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Sample records for surface-emitting laser device

  1. Ring cavity surface emitting semiconductor lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mujagic, E.

    2010-01-01

    Quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) are electrically driven semiconductor lasers, which have undergone a steady improvement since the first demonstration in 1994. These are now well established as reliable sources of coherent light in the mid-infrared (MIR) and terahertz (THz)range of the electromagnetic spectrum (3-300 μm). The rapid progress of this type of lasers is based on a high degree of freedom in tailoring the emission wavelength within a large variety of semiconductor heterostructure designs and materials. These properties have attracted the attention of various applications such as gas analysis, chemical sensing, spectral imaging and free-space telecommunication. In order to improve the selectivity, sensitivity and efficiency of today's sensor systems, high optical power, continuous wave and room temperature performance, single-mode operation and low divergence optical beams, are highly desirable qualities of a compact laser source in this field of research. Since all of these features cannot be provided by a conventional edge-emitting device at the same time, research has put focus on the development of surface emitting devices. Nowadays, the vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) are the most prominent representative for this type of light emitters. With its capability of producing narrow circular beams, the feasibility of two-dimensional arrays and on-wafer testing, such a coherent light source results in a reduction of the fabrication effort and production costs. Since the radiation in QCLs is strictly polarized normal to the epitaxial layer plane, fabrication of VCSELs based on QC structures is not viable. The subject of this work is the design and realization of 'ring cavity surface emitting lasers' (ring-CSELs). This type of lasers employs a circular ring cavity and a resonant distributed feedback (DFB) surface grating. Ring-CSELs were fabricated on the basis of MIR and THz QC structures, which cover a wavelength range from 4 μm to 93

  2. The vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser incorporating a high contrast grating mirror as a sensing device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciniak, Magdalena; Gebski, Marcin; Piskorski, Łukasz; Dems, Maciej; Wasiak, M.; Panajotov, Krassimir; Lott, James A.; Czyszanowski, Tomasz

    2018-02-01

    We propose a novel optical sensing system based on one device that both emits and detects light consisting of a verticalcavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) incorporating an high contrast grating (HCG) as a top mirror. Since HCGs can be very sensitive to the optical properties of surrounding media, they can be used to detect gases and liquid. The presence of a gas or a liquid around an HCG mirror causes changes of the power reflectance of the mirror, which corresponds to changes of the VCSEL's cavity quality factor and current-voltage characteristic. By observation of the current-voltage characteristic we can collect information about the medium around the HCG. In this paper we investigate how the properties of the HCG mirror depend on the refractive index of the HCG surroundings. We present results of a computer simulation performed with a three-dimensional fully vectorial model. We consider silicon HCGs on silica and designed for a 1300 nm VCSEL emission wavelength. We demonstrate that our approach can be applied to other wavelengths and material systems.

  3. Surface emitting ring quantum cascade lasers for chemical sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szedlak, Rolf; Hayden, Jakob; Martín-Mateos, Pedro; Holzbauer, Martin; Harrer, Andreas; Schwarz, Benedikt; Hinkov, Borislav; MacFarland, Donald; Zederbauer, Tobias; Detz, Hermann; Andrews, Aaron Maxwell; Schrenk, Werner; Acedo, Pablo; Lendl, Bernhard; Strasser, Gottfried

    2018-01-01

    We review recent advances in chemical sensing applications based on surface emitting ring quantum cascade lasers (QCLs). Such lasers can be implemented in monolithically integrated on-chip laser/detector devices forming compact gas sensors, which are based on direct absorption spectroscopy according to the Beer-Lambert law. Furthermore, we present experimental results on radio frequency modulation up to 150 MHz of surface emitting ring QCLs. This technique provides detailed insight into the modulation characteristics of such lasers. The gained knowledge facilitates the utilization of ring QCLs in combination with spectroscopic techniques, such as heterodyne phase-sensitive dispersion spectroscopy for gas detection and analysis.

  4. Comparison of Mesa and Device Diameter Variation in Double Wafer-Fused Multi Quantum-Well, Long-Wavelength, Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menon, P.S.; Kandiah, K.; Burhanuddin Yeop Majlis; Shaari, S.

    2011-01-01

    Long-wavelength vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (LW-VCSELs) have profound advantages compared to traditional edge-emitting lasers offering improved properties with respect to mode selectivity, fibre coupling, threshold currents and integration into 2D arrays or with other electronic devices. Its commercialization is gaining momentum as the local and access network in optical communication system expand. Numerical modeling of LW-VCSEL utilizing wafer-fused InP-based multi-quantum wells (MQW) and GaAs-based distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) is presented in this paper. Emphasis is on the device and mesa/pillar diameter design parameter comparison and its effect on the device characteristics. (author)

  5. Emerging applications for vertical cavity surface emitting lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, J S; O'sullivan, T; Sarmiento, T; Lee, M M; Vo, S

    2011-01-01

    Vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) emitting at 850 nm have experienced explosive growth in the past decade because of their many attractive optical features and incredibly low-cost manufacturability. This review reviews the foundations for GaAs-based VCSEL technology as well as the materials and device challenges to extend the operating wavelength to both shorter and longer wavelengths. We discuss some of the applications that are enabled by the integration of VCSELs with both active and passive semiconductor elements for telecommunications, both in vivo and in vitro biosensing, high-density optical storage and imaging at wavelengths much less than the diffraction limit of light

  6. Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers for medical diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ansbæk, Thor

    This thesis deals with the design and fabrication of tunable Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers (VCSELs). The focus has been the application of tunable VCSELs in medical diagnostics, specifically OCT. VCSELs are candidates as light sources for swept-source OCT where their high sweep rate, wide...

  7. Submonolayer Quantum Dots for High Speed Surface Emitting Lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakharov ND

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractWe report on progress in growth and applications of submonolayer (SML quantum dots (QDs in high-speed vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs. SML deposition enables controlled formation of high density QD arrays with good size and shape uniformity. Further increase in excitonic absorption and gain is possible with vertical stacking of SML QDs using ultrathin spacer layers. Vertically correlated, tilted or anticorrelated arrangements of the SML islands are realized and allow QD strain and wavefunction engineering. Respectively, both TE and TM polarizations of the luminescence can be achieved in the edge-emission using the same constituting materials. SML QDs provide ultrahigh modal gain, reduced temperature depletion and gain saturation effects when used in active media in laser diodes. Temperature robustness up to 100 °C for 0.98 μm range vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs is realized in the continuous wave regime. An open eye 20 Gb/s operation with bit error rates better than 10−12has been achieved in a temperature range 25–85 °Cwithout current adjustment. Relaxation oscillations up to ∼30 GHz have been realized indicating feasibility of 40 Gb/s signal transmission.

  8. Modeling of circular-grating surface-emitting lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams-Zadeh-Amiri, Ali M.

    Grating-coupled surface-emitting lasers became an area of growing interest due to their salient features. Emission from a broad area normal to the wafer surface, makes them very well suited in high power applications and two- dimensional laser arrays. These new possibilities have caused an interest in different geometries to fully develop their potential. Among them, circular-grating lasers have the additional advantage of producing a narrow beam with a circular cross section. This special feature makes them ideal for coupling to optical fibers. All existing theoretical models dealing with circular- grating lasers only consider first-order gratings, or second-order gratings, neglecting surface emission. In this thesis, the emphasis is to develop accurate models describing the laser performance by considering the radiation field. Toward this aim, and due to the importance of the radiation modes in surface-emitting structures, a theoretical study of these modes in multilayer planar structures has been done in a rigorous and systematic fashion. Problems like orthogonality of the radiation modes have been treated very accurately. We have considered the inner product of radiation modes using the distribution theory. Orthogonality of degenerate radiation modes is an important issue. We have examined its validity using the transfer matrix method. It has been shown that orthogonality of degenerate radiation modes in a very special case leads to the Brewster theorem. In addition, simple analytical formulas for the normalization of radiation modes have been derived. We have shown that radiation modes can be handled in a much easier way than has been thought before. A closed-form spectral dyadic Green's function formulation of multilayer planar structures has been developed. In this formulation, both rectangular and cylindrical structures can be treated within the same mathematical framework. The Hankel transform of some auxiliary functions defined on a circular aperture has

  9. Vertical cavity surface emitting lasers from all-inorganic perovskite quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Handong; Wang, Yue; Li, Xiaoming; Zeng, Haibo

    We report the breakthrough in realizing the challenging while practically desirable vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) based on the CsPbX3 inorganic perovskite nanocrystals (IPNCs). These laser devices feature record low threshold (9 µJ/cm2), unidirectional output (beam divergence of 3.6º) and superb stability. We show that both single-mode and multimode lasing operation are achievable in the device. In contrast to traditional metal chacogenide colloidal quantum dots based lasers where the pump thresholds for the green and blue wavelengths are typically much higher than that of the red, these CsPbX3 IPNC-VCSEL devices are able to lase with comparable thresholds across the whole visible spectral range, which is appealing for achieving single source-pumped full-color lasers. We further reveal that these lasers can operate in quasi-steady state regime, which is very practical and cost-effective. Given the facile solution processibility, our CsPbX3 IPNC-VCSEL devices may hold great potential in developing low-cost yet high-performance lasers, promising in revolutionizing the vacuum-based epitaxial semiconductor lasers.

  10. Design of photonic crystal surface emitting lasers with indium-tin-oxide top claddings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shen-Che; Hong, Kuo-Bin; Chiu, Han-Lun; Lan, Shao-Wun; Chang, Tsu-Chi; Li, Heng; Lu, Tien-Chang

    2018-02-01

    Electrically pumped GaAs-based photonic crystal surface emitting lasers were fabricated using a simple fabrication process by directly capping the indium-tin-oxide transparent conducting thin film as the top cladding layer upon a photonic crystal layer. Optimization of the separate-confinement heterostructures of a laser structure is crucial to improving characteristics by providing advantageous optical confinements. The turn-on voltage, series resistance, threshold current, and slope efficiency of the laser with a 100 × 100 μm2 photonic crystal area operated at room temperature were 1.3 V, 1.5 Ω, 121 mA, and 0.2 W/A, respectively. Furthermore, we demonstrated a single-lobed lasing wavelength of 928.6 nm at 200 mA and a wavelength redshift rate of 0.05 nm/K in temperature-dependent measurements. The device exhibited the maximum output power of approximately 400 mW at an injection current of 2 A; moreover, divergence angles of less than 1° for the unpolarized circular-shaped laser beam were measured at various injection currents. Overall, the low threshold current, excellent beam quality, small divergence, high output power, and high-operating-temperature (up to 343 K) of our devices indicate that they can potentially fill the requirements for next-generation light sources and optoelectronic devices.

  11. The simulation of thermal characteristics of 980 nm vertical cavity surface emitting lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Tianxiao; Cui, Bifeng; Hao, Shuai; Wang, Yang

    2018-02-01

    In order to design a single mode 980 nm vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL), a 2 μm output aperture is designed to guarantee the single mode output. The effects of different mesa sizes on the lattice temperature, the output power and the voltage are simulated under the condition of continuous working at room temperature, to obtain the optimum process parameters of mesa. It is obtained by results of the crosslight simulation software that the sizes of mesa radius are between 9.5 to 12.5 μm, which cannot only obtain the maximum output power, but also improve the heat dissipation of the device. Project supported by the Beijing Municipal Eduaction Commission (No. PXM2016_014204_500018) and the Construction of Scientific and Technological Innovation Service Ability in 2017 (No. PXM2017_014204_500034).

  12. Reactive ion beam etching for microcavity surface emitting laser fabrication: technology and damage characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsutani, A.; Tadokoro, T.; Koyama, F.; Iga, K.

    1993-01-01

    Reactive ion beam etching (RIBE) is an effective dry etching technique for the fabrication of micro-sized surface emitting (SE) lasers and optoelectronic devices. In this chapter, some etching characteristics for GaAs, InP and GaInAsP with a Cl 2 gas using an RIBE system are discussed. Micro-sized circular mesas including GaInAsP/InP multilayers with vertical sidewalls were fabricated. RIBE-induced damage in InP substrates was estimated by C-V and PL measurement. In addition, the removal of the induced damage by the second RIBE with different conditions for the InP wafer was proposed. The sidewall damage is characterized by photoluminescence emitted from the etched sidewall of a GaInAsP/InP DH wafer. (orig.)

  13. Transverse-mode-selectable microlens vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chung, Il-Sug; Debernardi, Pierluigi; Lee, Yong Tak

    2010-01-01

    A new vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser structure employing a thin microlens is suggested and numerically investigated. The laser can be made to emit in either a high-power Gaussian-shaped single-fundamental mode or a high-power doughnut-shaped higher-order mode. The physical origin...

  14. Proton irradiation effects in oxide-confined vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, C.E.; Swift, G.M.; Guertin, S.; Schwank, J.R.; Armendariz, M.G.; Hash, G.L.; Choquette, K.D.

    1999-01-01

    Vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) diodes are employed as the emitter portion of opto-couplers that are used in space applications. Proton irradiation studies on VCSELs were performed at the Indiana University cyclotron facility. The beam energy was set at 192 MeV, the beam current was 200 nA that is equivalent to a flux of approximately 1*10 11 protons/cm 2 .s. We conclude that the oxide confined VCSELs examined in this study show more than sufficient radiation hardness for nearly all space applications. The observed proton-induced decreases in light output and the corresponding increases in laser threshold current can be explained in terms of proton-induced displacement damage which introduces non-radiative recombination centers in the active region of the lasers and causes a decrease in laser efficiency. These radiation effects accentuate the detrimental thermal effects observed at high currents. We also note that forward bias annealing is effective in these devices in producing at least partial recovery of the light output, and that this may be a viable hardness assurance technique during a flight mission. (A.C.)

  15. Surface-Emitting Distributed Feedback Terahertz Quantum-Cascade Lasers in Metal-Metal Waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sushil; Williams, Benjamin S.; Qin, Qi; Lee, Alan W. M.; Hu, Qing; Reno, John L.

    2007-01-01

    Single-mode surface-emitting distributed feedback terahertz quantumcascade lasers operating around 2.9 THz are developed in metal-metal waveguides. A combination of techniques including precise control of phase of reflection at the facets, and u e of metal on the sidewalls to eliminate higher-order lateral modes allow robust single-mode operation over a range of approximately 0.35 THz. Single-lobed far-field radiation pattern is obtained using a pi phase-shift in center of the second-order Bragg grating. A grating device operating at 2.93 THz lased up to 149 K in pulsed mode and a temperature tuning of 19 .7 GHz was observed from 5 K to 147 K. The same device lased up to 78 K in continuous-wave (cw) mode emitting more than 6 m W of cw power at 5 K. ln general, maximum temperature of pulsed operation for grating devices was within a few Kelvin of that of multi-mode Fabry-Perot ridge lasers

  16. Commercial mode-locked vertical external cavity surface emitting lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, C. Robin; Paboeuf, David; Ortega, Tiago; Lubeigt, Walter; Bialkowski, Bartlomiej; Lin, Jipeng; Hempler, Nils; Maker, Gareth T.; Malcolm, Graeme P. A.

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents the latest efforts in the development of commercial optically-pumped semiconductor disk lasers (SDLs) at M Squared Lasers. Two types of SDLs are currently being developed: an ultrafast system and a continuous wave single frequency system under the names of Dragonfly and Infinite, respectively. Both offer a compact, low-cost, easy-to-use and maintenance-free tool for a range of growing markets including nonlinear microscopy and quantum technology. To facilitate consumer uptake of the SDL technology, the performance specifications aim to closely match the currently employed systems. An extended Dragonfly system is being developed targeting the nonlinear microscopy market, which typically requires 1-W average power pulse trains with pulse durations below 200 fs. The pulse repetition frequency (PRF) of the commonly used laser systems, typically Titanium-sapphire lasers, is 80 MHz. This property is particularly challenging for mode-locked SDLs which tend to operate at GHz repetition rates, due to their short upper state carrier lifetime. Dragonfly has found a compromise at 200 MHz to balance mode-locking instabilities with a low PRF. In the ongoing development of Dragonfly, additional pulse compression and nonlinear spectral broadening stages are used to obtain pulse durations as short as 130 fs with an average power of 0.85 W, approaching the required performance. A variant of the Infinite system was adapted to provide a laser source suitable for the first stage of Sr atom cooling at 461 nm. Such a source requires average powers of approximately 1 W with a sub-MHz linewidth. As direct emission in the blue is not a viable approach at this stage, an SDL emitting at 922 nm followed by an M Squared Lasers SolTiS ECD-X doubler is currently under development. The SDL oscillator delivered >1 W of single frequency (RMS frequency noise <150kHz) light at 922 nm.

  17. Dilute nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouhti, T; Okhotnikov, O; Konttinen, J; Gomes, L A; Peng, C S; Karirinne, S; Pavelescu, E-M; Pessa, M

    2003-01-01

    A novel quaternary compound semiconductor material, Ga 1-x In x N y As 1-y (0 0.65 In 0.35 N 0.014 As 0.986 /GaAs quantum wells with special strain-mediating layers. The laser characterization was carried out by using a fibre pigtailed 980 nm pump laser diode, 980/1300 nm wavelength division multiplexer and an optical spectrum analyser. A high optical output power of 3.5 mW was coupled lenslessly into a standard single-mode fibre

  18. Vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser vapor sensor using swelling polymer reflection modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ansbæk, Thor; Nielsen, Claus Højgård; Dohn, Søren

    2012-01-01

    Vapor detection using a low-refractive index polymer for reflection modulation of the top mirror in a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) is demonstrated. The VCSEL sensor concept presents a simple method to detect the response of a sensor polymer in the presence of volatile organic...

  19. Acetone vapor sensing using a vertical cavity surface emitting laser diode coated with polystyrene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ansbæk, Thor; Nielsen, Claus Højgaard; Larsen, Niels Bent

    2009-01-01

    We report theoretical and experimental on a new vapor sensor, using a single-mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) coated with a polymer sensor coating, which can detect acetone vapor at a volume fraction of 2.5%. The sensor provides the advantage of standard packaging, small form...

  20. Polymer-coated vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser diode vapor sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ansbæk, Thor; Nielsen, Claus Højgaard; Larsen, Niels Bent

    2010-01-01

    We report a new method for monitoring vapor concentration of volatile organic compounds using a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL). The VCSEL is coated with a polymer thin film on the top distributed Bragg reflector (DBR). The analyte absorption is transduced to the electrical domain ...

  1. Spin-controlled ultrafast vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höpfner, Henning; Lindemann, Markus; Gerhardt, Nils C.; Hofmann, Martin R.

    2014-05-01

    Spin-controlled semiconductor lasers are highly attractive spintronic devices providing characteristics superior to their conventional purely charge-based counterparts. In particular, spin-controlled vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers (spin-VCSELs) promise to offer lower thresholds, enhanced emission intensity, spin amplification, full polarization control, chirp control and ultrafast dynamics. Most important, the ability to control and modulate the polarization state of the laser emission with extraordinarily high frequencies is very attractive for many applications like broadband optical communication and ultrafast optical switches. We present a novel concept for ultrafast spin-VCSELs which has the potential to overcome the conventional speed limitation for directly modulated lasers by the relaxation oscillation frequency and to reach modulation frequencies significantly above 100 GHz. The concept is based on the coupled spin-photon dynamics in birefringent micro-cavity lasers. By injecting spin-polarized carriers in the VCSEL, oscillations of the coupled spin-photon system can by induced which lead to oscillations of the polarization state of the laser emission. These oscillations are decoupled from conventional relaxation oscillations of the carrier-photon system and can be much faster than these. Utilizing these polarization oscillations is thus a very promising approach to develop ultrafast spin-VCSELs for high speed optical data communication in the near future. Different aspects of the spin and polarization dynamics, its connection to birefringence and bistability in the cavity, controlled switching of the oscillations, and the limitations of this novel approach will be analysed theoretically and experimentally for spin-polarized VCSELs at room temperature.

  2. Few-mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser: Optional emission of transverse modes with different polarizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Chuyu; Zhang, Xing; Hofmann, Werner; Yu, Lijuan; Liu, Jianguo; Ning, Yongqiang; Wang, Lijun

    2018-05-01

    Few-mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers that can be controlled to emit certain modes and polarization states simply by changing the biased contacts are proposed and fabricated. By directly etching trenches in the p-doped distributed Bragg reflector, the upper mesa is separated into several submesas above the oxide layer. Individual contacts are then deposited. Each contact is used to control certain transverse modes with different polarization directions emitted from the corresponding submesa. These new devices can be seen as a prototype of compact laser sources in mode division multiplexing communications systems.

  3. 4.5 μm wavelength vertical external cavity surface emitting laser operating above room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, M.; Khiar, A.; Felder, F.; Fill, M.; Zogg, H.

    2009-05-01

    A midinfrared vertical external cavity surface emitting laser with 4.5 μm emission wavelength and operating above room temperature has been realized. The active part consists of a single 850 nm thick epitaxial PbSe gain layer. It is followed by a 2 1/2 pair Pb1-yEuyTe/BaF2 Bragg mirror. No microstructural processing is needed. Excitation is done optically with a 1.5 μm wavelength laser. The device operates up to 45 °C with 100 ns pulses and delivers 6 mW output power at 27 °C heat-sink temperature.

  4. 2 W high efficiency PbS mid-infrared surface emitting laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, A.; Sugiyama, Y.; Isaji, Y.; Kodama, K.; Takano, Y.; Sakata, H.; Rahim, M.; Khiar, A.; Fill, M.; Felder, F.; Zogg, H.

    2011-09-01

    High efficiency laser operation with output power exceeding 2 W was obtained for vertical external-cavity PbS based IV-VI compound surface emitting quantum-well structures. The laser showed external quantum efficiency as high as 16%. Generally, mid-infrared III-V or II-VI semiconductor laser operation utilizing interband electron transitions are restricted by Auger recombination and free carrier absorption. Auger recombination is much lower in the IV-VI semiconductors, and the free-carrier absorption is significantly reduced by an optically pumped laser structure including multi-step optical excitation layers.

  5. Transverse and polarization effects in index-guided vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torre, M. S.; Masoller, C.; Mandel, Paul

    2006-01-01

    We study numerically the polarization dynamics of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSEL's) operating in the fundamental transverse mode. We use an extension of the spin-flip model that not only accounts for the vector nature of the laser field, but also considers spatial transverse effects. The model assumes two orthogonal, linearly polarized fields, which are coupled to two carrier populations, associated with different spin sublevels of the conduction and valence bands in the quantum-well active region. Spatial effects are taken into account by considering transverse profiles for the two polarizations, for the two carrier populations, and for the carrier diffusion. The optical profile is the LP 01 mode, suitable for describing index-guided VCSEL's with cylindrical symmetry emitting on the fundamental transverse mode for both polarizations. We find that in small-active-region VCSEL's, fast carrier diffusion induces self-sustained oscillations of the total laser output, which are not present in larger-area devices or with slow carrier diffusion. These self-pulsations appear close to threshold, and, as the injection current increases, they grow in amplitude; however, there is saturation and the self-pulsations disappear at higher injection levels. The dependence of the oscillation amplitude on various laser parameters is investigated, and the results are found to be in good qualitative agreement with those reported by Van der Sande et al. [Opt. Lett. 29, 53 (2004)], based on a rate-equation model that takes into account transverse inhomogeneities through an intensity-dependent confinement factor

  6. Operation of a novel hot-electron vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkan, Naci; O'Brien-Davies, Angela; Thoms, A. B.; Potter, Richard J.; Poolton, Nigel; Adams, Michael J.; Masum, J.; Bek, Alpan; Serpenguzel, Ali; Aydinli, Atilla; Roberts, John S.

    1998-07-01

    The hot Electron Light Emission and Lasing in Semiconductor Heterostructures devices (HELLISH-1) is novel surface emitter consisting of a GaAs quantum well, within the depletion region, on the n side of Ga1-xAlxAs p- n junction. It utilizes hot electron transport parallel to the layers and injection of hot electron hole pairs into the quantum well through a combination of mechanisms including tunnelling, thermionic emission and diffusion of `lucky' carriers. Super Radiant HELLISH-1 is an advanced structure incorporating a lower distributed Bragg reflector (DBR). Combined with the finite reflectivity of the upper semiconductor-air interface reflectivity it defines a quasi- resonant cavity enabling emission output from the top surface with a higher spectral purity. The output power has increased by two orders of magnitude and reduced the full width at half maximum (FWHM) to 20 nm. An upper DBR added to the structure defines HELLISH-VCSEL which is currently the first operational hot electron surface emitting laser and lases at room temperature with a 1.5 nm FWHM. In this work we demonstrate and compare the operation of UB-HELLISH-1 and HELLISH-VCSEL using experimental and theoretical reflectivity spectra over an extensive temperature range.

  7. Ultrafast directional beam switching in coupled vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ning, C. Z.; Goorjian, P.

    2001-01-01

    We propose a strategy to performing ultrafast directional beam switching using two coupled vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs). The proposed strategy is demonstrated for two VCSELs of 5.6 μm in diameter placed about 1 μm apart from the edges, showing a switching speed of 42 GHz with a maximum far-field angle span of about 10 degree. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  8. Spectral-Modulation Characteristics of Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vas'kovskaya, M. I.; Vasil'ev, V. V.; Zibrov, S. A.; Yakovlev, V. P.; Velichanskii, V. L.

    2018-01-01

    The requirements imposed on vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers in a number of metrological problems in which optical pumping of alkali atoms is used are considered. For lasers produced by different manufacturers, these requirements are compared with the experimentally observed spectral characteristics at a constant pump current and in the microwave modulation mode. It is shown that a comparatively small number of lasers in the microwave modulation mode make it possible to obtain the spectrum required for atomic clocks based on the coherent population-trapping effect.

  9. Optical Injection Locking of Vertical Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers: Digital and Analog Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parekh, Devang

    With the rise of mobile (cellphones, tablets, notebooks, etc.) and broadband wireline communications (Fiber to the Home), there are increasing demands being placed on transmitters for moving data from device to device and around the world. Digital and analog fiber-optic communications have been the key technology to meet this challenge, ushering in ubiquitous Internet and cable TV over the past 20 years. At the physical layer, high-volume low-cost manufacturing of semiconductor optoelectronic devices has played an integral role in allowing for deployment of high-speed communication links. In particular, vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSEL) have revolutionized short reach communications and are poised to enter more markets due to their low cost, small size, and performance. However, VCSELs have disadvantages such as limited modulation performance and large frequency chirp which limits fiber transmission speed and distance, key parameters for many fiber-optic communication systems. Optical injection locking is one method to overcome these limitations without re-engineering the VCSEL at the device level. By locking the frequency and phase of the VCSEL by the direct injection of light from another laser oscillator, improved device performance is achieved in a post-fabrication method. In this dissertation, optical injection locking of VCSELs is investigated from an applications perspective. Optical injection locking of VCSELs can be used as a pathway to reduce complexity, cost, and size of both digital and analog fiber-optic communications. On the digital front, reduction of frequency chirp via bit pattern inversion for large-signal modulation is experimentally demonstrated showing up to 10 times reduction in frequency chirp and over 90 times increase in fiber transmission distance. Based on these results, a new reflection-based interferometric model for optical injection locking was established to explain this phenomenon. On the analog side, the resonance

  10. Self-mixing interferometry in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers for nanomechanical cantilever sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, David; Greve, Anders; Hvam, Jørn M.; Boisen, Anja; Yvind, Kresten

    2009-03-01

    We have experimentally investigated self-mixing interference produced by the feedback of light from a polymer micrometer-sized cantilever into a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser for sensing applications. In particular we have investigated how the visibility of the optical output power and the junction voltage depends on the laser injection current and the distance to the cantilever. The highest power visibility obtained from cantilevers without reflective coatings was ˜60%, resulting in a very high sensitivity of 45 mV/nm with a noise floor below 1.2 mV. Different detection schemes are discussed.

  11. Self-mixing interferometry in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers for nanomechanical cantilever sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, David; Greve, Anders; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    2009-01-01

    We have experimentally investigated self-mixing interference produced by the feedback of light from a polymer micrometer-sized cantilever into a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser for sensing applications. In particular we have investigated how the visibility of the optical output power...... and the junction voltage depends on the laser injection current and the distance to the cantilever. The highest power visibility obtained from cantilevers without reflective coatings was 60%, resulting in a very high sensitivity of 45 mV/nm with a noise floor below 1.2 mV. Different detection schemes are discussed....

  12. Sub-monolayer dot vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blokhin, S.A.; Maleev, N.A.; Kuz'menkov, A.G.

    2006-01-01

    Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) based on submonolayer InGaAs quantum-dot active region and doped with AlGaAs/GaAs distributed Bragg reflectors were grown by molecular beam epitaxy. 3 μm aperture single-mode VCSELs demonstrate lasing at 980 nm with threshold current of 0.6 mA, maximum output power of 4 mW and external differential efficiency as high as 68%. Ultimately low internal optical losses were measured for these multimode sub-monolayer quantum dot VCSELs [ru

  13. VCSELs Fundamentals, Technology and Applications of Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The huge progress which has been achieved in the field is covered here, in the first comprehensive monograph on vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) since eight years. Apart from chapters reviewing the research field and the laser fundamentals, there are comprehensive updates on red and blue emitting VCSELs, telecommunication VCSELs, optical transceivers, and parallel-optical links for computer interconnects. Entirely new contributions are made to the fields of vectorial three-dimensional optical modeling, single-mode VCSELs, polarization control, polarization dynamics, very-high-speed design, high-power emission, use of high-contrast gratings, GaInNAsSb long-wavelength VCSELs, optical video links, VCSELs for optical mice and sensing, as well as VCSEL-based laser printing. The book appeals to researchers, optical engineers and graduate students.

  14. Continuously tunable monomode mid-infrared vertical external cavity surface emitting laser on Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khiar, A.; Rahim, M.; Fill, M.; Felder, F.; Hobrecker, F.; Zogg, H.

    2010-10-01

    A tunable PbTe based mid-infrared vertical external cavity surface emitting laser is described. The active part is a ˜1 μm thick PbTe layer grown epitaxially on a Bragg mirror on the Si-substrate. The cavity is terminated with a curved Si/SiO Bragg top mirror and pumped optically with a 1.55 μm laser. Cavity length is <100 μm in order that only one longitudinal mode is supported. By changing the cavity length, up to 5% wavelength continuous and mode-hop free tuning is achieved at fixed temperature. The total tuning extends from 5.6 to 4.7 μm at 100-170 K operation temperature.

  15. Optoelectronic integrated circuits utilising vertical-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakharov, S D; Fyodorov, V B; Tsvetkov, V V

    1999-01-01

    Optoelectronic integrated circuits with additional optical inputs/outputs, in which vertical-cavity surface-emitting (VCSE) lasers perform the data transfer functions, are considered. The mutual relationship and the 'affinity' between optical means for data transfer and processing, on the one hand, and the traditional electronic component base, on the other, are demonstrated in the case of implementation of three-dimensional interconnects with a high transmission capacity. Attention is drawn to the problems encountered when semiconductor injection lasers are used in communication lines. It is shown what role can be played by VCSE lasers in solving these problems. A detailed analysis is made of the topics relating to possible structural and technological solutions in the fabrication of single lasers and of their arrays, and also of the problems hindering integrating of lasers into emitter arrays. Considerable attention is given to integrated circuits with optoelectronic smart pixels. Various technological methods for vertical integration of GaAs VCSE lasers with the silicon substrate of a microcircuit (chip) are discussed. (review)

  16. Photodegradation and polarization properties of vertical external surface-emitting organic laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leang, Tatiana

    2014-01-01

    Although organic solid-state dye lasers can provide wavelength tunability in the whole visible spectrum and offers perspectives of low-cost compact lasers, they are still limited by several drawbacks, especially photodegradation. The geometry of a Vertical External Cavity Surface-emitting Organic Laser (VECSOL) enables organic lasers to reach high energies, excellent conversion efficiencies and good beam quality, it also enables an external control on many parameters, a feature that we have used here to study the photodegradation phenomenon as well as some polarization properties of organic solid-state lasers. In the first part of this thesis, we studied the lifetime of the laser upon varying several parameters (pump pulse-width, repetition rate, output coupling,...) and we found that the intracavity laser intensity, independently of the pump intensity, had a major on photodegradation rate. Moreover, we observed that the profile of the laser beam was also degrading with time: while it is Gaussian in the beginning it gradually shifts to an annular shape. In the second part, we investigated the polarization properties of VECSOLs, with a special emphasis on fluorescence properties of some typical dyes used in lasers. The crucial role played by resonant non-radiative energy transfers between dye molecules (HOMO-FRET) is evidenced and enables explaining the observed fluorescence depolarization, compared to the expected limiting fluorescence anisotropy. Energy transfers happen to play a negligible role above laser threshold, as the organic laser beam is shown to be linearly polarized in a wide range of experimental conditions when excitation occurs in the first singlet state. (author) [fr

  17. Steady-state characteristics of lateral p-n junction vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryzhii, V.; Tsutsui, N.; Khmyrova, I.; Ikegami, T.; Vaccaro, P. O.; Taniyama, H.; Aida, T.

    2001-09-01

    We developed an analytical device model for lateral p-n junction vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (LJVCSELs) with a quantum well active region. The model takes into account the features of the carrier injection, transport, and recombination in LJVCSELs as well as the features of the photon propagation in the cavity. This model is used for the calculation and analysis of the LJVCSEL steady-state characteristics. It is shown that the localization of the injected electrons primarily near the p-n junction and the reabsorption of lateral propagating photons significantly effects the LJVCSELs performance, in particular, the LJVCSEL threshold current and power-current characteristics. The reincarnation of electrons and holes due to the reabsorption of lateral propagating photons can substantially decrease the threshold current.

  18. Nonlinear dynamic behaviors of an optically injected vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaofeng; Pan Wei; Luo Bin; Ma Dong; Wang Yong; Li Nuohan

    2006-01-01

    Nonlinear dynamics of a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) with external optical injection are studied numerically. We consider a master-slave configuration where the dynamic characteristics of the slave are affected by the optical injection from the master, and we also establish the corresponding Simulink model. The period-doubling route as well as the period-halving route is observed, where the regular, double-periodic, and chaotic pulsings are found. By adjusting the injection strength properly, the laser can be controlled to work at a given state. The effects of frequency detuning on the nonlinear behaviors are also investigated in terms of the bifurcation diagrams of photon density with the frequency detuning. For weak injection case, the nonlinear dynamics shown by the laser are quite different when the value of frequency detuning varies contrarily (positive and negative direction). If the optical injection is strong enough, the slave can be locked by the master even though the frequency detuning is relatively large

  19. Transverse mode selection in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers via deep impurity-induced disordering

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Thomas R.; Kesler, Benjamin; Dallesasse, John M.

    2017-02-01

    Top emission 850-nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) demonstrating transverse mode selection via impurity-induced disordering (IID) are presented. The IID apertures are fabricated via closed ampoule zinc diffusion. A simple 1-D plane wave model based on the intermixing of Group III atoms during IID is presented to optimize the mirror loss of higher-order modes as a function of IID strength and depth. In addition, the impact of impurity diffusion into the cap layer of the lasers is shown to improve contact resistance. Further investigation of the mode-dependent characteristics of the device imply an increase in the thermal impedance associated with the fraction of IID contained within the oxide aperture. The optimization of the ratio of the IID aperture to oxide aperture is experimentally determined. Single fundamental mode output of 1.6 mW with 30 dBm side mode suppression ratio is achieved by a 3.0 μm oxide-confined device with an IID aperture of 1.3 μm indicating an optimal IID aperture size of 43% of the oxide aperture.

  20. 5-μm vertical external-cavity surface-emitting laser (VECSEL) for spectroscopic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, M.; Khiar, A.; Felder, F.; Fill, M.; Zogg, H.; Sigrist, M. W.

    2010-08-01

    Mid-IR tunable VECSELs (Vertical External-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers) emitting at 4-7 μm wavelengths and suitable for spectroscopic sensing applications are described. They are realized with lead-chalcogenide (IV-VI) narrow band gap materials. The active part, a single 0.6-2-μm thick PbTe or PbSe gain layer, is grown onto an epitaxial Bragg mirror consisting of two or three Pb1- y Eu y Te/BaF2 quarter-wavelength layer pairs. All layers are deposited by MBE in a single run employing a BaF2 or Si substrate, no further processing is needed. The cavity is completed with an external curved top mirror, which is again realized with an epitaxial Bragg structure. Pumping is performed optically with a 1.5-μm laser. Maximum output power for pulsed operation is currently up to >1 Wp at -173°C and >10 mW at 10°C. In continuous wave (CW) operation, 18 mW at 100 K are reached. Still higher operating temperatures and/or powers are expected with better heat-removal structures and better designs employing QW (Quantum-Wells). Advantages of mid-IR VECSELs compared to edge-emitting lasers are their very good beam quality (circular beam with 15 μm are accessible with Pb1- y X y Z (X=Sr, Eu, Sn, Z=Se, Te) and/or including QW.

