simulation of gas-phase ozone reactions with sabinene and benzene. (United States)

    Ridgway, H F; Mohan, B; Cui, X; Chua, K J; Islam, M R


    Gas-phase reactions of ozone (O 3 ) with volatile organic compounds were investigated both by experiment and molecular simulations. From our experiments, it was found ozone readily reacts with VOC pure components and reduces it effectively. By introducing ozone intermittently, the reaction between VOC and ozone is markedly enhanced. In order to understand the relationship between intermediate reactions and end products, ozone reaction with benzene and alicyclic monoterpene sabinene were simulated via a novel hybrid quantum mechanical/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) algorithm that forced repeated bimolecular collisions. Molecular orbital (MO) rearrangements (manifested as bond dissociation or formation), resulting from the collisions, were computed by semi-empirical unrestricted Hartree-Fock methods (e.g., RM1). A minimum of 975 collisions between ozone and targeted organic species were performed to generate a distribution of reaction products. Results indicated that benzene and sabinene reacted with ozone to produce a range of stable products and intermediates, including carbocations, ring-scission products, as well as peroxy (HO 2 and HO 3 ) and hydroxyl (OH) radicals. Among the stable sabinene products observed included formaldehyde and sabina-ketone, which have been experimentally demonstrated in gas-phase ozonation reactions. Among the benzene ozonation products detected composed of oxygen mono-substituted aromatic C 6 H 5 O, which may undergo further transformation or rearrangement to phenol, benzene oxide or 2,4-cyclohexadienone; a phenomenon which has been experimentally observed in vapor-phase photocatalytic ozonation reactions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Chlorination of some eliphatic organic compounds in liquid and gas phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, A.A.


    The photochlorination of different organic compounds and the relative slectivities of different positions have been investigated in both gaseous and liquid phases at different temperatures. The results have shown that the relative selectivity generally decreased with increasing temperature and in the gas phase has a higher value. Polar solvents increase the selectivity relative to the chlorination of pure liquid phases. The differences in activation energy between two positions were much higher in the gas phases chlorination, relative to that in the liquid phase. It was also found that the functional groups have great influence on the rate of chlorine free radical attack on different positions, for example the electron withdrawing groups decreasing the selectivity on the first position, but the electron donating groups increase the selectivity on the first position, but the electron donating groups increase the selectivity on the first position. Furthermore it was found that the polar solvents, which stabilize the resonance between oxygen and carbon atoms, increases the selectivity on that position. 23 tabs.; 16 figs.; 50 refs

  9. Gas phase emitter effect of thulium within ceramic metal halide lamps in dependence on frequency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruhrmann, C.; Depta, M.; Bergner, A.; Hoebing, T.; Mentel, J.; Awakowicz, P. [Ruhr University Bochum, Electrical Engineering and Plasma Technology, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Denissen, C.; Suijker, J. [Philips Lighting, Category Prof. Lamps, PO Box 80020, NL-5600JM Eindhoven (Netherlands)


    The gas phase emitter effect within ceramic metal halide (CMH) lamps reduces the effective work function of the electrode material and, therewith, the electrode temperature. An investigation of the gas phase emitter effect of thulium (Tm) within CMH lamps seeded with Tm iodide (TmI3) is carried out. For this purpose, phase resolved images of the arc attachment and measurements of the electrode temperature, Tm atom and ion densities are performed in dependence on operating frequency by pyrometry and optical emission spectroscopy. Additionally, the influence of a sodium iodide (NaI) admixture is studied. The emitter effect is generated by means of a monolayer of Tm atoms on the electrode surface generated by a Tm ion current within the cathodic phase. It overlaps onto the anodic phase at higher frequencies of some hundreds of hertz. The reason is the finite life time of the monolayer, which is determined by the adsorption energy of Tm on the tungsten surface. Due to the low electric field strength in front of the anode and the mass inertia, the emitter ions and atoms remain in front of the anode. They retard the decay of the monolayer and with it the increase of the work function. Moreover, a comparison of a lamp seeded with TmI3 and sodium iodide (NaI) with a lamp seeded only with TmI3 illustrates a slight reduction of the electrode tip temperature caused by a higher Tm saturation vapour pressure and a higher Tm amount within the lamp filling. The influence of Na appears to be quite low. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  10. Ethylene epoxidation promoted by methane gas-phase thermic oxidation. The influence of temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigoryan, R.R.; Arsentiev, S.D.; Mantashyan, A.A.


    Ethylene epoxidation promoted by methane gas-phase thermic oxidation has been studied. The studies were carried out in a two-sectional reactor under flow conditions. The experiments were performed in different temperatures in the sections of the reactor. It was shown that when methane is oxidized in the first section of the reactor and ethylene is put into the second section, epoxidation of olefin occurs through the alkyl peroxy radical interaction with double bond of olefin. It was established that the dependences of epoxidation rate on temperatures in both first and second sections pass trough maximum. The substitution of methane with inert gas (argon) in the first section leads to significant decrease of rate of ethylene oxide accumulation in the second section

  11. Gas-phase photocatalysis in μ-reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesborg, Peter Christian Kjærgaard; Olsen, Jakob Lind; Henriksen, Toke Riishøj


    Gas-phase photocatalysis experiments may benefit from the high sensitivity and good time response in product detection offered by μ-reactors. We demonstrate this by carrying out CO oxidation and methanol oxidation over commercial TiO2 photocatalysts in our recently developed high-sensitivity reac......Gas-phase photocatalysis experiments may benefit from the high sensitivity and good time response in product detection offered by μ-reactors. We demonstrate this by carrying out CO oxidation and methanol oxidation over commercial TiO2 photocatalysts in our recently developed high......-sensitivity reactors. We demonstrate that the system exhibits great versatility in terms of photocatalyst, illumination source and target reaction....

  12. Gas Phase Hydrogenation of Levulinic Acid to gamma-Valerolactone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonrath, Werner; Castelijns, Anna Maria Cornelia Francisca; de Vries, Johannes Gerardus; Guit, Rudolf Philippus Maria; Schuetz, Jan; Sereinig, Natascha; Vaessen, Henricus Wilhelmus Leonardus Marie

    The gas phase hydrogenation of levulinic acid to gamma-valerolactone over copper and ruthenium based catalysts in a continuous fixed-bed reactor system was investigated. Among the catalysts a copper oxide based one [50-75 % CuO, 20-25 % SiO2, 1-5 % graphite, 0.1-1 % CuCO3/Cu(OH)(2)] gave

  13. Reactions of newly formed fission products in the gas phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strickert, R.G.


    A dynamic gas-flow system was constructed which stopped fission products in the gas phase and rapidly separated (in less than 2 sec) volatile compounds from non-volatile ones. The filter assembly designed and used was shown to stop essentially all non-volatile fission products. Between 5 percent and 20 percent of tellurium fission-product isotopes reacted with several hydrocarbon gases to form volatile compounds, which passed through the filter. With carbon monoxide gas, volatile tellurium compound(s) (probably TeCO) were also formed with similar efficiencies. The upper limits for the yields of volatile compounds formed between CO and tin and antimony fission products were shown to be less than 0.3 percent, so tellurium nuclides, not their precursors, reacted with CO. It was found that CO reacted preferentially with independently produced tellurium atoms; the reaction efficiency of beta-produced atoms was only 27 +- 3 percent of that of the independently formed atoms. The selectivity, which was independent of the over-all reaction efficiency, was shown to be due to reaction of independently formed atoms in the gas phase. The gas phase reactions are believed to occur mainly at thermal energies because of the independence of the yield upon argon moderator mole-fraction (up to 80 percent). It was shown in some experiments that about one-half of the TeCO decomposed in passing through a filter and that an appreciable fraction (approximately 20 percent) of the tellurium atoms deposited on the filter reacted agin with CO. Other tellurium atoms on the filter surface (those formed by beta decay and those formed independently but not reacting in the gas phase) also reacted with CO, but probably somewhat less efficiently than atoms formed by TeCO decomposition. No evidence was found for formation of TeCO as a direct result of beta-decay

  14. Gas-phase products and secondary organic aerosol formation from the ozonolysis and photooxidation of myrcene (United States)

    Böge, Olaf; Mutzel, Anke; Iinuma, Yoshiteru; Yli-Pirilä, Pasi; Kahnt, Ariane; Joutsensaari, Jorma; Herrmann, Hartmut


    In this study, the ozone and OH-radical reactions of myrcene were investigated in an aerosol chamber (at 292-295 K and 50% relative humidity) to examine the gas-phase oxidation products and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. The ozone reaction studies were performed in the presence and absence of CO, which serves as an OH radical scavenger. In the photooxidation experiments OH radicals were generated by photolysis of methyl nitrite. The ozonolysis of myrcene in the presence of CO resulted in a substantial yield of 4-vinyl-4-pentenal (55.3%), measured as m/z 111 plus m/z 93 using proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) and confirmed unambiguously as C7H10O by denuder measurements and HPLC/ESI-TOFMS analysis of its 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) derivative. Additionally, the formation of two different organic dicarbonyls with m/z 113 and a molecular formula of C6H8O2 were observed (2.1%). The yields of these dicarbonyls were higher in the ozonolysis experiments without an OH scavenger (5.4%) and even higher (13.8%) in the myrcene OH radical reaction. The formation of hydroxyacetone as a direct product of the myrcene reaction with ozone with a molar yield of 17.6% was also observed. The particle size distribution and volume concentrations were monitored and facilitated the calculation of SOA yields, which ranged from 0 to 0.01 (ozonolysis in the presence of CO) to 0.39 (myrcene OH radical reaction). Terpenylic acid was found in the SOA samples collected from the ozonolysis of myrcene in the absence of an OH scavenger and the OH radical-initiated reaction of myrcene but not in samples collected from the ozonolysis in the presence of CO as an OH radical scavenger, suggesting that terpenylic acid formation involves the reaction of myrcene with an OH radical. A reaction mechanism describing the formation of terpenylic acid is proposed.

  15. Ab initio study of gas phase and water-assisted tautomerization of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Ab initio study of gas phase and water-assisted tautomerization of maleimide and formamide. 623. Figure 4. Keto to enol conversion of (a) maleimide and (b) formamide in gas phase. (c) maleimide and (d) forma- mide with water.

  16. Fundamental thermochemical properties of amino acids: gas-phase and aqueous acidities and gas-phase heats of formation. (United States)

    Stover, Michele L; Jackson, Virgil E; Matus, Myrna H; Adams, Margaret A; Cassady, Carolyn J; Dixon, David A


    The gas-phase acidities of the 20 L-amino acids have been predicted at the composite G3(MP2) level. A broad range of structures of the neutral and anion were studied to determine the lowest energy conformer. Excellent agreement is found with the available experimental gas-phase deprotonation enthalpies, and the calculated values are within experimental error. We predict that tyrosine is deprotonated at the CO(2)H site. Cysteine is predicted to be deprotonated at the SH but the proton on the CO(2)H is shared with the S(-) site. Self-consistent reaction field (SCRF) calculations with the COSMO parametrization were used to predict the pK(a)'s of the non-zwitterion form in aqueous solution. The differences in the non-zwitterion pK(a) values were used to estimate the free energy difference between the zwitterion and nonzwitterion forms in solution. The heats of formation of the neutral compounds were calculated from atomization energies and isodesmic reactions to provide the first reliable set of these values in the gas phase. Further calculations were performed on five rare amino acids to predict their heats of formation, acidities, and pK(a) values.

  17. Unravelling the impact of hydrocarbon structure on the fumarate addition mechanism--a gas-phase ab initio study. (United States)

    Bharadwaj, Vivek S; Vyas, Shubham; Villano, Stephanie M; Maupin, C Mark; Dean, Anthony M


    The fumarate addition reaction mechanism is central to the anaerobic biodegradation pathway of various hydrocarbons, both aromatic (e.g., toluene, ethyl benzene) and aliphatic (e.g., n-hexane, dodecane). Succinate synthase enzymes, which belong to the glycyl radical enzyme family, are the main facilitators of these biochemical reactions. The overall catalytic mechanism that converts hydrocarbons to a succinate molecule involves three steps: (1) initial H-abstraction from the hydrocarbon by the radical enzyme, (2) addition of the resulting hydrocarbon radical to fumarate, and (3) hydrogen abstraction by the addition product to regenerate the radical enzyme. Since the biodegradation of hydrocarbon fuels via the fumarate addition mechanism is linked to bio-corrosion, an improved understanding of this reaction is imperative to our efforts of predicting the susceptibility of proposed alternative fuels to biodegradation. An improved understanding of the fuel biodegradation process also has the potential to benefit bioremediation. In this study, we consider model aromatic (toluene) and aliphatic (butane) compounds to evaluate the impact of hydrocarbon structure on the energetics and kinetics of the fumarate addition mechanism by means of high level ab initio gas-phase calculations. We predict that the rate of toluene degradation is ∼100 times faster than butane at 298 K, and that the first abstraction step is kinetically significant for both hydrocarbons, which is consistent with deuterium isotope effect studies on toluene degradation. The detailed computations also show that the predicted stereo-chemical preference of the succinate products for both toluene and butane are due to the differences in the radical addition rate constants for the various isomers. The computational and kinetic modeling work presented here demonstrates the importance of considering pre-reaction and product complexes in order to accurately treat gas phase systems that involve intra and inter

  18. Structure and Reactivity of the Glutathione Radical Cation: Radical Rearrangement from the Cysteine Sulfur to the Glutamic Acid alpha-Carbon Atom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osburn, S.; Berden, G.; Oomens, J.; Gulyuz, K.; Polfer, N.C.; O'Hair, R.A.J.; Ryzhov, V.


    A gas-phase radical rearrangement through intramolecular hydrogen-atom transfer (HAT) was studied in the glutathione radical cation, [-ECG](+.), which was generated by a homolytic cleavage of the protonated S-nitrosoglutathione. Ion-molecule reactions suggested that the radical migrates from the

  19. Unimolecular Gas-Phase Thermolysis of Ethyl Acetate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egsgaard, Helge; Carlsen, Lars


    The unimolecular gas-phase thermolysis of ethyl acetate has been investigated by the Flash-Vacuum-Thermolysis/Field-Ionization Mass Spectrometry (FVT/FI-MS) method in combination with Collision Activation (CA) mass spectrometry at 1253K. Two predominant reactions are observed: elimination...... of ethylene affording acetic acid, the latter to some extent consecutively yielding ketene, and intramolecular oxygen to oxygen ethyl group migration. Additionally minor amounts of acetaldehyde is formed. The mechanistic aspects are discussed based on 18O and 18O/ 13C labelling....

  20. Diesel-related hydrocarbons can dominate gas phase reactive carbon in megacities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. E. Dunmore


    Full Text Available Hydrocarbons are key precursors to two priority air pollutants, ozone and particulate matter. Those with two to seven carbons have historically been straightforward to observe and have been successfully reduced in many developed cities through air quality policy interventions. Longer chain hydrocarbons released from diesel vehicles are not considered explicitly as part of air quality strategies and there are few direct measurements of their gaseous abundance in the atmosphere. This study describes the chemically comprehensive and continuous measurements of organic compounds in a developed megacity (London, which demonstrate that on a seasonal median basis, diesel-related hydrocarbons represent only 20–30 % of the total hydrocarbon mixing ratio but comprise more than 50 % of the atmospheric hydrocarbon mass and are a dominant local source of secondary organic aerosols. This study shows for the first time that 60 % of the winter primary hydrocarbon hydroxyl radical reactivity is from diesel-related hydrocarbons and using the maximum incremental reactivity scale, we predict that they contribute up to 50 % of the ozone production potential in London. Comparing real-world urban composition with regulatory emissions inventories in the UK and US highlights a previously unaccounted for, but very significant, under-reporting of diesel-related hydrocarbons; an underestimation of a factor ~4 for C9 species rising to a factor of over 70 for C12 during winter. These observations show that hydrocarbons from diesel vehicles can dominate gas phase reactive carbon in cities with high diesel fleet fractions. Future control of urban particulate matter and ozone in such locations requires a shift in policy focus onto gas phase hydrocarbons released from diesels as this vehicle type continues to displace gasoline world-wide.

  1. Formation of gas-phase peroxides in a rural atmosphere: An interpretation of the recent SOS/SERON field results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.H.; Tang, I.N. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Weinstein-Lloyd, J.B. [State Univ. of New York, Old Westbury, NY (United States). Chemistry/Physics Dept.


    Hydrogen perioxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) and certain organic peroxides such as hydroxymethyl-hydroperoxide (HMHP), are gas-phase oxidants present in the atmosphere at ppbv concentration levels. These oxidants play an important role in atmospheric chemistry. In addition, precipitation containing H{sub 2}O{sub 2} is toxic to trees, and it has also been suggested that organic peroxides formed presumably by ozone reactions with biogenic alkenes are responsible for leaf disorders. Recently, we have developed a nonenzymatic method or aqueous-phase H{sub 2}O{sub 2} measurement, using Fenton reagent and fluorescent hydroxy- benzoic acid. The new method, in conjunction with the well-known method of p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid and horseradish peroxidase for total peroxides, and together with an improved gas scrubber to mitigate sampling line problems, has been successfully deployed in recent SOS/SERON field measurements in rural Georgia. For the first time, continuously measured and speciated gas-phase peroxide data have become available, making it possible to examine some aspects of the ozone chemistry leading to the formation of these oxidants. It is observed that daily H{sub 2}O{sub 2} maximum frequently occurs at a different time than does HMHP, and that H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration, but not HMHP, tends to correlate with solar fluxes measured at the same location. These findings seem to indicate that the formation mechanisms for H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and organic peroxides are basically different. It is likely that H{sub 2}O{sub 2} is formed from radical-radical recombination, while HMHP is formed by ozone-alkene reactions. Since the gas-phase ozone-alkene reactions are usually too slow to account for the diurnal concentration variations observed for HMHP, heterogeneous processes involving ozone and alkenes are also a possibility.

  2. Polaronic exciton behavior in gas-phase water (United States)

    Udal'tsov, Alexander V.


    Features of the absorption spectrum of gas-phase water in the energy range 7-10 eV have been considered applying polaronic exciton theory. The interaction of the incident photon generating polaronic exciton in water is described taking into account angular momentum of the electron so that polaronic exciton radii have been estimated in dependence on spin-orbit coupling under proton sharing. The suggested approach admits an estimate of kinetic and rotation energies of the polaronic exciton. As a result sixteen steps of half Compton wavelength, λC/2 = h/(2mec) changing polaronic exciton radius were found consistent with local maxima and shoulders in the spectrum. Thus, the absorption of gas-phase water in the energy range 8.5-10 eV has been interpreted in terms of polaronic exciton rotation mainly coupled with the proton sharing. The incident photon interaction with water is also considered in terms of Compton interaction, when the rotation energy plays a role like the energy loss of the incident photon under Compton scattering. The found symmetry and the other evidence allowed to conclude about polaronic exciton migration under the interaction angle 90°.

  3. Preconceptual design of the gas-phase decontamination demonstration cart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munday, E.B.


    Removal of uranium deposits from the interior surfaces of gaseous diffusion equipment will be a major portion of the overall multibillion dollar effort to decontaminate and decommission the gaseous diffusion plants. Long-term low-temperature (LTLT) gas-phase decontamination is being developed at the K-25 Site as an in situ decontamination process that is expected to significantly lower the decontamination costs, reduce worker exposure to radioactive materials, and reduce safeguard concerns. This report documents the preconceptual design of the process equipment that is necessary to conduct a full-scale demonstration of the LTLT method in accordance with the process steps listed above. The process equipment and method proposed in this report are not intended to represent a full-scale production campaign design and operation, since the gas evacuation, gas charging, and off-gas handling systems that would be cost effective in a production campaign are not cost effective for a first-time demonstration. However, the design presented here is expected to be applicable to special decontamination projects beyond the demonstration, which could include the Deposit Recovery Program. The equipment will therefore be sized to a 200 ft size 1 converter (plus a substantial conservative design margin), which is the largest item of interest for gas phase decontamination in the Deposit Recovery Program. The decontamination equipment will allow recovery of the UF 6 , which is generated from the reaction of ClF 3 with the uranium deposits, by use of NaF traps

  4. Closed-cage tungsten oxide clusters in the gas phase. (United States)

    Singh, D M David Jeba; Pradeep, T; Thirumoorthy, Krishnan; Balasubramanian, Krishnan


    During the course of a study on the clustering of W-Se and W-S mixtures in the gas phase using laser desorption ionization (LDI) mass spectrometry, we observed several anionic W-O clusters. Three distinct species, W(6)O(19)(-), W(13)O(29)(-), and W(14)O(32)(-), stand out as intense peaks in the regular mass spectral pattern of tungsten oxide clusters suggesting unusual stabilities for them. Moreover, these clusters do not fragment in the postsource decay analysis. While trying to understand the precursor material, which produced these clusters, we found the presence of nanoscale forms of tungsten oxide. The structure and thermodynamic parameters of tungsten clusters have been explored using relativistic quantum chemical methods. Our computed results of atomization energy are consistent with the observed LDI mass spectra. The computational results suggest that the clusters observed have closed-cage structure. These distinct W(13) and W(14) clusters were observed for the first time in the gas phase.

  5. DSMC Convergence for Microscale Gas-Phase Heat Conduction (United States)

    Rader, D. J.; Gallis, M. A.; Torczynski, J. R.


    The convergence of Bird's Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method is investigated for gas-phase heat conduction at typical microscale conditions. A hard-sphere gas is confined between two fully accommodating walls of unequal temperature. Simulations are performed for small system and local Knudsen numbers, so continuum flow exists outside the Knudsen layers. The ratio of the DSMC thermal conductivity to the Chapman-Enskog value in the central region is determined for over 200 combinations of time step, cell size, and number of computational molecules per cell. In the limit of vanishing error, this ratio approaches 1.000 to within the correlation uncertainty. In the limit of infinite computational molecules per cell, the difference from unity depends quadratically on time step and cell size as these quantities become small. The coefficients of these quadratic terms are in good agreement with Green-Kubo values found by Hadjiconstantinou, Garcia, and co-workers. These results demonstrate that DSMC can accurately simulate microscale gas-phase heat conduction. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  6. Combined gas-phase oxidation of methane and ethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogosyan, N.M.; Pogosyan, M.D.


    It is established that depending on the reaction conditions combined oxidation of methane and ethylene may result in ethylene and propylene oxides with high selectivity with respect to the process, where in the initial reaction mixture methane is replaced by the same quantity of nitrogen. The formed additional methyl radicals increase the yield of all reaction products except CO. At low temperatures methyl radicals react with oxygen resulting in methyl peroxide radicals, which in turn, reacting with ethylene provide its epoxidation and formation of other oxygen-containing products. At high temperatures as a result of addition reaction between methyl radicals and ethylene, propyl radicals are formed that, in turn yield propylene. Alongside with positive influence on the yield of reaction products, methane exerts negative influence upon the conversion, that is it decreases the rate of ethylene and oxygen conversion, simultaneously decreasing significantly the yield of CO

  7. Gas phase hydration of halogenated benzene cations. Is it hydrogen or halogen bonding? (United States)

    Mason, Kyle A; Pearcy, Adam C; Attah, Isaac K; Platt, Sean P; Aziz, Saadullah G; El-Shall, M Samy


    Halogen bonding (XB) non-covalent interactions can be observed in compounds containing chlorine, bromine, or iodine which can form directed close contacts of the type R1-XY-R2, where the halogen X acts as a Lewis acid and Y can be any electron donor moiety including electron lone pairs on hetero atoms such as O and N, or π electrons in olefin double bonds and aromatic conjugated systems. In this work, we present the first evidence for the formation of ionic halogen bonds (IXBs) in the hydration of bromobenzene and iodobenzene radical cations in the gas phase. We present a combined thermochemical investigation using the mass-selected ion mobility (MSIM) technique and density functional theory (DFT) calculations of the stepwise hydration of the fluoro, chloro, bromo, and iodobenzene radical cations. The binding energy associated with the formation of an IXB in the hydration of the iodobenzene cation (11.2 kcal mol -1 ) is about 20% higher than the typical unconventional ionic hydrogen bond (IHB) of the CH δ+ OH 2 interaction. The formation of an IXB in the hydration of the iodobenzene cation involves a significant entropy loss (29 cal mol -1 K -1 ) resulting from the formation of a more ordered structure and a highly directional interaction between the oxygen lone pair of electrons of water and the electropositive region around the iodine atom of the iodobenzene cation. In comparison, the hydration of the fluorobenzene and chlorobenzene cations where IHBs are formed, -ΔS° = 18-21 cal mol -1 K -1 consistent with the formation of less ordered structures and loose interactions. The electrostatic potentials on the lowest energy structures of the hydrated halogenated benzene radical cations show clearly that the formation of an IXB is driven by a positively charged σ-hole on the external side of the halogen atom X along the C-X bond axis. The size of the σ-hole increases significantly in bromobenzene and iodobenzene radical cations which results in strong

  8. Gas-phase experiments on Au(III) photochemistry. (United States)

    Marcum, Jesse C; Kaufman, Sydney H; Weber, J Mathias


    Irradiation of AuCl(4)(-) and AuCl(2)(OH)(2)(-) in the gas-phase using ultraviolet light (220-415 nm) leads to their dissociation. Observed fragment ions for AuCl(4)(-) are AuCl(3)(-) and AuCl(2)(-) and for AuCl(2)(OH)(2)(-) are AuCl(2)(-) and AuClOH(-). All fragment channels correspond to photoreduction of the gold atom to either Au(II) or Au(I) depending on the number of neutral ligands lost. Fragment branching ratios of AuCl(4)(-) are observed to be highly energy dependent and can be explained by comparison of the experimental data to calculated threshold energies obtained using density functional theory. The main observed spectral features are attributed to ligand-to-metal charge transfer transitions. These results are discussed in the context of the molecular-level mechanisms of Au(III) photochemistry.

  9. Synthesis and Gas Phase Thermochemistry of Germanium-Containing Compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Classen, Nathan Robert [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    The driving force behind much of the work in this dissertation was to gain further understanding of the unique olefin to carbene isomerization observed in the thermolysis of 1,1-dimethyl-2-methylenesilacyclobutane by finding new examples of it in other silicon and germanium compounds. This lead to the examination of a novel phenylmethylenesilacyclobut-2-ene, which did not undergo olefin to carbene rearrangement. A synthetic route to methylenegermacyclobutanes was developed, but the methylenegermacyclobutane system exhibited kinetic instability, making the study of the system difficult. In any case the germanium system decomposed through a complex mechanism which may not include olefin to carbene isomerization. However, this work lead to the study of the gas phase thermochemistry of a series of dialkylgermylene precursors in order to better understand the mechanism of the thermal decomposition of dialkylgermylenes. The resulting dialkylgermylenes were found to undergo a reversible intramolecular β C-H insertion mechanism.

  10. Conformational Study of Taurine in the Gas Phase (United States)

    Cortijo, Vanessa; Sanz, M. Eugenia; López, Juan C.; Alonso, José L.


    The conformational preferences of the amino sulfonic acid taurine (NH2-CH2-CH2-SO3H) have been investigated in the gas phase by laser ablation molecular beam Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy (LA-MB-FTMW) in the 6-14 GHz frequency range. One conformer has been observed, and its rotational, centrifugal distortion, and hyperfine quadrupole coupling constants have been determined from the analysis of its rotational spectrum. Comparison of the experimental constants with those calculated theoretically identifies the detected conformer unambiguously. The observed conformer of taurine is stabilized by an intramolecular hydrogen bond O-H···N between the hydrogen of the sulfonic acid group and the nitrogen atom of the amino group.

  11. The Influence of Mixing in High Temperature Gas Phase Reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østberg, Martin


    The objective of this thesis is to describe the mixing in high temperature gas phase reactions.The Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction of NOx (referred as the SNR process) using NH3 as reductant was chosen as reaction system. This in-furnace denitrification process is made at around 1200 - 1300 K...... diffusion. The SNR process is simulated using the mixing model and an empirical kinetic model based on laboratory experiments.A bench scale reactor set-up has been built using a natural gas burner to provide the main reaction gas. The set-up has been used to perform an experimental investigation...... of the mixing in the SNR process using injection of NH3 with carrier gas into the flue gas in crossflow by a quartz nozzle.Experiments were made with variation in NH3 flow, carrier gas flow, carrier gas composition (O2 concentration) and reactor temperature. Natural gas has been used as an addition...

  12. Sugar Synthesis from a Gas-Phase Formose Reaction (United States)

    Jalbout, Abraham F.; Abrell, Leif; Adamowicz, Ludwik; Polt, Robin; Apponi, A. J.; Ziurys, L. M.


    Prebiotic possibilities for the synthesis of interstellar ribose through a protic variant of the formose reaction under gas-phase conditions were studied in the absence of any known catalyst. The ion-molecule reaction products, diose and triose, were sought by mass spectrometry, and relevant masses were observed. Ab initio calculations were used to evaluate protic formose mechanism possibilities. A bilateral theoretical and experimental effort yielded a physical model for glycoaldehyde generation whereby a hydronium cation can mediate formaldehyde dimerization followed by covalent bond formation leading to diose and water. These results advance the possibility that ion-molecule reactions between formaldehyde (CH2O) and H3O+ lead to formose reaction products and inform us about potential sugar formation processes in interstellar space.

  13. Radiation polymerization of tetrafluoroethylene in gas-phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enslin, S.E.; Schnautz, N.G.; Van der Ende, E.


    The radiation polymerization of tetrafluoroethylene in gas-phase was studied over a temperature range of -80 to 200 degrees Celsius and an irradiation dose-rate of 0,30 to 10,8 kGy h sup(-1). The rate of polymerization was observed during the course of the polymerization process, to be a zero-order function of monomer pressure. However, the rate of polymerization was profoundly influenced by the initial monomer pressure, in this case exhibiting a 4,6-order dependence. The rate of polymerization was also observed to exhibit a 0,36-order dependence on radiation intensity. Both the rate of polymerization and the molecular mass of the product, polytetrafluoroethylene, reached maximum values over the temperature range of 90 to 150 degrees Celsius. The activation energy for the polymerization process was determined to be 8,7 kJ mol sup(-1) over the temperature range of -80 to 90 degrees Celsius

  14. SILP catalysis in gas-phase hydroformylation and carbonylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riisager, A.; Fehrmann, R. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Dept. of Chemistry; Haumann, M.; Wasserscheid, P. [Univ. Erlangen-Nuernberg (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Chemische Reaktionstechnik


    Supported ionic liquid phase (SILP) catalysts are new materials consisting of an ionic liquid-metal catalyst solution highly dispersed on a porous support. The use of a non-volatile, ionic liquid catalyst phase in SILP catalysts results in a stable heterogeneous-type material with selectivity and efficiency like homogeneous catalysts. The silica-supported SILP Rh-bisphosphine hydroformylation catalyst exhibited good activities and excellent selectivities in gas phase hydroformylation with stability exceeding 700 hours time-on-stream. Spectroscopic and kinetic data confirmed the homogeneous nature of the catalyst. In the Rh- SILP catalysed carbonylation of methanol the formation of undesired by-products could be suppressed by variation of residence time and gas pressure. (orig.)

  15. Technical Procedures Management in Gas-Phase Detoxification Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardona Garcia, A. I.; Sanchez Cabrero, B.


    The natural cycle of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) has been disturbed by the industrial and socioeconomic activities of human beings. This imbalance in the environment has affected the ecosystems and the human health. Initiatives have been planned to mitigate these adverse effects. In order to minimize the hazardous effects, initiatives have been proposed for the treatment of gaseous emissions. The solar photo catalysis appears as a clear and renewable technology in front of the conventional ones.In CIEMAT this line is being investigated as the base of a future implementation at a pre industrial scale.Technical procedures are written in this document for testing Gas-Phase detoxification at lab scale in the Renewable Energy Department (DER) CIEMAT- Madrid to eliminate the VOCs by using the solar photo catalysis technology. (Author) 34 refs

  16. Decomposition of gas-phase diphenylether at 473 K by electron beam generated plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, H H; Kojima, T


    Decomposition of gas-phase diphenylether (DPE) in the order of several parts per million by volume (ppmv) was studied as a model compound of dioxin using a flow-type electron-beam reactor at an elevated temperature of 473 K. The ground state oxygen ( sup 3 P) atoms played an important role in the decomposition of DPE resulting in the formation of 1,4-hydroquinone (HQ) as a major ring retaining product. The high yield of hydroquinone indicated that the breakage of ether bond (C-O) is important in the initial step of DPE decomposition. Ring cleavage products were CO and CO sub 2 , and NO sub 2 was also produced from background N sub 2 -O sub 2. The sum of the yields of HQ, CO sub 2 and CO accounts for over 90% of the removed DPE. Hydroxyl radicals (OH) were less important in the dilute DPE decomposition at a high water content, and were mostly consumed by recombination reactions to form hydrogen peroxide. The smaller the initial DPE concentrations, the higher the decomposition efficiency and the lower the yield...

  17. Joint experimental and DFT study of the gas-phase unimolecular elimination kinetic of methyl trifluoropyruvate. (United States)

    Tosta, María M; Mora, José R; Córdova, Tania; Chuchani, Gabriel


    The elimination kinetics of methyl trifluoropyruvate in the gas phase was determined in a static system, where the reaction vessel was always deactivated with allyl bromide, and in the presence of at least a 3-fold excess of the free-radical chain inhibitor toluene. The working temperature range was 388.5-430.1 degrees C, and the pressure range was 38.6-65.8 Torr. The reaction was found to be homogeneous and unimolecular and to obey a first-order rate law. The products of the reaction are methyl trifluoroacetate and CO gas. The Arrhenius equation of this elimination was found to be as follows: log k(1) (s(-1)) = (12.48 +/- 0.32) - (204.2 +/- 4.2) kJ mol(-1)(2.303RT)(-1) (r = 0.9994). The theoretical calculation of the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters and the mechanism of this reaction were carried out at the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p), B3LYP/6-31++G(d,p), MPW1PW91/6-31G(d,p), MPW1PW91/6-31++G(d,p), PBEPBE/6-31G(d,p), and PBEPBE/6-31G++(d,p) levels of theory. The theoretical study showed that the preferred reaction channel is a 1,2-migration of OCH(3) involving a three-membered cyclic transition state in the rate-determining step.

  18. A Kinetic Study of the Gas-Phase Reaction of OH with Br2 (United States)

    Bryukov, Mikhail G.; Dellinger, Barry; Knyazev, Vadim D.


    An experimental, temperature-dependent kinetic study of the gas-phase reaction of the hydroxyl radical with molecular bromine (reaction 1) has been performed using a pulsed laser photolysis/pulsed-laser-induced fluorescence technique over a wide temperature range of 297 – 766 K, and at pressures between 6.68 and 40.29 kPa of helium. The experimental rate coefficients for reaction 1 demonstrate no correlation with pressure and exhibit a negative temperature dependence with a slight negative curvature in the Arrhenius plot. A non-linear least-squares fit with two floating parameters of the temperature dependent k1(T) data set using an equation of the form k1(T) = ATn yields the recommended expression k1(T) = 1.85×10−9T − 0.66 cm3 molecule−1 s−1 for the temperature dependence of the reaction 1 rate coefficient. The potential energy surface (PES) of reaction 1 was investigated using quantum chemistry methods. The reaction proceeds through formation of a weakly bound OH···Br2 complex and a PES saddle point with an energy below that of the reactants. Temperature dependence of the reaction rate coefficient was modeled using the RRKM method on the basis of the calculated PES. PMID:16854030

  19. Measurements of OH and HO2 yields from the gas phase ozonolysis of isoprene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. W. Seakins


    Full Text Available The reactions of ozone with alkenes are an important source of hydroxyl (OH radicals; however, quantification of their importance is hindered by uncertainties in the absolute OH yield. Hydroxyl radical yields for the gas-phase ozonolysis of isoprene are determined in this paper by four different methods: (1 The use of cyclohexane as an OH scavenger, and the production of cyclohexanone, (2 The use of 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene as an OH tracer, and the diminution in its concentration, (3 A kinetic method in which the OH yield was obtained by performing a series of pseudo-first-order experiments in the presence or absence of an OH scavenger (cyclohexane, (4 The OH and HO2 yields were determined by fitting the temporal OH and HO2 profiles following direct detection of absolute OH and HO2 concentrations by laser induced fluorescence at low pressure (Fluorescence Assay by Gas Expansion- FAGE. The following OH yields for the ozonolysis of isoprene were obtained, relative to alkene consumed, for each method: (1 Scavenger (0.25±0.04, (2 Tracer (0.25±0.03, (3 Kinetic study (0.27±0.02, and (4 Direct observation (0.26±0.02, the error being one standard deviation. An averaged OH yield of 0.26±0.02 is recommended at room temperature and atmospheric pressure and this result is compared with recent literature determinations. The HO2 yield was directly determined for the first time using FAGE to be 0.26±0.03.

  20. Gas-phase synthesis of semiconductor nanocrystals and its applications (United States)

    Mandal, Rajib

    Luminescent nanomaterials is a newly emerging field that provides challenges not only to fundamental research but also to innovative technology in several areas such as electronics, photonics, nanotechnology, display, lighting, biomedical engineering and environmental control. These nanomaterials come in various forms, shapes and comprises of semiconductors, metals, oxides, and inorganic and organic polymers. Most importantly, these luminescent nanomaterials can have different properties owing to their size as compared to their bulk counterparts. Here we describe the use of plasmas in synthesis, modification, and deposition of semiconductor nanomaterials for luminescence applications. Nanocrystalline silicon is widely known as an efficient and tunable optical emitter and is attracting great interest for applications in several areas. To date, however, luminescent silicon nanocrystals (NCs) have been used exclusively in traditional rigid devices. For the field to advance towards new and versatile applications for nanocrystal-based devices, there is a need to investigate whether these NCs can be used in flexible and stretchable devices. We show how the optical and structural/morphological properties of plasma-synthesized silicon nanocrystals (Si NCs) change when they are deposited on stretchable substrates made of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Synthesis of these NCs was performed in a nonthermal, low-pressure gas phase plasma reactor. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of direct deposition of NCs onto stretchable substrates. Additionally, in order to prevent oxidation and enhance the luminescence properties, a silicon nitride shell was grown around Si NCs. We have demonstrated surface nitridation of Si NCs in a single step process using non?thermal plasma in several schemes including a novel dual-plasma synthesis/shell growth process. These coated NCs exhibit SiNx shells with composition depending on process parameters. While measurements including

  1. Frequency metrology of a photomixing source for gas phase spectroscopy (United States)

    Hindle, Francis; Mouret, Gael; Yang, Chun; Cuisset, Arnaud; Bocquet, Robin; Lours, Michel; Rovera, Daniele


    The availability of frequency combs has opened new possibilities for the measurement of optical frequencies. Photomixing is an attractive solution for high resolution THz spectroscopy of gases due to the narrow spectral resolution and ability to access the 100 GHz to 3.5 THz range. One limitation of present photomixing spectrometers is the accuracy with which the THz frequency is established. Measurement of the centre frequency gas phase molecular transitions requires an accuracy better than 100 kHz in order to allow spectroscopic constants to be determined. Standard optical techniques like those employed in wavelength meters can only provide accuracies in the order of 50 MHz. We have used a turnkey fibre based frequency comb and a standard photomixing configuration to realize a THz synthesizer with an accuracy of around 50kHz. Two ECDLs used to pump the photomixer are phase locked onto the frequency comb and provide a tuning range of 10 MHz. In order to extend the tuning range an additional phase locked ECLD has been added to obtain a range in excess of 100 MHz. The absorption profiles of many Doppler limited transitions of carbonyl sulphide and formaldehyde have been measured to validate this instrument.

  2. Precursor-Less Coating of Nanoparticles in the Gas Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias V. Pfeiffer


    Full Text Available This article introduces a continuous, gas-phase method for depositing thin metallic coatings onto (nanoparticles using a type of physical vapor deposition (PVD at ambient pressure and temperature. An aerosol of core particles is mixed with a metal vapor cloud formed by spark ablation by passing the aerosol through the spark zone using a hollow electrode configuration. The mixing process rapidly quenches the vapor, which condenses onto the core particles at a timescale of several tens of milliseconds in a manner that can be modeled as bimodal coagulation. Gold was deposited onto core nanoparticles consisting of silver or polystyrene latex, and silver was deposited onto gold nanoparticles. The coating morphology depends on the relative surface energies of the core and coating materials, similar to the growth mechanisms known for thin films: a coating made of a substance having a high surface energy typically results in a patchy coverage, while a coating material with a low surface energy will normally “wet” the surface of a core particle. The coated particles remain gas-borne, allowing further processing.

  3. Gas-Phase Thermolysis of a Thioketen-S-Oxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Lars; Egsgaard, Helge; Schaumann, Ernst


    The unimolecular gas-phase thermolytic decomposition of 1,1,3,3-tetramethyl-2-thiocarbonylcyclohexane S-oxide (3) has been studied as a function of temperature by a flash vacuum thermolysis (f.v.t.) technique. The products detected are the carbenes (4) and (5), the ketone (6), the keten (7), the ......-thiololactone (11) followed by loss of CO, minor amounts of the ketone (6), formed analogously, and the keten (7), as a result of simple sulphur extrusion.......), the thioketone (8), and the thioketen (9). The product ratio is highly dependent on the thermolysis temperature. The thermolysis of (3) is mechanistically rationalized by assuming the existence of only two concurrent primary processes, which are (a) extrusion of atomic oxygen, leading to the thioketen (9......), and (b) electrocyclic ring closure into the corresponding three-membered oxathiiran (10). The latter is dominant at lower temperatures, whereas higher thermolysis temperatures favour atomic oxygen extrusion. At further elevated temperatures additional concurrent primary reactions, i.e. extrusions of SO...

  4. Experimental Determination of Gas Phase Thermodynamic Properties of Bimolecular Complexes (United States)

    Hansen, Anne S.; Maroun, Zeina; Mackeprang, Kasper; Kjaergaard, Henrik G.


    Accurate determination of the atmospheric abundance of hydrogen bound bimolecular complexes is necessary, as hydrogen bonds are partly responsible for the formation and growth of aerosol particles. The abundance of a complex is related to the Gibbs free energy of complex formation (Δ G), which is often obtained from quantum chemical calculations that rely on calculated values of the enthalpy (Δ H) and entropy (Δ S) of complex formation. However, calculations of Δ H and in particular Δ S are associated with large uncertainties, and accurate experimental values are therefore crucial for theoretical benchmarking studies. Infrared measurements of gas phase hydrogen bound complexes were performed in the 300 to 373 K range, and lead to a purely experimental determination of Δ H using the van't Hoff equation. Equilibrium constants were determined by combining an experimental and calculated OH-stretching intensity, from which values of Δ G and hence Δ S could be determined. Thus we can determine Δ G, Δ H and Δ S for a bimolecular complex. We find that in the 300 to 373 K temperature range the determined Δ H and Δ S values are independent of temperature.

  5. Gas-phase chemical kinetics: Three is the magic number (United States)

    Skodje, Rex T.


    Although predicted many years ago, chemically reactive termolecular reactions were thought to be unimportant in defining the behaviour of combustion systems. Now, calculations have shown that such reactions between radicals and long-lived bimolecular complexes can actually play an important role in hydrogen combustion.

  6. Homolytic iodination and nitration of some benzene derivatives in the gas phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vonk, W.F.M.


    Two gas phase reactions, involving the iodination and nitration of benzene derivatives, are described. The experimental techniques of the apparatus and the methods used are outlined. The kinetic H/D isotope effect in the gas phase nitration of benzene with NO 2 is determined. (C.F.)

  7. Ethylene epoxidation promoted by methane gas-phase thermic oxidation. The influence of equivalence ratio and gas flow velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigoryan, R.R.; Arsentiev, S.D.; Mantashyan, A.A.


    Ethylene epoxidation promoted by methane gas-phase thermic oxidation has been studied. The studies were carried out in a two-sectional reactor under flow conditions. The most experiments were performed at temperatures T 1 - 983 K, T 2 - 778 K and pressure P = 86,7 kPa. It was shown that when methane is oxidized in the first section of the reactor and ethylene is put into the second section, epoxidation of olefin occurs through the alkyl peroxy radical interaction with double bond of olefin. It was established that the dependences of epoxidation rate on equivalence ratio and gas flow velocity pass through maximum. The substitution of methane by inert gas (argon) in the first section leads to significant decrease of rate of ethylene oxide accumulation in the second section


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Dorian S. N.; Kaiser, Ralf I. [Department of Chemistry, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Kostko, Oleg; Troy, Tyler P.; Ahmed, Musahid [Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Mebel, Alexander M. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199 (United States); Tielens, Alexander G. G. M. [Leiden Observatory, University of Leiden, Leiden (Netherlands)


    Nitrogen-substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) have been proposed to play a key role in the astrochemical evolution of the interstellar medium, yet the formation mechanisms of even their simplest prototypes—quinoline and isoquinoline—remain elusive. Here, we reveal a novel concept that under high temperature conditions representing circumstellar envelopes of carbon stars, (iso)quinoline can be synthesized via the reaction of pyridyl radicals with two acetylene molecules. The facile gas phase formation of (iso)quinoline in circumstellar envelopes defines a hitherto elusive reaction class synthesizing aromatic structures with embedded nitrogen atoms that are essential building blocks in contemporary biological-structural motifs. Once ejected from circumstellar shells and incorporated into icy interstellar grains in cold molecular clouds, these NPAHs can be functionalized by photo processing forming nucleobase-type structures as sampled in the Murchison meteorite.

  9. Sequential deuterium exchange reactions of protonated benzenes with D2O in the gas phase by ion cyclotron resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freiser, B.S.; Woodin, R.L.; Beauchamp, J.L.


    Results are reported results on a novel deuterium exchange reaction, observed using ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) spectroscopy. In apparent contrast to previously reported results sequential reactions of protonated aromatic compounds with D 2 O in the gas phase occur which lead to various degrees of ring deuteration. For example, reactions in a mixture of benzene and D 2 O produce C 6 H 6 D + , which in further reaction with D 2 O undergoes rapid stepwise exchange of H for D. From the data summarized for the halo and alkyl substituted benzenes it is apparent that deuterium exchange varies significantly for different structural isomers. Thus while o- and p-difluorobenzene exchange all hydrogens rapidly, the meta isomer slowly exchanges only a single hydrogen. Species such as the benzoyl cation, radical cations, and C 7 H 7 + derived from toluene and cycloheptatriene do not undergo exchange. It appears that ring protonation is a necessary condition for exchange to occur

  10. The gas phase reaction of ozone with 1,3-butadiene: formation yields of some toxic products (United States)

    Kramp, Franz; Paulson, Suzanne E.

    The formation yields of acrolein, 1,2-epoxy-3-butene and OH radicals have been measured from reaction of ozone with 1,3-butadiene at room temperature and atmosphere pressure. 1,3,5-Trimethyl benzene was added to scavenge OH radicals in measurements of product yields. In separate experiments, small quantities of 1,3,5-trimethyl benzene were added as a tracer for OH. Formation yields of acrolein of (52±7)%, 1,2-epoxy-3-butene of (3.1±0.5)% and OH radicals of (13±3)% were observed. In addition, the rate coefficient of the gas-phase reaction of ozone with 1,2-epoxy-3-butene was measured both directly and relative to propene, finding an average of (1.6±0.4)×10 -18 cm 3 molecule -1 s -1, respectively, at 296±2 K. The results are briefly discussed in terms of the effect of atmospheric processing on the toxicity of 1,3-butadiene.

  11. Formation of Complex Organics by Gas Phase and Intracluster Ion-Molecule Reactions Involving Acetylene and Hydrogen Cyanide (United States)

    El-Shall, S.; Hamed, A.; Soliman, A. R.; Momoh, P. O.


    Many complex organics including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are present in flames and combustion processes as well as in interstellar clouds and solar nebulae. Here, we present evidence for the formation of complex covalent organics by gas phase and intracluster reactions of the benzene, phenylium, pyridine, pyrimidine, phenylacetylene and benzonitrile cations with acetylene and hydrogen cyanide molecules. These reactions are studied using mass-selected ion mobility, chemical reactivity, collisional dissociation, and ab initio calculations. Measurements of collision cross sections in helium provide structural information on the adducts and allow probing structural changes at different temperatures (isomerization). We observed multiple additions of five acetylene molecules on the pyridine cation at room temperature. This is a remarkable result considering that only two acetylene molecules were added to the phenyl cation and no addition was observed on the benzene cation at room temperature. The experimental results are in full agreement with the ab initio calculations which predict that the first and second acetylenes add to the pyridine ion in barrierless, highly exothermic reactions. Similar reactions have been observed for the pyrimidine radical cation although the extent of the addition reactions is limited to only two acetylene molecules at room temperature. The results provide the first evidence for the incorporation of nitrogen in the formation cyclic hydrocarbons via the gas phase reactions of pyridine and pyrimidine ions with acetylene molecules. In addition, the formation of covalent adducts in the ionized acetylene/HCN system will be reported for the first time. Sequential reactions leading to the formation of pyridine and pyrimidine radical cations and higher adducts are observed over a wide range of temperature and pressure. The formation of these covalent adducts may represent a general class of addition reactions that can form complex

  12. Gas-Phase Combustion Synthesis of Aluminum Nitride Powder (United States)

    Axelbaum, R. L.; Lottes, C. R.; Huertas, J. I.; Rosen, L. J.


    Due to its combined properties of high electrical resistivity and high thermal conductivity aluminum nitride (AlN) is a highly desirable material for electronics applications. Methods are being sought for synthesis of unagglomerated, nanometer-sized powders of this material, prepared in such a way that they can be consolidated into solid compacts having minimal oxygen content. A procedure for synthesizing these powders through gas-phase combustion is described. This novel approach involves reacting AlCl3, NH3, and Na vapors. Equilibrium thermodynamic calculations show that 100% yields can be obtained for these reactants with the products being AlN, NaCl, and H2. The NaCl by-product is used to coat the AlN particles in situ. The coating allows for control of AlN agglomeration and protects the powders from hydrolysis during post-flame handling. On the basis of thermodynamic and kinetic considerations, two different approaches were employed to produce the powder, in co-flow diffusion flame configurations. In the first approach, the three reactants were supplied in separate streams. In the second, the AlCl3 and NH3 were premixed with HCl and then reacted with Na vapor. X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra of as-produced powders show only NaCl for the first case and NaCl and AlN for the second. After annealing at 775 C tinder dynamic vacuum, the salt was removed and XRD spectra of powders from both approaches show only AlN. Aluminum metal was also produced in the co-flow flame by reacting AlCl3 with Na. XRD spectra of as-produced powders show the products to be only NaCl and elemental aluminum.

  13. Importance of the gas phase role to the prediction of energetic material behavior: An experimental study (United States)

    Ali, A. N.; Son, S. F.; Asay, B. W.; Sander, R. K.


    Various thermal (radiative, conductive, and convective) initiation experiments are performed to demonstrate the importance of the gas phase role in combustion modeling of energetic materials (EM). A previously published condensed phase model that includes a predicted critical irradiance above which ignition is not possible is compared to experimental laser ignition results for octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT). Experimental results conflict with the predicted critical irradiance concept. The failure of the model is believed to result from a misconception about the role of the gas phase in the ignition process of energetic materials. The model assumes that ignition occurs at the surface and that evolution of gases inhibits ignition. High speed video of laser ignition, oven cook-off and hot wire ignition experiments captures the ignition of HMX and TNT in the gas phase. A laser ignition gap test is performed to further evaluate the effect of gas phase laser absorption and gas phase disruption on the ignition process. Results indicate that gas phase absorption of the laser energy is probably not the primary factor governing the gas phase ignition observations. It is discovered that a critical gap between an HMX pellet and a salt window of 6mm±0.4mm exists below which ignition by CO2 laser is not possible at the tested irradiances of 29W /cm2 and 38W/cm2 for HMX ignition. These observations demonstrate that a significant disruption of the gas phase, in certain scenarios, will inhibit ignition, independent of any condensed phase processes. These results underscore the importance of gas phase processes and illustrate that conditions can exist where simple condensed phase models are inadequate to accurately predict the behavior of energetic materials.

  14. Reactions of molecular dications in the gas phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tafadar, Nurun Nabi


    This thesis presents the results from a series of experiments investigating the reactivity of gas phase molecular dications with neutral collision partners, at collision energies between 3 and 13 eV in the laboratory frame using a crossed-beam apparatus. The experiments involve measurement of product ion intensities, which are determined by means of time of flight mass spectrometry. The experimental methodology, together with relevant theory is described in the thesis. The relative intensities of product ions formed are a powerful probe of the reaction mechanism. Where appropriate, the reactions are examined for isotope effects by using the isotopic analogue of the neutral collision partner. Our investigation of the CF 3 2+ /Ar collision system shows neutral loss and electron transfer dominating the product ion yield. The variation of the neutral loss ion yield with collision energy provides a first estimate of the bond energy of the weak CF 2 2+ -F bond. Ab initio calculations indicate the ground state of CF 3 2+ adopts a C 2V equilibrium geometry. We further conclude that at least two electronic states of CF 3 2+ are present in the dication beam. Intramolecular isotope effects in the reactions of CO 2 2+ and CF 3 2+ with HD indicate the operation of an intramolecular isotope effect, favouring the formation of the deuterated products DCF 2 + and DCO + . However, for the CF 3 2+ /HD system our data reveals no isotope effect for the formation of HF + and the DF + within our experimental uncertainty. Statistical effects have been suggested as an alternative to the orientational model previously used to explain these effects. In our investigation of the CF 3 2+ /H 2 /D 2 and CO 2 2+ /H 2 /D 2 collision systems, experiments indicate that no intermolecular effects are in operation and the observed collision energy dependence is symptomatic of the absence of a barrier to reaction. In the CF 3 2+ /H 2 /D 2 system we observe the formation of the XF + product ion; a

  15. Experimental and computational investigation on the gas phase reaction of p-cymene with Cl atoms. (United States)

    Dash, Manas Ranjan; Srinivasulu, G; Rajakumar, B


    The rate coefficient for the gas-phase reaction of Cl atoms with p-cymene was determined as a function of temperature (288-350 K) and pressure (700-800 Torr) using the relative rate technique, with 1,3-butadiene and ethylene as reference compounds. Cl atoms were generated by UV photolysis of oxalyl chloride ((COCl)2) at 254 nm, and nitrogen was used as the diluent gas. The rate coefficient for the reaction of Cl atoms with p-cymene at 298 K was measured to be (2.58 ± 1.55) × 10(-10) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1). The kinetic data obtained over the temperature range 288-350 K were used to derive an Arrhenius expression: k(T) = (9.36 ± 2.90) × 10(-10) exp[-(488 ± 98)/T] cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1). Theoretical kinetic calculations were also performed for the title reaction using canonical variational transition state theory (CVT) with small curvature tunneling (SCT) between 250 and 400 K. The calculated rate coefficients obtained over the temperature range 250-400 K were used to derive an Arrhenius expression: k(T) = 5.41 × 10(-13) exp[1837/T] cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1). Theoretical study indicated that addition channels contribute maximum to the total reaction and H-abstraction channels can be neglected. The atmospheric lifetime (τ) of p-cymene due to its reactions with various tropospheric oxidants was estimated, and it was concluded that the reactions of p-cymene with Cl atoms may compete with OH radicals in the marine boundary layer and in coastal urban areas where the concentration of Cl atoms is high.

  16. Br2 production from the heterogeneous reaction of gas-phase OH with aqueous salt solutions: Impacts of acidity, halide concentration, and organic surfactants. (United States)

    Frinak, Elizabeth K; Abbatt, Jonathan P D


    This study reports the first laboratory measurement of gas-phase Br2 production from the reaction between gas-phase hydroxyl radicals and aqueous salt solutions. Experiments were conducted at 269 K in a rotating wetted-wall flow tube coupled to a chemical-ionization mass spectrometer for analysis of gas-phase components. From both pure NaBr solutions and mixed NaCl/NaBr solutions, the amount of Br2 released was found to increase with increasing acidity, whereas it was found to vary little with increasing concentration of bromide ions in the sample. For mixed NaCl/NaBr solutions, Br2 was formed preferentially over Cl2 unless the Br- levels in the solution were significantly depleted by OH oxidation, at which point Cl2 formation was observed. Presence of a surfactant in solution, sodium dodecyl sulfate, significantly suppressed the formation of Br2; this is the first indication that an organic surfactant can affect the rate of interfacial mass transfer of OH to an aqueous surface. The OH-mediated oxidation of bromide may serve as a source of active bromine in the troposphere and contribute to the subsequent destruction of ozone that proceeds in marine-influenced regions of the troposphere.

  17. Structure and Reactivity of the Cysteine Methyl Ester Radical Cation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osburn, S.; Steill, J. D.; Oomens, J.; O' Hair, R. A. J.; Van Stipdonk, M.; Ryzhov, V.


    The structure and reactivity of the cysteine methyl ester radical cation, CysOMe(center dot+), have been examined in the gas phase using a combination of experiment and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. CysOMe(center dot+) undergoes rapid ion molecule reactions with dimethyl disulfide,

  18. Kinetics and mechanistic study of the gas-phase reaction of ozone with methylbutenol (United States)

    Klawatsch-Carrasco, N.; Doussin, J. F.; Rea, G.; Wenger, J.; Carlier, P.


    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) account for around 90% of hydrocarbon emissions into the Earth's atmosphere ([1], [2]). Several thousand different BVOCs have been identified, the most well known being unsaturated hydrocarbons. However, over the last ten years an increasing number of oxygenated BVOCs, such as methylbutenol (MBO), have also been detected in field measurement campaigns and plant emission studies ([3], [4]). In order to determine the environmental impact of BVOCs, a thorough knowledge of the rates and mechanisms for their atmospheric degradation is required. The major atmospheric degradation processes for BVOCs are gas-phase reaction with hydroxyl radicals (OH), nitrate radicals (NO_3) and ozone (O_3). These reactions produce oxidised hydrocarbons, ozone and secondary organic aerosol and, as a result, exert a strong influence on the chemical composition of the atmosphere. Very few studies are available concerning the reactivity of MBO. To extend the available database on the atmospheric chemistry of biogenic compounds, the reaction of O_3 with MBO at 296(±2) K has been investigated in atmospheric simulation chambers at LISA in Créteil (France) and CRAC in Cork (Ireland), using complementary techniques such as FTIR spectroscopy, PFBHA derivatization with GC-MS detection and a particle sizer and counter. The rate constant for the reaction was determined using an absolute rate technique, yielding a value of (8.3±0.9)× 10-18 cm^3 molecule-1s-1. Mechanistic studies of the reaction lead to the following observations: a primary formation of only three carbonyl compounds, formaldehyde (yield=0.40±0.03), acetone (yield=0.27±0.02) and 2-methyl-2-hydroxy-propanal. In addition, there is a noticeable formation of aerosols at the very beginning of the reaction that seemed to depend on the relative humidity. References: [1] Wayne, R. P. (2000). 3rd edition. Oxford university press inc. Edition. [2] Finlayson-Pitts, B. and Pitts Jr, J. N. ( 2000

  19. Acetyl radical generation in cigarette smoke: Quantification and simulations (United States)

    Hu, Na; Green, Sarah A.