  1. Nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers incorporating an ion implanted aperture

    KAUST Repository

    Leonard, J. T.; Cohen, D. A.; Yonkee, B. P.; Farrell, R. M.; Margalith, T.; Lee, S.; DenBaars, S. P.; Speck, J. S.; Nakamura, S.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 AIP Publishing LLC. We report on our recent progress in improving the performance of nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) by using an Al ion implanted aperture and employing a multi-layer electron-beam evaporated ITO intracavity contact. The use of an ion implanted aperture improves the lateral confinement over SiNx apertures by enabling a planar ITO design, while the multi-layer ITO contact minimizes scattering losses due to its epitaxially smooth morphology. The reported VCSEL has 10 QWs, with a 3nm quantum well width, 1nm barriers, a 5nm electron-blocking layer, and a 6.95- λ total cavity thickness. These advances yield a single longitudinal mode 406nm nonpolar VCSEL with a low threshold current density (∼16kA/cm2), a peak output power of ∼12μW, and a 100% polarization ratio. The lasing in the current aperture is observed to be spatially non-uniform, which is likely a result of filamentation caused by non-uniform current spreading, lateral optical confinement, contact resistance, and absorption loss.

  2. Nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers incorporating an ion implanted aperture

    KAUST Repository

    Leonard, J. T.

    2015-07-06

    © 2015 AIP Publishing LLC. We report on our recent progress in improving the performance of nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) by using an Al ion implanted aperture and employing a multi-layer electron-beam evaporated ITO intracavity contact. The use of an ion implanted aperture improves the lateral confinement over SiNx apertures by enabling a planar ITO design, while the multi-layer ITO contact minimizes scattering losses due to its epitaxially smooth morphology. The reported VCSEL has 10 QWs, with a 3nm quantum well width, 1nm barriers, a 5nm electron-blocking layer, and a 6.95- λ total cavity thickness. These advances yield a single longitudinal mode 406nm nonpolar VCSEL with a low threshold current density (∼16kA/cm2), a peak output power of ∼12μW, and a 100% polarization ratio. The lasing in the current aperture is observed to be spatially non-uniform, which is likely a result of filamentation caused by non-uniform current spreading, lateral optical confinement, contact resistance, and absorption loss.

  3. Single-mode temperature and polarisation-stable high-speed 850nm vertical cavity surface emitting lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazaruk, D E; Blokhin, S A; Maleev, N A; Bobrov, M A; Pavlov, M M; Kulagina, M M; Vashanova, K A; Zadiranov, Yu M; Ustinov, V M; Kuzmenkov, A G; Vasil'ev, A P; Gladyshev, A G; Blokhin, A A; Salut, 7 Larina Str, N Novgorod, 603950 (Russian Federation))" data-affiliation=" (JSV Salut, 7 Larina Str, N Novgorod, 603950 (Russian Federation))" >Fefelov, A G

    2014-01-01

    A new intracavity-contacted design to realize temperature and polarization-stable high-speed single-mode 850 nm vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) grown by molecular-beam epitaxy is proposed. Temperature dependences of static and dynamic characteristics of the 4.5 pm oxide aperture InGaAlAs VCSEL were investigated in detail. Due to optimal gain-cavity detuning and enhanced carrier localization in the active region the threshold current remains below 0.75 mA for the temperature range within 20-90°C, while the output power exceeds 1 mW up to 90°C. Single-mode operation with side-mode suppression ratio higher than 30 dB and orthogonal polarization suppression ratio more than 18 dB was obtained in the whole current and temperature operation range. Device demonstrates serial resistance less than 250 Ohm, which is rather low for any type of single-mode short- wavelength VCSELs. VCSEL demonstrates temperature robust high-speed operation with modulation bandwidth higher than 13 GHz in the entire temperature range of 20-90°C. Despite high resonance frequency the high-speed performance of developed VCSELs was limited by the cut-off frequency of the parasitic low pass filter created by device resistances and capacitances. The proposed design is promising for single-mode high-speed VCSEL applications in a wide spectral range

  4. Nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with a photoelectrochemically etched air-gap aperture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, J. T., E-mail: jtleona01@gmail.com; Yonkee, B. P.; Cohen, D. A.; Megalini, L.; Speck, J. S. [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Lee, S. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); DenBaars, S. P.; Nakamura, S. [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)

    2016-01-18

    We demonstrate a III-nitride nonpolar vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) with a photoelectrochemically (PEC) etched aperture. The PEC lateral undercut etch is used to selectively remove the multi-quantum well (MQW) region outside the aperture area, defined by an opaque metal mask. This PEC aperture (PECA) creates an air-gap in the passive area of the device, allowing one to achieve efficient electrical confinement within the aperture, while simultaneously achieving a large index contrast between core of the device (the MQW within the aperture) and the lateral cladding of the device (the air-gap formed by the PEC etch), leading to strong lateral confinement. Scanning electron microscopy and focused ion-beam analysis is used to investigate the precision of the PEC etch technique in defining the aperture. The fabricated single mode PECA VCSEL shows a threshold current density of ∼22 kA/cm{sup 2} (25 mA), with a peak output power of ∼180 μW, at an emission wavelength of 417 nm. The near-field emission profile shows a clearly defined single linearly polarized (LP) mode profile (LP{sub 12,1}), which is in contrast to the filamentary lasing that is often observed in III-nitride VCSELs. 2D mode profile simulations, carried out using COMSOL, give insight into the different mode profiles that one would expect to be displayed in such a device. The experimentally observed single mode operation is proposed to be predominantly a result of poor current spreading in the device. This non-uniform current spreading results in a higher injected current at the periphery of the aperture, which favors LP modes with high intensities near the edge of the aperture.

  5. High-power, format-flexible, 885-nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chad; Talantov, Fedor; Garrett, Henry; Berdin, Glen; Cardellino, Terri; Millenheft, David; Geske, Jonathan

    2013-03-01

    High-power, format flexible, 885 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) arrays have been developed for solid-state pumping and illumination applications. In this approach, a common VCSEL size format was designed to enable tiling into flexible formats and operating configurations. The fabrication of a common chip size on ceramic submount enables low-cost volume manufacturing of high-power VCSEL arrays. This base VCSEL chip was designed to be 5x3.33 mm2, and produced up to 50 Watts of peak continuous wave (CW) power. To scale to higher powers, multiple chips can be tiled into a combination of series or parallel configurations tailored to the application driver conditions. In actively cooled CW operation, the VCSEL array chips were packaged onto a single water channel cooler, and we have demonstrated 0.5x1, 1x1, and 1x3 cm2 formats, producing 150, 250, and 500 Watts of peak power, respectively, in under 130 A operating current. In QCW operation, the 1x3 cm2 VCSEL module, which contains 18 VCSEL array chips packaged on a single water cooler, produced over 1.3 kW of peak power. In passively cooled packages, multiple chip configurations have been developed for illumination applications, producing over 300 Watts of peak power in QCW operating conditions. These VCSEL chips use a substrate-removed structure to allow for efficient thermal heatsinking to enable high-power operation. This scalable, format flexible VCSEL architecture can be applied to wavelengths ranging from 800 to 1100 nm, and can be used to tailor emission spectral widths and build high-power hyperspectral sources.

  6. A GaInAsP/InP Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser for 1.5 m m operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sceats, R.; Balkan, N.; Adams, M. J.; Masum, J.; Dann, A. J.; Perrin, S. D.; Reid, I.; Reed, J.; Cannard, P.; Fisher, M. A.; Elton, D. J.; Harlow, M. J.

    1999-04-01

    We present the results of our studies concerning the pulsed operation of a bulk GaInAsP/InP vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL). The device is tailored to emit at around 1.5 m m at room temperature. The structure has a 45 period n-doped GaInAsP/InP bottom distributed Bragg reflector (DBR), and a 4 period Si/Al2O3 dielectric top reflector defining a 3-l cavity. Electroluminescence from a 16 m m diameter top window was measured in the pulsed injection mode. Spectral measurements were recorded in the temperature range between 125K and 240K. Polarisation, lasing threshold current and linewidth measurements were also carried out at the same temperatures. The threshold current density has a broad minimum at temperatures between 170K and 190K, (Jth=13.2 kA/cm2), indicating a good match between the gain and the cavity resonance in this temperature range. Maximum emitted power from the VCSEL is 0.18 mW at 180K.

  7. Upstream vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers for fault monitoring and localization in WDM passive optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Elaine; Zhao, Xiaoxue; Chang-Hasnain, Connie J.

    2008-04-01

    As wavelength division multiplexed passive optical networks (WDM-PONs) are expected to be first deployed to transport high capacity services to business customers, real-time knowledge of fiber/device faults and the location of such faults will be a necessity to guarantee reliability. Nonetheless, the added benefit of implementing fault monitoring capability should only incur minimal cost associated with upgrades to the network. In this work, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a fault monitoring and localization scheme based on a highly-sensitive and potentially low-cost monitor in conjunction with vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs). The VCSELs are used as upstream transmitters in the WDM-PON. The proposed scheme benefits from the high reflectivity of the top distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) mirror of optical injection-locked (OIL) VCSELs to reflect monitoring channels back to the central office for monitoring. Characterization of the fault monitor demonstrates high sensitivity, low bandwidth requirements, and potentially low output power. The added advantage of the proposed fault monitoring scheme incurs only a 0.5 dB penalty on the upstream transmissions on the existing infrastructure.

  8. Highly Selective Volatile Organic Compounds Breath Analysis Using a Broadly-Tunable Vertical-External-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuzson, Béla; Jágerská, Jana; Looser, Herbert; Graf, Manuel; Felder, Ferdinand; Fill, Matthias; Tappy, Luc; Emmenegger, Lukas

    2017-06-20

    A broadly tunable mid-infrared vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser (VECSEL) is employed in a direct absorption laser spectroscopic setup to measure breath acetone. The large wavelength coverage of more than 30 cm -1 at 3.38 μm allows, in addition to acetone, the simultaneous measurement of isoprene, ethanol, methanol, methane, and water. Despite the severe spectral interferences from water and alcohols, an unambiguous determination of acetone is demonstrated with a precision of 13 ppbv that is achieved after 5 min averaging at typical breath mean acetone levels in synthetic gas samples mimicking human breath.

  9. High-Speed Semiconductor Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers for Optical Data-Transmission Systems (Review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blokhin, S. A.; Maleev, N. A.; Bobrov, M. A.; Kuzmenkov, A. G.; Sakharov, A. V.; Ustinov, V. M.

    2018-01-01

    The main problems of providing a high-speed operation semiconductor lasers with a vertical microcavity (so-called "vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers") under amplitude modulation and ways to solve them have been considered. The influence of the internal properties of the radiating active region and the electrical parasitic elements of the equivalent circuit of lasers are discussed. An overview of approaches that lead to an increase of the cutoff parasitic frequency, an increase of the differential gain of the active region, the possibility of the management of mode emission composition and the lifetime of photons in the optical microcavities, and reduction of the influence of thermal effects have been presented. The achieved level of modulation bandwidth of ˜30 GHz is close to the maximum achievable for the classical scheme of the direct-current modulation, which makes it necessary to use a multilevel modulation format to further increase the information capacity of optical channels constructed on the basis of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers.

  10. Comparison of nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with tunnel junction and ITO intracavity contacts

    KAUST Repository

    Leonard, J. T.

    2016-03-01

    We report on the lasing of III-nitride nonpolar, violet, vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) with III-nitride tunnel-junction (TJ) intracavity contacts and ion implanted apertures (IIAs). The TJ VCSELs are compared to similar VCSELs with tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) intracavity contacts. Prior to analyzing device results, we consider the relative advantages of III-nitride TJs for blue and green emitting VCSELs. The TJs are shown to be most advantageous for violet and UV VCSELs, operating near or above the absorption edge for ITO, as they significantly reduce the total internal loss in the cavity. However, for longer wavelength III-nitride VCSELs, TJs primarily offer the advantage of improved cavity design flexibility, allowing one to make the p-side thicker using a thick n-type III-nitride TJ intracavity contact. This offers improved lateral current spreading and lower loss, compare to using ITO and p-GaN, respectively. These aspects are particularly important for achieving high-power CW VCSELs, making TJs the ideal intracavity contact for any III-nitride VCSEL. A brief overview of III-nitride TJ growth methods is also given, highlighting the molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) technique used here. Following this overview, we compare 12 mu m aperture diameter, violet emitting, TJ and ITO VCSEL experimental results, which demonstrate the significant improvement in differential efficiency and peak power resulting from the reduced loss in the TJ design. Specifically, the TJ VCSEL shows a peak power of similar to 550 mu W with a threshold current density of similar to 3.5 kA/cm(2), while the ITO VCSELs show peak powers of similar to 80 mu W and threshold current densities of similar to 7 kA/cm

  11. Comparison of nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with tunnel junction and ITO intracavity contacts

    KAUST Repository

    Leonard, J. T.; Young, E. C.; Yonkee, B. P.; Cohen, D. A.; Shen, Chao; Margalith, T.; Ng, Tien Khee; Denbaars, S. P.; Ooi, Boon S.; Speck, J. S.; Nakamura, S.

    2016-01-01

    We report on the lasing of III-nitride nonpolar, violet, vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) with III-nitride tunnel-junction (TJ) intracavity contacts and ion implanted apertures (IIAs). The TJ VCSELs are compared to similar VCSELs with tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) intracavity contacts. Prior to analyzing device results, we consider the relative advantages of III-nitride TJs for blue and green emitting VCSELs. The TJs are shown to be most advantageous for violet and UV VCSELs, operating near or above the absorption edge for ITO, as they significantly reduce the total internal loss in the cavity. However, for longer wavelength III-nitride VCSELs, TJs primarily offer the advantage of improved cavity design flexibility, allowing one to make the p-side thicker using a thick n-type III-nitride TJ intracavity contact. This offers improved lateral current spreading and lower loss, compare to using ITO and p-GaN, respectively. These aspects are particularly important for achieving high-power CW VCSELs, making TJs the ideal intracavity contact for any III-nitride VCSEL. A brief overview of III-nitride TJ growth methods is also given, highlighting the molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) technique used here. Following this overview, we compare 12 mu m aperture diameter, violet emitting, TJ and ITO VCSEL experimental results, which demonstrate the significant improvement in differential efficiency and peak power resulting from the reduced loss in the TJ design. Specifically, the TJ VCSEL shows a peak power of similar to 550 mu W with a threshold current density of similar to 3.5 kA/cm(2), while the ITO VCSELs show peak powers of similar to 80 mu W and threshold current densities of similar to 7 kA/cm

  12. Development of a compact vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser end-pumped actively Q-switched laser for laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Shuo; Chen, Rongzhang; Nelsen, Bryan; Chen, Kevin, E-mail: pec9@pitt.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260 (United States); Liu, Lei; Huang, Xi; Lu, Yongfeng [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588 (United States)

    2016-03-15

    This paper reports the development of a compact and portable actively Q-switched Nd:YAG laser and its applications in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The laser was end-pumped by a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL). The cavity lases at a wavelength of 1064 nm and produced pulses of 16 ns with a maximum pulse energy of 12.9 mJ. The laser exhibits a reliable performance in terms of pulse-to-pulse stability and timing jitter. The LIBS experiments were carried out using this laser on NIST standard alloy samples. Shot-to-shot LIBS signal stability, crater profile, time evolution of emission spectra, plasma electron density and temperature, and limits of detection were studied and reported in this paper. The test results demonstrate that the VCSEL-pumped solid-state laser is an effective and compact laser tool for laser remote sensing applications.

  13. Characterization of 2.3 μm GaInAsSb-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser structures using photo-modulated reflectance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chai, G. M. T. [Ibnu Sina Institute for Fundamental Science Studies, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru 81310 (Malaysia); Hosea, T. J. C., E-mail: j.hosea@surrey.ac.uk [Ibnu Sina Institute for Fundamental Science Studies, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru 81310 (Malaysia); Advanced Technology Institute and Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Fox, N. E.; Hild, K.; Ikyo, A. B.; Marko, I. P.; Sweeney, S. J. [Advanced Technology Institute and Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Bachmann, A.; Arafin, S.; Amann, M.-C. [Walter Schottky Institut, Technische Universität Munchen, Am Coulombwall 4, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2014-01-07

    We report angle dependent and temperature dependent (9 K–300 K) photo-modulated reflectance (PR) studies on vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) structures, designed for 2.3 μm mid-infrared gas sensing applications. Changing the temperature allows us to tune the energies of the quantum well (QW) transitions relative to the VCSEL cavity mode (CM) energy. These studies show that this VCSEL structure has a QW-CM offset of 21 meV at room temperature. Consequently the QW ground-state transition comes into resonance with the CM at 220 ± 2 K. The results from these PR studies are closely compared with those obtained in a separate study of actual operating devices and show how the PR technique may be useful for device optimisation without the necessity of having first to process the wafers into working devices.

  14. Characterization of 2.3 μm GaInAsSb-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser structures using photo-modulated reflectance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai, G. M. T.; Hosea, T. J. C.; Fox, N. E.; Hild, K.; Ikyo, A. B.; Marko, I. P.; Sweeney, S. J.; Bachmann, A.; Arafin, S.; Amann, M.-C.

    2014-01-01

    We report angle dependent and temperature dependent (9 K–300 K) photo-modulated reflectance (PR) studies on vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) structures, designed for 2.3 μm mid-infrared gas sensing applications. Changing the temperature allows us to tune the energies of the quantum well (QW) transitions relative to the VCSEL cavity mode (CM) energy. These studies show that this VCSEL structure has a QW-CM offset of 21 meV at room temperature. Consequently the QW ground-state transition comes into resonance with the CM at 220 ± 2 K. The results from these PR studies are closely compared with those obtained in a separate study of actual operating devices and show how the PR technique may be useful for device optimisation without the necessity of having first to process the wafers into working devices

  15. A Study of the interaction of radiation and semiconductor lasers: an analysis of transient and permanent effects induced on edge emitting and vertical cavity surface emitting laser diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pailharey, Eric

    2000-01-01

    The behavior of laser diodes under transient environment is presented in this work. The first section describes the basic phenomena of radiation interaction with matter. The radiative environments, the main characteristics of laser diodes and the research undertaken on the subject are presented and discussed. The tests on 1300 nm edge emitting laser diode are presented in the second section. The response to a transient ionizing excitation is explored using a 532 nm laser beam. The time of return to steady state after the perturbation is decomposed into several steps: decrease of the optical power during excitation, turn-on delay, relaxation oscillations and optical power offset. Their origins are analyzed using the device structure. To include all the phenomena in a numerical simulation of the device, an individual study of low conductivity materials used for the lateral confinement of the current density is undertaken. The effects of a single particle traversing the optical cavity and an analysis of permanent damages induced by neutrons are also determined. In the last section, 850 nm vertical cavity surface emitting laser diodes (VCSEL) are studied. The behavior of these devices which performances are in constant evolution, is investigated as a function of both temperature and polarization. Then VCSEL are submitted to transient ionizing irradiation and their responses are compared to those of edge emitting diodes. When proton implantation is used in the process, we observe the same behavior for both technologies. VCSEL were submitted to neutron fluence and we have studied the influence of the damages on threshold current, emission patterns and maximum of optical power. (author) [fr

  16. Exploiting broad-area surface emitting lasers to manifest the path-length distributions of finite-potential quantum billiards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Y T; Tuan, P H; Chang, K C; Hsieh, Y H; Huang, K F; Chen, Y F

    2016-01-11

    Broad-area vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) with different cavity sizes are experimentally exploited to manifest the influence of the finite confinement strength on the path-length distribution of quantum billiards. The subthreshold emission spectra of VCSELs are measured to obtain the path-length distributions by using the Fourier transform. It is verified that the number of the resonant peaks in the path-length distribution decreases with decreasing the confinement strength. Theoretical analyses for finite-potential quantum billiards are numerically performed to confirm that the mesoscopic phenomena of quantum billiards with finite confinement strength can be analogously revealed by using broad-area VCSELs.

  17. Integration of electro-absorption modulator in a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marigo-Lombart, L.; Calvez, S.; Arnoult, A.; Rumeau, A.; Viallon, C.; Thienpont, H.; Panajotov, K.; Almuneau, G.

    2018-02-01

    VCSELs became dominant laser sources in many short optical link applications such as datacenter, active cables, etc. Actual standards and commercialized VCSEL are providing 25 Gb/s data rates, but new solutions are expected to settle the next device generation enabling 100 Gb/s. Directly modulated VCSEL have been extensively studied and improved to reach bandwidths in the range of 26-32 GHz [Chalmers, TU Berlin], however at the price of increased applied current and thus reduced device lifetime. Furthermore, the relaxation oscillation limit still subsists with this solution. Thus, splitting the emission and the modulation functions as done with DFB lasers is a very promising alternative [TI-Tech, TU Berlin]. Here, we study the vertical integration of an ElectroAbsorption Modulator (EAM) within a VCSEL, where the output light of the VCSEL is modulated through the EAM section. In our original design, we finely optimized the EAM design to maximize the modulation depth by implementing perturbative Quantum Confined Stark Effect (QCSE) calculations, while designing the vertical integration of the EAM without penalty on the VCSEL static performances. We will present the different fabricated vertical structures, as well as the experimental electrical and optical static measurements for those configurations demonstrating a very good agreement with the reflectivity and absorption simulations obtained for both the VCSEL and the EAM-VCSEL structures. Finally, to reach very high frequency modulation we studied the BCB electrical properties up to 110 GHz and investigated coplanar and microstrip lines access to decrease both the parasitic capacitance and the influence of the substrate.

  18. Fast pulsing dynamics of a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser operating in the low-frequency fluctuation regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sciamanna, M.; Rogister, F.; Megret, P.; Blondel, M.; Masoller, C.; Abraham, N. B.

    2003-01-01

    We analyze the dynamics of a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with optical feedback operating in the low-frequency fluctuation regime. By focusing on the fast pulsing dynamics, we show that the two linearly polarized modes of the laser exhibit two qualitatively different behaviors: they emit pulses in phase just after a power dropout and they emit pulses out of phase after the recovery process of the output power. As a consequence, two distinct statistical distributions of the fast pulsating total intensity are observed, either monotonically decaying from the noise level or peaked around the mean intensity value. We further show that gain self-saturation of the lasing transition strongly modifies the shape of the intensity distribution

  19. Modular PbSrS/PbS mid-infrared vertical external cavity surface emitting laser on Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khiar, A.; Rahim, M.; Fill, M.; Felder, F.; Zogg, H.; Cao, D.; Kobayashi, S.; Yokoyama, T.; Ishida, A.

    2011-07-01

    A mid-infrared vertical external cavity surface emitting laser (VECSEL) based on undoped PbS is described herein. A 200 nm-thick PbS active layer embedded between PbSrS cladding layers forms a double heterostructure. The layers are grown on a lattice and thermal expansion mismatched Si-substrate. The substrate is placed onto a flat bottom Bragg mirror again grown on a Si substrate, and the VECSEL is completed with a curved top mirror. Pumping is done optically with a 1.55 μm laser diode. This leads to an extremely simple modular fabrication process. Lasing wavelengths range from 3-3.8 μm at 100-260 K heat sink temperature. The lowest threshold power is ˜210 mWp and highest output power is ˜250 mWp. The influence of the different recombination mechanism as well as free carrier absorption on the threshold power is modeled.

  20. Ultrafast pulse amplification in mode-locked vertical external-cavity surface-emitting lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Böttge, C. N., E-mail: boettge@optics.arizona.edu; Hader, J.; Kilen, I.; Moloney, J. V. [College of Optical Sciences, The University of Arizona, 1630 E. University Blvd., Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States); Koch, S. W. [College of Optical Sciences, The University of Arizona, 1630 E. University Blvd., Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States); Department of Physics and Material Sciences Center, Philipps-Universität Marburg, Renthof 5, 35032 Marburg (Germany)

    2014-12-29

    A fully microscopic many-body Maxwell–semiconductor Bloch model is used to investigate the influence of the non-equilibrium carrier dynamics on the short-pulse amplification in mode-locked semiconductor microlaser systems. The numerical solution of the coupled equations allows for a self-consistent investigation of the light–matter coupling dynamics, the carrier kinetics in the saturable absorber and the multiple-quantum-well gain medium, as well as the modification of the light field through the pulse-induced optical polarization. The influence of the pulse-induced non-equilibrium modifications of the carrier distributions in the gain medium and the saturable absorber on the single-pulse amplification in the laser cavity is identified. It is shown that for the same structure, quantum wells, and gain bandwidth the non-equilibrium carrier dynamics lead to two preferred operation regimes: one with pulses in the (sub-)100 fs-regime and one with multi-picosecond pulses. The recovery time of the saturable absorber determines in which regime the device operates.

  1. Single-exposure two-dimensional superresolution in digital holography using a vertical cavity surface-emitting laser source array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granero, Luis; Zalevsky, Zeev; Micó, Vicente

    2011-04-01

    We present a new implementation capable of producing two-dimensional (2D) superresolution (SR) imaging in a single exposure by aperture synthesis in digital lensless Fourier holography when using angular multiplexing provided by a vertical cavity surface-emitting laser source array. The system performs the recording in a single CCD snapshot of a multiplexed hologram coming from the incoherent addition of multiple subholograms, where each contains information about a different 2D spatial frequency band of the object's spectrum. Thus, a set of nonoverlapping bandpass images of the input object can be recovered by Fourier transformation (FT) of the multiplexed hologram. The SR is obtained by coherent addition of the information contained in each bandpass image while generating an enlarged synthetic aperture. Experimental results demonstrate improvement in resolution and image quality.

  2. Impact of optical feedback on current-induced polarization behavior of 1550 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Tao; Wu, Zheng-Mao; Xie, Yi-Yuan; Wu, Jia-Gui; Tang, Xi; Fan, Li; Panajotov, Krassimir; Xia, Guang-Qiong

    2013-06-01

    Polarization switching (PS) between two orthogonal linearly polarized fundamental modes is experimentally observed in commercial free-running 1550 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) (Raycan). The characteristics of this PS are strongly modified after introducing a polarization-preserved (PP) or polarization-orthogonal (PO) optical feedback. Under the case that the external cavity is approximately 30 cm, the PP optical feedback results in the PS point shifting toward a lower injection current, and the region within which the two polarization modes coexist is enlarged with the increase of the PP feedback strength. Under too-strong PP feedback levels, the PS disappears. The impact of PO optical feedback on VCSEL polarization behavior is quite similar to that of PP optical feedback, but larger feedback strength is needed to obtain similar results.

  3. Lead-chalcogenide mid-infrared vertical external cavity surface emitting lasers with improved threshold: Theory and experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fill, Matthias; Debernardi, Pierluigi; Felder, Ferdinand; Zogg, Hans

    2013-11-01

    Mid-infrared Vertical External Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers (VECSEL) based on narrow gap lead-chalcogenide (IV-VI) semiconductors exhibit strongly reduced threshold powers if the active layers are structured laterally for improved optical confinement. This is predicted by 3-d optical calculations; they show that lateral optical confinement is needed to counteract the anti-guiding features of IV-VIs due to their negative temperature dependence of the refractive index. An experimental proof is performed with PbSe quantum well based VECSEL grown on a Si-substrate by molecular beam epitaxy and emitting around 3.3 μm. With proper mesa-etching, the threshold intensity is about 8-times reduced.

  4. Lead-chalcogenide mid-infrared vertical external cavity surface emitting lasers with improved threshold: Theory and experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fill, Matthias [ETH Zurich, Laser Spectroscopy and Sensing Lab, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Phocone AG, 8005 Zurich (Switzerland); Debernardi, Pierluigi [IEIIT-CNR, Torino 10129 (Italy); Felder, Ferdinand [Phocone AG, 8005 Zurich (Switzerland); Zogg, Hans [ETH Zurich (Switzerland)

    2013-11-11

    Mid-infrared Vertical External Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers (VECSEL) based on narrow gap lead-chalcogenide (IV-VI) semiconductors exhibit strongly reduced threshold powers if the active layers are structured laterally for improved optical confinement. This is predicted by 3-d optical calculations; they show that lateral optical confinement is needed to counteract the anti-guiding features of IV-VIs due to their negative temperature dependence of the refractive index. An experimental proof is performed with PbSe quantum well based VECSEL grown on a Si-substrate by molecular beam epitaxy and emitting around 3.3 μm. With proper mesa-etching, the threshold intensity is about 8-times reduced.

  5. PbSe quantum well mid-infrared vertical external cavity surface emitting laser on Si-substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fill, M.; Khiar, A.; Rahim, M.; Felder, F.; Zogg, H.

    2011-05-01

    Mid-infrared vertical external cavity surface emitting lasers based on PbSe/PbSrSe multi-quantum-well structures on Si-substrates are realized. A modular design allows growing the active region and the bottom Bragg mirror on two different Si-substrates, thus facilitating comparison between different structures. Lasing is observed from 3.3 to 5.1 μm wavelength and up to 52 °C heat sink temperature with 1.55 μm optical pumping. Simulations show that threshold powers are limited by Shockley-Read recombination with lifetimes as short as 0.1 ns. At higher temperatures, an additional threshold power increase occurs probably due to limited carrier diffusion length and carrier leakage, caused by an unfavorable band alignment.

  6. Theory and Modeling of Lasing Modes in Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Klein

    1998-01-01

    modes that the VCSEL can support are then determined by matching the gain necessary for the optical system in both magnitude and phase to the gain available from the laser's electronic system. Examples are provided.

  7. Near-infrared wafer-fused vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers for HF detection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Civiš, Svatopluk; Zelinger, Zdeněk; Nevrlý, V.; Dorogan, A.; Ferus, Martin; Iakovlev, V.; Sirbu, A.; Mereuta, A.; Caliman, A.; Suruceanu, G.; Kapon, E.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 147, NOV 2014 (2014), s. 53-59 ISSN 0022-4073 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD14022 Grant - others:Ministerstvo financí, Centrum zahraniční pomoci(CZ) PF049 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 ; RVO:68081707 Keywords : High resolution absorption spectroscopy * Monitoring of hydrogen fluoride, methane, and ammonia * Tunable diode laser spectroscopy (TDLS) Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.645, year: 2014

  8. Evolution of the Novalux extended cavity surface-emitting semiconductor laser (NECSEL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInerney, John G.

    2016-03-01

    Novalux Inc was an enterprise founded by Aram Mooradian in 1998 to commercialise a novel electrically pumped vertical extended cavity semiconductor laser platform, initially aiming to produce pump lasers for optical fiber telecommunication networks. Following successful major investment in 2000, the company developed a range of single- and multi-mode 980 nm pump lasers emitting from 100-500 mW with excellent beam quality and efficiency. This rapid development required solution of several significant problems in chip and external cavity design, substrate and DBR mirror optimization, thermal engineering and mode selection. Output coupling to single mode fiber was exceptional. Following the collapse of the long haul telecom market in late 2001, a major reorientation of effort was undertaken, initially to develop compact 60-100 mW hybrid monolithically integrated pumplets for metro/local amplified networks, then to frequency-doubled blue light emitters for biotech, reprographics and general scientific applications. During 2001-3 I worked at Novalux on a career break from University College Cork, first as R&D Director managing a small group tasked with producing new capabilities and product options based on the NECSEL platform, including high power, pulsed and frequency doubled versions, then in 2002 as Director of New Product Realization managing the full engineering team, leading the transition to frequency doubled products.

  9. Proton Irradiation Effects in Oxide-Confined Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (VCSEL) Diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armendariz, M.G.; Barnes, C.E.; Choquette, K.D.; Guertin, S.; Hash, G.L.; Schwank, J.R.; Swift, G.M.

    1999-01-01

    Recent space experience has shown that the use of commercial optocouplers can be problematic in spacecraft, such as TOPEX/Poseidon, that must operate in significant radiation environments. Radiation--induced failures of these devices have been observed in space and have been further documented at similar radiation doses in the laboratory. The ubiquitous use of optocouplers in spacecraft systems for a variety of applications, such as electrical isolation, switching and power transfer, is indicative of the need for optocouplers that can withstand the space radiation environment. In addition, the distributed nature of their use implies that it is not particularly desirable to shield optocouplers for use in radiation environments. Thus, it will be important for the space community to have access to radiation hardened/tolerant optocouplers. For many microelectronic and photonic devices, it is difficult to achieve radiation hardness without sacrificing performance. However, in the case of optocouplers, one should be able to achieve both superior radiation hardness and performance for such characteristics as switching speed, current transfer ratio (CTR), minimum power usage and array power transfer, if standard light emitting diodes (LEDs), such as those in the commercial optocouplers mentioned above, are avoided, and VCSELs are employed as the emitter portion of the optocoupler. The physical configuration of VCSELs allows one to achieve parallel use of an array of devices and construct a multichannel optocoupler in the standard fashion with the emitters and detectors looking at each other. In addition, detectors similar in structure to the VCSELs can be fabricated which allows bidirectional functionality of the optocoupler. Recent discussions suggest that VCSELs will enjoy widespread applications in the telecommunications and data transfer fields

  10. Chaos synchronization in vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser based on rotated polarization-preserved optical feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazhan, Salam; Ghassemlooy, Zabih; Busawon, Krishna

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the influence of the rotating polarization-preserved optical feedback on the chaos synchronization of a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) is investigated experimentally. Two VCSELs' polarization modes (XP) and (YP) are gradually rotated and re-injected back into the VCSEL. The anti-phase dynamics synchronization of the two polarization modes is evaluated using the cross-correlation function. For a fixed optical feedback, a clear relationship is found between the cross-correlation coefficient and the polarization angle θp. It is shown that high-quality anti-phase polarization-resolved chaos synchronization is achieved at higher values of θp. The maximum value of the cross-correlation coefficient achieved is -0.99 with a zero time delay over a wide range of θp beyond 65° with a poor synchronization dynamic at θp less than 65°. Furthermore, it is observed that the antiphase irregular oscillation of the XP and YP modes changes with θp. VCSEL under the rotating polarization optical feedback can be a good candidate as a chaotic synchronization source for a secure communication system.

  11. Attractor hopping between polarization dynamical states in a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser subject to parallel optical injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis-le Coarer, Florian; Quirce, Ana; Valle, Angel; Pesquera, Luis; Rodríguez, Miguel A.; Panajotov, Krassimir; Sciamanna, Marc

    2018-03-01

    We present experimental and theoretical results of noise-induced attractor hopping between dynamical states found in a single transverse mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) subject to parallel optical injection. These transitions involve dynamical states with different polarizations of the light emitted by the VCSEL. We report an experimental map identifying, in the injected power-frequency detuning plane, regions where attractor hopping between two, or even three, different states occur. The transition between these behaviors is characterized by using residence time distributions. We find multistability regions that are characterized by heavy-tailed residence time distributions. These distributions are characterized by a -1.83 ±0.17 power law. Between these regions we find coherence enhancement of noise-induced attractor hopping in which transitions between states occur regularly. Simulation results show that frequency detuning variations and spontaneous emission noise play a role in causing switching between attractors. We also find attractor hopping between chaotic states with different polarization properties. In this case, simulation results show that spontaneous emission noise inherent to the VCSEL is enough to induce this hopping.

  12. Amplification of an Autodyne Signal in a Bistable Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser with the Use of a Vibrational Resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chizhevsky, V. N.

    2018-01-01

    For the first time, it is demonstrated experimentally that a vibrational resonance in a polarization-bistable vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser can be used to increase the laser response in autodyne detection of microvibrations from reflecting surfaces. In this case, more than 25-fold signal amplification is achieved. The influence of the asymmetry of the bistable potential on the microvibration-detection efficiency is studied.

  13. Growth of 1.5 micron gallium indium nitrogen arsenic antimonide vertical cavity surface emitting lasers by molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wistey, Mark Allan

    Fiber optics has revolutionized long distance communication and long haul networks, allowing unimaginable data speeds and noise-free telephone calls around the world for mere pennies per hour at the trunk level. But the high speeds of optical fiber generally do not extend to individual workstations or to the home, in large part because it has been difficult and expensive to produce lasers which emitted light at wavelengths which could take advantage of optical fiber. One of the most promising solutions to this problem is the development of a new class of semiconductors known as dilute nitrides. Dilute nitrides such as GaInNAs can be grown directly on gallium arsenide, which allows well-established processing techniques. More important, gallium arsenide allows the growth of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs), which can be grown in dense, 2D arrays on each wafer, providing tremendous economies of scale for manufacturing, testing, and packaging. Unfortunately, GaInNAs lasers have suffered from what has been dubbed the "nitrogen penalty," with high thresholds and low efficiency as the fraction of nitrogen in the semiconductor was increased. This thesis describes the steps taken to identify and essentially eliminate the nitrogen penalty. Protecting the wafer surface from plasma ignition, using an arsenic cap, greatly improved material quality. Using a Langmuir probe, we further found that the nitrogen plasma source produced a large number of ions which damaged the wafer during growth. The ions were dramatically reduced using deflection plates. Low voltage deflection plates were found to be preferable to high voltages, and simulations showed low voltages to be adequate for ion removal. The long wavelengths from dilute nitrides can be partly explained by wafer damage during growth. As a result of these studies, we demonstrated the first CW, room temperature lasers at wavelengths beyond 1.5mum on gallium arsenide, and the first GaInNAs(Sb) VCSELs beyond 1

  14. Continuous wave vertical cavity surface emitting lasers at 2.5 μm with InP-based type-II quantum wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprengel, S.; Andrejew, A.; Federer, F.; Veerabathran, G. K.; Boehm, G.; Amann, M.-C.

    2015-01-01

    A concept for electrically pumped vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSEL) for emission wavelength beyond 2 μm is presented. This concept integrates type-II quantum wells into InP-based VCSELs with a buried tunnel junction as current aperture. The W-shaped quantum wells are based on the type-II band alignment between GaInAs and GaAsSb. The structure includes an epitaxial GaInAs/InP and an amorphous AlF 3 /ZnS distributed Bragg reflector as bottom and top (outcoupling) mirror, respectively. Continuous-wave operation up to 10 °C at a wavelength of 2.49 μm and a peak output power of 400 μW at −18 °C has been achieved. Single-mode emission with a side-mode suppression ratio of 30 dB for mesa diameters up to 14 μm is presented. The long emission wavelength and current tunability over a wavelength range of more than 5 nm combined with its single-mode operation makes this device ideally suited for spectroscopy applications

  15. Compact electro-absorption modulator integrated with vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser for highly efficient millimeter-wave modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalir, Hamed; Ahmed, Moustafa; Bakry, Ahmed; Koyama, Fumio

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate a compact electro-absorption slow-light modulator laterally-integrated with an 850 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL), which enables highly efficient millimeter-wave modulation. We found a strong leaky travelling wave in the lateral direction between the two cavities via widening the waveguide width with a taper shape. The small signal response of the fabricated device shows a large enhancement of over 55 dB in the modulation amplitude at frequencies beyond 35 GHz; thanks to the photon-photon resonance. A large group index of over 150 in a Bragg reflector waveguide enables the resonance at millimeter wave frequencies for 25 μm long compact modulator. Based on the modeling, we expect a resonant modulation at a higher frequency of 70 GHz. The resonant modulation in a compact slow-light modulator plays a significant key role for high efficient narrow-band modulation in the millimeter wave range far beyond the intrinsic modulation bandwidth of VCSELs.

  16. Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser for Operation at 1.5 µm with Integral AlGaInAs/InP Bragg mirrors

    OpenAIRE

    Linnik, M.; Christou, A.

    2001-01-01

    The design and performance of a low threshold selectively oxidized Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (VCSEL) fabricated for operation at a wavelength of 1.55 µm is based on III-V quaternary semiconductor alloys and is grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy technique. The theoretical investigation of the optical properties of the compound semiconductor alloys allows one to select the optimum materials for highly reflective Bragg mirrors. The simulation of the designed VCSEL performance has been ...

  17. Self-sustained pulsation in the oxide-confined vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers based on submonolayer InGaAs quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzmenkov, A. G.; Ustinov, V. M.; Sokolovskii, G. S.; Maleev, N. A.; Blokhin, S. A.; Deryagin, A. G.; Chumak, S. V.; Shulenkov, A. S.; Mikhrin, S. S.; Kovsh, A. R.; McRobbie, A. D.; Sibbett, W.; Cataluna, M. A.; Rafailov, E. U.

    2007-01-01

    The authors report the observation of strong self-pulsations in molecular-beam epitaxy-grown oxide-confined vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers based on submonolayer InGaAs quantum dots. At continuous-wave operation, self-pulsations with pulse durations of 100-300 ps and repetition rates of 0.2-0.6 GHz were measured. The average optical power of the pulsations was 0.5-1.0 mW at the laser continuous-wave current values of 1.5-2.5 mA

  18. Direct visualization of the in-plane leakage of high-order transverse modes in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers mediated by oxide-aperture engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledentsov, N.; Shchukin, V. A.; Kropp, J.-R.; Burger, S.; Schmidt, F.; Ledentsov, N. N.

    2016-03-01

    Oxide-confined apertures in vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) can be engineered such that they promote leakage of the transverse optical modes from the non- oxidized core region to the selectively oxidized periphery of the device. The reason of the leakage is that the VCSEL modes in the core can be coupled to tilted modes in the periphery if the orthogonality between the core mode and the modes at the periphery is broken by the oxidation-induced optical field redistribution. Three-dimensional modeling of a practical VCSEL design reveals i) significantly stronger leakage losses for high-order transverse modes than that of the fundamental one as high-order modes have a higher field intensity close to the oxide layers and ii) narrow peaks in the far-field profile generated by the leaky component of the optical modes. Experimental 850-nm GaAlAs leaky VCSELs produced in the modeled design demonstrate i) single-mode lasing with the aperture diameters up to 5μm with side mode suppression ratio >20dB at the current density of 10kA/cm2; and ii) narrow peaks tilted at 37 degrees with respect to the vertical axis in excellent agreement with the modeling data and confirming the leaky nature of the modes and the proposed mechanism of mode selection. The results indicate that in- plane coupling of VCSELs, VCSELs and p-i-n photodiodes, VCSEL and delay lines is possible allowing novel photonic integrated circuits. We show that the approach enables design of oxide apertures, air-gap apertures, devices created by impurity-induced intermixing or any combinations of such designs through quantitative evaluation of the leaky emission.

  19. 1.3 μm wavelength vertical cavity surface emitting laser fabricated by orientation-mismatched wafer bonding: A prospect for polarization control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuno, Yae L.; Geske, Jon; Gan, Kian-Giap; Chiu, Yi-Jen; DenBaars, Steven P.; Bowers, John E.

    2003-04-01

    We propose and demonstrate a long-wavelength vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) which consists of a (311)B InP-based active region and (100) GaAs-based distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs), with an aim to control the in-plane polarization of output power. Crystal growth on (311)B InP substrates was performed under low-migration conditions to achieve good crystalline quality. The VCSEL was fabricated by wafer bonding, which enables us to combine different materials regardless of their lattice and orientation mismatch without degrading their quality. The VCSEL was polarized with a power extinction ratio of 31 dB.

  20. A UWOC system based on a 6 m/5.2 Gbps 680 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chung-Yi; Tsai, Wen-Shing

    2018-02-01

    This study proves that an underwater wireless optical communication (UWOC) based on a 6 m/5.2 Gbps 68 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL)-based system is superior to a 405 nm UWOC system. This UWOC application is the first to use a VCSEL at approximately 680 nm. The experiment also proved that a 680 nm VCSEL has the same transmission distance as that of an approximately 405 nm laser diode. The 680 nm VCSEL has a 5.2 Gbps high transmission rate and can transmit up to 6 m. Thus, the setup is the best alternative solution for high-speed UWOC applications.

  1. Mid-infrared PbTe vertical external cavity surface emitting laser on Si-substrate with above 1 W output power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, M.; Fill, M.; Felder, F.; Chappuis, D.; Corda, M.; Zogg, H.

    2009-12-01

    Mid-infrared vertical external cavity surface emitting lasers (VECSELs) emitting above 1 W output power in pulsed mode and up to 17 mW in continuous mode at -172 °C were realized. Emission wavelength changes from 5 μm at -172 °C to 3.6 μm at 20 °C heat sink temperature. The active medium is a one wavelength thick PbTe layer grown by molecular beam epitaxy on a Si-substrate. It is followed by a 2.5 pair Pb1-yEuyTe/EuTe epitaxial Bragg mirror. The cavity is completed with an external curved Pb1-yEuyTe/BaF2 mirror. The VECSEL is optically pumped with 1.55 μm wavelength laser and In-soldered to Cu heat sink. No microstructural processing is needed.

  2. Control of emitted light polarization in a 1310 nm dilute nitride spin-vertical cavity surface emitting laser subject to circularly polarized optical injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alharthi, S. S., E-mail: ssmalh@essex.ac.uk; Hurtado, A.; Al Seyab, R. K.; Henning, I. D.; Adams, M. J. [School of Computer Science and Electronic Engineering, University of Essex, Wivenhoe Park, Colchester CO4 3SQ (United Kingdom); Korpijarvi, V.-M.; Guina, M. [Optoelectronics Research Centre (ORC), Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 692, FIN-33101 Tampere (Finland)

    2014-11-03

    We experimentally demonstrate the control of the light polarization emitted by a 1310 nm dilute nitride spin-Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (VCSEL) at room temperature. This is achieved by means of a combination of polarized optical pumping and polarized optical injection. Without external injection, the polarization of the optical pump controls that of the spin-VCSEL. However, the addition of the externally injected signal polarized with either left- (LCP) or right-circular polarization (RCP) is able to control the polarization of the spin-VCSEL switching it at will to left- or right-circular polarization. A numerical model has been developed showing a very high degree of agreement with the experimental findings.

  3. InGaN multiple-quantum-well epifilms on GaN-sillicon substrates for microcavities and surface-emitting lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, June Key; Cho, Hoon; Kim, Bok Hee; Park, Si Hyun; Gu, Erdan; Watson, Ian; Dawson, Martin

    2006-01-01

    We report the processing of InGaN/GaN epifilms on GaN-silicon substrates. High-quality InGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells (MQWs) were grown on GaN-silicon substrates, and their membranes were successfully fabricated using a selective wet etching of silicon followed by a dry etching of the AlGaN buffer layer. With atomic force microscope (AFM) measurements and photoluminescence (PL) measurements, we investigated the physical and the optical properties of the InGaN/GaN MQWs membranes. On the InGaN/GaN MQW membranes, dielectric distributed Bragg reflector (DBRs) were successfully deposited, which give, new possibilities for use in GaN microcavity and surface-emitting laser fabrication.

  4. GaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with tunnel junction contacts grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, SeungGeun; Forman, Charles A.; Lee, Changmin; Kearns, Jared; Young, Erin C.; Leonard, John T.; Cohen, Daniel A.; Speck, James S.; Nakamura, Shuji; DenBaars, Steven P.

    2018-06-01

    We report the first demonstration of III–nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) with tunnel junction (TJ) intracavity contacts grown completely by metal–organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). For the TJs, n++-GaN was grown on in-situ activated p++-GaN after buffered HF surface treatment. The electrical properties and epitaxial morphologies of the TJs were first investigated on TJ LED test samples. A VCSEL with a TJ intracavity contact showed a lasing wavelength of 408 nm, a threshold current of ∼15 mA (10 kA/cm2), a threshold voltage of 7.8 V, a maximum output power of 319 µW, and a differential efficiency of 0.28%.

  5. Complex-enhanced chaotic signals with time-delay signature suppression based on vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers subject to chaotic optical injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianjun; Duan, Yingni; Zhong, Zhuqiang

    2018-03-01

    A chaotic system is constructed on the basis of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs), where a slave VCSEL subject to chaotic optical injection (COI) from a master VCSEL with the external feedback. The complex degree (CD) and time-delay signature (TDS) of chaotic signals generated by this chaotic system are investigated numerically via permutation entropy (PE) and self-correlation function (SF) methods, respectively. The results show that, compared with master VCSEL subject to optical feedback, complex-enhanced chaotic signals with TDS suppression can be achieved for S-VCSEL subject to COI. Meanwhile, the influences of several controllable parameters on the evolution maps of CD of chaotic signals are carefully considered. It is shown that the CD of chaotic signals for S-VCSEL is always higher than that for M-VCSEL due to the CIO effect. The TDS of chaotic signals can be significantly suppressed by choosing the reasonable parameters in this system. Furthermore, TDS suppression and high CD chaos can be obtained simultaneously in the specific parameter ranges. The results confirm that this chaotic system may effectively improve the security of a chaos-based communication scheme.

  6. An efficient approach to characterizing and calculating carrier loss due to heating and barrier height variation in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jian, Wu; Summers, H. D.

    2010-01-01

    It is important to determine quantitatively the internal carrier loss arising from heating and barrier height variation in a vertical-cavity surface-emitting quantum well laser (VCSEL). However, it is generally difficult to realize this goal using purely theoretical formulas due to difficulty in deriving the parameters relating to the quantum well structure. In this paper, we describe an efficient approach to characterizing and calculating the carrier loss due to the heating and the barrier height change in the VCSEL. In the method, the thermal carrier loss mechanism is combined with gain measurement and calculation. The carrier loss is re-characterized in a calculable form by constructing the threshold current and gain detuning-related loss current using the measured gain data and then substituting them for the quantum well-related parameters in the formula. The result can be expressed as a product of an exponential weight factor linked to the barrier height change and the difference between the threshold current and gain detuning-related loss current. The gain variation at cavity frequency due to thermal carrier loss and gain detuning processes is measured by using an AlInGaAs–AlGaAs VCSEL structure. This work provides a useful approach to analysing threshold and loss properties of the VCSEL, particularly, gain offset design for high temperature operation of VCSELs. (classical areas of phenomenology)

  7. Demonstration of a III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with a III-nitride tunnel junction intracavity contact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, J. T.; Young, E. C.; Yonkee, B. P.; Cohen, D. A.; Margalith, T.; Speck, J. S.; DenBaars, S. P.; Nakamura, S.

    2015-01-01

    We report on a III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) with a III-nitride tunnel junction (TJ) intracavity contact. The violet nonpolar VCSEL employing the TJ is compared to an equivalent VCSEL with a tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) intracavity contact. The TJ VCSEL shows a threshold current density (J th ) of ∼3.5 kA/cm 2 , compared to the ITO VCSEL J th of 8 kA/cm 2 . The differential efficiency of the TJ VCSEL is also observed to be significantly higher than that of the ITO VCSEL, reaching a peak power of ∼550 μW, compared to ∼80 μW for the ITO VCSEL. Both VCSELs display filamentary lasing in the current aperture, which we believe to be predominantly a result of local variations in contact resistance, which may induce local variations in refractive index and free carrier absorption. Beyond the analyses of the lasing characteristics, we discuss the molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) regrowth of the TJ, as well as its unexpected performance based on band-diagram simulations. Furthermore, we investigate the intrinsic advantages of using a TJ intracavity contact in a VCSEL using a 1D mode profile analysis to approximate the threshold modal gain and general loss contributions in the TJ and ITO VCSEL

  8. Demonstration of a III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with a III-nitride tunnel junction intracavity contact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, J. T., E-mail: jtleona01@gmail.com; Young, E. C.; Yonkee, B. P.; Cohen, D. A.; Margalith, T.; Speck, J. S. [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); DenBaars, S. P.; Nakamura, S. [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)

    2015-08-31

    We report on a III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) with a III-nitride tunnel junction (TJ) intracavity contact. The violet nonpolar VCSEL employing the TJ is compared to an equivalent VCSEL with a tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) intracavity contact. The TJ VCSEL shows a threshold current density (J{sub th}) of ∼3.5 kA/cm{sup 2}, compared to the ITO VCSEL J{sub th} of 8 kA/cm{sup 2}. The differential efficiency of the TJ VCSEL is also observed to be significantly higher than that of the ITO VCSEL, reaching a peak power of ∼550 μW, compared to ∼80 μW for the ITO VCSEL. Both VCSELs display filamentary lasing in the current aperture, which we believe to be predominantly a result of local variations in contact resistance, which may induce local variations in refractive index and free carrier absorption. Beyond the analyses of the lasing characteristics, we discuss the molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) regrowth of the TJ, as well as its unexpected performance based on band-diagram simulations. Furthermore, we investigate the intrinsic advantages of using a TJ intracavity contact in a VCSEL using a 1D mode profile analysis to approximate the threshold modal gain and general loss contributions in the TJ and ITO VCSEL.

  9. Laser device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention provides a light source for light circuits on a silicon platform. A vertical laser cavity is formed by a gain region arranged between a first mirror structure and a second mirror structure, both acting as mirrors, by forming a grating region including an active material...

  10. Novel Cavities in Vertical External Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers for Emission in Broad Spectral Region by Means of Nonlinear Frequency Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukowski, Michal L.

    Optically pumped semiconductor vertical external cavity surface emitting lasers (VECSEL) were first demonstrated in the mid 1990's. Due to the unique design properties of extended cavity lasers VECSELs have been able to provide tunable, high-output powers while maintaining excellent beam quality. These features offer a wide range of possible applications in areas such as medicine, spectroscopy, defense, imaging, communications and entertainment. Nowadays, newly developed VECSELs, cover the spectral regions from red (600 nm) to around 5 microm. By taking the advantage of the open cavity design, the emission can be further expanded to UV or THz regions by the means of intracavity nonlinear frequency generation. The objective of this dissertation is to investigate and extend the capabilities of high-power VECSELs by utilizing novel nonlinear conversion techniques. Optically pumped VECSELs based on GaAs semiconductor heterostructures have been demonstrated to provide exceptionally high output powers covering the 900 to 1200 nm spectral region with diffraction limited beam quality. The free space cavity design allows for access to the high intracavity circulating powers where high efficiency nonlinear frequency conversions and wavelength tuning can be obtained. As an introduction, this dissertation consists of a brief history of the development of VECSELs as well as wafer design, chip fabrication and resonator cavity design for optimal frequency conversion. Specifically, the different types of laser cavities such as: linear cavity, V-shaped cavity and patented T-shaped cavity are described, since their optimization is crucial for transverse mode quality, stability, tunability and efficient frequency conversion. All types of nonlinear conversions such as second harmonic, sum frequency and difference frequency generation are discussed in extensive detail. The theoretical simulation and the development of the high-power, tunable blue and green VECSEL by the means of type I

  11. 850-nm Zn-diffusion vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with with oxide-relief structure for high-speed and energy-efficient optical interconnects from very-short to medium (2km) reaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jin-Wei; Wei, Chia-Chien; Chen, Jason (Jyehong); Yang, Ying-Jay

    2015-03-01

    High-speed and "green" ~850 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) have lately attracted lots of attention due to their suitability for applications in optical interconnects (OIs). To further enhance the speed and its maximum allowable linking distance of VCSELs are two major trends to meet the requirement of OI in next generation data centers. Recently, by use of the advanced 850 nm VCSEL technique, data rate as high as 64 Gbit/sec over 57m and 20 Gbit/sec over 2km MMF transmission have been demonstrated, respectively. Here, we will review our recent work about 850 nm Zn-diffusion VCSELs with oxide-relief apertures to further enhance the above-mentioned performances. By using Zn-diffusion, we can not only reduce the device resistance but also manipulate the number of optical modes to benefit transmission. Combing such device, which has excellent single-mode (SMSR >30 dB) and high-power (~7mW) performance, with advanced modulation format (OFDM), record-high bit-rate-distance-product through MMF (2.3 km×28 Gbit/sec) has been demonstrated. Furthermore, by selective etching away the oxide aperture inside Zn-diffusion VCSEL, significant enhancement of device speed, D-factor, and reliability can be observed. With such unique VCSEL structure, >40 Gbit/sec energy-efficient transmission over 100m MMF under extremely low-driving current density (<10kA/cm2) has been successfully demonstrated.

  12. Single-mode 850-nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with Zn-diffusion and oxide-relief apertures for > 50 Gbit/sec OOK and 4-PAM transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jin-Wei; Wei, Chia-Chien; Chen, Jyehong; Ledentsov, N. N.; Yang, Ying-Jay

    2017-02-01

    Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) has become the most important light source in the booming market of short-reach (targeted at 56 Gbit/sec data rate per channel (CEI-56G) with the total data rate up to 400 Gbit/sec. However, the serious modal dispersion of multi-mode fiber (MMF), limited speed of VCSEL, and its high resistance (> 150 Ω) seriously limits the >50 Gbit/sec linking distance (50 Gbit/sec transmission due to that it can save one-half of the required bandwidth. Nevertheless, a 4.7 dB optical power penalty and the linearity of transmitter would become issues in the 4-PAM linking performance. Besides, in the modern OI system, the optics transreceiver module must be packaged as close as possible with the integrated circuits (ICs). The heat generated from ICs will become an issue in speed of VSCEL. Here, we review our recent work about 850 nm VCSEL, which has unique Zn-diffusion/oxide-relief apertures and special p- doping active layer with strong wavelength detuning to further enhance its modulation speed and high-temperature (85°C) performances. Single-mode (SM) devices with high-speed ( 26 GHz), reasonable resistance ( 70 Ω) and moderate output power ( 1.5 mW) can be achieved. Error-free 54 Gbit/sec OOK transmission through 1km MMF has been realized by using such SM device with signal processing techniques. Besides, the volterra nonlinear equalizer has been applied in our 4-PAM 64 Gbit/sec transmission through 2-km OM4 MMF, which significantly enhance the linearity of device and outperforms fed forward equalization (FFE) technique. Record high bit-rate distance product of 128.km is confirmed for optical-interconnect applications.

  13. An iterative model for the steady state current distribution in oxide-confined vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Hsueh-Hua

    The purpose of this dissertation is to develop an iterative model for the analysis of the current distribution in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) using a circuit network modeling approach. This iterative model divides the VCSEL structure into numerous annular elements and uses a circuit network consisting of resistors and diodes. The measured sheet resistance of the p-distributed Bragg reflector (DBR), the measured sheet resistance of the layers under the oxide layer, and two empirical adjustable parameters are used as inputs to the iterative model to determine the resistance of each resistor. The two empirical values are related to the anisotropy of the resistivity of the p-DBR structure. The spontaneous current, stimulated current, and surface recombination current are accounted for by the diodes. The lateral carrier transport in the quantum well region is analyzed using drift and diffusion currents. The optical gain is calculated as a function of wavelength and carrier density from fundamental principles. The predicted threshold current densities for these VCSELs match the experimentally measured current densities over the wavelength range of 0.83 mum to 0.86 mum with an error of less than 5%. This model includes the effects of the resistance of the p-DBR mirrors, the oxide current-confining layer and spatial hole burning. Our model shows that higher sheet resistance under the oxide layer reduces the threshold current, but also reduces the current range over which single transverse mode operation occurs. The spatial hole burning profile depends on the lateral drift and diffusion of carriers in the quantum wells but is dominated by the voltage drop across the p-DBR region. To my knowledge, for the first time, the drift current and the diffusion current are treated separately. Previous work uses an ambipolar approach, which underestimates the total charge transferred in the quantum well region, especially under the oxide region. However, the total

  14. 20 Gbit/s error free transmission with ~850 nm GaAs-based vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) containing InAs-GaAs submonolayer quantum dot insertions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lott, J. A.; Shchukin, V. A.; Ledentsov, N. N.; Stinz, A.; Hopfer, F.; Mutig, A.; Fiol, G.; Bimberg, D.; Blokhin, S. A.; Karachinsky, L. Y.; Novikov, I. I.; Maximov, M. V.; Zakharov, N. D.; Werner, P.

    2009-02-01

    We report on the modeling, epitaxial growth, fabrication, and characterization of 830-845 nm vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) that employ InAs-GaAs quantum dot (QD) gain elements. The GaAs-based VCSELs are essentially conventional in design, grown by solid-source molecular beam epitaxy, and include top and bottom gradedheterointerface AlGaAs distributed Bragg reflectors, a single selectively-oxidized AlAs waveguiding/current funneling aperture layer, and a quasi-antiwaveguiding microcavity. The active region consists of three sheets of InAs-GaAs submonolayer insertions separated by AlGaAs matrix layers. Compared to QWs the InAs-GaAs insertions are expected to offer higher exciton-dominated modal gain and improved carrier capture and retention, thus resulting in superior temperature stability and resilience to degradation caused by operating at the larger switching currents commonly employed to increase the data rates of modern optical communication systems. We investigate the robustness and temperature performance of our QD VCSEL design by fabricating prototype devices in a high-frequency ground-sourceground contact pad configuration suitable for on-wafer probing. Arrays of VCSELs are produced with precise variations in top mesa diameter from 24 to 36 μm and oxide aperture diameter from 1 to 12 μm resulting in VCSELs that operate in full single-mode, single-mode to multi-mode, and full multi-mode regimes. The single-mode QD VCSELs have room temperature threshold currents below 0.5 mA and peak output powers near 1 mW, whereas the corresponding values for full multi-mode devices range from about 0.5 to 1.5 mA and 2.5 to 5 mW. At 20°C we observe optical transmission at 20 Gb/s through 150 m of OM3 fiber with a bit error ratio better than 10-12, thus demonstrating the great potential of our QD VCSELs for applications in next-generation short-distance optical data communications and interconnect systems.

  15. Short-wavelength infrared imaging using low dark current InGaAs detector arrays and vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser illuminators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdougal, Michael; Geske, Jon; Wang, Chad; Follman, David

    2011-06-01

    We describe the factors that go into the component choices for a short wavelength IR (SWIR) imager, which include the SWIR sensor, the lens, and the illuminator. We have shown the factors for reducing dark current, and shown that we can achieve well below 1.5 nA/cm2 for 15 μm devices at 7 °C. In addition, we have mated our InGaAs detector arrays to 640×512 readout integrated integrated circuits to make focal plane arrays (FPAs). The resulting FPAs are capable of imaging photon fluxes with wavelengths between 1 and 1.6 μm at low light levels. The dark current associated with these FPAs is extremely low, exhibiting a mean dark current density of 0.26 nA/cm2 at 0 °C. Noise due to the readout can be reduced from 95 to 57 electrons by using off-chip correlated double sampling. In addition, Aerius has developed laser arrays that provide flat illumination in scenes that are normally light-starved. The illuminators have 40% wall-plug efficiency and provide low-speckle illumination, and provide artifact-free imagery versus conventional laser illuminators.

  16. Swept-source optical coherence tomography powered by a 1.3-μm vertical cavity surface emitting laser enables 2.3-mm-deep brain imaging in mice in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Woo June; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2015-10-01

    We report noninvasive, in vivo optical imaging deep within a mouse brain by swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT), enabled by a 1.3-μm vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL). VCSEL SS-OCT offers a constant signal sensitivity of 105 dB throughout an entire depth of 4.25 mm in air, ensuring an extended usable imaging depth range of more than 2 mm in turbid biological tissue. Using this approach, we show deep brain imaging in mice with an open-skull cranial window preparation, revealing intact mouse brain anatomy from the superficial cerebral cortex to the deep hippocampus. VCSEL SS-OCT would be applicable to small animal studies for the investigation of deep tissue compartments in living brains where diseases such as dementia and tumor can take their toll.

  17. Laser device and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    A method is described of treatment of opacity of the lens of an eye resulting from foreign matter at the back surface of the eye lens within the vitreous fluid body of the eye with a passively Q-switched laser device. The method consists of: (a) generating a single lasing pulse emitted from the laser device focused within the eye vitreous fluid body, spaced from the lens back surface, creating a microplasma dot in the vitreous fluid body (b) then increasing the frequency of the lasing pulses emitted from the lasing device having a frequency greater than the life of the microplasma to generate an elongated lasing plasma within the eye vitreous fluid moving toward the lens back surface, until the elongated lasing plasma contacts and destroys the foreign matter

  18. Systematic characterization of a 1550 nm microelectromechanical (MEMS)-tunable vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) with 7.92 THz tuning range for terahertz photomixing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidar, M. T.; Preu, S.; Cesar, J.; Paul, S.; Hajo, A. S.; Neumeyr, C.; Maune, H.; Küppers, F.

    2018-01-01

    Continuous-wave (CW) terahertz (THz) photomixing requires compact, widely tunable, mode-hop-free driving lasers. We present a single-mode microelectromechanical system (MEMS)-tunable vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) featuring an electrothermal tuning range of 64 nm (7.92 THz) that exceeds the tuning range of commercially available distributed-feedback laser (DFB) diodes (˜4.8 nm) by a factor of about 13. We first review the underlying theory and perform a systematic characterization of the MEMS-VCSEL, with particular focus on the parameters relevant for THz photomixing. These parameters include mode-hop-free CW tuning with a side-mode-suppression-ratio >50 dB, a linewidth as narrow as 46.1 MHz, and wavelength and polarization stability. We conclude with a demonstration of a CW THz photomixing setup by subjecting the MEMS-VCSEL to optical beating with a DFB diode driving commercial photomixers. The achievable THz bandwidth is limited only by the employed photomixers. Once improved photomixers become available, electrothermally actuated MEMS-VCSELs should allow for a tuning range covering almost the whole THz domain with a single system.

  19. Printed Large-Area Single-Mode Photonic Crystal Bandedge Surface-Emitting Lasers on Silicon (Open Access Publisher’s Version)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-04

    TM, p) polarizations, for PCSEL-I and -II respectively. One can see that all of these bands are very flat at the edges close to Γ point, which... organised In0. 5Ga0. 5As quantum dot laser on silicon. Electron. Lett. 41, 742–744 (2005). 7. Balakrishnan, G. et al. Room-Temperature Optically Pumped

  20. Gas dynamic laser device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Born, G.

    1975-01-01

    The gas dynamic laser device is provided with an expansion chamber arranged between a heating chamber for the CO-gas and the resonance chamber. The expansion chamber is initially evacuated for producing a rarefaction wave. Between the heating chamber and the expansion chamber there are arranged rapid release means such as a valve or a diaphragm. Pressure recovering means are connected to the other side of the resonance chamber

  1. Single-photon emission at a rate of 143 MHz from a deterministic quantum-dot microlens triggered by a mode-locked vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlehahn, A.; Gschrey, M.; Schnauber, P.; Schulze, J.-H.; Rodt, S.; Strittmatter, A.; Heindel, T., E-mail: tobias.heindel@tu-berlin.de; Reitzenstein, S. [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Technische Universität Berlin, Berlin 10623 (Germany); Gaafar, M.; Vaupel, M.; Stolz, W.; Rahimi-Iman, A.; Koch, M. [Department of Physics and Materials Science Center, Philipps-Universität Marburg, 35032 Marburg (Germany)

    2015-07-27

    We report on the realization of a quantum dot (QD) based single-photon source with a record-high single-photon emission rate. The quantum light source consists of an InGaAs QD which is deterministically integrated within a monolithic microlens with a distributed Bragg reflector as back-side mirror, which is triggered using the frequency-doubled emission of a mode-locked vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser (ML-VECSEL). The utilized compact and stable laser system allows us to excite the single-QD microlens at a wavelength of 508 nm with a pulse repetition rate close to 500 MHz at a pulse width of 4.2 ps. Probing the photon statistics of the emission from a single QD state at saturation, we demonstrate single-photon emission of the QD-microlens chip with g{sup (2)}(0) < 0.03 at a record-high single-photon flux of (143 ± 16) MHz collected by the first lens of the detection system. Our approach is fully compatible with resonant excitation schemes using wavelength tunable ML-VECSELs, which will optimize the quantum optical properties of the single-photon emission in terms of photon indistinguishability.

  2. Laser decontamination device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michishita, Shizuo; Akagawa, Katsuhiko.

    1997-01-01

    One end of an optical fiber inserted into an inner cylinder is opposed to a wall surface to be decontaminated, and an opened top end of an intermediate cylinder circumferentially surrounding the inner cylinder is tightly in contact with the wall surface to be decontaminated, an open end of an outer cylinder circumferentially surrounding the intermediate cylinder is tightly in contact with the wall surface to be decontaminated. Dust removing holes are perforated in the vicinity of the top end of the intermediate cylinder while being in communication with the inside and the outside of the intermediate cylinder, and one end of an air supply tube is in communication with the space between the outer circumferential surface of the inner cylinder and the inner circumferential surface of the intermediate cylinder. The other end of the air supply tube is connected to an air supply device, one end of a sucking tube is in communication with the space between the outer circumferential surface of the intermediate cylinder and the inner circumferential surface of the outer cylinder, the other end of the sucking tube is connected to a sucking device, and the other end of the optical fiber is connected to a laser generation device. The laser generation device is operated while determining the air sucking amount increased than the air supply amount, the materials deposited on the wall surface are crushed and peeled off, and the peeled off materials are transferred by air flow to a filter and collected. (N.H.)

  3. Enhancement of slope efficiency and output power in GaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with a SiO2-buried lateral index guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuramoto, Masaru; Kobayashi, Seiichiro; Akagi, Takanobu; Tazawa, Komei; Tanaka, Kazufumi; Saito, Tatsuma; Takeuchi, Tetsuya

    2018-03-01

    We have achieved a high output power of 6 mW from a 441 nm GaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) under continuous wave (CW) operation, by reducing both the internal loss and the reflectivity of the front cavity mirror. A preliminary analysis of the internal loss revealed an enormously high transverse radiation loss in a conventional GaN-based VCSEL without lateral optical confinement (LOC). Introducing an LOC structure enhanced the slope efficiency by a factor of 4.7, with a further improvement to a factor of 6.7 upon reducing the front mirror reflectivity. The result was a slope efficiency of 0.87 W/A and an external differential quantum efficiency of 32% under pulsed operation. A flip-chip-bonded VCSEL also exhibited a high slope efficiency of 0.64 W/A and an external differential quantum efficiency of 23% for the front-side output under CW operation. The reflectivity of the cavity mirror was adjusted by varying the number of AlInN/GaN distributed Bragg reflector pairs from 46 to 42, corresponding to reflectivity values from 99.8% to 99.5%. These results demonstrate that a combination of internal loss reduction and cavity mirror control is a very effective way of obtaining a high output GaN-based VCSEL.

  4. A semiconductor laser device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takaro, K.; Naoki, T.; Satosi, K.; Yasutosi, K.

    1984-03-17

    A device is proposed which makes it possible to obtain single vertical mode emission in the absence of noise. Noise suppression is achieved by a method which determines the relationship between the donor densities in the second and third layers of an n type semiconductor laser, and the total output optical emission of layers with respect to the emission from the entire laser. The device consists of a photoresist film with a window applied to a 100 GaAs n type conductivity substrate using a standard method. Chemical etching through this window in the substrate is used to generate a slot approximately 1 micrometer in size. After the photoresist film is removed, the following layers are deposited from the liquid phase onto the substrate in the sequence indicated: a telurium doped protective layer of n type AlxGa(1-x) As; 2) an undoped active p type AlyGa(1-6) As layer and a tellurium doped upper protective n type conductivity GaAs layer.

  5. Laser working device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibanuma, Kiyoshi; Kakudate, Satoshi; Oka, Kiyoshi; Terakado, Takuya; Kondo, Mitsunori; Munakata, Tadashi; Makino, Yoshinobu; Honda, Keizo.

    1995-01-01

    A transmission pipe transmits laser beams along an axis thereof, and is inserted at the top end to a pipeline to be fabricated. A flat mirror is secured to the top end of the transmission pipe, and laser beams are reflected by the mirror, passed through a fabrication nozzle and focused to a fabrication point in the pipeline to be fabricated. A lens-type light focusing system is guided to the fabrication point by a plurality of rollers rotatable in the axial direction disposed in circumferential direction each at an equal pitch at the outer circumference of the transmission pipe. A centering mechanism is disposed for keeping the transmission pipe coaxially with the pipeline to be fabricated. Further, there are also disposed a mirror-type light focusing optical system for focusing light by a paraboloidal mirror and a spherical vehicle rotatable in all directions. A laser fabrication device can be reduced in the size, and it can be used in a high temperature and highly radioactive circumstance. (N.H.)