    Free radicals are present in cigarette smoke and can have a negative effect on human health. However, little is known about their formation mechanisms. Acetyl radicals were quantified in tobacco smoke and mechanisms for their generation were investigated by computer simulations. Acetyl radicals were trapped from the gas phase using 3-amino-2, 2, 5, 5-tetramethyl-proxyl (3AP) on solid support to form stable 3AP adducts for later analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), mass spectrometry/tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS/MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Simulations were performed using the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM). A range of 10-150 nmol/cigarette of acetyl radical was measured from gas phase tobacco smoke of both commercial and research cigarettes under several different smoking conditions. More radicals were detected from the puff smoking method compared to continuous flow sampling. Approximately twice as many acetyl radicals were trapped when a glass fiber particle filter (GF/F specifications) was placed before the trapping zone. Simulations showed that NO/NO2 reacts with isoprene, initiating chain reactions to produce hydroxyl radical, which abstracts hydrogen from acetaldehyde to generate acetyl radical. These mechanisms can account for the full amount of acetyl radical detected experimentally from cigarette smoke. Similar mechanisms may generate radicals in second hand smoke.

  20. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer of gas-phase ions under ultra high vacuum and ambient conditions. (United States)

    Frankevich, Vladimir; Chagovets, Vitaliy; Widjaja, Fanny; Barylyuk, Konstantin; Yang, Zhiyi; Zenobi, Renato


    We report evidence for fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) of gas-phase ions under ultra high vacuum conditions (10(-9) mbar) inside a mass spectrometer as well as under ambient conditions inside an electrospray plume. Two different FRET pairs based on carboxyrhodamine 6G (donor) and ATTO590 or Bodipy TR (acceptor) dyes were examined and their gas-phase optical properties were studied. Our measurements indicate a different behavior for the two FRET pairs, which can be attributed to their different conformations in the gas phase. Upon desolvation via electrospray ionization, one of the FRET pairs undergoes a conformational change that leads to disappearance of FRET. This study shows the promise of FRET to obtain a direct correlation between solution and gas-phase structures.

  1. Mononuclear metavanadate catalyses gas phase oxidation of methanol to formaldehyde employing dioxygen as the terminal oxidant. (United States)

    Waters, Tom; Khairallah, George N; Wimala, Samantha A S Y; Ang, Yien C; O'Hair, Richard A J; Wedd, Anthony G


    Multistage mass spectrometry experiments reveal a sequence of gas phase reactions for the oxidation of methanol to formaldehyde with a mononuclear oxo vanadate anion as the catalyst and dioxygen as the terminal oxidant.

  2. Gas-phase water-mediated equilibrium between methylglyoxal and its geminal diol (United States)

    Axson, Jessica L.; Takahashi, Kaito; De Haan, David O.; Vaida, Veronica


    In aqueous solution, aldehydes, and to a lesser extent ketones, hydrate to form geminal diols. We investigate the hydration of methylglyoxal (MG) in the gas phase, a process not previously considered to occur in water-restricted environments. In this study, we spectroscopically identified methylglyoxal diol (MGD) and obtained the gas-phase partial pressures of MG and MGD. These results, in conjunction with the relative humidity, were used to obtain the equilibrium constant, KP, for the water-mediated hydration of MG in the gas phase. The Gibbs free energy for this process, ΔG°, obtained as a result, suggests a larger than expected gas-phase diol concentration. This may have significant implications for understanding the role of organics in atmospheric chemistry. PMID:20142510

  3. Gas phase ion/molecule reactions as studied by Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joergensen, S.I.


    The subject of this thesis is gas phase ion/molecule reactions as studied by Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometry (chapter 2 contains a short description of this method). Three chapters are mainly concerned with mechanistic aspects of gas phase ion/molecule reactions. An equally important aspect of the thesis is the stability and reactivity of α-thio carbanions, dipole stabilized carbanions and homoenolate anions, dealt with in the other four chapters. (Auth.)

  4. Defect formation in fluoropolymer films at their condensation from a gas phase (United States)

    Luchnikov, P. A.


    The questions of radiation defects, factors of influence of electronic high-frequency discharge plasma components on the molecular structure and properties of the fluoropolymer vacuum films synthesized on a substrate from a gas phase are considered. It is established that at sedimentation of fluoropolymer coverings from a gas phase in high-frequency discharge plasma in films there are radiation defects in molecular and supramolecular structure because of the influence of active plasma components which significantly influence their main properties.

  5. Hard particle effect on surface generation in nano-cutting (United States)

    Xu, Feifei; Fang, Fengzhou; Zhang, Xiaodong


    The influence of the hard particle on the surface generation, plastic deformation and processing forces in nano-cutting of aluminum is investigated by means of molecular dynamics simulations. In this investigation, a hard particle which is simplified as a diamond ball is embedded under the free surface of workpiece with different depths. The influence of the position of the hard ball on the surface generation and other material removal mechanism, such as the movement of the ball under the action of cutting tool edge, is revealed. The results show that when the hard particle is removed, only a small shallow pit is left on the machined surface. Otherwise, it is pressed down to the subsurface of the workpiece left larger and deeper pit on the generated surface. Besides that, the hard particle in the workpiece would increase the processing force when the cutting tool edge or the plastic carriers interact with the hard particle. It is helpful to optimize the cutting parameters and material properties for obtaining better surface quality in nano-cutting of composites or other materials with micro/nanoscale hard particles in it.

  6. Axial Dispersion and Back-mixing of Gas Phase in Pebble Bed Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Al-Musafir


    Full Text Available Despite the worldwide attended of pebble bed reactors (PBRs, there is a lack of fundamental understanding of the complex flow pattern. In this work, the non-ideal flow behavior of the gas phase which is used for cooling has been investigated experimentally in a 0.3 m diameter pebble bed. The extent of mixing and dispersion of the gas phase has been qualified. The effect of gas velocity on the axial dispersion has been investigated with range from 0.05 to 0.6 m/s covering both the laminar and turbulent flow regimes. Glass bead particles of 1.2 cm diameter and 2.5 gm/cm3 which is randomly and closely packed have been used to mimic the pebbles. An advanced gas tracer technique was applied to measure the residence time distribution (RTD of gas phase using impulse tracer. The axial dispersion coefficients of gas phase in the studied pebble bed have been estimated using the axial dispersion model (ADM. It was found that the flow pattern of the gas phase deviates from plug flow depending on the superficial gas velocity. The results showed that the dispersion of the gas reduces as the gas velocity and Reynolds numbers increased.

  7. Photoresponse of the protonated Schiff-base retinal chromophore in the gas phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toker, Jonathan; Rahbek, Dennis Bo; Kiefer, H V


    The fragmentation, initiated by photoexcitation as well as collisionally-induced excitation, of several retinal chromophores was studied in the gas phase. The chromophore in the protonated Schiff-base form (RPSB), essential for mammalian vision, shows a remarkably selective photoresponse. The sel......The fragmentation, initiated by photoexcitation as well as collisionally-induced excitation, of several retinal chromophores was studied in the gas phase. The chromophore in the protonated Schiff-base form (RPSB), essential for mammalian vision, shows a remarkably selective photoresponse...... modifications of the chromophore. We propose that isomerizations play an important role in the photoresponse of gas-phase retinal chromophores and guide internal conversion through conical intersections. The role of protein interactions is then to control the specificity of the photoisomerization in the primary...

  8. Radical-mediated adsorption: Ozone oxidation of passivated silicon (United States)

    Fink, Christian K.; Jenkins, Stephen J.


    We report first-principles molecular dynamics calculations on the initial oxidation of hydrogen-passivated Si{0 0 1} by ozone (O 3). We observe an intriguing radical-mediated adsorption mechanism, archetypal of a class not reported in the literature so far. Singlet ozone abstracts one hydrogen atom to form a short-lived hydrotrioxy radical (HO3rad ), before dissociating into surface hydroxyl ( sbnd OH) and gas-phase O 2. Vibrational and electronic analysis of the hydrotrioxy species confirms the genuine radical nature of the reaction intermediate.

  9. A gas-phase reactor powered by solar energy and ethanol for H2 production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ampelli, Claudio; Genovese, Chiara; Passalacqua, Rosalba; Perathoner, Siglinda; Centi, Gabriele


    In the view of H 2 as the future energy vector, we presented here the development of a homemade photo-reactor working in gas phase and easily interfacing with fuel cell devices, for H 2 production by ethanol dehydrogenation. The process generates acetaldehyde as the main co-product, which is more economically advantageous with respect to the low valuable CO 2 produced in the alternative pathway of ethanol photoreforming. The materials adopted as photocatalysts are based on TiO 2 substrates but properly modified with noble (Au) and not-noble (Cu) metals to enhance light harvesting in the visible region. The samples were characterized by BET surface area analysis, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and UV–visible Diffusive Reflectance Spectroscopy, and finally tested in our homemade photo-reactor by simulated solar irradiation. We discussed about the benefits of operating in gas phase with respect to a conventional slurry photo-reactor (minimization of scattering phenomena, no metal leaching, easy product recovery, etc.). Results showed that high H 2 productivity can be obtained in gas phase conditions, also irradiating titania photocatalysts doped with not-noble metals. - Highlights: • A gas-phase photoreactor for H 2 production by ethanol dehydrogenation was developed. • The photocatalytic behaviours of Au and Cu metal-doped TiO 2 thin layers are compared. • Benefits of operating in gas phase with respect to a slurry reactor are presented. • Gas phase conditions and use of not-noble metals are the best economic solution

  10. FORTRAN program for calculating liquid-phase and gas-phase thermal diffusion column coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutherford, W.M.


    A computer program (COLCO) was developed for calculating thermal diffusion column coefficients from theory. The program, which is written in FORTRAN IV, can be used for both liquid-phase and gas-phase thermal diffusion columns. Column coefficients for the gas phase can be based on gas properties calculated from kinetic theory using tables of omega integrals or on tables of compiled physical properties as functions of temperature. Column coefficients for the liquid phase can be based on compiled physical property tables. Program listings, test data, sample output, and users manual are supplied for appendices

  11. Gas phase THz spectroscopy of toxic agent simulant compounds using the AILES synchrotron beamline (United States)

    Cuisset, A.; Smirnova, I.; Bocquet, R.; Hindle, F.; Mouret, G.; Yang, C.; Pirali, O.; Roy, P.


    A new study is currently underway aiming at recording and assigning the gas phase rovibrational spectra of several organophosphorus and organosulphur compounds in the THz frequency domain. Thanks to the exceptional properties of flux, brilliance and spectral range of the AILES beamline coupled to the FTIR spectrometer, the gas phase vibrational spectra of low volatility organophosphorous compounds have been recorded across the entire THz frequency range. High resolution FTIR spectroscopy was used to record the pure rotational and the low-frequency rovibrational spectrum of DMSO. A comparison between the spectra measured with the AILES beamline and the spectra obtained with optoelectronic THz sources is possible.

  12. Acrolein Production by Gas-Phase Glycerol Dehydration Using PO₄/Nb₂O5 Catalysts. (United States)

    Lee, Kyu Am; Ryoo, HeeKyoung; Ma, Byung Chol; Kim, Youngchul


    In this study, modified niobium oxide were prepared to study the addictive effects on the catalytic performance for gas-phase glycerol dehydration. The catalysts were characterized by N2 adsorption/desorption, XRD, NH3-TPD, FT-IR. The amount of phosphoric acid was up to 50 wt% in niobium. As a result, the highest glycerol conversion was achieved over 20 wt% PO4/Nb2O5. It indicates that the optimal amount of phosphoric acid leads the catalyst to have appropriate acidity which is an important factor for gas-phase glycerol dehydration.

  13. Studies of gas phase ion/molecule reactions by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleingeld, J.C.


    An important field in which Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance has useful applications is that of gas phase ion chemistry, the subject of this thesis. First, the general picture of ion-molecule reactions in the gas phase is discussed. Next, some positive ion-molecule reactions are described, whereas the remaining chapters deal with negative ion-molecule reactions. Most of these studies have been performed using the FT-ICR method. Reactions involving H 3 O - and NH 4 - ions are described whereas the other chapters deal with larger organic complexes. (Auth.)

  14. The electron spectrum of UF6 recorded in the gas phase (United States)

    Mârtensson, N.; Malmquist, P.-Å.; Svensson, S.; Johansson, B.


    Gas phase core and valence electron spectra from UF6, excited by AlKα monochromatized x rays, in the binding energy range 0-1000 eV are presented. It is shown that the AlKα excited valence electron spectrum can be used to reassign the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) in UF6. Many-body effects on the core levels are discussed and core level lifetimes are determined. The shift between solid phase and gas phase electron binding energies for core lines is used to discuss the U5 f population in UF6.

  15. Estimated congener specific gas-phase atmospheric behavior and fractionation of perfluoroalkyl compounds: rates of reaction with atmospheric oxidants, air-water partitioning, and wet/dry deposition lifetimes. (United States)

    Rayne, Sierra; Forest, Kaya; Friesen, Ken J


    A quantitative structure-activity model has been validated for estimating congener specific gas-phase hydroxyl radical reaction rates for perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids (PFSAs), carboxylic acids (PFCAs), aldehydes (PFAls) and dihydrates, fluorotelomer olefins (FTOls), alcohols (FTOHs), aldehydes (FTAls), and acids (FTAcs), and sulfonamides (SAs), sulfonamidoethanols (SEs), and sulfonamido carboxylic acids (SAAs), and their alkylated derivatives based on calculated semi-empirical PM6 method ionization potentials. Corresponding gas-phase reaction rates with nitrate radicals and ozone have also been estimated using the computationally derived ionization potentials. Henry's law constants for these classes of perfluorinated compounds also appear to be reasonably approximated by the SPARC software program, thereby allowing estimation of wet and dry atmospheric deposition rates. Both congener specific gas-phase atmospheric and air-water interface fractionation of these compounds is expected, complicating current source apportionment perspectives and necessitating integration of such differential partitioning influences into future multimedia models. The findings will allow development and refinement of more accurate and detailed local through global scale atmospheric models for the atmospheric fate of perfluoroalkyl compounds.

  16. Theoretical Mechanistic and Kinetic Studies on Homogeneous Gas-Phase Formation of Polychlorinated Naphthalene from 2-Chlorophenol as Forerunner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Xu


    Full Text Available Polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs are dioxins-like compounds and are formed along with polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs in thermal and combustion procedures. Chlorophenols (CPs are the most important forerunners of PCNs. A comprehensive comprehension of PCN formation procedure from CPs is a precondition for reducing the discharge of PCNs. Experiments on the formation of PCNs from CPs have been hindered by PCN toxicity and short of precise detection methods for active intermediate radicals. In this work, PCN formation mechanism in gas-phase condition from 2-chlorophenol (2-CP as forerunner was studied by quantum chemistry calculations. Numbers of energetically advantaged formation routes were proposed. The rate constants of key elementary steps were calculated over 600–1200 K using canonical variational transition-state theory (CVT with small curvature tunneling contribution (SCT method. This study illustrates formation of PCNs with one chlorine atom loss from 2-CP is preferred over that without chlorine atom loss. In comparison with formation of PCDFs from 2-CP, PCN products are less chlorinated and have lower formation potential.

  17. Gas-Phase Reactions of Glyceraldehyde and 1,3-Dihydroxyacetone as Models for Levoglucosan Conversion during Biomass Gasification. (United States)

    Fukutome, Asuka; Kawamoto, Haruo; Saka, Shiro


    Levoglucosan, the major intermediate in wood gasification, is decomposed selectively to C1/C2 fragments at 550-600 °C. Kinetic analyses suggest that radical chain mechanisms with the involvement of short-lived carbonyl intermediates explain the lower production of larger fragments. To address this hypothesis, the gas-phase reactivities of glyceraldehyde (Gald), 1,3-dihydroxyacetone (DHA), and glycerol, as simple C3 model compounds, were compared at 400-800 °C under N2 flow at residence times of 0.9-1.4 s. Retro-aldol fragmentation and dehydration proceeded for the pyrolysis of Gald/DHA at 400 °C, far below the 600 °C decomposition point of glycerol. Pyrolysis of Gald/DHA generated exclusively syngas (CO and H2). On the basis of the results of theoretical calculations, the effects of carbonyl intermediates on reactivity were explained by postulating uni- and bimolecular reactions, although the bimolecular reactions became less effective at elevated temperatures. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Multi-target QSPR modeling for simultaneous prediction of multiple gas-phase kinetic rate constants of diverse chemicals (United States)

    Basant, Nikita; Gupta, Shikha


    The reactions of molecular ozone (O3), hydroxyl (•OH) and nitrate (NO3) radicals are among the major pathways of removal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the atmospheric environment. The gas-phase kinetic rate constants (kO3, kOH, kNO3) are thus, important in assessing the ultimate fate and exposure risk of atmospheric VOCs. Experimental data for rate constants are not available for many emerging VOCs and the computational methods reported so far address a single target modeling only. In this study, we have developed a multi-target (mt) QSPR model for simultaneous prediction of multiple kinetic rate constants (kO3, kOH, kNO3) of diverse organic chemicals considering an experimental data set of VOCs for which values of all the three rate constants are available. The mt-QSPR model identified and used five descriptors related to the molecular size, degree of saturation and electron density in a molecule, which were mechanistically interpretable. These descriptors successfully predicted three rate constants simultaneously. The model yielded high correlations (R2 = 0.874-0.924) between the experimental and simultaneously predicted endpoint rate constant (kO3, kOH, kNO3) values in test arrays for all the three systems. The model also passed all the stringent statistical validation tests for external predictivity. The proposed multi-target QSPR model can be successfully used for predicting reactivity of new VOCs simultaneously for their exposure risk assessment.

  19. An atmospheric pressure high-temperature laminar flow reactor for investigation of combustion and related gas phase reaction systems. (United States)

    Oßwald, Patrick; Köhler, Markus


    A new high-temperature flow reactor experiment utilizing the powerful molecular beam mass spectrometry (MBMS) technique for detailed observation of gas phase kinetics in reacting flows is presented. The reactor design provides a consequent extension of the experimental portfolio of validation experiments for combustion reaction kinetics. Temperatures up to 1800 K are applicable by three individually controlled temperature zones with this atmospheric pressure flow reactor. Detailed speciation data are obtained using the sensitive MBMS technique, providing in situ access to almost all chemical species involved in the combustion process, including highly reactive species such as radicals. Strategies for quantifying the experimental data are presented alongside a careful analysis of the characterization of the experimental boundary conditions to enable precise numeric reproduction of the experimental results. The general capabilities of this new analytical tool for the investigation of reacting flows are demonstrated for a selected range of conditions, fuels, and applications. A detailed dataset for the well-known gaseous fuels, methane and ethylene, is provided and used to verify the experimental approach. Furthermore, application for liquid fuels and fuel components important for technical combustors like gas turbines and engines is demonstrated. Besides the detailed investigation of novel fuels and fuel components, the wide range of operation conditions gives access to extended combustion topics, such as super rich conditions at high temperature important for gasification processes, or the peroxy chemistry governing the low temperature oxidation regime. These demonstrations are accompanied by a first kinetic modeling approach, examining the opportunities for model validation purposes.

  20. Implementation and evaluation of online gas-phase chemistry within a regional climate model (RegCM-CHEM4)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shalaby, A. K.; Zakey, A. S.; Tawfik, A. B.; Solmon, F.; Giorgi, Filippo; Stordal, F.; Sillman, S.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Steiner, A. L.


    The RegCM-CHEM4 is a new online climate-chemistry model based on the International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) regional climate model (RegCM4). Tropospheric gas-phase chemistry is integrated into the climate model using the condensed version of the Carbon Bond Mechanism (CBM-Z; Zaveri and Peters, 1999) with a fast solver based on radical balances. We evaluate the model over Continental Europe for two different time scales: (1) an event-based analysis of the ozone episode associated with the heat wave of August 2003 and (2) a climatological analysis of a sixyear simulation (2000-2005). For the episode analysis, model simulations show good agreement with European Monitoring and Evaluation Program (EMEP) observations of hourly ozone over different regions in Europe and capture ozone concentrations during and after the August 2003 heat wave event. For long-term climate simulations, the model captures the seasonal cycle of ozone concentrations with some over prediction of ozone concentrations in non-heat wave summers. Overall, the ozone and ozone precursor evaluation shows the feasibility of using RegCM-CHEM4 for decadal-length simulations of chemistry-climate interactions.

  1. Implementation and evaluation of online gas-phase chemistry within a regional climate model (RegCM-CHEM4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Shalaby


    Full Text Available The RegCM-CHEM4 is a new online climate-chemistry model based on the International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP regional climate model (RegCM4. Tropospheric gas-phase chemistry is integrated into the climate model using the condensed version of the Carbon Bond Mechanism (CBM-Z; Zaveri and Peters, 1999 with a fast solver based on radical balances. We evaluate the model over continental Europe for two different time scales: (1 an event-based analysis of the ozone episode associated with the heat wave of August 2003 and (2 a climatological analysis of a six-year simulation (2000–2005. For the episode analysis, model simulations show good agreement with European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP observations of hourly ozone over different regions in Europe and capture ozone concentrations during and after the summer 2003 heat wave event. For long-term climate simulations, the model captures the seasonal cycle of ozone concentrations with some over prediction of ozone concentrations in non-heat wave summers. Overall, the ozone and ozone precursor evaluation shows the feasibility of using RegCM-CHEM4 for decadal-length simulations of chemistry-climate interactions.

  2. Highly Selective Continuous Gas-Phase Methoxycarbonylation of Ethylene with Supported Ionic Liquid Phase (SILP) Catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khokarale, Santosh Govind; Garcia Suárez, Eduardo José; Fehrmann, Rasmus


    Supported ionic liquid phase (SILP) technology was applied for the first time to the Pd-catalyzed continuous, gas-phase methoxycarbonylation of ethylene to selectively produce methyl propanoate (MP) in high yields. The influence of catalyst and reaction parameters such as, for example, ionic liquid...

  3. Continuous gas-phase hydroformylation of 1-butene using supported ionic liquid phase (SILP) catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haumann, Marco; Dentler, Katharina; Joni, Joni


    The concept of supported ionic liquid phase (SILP) catalysis has been extended to 1-butene hydroformylation. A rhodium-sulfoxantphos complex was dissolved in [BMIM][n-C8H17OSO3] and this solution was highly dispersed on silica. Continuous gas-phase experiments in a fixed-bed reactor revealed...

  4. Humidity independent mass spectrometry for gas phase chemical analysis via ambient proton transfer reaction. (United States)

    Zhu, Hongying; Huang, Guangming


    In this work, a humidity independent mass spectrometric method was developed for rapid analysis of gas phase chemicals. This method is based upon ambient proton transfer reaction between gas phase chemicals and charged water droplets, in a reaction chamber with nearly saturate humidity under atmospheric pressure. The humidity independent nature enables direct and rapid analysis of raw gas phase samples, avoiding time- and sample-consuming sample pretreatments in conventional mass spectrometry methods to control sample humidity. Acetone, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and meta-xylene were used to evaluate the analytical performance of present method. The limits of detection for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and meta-xylene are in the range of ∼0.1 to ∼0.3 ppbV; that of benzene is well below the present European Union permissible exposure limit for benzene vapor (5 μg m(-3), ∼1.44 ppbV), with linear ranges of approximately two orders of magnitude. The majority of the homemade device contains a stainless steel tube as reaction chamber and an ultrasonic humidifier as the source of charged water droplets, which makes this cheap device easy to assemble and facile to operate. In addition, potential application of this method was illustrated by the real time identification of raw gas phase chemicals released from plants at different physiological stages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. DFT study of the reactions of Mo and Mo with CO2 in gas phase

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations have been performed to explore the potential energy surfaces of C–O bond activation in CO2 molecule by gas-phase Mo. + cation and Mo atom, in order to better understanding the mechanism of second-row metal reacting with CO2. The minimum energy reaction path is.

  6. Gas-phase infrared spectra of cationized nitrogen-substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galué, Alvaro; Pirali, O.; Oomens, J.


    Gas-phase infrared spectra of several ionized nitrogen substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PANHs) have been recorded in the 600-1600 cm(-1) region via IR multiple-photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy. The UV photoionized PANH ions are trapped and isolated in a quadrupole ion trap where

  7. Electron Attachment to the Gas Phase DNA Bases Cytosine and Thymine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Denifl, S.; Ptasiňska, S.; Probst, M.; Hrušák, Jan; Scheier, P.; Märk, T. D.


    Roč. 108, č. 31 (2004), s. 6562-6569 ISSN 1089-5639 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/02/0737 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : gas-phase * cytosine * thymine Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.639, year: 2004

  8. Gas-phase infrared spectra of cationized nitrogen-substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galué, H.A.; Pirali, O.; Oomens, J.


    Gas-phase infrared spectra of several ionized nitrogen substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PANHs) have been recorded in the 600-1600 cm-1 region via IR multiple-photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy. The UV photoionized PANH ions are trapped and isolated in a quadrupole ion trap where

  9. Gas-phase UF6 enrichment monitor for enrichment plant safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strittmatter, R.B.; Tape, J.W.


    An in-line enrichment monitor is being developed to provide real-time enrichment data for the gas-phase UF 6 feed stream of an enrichment plant. The nondestructive gamma-ray assay method can be used to determine the enrichment of natural UF 6 with a relative precision of better than 1% for a wide range of pressures

  10. Study of Iodine Behavior in the Gas Phase during a Severe Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hanchul; Cho, Yeonghun; Ryu, Myunghyun


    Among the iodine species, the organic iodides produced from the reaction between iodine and organics such as paint, are not easily trapped by the filters during the containment venting following a severe accident. Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS) has been studying this issue, joining international research programs such as ISTP-EPICUR, OECDBIP and OECD-STEM. In the course of this study, a simple iodine model, RAIM (Radio-Active Iodine chemistry Model) has been developed (Oh et al., 2011), based on the IMOD methodology, and other previous studies. This paper deals with our recent activities on this study, including the development of the model for the iodine reactions in gas phase. Iodine reactions in gas phase were modeled and added to the RAIM code, taking into account several relevant reactions such as formation of ARP, iodine oxide, and organic iodides in gas phase. RAIM was then applied to analyze the S2-6-5-2 test for which iodine-loaded coupons were tested in gas phase. The analysis results show a reasonable estimation of volatile iodine concentration with the desorption rate constant of about 10 -6 s -1 , while those of the other iodine species overestimated for the whole period of the test. It reveals the need to determine appropriate values for the rate constants for formation of iodine oxides and organic iodides

  11. Gas-phase kinetics modifies the CCN activity of a biogenic SOA. (United States)

    Vizenor, A E; Asa-Awuku, A A


    Our current knowledge of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity and the hygroscopicity of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) depends on the particle size and composition, explicitly, the thermodynamic properties of the aerosol solute and subsequent interactions with water. Here, we examine the CCN activation of 3 SOA systems (2 biogenic single precursor and 1 mixed precursor SOA system) in relation to gas-phase decay. Specifically, the relationship between time, gas-phase precursor decay and CCN activity of 100 nm SOA is studied. The studied SOA systems exhibit a time-dependent growth of CCN activity at an instrument supersaturation of ∼0.2%. As such, we define a critical activation time, t 50 , above which a 100 nm SOA particle will activate. The critical activation time for isoprene, longifolene and a mixture of the two precursor SOA is 2.01 hours, 2.53 hours and 3.17 hours, respectively. The activation times are then predicted with gas-phase kinetic data inferred from measurements of precursor decay. The gas-phase prediction of t 50 agrees well with CCN measured t 50 (within 0.05 hours of the actual critical times) and suggests that the gas-to-particle phase partitioning may be more significant for SOA CCN prediction than previously thought.

  12. Multiple Multidentate Halogen Bonding in Solution, in the Solid State, and in the (Calculated) Gas Phase. (United States)

    Jungbauer, Stefan H; Schindler, Severin; Herdtweck, Eberhardt; Keller, Sandro; Huber, Stefan M


    The binding properties of neutral halogen-bond donors (XB donors) bearing two multidentate Lewis acidic motifs toward halides were investigated. Employing polyfluorinated and polyiodinated terphenyl and quaterphenyl derivatives as anion receptors, we obtained X-ray crystallographic data of the adducts of three structurally related XB donors with tetraalkylammonium chloride, bromide, and iodide. The stability of these XB complexes in solution was determined by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), and the results were compared to X-ray analyses as well as to calculated binding patterns in the gas phase. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations on the gas-phase complexes indicated that the experimentally observed distortion of the XB donors during multiple multidentate binding can be reproduced in 1:1 complexes with halides, whereas adducts with two halides show a symmetric binding pattern in the gas phase that is markedly different from the solid state structures. Overall, this study demonstrates the limitations in the transferability of binding data between solid state, solution, and gas phase in the study of complex multidentate XB donors. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Operando Spectroscopy of the Gas-Phase Aldol Condensation of Propanal over Solid Base Catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernández-giménez, Ana M.; Ruiz-martínez, Javier; Puértolas, Begoña; Pérez-ramírez, Javier; Bruijnincx, Pieter C. A.; Weckhuysen, Bert M.


    The gas-phase aldol condensation of propanal, taken as model for the aldehyde components in bio-oils, has been studied with a combined operando set-up allowing to perform FT-IR & UV–Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) with on-line mass spectrometry (MS). The selected solid base catalysts, a

  14. The 'sticky business' of cleaning gas-phase membrane proteins: a detergent oriented perspective. (United States)

    Borysik, Antoni J; Robinson, Carol V


    In recent years the properties of gas-phase detergent clusters have come under close scrutiny due in part to their participation in the analysis of intact membrane protein complexes by mass spectrometry. The detergent molecules that cover the protein complex are removed in the gas-phase by thermally agitating the ions by collision-induced dissociation. This process however, is not readily controlled and can frequently result in the disruption of protein structure. Improved methods of releasing proteins from detergent clusters are clearly required. To facilitate this the structural properties of detergent clusters along with the mechanistic details of their dissociation need to be understood. Pivotal to understanding the properties of gas-phase detergent clusters is the technique of ion mobility mass spectrometry. This technique can be used to assign polydisperse detergent clusters and provide information about their geometries and packing densities. In this article we consider the shapes of detergent clusters and show that these clusters possess geometries that are inconsistent with those in solution. We analyse the distributions of clusters in detail using tandem mass spectrometry and suggest that the mean charge of clusters formed from certain detergents is governed by electrostatic repulsion. We discuss the dissociation of detergent clusters and propose that detergent evaporation it a key process in the protection of protein complexes during high energy collisions in the gas-phase.

  15. How Pt nanoparticles affect TiO2-induced gas-phase photocatalytic oxidation reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fraters, B.D.; Amrollahi Buky, Rezvaneh; Mul, Guido


    The effect of Pt nanoparticles on the gas-phase photocatalytic oxidation activity of TiO2 is shown to be largely dependent on the molecular functionality of the substrate. We demonstrate that Pt nanoparticles decrease rates in photocatalytic oxidation of propane, whereas a strong beneficial effect

  16. Gas phase polymerization of propylene. Reaction kinetics and molecular weight distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meier, G.B.; Weickert, G.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria


    Gas-phase polymerizations have been executed at different temperatures, pressures, and hydrogen concentrations using Me2Si[Ind]2ZrCl2 / methylaluminoxane / SiO2(Pennsylvania Quarts) as a catalyst. The reaction rate curves have been described by a kinetic model, which takes into account the initially

  17. Hydrogen-deuterium exchange reactions of carbanions with D2O in the gas phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, J.H.; Shapiro, R.H.; DePuy, C.H.; Bierbaum, V.M.


    Using the flowing afterglow technique, we have observed that carbanions participate in sequential deuterium exchange reactions with D 2 O in the gas phase. The extent of exchange is reported for 32 carbanions and the mechanism of the reaction is discussed. The usefulness of this phenomenon as a probe of the acidity and structure of anions is described

  18. Regio-Selective Intramolecular Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange in Gas-Phase Electron Transfer Dissociation (United States)

    Hamuro, Yoshitomo


    Protein backbone amide hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) typically utilizes enzymatic digestion after the exchange reaction and before MS analysis to improve data resolution. Gas-phase fragmentation of a peptic fragment prior to MS analysis is a promising technique to further increase the resolution. The biggest technical challenge for this method is elimination of intramolecular hydrogen/deuterium exchange (scrambling) in the gas phase. The scrambling obscures the location of deuterium. Jørgensen's group pioneered a method to minimize the scrambling in gas-phase electron capture/transfer dissociation. Despite active investigation, the mechanism of hydrogen scrambling is not well-understood. The difficulty stems from the fact that the degree of hydrogen scrambling depends on instruments, various parameters of mass analysis, and peptide analyzed. In most hydrogen scrambling investigations, the hydrogen scrambling is measured by the percentage of scrambling in a whole molecule. This paper demonstrates that the degree of intramolecular hydrogen/deuterium exchange depends on the nature of exchangeable hydrogen sites. The deuterium on Tyr amide of neurotensin (9-13), Arg-Pro-Tyr-Ile-Leu, migrated significantly faster than that on Ile or Leu amides, indicating the loss of deuterium from the original sites is not mere randomization of hydrogen and deuterium but more site-specific phenomena. This more precise approach may help understand the mechanism of intramolecular hydrogen exchange and provide higher confidence for the parameter optimization to eliminate intramolecular hydrogen/deuterium exchange during gas-phase fragmentation.

  19. Supported Rh-phosphine complex catalysts for continuous gas-phase decarbonylation of aldehydes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malcho, Phillip; Garcia-Suarez, Eduardo J.; Mentzel, Uffe Vie


    Heterogeneous silica supported rhodium-phosphine complex catalysts are employed for the first time in the catalytic decarbonylation of aldehydes in continuous gas-phase. The reaction protocol is exemplified for the decarbonylation of p-tolualdehyde to toluene and further extended to other aromati...

  20. Gas phase ion chemistry of coumarins: ab initio calculations used to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The gas phase ion chemistry of coumarins using electron ionization (EI), positive chemical ionization (PCI) and negative chemical ionization (NCI) in a time of flight and quadrupole mass spectrometer (qMS) coupled to a gas chromatograph is outlined. The observations in NCI mode were complimented with Ab initio ...

  1. DFT study of the reactions of Mo and Mo with CO 2 in gas phase

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 123; Issue 3. DFT study of the reactions of Mo and Mo+ with CO2 in gas phase. Deman Han Guoliang Dai Hao Chen Hua Yan Junyong Wu Chuanfeng Wang Aiguo Zhong. Volume 123 Issue 3 May 2011 pp 299-309 ...

  2. Structure analysis of large argon clusters from gas-phase electron diffraction data: some recent results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Waal, B.W.


    An up-to-date overview of recent developments in the structure elucidation of large ArN-clusters (103gas-phase electron diffraction data, is given. Although a satisfactory model for N3000 had been found in 1996, the size range beyond N10,000 presents new and unexpected problems.

  3. Gas-phase salt bridge interactions between glutamic acid and arginine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaeqx, S.; Oomens, J.; Rijs, A.M.


    The gas-phase side chain-side chain (SC-SC) interaction and possible proton transfer between glutamic acid (Glu) and arginine (Arg) residues are studied under low-temperature conditions in an overall neutral peptide. Conformation-specific IR spectra, obtained with the free electron laser FELIX, in

  4. Gas-phase photoemission with soft x-rays: cross sections and angular distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirley, D.A.; Kobrin, P.H.; Truesdale, C.M.; Lindle, D.W.; Ferrett, T.A.; Heimann, P.A.; Becker, U.; Kerkhoff, H.G.; Southworth, S.H.


    A summary is presented of typical gas-phase photoemission studies based on synchrotron radiation in the 50-5000 eV range, using beam lines at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. Three topics are addressed: atomic inner-shell photoelectron cross sections and asymmetries, correlation peaks in rare gases, and core-level shape resonances in molecules

  5. Ab initio study of gas phase and water-assisted tautomerization of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Water-assisted tautomerization in maleimide and formamide showed that difference in energy barrier reduces to 2⋅83 kcal/mol from 10⋅41 kcal/mol (in gas phase) at B3LYP level, which resulted that maleimide readily undergoes tautomerization in water molecule. Keywords. Ab Initio calculations; maleimide; formamide; ...

  6. The Significance of Gas-Phase Mass Transport in Assessment of kchem and Dchem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohne, Ørjan Fossmark; Søgaard, Martin; Wiik, Kjell


    In this work, the validity of electrical conductivity relaxation (ECR) as a method for the assessment of chemical surface exchange, kchem, and bulk diffusion, Dchem, coefficients is investigated with respect to mass transport limitations in the gas phase. A model encompassing both the oxygen...

  7. Imaging Molecular Structure through Femtosecond Photoelectron Diffraction on Aligned and Oriented Gas-Phase Molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Rebecca; Rouzee, Arnaud; Adolph, Marcus


    This paper gives an account of our progress towards performing femtosecond time-resolved photoelectron diffraction on gas-phase molecules in a pump-probe setup combining optical lasers and an X-ray Free-Electron Laser. We present results of two experiments aimed at measuring photoelectron angular...

  8. Residence time distribution of the gas phase in a mechanically agitated gas-liquid reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijert, M.P.G.; Oyevaar, M.H.; Kuper, W.J.; Westerterp, K.R.


    In this study we present a measuring method and extensive experimental data on the gas phase RTD in a mechanically agitated gas-liquid reactor with standard dimensions over a wide range of superficial gas velocities, agitation rates and agitator sizes. The results are modelled successfully, using

  9. The Genealogical Tree of Ethanol: Gas-phase Formation of Glycolaldehyde, Acetic Acid, and Formic Acid (United States)

    Skouteris, Dimitrios; Balucani, Nadia; Ceccarelli, Cecilia; Vazart, Fanny; Puzzarini, Cristina; Barone, Vincenzo; Codella, Claudio; Lefloch, Bertrand


    Despite the harsh conditions of the interstellar medium, chemistry thrives in it, especially in star-forming regions where several interstellar complex organic molecules (iCOMs) have been detected. Yet, how these species are synthesized is a mystery. The majority of current models claim that this happens on interstellar grain surfaces. Nevertheless, evidence is mounting that neutral gas-phase chemistry plays an important role. In this paper, we propose a new scheme for the gas-phase synthesis of glycolaldehyde, a species with a prebiotic potential and for which no gas-phase formation route was previously known. In the proposed scheme, the ancestor is ethanol and the glycolaldehyde sister species are acetic acid (another iCOM with unknown gas-phase formation routes) and formic acid. For the reactions of the new scheme with no available data, we have performed electronic structure and kinetics calculations deriving rate coefficients and branching ratios. Furthermore, after a careful review of the chemistry literature, we revised the available chemical networks, adding and correcting several reactions related to glycolaldehyde, acetic acid, and formic acid. The new chemical network has been used in an astrochemical model to predict the abundance of glycolaldehyde, acetic acid, and formic acid. The predicted abundance of glycolaldehyde depends on the ethanol abundance in the gas phase and is in excellent agreement with the measured one in hot corinos and shock sites. Our new model overpredicts the abundance of acetic acid and formic acid by about a factor of 10, which might imply a yet incomplete reaction network.

  10. Gas-phase metalloprotein complexes interrogated by ion mobility-mass spectrometry (United States)

    Faull, Peter A.; Korkeila, Karoliina E.; Kalapothakis, Jason M.; Gray, Andrew; McCullough, Bryan J.; Barran, Perdita E.


    Gas-phase biomolecular structure may be explored through a number of analytical techniques. Ion mobility-mass spectrometry (IM-MS) continues to prove itself as a sensitive and reliable bioanalytical tool for gas-phase structure determination due to intense study and development over the past 15 years. A vast amount of research interest, especially in protein and peptide conformational studies has generated a wealth of structural information for biological systems from small peptides to megadalton-sized biomolecules. In this work, linear low field IM-MS has been used to study gas-phase conformations and determine rotationally averaged collision cross-sections of three metalloproteins--cytochrome c, haemoglobin and calmodulin. Measurements have been performed on the MoQToF, a modified QToF 1 instrument (Micromass UK Ltd., Manchester, UK) modified in house. Gas-phase conformations and cross-sections of multimeric cytochrome c ions of the form [xM + nH+]n+ for x = 1-3 (monomer to trimer) have been successfully characterised and measured. We believe these to be the first reported collision cross-sections of higher order multimeric cytochrome c. Haemoglobin is investigated to obtain structural information on the associative mechanism of tetramer formation. Haemoglobin molecules, comprising apo- and holo-monomer chains, dimer and tetramer are transferred to the gas phase under a range of solution conditions. Structural information on the proposed critical intermediate, semi-haemoglobin, is reported. Cross-sections of the calcium binding protein calmodulin have been obtained under a range of calcium-bound conditions. Metalloprotein collision cross-sections from ion mobility measurements are compared with computationally derived values from published NMR and X-ray crystallography structural data. Finally we consider the change in the density of the experimentally measured rotationally averaged collision cross-section for compact geometries of the electrosprayed proteins.

  11. Diffusion Monte Carlo simulations of gas phase and adsorbed D2-(H2)n clusters (United States)

    Curotto, E.; Mella, M.


    We have computed ground state energies and analyzed radial distributions for several gas phase and adsorbed D2(H2)n and HD(H2)n clusters. An external model potential designed to mimic ionic adsorption sites inside porous materials is used [M. Mella and E. Curotto, J. Phys. Chem. A 121, 5005 (2017)]. The isotopic substitution lowers the ground state energies by the expected amount based on the mass differences when these are compared with the energies of the pure clusters in the gas phase. A similar impact is found for adsorbed aggregates. The dissociation energy of D2 from the adsorbed clusters is always much higher than that of H2 from both pure and doped aggregates. Radial distributions of D2 and H2 are compared for both the gas phase and adsorbed species. For the gas phase clusters, two types of hydrogen-hydrogen interactions are considered: one based on the assumption that rotations and translations are adiabatically decoupled and the other based on nonisotropic four-dimensional potential. In the gas phase clusters of sufficiently large size, we find the heavier isotopomer more likely to be near the center of mass. However, there is a considerable overlap among the radial distributions of the two species. For the adsorbed clusters, we invariably find the heavy isotope located closer to the attractive interaction source than H2, and at the periphery of the aggregate, H2 molecules being substantially excluded from the interaction with the source. This finding rationalizes the dissociation energy results. For D2-(H2)n clusters with n ≥12 , such preference leads to the desorption of D2 from the aggregate, a phenomenon driven by the minimization of the total energy that can be obtained by reducing the confinement of (H2)12. The same happens for (H2)13, indicating that such an effect may be quite general and impact on the absorption of quantum species inside porous materials.

  12. The Stability of CI02 as a Product of Gas Phase Decontamination Treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, D. W.


    The gas phase decontamination project is investigating the use of chlorine trifluoride (ClF 3 ) to fluorinate nonvolatile uranium deposits to produce uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) gas. The potential existence of chlorine dioxide (ClO 2 ) during gas phase decontamination with ClF 3 has been the subject of recent safety discussions. Some of the laboratory data collected during feasibility studies of the gas phase process has been evaluated for the presence of ClO 2 in the product gas stream. The preliminary evidence to date can be summarized as follows: (1) ClO 2 was not detected in the flow loop in the absence of ClF 3 ; (2) ClO 2 was not detected in the static reactors in the absence of both ClF 3 and ClF; and (3) ClO 2 was detected in a static reactor in the absence of all fluorinating gases. The experimental evidence suggests that ClO 2 will not exist in the presence of ClF 3 , ClF, or UF 6 . The data analyzed to date is insufficient to determine the stability of ClO 2 in the presence of ClO 2 F. Thermodynamic calculations of the ClF 3 + H 2 O system support the experimental evidence, and suggest that ClO 2 will not exist in the presence of ClO 2 F. Additional experimental efforts are needed to provide a better understanding of the gas phase ClF 3 treatments and the product gases. However, preliminary evidence to date suggests that ClO 2 should not be present as a product during the normal operations of the gas phase decontamination project


    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  14. Comprehensive Gas-Phase Peptide Ion Structure Studies Using Ion Mobility Techniques: Part 2. Gas-Phase Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange for Ion Population Estimation (United States)

    Khakinejad, Mahdiar; Ghassabi Kondalaji, Samaneh; Tafreshian, Amirmahdi; Valentine, Stephen J.


    Gas-phase hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX) using D2O reagent and collision cross-section (CCS) measurements are utilized to monitor the ion conformers of the model peptide acetyl-PAAAAKAAAAKAAAAKAAAAK. The measurements are carried out on a home-built ion mobility instrument coupled to a linear ion trap mass spectrometer containing electron transfer dissociation (ETD) capabilities. ETD is utilized to obtain per-residue deuterium uptake data for select ion conformers, and a new algorithm is presented for interpreting the HDX data. Using molecular dynamics (MD) production data and a hydrogen accessibility scoring (HAS)-number of effective collisions (NEC) model, hypothetical HDX behavior is attributed to various in-silico candidate (CCS match) structures. The HAS-NEC model is applied to all candidate structures, and non-negative linear regression is employed to determine structure contributions resulting in the best match to deuterium uptake. The accuracy of the HAS-NEC model is tested with the comparison of predicted and experimental isotopic envelopes for several of the observed c-ions. It is proposed that gas-phase HDX can be utilized effectively as a second criterion (after CCS matching) for filtering suitable MD candidate structures. In this study, the second step of structure elucidation, 13 nominal structures were selected (from a pool of 300 candidate structures) and each with a population contribution proposed for these ions.

  15. Analysis of reaction products formed in the gas phase reaction of E,E-2,4-hexadienal with atmospheric oxidants: Reaction mechanisms and atmospheric implications (United States)

    Colmenar, I.; Martin, P.; Cabañas, B.; Salgado, S.; Martinez, E.


    An analysis of reaction products for the reaction of E,E-2,4-hexadienal with chlorine atoms (Cl) and OH and NO3 radicals has been carried out at the first time with the aim of obtaining a better understanding of the tropospheric reactivity of α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry with a Time of Flight detector (GC-TOFMS) were used to carry out the qualitative and/or quantitative analyses. Reaction products in gas and particulate phase were observed from the reactions of E,E-2,4- hexadienal with all oxidants. E/Z-Butenedial and maleic anhydride were the main products identified in gas phase. E-butenedial calculated molar yield ranging from 4 to 10%. A significant amount of multifunctional compounds (chloro and hydroxy carbonyls) was identified. These compounds could be formed in particulate phase explaining the ∼90% of unaccounted carbon in gas phase. The reaction with Cl atoms in the presence of NOx with a long reaction time gave Peroxy Acetyl Nitrate (PAN) as an additional product, which is known for being an important specie in the generation of the photochemical smog. Nitrated compounds were the major organic products from the reaction with the NO3 radical. Based on the identified products, the reaction mechanisms have been proposed. In these mechanisms a double bond addition of the atmospheric oxidant at C4/C5 of E,E-2,4-hexadienal is the first step for tropospheric degradation.

  16. Experimental and theoretical study on DPPH radical scavenging mechanism of some chalcone quinoline derivatives (United States)

    Hamlaoui, Ikram; Bencheraiet, Reguia; Bensegueni, Rafik; Bencharif, Mustapha


    In this study, the antioxidant capacity of three chalcone derivatives was evaluated by DPPH free radical scavenging. Experimental data showed low antioxidant activity (IC50±SD) of these molecules in comparison with BHT. The mechanism of DPPH radical scavenging elucidated by means of density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The tested compounds and their corresponding radicals and anions were optimized using B3LYP functional with 6-31G (d,p) basis set in the gas phase. The C-PCM model was used to perform solvent medium calculations. On the basis of theoretical calculations, it was shown that HAT mechanism was predominant in the gas phase, whereas SET-PT and SPLET mechanisms were favored in the presence of the solvent. Moreover, the HOMO orbitals and spin density distribution was evaluated to predict the probable sites for free radical attack.

  17. ICR studies of some anionic gas phase reactions and FTICR software design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noest, A.J.


    This thesis consists of two parts. Part one (Chs. 1-5) reports experimental results from mostly drift-cell ICR studies of negative ion-molecule reactions; part two (Chs. 6-11) concerns the design of software for an FTICR instrument. The author discusses successively: 1. ion cyclotron resonance spectrometry; 2. the gas phase allyl anion; 3. the (M-H) and (M-H2) anions from acetone; 4. negative ion-molecule reactions of aliphatic nitrites studied by cyclotron resonance; 5. homoconjugation versus charge-dipole interaction effects in the stabilization of carbanions in the gas phase; 6. the Fourier Transform ICR method; 7. the FTICR-software; 8. an efficient adaptive matcher filter for fast transient signals; 9. reduction of spectral peak height errors by time-domain weighing; 10. Chirp excitation; 11. Compact data storage. The book concludes with a Dutch and English summary (G.J.P.)

  18. UV-Vis absorption spectra and electronic structure of merocyanines in the gas phase (United States)

    Ishchenko, Alexander A.; Kulinich, Andrii V.; Bondarev, Stanislav L.; Raichenok, Tamara F.


    Gas-phase absorption spectra of a merocyanine vinylogous series have been studied for the first time. In vapour, their long-wavelength absorption bands were found to be considerably shifted hypsochromically, broader, more symmetrical, less intense, and their vinylene shift much smaller than even in low-polarity n-hexane. This indicates that in the gas phase their electronic structure closely approaches the nonpolar polyene limiting structure. The TDDFT calculations of the long-wavelength electronic transitions in the studied merocyanines in vacuo demonstrated good-to-excellent correlation - depending on the functional used - with the obtained experimental data. For comparison, the solvent effects was accounted for using the polarizable continuum model (PCM) with n-hexane and ethanol as low-polarity and high-polarity media, and compared with the UV-Vis spectral data in these solvents. In this case, the discrepancy between theory and experiment was much greater, increasing at that with the polymethine chain length.

  19. Ultraslow isomerization in photoexcited gas-phase carbon cluster [Formula: see text]. (United States)

    Saha, K; Chandrasekaran, V; Heber, O; Iron, M A; Rappaport, M L; Zajfman, D


    Isomerization and carbon chemistry in the gas phase are key processes in many scientific studies. Here we report on the isomerization process from linear [Formula: see text] to its monocyclic isomer. [Formula: see text] ions were trapped in an electrostatic ion beam trap and then excited with a laser pulse of precise energy. The neutral products formed upon photoexcitation were measured as a function of time after the laser pulse. It was found using a statistical model that, although the system is excited above its isomerization barrier energy, the actual isomerization from linear to monocyclic conformation takes place on a very long time scale of up to hundreds of microseconds. This finding may indicate a general phenomenon that can affect the interstellar medium chemistry of large molecule formation as well as other gas phase processes.

  20. Effect of duty-cycles on the air plasma gas-phase of dielectric barrier discharges (United States)

    Barni, R.; Biganzoli, I.; Dell'Orto, E. C.; Riccardi, C.


    An experimental investigation concerning the effects of a duty-cycle in the supply of a dielectric barrier discharge in atmospheric pressure air has been performed. Electrical characteristics of the discharge have been measured, focusing mainly on the statistical properties of the current filaments and on dielectric surface charging, both affected by the frequent repetition of breakdown imposed by the duty-cycle. Information on the gas-phase composition was gathered too. In particular, a strong enhancement in the ozone formation rate is observed when suitable long pauses separate the active discharge phases. A simulation of the chemical kinetics in the gas-phase, based on a simplified discharge modeling, is briefly described in order to shed light on the observed increase in ozone production. The effect of a duty-cycle on surface modification of polymeric films in order to increase their wettability has been investigated too.

  1. Partitioning of phthalates among the gas phase, airborne particles and settled dust in indoor environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weschler, Charles J.; Salthammer, Tunga; Fromme, Hermann


    A critical evaluation of human exposure to phthalate esters in indoor environments requires the determination of their distribution among the gas phase, airborne particles and settled dust. If sorption from the gas phase is the dominant mechanism whereby a given phthalate is associated with both...... airborne particles and settled dust, there should be a predictable relationship between its particle and dust concentrations. The present paper tests this for six phthalate esters (DMP, DEP, DnBP, DiBP, BBzP and DEHP) that have been measured in both the air and the settled dust of 30 Berlin apartments....... The particle concentration, C-particle, of a given phthalate was calculated from its total airborne concentration and the concentration of airborne particles (PM4). This required knowledge of the particle-gas partition coefficient, K., which was estimated from either the saturation vapor pressure (p...

  2. Theoretical investigation of the long-lived metastable AlO2+ dication in gas phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sghaier, Onsi; Abdallah, Hassan H.; Abdullah, Hewa Y.; Jaidane, Nejm Eddine; Al Mogren, Muneerah Mogren; Hochlaf, Majdi


    Highlights: • Theoretical investigation of gas-phase molecular species AlO 2+ . • Spectroscopic parameters of this dication in its electronic ground and exited states. • Theoretical double ionization spectrum of AlO. - Abstract: We report the results of a detailed theoretical study of the electronic ground and excited states of the gas-phase doubly charged ion AlO 2+ using high-level ab initio computer calculations. Both standard and explicitly correlated methods were used to calculate their potential energy curves and spectroscopic parameters. These computations show that the ground state of AlO 2+ is X 2 Π. The internuclear equilibrium distance of AlO 2+ (X 2 Π) is computed 1.725 Å. We also deduced the adiabatic double ionization and charge stripping energies of AlO to be about 27.45 eV and 17.80 eV, respectively.

  3. Ab initio treatment of gas phase GeO{sup 2+} doubly charged ion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mogren Al Mogren, M. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, King Saud University, PO Box 2455, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Ben Abdallah, D. [Laboratoire de Spectroscopie Atomique, Moléculaire et Applications – LSAMA, Université de Tunis, Tunis (Tunisia); Department of General Studies, Riyadh Corporation of Technology, Technical and Vocational Training Corporation, PO Box 42826, Riyadh 11551 (Saudi Arabia); Hochlaf, M., E-mail: [Université Paris-Est, Laboratoire Modélisation et Simulation Multi Echelle, MSME UMR 8208 CNRS, 5 bd Descartes, 77454 Marne-la-Vallée (France)


    Highlights: • Theoretical investigation of the novel gas-phase molecular species GeO{sup 2+}. • Spectroscopic parameters of this dication in its electronic ground and exited states. • Theoretical double ionization spectrum of GeO. - Abstract: Using multi reference configuration interaction methodology in connection with a large basis set, we show that GeO{sup 2+} is a metastable species either in the ground or in the electronically excited states. This confirms the observation of this dication in gas phase by mass spectrometry. In addition, we derived a set of accurate spectroscopic terms for GeO{sup 2+} bound states. At the MRCI/aug-cc-pV5Z level of theory, the adiabatic double ionization energy of GeO is computed to be ∼28.93 eV.

  4. Unusual hydroxyl migration in the fragmentation of β-alanine dication in the gas phase. (United States)

    Piekarski, Dariusz Grzegorz; Delaunay, Rudy; Maclot, Sylvain; Adoui, Lamri; Martín, Fernando; Alcamí, Manuel; Huber, Bernd A; Rousseau, Patrick; Domaracka, Alicja; Díaz-Tendero, Sergio


    We present a combined experimental and theoretical study of the fragmentation of doubly positively charged β-alanine molecules in the gas phase. The dissociation of the produced dicationic molecules, induced by low-energy ion collisions, is analysed by coincidence mass spectrometric techniques; the coupling with ab initio molecular dynamics simulations allows rationalisation of the experimental observations. The present strategy gives deeper insights into the chemical mechanisms of multiply charged amino acids in the gas phase. In the case of the β-alanine dication, in addition to the expected Coulomb explosion and hydrogen migration processes, we have found evidence of hydroxyl-group migration, which leads to unusual fragmentation products, such as hydroxymethyl cation, and is necessary to explain some of the observed dominant channels.

  5. The reactions of OH radicals with chloroalkanes in the temperature range 295-360 K

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markert, F.; Nielsen, O.J.


    The temperature dependency of the rate constants for the gas phase reaction of OH radicals with a series of chloroalkanes was measured in the temperature range from 295 to 360 K at a total pressure of 1 atm. The rate constants were obtained by using the absolute technique of pulse radiolysis comb...

  6. Conformational Study of DNA Sugars: from the Gas Phase to Solution (United States)

    Uriarte, Iciar; Vallejo-López, Montserrat; Cocinero, Emilio J.; Corzana, Francisco; Davis, Benjamin G.


    Sugars are versatile molecules that play a variety of roles in the organism. For example, they are important in energy storage processes or as structural scaffolds. Here, we focus on the monosaccharide present in DNA by addressing the conformational and puckering properties in the gas phase of α- and β-methyl-2-deoxy-ribofuranoside and α- and β-methyl-2-deoxy-ribopiranoside. Other sugars have been previously studied in the gas phase The work presented here stems from a combination of chemical synthesis, ultrafast vaporization methods, supersonic expansions, microwave spectroscopy (both chirped-pulsed and Balle-Flygare cavity-based spectrometers) and NMR spectroscopy. Previous studies in the gas phase had been performed on 2-deoxyribose, but only piranose forms were detected. However, thanks to the combination of these techniques, we have isolated and characterized for the first time the conformational landscape of the sugar present in DNA in its biologically relevant furanose form. Our gas phase study serves as a probe of the conformational preferences of these biomolecules under isolation conditions. Thanks to the NMR experiments, we can characterize the favored conformations in solution and extract the role of the solvent in the structure and puckering of the monosaccharides. E. J. Cocinero, A. Lesarri, P. Écija, F. J. Basterretxea, J.-U. Grabow, J. A. Fernández, F. Castaño, Angew. Chem. Int. Edit. 2012, 51, 3119. P. Écija, I. Uriarte, L. Spada, B. G. Davis, W. Caminati, F. J. Basterretxea, A. Lesarri, E. J. Cocinero, Chem. Commun. 2016, 52, 6241. I. Peña, E. J. Cocinero, C. Cabezas, A. Lesarri, S. Mata, P. Écija, A. M. Daly, Á. Cimas, C. Bermúdez, F. J. Basterretxea, S. Blanco, J. A. Fernández, J. C. López, F. Castaño, J. L. Alonso, Angew. Chem. Int. Edit. 2013, 52, 11840.

  7. Gas Phase Transport, Adsorption and Surface Diffusion in Porous Glass Membrane

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yang, J.; Čermáková, Jiřina; Uchytil, Petr; Hamel, Ch.; Seidel-Morgenstern, A.


    Roč. 104, 2-4 (2005), s. 344-351 ISSN 0920-5861. [International Conference on Catalysis in Membrane Reactors /6./. Lahnstein, 06.07.2004-09.07.2004] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA4072402 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : gas phase transport * vycor glass * adsorption Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.365, year: 2005

  8. Method and apparatus for selective capture of gas phase analytes using metal .beta.-diketonate polymers (United States)

    Harvey, Scott D [Kennewick, WA


    A process and sensor device are disclosed that employ metal .beta.-diketonate polymers to selectively capture gas-phase explosives and weaponized chemical agents in a sampling area or volume. The metal .beta.-diketonate polymers can be applied to surfaces in various analytical formats for detection of: improvised explosive devices, unexploded ordinance, munitions hidden in cargo holds, explosives, and chemical weapons in public areas.