  6. Pb{sub 1–x}Eu{sub x}Te alloys (0 ⩽ x ⩽ 1) as materials for vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers in the mid-infrared spectral range of 4–5 μm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pashkeev, D. A., E-mail: d.pashkeev@gmail.com; Selivanov, Yu. G.; Chizhevskii, E. G.; Zasavitskiy, I. I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2016-02-15

    The optical properties of epitaxial layers and heterostructures based on Pb{sub 1–x}Eu{sub x}Te alloys (0 ⩽ x ⩽ 1) are analyzed in the context of designing Bragg mirrors and vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers for the midinfrared spectral range. It is shown that the optimal heteropair for laser microcavities is Pb{sub 1–x}Eu{sub x}Te(x ≈ 0.06)/EuTe. On the basis of this heteropair, highly reflective Bragg mirrors consisting of just three periods and featuring a reflectance of R ⩾ 99.8% at the center of the stop band are grown by molecular-beam epitaxy on BaF{sub 2} (111) substrates. Single-mode optically pumped vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers for the 4–5 μm spectral range operating at liquid-nitrogen temperatures are demonstrated.

  7. Laser marking method and device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okazaki, Yuki; Aoki, Nobutada; Mukai, Narihiko; Sano, Yuji; Yamamoto, Seiji.

    1997-01-01

    An object is disposed in laser beam permeating liquid or gaseous medium. Laser beams such as CW laser or pulse laser oscillated from a laser device are emitted to the object to apply laser markings with less degradation of identification and excellent corrosion resistance on the surface of the object simply and easily. Upon applying the laser markings, a liquid or gas as a laser beam permeating medium is blown onto the surface of the object, or the liquid or gas in the vicinity of the object is sucked, the laser beam-irradiated portion on the surface can be cooled positively. Accordingly, the laser marking can be formed on the surface of the object with less heat affection to the object. In addition, if the content of a nitrogen gas in the laser beam permeating liquid medium is reduced by degassing to lower than a predetermined value, or the laser beam permeating gaseous medium is formed by an inert gas, a laser marking having high corrosion resistance and reliability can be formed on the surface of the objective member. (N.H.)

  8. Near Field and Far Field Effects in the Taguchi-Optimized Design of AN InP/GaAs-BASED Double Wafer-Fused Mqw Long-Wavelength Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, P. S.; Kandiah, K.; Mandeep, J. S.; Shaari, S.; Apte, P. R.

    Long-wavelength VCSELs (LW-VCSEL) operating in the 1.55 μm wavelength regime offer the advantages of low dispersion and optical loss in fiber optic transmission systems which are crucial in increasing data transmission speed and reducing implementation cost of fiber-to-the-home (FTTH) access networks. LW-VCSELs are attractive light sources because they offer unique features such as low power consumption, narrow beam divergence and ease of fabrication for two-dimensional arrays. This paper compares the near field and far field effects of the numerically investigated LW-VCSEL for various design parameters of the device. The optical intensity profile far from the device surface, in the Fraunhofer region, is important for the optical coupling of the laser with other optical components. The near field pattern is obtained from the structure output whereas the far-field pattern is essentially a two-dimensional fast Fourier Transform (FFT) of the near-field pattern. Design parameters such as the number of wells in the multi-quantum-well (MQW) region, the thickness of the MQW and the effect of using Taguchi's orthogonal array method to optimize the device design parameters on the near/far field patterns are evaluated in this paper. We have successfully increased the peak lasing power from an initial 4.84 mW to 12.38 mW at a bias voltage of 2 V and optical wavelength of 1.55 μm using Taguchi's orthogonal array. As a result of the Taguchi optimization and fine tuning, the device threshold current is found to increase along with a slight decrease in the modulation speed due to increased device widths.

  9. 21 CFR 872.1745 - Laser fluorescence caries detection device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Laser fluorescence caries detection device. 872... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 872.1745 Laser fluorescence caries detection device. (a) Identification. A laser fluorescence caries detection device is a laser, a...

  10. Graphene devices based on laser scribing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Yan-Cong; Wei, Yu-Hong; Pang, Yu; Li, Yu-Xing; Wang, Dan-Yang; Li, Yu-Tao; Deng, Ning-Qin; Wang, Xue-Feng; Zhang, Hai-Nan; Wang, Qian; Yang, Zhen; Tao, Lu-Qi; Tian, He; Yang, Yi; Ren, Tian-Ling

    2018-04-01

    Graphene with excellent electronic, thermal, optical, and mechanical properties has great potential applications. The current devices based on graphene grown by micromechanical exfoliation, chemical vapor deposition (CVD), and thermal decomposition of silicon carbide are still expensive and inefficient. Laser scribing technology, a low-cost and time-efficient method of fabricating graphene, is introduced in this review. The patterning of graphene can be directly performed on solid and flexible substrates. Therefore, many novel devices such as strain sensors, acoustic devices, memory devices based on laser scribing graphene are fabricated. The outlook and challenges of laser scribing technology have also been discussed. Laser scribing may be a potential way of fabricating wearable and integrated graphene systems in the future.

  11. Semiconductor lasers stability, instability and chaos

    CERN Document Server

    Ohtsubo, Junji

    2017-01-01

    This book describes the fascinating recent advances made concerning the chaos, stability and instability of semiconductor lasers, and discusses their applications and future prospects in detail. It emphasizes the dynamics in semiconductor lasers by optical and electronic feedback, optical injection, and injection current modulation. Applications of semiconductor laser chaos, control and noise, and semiconductor lasers are also demonstrated. Semiconductor lasers with new structures, such as vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers and broad-area semiconductor lasers, are intriguing and promising devices. Current topics include fast physical number generation using chaotic semiconductor lasers for secure communication, development of chaos, quantum-dot semiconductor lasers and quantum-cascade semiconductor lasers, and vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers. This fourth edition has been significantly expanded to reflect the latest developments. The fundamental theory of laser chaos and the chaotic dynamics in se...

  12. Multi-point laser ignition device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIntyre, Dustin L.; Woodruff, Steven D.

    2017-01-17

    A multi-point laser device comprising a plurality of optical pumping sources. Each optical pumping source is configured to create pumping excitation energy along a corresponding optical path directed through a high-reflectivity mirror and into substantially different locations within the laser media thereby producing atomic optical emissions at substantially different locations within the laser media and directed along a corresponding optical path of the optical pumping source. An output coupler and one or more output lenses are configured to produce a plurality of lasing events at substantially different times, locations or a combination thereof from the multiple atomic optical emissions produced at substantially different locations within the laser media. The laser media is a single continuous media, preferably grown on a single substrate.

  13. OPTICAL DEFLECTOR CREATION FOR LASER THERAPEUTIC DEVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Baranov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with creation of optical deflector for management of laser radiation in physiotherapeutic devices. Design features and operation principles of electro-optical, optical-acoustic and mechanical deflectors, giving the possibility to carry out continuous or discrete scanning of a laser beam are shown. Operation mechanism of the mechanical type deflector on the example of domestic laser therapeutic scanners is described in detail. Application possibility in clinical practice for heating technique of the acupuncture points by volumetric scanning of tissues by the radiation of semiconductor lasers on wave lengths equal to 0,67 and 0,85 μm is investigated. Creation justification of the new type deflector is given. Comparison between stable and labile techniques of radiation is carried out. It is shown that more intensive warming up of a skin surface in acupuncture point projection is observed at volumetric scanning, rather than at planar scanning by laser beams. Temperature increase on a skin surface in projection of acupuncture points is detected at radiation in both the visible spectrum range (0,67 μm and the infrared range (0,85 μm. It gives the possibility to apply this scanning method to thermal photo-activation of the point and to extend an existing arsenal of laser reflexology methods. The optical deflector is offered for medical industry, making it possible to carry out volumetric scanning of a laser beam and to facilitate the medical personnel’s work in laser therapy and reflexology consulting rooms.

  14. 76 FR 20840 - Medical Devices; General and Plastic Surgery Devices; Classification of the Low Level Laser...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-14

    ... looking directly at the laser beam and the wearing of appropriate laser safety eyewear by both the user...). The special control for this device is the FDA guidance document entitled ``Guidance for Industry and...

  15. Lasers and optoelectronics fundamentals, devices and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Maini, Anil K

    2013-01-01

    With emphasis on the physical and engineering principles, this book provides a comprehensive and highly accessible treatment of modern lasers and optoelectronics. Divided into four parts, it explains laser fundamentals, types of lasers, laser electronics & optoelectronics, and laser applications, covering each of the topics in their entirety, from basic fundamentals to advanced concepts. Key features include: exploration of technological and application-related aspects of lasers and optoelectronics, detailing both existing and emerging applications in industry, medical diag

  16. Selective laser etching or ablation for fabrication of devices

    KAUST Repository

    Buttner, Ulrich; Salama, Khaled N.; Sapsanis, Christos

    2017-01-01

    Methods of fabricating devices vial selective laser etching are provided. The methods can include selective laser etching of a portion of a metal layer, e.g. using a laser light source having a wavelength of 1,000 nm to 1,500 nm. The methods can

  17. Multiquantum well beam-steering device for laser satellite communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahat, Roee; Levy, Itamar; Shlomi, Arnon

    2002-01-01

    With the increasing interest in laser satellite communications, new methods are sought to solve the existing problems of accurate and rapid laser beam deflection. Current solutions in the form of galvanometers or piezo fast steering mirrors with one or two degrees of freedom are bulky, power-consuming and slow. The Multi-Quantum Well (MQW) is a semiconductor device with unique potential to steer laser beams without any moving parts. We have conducted a preliminary evaluation of the potential application of the MQW as a laser beam-steering device for laser satellite communication, examining the performance of critical parameters for this type of communications.

  18. Device for frequency modulation of a laser output spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beene, J.R.; Bemis, C.E. Jr.

    1984-07-17

    A device is provided for fast frequency modulating the output spectrum of multimode lasers and single frequency lasers that are not actively stabilized. A piezoelectric transducer attached to a laser cavity mirror is driven in an unconventional manner to excite resonance vibration of the tranducer to rapidly, cyclicly change the laser cavity length. The result is a cyclic sweeping of the output wavelength sufficient to fill the gaps in the laser output frequency spectrum. When a laser is used to excite atoms or molecules, complete absorption line coverage is made possible.

  19. Simplified nonplanar wafer bonding for heterogeneous device integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geske, Jon; Bowers, John E.; Riley, Anton

    2004-07-01

    We demonstrate a simplified nonplanar wafer bonding technique for heterogeneous device integration. The improved technique can be used to laterally integrate dissimilar semiconductor device structures on a lattice-mismatched substrate. Using the technique, two different InP-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser active regions have been integrated onto GaAs without compromising the quality of the photoluminescence. Experimental and numerical simulation results are presented.

  20. Quantum confined laser devices optical gain and recombination in semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Blood, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The semiconductor laser, invented over 50 years ago, has had an enormous impact on the digital technologies that now dominate so many applications in business, commerce and the home. The laser is used in all types of optical fibre communication networks that enable the operation of the internet, e-mail, voice and skype transmission. Approximately one billion are produced each year for a market valued at around $5 billion. Nearly all semiconductor lasers now use extremely thin layers of light emitting materials (quantum well lasers). Increasingly smaller nanostructures are used in the form of quantum dots. The impact of the semiconductor laser is surprising in the light of the complexity of the physical processes that determine the operation of every device. This text takes the reader from the fundamental optical gain and carrier recombination processes in quantum wells and quantum dots, through descriptions of common device structures to an understanding of their operating characteristics. It has a consistent...

  1. Quantum dot optoelectronic devices: lasers, photodetectors and solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jiang; Chen, Siming; Seeds, Alwyn; Liu, Huiyun

    2015-01-01

    Nanometre-scale semiconductor devices have been envisioned as next-generation technologies with high integration and functionality. Quantum dots, or the so-called ‘artificial atoms’, exhibit unique properties due to their quantum confinement in all 3D. These unique properties have brought to light the great potential of quantum dots in optoelectronic applications. Numerous efforts worldwide have been devoted to these promising nanomaterials for next-generation optoelectronic devices, such as lasers, photodetectors, amplifiers, and solar cells, with the emphasis on improving performance and functionality. Through the development in optoelectronic devices based on quantum dots over the last two decades, quantum dot devices with exceptional performance surpassing previous devices are evidenced. This review describes recent developments in quantum dot optoelectronic devices over the last few years. The paper will highlight the major progress made in 1.3 μm quantum dot lasers, quantum dot infrared photodetectors, and quantum dot solar cells. (topical review)

  2. Aerodynamic window for a laser fusion device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, Wataru

    1983-01-01

    Since the window of a laser system absorbs a part of the laser energy, the output power is determined by the characteristics of the window. The use of an aerodynamic window has been studied. The required characteristics are to keep the large pressure difference. An equation of motion of a vortex was presented and analyzed. The operation power of the system was studied. A multi-stage aerodynamic window was proposed to reduce the power. When the jet flow of 0.3 of the Mach number is used, the operation power will be several Megawatt, and the length of an optical path will be about 100 m. (Kato, T.)

  3. Holographic Memory Devices with Injection Lasers,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-02-09

    0.1%. In addition, the large size of these lasers and the necessity of using high voltages for their charging make it more difficult to construct minia...IfflIaev ep*y isych kazeruw na woasoawimaj fazowych pwauuu, Kwant . Elekir., I (3974),1 .-. 12. M.A. Msjotcz . W.D. Samoiow, 1Pxd&**~W p pri zapial i

  4. Semiconductor Lasers Stability, Instability and Chaos

    CERN Document Server

    Ohtsubo, Junji

    2013-01-01

    This third edition of “Semiconductor Lasers, Stability, Instability and Chaos” was significantly extended.  In the previous edition, the dynamics and characteristics of chaos in semiconductor lasers after the introduction of the fundamental theory of laser chaos and chaotic dynamics induced by self-optical feedback and optical injection was discussed. Semiconductor lasers with new device structures, such as vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers and broad-area semiconductor lasers, are interesting devices from the viewpoint of chaotic dynamics since they essentially involve chaotic dynamics even in their free-running oscillations. These topics are also treated with respect to the new developments in the current edition. Also the control of such instabilities and chaos control are critical issues for applications. Another interesting and important issue of semiconductor laser chaos in this third edition is chaos synchronization between two lasers and the application to optical secure communication. One o...

  5. Laser, light, and energy devices for cellulite and lipodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Jennifer D; Goldman, Mitchel P

    2011-07-01

    Cellulite affects all races, and it is estimated that 85% of women older than 20 years have some degree of cellulite. Many currently accepted cellulite therapies target deficiencies in lymphatic drainage and microvascular circulation. Devices using radiofrequency, laser, and light-based energies, alone or in combination and coupled frequently with tissue manipulation, are available for improving cellulite. Laser assisted liposuction may improve cellulite appearance. Although improvement using these devices is temporary, it may last several months. Patients who want smoother skin with less visible cellulite can undergo a series of treatments and then return for additional treatments as necessary. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Development of technique for laser welding of biological tissues using laser welding device and nanocomposite solder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasimenko, A; Ichcitidze, L; Podgaetsky, V; Ryabkin, D; Pyankov, E; Saveliev, M; Selishchev, S

    2015-08-01

    The laser device for welding of biological tissues has been developed involving quality control and temperature stabilization of weld seam. Laser nanocomposite solder applied onto a wound to be weld has been used. Physicochemical properties of the nanocomposite solder have been elucidated. The nature of the tissue-organizing nanoscaffold has been analyzed at the site of biotissue welding.

  7. A high-energy, low-threshold tunable intracavity terahertz-wave parametric oscillator with surface-emitted configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y Y; Xu, D G; Jiang, H; Zhong, K; Yao, J Q

    2013-01-01

    A high-energy, low-threshold THz-wave output has been experimentally demonstrated with an intracavity terahertz-wave parametric oscillator based on a surface-emitted configuration, which was pumped by a diode-side-pumped Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. Different beam sizes and repetition rates of the pump light have been investigated for high-energy and high-efficiency THz-wave generation. The maximum THz-wave output energy of 283 nJ/pulse was obtained at 1.54 THz under an intracavity 1064 nm pump energy of 59 mJ. The conversion efficiency was 4.8 × 10 −6 , corresponding to a photon conversion efficiency of 0.088%. The pump threshold was 12.9 mJ/pulse. A continuously tunable range from 0.75 to 2.75 THz was realized. (paper)

  8. Design and reliability analysis of a novel laser acupuncture device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Boan; Zhong, Fulin; Zhao, Ke; Li, Ting

    2018-02-01

    Acupuncture has a long history of more than 2000 years in China. However, traditional acupuncture adopts metallic needles which may bring discomfort and pricking to patients. Laser acupuncture (LA) is a non-invasive and painless way to achieve some therapeutic effects. And compared to traditional acupuncture, LA is free from infection. Taking these advantages of LA into consideration, we innovatively developed a portable laser acupuncture device with therapy part and detection part together. Therapy part sends out laser at the wavelength of 650 nm onto special acupoints of patients. And detection part includes integrated light-emitting diode (LED, 735/805/850 nm) and photodiode (OPT101). The detection part is used for the data collection for calculation of hemodynamic parameters based on near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). In this work, we carried out current-power test for sensitivity of therapy part. And we also conducted liquid-model optical experiment and arm blocking test for the sensitivity and effectiveness of detection part. The final results demonstrated great potential and reliability of the novel laser acupuncture device. In the future, we will apply this device in clinical applications to verify the effectiveness of the device and improve the reliability for more treatment of diseases.

  9. Experiment of laser thomson scattering at HL-1 tokamak device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo Henian; Chen Jiafu; Yan Derong; Liu Aiping; Shi Peilan; Wang Wei; Liu Xiaomei

    1989-05-01

    The structure and performance of the Ruby Laser Thomson Scattering apparatus for HL-1 tokamak device is described. The method of acquisition and calibration of multichannel scattered signals are presented. Examples of measured electron temperature T. with experimental error are given

  10. Selective laser etching or ablation for fabrication of devices

    KAUST Repository

    Buttner, Ulrich

    2017-01-12

    Methods of fabricating devices vial selective laser etching are provided. The methods can include selective laser etching of a portion of a metal layer, e.g. using a laser light source having a wavelength of 1,000 nm to 1,500 nm. The methods can be used to fabricate a variety of features, including an electrode, an interconnect, a channel, a reservoir, a contact hole, a trench, a pad, or a combination thereof. A variety of devices fabricated according to the methods are also provided. In some aspects, capacitive humidity sensors are provided that can be fabricated according to the provided methods. The capacitive humidity sensors can be fabricated with intricate electrodes, e.g. having a fractal pattern such as a Peano curve, a Hilbert curve, a Moore curve, or a combination thereof.

  11. Quantum dot lasers: From promise to high-performance devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, P.; Mi, Z.; Yang, J.; Basu, D.; Saha, D.

    2009-03-01

    Ever since self-organized In(Ga)As/Ga(AI)As quantum dots were realized by molecular beam epitaxy, it became evident that these coherently strained nanostructures could be used as the active media in devices. While the expected advantages stemming from three-dimensional quantum confinement were clearly outlined, these were not borne out by the early experiments. It took a very detailed understanding of the unique carrier dynamics in the quantum dots to exploit their full potential. As a result, we now have lasers with emission wavelengths ranging from 0.7 to 1.54 μm, on GaAs, which demonstrate ultra-low threshold currents, near-zero chip and α-factor and large modulation bandwidth. State-of-the-art performance characteristics of these lasers are briefly reviewed. The growth, fabrication and characteristics of quantum dot lasers on silicon substrates are also described. With the incorporation of multiple quantum dot layers as a dislocation filter, we demonstrate lasers with Jth=900 A/cm 2. The monolithic integration of the lasers with guided wave modulators on silicon is also described. Finally, the properties of spin-polarized lasers with quantum dot active regions are described. Spin injection of electrons is done with a MnAs/GaAs tunnel barrier. Laser operation at 200 K is demonstrated, with the possibility of room temperature operation in the near future.

  12. Impurity studies in fusion devices using laser-fluorescence-spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husinsky, W.R.

    1980-08-01

    Resonance fluorescence excitation of neutral atoms using tunable radiation from dye lasers offers a number of unique advantages for impurity studies in fusion devices. Using this technique, it is possible to perform local, time-resolved measurements of the densities and velocity distributions of metallic impurities in fusion devices without disturbing the plasma. Velocities are measured by monitoring the fluorescence intensity while tuning narrow bandwidth laser radiation through the Doppler - broadened absorbtion spectrum of the transition. The knowledge of the velocity distribution of neutral impurities is particularly useful for the determination of impurity introduction mechanisms. The laser fluorescence technique will be described in terms of its application to metallic impurities in fusion devices and related laboratory experiments. Particular attention will be given to recent results from the ISX-B tokamak using pulsed dye lasers where detection sensitivities for neutral Fe of 10 6 atoms/cm 3 with a velocity resolution of 600 m/sec (0.1 eV) have been achieved. Techniques for exciting plasma particles (H,D) will also be discussed

  13. Laser micromachining of biofactory-on-a-chip devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Julian P.; Goater, Andrew D.; Hayden, Christopher J.; Tame, John A.

    2002-06-01

    Excimer laser micromachining provides a flexible means for the manufacture and rapid prototyping of miniaturized systems such as Biofactory-on-a-Chip devices. Biofactories are miniaturized diagnostic devices capable of characterizing, manipulating, separating and sorting suspension of particles such as biological cells. Such systems operate by exploiting the electrical properties of microparticles and controlling particle movement in AC non- uniform stationary and moving electric fields. Applications of Biofactory devices are diverse and include, among others, the healthcare, pharmaceutical, chemical processing, environmental monitoring and food diagnostic markets. To achieve such characterization and separation, Biofactory devices employ laboratory-on-a-chip type components such as complex multilayer microelectrode arrays, microfluidic channels, manifold systems and on-chip detection systems. Here we discuss the manufacturing requirements of Biofactory devices and describe the use of different excimer laser micromachined methods both in stand-alone processes and also in conjunction with conventional fabrication processes such as photolithography and thermal molding. Particular attention is given to the production of large area multilayer microelectrode arrays and the manufacture of complex cross-section microfluidic channel systems for use in simple distribution and device interfacing.

  14. Analytical transient analysis of Peltier device for laser thermal tuning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikhnejad, Yahya; Vujicic, Zoran; Almeida, Álvaro J.; Bastos, Ricardo; Shahpari, Ali; Teixeira, António L.

    2017-08-01

    Recently, industrial trends strongly favor the concepts of high density, low power consumption and low cost applications of Datacom and Telecom pluggable transceiver modules. Hence, thermal management plays an important role, especially in the design of high-performance compact optical transceivers. Extensive care should be taken on wavelength drift for thermal tuning lasers using thermoelectric cooler and indeed, accurate expression is needed to describe transient characteristics of the Peltier device to achieve maximum controllability. In this study, the exact solution of governing equation is presented, considering Joule heating, heat conduction, heat flux of laser diode and thermoelectric effect in one dimension.

  15. HairMax LaserComb laser phototherapy device in the treatment of male androgenetic alopecia: A randomized, double-blind, sham device-controlled, multicentre trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavitt, Matt; Charles, Glenn; Heyman, Eugene; Michaels, David

    2009-01-01

    The use of low levels of visible or near infrared light for reducing pain, inflammation and oedema, promoting healing of wounds, deeper tissue and nerves, and preventing tissue damage has been known for almost 40 years since the invention of lasers. The HairMax LaserComb is a hand-held Class 3R lower level laser therapy device that contains a single laser module that emulates 9 beams at a wavelength of 655 nm (+/-5%). The device uses a technique of parting the user's hair by combs that are attached to the device. This improves delivery of distributed laser light to the scalp. The combs are designed so that each of the teeth on the combs aligns with a laser beam. By aligning the teeth with the laser beams, the hair can be parted and the laser energy delivered to the scalp of the user without obstruction by the individual hairs on the scalp. The primary aim of the study was to assess the safety and effectiveness of the HairMax LaserComb laser phototherapy device in the promotion of hair growth and in the cessation of hair loss in males diagnosed with androgenetic alopecia (AGA). This double-blind, sham device-controlled, multicentre, 26-week trial randomized male patients with Norwood-Hamilton classes IIa-V AGA to treatment with the HairMax LaserComb or the sham device (2 : 1). The sham device used in the study was identical to the active device except that the laser light was replaced by a non-active incandescent light source. Of the 110 patients who completed the study, subjects in the HairMax LaserComb treatment group exhibited a significantly greater increase in mean terminal hair density than subjects in the sham device group (p laser phototherapy device for the treatment of AGA in males.

  16. Demonstrator study for micro-ranging-laser device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkel, Hartmut; Bernhardt, Bodo; Pereira do Carmo, J.

    2017-11-01

    Within ESA's Innovation Triangle Initiative (ITI) a demonstrator breadboard for a micro-ranging-laser device "MYLRAD" has been developed. Its working principle is the measurement of the round-trip delay time of a laser beam as a phase shift. The demonstrator consists of the laser diode (30 mW, square wave AM), optics, APD detector, narrowband preamplifier, limiter, and a phase digitiser based on a novel noise-shaping synchroniser (NSS) circuit; this works without ADCs and can be built from rad-hard components for space. The system timing and the digitiser algorithm are performed by an FPGA. The demonstrator has been tested at ranges from 1 m to 30 m. With a static non-cooperative target an RMS noise of 1 mm at a result rate of 60 Hz was reached. The demonstrator needs less than 2.5 W power.

  17. Device Characterization of High Performance Quantum Dot Comb Laser

    KAUST Repository

    Rafi, Kazi

    2012-02-01

    The cost effective comb based laser sources are considered to be one of the prominent emitters used in optical communication (OC) and photonic integrated circuits (PIC). With the rising demand for delivering triple-play services (voice, data and video) in FTTH and FTTP-based WDM-PON networks, metropolitan area network (MAN), and short-reach rack-to-rack optical computer communications, a versatile and cost effective WDM transmitter design is required, where several DFB lasers can be replaced by a cost effective broadband comb laser to support on-chip optical signaling. Therefore, high performance quantum dot (Q.Dot) comb lasers need to satisfy several challenges before real system implementations. These challenges include a high uniform broadband gain spectrum from the active layer, small relative intensity noise with lower bit error rate (BER) and better temperature stability. Thus, such short wavelength comb lasers offering higher bandwidth can be a feasible solution to address these challenges. However, they still require thorough characterization before implementation. In this project, we briefly characterized the novel quantum dot comb laser using duty cycle based electrical injection and temperature variations where we have observed the presence of reduced thermal conductivity in the active layer. This phenomenon is responsible for the degradation of device performance. Hence, different performance trends, such as broadband emission and spectrum stability were studied with pulse and continuous electrical pumping. The tested comb laser is found to be an attractive solution for several applications but requires further experiments in order to be considered for photonic intergraded circuits and to support next generation computer-communications.

  18. High-energy terahertz wave parametric oscillator with a surface-emitted ring-cavity configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhen; Wang, Yuye; Xu, Degang; Xu, Wentao; Duan, Pan; Yan, Chao; Tang, Longhuang; Yao, Jianquan

    2016-05-15

    A surface-emitted ring-cavity terahertz (THz) wave parametric oscillator has been demonstrated for high-energy THz output and fast frequency tuning in a wide frequency range. Through the special optical design with a galvano-optical scanner and four-mirror ring-cavity structure, the maximum THz wave output energy of 12.9 μJ/pulse is achieved at 1.359 THz under the pump energy of 172.8 mJ. The fast THz frequency tuning in the range of 0.7-2.8 THz can be accessed with the step response of 600 μs. Moreover, the maximum THz wave output energy from this configuration is 3.29 times as large as that obtained from the conventional surface-emitted THz wave parametric oscillator with the same experimental conditions.

  19. Categorisation of full waveform data provided by laser scanning devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, Andreas; Pfennigbauer, Martin

    2011-11-01

    In 2004, a laser scanner device for commercial airborne laser scanning applications, the RIEGL LMS-Q560, was introduced to the market, making use of a radical alternative approach to the traditional analogue signal detection and processing schemes found in LIDAR instruments so far: digitizing the echo signals received by the instrument for every laser pulse and analysing these echo signals off-line in a so-called full waveform analysis in order to retrieve almost all information contained in the echo signal using transparent algorithms adaptable to specific applications. In the field of laser scanning the somewhat unspecific term "full waveform data" has since been established. We attempt a categorisation of the different types of the full waveform data found in the market. We discuss the challenges in echo digitization and waveform analysis from an instrument designer's point of view and we will address the benefits to be gained by using this technique, especially with respect to the so-called multi-target capability of pulsed time-of-flight LIDAR instruments.

  20. Modeling the DBR laser used as wavelength conversion device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braagaard, Carsten; Mikkelsen, Benny; Durhuus, Terji

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, a novel and efficient way to model the dynamic field in optical DBR-type semiconductor devices is presented. The model accounts for the longitudinal carrier, photon, and refractive index distribution. Furthermore, the model handles both active and passive sections that may include...... gratings. Thus, simulations of components containing, e.g., gain sections, absorptive sections, phase sections, and gratings, placed arbitrarily along the longitudinal direction of the cavity, are possible. Here, the model has been used for studying the DBR laser as a wavelength converter. Particularly...

  1. Laser direct writing of micro- and nano-scale medical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittard, Shaun D; Narayan, Roger J

    2010-01-01

    Laser-based direct writing of materials has undergone significant development in recent years. The ability to modify a variety of materials at small length scales and using short production times provides laser direct writing with unique capabilities for fabrication of medical devices. In many laser-based rapid prototyping methods, microscale and submicroscale structuring of materials is controlled by computer-generated models. Various laser-based direct write methods, including selective laser sintering/melting, laser machining, matrix-assisted pulsed-laser evaporation direct write, stereolithography and two-photon polymerization, are described. Their use in fabrication of microstructured and nanostructured medical devices is discussed. Laser direct writing may be used for processing a wide variety of advanced medical devices, including patient-specific prostheses, drug delivery devices, biosensors, stents and tissue-engineering scaffolds. PMID:20420557

  2. Alignment and focusing device for a multibeam laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweatt, W.C.

    1980-01-01

    Large inertial confinement fusion laser systems have many beams focusing on a small target. The Antares system is a 24-beam CO 2 pulse laser. To produce uniform illumination, the 24 beams must be individually focused on (or near) the target's surface in a symmetric pattern. To assess the quality of a given beam, we will locate a Smartt (point diffraction) interferometer at the desired focal point and illuminate it with an alignment laser. The resulting fringe pattern shows defocus, lateral misalignment, and beam aberrations; all of which can be minimized by tilting and translating the focusing mirror and the preceding flat mirror. The device described in this paper will remotely translate the Smartt interferometer to any position in the target space and point it in any direction using a two-axis gimbal. The fringes produced by the interferometer are relayed out of the target vacuum shell to a vidicon by a train or prisms. We are designing four separate snap-in heads to mount on the gimbal; two of which are Smartt interferometers (for 10.6 μm and 633 nm) and two for pinholes, should we wish to put an alignment beam backwards through the system

  3. Bistable laser device with multiple coupled active vertical-cavity resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Arthur J.; Choquette, Kent D.; Chow, Weng W.

    2003-08-19

    A new class of bistable coupled-resonator vertical-cavity semiconductor laser devices has been developed. These bistable laser devices can be switched, either electrically or optically, between lasing and non-lasing states. A switching signal with a power of a fraction of a milliwatt can change the laser output of such a device by a factor of a hundred, thereby enabling a range of optical switching and data encoding applications.

  4. Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers: Advanced Modulation Formats and Coherent Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodes Lopez, Roberto

    transmission link with real-time demodulation. Furthermore, advanced modulation formats are considered in this thesis to expand the state-of-the-art in high-speed short-range data transmission system based on VCSELs. First, directly modulation of a VCSEL with a 4-level pulse amplitude modulation (PAM-4) signal...... at 50 Gb/s is achieved. This is the highest data rate ever transmitted with a single VCSEL at the time of this thesis work. The capacity of this system is increased to 100 Gb/s by using polarization multiplexing emulation and forward error correction techniques. Compared to a non return-to-zero on-off...

  5. Design and Fabrication of 850 and 980 nm Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Das, N

    2004-01-01

    .... VCSELs on GaAs substrates were grown by the molecular beam epitaxy technique. In this report we present detailed procedures to design and fabricate 850-nm top-emitting and 980-nm bottom-emitting VCSELs...

  6. International registry results for an interstitial laser BPH treatment device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Richard L.; Muschter, Rolf; Adams, Curtis S.; Esch, Victor C.

    1996-05-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) can significantly impair quality of life in older men. Most men over 60 experience some symptoms due to BPH and it is thought that essentially all men would eventually be affected by it if they lived long enough. At present, transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP), a surgical treatment for BPH, is one of the more common procedures performed in the developed world, particularly in the United States. A number of other treatments are also often used, including open prostatectomy, side-firing lasers, and drug therapy. With the population in the developed world rapidly aging, BPH is expected to affect an even larger group of men in the future. Current methods of therapy carry significant disadvantages. Open prostatectomy carries a fairly high risk of impotence and incontinence, as well as sometimes significant risk of death depending on the patient's age and medical conditions. TURP also carries similar risks, albeit reduced, including the risk of substantial blood loss and a small but meaningful risk of death. Side-firing lasers are thought to have a reduced risk of death compared to TURP due to significantly reduced bleeding; however, patients often experience an extended period of pain during voiding due to prolonged tissue sloughing. Drug treatment, although useful for some patients, does not strongly improve symptoms in the majority of patients. Even with the current range of treatments, many patients with symptomatic BPH elect to avoid any current treatment due to risks and side effects. As a possible solution to this problem, previous writers have suggested the possibility of treating BPH through interstitial thermotherapy. In this treatment, prostatic tissue is heated from within the prostate to the point of irreversible necrosis. Healing processes then reduce the volume of the affected tissue, even in the absence of sloughing. This study covers initial human use of such a device, using an 810 nm wavelength diode laser

  7. Fabrication of CVD graphene-based devices via laser ablation for wafer-scale characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackenzie, David; Buron, Jonas Christian Due; Whelan, Patrick Rebsdorf

    2015-01-01

    Selective laser ablation of a wafer-scale graphene film is shown to provide flexible, high speed (1 wafer/hour) device fabrication while avoiding the degradation of electrical properties associated with traditional lithographic methods. Picosecond laser pulses with single pulse peak fluences of 140......-effect mobility, doping level, on–off ratio, and conductance minimum before and after laser ablation fabrication....

  8. Design of a Novel Servo-motorized Laser Device for Visual Pathways Diseases Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ignacio Sarmiento

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We discuss a novel servo-motorized laser device and a research protocol for visual pathways diseases therapies. The proposed servo-mechanized laser device can be used for potential rehabilitation of patients with hemianopia, quadrantanopia, scotoma, and some types of cortical damages. The device uses a semi spherical structure where the visual stimulus will be shown inside, according to a previous stimuli therapy designed by an ophthalmologist or neurologist. The device uses a pair of servomotors (with torque=1.5kg, which controls the laser stimuli position for the internal therapy and another pair for external therapy. Using electronic tools such as microcontrollers along with miscellaneous electronic materials, combined with LabVIEW based interface, a control mechanism is developed for the new device. The proposed device is well suited to run various visual stimuli therapies. We outline the major design principles including the physical dimensions, laser device’s kinematical analysis and the corresponding software development.

  9. Terahertz-wave surface-emitted difference-frequency generation without quasi-phase-matching technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avetisyan, Yuri H

    2010-08-01

    A scheme of terahertz (THz)-wave surface-emitted difference-frequency generation (SEDFG), which lacks the drawbacks associated with the usage of periodically orientation-inverted structures, is proposed. It is shown that both material birefringence of the bulk LiNbO(3) crystal and modal birefringence of GaAs/AlAs waveguide are sufficient to obtain SEDFG up to a frequency of approximately 3THz. The simplicity of the proposed scheme, along with the fact that there is a much smaller THz-wave decay in nonlinear crystal, makes it a good candidate for the practical realization of efficient THz generation. The use of a GaAs waveguide with an oxidized AlAs layer is proposed for enhanced THz-wave SEDFG in the vicinity of the GaAs polariton resonance at 8THz.