  9. Investigation of gas-phase decontamination of internally radioactively contaminated gaseous diffusion process equipment and piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bundy, R.D.; Munday, E.B.


    Construction of the gaseous diffusion plants (GDPs) was begun during World War 2 to produce enriched uranium for defense purposes. These plants, which utilized UF 6 gas, were used primarily for this purpose through 1964. From 1959 through 1968, production shifted primarily to uranium enrichment to supply the nuclear power industry. Additional UF 6 -handling facilities were built in feed and fuel-processing plants associated with the uranium enrichment process. Two of the five process buildings at Oak ridge were shut down in 1964. Uranium enrichment activities at Oak Ridge were discontinued altogether in 1985. In 1987, the Department of Energy (DOE) decided to proceed with a permanent shutdown of the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP). DOE intends to begin decommissioning and decontamination (D ampersand D) of ORGDP early in the next century. The remaining two GDPs are expected to be shut down during the next 10 to 40 years and will also require D ampersand D, as will the other UF 6 -handling facilities. This paper presents an investigation of gas- phase decontamination of internally radioactively contaminated gaseous diffusion process equipment and piping using powerful fluorinating reagents that convert nonvolatile uranium compounds to volatile UF 6 . These reagents include ClF 3 , F 2 , and other compounds. The scope of D ampersand D at the GDPs, previous work of gas-phase decontamination, four concepts for using gas-phase decontamination, plans for further study of gas-phase decontamination, and the current status of this work are discussed. 13 refs., 15 figs

  10. Isospin and momentum dependence of liquid-gas phase transition in hot asymmetric nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Jun; Ma, Hongru; Chen, Liewen; Li, Baoan


    The liquid-gas phase transition in hot neutron-rich nuclear matter is investigated within a self-consistent thermal model using different interactions with or without isospin and/or momentum dependence. The boundary of the phase-coexistence region is shown to be sensitive to the density dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy as well as the isospin and momentum dependence of the nuclear interaction. (author)

  11. Theoretical Studies of Gas Phase Elementary and Carbon Nanostructure Growth Reactions (United States)


    photodissociation reactions of ketene, methylamine, formic acid , methyl ethyl ketone, acetone and NO3. For instance, for NO3, a totally photodissociation reactions of ketene, methylamine, formic acid , methyl ethyl ketone, acetone and NO3. For instance, for NO3, a totally unknown...THEORETICAL STUDIES OF GAS PHASE ELEMENTARY AND CARBON NANOSTRUCTURE GROWTH REACTIONS KEIJI MOROKUMA EMORY UNIVERSITY 09/19/2013 Final Report

  12. Three-dimensional, gas phase fuel cell with a laccase biocathode (United States)

    Borole, Abhijeet P.; LaBarge, Samuel; Spott, Benjamin A.

    A fuel cell using an enzymatic biocathode operating in a gas phase mode is reported. The electrode was prepared using a three-dimensional conductive electrode matrix. An enzyme solution containing laccase and a mediator was distributed into a hydrophilic matrix of carbon felt fibers creating a porous gas-flowing electrode. A Pt-based gas diffusion electrode served as the anode. A maximum power density of 9.4 W m -2 (2.9 kW m -3) was obtained with 15 U of enzyme cm -2, with hydrogen as the fuel. Power density was found to be a function of the enzyme loading, air flow rate, volume of the liquid phase and the humidity of the air stream. The ability to use methanol and ethanol as vapors in gas phase was also shown. The introduction of three-dimensionality into the electrode architecture and operation of the fuel cell in a gas phase mode to supply the fuel and the oxidant demonstrates an avenue for improving the power density of EFCs.

  13. Temperature dependence of gas-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and organochlorine pesticide concentrations in Chicago air (United States)

    Sofuoglu, Aysun; Odabasi, Mustafa; Tasdemir, Yucel; Khalili, Nasrin R.; Holsen, Thomas M.

    The temperature dependence of gas-phase atmospheric concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides measured in Chicago, IL between June and October 1995 were investigated using plots of the natural logarithm of partial pressures (ln P) vs. reciprocal mean temperatures (1/ T). For the eight lowest molecular weight PAHs, temperature dependence was statistically significant (at the 95% confidence level) and temperature accounted for 23-49% of the variability in gas-phase concentrations. The relatively higher slopes for most of the PAHs suggested that volatilization from local sources and short-range transport influenced their concentrations. For pesticides, temperature dependence was statistically significant for DDD and for trans-nonachlor (at the 95% and 90% confidence levels), and was not statistically significant for the other five compounds (2-18% of the variability in their gas-phase concentrations). The relatively lower slopes for individual pesticides suggested that they have mostly non-urban and distant sources. Results of back trajectory analyses suggested that the region, southwest of Chicago, might be an important local or regional source sector for PAHs and organochlorine pesticides. No statistically significant relationship was observed between wind speed and PAH or pesticide concentrations. None of the variables (temperature, wind speed, wind direction, local and regional sources) could fully explain the variation in their concentrations measured in Chicago, therefore, this variation can be attributed to the combined effect of those factors.

  14. Thermodynamic analysis of fuels in gas phase: ethanol, gasoline and ethanol - gasoline predicted by DFT method. (United States)

    Neto, A F G; Lopes, F S; Carvalho, E V; Huda, M N; Neto, A M J C; Machado, N T


    This paper presents a theoretical study using density functional theory to calculate thermodynamics properties of major molecules compounds at gas phase of fuels like gasoline, ethanol, and gasoline-ethanol mixture in thermal equilibrium on temperature range up to 1500 K. We simulated a composition of gasoline mixture with ethanol for a thorough study of thermal energy, enthalpy, Gibbs free energy, entropy, heat capacity at constant pressure with respect to temperature in order to study the influence caused by ethanol as an additive to gasoline. We used semi-empirical computational methods as well in order to know the efficiency of other methods to simulate fuels through this methodology. In addition, the ethanol influence through the changes in percentage fractions of chemical energy released in combustion reaction and the variations on thermal properties for autoignition temperatures of fuels was analyzed. We verified how ethanol reduces the chemical energy released by gasoline combustion and how at low temperatures the gas phase fuels in thermal equilibrium have similar thermodynamic behavior. Theoretical results were compared with experimental data, when available, and showed agreement. Graphical Abstract Thermodynamic analysis of fuels in gas phase.

  15. Improved machine learning method for analysis of gas phase chemistry of peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahn Natalie


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate peptide identification is important to high-throughput proteomics analyses that use mass spectrometry. Search programs compare fragmentation spectra (MS/MS of peptides from complex digests with theoretically derived spectra from a database of protein sequences. Improved discrimination is achieved with theoretical spectra that are based on simulating gas phase chemistry of the peptides, but the limited understanding of those processes affects the accuracy of predictions from theoretical spectra. Results We employed a robust data mining strategy using new feature annotation functions of MAE software, which revealed under-prediction of the frequency of occurrence in fragmentation of the second peptide bond. We applied methods of exploratory data analysis to pre-process the information in the MS/MS spectra, including data normalization and attribute selection, to reduce the attributes to a smaller, less correlated set for machine learning studies. We then compared our rule building machine learning program, DataSqueezer, with commonly used association rules and decision tree algorithms. All used machine learning algorithms produced similar results that were consistent with expected properties for a second gas phase mechanism at the second peptide bond. Conclusion The results provide compelling evidence that we have identified underlying chemical properties in the data that suggest the existence of an additional gas phase mechanism for the second peptide bond. Thus, the methods described in this study provide a valuable approach for analyses of this kind in the future.

  16. New quantum chemical computations of formamide deuteration support gas-phase formation of this prebiotic molecule (United States)

    Skouteris, D.; Vazart, F.; Ceccarelli, C.; Balucani, N.; Puzzarini, C.; Barone, V.


    Based on recent work, formamide might be a potentially very important molecule in the emergence of terrestrial life. Although detected in the interstellar medium for decades, its formation route is still debated, whether in the gas phase or on the dust grain surfaces. Molecular deuteration has proven to be, in other cases, an efficient way to identify how a molecule is synthesized. For formamide, new published observations towards the IRAS16293-2422 B hot corino show that its three deuterated forms have all the same deuteration ratio, 2-5 per cent and that this is a factor of 3-8 smaller than that measured for H2CO towards the IRAS16293-2422 protostar. Following a previous work on the gas-phase formamide formation via the reaction NH2 + H2CO → HCONH2 + H, we present here new calculations of the rate coefficients for the production of monodeuterated formamide through the same reaction, starting from monodeuterated NH2 or H2CO. Some misconceptions regarding our previous treatment of the reaction are also cleared up. The results of the new computations show that, at the 100 K temperature of the hot corino, the rate of deuteration of the three forms is the same, within 20 per cent. On the contrary, the reaction between non-deuterated species proceeds three times faster than that with deuterated ones. These results confirm that a gas-phase route for the formation of formamide is perfectly in agreement with the available observations.

  17. The Gas-Phase Formation of Methyl Formate in Hot Molecular Cores (United States)

    Horn, Anne; Møllendal, Harald; Sekiguchi, Osamu; Uggerud, Einar; Roberts, Helen; Herbst, Eric; Viggiano, A. A.; Fridgen, Travis D.


    Methyl formate, HCOOCH3, is a well-known interstellar molecule prominent in the spectra of hot molecular cores. The current view of its formation is that it occurs in the gas phase from precursor methanol, which is synthesized on the surfaces of grain mantles during a previous colder era and evaporates while temperatures increase during the process of high-mass star formation. The specific reaction sequence thought to form methyl formate, the ion-molecule reaction between protonated methanol and formaldehyde followed by dissociative recombination of the protonated ion [HCO(H)OCH3]+, has not been studied in detail in the laboratory. We present here the results of both a quantum chemical study of the ion-molecule reaction between [CH3OH2]+ and H2CO as well as new experimental work on the system. In addition, we report theoretical and experimental studies for a variety of other possible gas-phase reactions leading to ion precursors of methyl formate. The studied chemical processes leading to methyl formate are included in a chemical model of hot cores. Our results show that none of these gas-phase processes produces enough methyl formate to explain its observed abundance.

  18. Enantiomer-Selective Photo-Induced Reaction of Protonated Tryptophan with Disaccharides in the Gas Phase (United States)

    Doan, Thuc N.; Fujihara, Akimasa


    In order to investigate chemical evolution in interstellar molecular clouds, enantiomer-selective photo-induced chemical reactions between an amino acid and disaccharides in the gas phase were examined using a tandem mass spectrometer containing an electrospray ionization source and a cold ion trap. Ultraviolet photodissociation mass spectra of cold gas-phase noncovalent complexes of protonated tryptophan (Trp) enantiomers with disaccharides consisting of two d-glucose units, such as d-maltose or d-cellobiose, were obtained by photoexcitation of the indole ring of Trp. NH2CHCOOH loss via cleavage of the Cα-Cβ bond in Trp induced by hydrogen atom transfer from the NH3 + group of a protonated Trp was observed in a noncovalent heterochiral H+( l-Trp)( d-maltose) complex. In contrast, a photo-induced chemical reaction forming the product ion with m/z 282 occurs in homochiral H+( d-Trp)( d-maltose). For d-cellobiose, both NH2CHCOOH elimination and the m/z 282 product ion were observed, and no enantiomer-selective phenomena occurred. The m/z 282 product ion indicates that the photo-induced C-glycosylation, which links d-glucose residues to the indole moiety of Trp via a C-C bond, can occur in cold gas-phase noncovalent complexes, and its enantiomer-selectivity depends on the structure of the disaccharide.

  19. Revision of the gas-phase acidity scale below 300 kcal mol(-1). (United States)

    Leito, Ivo; Raamat, Elin; Kütt, Agnes; Saame, Jaan; Kipper, Karin; Koppel, Ilmar A; Koppel, Ivar; Zhang, Min; Mishima, Masaaki; Yagupolskii, Lev M; Garlyauskayte, Romute Yu; Filatov, Andrey A


    The gas-phase acidity (GA) scale from (CF(3)CO)(2)NH to (C(2)F(5)SO(2))(2)NH--about a 24 kcal mol(-1) range of gas-phase acidities--was reexamined using the Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance equilibrium measurement approach. Some additions and modifications to the standard methodology of GA measurements were introduced (estimation of partial pressures from mass spectra of the compounds, instead of the pressure gauge readings and use of long reaction times) to achieve higher reliability. Gas-phase acidities of 18 compounds were determined for the first time. The results reveal a contraction of the previously published values in this part of the scale. In particular, the GA values of (CF(3)SO(2))(2)NH and (C(2)F(5)SO(2))(2)NH (important components of lithium ion battery electrolytes and ionic liquids) were revised toward stronger acidities from 291.8 kcal mol(-1) to 286.5 kcal mol(-1) and from 289.4 kcal mol(-1) to 283.7 kcal mol(-1) (i.e., by 5.3 and 5.7 kcal mol(-1)), respectively. Experimental and computational evidence is presented in support of the current results.

  20. Systematic Search for Chemical Reactions in Gas Phase Contributing to Methanol Formation in Interstellar Space. (United States)

    Gamez-Garcia, Victoria G; Galano, Annia


    A massive search for chemical routes leading to methanol formation in gas phase has been conducted using computational chemistry, at the CBS-QB3 level of theory. The calculations were performed at five different temperatures (100, 80, 50, 20, and 10 K) and at three pressures (0.1, 0.01, and 0.001 atm) for each temperature. The search was focused on identifying reactions with the necessary features to be viable in the interstellar medium (ISM). A searching strategy was applied to that purpose, which allowed to reduce an initial set of 678 possible reactions to a subset of 11 chemical routes that are recommended, for the first time, as potential candidates for contributing to methanol formation in the gas phase of the ISM. They are all barrier-less, and thus they are expected to take place at collision rates. Hopefully, including these reactions in the currently available models, for the gas-phase methanol formation in the ISM, would help improving the predicted fractional abundance of this molecule in dark clouds. Further investigations, especially those dealing with grain chemistry and electronic excited states, would be crucial to get a complete picture of the methanol formation in the ISM.

  1. Statistical parameter characteristics of gas-phase fluctuations for gas-liquid intermittent flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsui, G.; Monji, H.; Takaguchi, M. [Univ. of Tsukuba (Japan)


    This study deals with theoretical analysis on the general behaviour of statistical parameters of gas-phase fluctuations and comparison of statistical parameter characteristics for the real void fraction fluctuations measured with those for the wave form modified the real fluctuations. In order to investigate the details of the relation between the behavior of the statistical parameters in real intermittent flow and analytical results obtained from information on the real flow, the distributions of statistical parameters for general fundamental wave form of gas-phase fluctuations are discussed in detail. By modifying the real gas-phase fluctuations to a trapezoidaly wave, the experimental results can be directly compared with the analytical results. The analytical results for intermittent flow show that the wave form parameter, and the total amplitude of void fraction fluctuations, affects strongly on the statistical parameter characteristics. The comparison with experiment using nitrogen gas-water intermittent flow suggests that the parameters of skewness and excess may be better as indicators of flow pattern. That is, the macroscopic nature of intermittent flow can be grasped by the skewness and the excess, and the detailed flow structure may be described by the mean and the standard deviation.

  2. Application of 'Hydration Model' to evaluate gas phase transfer of ruthenium and technetium from reprocessing solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasahira, Akira; Hoshikawa, Tadahiro; Kamoshida, Mamoru; Kawamura, Fumio


    In order to evaluate the amounts of gas phase transferred ruthenium (Ru), and technetium (Tc), simulations were made for the continuous evaporator used in a reprocessing plant to concentrate high level liquid waste. The concentrations and activities of nitric acid and water, which controlled the reaction rate and gas-liquid equilibrium in the evaporator solution, were evaluated using the previously developed 'Hydration Model'. When the feed solution contained 2.7 M (=mol/dm 3 ) of nitric acid, the nitric acid concentration in the evaporator solution reached its maximum at the concentration factor (CF) of 6 (CF: concentration ratio of FPs in evaporator and feed solutions). The activities of nitric acid and water were saturated at values of 0.01 and 0.43, respectively, after the CF reached 6. The simulation predicted decontamination factors DFs of 2x10 5 and 8x10 3 for Ru and Tc, respectively, for a typical evaporation conditions with an operational pressure of 6,700 Pa, and FPs of 0.02 to 1.4 M. The simulation results agreed with the verification experiment within a factor of 2 for the amount of gas-phase transferred Ru during evaporation. The factor for the amount of gas-phase transferred Tc was estimated as 5 from the measurement error in the gas-liquid equilibrium constant. (author)

  3. Gas-Phase Growth of Heterostructures of Carbon Nanotubes and Bimetallic Nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whi Dong Kim


    Full Text Available A simple, inexpensive, and viable method for growing multiple heterostructured carbon nanotubes (CNTs over the entire surface of Ni-Al bimetallic nanowires (NWs in the gas phase was developed. Polymer-templated bimetallic nitrate NWs were produced by electrospinning in the first step, and subsequent calcination resulted in the formation of bimetallic oxide NWs by thermal decomposition. In the second step, free-floating bimetallic NWs were produced by spray pyrolysis in an environment containing hydrogen gas as a reducing gas. These NWs were continuously introduced into a thermal CVD reactor in order to grow CNTs in the gas phase. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and Raman spectrometry analyses revealed that the catalytic Ni sites exposed in the non-catalytic Al matrix over the entire surface of the bimetallic NWs were seeded to radially grow highly graphitized CNTs, which resembled “foxtail” structures. The grown CNTs were found to have a relatively uniform diameter of approximately 10±2 nm and 10 to 15 walls with a hollow core. The average length of the gas-phase-grown CNTs can be controlled between 100 and 1000 nm by adjusting the residence time of the free-floating bimetallic NWs in the thermal CVD reactor.

  4. Site-specific analysis of gas-phase hydrogen/deuterium exchange of peptides and proteins by electron transfer dissociation. (United States)

    Rand, Kasper D; Pringle, Steven D; Morris, Michael; Brown, Jeffery M


    To interpret the wealth of information contained in the hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX) behavior of peptides and proteins in the gas-phase, analytical tools are needed to resolve the HDX of individual exchanging sites. Here we show that ETD can be combined with fast gas-phase HDX in ND(3) gas and used to monitor the exchange of side-chain hydrogens of individual residues in both small peptide ions and larger protein ions a few milliseconds after electrospray. By employing consecutive traveling wave ion guides in a mass spectrometer, peptide and protein ions were labeled on-the-fly (0.1-10 ms) in ND(3) gas and subsequently fragmented by ETD. Fragment ions were separated using ion mobility and mass analysis enabled the determination of the gas-phase deuterium uptake of individual side-chain sites in a range of model peptides of different size and sequence as well as two proteins; cytochrome C and ubiquitin. Gas-phase HDX-ETD experiments on ubiquitin ions ionized from both denaturing and native solution conditions suggest that residue-specific HDX of side-chain hydrogens is sensitive to secondary and tertiary structural features occurring in both near-native and unfolded gas-phase conformers present shortly after electrospray. The described approach for online gas-phase HDX and ETD paves the way for making mass spectrometry techniques based on gas-phase HDX more applicable in bioanalytical research.

  5. Oxidative potential of gas phase combustion emissions - An underestimated and potentially harmful component of air pollution from combustion processes (United States)

    Stevanovic, S.; Vaughan, A.; Hedayat, F.; Salimi, F.; Rahman, M. M.; Zare, A.; Brown, R. A.; Brown, R. J.; Wang, H.; Zhang, Z.; Wang, X.; Bottle, S. E.; Yang, I. A.; Ristovski, Z. D.


    The oxidative potential (OP) of the gas phase is an important and neglected aspect of environmental toxicity. Whilst prolonged exposure to particulate matter (PM) associated reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been shown to lead to negative health effects, the potential for compounds in gas phase to cause similar effects is yet to be understood. In this study we describe: the significance of the gas phase OP generated through vehicle emissions; discuss the origin and evolution of species contributing to measured OP; and report on the impact of gas phase OP on human lung cells. The model aerosol for this study was exhaust emitted from a Euro III Common-rail diesel engine fuelled with different blends of diesel and biodiesel. The gas phase of these emissions was found to be potentially as hazardous as the particle phase. Fuel oxygen content was found to negatively correlate with the gas phase OP, and positively correlate with particle phase OP. This signifies a complex interaction between reactive species present in gas and particle phase. Furthermore, this interaction has an overarching effect on the OP of both particle and gas phase, and therefore the toxicity of combustion emissions.

  6. Different pathways of the formation of highly oxidized multifunctional organic compounds (HOMs) from the gas-phase ozonolysis of β-caryophyllene (United States)

    Richters, Stefanie; Herrmann, Hartmut; Berndt, Torsten


    The gas-phase mechanism of the formation of highly oxidized multifunctional organic compounds (HOMs) from the ozonolysis of β-caryophyllene was investigated in a free-jet flow system at atmospheric pressure and a temperature of 295 ± 2 K. Reaction products, mainly highly oxidized RO2 radicals containing up to 14 oxygen atoms, were detected using chemical ionization - atmospheric pressure interface - time-of-flight mass spectrometry with nitrate and acetate ionization. These highly oxidized RO2 radicals react with NO, NO2, HO2 and other RO2 radicals under atmospheric conditions forming the first-generation HOM closed-shell products. Mechanistic information on the formation of the highly oxidized RO2 radicals is based on results obtained with isotopically labelled ozone (18O3) in the ozonolysis reaction and from hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange experiments of acidic H atoms in the products. The experimental findings indicate that HOM formation in this reaction system is considerably influenced by the presence of a double bond in the RO2 radicals primarily formed from the β-caryophyllene ozonolysis. Three different reaction types for HOM formation can be proposed, allowing for an explanation of the detected main products: (i) the simple autoxidation, corresponding to the repetitive reaction sequence of intramolecular H-abstraction of a RO2 radical, RO2 → QOOH, and subsequent O2 addition, next forming a peroxy radical, QOOH + O2 → R'O2; (ii) an extended autoxidation mechanism additionally involving the internal reaction of a RO2 radical with a double bond forming most likely an endoperoxide and (iii) an extended autoxidation mechanism including CO2 elimination. The individual reaction steps of the reaction types (ii) and (iii) are uncertain at the moment. From the product analysis it can be followed that the simple autoxidation mechanism accounts only for about one-third of the formed HOMs. Time-dependent measurements showed that the HOM formation proceeds at a

  7. Different pathways of the formation of highly oxidized multifunctional organic compounds (HOMs from the gas-phase ozonolysis of β-caryophyllene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Richters


    Full Text Available The gas-phase mechanism of the formation of highly oxidized multifunctional organic compounds (HOMs from the ozonolysis of β-caryophyllene was investigated in a free-jet flow system at atmospheric pressure and a temperature of 295 ± 2 K. Reaction products, mainly highly oxidized RO2 radicals containing up to 14 oxygen atoms, were detected using chemical ionization – atmospheric pressure interface – time-of-flight mass spectrometry with nitrate and acetate ionization. These highly oxidized RO2 radicals react with NO, NO2, HO2 and other RO2 radicals under atmospheric conditions forming the first-generation HOM closed-shell products. Mechanistic information on the formation of the highly oxidized RO2 radicals is based on results obtained with isotopically labelled ozone (18O3 in the ozonolysis reaction and from hydrogen/deuterium (H/D exchange experiments of acidic H atoms in the products. The experimental findings indicate that HOM formation in this reaction system is considerably influenced by the presence of a double bond in the RO2 radicals primarily formed from the β-caryophyllene ozonolysis. Three different reaction types for HOM formation can be proposed, allowing for an explanation of the detected main products: (i the simple autoxidation, corresponding to the repetitive reaction sequence of intramolecular H-abstraction of a RO2 radical, RO2  →  QOOH, and subsequent O2 addition, next forming a peroxy radical, QOOH + O2  →  R′O2; (ii an extended autoxidation mechanism additionally involving the internal reaction of a RO2 radical with a double bond forming most likely an endoperoxide and (iii an extended autoxidation mechanism including CO2 elimination. The individual reaction steps of the reaction types (ii and (iii are uncertain at the moment. From the product analysis it can be followed that the simple autoxidation mechanism accounts only for about one-third of the formed HOMs. Time

  8. Is it biologically relevant to measure the structures of small peptides in the gas-phase? (United States)

    Barran, Perdita E.; Polfer, Nick C.; Campopiano, Dominic J.; Clarke, David J.; Langridge-Smith, Patrick R. R.; Langley, Ross J.; Govan, John R. W.; Maxwell, Alison; Dorin, Julia R.; Millar, Robert P.; Bowers, Michael T.


    Recent developments in sample introduction of biologically relevant molecules have heralded a new era for gas-phase methods of structural determination. One of the biggest challenges is to relate gas-phase structures, often measured in the absence of water and counter ions, with in vivo biologically active structures. An advantage of gas-phase based techniques is that a given peptide can be analysed in a variety of different forms, for example, as a function of charge state, or with additional water molecules. Molecular modelling can provide insight into experimental findings and help elucidate the differences between structural forms. Combining experiment and theory provides a thorough interrogation of candidate conformations. Here two important naturally occurring peptide systems have been examined in detail and results are assessed in terms of their biological significance. The first of these is gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), a decapeptide which is the central regulator of the reproductive system in vertebrates. We have examined several naturally occurring variants of this peptide using Ion Mobility Mass Spectrometry and Electron Capture Dissociation (ECD) in conjunction with Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Mass Spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS). Candidate conformations are modelled using the AMBER force field. Single amino acid changes, for example Gly6 --> Ala6, or Ala6 --> D-Ala6, have observable effects on the gas phase structure of GnRH. It has been shown that evolutionary primary sequence variations are key to the biological activity of GnRH, and it is thought that this is due to different binding affinities at target receptors. This work provides strong evidence that this activity is structurally based. The second system examined is the relationship between the quaternary structure and activity of two novel [beta]-defensins. FT-ICR mass spectrometry has been employed to characterize di-sulphide bridging and dissociation based experiments utilised to


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heaven, Michael C.; Gibson, John K.; Marcalo, Joaquim


    In this chapter we review the spectroscopic data for actinide molecules and the reaction dynamics for atomic and molecular actinides that have been examined in the gas phase or in inert cryogenic matrices. The motivation for this type of investigation is that physical properties and reactions can be studied in the absence of external perturbations (gas phase) or under minimally perturbing conditions (cryogenic matrices). This information can be compared directly with the results from high-level theoretical models. The interplay between experiment and theory is critically important for advancing our understanding of actinide chemistry. For example, elucidation of the role of the 5f electrons in bonding and reactivity can only be achieved through the application of experimentally verified theoretical models. Theoretical calculations for the actinides are challenging due the large numbers of electrons that must be treated explicitly and the presence of strong relativistic effects. This topic has been reviewed in depth in Chapter 17 of this series. One of the goals of the experimental work described in this chapter has been to provide benchmark data that can be used to evaluate both empirical and ab initio theoretical models. While gas-phase data are the most suitable for comparison with theoretical calculations, there are technical difficulties entailed in generating workable densities of gas-phase actinide molecules that have limited the range of species that have been characterized. Many of the compounds of interest are refractory, and problems associated with the use of high temperature vapors have complicated measurements of spectra, ionization energies, and reactions. One approach that has proved to be especially valuable in overcoming this difficulty has been the use of pulsed laser ablation to generate plumes of vapor from refractory actinide-containing materials. The vapor is entrained in an inert gas, which can be used to cool the actinide species to room

  10. Gas-phase reactions of [VO2(OH)2]- and [V2O5(OH)]- with methanol: experiment and theory. (United States)

    Harris, Benjamin L; Waters, Tom; Khairallah, George N; O'Hair, Richard A J


    The gas-phase reactivity of the vanadium hydroxides [VO(2)(OH)(2)](-) and [V(2)O(5)(OH)](-) toward methanol was examined using a combination of ion-molecule reactions (IMRs) and collision-induced dissociation (CID) in a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer. Isotope-labeling experiments with CD(3)OH, (13)CH(3)OH, and CH(3)(18)OH were used to confirm the stoichiometry of ions and the observed sequence of reactions. The experimental data were interpreted with the aid of density functional theory calculations, carried out at the B3LYP/SDD6-311++G** level of theory. While [VO(2)(OH)(2)](-) is unreactive, [V(2)O(5)(OH)](-) undergoes a metathesis reaction to yield [V(2)O(5)(OCH(3))](-). The DFT calculations reveal that the metathesis reaction of methanol with [VO(2)(OH)(2)](-) suffers from a barrier of +0.52 eV (relative to separated reactants) but that the reaction of [V(2)O(5)(OH)](-) with methanol readily proceeds via addition/elimination reactions with both transition states being below the energy of the separated reactants. CID of [V(2)O(5)(OCH(3))](-) (m/z 213) yields three ions arising from activation of the methoxo ligand: [V(2), O(6), C, H](-) (m/z 211); [V(2), O(5), H](-) (m/z 183); and [V(2), O(4), H](-) (m/z 167). Additional experiments and DFT calculations suggest that these ions arise from losses of H(2), formaldehyde and the sequential losses of H(2) and CO(2), respectively. The use of an (18)O-labeled methoxo ligand in [V(2)O(5)((18)OCH(3))](-) (m/z 215) showed the competing losses of H(2)C(16)O and H(2)C(18)O and [H(2) and C(16)O(18)O] and [H(2) and C(16)O(2)], highlighting that (16)O/(18)O exchange between the methoxo ligand and the vanadium oxide occurs prior to the subsequent fragmentation of the ligand. DFT calculations reveal that a key step involves hydrogen atom transfer from the methoxo ligand to the oxo ligand of the same vanadium center, producing the intermediate [V(2)O(4)(OH)(OCH(2))](-) containing a ketyl radical ligand and a hydroxo ligand

  11. Modeling of gas-phase chemistry in the chemical vapor deposition of polysilicon in a cold wall system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toprac, A.J.; Edgar, T.F.; Trachtenberg, I. (Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)


    The relative contribution of gas-phase chemistry to deposition processes is an important issue both from the standpoint of operation and modeling of these processes. In polysilicon deposition from thermally activated silane in a cold wall rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition (RTCVD) system, the relative contribution of gas-phase chemistry to the overall deposition rate was examined by a mass-balance model. Evaluating the process at conditions examined experimentally, the model indicated that gas-phase reactions may be neglected to good accuracy in predicting polysilicon deposition rate. The model also provided estimates of the level of gas-phase generated SiH[sub 2] associated with deposition on the cold-process chamber walls.

  12. Radical Islam (United States)


    Muslim insurgents have a real following in many countries. In Mao’s parlance, the radical Muslim insurgent is the fish swimming in the ocean of the...indigenous beliefs 5% Tanzania: mainland - Christian 45%, Muslim 35%, indigenous beliefs 20%; Zanzibar - more than 99% Muslim Zambia: Christian 50...leather, frozen fish and seafood Bosnia and Herzegovina NA Brunei: crude oil, natural gas, refined products Chad: cotton, cattle, textiles Cocos Islands

  13. Gas phase kinetics of the OH + CH3CH2OH reaction at temperatures of the interstellar medium (T = 21-10^7 K) (United States)

    Ocaña, A. J.; Blázquez, S.; Ballesteros, B.; Canosa, A.; Antiñolo, M.; Albaladejoab, J.; Jiménez, E.


    Ethanol, CH3CH2OH, has been unveiled in the interstellar medium (ISM) by radioastronomy and it is thought to be released into the gas phase after the warm-up phase of the grain surface, where it is formed. Once in the gas phase, it can be destroyed by different reactions with atomic and radical species, such as hydroxyl (OH) radicals. The knowledge of the rate coefficients of all these processes at temperatures of the ISM is essential in the accurate interpretation of the observed abundances. In this work, we have determined the rate coefficient for the reaction of OH with CH3CH2OH (k(T)) between 21 and 10^7 K by employing the pulsed and continuous CRESU (Cinétique de Réaction en Ecoulement Supersonique Uniforme, which means Reaction Kinetics in a Uniform Supersonic Flow) technique. The pulsed laser photolysis technique was used for generating OH radicals, whose time evolution was monitored by laser induced fluorescence. An increase of approximately 4 times was observed for k(21 K) with respect to k(10^7 K). With respect to k(300 K), the OH-reactivity at 21 K is enhanced by two orders of magnitude. The obtained T-expression in the investigated temperature range is k(T) = (2.1 ± 0.5) × 10^-11 (T/300 K)-(0.71±0.10) cm^3 molecule^-1 s^-1. In addition, the pressure dependence of k(T) has been investigated at several temperatures between 21 K and 90 K. No pressure dependence of k(T) was observed in the investigated ranges. This may imply that this reaction is purely bimolecular or that the high-pressure limit is reached at the lowest total pressure experimentally accessible in our system. From our results, k(T) at usual IS temperatures (˜10-100 K) is confirmed to be very fast. Typical rate coefficients can be considered to range within about 4 × 10^-11 cm^3 molecule^-1 s^-1 at 100 K and around 1 × 10^-10 cm^3 molecule^-1 s^-1 at 20 K. The extrapolation of k at the lowest temperatures of the dense molecular clouds of ISM is also discussed in this paper.

  14. Gas phase kinetics of the OH + CH3CH2OH reaction at temperatures of the interstellar medium (T = 21-107 K). (United States)

    Ocaña, A J; Blázquez, S; Ballesteros, B; Canosa, A; Antiñolo, M; Albaladejo, J; Jiménez, E


    Ethanol, CH 3 CH 2 OH, has been unveiled in the interstellar medium (ISM) by radioastronomy and it is thought to be released into the gas phase after the warm-up phase of the grain surface, where it is formed. Once in the gas phase, it can be destroyed by different reactions with atomic and radical species, such as hydroxyl (OH) radicals. The knowledge of the rate coefficients of all these processes at temperatures of the ISM is essential in the accurate interpretation of the observed abundances. In this work, we have determined the rate coefficient for the reaction of OH with CH 3 CH 2 OH (k(T)) between 21 and 107 K by employing the pulsed and continuous CRESU (Cinétique de Réaction en Ecoulement Supersonique Uniforme, which means Reaction Kinetics in a Uniform Supersonic Flow) technique. The pulsed laser photolysis technique was used for generating OH radicals, whose time evolution was monitored by laser induced fluorescence. An increase of approximately 4 times was observed for k(21 K) with respect to k(107 K). With respect to k(300 K), the OH-reactivity at 21 K is enhanced by two orders of magnitude. The obtained T-expression in the investigated temperature range is k(T) = (2.1 ± 0.5) × 10 -11 (T/300 K) -(0.71±0.10) cm 3 molecule -1 s -1 . In addition, the pressure dependence of k(T) has been investigated at several temperatures between 21 K and 90 K. No pressure dependence of k(T) was observed in the investigated ranges. This may imply that this reaction is purely bimolecular or that the high-pressure limit is reached at the lowest total pressure experimentally accessible in our system. From our results, k(T) at usual IS temperatures (∼10-100 K) is confirmed to be very fast. Typical rate coefficients can be considered to range within about 4 × 10 -11 cm 3 molecule -1 s -1 at 100 K and around 1 × 10 -10 cm 3 molecule -1 s -1 at 20 K. The extrapolation of k at the lowest temperatures of the dense molecular clouds of ISM is also discussed in this paper.

  15. Gas-Phase Thermal Tautomerization of Imidazole-Acetic Acid: Theoretical and Computational Investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saadullah G. Aziz


    Full Text Available The gas-phase thermal tautomerization reaction between imidazole-4-acetic (I and imidazole-5-acetic (II acids was monitored using the traditional hybrid functional (B3LYP and the long-range corrected functionals (CAM-B3LYP and ωB97XD with 6-311++G** and aug-cc-pvdz basis sets. The roles of the long-range and dispersion corrections on their geometrical parameters, thermodynamic functions, kinetics, dipole moments, Highest Occupied Molecular Orbital–Lowest Unoccupied Molecular Orbital (HOMO–LUMO energy gaps and total hyperpolarizability were investigated. All tested levels of theory predicted the preference of I over II by 0.750–0.877 kcal/mol. The origin of predilection of I is assigned to the H-bonding interaction (nN8→σ*O14–H15. This interaction stabilized I by 15.07 kcal/mol. The gas-phase interconversion between the two tautomers assumed a 1,2-proton shift mechanism, with two transition states (TS, TS1 and TS2, having energy barriers of 47.67–49.92 and 49.55–52.69 kcal/mol, respectively, and an sp3-type intermediate. A water-assisted 1,3-proton shift route brought the barrier height down to less than 20 kcal/mol in gas-phase and less than 12 kcal/mol in solution. The relatively high values of total hyperpolarizability of I compared to II were interpreted and discussed.

  16. Gas-phase simulated moving bed: Propane/propylene separation on 13X zeolite. (United States)

    Martins, Vanessa F D; Ribeiro, Ana M; Plaza, Marta G; Santos, João C; Loureiro, José M; Ferreira, Alexandre F P; Rodrigues, Alírio E


    In the last years several studies were carried out in order to separate gas mixtures by SMB technology; however, this technology has never been implemented on an industrial scale. In the present work, a gas phase SMB bench unit was built and tested for the separation of propane and propylene mixtures, using 13X zeolite extrudates as adsorbent and isobutane as desorbent. Three experiments were performed to separate propane/propylene by gas phase SMB in the bench scale unit with a 4-2-2 configuration, i.e., open loop circuit by suppressing section IV (desorbent regeneration followed by a recycle). Consequently, all the experiments were conducted using an external supply of pure isobutane as desorbent. Parameters such as switching time, extract and raffinate stream flow rates were changed to improve the efficiency of the process. Experimental results have shown that it is feasible to separate propylene from propane by gas phase SMB at a bench scale and that this process is a potential candidate to replace the conventional technologies for the propane/propylene separation. The performance parameters obtained are very promising for future development of this technology, since propylene was obtained in the extract stream with a purity of 99.93%, a recovery of 99.51%, and a productivity of [Formula: see text] . Propane was obtained in the raffinate stream with a purity of 98.10%, a recovery of 99.73% and a productivity of [Formula: see text] . The success of the above mentioned bench scale tests is a big step for the future implementation of this technology in a larger scale. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Laboratory Measurements of Gas Phase Pyrolysis Products from Southern Wildland Fuels using Infrared Spectroscopy (United States)

    Scharko, N.; Safdari, S.; Danby, T. O.; Howarth, J.; Beiswenger, T. N.; Weise, D.; Myers, T. L.; Fletcher, T. H.; Johnson, T. J.


    Combustion is an oxidation reaction that occurs when there is less fuel available than oxidizers, while pyrolysis is a thermal decomposition process that occurs under "fuel rich" conditions where all of the available oxidizers are consumed leaving some fuel(s) either unreacted or partially reacted. Gas-phase combustion products from biomass burning experiments have been studied extensively; less is known, however, about pyrolysis processes and products. Pyrolysis is the initial reaction occurring in the burning process and generates products that are subsequently oxidized during combustion, yielding highly-oxidized chemicals. This laboratory study investigates the pyrolysis processes by using an FTIR spectrometer to detect and quantify the gas-phase products from thermal decomposition of intact understory fuels from forests in the southeastern United States. In particular, a laboratory flat-flame burner operating under fuel rich conditions (no oxygen) was used to heat individual leaves to cause decomposition. The gas-phase products were introduced to an 8 meter gas cell coupled to an infrared spectrometer were used to monitor the products. Trace gas emissions along with emission ratios, which are calculated by dividing the change in the amount of the trace gas by the change in the amount of CO, for the plant species, gallberry (Ilex glabra) and swampbay (Persea palustris) were determined. Preliminary measurements observed species such as CO2, CO, C2H2, C2H4, HCHO, CH3OH, isoprene, 1,3-butadiene, phenol and NH3 being produced as part of the thermal decomposition process. It is important to note that FTIR will not detect H2.

  18. Delivering Transmembrane Peptide Complexes to the Gas Phase Using Nanodiscs and Electrospray Ionization (United States)

    Li, Jun; Richards, Michele R.; Kitova, Elena N.; Klassen, John S.


    The gas-phase conformations of dimers of the channel-forming membrane peptide gramicidin A (GA), produced from isobutanol or aqueous solutions of GA-containing nanodiscs (NDs), are investigated using electrospray ionization-ion mobility separation-mass spectrometry (ESI-IMS-MS) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The IMS arrival times measured for (2GA + 2Na)2+ ions from isobutanol reveal three different conformations, with collision cross-sections (Ω) of 683 Å2 (conformation 1, C1), 708 Å2 (C2), and 737 Å2 (C3). The addition of NH4CH3CO2 produced (2GA + 2Na)2+ and (2GA + H + Na)2+ ions, with Ω similar to those of C1, C2, and C3, as well as (2GA + 2H)2+, (2GA + 2NH4)2+, and (2GA + H + NH4)2+ ions, which adopt a single conformation with a Ω similar to that of C2. These results suggest that the nature of the charging agents, imparted by the ESI process, can influence dimer conformation in the gas phase. Notably, the POPC NDs produced exclusively (2GA + 2NH4)2+ dimer ions; the DMPC NDs produced both (2GA + 2H)2+ and (2GA + 2NH4)2+ dimer ions. While the Ω of (2GA + 2H)2+ is similar to that of C2, the (2GA + 2NH4)2+ ions from NDs adopt a more compact structure, with a Ω of 656 Å2. It is proposed that this compact structure corresponds to the ion conducting single stranded head-to-head helical GA dimer. These findings highlight the potential of NDs, combined with ESI, for transferring transmembrane peptide complexes directly from lipid bilayers to the gas phase. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  19. Are ionic liquids pairwise in gas phase? A cluster approach and in situ IR study. (United States)

    Dong, Kun; Zhao, Lidong; Wang, Qian; Song, Yuting; Zhang, Suojiang


    In this work, we discussed the vaporization and gas species of ionic liquids (ILs) by a cluster approach of quantum statistical thermodynamics proposed by R. Luwig (Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 10, 4333), which is a controversial issue up to date. Based on the different sized clusters (2-12 ion-pairs) of the condensed phase, the molar enthalpies of vaporization (ΔvapH, 298.15 K, 1bar) of four representative ILs, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([Emim][NTf2]) 1-ethyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([Emmim][NTf2]) 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Emim]Cl) and ethylammonium nitrate ([EtAm][NO3]), were calculated. The predicted ΔvapH were increased remarkably; even the values of [EtAm][NO3] were larger than 700 kJ mol(-1) when the charged isolated ions were assumed to be gas species. However, the ΔvapH were close to experimental measurements when the gas species assumed to be anion-cation pairwise, indicating that the different conformational ion-pairs can coexist in the gas phase when the IL is evaporated. Particularly for the protic IL, [EtAm][NO3], even the neutral precursor molecules by proton transfer can occur in gas phase. In addition, it's found that the effect of hydrogen bonds on the vaporization cannot be negligible by comparing the ΔvapH of [Emim][NTf2] with [Emmim][NTf2]. The in situ and calculated IR spectra provided the further proof that the ions are pairwise in gas phase.

  20. Position for determining gas-phase volatile organic compound concentrations in transuranic waste containers. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connolly, M.J.; Liekhus, K.J.


    In the conditional no-migration determination (NMD) for the test phase of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) imposed certain conditions on the US Department of Energy (DOE) regarding gas phase volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations in the void space of transuranic (TRU) waste containers. Specifically, the EPA required the DOE to ensure that each waste container has no layer of confinement that contains flammable mixtures of gases or mixtures of gases that could become flammable when mixed with air. The EPA also required that sampling of the headspace of waste containers outside inner layers of confinement be representative of the entire void space of the container. The EPA stated that all layers of confinement in a container would have to be sampled until DOE can demonstrate to the EPA that sampling of all layers is either unnecessary or can be safely reduced. A test program was conducted at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to demonstrate that the gas phase VOC concentration in the void space of each layer of confinement in vented drums can be estimated from measured drum headspace using a theoretical transport model and that sampling of each layer of confinement is unnecessary. This report summarizes the studies performed in the INEEL test program and extends them for the purpose of developing a methodology for determining gas phase VOC concentrations in both vented and unvented TRU waste containers. The methodology specifies conditions under which waste drum headspace gases can be said to be representative of drum gases as a whole and describes a method for predicting drum concentrations in situations where the headspace concentration is not representative. The methodology addresses the approach for determining the drum VOC gas content for two purposes: operational period drum handling and operational period no-migration calculations

  1. Development of gas-phase sample-introduction techniques for analytical atomic spectrometry. (United States)

    Nakahara, Taketoshi


    For the last 30 years, several types of gas-phase sample-introduction methods in analytical atomic spectrometry, i.e., atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), atomic emission spectrometry (AES) and atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS), have been investigated and developed in the author's laboratory. Their fundamental results are summarized in this review article. The gas-phase sample-introduction techniques developed in the author's laboratory can be roughly divided into four groups: i) hydride generation, ii) cold-vapor generation of mercury, iii) analyte volatilization reactions and iv) miscellaneous. The analytical figures of merit of the gas-phase sample-introduction methods have been described in detail. Hydride generation has been coupled with the AAS of As, Bi, Ge, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn and Te, with the inductively coupled plasma (ICP) AES of As, Bi, Sn, Se and Sb, with the high-power nitrogen microwave-induced plasma (N2-MIP) AES of As, Bi, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn and Te by their single- and multi-element determinations, with the AFS of As, Bi, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn and Te, and with the ICP mass spectrometry (MS) of As and Se. The cold-vapor generation method for Hg has been combined with atmospheric-pressure helium microwave-induced plasma (He- or Ar-MIP)-AES and AFS. Furthermore, analyte volatilization reactions have been employed in the ICP-AES of iodine, in the He-MIP-AES of iodine bromine, chlorine, sulfur and carbon, and in the ICP-MS of sulfur. As a result, when compared with conventional solution nebulization, a great improvement in the sensitivity has been attained in each instance. In addition, the developed techniques coupled with analytical atomic spectrometry have been successfully applied to the determination of trace elements in a variety of practical samples.

  2. CASCADER: An m-chain gas-phase radionuclide transport and fate model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cawlfield, D.E.; Been, K.B.; Emer, D.F.; Lindstrom, F.T.; Shott, G.J.


    Chemicals and radionuclides move either in the gas-phase, liquid-phase, or both phases in soils. They may be acted upon by either biological or abiotic processes through advection and/or diffusion. Furthermore, parent and daughter radionuclides may decay as they are transported in the soil. This is volume two to the CASCADER series, titled CASCADR8. It embodies the concepts presented in volume one of this series. To properly understand how the CASCADR8 model works, the reader should read volume one first. This volume presents the input and output file structure for CASCADR8, and a set of realistic scenarios for buried sources of radon gas

  3. Gas Phase Vibrational Spectroscopy of Weakly Volatil Safe Taggants Using a Synchrotron Source (United States)

    Cuisset, Arnaud; Hindle, Francis; Mouret, Gael; Gruet, Sebastien; Pirali, Olivier; Roy, Pascale


    The high performances of the AILES beamline of SOLEIL allow to study at medium resolution (0.5 cm^{-1}) the gas phase THz vibrational spectra of weakly volatil compounds. Between 2008 and 2010 we recorded and analyzed the THz/Far-IR spectra of phosphorous based nerve agents thanks to sufficient vapour pressures from liquid samples at room temperature. Recently, we extended these experiments towards the vibrational spectroscopy of vapour pressures from solid samples. This project is quite challenging since we target lower volatile compounds, and so requires very high sensitive spectrometers. Moreover a specially designed heated multipass-cell have been developped for the gas phase study of very weak vapor pressures. Thanks to skills acquired during initial studies and recent experiments performed on AILES with solid PAHs, we have recorded and assigned the gas phase vibrational fingerprints from the THz to the NIR spectral domain (10-4000 cm-1) of a set of targeted nitro-derivatives. The study was focused onto the para, ortho-mononitrotoluene (p-NT, o-NT), the 1,4 Dinitrobenzene (1,4 DNB), the 2,3-dimethyl-2,3-dinitrobutane (DMNB), and 2,4 and 2,6-dinitrotoluene (2,4-2,6 DNT), which are safe taggants widely used for the detection of commercial explosives. These taggants are usually added to plastic explosives in order to facilitate their vapour detection. Therefore, there is a continuous interest for their detection and identification in realistic conditions via optical methods. A first step consists in the recording of their gas phase vibrational spectra. These expected spectra focused onto molecules involved into defence and security domains are not yet available to date and will be very useful for the scientific community. This work is supported by the contract ANR-11-ASTR-035-01. A. Cuisset, G. Mouret, O. Pirali, P. Roy, F. Cazier, H. Nouali, J. Demaison, J. Phys. Chem. B, 2008, 112:, 12516-12525 I. Smirnova, A. Cuisset, R. Bocquet, F. Hindle, G. Mouret, O

  4. CASCADER: An M-chain gas-phase radionuclide transport and fate model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cawlfield, D.E.; Emer, D.F.; Lindstrom, F.T.; Shott, G.J.


    Chemicals and radionuclides move either in the gas-phase, liquid-phase, or both phases in soils. They may be acted upon by either biological or abiotic processes through advection and/or dispersion. Additionally during the transport of parent and daughter radionuclides in soil, radionuclide decay may occur. This version of CASCADER called CASCADR9 starts with the concepts presented in volumes one and three of this series. For a proper understanding of how the model works, the reader should read volume one first. Also presented in this volume is a set of realistic scenarios for buried sources of radon gas, and the input and output file structure for CASCADER9

  5. Gas-Phase Oxidation of Aqueous Ethanol by Nanoparticle Vanadia/Anatase Catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Betina; Kristensen, Steffen Buus; Kunov-Kruse, Andreas Jonas


    The gas-phase oxidation of aqueous ethanol with dioxygen has been examined with a new nanoparticle V2O5/TiO2 catalyst. Product selectivity could to a large extent be controlled by small alterations of reaction parameters, allowing production of acetaldehyde at a selectivity higher than 90%, near...... quantitative conversion at 175-200 A degrees C. Furthermore, a selectivity above 80% for acetic acid could be achieved at low gas hourly space velocity at temperatures as low as 165 A degrees C....

  6. Gas-Phase Photocatalytic Oxidation of Dimethylamine: The Reaction Pathway and Kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kachina


    Full Text Available Gas-phase photocatalytic oxidation (PCO and thermal catalytic oxidation (TCO of dimethylamine (DMA on titanium dioxide was studied in a continuous flow simple tubular reactor. Volatile PCO products of DMA included ammonia, formamide, carbon dioxide, and water. Ammonia was further oxidized in minor amounts to nitrous oxide and nitrogen dioxide. Effective at 573 K, TCO resulted in the formation of ammonia, hydrogen cyanide, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and water. The PCO kinetic data fit well to the monomolecular Langmuir-Hinshelwood model, whereas TCO kinetic behaviour matched the first-order process. No deactivation of the photocatalyst during the multiple long-run experiments was observed.

  7. Enantioselective supramolecular devices in the gas phase. Resorcin[4]arene as a model system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina Fraschetti


    Full Text Available This review describes the state-of-art in the field of the gas-phase reactivity of diastereomeric complexes formed between a chiral artificial receptor and a biologically active molecule. The presented experimental approach is a ligand-displacement reaction carried out in a nano ESI-FT-ICR instrument, supported by a thermodynamic MS-study and molecular-mechanics and molecular-dynamics (MM/MD computational techniques. The noncovalent ion–molecule complexes are ideal for the study of chiral recognition in the absence of complicating solvent and counterion effects.

  8. Fluorometric method for the determination of gas-phase hydrogen peroxide (United States)

    Kok, Gregory L.; Lazrus, Allan L.


    The fluorometric gas-phase hydrogen peroxide procedure is based on the technique used by Lazrus et. al. for the determination of H2O2 in the liquid phase. The analytical method utilizes the reaction of H2O2 with horseradish peroxidase and p-hydroxphenylacetic acid (POPHA) to form the fluorescent dimer of POPHA. The analytical reaction responds stoichiometrically to both H2O2 and some organic hydroperoxides. To discriminate H2O2 from organic hydroperoxides, catalase is used to preferentially destroy H2O2. Using a dual-channel flow system the H2O2 concentration is determined by difference.

  9. Wettability in the liquid Cu-Ag alloy – fireproof material – gas phase system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Siwiec


    Full Text Available In the present paper, results of wettability studies on the liquid metal – fireproof material – gas phase system using copper and Cu-Ag alloys as well as typical fireproof materials, i.e. aluminium oxide, magnesium oxide and graphite, are presented. Contact angle measurements were conducted at 1 373–1 573 K by means of a high-temperature microscope coupled with a camera and a computer equipped with a program for recording and analysing images. For the measurements, the sessile drop method was used.

  10. Solvation of ions in the gas-phase: a molecular dynamics simulation (United States)

    Cabarcos, Orlando M.; Lisy, James M.


    Molecular dynamics simulations have been performed on the collision between a cesium ion and a cluster of twenty methanol molecules. This process, generating a solvated ion, was studied over a range (1 to 25 eV) of eight collision energies. Preliminary analysis of this gas phase solvation has included the distribution of final ion cluster sizes, fragmentation patterns, solvation timescales and energetics. Two distinct patterns have emerged: a ballistic penetration of the neutral cluster at the higher collision energies and an evaporative evolution of the cluster ion at lower collision energies.

  11. Formation and emissions of carbonyls during and following gas-phase ozonation of indoor materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poppendieck, D.G.; Hubbard, H.F.; Weschler, Charles J.


    Ozone concentrations that are several orders of magnitude greater than typical urban ambient concentrations are necessary for gas-phase ozonation of buildings, either for deodorization or for disinfection of biological agents. However, there is currently no published literature on the interaction...... relatively high BOBP releases. The greatest overall BOBP mass releases were observed for three materials that building occupants might have significant contact with: paper, office partition, and medium density fiberboard, e.g., often used in office furniture. These materials also exhibited extended BOBP...

  12. Ab initio studies of aspartic acid conformers in gas phase and in solution. (United States)

    Chen, Mingliang; Lin, Zijing


    Systematic and extensive conformational searches of aspartic acid in gas phase and in solution have been performed. For the gaseous aspartic acid, a total of 1296 trial canonical structures and 216 trial zwitterionic structures were generated by allowing for all combinations of internal single-bond rotamers. All the trial structures were optimized at the B3LYP/6-311G* level and then subjected to further optimization at the B3LYP/6-311++G** level. A total of 139 canonical conformers were found, but no stable zwitterionic structure was found. The rotational constants, dipole moments, zero-point vibrational energies, harmonic frequencies, and vertical ionization energies of the canonical conformers were determined. Single-point energies were also calculated at the MP2/6-311++G** and CCSD/6-311++G** levels. The equilibrium distributions of the gaseous conformers at various temperatures were calculated. The proton affinity and gas phase basicity were calculated and the results are in excellent agreement with the experiments. The conformations in the solution were studied with different solvation models. The 216 trial zwitterionic structures were first optimized at the B3LYP/6-311G* level using the Onsager self-consistent reaction field model (SCRF) and then optimized at the B3LYP/6-311++G** level using the conductorlike polarized continuum model (CPCM) SCRF theory. A total of 22 zwitterions conformers were found. The gaseous canonical conformers were combined with the CPCM model and optimized at the B3LYP/6-311++G** level. The solvated zwitterionic and canonical structures were further examined by the discrete/SCRF model with one and two water molecules. The incremental solvation of the canonical and zwitterionic structures with up to six water molecules in gas phase was systematically examined. The studies show that combining aspartic acid with at least six water molecules in the gas phase or two water molecules and a SCRF solution model is required to provide

  13. Review: gas-phase ion chemistry of the noble gases: recent advances and future perspectives. (United States)

    Grandinetti, Felice


    This review article surveys recent experimental and theoretical advances in the gas-phase ion chemistry of the noble gases. Covered issues include the interaction of the noble gases with metal and non-metal cations, the conceivable existence of covalent noble-gas anions, the occurrence of ion-molecule reactions involving singly-charged xenon cations, and the occurrence of bond-forming reactions involving doubly-charged cations. Research themes are also highlighted, that are expected to attract further interest in the future.

  14. Gas-Phase Anionic ?-Adduct (Trans)formations in Heteroaromatic Systems1


    Zimnicka, Magdalena; Danikiewicz, Witold


    Anions of nitroderivatives of thiophene and furan were subjected to the reactions with selected C-H acids in the gas phase. Various structures and reaction pathways were proposed for the observed ionic products. In general, the reactions of heteroaromatic anions with C-H acids may be divided into three groups, depending on the proton affinity difference between C-H acid?s conjugate base and heteroaromatic anion (?PA). The proton transfer from C-H acid to heteroaromatic anion is a dominant pro...

  15. Predicting dermal absorption of gas-phase chemicals: transient model development, evaluation, and application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gong, M.; Zhang, Y.; Weschler, Charles J.


    A transient model is developed to predict dermal absorption of gas-phase chemicals via direct air-to-skin-to-blood transport under non-steady-state conditions. It differs from published models in that it considers convective mass-transfer resistance in the boundary layer of air adjacent to the skin....... Results calculated with this transient model are in good agreement with the limited experimental results that are available for comparison. The sensitivity of the modeled estimates to key parameters is examined. The model is then used to estimate air-to-skin-to-blood absorption of six phthalate esters...

  16. Gas-phase hydrosilylation of cyclohexene in an experimental radiation-chemical accelerator apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pecherkin, A.S.; Sidorov, V.I.; Chernyshev, E.A.


    A process for the synthesis of methylcyclohexyldichlorosilane (a basic monomer for the production of organosilicon photoresists) has been investigated and perfected on an experimental apparatus with an ELV-2 electron accelerator; this synthesis involves gas-phase radiation-induced hydrosilylation of cyclohexene by methyldichlorosilane. Basic characteristics of the yield of the desired product under static conditions were determined. With the help of experiments on the synthesis of methylcyclohexyldichlorosilane in a flow- through mode, the technical features of the process of radiation-chemical hydrosilylation of cyclohexene on an accelerator apparatus were determined and studied, the optimal conditions for the synthesis were determined, and an experimental batch of the desired product was produced

  17. Continuous-wave terahertz by photomixing: applications to gas phase pollutant detection and quantification (United States)

    Hindle, Francis; Cuisset, Arnaud; Bocquet, Robin; Mouret, Gaël


    Recent advances in the development of monochromatic continuous-wave terahertz sources suitable for high resolution gas phase spectroscopy and pollution monitoring are reviewed. Details of a source using an ultra fast opto-electronic photomixing element are presented. The construction of a terahertz spectrometer using this source has allowed spectroscopic characterisation and application studies to be completed. Analysis of H 2S and OCS under laboratory conditions are used to demonstrate the spectrometer performance, and the determination of the transition line strengths and pressure self broadening coefficients for pure rotational transitions of OCS. The spectral purity 5 MHz, tunability 0.3 to 3 THz, and long wavelength ≈200 μm of this source have been exploited to identify and quantify numerous chemical species in cigarette smoke. The key advantages of this frequency domain are its high species selectivity and the possibility to make reliable measurements of gas phase samples heavily contaminated by aerosols and particles. To cite this article: F. Hindle et al., C. R. Physique 9 (2008).