  10. Compact blue laser devices based on nonlinear frequency upconversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risk, W.P.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports how miniature sources of coherent blue radiation can be produced by using nonlinear optical materials for frequency upconversion of the infrared radiation emitted by laser diodes. Direct upconversion of laser diode radiation is possible, but there are several advantages to using the diode laser to pump a solid-state laser which is then upconverted. In either case, the challenge is to find combinations of nonlinear materials and laser for efficient frequency upconversion. Several examples have been demonstrated. These include intracavity frequency doubling of a diode-pumped 946-nm Nd:YAG laser, intracavity frequency mixing of a 809-nm GaAlAs laser diode with a diode- pumped 1064-nm Nd:YAG laser, and direct frequency doubling of a 994-nm strained-layer InGaAs laser diode

  11. Semiconductor laser engineering, reliability and diagnostics a practical approach to high power and single mode devices

    CERN Document Server

    Epperlein, Peter W

    2013-01-01

    This reference book provides a fully integrated novel approach to the development of high-power, single-transverse mode, edge-emitting diode lasers by addressing the complementary topics of device engineering, reliability engineering and device diagnostics in the same book, and thus closes the gap in the current book literature. Diode laser fundamentals are discussed, followed by an elaborate discussion of problem-oriented design guidelines and techniques, and by a systematic treatment of the origins of laser degradation and a thorough exploration of the engineering means to enhance the optical strength of the laser. Stability criteria of critical laser characteristics and key laser robustness factors are discussed along with clear design considerations in the context of reliability engineering approaches and models, and typical programs for reliability tests and laser product qualifications. Novel, advanced diagnostic methods are reviewed to discuss, for the first time in detail in book literature, performa...

  12. Experimental laser fusion devices and related vacuum problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neal, W.C.; Campbell, D.E.; Glaros, S.S.; Hurley, C.A.; Kobierecki, M.W.; McFann, C.B. Jr.; Monjes, J.A.; Patton, H.G.; Rienecker, F. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Laser fusion experiments require hard vacuum in the laser-beam spatial filters, target chambers and for target diagnostics instruments. Laser focusing lenses and windows, and target alignment windows must hold vacuum without optical distortion, and must be protected from target debris. The vacuum must be sufficient to prevent residual gas breakdown in focused laser light, avoid arcing at high voltage terminals, minimize contamination and melting of cryogenic targets, and prevent adsorption of the target's microfusion radiation before it reaches the diagnostics instruments

  13. Laser ignition device and its application to forestry, fire and land management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waterworth, M.D.

    1987-01-01

    A laser ignition device for controlled burning of forest logging slash has been developed and successfully tested. The device, which uses a kilowatt class carbon dioxide laser, operates at distances of 50 to 1500 meters. Acquisition and focus control are achieved by the use of a laser rangefinder and acquisition telescope. Additional uses for the device include back burning, selected undergrowth removal, safe ignition of oil spills, and deicing. A truck mounted version will be operational by fall 1987 and an airborne version by summer 1988. (author)

  14. Laser ignition device and its application to forestry, fire and land management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waterworth, M. D.

    1987-11-15

    A laser ignition device for controlled burning of forest logging slash has been developed and successfully tested. The device, which uses a kilowatt class carbon dioxide laser, operates at distances of 50 to 1500 meters. Acquisition and focus control are achieved by the use of a laser rangefinder and acquisition telescope. Additional uses for the device include back burning, selected undergrowth removal, safe ignition of oil spills, and deicing. A truck mounted version will be operational by fall 1987 and an airborne version by summer 1988. (author)

  15. Microcomponents manufacturing for precise devices by copper vapor laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorny, Sergey; Nikonchuk, Michail O.; Polyakov, Igor V.

    2001-06-01

    This paper presents investigation results of drilling of metal microcomponents by copper vapor laser. The laser consists of master oscillator - spatial filter - amplifier system, electronics switching with digital control of laser pulse repetition rate and quantity of pulses, x-y stage with computer control system. Mass of metal, removed by one laser pulse, is measured and defined by means of diameter and depth of holes. Interaction of next pulses on drilled material is discussed. The difference between light absorption and metal evaporation processes is considered for drilling and cutting. Efficiency of drilling is estimated by ratio of evaporation heat and used laser energy. Maximum efficiency of steel cutting is calculated with experimental data of drilling. Applications of copper vapor laser for manufacturing is illustrated by such microcomponents as pin guide plate for printers, stents for cardio surgery, encoded disks for security systems and multiple slit masks for spectrophotometers.

  16. Fabrication of polystyrene microfluidic devices using a pulsed CO2 laser system

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Huawei

    2013-10-10

    In this article, we described a simple and rapid method for fabrication of droplet microfluidic devices on polystyrene substrate using a CO2 laser system. The effects of the laser power and the cutting speed on the depth, width and aspect ratio of the microchannels fabricated on polystyrene were investigated. The polystyrene microfluidic channels were encapsulated using a hot press bonding technique. The experimental results showed that both discrete droplets and laminar flows could be obtained in the device.

  17. Fabrication of polystyrene microfluidic devices using a pulsed CO2 laser system

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Huawei; Fan, Yiqiang; Foulds, Ian G.; Kodzius, Rimantas

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we described a simple and rapid method for fabrication of droplet microfluidic devices on polystyrene substrate using a CO2 laser system. The effects of the laser power and the cutting speed on the depth, width and aspect ratio of the microchannels fabricated on polystyrene were investigated. The polystyrene microfluidic channels were encapsulated using a hot press bonding technique. The experimental results showed that both discrete droplets and laminar flows could be obtained in the device.

  18. New alternatives for laser vaporization of the prostate: experimental evaluation of a 980-, 1,318- and 1,470-nm diode laser device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wezel, Felix; Wendt-Nordahl, Gunnar; Huck, Nina; Bach, Thorsten; Weiss, Christel; Michel, Maurice Stephan; Häcker, Axel

    2010-04-01

    Several diode laser systems were introduced in recent years for the minimal-invasive surgical therapy of benign prostate enlargement. We investigated the ablation capacities, hemostatic properties and extend of tissue necrosis of different diode lasers at wavelengths of 980, 1,318 and 1,470 nm and compared the results to the 120 W GreenLight HPS laser. The laser devices were evaluated in an ex vivo model using isolated porcine kidneys. The weight difference of the porcine kidneys after 10 min of laser vaporization defined the amount of ablated tissue. Blood loss was measured in blood-perfused kidneys following laser vaporization. Histological examination was performed to assess the tissue effects. The side-firing 980 and 1,470 nm diode lasers displayed similar ablative capacities compared to the GreenLight HPS laser (n.s.). The 1,318-nm laser, equipped with a bare-ended fiber, reached a higher ablation rate compared to the other laser devices (each P laser with a bare-ended fiber reached the highest rate compared to the side-firing devices (each P diode lasers showed superior hemostatic properties compared to the GreenLight HPS laser (each P laser), respectively. The diode lasers offered similar ablative capacities and improved hemostatic properties compared to the 120 W GreenLight HPS laser in this experimental ex vivo setting. The higher tissue penetration of the diode lasers compared to the GreenLight HPS laser may explain improved hemostasis.

  19. Manufacture of micro fluidic devices by laser welding using thermal transfer printing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, R.; Klein, K. F.; Tobisch, T.; Thoelken, D.; Belz, M.

    2016-03-01

    Micro-fluidic devices are widely used today in the areas of medical diagnostics and drug research, as well as for applications within the process, electronics and chemical industry. Microliters of fluids or single cell to cell interactions can be conveniently analyzed with such devices using fluorescence imaging, phase contrast microscopy or spectroscopic techniques. Typical micro-fluidic devices consist of a thermoplastic base component with chambers and channels covered by a hermetic fluid and gas tight sealed lid component. Both components are usually from the same or similar thermoplastic material. Different mechanical, adhesive or thermal joining processes can be used to assemble base component and lid. Today, laser beam welding shows the potential to become a novel manufacturing opportunity for midsize and large scale production of micro-fluidic devices resulting in excellent processing quality by localized heat input and low thermal stress to the device during processing. For laser welding, optical absorption of the resin and laser wavelength has to be matched for proper joining. This paper will focus on a new approach to prepare micro-fluidic channels in such devices using a thermal transfer printing process, where an optical absorbing layer absorbs the laser energy. Advantages of this process will be discussed in combination with laser welding of optical transparent micro-fluidic devices.

  20. DEVICE FOR INVESTIGATION OF MAGNETRON AND PULSED-LASER PLASMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Burmakov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Various modifications of complex pulsed laser and magnetron deposition thin-film structures unit are presented. They include joint and separate variants of layer deposition. Unit realizes the plasma parameters control and enhances the possibility of laser-plasma and magnetron methods of coatings deposition.

  1. Evaluation of 3D laser device for characterizing shape and surface properties of aggregates used in pavements

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anochie-Boateng, Joseph

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available program for the 3D laser device using fifteen different spherical and twelve cubic shaped objects. The laser device was evaluated for accuracy and repeatability to compute aggregate surface area and volume properties. The results showed that the laser...

  2. Industrial processes control with He-Ne laser devices for aligning and guiding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ursu, I.; Ivascu, M.; Vasiliu, V.; Ristici, M.; Gradisteanu, I.; Vilcu, G.; Pelle, V.; Botezatu, I.; Vasnea, V.; Orac, N.; Fernea, V.

    1988-03-01

    A brief presentation of the He-Ne laser devices main application fields in the national economy is given. The utilization of the devices we did in: industrial constructions, metalurgy, hydroelectric arrangements, wood industry, ship's construction, and other is presented. (authors)

  3. Surface patterning of multilayer graphene by ultraviolet laser irradiation in biomolecule sensing devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Tien-Li, E-mail: tlchang@ntnu.edu.tw; Chen, Zhao-Chi

    2015-12-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Direct UV laser irradiation on multilayer graphene was discussed. • Multilayer graphene with screen-printed process was presented. • Surface patterning of multilayer graphene at fluence threshold was investigated. • Electrical response of glucose in sensing devices can be studied. - Abstract: The study presents a direct process for surface patterning of multilayer graphene on the glass substrate as a biosensing device. In contrast to lithography with etching, the proposed process provides simultaneous surface patterning of multilayer graphene through nanosecond laser irradiation. In this study, the multilayer graphene was prepared by a screen printing process. Additionally, the wavelength of the laser beam was 355 nm. To perform the effective laser process with the small heat affected zone, the surface patterns on the sensing devices could be directly fabricated using the laser with optimal control of the pulse overlap at a fluence threshold of 0.63 J/cm{sup 2}. The unique patterning of the laser-ablated surface exhibits their electrical and hydrophilic characteristics. The hydrophilic surface of graphene-based sensing devices was achieved in the process with the pulse overlap of 90%. Furthermore, the sensing devices for controlling the electrical response of glucose by using glucose oxidase can be used in sensors in commercial medical applications.

  4. In vitro performance of DIAGNOdent laser fluorescence device for dental calculus detection on human tooth root surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E. Rams

    2017-10-01

    Conclusions: Excellent intra- and inter-examiner reproducibility of autofluorescence intensity measurements was obtained with the DIAGNOdent laser fluorescence device on human tooth roots. Calculus-positive root surfaces exhibited significantly greater DIAGNOdent laser autofluorescence than calculus-free tooth roots, even with the laser probe tip directed parallel to root surfaces. These findings provide further in vitro validation of the potential utility of a DIAGNOdent laser fluorescence device for identifying dental calculus on human tooth root surfaces.

  5. Methods and Devices for Space Optical Communications Using Laser Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goorjian, Peter M. (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    Light is used to communicate between objects separated by a large distance. Light beams are received in a telescopic lens assembly positioned in front of a cat's-eye lens. The light can thereby be received at various angles to be output by the cat's-eye lens to a focal plane of the cat's-eye lens, the position of the light beams upon the focal plane corresponding to the angle of the beam received. Lasers and photodetectors are distributed along this focal plane. A processor receives signals from the photodetectors, and selectively signal lasers positioned proximate the photodetectors detecting light, in order to transmit light encoding data through the cat's-eye lens and also through a telescopic lens back in the direction of the received light beams, which direction corresponds to a location upon the focal plane of the transmitting lasers.

  6. Laser welding by dental Nd:YAG device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornaini, Carlo; Bertrand, Caroline; Merigo, Elisabetta; Bonanini, Mauro; Rocca, Jean-Paul; Nammour, Samir

    2009-06-01

    Welding laser was introduced in jewellery during years 70 and, just after, was successfully used also by dental technicians. Welding laser gives a great number of advantages, versus traditional welding and, for this reason, this procedure had a great diffusion in the technician laboratories and stimulated the companies to put in the market more and more evolutes appliances. Some aspects, such great dimensions, high costs and delivery system today still characterize these machines by fixed lenses, which have strictly limited its use only to technician laboratories. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the possibility, by using a fibber-delivered laser normally utilized in the dental office, to make, by dentist himself in his office, welding on different metals and to evaluate advantages and possibilities of this new technique.

  7. Laser assisted soldering: microdroplet accumulation with a microjet device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, E K; Lu, Q; Bell, B; Motamedi, M; Frederickson, C; Brown, D T; Kovach, I S; Welch, A J

    1998-01-01

    We investigated the feasibility of a microjet to dispense protein solder for laser assisted soldering. Successive micro solder droplets were deposited on rat dermis and bovine intima specimens. Fixed laser exposure was synchronized with the jetting of each droplet. After photocoagulation, each specimen was cut into two halves at the center of solder coagulum. One half was fixed immediately, while the other half was soaked in phosphate-buffered saline for a designated hydration period before fixation (1 hour, 1, 2, and 7 days). After each hydration period, all tissue specimens were prepared for scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Stable solder coagulum was created by successive photocoagulation of microdroplets even after the soldered tissue exposed to 1 week of hydration. This preliminary study suggested that tissue soldering with successive microdroplets is feasible even with fixed laser parameters without active feedback control.

  8. Development of fiber lasers and devices for coherent Raman scattering microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Erin Stranford

    As ultrafast laser technology has found expanding application in machining, spectroscopy, microscopy, surgery, and numerous other areas, the desire for inexpensive and robust laser sources has grown. Until recently, nonlinear effects in fiber systems due to the tight confinement of the light in the core have limited their performance. However, with advances in managing nonlinearity through pulse propagation physics and the use of large core fibers, the performance of fiber lasers can compete with that of their solid-state counterparts. As specific applications, such as coherent Raman scattering microscopy, emerge that stand to benefit from fiber technology, new performance challenges in areas such as laser noise are anticipated. This thesis studies nonlinear pulse propagation in fiber lasers and fiber parametric devices. Applications of dissipative solitons and self-similar pulse propagation to low-repetition rate oscillators that have the potential to simplify short-pulse amplification schemes will be examined. The rest of this thesis focuses on topics relevant to fiber laser development for coherent Raman scattering microscopy sources. Coherent pulse division and recombination inside the laser cavity will be introduced as an energy-scaling mechanism and demonstrated for a fiber soliton laser. The relative intensity noise properties of mode-locked fiber lasers, with a particular emphasis on normal dispersion lasers, will be explored in simulation and experiment. A fiber optical parametric oscillator will be studied in detail for low noise frequency conversion of picosecond pulses, and its utility for coherent Raman imaging will be demonstrated. Spectral compression of femtosecond pulses is used to generate picosecond pulses to pump this device, and this technique provides a route to future noise reduction in the system. Furthermore, this device forms a multimodal source capable of providing the picosecond pulses for coherent Raman scattering microscopy and the

  9. An improved three-dimensional non-scanning laser imaging system based on digital micromirror device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Wenze; Han, Shaokun; Lei, Jieyu; Zhai, Yu; Timofeev, Alexander N.

    2018-01-01

    Nowadays, there are two main methods to realize three-dimensional non-scanning laser imaging detection, which are detection method based on APD and detection method based on Streak Tube. However, the detection method based on APD possesses some disadvantages, such as small number of pixels, big pixel interval and complex supporting circuit. The detection method based on Streak Tube possesses some disadvantages, such as big volume, bad reliability and high cost. In order to resolve the above questions, this paper proposes an improved three-dimensional non-scanning laser imaging system based on Digital Micromirror Device. In this imaging system, accurate control of laser beams and compact design of imaging structure are realized by several quarter-wave plates and a polarizing beam splitter. The remapping fiber optics is used to sample the image plane of receiving optical lens, and transform the image into line light resource, which can realize the non-scanning imaging principle. The Digital Micromirror Device is used to convert laser pulses from temporal domain to spatial domain. The CCD with strong sensitivity is used to detect the final reflected laser pulses. In this paper, we also use an algorithm which is used to simulate this improved laser imaging system. In the last, the simulated imaging experiment demonstrates that this improved laser imaging system can realize three-dimensional non-scanning laser imaging detection.

  10. Pulsed-laser deposited ZnO for device applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    King, S.L.; Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.; Boyd, I.W.

    1996-01-01

    The study investigates the growth by pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) of ZnO thin films for the eventual incorporation into piezo-electric actuators and other sensors being developed at the University of Twente. All films are purely c-axis oriented, and results are presented which suggest the

  11. Device Characterization of High Performance Quantum Dot Comb Laser

    KAUST Repository

    Rafi, Kazi

    2012-01-01

    and video) in FTTH and FTTP-based WDM-PON networks, metropolitan area network (MAN), and short-reach rack-to-rack optical computer communications, a versatile and cost effective WDM transmitter design is required, where several DFB lasers can be replaced

  12. Superluminous Devices Versus Low-Level Laser for Temporomandibular Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sveshtarov Vasil

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to compare the pain intensity reduction between the mean radiation doses per session of gallium-aluminum-arsenide (GaAIAs laser with superluminous diodes (SLD in four of the most common pain-related chronic temporomandibular disorders (TMD - local myalgia, myofascial pain, myofascial pain with a referral, and arthralgia. This study was implemented on 124 patients with pain-related temporomandibular disorders according to the DC/TMD criteria. We applied trigger point oriented near-infrared laser (785 nm, 100 s, 8 J/cm2 and SLD cluster sessions (the cluster is composed of 49 SLDs with a combination of visible red (633 nm and infrared (880 nm diodes, 200 mW, 300 s, 8 J/cm2 for the temporomandibular joints and the affected muscles. Patients were evaluated at the start of the treatment, and after the 6th session of combined phototherapy. The pain intensity scores were measured according to the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS. Our results show that the most statistically manifested pain reduction is found for the SLD dose, р = 0,000118, followed by the overall dose (laser plus SLD; р = 0,001031, and the laser dose; р = 0,030942 (ANOVA dispersion analyses. Consequently, it can be concluded that myalgia is better treated through lower doses of red light compared to infrared laser doses because SLDs combine the prooxidative effect of photons with 633 nm wavelength, a large area of exposure, sufficient tissue penetration, and some positive warming thermal impact of the SLD clusters.

  13. An optoelectronic integrated device including a laser and its driving circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsueda, H.; Nakano, H.; Tanaka, T.P.

    1984-10-01

    A monolithic optoelectronic integrated circuit (OEIC) including a laser diode, photomonitor and driving and detecting circuits has been fabricated on a semi-insulating GaAs substrate. The OEIC has a horizontal integrating structure which is suitable for realising high-density multifunctional devices. The fabricating process and the static and dynamic characteristics of the optical and electronic elements are described. The preliminary results of the co-operative operation of the laser and its driving circuit are also presented.

  14. Fabrication and Characterization of Linear and Nonlinear Photonic Devices in Fused Silica by Femtosecond Laser Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Jason Clement

    Femtosecond laser processing is a flexible, three-dimensional (3D) fabrication technique used to make integrated low-loss photonic devices in fused silica. My work expanded the suite of available optical devices through the design and optimization of linear optical components such as low-loss (70-nm spectral window. My work further complemented femtosecond laser processing with the development of nonlinear device capabilities. While thermal poling is a well known process, significant challenges had restricted the development of nonlinear devices in fused silica. The laser writing process would erase the induced nonlinearity (erasing) while a written waveguide core acted as a barrier to the thermal poling process (blocking). Using second harmonic (SH) microscopy, the effectiveness of thermal poling on laser-written waveguides was systematically analyzed leading to the technique of "double poling", which effectively overcomes the two challenges of erasing and blocking. In this new process the substrate is poled before and after waveguide writing to restore the induced nonlinearity within the vicinity of the waveguide to enable effective poling for inducing a second-order nonlinearity (SON) in fused silica. A new flexible, femtosecond laser based erasure process was also developed to enable quasi-phase matching and to form arbitrarily chirped gratings. Following this result, second harmonic generation (SHG) in a quasiphase-matched (QPM) femtosecond laser written waveguide device was demonstrated. SHG in a chirped QPM structure was also demonstrated to illustrate the flexibility of the femtosecond laser writing technique. These are the first demonstration of frequency doubling in an all-femtosecond-laser-written structure. A maximum SHG conversion efficiency of 1.3 +/- 0.1x10 -11/W-cm-2 was achieved for the fundamental wavelength of 1552.8 nm with a phase-matching bandwidth of 4.4 nm for a 10.0-mm-long waveguide. For a shorter sample, an effective SON of chi(2) = 0

  15. A compact chaotic laser device with a two-dimensional external cavity structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunada, Satoshi; Adachi, Masaaki; Fukushima, Takehiro; Shinohara, Susumu; Arai, Kenichi; Harayama, Takahisa

    2014-01-01

    We propose a compact chaotic laser device, which consists of a semiconductor laser and a two-dimensional (2D) external cavity for delayed optical feedback. The overall size of the device is within 230 μm × 1 mm. A long time delay sufficient for chaos generation can be achieved with the small area by the multiple reflections at the 2D cavity boundary, and the feedback strength is controlled by the injection current to the external cavity. We experimentally demonstrate that a variety of output properties, including chaotic output, can be selectively generated by controlling the injection current to the external cavity.

  16. Characterization of thermoelectric devices by laser induced Seebeck electromotive force (LIS-EMF) measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Luis-David Patino [Universite de Bordeaux 1, Centre de Physique Moleculaire Optique et Hertzienne, 351, cours de la liberation, 33405 Talence (France); Dilhaire, Stefan [Universite de Bordeaux 1, Centre de Physique Moleculaire Optique et Hertzienne, 351, cours de la liberation, 33405 Talence (France); Grauby, Stephane [Universite de Bordeaux 1, Centre de Physique Moleculaire Optique et Hertzienne, 351, cours de la liberation, 33405 Talence (France); Salhi, M Amine [Universite de Bordeaux 1, Centre de Physique Moleculaire Optique et Hertzienne, 351, cours de la liberation, 33405 Talence (France); Ezzahri, Younes [Universite de Bordeaux 1, Centre de Physique Moleculaire Optique et Hertzienne, 351, cours de la liberation, 33405 Talence (France); Claeys, Wilfrid [Universite de Bordeaux 1, Centre de Physique Moleculaire Optique et Hertzienne, 351, cours de la liberation, 33405 Talence (France); Batsale, Jean-Christophe [Laboratoire TREFLE, Esplanade des Arts et Metiers, 33405 Talence Cedex (France)

    2005-05-21

    An in-depth study related to a new method of characterizing properties in thermoelectrics is proposed in this paper. This technique is appropriate for single or multi-layered thermoelectric devices. A modulated laser beam is used as a heater in order to generate a Seebeck electromotive force (EMF). The laser beam, line shaped, can be focused at any location along the sample surface, allowing spatially resolved measurements. Seebeck EMF measurements, associated with a versatile model based on the thermal quadrupoles method, allow determination of the sample Seebeck EMF profile and identifying of the sample thermal contact resistances, and should be useful for identification of devices and material thermoelectric properties.

  17. Characterization of thermoelectric devices by laser induced Seebeck electromotive force (LIS-EMF) measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, Luis-David Patino; Dilhaire, Stefan; Grauby, Stephane; Salhi, M Amine; Ezzahri, Younes; Claeys, Wilfrid; Batsale, Jean-Christophe

    2005-01-01

    An in-depth study related to a new method of characterizing properties in thermoelectrics is proposed in this paper. This technique is appropriate for single or multi-layered thermoelectric devices. A modulated laser beam is used as a heater in order to generate a Seebeck electromotive force (EMF). The laser beam, line shaped, can be focused at any location along the sample surface, allowing spatially resolved measurements. Seebeck EMF measurements, associated with a versatile model based on the thermal quadrupoles method, allow determination of the sample Seebeck EMF profile and identifying of the sample thermal contact resistances, and should be useful for identification of devices and material thermoelectric properties

  18. Laser Transcutaneous Bilirubin Meter: A New Device For Bilirubin Monitoring In Neonatal Jaundice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamza, Mostafa; Hamza, Mohammad

    1988-06-01

    Neonates with jaundice require monitoring of serum bilirubin which should be repeated at frequent intervals. However, taking blood samples from neonates is not always an easy job, plus being an invasive and traumatising procedure with the additional risk of blood loss. In this paper the authors present the theory and design of a new noninvasive device for transcutaneous bilirubinometry, using a differential absorption laser system. The new technique depends upon illuminating the skin of the neonate with radiation from a two wave-length oscillation laser. The choice of the wavelengths follows the principles of optical bilirubinometry. For obtaining more accurate measurements, different pairs of two wave-lengths are incorporated in the design. The presence of hemoglobin is corrected for by appropriate selection of the laser wavelengths. The new design was tested for accuracy and precision using an argon ion laser. Correlation study between serum bilirubin determination by laser transcutaneous bilirubinometry and by American optical bilirubinometer was highly significant.

  19. Graphene in NLO Devices for High Laser Energy Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    manufacturing graphene in > tonlyr quantities suitable for industrial applications, has been working to advance the application base ofgJ1lphene. We have...Transfer A suspension of graphene in toluene was sent to the Army’s Tank- Automotive Research, Development, and Engineering Center (TARDEC) for evaluation in...protection efficiency. Therefore, a critical component for evaluation and use of graphene suspensions for laser protection is dispersion of the graphene

  20. Dual-wavelength external cavity laser device for fluorescence suppression in Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuting; Cai, Zhijian; Wu, Jianhong

    2017-10-01

    Raman spectroscopy has been widely used in the detection of drugs, pesticides, explosives, food additives and environmental pollutants, for its characteristics of fast measurement, easy sample preparation, and molecular structure analyzing capability. However, fluorescence disturbance brings a big trouble to these applications, with strong fluorescence background covering up the weak Raman signals. Recently shifted excitation Raman difference spectroscopy (SERDS) not only can completely remove the fluorescence background, but also can be easily integrated into portable Raman spectrometers. Usually, SERDS uses two lasers with small wavelength gap to excite the sample, then acquires two spectra, and subtracts one to the other to get the difference spectrum, where the fluorescence background will be rejected. So, one key aspects of successfully applying SERDS method is to obtain a dual-wavelength laser source. In this paper, a dual-wavelength laser device design based on the principles of external cavity diode laser (ECDL) is proposed, which is low-cost and compact. In addition, it has good mechanical stability because of no moving parts. These features make it an ideal laser source for SERDS technique. The experiment results showed that the device can emit narrow-spectral-width lasers of two wavelengths, with the gap smaller than 2 nanometers. The laser power corresponding to each wavelength can be up to 100mW.

  1. Sub-micron-scale femtosecond laser ablation using a digital micromirror device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, B; Feinaeugle, M; Sones, C L; Eason, R W; Rizvi, N

    2013-01-01

    Commercial digital multimirror devices offer a cheap and effective alternative to more expensive spatial light modulators for ablation via beam shaping. Here we present femtosecond laser ablation using the digital multimirror device from an Acer C20 Pico Digital Light Projector and show ablation of complex features with feature sizes ranging from sub-wavelength (400 nm) up to ∼30 µm. Simulations are presented that have been used to optimize and understand the experimentally observed resolution. (paper)

  2. DEVICE FOR MEASURING OF THERMAL LENS PARAMETERS IN LASER ACTIVE ELEMENTS WITH A PROBE BEAM METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Zakharova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a device for measuring of parameters of thermal lens (TL in laser active elements under longitudinal diode pumping. The measurements are based on the probe beam method. This device allows one to determine sign and optical power of the lens in the principal meridional planes, its sensitivity factor with respect to the absorbed pump power and astigmatism degree, fractional heat loading which make it possible to estimate integral impact of the photoelastic effect to the formation of TL in the laser element. The measurements are performed in a linearly polarized light at the wavelength of 532 nm. Pumping of the laser element is performed at 960 nm that makes it possible to study laser materials doped with Yb3+ and (Er3+, Yb3+ ions. The precision of measurements: for sensitivity factor of TL – 0,1 m-1/W, for astigmatism degree – 0,2 m-1/W, for fractional heat loading – 5 %, for the impact of the photoelastic effect – 0,5 × 10-6 K-1. This device is used for characterization of thermal lens in the laser active element from an yttrium vanadate crystal, Er3+,Yb3+:YVO .

  3. External amplitude and frequency modulation of a terahertz quantum cascade laser using metamaterial/graphene devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindness, S J; Jessop, D S; Wei, B; Wallis, R; Kamboj, V S; Xiao, L; Ren, Y; Braeuninger-Weimer, P; Aria, A I; Hofmann, S; Beere, H E; Ritchie, D A; Degl'Innocenti, R

    2017-08-09

    Active control of the amplitude and frequency of terahertz sources is an essential prerequisite for exploiting a myriad of terahertz applications in imaging, spectroscopy, and communications. Here we present a optoelectronic, external modulation technique applied to a terahertz quantum cascade laser which holds the promise of addressing a number of important challenges in this research area. A hybrid metamaterial/graphene device is implemented into an external cavity set-up allowing for optoelectronic tuning of feedback into a quantum cascade laser. We demonstrate powerful, all-electronic, control over the amplitude and frequency of the laser output. Full laser switching is performed by electrostatic gating of the metamaterial/graphene device, demonstrating a modulation depth of 100%. External control of the emission spectrum is also achieved, highlighting the flexibility of this feedback method. By taking advantage of the frequency dispersive reflectivity of the metamaterial array, different modes of the QCL output are selectively suppressed using lithographic tuning and single mode operation of the multi-mode laser is enforced. Side mode suppression is electrically modulated from ~6 dB to ~21 dB, demonstrating active, optoelectronic modulation of the laser frequency content between multi-mode and single mode operation.

  4. Micromachining and dicing of sapphire, gallium nitride and micro LED devices with UV copper vapour laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, E.; Jeon, C.W.; Choi, H.W.; Rice, G.; Dawson, M.D.; Illy, E.K.; Knowles, M.R.H.

    2004-01-01

    Gallium nitride (GaN) and sapphire are important materials for fabricating photonic devices such as high brightness light emitting diodes (LEDs). These materials are strongly resistant to wet chemical etching and also, low etch rates restrict the use of dry etching. Thus, to develop alternative high resolution processing and machining techniques for these materials is important in fabricating novel photonic devices. In this work, a repetitively pulsed UV copper vapour laser (255 nm) has been used to machine and dice sapphire, GaN and micro LED devices. Machining parameters were optimised so as to achieve controllable machining and high resolution. For sapphire, well-defined grooves 30 μm wide and 430 μm deep were machined. For GaN, precision features such as holes on a tens of micron length scale have been fabricated. By using this technique, compact micro LED chips with a die spacing 100 and a 430 μm thick sapphire substrate have been successfully diced. Measurements show that the performances of LED devices are not influenced by the UV laser machining. Our results demonstrate that the pulsed UV copper vapour laser is a powerful tool for micromachining and dicing of photonic materials and devices

  5. Femtosecond laser ablation of transparent microphotonic devices and computer-generated holograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqurashi, Tawfiq; Montelongo, Yunuen; Penchev, Pavel; Yetisen, Ali K; Dimov, Stefan; Butt, Haider

    2017-09-21

    Femtosecond laser ablation allows direct patterning of engineering materials in industrial settings without requiring multistage processes such as photolithography or electron beam lithography. However, femtosecond lasers have not been widely used to construct volumetric microphotonic devices and holograms with high reliability and cost efficiency. Here, a direct femtosecond laser writing process is developed to rapidly produce transmission 1D/2D gratings, Fresnel Zone Plate lenses, and computer-generated holograms. The optical properties including light transmission, angle-dependent resolution, and light polarization effects for the microphotonic devices have been characterized. Varying the depth of the microgratings from 400 nm to 1.5 μm allowed the control over their transmission intensity profile. The optical properties of the 1D/2D gratings were validated through a geometrical theory of diffraction model involving 2D phase modulation. The produced Fresnel lenses had transmission efficiency of ∼60% at normal incidence and they preserved the polarization of incident light. The computer-generated holograms had an average transmission efficiency of 35% over the visible spectrum. These microphotonic devices had wettability resistance of contact angle ranging from 44° to 125°. These devices can be used in a variety of applications including wavelength-selective filters, dynamic displays, fiber optics, and biomedical devices.

  6. Rapid prototyping of 2D glass microfluidic devices based on femtosecond laser assisted selective etching process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Il; Kim, Jeongtae; Koo, Chiwan; Joung, Yeun-Ho; Choi, Jiyeon

    2018-02-01

    Microfluidics technology which deals with small liquid samples and reagents within micro-scale channels has been widely applied in various aspects of biological, chemical, and life-scientific research. For fabricating microfluidic devices, a silicon-based polymer, PDMS (Polydimethylsiloxane), is widely used in soft lithography, but it has several drawbacks for microfluidic applications. Glass has many advantages over PDMS due to its excellent optical, chemical, and mechanical properties. However, difficulties in fabrication of glass microfluidic devices that requires multiple skilled steps such as MEMS technology taking several hours to days, impedes broad application of glass based devices. Here, we demonstrate a rapid and optical prototyping of a glass microfluidic device by using femtosecond laser assisted selective etching (LASE) and femtosecond laser welding. A microfluidic droplet generator was fabricated as a demonstration of a microfluidic device using our proposed prototyping. The fabrication time of a single glass chip containing few centimeter long and complex-shaped microfluidic channels was drastically reduced in an hour with the proposed laser based rapid and simple glass micromachining and hermetic packaging technique.

  7. Creating compact and microscale features in paper-based devices by laser cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, Md Almostasim; Blondeel, Eric J M; Kaddoura, Moufeed; MacDonald, Brendan D

    2016-11-14

    In this work we describe a fabrication method to create compact and microscale features in paper-based microfluidic devices using a CO 2 laser cutting/engraving machine. Using this method we are able to produce the smallest features with the narrowest barriers yet reported for paper-based microfluidic devices. The method uses foil backed paper as the base material and yields inexpensive paper-based devices capable of using small fluid sample volumes and thus small reagent volumes, which is also suitable for mass production. The laser parameters (power and laser head speed) were adjusted to minimize the width of hydrophobic barriers and we were able to create barriers with a width of 39 ± 15 μm that were capable of preventing cross-barrier bleeding. We generated channels with a width of 128 ± 30 μm, which we found to be the physical limit for small features in the chromatography paper we used. We demonstrate how miniaturizing of paper-based microfluidic devices enables eight tests on a single bioassay device using only 2 μL of sample fluid volume.

  8. CARIES DETECTION WITH LASER FLUORESCENCE DEVICES. LIMITATIONS OF THEIR USE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Spaveras

    2017-03-01

    Data synthesis: DD and DDPen are useful devices for caries detection on the occlusal tooth surfaces. Their main advantages are the very high reproducibility of measurements (>0.90, the ease of handling and the quantification and monitoring capacity. Their main limitations are the relatively low specificity for enamel lesions, the necessity of unstained surfaces and absence of plaque and pastes during measurements and the absence of a universal, clinically functional calibration value (COV. Conclusion: Further studies are required for more reliable data analysis and clinical interpretation of the relevant results.

  9. Test results of the experimental laser device for potato tubers radiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anufrik, S.S.; Korzun, O.S.

    2007-01-01

    Results of 3 year investigation of the influence of the presowing low intensity laser radiation treatment of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers with the help of laser device with various spectral composition and exposition on plant growth, development and productivity and potato tubers quality and starch content in the conditions of the Republic of Belarus were presented. Presowing tubers treatment of potato cultivars Sante, Yavar and Arkhideya was realized by He-Ne, Ar-, Cu (in course of 3 and 5 minutes) and CO2 (in course of 5 seconds) lasers. Research results have shown that presowing treatment with CO2 laser promoted the higher (on 1,7-6,6%) potato germination capacity in comparison with the control variant without radiation treatment. Height of potato plants of Sante variety after radiation treatment fell behind the control ones. Haulm quantity per one plant and yield quality did not depend on radiation treatment Treatment with CO2 laser exercised the stimulatory action on productivity of Sante variety without changing the starch content in tubers. Tuber weight increased up to 0,4 kg (0,2 kg in the control variant). Similar effect for Arkhideya and Yavar varieties was obtained after Cu-laser treatment in course of 5 minutes. Radiation treatment with He-Ne laser caused the increased starch accumulation (on 0,4-0,6% in comparison with the control variant) in potato tubers of all studied varieties

  10. Engineering fluidic delays in paper-based devices using laser direct-writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, P J W; Katis, I N; Eason, R W; Sones, C L

    2015-10-21

    We report the use of a new laser-based direct-write technique that allows programmable and timed fluid delivery in channels within a paper substrate which enables implementation of multi-step analytical assays. The technique is based on laser-induced photo-polymerisation, and through adjustment of the laser writing parameters such as the laser power and scan speed we can control the depth and/or the porosity of hydrophobic barriers which, when fabricated in the fluid path, produce controllable fluid delay. We have patterned these flow delaying barriers at pre-defined locations in the fluidic channels using either a continuous wave laser at 405 nm, or a pulsed laser operating at 266 nm. Using this delay patterning protocol we generated flow delays spanning from a few minutes to over half an hour. Since the channels and flow delay barriers can be written via a common laser-writing process, this is a distinct improvement over other methods that require specialist operating environments, or custom-designed equipment. This technique can therefore be used for rapid fabrication of paper-based microfluidic devices that can perform single or multistep analytical assays.

  11. Interim report - performance of laser and radar ranging devices in adverse environmental conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicholas Hillier; Julian Ryde; Eleonora WidzykCapehart; Graham Brooker; Javier Martinez; Andrew Denman [CSIRO (Australia)

    2008-10-15

    CSIRO in conjunction with CRC Mining and the Australian Centre for Field Robotics (ACFR) conducted a series of controlled experiments to examine the performance of three scanning range devices: two scanning infrared laser range finders and millimetrewave radar. Within the controlled environment, the performance of the devices were tested in various rain, mist and dustcloud conditions. Subsequently, these sensors were installed on a P&H 2800BLE electric rope shovel at the Bracalba Quarry, near Caboolture, Queensland, and the system performance was evaluated. The three scanning range sensors tested as part of this study were: 1. A Riegl LMSQ120 scanning laser range finder; 2. A SICK LMS291S05 scanning laser range finder; and, 3. ACFR's prototype 95GHz millimetrewave radar (2D HSS). The range data from these devices is to be used to construct accurate models of the environment in which the electric rope shovel operates and to, subsequently, make control decisions for its operation. Of the currently available range sensing technologies, it is considered that the infrared laser range finders and millimetrewave radar offer the best means of obtaining this data. This report summarises the results of both the controlled (laboratory) and field testing and presents key findings on sensor performance that are likely to impact the creation of digital models of the terrain surrounding a mining shovel.

  12. Laser Processed Silver Nanowire Network Transparent Electrodes for Novel Electronic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spechler, Joshua Allen

    Silver nanowire network transparent conducting layers are poised to make headway into a space previously dominated by transparent conducting oxides due to the promise of a flexible, scaleable, lab-atmosphere processable alternative. However, there are many challenges standing in the way between research scale use and consumer technology scale adaptation of this technology. In this thesis we will explore many, and overcome a few of these challenges. We will address the poor conductivity at the narrow nanowire-nanowire junction points in the network by developing a laser based process to weld nanowires together on a microscopic scale. We address the need for a comparative metric for transparent conductors in general, by taking a device level rather than a component level view of these layers. We also address the mechanical, physical, and thermal limitations to the silver nanowire networks by making composites from materials including a colorless polyimide and titania sol-gel. Additionally, we verify our findings by integrating these processes into devices. Studying a hybrid organic/inorganic heterojunction photovoltaic device we show the benefits of a laser processed electrode. Green phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes fabricated on a solution phase processed silver nanowire based electrode show favorable device metrics compared to a conductive oxide electrode based control. The work in this thesis is intended to push the adoption of silver nanowire networks to further allow new device architectures, and thereby new device applications.

  13. Laser patterning and welding of transparent polymers for microfluidic device fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfleging, W.; Baldus, O.

    2006-02-01

    CO II-laser-assisted micro-patterning of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) or cyclo-olefin copolymer (COC) has a great potential for the rapid manufacturing of polymeric devices including cutting and structuring. Channel widths of about 50 μm as well as large area patterning of reservoir structures or drilling of vias are established. For this purpose a high quality laser beam is necessary as well as an appropriate beam forming system. In combination with laser transmission welding a fast fabrication of two- and three-dimensional micro-fluidic devices was possible. Welding as well as multilayer welding of transparent polymers was investigated for different polymers such as PMMA, polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), COC, and polystyrene (PS). The laser transmission welding process is performed with a high-power diode laser (wavelength 940 nm). An absorption layer with a thickness of several nanometers is deposited onto the polymer surfaces. The welding process has been established for the welding of polymeric parts containing microchannels, if the width of the channels is equal or larger than 100μm. For smaller feature sizes the absorption layer is structured by UV-laser radiation in order to get a highly localized welding seam, e.g., for the limitation of thermal penetration and thermal damaging of functional features such as channels, thin walls or temperature-sensitive substances often contained in micro-fluidic devices. This process strategy was investigated for the welding of capillary electrophoresis chips and capillary blood separation chips, including channel widths of 100 μm and 30 μm. Analysis of the thickness of the absorption layer was carried out with optical transmission spectroscopy.

  14. Helical-type device and laser fusion. Rivals for tokamak-type device at n-fusion development in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Under the current policy on the research and development of nuclear fusion in Japan, as enunciated by the Atomic Energy Commission of Japan, the type of a prototype fusion reactor will be chosen after 2020 from tokamak, helical or some other type including the inertial confinement fusion using lasers. A prototype fusion reactor is the next step following the tokamak type International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). With the prototype reactor, the feasibility as a power plant will be examined. At present the main research and development of nuclear fusion in Japan are on tokamak type, which have been promoted by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). As for the other types of nuclear fusion, researches have been carried out on the helical type in Kyoto University and National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS), the mirror type in Tsukuba University, the tokamak type using superconductive coils in Kyushu University, and the laser fusion in Osaka University. The features and the present state of research and development of the Large Helical Device and the laser fusion which is one step away from the break-even condition are reported. (K.I.)

  15. Long-term vacuum tests of single-mode vertical cavity surface emitting laser diodes used for a scalar magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, C.; Ellmeier, M.; Piris, J.; Lammegger, R.; Jernej, I.; Magnes, W.; Murphy, E.; Pollinger, A.; Erd, C.; Baumjohann, W.

    2017-11-01

    Scalar magnetometers measure the magnitude of the magnetic field, while vector magnetometers (mostly fluxgate magnetometers) produce three-component outputs proportional to the magnitude and the direction of the magnetic field. While scalar magnetometers have a high accuracy, vector magnetometers suffer from parameter drifts and need to be calibrated during flight. In some cases, full science return can only be achieved by a combination of vector and scalar magnetometers.

  16. In-chip microstructures and photonic devices fabricated by nonlinear laser lithography deep inside silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokel, Onur; Turnalı, Ahmet; Makey, Ghaith; Elahi, Parviz; ćolakoǧlu, Tahir; Ergeçen, Emre; Yavuz, Ã.-zgün; Hübner, René; Zolfaghari Borra, Mona; Pavlov, Ihor; Bek, Alpan; Turan, Raşit; Kesim, Denizhan Koray; Tozburun, Serhat; Ilday, Serim; Ilday, F. Ã.-mer

    2017-10-01

    Silicon is an excellent material for microelectronics and integrated photonics1-3, with untapped potential for mid-infrared optics4. Despite broad recognition of the importance of the third dimension5,6, current lithography methods do not allow the fabrication of photonic devices and functional microelements directly inside silicon chips. Even relatively simple curved geometries cannot be realized with techniques like reactive ion etching. Embedded optical elements7, electronic devices and better electronic-photonic integration are lacking8. Here, we demonstrate laser-based fabrication of complex 3D structures deep inside silicon using 1-µm-sized dots and rod-like structures of adjustable length as basic building blocks. The laser-modified Si has an optical index different to that in unmodified parts, enabling the creation of numerous photonic devices. Optionally, these parts can be chemically etched to produce desired 3D shapes. We exemplify a plethora of subsurface—that is, `in-chip'—microstructures for microfluidic cooling of chips, vias, micro-electro-mechanical systems, photovoltaic applications and photonic devices that match or surpass corresponding state-of-the-art device performances.

  17. A new automatic design method to develop multilayer thin film devices for high power laser applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, N.K.; Apparao, K.V.S.R.

    1992-01-01

    Optical thin film devices play a major role in many areas of frontier technology like development of various laser systems to the designing of complex and precision optical systems. Design and development of these devices are really challenging when they are meant for high power laser applications. In these cases besides desired optical characteristics, the devices are expected to satisfy a whole range of different needs like high damage threshold, durability etc. In the present work a novel completely automatic design method based on Modified Complex Method has been developed for designing of high power thin film devices. Unlike most of the other methods it does not need any suitable starting design. A quarterwave design is sufficient to start with. If required, it is capable of generating its own starting design. The computer code of the method is very simple to implement. This report discusses this novel automatic design method and presents various practicable output designs generated by it. The relative efficiency of the method along with other powerful methods has been presented while designing a broadband IR antireflection coating. The method is also incorporated with 2D and 3D electric field analysis programmes to produce high damage threshold designs. Some experimental devices developed using such designs are also presented in the report. (author). 36 refs., 41 figs

  18. In-chip microstructures and photonic devices fabricated by nonlinear laser lithography deep inside silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokel, Onur; Turnali, Ahmet; Makey, Ghaith; Elahi, Parviz; Çolakoğlu, Tahir; Ergeçen, Emre; Yavuz, Özgün; Hübner, René; Borra, Mona Zolfaghari; Pavlov, Ihor; Bek, Alpan; Turan, Raşit; Kesim, Denizhan Koray; Tozburun, Serhat; Ilday, Serim; Ilday, F Ömer

    2017-10-01

    Silicon is an excellent material for microelectronics and integrated photonics1-3 with untapped potential for mid-IR optics4. Despite broad recognition of the importance of the third dimension5,6, current lithography methods do not allow fabrication of photonic devices and functional microelements directly inside silicon chips. Even relatively simple curved geometries cannot be realised with techniques like reactive ion etching. Embedded optical elements, like in glass7, electronic devices, and better electronic-photonic integration are lacking8. Here, we demonstrate laser-based fabrication of complex 3D structures deep inside silicon using 1 µm-sized dots and rod-like structures of adjustable length as basic building blocks. The laser-modified Si has a different optical index than unmodified parts, which enables numerous photonic devices. Optionally, these parts are chemically etched to produce desired 3D shapes. We exemplify a plethora of subsurface, i.e. , " in-chip" microstructures for microfluidic cooling of chips, vias, MEMS, photovoltaic applications and photonic devices that match or surpass the corresponding state-of-the-art device performances.

  19. Observation of theoretical power saturation by the KHI free electron laser device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, Fumihiko; Yokoyama, Minoru; Kawai, Masayuki; Miura, Hidenori; Koike, Hidehito; Sobajima, Masaaki; Nomaru, Keiji; Kuroda, Haruo

    2002-01-01

    The saturation of free electron laser (FEL) output power by the KHI-FEL device was achieved on 3rd, October 2000 at the wavelength of 9.3 μm. The FEL device has operated thereafter successfully in the wavelength region between 4.0 and 16.0 μm. The macropulse average FEL power of 37.5 kW, which is the theoretical saturation level, has been obtained at the wavelength of 7.9 μm. The net FEL gain was estimated to be 16%. (author)

  20. Experimental devices for the spatio-temporal characterization of femtosecond high-power laser chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallet, Valentin

    2014-01-01

    One of the advantages of high-power femtosecond lasers (TW-PW) is to obtain, at the focus of a focusing optic, very high intensities up to 10 22 W.cm -2 (i.e. an electric field of 2.7 PV.m -1 . Therefore, these lasers chains necessarily deliver beams with large diameter (up to 40 cm) and very short pulses (of the order of tens of femto-seconds). As a consequence, the spatial and temporal properties of the pulse are generally not independent. Such dependence, called spatial-temporal coupling has the effect of increasing the pulse duration and the size of the focal spot, which can lead to a significant reduction of the maximum intensity at the focus. Metrology devices commonly used on these high-power femtosecond lasers allow retrieving the spatial and temporal profiles of the pulse only in an independent manner. The aim of this thesis was to develop techniques for measuring spatio-temporal couplings in order to quantify their effect and correct them in order to obtain the maximum intensity at focus. First of all, we adapted an existing technique of spatio-temporal characterization to the measurement of TW lasers. To avoid the issues induced at the focus, such as those related to jittering, measurements were performed on the collimated beam. By adding a reference source to the original device, we managed to take into account the measurement artifacts due to thermal and mechanical variations affecting the interferometer. With this improvement, it was possible to reconstruct the complete spatio-temporal profile of the beam, particularly its wavefront. However, the limitations imposed by this technique led to the development of a new measurement device. Based on a cross-correlation, this technique consists of making the laser beam to interfere with a part of itself, small enough not to be spatio-temporally distorted. We have also implemented a variant of this device for a single-shot measurement along one transverse dimension of the pulse. Using these techniques, we

  1. Silicon light-emitting diodes and lasers photon breeding devices using dressed photons

    CERN Document Server

    Ohtsu, Motoichi

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on a novel phenomenon named photon breeding. It is applied to realizing light-emitting diodes and lasers made of indirect-transition-type silicon bulk crystals in which the light-emission principle is based on dressed photons. After presenting physical pictures of dressed photons and dressed-photon phonons, the principle of light emission by using dressed-photon phonons is reviewed. A novel phenomenon named photon breeding is also reviewed. Next, the fabrication and operation of light emitting diodes and lasers are described The role of coherent phonons in these devices is discussed. Finally, light-emitting diodes using other relevant crystals are described and other relevant devices are also reviewed.

  2. Self-amplified spontaneous emission free electron laser devices and nonideal electron beam transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. L. Lazzarino

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We have developed, at the SPARC test facility, a procedure for a real time self-amplified spontaneous emission free electron laser (FEL device performance control. We describe an actual FEL, including electron and optical beam transport, through a set of analytical formulas, allowing a fast and reliable on-line “simulation” of the experiment. The system is designed in such a way that the characteristics of the transport elements and the laser intensity are measured and adjusted, via a real time computation, during the experimental run, to obtain an on-line feedback of the laser performances. The detail of the procedure and the relevant experimental results are discussed.

  3. Characterization of organic photovoltaic devices using femtosecond laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, S. P.; Sarnet, Thierry; Siozos, Panayiotis; Loulakis, Michalis; Anglos, Demetrios; Sentis, Marc

    2017-10-01

    The potential of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) as a non-contact probe, for characterizing organic photovoltaic devices during selective laser scribing, was investigated. Samples from organic solar cells were studied, which consisted of several layers of materials including a top electrode (Al, Mg or Mo), organic layer, bottom electrode (indium tin oxide), silicon nitride barrier layer and substrate layer situated from the top consecutively. The thickness of individual layers varies from 115 to 250 nm. LIBS measurements were performed by use of a 40 femtosecond Ti:Sapphire laser operated at very low pulse energy (solar cell structure, demonstrating the potential of LIBS for fast, non-contact characterization of organic photovoltaic coatings.

  4. Laser-based irradiation apparatus and method to measure the functional dose-rate response of semiconductor devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Kevin M [Albuquerque, NM

    2008-05-20

    A broad-beam laser irradiation apparatus can measure the parametric or functional response of a semiconductor device to exposure to dose-rate equivalent infrared laser light. Comparisons of dose-rate response from before, during, and after accelerated aging of a device, or from periodic sampling of devices from fielded operational systems can determine if aging has affected the device's overall functionality. The dependence of these changes on equivalent dose-rate pulse intensity and/or duration can be measured with the apparatus. The synchronized introduction of external electrical transients into the device under test can be used to simulate the electrical effects of the surrounding circuitry's response to a radiation exposure while exposing the device to dose-rate equivalent infrared laser light.

  5. Nanosecond laser ablation processes in aluminum-doped zinc-oxide for photovoltaic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canteli, D.; Fernandez, S.; Molpeceres, C.; Torres, I.; Gandía, J.J.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A study of the ablation of AZO thin films deposited at different temperature conditions with nanosecond UV laser light for photovoltaic devices has been performed. ► The ablation threshold of AZO thin films was measured and related with the absorption coefficient of the films at the laser wavelength, showing a direct correspondence. ► A change in the material structure in the areas closest to the edges of laser grooves made in samples deposited at temperatures below 100 °C was observed and studied. - Abstract: Aiming to a future use in thin film solar modules, the processing of aluminum doped zinc oxide thin films with good optoelectronic properties with a nanosecond-pulsed ultraviolet laser has been studied. The ablation threshold fluence of the films has been determined and associated with the material properties. The ablation process has been optimized and grooves with good properties for photovoltaic devices have been obtained. The morphology of the ablated surfaces has been observed by confocal microscopy and its structure has been characterized by Raman spectroscopy. The influence of ablation parameters like focus distance, pulse energy and repetition frequency in the groove morphology has been studied with special attention to the thermal effects on the material structure.

  6. Miniaturized pulsed laser source for time-domain diffuse optics routes to wearable devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Sieno, Laura; Nissinen, Jan; Hallman, Lauri; Martinenghi, Edoardo; Contini, Davide; Pifferi, Antonio; Kostamovaara, Juha; Mora, Alberto Dalla

    2017-08-01

    We validate a miniaturized pulsed laser source for use in time-domain (TD) diffuse optics, following rigorous and shared protocols for performance assessment of this class of devices. This compact source (12×6  mm2) has been previously developed for range finding applications and is able to provide short, high energy (∼100  ps, ∼0.5  nJ) optical pulses at up to 1 MHz repetition rate. Here, we start with a basic level laser characterization with an analysis of suitability of this laser for the diffuse optics application. Then, we present a TD optical system using this source and its performances in both recovering optical properties of tissue-mimicking homogeneous phantoms and in detecting localized absorption perturbations. Finally, as a proof of concept of in vivo application, we demonstrate that the system is able to detect hemodynamic changes occurring in the arm of healthy volunteers during a venous occlusion. Squeezing the laser source in a small footprint removes a key technological bottleneck that has hampered so far the realization of a miniaturized TD diffuse optics system, able to compete with already assessed continuous-wave devices in terms of size and cost, but with wider performance potentialities, as demonstrated by research over the last two decades. (2017) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  7. Nanosecond laser ablation processes in aluminum-doped zinc-oxide for photovoltaic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canteli, D., E-mail: david.canteli@ciemat.es [Division de Energias Renovables, Energia Solar Fotovoltaica, CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense, 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Fernandez, S. [Division de Energias Renovables, Energia Solar Fotovoltaica, CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense, 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Molpeceres, C. [Centro Laser, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Ctra. de Valencia Km 7.3, 28031 Madrid (Spain); Torres, I.; Gandia, J.J. [Division de Energias Renovables, Energia Solar Fotovoltaica, CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense, 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A study of the ablation of AZO thin films deposited at different temperature conditions with nanosecond UV laser light for photovoltaic devices has been performed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ablation threshold of AZO thin films was measured and related with the absorption coefficient of the films at the laser wavelength, showing a direct correspondence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A change in the material structure in the areas closest to the edges of laser grooves made in samples deposited at temperatures below 100 Degree-Sign C was observed and studied. - Abstract: Aiming to a future use in thin film solar modules, the processing of aluminum doped zinc oxide thin films with good optoelectronic properties with a nanosecond-pulsed ultraviolet laser has been studied. The ablation threshold fluence of the films has been determined and associated with the material properties. The ablation process has been optimized and grooves with good properties for photovoltaic devices have been obtained. The morphology of the ablated surfaces has been observed by confocal microscopy and its structure has been characterized by Raman spectroscopy. The influence of ablation parameters like focus distance, pulse energy and repetition frequency in the groove morphology has been studied with special attention to the thermal effects on the material structure.

  8. A novel near real-time laser scanning device for geometrical determination of pleural cavity surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Michele M; Zhu, Timothy C

    2013-02-02

    During HPPH-mediated pleural photodynamic therapy (PDT), it is critical to determine the anatomic geometry of the pleural surface quickly as there may be movement during treatment resulting in changes with the cavity. We have developed a laser scanning device for this purpose, which has the potential to obtain the surface geometry in real-time. A red diode laser with a holographic template to create a pattern and a camera with auto-focusing abilities are used to scan the cavity. In conjunction with a calibration with a known surface, we can use methods of triangulation to reconstruct the surface. Using a chest phantom, we are able to obtain a 360 degree scan of the interior in under 1 minute. The chest phantom scan was compared to an existing CT scan to determine its accuracy. The laser-camera separation can be determined through the calibration with 2mm accuracy. The device is best suited for environments that are on the scale of a chest cavity (between 10cm and 40cm). This technique has the potential to produce cavity geometry in real-time during treatment. This would enable PDT treatment dosage to be determined with greater accuracy. Works are ongoing to build a miniaturized device that moves the light source and camera via a fiber-optics bundle commonly used for endoscopy with increased accuracy.

  9. High-speed high-efficiency 500-W cw CO2 laser hermetization of metal frames of microelectronics devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Andrey V.

    1996-04-01

    High-speed, efficient method of laser surface treatment has been developed using (500 W) cw CO2 laser. The principal advantages of CO2 laser surface treatment in comparison with solid state lasers are the basis of the method. It has been affirmed that high efficiency of welding was a consequence of the fundamental properties of metal-IR-radiation (10,6 mkm) interaction. CO2 laser hermetization of metal frames of microelectronic devices is described as an example of the proposed method application.

  10. Monolithic beam steering in a mid-infrared, surface-emitting, photonic integrated circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slivken, Steven; Wu, Donghai; Razeghi, Manijeh

    2017-08-16

    The mid-infrared (2.5 < λ < 25 μm) spectral region is utilized for many purposes, such as chemical/biological sensing, free space communications, and illuminators/countermeasures. Compared to near-infrared optical systems, however, mid-infrared component technology is still rather crude, with isolated components exhibiting limited functionality. In this manuscript, we make a significant leap forward in mid-infrared technology by developing a platform which can combine functions of multiple mid-infrared optical elements, including an integrated light source. In a single device, we demonstrate wide wavelength tuning (240 nm) and beam steering (17.9 degrees) in the mid-infrared with a significantly reduced beam divergence (down to 0.5 degrees). The architecture is also set up to be manufacturable and testable on a wafer scale, requiring no cleaved facets or special mirror coating to function.

  11. High speed, intermediate resolution, large area laser beam induced current imaging and laser scribing system for photovoltaic devices and modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Adam B.; Song, Zhaoning; DeWitt, Jonathan L.; Stone, Jon M.; Krantz, Patrick W.; Royston, John M.; Zeller, Ryan M.; Mapes, Meghan R.; Roland, Paul J.; Dorogi, Mark D.; Zafar, Syed; Faykosh, Gary T.; Ellingson, Randy J.; Heben, Michael J.

    2016-09-01

    We have developed a laser beam induced current imaging tool for photovoltaic devices and modules that utilizes diode pumped Q-switched lasers. Power densities on the order of one sun (100 mW/cm2) can be produced in a ˜40 μm spot size by operating the lasers at low diode current and high repetition rate. Using galvanostatically controlled mirrors in an overhead configuration and high speed data acquisition, large areas can be scanned in short times. As the beam is rastered, focus is maintained on a flat plane with an electronically controlled lens that is positioned in a coordinated fashion with the movements of the mirrors. The system can also be used in a scribing mode by increasing the diode current and decreasing the repetition rate. In either mode, the instrument can accommodate samples ranging in size from laboratory scale (few cm2) to full modules (1 m2). Customized LabVIEW programs were developed to control the components and acquire, display, and manipulate the data in imaging mode.

  12. Bidirectional current triggering in planar devices based on serially connected VO2 thin films using 965 nm laser diode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jihoon; Park, Kyongsoo; Kim, Bong-Jun; Lee, Yong Wook

    2016-08-08

    By incorporating a 965 nm laser diode, the bidirectional current triggering of up to 30 mA was demonstrated in a two-terminal planar device based on serially connected vanadium dioxide (VO2) thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition. The bidirectional current triggering was realized by using the focused beams of laser pulses through the photo-thermally induced phase transition of VO2. The transient responses of laser-triggered currents were also investigated when laser pulses excited the device at a variety of pulse widths and repetition rates of up to 4.0 Hz. A switching contrast between off- and on-state currents was obtained as ~8333, and rising and falling times were measured as ~39 and ~29 ms, respectively, for 50 ms laser pulses.

  13. Advanced laser-based tracking device for motor vehicle lane position monitoring and steering assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachalo, William D.; Inenaga, Andrew; Schuler, Carlos A.

    1995-12-01

    Aerometrics is developing an innovative laser-diode based device that provides a warning signal when a motor-vehicle deviates from the center of the lane. The device is based on a sensor that scans the roadway on either side of the vehicle and determines the lateral position relative to the existing painted lines marking the lane. No additional markings are required. A warning is used to alert the driver of excessive weaving or unanticipated departure from the center of the lane. The laser beams are at invisible wavelengths to that operation of the device does not pose a distraction to the driver or other motorists: When appropriate markers are not present on the road, the device is capable of detecting this condition and warn the driver. The sensor system is expected to work well irrespective of ambient light levels, fog and rain. This sensor has enormous commercial potential. It could be marketed as an instrument to warn drivers that they are weaving, used as a research tool to monitor driving patterns, be required equipment for those previously convicted of driving under the influence, or used as a backup sensor for vehicle lateral position control. It can also be used in storage plants to guide robotic delivery vehicles. In this paper, the principles of operation of the sensor, and the results of Aerometrics ongoing testing will be presented.

  14. Laser-based irradiation apparatus and methods for monitoring the dose-rate response of semiconductor devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Kevin M [Albuquerque, NM

    2006-03-28

    A scanned, pulsed, focused laser irradiation apparatus can measure and image the photocurrent collection resulting from a dose-rate equivalent exposure to infrared laser light across an entire silicon die. Comparisons of dose-rate response images or time-delay images from before, during, and after accelerated aging of a device, or from periodic sampling of devices from fielded operational systems allows precise identification of those specific age-affected circuit structures within a device that merit further quantitative analysis with targeted materials or electrical testing techniques. Another embodiment of the invention comprises a broad-beam, dose rate-equivalent exposure apparatus. The broad-beam laser irradiation apparatus can determine if aging has affected the device's overall functionality. This embodiment can be combined with the synchronized introduction of external electrical transients into a device under test to simulate the electrical effects of the surrounding circuitry's response to a radiation exposure.

  15. An integrated fiber and stone basket device for use in Thulium fiber laser lithotripsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Christopher R.; Hutchens, Thomas C.; Hardy, Luke A.; Irby, Pierce B.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2014-03-01

    The Thulium fiber laser (TFL) is being explored as an alternative laser lithotripter to the Holmium:YAG laser. The TFL's superior near-single mode beam profile enables higher power transmission through smaller fibers with reduced proximal fiber tip damage. Recent studies have also reported that attaching hollow steel tubing to the distal fiber tip decreases fiber degradation and burn-back without compromising stone ablation rates. However, significant stone retropulsion was observed, which increased with pulse rate. In this study, the hollow steel tip fiber design was integrated with a stone basket to minimize stone retropulsion during ablation. A device was constructed consisting of a 100-μm-core, 140-μm-OD silica fiber outfitted with 5-mm-long stainless steel tubing at the distal tip, and integrated with a 1.3-Fr (0.433-mm-OD) disposable nitinol wire basket, to form an overall 1.9-Fr (0.633-mm- OD) integrated device. This compact design may provide several potential advantages including increased flexibility, higher saline irrigation rates through the ureteroscope working channel, and reduced fiber tip degradation compared to separate fiber and stone basket manipulation. TFL pulse energy of 31.5 mJ with 500 μs pulse duration and pulse rate of 500 Hz was delivered through the integrated fiber/basket device in contact with human uric acid stones, ex vivo. TFL stone ablation rates measured 1.5 +/- 0.2 mg/s, comparable to 1.7 +/- 0.3 mg/s (P > 0.05) using standard bare fiber tips separately with a stone basket. With further development, this device may be useful for minimizing stone retropulsion, thus enabling more efficient TFL lithotripsy at higher pulse rates.

  16. Laser-generated shock wave attenuation aimed at microscale pyrotechnic device design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeonju Yu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available To meet the rising demand for miniaturizing the pyrotechnic device that consists of donor/acceptor pair separated by a bulkhead or a thin gap, the shock initiation sensitivity in the microscale gap test configuration is investigated. For understanding the shock attenuation within a gap sample (304 stainless steel thickness of 10∼800 μm, the laser-generated shock wave in water confinement is adopted. The shock properties are obtained from the free surface velocity by making use of a velocity interferometer system for any reflector (VISAR. Analytical models for plasma generation in a confined geometry and for evolution and decay of shock waves during the propagation are considered. The shape and amplitude of the laser-driven initial pressure load and its attenuation pattern in the gap are effectively controlled for targeting the microscale propagation distance and subsequent triggering pressure for the acceptor charge. The reported results are important in the precise controlling of the shock strength during the laser initiation of microscale pyrotechnic devices.

  17. Simultaneous 3D-vibration measurement using a single laser beam device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brecher, Christian; Guralnik, Alexander; Baümler, Stephan

    2012-06-01

    Today's commercial solutions for vibration measurement and modal analysis are 3D-scanning laser doppler vibrometers, mainly used for open surfaces in the automotive and aerospace industries and the classic three-axial accelerometers in civil engineering, for most industrial applications in manufacturing environments, and particularly for partially closed structures. This paper presents a novel measurement approach using a single laser beam device and optical reflectors to simultaneously perform 3D-dynamic measurement as well as geometry measurement of the investigated object. We show the application of this so called laser tracker for modal testing of structures on a mechanical manufacturing shop floor. A holistic measurement method is developed containing manual reflector placement, semi-automated geometric modeling of investigated objects and fully automated vibration measurement up to 1000 Hz and down to few microns amplitude. Additionally the fast set up dynamic measurement of moving objects using a tracking technique is presented that only uses the device's own functionalities and does neither require a predefined moving path of the target nor an electronic synchronization to the moving object.

  18. A Simple Device for Lens-to-Sample Distance Adjustment in Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortez, Juliana; Farias Filho, Benedito B; Fontes, Laiane M; Pasquini, Celio; Raimundo, Ivo M; Pimentel, Maria Fernanda; de Souza Lins Borba, Flávia

    2017-04-01

    A simple device based on two commercial laser pointers is described to assist in the analysis of samples that present uneven surfaces and/or irregular shapes using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The device allows for easy positioning of the sample surface at a reproducible distance from the focusing lens that conveys the laser pulse to generate the micro-plasma in a LIBS system, with reproducibility better than ±0.2 mm. In this way, fluctuations in the fluence (J cm -2 ) are minimized and the LIBS analytical signals can be obtained with a better precision even when samples with irregular surfaces are probed.

  19. Fabrication and characterization of a cell electrostimulator device combining physical vapor deposition and laser ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragón, Angel L.; Pérez, Eliseo; Pazos, Antonio; Bao-Varela, Carmen; Nieto, Daniel

    2017-08-01

    In this work we present the process of fabrication and optimization of a prototype of a cell electrostimulator device for medical application combining physical vapor deposition and laser ablation. The fabrication of the first prototype begins with a deposition of a thin layer of 200 nm of aluminium on a borosilicate glass substrate using physical vapor deposition (PVD). In the second stage the geometry design of the electrostimulator is made in a CAD-like software available in a Nd:YVO4 Rofin Power line 20E, operating at the fundamental wavelength of 1064 nm and 20 ns pulse width. Choosing the proper laser parameters the negative of the electrostimulator desing is ablated. After that the glass is assembled between two polycarbonate sheets and a thick sheet of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). The PDMS sheet has a round hole in where cells are placed. There is also included a thin soda-lime silicate glass (100 μm) between the electrostimulator and the PMDS to prevent the cells for being in contact with the electric circuit. In order to control the electrical signal applied to the electrostimulator is used a digital I/O device from National Instruments (USB-6501) which provides 5 V at the output monitored by a software programmed in LabVIEW. Finally, the optical and electrical characterization of the cell electrostimulator device is presented.

  20. Passivation layer breakdown during laser-fired contact formation for photovoltaic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghavan, A.; DebRoy, T.; Palmer, T. A.

    2014-01-01

    Low resistance laser-fired ohmic contacts (LFCs) can be formed on the backside of Si-based solar cells using microsecond pulses. However, the impact of these longer pulse durations on the dielectric passivation layer is not clear. Retention of the passivation layer during processing is critical to ensure low recombination rates of electron-hole pairs at the rear surface of the device. In this work, advanced characterization tools are used to demonstrate that although the SiO 2 passivation layer melts directly below the laser, it is well preserved outside the immediate LFC region over a wide range of processing parameters. As a result, low recombination rates at the passivation layer/wafer interface can be expected despite higher energy densities associated with these pulse durations.

  1. A full-duplex working integrated optoelectronic device for optical interconnect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kai; Fan, Huize; Huang, Yongqing; Duan, Xiaofeng; Wang, Qi; Ren, Xiaomin; Wei, Qi; Cai, Shiwei

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, a full-duplex working integrated optoelectronic device is proposed. It is constructed by integrating a vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) unit above a resonant cavity enhanced photodetector (RCE-PD) unit. Analysis shows that, the VCSEL unit has a threshold current of 1 mA and a slop efficiency of 0.66 W/A at 849.7 nm, the RCE-PD unit obtains its maximal absorption quantum efficiency of 90.24% at 811 nm with a FWHM of 4 nm. Moreover, the two units of the proposed integrated device can work independently from each other. So that the proposed integrated optoelectronic device can work full-duplex. It can be applied for single fiber bidirectional optical interconnects system.

  2. Diabetic peripheral angiopathy treatment using a multi-laser therapy device

    OpenAIRE

    Zabulonov, Y.; Chukhraiyeva, O.; Vladimirov, A.; Chukhraiyev, M.; Zukow, W.

    2015-01-01

    Zabulonov Y., Chukhraiyeva O., Vladimirov A., Chukhraiyev M., Zukow W. Diabetic peripheral angiopathy treatment using a multi-laser therapy device. Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2015;5(10):227-233. ISSN 2391-8306. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.32801 http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/article/view/2015%3B5%2810%29%3A227-233 https://pbn.nauka.gov.pl/works/662978 Formerly Journal of Health Sciences. ISSN 1429-9623 / 2300-665X. Archives 2011–2014 http://journal.rsw....

  3. Diabetic peripheral angiopathy treatment using a multi-laser therapy device

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Zabulonov; O. Chukhraiyeva; A. Vladimirov; M. Chukhraiyev; W. Zukow

    2015-01-01

    Zabulonov Y., Chukhraiyeva O., Vladimirov A., Chukhraiyev M., Zukow W. Diabetic peripheral angiopathy treatment using a multi-laser therapy device. Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2015;5(10):227-233. ISSN 2391-8306. DOIhttp://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.32801 http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/article/view/2015%3B5%2810%29%3A227-233 https://pbn.nauka.gov.pl/works/662978 Formerly Journal of Health Sciences. ISSN 1429-9623 / 2300-665X. Archives 2011–2014http://journal.rsw.ed...

  4. A very sensitive ion collection device for plasma-laser characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallaro, S; Torrisi, L; Cutroneo, M; Amato, A; Sarta, F; Wen, L

    2012-06-01

    In this paper a very sensitive ion collection device, for diagnostic of laser ablated-target plasma, is described. It allows for reducing down to few microvolts the signal threshold at digital scope input. A standard ion collector is coupled to a transimpedance amplifier, specially designed, which increases data acquisition sensitivity by a gain ≈1100 and does not introduce any significant distortion of input signal. By time integration of current intensity, an amount of charge as small as 2.7 × 10(-2) pC can be detected for photopeak events.

  5. Memory properties of a Ge nanoring MOS device fabricated by pulsed laser deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiying

    2008-07-09

    The non-volatile charge-storage properties of memory devices with MOS structure based on Ge nanorings have been studied. The two-dimensional Ge nanorings were prepared on a p-Si(100) matrix by means of pulsed laser deposition (PLD) using the droplet technique combined with rapid annealing. Complete planar nanorings with well-defined sharp inner and outer edges were formed via an elastic self-transformation droplet process, which is probably driven by the lateral strain of the Ge/Si layers and the surface tension in the presence of Ar gas. The low leakage current was attributed to the small roughness and the few interface states in the planar Ge nanorings, and also to the effect of Coulomb blockade preventing injection. A significant threshold-voltage shift of 2.5 V was observed when an operating voltage of 8 V was implemented on the device.