  18. Pulse radiolysis studies of some atomic and molecular processes in the gas phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatano, Y.; Takao, S.; Shimamori, H.; Ueno, T.; Yokoyama, A.


    The technique of pulse radiolysis has been applied to the study of some atomic and molecular processes in gas phase. The first application was to the determination of the Penning ionization rate constant. He-N 2 mixture was irradiated with nano-second pulses of 600 keV electrons, and the optical emission of N 2 + was measured. The result was compared with those obtained by other techniques. The second application was to the study of the lowest triplet state of benzene. The triplet state relaxation of benzene in gas phase was studied by measuring the phosphorescence of biacetyl induced by the energy transfer to biacetyl from triplet benzene in the pulse radiolysis of benzene-biacetyl mixture. The third application was to the study of thermal electron attachment to O 2 , in which microwave cavity method combined with pulse radiolysis has been used to observe the disappearance of thermal electrons directly with the fast response by attachment to O 2 . (Aoki, K.)

  19. Femtosecond time-resolved studies of coherent vibrational Raman scattering in large gas-phase molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayden, C.C.; Chandler, D.W.


    Results are presented from femtosecond time-resolved coherent Raman experiments in which we excite and monitor vibrational coherence in gas-phase samples of benzene and 1,3,5-hexatriene. Different physical mechanisms for coherence decay are seen in these two molecules. In benzene, where the Raman polarizability is largely isotropic, the Q branch of the vibrational Raman spectrum is the primary feature excited. Molecules in different rotational states have different Q-branch transition frequencies due to vibration--rotation interaction. Thus, the macroscopic polarization that is observed in these experiments decays because it has many frequency components from molecules in different rotational states, and these frequency components go out of phase with each other. In 1,3,5-hexatriene, the Raman excitation produces molecules in a coherent superposition of rotational states, through (O, P, R, and S branch) transitions that are strong due to the large anisotropy of the Raman polarizability. The coherent superposition of rotational states corresponds to initially spatially oriented, vibrationally excited, molecules that are freely rotating. The rotation of molecules away from the initial orientation is primarily responsible for the coherence decay in this case. These experiments produce large (∼10% efficiency) Raman shifted signals with modest excitation pulse energies (10 μJ) demonstrating the feasibility of this approach for a variety of gas phase studies. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  20. Synchrotron and small bio-molecules in gas phase and liquid environment: new opportunities in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naves de Brito, A.


    Full text: Two techniques are critically related to the photoelectric law, namely: photoelectron spectroscopy and photoelectron-photoion coincidence spectroscopy. Both are strongly used now a day within synchrotron laboratories. Our group is employing both to investigate fragmentation of bio-molecules in gas phase such as amino acids and DNA basis using V UV and soft x-ray photons. In the near future lager scale instruments developed in Brazil will allow unique opportunities to apply these two spectroscopic methods to molecules immersed in liquids such as water. We will present details from this advanced x-ray source and experimental stations with capabilities not present in other places in the world. Experiments connected to the molecular origin of live will be shown. Among them an experiment where we mimic the atmosphere at Titan moon producing bio- molecules will discussed. Another experiment will be presented where we test the Panspermia viability using special bacteria. We will also present experiments where frozen simple molecules connected to pre-biotic mate- rial are bombardment by UV photons and energetic particles showing interesting trends. Spectroscopic studies of gas phase photo-fragmentation of bio-molecules may be critical to understand in the future these molecules immersed in liquids. We plan to spend some time showing our recent results in this area. (author)

  1. Effect of dimethylamine on the gas phase sulfuric acid concentration measured by Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Rondo, L.; Kürten, A.; Adamov, A.; Bianchi, F.; Breitenlechner, M.; Duplissy, J.; Franchin, A.; Dommen, J.; Donahue, N. M.; Dunne, E. M.; Flagan, R. C.; Hakala, J.; Hansel, A.; Keskinen, H.; Kim, J.; Jokinen, T.; Lehtipalo, K.; Leiminger, M.; Praplan, A.; Riccobono, F.; Rissanen, M. P.; Sarnela, N.; Schobesberger, S.; Simon, M.; Sipilä, M.; Smith, J. N.; Tomé, A.; Tröstl, J.; Tsagkogeorgas, G.; Vaattovaara, P.; Winkler, P. M.; Williamson, C.; Wimmer, D.; Baltensperger, U.; Kirkby, J.; Kulmala, M.; Petäjä, T.; Worsnop, D. R.; Curtius, J.


    Sulfuric acid is widely recognized as a very important substance driving atmospheric aerosolnucleation. Based on quantum chemical calculations it has been suggested that the quantitative detectionof gas phase sulfuric acid (H2SO4) by use of Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry (CIMS) could be biased inthe presence of gas phase amines such as dimethylamine (DMA). An experiment (CLOUD7 campaign) was setup at the CLOUD (Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets) chamber to investigate the quantitative detection ofH2SO4in the presence of dimethylamine by CIMS at atmospherically relevant concentrations. For the first time inthe CLOUD experiment, the monomer sulfuric acid concentration was measured by a CIMS and by two CI-APi-TOF(Chemical Ionization-Atmospheric Pressure interface-Time Of Flight) mass spectrometers. In addition, neutralsulfuric acid clusters were measured with the CI-APi-TOFs. The CLOUD7 measurements show that in the presenceof dimethylamine (<5 to 70 pptv) the sulfuric acid monomer measured by the CIMS...

  2. Aromatic substitution in the gas phase. Alkylation of arenes by gaseous C4H9+ cations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cacace, F.; Ciranni, G.; Giacomello, P.


    Butyl cations, obtained in the dilute gas state from the radiolysis of butane in the pressure range from 70 to 750 torr, have been allowed to react with benzene, toluene, and their mixtures or with trace amounts of o-xylene in the gaseous system. The gas-phase butylation yields invariably sec-butylarenes, remarkably free of isomeric byproducts, namely n- and tert-butylarenes. Other alkylation experiments, where gaseous butyl cations from the reaction of butane with radiolytically formed H 3 + ions were used as reagent, confirmed the exclusive formation of sec-butylarenes. The butylation process displays the positional and substrate selectivity and the dependence of orientation on the pressure of the system, typical of other gas-phase ionic substitutions. At high pressures, orth-para orientation predominates in the sec-butylation of toluene, with a ortho:meta:para ratio of 43:30:27 at 715 torr. As the pressure is reduced, a gradual shift in favor of the thermodynamically most stable meta-substituted arenium ion is observed, leading to a ortho:meta:para ratio of 31:48:21 at 70 torr

  3. Applying ion-molecule reactions to studies of gas-phase protein structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogorzalek Loo, R.R.; Loo, J.A.; Smith, R.D.


    Whether solution phase differences in protein higher order structure persist in the gas phase, is examined by means of proton transfer reactions on ions generated by electrospray ionization of different solution conformations. Ion-molecule reactions were carried out in the atmosphere-vacuum interface of a quadrupole mass spectrometer with a Y-shaped capillary inlet-reactor. An amine (dimethyl-, trimethyl-, or diethyl-) were delivered to one inlet arm. Reactivities of bovine cytochrome c ions sprayed from denatured and native solutions were determined; the ions generated shifted to about the same charge states. Addition of equal amounts of amine to ions generated from different solution conformations of bovine ubiquitin also yielded similar final charge states; however, the average charge state increased with temperature. Myoglobin and apomyoglobin also yielded similar final charge states. The results suggest that for the non-disulfide linked proteins, either there are not significant differences in gas phase higher order structure, or proton transfer reactions are not sensitive enough to detect higher order structural differences arising from noncovalent interactions. 2 refs, 2 figs. (DLC)

  4. Biofiltration of mixtures of gas-phase styrene and acetone with the fungus Sporothrix variecibatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rene, Eldon R.; Spackova, Radka; Veiga, Maria C. [University of La Coruna, Dpt. of Chemical Engineering, Campus da Zapateira, Rua da Fraga, 10, 15008 La Coruna (Spain); Kennes, Christian, E-mail: [University of La Coruna, Dpt. of Chemical Engineering, Campus da Zapateira, Rua da Fraga, 10, 15008 La Coruna (Spain)


    The biodegradation performance of a biofilter, inoculated with the fungus Sporothrix variecibatus, to treat gas-phase styrene and acetone mixtures under steady-state and transient conditions was evaluated. Experiments were carried out by varying the gas-flow rates (0.05-0.4 m{sup 3} h{sup -1}), leading to empty bed residence times as low as 17.1 s, and by changing the concentrations of gas-phase styrene (0.01-6.3 g m{sup -3}) and acetone (0.01-8.9 g m{sup -3}). The total elimination capacities were as high as 360 g m{sup -3} h{sup -1}, with nearly 97.5% removal of styrene and 75.6% for acetone. The biodegradation of acetone was inhibited by the presence of styrene, while styrene removal was affected only slightly by the presence of acetone. During transient-state experiments, increasing the overall pollutant load by almost 3-fold, i.e., from 220 to 600 g m{sup -3} h{sup -1}, resulted in a sudden drop of removal efficiency (>90-70%), but still high elimination capacities were maintained. Periodic microscopic observations revealed that the originally inoculated Sporothrix sp. remained present in the reactor and actively dominant in the biofilm.

  5. Effect of dimethylamine on the gas phase sulfuric acid concentration measured by Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry (United States)

    Rondo, L.; Ehrhart, S.; Kürten, A.; Adamov, A.; Bianchi, F.; Breitenlechner, M.; Duplissy, J.; Franchin, A.; Dommen, J.; Donahue, N. M.; Dunne, E. M.; Flagan, R. C.; Hakala, J.; Hansel, A.; Keskinen, H.; Kim, J.; Jokinen, T.; Lehtipalo, K.; Leiminger, M.; Praplan, A.; Riccobono, F.; Rissanen, M. P.; Sarnela, N.; Schobesberger, S.; Simon, M.; Sipilä, M.; Smith, J. N.; Tomé, A.; Tröstl, J.; Tsagkogeorgas, G.; Vaattovaara, P.; Winkler, P. M.; Williamson, C.; Wimmer, D.; Baltensperger, U.; Kirkby, J.; Kulmala, M.; Petäjä, T.; Worsnop, D. R.; Curtius, J.


    Sulfuric acid is widely recognized as a very important substance driving atmospheric aerosol nucleation. Based on quantum chemical calculations it has been suggested that the quantitative detection of gas phase sulfuric acid (H2SO4) by use of Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry (CIMS) could be biased in the presence of gas phase amines such as dimethylamine (DMA). An experiment (CLOUD7 campaign) was set up at the CLOUD (Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets) chamber to investigate the quantitative detection of H2SO4 in the presence of dimethylamine by CIMS at atmospherically relevant concentrations. For the first time in the CLOUD experiment, the monomer sulfuric acid concentration was measured by a CIMS and by two CI-APi-TOF (Chemical Ionization-Atmospheric Pressure interface-Time Of Flight) mass spectrometers. In addition, neutral sulfuric acid clusters were measured with the CI-APi-TOFs. The CLOUD7 measurements show that in the presence of dimethylamine (growth. Although it was found that the addition of dimethylamine dramatically changes the H2SO4 cluster distribution compared to binary (H2SO4-H2O) conditions, the CIMS detection efficiency does not seem to depend substantially on whether an individual H2SO4 monomer is clustered with a DMA molecule. The experimental observations are supported by numerical simulations based on A Self-contained Atmospheric chemistry coDe coupled with a molecular process model (Sulfuric Acid Water NUCleation) operated in the kinetic limit.

  6. Absolute standard hydrogen electrode potential measured by reduction of aqueous nanodrops in the gas phase. (United States)

    Donald, William A; Leib, Ryan D; O'Brien, Jeremy T; Bush, Matthew F; Williams, Evan R


    In solution, half-cell potentials are measured relative to those of other half cells, thereby establishing a ladder of thermochemical values that are referenced to the standard hydrogen electrode (SHE), which is arbitrarily assigned a value of exactly 0 V. Although there has been considerable interest in, and efforts toward, establishing an absolute electrochemical half-cell potential in solution, there is no general consensus regarding the best approach to obtain this value. Here, ion-electron recombination energies resulting from electron capture by gas-phase nanodrops containing individual [M(NH3)6]3+, M = Ru, Co, Os, Cr, and Ir, and Cu2+ ions are obtained from the number of water molecules that are lost from the reduced precursors. These experimental data combined with nanodrop solvation energies estimated from Born theory and solution-phase entropies estimated from limited experimental data provide absolute reduction energies for these redox couples in bulk aqueous solution. A key advantage of this approach is that solvent effects well past two solvent shells, that are difficult to model accurately, are included in these experimental measurements. By evaluating these data relative to known solution-phase reduction potentials, an absolute value for the SHE of 4.2 +/- 0.4 V versus a free electron is obtained. Although not achieved here, the uncertainty of this method could potentially be reduced to below 0.1 V, making this an attractive method for establishing an absolute electrochemical scale that bridges solution and gas-phase redox chemistry.

  7. Properties of clusters in the gas phase: V. Complexes of neutral molecules onto negative ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keesee, R.G.; Lee, N.; Castleman, A.W. Jr.


    Ion--molecules association reactions of the form A - (B)/sub n1/-+B=A - (B)/sub n/ were studied over a range of temperatures in the gas phase using high pressure mass spectrometry. Enthalpy and entropy changes were determined for the stepwise clustering reactions of (1) sulfur dioxide onto Cl - , I - , and NO 2 - with n ranging from one to three or four, and onto SO 2 - and SO 3 - with n equal to one; and (2) carbon dioxide onto Cl - , I - , NO 2 - , CO 3 - , and SO 3 - with n equal to one. From these data and earlier hydration results, the order of the magnitude of the enthalpy changes on the association of the first neutral for a series of negative ions was found to parallel the gas-phase basicity of those anions. For any given ion, the relative order of the addition enthalpies among the neutrals was found to be dependent on the polarizabilities of the neutrals and on the covalency in the ion-neutral bond. Dispersion of charge via covalent bonding was found to affect significantly the succeeding clustering steps

  8. Mapping the conformational free energy of aspartic acid in the gas phase and in aqueous solution. (United States)

    Comitani, Federico; Rossi, Kevin; Ceriotti, Michele; Sanz, M Eugenia; Molteni, Carla


    The conformational free energy landscape of aspartic acid, a proteogenic amino acid involved in a wide variety of biological functions, was investigated as an example of the complexity that multiple rotatable bonds produce even in relatively simple molecules. To efficiently explore such a landscape, this molecule was studied in the neutral and zwitterionic forms, in the gas phase and in water solution, by means of molecular dynamics and the enhanced sampling method metadynamics with classical force-fields. Multi-dimensional free energy landscapes were reduced to bi-dimensional maps through the non-linear dimensionality reduction algorithm sketch-map to identify the energetically stable conformers and their interconnection paths. Quantum chemical calculations were then performed on the minimum free energy structures. Our procedure returned the low energy conformations observed experimentally in the gas phase with rotational spectroscopy [M. E. Sanz et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 12, 3573 (2010)]. Moreover, it provided information on higher energy conformers not accessible to experiments and on the conformers in water. The comparison between different force-fields and quantum chemical data highlighted the importance of the underlying potential energy surface to accurately capture energy rankings. The combination of force-field based metadynamics, sketch-map analysis, and quantum chemical calculations was able to produce an exhaustive conformational exploration in a range of significant free energies that complements the experimental data. Similar protocols can be applied to larger peptides with complex conformational landscapes and would greatly benefit from the next generation of accurate force-fields.

  9. Photochemical reactions of triplet benzophenone and anthraquinone molecules with amines in the gas phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zalesskaya, G.A.; Sambor, E.G.; Belyi, N.N.


    The intermolecular photoinduced reactions between triplet ketone molecules and aliphatic amines and pyridine are studied by the quenching of delayed fluorescence of anthraquinone and benzophenone vapors by diethylamine, dibutylamine, cyclohexylamine, triethylamine, and pyridine. In the temperature range 423-573 K, the delayed fluorescence quenching rate constants k q are estimated from changes in the decay rate constant and the intensity of delayed fluorescence upon increasing pressure of bath gases. It is ascertained that, in the gas phase, the mixtures under study exhibit both a negative and a positive dependence of k q on temperature, which indicates that some photoinduced reactions do not have activation barriers. The rate constant k q is shown to increase with decreasing ionization potential of the electron donors. This points to the importance of interactions with charge transfer in the photoreaction of triplet ketone molecules with aliphatic amines and pyridine in the gas phase. The relationship between k q and the change in the free energy ΔG upon the photoinduced intermolecular electron transfer, which is the primary stage of the photochemical reaction, is studied. It is shown that the dependence k q (ΔG) for the donor-acceptor pairs under study is described well by the Marcus equation, in which the average vibrational energies of the donor and acceptor are taken into account for the estimate of ΔG

  10. Gas-phase ion-molecule reactions and high-pressure mass spectrometer, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraoka, Kenzo


    The reasons for the fact that the research in gas-phase ion-molecule reactions, to which wide interest is shown, have greatly contributed to the physical and chemical fields are that, first it is essential in understanding general phenomena concerning ions, second, it can furnish many unique informations in the dynamics of chemical reactions, and third, usefulness of '' chemical ionization'' methods has been established as its application to chemical analysis. In this review, the history and trend of studies and equipments in gas-phase ion-molecule reactions are surveyed. The survey includes the chemical ionization mass spectrometer for simultaneously measuring the positive and negative ions utilizing a quadrupole mass spectrometer presented by Hunt and others, flowing afterglow method derived from the flowing method which traces neutral chemical species mainly optically, ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer, trapped ion mass spectrometer and others. Number of reports referred to ion-molecule reactions issued during the last one year well exceeds the total number of reports concerning mass spectrometers presented before 1955. This truly shows how active the research and development are in this field. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  11. Liquid and gas phase NMR spectra of 13CH313CHO acetaldehyde (United States)

    Makulski, Włodzimierz; Wikieł, Agata J.


    The gas phase NMR experiments perform a vital role in establishing the magnetic shielding and spin-spin coupling constants which are free from intermolecular interactions, equivalent to the parameter of isolated molecules. This work is concerned with an acetaldehyde molecule. Small amounts of acetaldehyde 13CH313CHO in gaseous matrices of CO2 and Xe were studied using high-precision 1H and 13C NMR measurements. Results were extrapolated to the zero-density limit permitting the determinations of the 1H and 13C absolute nuclear magnetic shielding of an isolated acetaldehyde molecule. The difference between the experimental and recent theoretical DFT results is discussed. Several samples of 13CH313CHO dissolved in popular organic and inorganic solvents were also investigated. Gas-to-solution shifts show the influence of the association process when acetaldehyde is transferred from gas to liquid state. Several spin-spin coupling constants in the gas phase and in different solvents were precisely measured.

  12. Gas-Phase Photolysis of Pyruvic Acid: The Effect of Pressure on Reaction Rates and Products. (United States)

    Reed Harris, Allison E; Doussin, Jean-Francois; Carpenter, Barry K; Vaida, Veronica


    In this work, we investigate the impact of pressure and oxygen on the kinetics of and products from the gas-phase photolysis of pyruvic acid. The results reveal a decrease in the photolysis quantum yield as pressure of air or nitrogen is increased, a trend not yet documented in the literature. A Stern-Volmer analysis demonstrates this effect is due to deactivation of the singlet state of pyruvic acid when the photolysis is performed in nitrogen, and from quenching of both the singlet and triplet state in air. Consistent with previous studies, acetaldehyde and CO 2 are observed as the major products; however, other products, most notably acetic acid, are also identified in this work. The yield of acetic acid increases with increasing pressure of buffer gas, an effect that is amplified by the presence of oxygen. At least two mechanisms are necessary to explain the acetic acid, including one that requires reaction of photolysis intermediates with O 2 . These findings extend the fundamental understanding of the gas-phase photochemistry of pyruvic acid, highlighting the importance of pressure on the photolysis quantum yields and products.

  13. Bacteria and fungi inactivation by photocatalysis under UVA irradiation: liquid and gas phase. (United States)

    Rodrigues-Silva, Caio; Miranda, Sandra M; Lopes, Filipe V S; Silva, Mário; Dezotti, Márcia; Silva, Adrián M T; Faria, Joaquim L; Boaventura, Rui A R; Vilar, Vítor J P; Pinto, Eugénia


    In the last decade, environmental risks associated with wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) have become a concern in the scientific community due to the absence of specific legislation governing the occupational exposure limits (OEL) for microorganisms present in indoor air. Thus, it is necessary to develop techniques to effectively inactivate microorganisms present in the air of WWTPs facilities. In the present work, ultraviolet light A radiation was used as inactivation tool. The microbial population was not visibly reduced in the bioaerosol by ultraviolet light A (UVA) photolysis. The UVA photocatalytic process for the inactivation of microorganisms (bacteria and fungi, ATCC strains and isolates from indoor air samples of a WWTP) using titanium dioxide (TiO 2 P25) and zinc oxide (ZnO) was tested in both liquid-phase and airborne conditions. In the slurry conditions at liquid phase, P25 showed a better performance in inactivation. For this reason, gas-phase assays were performed in a tubular photoreactor packed with cellulose acetate monolithic structures coated with P25. The survival rate of microorganisms under study decreased with the catalyst load and the UVA exposure time. Inactivation of fungi was slower than resistant bacteria, followed by Gram-positive bacteria and Gram-negative bacteria. Graphical abstract Inactivation of fungi and bacteria in gas phase by photocatalitic process performed in a tubular photoreactor packed with cellulose acetate monolith structures coated with TiO 2 .

  14. Liquid-gas phase transition in strange hadronic matter with relativistic models (United States)

    Torres, James R.; Gulminelli, F.; Menezes, Débora P.


    Background: The advent of new dedicated experimental programs on hyperon physics is rapidly boosting the field, and the possibility of synthesizing multiple strange hypernuclei requires the addition of the strangeness degree of freedom to the models dedicated to nuclear structure and nuclear matter studies at low energy. Purpose: We want to settle the influence of strangeness on the nuclear liquid-gas phase transition. Because of the large uncertainties concerning the hyperon sector, we do not aim at a quantitative estimation of the phase diagram but rather at a qualitative description of the phenomenology, as model independent as possible. Method: We analyze the phase diagram of low-density matter composed of neutrons, protons, and Λ hyperons using a relativistic mean field (RMF) model. We largely explore the parameter space to pin down generic features of the phase transition, and compare the results to ab initio quantum Monte Carlo calculations. Results: We show that the liquid-gas phase transition is only slightly quenched by the addition of hyperons. Strangeness is seen to be an order parameter of the phase transition, meaning that dilute strange matter is expected to be unstable with respect to the formation of hyperclusters. Conclusions: More quantitative results within the RMF model need improved functionals at low density, possibly fitted to ab initio calculations of nuclear and Λ matter.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. W. Tröger


    Full Text Available The use of oxy-fuel combustion processes is of large interest for several industrial fields applications since it offers the advantages of low NOx emissions in combination with high combustion temperatures even without additional preheating. For optimization of such processеs a detailed understanding based on precise experimental data is necessary. So far there is still a lack of precise experimental data achieved with high spatial and temporal resolution from industrial relevant turbulent oxy-fuel combustion processes. Beside species concentration information the gas phase temperature is of utmost importance for an improved understanding of the basic chemical reactions and the pollutant formation. The coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS technique is a very well suited laser based tool for a non-intrusive investigation of such turbulent high temperature combustion processes. In this work we analysed an industrial 400 kW oxy-fuel burner with the help of O2 based vibrational CARS system which is integrated in an industrial relevant test furnace. The burner is fed with pure oxygen and natural gas at an equivalence ratio of =0.9. At one downstream position temporal and spatial resolved temperatures were measured along a 600 mm line. Additional air sucked in from the environment seems to influence the gas phase temperature significantly.

  16. Gas phase collision dynamics by means of pulse-radiolysis methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatano, Yoshihiko


    After a brief survey of recent advances in gas-phase collision dynamics studies using pulse radiolysis methods, the following two topics in our research programs are presented with emphasis on the superior advantages of the pulse radiolysis methods over the various methods of gas-phase collision dynamics, such as beam methods, swarm methods and flow methods. One of the topics is electron attachment to van der Waals molecules. The attachment rates of thermal electrons to O 2 and other molecules in dense gases have been measured in wide ranges of both gas temperatures and pressures, from which experimental evidence has been obtained for electron attachment to van der Waals molecules. The results have been compared with theories and discussed in terms of the effect of van der Waals interaction on the electron attachment resonance. The obtained conclusions have been related with investigations of electron attachment, solvation and localization in the condensed phase. The other is Penning ionization and its related processes. The rate constants for the de-excitation of He(2 1 P), He(2 3 S), Ne( 3 P 0 ), Ne( 3 P 1 ), Ne( 3 P 2 ), Ar( 1 P 1 ), Ar( 3 P 1 ), by atoms and molecules have been measured in the temperature range from 100 to 300 K, thus obtaining the collisional energy dependence of the de-excitation cross sections. The results are compared in detail with theories classified according to the excited rare gas atoms in the metastable and resonance states. (author)

  17. Probing Vitamine C, Aspirin and Paracetamol in the Gas Phase: High Resolution Rotational Studies (United States)

    Mata, S.; Cabezas, C.; Varela, M.; Pena, I.; Nino, A.; López, J. C.; Alonso, J. L.; Grabow, J.-U.


    A solid sample of Vitamin C (m.p. 190°C) vaporized by laser ablation has been investigated in gas phase and characterized through their rotational spectra. Two spectroscopy techniques has been used to obtain the spectra: a new design of broadband chirped pulse Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy with in-phase/quadrature-phase-modulation passage-acquired-coherence technique (IMPACT) and conventional laser ablation molecular beam Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy (LA-MB-FTMW). Up to now, two low-energy conformer have been observed and their rotational constants determined. Ab initio calculations at the MP2/6-311++G (d,p) level of theory predicted rotational constants which helped us to identify these conformers unequivocally. Among the molecules to benefit from the LA-MB-FTMW technique there are common important drugs never observed in the gas phase through rotational spectroscopy. We present here the results on acetyl salicylic acid and acetaminophen (m.p. 136°C), commonly known as aspirin and paracetamol respectively. We have observed two stable conformers of aspirin and two for paracetamol. The internal rotation barrier of the methyl group in aspirin has been determined for both conformers from the analysis of the A-E splittings due to the coupling of internal and overall rotation. J. L. Alonso, C. Pérez, M. E. Sanz, J. C. López, S. Blanco, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 11,617-627 (2009)and references therein

  18. Fluorescence probe of polypeptide conformational dynamics in gas phase and in solution (United States)

    Iavarone, Anthony T.; Meinen, Jan; Schulze, Susanne; Parks, Joel H.


    Fluorescence measurements of polypeptides derivatized with the fluorescent dye BODIPY TMR have been used to probe the polypeptide conformational dynamics as a function of temperature and charge state. Measurements of (BODIPY TMR)-[Pro]n-Arg-Trp and (BODIPY TMR)-[Gly-Ser]m-Arg-Trp have been performed for charge states 1+ and 2+ of n = 4 and 10 and m = 2 and 5. The 2+ charge states of both of these polypeptides exhibit similar temperature dependences for equal chain lengths (n = 4, m = 2 and n = 10, m = 5) and suggest conformations dominated by Coulomb repulsion. In the absence of such Coulomb repulsion, the 1+ charge state conformations appear to be characterized by the flexibility of the polypeptide chain for which [Gly-Ser]m > [Pro]n. Comparisons of these gas phase polypeptide measurements with corresponding measurements in solution provide a direct measure of the effects of solvent on the conformational dynamics. The change in fluorescence as a function of temperature in the gas phase is two orders of magnitude greater than that in solution, a dramatic result we attribute to the restrictions on intramolecular dynamics imposed by diffusion-limited kinetics and the lack of shielding by solvent. Measurements were also made of unsolvated Pron peptides without the tryptophan (Trp) residue to isolate the interaction of the fluorescent dye with charges.

  19. Sources and potential health risk of gas phase PAHs in Hexi Corridor, Northwest China. (United States)

    Mao, Xiaoxuan; Yu, Zhousuo; Ding, Zhongyuan; Huang, Tao; Ma, Jianmin; Zhang, Gan; Li, Jun; Gao, Hong


    Gas phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Hexi Corridor, Northwest China were determined during heating and non-heating seasons, respectively, using passive air samplers. Polyurethane foam (PUF) disks were chosen as the sampling medium. Fifteen PAHs out of the 16 PAHs classified by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) were detected in this field sampling investigation. The atmospheric levels of sampled PAHs were higher at urban sites than that at rural sites among 14 sampling sites and increased during heating season. The highest concentration (11.34 ng m(-3)) was observed in Lanzhou during the heating season, the capital and largest industrial city of Gansu Province. PAH contamination in air was dominated by three aromatic ring congeners. Possible sources of PAHs were apportioned using PAH species ratios and the principle component analysis (PCA) combined with a multiple linear regression (MLR) method. Fossil fuel consumption was identified to be the predominant source of PAHs over Hexi Corridor, accounting for 43 % of the concentration of total (15) PAHs. Backward and forward trajectory and cluster analysis were also carried out to identify potential origins of PAHs monitored at several urban and rural sites. Lung cancer risk of local residents to gas phase PAHs via inhalation exposure throughout the province was found to be around a critical value of the lung cancer risk level at 10(-6) recommended by the U.S. EPA risk assessment guideline.

  20. Gas-phase pesticide measurement using iodide ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (United States)

    Murschell, Trey; Fulgham, S. Ryan; Farmer, Delphine K.


    Volatilization and subsequent processing in the atmosphere are an important environmental pathway for the transport and chemical fate of pesticides. However, these processes remain a particularly poorly understood component of pesticide lifecycles due to analytical challenges in measuring pesticides in the atmosphere. Most pesticide measurements require long (hours to days) sampling times coupled with offline analysis, inhibiting observation of meteorologically driven events or investigation of rapid oxidation chemistry. Here, we present chemical ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry with iodide reagent ions as a fast and sensitive measurement of four current-use pesticides. These semi-volatile pesticides were calibrated with injections of solutions onto a filter and subsequently volatilized to generate gas-phase analytes. Trifluralin and atrazine are detected as iodide-molecule adducts, while permethrin and metolachlor are detected as adducts between iodide and fragments of the parent analyte molecule. Limits of detection (1 s) are 0.37, 0.67, 0.56, and 1.1 µg m-3 for gas-phase trifluralin, metolachlor, atrazine, and permethrin, respectively. The sensitivities of trifluralin and metolachlor depend on relative humidity, changing as much as 70 and 59, respectively, as relative humidity of the sample air varies from 0 to 80 %. This measurement approach is thus appropriate for laboratory experiments and potentially near-source field measurements.

  1. Gas-phase pesticide measurement using iodide ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Murschell


    Full Text Available Volatilization and subsequent processing in the atmosphere are an important environmental pathway for the transport and chemical fate of pesticides. However, these processes remain a particularly poorly understood component of pesticide lifecycles due to analytical challenges in measuring pesticides in the atmosphere. Most pesticide measurements require long (hours to days sampling times coupled with offline analysis, inhibiting observation of meteorologically driven events or investigation of rapid oxidation chemistry. Here, we present chemical ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry with iodide reagent ions as a fast and sensitive measurement of four current-use pesticides. These semi-volatile pesticides were calibrated with injections of solutions onto a filter and subsequently volatilized to generate gas-phase analytes. Trifluralin and atrazine are detected as iodide–molecule adducts, while permethrin and metolachlor are detected as adducts between iodide and fragments of the parent analyte molecule. Limits of detection (1 s are 0.37, 0.67, 0.56, and 1.1 µg m−3 for gas-phase trifluralin, metolachlor, atrazine, and permethrin, respectively. The sensitivities of trifluralin and metolachlor depend on relative humidity, changing as much as 70 and 59, respectively, as relative humidity of the sample air varies from 0 to 80 %. This measurement approach is thus appropriate for laboratory experiments and potentially near-source field measurements.

  2. Aluminum-doped ZnO nanoparticles: gas-phase synthesis and dopant location (United States)

    Schilling, Carolin; Zähres, Manfred; Mayer, Christian; Winterer, Markus


    Aluminum-doped ZnO (AZO) nanoparticles are studied widely as transparent conducting alternatives for indium tin oxide. However, the properties of AZO vary in different investigations not only with the amount of dopant and the particle size, but also with other parameters such as synthesis method and conditions. Hence, AZO nanoparticles, synthesized in the gas phase, were investigated to study the influence of the synthesis parameters dopant level, reactor temperature and residence time in the reaction zone on the particle characteristics. The local structure of the dopant in semiconductors determines whether the doping is functional, i.e., whether mobile charge carriers are generated. Therefore, information obtained from 27Al solid-state NMR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, photoluminescence and UV-Vis spectroscopy was used to understand how the local structure influences particles characteristics and how the local structure itself can be influenced by the synthesis parameters. In addition to AZO particles of different Al content, pure ZnO, Al2O3, ZnAl2O4 and core-shell particles of ZnO and Al2O3 were synthesized for comparison and aid to a deeper understanding of the formation of AZO nanoparticles in the gas phase.

  3. Functionalized silica aerogels for gas-phase purification, sensing, and catalysis: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amonette, James E.; Matyáš, Josef


    Silica aerogels have a rich history and a unique, fascinating gas-phase chemistry that has lent them to many diverse applications. This review starts with a brief discussion of the fundamental issues driving the movement of gases in silica aerogels and then proceeds to provide an overview of the work that has been done with respect to the purification of gases, sensing of individual gases, and uses of silica aerogels as catalysts for gas-phase reactions. Salient features of the research behind these different applications are presented, and, where appropriate, critical aspects that affect the practical use of the aerogels are noted. Specific sections under the gas-purification category focus on the removal of airborne nanoparticles, carbon dioxide, volatile organic compounds, sulfur gases and radioactive iodine from gas streams. The use of silica aerogels as sensors for humidity, oxygen, hydrocarbons, volatile acids and bases, various non-ammoniacal nitrogen gases, and viral particles is discussed. With respect to catalysis, the demonstrated use of silica aerogels as supports for oxidation, Fischer-Tropsch, alkane isomerization, and hydrogenation reactions is reviewed, along with a section on untested catalytic formulations involving silica aerogels. A short section focuses on recent developments in thermomolecular Knudsen compressor pumps using silica aerogel membranes. The review continues with an overview of the production methods, locations of manufacturing facilities globally, and a brief discussion of the economics before concluding with a few remarks about the present and future trends revealed by the work presented.

  4. Formation of secondary aerosols over Europe: comparison of two gas-phase chemical mechanisms (United States)

    Kim, Y.; Sartelet, K.; Seigneur, C.


    The impact of two recent gas-phase chemical kinetic mechanisms (CB05 and RACM2) on the formation of secondary inorganic and organic aerosols is compared for simulations of PM2.5 over Europe between 15 July and 15 August 2001. The host chemistry transport model is Polair3D of the Polyphemus air-quality platform. Particulate matter is modeled with a sectional aerosol model (SIREAM), which is coupled to the thermodynamic model ISORROPIA for inorganic species and to a module (MAEC) that treats both hydrophobic and hydrophilic species for secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Modifications are made to the gas-phase chemical mechanisms to handle the formation of SOA. In order to isolate the effect of the original chemical mechanisms on PM formation, the addition of reactions and chemical species needed for SOA formation was harmonized to the extent possible between the two gas-phase chemical mechanisms. Model performance is satisfactory with both mechanisms for speciated PM2.5. The monthly-mean difference of the concentration of PM2.5 is less than 1 μg m-3 (6%) over the entire domain. Secondary chemical components of PM2.5 include sulfate, nitrate, ammonium and organic aerosols, and the chemical composition of PM2.5 is not significantly different between the two mechanisms. Monthly-mean concentrations of inorganic aerosol are higher with RACM2 than with CB05 (+16% for sulfate, +11% for nitrate, and +10% for ammonium), whereas the concentrations of organic aerosols are slightly higher with CB05 than with RACM2 (+22% for anthropogenic SOA and +1% for biogenic SOA). Differences in the inorganic and organic aerosols result primarily from differences in oxidant concentrations (OH, O3 and NO3). Nitrate formation tends to be HNO3-limited over land and differences in the concentrations of nitrate are due to differences in concentration of HNO3. Differences in aerosols formed from aromatic SVOC are due to different aromatic oxidation between CB05 and RACM2. The aromatic oxidation in

  5. Solvent effects on the thermochemistry of free-radical reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanabus-Kaminska, J.M.; Griller, D. (National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)); Gilbert, B.C. (Univ. of York Heslington (England))


    Heats of the reaction H{sub 2}O + 2RH {yields} 2H{sub 2}O + 2R{sup {sm bullet} were measured in water for a variety of organic substrates by using photoacoustic calorimetry. The values obtained were substantially lower than those calculated from gas-phase data and the difference was due entirely to the change in solvation energy associated with the conversion of 1 equiv of hydrogen peroxide to 2 of water. The solvation energies of R{sm bullet}} and RH were the same and their contributions to the measured heats of reaction therefore canceled. The results suggest that solution data, measured in extremely polar solvents, can be converted to their gas-phase equivalents (and vice versa) by considering only the heats of solvation of very small, polar molecules that participate in a given reaction. Moderately large organic molecules and their corresponding radicals are solvated to the same extent - even in water.

  6. Carboxyl-catalyzed prototropic rearrangements in histidine peptide radicals upon electron transfer: effects of peptide sequence and conformation. (United States)

    Turecek, Frantisek; Panja, Subhasis; Wyer, Jean A; Ehlerding, Anneli; Zettergren, Henning; Nielsen, Steen Brøndsted; Hvelplund, Preben; Bythell, Benjamin; Paizs, Béla


    We report an unusual prototropic rearrangement in gas-phase radicals formed by collisional electron transfer from cesium atoms to protonated peptides HAL, AHL, and ALH at 50 keV. The rearrangement depends on the peptide amino acid sequence and presence or steric accessibility of a free carboxyl group. Upon electron transfer, protonated HAL and ALH rearrange to tautomers that are detected as nondissociated anions in charge-reversal mass spectra. The isomerization is minor in protonated ALH and virtually absent in HAL amide. Electron structure calculations indicate that the gas-phase ions are preferentially protonated in the His imidazole ring and consist of multiple conformers that differ in their hydrogen bonding patterns. Electron transfer to protonated HAL and AHL triggers an exothermic and dynamically barrierless transfer of the carboxyl proton onto the C-2' position of the His ring that occurs on a 120-240 ns time scale. The kinetics of this isomerization are controlled by internal rotations in the radicals to assume conformations favoring the proton transfer. The radical conformations also affect subsequent proton migrations in zwitterionic His imidazoline intermediates that reform the COOH group and result in His ring isomerization. This autocatalytic prototropic rearrangement in gas-phase peptide radicals is analogous to enzyme catalytic reactions involving His and acidic amino acid residues. In contrast to HAL and AHL, the C-2' position is sterically inaccessible in ALH radicals. These radicals undergo proton migrations to the His ring C-5' positions that have moderate energy barriers and are less efficient. RRKM calculations on the combined B3LYP and PMP2/6-311++G(2d,p) potential energy surface of the ground doublet electronic state of the peptide radicals provided rate constants that were quantitatively consistent with the dissociations observed in the gas phase. The formation of minor sequence z(1) and z(2) fragments from AHL was interpreted as occurring

  7. Multiphase flow and transport caused by spontaneous gas phase growth in the presence of dense non-aqueous phase liquid. (United States)

    Roy, James W; Smith, James E


    Disconnected bubbles or ganglia of trapped gas may occur below the top of the capillary fringe through a number of mechanisms. In the presence of dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL), the disconnected gas phase experiences mass transfer of dissolved gases, including volatile components from the DNAPL. The properties of the gas phase interface can also change. This work shows for the first time that when seed gas bubbles exist spontaneous gas phase growth can be expected to occur and can significantly affect water-gas-DNAPL distributions, fluid flow, and mass transfer. Source zone behaviour was observed in three different experiments performed in a 2-dimensional flow cell. In each case, a DNAPL pool was created in a zone of larger glass beads over smaller glass beads, which served as a capillary barrier. In one experiment effluent water samples were analyzed to determine the vertical concentration profile of the plume above the pool. The experiments effectively demonstrated a) a cycle of spontaneous gas phase expansion and vertical advective mobilization of gas bubbles and ganglia above the DNAPL source zone, b) DNAPL redistribution caused by gas phase growth and mobilization, and c) that these processes can significantly affect mass transport from a NAPL source zone.

  8. The coupling effect of gas-phase chemistry and surface reactions on oxygen permeation and fuel conversion in ITM reactors

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Jongsup


    © 2015 Elsevier B.V. The effect of the coupling between heterogeneous catalytic reactions supported by an ion transport membrane (ITM) and gas-phase chemistry on fuel conversion and oxygen permeation in ITM reactors is examined. In ITM reactors, thermochemical reactions take place in the gas-phase and on the membrane surface, both of which interact with oxygen permeation. However, this coupling between gas-phase and surface chemistry has not been examined in detail. In this study, a parametric analysis using numerical simulations is conducted to investigate this coupling and its impact on fuel conversion and oxygen permeation rates. A thermochemical model that incorporates heterogeneous chemistry on the membrane surface and detailed chemical kinetics in the gas-phase is used. Results show that fuel conversion and oxygen permeation are strongly influenced by the simultaneous action of both chemistries. It is shown that the coupling somewhat suppresses the gas-phase kinetics and reduces fuel conversion, both attributed to extensive thermal energy transfer towards the membrane which conducts it to the air side and radiates to the reactor walls. The reaction pathway and products, in the form of syngas and C2 hydrocarbons, are also affected. In addition, the operating regimes of ITM reactors in which heterogeneous- or/and homogeneous-phase reactions predominantly contribute to fuel conversion and oxygen permeation are elucidated.

  9. The structures of tellurium(IV) halides in the gas phase and as solvated molecules. (United States)

    Shlykov, Sergey A; Giricheva, Nina I; Titov, Anton V; Szwak, Małgorzata; Lentz, Dieter; Girichev, Georgiy V


    The structures of molecular tellurium tetrafluoride and tellurium tetrachloride were determined by a combination of gas-phase electron diffraction, mass spectrometry and quantum chemical calculations. The combined GED/MS experiments showed no evidence of decomposition of TeF(4) and TeCl(4). No ions of oligomeric (dimeric, trimeric, etc.) or any other composition were found in the mass spectra. The monomeric molecules possess a pseudo trigonal bipyramidal structure (C(2v) symmetry) with the equatorial Te-X distances being shorter than the axial ones. The fluorine atoms are bent away from the lone pair resulting in X(eq)-Te-X(eq) and X(eq)-Te-X(ax) bond angles smaller than 120 and 90 degrees, respectively. The structure of solvates TeF(4) (THF)(2), TeF(4) (dioxane) TeF(4) (DME)(2), TeF(4)(Et(2)O) TeF(4)(toluene), TeCl(4)(CH(3)CN)(2), TeCl(4)(DME)(2) and TeCl(4)(dioxane) were determined by X-ray diffraction. The structures of tellurium tetrafluoride solvates are strongly influenced by the choice of the solvent molecules. Monomeric TeF(4) units were obtained with THF, DME and dioxane whereas fluoride bridged coordination polymers were formed using diethyl ether or toluene. All tellurium tetrachloride solvates studied contain monomeric TeCl(4) units with coordinated solvent molecules. Coordination numbers range from four in the gas phase to eight in the TeF(4) dimethoxyethane solvate. Geometric parameters of the TeX(4) molecules in the crystal, solvates and gas phase were compared. DFT, MP2, CCSD, CCSD(T) methods were applied for calculation of geometric and vibrational characteristics of free TeX(4) molecules (X = F, Cl). The pseudorotation barriers were estimated and an NBO analysis was performed. It was shown that both, GED and theoretical, quantitative results are in agreement with the qualitative results of the VSEPR model.

  10. Nitric oxide gas phase release in human small airway epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Vinod


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthma is a chronic airway inflammatory disease characterized by an imbalance in both Th1 and Th2 cytokines. Exhaled nitric oxide (NO is elevated in asthma, and is a potentially useful non-invasive marker of airway inflammation. However, the origin and underlying mechanisms of intersubject variability of exhaled NO are not yet fully understood. We have previously described NO gas phase release from normal human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBEs, tracheal origin. However, smaller airways are the major site of morbidity in asthma. We hypothesized that IL-13 or cytomix (IL-1β, TNF-α, and IFN-γ stimulation of differentiated small airway epithelial cells (SAECs, generation 10–12 and A549 cells (model cell line of alveolar type II cells in culture would enhance NO gas phase release. Methods Confluent monolayers of SAECs and A549 cells were cultured in Transwell plates and SAECs were allowed to differentiate into ciliated and mucus producing cells at an air-liquid interface. The cells were then stimulated with IL-13 (10 ng/mL or cytomix (10 ng/mL for each cytokine. Gas phase NO release in the headspace air over the cells was measured for 48 hours using a chemiluminescence analyzer. Results In contrast to our previous result in NHBE, baseline NO release from SAECs and A549 is negligible. However, NO release is significantly increased by cytomix (0.51 ± 0.18 and 0.29 ± 0.20, respectively reaching a peak at approximately 10 hours. iNOS protein expression increases in a consistent pattern both temporally and in magnitude. In contrast, IL-13 only modestly increases NO release in SAECs reaching a peak (0.06 ± 0.03 more slowly (30 to 48 hours, and does not alter NO release in A549 cells. Conclusion We conclude that the airway epithelium is a probable source of NO in the exhaled breath, and intersubject variability may be due, in part, to variability in the type (Th1 vs Th2 and location (large vs small airway

  11. Heterogeneous photochemistry of imidazole-2-carboxaldehyde: HO2 radical formation and aerosol growth (United States)

    González Palacios, Laura; Corral Arroyo, Pablo; Aregahegn, Kifle Z.; Steimer, Sarah S.; Bartels-Rausch, Thorsten; Nozière, Barbara; George, Christian; Ammann, Markus; Volkamer, Rainer


    The multiphase chemistry of glyoxal is a source of secondary organic aerosol (SOA), including its light-absorbing product imidazole-2-carboxaldehyde (IC). IC is a photosensitizer that can contribute to additional aerosol ageing and growth when its excited triplet state oxidizes hydrocarbons (reactive uptake) via H-transfer chemistry. We have conducted a series of photochemical coated-wall flow tube (CWFT) experiments using films of IC and citric acid (CA), an organic proxy and H donor in the condensed phase. The formation rate of gas-phase HO2 radicals (PHO2) was measured indirectly by converting gas-phase NO into NO2. We report on experiments that relied on measurements of NO2 formation, NO loss and HONO formation. PHO2 was found to be a linear function of (1) the [IC] × [CA] concentration product and (2) the photon actinic flux. Additionally, (3) a more complex function of relative humidity (25 % reaction of NO with HO2 in the gas phase. Further, seed aerosols containing IC and ammonium sulfate were exposed to gas-phase limonene and NOx in aerosol flow tube experiments, confirming significant PHO2 from aerosol surfaces. Our results indicate a potentially relevant contribution of triplet state photochemistry for gas-phase HO2 production, aerosol growth and ageing in the atmosphere.

  12. Gas-Phase Photochemical Overall H2S Splitting by UV Light Irradiation. (United States)

    Baldovi, Herme G; Albero, Josep; Ferrer, Belen; Mateo, Diego; Alvaro, Mercedes; García, Hermenegildo


    Splitting of hydrogen sulfide is achieved to produce value-added chemicals. Upon irradiation at 254 nm in the gas phase and in the absence of catalysts or photocatalysts at near room temperature, H 2 S splits into stoichiometric amounts of H 2 and S with a quantum efficiency close to 50 %. No influence of the presence of CH 4 and CO 2 (typical components in natural gas and biogas in which H 2 S is an unwanted component) on the efficiency of overall H 2 S splitting was observed. A mechanism for the H 2 and S formation is proposed. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. UPS and DFT investigation of the electronic structure of gas-phase trimesic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reisberg, L., E-mail: [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, W. Oswaldi 1, EE-50411 Tartu (Estonia); Pärna, R. [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, W. Oswaldi 1, EE-50411 Tartu (Estonia); MAX IV Laboratory, Lund University, Fotongatan 2, 225 94 Lund (Sweden); Kikas, A.; Kuusik, I.; Kisand, V. [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, W. Oswaldi 1, EE-50411 Tartu (Estonia); Hirsimäki, M.; Valden, M. [Surface Science Laboratory, Optoelectronics Research Centre, Tampere University of Technology, FIN-33101 Tampere (Finland); Nõmmiste, E. [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, W. Oswaldi 1, EE-50411 Tartu (Estonia)


    Highlights: • In the current study outer valence band electronic structure of benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylic acid was interpreted. • Experimental and calculated trimesic acid (TMA) spectrum were compared to ones of benzene and benzoic acid. • It is shown that similarities between MO energies and shapes for benzene and TMA exists. • Addition of carboxyl groups to the benzene ring clearly correlates with increasing binding energy of HOMO. - Abstract: Benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylic acid (trimesic acid, TMA) molecules in gas-phase have been investigated by using valence band photoemission. The photoelectron spectrum in the binding energy region from 9 to 22 eV is interpreted by using density functional theory calculations. The electronic structure of TMA is compared with benzene and benzoic acid in order to demonstrate changes in molecular orbital energies induced by addition of carboxyl groups to benzene ring.

  14. Structure and dynamics of gas phase ions: Interplay between experiments and computations in IRMPD spectroscopy (United States)

    Coletti, Cecilia; Corinti, Davide; Paciotti, Roberto; Re, Nazzareno; Crestoni, Maria Elisa; Fornarini, Simonetta


    The investigation of the molecular structure and dynamics of ions in gas phase is an item of increasing interest, due the role such species play in many areas of chemistry and physics, not to mention that they often represent elusive intermediates in more complex reaction mechanisms. Infrared Multiple Photon Dissociation spectroscopy is today one of the most advanced technique to this purpose, because of its high sensitivity to even small structure changes. The interpretation of IRMPD spectra strongly relies on high level quantum mechanical computations, so that a close interplay is needed for a detailed understanding of structure and kinetics properties which can be gathered from the many applications of this powerful technique. Recent advances in experiment and theory in this field are here illustrated, with emphasis on recent progresses for the elucidation of the mechanism of action of cisplatin, one of the most widely used anticancer drugs.

  15. Optical investigation of gas-phase KCl/KOH sulfation in post flame conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weng, Wubin; chen, Shuang; Wu, Hao


    A counter-flow reactor setup was designed to investigate the gas-phase sulfation and homogeneous nucleation of potassium salts. Gaseous KOH and KCl were introduced into the post-flame zone of a laminar flat flame. The hot flame products mixed in the counter-flow with cold N2, with or without....... Depending on the potassium speciation in the inlet and the presence of SO2, they consisted of K2SO4, KCl, or K2CO3, respectively. The experiments showed that KOH was sulphated more readily than KCl, resulting in larger quantities of aerosols. The sulfation process in the counter-flow setup was simulated...... using a chemical kinetic model including a detailed subset for the Cl/S/K chemistry. Similar to the experimental results, much more potassium sulfate was predicted when seeding KOH compared to seeding KCl. For both KOH and KCl, sulfation was predicted to occur primarily through the reactions among...

  16. Versatile gas-phase reactions for surface to bulk esterification of cellulose microfibrils aerogels. (United States)

    Fumagalli, Matthieu; Ouhab, Djamila; Boisseau, Sonia Molina; Heux, Laurent


    Aqueous suspensions of microfibrillated cellulose obtained by a high pressure homogenization process were freeze-dried after solvent exchange into tert-butanol. The resulting aerogels, which displayed a remarkable open morphology with a surface area reaching 100 m(2)/g, were subjected to a gas-phase esterification with palmitoyl chloride. Under these conditions, variations of the reaction temperature from 100 to 200 °C, of the reaction time from 0.5 to 2 h, and of the initial quantity of reagent, led to the preparation of a library of cellulose palmitates with DS varying from zero to 2.36. These products were characterized by gravimetry, FTIR, and (13)C solid-state NMR spectroscopy. Of special interest were the cellulose palmitate samples of low DS in the range of 0.1-0.4, which corresponded to hydrophobic cellulose microfibrils exclusively esterified at their surface while keeping intact their inner structure.

  17. Gas phase chemistry and removal of CH{sub 3}I during a severe accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karhu, A. [VTT. Energy, Esbo (Finland)


    The purpose of this literature review was to gather valuable information on the behavior of methyl iodide on the gas phase during a severe accident. The potential of transition metals, especially silver and copper, to remove organic iodides from the gas streams was also studied. Transition metals are one of the most interesting groups in the context of iodine mitigation. For example silver is known to react intensively with iodine compounds. Silver is also relatively inert material and it is thermally stable. Copper is known to react with some radioiodine species. However, it is not reactive toward methyl iodide. In addition, it is oxidized to copper oxide under atmospheric conditions. This may limit the industrial use of copper.(au)

  18. The Northwest Infrared (NWIR) gas-phase spectral database of industrial and environmental chemicals: Recent updates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brauer, Carolyn S.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Blake, Thomas A.; Sharpe, Steven W.; Sams, Robert L.; Tonkyn, Russell G.


    With continuing improvements in both standoff- and point-sensing techniques, there is an ongoing need for high-quality infrared spectral databases. The Northwest Infrared Database (NWIR) contains quantitative, gas-phase infrared spectra of nearly 500 pure chemical species that can be used for a variety of applications such as atmospheric monitoring, biomass burning studies, etc. The data, recorded at 0.1 cm-1 resolution, are pressure broadened to one atmosphere (N2) in order to mimic atmospheric conditions. Each spectrum is a composite composed of multiple individual measurements. Recent updates to the database include over 60 molecules that are known or suspected biomass-burning effluents. Examples from this set of measurements will be presented and experimental details will be discussed in the context of the utility of NWIR for environmental applications.

  19. Characterization of Conformational Ensembles of Protonated N-glycans in the Gas-Phase. (United States)

    Re, Suyong; Watabe, Shigehisa; Nishima, Wataru; Muneyuki, Eiro; Yamaguchi, Yoshiki; MacKerell, Alexander D; Sugita, Yuji


    Ion mobility mass spectrometry (IM-MS) is a technique capable of investigating structural changes of biomolecules based on their collision cross section (CCS). Recent advances in IM-MS allow us to separate carbohydrate isomers with subtle conformational differences, but the relationship between CCS and atomic structure remains elusive. Here, we characterize conformational ensembles of gas-phase N-glycans under the electrospray ionization condition using molecular dynamics simulations with enhanced sampling. We show that the separation of CCSs between isomers reflects folding features of N-glycans, which are determined both by chemical compositions and protonation states. Providing a physicochemical basis of CCS for N-glycans helps not only to interpret IM-MS measurements but also to estimate CCSs of complex glycans.

  20. Gas-phase conformations of 2-methyl-1,3-dithiolane investigated by microwave spectroscopy (United States)

    Van, Vinh; Stahl, Wolfgang; Schwell, Martin; Nguyen, Ha Vinh Lam


    The conformational analysis of 2-methyl-1,3-dithiolane using quantum chemical calculations at some levels of theory yielded only one stable conformer with envelope geometry. However, other levels of theory indicated two envelope conformers. Analysis of the microwave spectrum recorded using two molecular jet Fourier transform microwave spectrometers covering the frequency range from 2 to 40 GHz confirms that only one conformer exists under jet conditions. The experimental spectrum was reproduced using a rigid-rotor model with centrifugal distortion correction within the measurement accuracy of 1.5 kHz, and molecular parameters were determined with very high accuracy. The gas phase structure of the title molecule is compared with the structures of other related molecules studied under the same experimental conditions.

  1. Harvesting Hydrogen Gas from Air Pollutants with an Unbiased Gas Phase Photoelectrochemical Cell. (United States)

    Verbruggen, Sammy W; Van Hal, Myrthe; Bosserez, Tom; Rongé, Jan; Hauchecorne, Birger; Martens, Johan A; Lenaerts, Silvia


    The concept of an all-gas-phase photoelectrochemical (PEC) cell producing hydrogen gas from volatile organic contaminated gas and light is presented. Without applying any external bias, organic contaminants are degraded and hydrogen gas is produced in separate electrode compartments. The system works most efficiently with organic pollutants in inert carrier gas. In the presence of oxygen, the cell performs less efficiently but still significant photocurrents are generated, showing the cell can be run on organic contaminated air. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate new application opportunities of PEC technology and to encourage further advancement toward PEC remediation of air pollution with the attractive feature of simultaneous energy recovery and pollution abatement. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Photofragmentation of gas-phase acetic acid and acetamide clusters in the vacuum ultraviolet region (United States)

    Berholts, Marta; Myllynen, Hanna; Kooser, Kuno; Itälä, Eero; Granroth, Sari; Levola, Helena; Laksman, Joakim; Oghbaiee, Shabnam; Oostenrijk, Bart; Nõmmiste, Ergo; Kukk, Edwin


    Photofragmentation of gas-phase acetamide and acetic acid clusters produced by a supersonic expansion source has been studied using time-of-flight mass spectrometry and the partial ion yield (PIY) technique combined with tunable vacuum-ultraviolet synchrotron radiation. Appearance energies of the clusters and their fragments were experimentally determined from the PIY measurements. The effect of clusterization conditions on the formation and fragmentation of acetic acid clusters was investigated. Ab initio quantum mechanical calculations were performed on both samples' dimers to find their neutral and ionized geometries as well as proton transfer energy barriers leading to the optimal geometries. In the case of the acetamide dimer, the reaction resulting in the production of ammoniated acetamide was probed, and the geometry of the obtained ion was calculated.

  3. Some insights into formamide formation through gas-phase reactions in the interstellar medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redondo, Pilar; Barrientos, Carmen; Largo, Antonio


    We study the viability of different gas-phase ion-molecule reactions that could produce precursors of formamide in the interstellar medium. We analyze different reactions between cations containing a nitrogen atom (NH 3 + , NH 4 + , NH 3 OH + , and NH 2 OH + ) and neutral molecules having one carbonyl group (H 2 CO and HCOOH). First, we report a theoretical estimation of the reaction enthalpies for the proposed processes. Second, for more favorable reactions, from a thermodynamic point of view, we perform a theoretical study of the potential energy surface. In particular, the more exothermic processes correspond to the reactions of ionized and protonated hydroxylamine with formaldehyde. In addition, a neutral-neutral reaction has also been considered. The analysis of the potential energy surfaces corresponding to these reactions shows that these processes present a net activation barrier and that they cannot be considered as a source of formamide in space.