  6. High-damage-threshold static laser beam shaping using optically patterned liquid-crystal devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorrer, C; Wei, S K-H; Leung, P; Vargas, M; Wegman, K; Boulé, J; Zhao, Z; Marshall, K L; Chen, S H

    2011-10-15

    Beam shaping of coherent laser beams is demonstrated using liquid crystal (LC) cells with optically patterned pixels. The twist angle of a nematic LC is locally set to either 0 or 90° by an alignment layer prepared via exposure to polarized UV light. The two distinct pixel types induce either no polarization rotation or a 90° polarization rotation, respectively, on a linearly polarized optical field. An LC device placed between polarizers functions as a binary transmission beam shaper with a highly improved damage threshold compared to metal beam shapers. Using a coumarin-based photoalignment layer, various devices have been fabricated and tested, with a measured single-shot nanosecond damage threshold higher than 30 J/cm2.

  7. In vitro performance of DIAGNOdent laser fluorescence device for dental calculus detection on human tooth root surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rams, Thomas E; Alwaqyan, Abdulaziz Y

    2017-10-01

    This study assessed the reproducibility of a red diode laser device, and its capability to detect dental calculus in vitro on human tooth root surfaces. On each of 50 extracted teeth, a calculus-positive and calculus-free root surface was evaluated by two independent examiners with a low-power indium gallium arsenide phosphide diode laser (DIAGNOdent) fitted with a periodontal probe-like sapphire tip and emitting visible red light at 655 nm wavelength. Laser autofluorescence intensity readings of examined root surfaces were scored on a 0-99 scale, with duplicate assessments performed using the laser probe tip directed both perpendicular and parallel to evaluated tooth root surfaces. Pearson correlation coefficients of untransformed measurements, and kappa analysis of data dichotomized with a >40 autofluorescence intensity threshold, were calculated to assess intra- and inter-examiner reproducibility of the laser device. Mean autofluorescence intensity scores of calculus-positive and calculus-free root surfaces were evaluated with the Student's t -test. Excellent intra- and inter-examiner reproducibility was found for DIAGNOdent laser autofluorescence intensity measurements, with Pearson correlation coefficients above 94%, and kappa values ranging between 0.96 and 1.0, for duplicate readings taken with both laser probe tip orientations. Significantly higher autofluorescence intensity values were measured when the laser probe tip was directed perpendicular, rather than parallel, to tooth root surfaces. However, calculus-positive roots, particularly with calculus in markedly-raised ledges, yielded significantly greater mean DIAGNOdent laser autofluorescence intensity scores than calculus-free surfaces, regardless of probe tip orientation. DIAGNOdent autofluorescence intensity values >40 exhibited a stronger association with calculus (36.6 odds ratio) then measurements of ≥5 (20.1 odds ratio) when the laser probe tip was advanced parallel to root surfaces. Excellent

  8. Maskless fabrication of a microfluidic device with interdigitated electrodes on PCB using laser ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras-Saenz, Michael; Hassard, Christian; Vargas-Chacon, Rafael; Gordillo, Jose Luis; Camacho-Leon, Sergio

    2016-03-01

    This paper reports the maskless fabrication of a microfluidic device with interdigitated electrodes (IDE) based on the technology of MicroElectroMechanical Systems on Printed Circuit Board (PCB-MEMS) and laser ablation. The device has flame retardant (FR)-4 resin as substrate, cooper (Cu) as active material and SU-8 polymer as structural material. By adjusting the laser parameters, Cu IDEs and SU-8 microchannels were successfully patterned onto the FR-4 substrate. The respective width, gap and overlap of the IDEs were 50 μm, 25 μm and 500 μm. The respective width, depth and length of the microchannels were 210 μm, 24.6 μm and 6.3 mm. The resolution and repeatability achieved in this approach, along with the low cost of the involved materials and techniques, enable an affordable micromachining platform with rapid fabrication-test cycle to develop active multiphysic microdevices with several applications in the fields of biosensing, cell culture, drug delivery, transport and sorting of molecules, among others.

  9. Initial Results of Optical Vortex Laser Absorption Spectroscopy in the HYPER-I Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Shinji; Asai, Shoma; Aramaki, Mitsutoshi; Terasaka, Kenichiro; Ozawa, Naoya; Tanaka, Masayoshi; Morisaki, Tomohiro

    2015-11-01

    Optical vortex beams have a potential to make a new Doppler measurement, because not only parallel but perpendicular movement of atoms against the beam axis causes the Doppler shift of their resonant absorption frequency. As the first step of a proof-of-principle experiment, we have performed the optical vortex laser absorption spectroscopy for metastable argon neutrals in an ECR plasma produced in the HYPER-I device at the National Institute for Fusion Science, Japan. An external cavity diode laser (TOPTICA, DL100) of which center wavelength was 696.735 nm in vacuum was used for the light source. The Hermite-Gaussian (HG) beam was converted into the Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) beam (optical vortex) by a computer-generated hologram displayed on the spatial light modulator (Hamamatsu, LCOS-SLM X10468-07). In order to make fast neutral flow across the LG beam, a high speed solenoid valve system was installed on the HYPER-I device. Initial results including the comparison of absorption spectra for HG and LG beams will be presented. This study was supported by NINS young scientists collaboration program for cross-disciplinary study, NIFS collaboration research program (NIFS13KOAP026), and JSPS KAKENHI grant number 15K05365.

  10. Device geometry considerations for ridge waveguide quantum dot mode-locked lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mee, J K; Raghunathan, R; Lester, L F; Wright, J B

    2014-01-01

    Quantum dot mode-locked lasers have emerged as a leading source for the efficient generation of high-quality optical pulses from a compact package, attracting considerable attention for support of multiple high-speed applications, owing to characteristics such as low noise operation and high pulse peak power, in addition to the ability to multiplex the output pulse train in temporal and frequency domains in order to obtain hundreds of GHz pulse repetition rates potentially operating at 1 Tbps. This topical review provides a detailed explanation into the primary advantages of quantum dots, identifying the key features that have made them superior to other material systems for passive mode-locking in semiconductor lasers. Following this account, the impact of the device's cavity geometry on the operational range of two-section, monolithic passively mode-locked lasers is investigated both experimentally and analytically. A model is described that predicts regimes of pulsed operation as a function of absorber length to gain length ratio. Experimental measurements of the pulse time-domain characteristics over a wide range of operating temperatures are found to be in excellent agreement with analytical predictions. The impact of ridge waveguide design on the operational range is also examined and the key dimensions that most strongly impact efficient operation are identified. (topical review)

  11. Integrated oxide graphene based device for laser inactivation of pathogenic microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grishkanich, Alexsandr; Ruzankina, Julia; Afanasyev, Mikhail; Paklinov, Nikita; Hafizov, Nail

    2018-02-01

    We develop device for virus disinfection of pathogenic microorganisms. Viral decontamination can be carried out due to hard ultraviolet irradiation and singlet oxygen destroying the genetic material of a virus capsid. UV rays can destroy DNA, leading to the formation of dimers of nucleic acids. This practically does not occur in tissues, tk. UV rays penetrate badly through them, however, the viral particles are small and UV can destroy their genetic material, RNA / DNA and the virus can not replicate. It is with the construction of the ultraviolet laser water disinfection system (UFLOV) based on the continuous and periodic pulsed ultraviolet laser sources (pump) binds to solve sterility and depyrogenation of water. It has been established that small doses of UV irradiation stimulate reproduction, and large doses cause the death of pathogenic microorganisms. The effect of a dose of ultraviolet is the result of photochemical action on the substance of a living bacterial cell or virion. Also complex photodynamic laser inactivation on graphene oxide is realized.

  12. Tunable organic distributed feedback dye laser device excited through Förster mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsumi, Naoto; Hinode, Taiki

    2017-03-01

    Tunable organic distributed feedback (DFB) dye laser performances are re-investigated and characterized. The slab-type waveguide DFB device consists of air/active layer/glass substrate. Active layer consisted of tris(8-quinolinolato)aluminum (Alq3), 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(4-dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyran (DCM) dye, and polystyrene (PS) matrix. Effective energy transfer from Alq3 to DCM through Förster mechanism enhances the laser emission. Slope efficiency in the range of 4.9 and 10% is observed at pump energy region higher than 0.10-0.15 mJ cm-2 (lower threshold), which is due to the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) and lasing. Typical slope efficiency for lasing in the range of 2.0 and 3.0% is observed at pump energy region higher than 0.25-0.30 mJ cm-2 (higher threshold). The tuning wavelength for the laser emission is ranged from 620 to 645 nm depending on the ASE region.

  13. Laser carved micro-crack channels in paper-based dilution devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qian; Xu, Chaoping; Liang, Heng

    2017-12-01

    We developed novel laser carved micro-crack (LCC) paper-based channels to significantly accelerate the liquid flow without an external pump. For the aqueous solutions they increased the flow velocity 59 times in 16% laser power-8 micro-cracks-LCC channel compared with it in solely-printed channels. All experimental data from both LCC and solely-printed channels were well-fitted by the time-distance quadratic trinomial that we developed on laser power and micro-crack number. We designed and fabricated T-junction microstructures of LCCs. Further, the microfluidic paper-based analytical device (μPAD) of LCC on dye mixing gradient and pH gradient were developed with the characteristics, fast self-acting transportation and high-performance mixing of liquid flows. In the dye mixing gradient the time cost was reduced from 2355s in the solely-printed one to only 123s in the five-stage of this LCC-μPAD. It was useful for quick and long-distance transferences through the multiple units of μPADs. Certainly, this LCC-μPAD was inexpensive, disposable, portable and applicable to resource-limited environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Laser Welding Characterization of Kovar and Stainless Steel Alloys as Suitable Materials for Components of Photonic Devices Packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadhali, M. M. A.; Zainal, Saktioto J.; Munajat, Y.; Jalil, A.; Rahman, R.

    2010-01-01

    The weldability of Kovar and stainless steel alloys by Nd:YAG laser beam is studied through changing of some laser beam parameters. It has been found that there is a suitable interaction of the pulsed laser beam of low power laser pulse with both the two alloys. The change of thermophysical properties with absorbed energy from the laser pulse is discussed in this paper which reports the suitability of both Kovar and stainless steel 304 as the base materials for photonic devices packaging. We used laser weld system (LW4000S from Newport) which employs Nd:YAG laser system with two simultaneous beams output for packaging 980 nm high power laser module. Results of changing both laser spot weld width and penetration depth with changing both the pulse peak power density, pulse energy and pulse duration show that there are good linear relationships between laser pulse energy or peak power density and pulse duration with laser spot weld dimensions( both laser spot weld width and penetration depth). Therefore we concluded that there should be an optimization for both the pulse peak power and pulse duration to give a suitable aspect ratio (laser spot width to penetration depth) for achieving the desired welds with suitable penetration depth and small spot width. This is to reduce the heat affected zone (HAZ) which affects the sensitive optical components. An optimum value of the power density in the order of 10 5 w/cm 2 found to be suitable to induce melting in the welded joints without vaporization. The desired ratio can also be optimized by changing the focus position on the target material as illustrated from our measurements. A theoretical model is developed to simulate the temperature distribution during the laser pulse heating and predict the penetration depth inside the material. Samples have been investigated using SEM with EDS. The metallographic measurements on the weld spot show a suitable weld yield with reasonable weld width to depth ratio.

  15. SUPPORTING UAVS IN LOW VISIBILITY CONDITIONS BY MULTIPLE-PULSE LASER SCANNING DEVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Djuricic

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs are nowadays promising platforms for capturing spatial information, because they are low cost solutions, which are easy to bring to the surveying field and can operate automatically. Usually these devices are equipped with visual sensors to support the navigation of the platform or to transmit observations of the environment to the operator. By collecting the data and processing the captured images even an estimation of the observed environment in form of 3D information is available. Therefore Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM algorithms are well known for processing data which is captured in the visible domain. However, situations can occur where gathering visual information is difficult due to given limitations in form of low visibility. For example if soft obstacles in form of translucent materials are given in disaster scenarios with smoke and operating has still to be ensured, active optical sensors (e.g. laser scanners are gaining interest because they can penetrate the soft obstacle and allow to acquire information behind it. A new lightweight (210 g, simplified and minimized scanning unit is now available which allows to capture multiple reflections for each transmitted laser pulse, namely the Hokuyo UTM-30LX-EW. With such a device, it is possible to overcome the above mentioned restrictions or limitations of low visibility by soft obstacles and even measure under critical circumstances. A multi-pulse system can provide accurate measurements on, within, and behind the soft obstacle. This research focuses on investigating the ability and performance of a laser scanner to penetrate the soft obstacle. Thus, investigations on a system that overcomes these limitations and provides a solution will be given. First promising experimental results considering soft obstacle are described.

  16. Sorting on the basis of deformability of single cells in a femtosecond laser fabricated optofluidic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragheri, F.; Paiè, P.; Yang, T.; Nava, G.; Martınez Vázquez, R.; Di Tano, M.; Veglione, M.; Minzioni, P.; Mondello, C.; Cristiani, I.; Osellame, R.

    2015-03-01

    Optical stretching is a powerful technique for the mechanical phenotyping of single suspended cells that exploits cell deformability as an inherent functional marker. Dual-beam optical trapping and stretching of cells is a recognized tool to investigate their viscoelastic properties. The optical stretcher has the ability to deform cells through optical forces without physical contact or bead attachment. In addition, it is the only method that can be combined with microfluidic delivery, allowing for the serial, high-throughput measurement of the optical deformability and the selective sorting of single specific cells. Femtosecond laser micromachining can fabricate in the same chip both the microfluidic channel and the optical waveguides, producing a monolithic device with a very precise alignment between the components and very low sensitivity to external perturbations. Femtosecond laser irradiation in a fused silica chip followed by chemical etching in hydrofluoric acid has been used to fabricate the microfluidic channels where the cells move by pressure-driven flow. With the same femtosecond laser source two optical waveguides, orthogonal to the microfluidic channel and opposing each other, have been written inside the chip. Here we present an optimized writing process that provides improved wall roughness of the micro-channels allowing high-quality imaging. In addition, we will show results on cell sorting on the basis of mechanical properties in the same device: the different deformability exhibited by metastatic and tumorigenic cells has been exploited to obtain a metastasis-cells enriched sample. The enrichment is verified by exploiting, after cells collection, fluorescence microscopy.

  17. Biophysical evaluation of fractional laser skin resurfacing with an Er:YSGG laser device in Japanese skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Utako; Kinoshita, Ayako; Osawa, Aki; Negi, Osamu; Haruna, Kunitaka; Mizuno, Yuki; Suga, Yasushi

    2012-05-01

    Ablative fractional laser skin resurfacing (FLSR) has recently been used for the amelioration of acne scars, and previous studies have shown clinical effectiveness. Despite its extensive use, few studies have focused on the associated changes in biophysical properties of the epidermis. Herein, we evaluate transepidermal water loss, sebum levels, skin hydration, and skin elasticity, following FLSR treatments with an Er:YSGG laser device (Pearl FractionalTM, Cutera Inc., Brisbane, CA), employing non-invasive measurements. Five Japanese patients with facial acne scars underwent one FLSR session. Some acne scars appeared to become less obvious as a consequence of the treatment. All patients were aware of a feeling of skin tightness in treated areas. Objective measurements on the lower lateral angle of the eye and on the inner cheeks were evaluated at baseline and at 3 days, 1 week, and 4 weeks after FLSR. Transepidermal water loss showed a significant two-fold (100%) increase at day 3, but had returned to almost the baseline level at week 4 in both areas. Sebum secretion showed a 50% increase at day 3, but had returned to the baseline level after day 7. Skin hydration showed a significant decrease at day 3, but had returned to the baseline level by day 7, and showed significant improvement at the end of the study. Skin elasticity (R2) was still at baseline on day 3, but showed some improvement--an increase of at least 30%--at the end of the study. Based on our findings, we believe that FLSR should be performed no more than once a month to allow sufficient time for the damaged skin to recover its barrier function in most areas of the face.

  18. A conceptual design of the set-up for solid state spectroscopy with free electron laser and insertion device radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Makhov, V N

    2001-01-01

    The set-up for complex solid state spectroscopy with the use of enhanced properties of radiation from insertion devices and free electron lasers is proposed. Very high flux and pulsed properties of radiation from insertion devices and free electron lasers offer the possibility for the use of such powerful techniques as electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) for the studies of excited states of electronic excitations or defects in solids. The power density of radiation can become high enough for one more method of exited-state spectroscopy: transient optical absorption spectroscopy. The set-up is supposed to combine the EPR/ODMR spectrometer, i.e. cryostat supplied with superconducting magnet and microwave system, and the optical channels for excitation (by radiation from insertion devices or free electron laser) and detection of luminescence (i.e. primary and secondary monochromators). The set-up can be used both for 'conventional' spectroscopy of solids (reflec...

  19. Validation of a laser-assisted wound measurement device in a wound healing model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantine, Ryan S; Bills, Jessica D; Lavery, Lawrence A; Davis, Kathryn E

    2016-10-01

    In the treatment and monitoring of a diabetic or chronic wound, accurate and repeatable measurement of the wound provides indispensable data for the patient's medical record. This study aims to measure the accuracy of the laser-assisted wound measurement (LAWM) device against traditional methods in the measurement of area, depth and volume. We measured four 'healing' wounds in a Play-Doh(®) -based model over five subsequent states of wound healing progression in which the model was irregularly filled in to replicate the healing process. We evaluated the LAWM device against traditional methods including digital photograph assessment with National Institutes of Health ImageJ software, measurements of depth with a ruler and weight-to-volume assessment with dental paste. Statistical analyses included analysis of variance (ANOVA) and paired t-tests. We demonstrate that there are significantly different and nearly statistically significant differences between traditional ruler depth measurement and LAWM device measurement, but there are no statistically significant differences in area measurement. Volume measurements were found to be significantly different in two of the wounds. Rate of percentage change was analysed for volume and depth in the wound healing model, and the LAWM device was not significantly different than the traditional measurement technique. While occasionally inaccurate in its absolute measurement, the LAWM device is a useful tool in the clinician's arsenal as it reliably measures rate of percentage change in depth and volume and offers a potentially aseptic alternative to traditional measurement techniques. © 2014 The Authors. International Wound Journal © 2014 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Rapid and low-cost fabrication of polystyrene-based molds for PDMS microfluidic devices using a CO2 laser

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Huawei

    2011-11-01

    In this article, we described a rapid and low-cost method to fabricate polystyrene molds for PDMS microfluidic devices using a CO2 laser system. It takes only several minutes to fabricate the polystyrene mold with bump pattern on top of it using a CO2 laser system. The bump pattern can be easily transferred to PDMS and fabricate microchannles as deep as 3μm on PDMS. © (2012) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

  1. Rapid and low-cost fabrication of polystyrene-based molds for PDMS microfluidic devices using a CO2 laser

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Huawei; Fan, Yiqiang; Foulds, Ian G.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we described a rapid and low-cost method to fabricate polystyrene molds for PDMS microfluidic devices using a CO2 laser system. It takes only several minutes to fabricate the polystyrene mold with bump pattern on top of it using a CO2 laser system. The bump pattern can be easily transferred to PDMS and fabricate microchannles as deep as 3μm on PDMS. © (2012) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

  2. 1-W quasi-cw near-diffraction-limited semiconductor laser pumped optically by a fibre-coupled diode bar

    OpenAIRE

    Dhanjal, S.; Hoogland, S.; Roberts, J.S.; Hayward, R.A.; Clarkson, W.A.; Tropper, Anne

    2000-01-01

    We describe a diode-bar-pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor laser, which in quasi-cw operation emitted a peak power of >1 W at 1020 nm in a circular, near diffraction-limited beam.

  3. Selective ablation of photovoltaic materials with UV laser sources for monolithic interconnection of devices based on a-Si:H

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molpeceres, C. [Centro Laser UPM, Univ. Politecnica de Madrid, Crta. de Valencia Km 7.3, 28031 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: carlos.molpeceres@upm.es; Lauzurica, S.; Garcia-Ballesteros, J.J.; Morales, M.; Guadano, G.; Ocana, J.L. [Centro Laser UPM, Univ. Politecnica de Madrid, Crta. de Valencia Km 7.3, 28031 Madrid (Spain); Fernandez, S.; Gandia, J.J. [Dept. de Energias Renovables, Energia Solar Fotovoltaica, CIEMAT, Avda, Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Villar, F.; Nos, O.; Bertomeu, J. [CeRMAE Dept. Fisica Aplicada i Optica, Universitat de Barcelona, Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2009-03-15

    Lasers are essential tools for cell isolation and monolithic interconnection in thin-film-silicon photovoltaic technologies. Laser ablation of transparent conductive oxides (TCOs), amorphous silicon structures and back contact removal are standard processes in industry for monolithic device interconnection. However, material ablation with minimum debris and small heat affected zone is one of the main difficulty is to achieve, to reduce costs and to improve device efficiency. In this paper we present recent results in laser ablation of photovoltaic materials using excimer and UV wavelengths of diode-pumped solid-state (DPSS) laser sources. We discuss results concerning UV ablation of different TCO and thin-film silicon (a-Si:H and nc-Si:H), focussing our study on ablation threshold measurements and process-quality assessment using advanced optical microscopy techniques. In that way we show the advantages of using UV wavelengths for minimizing the characteristic material thermal affection of laser irradiation in the ns regime at higher wavelengths. Additionally we include preliminary results of selective ablation of film on film structures irradiating from the film side (direct writing configuration) including the problem of selective ablation of ZnO films on a-Si:H layers. In that way we demonstrate the potential use of UV wavelengths of fully commercial laser sources as an alternative to standard backscribing process in device fabrication.

  4. Selective ablation of photovoltaic materials with UV laser sources for monolithic interconnection of devices based on a-Si:H

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molpeceres, C.; Lauzurica, S.; Garcia-Ballesteros, J.J.; Morales, M.; Guadano, G.; Ocana, J.L.; Fernandez, S.; Gandia, J.J.; Villar, F.; Nos, O.; Bertomeu, J.

    2009-01-01

    Lasers are essential tools for cell isolation and monolithic interconnection in thin-film-silicon photovoltaic technologies. Laser ablation of transparent conductive oxides (TCOs), amorphous silicon structures and back contact removal are standard processes in industry for monolithic device interconnection. However, material ablation with minimum debris and small heat affected zone is one of the main difficulty is to achieve, to reduce costs and to improve device efficiency. In this paper we present recent results in laser ablation of photovoltaic materials using excimer and UV wavelengths of diode-pumped solid-state (DPSS) laser sources. We discuss results concerning UV ablation of different TCO and thin-film silicon (a-Si:H and nc-Si:H), focussing our study on ablation threshold measurements and process-quality assessment using advanced optical microscopy techniques. In that way we show the advantages of using UV wavelengths for minimizing the characteristic material thermal affection of laser irradiation in the ns regime at higher wavelengths. Additionally we include preliminary results of selective ablation of film on film structures irradiating from the film side (direct writing configuration) including the problem of selective ablation of ZnO films on a-Si:H layers. In that way we demonstrate the potential use of UV wavelengths of fully commercial laser sources as an alternative to standard backscribing process in device fabrication.

  5. High-speed automated NDT device for niobium plate using scanning laser acoustic microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oravecz, M.G.; Yu, B.Y.; Riney, K.; Kessler, L.W.; Padamsee, H.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents a nondestructive testing (NDT) device which rapidly and automatically identifies defects throughout the volume of a 23.4 cm x 23.4 cm x 0.3 cm, pure niobium plate using Scanning Laser Acoustic Microscope (SLAM), high-resolution, 60 MHz, ultrasonic images. A principle advantage of the SLAM technique is that it combines a video scan rate with a high scan density (130 lines/mm at 60 MHz). To automate the inspection system they integrated under computer control the following: the SLAM RS-170/330 video output, a computerized XY plate scanner, a real-time video digitizer/integrator, a computer algorithm for defect detection, a digital mass storage device, and a hardcopy output device. The key element was development of an efficient, reliable defect detection algorithm using a variance filter with a locally determined threshold. This algorithm is responsible for recognizing valid flaws in the midst of random texture. This texture was seen throughout the acoustic images and was caused by the niobium microstructure. The images, as analyzed, contained 128 x 120 pixels with 64 grey levels per pixel. This system allows economical inspection of the large quantities (eg. 100 tons) of material needed for future particle accelerators based on microwave superconductivity. Rapid nondestructive inspection of pure niobium sheet is required because current accelerator performance is largely limited by the quality of commercially available material. Previous work documented critical flaws that are detectable by SLAM techniques. 15 references, 9 figures

  6. Laser Direct Writing and Selective Metallization of Metallic Circuits for Integrated Wireless Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jinguang; Lv, Chao; Watanabe, Akira

    2018-01-10

    Portable and wearable devices have attracted wide research attention due to their intimate relations with human daily life. As basic structures in the devices, the preparation of high-conductive metallic circuits or micro-circuits on flexible substrates should be facile, cost-effective, and easily integrated with other electronic units. In this work, high-conductive carbon/Ni composite structures were prepared by using a facile laser direct writing method, followed by an electroless Ni plating process, which exhibit a 3-order lower sheet resistance of less than 0.1 ohm/sq compared to original structures before plating, showing the potential for practical use. The carbon/Ni composite structures exhibited a certain flexibility and excellent anti-scratch property due to the tight deposition of Ni layers on carbon surfaces. On the basis of this approach, a wireless charging and storage device on a polyimide film was demonstrated by integrating an outer rectangle carbon/Ni composite coil for harvesting electromagnetic waves and an inner carbon micro-supercapacitor for energy storage, which can be fast charged wirelessly by a commercial wireless charger. Furthermore, a near-field communication (NFC) tag was prepared by combining a carbon/Ni composite coil for harvesting signals and a commercial IC chip for data storage, which can be used as an NFC tag for practical application.

  7. Laser-Assisted Simultaneous Transfer and Patterning of Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotube Arrays on Polymer Substrates for Flexible Devices

    KAUST Repository

    In, Jung Bin

    2012-09-25

    We demonstrate a laser-assisted dry transfer technique for assembling patterns of vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays on a flexible polymeric substrate. A laser beam is applied to the interface of a nanotube array and a polycarbonate sheet in contact with one another. The absorbed laser heat promotes nanotube adhesion to the polymer in the irradiated regions and enables selective pattern transfer. A combination of the thermal transfer mechanism with rapid direct writing capability of focused laser beam irradiation allows us to achieve simultaneous material transfer and direct micropatterning in a single processing step. Furthermore, we demonstrate that malleability of the nanotube arrays transferred onto a flexible substrate enables post-transfer tailoring of electric conductance by collapsing the aligned nanotubes in different directions. This work suggests that the laser-assisted transfer technique provides an efficient route to using vertically aligned nanotubes as conductive elements in flexible device applications. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  8. Laser-assisted simultaneous transfer and patterning of vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays on polymer substrates for flexible devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    In, Jung Bin; Lee, Daeho; Fornasiero, Francesco; Noy, Aleksandr; Grigoropoulos, Costas P

    2012-09-25

    We demonstrate a laser-assisted dry transfer technique for assembling patterns of vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays on a flexible polymeric substrate. A laser beam is applied to the interface of a nanotube array and a polycarbonate sheet in contact with one another. The absorbed laser heat promotes nanotube adhesion to the polymer in the irradiated regions and enables selective pattern transfer. A combination of the thermal transfer mechanism with rapid direct writing capability of focused laser beam irradiation allows us to achieve simultaneous material transfer and direct micropatterning in a single processing step. Furthermore, we demonstrate that malleability of the nanotube arrays transferred onto a flexible substrate enables post-transfer tailoring of electric conductance by collapsing the aligned nanotubes in different directions. This work suggests that the laser-assisted transfer technique provides an efficient route to using vertically aligned nanotubes as conductive elements in flexible device applications.

  9. Longitudinal studies on the microcirculation around the TheraCyte immunoisolation device, using the laser Doppler technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafael, E; Gazelius, B; Wu, G S; Tibell, A

    2000-01-01

    Encapsulation of cellular grafts in an immunoisolation membrane device may make it possible to perform transplantation without having to give immunosuppressive drugs. A common problem is the development of an avascular fibrotic zone around the implants, leading to impaired graft survival. The TheraCyte macroencapsulation device has therefore been designed to facilitate neovascularization of the device's surface. In this study, we evaluated the microcirculation around empty TheraCyte devices implanted SC in rats at various times after implantation, using a laser Doppler probe introduced via the device port. Studies were performed on day 1 or at 1, 2, and 4 weeks or at 2, 3, and 12 months after implantation. The mean flow was 158+/-42, 148+/-50, 133+/-28, 72+/-17, 138+/-41, 165+/-43, and 160+/-29 perfusion units (PU), respectively. Thus, the microcirculation around the device was significantly reduced at 4 weeks after implantation (p TheraCyte macroencapsulation devices that agree with our previous microdialysis studies on in vivo exchange of insulin and glucose between the device and the circulation. Laser Doppler flowmetry seems to provide a reliable technique for screening blood perfusion around macroencapsulation devices.

  10. Inexpensive, rapid prototyping of microfluidic devices using overhead transparencies and a laser print, cut and laminate fabrication method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Brandon L; Ouyang, Yiwen; Duarte, Gabriela R M; Carrilho, Emanuel; Krauss, Shannon T; Landers, James P

    2015-06-01

    We describe a technique for fabricating microfluidic devices with complex multilayer architectures using a laser printer, a CO2 laser cutter, an office laminator and common overhead transparencies as a printable substrate via a laser print, cut and laminate (PCL) methodology. The printer toner serves three functions: (i) it defines the microfluidic architecture, which is printed on the overhead transparencies; (ii) it acts as the adhesive agent for the bonding of multiple transparency layers; and (iii) it provides, in its unmodified state, printable, hydrophobic 'valves' for fluidic flow control. By using common graphics software, e.g., CorelDRAW or AutoCAD, the protocol produces microfluidic devices with a design-to-device time of ∼40 min. Devices of any shape can be generated for an array of multistep assays, with colorimetric detection of molecular species ranging from small molecules to proteins. Channels with varying depths can be formed using multiple transparency layers in which a CO2 laser is used to remove the polyester from the channel sections of the internal layers. The simplicity of the protocol, availability of the equipment and substrate and cost-effective nature of the process make microfluidic devices available to those who might benefit most from expedited, microscale chemistry.

  11. Optical design of multi-multiple expander structure of laser gas analysis and measurement device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiang; Wei, Biao

    2018-03-01

    The installation and debugging of optical circuit structure in the application of carbon monoxide distributed laser gas analysis and measurement, there are difficult key technical problems. Based on the three-component expansion theory, multi-multiple expander structure with expansion ratio of 4, 5, 6 and 7 is adopted in the absorption chamber to enhance the adaptability of the installation environment of the gas analysis and measurement device. According to the basic theory of aberration, the optimal design of multi-multiple beam expander structure is carried out. By using image quality evaluation method, the difference of image quality under different magnifications is analyzed. The results show that the optical quality of the optical system with the expanded beam structure is the best when the expansion ratio is 5-7.

  12. Intrauterine device for laser light diffusion and method of using the same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tadir, Y.; Berns, M.W.; Svaasand, L.O.; Tromberg, B.J.

    1995-12-26

    An improved device for delivery of photoenergy from a light source, such as a laser, into a uterine cavity for photodynamic therapy is comprised of a plurality of optic fibers, which are bundled together and inserted into the uterine cavity by means of a uterine cannula. The cannula is positioned within the uterine cavity at a preferred location and then withdrawn thereby allowing the plurality of optic fibers to splay or diverge one from the other within the cavity. Different portions of the distal tip of the optic fiber is provided with a light diffusing tip, the remainder being provided with a nondiffusing tip portion. The fiber optic shape, as well as the segment which is permitted to actively diffuse light through the tip, is selected in order to provide a more uniform exposure intensity of the photo energy or at least sufficient radiation directed to each segment of the uterine walls. 5 figs.

  13. Measurement of buried undercut structures in microfluidic devices by laser fluorescent confocal microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shiguang; Liu Jing; Nguyen, Nam-Trung; Fang Zhongping; Yoon, Soon Fatt

    2009-01-01

    Measuring buried, undercut microstructures is a challenging task in metrology. These structures are usually characterized by measuring their cross sections after physically cutting the samples. This method is destructive and the obtained information is incomplete. The distortion due to cutting also affects the measurement accuracy. In this paper, we first apply the laser fluorescent confocal microscopy and intensity differentiation algorithm to obtain the complete three-dimensional profile of the buried, undercut structures in microfluidic devices, which are made by the soft lithography technique and bonded by the oxygen plasma method. The impact of material wettability and the refractive index (n) mismatch among the liquid, samples, cover layer, and objective on the measurement accuracy are experimentally investigated.

  14. Research on propane leak detection system and device based on mid infrared laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Meng; Wang, Xuefeng; Wang, Junlong; Wang, Yizhao; Li, Pan; Feng, Qiaoling

    2017-10-01

    Propane is a key component of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and crude oil volatile. This issue summarizes the recent progress of propane detection technology. Meanwhile, base on the development trend, our latest progress is also provided. We demonstrated a mid infrared propane sensor system, which is based on wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS) technique with a CW interband cascade laser (ICL) emitting at 3370.4nm. The ICL laser scanned over a sharp feature in the broader spectrum of propane, and harmonic signals are obtained by lock-in amplifier for gas concentration deduction. The surrounding gas is extracted into the fine optical absorption cell through the pump to realize online detection. The absorption cell is designed in mid infrared windows range. An example experimental setup is shown. The second harmonic signals 2f and first harmonic signals1f are obtained. We present the sensor performance test data including dynamic precision and temperature stability. The propane detection sensor system and device is portable can carried on the mobile inspection vehicle platforms or intelligent robot inspection platform to realize the leakage monitoring of whole oil gas tank area.

  15. Laser-driven, magnetized quasi-perpendicular collisionless shocks on the Large Plasma Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaeffer, D. B.; Everson, E. T.; Bondarenko, A. S.; Clark, S. E.; Constantin, C. G.; Vincena, S.; Van Compernolle, B.; Tripathi, S. K. P.; Gekelman, W.; Niemann, C.; Winske, D.

    2014-01-01

    The interaction of a laser-driven super-Alfvénic magnetic piston with a large, preformed magnetized ambient plasma has been studied by utilizing a unique experimental platform that couples the Raptor kJ-class laser system [Niemann et al., J. Instrum. 7, P03010 (2012)] to the Large Plasma Device [Gekelman et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 2875 (1991)] at the University of California, Los Angeles. This platform provides experimental conditions of relevance to space and astrophysical magnetic collisionless shocks and, in particular, allows a detailed study of the microphysics of shock formation, including piston-ambient ion collisionless coupling. An overview of the platform and its capabilities is given, and recent experimental results on the coupling of energy between piston and ambient ions and the formation of collisionless shocks are presented and compared to theoretical and computational work. In particular, a magnetosonic pulse consistent with a low-Mach number collisionless shock is observed in a quasi-perpendicular geometry in both experiments and simulations

  16. Key Topics in Producing New Ultraviolet Led and Laser Devices Based on Transparent Semiconductor Zinc Oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuezemen, S.

    2004-01-01

    Recently, it has been introduced that ZnO as II-VI semiconductor is promising various technological applications, especially for optoelectronic short wavelength light emitting devices due to its wide and direct band gap profile. The most important advantage of ZnO over the other currently used wide band gap semiconductors such as GaN is that its nearly 3 times higher exciton binding energy (60 meV), which permits efficient excitonic emission at room temperature and above. As-grown ZnO is normally n-type because of the Zn-rich defects such as zinc interstitials (Zn i ) oxygen vacancies (Vo), natively acting as shallow donors and main source of n-type conductivity in as-grown material. Therefore, making p-type ZnO has been more difficult due to unintentional compensation of possible acceptors by these residual donors. In order to develop electro luminescent and laser devices based on the ultraviolet (UV) exciton emission of ZnO, it will be important to fabricate good p-n junctions. Attempts to observe p-type conductivity in ours and our collaborators' laboratories in USA, either by co-doping with N or tuning O pressure have been first successful achievements, resulting in hole concentrations up to 10 1 9 cm - 3 in reactively sputtered thin layers of ZnO. Moreover, in order to produce ZnO based quantum well lasers similar to the previously introduced n-AlGaAs/GaAs/p-AlGaAs structures; we have attempted to grow Zn 1 -xSn x O thin films to enlarge the band gap energy. An increase up to 170 meV has been observed in Zn 1 -xSn x O thin films and this is enough barrier to be able to trap electron-hole pairs in quantum well structures. As a result, two important key issues; p-type conductivity and enhancement of the band gap energy in order to step forward towards the production of electro luminescent UV LEDs and quantum well lasers have been investigated and will be presented in this study

  17. Adiabatic interpretation of a two-level atom diode, a laser device for unidirectional transmission of ground-state atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruschhaupt, A.; Muga, J. G.