  4. Some Insights into Formamide Formation through Gas-phase Reactions in the Interstellar Medium (United States)

    Redondo, Pilar; Barrientos, Carmen; Largo, Antonio


    We study the viability of different gas-phase ion-molecule reactions that could produce precursors of formamide in the interstellar medium. We analyze different reactions between cations containing a nitrogen atom (NH_{3}^{+}, NH_{4}^{+}, NH3OH+, and NH2OH+) and neutral molecules having one carbonyl group (H2CO and HCOOH). First, we report a theoretical estimation of the reaction enthalpies for the proposed processes. Second, for more favorable reactions, from a thermodynamic point of view, we perform a theoretical study of the potential energy surface. In particular, the more exothermic processes correspond to the reactions of ionized and protonated hydroxylamine with formaldehyde. In addition, a neutral-neutral reaction has also been considered. The analysis of the potential energy surfaces corresponding to these reactions shows that these processes present a net activation barrier and that they cannot be considered as a source of formamide in space.

  5. Gas phase hydrogen/deuterium exchange of arginine and arginine dipeptides complexed with alkali metals. (United States)

    Mertens, Laura A; Marzluff, Elaine M


    The hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange of protonated and alkali-metal cationized Arg-Gly and Gly-Arg peptides with D(2)O in the gas phase was studied using electrospray ionization quadropole ion trap mass spectrometry. The Arg-Gly and Gly-Arg alkali metal complexes exchange significantly more hydrogens than protonated Arg-Gly and Gly-Arg. We propose a mechanism where the peptide shifts between a zwitterionic salt bridge and nonzwitterionic charge solvated conformations. The increased rate of H/D exchange of the alkali metal complexes is attributed to the peptide metal complexes' small energy difference between the salt-bridge conformation and the nonzwitterionic charge-solvated conformation. Implications for the applicability of this mechanism to other zwitterionic systems are discussed. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  6. A mass spectrometric investigation of the exchange of deuterium with tetraborane(10) in the gas phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greatrex, R.; Greenwood, N.N.; Potter, C.D.


    Mass spectrometry has been used to establish direct exchange between dideuterium (D 2 ) and B 4 H 10 in the gas phase. In a mixture of stoicheiometry B 4 H 10 :3D 2 at 42 deg C, ca. 7% of the hydrogen atoms were replaced by deuterium in 130 min. The possibility that the exchange might be occurring by an indirect or autocatalytic mechanism was eliminated by a series of experiments in which the rate of exchange was shown to be independent of small admixtures of the decomposition products. The present work resolves a troublesome inconsistency in the literature and strengthens the view that the equilibrium B 4 H 10 brace B 4 H 8 brace + H 2 plays a key role in borane interconversion reactions. (author)

  7. Mass-independent oxygen isotopic partitioning during gas-phase SiO2 formation. (United States)

    Chakraborty, Subrata; Yanchulova, Petia; Thiemens, Mark H


    Meteorites contain a wide range of oxygen isotopic compositions that are interpreted as heterogeneity in solar nebula. The anomalous oxygen isotopic compositions of refractory mineral phases may reflect a chemical fractionation process in the nebula, but there are no experiments to demonstrate this isotope effect during particle formation through gas-phase reactions. We report experimental results of gas-to-particle conversion during oxidation of silicon monoxide that define a mass-independent line (slope one) in oxygen three-isotope space of (18)O/(16)O versus (17)O/(16)O. This mass-independent chemical reaction is a potentially initiating step in nebular meteorite formation, which would be capable of producing silicate reservoirs with anomalous oxygen isotopic compositions.

  8. Selective Gas-Phase Capture of Explosives on Metal Beta-diketonate Polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvey, Scott D.; Wenzel, Thomas J.


    A variety of metal beta-diketonate polymers were assessed for gas-phase selective retention of nitro aromatic, nitrate ester, and peroxide explosives. La(dihed) showed 13-42 times the retention for the nitro aromatics compared to a control column (identical column but lacking the 5% loading of the metal beta-diketonate polymer). Nitrate esters, the peroxide explosive TATP, and the taggant DMDNB were too strongly retained to elute from the La(dihed) column; however, these compounds could be eluted from the less retentive Cu(dihed) or Zn(dihed) columns. A Kovats index of 2124 for TNT the on the La(dihed) column compared to 1662 on the control illustrates the excellent discrimination against non-polar hydrocarbons, the principal matrix interference expected in air samples. A proof-of-principle experiment demonstrated analysis of an extrapolated 47 part-per trillion(v/v) of TNT in an air extract concentrate.

  9. Catalytic Gas-Phase Production of Lactide from Renewable Alkyl Lactates. (United States)

    De Clercq, Rik; Dusselier, Michiel; Makshina, Ekaterina; Sels, Bert F


    A new route to lactide, which is a key building block of the bioplastic polylactic acid, is proposed involving a continuous catalytic gas-phase transesterification of renewable alkyl lactates in a scalable fixed-bed setup. Supported TiO 2 /SiO 2 catalysts are highly selective to lactide, with only minimal lactide racemization. The solvent-free process allows for easy product separation and recycling of unconverted alkyl lactates and recyclable lactyl intermediates. The catalytic activity of TiO 2 /SiO 2 catalysts was strongly correlated to their optical properties by DR UV/Vis spectroscopy. Catalysts with high band-gap energy of the supported TiO 2 phase, indicative of a high surface spreading of isolated Ti centers, show the highest turnover frequency per Ti site. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Comparative analysis of intramolecular parameters of nitrocompounds: crystalline and gas phases (United States)

    Arnautova, Elena A.; Pivina, Tatyana S.; Gladkikh, Olga P.; Vilkov, Lev V.


    The results of a study of intramolecular parameters for chemical classes of nitrocompounds in different states of aggregation are collected and analyzed: electron-diffraction experiments and microwave spectroscopy for the gas phase, and X-ray diffraction (from the Cambridge Bank of X-ray and neutron-diffraction data) for molecules in crystals. Systematic analysis of molecular structural parameters for valence bonds and angles of the nitrogroups in these compounds shows these properties to be conserved. This allows us to use the calculated geometrical molecular parameters of nitrocompounds (obtained theoretically by quantum-chemical schemes) when building models of base (rigid) molecules for constructing elementary cells within different structural classes, with the aim of a subsequent computer search for dense packing in the corresponding molecular crystals.

  11. Gas-Phase Reactions of Dimethyl Disulfide with Aliphatic Carbanions - A Mass Spectrometry and Computational Study (United States)

    Franczuk, Barbara; Danikiewicz, Witold


    Ion-molecule reactions of Me2S2 with a wide range of aliphatic carbanions differing by structure and proton affinity values have been studied in the gas phase using mass spectrometry techniques and DFT calculations. The analysis of the spectra shows a variety of product ions formed via different reaction mechanisms, depending on the structure and proton affinity of the carbanion. Product ions of thiophilic reaction ( m/z 47), SN2 ( m/z 79), and E2 elimination - addition sequence of reactions ( m/z 93) can be observed. Primary products of thiophilic reaction can undergo subsequent SN2 and proton transfer reactions. Gibbs free energy profiles calculated for experimentally observed reactions using PBE0/6-311+G(2d,p) method show good agreement with experimental results.

  12. Detailed investigation of proposed gas-phase syntheses of ammonia in dense interstellar clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbst, E.; Defrees, D.J.; Mclean, A.D.; Molecular Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA; IBM Almaden Research Center, San Jose, CA)


    The initial reactions of the Herbst and Klemperer (1973) and the Dalgarno (1974) schemes (I and II, respectively) for the gas-phase synthesis of ammonia in dense interstellar clouds were investigated. The rate of the slightly endothermic reaction between N(+) and H2 to yield NH(+) and H (scheme I) under interstellar conditions was reinvestigated under thermal and nonthermal conditions based on laboratory data. It was found that the relative importance of this reaction in synthesizing ammonia is determined by how the laboratory data at low temperature are interpreted. On the other hand, the exothermic reaction between N and H3(+) to form NH2(+) + H (scheme II) was calculated to possess significant activation energy and, therefore, to have a negligible rate coefficient under interstellar conditions. Consequently, this reaction cannot take place appreciably in interstellar clouds. 41 references

  13. An improved stochastic algorithm for temperature-dependent homogeneous gas phase reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Kraft, M


    We propose an improved stochastic algorithm for temperature-dependent homogeneous gas phase reactions. By combining forward and reverse reaction rates, a significant gain in computational efficiency is achieved. Two modifications of modelling the temperature dependence (with and without conservation of enthalpy) are introduced and studied quantitatively. The algorithm is tested for the combustion of n-heptane, which is a reference fuel component for internal combustion engines. The convergence of the algorithm is studied by a series of numerical experiments and the computational cost of the stochastic algorithm is compared with the DAE code DASSL. If less accuracy is needed the stochastic algorithm is faster on short simulation time intervals. The new stochastic algorithm is significantly faster than the original direct simulation algorithm in all cases considered.

  14. Uranium fluoride chemistry. Part 1. The gas phase reaction of uranium hexafluoride with alcohols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnautz, N.G.; Venter, P.J.


    The reaction between uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) and simple alcohols in the gas phase was observed to proceed by way of three possible reaction pathways involving dehydration, deoxygenative fluorination, and ether formation. These reactions can best be explained by assuming that alcohols first react with UF 6 to afford the alkoxy uranium pentafluoride intermediate ROUF 5 , which reacts further to give the dehydration, deoxygenative fluorination, and ether products. In each of the above three reaction pathways, UF 6 is transformed to UOF 4 , which being as reactive toward alcohols as UF 6 , reacts further with the alcohol in question to finally afford the unreactive uranyl fluoride (UO 2 F 2 ). 6 refs., 2 tabs

  15. Liquid- and Gas-Phase Diffusion of Ferrocene in Thin Films of Metal-Organic Frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wencai Zhou


    Full Text Available The mass transfer of the guest molecules in nanoporous host materials, in particular in metal-organic frameworks (MOFs, is among the crucial features of their applications. By using thin surface-mounted MOF films in combination with a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM, the diffusion of ferrocene vapor and of ethanolic and hexanic ferrocene solution in HKUST-1 was investigated. For the first time, liquid- and gas-phase diffusion in MOFs was compared directly in the identical sample. The diffusion coefficients are in the same order of magnitude (~10−16 m2·s−1, whereas the diffusion coefficient of ferrocene in the empty framework is roughly 3-times smaller than in the MOF which is filled with ethanol or n-hexane.

  16. Release to the gas phase of metals, S and Cl during combustion of dedicated waste fractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul; van Lith, Simone Cornelia; Frandsen, Flemming


    The release to the gas phase of inorganic elements such as alkali metals. Cl, S, and heavy metals in Waste-to-Energy (WtE) boilers is a challenge. Besides the risk of harmful emissions to the environment, inorganic elements released from the grate may cause severe ash deposition and corrosion...... wood, shoes, automotive shredder waste and PVC (poly-vinyl-chloride). The waste fractions were characterized by use of wet chemical analysis, and, based on the chemical composition of the initial fuel sample and the ash residue after the experiments; the release of inorganic elements was quantified....... The lab-scale release results were then compared with results from a related, full-scale partitioning study, in which test runs with the addition of similar, dedicated waste fractions to a base-load waste had been performed in a grate-fired WtE boiler. In general, the elements Al, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Si...

  17. Encapsulated Silver Nanoparticles Can Be Directly Converted to Silver Nanoshell in the Gas Phase. (United States)

    Yang, Peipei; Xu, Yong; Chen, Lei; Wang, Xuchun; Mao, Baohua; Xie, Zhongzhi; Wang, Sui-Dong; Bao, Feng; Zhang, Qiao


    We report, for the first time, that an encapsulated silver nanoparticle can be directly converted to a silver nanoshell through a nanoscale localized oxidation and reduction process in the gas phase. Silver can be etched when exposed to a mixture of NH3/O2 gases through a mechanism analogous to the formation of aqueous Tollens' reagent, in which a soluble silver-ammonia complex was formed. Starting with Ag@resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) resin core-shell nanoparticles, we demonstrate that RF-core@Ag-shell nanoparticles can be prepared successfully when the etching rate and RF thickness were well controlled. Due to the strong surface plasmon resonance (SPR) coupling effect among neighboring silver nanoparticles, the RF@Ag nanoparticle showed great SPR and SERS performance. This process provides a general route to the conversion of Ag-core to Ag-shell nanostructures and might be extended to other systems.

  18. Gas Phase Thz Spectroscopy of Organosulfide and Organophosphorous Compounds Using a Synchrotron Source (United States)

    Cuisset, Arnaud; Smirnova, Irina; Bocquet, Robin; Hindle, Francis; Mouret, Gael; Sadovskii, Dmitrii A.; Pirali, Olivier; Roy, Pascale


    This study concerns the gas phase rovibrational spectroscopy of organosulfide and organophosphorous which are considered as non toxic model compounds in the analysis of chemical weapon materials, high pathogenic and mutagenic agents, and other environmentally interesting air-borne species. The coupling of the synchrotron radiation with multipass cells and the FTIR spectrometer allowed to obtain very conclusive results in term of sensitivity and resolution and improved the previous results obtained with classical sources. For DMSO, using an optical path of 150 m the spectra have been recorded at the ultimate resolution of 0.001 Cm-1 allowing to fully resolve the rotational structure of the lowest vibrational modes observed in the THz region. In the 290 - 420 Cm-1 region, the rovibrational spectrum of the "perpendicular" and "parallel" vibrational bands associated with, respectively, the asymmetric ν23 and symmetric ν11 bending modes of DMSO have been recorded with a resolution of 1.5× 10-3 Cm-1. The gas phase vibrational spectra of organophosphorous compounds were measured by FTIR spectroscopy using the vapor pressure of the compounds. Except for TBP, the room temperature vapor pressure was sufficient to detect all active vibrational modes from THz to NIR domain. Contrary to DMSO, the rotational patterns of alkyl phosphates and alkyl phosphonates could not be resolved; only a vibrational analysis may be performed. Nevertheless, the spectral fingerprints observed in the THz region allowed a clear discrimination between the molecules and between the different molecular conformations. A. Cuisset, G. Mouret, O. Pirali, P. Roy, F. Cazier, H. Nouali, J. Demaison, J. Phys. Chem. B, 2008, 112:, 12516-12525 A. Cuisset, L. Nanobashvili, I. Smirnova, R. Bocquet, F. Hindle, G. Mouret, O. Pirali, P. Roy and D. A. Sadovskií, Chem. Phys. Lett., 2010, 492: 30-34 I. Smirnova, A. Cuisset, R. Bocquet, F. Hindle, G. Mouret, O. Pirali, P. Roy, J. Phys. Chem. B, 2010, 114: 16936-16947.

  19. Oxidation of elemental mercury by chlorine: Gas phase, Surface,and Photo-induced reaction pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Nai-Qiang; Liu, Shou-Heng; Chang, Shih-Ger


    Accurate oxidation rate constants of mercury gas are needed for determining its dispersion and lifetime in the atmosphere. They would also help in developing a technology for the control of mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants. However, it is difficult to establish the accurate rate constants primarily due to the fact that mercury easily adsorbs on solid surface and its reactions can be catalyzed by the surface. We have demonstrated a procedure that allows the determination of gas phase, surface-induced, and photo-induced contributions in the kinetic study of the oxidation of mercury by chlorine gas. The kinetics was studied using reactors with various surface to volume ratios. The effect of the surface and the photo irradiation on the reaction was taken into consideration. The pressure dependent study revealed that the gas phase oxidation was a three-body collision process. The third order rate constant was determined to be 7.5({+-}0.2) x 10{sup -39} mL{sup 2} molecules{sup -2}s{sup -1} with N{sub 2} as the third body at 297 {+-} 1 K. The surface induced reaction on quartz window was second order and the rate constant was 2.7 x 10{sup -17} mL{sup 2} molecules{sup -1} cm{sup -2} sec. Meanwhile, the 253.7 nm photon employed for mercury detection was found to accelerate the reaction. The utilization efficiency of 253.7 nm photon for Hg{sup 0} oxidation was 6.7 x 10{sup -4} molecules photon{sup -1} under the conditions employed in this study.

  20. The influence of gas phase velocity fluctuations on primary atomization and droplet deformation (United States)

    Kourmatzis, A.; Masri, A. R.


    The effects of grid-generated velocity fluctuations on the primary atomization and subsequent droplet deformation of a range of laminar liquid jets are examined using microscopic high-speed backlit imaging of the break-up zone and laser Doppler anemometry of the gas phase separately. This is done for fixed gas mean flow conditions in a miniature wind tunnel experiment utilizing a selection of fuels, turbulence-generating grids and two syringe sizes. The constant mean flow allows for an isolated study of velocity fluctuation effects on primary atomization in a close approximation to homogeneous decaying turbulence. The qualitative morphology of the primary break-up region is examined over a range of turbulence intensities, and spectral analysis is performed in order to ascertain the break-up frequency which, for a case of no grid, compares well with the existing literature. The addition of velocity fluctuations tends to randomize the break-up process. Slightly downstream of the break-up region, image processing is conducted in order to extract a number of metrics, which do not depend on droplet sphericity, and these include droplet aspect ratio and orientation, the latter quantity being somewhat unconventional in spray characterization. A turbulent Weber number which takes into account gas phase fluctuations is utilized to characterize the resulting droplet shapes, in addition to a mean Weber number . Above a a clear positive relationship exists between the mean aspect ratio of droplets and the turbulent Weber number where is varied by altering all relevant variables including the velocity root mean square, the initial droplet diameter, the surface tension and the density.

  1. Conformational preferences of γ-aminobutyric acid in the gas phase and in water (United States)

    Song, Il Keun; Kang, Young Kee


    The conformational study of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) has been carried out at the M06-2X/cc-pVTZ level of theory in the gas phase and the SMD M06-2X/cc-pVTZ level of theory in water. In the gas phase, the folded conformation gG1 with gauche- and gauche+ conformations for the Cβsbnd Cα and Cγsbnd Cβ bonds, respectively, is found to be lowest in energy and enthalpy, which can be ascribed to the favored hyperconjugative n → π* interaction between the lone electron pair of the amine nitrogen atom and the Cdbnd O bond of the carboxylic group and the favored antiparallel dipole-dipole interaction between the Nsbnd H bond and the Cdbnd O bond. In addition, the intramolecular hydrogen bonds between the carboxylic group and the amine Nsbnd H group have contributed to stabilize some low-energy conformers. However, the most preferred conformation is found to be tG1 and more stable by 0.4 kcal/mol in ΔG than the conformer gG1, in which the favored entropic term due to the conformational flexibility and the other favored n → σ*, σ → σ*, and π → σ* interactions seem to play a role. The conformational preferences of the neutral GABA calculated by ΔG's are reasonably consistent with the populations deduced from FT microwave spectroscopy in supersonic jets combined with laser ablation. In water, the two folded conformers Gg and gG of the zwitterionic GABA are dominantly populated, each of which has the population of 47%, and the hydrogen bond between the ammonium Nsbnd H group and the lone electron pair of the Csbnd O- group seems to be crucial in stabilizing these conformers. Our calculated result that the folded conformers preferentially exist in water is consistent with the 1H NMR experiments in D2O.

  2. Accumulation of gas-phase methamphetamine on clothing, toy fabrics, and skin oil. (United States)

    Morrison, G; Shakila, N V; Parker, K


    To better understand methamphetamine exposure and risk for occupants of former residential clandestine methamphetamine laboratories, we measured the dynamic accumulation of methamphetamine in skin oil, cotton and polyester (PE) clothing, upholstery, and toy fabric (substrates) exposed to 15-30 ppb (91-183 μg/m(3)) neutral methamphetamine in air for up to 60 days. The average equilibrium partition coefficients at 30% RH, in units of μg of methamphetamine per gram of substrate per ppb, are 3.0 ± 0.2 for a PE baby blanket, 5.6 ± 3.5 for a PE fabric toy, 3.7 ± 0.2 for a PE shirt, 18.3 ± 8.0 for a PE/cotton upholstery fabric, and 1200 ± 570 in skin oil. The partition coefficients at 60% RH are 4.5 ± 0.4, 5.2 ± 2.1, 4.5 ± 0.6, 36.1 ± 3.6, and 1600 ± 1100 μg/(g ppb), respectively. There was no difference in the partition coefficient for a clean and skin-oil-soiled cotton shirt [15.3 ± 2.1 μg/(g ppb) @ 42 days]. Partition coefficients for skin oil may be sensitive to composition. 'Mouthing' of cloth is predicted to be the dominant exposure pathway [60 μg/(kg body weight*ppb)] for a toddler in former meth lab, and indoor air concentrations would have to be very low (0.001 ppb) to meet the recommended reference dose for children. Gas-phase methamphetamine transfers to and accumulates on clothing, toys and other fabrics significantly increases risk of ingestion of methamphetamine. Current remediation methods should consider measurement of postremediation gas-phase air concentrations of methamphetamine in addition to surface wipe samples. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Photocatalytic degradation of 2-phenethyl-2-chloroethyl sulfide in liquid and gas phases. (United States)

    Vorontsov, Alexandre V; Panchenko, Alexander A; Savinov, Evgueni N; Lion, Claude; Smirniotis, Panagiotis G


    This work explores the ability of photocatalysis to decontaminate water and air from chemical warfare agent mustard using its simulant 2-phenethyl 2-chloroethyl sulfide (PECES). PECES like mustard slowly dissolves in water with hydrolysis, forming 2-phenethyl 2-hydroxyethyl sulfide (PEHES). Irradiation of TiO2 suspension containing PECES with the unfiltered light of a mercury lamp (lambda > or = 254 nm) decomposed all PECES mostly via photolysis. Reaction under filtered light (lambda > 300 nm) proceeds mainly photocatalytically and requires longer time. Sulfur from starting PECES is completely transformed into sulfuric acid at the end of the reaction. Detected volatile, nonvolatile, surface products, and the suggested scheme of degradation are reported. The main volatile products are styrene and benzaldehyde, nonvolatile--hydroxylated PEHES, surface--2-phenethyl disulfide. Photolysis of PECES produced the same set of volatile products as photocatalysis. Photocatalytic degradation of gaseous PECES in air results in its mineralization but is accompanied by TiO2 deactivation. The highest rate of mineralization with minimum deactivation was observed at about room temperature and a water concentration of 27,500 ppm. No gaseous products except CO2 were detected. The main extracted surface product was styrene. It was concluded that PECES photocatalytic degradation proceeds mainly via C-S bond cleavage and further oxidation of the products. Hydrolysis of the C-S bond was detected only in gas-phase photocatalytic degradation. The quantum efficiency of gas-phase degradation (0.28%) was much higher than that of liquid-phase degradation (0.008%). The results demonstrate the ability of photocatalysis to decontaminate an aqueous and especially an air environment

  4. Gas-phase thermolysis reaction of formaldehyde diperoxide. Kinetic study and theoretical mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorge, Nelly Lidia; Romero, Jorge Marcelo; Grand, André; Hernández-Laguna, Alfonso


    Highlights: ► Kinetic and mechanism of the gas-phase thermolysis of tetroxane were determined. ► Gas chromatography and computational potential energy surfaces were performed. ► A mechanism in steps looked like the most probable mechanism. ► A spin–orbit coupling appeared at the singlet and triple diradical open structures. ► A non-adiabatic crossing from the singlet to the triplet state occurred. - Abstract: Gas-phase thermolysis reaction of formaldehyde diperoxide (1,2,4,5-tetroxane) was performed in an injection chamber of a gas chromatograph at a range of 463–503 K. The average Arrhenius activation energy and pre-exponential factor were 29.3 ± 0.8 kcal/mol and 5.2 × 10 13 s −1 , respectively. Critical points and reaction paths of the ground singlet and first triplet potential energy surfaces (PES) were calculated, using DFT method at BHANDHLYP/6-311+G ∗∗ level of the theory. Also, G3 calculations were performed on the reactant and products. Reaction by the ground-singlet and first-triplet states turned out to be endothermic and exothermic, respectively. The mechanism in three steps seemed to be the most probable one. An electronically non-adiabatic process appeared, in which a crossing, at an open diradical structure, from the singlet to the triplet state PES occurred, due to a spin–orbit coupling, yielding an exothermic reaction. Theoretical kinetic constant coming from the non- adiabatic transition from the singlet to the triplet state agrees with the experimental values.

  5. Gas-phase thermolysis reaction of formaldehyde diperoxide. Kinetic study and theoretical mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorge, Nelly Lidia [Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra, CSIC-Universidad de Granada, Av. Las Palmeras 4, 18100 Armilla, Granada (Spain); Area de Quimica Fisica Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales y Agrimensura, UNNE, Avda. Libertad 5460, 3400 Corrientes (Argentina); Romero, Jorge Marcelo [Area de Quimica Fisica Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales y Agrimensura, UNNE, Avda. Libertad 5460, 3400 Corrientes (Argentina); Grand, Andre [INAC, SCIB, Laboratoire ' Lesions des Acides Nucleiques' , UMR CEA-UJF E3, CEA-Grenoble, 17 Rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble cedex 9 (France); Hernandez-Laguna, Alfonso, E-mail: [Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra, CSIC-Universidad de Granada, Av. Las Palmeras 4, 18100 Armilla, Granada (Spain)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Kinetic and mechanism of the gas-phase thermolysis of tetroxane were determined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gas chromatography and computational potential energy surfaces were performed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A mechanism in steps looked like the most probable mechanism. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A spin-orbit coupling appeared at the singlet and triple diradical open structures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A non-adiabatic crossing from the singlet to the triplet state occurred. - Abstract: Gas-phase thermolysis reaction of formaldehyde diperoxide (1,2,4,5-tetroxane) was performed in an injection chamber of a gas chromatograph at a range of 463-503 K. The average Arrhenius activation energy and pre-exponential factor were 29.3 {+-} 0.8 kcal/mol and 5.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13} s{sup -1}, respectively. Critical points and reaction paths of the ground singlet and first triplet potential energy surfaces (PES) were calculated, using DFT method at BHANDHLYP/6-311+G{sup Asterisk-Operator Asterisk-Operator} level of the theory. Also, G3 calculations were performed on the reactant and products. Reaction by the ground-singlet and first-triplet states turned out to be endothermic and exothermic, respectively. The mechanism in three steps seemed to be the most probable one. An electronically non-adiabatic process appeared, in which a crossing, at an open diradical structure, from the singlet to the triplet state PES occurred, due to a spin-orbit coupling, yielding an exothermic reaction. Theoretical kinetic constant coming from the non- adiabatic transition from the singlet to the triplet state agrees with the experimental values.

  6. Gas-phase hydration of glyoxylic acid: Kinetics and atmospheric implications. (United States)

    Liu, Ling; Zhang, Xiuhui; Li, Zesheng; Zhang, Yunhong; Ge, Maofa


    Oxocarboxylic acids are one of the most important organic species found in secondary organic aerosols and can be detected in diverse environments. But the hydration of oxocarboxylic acids in the atmosphere has still not been fully understood. Neglecting the hydration of oxocarboxylic acids in atmospheric models may be one of the most important reasons for the significant discrepancies between field measurements and abundance predictions of atmospheric models for oxocarboxylic acids. In the present paper, glyoxylic acid, as the most abundant oxocarboxylic acids in the atmosphere, has been selected as an example to study whether the hydration process can occur in the atmosphere and what the kinetic process of hydration is. The gas-phase hydration of glyoxylic acid to form the corresponding geminal diol and those catalyzed by atmospheric common substances (water, sulfuric acid and ammonia) have been investigated at the CCSD(T)-F12/cc-pVDZ-F12//M06-2X/6-311++G(3df,3pd) level of theory. The contour map of electron density difference of transition states have been further analyzed. It is indicated that these atmospheric common substances can all catalyze on the hydration to some extent and sulfuric acid is the most effective reducing the Gibbs free energy of activation to 9.48 kcal/mol. The effective rate constants combining the overall rate constants and concentrations of the corresponding catalysts have shown that water and sulfuric acid are both important catalysts and the catalysis of sulfuric acid is the most effective for the gas-phase hydration of glyoxylic acid. This catalyzed processes are potentially effective in coastal regions and polluted regions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Reaction pathways for catalytic gas-phase oxidation of glycerol over mixed metal oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suprun, W.; Glaeser, R.; Papp, H. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Chemical Technology


    Glycerol as a main by-product from bio-diesel manufacture is a cheap raw material with large potential for chemical or biochemical transformations to value-added C3-chemicals. One possible way of glycerol utilization involves its catalytic oxidation to acrylic acid as an alternative to petrochemical routes. However, this catalytic conversion exhibits various problems such as harsh reaction conditions, severe catalyst coking and large amounts of undesired by-products. In this study, the reaction pathways for gas-phase conversion of glycerol over transition metal oxides (Mo, V und W) supported on TiO{sub 2} and SiO{sub 2} were investigated by two methods: (i) steady state experiments of glycerol oxidation and possible reactions intermediates, i.e., acrolein, 3-hydroxy propionaldehyde and acetaldehyde, and (ii) temperature-programmed surface reaction (TPSR) studies of glycerol conversion in the presence and in the absence of gas-phase oxygen. It is shown that the supported W-, V and Mo-oxides possess an ability to catalyze the oxidation of glycerol to acrylic acid. These investigations allowed us to gain a deeper insight into the reaction mechanism. Thus, based on the obtained results, three possible reactions pathways for the selective oxidation of glycerol to acrylic acid on the transition metal-containing catalysts are proposed. The major pathways in presence of molecular oxygen are a fast successive destructive oxidation of glycerol to CO{sub x} and the dehydration of glycerol to acrolein which is a rate-limiting step. (orig.)

  8. Germanium-silicon alloy and core-shell nanocrystals by gas phase synthesis. (United States)

    Mehringer, Christian; Kloner, Christian; Butz, Benjamin; Winter, Benjamin; Spiecker, Erdmann; Peukert, Wolfgang


    In this work we present a novel route to synthesize well defined germanium-silicon alloy (GexSi1-x) and core-shell nanocrystals (NCs) employing monosilane (SiH4) and monogermane (GeH4) as precursors in a continuously operated two-stage hot-wall aerosol reactor setup. The first hot-wall reactor stage (HWR I) is used to produce silicon (Si) seed particles from SiH4 pyrolysis in Argon (Ar). The resulting seeding aerosol is fed into the second reactor stage (HWR II) and a mixture of SiH4 and GeH4 is added. The ratio of the precursors in the feed, their partial pressures, the synthesis temperature in HWR II and the overall pressure are varied depending on the desired morphology and composition. Alloy particle production is achieved in the heterogeneous surface reaction regime, meaning that germanium (Ge) and Si are deposited on the seed surface simultaneously. The NCs can be synthesized with any desired composition, whilst maintaining a mean diameter around 30 nm with a geometric standard deviation (GSD) around 1.25. The absorption behavior and the related fundamental optical band gap energy in dependence on the alloy composition are exemplarily presented. They prove the possibility to tailor NC properties for electronical and opto-electronical applications. In the homogeneous gas phase reaction regime facetted Ge-Si core-shell structures are accessible. The Ge deposition on the seeds precedes the Si deposition due to different gas phase reaction kinetics of the precursors. The Si layer grows epitaxially on the Ge core and is around 5 nm thick.

  9. Molecular simulation of excess isotherm and excess enthalpy change in gas-phase adsorption. (United States)

    Do, D D; Do, H D; Nicholson, D


    We present a new approach to calculating excess isotherm and differential enthalpy of adsorption on surfaces or in confined spaces by the Monte Carlo molecular simulation method. The approach is very general and, most importantly, is unambiguous in its application to any configuration of solid structure (crystalline, graphite layer or disordered porous glass), to any type of fluid (simple or complex molecule), and to any operating conditions (subcritical or supercritical). The behavior of the adsorbed phase is studied using the partial molar energy of the simulation box. However, to characterize adsorption for comparison with experimental data, the isotherm is best described by the excess amount, and the enthalpy of adsorption is defined as the change in the total enthalpy of the simulation box with the change in the excess amount, keeping the total number (gas + adsorbed phases) constant. The excess quantities (capacity and energy) require a choice of a reference gaseous phase, which is defined as the adsorptive gas phase occupying the accessible volume and having a density equal to the bulk gas density. The accessible volume is defined as the mean volume space accessible to the center of mass of the adsorbate under consideration. With this choice, the excess isotherm passes through a maximum but always remains positive. This is in stark contrast to the literature where helium void volume is used (which is always greater than the accessible volume) and the resulting excess can be negative. Our definition of enthalpy change is equivalent to the difference between the partial molar enthalpy of the gas phase and the partial molar enthalpy of the adsorbed phase. There is no need to assume ideal gas or negligible molar volume of the adsorbed phase as is traditionally done in the literature. We illustrate this new approach with adsorption of argon, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide under subcritical and supercritical conditions.

  10. UV and IR Spectroscopy of Cryogenically Cooled, Lanthanide-Containing Ions in the Gas Phase. (United States)

    Inokuchi, Yoshiya; Kaneko, Masashi; Honda, Takumi; Nakashima, Satoru; Ebata, Takayuki; Rizzo, Thomas R


    We measure UV and IR spectra in the gas phase for EuOH + , EuCl + , and TbO + ions, which are produced by an electrospray ionization source and cooled to ∼10 K in a cold, 22-pole ion trap. The UV photodissociation (UVPD) spectra of these ions show a number of sharp, well-resolved bands in the 30000-38000 cm -1 region, although a definite assignment of the spectra is difficult because of a high degree of congestion. We also measure an IR spectrum of the EuOH + ion in the 3500-3800 cm -1 region by IR-UV double-resonance spectroscopy, which reveals an OH stretching band at 3732 cm -1 . We perform density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) calculations of these ions in order to examine the nature of the transitions. The DFT results indicate that the states of highest-spin multiplicity (octet for EuOH + and EuCl + and septet for TbO + ) are substantially more stable than other states of lower-spin multiplicity. The TD-DFT calculations suggest that UV absorption of the EuOH + and EuCl + ions arises from Eu(4f) → Eu(5d,6p) transitions, whereas electronic transitions of the TbO + ion are mainly due to the electron promotion of O(2p) → Tb(4f,6s). The UVPD results of the lanthanide-containing ions in this study suggest the possibility of using lanthanide ions as "conformation reporters" for gas-phase spectroscopy for large molecules.

  11. Effect of dimethylamine on the gas phase sulfuric acid concentration measured by Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry. (United States)

    Rondo, L; Ehrhart, S; Kürten, A; Adamov, A; Bianchi, F; Breitenlechner, M; Duplissy, J; Franchin, A; Dommen, J; Donahue, N M; Dunne, E M; Flagan, R C; Hakala, J; Hansel, A; Keskinen, H; Kim, J; Jokinen, T; Lehtipalo, K; Leiminger, M; Praplan, A; Riccobono, F; Rissanen, M P; Sarnela, N; Schobesberger, S; Simon, M; Sipilä, M; Smith, J N; Tomé, A; Tröstl, J; Tsagkogeorgas, G; Vaattovaara, P; Winkler, P M; Williamson, C; Wimmer, D; Baltensperger, U; Kirkby, J; Kulmala, M; Petäjä, T; Worsnop, D R; Curtius, J


    Sulfuric acid is widely recognized as a very important substance driving atmospheric aerosol nucleation. Based on quantum chemical calculations it has been suggested that the quantitative detection of gas phase sulfuric acid (H 2 SO 4 ) by use of Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry (CIMS) could be biased in the presence of gas phase amines such as dimethylamine (DMA). An experiment (CLOUD7 campaign) was set up at the CLOUD (Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets) chamber to investigate the quantitative detection of H 2 SO 4 in the presence of dimethylamine by CIMS at atmospherically relevant concentrations. For the first time in the CLOUD experiment, the monomer sulfuric acid concentration was measured by a CIMS and by two CI-APi-TOF (Chemical Ionization-Atmospheric Pressure interface-Time Of Flight) mass spectrometers. In addition, neutral sulfuric acid clusters were measured with the CI-APi-TOFs. The CLOUD7 measurements show that in the presence of dimethylamine (sulfuric acid monomer measured by the CIMS represents only a fraction of the total H 2 SO 4 , contained in the monomer and the clusters that is available for particle growth. Although it was found that the addition of dimethylamine dramatically changes the H 2 SO 4 cluster distribution compared to binary (H 2 SO 4 -H 2 O) conditions, the CIMS detection efficiency does not seem to depend substantially on whether an individual H 2 SO 4 monomer is clustered with a DMA molecule. The experimental observations are supported by numerical simulations based on A Self-contained Atmospheric chemistry coDe coupled with a molecular process model (Sulfuric Acid Water NUCleation) operated in the kinetic limit.

  12. Probing the Gas-Phase Dynamics of Graphene Chemical Vapour Deposition using in-situ UV Absorption Spectroscopy. (United States)

    Shivayogimath, Abhay; Mackenzie, David; Luo, Birong; Hansen, Ole; Bøggild, Peter; Booth, Timothy J


    The processes governing multilayer nucleation in the chemical vapour deposition (CVD) of graphene are important for obtaining high-quality monolayer sheets, but remain poorly understood. Here we show that higher-order carbon species in the gas-phase play a major role in multilayer nucleation, through the use of in-situ ultraviolet (UV) absorption spectroscopy. These species are the volatilized products of reactions between hydrogen and carbon contaminants that have backstreamed into the reaction chamber from downstream system components. Consequently, we observe a dramatic suppression of multilayer nucleation when backstreaming is suppressed. These results point to an important and previously undescribed mechanism for multilayer nucleation, wherein higher-order gas-phase carbon species play an integral role. Our work highlights the importance of gas-phase dynamics in understanding the overall mechanism of graphene growth.

  13. An Overview of Mode of Action and Analytical Methods for Evaluation of Gas Phase Activities of Flame Retardants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalifah A. Salmeia


    Full Text Available The latest techniques used to prove, describe and analyze the gas phase activity of a fire retardant used in polymeric materials are briefly reviewed. Classical techniques, such as thermogravimetric analysis or microscale combustion calorimetry, as well as complex and advanced analytical techniques, such as modified microscale combustion calorimeter (MCC, molecular beam mass spectroscopy and vacuum ultra violet (VUV photoionization spectroscopy coupled with time of flight MS (TOF-MS, are described in this review. The recent advances in analytical techniques help not only in determining the gas phase activity of the flame-retardants but also identify possible reactive species responsible for gas phase flame inhibition. The complete understanding of the decomposition pathways and the flame retardant activity of a flame retardant system is essential for the development of new eco-friendly-tailored flame retardant molecules with high flame retardant efficiency.

  14. Preparation of cold ions in strong magnetic field and its application to gas-phase NMR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuke, K.; Ohshima, Y.; Tona, M.


    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) technique is widely used as a powerful tool to study the physical and chemical properties of materials. However, this technique is limited to the materials in condensed phases. To extend this technique to the gas-phase molecular ions, we are developing a gas-phase NMR apparatus. In this note, we describe the basic principle of the NMR detection for molecular ions in the gas phase based on a Stern-Gerlach type experiment in a Penning trap and outline the apparatus under development. We also present the experimental procedures and the results on the formation and the manipulation of cold ions under a strong magnetic field, which are the key techniques to detect the NMR by the present method

  15. Probing the Binding Interfaces of Protein Complexes Using Gas-Phase H/D Exchange Mass Spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mistarz, Ulrik H; Brown, Jeffery M; Haselmann, Kim F


    Fast gas-phase hydrogen/deuterium exchange mediated by ND3 gas and measured by mass spectrometry (gas-phase HDX-MS) is a largely unharnessed, fast, and sensitive method for probing primary- and higher-order polypeptide structure. Labeling of heteroatom-bound non-amide hydrogens in a sub...... conditions. Lysozyme ions bound by an oligosaccharide incorporated less deuterium than the unbound ion. Similarly, trypsin ions showed reduced deuterium uptake when bound by the peptide ligand vasopressin. Our results are in good agreement with crystal structures of the native protein complexes......, and illustrate that gas-phase HDX-MS can provide a sensitive and simple approach to measure the number of heteroatom-bound non-amide side-chain hydrogens involved in the binding interface of biologically relevant protein complexes....

  16. Characterization of Neutral Radicals from a Dissociative Electron Attachment Process (United States)

    Li, Zhou; Milosavljević, Aleksandar R.; Carmichael, Ian; Ptasinska, Sylwia


    Despite decades of gas-phase studies on dissociative electron attachment (DEA) to various molecules, as yet there has been no direct detection and characterization of the neutral radical species produced by this process. In this study, we performed stepwise electron spectroscopy to directly measure and characterize the neutrals produced upon zero-electron-energy DEA to the model molecule, carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 ). We observed the direct yield of the trichloromethyl radical (CCl3. ) formed by DEA to CCl4 and measured the appearance energies of all the other neutral species. By combining these experimental findings with high-level quantum chemical calculations, we performed a complete analysis of both the DEA to CCl4 and the subsequent electron-impact ionization of CCl3. . This work paves the way toward a complete experimental characterization of DEA processes, which will lead to a better understanding of the low-energy electron-induced formation of radical species.

  17. Structure and Intramolecular Proton Transfer of Alanine Radical Cations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Gab Yong


    The structures of the four lowest alanine conformers, along with their radical cations and the effect of ionization on the intramolecular proton transfer process, are studied using the density functional theory and MP2 method. The energy order of the radical cations of alanine differs from that of the corresponding neutral conformers due to changes in the basicity of the NH 2 group upon ionization. Ionization favors the intramolecular proton transfer process, leading to a proton-transferred radical-cation structure, [NH 3 + -CHCH 3 -COO·], which contrasts with the fact that a proton-transferred zwitterionic conformer is not stable for a neutral alanine in the gas phase. The energy barrier during the proton transfer process is calculated to be about 6 kcal/mol

  18. Synergistic effects of liquid and gas phase discharges using pulsed high voltage for dyes degradation in the presence of oxygen. (United States)

    Yang, Bin; Zhou, Minghua; Lei, Lecheng


    The technology of combined liquid and gas phase discharges (LGD) using pulsed high voltage for dyes degradation was developed in this study. Apparent synergistic effects for Acid orange II (AO) degradation in the presence of oxygen were observed. The enhancement of AO degradation rate was around 302%. Furthermore, higher energy efficiency was obtained comparing with individual liquid phase discharge (LD) or gas phase discharge process (GD). The AO degradation in the presence of oxygen by LGD proceeded through the direct ozone oxidation and the ozone decomposition induced by LD. Important operating parameters such as electrode distance, applied voltage, pulse repetition rate, and types of dyes were further investigated.

  19. Effects of donor-acceptor electronic interactions on the rates of gas-phase metallocene electron-exchange reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phelps, D.K.; Gord, J.R.; Freiser, B.S.; Weaver, M.J. (Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States))


    Rate constants for electron self-exchange, k{sub ex}, of five cobaltocenium-cobaltocene and ferrocenium-ferrocene couples in the gas phase have been measured by means of Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry in order to explore the possible effects of donor-acceptor electronic coupling on gas-phase redox reactivity. The systems studied, Cp{sub 2}Co{sup +/0}, Cp{sub 2}Fe{sup +/0} (Cp = cyclopentadienyl), the decamethyl derivative Cp{prime}{sub 2}Fe{sup +/0}, carboxymethyl(cobaltocenium-cobaltocene) (Cp{sub 2}{sup e}Co{sup +/0}), and hydroxymethyl(ferrocenium-ferrocene) (HMFc{sup +/0}), were selected in view of the substantial variations in electronic coupling inferred on the basis of their solvent-dependent reactivities and theoretical grounds. The sequence of k{sub ex} values determined in the gas phase, Cp{sub 2}{sup e}Co{sup +/0} {approx} Cp{sub 2}Co{sup +/0} > Cp{prime}{sub 2}Fe{sup +/0} > HMFc{sup +/0} > Cp{sub 2}Fe{sup +/0}, is roughly similar to that observed in solution, although the magnitude (up to 5-fold) of the k{sub ex} variations is smaller in the former case. The likely origins of these differences in gas-phase reactivity are discussed in light of the known variations in the electronic coupling matrix element H{sub 12}, inner-shell reorganization energy {Delta}E*, and gas-phase ion-molecule interaction energy {Delta}E{sub w} extracted from solution-phase rates, structural data, and theoretical calculations. It is concluded that the observed variations in gas-phase k{sub ex} values, especially for Cp{sub 2}Fe{sup +/0} versus Cp{sub 2}Co{sup +/0}, arise predominantly from the presence of weaker donor-acceptor orbital overlap for the ferrocene couples, yielding inefficient electron tunneling for a substantial fraction of the gas-phase ion-molecule encounters. The anticipated differences as well as similarities of such nonadiabatic effects for gas-phase and solution electron-transfer processes are briefly outlined.

  20. Method of monitoring photoactive organic molecules in-situ during gas-phase deposition of the photoactive organic molecules (United States)

    Forrest, Stephen R.; Vartanian, Garen; Rolin, Cedric


    A method for in-situ monitoring of gas-phase photoactive organic molecules in real time while depositing a film of the photoactive organic molecules on a substrate in a processing chamber for depositing the film includes irradiating the gas-phase photoactive organic molecules in the processing chamber with a radiation from a radiation source in-situ while depositing the film of the one or more organic materials and measuring the intensity of the resulting photoluminescence emission from the organic material. One or more processing parameters associated with the deposition process can be determined from the photoluminescence intensity data in real time providing useful feedback on the deposition process.

  1. A Skeletal, Gas Phase, Finite Rate, Chemical Kinetics Mechanism for Modeling the Deflagration of Ammonium Perchlorate - Hydroxyl-Terminated Polybutadiene Composite Propellants (United States)


    ABSTRACT A (full) detailed, gas-phase, finite-rate chemical kinetics mechanism for representing the combustion- chemistry -associated ammonium...chemical kinetics mechanism for modeling the gas-phase reaction chemistry associated with AP’s combustion had a number of questionably parameterized rate...deflagration. 7. Summary and Conclusions A (full) detailed, gas-phase, finite-rate chemical kinetics mechanism for representing the combustion chemistry

  2. Mechanism of alpha-amino acids decomposition in the gas phase. experimental and theoretical study of the elimination kinetics of N-benzyl glycine ethyl ester. (United States)

    Tosta, Maria; Oliveros, Jhenny C; Mora, Jose R; Córdova, Tania; Chuchani, Gabriel


    The gas-phase elimination kinetics of N-benzylglycine ethyl ester was examined in a static system, seasoned with allyl bromide, and in the presence of the free chain radical suppressor toluene. The working temperature and pressure range were 386.4-426.7 degrees C and 16.7-40.0 torr, respectively. The reaction showed to be homogeneous, unimolecular, and obeys a first-order rate law. The elimination products are benzylglycine and ethylene. However, the intermediate benzylglycine is unstable under the reaction conditions decomposing into benzyl methylamine and CO(2) gas. The variation of the rate coefficients with temperature is expressed by the following Arrhenius equation: log k(1) (s(-1)) = (11.83 +/- 0.52) - (190.3 +/- 6.9) kJ mol(-1) (2.303RT)(-1). The theoretical calculation of the kinetic parameters and mechanism of elimination of this ester were performed at B3LYP/6-31G*, B3LYP/6-31+G**, MPW1PW91/6-31G*, and MPW1PW91/6-31+G** levels of theory. The calculation results suggest a molecular mechanism of a concerted nonsynchronous six-membered cyclic transition state process. The analysis of bond order and natural bond orbital charges implies that the bond polarization of C(=O)O-C, in the sense of C(=O)O(delta-)...C(delta+), is rate determining. The experimental and theoretical parameters have been found to be in reasonable agreement.

  3. Evidence for the Formation of Pyrimidine Cations from the Sequential Reactions of Hydrogen Cyanide with the Acetylene Radical Cation. (United States)

    Hamid, Ahmed M; Bera, Partha P; Lee, Timothy J; Aziz, Saadullah G; Alyoubi, Abdulrahman O; El-Shall, M Samy


    Herein, we report the first direct evidence for the formation of pyrimidine ion isomers by sequential reactions of HCN with the acetylene radical cation in the gas phase at ambient temperature using the mass-selected variable temperature and pressure ion mobility technique. The formation and structures of the pyrimidine ion isomers are theoretically predicted via coupled cluster and density functional theory calculations. This ion-molecule synthesis may indicate that pyrimidine is produced in the gas phase in space environments before being incorporated into condensed-phase ices and transformed into nucleic acid bases such as uracil.

  4. Free radicals in the stratosphere - A new observational technique (United States)

    Anderson, J. G.; Hazen, N. L.; Mclaren, B. E.; Rowe, S. P.; Schiller, C. M.; Schwab, M. J.; Solomon, L.; Thompson, E. E.; Weinstock, E. M.


    A new approach to in situ observations of trace reactive species in the stratosphere is described. A balloon-borne system, floating 40 kilometers above the earth's surface, successfully lowered and then retracted a cluster of instruments a distance of 12 kilometers on a filament of Kevlar. This instrument cluster is capable of detecting gas-phase free radicals at the part-per-trillion level. The suspended instrument array has excellent stability and has been used to measured atomic oxygen concentrations in the stratosphere.

  5. Experimental evaluation of enthalpy efficiency and gas-phase contaminant transfer in an enthalpy recovery unit with polymer membrane foils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nie, Jinzhe; Yang, Jianrong; Fang, Lei


    Experimental studies were conducted in a laboratory setting to investigate the enthalpy efficiency and gas-phase contaminant transfer in a polymer membrane enthalpy recovery unit. One commercially available polymer membrane enthalpy recovery unit was used as a reference unit. Simulated indoor air...

  6. Probing the Gas-Phase Dynamics of Graphene Chemical Vapour Deposition using in-situ UV Absorption Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shivayogimath, Abhay; Mackenzie, David; Luo, Birong


    The processes governing multilayer nucleation in the chemical vapour deposition (CVD) of graphene are important for obtaining high-quality monolayer sheets, but remain poorly understood. Here we show that higher-order carbon species in the gas-phase play a major role in multilayer nucleation...... the overall mechanism of graphene growth....

  7. c2d Spitzer IRS spectra of embedded low-mass young stars : gas-phase emission lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lahuis, F.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Jorgensen, J. K.; Blake, G. A.; Evans, N. J.

    Context. A survey of mid-infrared gas-phase emission lines of H(2), H(2)O and various atoms toward a sample of 43 embedded low-mass young stars in nearby star-forming regions is presented. The sources are selected from the Spitzer "Cores to Disks" (c2d) legacy program. Aims. The environment of

  8. Development and validation of a portable gas phase standard generation and calibration system for volatile organic compounds (United States)

    P. Veres; J. B. Gilman; J. M. Roberts; W. C. Kuster; C. Warneke; I. R. Burling; J. de Gouw


    We report on the development of an accurate, portable, dynamic calibration system for volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The Mobile Organic Carbon Calibration System (MOCCS) combines the production of gas-phase VOC standards using permeation or diffusion sources with quantitative total organic carbon (TOC) conversion on a palladium surface to CO2 in the presence of...

  9. Gas-phase hydrogen/deuterium exchange in a traveling wave ion guide for the examination of protein conformations. (United States)

    Rand, Kasper D; Pringle, Steven D; Murphy, James P; Fadgen, Keith E; Brown, Jeff; Engen, John R


    Accumulating evidence suggests that solution-phase conformations of small globular proteins and large molecular protein assemblies can be preserved for milliseconds after electrospray ionization. Thus, the study of proteins in the gas phase on this time scale is highly desirable. Here we demonstrate that a traveling wave ion guide (TWIG) of a Synapt mass spectrometer offers a highly suitable environment for rapid and efficient gas-phase hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX). Gaseous ND(3) was introduced into either the source TWIG or the TWIG located just after the ion mobility cell, such that ions underwent HDX as they passed through the ND(3) on the way to the time-of-flight analyzer. The extent of deuterium labeling could be controlled by varying the quantity of ND(3) or the speed of the traveling wave. The gas-phase HDX of model peptides corresponded to labeling of primarily fast exchanging sites due to the short labeling times (ranging from 0.1 to 10 ms). In addition to peptides, gas-phase HDX of ubiquitin, cytochrome c, lysozyme, and apomyoglobin were examined. We conclude that HDX of protein ions in a TWIG is highly sensitive to protein conformation, enables the detection of conformers present on submilliseconds time scales, and can readily be combined with ion mobility spectrometry.

  10. Detergent release prolongs the lifetime of native-like membrane protein conformations in the gas-phase. (United States)

    Borysik, Antoni J; Hewitt, Dominic J; Robinson, Carol V


    Recent studies have suggested that detergents can protect the structure of membrane proteins during their transition from solution to the gas-phase. Here we provide mechanistic insights into this process by interrogating the structures of membrane protein-detergent assemblies in the gas-phase using ion mobility mass spectrometry. We show a clear correlation between the population of native-like protein conformations and the degree of detergent attachment to the protein in the gas-phase. Interrogation of these protein-detergent assemblies, by tandem mass spectrometry, enables us to define the mechanism by which detergents preserve native-like protein conformations in a solvent free environment. We show that the release of detergent is more central to the survival of these conformations than the physical presence of detergent bound to the protein. We propose that detergent release competes with structural collapse for the internal energy of the ion and permits the observation of transient native-like membrane protein conformations that are otherwise lost to structural rearrangement in the gas-phase.

  11. Lateral gas phase diffusion length of boron atoms over Si/B surfaces during CVD of pure boron layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohammadi, V.; Nihtianov, S.


    The lateral gas phase diffusion length of boron atoms, LB, along silicon and boron surfaces during chemical vapor deposition(CVD) using diborane (B2H6) is reported. The value of LB is critical for reliable and uniform boron layer coverage. The presented information was obtained experimentally and

  12. Advantages for passengers and cabin crew of operating a Gas-Phase Adsorption air purifier in 11-h simulated flights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm-Tejsen, Peter; Zukowska, Daria; Fang, Lei


    Experiments were carried out in a 3-row, 21-seat section of a simulated aircraft cabin installed in a climate chamber to evaluate the extent to which passengers’ perception of cabin air quality is affected by the operation of a Gas-Phase Adsorption (GPA) purification unit. A total of 68 subjects,...

  13. Effects of Gas-Phase Adsorption air purification on passengers and cabin crew in simulated 11-hour flights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm-Tejsen, Peter; Zukowska, Daria; Fang, Lei


    .4 and 3.3 L/s per person), with and without a Gas-Phase Adsorption (GPA) unit in the re-circulated air system. Objective physical and physiological measurements and subjective human assessments of symptom intensity were obtained. The GPA unit provided advantages with no apparent disadvantages....

  14. A sub-grid, mixture-fraction-based thermodynamic equilibrium model for gas phase combustion in FIRETEC: development and results (United States)

    M. M. Clark; T. H. Fletcher; R. R. Linn


    The chemical processes of gas phase combustion in wildland fires are complex and occur at length-scales that are not resolved in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models of landscape-scale wildland fire. A new approach for modelling fire chemistry in HIGRAD/FIRETEC (a landscape-scale CFD wildfire model) applies a mixture– fraction model relying on thermodynamic...

  15. IRMPD Action Spectroscopy of Alkali Metal Cation-Cytosine Complexes: Effects of Alkali Metal Cation Size on Gas Phase Conformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, B.; Wu, R.R.; Polfer, N.C.; Berden, G.; Oomens, J.; Rodgers, M.T.


    The gas-phase structures of alkali metal cation-cytosine complexes generated by electrospray ionization are probed via infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) action spectroscopy and theoretical calculations. IRMPD action spectra of five alkali metal cation-cytosine complexes exhibit both

  16. Studies of some elementary processes involving electrons in the gas phase by pulse-radiolysis microwave-cavity technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunagawa, Takeyoshi; Makita, Takeshi; Musasa, Hirofumi; Tatsumi, Yoshitsugu; Shimamori, Hiroshi


    The pulse radiolysis-microwave cavity technique has been employed for detection of free electrons in the gas phase. Presented are results of the observation of electron disappearance by attachment to molecules, the electron thermalization (energy loss) processes in the presence of an electron-attaching compound, and the formation of electrons by Penning ionization. (author)

  17. Infrared spectroscopy of gas-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon cations in the 10-50 m spectral range

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, J.M.; Redlich, B.; Meer, A.F.G.; Oomens, J.


    The gas-phase infrared spectra of four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) cations have been recorded in the 10-50 μm (or 1000-200 cm-1) spectral range via IR multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy. Ionized PAHs are formed by UV laser ionization in an effusive beam and subsequently

  18. Gas phase carbonyl compounds in ship emissions: Differences between diesel fuel and heavy fuel oil operation (United States)

    Reda, Ahmed A.; Schnelle-Kreis, J.; Orasche, J.; Abbaszade, G.; Lintelmann, J.; Arteaga-Salas, J. M.; Stengel, B.; Rabe, R.; Harndorf, H.; Sippula, O.; Streibel, T.; Zimmermann, R.


    Gas phase emission samples of carbonyl compounds (CCs) were collected from a research ship diesel engine at Rostock University, Germany. The ship engine was operated using two different types of fuels, heavy fuel oil (HFO) and diesel fuel (DF). Sampling of CCs was performed from diluted exhaust using cartridges and impingers. Both sampling methods involved the derivatization of CCs with 2,4-Dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH). The CCs-hydrazone derivatives were analyzed by two analytical techniques: High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Diode Array Detector (HPLC-DAD) and Gas Chromatography-Selective Ion Monitoring-Mass Spectrometry (GC-SIM-MS). Analysis of DNPH cartridges by GC-SIM-MS method has resulted in the identification of 19 CCs in both fuel operations. These CCs include ten aliphatic aldehydes (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, propanal, isobutanal, butanal, isopentanal, pentanal, hexanal, octanal, nonanal), three unsaturated aldehydes (acrolein, methacrolein, crotonaldehyde), three aromatic aldehyde (benzaldehyde, p-tolualdehyde, m,o-molualdehyde), two ketones (acetone, butanone) and one heterocyclic aldehyde (furfural). In general, all CCs under investigation were detected with higher emission factors in HFO than DF. The total carbonyl emission factor was determined and found to be 6050 and 2300 μg MJ-1 for the operation with HFO and DF respectively. Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were found to be the dominant carbonyls in the gas phase of ship engine emission. Formaldehyde emissions factor varied from 3500 μg MJ-1 in HFO operation to 1540 μg MJ-1 in DF operation, which is 4-30 times higher than those of other carbonyls. Emission profile contribution of CCs showed also a different pattern between HFO and DF operation. The contribution of formaldehyde was found to be 58% of the emission profile of HFO and about 67% of the emission profile of DF. Acetaldehyde showed opposite behavior with higher contribution of 16% in HFO compared to 11% for DF. Heavier carbonyls

  19. Moisture effects on greenhouse gases generation in nitrifying gas-phase compost biofilters. (United States)

    Maia, Guilherme D N; Day, George B; Gates, Richard S; Taraba, Joseph L; Coyne, Mark S


    Gas-phase compost biofilters are extensively used in concentrated animal feeding operations to remove odors and, in some cases, ammonia from air sources. The expected biochemical pathway for these predominantly aerobic systems is nitrification. However, non-uniform media with low oxygen levels can shift biofilter microbial pathways to denitrification, a source of greenhouse gases. Several factors contribute to the formation of anoxic/anaerobic zones: media aging, media and particle structure, air velocity distribution, compaction, biofilm thickness, and moisture content (MC) distribution. The present work studies the effects of media moisture conditions on ammonia (NH(3)) removal and greenhouse gas generation (nitrous oxide, N(2)O and methane, CH(4)) for gas-phase compost biofilters subject to a 100-day controlled drying process. Continuous recordings were made for the three gases and water vapor (2.21-h sampling cycle, each cycle consisted of three gas species, and water vapor, for a total of 10,050 data points). Media moisture conditions were classified into three corresponding media drying rate (DR) stages: Constant DR (wetter media), falling DR, and stable-dry system. The first-half of the constant DR period (0-750 h; MC=65-52%, w.b.) facilitated high NH(3) removal rates, but higher N(2)O generation and no CH(4) generation. At the drier stages of the constant DR (750-950 h; MC=52-48%, w.b.) NH(3) removal remained high but N(2)O net generation decreased to near zero. In the falling DR stage (1200-1480 h; MC=44-13%) N(2)O generation decreased, CH(4) increased, and NH(3) was no longer removed. No ammonia removal or greenhouse gas generation was observed in the stable-dry system (1500-2500 h; MC=13%). These results indicate that media should remain toward the drier region of the constant DR (in close proximity to the falling DR stage; MC=50%, approx.), to maintain high levels of NH(3) removal, reduced levels of N(2)O generation, and nullify levels of CH(4

  20. Time-resolved EPR study of singlet oxygen in the gas phase. (United States)

    Ruzzi, Marco; Sartori, Elena; Moscatelli, Alberto; Khudyakov, Igor V; Turro, Nicholas J


    X-band EPR spectra of singlet O2((1)Δg) and triplet O2((3)Σg(-)) were observed in the gas phase under low molecular-oxygen pressures PO2 = 0.175-0.625 Torr, T = 293-323 K. O2((1)Δg) was produced by quenching of photogenerated triplet sensitizers naphthalene C8H10, perdeuterated naphthalene, and perfluoronaphthalene in the gas phase. The EPR spectrum of O2((1)Δg) was also observed under microwave discharge. Integrated intensities and line widths of individual components of the EPR spectrum of O2((3)Σg(-)) were used as internal standards for estimating the concentration of O2 species and PO2 in the EPR cavity. Time-resolved (TR) EPR experiments of C8H10 were the main focus of this Article. Pulsed irradiation of C8H10 in the presence of O2((3)Σg(-)) allowed us to determine the kinetics of formation and decay for each of the four components of the O2((1)Δg) EPR signal, which lasted for only a few seconds. We found that the kinetics of EPR-component decay fit nicely to a biexponential kinetics law. The TR EPR 2D spectrum of the third component of the O2((1)Δg) EPR spectrum was examined in experiments using C8H10. This spectrum vividly presents the time evolution of an EPR component. The largest EPR signal and the longest lifetime of O2((1)Δg), τ = 0.4 s, were observed at medium pressure PO2 = 0.4 Torr, T = 293 K. The mechanism of O2((1)Δg) decay in the presence of photosensitizers is discussed. EPR spectra of O2((1)Δg) evidence that the spin-rotational states of O2((1)Δg) are populated according to Boltzmann distribution in the studied time range of 10-100 ms. We believe that this is the first report dealing with the dependence of O2((1)Δg) EPR line width on PO2 and T.

  1. Noble metal alloy clusters in the gas phase derived from protein templates: unusual recognition of palladium by gold (United States)

    Baksi, Ananya; Pradeep, T.


    Matrix assisted laser desorption ionization of a mixture of gold and palladium adducts of the protein lysozyme (Lyz) produces naked alloy clusters of the type Au24Pd+ in the gas phase. While a lysozyme-Au adduct forms Au18+, Au25+, Au38+ and Au102+ ions in the gas phase, lysozyme-Pd alone does not form any analogous cluster. Addition of various transition metal ions (Ag+, Pt2+, Pd2+, Cu2+, Fe2+, Ni2+ and Cr3+) in the adducts contributes to drastic changes in the mass spectrum, but only palladium forms alloys in the gas phase. Besides alloy formation, palladium enhances the formation of specific single component clusters such as Au38+. While other metal ions like Cu2+ help forming Au25+ selectively, Fe2+ catalyzes the formation of Au25+ over all other clusters. Gas phase cluster formation occurs from protein adducts where Au is in the 1+ state while Pd is in the 2+ state. The creation of alloys in the gas phase is not affected whether a physical mixture of Au and Pd adducts or a Au and Pd co-adduct is used as the precursor. The formation of Au cores and AuPd alloy cores of the kind comparable to monolayer protected clusters implies that naked clusters themselves may be nucleated in solution.Matrix assisted laser desorption ionization of a mixture of gold and palladium adducts of the protein lysozyme (Lyz) produces naked alloy clusters of the type Au24Pd+ in the gas phase. While a lysozyme-Au adduct forms Au18+, Au25+, Au38+ and Au102+ ions in the gas phase, lysozyme-Pd alone does not form any analogous cluster. Addition of various transition metal ions (Ag+, Pt2+, Pd2+, Cu2+, Fe2+, Ni2+ and Cr3+) in the adducts contributes to drastic changes in the mass spectrum, but only palladium forms alloys in the gas phase. Besides alloy formation, palladium enhances the formation of specific single component clusters such as Au38+. While other metal ions like Cu2+ help forming Au25+ selectively, Fe2+ catalyzes the formation of Au25+ over all other clusters. Gas phase cluster

  2. Ca-C backbone fragmentation dominates in electron detachment dissociation of gas-phase polypeptide polyanions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Frank; Silivra, Oleg A; Ivonin, Igor A


    the dissociation of oxidized radical anions [M-nH]((n-1)-*. We demonstrate that C(alpha)-C cleavages, which are otherwise rarely observed in tandem mass spectrometry, can account for most of the backbone fragmentation, with even-electron x fragments dominating over radical a* ions. Ab initio calculations at the B3......Fragmentation of peptide polyanions by electron detachment dissociation (EDD) has been induced by electron irradiation of deprotonated polypeptides [M-nH](n-) with >10 eV electrons. EDD has been found to lead preferentially to a* and x fragment ions (C(alpha)-C backbone cleavage) arising from...

  3. Intramolecular London Dispersion Interaction Effects on Gas-Phase and Solid-State Structures of Diamondoid Dimers. (United States)

    Fokin, Andrey A; Zhuk, Tatyana S; Blomeyer, Sebastian; Pérez, Cristóbal; Chernish, Lesya V; Pashenko, Alexander E; Antony, Jens; Vishnevskiy, Yury V; Berger, Raphael J F; Grimme, Stefan; Logemann, Christian; Schnell, Melanie; Mitzel, Norbert W; Schreiner, Peter R


    The covalent diamantyl (C 28 H 38 ) and oxadiamantyl (C 26 H 34 O 2 ) dimers are stabilized by London dispersion attractions between the dimer moieties. Their solid-state and gas-phase structures were studied using a multitechnique approach, including single-crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD), gas-phase electron diffraction (GED), a combined GED/microwave (MW) spectroscopy study, and quantum chemical calculations. The inclusion of medium-range electron correlation as well as the London dispersion energy in density functional theory is essential to reproduce the experimental geometries. The conformational dynamics computed for C 26 H 34 O 2 agree well with solution NMR data and help in the assignment of the gas-phase MW data to individual diastereomers. Both in the solid state and the gas phase the central C-C bond is of similar length for the diamantyl [XRD, 1.642(2) Å; GED, 1.630(5) Å] and the oxadiamantyl dimers [XRD, 1.643(1) Å; GED, 1.632(9) Å; GED+MW, 1.632(5) Å], despite the presence of two oxygen atoms. Out of a larger series of quantum chemical computations, the best match with the experimental reference data is achieved with the PBEh-3c, PBE0-D3, PBE0, B3PW91-D3, and M06-2X approaches. This is the first gas-phase confirmation that the markedly elongated C-C bond is an intrinsic feature of the molecule and that crystal packing effects have only a minor influence.

  4. Source characterization and exposure modeling of gas-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in Southern California (United States)

    Masri, Shahir; Li, Lianfa; Dang, Andy; Chung, Judith H.; Chen, Jiu-Chiuan; Fan, Zhi-Hua (Tina); Wu, Jun


    Airborne exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are associated with adverse health outcomes. Because personal air measurements of PAHs are labor intensive and costly, spatial PAH exposure models are useful for epidemiological studies. However, few studies provide adequate spatial coverage to reflect intra-urban variability of ambient PAHs. In this study, we collected 39-40 weekly gas-phase PAH samples in southern California twice in summer and twice in winter, 2009, in order to characterize PAH source contributions and develop spatial models that can estimate gas-phase PAH concentrations at a high resolution. A spatial mixed regression model was constructed, including such variables as roadway, traffic, land-use, vegetation index, commercial cooking facilities, meteorology, and population density. Cross validation of the model resulted in an R2 of 0.66 for summer and 0.77 for winter. Results showed higher total PAH concentrations in winter. Pyrogenic sources, such as fossil fuels and diesel exhaust, were the most dominant contributors to total PAHs. PAH sources varied by season, with a higher fossil fuel and wood burning contribution in winter. Spatial autocorrelation accounted for a substantial amount of the variance in total PAH concentrations for both winter (56%) and summer (19%). In summer, other key variables explaining the variance included meteorological factors (9%), population density (15%), and roadway length (21%). In winter, the variance was also explained by traffic density (16%). In this study, source characterization confirmed the dominance of traffic and other fossil fuel sources to total measured gas-phase PAH concentrations while a spatial exposure model identified key predictors of PAH concentrations. Gas-phase PAH source characterization and exposure estimation is of high utility to epidemiologist and policy makers interested in understanding the health impacts of gas-phase PAHs and strategies to reduce emissions.

  5. Kinetics of the reaction of CH3O2 radicals with NO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallington, T.J.; Nielsen, O.J.; Sehested, K.


    The kinetics of the gas-phase reaction of CH3O2 radicals with NO2 were studied at 295 K in 0.5-14 arm of SF6 diluent using pulse radiolysis combined with time-resolved UV-VIS spectroscopy. Rate data were obtained by following the loss of CH3O2 using a monitoring wavelength of 260 nm. The results...

  6. Some insights into formamide formation through gas-phase reactions in the interstellar medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redondo, Pilar; Barrientos, Carmen; Largo, Antonio, E-mail: [Computational Chemistry Group, Departamento de Química Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47011 Valladolid (Spain)


    We study the viability of different gas-phase ion-molecule reactions that could produce precursors of formamide in the interstellar medium. We analyze different reactions between cations containing a nitrogen atom (NH{sub 3}{sup +}, NH{sub 4}{sup +}, NH{sub 3}OH{sup +}, and NH{sub 2}OH{sup +}) and neutral molecules having one carbonyl group (H{sub 2}CO and HCOOH). First, we report a theoretical estimation of the reaction enthalpies for the proposed processes. Second, for more favorable reactions, from a thermodynamic point of view, we perform a theoretical study of the potential energy surface. In particular, the more exothermic processes correspond to the reactions of ionized and protonated hydroxylamine with formaldehyde. In addition, a neutral-neutral reaction has also been considered. The analysis of the potential energy surfaces corresponding to these reactions shows that these processes present a net activation barrier and that they cannot be considered as a source of formamide in space.

  7. Resonant x-ray emission from gas-phase TiCl{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hague, C.F.; Tronc, M. [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France); De Groot, F. [Univ. of Groningen (Netherlands)] [and others


    Resonant x-ray emission spectroscopy (RXES) has proved to be a powerful tool for studying the electronic structure of condensed matter. Over the past few years it has been used mainly for studying the valence bands of solids and condensed molecules. Very recently the advent of high brightness photon beams provided by third generation synchrotron radiation source undulators, associated with efficient x-ray emission spectrometers has made it possible to perform experiments on free diatomic molecular systems. RXE spectra of free molecules are of prime importance to gain insight into their electronic structure and bonding as they reflect the symmetry of orbitals engaged in the two-electron, two-step process with the l = 0, {+-}2 parity-conserving selection rule, and are free from solid state effects which can introduce difficulties in the interpretation. They provide information (more so than XAS) on the core excited states, and, when performed at fixed incident photon energy as a function of the emitted photon energy, on the electronic excitation (charge transfer, multiplet states). Moreover the anisotropy of the angular distribution of resonant x-ray emission affects the relative intensity of the emission peaks and provides information concerning the symmetries of final states. This is a preliminary report on what are the first RXE spectra of a 3d transition metal complex in the gas phase. The experiment concerns the Ti 3d {yields}2p emission spectrum of TiCl{sub 4} over the 450 to 470 eV region.

  8. Gas Phase Rovibrational Spectroscopy of Dmso, Part II: Towards the Terahertz Observation of 4-FOLD Clusters (United States)

    Cuisset, Arnaud; Martin-Drumel, Marie-Aline; Hindle, Francis; Mouret, Gael; Sadovskii, Dmitrii A.


    Benefiting of the exceptional properties of the AILES synchrotron beamline, the gas phase Far-IR spectrum of DMSO has been recorded and resolved. The rovibrational analysis allowed to discover a new rotational behaviour for a polyatomic molecule: the gyroscopic destabilization. In order to explain this phenomenon, we looked for four-fold energy clusters in the high resolution ground state THz spectrum of DMSO recorded with a sub-THz spectrometer based on a frequency multiplication chain. Pure rotational lines in the 5 lowest vibrationnally excited levels have been recorded below 700 GHz. With near 1000 rotational transitions assigned, high quantum numbers have been reached allowing to discover sequence of four-fold clusters in the out of plane bending mode of DMSO and to study the vibrational dependence of an unusual rotational dynamics. J. B. Brubach et al., AIP Conf. Proc., 1214, (81), 2010. A. Cuisset, L. Nanobashvili, I. Smirnova, R. Bocquet, F. Hindle, G. Mouret, O. Pirali, P. Roy, D. Sadovskii,Chem. Phys. Lett., 492,(30),2010 A. Cuisset, O. Pirali, D. Sadovskii,Phys. Rev. Lett., 109,(094101), 2012. G. Mouret, M. Guinet, A. Cuisset, L. Croizet, S. Eliet, R. Bocquet, F. Hindle, IEEE Sensors Journal, 13, 1, 2013.

  9. Soft X-ray photoemission spectroscopy of selected neurotransmitters in the gas phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maris, Assimo; Melandri, Sonia; Evangelisti, Luca; Caminati, Walther [Dipartimento di Chimica ' G. Ciamician' dell' Universita, Via Selmi 2, I-40126 Bologna (Italy); Giuliano, Barbara M. [Departamento de Quimica da Universidade de Coimbra, 3004-535 Coimbra (Portugal); Plekan, Oksana [Sincrotrone Trieste, in Area Science Park, I-34149 Basovizza, Trieste (Italy); Feyer, Vitaliy [Sincrotrone Trieste, in Area Science Park, I-34149 Basovizza, Trieste (Italy); Electronic Properties (PGI-6), Peter Gruenberg Institute, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Leo-Brandt-Strasse, 52428 Juelich (Germany); Richter, Robert [Sincrotrone Trieste, in Area Science Park, I-34149 Basovizza, Trieste (Italy); Coreno, Marcello [CNR-IMIP, Montelibretti, I-00016 Rome (Italy); Prince, Kevin C., E-mail: [Sincrotrone Trieste, in Area Science Park, I-34149 Basovizza, Trieste (Italy); CNR-IOM, Laboratorio TASC, I-34149 Basovizza, Trieste (Italy)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Neurotransmitter molecules. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Photoelectron spectroscopy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electronic structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Weak hydrogen bonding. -- Abstract: The valence molecular orbitals and core levels of tyramine, tryptamine and tryptophol in the gas phase have been studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and theoretical methods. The energies of the outer valence region spectrum are found to be in agreement with previously reported He I spectra, while new data on the inner valence molecular orbitals are reported. The structures in the carbon, nitrogen and oxygen core level spectra of these molecules have been identified and assigned. These compounds are characterised by conformers with hydrogen bonding in which the {pi} systems of the phenol and indole groups act as hydrogen acceptors, but a spectroscopic signature of this hydrogen bond was not observed. This is in contrast with our previous spectra of amino acids, where conformers with specific hydrogen bonding showed strong effects in core level spectra. We attribute the difference to the weaker strength of the {pi}-hydrogen bonding.

  10. Gas-phase laser synthesis of aggregation-free, size-controlled hydroxyapatite nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bapat, Parimal V.; Kraft, Rebecca; Camata, Renato P.


    Nanophase hydroxyapatite (HA) is finding applications in many areas of biomedical research, including bone tissue engineering, drug delivery, and intracellular imaging. Details in chemical composition, crystal phase makeup, size, and shape of HA nanoparticles play important roles in achieving the favorable biological responses required in these applications. Most of the nanophase HA synthesis techniques involve solution-based methods that exhibit substantial aggregation of particles upon precipitation. Typically these methods also have limited control over the particle size and crystal phase composition. In this study, we describe the gas-phase synthesis of aggregation-free, size-controlled HA nanoparticles with mean size in the 20–70 nm range using laser ablation followed by aerosol electrical mobility classification. Nanoparticle deposits with adjustable number concentration were obtained on solid substrates. Particles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Samples are well represented by log-normal size distributions with geometric standard deviation σ g ≈ 1.2. The most suitable conditions for HA nanoparticle formation at a laser fluence of 5 J/cm 2 were found to be a temperature of 800 °C and a partial pressure of water of 160 mbar.

  11. Isomers and conformational barriers of gas phase nicotine, nornicotine and their protonated forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Tomoki; Farone, William A.; Xantheas, Sotiris S.


    We report extensive conformational searches of the neutral nicotine, nornicotine and their protonated analogs that are based on ab-initio second order Møller-Plesset perturbation (MP2) electronic structure calculations. Initial searches were performed with the 6-31G(d,p) and the energetics of the most important structures were further refined from geometry optimizations with the aug-cc-pVTZ basis set. Based on the calculated free energies at T=298 K for the gas phase molecules, neutral nicotine has two dominant trans conformers, whereas neutral nornicotine is a mixture of several conformers. For nicotine, the protonation on both the pyridine and the pyrrolidine sites is energetically competitive, whereas nornicotine prefers protonation on the pyridine nitrogen. The protonated form of nicotine is mainly a mixture of two pyridine-protonated trans conformers and two pyrrolidine-protonated trans conformers, whereas the protonated form of nornicotine is a mixture of four pyridine-protonated trans conformers. Nornicotine is conformationally more flexible than nicotine, however it is less protonated at the biologically important pyrrolidine nitrogen site. The lowest energy isomers for each case were found to interconvert via low (< 6 kcal/mol) rotational barriers around the pyridine-pyrrolidine bond.

  12. Combined synthesis and in situ coating of nanoparticles in the gas phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laehde, Anna; Raula, Janne; Kauppinen, Esko I.


    Combined gas phase synthesis and coating of sodium chloride (NaCl) and lactose nanoparticles has been developed using an aerosol flow reactor. Nano-sized core particles were produced by the droplet-to-particle method and coated in situ by the physical vapour deposition of L-leucine vapour. The saturation of L-leucine in the reactor determined the resulting particle size and size distribution. In general, particle size increased with the addition of L-leucine and notable narrowing of the core particle size distribution was observed. In addition, homogeneous nucleation of the vapour, i.e. formation of pure L-leucine particles, was observed depending on the saturation conditions of L-leucine as well as the core particle characteristics. The effects of core particle properties, i.e. size and solid-state characteristics, on the coating process were studied by comparing the results for coated NaCl and lactose particles. During deposition, L-leucine formed a uniform coating on the surface of the core particles. The coating stabilised the nanoparticles and prevented the sintering of particles during storage.

  13. The structure optimization of gas-phase surface discharge and its application for dye degradation (United States)

    Ying, CAO; Jie, LI; Nan, JIANG; Yan, WU; Kefeng, SHANG; Na, LU


    A gas-phase surface discharge (GSD) was employed to optimize the discharge reactor structure and investigate the dye degradation. A dye mixture of methylene blue, acid orange and methyl orange was used as a model pollutant. The results indicated that the reactor structure of the GSD system with the ratio of tube inner surface area and volume of 2.48, screw pitch between a high-voltage electrode of 9.7 mm, high-voltage electrode wire diameter of 0.8 mm, dielectric tube thickness of 2.0 mm and tube inner diameter of 16.13 mm presented a better ozone (O3) generation efficiency. Furthermore, a larger screw pitch and smaller wire diameter enhanced the O3 generation. After the dye mixture degradation by the optimized GSD system, 73.21% and 50.74% of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total organic carbon removal rate were achieved within 20 min, respectively, and the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and biodegradability (BOD/COD) improved.

  14. Evaluation of Chemical Interactions between Small Molecules in the Gas Phase Using Chemical Force Microscopy. (United States)

    Lee, Jieun; Ju, Soomi; Kim, In Tae; Jung, Sun-Hwa; Min, Sun-Joon; Kim, Chulki; Sim, Sang Jun; Kim, Sang Kyung


    Chemical force microscopy analyzes the interactions between various chemical/biochemical moieties in situ. In this work we examined force-distance curves and lateral force to measure the interaction between modified AFM tips and differently functionalized molecular monolayers. Especially for the measurements in gas phase, we investigated the effect of humidity on the analysis of force-distance curves and the images in lateral force mode. Flat chemical patterns composed of different functional groups were made through micro-contact printing and lateral force mode provided more resolved analysis of the chemical patterns. From the images of 1-octadecanethiol/11-mercapto-1-undecanoic acid patterns, the amine group functionalized tip brought out higher contrast of the patterns than an intact silicon nitride tip owing to the additional chemical interaction between carboxyl and amine groups. For more complex chemical interactions, relative chemical affinities toward specific peptides were assessed on the pattern of 1-octadecanethiol/phenyl-terminated alkanethiol. The lateral image of chemical force microscopy reflected specific preference of a peptide to phenyl group as well as the hydrophobic interaction.

  15. Peptide secondary structures in the gas phase: consensus motif of N-linked glycoproteins. (United States)

    Cocinero, Emilio J; Stanca-Kaposta, E Cristina; Gamblin, David P; Davis, Benjamin G; Simons, John P


    The possibility of secondary structure acting as a primary determinant in nature's choice of the consensus sequon, NXS/T in all N-linked glycoproteins, has been addressed by determining the intrinsic secondary structures of the capped oligopeptide, Ac-NGS-NHBn, and two "mutants", Ac-QGS-NHBn and Ac-NPS-NHBn, by use of infrared laser ion dip spectroscopy in the gas phase coupled with ab initio and density functional theory calculation. Their global minimum energy conformations, exclusively or preferentially populated in all three peptides, display marked differences. NGS adopts an open, S-shaped backbone conformation rather than the C(10) "Asx" turn structure that all previous measurements have identified in solution; the difference can be related to the high dipole moment of the "Asx" conformation and structural selection in a polar environment. QGS adopts a similar but more rigid backbone structure, supported by markedly stronger hydrogen bonds. NPS adopts an Asx turn coupled with a C(10) beta-turn backbone conformation, a structure also adopted in a crystal environment. These and other more subtle structural differences, particularly those involving interactions with the carboxamide side chain, provide strong evidence for the operation of structural constraints, and a potential insight into the unique reactivity of the asparagine side chain toward enzymatic glycosylation.

  16. Evaluation of Gas Phase Dispersion in Flotation under Predetermined Hydrodynamic Conditions (United States)

    Młynarczykowska, Anna; Oleksik, Konrad; Tupek-Murowany, Klaudia


    Results of various investigations shows the relationship between the flotation parameters and gas distribution in a flotation cell. The size of gas bubbles is a random variable with a specific distribution. The analysis of this distribution is useful to make mathematical description of the flotation process. The flotation process depends on many variable factors. These are mainly occurrences like collision of single particle with gas bubble, adhesion of particle to the surface of bubble and detachment process. These factors are characterized by randomness. Because of that it is only possible to talk about the probability of occurence of one of these events which directly affects the speed of the process, thus a constant speed of flotation process. Probability of the bubble-particle collision in the flotation chamber with mechanical pulp agitation depends on the surface tension of the solution, air consumption, degree of pul aeration, energy dissipation and average feed particle size. Appropriate identification and description of the parameters of the dispersion of gas bubbles helps to complete the analysis of the flotation process in a specific physicochemical conditions and hydrodynamic for any raw material. The article presents the results of measurements and analysis of the gas phase dispersion by the size distribution of air bubbles in a flotation chamber under fixed hydrodynamic conditions. The tests were carried out in the Laboratory of Instrumental Methods in Department of Environmental Engineering and Mineral Processing, Faculty of Mining and Geoengineerin, AGH Univeristy of Science and Technology in Krakow.

  17. [Photonic Efficiency of Ethyl Acetate Photolysis in Gas Phase: Dependence on Wavelength and Catalyst]. (United States)

    Fang, Xue-hui; Zhao, Jie; Shu, Li; Gao, Yong; Ye, Zhao-lian


    Four kinds of excilamps with different wavelengths (XeCl*, KrCl*, XeBr* and KrBr*) were used for removing ethyl acetate in gas phase. The removal efficiencies of ethyl acetate by three loaded catalysts (TiO2 loaded on organic film, graphene loaded on organic film, and TiO2 loaded on mesh) were compared, and the effects of lamp sources, irradiation power and initial concentration on the removal efficiency were also investigated. Moreover, irradiation spectra and power of light sources were determined, and photonic efficiencies under different reaction conditions were calculated. The experimental results showed that the removal efficiency of ethyl acetate decreased in the order of KrBr* > KrCl* > XeCl* > XeBr*, while the photonic efficiency seemed to be relatively high with both XeCl* and KrBr* excilamps. In the presence of the catalyst of TiO2 loaded on organic film, both the removal efficiency and the photonic efficiency were higher than those without catalyst, but the increment was not significant. The photonic efficiency increased with increasing initial concentration and gas flow rate. With KrBr* excilamp, a photonic efficiency of 5.63% was obtained when the experimental conditions were set as: irradiation power of 0.76 W, initial concentration of 946 mg x m(-3), and gas flow rate of 600 mL x min(-1).

  18. Reactions between M+ (M = Si, Ge, Sn and Pb) and benzene in the gas phase. (United States)

    Xing, Xiaopeng; Tian, Zhixin; Liu, Hongtao; Tang, Zichao


    Using a laser ablation/inert buffer gas ion source coupled with a reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer, the gas-phase reactions between the IVA group element ions M(+) (M = Si, Ge, Sn and Pb) and benzene seeded in argon gas were studied. In addition to the association reaction pathway (forming [M(C(6)H(6))(x)](+), x = 1, 2, etc.), benzene was dissociated to form complex ions [M(C(5)H(5))](+), [M(C(7)H(5))](+) and [M(C(9)H(x))](+) (x = 5, 7 and 9), etc. DFT theoretical calculations indicated that, in the association products [M(C(6)H(6))](+), the M atom is close to one carbon atom of benzene, while in most of the dissociation complexes, pentagonal structures (M/cyclopentadienyl derivatives) were formed, with the M atom situated near the fivefold axis of the five-membered ring. The bond patterns in these complexes are discussed. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Single-step gas phase synthesis of stable iron aluminide nanoparticles with soft magnetic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vernieres, Jerome, E-mail:; Benelmekki, Maria; Kim, Jeong-Hwan; Grammatikopoulos, Panagiotis; Diaz, Rosa E. [Nanoparticles by Design Unit, Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology (OIST) Graduate University, 1919-1 Tancha, Onna Son, Okinawa 904-0495 (Japan); Bobo, Jean-François [Centre d’Elaboration de Materiaux et d’Etudes Structurales (CEMES), 29 rue Jeanne Marvig, 31055 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Sowwan, Mukhles, E-mail: [Nanoparticles by Design Unit, Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology (OIST) Graduate University, 1919-1 Tancha, Onna Son, Okinawa 904-0495 (Japan); Nanotechnology Research Laboratory, Al-Quds University, P.O. Box 51000, East Jerusalem, Palestine (Country Unknown)


    Soft magnetic alloys at the nanoscale level have long generated a vivid interest as candidate materials for technological and biomedical purposes. Consequently, controlling the structure of bimetallic nanoparticles in order to optimize their magnetic properties, such as high magnetization and low coercivity, can significantly boost their potential for related applications. However, traditional synthesis methods stumble upon the long standing challenge of developing true nanoalloys with effective control over morphology and stability against oxidation. Herein, we report on a single-step approach to the gas phase synthesis of soft magnetic bimetallic iron aluminide nanoparticles, using a versatile co-sputter inert gas condensation technique. This method allowed for precise morphological control of the particles; they consisted of an alloy iron aluminide crystalline core (DO{sub 3} phase) and an alumina shell, which reduced inter-particle interactions and also prevented further oxidation and segregation of the bimetallic core. Remarkably, the as-deposited alloy nanoparticles show interesting soft magnetic properties, in that they combine a high saturation magnetization (170 emu/g) and low coercivity (less than 20 Oe) at room temperature. Additional functionality is tenable by modifying the surface of the particles with a polymer, to ensure their good colloidal dispersion in aqueous environments.

  20. A simulation model for the analysis of Space Station gas-phase trace contaminants (United States)

    Brewer, Dana A.; Hall, John B., Jr.


    A simulation model for the analysis of gas-phase trace contaminants in the cabin air of the NASA Space Station Reference Configuration was developed at the NASA Langley Research Center. The model predicts changes in trace contaminant concentrations from both physical and chemical sources and sinks as a function of time. Simulations were performed in which values for relative humidity, temperature, radiation intensity, pressure, and initial species concentrations were constrained to values for these parameters measured and modeled in the continental tropics at the earth's surface. Species concentrations simulated using the model compared favorably with concentrations in the continental tropics which demonstrated that the chemical mechanism in the trace contaminant model approximates changes in atmospheric species concentrations. The sensitivity of initial species concentrations to producing changes in additional species concentrations was also assessed. Results from the model indicated that chemical reactions will be important in determining the composition of cabin air in the Space Station. It is anticipated that the trace contaminant model will be useful in assessing the impact of experiments and commercial operations on the composition of the cabin air in the Space Station.

  1. The mechanism and thermodynamics of transesterification of acetate-ester enolates in the gas phase (United States)

    Haas, George W.; Giblin, Daryl E.; Gross, Michael L.


    In solution, base-catalyzed hydrolysis and transesterification of esters are initiated by hydroxide- or alkoxide-ion attack at the carbonyl carbon. At low pressures in the gas phase, however, transesterification proceeds by an attack of the enolate anion of an acetate ester on an alcohol. Fourier transform mass spectrometry (FTMS) indicates that the reaction is the second-order process: -CH2-CO2-R + R'-OH --> - CH2-CO2-R' + R-OH and there is little to no detectable production of either alkoxide anion. Labeling studies show that the product and reactant enolate anion esters undergo exchange of hydrogens located [alpha] to the carbonyl carbon with the deuterium of R'-OD. The extent of the H/D exchange increases with reaction time, pointing to a short-lived intermediate. The alcoholysis reaction rate constants increase with increasing acidity of the primary, straight-chained alkyl alcohols, whereas steric effects associated with branched alcohols cause the rate constants to decrease. Equilibrium constants, which were determined directly from measurements at equilibrium and which were calculated from the forward and reverse rate constants, are near unity and show internal consistency. In the absence of steric effects, the larger enolate is always the favored product at equilibrium. The intermediate for the transesterification reaction, which can be generated at a few tenths of a torr in a tandem mass spectrometer, is tetrahedral, but other adducts that are collisionally stabilized under these conditions are principally loosely bound complexes.

  2. Hydration of gas-phase ytterbium ion complexes studied by experiment and theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutkowski, Philip X; Michelini, Maria C.; Bray, Travis H.; Russo, Nino; Marcalo, Joaquim; Gibson, John K.


    Hydration of ytterbium (III) halide/hydroxide ions produced by electrospray ionization was studied in a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer and by density functional theory (DFT). Gas-phase YbX{sub 2}{sup +} and YbX(OH){sup +} (X = OH, Cl, Br, or I) were found to coordinate from one to four water molecules, depending on the ion residence time in the trap. From the time dependence of the hydration steps, relative reaction rates were obtained. It was determined that the second hydration was faster than both the first and third hydrations, and the fourth hydration was the slowest; this ordering reflects a combination of insufficient degrees of freedom for cooling the hot monohydrate ion and decreasing binding energies with increasing hydration number. Hydration energetics and hydrate structures were computed using two approaches of DFT. The relativistic scalar ZORA approach was used with the PBE functional and all-electron TZ2P basis sets; the B3LYP functional was used with the Stuttgart relativistic small-core ANO/ECP basis sets. The parallel experimental and computational results illuminate fundamental aspects of hydration of f-element ion complexes. The experimental observations - kinetics and extent of hydration - are discussed in relationship to the computed structures and energetics of the hydrates. The absence of pentahydrates is in accord with the DFT results, which indicate that the lowest energy structures have the fifth water molecule in the second shell.

  3. CdSe Nanoparticles with Clean Surfaces: Gas Phase Synthesis and Optical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Hongwei


    Full Text Available CdSe nanoparticles (NPs were generated in gas phase with a magnetron plasma gas aggregation cluster beam source. Coagulation-free CdSe nanocrystals with very clean particle surface and interface, as well as a fairly uniform spatial distribution were obtained. The deposited NPs have a good dispersity with a mean diameter of about 4.8nm. A strong photoluminescence band corresponding to the near- band-edge transition of the CdSe NPs was observed. The CdSe NP films show a significant photoconductance induced by laser irradiation. With an applied bias voltage of 10V, the photo- induced current can be as high as 0.4mA under 0.01mW/mm2 405nm laser illumination. Our approach offers an alternative method for CdSe NP synthesis, which has the advantages such as high purity, good process and product control, as well as mass production, as compared to the existing methods.

  4. Non-stationary filtration mode during chemical reactions with the gas phase (United States)

    Zavialov, Ivan; Konyukhov, Andrey; Negodyaev, Sergey


    An experimental and numerical study of filtration accompanied by chemical reactions between displacing fluid and solid skeleton is considered. Glass balls (400-500 μm in diameter) were placed in 1 cm gap between two glass sheets and were used as model porous medium. The baking soda was added to the glass balls. The 70% solution of acetic acid was used as the displacer. The modeling porous medium was saturated with a mineral oil, and then 70% solution of colored acetic acid was pumped through the medium. The glass balls and a mineral oil have a similar refractive index, so the model porous medium was optically transparent. During the filtration, the gas phase was generated by the chemical reactions between the baking soda and acetic acid, and time-dependent displacement of the chemical reaction front was observed. The front of the chemical reaction was associated with the most intensive gas separation. The front moved, stopped, and then moved again to the area where it had been already. We called this process a secondary oxidation wave. To describe this effect, we added to the balance equations a term associated with the formation and disappearance of phases due to chemical reactions. The equations were supplemented by Darcy's law for multiphase filtration. Nonstationarity front propagation of the chemical reaction in the numerical experiment was observed at Damköhler numbers greater than 100. The mathematical modelling was agreed well with the experimental results.

  5. Gas Phase Pressure Effects on the Apparent Thermal Conductivity of JSC-1A Lunar Regolith Simulant (United States)

    Yuan, Zeng-Guang; Kleinhenz, Julie E.


    Gas phase pressure effects on the apparent thermal conductivity of a JSC-1A/air mixture have been experimentally investigated under steady state thermal conditions from 10 kPa to 100 kPa. The result showed that apparent thermal conductivity of the JSC-1A/air mixture decreased when pressure was lowered to 80 kPa. At 10 kPa, the conductivity decreased to 0.145 W/m/degree C, which is significantly lower than 0.196 W/m/degree C at 100 kPa. This finding is consistent with the results of previous researchers. The reduction of the apparent thermal conductivity at low pressures is ascribed to the Knudsen effect. Since the characteristic length of the void space in bulk JSC-1A varies over a wide range, both the Knudsen regime and continuum regime can coexist in the pore space. The volume ratio of the two regimes varies with pressure. Thus, as gas pressure decreases, the gas volume controlled by Knudsen regime increases. Under Knudsen regime the resistance to the heat flow is higher than that in the continuum regime, resulting in the observed pressure dependency of the apparent thermal conductivity.

  6. Structures of gas-phase Ag-Pd nanoclusters: A computational study (United States)

    Negreiros, Fabio R.; Kuntová, Zdenka; Barcaro, Giovanni; Rossi, Giulia; Ferrando, Riccardo; Fortunelli, Alessandro


    Gas-phase Ag-Pd clusters in the size range of 38-100 atoms are studied via a combined density-functional/empirical-potential (DF-EP) approach. Many-body EPs describing Pd-Pd, Ag-Ag, and Ag-Pd interactions are reparametrized and used in thorough global optimization searches at sizes N =38, 60, and 100 and compositions 25%, 50%, and 75%. The results are analyzed in terms of structural families, whose lowest-energy isomers are reoptimized at the DF level to investigate the crossover among structural motifs. It is found that the reparametrized EPs show a better qualitative and quantitative agreement with DF results when compared to the original potentials taken from literature: Both methods agree on which is the lowest-energy isomer at each size and composition, and the energy differences in the various isomers are in good qualitative agreement, especially for 60- and 100-atom clusters. The reparametrized potentials should thus be applicable to large clusters, where DF calculations are not feasible any more.

  7. Nanosized metal deposits on titanium dioxide for augmenting gas-phase toluene photooxidation (United States)

    Lee, Sooi Li; Scott, Jason; Chiang, Ken; Amal, Rose


    The build-up of intermediate species on the surface of TiO2 during gas-phase toluene (C7H8) photodegradation has been observed to deactivate the photocatalyst. Nanosized metallic deposits on the TiO2 surface may enhance the photocatalytic process and improve photocatalyst performance. In this study, noble (Ag, Au) and platinum group (Pt, Pd, Rh) metals, at a nominal loading of 0.5 at.%, were deposited onto Degussa P25 TiO2 to enhance photocatalyst performance and inhibit deactivation. Pd, Rh and Au deposits delayed photocatalyst deactivation by a factor of 2, while Pt deposits delayed photocatalyst deactivation by a factor of 20, when compared with neat TiO2. Ag deposits did not improve photocatalyst activity. Metal deposit performance was related to the work function of each metal, however, the Pt finding suggested that these effects are not governed solely by this aspect, but factors such as deposit characteristics and/or thermal catalytic properties of the metals may be influential.

  8. Flame Retardancy of Sorbitol Based Bioepoxy via Combined Solid and Gas Phase Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beáta Szolnoki


    Full Text Available Flame-retarded bioepoxy resins were prepared with the application of commercially available sorbitol polyglycidyl ether (SPE. The additive-type flame retardancy of the cycloaliphatic amine-cured SPE was investigated. Three-percent phosphorus (P-containing samples were prepared with the application of the liquid resorcinol bis(diphenyl phosphate (RDP, the solid ammonium polyphosphate (APP, and by combining them. Synergistic effect was found between the inorganic APP and the organophosphorus RDP, when applied in combination: formulations applying RDP or APP alone showed increased limiting oxygen index (LOI values, however, their UL-94 standard ratings remained HB. When the same amount of P originated from the two additives, V-0, self-extinguishing rating and LOI value of 34% (v/v was reached. By the combined approach the heat release rate of SPE could be lowered by approximately 60%. The assumed balanced solid and gas phase mechanism was confirmed by thermogravimetric analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR analysis (of the gases formed during laser pyrolysis, attenuated total reflection-infrared spectrometry (ATR-IR analysis (of the charred residues, as well as by mechanical testing (of the char obtained after combustion.

  9. Tailoring gas-phase CO2 electroreduction selectivity to hydrocarbons at Cu nanoparticles (United States)

    Merino-Garcia, I.; Albo, J.; Irabien, A.


    Copper-based surfaces appear as the most active catalysts for CO2 electroreduction to hydrocarbons, even though formation rates and efficiencies still need to be improved. The aim of the present work is to evaluate the continuous gas-phase CO2 electroreduction to hydrocarbons (i.e. ethylene and methane) at copper nanoparticulated-based surfaces, paying attention to particle size influence (ranging from 25-80 nm) on reaction productivity, selectivity, and Faraday efficiency (FE) for CO2 conversion. The effect of the current density and the presence of a microporous layer within the working electrode are then evaluated. Copper-based gas diffusion electrodes are prepared by airbrushing the catalytic ink onto carbon supports, which are then coupled to a cation exchange membrane (Nafion) in a membrane electrode assembly. The results show that the use of smaller copper nanoparticles (25 nm) leads to a higher ethylene production (1148 μmol m-2 s-1) with a remarkable high FE (92.8%), at the same time, diminishing the competitive hydrogen evolution reaction in terms of FE. This work demonstrates the importance of nanoparticle size on reaction selectivity, which may be of help to design enhanced electrocatalytic materials for CO2 valorization to hydrocarbons.

  10. Elementary Reactions and Their Role in Gas-Phase Prebiotic Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Balucani


    Full Text Available The formation of complex organic molecules in a reactor filled with gaseous mixtures possibly reproducing the primitive terrestrial atmosphere and ocean demonstrated more than 50 years ago that inorganic synthesis of prebiotic molecules is possible, provided that some form of energy is provided to the system. After that groundbreaking experiment, gas-phase prebiotic molecules have been observed in a wide variety of extraterrestrial objects (including interstellar clouds, comets and planetary atmospheres where the physical conditions vary widely. A thorough characterization of the chemical evolution of those objects relies on a multi-disciplinary approach: 1 observations allow us to identify the molecules and their number densities as they are nowadays; 2 the chemistry which lies behind their formation starting from atoms and simple molecules is accounted for by complex reaction networks; 3 for a realistic modeling of such networks, a number of experimental parameters are needed and, therefore, the relevant molecular processes should be fully characterized in laboratory experiments. A survey of the available literature reveals, however, that much information is still lacking if it is true that only a small percentage of the elementary reactions considered in the models have been characterized in laboratory experiments. New experimental approaches to characterize the relevant elementary reactions in laboratory are presented and the implications of the results are discussed.

  11. Modeled occupational exposures to gas-phase medical laser-generated air contaminants. (United States)

    Lippert, Julia F; Lacey, Steven E; Jones, Rachael M


    Exposure monitoring data indicate the potential for substantive exposure to laser-generated air contaminants (LGAC); however the diversity of medical lasers and their applications limit generalization from direct workplace monitoring. Emission rates of seven previously reported gas-phase constituents of medical laser-generated air contaminants (LGAC) were determined experimentally and used in a semi-empirical two-zone model to estimate a range of plausible occupational exposures to health care staff. Single-source emission rates were generated in an emission chamber as a one-compartment mass balance model at steady-state. Clinical facility parameters such as room size and ventilation rate were based on standard ventilation and environmental conditions required for a laser surgical facility in compliance with regulatory agencies. All input variables in the model including point source emission rates were varied over an appropriate distribution in a Monte Carlo simulation to generate a range of time-weighted average (TWA) concentrations in the near and far field zones of the room in a conservative approach inclusive of all contributing factors to inform future predictive models. The concentrations were assessed for risk and the highest values were shown to be at least three orders of magnitude lower than the relevant occupational exposure limits (OELs). Estimated values do not appear to present a significant exposure hazard within the conditions of our emission rate estimates.

  12. Gas-phase reactivity of lactones: structure and stability of their Cu+ complexes (United States)

    Esseffar, M.; Mó, O.; Yáñez, M.


    The structure and relative stability of different lactone-Cu+ complexes, including cycles changing from four to six-membered rings, have been investigated through the use of density functional theory methods. The geometries and vibrational frequencies were calculated at the B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) level. Final energies were obtained in single point calculations carried out at the B3LYP/6-311 + G(2df,2p) level of theory. Upon interaction with Cu+ in the gas phase, lactones behave in a rather similar way as they do in protonation processes. Systematically the global minimum of the potential energy surface corresponds to the attachment of the metal cation to the carbonyl oxygen cis with respect to the ether-like oxygen. Also, similarly to proton affinities, the calculated Cu+ binding energies increase with the size of the system. The unsaturated compounds are found to be only slightly more basic than the saturated counterparts. Cu+ attachment leads to significant bond activation and bond reinforcement effects, reflected in redshiftings and blueshiftings of the stretching frequencies, respectively. Cu+ is able to form agostic bonds with some of the CH2 groups of the lactone moiety. These agostic complexes can be good precursors for the unimolecular loss of H2, which very likely should be observed in the mass spectra.

  13. Gas-phase Dehydration of Glycerol over Supported Silicotungstic Acids Catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong Tae; Park, Eun Duck; Jung, Kwang Deog


    The gas-phase dehydration of glycerol to acrolein was carried out over 10 wt % HSiW catalysts supported on different supports, viz. γ-Al 2 O 3 , SiO 2 -Al 2 O 3 , TiO 2 , ZrO 2 , SiO 2 , AC, CeO 2 and MgO. The same reaction was also conducted over each support without HSiW for comparison. Several characterization techniques, N 2 -physisorption, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), the temperature-programmed desorption of ammonia (NH 3 - TPD), temperature-programmed oxidation (TPO) with mass spectroscopy and CHNS analysis were employed to characterize the catalysts. The glycerol conversion generally increased with increasing amount of acid sites. Ceria showed the highest 1-hydroxyacetone selectivity at 315 .deg. C among the various metal oxides. The supported HSiW catalyst showed superior catalytic activity to that of the corresponding support. Among the supported HSiW catalysts, HSiW/ZrO 2 and HSiW/SiO 2 -Al 2 O 3 showed the highest acrolein selectivity. In the case of HSiW/ZrO 2 , the initial catalytic activity was recovered after the removal of the accumulated carbon species at 550 .deg. C in the presence of oxygen

  14. Electron attachment to C60 and C70 in the gas phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, David; Spanel, Patrik


    The fullerene molecule C 60 is known to attach several electrons in the solid phase, but only recently has it been recognized that it can also attach electrons in the gas phase. The first electron-molecular beam results showed that C 60 and C 70 molecules non-dissociatively attached a single electron over the unusually wide electron energy range from near thermal to about 10 eV, but these studies were not able to provide either the magnitude of the cross sections or describe the low-energy attachment behaviour. But using our flowing afterglow-Langmuir probe (FALP) apparatus we have been able to determine the absolute attachment rate coefficients for both C 60 and C 70 over the electron temperature range 300-4500 K. These FALP experiments have shown that attachment to C 60 at low electron energies ( 70 except that for this fullerene molecule there is evidence that at very low electron energies ( 60 and C 70 , and when the mean thermal cross sections derived from these FALP data are used to normalize the crossed electron-molecular beam data at the common low energies accessible in both experiments, it is clear that electron attachment to these fullerene molecules is very efficient over a wide electron energy range from about 0.3-10 eV above which electron thermionic emission occurs from the hot C 60 - and C 70 - nascent negative ions. (author)

  15. Inferring gas-phase metallicity gradients of galaxies at the seeing limit: a forward modelling approach (United States)

    Carton, David; Brinchmann, Jarle; Shirazi, Maryam; Contini, Thierry; Epinat, Benoît; Erroz-Ferrer, Santiago; Marino, Raffaella A.; Martinsson, Thomas P. K.; Richard, Johan; Patrício, Vera


    We present a method to recover the gas-phase metallicity gradients from integral field spectroscopic (IFS) observations of barely resolved galaxies. We take a forward modelling approach and compare our models to the observed spatial distribution of emission-line fluxes, accounting for the degrading effects of seeing and spatial binning. The method is flexible and is not limited to particular emission lines or instruments. We test the model through comparison to synthetic observations and use downgraded observations of nearby galaxies to validate this work. As a proof of concept, we also apply the model to real IFS observations of high-redshift galaxies. From our testing, we show that the inferred metallicity gradients and central metallicities are fairly insensitive to the assumptions made in the model and that they are reliably recovered for galaxies with sizes approximately equal to the half width at half-maximum of the point spread function. However, we also find that the presence of star-forming clumps can significantly complicate the interpretation of metallicity gradients in moderately resolved high-redshift galaxies. Therefore, we emphasize that care should be taken when comparing nearby well-resolved observations to high-redshift observations of partially resolved galaxies.

  16. Activated carbons obtained from sewage sludge by chemical activation: gas-phase environmental applications. (United States)

    Boualem, T; Debab, A; Martínez de Yuso, A; Izquierdo, M T


    The objective of this study was to evaluate the adsorption capacity for toluene and SO2 of low cost activated carbons prepared from sewage sludge by chemical activation at different impregnation ratios. Samples were characterized by proximate and ultimate analyses, thermogravimetry, infrared spectroscopy and N2 adsorption. Because of the low carbon content of the raw material, the development of porosity in the activated carbons was mainly of a mesoporous nature, with surface areas lower than 300 m(2)/g. The study of gas-phase applications for activated carbons from sewage sludge was carried out using both an organic and an inorganic compound in order to screen for possible applications. Toluene adsorption capacity at saturation was around 280 mg/g, which is a good level of performance given the high ash content of the activated carbons. However, dynamic experiments at low toluene concentration presented diffusion problems resulting from low porosity development. SO2 adsorption capacity is associated with average micropore size, which can be controlled by the impregnation ratio used to prepare the activated carbons. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Role of isospin in nuclear-matter liquid-gas phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducoin, C.


    Nuclear matter presents a phase transition of the liquid-gas type. This well-known feature is due to the nuclear interaction profile (mean-range attractive, short-range repulsive). Symmetric-nuclear-matter thermodynamics is thus analogous to that of a Van der Waals fluid. The study shows up to be more complex in the case of asymmetric matter, composed of neutrons and protons in an arbitrary proportion. Isospin, which distinguishes both constituents, gives a measure of this proportion. Studying asymmetric matter, isospin is an additional degree of freedom, which means one more dimension to consider in the space of observables. The nuclear liquid-gas transition is associated with the multi-fragmentation phenomenon observed in heavy-ion collisions, and to compact-star physics: the involved systems are neutron rich, so they are affected by the isospin degree of freedom. The present work is a theoretical study of isospin effects which appear in the asymmetric nuclear matter liquid-gas phase transition. A mean-field approach is used, with a Skyrme nuclear effective interaction. We demonstrate the presence of a first-order phase transition for asymmetric matter, and study the isospin distillation phenomenon associated with this transition. The case of phase separation at thermodynamic equilibrium is compared to spinodal decomposition. Finite size effects are addressed, as well as the influence of the electron gas which is present in the astrophysical context. (author)

  18. A computational and spectroscopic study of the gas-phase conformers of adrenaline (United States)

    Çarçabal, P.; Snoek, L. C.; van Mourik, T.

    The conformational landscapes of the neurotransmitter l-adrenaline (l-epinephrine) and its diastereoisomer pseudo-adrenaline, isolated in the gas phase and un-protonated, have been investigated by using a combination of mass-selected ultraviolet and infrared holeburn spectroscopy, following laser desorption of the sample into a pulsed supersonic argon jet, and DFT and ab initio computation (at the B3LYP/6-31+G*, MP2/6-31+G* and MP2/aug-cc-pVDZ levels of theory). Both for adrenaline and its diastereoisomer, pseudo-adrenaline, one dominant molecular conformation, very similar to the one seen in noradrenaline, has been observed. It could be assigned to an extended side-chain structure (AG1a) stabilized by an OH → N intramolecular hydrogen bond. An intramolecular hydrogen bond is also formed between the neighbouring hydroxyl groups on the catechol ring. The presence of further conformers for both diastereoisomers could not be excluded, but overlapping electronic spectra and low ion signals prevented further assignments.

  19. Using Gas Phase Reactions of Hexamethylene Triperoxide Diamine (HMTD) to Improve Detection in Mass Spectrometry (United States)

    Colizza, Kevin; Yevdokimov, Alexander; McLennan, Lindsay; Smith, James L.; Oxley, Jimmie C.


    Our efforts to lower the detection limits of hexamethylene triperoxide diamine (HMTD) have uncovered previously unreported gas-phase reactions of primary and secondary amines with one of the six methylene carbons. The reaction occurs primarily in the atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) source and is similar to the behavior of alcohols with HMTD [1]. However, unlike alcohols, the amine reaction conserves the hydrogen peroxide on the intact product. Furthermore, with or without amines, HMTD is oxidized to tetramethylene diperoxide diamine dialdehyde (TMDDD) in a temperature-dependent fashion in the APCI source. Synthesized TMDDD forms very strong adducts (not products) to ammonium and amine ions in the electrospray ionization (ESI) source. Attempts to improve HMTD detection by generating TMDDD in the APCI source with post-column addition of amines were not successful. Signal intensity of the solvent related HMTD product in methanol, [HMTD+MeOH2-H2O2]+ (m/z 207.0975), was understandably related to the amount of methanol in the HMTD environment as it elutes into the source. With conditions optimized for this product, the detection of 100 pg on column was accomplished with a robust analysis of 300 pg (1.44 pmol) routinely performed on the Orbitrap mass spectrometers. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  20. Aggregation kinetics of colloidal particles measured by gas-phase differential mobility analysis. (United States)

    Tsai, D-H; Pease, L F; Zangmeister, R A; Tarlov, M J; Zachariah, M R


    We demonstrate the utility of electrospray gas-phase ion-mobility analysis as a new method to investigate nanoparticle flocculation, or aggregation. Au nanoparticle (Au-NP) solutions were sampled via electrospray (ES), followed by differential ion-mobility analysis (DMA) to determine the particle mobility distribution. Multimodal size distributions obtained with ES-DMA indicated the presence of single Au-NPs (monomer) as well as larger Au-NP clusters such as dimers, trimers, and tetramers under specific solution conditions. The fraction of each aggregate species as a function of time was quantitatively characterized, from which the degree of aggregation, aggregation rate, and stability ratio at different ionic strengths were determined. The latter enabled the extraction of a surface potential (or surface charge density) of 64 +/- 2 mV for 10 nm Au-NPs, which is in good agreement with values obtained from other methods, thus validating our approach. Our results show that ES-DMA is a valuable tool for quantitatively probing the early stages of colloidal aggregation or as a preparatory tool for the size election of aggregates.

  1. Evaluation of Gas Phase Dispersion in Flotation under Predetermined Hydrodynamic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Młynarczykowska Anna


    Full Text Available Results of various investigations shows the relationship between the flotation parameters and gas distribution in a flotation cell. The size of gas bubbles is a random variable with a specific distribution. The analysis of this distribution is useful to make mathematical description of the flotation process. The flotation process depends on many variable factors. These are mainly occurrences like collision of single particle with gas bubble, adhesion of particle to the surface of bubble and detachment process. These factors are characterized by randomness. Because of that it is only possible to talk about the probability of occurence of one of these events which directly affects the speed of the process, thus a constant speed of flotation process. Probability of the bubble-particle collision in the flotation chamber with mechanical pulp agitation depends on the surface tension of the solution, air consumption, degree of pul aeration, energy dissipation and average feed particle size. Appropriate identification and description of the parameters of the dispersion of gas bubbles helps to complete the analysis of the flotation process in a specific physicochemical conditions and hydrodynamic for any raw material. The article presents the results of measurements and analysis of the gas phase dispersion by the size distribution of air bubbles in a flotation chamber under fixed hydrodynamic conditions. The tests were carried out in the Laboratory of Instrumental Methods in Department of Environmental Engineering and Mineral Processing, Faculty of Mining and Geoengineerin, AGH Univeristy of Science and Technology in Krakow.

  2. The Effects of a Macromolecular Charring Agent with Gas Phase and Condense Phase Synergistic Flame Retardant Capability on the Properties of PP/IFR Composites (United States)

    Chen, Hongda; Wang, Jihui; Ding, Anxin; Han, Xia; Sun, Ziheng


    -retardant mechanism of the APP/PETAT IFR system. The results indicated that the efficient flame retardancy of PP/IFR composites could be attributed to the synergism of the free radical-quenching and char layer-protecting mechanisms in the gas phase and condense phase, respectively. PMID:29324716

  3. The Effects of a Macromolecular Charring Agent with Gas Phase and Condense Phase Synergistic Flame Retardant Capability on the Properties of PP/IFR Composites. (United States)

    Chen, Hongda; Wang, Jihui; Ni, Aiqing; Ding, Anxin; Han, Xia; Sun, Ziheng


    -retardant mechanism of the APP/PETAT IFR system. The results indicated that the efficient flame retardancy of PP/IFR composites could be attributed to the synergism of the free radical-quenching and char layer-protecting mechanisms in the gas phase and condense phase, respectively.

  4. Conclusively Addressing the CoPc Electronic Structure : A Joint Gas-Phase and Solid-State Photoemission and Absorption Spectroscopy Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brumboiu, I. E.; Lanzilotto, V.; Luder, J.; Grazioli, C.; Giangrisostomi, E.; Ovsyannikov, R.; Sass, Y.; Bidermane, I.; Stupar, M.; de Simone, M.; Coreno, M.; Ressel, B.; Pedio, M.; Rudolf, P.; Brena, B.; Puglia, C.


    The occupied and empty densities of states of cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPc) were investigated by photoelectron and X-ray absorption spectroscopies in the gas phase and in thin films deposited on a Au(111) surface. The comparison between the gas-phase results and density functional theory

  5. A hybrid formalism of aerosol gas phase interaction for 3-D global models (United States)

    Benduhn, F.


    Aerosol chemical composition is a relevant factor to the global climate system with respect to both atmospheric chemistry and the aerosol direct and indirect effects. Aerosol chemical composition determines the capacity of aerosol particles to act as cloud condensation nuclei both explicitly via particle size and implicitly via the aerosol hygroscopic property. Due to the primary role of clouds in the climate system and the sensitivity of cloud formation and radiative properties to the cloud droplet number it is necessary to determine with accuracy the chemical composition of the aerosol. Dissolution, although a formally fairly well known process, may be subject to numerically prohibitive properties that result from the chemical interaction of the species engaged. So-far approaches to model the dissolution of inorganics into the aerosol liquid phase in the framework of a 3-D global model were based on an equilibrium, transient or hybrid equilibrium-transient approach. All of these methods present the disadvantage of a priori assumptions with respect to the mechanism and/or are numerically not manageable in the context of a global climate system model. In this paper a new hybrid formalism to aerosol gas phase interaction is presented within the framework of the H2SO4/HNO3/HCl/NH3 system and a modal approach of aerosol size discretisation. The formalism is distinct from prior hybrid approaches in as much as no a priori assumption on the nature of the regime a particular aerosol mode is in is made. Whether a particular mode is set to be in the equilibrium or the transitory regime is continuously determined during each time increment against relevant criteria considering the estimated equilibration time interval and the interdependence of the aerosol modes relative to the partitioning of the dissolving species. Doing this the aerosol composition range of numerical stiffness due to species interaction during transient dissolution is effectively eluded, and the numerical

  6. Generation, Detection and characterization of Gas-Phase Transition Metal containing Molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steimle, Timothy [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)


    The objective of this project was to generate, detect, and characterize small, gas-phase, metal containing molecules. In addition to being relevant to high temperature chemical environments (e.g. plasmas and combustion), gas-phase experiments on metal containing molecules serve as the most direct link to a molecular-level theoretical model for catalysis. Catalysis (i.e. the addition of a small about of recoverable material to control the rate and direction of a chemical reaction) is critical to the petroleum and pharmaceutical industries as well as environmental remediation. Currently, the majority of catalytic materials are based on very expensive metals such as platinum (Pt), palladium (Pd), iridium (Ir,) rhenium (Re), and rhodium (Rh). For example, the catalyst used for converting linear hydrocarbon molecules (e.g. hexane) to cyclic molecules (e.g. cyclohexane) is a mixture of Pt and Re suspended on alumina. It enables straight chain alkanes to be converted into branched-chain alkanes, cyclohexanes and aromatic hydrocarbons which are used, amongst other things, to enhance the octane number of petrol. A second example is the heterogeneous catalysis used in automobile exhaust systems to: a) decrease nitrogen oxide; b) reduce carbon monoxide; and c) oxidize unburned hydrocarbons. The exhaust is vented through a high-surface area chamber lined with Pt, Pd, and Rh. For example, the carbon monoxide is catalytically converted to carbon dioxide by reaction with oxygen. The research results from this work have been published in readily accessible journals1-28. The ground and excited electronic state properties of small metal containing molecules that we determine were: a) electronic state distributions and lifetimes, b) vibrational frequencies, c) bond lengths and angles, d) hyperfine interactions, e) permanent electric dipole moments, mel, and f) magnetic dipoles, μm. In general terms, μel, gives insight into the charge distribution and mm into

  7. Next Generation Offline Approaches to Trace Gas-Phase Organic Compound Speciation: Sample Collection and Analysis (United States)

    Sheu, R.; Marcotte, A.; Khare, P.; Ditto, J.; Charan, S.; Gentner, D. R.


    Intermediate-volatility and semi-volatile organic compounds (I/SVOCs) are major precursors to secondary organic aerosol, and contribute to tropospheric ozone formation. Their wide volatility range, chemical complexity, behavior in analytical systems, and trace concentrations present numerous hurdles to characterization. We present an integrated sampling-to-analysis system for the collection and offline analysis of trace gas-phase organic compounds with the goal of preserving and recovering analytes throughout sample collection, transport, storage, and thermal desorption for accurate analysis. Custom multi-bed adsorbent tubes are used to collect samples for offline analysis by advanced analytical detectors. The analytical instrumentation comprises an automated thermal desorption system that introduces analytes from the adsorbent tubes into a gas chromatograph, which is coupled with an electron ionization mass spectrometer (GC-EIMS) and other detectors. In order to optimize the collection and recovery for a wide range of analyte volatility and functionalization, we evaluated a variety of commercially-available materials, including Res-Sil beads, quartz wool, glass beads, Tenax TA, and silica gel. Key properties for optimization include inertness, versatile chemical capture, minimal affinity for water, and minimal artifacts or degradation byproducts; these properties were assessed with a diverse mix of traditionally-measured and functionalized analytes. Along with a focus on material selection, we provide recommendations spanning the entire sampling-and-analysis process to improve the accuracy of future comprehensive I/SVOC measurements, including oxygenated and other functionalized I/SVOCs. We demonstrate the performance of our system by providing results on speciated VOCs-SVOCs from indoor, outdoor, and chamber studies that establish the utility of our protocols and pave the way for precise laboratory characterization via a mix of detection methods.

  8. Formation of secondary organic aerosols from gas-phase emissions of heated cooking oils (United States)

    Liu, Tengyu; Li, Zijun; Chan, ManNin; Chan, Chak K.


    Cooking emissions can potentially contribute to secondary organic aerosol (SOA) but remain poorly understood. In this study, formation of SOA from gas-phase emissions of five heated vegetable oils (i.e., corn, canola, sunflower, peanut and olive oils) was investigated in a potential aerosol mass (PAM) chamber. Experiments were conducted at 19-20 °C and 65-70 % relative humidity (RH). The characterization instruments included a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-TOF-AMS). The efficiency of SOA production, in ascending order, was peanut oil, olive oil, canola oil, corn oil and sunflower oil. The major SOA precursors from heated cooking oils were related to the content of monounsaturated fat and omega-6 fatty acids in cooking oils. The average production rate of SOA, after aging at an OH exposure of 1. 7 × 1011 molecules cm-3 s, was 1. 35 ± 0. 30 µg min-1, 3 orders of magnitude lower compared with emission rates of fine particulate matter (PM2. 5) from heated cooking oils in previous studies. The mass spectra of cooking SOA highly resemble field-derived COA (cooking-related organic aerosol) in ambient air, with R2 ranging from 0.74 to 0.88. The average carbon oxidation state (OSc) of SOA was -1.51 to -0.81, falling in the range between ambient hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA) and semi-volatile oxygenated organic aerosol (SV-OOA), indicating that SOA in these experiments was lightly oxidized.

  9. Radiation chemistry and photochemistry of ethyl bromide in the gas phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, A.J.


    The primary and secondary decomposition modes of gamma-irradiated ethyl bromide in the gas phase at room temperature have been investigated. Supplementary information on the system has been derived from a parallel study of the 253.7 nm photolysis and the high-pressure mass spectrometry. The G values and quantum yields of the major and minor products both in the absence and in the presence of oxygen are reported. In both the photolysis and radiolysis several products exhibit a well-defined induction period. For the oxygen-free system in the dose range from 1.0 x 10 20 e.v./ gram to 1.5 x 10 20 e.v./gram the major radiolytic products and their respective G values are hydrogen bromide, 3.89; hydrogen, 1.39; ethane, 2.70; ethylene, 2.17; acetylene, 0.31; methane, 0.0831; methyl bromide, 0.080; vinyl bromide, 0.32; 1,1-dibromoethane, 0.88 and 1,2-dibromoethane, 0.12. In the photolysis of the pure system between 60 and 90 seconds at an absorbed light intensity of 7.7 x 10 15 quanta/sec, the major photolytic products and their respective quantum yields are hydrogen bromide, 0.26; ethane, 0.40; ethylene, 0.028; methane, 0.00052; methyl bromide, 0.00091; vinyl bromide, 0.009; 1,1-dibromoethane, 0.102 and 1,2-dibromoethane, 0.0092. Carbon-halogen bond rupture is the major primary event in each system. There is also substantial evidence for HBr elimination. In addition, all secondary processes in the photolysis apparently occur in the radiolysis as well. A numerical integration method capable of handling steady-state assumptions has been used to calculate the product distribution based on the proposed photolysis mechanism. The predicted and experimental product distributions are found to be in reasonable agreement

  10. Gas Phase Chemistry and Molecular Complexity: How Far Do They Go? (United States)

    Balucani, Nadia


    The accumulation of organic molecules of increasing complexity is believed to be an important step toward the emergence of life. But how massive organic synthesis could occur in primitive Earth, i.e. a water-dominated environment, is a matter of debate. Two alternative theories have been suggested so far: endogenous and exogenous synthesis. In the first theory, the synthesis of simple organic molecules having a strong prebiotic potential (simple prebiotic molecules SPMs, such as H2CO, HCN, HC3N, NH2CHO) occurred directly on our planet starting from simple parent molecules of the atmosphere, liquid water and various energy sources. Miller's experiment was a milestone in this theory, but it was later recognized that the complexity of a planet cannot be reproduced in a single laboratory experiment. Some SPMs have been identified in the N2-dominated atmosphere of Titan (a massive moon of Saturn), which is believed to be reminiscent of the primitive terrestrial atmosphere. As such, the atmosphere of Titan represents a planetary scale laboratory for the comprehension of SPM formation in an environment close enough to primitive Earth and is the current frontier in the endogenous theory exploration. In the exogenous theory, SPMs came from space, the carriers being comets, asteroids and meteorites. The rationale behind this suggestion is that plenty of SPMs have been observed in interstellar clouds (ISCs), including star-forming regions, and in small bodies like comets, asteroids and meteorites. Therefore, the basic idea is that SPMs were formed in the solar nebula, preserved during the early phases of the Solar System formation in the body of comets/asteroids/meteorites and finally delivered to Earth by cometary and meteoritic falls. In this contribution, the status of our knowledge on how SPMs can be formed in the gas phase, either in the primitive terrestrial atmosphere or in the cold nebula from which the Solar System originated, will be presented. Particular attention

  11. Formation of secondary organic aerosols from gas-phase emissions of heated cooking oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Liu


    Full Text Available Cooking emissions can potentially contribute to secondary organic aerosol (SOA but remain poorly understood. In this study, formation of SOA from gas-phase emissions of five heated vegetable oils (i.e., corn, canola, sunflower, peanut and olive oils was investigated in a potential aerosol mass (PAM chamber. Experiments were conducted at 19–20 °C and 65–70 % relative humidity (RH. The characterization instruments included a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS and a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-TOF-AMS. The efficiency of SOA production, in ascending order, was peanut oil, olive oil, canola oil, corn oil and sunflower oil. The major SOA precursors from heated cooking oils were related to the content of monounsaturated fat and omega-6 fatty acids in cooking oils. The average production rate of SOA, after aging at an OH exposure of 1. 7 × 1011 molecules cm−3 s, was 1. 35 ± 0. 30 µg min−1, 3 orders of magnitude lower compared with emission rates of fine particulate matter (PM2. 5 from heated cooking oils in previous studies. The mass spectra of cooking SOA highly resemble field-derived COA (cooking-related organic aerosol in ambient air, with R2 ranging from 0.74 to 0.88. The average carbon oxidation state (OSc of SOA was −1.51 to −0.81, falling in the range between ambient hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA and semi-volatile oxygenated organic aerosol (SV-OOA, indicating that SOA in these experiments was lightly oxidized.

  12. What can we Learn on Gas Phase Chiral Compounds by Photoelectron Circular Dichroism ? (United States)

    Nahon, Laurent


    Since 15 years, a new type of chiroptical effect has been the subject of a large array of both theoretical and experimental studies: Photoelectron Circular Dichroism (PECD) in the angular distribution of photoelectrons produced by CPL-ionization of pure enantiomers in the gas phase observed as a very intense (up to 35 %) forward/backward asymmetry with respect to the photon axis and which reveals the chirality of the molecule (configuration). PECD happens to be an orbital-specific, photon energy dependent effect and is a very subtle probe of the molecular potential being very sensitive to static molecular structures such as conformers, chemical substitution, clusters, as well as to vibrational motion, much more so than other observables in photoionization such as the cross section or the β asymmetry parameter (for a recent review see L. Nahon, G. A. Garcia, and I. Powis, J. Elec. Spec. Rel. Phen. 204, 322 (2015)). Therefore PECD studies have both a fundamental interest as well and analytical interest, especially since chiral species are ubiquitous in the biosphere, food and medical industry. This last aspect is probably the driving force for the recent extension of PECD studies by the laser community using UV REMPI schemes. After a large introduction to the PECD process itself, and a description of our double imaging electron/ion coincidence set-up, several recent results on one-photon VUV PECD will be presented, including: - Sensitivity to chemical substitutions, isomerism and conformation - Case of floppy biomolecules such as amino acids alanine and proline with a conformer analysis and possible consequences for the origin of life's homochirality - Analytical capabilities in terms of enantiomeric excess determination on a pure molecule as well as on a mixture of compounds. Future trends for PECD studies will be given regarding the case of more complex/structured chiral systems as well as opportunities for time-resolved PECD opened by the recent first performance

  13. Formation of secondary aerosols: impact of the gas-phase chemical mechanism (United States)

    Kim, Y.; Sartelet, K.; Seigneur, C.


    The impact of two recent gas-phase chemical kinetic mechanisms (CB05 and RACM2) on the formation of secondary inorganic and organic aerosols is compared for simulations of PM2.5 over Europe between 15 July and 15 August 2001. The host chemistry transport model is Polair3D of the Polyphemus air-quality platform. Particulate matter is modeled with SIREAM, which is coupled to the thermodynamic model ISORROPIA and to the secondary organic aerosol module MAEC. Model performance is satisfactory with both mechanisms for speciated PM2.5. The monthly-mean difference of the concentration of PM2.5 is less than 1 μg/m3 (6%) over the entire domain. Secondary chemical components of PM2.5 include sulfate, nitrate, ammonium and organic aerosols, and the chemical composition of PM2.5 is not significantly different between the two mechanisms. Monthly-mean concentrations of inorganic aerosol are higher with RACM2 than with CB05 (+16% for sulfate, +11% for nitrate, and +12% for ammonium), whereas the concentrations of organic aerosols are slightly higher with CB05 than with RACM2 (+26% for anthropogenic SOA and +1% for biogenic SOA). Differences in the inorganic and organic aerosols result primarily from differences in oxidant concentrations (OH, O3 and NO3). Nitrate formation tends to be HNO3-limited over land and differences in the concentrations of nitrate are due to differences in concentration of HNO3. Differences in aerosols formed from aromatics SVOC are due to different aromatics oxidation between CB05 and RACM2. The aromatics oxidation in CB05 leads to more cresol formation, which then leads to more SOA. Differences in the aromatics aerosols would be significantly reduced with the recent CB05-TU mechanism for toluene oxidation. Differences in the biogenic aerosols are due to different oxidant concentrations (monoterpenes) and different particulate organic mass concentrations affecting the gas-particle partitioning of SOA (isoprene).

  14. Estimating fuel octane numbers from homogeneous gas-phase ignition delay times

    KAUST Repository

    Naser, Nimal


    Fuel octane numbers are directly related to the autoignition properties of fuel/air mixtures in spark ignition (SI) engines. This work presents a methodology to estimate the research and the motor octane numbers (RON and MON) from homogeneous gas-phase ignition delay time (IDT) data calculated at various pressures and temperatures. The hypothesis under investigation is that at specific conditions of pressure and temperature (i.e., RON-like and MON-like conditions), fuels with IDT identical to that of a primary reference fuel (PRF) have the same octane rating. To test this hypothesis, IDTs with a detailed gasoline surrogate chemical kinetic model have been calculated at various temperatures and pressures. From this dataset, temperatures that best represent RON and MON have been correlated at a specified pressure. Correlations for pressures in the range of 10–50 bar were obtained. The proposed correlations were validated with toluene reference fuels (TRF), toluene primary reference fuels (TPRF), ethanol reference fuels (ERF), PRFs and TPRFs with ethanol, and multi-component gasoline surrogate mixtures. The predicted RON and MON showed satisfactory accuracy against measurements obtained by the standard ASTM methods and blending rules, demonstrating that the present methodology can be a viable tool for a first approximation. The correlations were also validated against an extensive set of experimental IDT data obtained from literature with a high degree of accuracy in RON/MON prediction. Conditions in homogeneous reactors such as shock tubes and rapid compression machines that are relevant to modern SI engines were also identified. Uncertainty analysis of the proposed correlations with linear error propagation theory is also presented.

  15. Hydrocarbon fuels from gas phase decarboxylation of hydrolyzed free fatty acid

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Weicheng


    Gas phase decarboxylation of hydrolyzed free fatty acid (FFA) from canola oil has beeninvestigated in two fix-bed reactors by changing reaction parameters such as temperatures,FFA feed rates, and H 2-to-FFA molar ratios. FFA, which contains mostly C 18 aswell as a few C 16, C 20, C 22, and C 24 FFA, was fed into the boiling zone, evaporated, carriedby hydrogen flow at the rate of 0.5-20 ml/min, and reacted with the 5% Pd/C catalystin the reactor. Reactions were conducted atmospherically at 380-450 °C and the products,qualified and quantified through gas chromatography-flame ionization detector(GC-FID), showed mostly n-heptadecane and a few portion of n-C 15, n-C 19, n-C 21, n-C 23 as well as some cracking species. Results showed that FFA conversion increased withincreasing reaction temperatures but decreased with increasing FFA feed rates and H 2-to-FFA molar ratios. The reaction rates were found to decrease with higher temperatureand increase with higher H 2 flow rates. Highly selective heptadecane was achieved byapplying higher temperatures and higher H 2-to-FFA molar ratios. From the results, ascatalyst loading and FFA feed rate were fixed, an optimal reaction temperature of 415 °C as well as H 2-to-FFA molar ratio of 4.16 were presented. These results provided goodbasis for studying the kinetics of decarboxylation process. © 2012 American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

  16. Evolution of Molecular and Atomic Gas Phases in the Milky Way (United States)

    Koda, Jin; Scoville, Nick; Heyer, Mark


    We analyze radial and azimuthal variations of the phase balance between the molecular and atomic interstellar medium (ISM) in the Milky Way (MW) using archival CO(J = 1-0) and HI 21 cm data. In particular, the azimuthal variations—between the spiral arm and interarm regions—are analyzed without any explicit definition of the spiral arm locations. We show that the molecular gas mass fraction, I.e., {f}{{mol}}={{{Σ }}}{{{H}}2}/({{{Σ }}}{HI}+{{{Σ }}}{{{H}}2}), varies predominantly in the radial direction: starting from ˜ 100% at the center, remaining ≳ 50% to R˜ 6 {{kpc}} and decreasing to ˜10%-20% at R=8.5 {{kpc}} when averaged over the whole disk thickness (from ˜100% to ≳60%, then to ˜50% in the midplane). Azimuthal, arm-interarm variations are secondary: only ˜ 20% in the globally molecule-dominated inner MW, but becoming larger, ˜40%-50%, in the atom-dominated outskirts. This suggests that in the inner MW the gas remains highly molecular ({f}{{mol}}\\gt 50%) as it moves from an interarm region into a spiral arm and back into the next interarm region. Stellar feedback does not dissociate molecules much, and the coagulation and fragmentation of molecular clouds dominate the evolution of the ISM at these radii. The trend differs in the outskirts where the gas phase is globally atomic ({f}{{mol}}\\lt 50%). The HI and H2 phases cycle through spiral arm passage there. These different regimes of ISM evolution are also seen in external galaxies (e.g., the LMC, M33, and M51). We explain the radial gradient of {f}{{mol}} using a simple flow continuity model. The effects of spiral arms on this analysis are illustrated in the Appendix.

  17. Formation and emissions of carbonyls during and following gas-phase ozonation of indoor materials (United States)

    Poppendieck, D. G.; Hubbard, H. F.; Weschler, C. J.; Corsi, R. L.

    Ozone concentrations that are several orders of magnitude greater than typical urban ambient concentrations are necessary for gas-phase ozonation of buildings, either for deodorization or for disinfection of biological agents. However, there is currently no published literature on the interaction of building materials and ozone under such extreme conditions. It would be useful to understand, for example in the case of building re-occupation planning, what types and amounts of reaction products may form and persist in a building after ozonation. In this study, 24 materials were exposed to ozone at concentrations of 1000 ppm in the inlet stream of experimental chambers. Fifteen target carbonyls were selected and measured as building ozonation by-products (BOBPs). During the 36 h that include the 16 h ozonation and 20 h persistence phase, the total BOBP mass released from flooring and wall coverings ranged from 1 to 20 mg m -2, with most of the carbonyls being of lower molecular weight (C 1-C 4). In contrast, total BOBP mass released from wood-based products ranged from 20 to 100 mg m -2, with a greater fraction of the BOBPs being heavier carbonyls (C 5-C 9). The total BOBP mass released during an ozonation event is a function of both the total surface area of the material and the BOBP emission rate per unit area of material. Ceiling tile, carpet, office partition, and gypsum wallboard with flat latex paint often have large surface areas in commercial buildings and these same materials exhibited relatively high BOBP releases. The greatest overall BOBP mass releases were observed for three materials that building occupants might have significant contact with: paper, office partition, and medium density fiberboard, e.g., often used in office furniture. These materials also exhibited extended BOBP persistence following ozonation; some BOBPs (e.g., nonanal) persist for months or more at emission rates large enough to result in indoor concentrations that exceed their odor

  18. Quantum chaos in ultracold collisions of gas-phase erbium atoms. (United States)

    Frisch, Albert; Mark, Michael; Aikawa, Kiyotaka; Ferlaino, Francesca; Bohn, John L; Makrides, Constantinos; Petrov, Alexander; Kotochigova, Svetlana


    Atomic and molecular samples reduced to temperatures below one microkelvin, yet still in the gas phase, afford unprecedented energy resolution in probing and manipulating the interactions between their constituent particles. As a result of this resolution, atoms can be made to scatter resonantly on demand, through the precise control of a magnetic field. For simple atoms, such as alkalis, scattering resonances are extremely well characterized. However, ultracold physics is now poised to enter a new regime, where much more complex species can be cooled and studied, including magnetic lanthanide atoms and even molecules. For molecules, it has been speculated that a dense set of resonances in ultracold collision cross-sections will probably exhibit essentially random fluctuations, much as the observed energy spectra of nuclear scattering do. According to the Bohigas-Giannoni-Schmit conjecture, such fluctuations would imply chaotic dynamics of the underlying classical motion driving the collision. This would necessitate new ways of looking at the fundamental interactions in ultracold atomic and molecular systems, as well as perhaps new chaos-driven states of ultracold matter. Here we describe the experimental demonstration that random spectra are indeed found at ultralow temperatures. In the experiment, an ultracold gas of erbium atoms is shown to exhibit many Fano-Feshbach resonances, of the order of three per gauss for bosons. Analysis of their statistics verifies that their distribution of nearest-neighbour spacings is what one would expect from random matrix theory. The density and statistics of these resonances are explained by fully quantum mechanical scattering calculations that locate their origin in the anisotropy of the atoms' potential energy surface. Our results therefore reveal chaotic behaviour in the native interaction between ultracold atoms.

  19. Gas-phase dissociation study of erythrinian alkaloids by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and computational methods. (United States)

    Guaratini, T; Feitosa, L G P; Silva, D B; Lopes, N P; Lopes, J L C; Vessecchi, R


    Alkaloids from plants of the genus Erythrina display important biological activities, including anxiolytic action. Characterization of these alkaloids by mass spectrometry (MS) has contributed to the construction of a spectral library, has improved understanding of their structures and has supported the proposal of fragmentation mechanisms in light of density functional calculations. In this study, we have used low-resolution and high-resolution MS n analyses to investigate the fragmentation patterns of erythrinian alkaloids; we have employed the B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) model to obtain their reactive sites. To suggest the fragmentation mechanism of these alkaloids, we have studied their protonation sites by density functional calculation, and we have obtained their molecular electrostatic potential map and their gas-phase basicity values. These analyses have indicated the most basic sites on the basis of the proton affinities of the nitrogen and oxygen atoms. The protonated molecules were generated by two major fragmentations, namely, neutral loss of CH 3 OH followed by elimination of H 2 O. High-resolution analysis confirmed elimination of NH 3 by comparison with the losses of H 2 and •CH 3 . NH 3 was eliminated from compounds that did not bear a substituent on ring C. The benzylic carbocation initiated the dissociation mechanism, and the first reaction involved charge transfer from a lone pair of electrons in the oxygen atoms. The second reaction consisted of ring contraction with loss of a CO molecule. The presence of hydroxy and epoxy groups could change the intensity or the occurrence of the fragmentation pathways. Given that erythrinian alkaloids are applied in therapeutics and are promising leads for the development of new drugs, the present results could aid identification of several analogues of these alkaloids in biological samples and advance pharmacokinetic studies of new plant derivatives based on MS n and MS/MS analyses. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley

  20. Titania Nanotubes Grown on Carbon Fibers for Photocatalytic Decomposition of Gas-Phase Aromatic Pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Kuen Jo


    Full Text Available This study aimed to prepare titania (TiO2 nanotube (TNT arrays grown on un-activated carbon fibers (UCFs, with the application of different TiO2 loadings based on the coating-hydrothermal process, and to evaluate their photocatalytic activity for the degradation of sub-ppm levels of aromatic pollutants (benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, and o-xylene (BTEX using a plug-flow photocatalytic reactor. The characteristics of the prepared photocatalysts were determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, UV-visible absorption spectroscopy (UV-Vis and X-ray diffraction (XRD analyses. Spectral analysis showed that the prepared photocatalysts were closely associated with the characteristics of one-dimensional nanostructured TiO2 nanotubes for TNTUCFs and spherical shapes for TiO2-coated UCF (TUCF. The photocatalytic activities of BTEX obtained from TNTUCFs were higher than those obtained from a reference photocatalyst, TUCF. Specifically, the average degradation efficiencies of BTEX observed for TNTUCF-10 were 81%, 97%, 99%, and 99%, respectively, while those observed for TUCF were 14%, 42%, 52%, and 79%, respectively. Moreover, the photocatalytic activities obtained for TNTUCFs suggested that the degradation efficiencies of BTEX varied with changes in TiO2 loadings, allowing for the optimization of TiO2 loading. Another important finding was that input concentrations and air flow rates could be important parameters for the treatment of BTEX, which should be considered for the optimization of TNTUCFs application. Taken together, TNTUCFs can be applied to effectively degrade sub-ppm levels of gas-phase aromatic pollutants through the optimization of operational conditions.

  1. Gas-phase ion-mobility characterization of SAM-functionalized Au nanoparticles. (United States)

    Tsai, D-H; Zangmeister, R A; Pease, L F; Tarlov, M J; Zachariah, M R


    We present results of a systematic examination of functionalized gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) by electrospray-differential mobility analysis (ES-DMA). Commercially available, citrate-stabilized Au colloid solutions (10-60 nm) were sized using ES-DMA, from which changes in particle size of less than 0.3 nm were readily discerned. It was found that the formation of salt particles and the coating of Au-NPs by salt during the electrospray process can interfere with the mobility analysis, which required the development of sample preparation and data correction protocols to extract correct values for the Au-NP size. Formation of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of alkanethiol molecules on the Au-NP surface was detected from a change in particle mobility, which could be modeled to extract the surface packing density of SAMs. A gas-phase temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) kinetic study of SAMs on Au-NPs found the data to be consistent with a second-order Arrhenius-based rate law, yielding an Arrhenius factor of 1.0 x 10 (11) s (-1) and an activation energy approximately 105 kJ/mol. For the size range of SAM-modified Au-NP we considered, the effect of surface curvature on the energetics of binding of carboxylic acid terminated SAMs is evidently negligible, with binding energies determined by TPD agreeing with those reported for the same SAMs on planar surfaces. This study suggests that the ES-DMA can be added to the tool set of characterization methods used to study the structure and properties of coated nanoparticles.

  2. Gas phase anion photoelectron spectroscopy and theoretical investigation of gold acetylide species (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Zhang, Wenjing; Xu, Xi-Ling; Yuan, Jinyun; Xu, Hong-Guang; Zheng, Weijun


    We conducted gas phase anion photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory studies on a number of gold acetylide species, such as AuC2H, AuC2Au, and Au2C2H. Based on the photoelectron spectra, the electron affinities of AuC2H, AuC2Au, and Au2C2H are measured to be 1.54(±0.04), 1.60(±0.08), and 4.23(±0.08) eV, respectively. The highest occupied molecular orbital-lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (HOMO-LUMO) gaps of AuC2H and AuC2Au are measured to be about 2.62 and 2.48 eV, respectively. It is interesting that photoelectron spectra of AuC2H- and AuC2Au- display similar spectral features. The comparison of experimental and theoretical results confirms that the ground-state structures of AuC2H-, AuC2Au-, and their neutrals are all linear with Au—C≡C—H and Au—C≡C—Au configurations. The similar geometric structures, spectral features, HOMO-LUMO gaps, and chemical bonding between AuC2H-/0 and AuC2Au-/0 demonstrate that Au atom behaves like H atom in these species. The photoelectron spectrum of Au2C2H- shows that Au2C2H has a high electron affinity of 4.23(±0.08) eV, indicating Au2C2H is a superhalogen. Further, we found an unusual similarity between the terminal Au atom of Au2C2H- and the iodine atom of IAuC2H-.

  3. Mechanism of Action of Sulforaphane as a Superoxide Radical Anion and Hydrogen Peroxide Scavenger by Double Hydrogen Transfer: A Model for Iron Superoxide Dismutase. (United States)

    Prasad, Ajit Kumar; Mishra, P C


    The mechanism of action of sulforaphane as a scavenger of superoxide radical anion (O2(•-)) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was investigated using density functional theory (DFT) in both gas phase and aqueous media. Iron superoxide dismutase (Fe-SOD) involved in scavenging superoxide radical anion from biological media was modeled by a complex consisting of the ferric ion (Fe(3+)) attached to three histidine rings. Reactions related to scavenging of superoxide radical anion by sulforaphane were studied using DFT in the presence and absence of Fe-SOD represented by this model in both gas phase and aqueous media. The scavenging action of sulforaphane toward both superoxide radical anion and hydrogen peroxide was found to involve the unusual mechanism of double hydrogen transfer. It was found that sulforaphane alone, without Fe-SOD, cannot scavenge superoxide radical anion in gas phase or aqueous media efficiently as the corresponding reaction barriers are very high. However, in the presence of Fe-SOD represented by the above-mentioned model, the scavenging reactions become barrierless, and so sulforaphane scavenges superoxide radical anion by converting it to hydrogen peroxide efficiently. Further, sulforaphane was found to scavenge hydrogen peroxide also very efficiently by converting it into water. Thus, the mechanism of action of sulforaphane as an excellent antioxidant has been unravelled.

  4. Products of reaction of OH radicals with α-pinene (United States)

    Aschmann, Sara M.; Atkinson, Roger; Arey, Janet


    Products of the gas-phase reaction of α-pinene with OH radicals in the presence of NO have been investigated using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection to quantify pinonaldehyde and in situ atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry in the negative ion mode to quantify selected other products as their NO2- adducts by utilizing C6-dihydroxycarbonyls and C6-hydroxynitrates formed in situ from the reaction of OH radicals with 1-hexene as an internal standard. The products quantified, and their molar formation yields, were: pinonaldehyde, 28 +/- 5% molecular weight 184 product (dihydroxycarbonyl), 19% (with an estimated uncertainty of a factor of ~2) molecular weight 200 product, 11% (with an estimated uncertainty of a factor of ~2). Together with a very approximate yield from our API-MS analyses for the formation of organic nitrates (~1%) and literature data for acetone (plus coproducts), ~65-70% of the reaction products and pathways are accounted for.

  5. Limonene ozonolysis in the presence of nitric oxide: Gas-phase reaction products and yields (United States)

    Ham, Jason E.; Harrison, Joel C.; Jackson, Stephen R.; Wells, J. R.


    The reaction products from limonene ozonolysis were investigated using the new carbonyl derivatization agent, O-tert-butylhydroxylamine hydrochloride (TBOX). With ozone (O3) as the limiting reagent, five carbonyl compounds were detected. The yields of the carbonyl compounds are discussed with and without the presence of a hydroxyl radical (OHrad) scavenger, giving insight into the influence secondary OH radicals have on limonene ozonolysis products. The observed reaction product yields for limonaketone (LimaKet), 7-hydroxyl-6-oxo-3-(prop-1-en-2-yl)heptanal (7H6O), and 2-acetyl-5-oxohexanal (2A5O) were unchanged suggesting OHrad generated by the limonene + O3 reaction does not contribute to their formation. The molar yields of 3-isopropenyl-6-oxo-heptanal (IPOH) and 3-acetyl-6-oxoheptanal (3A6O) decreased by 68% and >95%; respectively, when OHrad was removed. This suggests that OHrad radicals significantly impact the formation of these products. Nitric oxide (NO) did not significantly affect the molar yields of limonaketone or IPOH. However, NO (20 ppb) considerably decreased the molar reaction product yields of 7H6O (62%), 2A5O (63%), and 3A6O (47%), suggesting NO reacted with peroxyl intermediates, generated during limonene ozonolysis, to form other carbonyls (not detected) or organic nitrates. These studies give insight into the transformation of limonene and its reaction products that can lead to indoor exposures.

  6. A radical approach to radical innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Deichmann (Dirk); J.C.M. van den Ende (Jan)


    textabstractInnovation pays. Amazon, Apple, Facebook, Google – nearly every one of today’s most successful companies has a talent for developing radical new ideas. But how best to encourage radical initiative taking from employees, and does their previous success or failure at it play a role?

  7. Formation of Gas-Phase Formate in Thermal Reactions of Carbon Dioxide with Diatomic Iron Hydride Anions. (United States)

    Jiang, Li-Xue; Zhao, Chongyang; Li, Xiao-Na; Chen, Hui; He, Sheng-Gui


    The hydrogenation of carbon dioxide involves the activation of the thermodynamically very stable molecule CO 2 and formation of a C-H bond. Herein, we report that HCO 2 - and CO can be formed in the thermal reaction of CO 2 with a diatomic metal hydride species, FeH - . The FeH - anions were produced by laser ablation, and the reaction with CO 2 was analyzed by mass spectrometry and quantum-chemical calculations. Gas-phase HCO 2 - was observed directly as a product, and its formation was predicted to proceed by facile hydride transfer. The mechanism of CO 2 hydrogenation in this gas-phase study parallels similar behavior of a condensed-phase iron catalyst. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Determination of gas phase triacetone triperoxide with aspiration ion mobility spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Räsänen, Riikka-Marjaana; Nousiainen, Marjaana; Peräkorpi, Kaleva; Sillanpää, Mika; Polari, Lauri; Anttalainen, Osmo; Utriainen, Mikko


    Aspiration ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) has been used for the first time to screen 3,3,6,6,9,9-hexamethyl-1,2,4,5,7,8-hexaoxacyclononane explosive, the most commonly known as triacetone triperoxide (TATP). Gaseous TATP was generated from synthesized solid compound, sublimed and directed to a portable chemical detection system comprised of an aspiration-type IMS detector and six semiconductor sensors. Different unknown TATP gas phase concentrations were produced and corresponding IMS and semiconductor responses were measured. The experimental concentrations were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results evidenced that the monitored compound in the gas phase was TATP. In addition, the determined TATP concentrations and corresponding IMS intensities showed that the IMS response values were proportional to the measured TATP concentrations.

  9. Two dimensional laser induced fluorescence in the gas phase: a spectroscopic tool for studying molecular spectroscopy and dynamics (United States)

    Gascooke, Jason R.; Lawrance, Warren D.


    Two dimensional laser induced fluorescence (2D-LIF) extends the usual laser induced fluorescence technique by adding a second dimension, the wavelength at which excited states emit, thereby significantly enhancing the information that can be extracted. It allows overlapping absorption features, whether they arise from within the same molecule or from different molecules in a mixture, to be associated with their appropriate "parent" state and/or molecule. While the first gas phase version of the technique was published a decade ago, the technique is in its infancy, having been exploited by only a few groups to date. However, its potential in gas phase spectroscopy and dynamics is significant. In this article we provide an overview of the technique and illustrate its potential with examples, with a focus on those utilising high resolution in the dispersed fluorescence dimension.

  10. Simultaneous measurements of formaldehyde and nitrous acid in dews and gas phase in the atmosphere of Santiago, Chile (United States)

    Rubio, María A.; Lissi, Eduardo; Villena, Guillermo; Elshorbany, Y. F.; Kleffmann, Jörg; Kurtenbach, Ralf; Wiesen, Peter


    The amounts of formaldehyde and nitrous acid (HONO) in gas phase and dews of Santiago de Chile were simultaneously measured. Formaldehyde concentrations values in the liquid phase (dews) correlate fairly well with those in the gaseous phase and are even higher than those expected from gas-dew equilibrium. On the other hand, nitrite concentrations in dews were considerably smaller (ca. 15 times) than those expected from the gas-phase concentrations. This under-saturation is attributed to diffusion limitations due to the relatively large HONO solubility. In agreement with this, under-saturation increases with the rate of dew formation and the pH of the collected waters, factors that should increase the rate of gas to liquid HONO transfer required to reach equilibrium.

  11. Gas-phase energies of actinide oxides -- an assessment of neutral and cationic monoxides and dioxides from thorium to curium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcalo, Joaquim; Gibson, John K.


    An assessment of the gas-phase energetics of neutral and singly and doubly charged cationic actinide monoxides and dioxides of thorium, protactinium, uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium, and curium is presented. A consistent set of metal-oxygen bond dissociation enthalpies, ionization energies, and enthalpies of formation, including new or revised values, is proposed, mainly based on recent experimental data and on correlations with the electronic energetics of the atoms or cations and with condensed-phase thermochemistry.

  12. Seeds of Life in Space (SOLIS). II. Formamide in protostellar shocks: Evidence for gas-phase formation (United States)

    Codella, C.; Ceccarelli, C.; Caselli, P.; Balucani, N.; Barone, V.; Fontani, F.; Lefloch, B.; Podio, L.; Viti, S.; Feng, S.; Bachiller, R.; Bianchi, E.; Dulieu, F.; Jiménez-Serra, I.; Holdship, J.; Neri, R.; Pineda, J. E.; Pon, A.; Sims, I.; Spezzano, S.; Vasyunin, A. I.; Alves, F.; Bizzocchi, L.; Bottinelli, S.; Caux, E.; Chacón-Tanarro, A.; Choudhury, R.; Coutens, A.; Favre, C.; Hily-Blant, P.; Kahane, C.; Jaber Al-Edhari, A.; Laas, J.; López-Sepulcre, A.; Ospina, J.; Oya, Y.; Punanova, A.; Puzzarini, C.; Quenard, D.; Rimola, A.; Sakai, N.; Skouteris, D.; Taquet, V.; Testi, L.; Theulé, P.; Ugliengo, P.; Vastel, C.; Vazart, F.; Wiesenfeld, L.; Yamamoto, S.


    Context. Modern versions of the Miller-Urey experiment claim that formamide (NH2CHO) could be the starting point for the formation of metabolic and genetic macromolecules. Intriguingly, formamide is indeed observed in regions forming solar-type stars and in external galaxies. Aims: How NH2CHO is formed has been a puzzle for decades: our goal is to contribute to the hotly debated question of whether formamide is mostly formed via gas-phase or grain surface chemistry. Methods: We used the NOrthern Extended Millimeter Array (NOEMA) interferometer to image NH2CHO towards the L1157-B1 blue-shifted shock, a well-known interstellar laboratory, to study how the components of dust mantles and cores released into the gas phase triggers the formation of formamide. Results: We report the first spatially resolved image (size 9″, 2300 AU) of formamide emission in a shocked region around a Sun-like protostar: the line profiles are blueshifted and have a FWHM ≃ 5 km s-1. A column density of NNH2CHO = 8 × 1012 cm-1 and an abundance, with respect to H-nuclei, of 4 × 10-9 are derived. We show a spatial segregation of formamide with respect to other organic species. Our observations, coupled with a chemical modelling analysis, indicate that the formamide observed in L1157-B1 is formed by a gas-phase chemical process and not on grain surfaces as previously suggested. Conclusions: The Seeds of Life in Space (SOLIS) interferometric observations of formamide provide direct evidence that this potentially crucial brick of life is efficiently formed in the gas phase around Sun-like protostars. The reduced datacube is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to ( or via

  13. Comparison of gas-phase acidities of some carbon acids with their rates of hydron exchange in methanolic methoxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DeTuri, V.F.; Koch, H.F.; Koch, J.G.; Lodder, G.; Mishima, M.; Zuilhof, H.; Abrams, N.M.; Anders, C.E.; Biffinger, J.C.; Han, P.; Kurland, A.R.; Nichols, J.M.; Ruminski, A.M.; Smith, P.R.; Vasey, K.D.J.


    Hydron exchange reaction rates, k(exch)M(-1) s(-1), using methanolic sodium methoxide are compared with gas-phase acidities, Delta G(Acid)(0) kcal/mol, for four 9-YPhenylfluorenes-9-H-i, seven (YC6H4CH)-H-i(CF3)(2), seven YC6H4-(CHClCF3)-H-i, and (C6F5H)-H-i. Fourteen of the fluorinated benzylic

  14. Evaluation of gas-phase technetium decontamination and safety related experiments during FY 1994. A report of work in progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, D.W.; Munday, E.B.


    Laboratory activities for FY94 included: evaluation of decontamination of Tc by gas-phase techniques, evaluation of diluted ClF 3 for removing U deposits, evaluation of potential hazard of wet air inlekage into a vessel containing ClF 3 , planning and preparation for experiments to assess hazard of rapid reaction of ClF 3 and hydrated UO 2 F 2 or powdered Al, and preliminary evaluation of compatibility of Tenic valve seat material

  15. Structural variability in transition metal oxide clusters: gas phase vibrational spectroscopy of V3O6-8+

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asmis, K. R.; Wende, T.; Brummer, M.; Gause, O.; Santambrogio, G.; Stanca-Kaposta, E. C.; Dobler, J.; Niedziela, A.; Sauer, J.


    We present gas phase vibrational spectra of the trinuclear vanadium oxide cations V3O6+[middle dot]He1-4{,} V3O7+[middle dot]Ar0{,}1{,} and V3O8+[middle dot]Ar0{,}2 between 350 and 1200 cm-1. Cluster structures are assigned based on a comparison of the experimental and simulated IR spectra. The

  16. Gas-Phase Energetics of Actinide Oxides: An Assessment of Neutral and Cationic Monoxides and Dioxides from Thorium to Curium (United States)

    Marçalo, Joaquim; Gibson, John K.


    An assessment of the gas-phase energetics of neutral and singly and doubly charged cationic actinide monoxides and dioxides of thorium, protactinium, uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium, and curium is presented. A consistent set of metal-oxygen bond dissociation enthalpies, ionization energies, and enthalpies of formation, including new or revised values, is proposed, mainly based on recent experimental data and on correlations with the electronic energetics of the atoms or cations and with condensed-phase thermochemistry.

  17. Posttranslational modification of Birch and Ragweed allergen proteins by common gas phase pollutants, NO2 and O3 (United States)

    Mahmood, M. A.; Pope, F.; Bloss, W.


    The global incidence of hay fever has been rising for decades, however, the underlying reasons behind this rise remain unclear. It is hypothesized that exposure of pollen to common gas phase pollutants, such as nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3), increases the allergenicity of the pollen and thus increases hay fever incidence. Since atmospheric pollutants tend to have greater concentrations within urban areas (in particular NO2) the hypothesis suggests that greater allergenicity should occur in urban areas. Indeed, several studies do suggest higher hay fever incidence within urban areas compared to rural areas. Previous published work suggests a link between increased allergies with changes in the chemical composition of the pollen protein via posttranslational modification of the protein. This study investigates the posttranslational modification of two highly allergenic pollen species (Birch and Ragweed) that are common in Europe. Within the laboratory, we expose pollen grains to atmospherically relevant exposures of gas phase NO2, O3 and other common gas phase oxidants under a range of environmentally relevant conditions. The effects of the environmentally relevant exposures on the biochemistry of the pollen grains were probed using a proteomic approach (liquid chromatography coupled ultra-high resolution spectrometer). Our findings indicate the interaction between gas phase pollutants and pollen cause protein specific modifications; in particular, nitration occurs upon tyrosine residues and nitrosylation on cysteine residues. Possibly, these modifications may affect the immune response of the pollen protein, which may suggest a possible reason for increased allergies in reaction to such biologically altered protein. The laboratory-derived results will be supported with a time series analysis of asthma incidence rates for the London area, which take into account the pollen count, and pollutant concentrations. The implications of the results will be discussed

  18. Acidity and proton affinity of hypoxanthine in the gas phase versus in solution: intrinsic reactivity and biological implications. (United States)

    Sun, Xuejun; Lee, Jeehiun K


    Hypoxanthine is a mutagenic purine base that most commonly arises from the oxidative deamination of adenine. Damaged bases such as hypoxanthine are associated with carcinogenesis and cell death. This inevitable damage is counteracted by glycosylase enzymes, which cleave damaged bases from DNA. Alkyladenine DNA glycosylase (AAG) is the enzyme responsible for excising hypoxanthine from DNA in humans. In an effort to understand the intrinsic properties of hypoxanthine, we examined the gas-phase acidity and proton affinity using quantum mechanical calculations and gas-phase mass spectrometric experimental methods. In this work, we establish that the most acidic site of hypoxanthine has a gas-phase acidity of 332 +/- 2 kcal mol-1, which is more acidic than hydrochloric acid. We also bracket a less acidic site of hypoxanthine at 368 +/- 3 kcal mol-1. We measure the proton affinity of the most basic site of hypoxanthine to be 222 +/- 3 kcal mol-1. DFT calculations of these values are consistent with the experimental data. We also use calculations to compare the acidic and basic properties of hypoxanthine with those of the normal bases adenine and guanine. We find that the N9-H of hypoxanthine is more acidic than that of adenine and guanine, pointing to a way that AAG could discriminate damaged bases from normal bases. We hypothesize that AAG may cleave certain damaged nucleobases as anions and that the active site may take advantage of a nonpolar environment to favor deprotonated hypoxanthine as a leaving group versus deprotonated adenine or guanine. We also show that an alternate mechanism involving preprotonation of hypoxanthine is energetically less attractive, because the proton affinity of hypoxanthine is less than that of adenine and guanine. Last, we compare the acidity in the gas phase versus that in solution and find that a nonpolar environment enhances the differences in acidity among hypoxanthine, adenine, and guanine.

  19. Identification of Guest-Host Inclusion Complexes in the Gas Phase by Electrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry (United States)

    Mendes, De´bora C.; Ramamurthy, Vaidhyanathan; Da Silva, Jose´ P.


    In this laboratory experiment, students follow a step-by-step procedure to prepare and study guest-host complexes in the gas phase using electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Model systems are the complexes of hosts cucurbit[7]uril (CB7) and cucurbit[8]uril (CB8) with the guest 4-styrylpyridine (SP). Aqueous solutions of CB7 or CB8…

  20. Graphene magnetism induced by covalent adsorption of aromatic radicals. (United States)

    Lin, He; Fratesi, Guido; Brivio, Gian Paolo


    We report a computational study of adsorption of aromatic radicals onto graphene, with the aim of understanding the effect of covalent molecular functionalization on the magnetic and structural properties of graphene. Our results show that the adsorption of an aromatic radical like phenyl also functionalized with donor or acceptor groups generates a band gap and two spin-dependent midgap states, one located above and the other below the Fermi energy of pristine graphene, which cause a net magnetic moment. Due to the interaction between the radical and graphene, we find that the carbon atom on the adsorption site is lifted out of the graphene plane, and its pz orbital is removed from the π band system, leaving the electrons in the other sublattice unpaired, which results in nonzero magnetism. But the band gap of the full system is insensitive to the different attached species and the midgap states are independent of the alignment of the molecular orbitals, so that the magnetic moment is the same for the various radicals studied. The net result of the radical adsorption is to have almost the same aromatic species as those in the gas phase but anchored on a surface.

  1. The impact of temperature and gas-phase oxygen on kinetics of in situ ammonia removal in bioreactor landfill leachate. (United States)

    Berge, Nicole D; Reinhart, Debra R; Dietz, John D; Townsend, Tim


    Microcosm experiments aimed at defining a rate equation that describes how different environmental conditions (i.e., gas-phase oxygen concentrations, temperature and ammonia concentration) may impact in situ ammonia removal were conducted. Results indicate that ammonia removal can readily occur at various gas-phase oxygen levels (between 0.7% and 100%) and over a range of temperatures (22, 35 and 45 degrees C). Slowest rates occurred with lower gas-phase oxygen concentrations. All rate data, except at 45 degrees C and 5% oxygen, fit well (r2=0.75) to a multiplicative Monod equation with terms describing the impact of oxygen, pH, temperature and ammonia concentration. All ammonia half-saturation values are relatively high when compared to those generally found in wastewater treatment, suggesting that the rate may be affected by the mass transfer of oxygen and/or ammonia. Additionally, as the temperature increases, the ammonia half-saturation value also increases. The multiplicative Monod model developed can be used to aid in designing and operating field-scale studies.

  2. Cation disorder and gas phase equilibrium in an YBa 2Cu 3O 7- x superconducting thin film (United States)

    Shin, Dong Chan; Ki Park, Yong; Park, Jong-Chul; Kang, Suk-Joong L.; Yong Yoon, Duk


    YBa 2Cu 3O 7- x superconducting thin films have been grown by in situ off-axis rf sputtering with varying oxygen pressure, Ba/Y ratio in a target, and deposition temperature. With decreasing oxygen pressure, increasing Ba/Y ratio, increasing deposition temperature, the critical temperature of the thin films decreased and the c-axis length increased. The property change of films with the variation of deposition variables has been explained by a gas phase equilibrium of the oxidation reaction of Ba and Y. Applying Le Chatelier's principle to the oxidation reaction, we were able to predict the relation of deposition variables and the resultant properties of thin films; the prediction was in good agreement with the experimental results. From the relation between the three deposition variables and gas phase equilibrium, a 3-dimensional processing diagram was introduced. This diagram has shown that the optimum deposition condition of YBa 2Cu 3O 7- x thin films is not a fixed point but can be varied. The gas phase equilibrium can also be applied to the explanation of previous results that good quality films were obtained at low deposition temperature using active species, such as O, O 3, and O 2+.

  3. Compilation and evaluation of gas phase diffusion coefficients of reactive trace gases in the atmosphere: volume 1. Inorganic compounds (United States)

    Tang, M. J.; Cox, R. A.; Kalberer, M.


    Diffusion of gas molecules to the surface is the first step for all gas-surface reactions. Gas phase diffusion can influence and sometimes even limit the overall rates of these reactions; however, there is no database of the gas phase diffusion coefficients of atmospheric reactive trace gases. Here we compile and evaluate, for the first time, the diffusivities (pressure-independent diffusion coefficients) of atmospheric inorganic reactive trace gases reported in the literature. The measured diffusivities are then compared with estimated values using a semi-empirical method developed by Fuller et al. (1966). The diffusivities estimated using Fuller's method are typically found to be in good agreement with the measured values within ±30%, and therefore Fuller's method can be used to estimate the diffusivities of trace gases for which experimental data are not available. The two experimental methods used in the atmospheric chemistry community to measure the gas phase diffusion coefficients are also discussed. A different version of this compilation/evaluation, which will be updated when new data become available, is uploaded online ("target="_blank">

  4. Contemporary Radical Economics. (United States)

    Sherman, Howard J.


    The origins of contemporary radical economics are examined. Applications of radical economics to price and value theory, labor segmentation theory, business cycles, industrial organization, government and business, imperialism and development, and comparative systems are reviewed. (Author/RM)

  5. Spectroscopic studies of molecular iodine emitted into the gas phase by seaweed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Ball


    Full Text Available Time profiles of molecular iodine emissions from seven species of seaweed have been measured at high time resolution (7.5 s by direct spectroscopic quantification of the gas phase I2 using broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy. Substantial differences were found between species, both in the amounts of I2 emitted when the plants were exposed to air and in the shapes of their emission time profiles. Two species of kelp, Laminaria digitata and Laminaria hyperborea, were found to be the most potent emitters, producing an intense burst of I2 when first exposed to air. I2 was also observed from Saccharina latissima and Ascophyllum nodosum but in lower amounts and with broader time profiles. I2 mixing ratios from two Fucus species and Dictyopteris membranacea were at or below the detection limit of the present instrument (25 pptv. A further set of experiments investigated the time dependence of I2 emissions and aerosol particle formation when fragments of L. digitata were exposed to desiccation in air, to ozone and to oligoguluronate stress factors. Particle formation occurred in all L. digitata stress experiments where ozone and light were present, subject to the I2 mixing ratios being above certain threshold amounts. Moreover, the particle number concentrations closely tracked variations in the I2 mixing ratios, confirming the results of previous studies that the condensable particle-forming gases derive from the photochemical oxidation of the plant's I2 emissions. This work also supports the theory that particle nucleation in the coastal atmosphere occurs in "hot-spot" regions of locally elevated concentrations of condensable gases: the greatest atmospheric concentrations of I2 and hence of condensable iodine oxides are likely to be above plants of the most efficiently

  6. Accurate Gas Phase Formation Enthalpies of Alloys and Refractories Decomposition Products

    KAUST Repository

    Minenkov, Yury


    Accurate gas phase formation enthalpies, ΔHf, of metal oxides and halides are critical for the prediction of the stability of high temperature materials used in the aerospace and nuclear industries. Unfortunately, the experimental ΔHf values of these compounds in the most used databases, such as the NIST-JANAF database, are often reported with large inaccuracy, while some other ΔHf values clearly differ from the value predicted by CCSD(T) methods. To address this point, in this work we systematically predicted the ΔHf values of a series of these compounds having a group 4, 6, or 14 metal. The ΔHf values in question were derived within a composite Feller-Dixon-Peterson (FDP) scheme based protocol that combines the DLPNO-CCSD(T) enthalpy of ad hoc designed reactions and the experimental ΔHf values of few reference complexes. In agreement with other theoretical studies, we predict the ΔHf values for TiOCl2, TiOF2, GeF2, and SnF4 to be significantly different from the values tabulated in NIST-JANAF and other sources, which suggests that the tabulated experimental values are inaccurate. Similarly, the predicted ΔHf values for HfCl2, HfBr2, HfI2, MoOF4, MoCl6, WOF4, WOCl4, GeO2, SnO2, PbBr4, PbI4, and PbO2 also clearly differ from the tabulated experimental values, again suggesting large inaccuracy in the experimental values. In the case when largely different experimental values are available, we point to the value that is in better agreement with our results. We expect the ΔHf values reported in this work to be quite accurate, and thus, they might be used in thermodynamic calculations, because the effects from core correlation, relativistic effects, and basis set incompleteness were included in the DLPNO-CCSD(T) calculations. T1 and T2 values were thoroughly monitored as indicators of the quality of the reference Hartree-Fock orbitals (T1) and potential multireference character of the systems (T2).

  7. Tailoring Bond Cleavage in Gas-Phase Biomolecules by Low Energy Electrons (United States)

    Ptasinska, Sylwia


    The high energy quanta of impinging radiation can generate a large number (about 5x104) of secondary electrons per 1 MeV of energy deposited. When ejected in condensed phase water, the kinetic energy distribution of these free or quasi-free electrons is peaked below 10 eV. Low energy electrons also dominate in the secondary emission from biomolecular targets exposed to different energies of primary radiation. Due to the complexity of the radiation-induced processes in the condensed-phase environment, mechanisms of secondary electrons induced damage in biomolecules (BM) still need to be investigated. However, based on results from theory and different experiments accumulated within the last decade, it is now possible to determine the fundamental mechanisms that are involved in many chemical reactions induced in isolated gas-phase biomolecules by low energy electrons. The central finding of earlier research was the discovery of the bond- and site- selectivity in the dissociative electron attachment (DEA) process to biomolecules. It has been demonstrated that by tuning the energy of the incoming electron we can gain control over the location of the bond cleavage. These studies showed the selectivity in single bond cleavage reactions leading to the formation of the dehydrogenated closed shell anion (BM-H)- or the complementary reaction leading to H-. The loss of a hydrogen atom or an anion is fast compared with ring cleavage and the excision of heavier fragments and, hence, this reaction can compete efficiently with autodetachment. Moreover, site selectivity has been also observed in the metastable anion formation via the DEA process. Such delayed fragmentation was studied recently for the dehydrogenated closed-shell anion conversion into NCO- upon DEA proceeded a few μ sec after electron attachment, indicating a rather slow unimolecular decomposition. Interestingly, site selectivity was observed in the prompt as well as the metastable NCO- formation in DEA. The

  8. N3 and O2 Protonated Conformers of the Cytosine Mononucleotides Coexist in the Gas Phase (United States)

    Wu, R. R.; Hamlow, L. A.; He, C. C.; Nei, Y.-w.; Berden, G.; Oomens, J.; Rodgers, M. T.


    The gas-phase conformations of the protonated forms of the DNA and RNA cytosine mononucleotides, [pdCyd+H]+ and [pCyd+H]+, are examined by infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) action spectroscopy over the IR fingerprint and hydrogen-stretching regions complemented by electronic structure calculations. The low-energy conformations of [pdCyd+H]+ and [pCyd+H]+ and their relative stabilities are computed at the B3LYP/6-311+G(2d,2p)//B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) and MP2(full)/6-311+G(2d,2p)//B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) levels of theory. Comparisons of the measured IRMPD action spectra and B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) linear IR spectra computed for the low-energy conformers allow the conformers present in the experiments to be determined. Similar to that found in previous IRMPD action spectroscopy studies of the protonated forms of the cytosine nucleosides, [dCyd+H]+ and [Cyd+H]+, both N3 and O2 protonated cytosine mononucleotides exhibiting an anti orientation of cytosine are found to coexist in the experimental population. The 2'-hydroxyl substituent does not significantly influence the most stable conformations of [pCyd+H]+ versus those of [pdCyd+H]+, as the IRMPD spectral profiles of [pdCyd+H]+ and [pCyd+H]+ are similar. However, the presence of the 2'-hydroxyl substituent does influence the relative intensities of the measured IRMPD bands. Comparisons to IRMPD spectroscopy studies of the deprotonated forms of the cytosine mononucleotides, [pdCyd-H]- and [pCyd-H]-, provide insight into the effects of protonation versus deprotonation on the conformational features of the nucleobase and sugar moieties. Likewise, comparisons to results of IRMPD spectroscopy studies of the protonated cytosine nucleosides provide insight into the influence of the phosphate moiety on structure. Comparison with previous ion mobility results shows the superiority of IRMPD spectroscopy for distinguishing various protonation sites.

  9. Prebiotic molecules formation through the gas-phase reaction between HNO and CH2CHOH2+ (United States)

    Redondo, Pilar; Martínez, Henar; Largo, Antonio; Barrientos, Carmen


    Context. Knowing how the molecules that are present in the ISM can evolve to more complex ones is an interesting topic in interstellar chemistry. The study of possible reactions between detected species can help to understand the evolution in complexity of the interstellar matter and also allows knowing the formation of new molecules which could be candidates to be detected. We focus our attention on two molecules detected in space, vinyl alcohol (CH2CHOH) and azanone (HNO). Aims: We aim to carry out a theoretical study of the ion-molecule reaction between protonated vinyl alcohol and azanone. The viability of formation of complex organic molecules (COMs) from these reactants is expected to provide some insight into the formation of prebiotic species through gas phase reactions. Methods: The reaction of protonated vinyl alcohol with azanone has been theoretically studied by using ab initio methods. Stationary points on the potential energy surface (PES) were characterized at the second-order Moller-Plesset level in conjunction with the aug-cc-pVTZ (correlation-consistent polarized valence triple-zeta) basis set. In addition, the electronic energies were refined by means of single-point calculations at the CCSD(T) level (coupled cluster single and double excitation model augmented with a non-iterative treatment of triple excitations) with the same basis set. Results: From a thermodynamic point of view, twelve products, composed of carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, and hydrogen which could be precursors in the formation of more complex biological molecules, can be obtained from this reaction. Among these, we focus especially on ionized glycine and two of its isomers. The analysis of the PES shows that only formation of cis- and trans-O-protonated imine acetaldehyde, CH2NHCOH+ and, CHNHCHOH+, are viable under interstellar conditions. Conclusions: The reaction of protonated vinyl alcohol with azanone can evolve in the interstellar medium to more complex organic molecules of

  10. Flow resistance reduction of coal water slurry through gas phase addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robak Jolanta


    Full Text Available One of the main advantages of coal water slurry fuel (CWS is a physical form that allows, among others, their transfer by pipelines over long distances. For this form of transport actions towards reducing the flow resistance of the transmitted medium are important. One of the treatments leading to reduction in the flow resistance of suspensions is to introduce gas into the stream of flowing slurry. The goal of that action is to either loosen the structure of densely packed grains or increase the velocity of the suspension. The paper presents the flow resistance of CWS in a horizontal pipeline and the effect of addition of the gas phase on the resistance level. The investigation was carried out with the use of a research stand enabling to measure the flow resistance of the multiphase/multicomponent systems. The measured diameter and length of sections were respectively: 0.03 and 2 m. The coal-water slurries (based on steam coals with concentration of dry coal in the range of 51 do 60% obtained by wet milling in a drum mill were used. During the tests, the following parameters were measured: slurry flow rate, air flow rate, temperature and pressure difference in inlet and outlet of the measured section. The volume flow rate of slurry fuel was in the range of 30 to 110 dm3/min while the volume flow rate of air was from 0.15 to 4 m3/h. Based on the obtained results, the slurry flow resistance as a function of the flow rate and share of introduced air was evaluated. The performed research allowed for assessment of flow resistance reduction condition and to determine the pipe flow curves for different temperatures. It was found that the effect of reducing the flow resistance of the coal slurry by introducing gas into the flow tube depended on the volumetric flow rate, and thus the linear velocity of the slurry. Under the experimental condition, this effect only occurred at low flow rates (30 - 50 dm3/min and low temperature of the suspension. The

  11. Density-driven transport of gas phase chemicals in unsaturated soils. (United States)

    Fen, Chiu-Shia; Sun, Yong-Tai; Cheng, Yuen; Chen, Yuanchin; Yang, Whaiwan; Pan, Changtai


    Variations of gas phase density are responsible for advective and diffusive transports of organic vapors in unsaturated soils. Laboratory experiments were conducted to explore dense gas transport (sulfur hexafluoride, SF 6 ) from different source densities through a nitrogen gas-dry soil column. Gas pressures and SF 6 densities at transient state were measured along the soil column for three transport configurations (horizontal, vertically upward and vertically downward transport). These measurements and others reported in the literature were compared with simulation results obtained from two models based on different diffusion approaches: the dusty gas model (DGM) equations and a Fickian-type molar fraction-based diffusion expression. The results show that the DGM and Fickian-based models predicted similar dense gas density profiles which matched the measured data well for horizontal transport of dense gas at low to high source densities, despite the pressure variations predicted in the soil column were opposite to the measurements. The pressure evolutions predicted by both models were in trend similar to the measured ones for vertical transport of dense gas. However, differences between the dense gas densities predicted by the DGM and Fickian-based models were discernible for vertically upward transport of dense gas even at low source densities, as the DGM-based predictions matched the measured data better than the Fickian results did. For vertically downward transport, the dense gas densities predicted by both models were not greatly different from our experimental measurements, but substantially greater than the observations obtained from the literature, especially at high source densities. Further research will be necessary for exploring factors affecting downward transport of dense gas in soil columns. Use of the measured data to compute flux components of SF 6 showed that the magnitudes of diffusive flux component based on the Fickian-type diffusion

  12. Vibrational spectra of discrete UO22+ halide complexes in the gas phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groenewold, Gary S.; van Stipdonk, Michael J.; de Jong, Wibe A.; Oomens, Jos; Gresham, Garold L.


    The intrinsic binding of halide ions to the metal center in the uranyl molecule is a topic of ongoing research interest in both the actinide separations and theoretical communities. Investigations of structure in the condensed phases is frequently obfuscated by solvent interactions, that can alter ligand binding and spectroscopic properties. The approach taken in this study is to move the uranyl halide complexes into the gas phase where they are free from solvent interactions, and then interrogate their vibrational spectroscopy using infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD). The spectra of cationic coordination complexes having the composition (UO2(X)(ACO)3)+ (X = F, Cl, Br and I; ACO = acetone) were acquired using electrospray for ion formation, and monitoring the ion signal from the photoelimination of ACO ligands. The studies showed that the asymmetric v3 UO2 frequency was insensitive to halide identity as X was varied from Cl to I, suggesting that in these pseudo octahedral complexes, changing the nucleophilicity of the halide did not appreciably alter the binding in the complex. The v3 peak in the spectrum of the F-containing complex was ∼ 10 cm-1 lower indicating stronger coordination in this complex. Similarly the ACO carbonyl stretches showed that the C=O frequency was relatively insensitive to the identity of the halide, although a modest shift to the blue was seen for the complexes with the more nucleophilic anions, consistent with the idea that they loosen solvent binding. Surprisingly, the v1 stretch was activated when the softer anions Cl, Br and I were present in the complexes. IR studies of the anionic complexes were conducted by measuring the v3 UO2 frequencies of (UO2X3)-, where X = Cl-, Br- and I-. The trifluoro complex could not be photodissociated. In these negatively charged complexes, the UO2 v3 values decreased with increasing anion nucleophilicity. This observation was consistent with DFT calculations that indicated that dissociation

  13. Ground-State Gas-Phase Structures of Inorganic Molecules Predicted by Density Functional Theory Methods

    KAUST Repository

    Minenkov, Yury


    We tested a battery of density functional theory (DFT) methods ranging from generalized gradient approximation (GGA) via meta-GGA to hybrid meta-GGA schemes as well as Møller–Plesset perturbation theory of the second order and a single and double excitation coupled-cluster (CCSD) theory for their ability to reproduce accurate gas-phase structures of di- and triatomic molecules derived from microwave spectroscopy. We obtained the most accurate molecular structures using the hybrid and hybrid meta-GGA approximations with B3PW91, APF, TPSSh, mPW1PW91, PBE0, mPW1PBE, B972, and B98 functionals, resulting in lowest errors. We recommend using these methods to predict accurate three-dimensional structures of inorganic molecules when intramolecular dispersion interactions play an insignificant role. The structures that the CCSD method predicts are of similar quality although at considerably larger computational cost. The structures that GGA and meta-GGA schemes predict are less accurate with the largest absolute errors detected with BLYP and M11-L, suggesting that these methods should not be used if accurate three-dimensional molecular structures are required. Because of numerical problems related to the integration of the exchange–correlation part of the functional and large scattering of errors, most of the Minnesota models tested, particularly MN12-L, M11, M06-L, SOGGA11, and VSXC, are also not recommended for geometry optimization. When maintaining a low computational budget is essential, the nonseparable gradient functional N12 might work within an acceptable range of error. As expected, the DFT-D3 dispersion correction had a negligible effect on the internuclear distances when combined with the functionals tested on nonweakly bonded di- and triatomic inorganic molecules. By contrast, the dispersion correction for the APF-D functional has been found to shorten the bonds significantly, up to 0.064 Å (AgI), in Ag halides, BaO, BaS, BaF, BaCl, Cu halides, and Li and

  14. Stabilization of gas-phase uranyl complexes enables rapid speciation using electrospray ionization and ion mobility-mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Davis, Austen L; Clowers, Brian H


    Significant challenges exist when characterizing f-element complexes in solution using traditional approaches such as electrochemical and spectroscopic techniques as they do not always capture information for lower abundance species. However, provided a metal-complex with sufficient stability, soft ionization techniques such as electrospray offer a means to quantify and probe the characteristics of such systems using mass spectrometry. Unfortunately, the gas-phase species observed in ESI-MS systems do not always reflect the solution phase distributions due to the inherent electrochemical mechanism of the electrospray process, ion transfer from ambient to low pressures conditions, and other factors that are related to droplet evaporation. Even for simple systems (e.g. hydrated cations), it is not always clear whether the distribution observed reflects the solution phase populations or whether it is simply a result of the ionization process. This complexity is further compounded in mixed solvent systems and when multiply charged species are present. Despite these challenges, the benefits of mass spectrometry with respect to speed, sensitivity, and the ability to resolve isotopes continue to drive efforts to develop techniques for the speciation of metal complexes. Using an electrospray ionization atmospheric pressure ion mobility mass spectrometer (ESI-apIMS-MS), we demonstrate an approach to stabilize simple uranyl complexes during the ionization process and mobility separation to aid speciation and isotope profile analysis. Specifically, we outline and demonstrate the capacity of ESI-apIMS-MS methods to measure mobilities of different uranyl species, in simple mixtures, by promoting stable gas phase conformations with the addition of sulfoxides (i.e. dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), dibutyl sulfoxide (DBSO), and methyl phenyl sulfoxide (MPSO)). Addition of these sulfoxides, as observed in the mass spectrum and mobility domain, produce stable gas-phase conformations that

  15. UV-Vis Action Spectroscopy Reveals a Conformational Collapse in Hydrogen-Rich Dinucleotide Cation Radicals. (United States)

    Korn, Joseph A; Urban, Jan; Dang, Andy; Nguyen, Huong T H; Tureček, František


    We report the generation of deoxyriboadenosine dinucleotide cation radicals by gas-phase electron transfer to dinucleotide dications and their noncovalent complexes with crown ether ligands. Stable dinucleotide cation radicals of a novel hydrogen-rich type were generated and characterized by tandem mass spectrometry and UV-vis photodissociation (UVPD) action spectroscopy. Electron structure theory analysis indicated that upon electron attachment the dinucleotide dications underwent a conformational collapse followed by intramolecular proton migrations between the nucleobases to give species whose calculated UV-vis absorption spectra matched the UVPD action spectra. Hydrogen-rich cation radicals generated from chimeric riboadenosine 5'-diesters gave UVPD action spectra that pointed to novel zwitterionic structures consisting of aromatic π-electron anion radicals intercalated between stacked positively charged adenine rings. Analogies with DNA ionization are discussed.

  16. Atmospheric chemistry of CF3O radicals: Reaction with H2O

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallington, T.J.; Hurley, M.D.; Schneider, W.F.


    Evidence is presented that CF3O radicals react with H2O in the gas phase at 296 K to give CF3OH and OH radicals. This reaction is calculated to be exothermic by 1.7 kcal mol-I implying a surprisingly strong CF3O-H bond energy of 120 +/- 3 kcal mol-1. Results from a relative rate experimental study...... suggest that the rate constant for the reaction of CF3O radicals with H2O lies in the range (0.2-4.0) X 10(-17) cm3 molecule-1 s-1. Implications for the atmospheric chemistry of CF3O radicals are discussed....

  17. Acoustic emission-based in-process monitoring of surface generation in robot-assisted polishing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilny, Lukas; Bissacco, Giuliano; De Chiffre, Leonardo


    The applicability of acoustic emission (AE) measurements for in-process monitoring of surface generation in the robot-assisted polishing (RAP) was investigated. Surface roughness measurements require interruption of the process, proper surface cleaning and measurements that sometimes necessitate......-process determination of the process endpoint. This makes it possible to reliably determine the right time for changing the polishing media to finer abrasive when applying a given set of parameters is no longer effective to create a smoother surface, thus improving the efficiency of the process. The findings enabling...

  18. Kinetics and mechanisms of the unimolecular elimination of 2,2-diethoxypropane and 1,1-diethoxycyclohexane in the gas phase: experimental and theoretical study. (United States)

    Rosas, Felix; Maldonado, Alexis; Lezama, Jesus; Domínguez, Rosa M; Mora, José R; Cordova, Tania; Chuchani, Gabriel


    The gas-phase thermal elimination of 2,2-diethoxypropane was found to give ethanol, acetone, and ethylene, while 1,1-diethoxycyclohexane yielded 1-ethoxycyclohexene and ethanol. The kinetics determinations were carried out, with the reaction vessels deactivated with allyl bromide, and the presence of the free radical suppressor cyclohexene and toluene. Temperature and pressure ranges were 240.1-358.3 °C and 38-102 Torr. The elimination reactions are homogeneous, unimolecular, and follow a first-order rate law. The rate coefficients are given by the following Arrhenius equations: for 2,2-diethoxypropane, log k(1) (s(-1)) = (13.04 ± 0.07) - (186.6 ± 0.8) kJ mol(-1) (2.303RT)(-1); for the intermediate 2-ethoxypropene, log k(1) (s(-1)) = (13.36 ± 0.33) - (188.8 ± 3.4) kJ mol(-1) (2.303RT)(-1); and for 1,1-diethoxycyclohexane, log k = (14.02 ± 0.11) - (176.6 ± 1.1) kJ mol(-1) (2.303RT)(-1). Theoretical calculations of these reactions using DFT methods B3LYP, MPW1PW91, and PBEPBE, with 6-31G(d,p) and 6-31++G(d,p) basis set, demonstrated that the elimination of 2,2-diethoxypropane and 1,1-diethoxycyclohexane proceeds through a concerted nonsynchronous four-membered cyclic transition state type of mechanism. The rate-determining factor in these reactions is the elongation of the C-O bond. The intermediate product of 2,2-diethoxypropane elimination, that is, 2-ethoxypropene, further decomposes through a concerted cyclic six-membered cyclic transition state mechanism.

  19. A mass spectrometric approach for probing the stability of bioorganic radicals. (United States)

    Tan, Lei; Hu, Hanfeng; Francisco, Joseph S; Xia, Yu


    Glycyl radicals are important bioorganic radical species involved in enzymatic catalysis. Herein, we demonstrate that the stability of glycyl-type radicals (X-(.) CH-Y) can be tuned on a molecular level by varying the X and Y substituents and experimentally probed by mass spectrometry. This approach is based on the gas-phase dissociation of cysteine sulfinyl radical (X-Cys SO .-Y) ions through homolysis of a Cα Cβ bond. This fragmentation produces a glycyl-type radical upon losing CH2 SO, and the degree of this loss is closely tied to the stability of the as-formed radical. Theoretical calculations indicate that the energy of the Cα Cβ bond homolysis is predominantly affected by the stability of the glycyl radical product through the captodative effect, rather than that of the parent sulfinyl radical. This finding suggests a novel experimental method to probe the stability of bioorganic radicals, which can potentially broaden our understanding of these important reactive intermediates. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Protein and Peptide Gas-phase Structure Investigation Using Collision Cross Section Measurements and Hydrogen Deuterium Exchange (United States)

    Khakinejad, Mahdiar

    Protein and peptide gas-phase structure analysis provides the opportunity to study these species outside of their explicit environment where the interaction network with surrounding molecules makes the analysis difficult [1]. Although gas-phase structure analysis offers a unique opportunity to study the intrinsic behavior of these biomolecules [2-4], proteins and peptides exhibit very low vapor pressures [2]. Peptide and protein ions can be rendered in the gas-phase using electrospray ionization (ESI) [5]. There is a growing body of literature that shows proteins and peptides can maintain solution structures during the process of ESI and these structures can persist for a few hundred milliseconds [6-9]. Techniques for monitoring gas-phase protein and peptide ion structures are categorized as physical probes and chemical probes. Collision cross section (CCS) measurement, being a physical probe, is a powerful method to investigate gas-phase structure size [3, 7, 10-15]; however, CCS values alone do not establish a one to one relation with structure(i.e., the CCS value is an orientationally averaged value [15-18]. Here we propose the utility of gas-phase hydrogen deuterium exchange (HDX) as a second criterion of structure elucidation. The proposed approach incudes extensive MD simulations to sample biomolecular ion conformation space with the production of numerous, random in-silico structures. Subsequently a CCS can be calculated for these structures and theoretical CCS values are compared with experimental values to produce a pool of candidate structures. Utilizing a chemical reaction model based on the gas-phase HDX mechanism, the HDX kinetics behavior of these candidate structures are predicted and compared to experimental results to nominate the best in-silico structures which match (chemically and physically) with experimental observations. For the predictive approach to succeed, an extensive technique and method development is essential. To combine CCS

  1. Radical theory of rings

    CERN Document Server

    Gardner, JW


    Radical Theory of Rings distills the most noteworthy present-day theoretical topics, gives a unified account of the classical structure theorems for rings, and deepens understanding of key aspects of ring theory via ring and radical constructions. Assimilating radical theory's evolution in the decades since the last major work on rings and radicals was published, the authors deal with some distinctive features of the radical theory of nonassociative rings, associative rings with involution, and near-rings. Written in clear algebraic terms by globally acknowledged authorities, the presentation

  2. [Lavoisier and radicals]. (United States)

    Lafont, Olivier


    Lavoisier and his co-workers (Guyton de Morveau, Bertholet, Fourcroy) considered that acids were constituted of oxygen and of something else that they called radicals. These radicals were known in some cases, i.e. nitrogen for nitrous acid, carbon for carbonic acid, phosphorus for phosphoric acid. In the case of sulfur, the sulfuric radical could be associated with different quantities of oxigen leading to sulfuric or sulfurous acids. In other cases radicals remained unknown at the time i.e. muriatic radical for muriatic acid, or benzoyl radical for benzoic acid. It is interesting to notice that Lavoisier evoked the case of compound radicals constituted of different substances such as carbon and hydrogen.

  3. Formation of radical and active chemical species in electrical discharge plasma in the presence of liquid water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Locke, B.R.; Shih, K.Y.; Burlica, R. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering


    This study investigated the interactions of plasma with liquid water using a combination of emission spectroscopy of radical and atomic species and direct measurements of more stable chemical compounds. The study focused on electrical discharge plasma formed directly in liquid water and on discharges formed in the gas phase above liquid water, in bubbles in liquid water, and in the gas phase with water droplet spray that result in a variety of active chemical species that can be used for pollution control as well as other applications in biomedical and materials engineering. The purpose was to improve the design and operation of plasma reactors for a variety of applications. This presentation also reviewed the mechanisms for the formation of active chemical species such as hydroxyl and other radicals, hydrogen peroxide and molecular hydrogen, in electrical discharge plasma formed in the presence of water.

  4. Gas phase chemical kinetics at high temperature of carbonaceous molecules: application to circumstellar envelopes (United States)

    Biennier, L.; Gardez, A.; Saidani, G.; Georges, R.; Rowe, B.; Reddy, K. P. J.


    Circumstellar shells of evolved stars are a theater of extremely rich physical and chemical processes. More than seventy molecules of varied nature have been identified in the envelopes through their spectral fingerprints in the microwave or far infrared regions. Many of them are carbon chain molecules and radicals and a significant number are unique to the circumstellar medium. However, observational data remain scarce and more than half of the detected species have been observed in only one object, the nearby carbon star IRC + 10216. Chemical kinetic models are needed to describe the formation of molecules in evolved circumstellar outflows. Upcoming terrestrial telescopes such as ALMA will increase the spatial resolution by several orders of magnitude and provide a wealth of data. The determination of relevant laboratory kinetics data is critical to keep up with the development of the observations and of the refinement of chemical models. Today, the majority of reactions studied in the laboratory are the ones involved in combustion and concerning light hydrocarbons. Our objective is to provide the scientific community with rate coefficients of reactions between abundant species in these warm environments. Cyanopolyynes from HC_2N to HC_9N have all been detected in carbon rich circumstellar envelopes in up to 10 sources for HC_3N. Neutral-neutral reactions of the CN radical with unsaturated hydrocarbons could be a dominant route in the formation of cyanopolyynes, even at low temperatures. Our approach aims to bridge the temperature gap between resistively heated flow tubes and shock tubes. The present kinetic measurements are obtained using a new reactor combining a high enthalpy source (Moudens et al. 2011) with a flow tube and a pulsed laser photolysis and laser induced fluorescence system to probe the undergoing chemical reactions. The high enthalpy flow tube has been used to measure the rate constant of the reaction of the CN radical with propane, propene

  5. Gas phase emissions from cooking processes and their secondary aerosol production potential (United States)

    Klein, Felix; Platt, Stephen; Bruns, Emily; Termime-roussel, Brice; Detournay, Anais; Mohr, Claudia; Crippa, Monica; Slowik, Jay; Marchand, Nicolas; Baltensperger, Urs; Prevot, Andre; El Haddad, Imad


    -ToF-MS) were used to quantify OA and VOC emissions, respectively. SOA production potential of the different emissions was quantified by introducing them into the PSI mobile smog chamber and a potential aerosol chamber (PAM) where they were photochemically aged. The measurements of primary emissions suggest that the COA factor identified in ambient atmospheric aerosols is mostly related to fat release from frying with vegetable oils or grilling fatty-meats. In contrast, vegetable cooking (boiling and frying) was associated with significant VOC emissions. The VOC emissions from frying consist mainly of aldehydes which are formed through breaking of fatty acids. Gas phase composition, emission factors and SAPP from all these processes will be presented. This work was supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation as well as the Swiss Federal Office for the Environment. The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n.° 290605 (COFUND: PSI-FELLOW). J. Allan et al, Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10, 647-668 (2010) X.-F. Huang et al, Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10, 8933-8945 (2010) Y.-L. Sun et al, Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11, 1581-1602 (2011)

  6. Surface modification of superaustenitic and maraging stainless steels by low-temperature gas-phase carburization (United States)

    Gentil, Johannes

    Low-temperature gas-phase carburization of 316L austenitic stainless steel was developed in recent years by the Swagelok company. This process generates great mechanical and electrochemical surface properties. Hardness, wear resistance, fatigue behavior, and corrosion resistance are dramatically improved, while the formation of carbides is effectively suppressed. This new technique is of technical, economical, but especially of scientific interest because the surface properties of common stainless steel can be enhanced to a level of more sophisticated and more expensive superalloys. The consequential continuation of previous research is the application of the carburization process to other steel grades. Differences in chemical composition, microstructure, and passivity between the various alloys may cause technical problems and it is expected that the initial process needs to be optimized for every specific material. This study presents results of low-temperature carburization of AL-6XN (superaustenitic stainless steel) and PH13-8Mo (precipitation-hardened martensitic stainless steel). Both alloys have been treated successfully in terms of creating a hardened surface by introducing high amounts of interstitially dissolved carbon. The surface hardness of AL-6XN was increased to 12GPa and is correlated with a colossal carbon supersaturation at the surface of up to 20 at.%. The hardened case develops a carburization time-dependent thickness between 10mum after one carburization cycle and up to 35mum after four treatments and remains highly ductile. Substantial broadening of X-ray diffraction peaks in low-temperature carburized superaustenitic stainless steels are attributed to the generation of very large compressive biaxial residual stresses. Those large stresses presumably cause relaxations of the surface, so-called undulations. Heavily expanded regions of carburized AL-6XN turn ferromagnetic. Non-carburized AL-6XN is known for its outstanding corrosion resistance

  7. Removal of volatile to semi-volatile organic contaminants from water using hollow fiber membrane contactors and catalytic destruction of the contaminants in the gas phase


    Tarafder, Shamsul Abedin


    Abstract Chlorinated organic compounds and ether compounds are frequently found in groundwater and efficient treatment options are needed. In this study, the efficient transferal of the compounds from the water phase to the gas phase was studied followed by the catalytic treatment of the gas phase. For the removal of the organic contaminants from water, a microporous polypropylene hollow fiber membrane (HFM) module was operated under low strip gas flow to water flow ratios (_< 5:1). Rem...

  8. UV absorption spectra and kinetics for alkyl and alkyl peroxy radicals originating from di-tert-butyl ether

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O.J.; Sehested, J.; Langer, S.


    Alkyl, (CH3)(3)COC(CH3)(2)CH2, and alkyl peroxy, (CH3)(3)COC(CH3)(2)CH2O2, radicals from di-tert-butyl ether (DTBE), have been studied in the gas phase at 296 K. A pulse radiolysis UV absorption technique was used to measure the spectra and kinetics. Absorption cross sections were quantified over...

  9. Directed gas phase formation of silicon dioxide and implications for the formation of interstellar silicates. (United States)

    Yang, Tao; Thomas, Aaron M; Dangi, Beni B; Kaiser, Ralf I; Mebel, Alexander M; Millar, Tom J


    Interstellar silicates play a key role in star formation and in the origin of solar systems, but their synthetic routes have remained largely elusive so far. Here we demonstrate in a combined crossed molecular beam and computational study that silicon dioxide (SiO 2 ) along with silicon monoxide (SiO) can be synthesized via the reaction of the silylidyne radical (SiH) with molecular oxygen (O 2 ) under single collision conditions. This mechanism may provide a low-temperature path-in addition to high-temperature routes to silicon oxides in circumstellar envelopes-possibly enabling the formation and growth of silicates in the interstellar medium necessary to offset the fast silicate destruction.

  10. Contemporary Radical Prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Fu


    Full Text Available Purpose. Patients diagnosed with clinically localized prostate cancer have more surgical treatment options than in the past. This paper focuses on the procedures' oncological or functional outcomes and perioperative morbidities of radical retropubic prostatectomy, radical perineal prostatectomy, and robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. Materials and Methods. A MEDLINE/PubMed search of the literature on radical prostatectomy and other new management options was performed. Results. Compared to the open procedures, robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy has no confirmed significant difference in most literatures besides less blood loss and blood transfusion. Nerve sparing is a safe means of preserving potency on well-selected patients undergoing radical prostatectomy. Positive surgical margin rates of radical prostatectomy affect the recurrence and survival of prostate cancer. The urinary and sexual function outcomes have been vastly improved. Neoadjuvant treatment only affects the rate of positive surgical margin. Adjuvant therapy can delay and reduce the risk of recurrence and improve the survival of the high risk prostate cancer. Conclusions. For the majority of patients with organ-confined prostate cancer, radical prostatectomy remains a most effective approach. Radical perineal prostatectomy remains a viable approach for patients with morbid obesity, prior pelvic surgery, or prior pelvic radiation. Robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP has become popular among surgeons but has not yet become the firmly established standard of care. Long-term data have confirmed the efficacy of radical retropubic prostatectomy with disease control rates and cancer-specific survival rates.

  11. Gas phase photolysis of ethyl bromide at 253.7 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, A.J.; Hanrahan, R.J.


    The photolysis of ethyl bromide was studied at 100 torr and 23 0 C using 253.7-nm radiation. In the pure system between 60 and 90 s at an absorbed light intensity of 8.3 x 10 13 quanta/cm 3 s the major products and their respective quantum yields are as follows: hydrogen bromide, 0.26; ethane, 0.40; ethylene, 0.028; 1,1-dibromoethane, 0.102; 1,2-dibromoethane, 0.0092; vinyl bromide, 0.009; 1,1,2-tribromoethane, 0.0027; methane, 0.00052; and methyl bromide, 0.00091. When 5 mol % oxygen is added, the quantum yields in this time period become the following: hydrogen bromide, 0.47; ethane, 0.00032; ethylene, 0.0081; 1,1-dibromoethane, 0.0040; 1,2-dibromoethane, 0.022; vinyl bromide, 0; 1,1,2-tribromoethane, 0; methane, 0.0001; and methyl bromide, 0.091. Bromine is also formed with a quantum yield of 0.22. At long photolysis times the HBr and C 2 H 4 go into a stationary state, and the main photolysis products are C 2 H 6 and 1,1-C 2 H 4 Br 2 with quantum yields of 0.24 and 0.17, respectively. The behavior of the system is interpreted based on a model involving C--Br rupture as the main primary process (phi = 0.8) with a substantial contribution of HBr elimination (phi = 0.2). Primary C 2 H 5 . and Br . fragments abstract hydrogen from the substrate to produce mainly the 1-C 2 H 4 Br. radical. Net product formation involves reaction of radical species with Br 2 (present at low, steady-state concentration -5 M), Br. atoms, or HBr. The dynamic behavior of the system was investigated by computer simulation and compared with experimental results. 2 tables, 7 figures

  12. Enantioselective Collision-Activated Dissociation of Gas-Phase Tryptophan Induced by Chiral Recognition of Protonated l-Alanine Peptides (United States)

    Fujihara, Akimasa; Matsuyama, Hiroki; Tajiri, Michiko; Wada, Yoshinao; Hayakawa, Shigeo


    Enantioselective dissociation in the gas phase is important for enantiomeric enrichment and chiral transmission processes in molecular clouds regarding the origin of homochirality in biomolecules. Enantioselective collision-activated dissociation (CAD) of tryptophan (Trp) and the chiral recognition ability of l-alanine peptides ( l-Ala n ; n = 2-4) were examined using a linear ion trap mass spectrometer. CAD spectra of gas-phase heterochiral H+( d-Trp)( l-Ala n ) and homochiral H+( l-Trp)( l-Ala n ) noncovalent complexes were obtained as a function of the peptide size n. The H2O-elimination product was observed in CAD spectra of both heterochiral and homochiral complexes for n = 2 and 4, and in homochiral H+( l-Trp)( l-Ala3), indicating that the proton is attached to the l-alanine peptide, and H2O loss occurs from H+( l-Ala n ) in the noncovalent complexes. H2O loss did not occur in heterochiral H+( d-Trp)( l-Ala3), where NH3 loss and (H2O + CO) loss were the primary dissociation pathways. In heterochiral H+( d-Trp)( l-Ala3), the protonation site is the amino group of d-Trp, and NH3 loss and (H2O + CO) loss occur from H+( d-Trp). l-Ala peptides recognize d-Trp through protonation of the amino group for peptide size n = 3. NH3 loss and (H2O + CO) loss from H+( d-Trp) proceeds via enantioselective CAD in gas-phase heterochiral H+( d-Trp)( l-Ala3) at room temperature, whereas l-Trp dissociation was not observed in homochiral H+( l-Trp)( l-Ala3). These results suggest that enantioselective dissociation induced by chiral recognition of l-Ala peptides through protonation could play an important role in enantiomeric enrichment and chiral transmission processes of amino acids.

  13. Influence of Ionization Source Conditions on the Gas-Phase Protomer Distribution of Anilinium and Related Cations. (United States)

    Attygalle, Athula B; Xia, Hanxue; Pavlov, Julius


    The gas-phase-ion generation technique and specific ion-source settings of a mass spectrometer influence heavily the protonation processes of molecules and the abundance ratio of the generated protomers. Hitherto that has been attributed primarily to the nature of the solvent and the pH. By utilizing electrospray ionization and ion-mobility mass spectrometry (IM-MS), we demonstrate, even in the seemingly trivial case of protonated aniline, that the protomer ratio strongly depends on the source conditions. Under low in-source ion activation, nearly 100% of the N-protomer of aniline is produced, and it can be subsequently converted to the C-protomer by collisional activation effected by increasing the electrical potential difference between the entrance and exit orifices of the first vacuum region. This activation and transformation process takes place even before the ion is mass-selected and subjected to IM separation. Despite the apparent simplicity of the problem, the preferred protonation site of aniline in the gas phase-the amino group or the aromatic ring-has been a topic of controversy. Our results not only provide unambiguous evidence that ring- and nitrogen-protonated aniline can coexist and be interconverted in the gas phase, but also that the ratio of the protomers depends on the internal energy of the original ion. There are many dynamic ion-transformation and fragmentation processes that take place in the different physical compartments of a Synapt G2 HDMS instrument. Such processes can dramatically change the very identity even of small ions, and therefore should be taken into account when interpreting product-ion mass spectra. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  14. Vitamin C: an experimental and theoretical study on the gas-phase structure and ion energetics of protonated ascorbic acid. (United States)

    Ricci, Andreina; Pepi, Federico; Cimino, Paola; Troiani, Anna; Garzoli, Stefania; Salvitti, Chiara; Di Rienzo, Brunella; Barone, Vincenzo


    In order to investigate the gas-phase mechanisms of the acid catalyzed degradation of ascorbic acid (AA) to furan, we undertook a mass spectrometric (ESI/TQ/MS) and theoretical investigation at the B3LYP/6-31 + G(d,p) level of theory. The gaseous reactant species, the protonated AA, [C 6 H 8 O 6 ]H + , were generated by electrospray ionization of a 10 -3  M H 2 O/CH 3 OH (1 : 1) AA solution. In order to structurally characterize the gaseous [C 6 H 8 O 6 ]H + ionic reactants, we estimated the proton affinity and the gas-phase basicity of AA by the extended Cooks's kinetic method and by computational methods at the B3LYP/6-31 + G(d,p) level of theory. As expected, computational results identify the carbonyl oxygen atom (O2) of AA as the preferred protonation site. From the experimental proton affinity of 875.0 ± 12 kJ mol -1 and protonation entropy ΔS p 108.9 ± 2 J mol -1  K -1 , a gas-phase basicity value of AA of 842.5 ± 12 kJ mol -1 at 298 K was obtained, which is in agreement with the value issuing from quantum mechanical computations. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Study of the antibacterial activity in the gas phase of a chemical formulation for household waste management. (United States)

    Motta, O; Zarrella, I; Cucciniello, R; Vigliotta, G; Proto, A


    The aim of this study was to formulate a product (microbicide mixture) that could slow down the bacterial proliferation during the storage of household waste. We used harmless and natural components, known for their antimicrobial properties, in the liquid phase at direct contact with the microbes. The antimicrobial activity of the microbicide mixture formulated was evaluated over a range of concentration in two types of tests, in the liquid and in the gas phase. Once the efficacy of antimicrobial agent in the liquid phase in direct contact with the microbe (Escherichia coli) was confirmed, we adopted a new approach to evaluate the effect of the vapour phase both on the microbes' growth and on its duration. Here, we show that the perfect combination that gives rise to an antimicrobial mixture useful to control microbial growth (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Debaryomyces hansenii or Penicillium citrinum) up to 4 weeks is the one between more volatile agents (2-propanol and limonene) and a less volatile agent (cinnamaldehyde). The pleasant smell as well as the synergic antibacterial and antifungal function of the natural components of this mixture makes it attractive in domestic waste management. The novelty of this work is two-fold: on the one hand, to test various antimicrobial components of different volatility in a single microbicide mixture, and on the other, to study antimicrobial activity in the gas phase, other than the liquid phase. While previous authors tested the components individually as antimicrobial agents in the liquid phase at direct contact with the microbes, we tested them altogether as a mixture both in the liquid and in gas phase. The aim of this study was to disinfect small environments, such as garbage containers, by favouring the diffusion of the vapour phase to avoid the growth of microbes. This study proposes a new approach in the management and storage of household waste by inhibiting bacterial proliferation in the garbage can.

  16. Chemical composition of gas-phase organic carbon emissions from motor vehicles and implications for ozone production. (United States)

    Gentner, Drew R; Worton, David R; Isaacman, Gabriel; Davis, Laura C; Dallmann, Timothy R; Wood, Ezra C; Herndon, Scott C; Goldstein, Allen H; Harley, Robert A


    Motor vehicles are major sources of gas-phase organic carbon, which includes volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and other compounds with lower vapor pressures. These emissions react in the atmosphere, leading to the formation of ozone and secondary organic aerosol (SOA). With more chemical detail than previous studies, we report emission factors for over 230 compounds from gasoline and diesel vehicles via two methods. First we use speciated measurements of exhaust emissions from on-road vehicles in summer 2010. Second, we use a fuel composition-based approach to quantify uncombusted fuel components in exhaust using the emission factor for total uncombusted fuel in exhaust together with detailed chemical characterization of liquid fuel samples. There is good agreement between the two methods except for products of incomplete combustion, which are not present in uncombusted fuels and comprise 32 ± 2% of gasoline exhaust and 26 ± 1% of diesel exhaust by mass. We calculate and compare ozone production potentials of diesel exhaust, gasoline exhaust, and nontailpipe gasoline emissions. Per mass emitted, the gas-phase organic compounds in gasoline exhaust have the largest potential impact on ozone production with over half of the ozone formation due to products of incomplete combustion (e.g., alkenes and oxygenated VOCs). When combined with data on gasoline and diesel fuel sales in the U.S., these results indicate that gasoline sources are responsible for 69-96% of emissions and 79-97% of the ozone formation potential from gas-phase organic carbon emitted by motor vehicles.

  17. CHEMKIN-III: A FORTRAN chemical kinetics package for the analysis of gas-phase chemical and plasma kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kee, R.J.; Rupley, F.M.; Meeks, E.; Miller, J.A.


    This document is the user`s manual for the third-generation CHEMKIN package. CHEMKIN is a software package whose purpose is to facilitate the formation, solution, and interpretation of problems involving elementary gas-phase chemical kinetics. It provides a flexible and powerful tool for incorporating complex chemical kinetics into simulations of fluid dynamics. The package consists of two major software components: an Interpreter and a Gas-Phase Subroutine Library. The Interpreter is a program that reads a symbolic description of an elementary, user-specified chemical reaction mechanism. One output from the Interpreter is a data file that forms a link to the Gas-Phase Subroutine Library. This library is a collection of about 100 highly modular FORTRAN subroutines that may be called to return information on equations of state, thermodynamic properties, and chemical production rates. CHEMKIN-III includes capabilities for treating multi-fluid plasma systems, that are not in thermal equilibrium. These new capabilities allow researchers to describe chemistry systems that are characterized by more than one temperature, in which reactions may depend on temperatures associated with different species; i.e. reactions may be driven by collisions with electrons, ions, or charge-neutral species. These new features have been implemented in such a way as to require little or no changes to CHEMKIN implementation for systems in thermal equilibrium, where all species share the same gas temperature. CHEMKIN-III now has the capability to handle weakly ionized plasma chemistry, especially for application related to advanced semiconductor processing.

  18. Atmospheric chemistry of trans-CF3CH = CHCl: Kinetics of the gas-phase reactions with Cl atoms, OH radicals, and O-3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads Peter Sulbæk; Nilsson, E. J. K.; Nielsen, O. J.


    = CHCl) = (5.22 +/- 0.72) x 10(-11) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), k(OH + t-CF3CH = CHCl) = (4.40 +/- 0.38) x 10(-13) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) and k(O-3 + t-CF3CH = CHCl) = (1.46 +/- 0.12) x 10(-21) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), were established (quoted uncertainties are 2 sigma: see Experimental section). The IR...

  19. Hydroxyl radical reactivity at the air-ice interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. F. Kahan


    Full Text Available Hydroxyl radicals are important oxidants in the atmosphere and in natural waters. They are also expected to be important in snow and ice, but their reactivity has not been widely studied in frozen aqueous solution. We have developed a spectroscopic probe to monitor the formation and reactions of hydroxyl radicals in situ. Hydroxyl radicals are produced in aqueous solution via the photolysis of nitrite, nitrate, and hydrogen peroxide, and react rapidly with benzene to form phenol. Similar phenol formation rates were observed in aqueous solution and bulk ice. However, no reaction was observed at air-ice interfaces, or when bulk ice samples were crushed prior to photolysis to increase their surface area. We also monitored the heterogeneous reaction between benzene present at air-water and air-ice interfaces with gas-phase OH produced from HONO photolysis. Rapid phenol formation was observed on water surfaces, but no reaction was observed at the surface of ice. Under the same conditions, we observed rapid loss of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH anthracene at air-water interfaces, but no loss was observed at air-ice interfaces. Our results suggest that the reactivity of hydroxyl radicals toward aromatic organics is similar in bulk ice samples and in aqueous solution, but is significantly suppressed in the quasi-liquid layer (QLL that exists at air-ice interfaces.

  20. Infrared Spectrum of the Cyclobutyl Radical in he Droplets (United States)

    Brown, Alaina R.; Franke, Peter R.; Douberly, Gary E.


    Gas phase cyclobutyl radical (C_{4}H_{7}) is produced via pyrolysis of cyclobutyl methyl nitrite (C_{4}H_{7}(CH_{2})ONO). The nascent radicals are promptly solvated in liquid He droplets, allowing for the acquisition of the infrared spectrum in the CH stretching region. Anharmonic frequencies are predicted by VPT2+K simulations based upon a CCSD(T)/ANO0 force field. Several resonance polyads emerge in the 2800-3000 \\wn region as a result of anharmonic coupling between the CH stretching fundamentals and CH_{2} bend overtones and combinations. Evidence of rotational fine structure is observed for two bands. The vibrationally averaged cyclobutyl radical geometry and the C_4H_7 potential energy surface will be discussed. In agreement with the findings by Schultz^{1} and coworkers, 1,3-butadiene is formed from cyclobutyl ring opening and H atom loss, given a sufficiently high pyrolysis temperature. However, signatures of 1-methylallyl and allylcarbinyl radicals, proposed^{1} as intermediates along the above mentioned reaction path, are yet to be seen. 1. Schultz, J.C., Houle, F.A., Beauchamp, J.L. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1984, 106, 7336-7347.

  1. Evaluation of gas-phase technetium decontamination and safety related experiments during FY 1994. A report of work in progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, D.W.; Munday, E.B.


    Laboratory activities for FY94 included: evaluation of decontamination of Tc by gas-phase techniques, evaluation of diluted ClF{sub 3} for removing U deposits, evaluation of potential hazard of wet air inlekage into a vessel containing ClF{sub 3}, planning and preparation for experiments to assess hazard of rapid reaction of ClF{sub 3} and hydrated UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} or powdered Al, and preliminary evaluation of compatibility of Tenic valve seat material.

  2. The role played by gas-phase reactions in the formation of ionic heteroclusters of hydrophobic amino acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chivanov, V.D.; Eremenko, V.I.; Eremenko, I.A.; Aksenov, S.A.; Grebennik, L.I.; Mishnev, A.K.; Chivanova, S.V.; Belovol, A.V.


    It is shown that hydrophobic L-Val and L-Leu amino acids form quasimolecular heterocluster ions (KMI) along with homocluster ions during interaction of high-energy 252 Cf fragments with solid-phase amino acid samples during time-of-flight mass-spectrometry with plasma desorption. It was established that heterocluster KMI [L-Val · L-Leu + H] + were formed regardless of structural features of samples, determined by the type of sample preparation. It is concluded that sufficient role in desorption/ionization processes is played by gas-phase reactions. 31 refs.; 2 figs

  3. Gas-Phase Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange of Dinucleotides and 5′-Monophosphate Dinucleotides in a Quadrupole Ion Trap


    Chipuk, Joseph E.; Brodbelt, Jennifer S.


    Gas-phase hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange reactions of four deprotonated dinucleotides (dAA, dAG, dGA, dGG) and their 5′-monophosphate analogs (5′-dAA, 5′-dAG, 5′-dGA, 5′-dGG) with D2O were performed in a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer. Significant differences in the rates and extents of exchange were found when the 5′-hydroxyl group of the dinucleotides was replaced by a phosphate functionality. Extensive and nucleobase-dependent exchange occurred for the deprotonated 5′-monophospha...

  4. Continuous fixed-bed gas-phase hydroformylation using supported ionic liquid-phase (SILP) Rh catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisager, Anders; Wasserscheid, Peter; Van Hal, R.


    Continuous flow gas-phase hydroformylation of propene was performed using novel supported ionic liquid-phase (SILP) catalysts containing immobilized Rh complexes of the biphosphine ligand sulfoxantphos in the ionic liquids 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate and halogen-free 1-n......-butyl-3-methylimidazolium n-octylsulfate on silica support. The Rh-sulfoxantphos SILP catalysts proved to be more regioselective than catalysts without ligand and the analogous ionic liquid-free catalysts, giving up to 96% linear product. Furthermore, the performance of the catalysts was generally...

  5. An Integrated Surface Acoustic Wave-Based Chemical Microsensor Array for Gas-Phase Chemical Analysis Microsystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casalnuovo, stephen A.; Frye-Mason, Gregory C.; Heller, Edwin J.; Hietala, Vincent M.; Kottenstette, Richard J.; Lewis, Patrick R.; Manginell, Ronald P.; Matzke, Carolyn M.


    This paper describes preliminary results in the development of an acoustic wave (SAW) microsensor array. The array is based on a novel configuration that allows for three sensors and a phase reference. Two configurations of the integrated array are discussed: a hybrid multichip-module based on a quartz SAW sensor with GaAs microelectronics and a fully monolithic GaAs-based SAW. Preliminary data are also presented for the use of the integrated SAW array in a gas-phase chemical micro system that incorporates microfabricated sample collectors and concentrators along with gas chromatography (GC) columns.

  6. UV laser induced proton-transfer of protein molecule in the gas phase produced by droplet-beam laser ablation (United States)

    Kohno, Jun-ya; Kondow, Tamotsu


    Droplet-beam laser-ablation mass-spectrometry was applied for a study of the UV-laser induced proton-transfer reaction of protonated lysozyme hydrated clusters in the gas phase. Protonated lysozyme hydrated clusters were produced by irradiation of an IR laser onto a droplet-beam of an aqueous solution of lysozyme and were subsequently irradiated by a UV laser. It is found that H + and H 3O + are produced through photodissociation of protonated lysozyme hydrated clusters. The mechanism of the proton-transfer reaction is discussed.

  7. Preparation of {sup 183,184}Re samples for modelling a rapid gas phase chemistry of Nielsbohrium (Ns), element 107

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichler, R.; Gaeggeler, H.W.; Eichler, B.; Tuerler, A. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)


    Chemical gas phase reactions of the heavier group 7 elements in the system O{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O are presumably best suited for a separation of Nielsbohrium from the lighter transactinides. We expect a higher reaction velocity using the more reactive gas system O{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. For the experimental verification of this idea we prepared {sup 183}Re/{sup 184}Re samples for thermochromatography experiments with both gas systems. (author) 8 refs.

  8. Gas-Phase Tautomerism in the Triazoles and Tetrazoles: A Study by Photoelectron Spectroscopy and ab Initio Molecular Orbital Calculations (United States)

    Palmer, Michael H.; Simpson, Isobel; Wheeler, J. Ross


    The photoelectron spectra of the tautomeric 1,2,3,- and 1,2,4-triazole and 1,2,3,4-tetrazole systems have been compared with the corresponding N-methyl derivatives. The dominant tautomers in the gas phase have been identified as 2 H-1,2,3-triazole, 1 H-1,2,4-triazole and 2H-tetrazole. Full optimisation of the equilibrium geometry by ab initio molecular orbital methods leads to the same conclusions, for relative stability of the tautomers in each of the triazoles, but the calculations wrongly predict the tetrazole tautomerism.

  9. Study of the composition and gas-phase release characteristics of salt material extracted from MSW ash particles using STA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvelakis, Stelios; Frandsen, Flemming; Koukios, E.G.


    The ash material generated from the MSW incineration contains large amounts of alkali metals, heavy metals, chlorine and sulfur mainly deposited as inorganic salts and/or oxides on the surface of the Si-rich ash particles. In this work, the composition and gas-phase release characteristics of salt...... material extracted from MSW ash particles using a six-stage leaching process is studied using simultaneous thermal analysis (STA). The produced results provide useful information regarding the composition of the salt material and its melting behavior that is considered to play an important role...


    Using relative rate methods, rate constants for the gas-phase reactions of OH radicals and Cl atoms with di-n-propyl ether, di-n-propyl ether-d14, di-n-butyl ether and di-n-butyl ether-d18 have been measured at 296 ? 2 K and atmos...

  11. Studies of cluster-assembled materials: From gas phase to condensed phase (United States)

    Gao, Lin

    . After being mass gated in a reflectron equipped time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS) and deposited onto TEM grids, the resultant specimens can be loaded onto high-resolution TEM investigation via electron diffraction. In conclusion, soft-landing of mass selected clusters has been shown to be a successful approach to obtain structural information on Zr-Met-Car cluster-assembled materials collected from the gas phase. TEM images indicate the richness of the morphologies associated with these cluster crystals. However, passivation methods are expected to be examined further to overcome the limited stabilities of these novel clusters. From this initial study, it's shown the promising opportunity to study other Met-Cars species and more cluster-based materials. Experimental results of reactions run with a solvothermal synthesis method obtained while searching for new Zr-C cluster assembled materials, are reported. One unexpected product in single crystal form was isolated and tentatively identified by X-ray diffraction to be [Zr6i O(OH)O12·2(Bu)4], with space group P2 1/n and lattice parameters of a = 12.44 A, b = 22.06 A, c = 18.40 A, alpha = 90°, beta = 105°, gamma = 90°, V = 4875 A3 and R 1 = 3.15% for the total observed data (I ≥ 2 sigma I) and oR2 = 2.82%. This novel hexanuclear Zr(IV)-oxo-hydroxide cluster anion may be the first member in polyoxometalates class with metal atoms from the IVB group and having Oh symmetry. Alternatively, it may be the first member in {[(Zr6Z)X 12]X6}m- class with halides replaced by oxo- and hydroxyl groups and with an increased oxidation state of Zr. It is predicted to bear application potentials directed by both families. This work could suggest a direction in which the preparation of Zr-C cluster-assembled materials in a liquid environment may be eventually fulfilled. 1,3-Bis(diethylphosphino)propane (depp) protected small gold clusters are studied via multiple techniques, including Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

  12. Kinetic study of the gas-phase reaction of atomic chlorine with a series of aldehydes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Rodríguez


    Full Text Available The reactions of Cl atoms with a series of unsaturated aldehydes have been investigated for the first time using a relative method. In order to obtain additional information for a qualitative structure versus reactivity discussion, we have also determined the rate coefficients for the reactions of atomic chlorine with their respective saturated aldehydes. These relative measurements were performed at room temperature and atmospheric pressure of air and N2, by using ethane, propene and 1-butene as reference compounds. The weighted average relative rate constants obtained, kCl±2σ (in units of cm3 molecule−1 s−1 were: trans-2-pentenal (1.31±0.19×10−10; trans-2-hexenal (1.92±0.22×10−10; trans-2-heptenal (2.40±0.29×10−10; n-pentanal (2.56±0.27×10−10; n-hexanal (2.88±0.37×10−10; n-heptanal (3.00±0.34×10−10. Finally, results and atmospheric implications are discussed and compared with the reactivity with OH and NO3 radicals.

  13. Thin-film transistors with a channel composed of semiconducting metal oxide nanoparticles deposited from the gas phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, C.; Schierning, G.; Theissmann, R.; Nedic, A.; Kruis, F. E.; Schmechel, R.


    The fabrication of semiconducting functional layers using low-temperature processes is of high interest for flexible printable electronics applications. Here, the one-step deposition of semiconducting nanoparticles from the gas phase for an active layer within a thin-film transistor is described. Layers of semiconducting nanoparticles with a particle size between 10 and 25 nm were prepared by the use of a simple aerosol deposition system, excluding potentially unwanted technological procedures like substrate heating or the use of solvents. The nanoparticles were deposited directly onto standard thin-film transistor test devices, using thermally grown silicon oxide as gate dielectric. Proof-of-principle experiments were done deploying two different wide-band gap semiconducting oxides, tin oxide, SnO x , and indium oxide, In 2 O 3 . The tin oxide spots prepared from the gas phase were too conducting to be used as channel material in thin-film transistors, most probably due to a high concentration of oxygen defects. Using indium oxide nanoparticles, thin-film transistor devices with significant field effect were obtained. Even though the electron mobility of the investigated devices was only in the range of 10 −6 cm 2V−1s−1 , the operability of this method for the fabrication of transistors was demonstrated. With respect to the possibilities to control the particle size and layer morphology in situ during deposition, improvements are expected.

  14. Ab Initio Calculations of the N-N Bond Dissociation for the Gas-phase RDX and HMX (United States)

    Liu, Lin-Lin; Liu, Pei-Jin; Hu, Song-Qi; He, Guo-Qiang


    NO2 fission is a vital factor for 1,3,5-Trinitroperhydro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) decomposition. In this study, the geometry of the gas-phase RDX and HMX molecules was optimized, and the bond order and the bond dissociation energy of the N-N bonds were examined. Moreover, the rate constants of the gas-phase RDX and HMX conformers, concerning the N-N bond dissociation, were evaluated using the microcanonical variational transition state theory (μVT). The calculation results have shown that HMX is more stable than RDX in terms of the N-N bond dissociation, and the conformers stability parameters were as follows: RDXaaa HMX I HMX II. In addition, for the RDX conformers, the N-N bond of the pseudo-equatorial positioning of the nitro group was more stable than the N-N bond of the axial positioning of the nitro group, while the results were opposite in the case of the HMX conformers. Moreover, it has been shown that the dissociation rate constant of the N-N bond is influenced by the temperature significantly, thus the rate constants were much lower (<10-10 s-1) when the temperature was less than 1000 K.

  15. Activation of methane by zinc: gas-phase synthesis, structure, and bonding of HZnCH3. (United States)

    Flory, Michael A; Apponi, Aldo J; Zack, Lindsay N; Ziurys, Lucy M


    The methylzinc hydride molecule, HZnCH3, has been observed in the gas phase for the first time in the monomeric form using high-resolution spectroscopic techniques. The molecule was synthesized by two methods: the reaction of dimethylzinc with hydrogen gas and methane in an AC discharge and the reaction of zinc vapor produced in a Broida-type oven with methane in a DC discharge. HZnCH3 was identified on the basis of its pure rotational spectrum, which was recorded using millimeter/submillimeter direct-absorption and Fourier transform microwave techniques over the frequency ranges 332-516 GHz and 18-41 GHz, respectively. Multiple rotational transitions were measured for this molecule in seven isotopic variants. K-ladder structure was clearly present in all of the spectra, indicating a molecule with C3v symmetry and a (1)A1 ground electronic state. Extensive quadrupole hyperfine structure arising from the (67)Zn nucleus was observed for the H(67)ZnCH3 species, suggesting covalent bonding to the zinc atom. From the multiple isotopic substitutions, a precise structure for HZnCH3 has been determined. The influence of the axial hydrogen atom slightly distorts the methyl group but stabilizes the Zn-C bond. This study suggests that HZnCH3 can be formed through the oxidative addition of zinc to methane in the gas phase under certain conditions. HZnCH3 is the first metal-methane insertion complex to be structurally characterized.

  16. Photophysics of sunscreen molecules in the gas phase: a stepwise approach towards understanding and developing next-generation sunscreens (United States)

    Rodrigues, Natércia D. N.; Staniforth, Michael


    The relationship between exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation and skin cancer urges the need for extra photoprotection, which is presently provided by widespread commercially available sunscreen lotions. Apart from having a large absorption cross section in the UVA and UVB regions of the electromagnetic spectrum, the chemical absorbers in these photoprotective products should also be able to dissipate the excess energy in a safe way, i.e. without releasing photoproducts or inducing any further, harmful, photochemistry. While sunscreens are tested for both their photoprotective capability and dermatological compatibility, phenomena occurring at the molecular level upon absorption of UV radiation are largely overlooked. To date, there is only a limited amount of information regarding the photochemistry and photophysics of these sunscreen molecules. However, a thorough understanding of the intrinsic mechanisms by which popular sunscreen molecular constituents dissipate excess energy has the potential to aid in the design of more efficient, safer sunscreens. In this review, we explore the potential of using gas-phase frequency- and time-resolved spectroscopies in an effort to better understand the photoinduced excited-state dynamics, or photodynamics, of sunscreen molecules. Complementary computational studies are also briefly discussed. Finally, the future outlook of expanding these gas-phase studies into the solution phase is considered. PMID:27956888

  17. Tuning a High Transmission Ion Guide to Prevent Gas-Phase Proton Exchange During H/D Exchange MS Analysis (United States)

    Guttman, Miklos; Wales, Thomas E.; Whittington, Dale; Engen, John R.; Brown, Jeffery M.; Lee, Kelly K.


    Hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX) mass spectrometry (MS) for protein structural analysis has been adopted for many purposes, including biopharmaceutical development. One of the benefits of examining amide proton exchange by mass spectrometry is that it can readily resolve different exchange regimes, as evidenced by either binomial or bimodal isotope patterns. By careful analysis of the isotope pattern during exchange, more insight can be obtained on protein behavior in solution. However, one must be sure that any observed bimodal isotope patterns are not artifacts of analysis and are reflective of the true behavior in solution. Sample carryover and certain stationary phases are known as potential sources of bimodal artifacts. Here, we describe an additional undocumented source of deuterium loss resulting in artificial bimodal patterns for certain highly charged peptides. We demonstrate that this phenomenon is predominantly due to gas-phase proton exchange between peptides and bulk solvent within the initial stages of high-transmission conjoined ion guides. Minor adjustments of the ion guide settings, as reported here, eliminate the phenomenon without sacrificing signal intensity. Such gas-phase deuterium loss should be appreciated for all HDX-MS studies using such ion optics, even for routine studies not focused on interpreting bimodal spectra.

  18. Ion Mobility Spectrometry-Mass Spectrometry Coupled with Gas-Phase Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange for Metabolomics Analyses (United States)

    Maleki, Hossein; Karanji, Ahmad K.; Majuta, Sandra; Maurer, Megan M.; Valentine, Stephen J.


    Ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry (IMS-MS) in combination with gas-phase hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX) and collision-induced dissociation (CID) is evaluated as an analytical method for small-molecule standard and mixture characterization. Experiments show that compound ions exhibit unique HDX reactivities that can be used to distinguish different species. Additionally, it is shown that gas-phase HDX kinetics can be exploited to provide even further distinguishing capabilities by using different partial pressures of reagent gas. The relative HDX reactivity of a wide variety of molecules is discussed in light of the various molecular structures. Additionally, hydrogen accessibility scoring (HAS) and HDX kinetics modeling of candidate ( in silico) ion structures is utilized to estimate the relative ion conformer populations giving rise to specific HDX behavior. These data interpretation methods are discussed with a focus on developing predictive tools for HDX behavior. Finally, an example is provided in which ion mobility information is supplemented with HDX reactivity data to aid identification efforts of compounds in a metabolite extract.

  19. 3D Fractals as SERS Active Platforms: Preparation and Evaluation for Gas Phase Detection of G-Nerve Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Lafuente


    Full Text Available One of the main limitations of the technique surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS for chemical detection relies on the homogeneity, reproducibility and reusability of the substrates. In this work, SERS active platforms based on 3D-fractal microstructures is developed by combining corner lithography and anisotropic wet etching of silicon, to extend the SERS-active area into 3D, with electrostatically driven Au@citrate nanoparticles (NPs assembly, to ensure homogeneous coating of SERS active NPs over the entire microstructured platforms. Strong SERS intensities are achieved using 3D-fractal structures compared to 2D-planar structures; leading to SERS enhancement factors for R6G superior than those merely predicted by the enlarged area effect. The SERS performance of Au monolayer-over-mirror configuration is demonstrated for the label-free real-time gas phase detection of 1.2 ppmV of dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP, a common surrogate of G-nerve agents. Thanks to the hot spot accumulation on the corners and tips of the 3D-fractal microstructures, the main vibrational modes of DMMP are clearly identified underlying the spectral selectivity of the SERS technique. The Raman acquisition conditions for SERS detection in gas phase have to be carefully chosen to avoid photo-thermal effects on the irradiated area.

  20. Real-Time Optical Monitoring of Flow Kinetics and Gas Phase Reactions Under High-Pressure OMCVD Conditions (United States)

    Dietz, N.; McCall, S.; Bachmann, K. J.


    This contribution addresses the real-time optical characterization of gas flow and gas phase reactions as they play a crucial role for chemical vapor phase depositions utilizing elevated and high pressure chemical vapor deposition (HPCVD) conditions. The objectives of these experiments are to validate on the basis of results on real-time optical diagnostics process models simulation codes, and provide input parameter sets needed for analysis and control of chemical vapor deposition at elevated pressures. Access to microgravity is required to retain high pressure conditions of laminar flow, which is essential for successful acquisition and interpretation of the optical data. In this contribution, we describe the design and construction of the HPCVD system, which include access ports for various optical methods of real-time process monitoring and to analyze the initial stages of heteroepitaxy and steady-state growth in the different pressure ranges. To analyze the onset of turbulence, provisions are made for implementation of experimental methods for in-situ characterization of the nature of flow. This knowledge will be the basis for the design definition of experiments under microgravity, where gas flow conditions, gas phase and surface chemistry, might be analyzed by remote controlled real-time diagnostics tools, developed in this research project.