    2006-01-01

    We present a generalized two-level scheme for an 'atom diode', namely, a laser device that lets a two-level ground-state atom pass in one direction, say from left to right, but not in the opposite direction. The laser field is composed of two lateral state-selective mirror regions and a central pumping region. We demonstrate the robustness of the scheme and propose a physical realization. It is shown that the inclusion of a counterintuitive laser field blocking the excited atoms on the left side of the device is essential for a perfect diode effect. The reason for this, the diodic behavior, and the robustness may be understood with an adiabatic approximation. The conditions to break down the approximation, which imply also the diode failure, are analyzed

  18. Planar integrated metasurfaces for highly-collimated terahertz quantum cascade lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Guozhen; Dupont, Emmanuel; Fathololoumi, Saeed; Wasilewski, Zbigniew R.; Ban, Dayan; Liang, Hou Kun; Zhang, Ying; Yu, Siu Fung; Li, Lianhe H.; Davies, Alexander Giles; Linfield, Edmund H.; Liu, Hui Chun; Wang, Qi Jie

    2014-01-01

    We report planar integration of tapered terahertz (THz) frequency quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) with metasurface waveguides that are designed to be spoof surface plasmon (SSP) out-couplers by introducing periodically arranged SSP scatterers. The resulting surface-emitting THz beam profile is highly collimated with a divergence as narrow as ~4° × 10°, which indicates a good waveguiding property of the metasurface waveguide. In addition, the low background THz power implies a high coupling efficiency for the THz radiation from the laser cavity to the metasurface structure. Furthermore, since all the structures are in-plane, this scheme provides a promising platform where well-established surface plasmon/metasurface techniques can be employed to engineer the emitted beam of THz QCLs controllably and flexibly. More importantly, an integrated active THz photonic circuit for sensing and communication applications could be constructed by incorporating other optoelectronic devices such as Schottky diode THz mixers, and graphene modulators and photodetectors. PMID:25403796

  19. A laser-based technology for fabricating a soda-lime glass based microfluidic device for circulating tumour cell capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Daniel; Couceiro, Ramiro; Aymerich, Maria; Lopez-Lopez, Rafael; Abal, Miguel; Flores-Arias, María Teresa

    2015-10-01

    We developed a laser-based technique for fabricating microfluidic microchips on soda-lime glass substrates. The proposed methodology combines a laser direct writing, as a manufacturing tool for the fabrication of the microfluidics structures, followed by a post-thermal treatment with a CO2 laser. This treatment will allow reshaping and improving the morphological (roughness) and optical qualities (transparency) of the generated microfluidics structures. The use of lasers commonly implemented for material processing makes this technique highly competitive when compared with other glass microstructuring approaches. The manufactured chips were tested with tumour cells (Hec 1A) after being functionalized with an epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) antibody coating. Cells were successfully arrested on the pillars after being flown through the device giving our technology a translational application in the field of cancer research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Vortex Laser based on III-V semiconductor metasurface: direct generation of coherent Laguerre-Gauss modes carrying controlled orbital angular momentum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seghilani, Mohamed S; Myara, Mikhael; Sellahi, Mohamed; Legratiet, Luc; Sagnes, Isabelle; Beaudoin, Grégoire; Lalanne, Philippe; Garnache, Arnaud

    2016-12-05

    The generation of a coherent state, supporting a large photon number, with controlled orbital-angular-momentum L = ħl (of charge l per photon) presents both fundamental and technological challenges: we demonstrate a surface-emitting laser, based on III-V semiconductor technology with an integrated metasurface, generating vortex-like coherent state in the Laguerre-Gauss basis. We use a first order phase perturbation to lift orbital degeneracy of wavefunctions, by introducing a weak anisotropy called here "orbital birefringence", based on a dielectric metasurface. The azimuthal symmetry breakdown and non-linear laser dynamics create "orbital gain dichroism" allowing selecting vortex handedness. This coherent photonic device was characterized and studied, experimentally and theoretically. It exhibits a low divergence (50 dB vortex purity), and single frequency operation in a stable low noise regime (0.1% rms). Such high performance laser opens the path to widespread new photonic applications.

  1. Microfabrication in free-standing gallium nitride using UV laser micromachining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, E.; Howard, H.; Conneely, A.; O'Connor, G.M.; Illy, E.K.; Knowles, M.R.H.; Edwards, P.R.; Martin, R.W.; Watson, I.M.; Dawson, M.D.

    2006-01-01

    Gallium nitride (GaN) and related alloys are important semiconductor materials for fabricating novel photonic devices such as ultraviolet (UV) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs). Recent technical advances have made free-standing GaN substrates available and affordable. However, these materials are strongly resistant to wet chemical etching and also, low etch rates restrict the use of dry etching. Thus, to develop alternative high-resolution processing for these materials is increasingly important. In this paper, we report the fabrication of microstructures in free-standing GaN using pulsed UV lasers. An effective method was first developed to remove the re-deposited materials due to the laser machining. In order to achieve controllable machining and high resolution in GaN, machining parameters were carefully optimised. Under the optimised conditions, precision features such as holes (through holes, blind or tapered holes) on a tens of micrometer length scale have been machined. To fabricate micro-trenches in GaN with vertical sidewalls and a flat bottom, different process strategies of laser machining were tested and optimised. Using this technique, we have successfully fabricated high-quality micro-trenches in free-standing GaN with various widths and depths. The approach combining UV laser micromachining and other processes is also discussed. Our results demonstrate that the pulsed UV laser is a powerful tool for fabricating precision microstructures and devices in gallium nitride

  2. Laser Beam delivering and shaping device for transfer of organic film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kangin; Kwon, Jin Hyuk; Yi, Jonghoon

    2008-01-01

    The laser based organic material transfer methods are developed by several groups for OLED (organic light emitting diode)fabrication. Well developed laser based methods are LITI (Laser Induced Thermal Imaging)and LIPS (Laser Induced Pattern wise Sublimation). These methods are proved to be suitable for large OLED panel fabrication. At an early stage of development, TEM"00"mode Nd:YAG laser was used for pattering organic material. The focused focused Nd:YAG laser beam generated heat in the film and the heat caused expansion of organic material coated layer. The organic film on the layer is transferred to the display panel due to pressure exerted on the display panel by the layer. Recently developed system prefers to employ a diode laser with wavelength of 800nm. Diode laser is cheaper and smaller photon source compared with the Nd:YAG laser. In this work, we use Nd doped fiber laser (wavelength=1070nm, power=10W)because the laser has stable output and well defined Gaussian beam profile compared with diode laser. We also employed fiber coupled diode laser (808nm)because it also has well defined beam distribution. In laser methods, spatially shaped beam is required for clean and sharp transfer. There are several methods for the beam shaping such as aspheric lens, diffractive optical elements, and micro lens array etc. We found that Gaussian beam can be shaped to a square hat like beam just by using simple commercial spherical lens set

  3. Visible laser and superluminescent diode based free space and underwater communications

    KAUST Repository

    Ooi, Boon S.

    2017-01-30

    We report on our recent progress in high-modulation-efficiency, InGaN-based integrated waveguide modulator-laser diodes (IWM-LDs), high-speed violet and blue emitting superluminescent diodes (SLDs), InGaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs), and their applications for gigahertz laser based free-space and underwater wireless optical communications.

  4. Visible laser and superluminescent diode based free space and underwater communications

    KAUST Repository

    Ooi, Boon S.

    2017-01-01

    We report on our recent progress in high-modulation-efficiency, InGaN-based integrated waveguide modulator-laser diodes (IWM-LDs), high-speed violet and blue emitting superluminescent diodes (SLDs), InGaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs), and their applications for gigahertz laser based free-space and underwater wireless optical communications.

  5. Features in Microfluidic Paper-Based Devices Made by Laser Cutting: How Small Can They Be?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Almostasim Mahmud

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we determine the smallest feature size that enables fluid flow in microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (µPADs fabricated by laser cutting. The smallest feature sizes fabricated from five commercially available paper types: Whatman filter paper grade 50 (FP-50, Whatman 3MM Chr chromatography paper (3MM Chr, Whatman 1 Chr chromatography paper (1 Chr, Whatman regenerated cellulose membrane 55 (RC-55 and Amershan Protran 0.45 nitrocellulose membrane (NC, were 139 ± 8 µm, 130 ± 11 µm, 103 ± 12 µm, 45 ± 6 µm, and 24 ± 3 µm, respectively, as determined experimentally by successful fluid flow. We found that the fiber width of the paper correlates with the smallest feature size that has the capacity for fluid flow. We also investigated the flow speed of Allura red dye solution through small-scale channels fabricated from different paper types. We found that the flow speed is significantly slower through microscale features and confirmed the similar trends that were reported previously for millimeter-scale channels, namely that wider channels enable quicker flow speed.

  6. Development of Measurement Device of Working Radius of Crane Based on Single CCD Camera and Laser Range Finder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nara, Shunsuke; Takahashi, Satoru

    In this paper, what we want to do is to develop an observation device to measure the working radius of a crane truck. The device has a single CCD camera, a laser range finder and two AC servo motors. First, in order to measure the working radius, we need to consider algorithm of a crane hook recognition. Then, we attach the cross mark on the crane hook. Namely, instead of the crane hook, we try to recognize the cross mark. Further, for the observation device, we construct PI control system with an extended Kalman filter to track the moving cross mark. Through experiments, we show the usefulness of our device including new control system of mark tracking.

  7. Theoretical study on the laser-driven ion-beam trace probe in toroidal devices with large poloidal magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X.; Xiao, C.; Chen, Y.; Xu, T.; Yu, Y.; Xu, M.; Wang, L.; Wang, X.; Lin, C.

    2018-03-01

    Recently, a new diagnostic method, Laser-driven Ion-beam Trace Probe (LITP), has been proposed to reconstruct 2D profiles of the poloidal magnetic field (Bp) and radial electric field (Er) in the tokamak devices. A linear assumption and test particle model were used in those reconstructions. In some toroidal devices such as the spherical tokamak and the Reversal Field Pinch (RFP), Bp is not small enough to meet the linear assumption. In those cases, the error of reconstruction increases quickly when Bp is larger than 10% of the toroidal magnetic field (Bt), and the previous test particle model may cause large error in the tomography process. Here a nonlinear reconstruction method is proposed for those cases. Preliminary numerical results show that LITP could be applied not only in tokamak devices, but also in other toroidal devices, such as the spherical tokamak, RFP, etc.

  8. Developing a compact multiple laser diode combiner with a single fiber stub output for handheld IoT devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Minseok; June, Seunghyeok; Kim, Sehwan

    2018-01-01

    Many biomedical applications require an efficient combination and localization of multiple discrete light sources ( e.g., fluorescence and absorbance imaging). We present a compact 6 channel combiner that couples the output of independent solid-state light sources into a single 400-μm-diameter fiber stub for handheld Internet of Things (IoT) devices. We demonstrate average coupling efficiencies > 80% for each of the 6 laser diodes installed into the prototype. The design supports the use of continuous wave and intensity-modulated laser diodes. This fiber-stub-type beam combiner could be used to construct custom multi-wavelength sources for tissue oximeters, microscopes and molecular imaging technologies. In order to validate its suitability, we applied the developed fiber-stub-type beam combiner to a multi-wavelength light source for a handheld IoT device and demonstrated its feasibility for smart healthcare through a tumor-mimicking silicon phantom.

  9. One-step patterning of hollow microstructures in paper by laser cutting to create microfluidic analytical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Jinfang; Liang, Yuanzhi; Zhang, Yun; Le, Shangwang; Li, Dunnan; Zhang, Songbai

    2013-01-21

    In this paper, we report a simple, low-cost method for rapid, highly reproductive fabrication of paper-based microfluidics by using a commercially available, minitype CO(2) laser cutting/engraving machine. This method involves only one operation of cutting a piece of paper by laser according to a predesigned pattern. The hollow microstructures formed in the paper are used as the 'hydrophobic barriers' to define the hydrophilic flowing paths. A typical paper device on a 4 cm × 4 cm piece of paper can be fabricated within ∼7-20 s; it is ready for use once the cutting process is finished. The main fabrication parameters such as the applied current and cutting rate of the laser were optimized. The fabrication resolution and multiplexed analytical capability of the hollow microstructure-patterned paper were also characterized.

  10. Remarkably High Conversion Efficiency of Inverted Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells: From Ultrafast Laser Spectroscopy and Electron Microscopy to Device Fabrication and Optimization

    KAUST Repository

    Alsulami, Qana; Banavoth, Murali; Alsinan, Yara; Parida, Manas R.; Aly, Shawkat Mohammede; Mohammed, Omar F.

    2016-01-01

    of these photophysical processes at device interfaces remains superficial, creating a major bottleneck that circumvents advancements and the optimization of these solar cells. Here, results from time-resolved laser spectroscopy and high-resolution electron microscopy

  11. Semiconductor laser joint study program with Rome Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaff, William J.; Okeefe, Sean S.; Eastman, Lester F.

    1994-09-01

    A program to jointly study vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSEL) for high speed vertical optical interconnects (VOI) has been conducted under an ES&E between Rome Laboratory and Cornell University. Lasers were designed, grown, and fabricated at Cornell University. A VCSEL measurement laboratory has been designed, built, and utilized at Rome Laboratory. High quality VCSEL material was grown and characterized by fabricating conventional lateral cavity lasers that emitted at the design wavelength of 1.04 microns. The VCSEL's emit at 1.06 microns. Threshold currents of 16 mA at 4.8 volts were obtained for 30 microns diameter devices. Output powers of 5 mW were measured. This is 500 times higher power than from the light emitting diodes employed previously for vertical optical interconnects. A new form of compositional grading using a cosinusoidal function has been developed and is very successful for reducing diode series resistance for high speed interconnection applications. A flip-chip diamond package compatible with high speed operation of 16 VCSEL elements has been designed and characterized. A flip-chip device binding effort at Rome Laboratory was also designed and initiated. This report presents details of the one-year effort, including process recipes and results.

  12. Laser-annealed GaP OHMIC contacts for high-temperature devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eknoyan, O.; Van der Hoeven, W.; Richardson, T.; Porter, W.A.; Coquat, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    The results of successful Nd:YAG laser annealed ohmic contacts on n-type GaP are reported. Comparisons on identical laser and thermal annealed contacts on the same substrates are performed. Aging investigations are also studied. The results indicate that laser annealed contacts have far superior electrical characteristics, much better surface morphology and are substantially more stable with aging than the same but thermally alloyed ones

  13. Method and device for the powerful compression of laser-produced plasmas for nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hora, H.

    1975-01-01

    According to the invention, more than 10% of the laser energy are converted into mechanical energy of compression, in that the compression is produced by non-linear excessive radiation pressure. The time and local spectral and intensity distribution of the laser pulse must be controlled. The focussed laser beams must increase to over 10 15 W/cm 2 in less than 10 -9 seconds and the time variation of the intensities must be carried out so that the dynamic absorption of the outer plasma corona by rippling consumes less than 90% of the laser energy. (GG) [de

  14. Zinc oxide nanorod based photonic devices: recent progress in growth, light emitting diodes and lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willander, M; Nur, O; Zhao, Q X; Yang, L L [Department of Science and Technology, Linkoeping University, SE-601 74 Norrkoeping (Sweden); Lorenz, M; Cao, B Q; Zuniga Perez, J; Czekalla, C; Zimmermann, G; Grundmann, M [Institut fuer Experimentelle Physik II, Universitaet Leipzig, Linnestrasse 5, D-04103 Leipzig (Germany); Bakin, A; Behrends, A; Al-Suleiman, M; El-Shaer, A; Che Mofor, A; Postels, B; Waag, A [Institute of Semiconductor Technology, Technical University of Braunschweig, Hans-Sommer-Strasse 66, D-38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Boukos, N; Travlos, A [National Center for Scientific Research ' Demokritos' , Institute of Materials Science, GR 15310 Agia Paraskevi Attikis, Athens (Greece); Kwack, H S, E-mail: magwi@itn.liu.s [CEA-CNRS Group ' Nanophysique et Semiconducteurs' , Institut Neel, CNRS and Universit' e Joseph Fourier, F-38042 Grenoble (France)

    2009-08-19

    Zinc oxide (ZnO), with its excellent luminescent properties and the ease of growth of its nanostructures, holds promise for the development of photonic devices. The recent advances in growth of ZnO nanorods are discussed. Results from both low temperature and high temperature growth approaches are presented. The techniques which are presented include metal-organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD), vapour phase epitaxy (VPE), pulse laser deposition (PLD), vapour-liquid-solid (VLS), aqueous chemical growth (ACG) and finally the electrodeposition technique as an example of a selective growth approach. Results from structural as well as optical properties of a variety of ZnO nanorods are shown and analysed using different techniques, including high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), photoluminescence (PL) and cathodoluminescence (CL), for both room temperature and for low temperature performance. These results indicate that the grown ZnO nanorods possess reproducible and interesting optical properties. Results on obtaining p-type doping in ZnO micro- and nanorods are also demonstrated using PLD. Three independent indications were found for p-type conducting, phosphorus-doped ZnO nanorods: first, acceptor-related CL peaks, second, opposite transfer characteristics of back-gate field effect transistors using undoped and phosphorus doped wire channels, and finally, rectifying I-V characteristics of ZnO:P nanowire/ZnO:Ga p-n junctions. Then light emitting diodes (LEDs) based on n-ZnO nanorods combined with different technologies (hybrid technologies) are suggested and the recent electrical, as well as electro-optical, characteristics of these LEDs are shown and discussed. The hybrid LEDs reviewed and discussed here are mainly presented for two groups: those based on n-ZnO nanorods and p-type crystalline substrates, and those based on n-ZnO nanorods and p-type amorphous substrates. Promising electroluminescence

  15. Ablation of intervertebral discs in dogs using a MicroJet-assisted dye-enhanced injection device coupled with the diode laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Kenneth E.; Henry, George A.; Dickey, D. Thomas; Stair, Ernest L.; Powell, Ronald; Schafer, Steven A.; Nordquist, Robert E.; Frederickson, Christopher J.; Hayes, Donald J.; Wallace, David B.

    1998-07-01

    Use of holmium laser energy for vaporization/coagulation of the nucleus pulposus in canine intervertebral discs has been previously reported and is currently being applied clinically in veterinary medicine. The procedure was originally developed in the canine model and intended for potential human use. Since the pulsed (15 Hz) holmium laser energy exerts photomechanical and photothermal effects, the potential for extrusion of additional disc material to the detriment of the patient is possible using the procedure developed for the dog. To reduce this potential complication, use of diode laser (805 nm - CW mode) energy, coupled with indocyanine green (ICG) as a selective laser energy absorber, was formulated as a possible alternative. Delivery of the ICG and diode laser energy was through a MicroJet device that could dispense dye interactively between individual laser 'shots.' Results have shown that it is possible to selectively ablate nucleus pulposus in the canine model using the device described. Acute observations (gross and histopathologic) illustrate that accurate placement of the spinal needle before introduction of the MicroJet device is critically dependent on the expertise of the interventional radiologist. In addition, the success of the overall technique depends on consistent delivery of both ICG and diode laser energy. Minimizing tissue carbonization on the tip of the MicroJet device is also of crucial importance for effective application of the technique in clinical veterinary medicine.

  16. Motion-free hybrid design laser beam propagation analyzer using a digital micromirror device and a variable focus liquid lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Mumtaz; Riza, Nabeel A

    2010-06-01

    To the best of our knowledge, we propose the first motion-free laser beam propagation analyzer with a hybrid design using a digital micromirror device (DMD) and a liquid electronically controlled variable focus lens (ECVFL). Unlike prior analyzers that require profiling the beam at multiple locations along the light propagation axis, the proposed analyzer profiles the beam at the same plane for multiple values of the ECVFL focal length, thus eliminating beam profiler assembly motion. In addition to measuring standard Gaussian beam parameters, the analyzer can also be used to measure the M(2) beam propagation parameter of a multimode beam. Proof-of-concept beam parameter measurements with the proposed analyzer are successfully conducted for a 633 nm laser beam. Given the all-digital nature of the DMD-based profiling and all-analog motion-free nature of the ECVFL beam focus control, the proposed analyzer versus prior art promises better repeatability, speed, and reliability.

  17. Bistable optical devices with laser diodes coupled to absorbers of narrow spectral bandwidth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Y

    1994-06-20

    An optical signal inverter was demonstrated with a combination of the following two effects: One is the decrease of the transmission of an Er-doped YAG crystal with increasing red shift of a laser diode resulting from an increase in the injection current, and the other is a negative nonlinear absorption in which the transmission decreases inversely with increasing laser intensity. Because a hysteresis characteristic exists in the relationship between the wavelength and the injection current of the laser diode, an optical bistability was observed in this system.

  18. Mid infrared resonant cavity detectors and lasers with epitaxial lead-chalcogenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zogg, H.; Rahim, M.; Khiar, A.; Fill, M.; Felder, F.; Quack, N.

    2010-09-01

    Wavelength tunable emitters and detectors in the mid-IR wavelength region allow applications including thermal imaging and gas spectroscopy. One way to realize such tunable devices is by using a resonant cavity. By mechanically changing the cavity length with MEMS mirror techniques, the wavelengths may be tuned over a considerable range. Resonant cavity enhanced detectors (RCED) are sensitive at the cavity resonance only. They may be applied for low resolution spectroscopy, and, when arrays of such detectors are realized, as multicolour IR-FPA or "IR-AFPA", adaptive focal plane arrays. We report the first room temperature mid-IR VECSEL (vertical external cavity surface emitting laser) with a wavelength above 3 μm. The active region is just 850 nm PbSe, followed by a 2.5 pair Bragg mirror. Output power is > 10 mW at RT.

  19. Electronic defect levels in continuous wave laser annealed silicon metal oxide semiconductor devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervera, M.; Garcia, B. J.; Martinez, J.; Garrido, J.; Piqueras, J.

    1988-09-01

    The effect of laser treatment on the bulk and interface states of the Si-SiO2 structure has been investigated. The annealing was performed prior to the gate metallization using a continuous wave Ar+ laser. For low laser powers the interface state density seems to decrease slightly in comparison with untreated samples. However, for the highest irradiating laser powers a new bulk level at 0.41 eV above the valence band with concentrations up to 1015 cm-3 arises probably due to the electrical activation of the oxygen diluted in the Czochralski silicon. Later postmetallization annealings reduce the interface state density to values in the 1010 cm-2 eV-1 range but leave the concentration of the 0.41-eV center nearly unchanged.

  20. Femtosecond laser processing of active and passive devices for bio-MEMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bellouard, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Femtosecond laser processing of glass has been proven to be an efficient tool for fabricating waveguides and microchannels. Here we show that monolithic integration in bio-Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems can be pushed forward by introducing additional functionalities.

  1. Experimental coherent control of lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, R.; Ramsay, A.J.; Cleaver, J.R.A.; Heberle, A.P.

    2002-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate coherent control of a laser. A resonant 100-fs optical pulse is injected into a vertical cavity surface emitting laser to introduce a field component with well-defined phase and thereby excite beating oscillations between the transverse lasing modes. By changing the relative phase between two injected pulses, we can enhance or destroy the beating oscillations and select which lasing modes are excited. We discuss resonant pulse injection into lasers and show how mode competition improves controllability by suppressing the phase-sensitive effects of the carriers

  2. Pulsed liquid jet dissector using holmium: YAG laser - a novel neurosurgical device for brain incision without imparing vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, T.; Nakagawa, A.; Jokura, H.; Shirane, R.; Uenohara, H.; Ohyama, H.; Takayama, K.

    2003-01-01

    Neurosurgery has long required a method for dissecting brain tissue without damaging principal vessels and adjacent tissue, so as to prevent neurological complications after operation. In this study we constructed a prototype of such a device and used it in an attempt to resect beagle brain cortex. The prototype device consisted of an optical fiber, a Y adapter, and a nozzle whose internal exit diameter was 100 μm. Cold physiological saline (4 o C) was supplied to it at a rate of 40 ml/h. Pulsed liquid jets were ejected from the nozzle by a pulsed Holmium:YAG) (Ho:YAG) laser at an irradiation energy of 300 mJ/pulse. The profile of the liquid jet was observed with a high-speed camera while changing the distance between the optical fiber end and nozzle exit (equivalent to the Standoff distance). With this device (3 Hz operation), brain dissection of anesthetized beagles was attempted while measuring the local temperature of the target. A histological study of the incised parts was also performed. When the Standoff distance was 24 mm, the liquid jet was emitted straight from the nozzle at a maximum initial velocity of 50 m/s. The brain parenchyma was cut with this device while preserving vessels larger than 200 μm in diameter and keeping the operative field clear. The local temperature rose to no more than 41 o C, below the functional heat damage threshold of brain tissue. Histological findings showed no signs of thermal tissue damage around the dissected margin. The Ho:YAG laser-induced liquid jet dissector can be applied to neurosurgery after incorporating some minor improvements. (author)

  3. Functionalized Graphitic Carbon Nitride for Metal-free, Flexible and Rewritable Nonvolatile Memory Device via Direct Laser-Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fei; Cheng, Huhu; Hu, Yue; Song, Long; Zhang, Zhipan; Jiang, Lan; Qu, Liangti

    2014-01-01

    Graphitic carbon nitride nanosheet (g-C3N4-NS) has layered structure similar with graphene nanosheet and presents unusual physicochemical properties due to the s-triazine fragments. But their electronic and electrochemical applications are limited by the relatively poor conductivity. The current work provides the first example that atomically thick g-C3N4-NSs are the ideal candidate as the active insulator layer with tunable conductivity for achieving the high performance memory devices with electrical bistability. Unlike in conventional memory diodes, the g-C3N4-NSs based devices combined with graphene layer electrodes are flexible, metal-free and low cost. The functionalized g-C3N4-NSs exhibit desirable dispersibility and dielectricity which support the all-solution fabrication and high performance of the memory diodes. Moreover, the flexible memory diodes are conveniently fabricated through the fast laser writing process on graphene oxide/g-C3N4-NSs/graphene oxide thin film. The obtained devices not only have the nonvolatile electrical bistability with great retention and endurance, but also show the rewritable memory effect with a reliable ON/OFF ratio of up to 105, which is the highest among all the metal-free flexible memory diodes reported so far, and even higher than those of metal-containing devices. PMID:25073687

  4. Functionalized Graphitic Carbon Nitride for Metal-free, Flexible and Rewritable Nonvolatile Memory Device via Direct Laser-Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fei; Cheng, Huhu; Hu, Yue; Song, Long; Zhang, Zhipan; Jiang, Lan; Qu, Liangti

    2014-07-01

    Graphitic carbon nitride nanosheet (g-C3N4-NS) has layered structure similar with graphene nanosheet and presents unusual physicochemical properties due to the s-triazine fragments. But their electronic and electrochemical applications are limited by the relatively poor conductivity. The current work provides the first example that atomically thick g-C3N4-NSs are the ideal candidate as the active insulator layer with tunable conductivity for achieving the high performance memory devices with electrical bistability. Unlike in conventional memory diodes, the g-C3N4-NSs based devices combined with graphene layer electrodes are flexible, metal-free and low cost. The functionalized g-C3N4-NSs exhibit desirable dispersibility and dielectricity which support the all-solution fabrication and high performance of the memory diodes. Moreover, the flexible memory diodes are conveniently fabricated through the fast laser writing process on graphene oxide/g-C3N4-NSs/graphene oxide thin film. The obtained devices not only have the nonvolatile electrical bistability with great retention and endurance, but also show the rewritable memory effect with a reliable ON/OFF ratio of up to 105, which is the highest among all the metal-free flexible memory diodes reported so far, and even higher than those of metal-containing devices.

  5. Laser ablation of Au-CuO core-shell nanocomposite in water for optoelectronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Raid A.; Abdul-Hamed, Ryam S.

    2017-12-01

    Core-shell gold-copper oxide Au-CuO nanocomposites were synthesized using laser ablation of CuO target in colloidal solution of Au nanoparticles (NPs). The effect of laser fluence on the structural, morphological, electrical, and optical properties of Au-CuO nanocomposites was investigated using x-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscope (AFM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), photoluminescence (PL), Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Hall measurement, and UV-vis spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction results confirm the formation of polycrystalline Au-CuO NPs with monoclinic structure. The optical energy gap for CuO was 4 eV and for the Au-CuO core-shell nanocomposites was found to be in the range of 3.4-3.7 eV. SEM and TEM investigations revealed that the structure and morphology of Au-CuO core-shell nanocomposites were strongly depending on the laser fluence. A formation of Au-CuO nanospheres and platelets structures was observed. The photoluminescence data showed an emission of broad visible peaks between 407 and 420 nm. The effect of laser fluence on the dark and illuminated I-V characteristics of Au-CuO/n-Si heterojunction photodetectors was investigated and analyzed. The experimental data demonstrated that the photodetector prepared at optimum laser fluence exhibited photosensitivity of 0.6 AW-1 at 800 nm.

  6. Fractional Ablative Laser Followed by Transdermal Acoustic Pressure Wave Device to Enhance the Drug Delivery of Aminolevulinic Acid: In Vivo Fluorescence Microscopy Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waibel, Jill S; Rudnick, Ashley; Nousari, Carlos; Bhanusali, Dhaval G

    2016-01-01

    Topical drug delivery is the foundation of all dermatological therapy. Laser-assisted drug delivery (LAD) using fractional ablative laser is an evolving modality that may allow for a greater precise depth of penetration by existing topical medications, as well as more efficient transcutaneous delivery of large drug molecules. Additional studies need to be performed using energy-driven methods that may enhance drug delivery in a synergistic manner. Processes such as iontophoresis, electroporation, sonophoresis, and the use of photomechanical waves aid in penetration. This study evaluated in vivo if there is increased efficacy of fractional CO2 ablative laser with immediate acoustic pressure wave device. Five patients were treated and biopsied at 4 treatment sites: 1) topically applied aminolevulinic acid (ALA) alone; 2) fractional ablative CO2 laser and topical ALA alone; 3) fractional ablative CO2 laser and transdermal acoustic pressure wave device delivery system; and 4) topical ALA with transdermal delivery system. The comparison of the difference in the magnitude of diffusion with both lateral spread of ALA and depth diffusion of ALA was measured by fluorescence microscopy. For fractional ablative CO2 laser, ALA, and transdermal acoustic pressure wave device, the protoporphyrin IX lateral fluorescence was 0.024 mm on average vs 0.0084 mm for fractional ablative CO2 laser and ALA alone. The diffusion for the acoustic pressure wave device was an order of magnitude greater. We found that our combined approach of fractional ablative CO2 laser paired with the transdermal acoustic pressure wave device increased the depth of penetration of ALA.

  7. Protection device for a thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawashima, Shuichi.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To exactly detect the void coefficients of coolants even under high magnetic fields thereby detect the overheat of a thermonuclear device at an early stage. Constitution: The protecting device of this invention comprises a laser beam generation device, a laser beam detection device and an accident detection device. The laser generation device always generates laser beams, which are permeated through coolants and detected by the laser beam detection device, the optical amount of which is transmitted to the accident detection device. The accident detection device judges the excess or insufficiency of the detected optical amount with respect to the optical amount of the laser beams under the stationary state as a reference and issues an accident signal. Since only the optical cables that do not undergo the effect of the magnetic fields are exposed to high magnetic fields in the protection device of this invention, a high reliability can be maintained. (Kamimura, M.)

  8. Enhanced UV photoresponse of KrF-laser-synthesized single-wall carbon nanotubes/n-silicon hybrid photovoltaic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Borgne, V; Gautier, L A; Castrucci, P; Del Gobbo, S; De Crescenzi, M; El Khakani, M A

    2012-06-01

    We report on the KrF-laser ablation synthesis, purification and photocurrent generation properties of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). The thermally purified SWCNTs are integrated into hybrid photovoltaic (PV) devices by spin-coating them onto n-Si substrates. These novel SWCNTs/n-Si hybrid devices are shown to generate significant photocurrent (PC) over the entire 250-1050 nm light spectrum with external quantum efficiencies (EQE) reaching up to ~23%. Our SWCNTs/n-Si hybrid devices are not only photoactive in the traditional spectral range of Si solar cells, but generate also significant PC in the UV domain (below 400 nm). This wider spectral response is believed to be the result of PC generation from both the SWCNTs themselves and the tremendous number of local p-n junctions created at the nanotubes/Si interface. To assess the prevalence of these two contributions, the EQE spectra and J-V characteristics of these hybrid devices were investigated in both planar and top-down configurations, as a function of SWCNTs' film thickness. A sizable increase in EQE in the near UV with respect to the silicon is observed in both configurations, with a more pronounced UV photoresponse in the planar mode, confirming thereby the role of SWCNTs in the photogeneration process. The PC generation is found to reach its maximum for an optimal the SWCNT film thickness, which is shown to correspond to the best trade-off between lowest electrical resistance and highest optical transparency. Finally, by analyzing the J-V characteristics of our SWCNTs/n-Si devices with an equivalent circuit model, we were able to point out the contribution of the various electrical components involved in the photogeneration process. The SWCNTs-based devices demonstrated here open up the prospect for their use in highly effective photovoltaics and/or UV-light sensors.

  9. A compact broadband ion beam focusing device based on laser-driven megagauss thermoelectric magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albertazzi, B., E-mail: bruno.albertazzi@polytechnique.edu [LULI, École Polytechnique, CNRS, CEA, UPMC, 91128 Palaiseau (France); INRS-EMT, Varennes, Québec J3X 1S2 (Canada); Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-087 (Japan); D' Humières, E. [CELIA, Universite de Bordeaux, Talence 33405 (France); Department of Physics, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada 89557 (United States); Lancia, L.; Antici, P. [Dipartimento SBAI, Universita di Roma “La Sapienza,” Via A. Scarpa 16, 00161 Roma (Italy); Dervieux, V.; Nakatsutsumi, M.; Romagnani, L.; Fuchs, J., E-mail: Julien.fuchs@polytechnique.fr [LULI, École Polytechnique, CNRS, CEA, UPMC, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Böcker, J.; Swantusch, M.; Willi, O. [Institut für Laser- und Plasmaphysik, Heinrich-Heine-Universität, Düsseldorf D-40225 (Germany); Bonlie, J.; Cauble, B.; Shepherd, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Breil, J.; Feugeas, J. L.; Nicolaï, P.; Tikhonchuk, V. T. [CELIA, Universite de Bordeaux, Talence 33405 (France); Chen, S. N. [LULI, École Polytechnique, CNRS, CEA, UPMC, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Sentoku, Y. [Department of Physics, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada 89557 (United States); and others

    2015-04-15

    Ultra-intense lasers can nowadays routinely accelerate kiloampere ion beams. These unique sources of particle beams could impact many societal (e.g., proton-therapy or fuel recycling) and fundamental (e.g., neutron probing) domains. However, this requires overcoming the beam angular divergence at the source. This has been attempted, either with large-scale conventional setups or with compact plasma techniques that however have the restriction of short (<1 mm) focusing distances or a chromatic behavior. Here, we show that exploiting laser-triggered, long-lasting (>50 ps), thermoelectric multi-megagauss surface magnetic (B)-fields, compact capturing, and focusing of a diverging laser-driven multi-MeV ion beam can be achieved over a wide range of ion energies in the limit of a 5° acceptance angle.

  10. Dielectric structures with bound modes for microcavity lasers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, P.M.; Allaart, K.; Lenstra, D.

    2002-01-01

    Cavity modes of dielectric microsphcres and vertical cavity surface emitting lasers, in spite of their high Q, are never exactly bound, but have a finite width due to leakage at the borders. We propose types of microstructures that sustain three-dimensionally bound modes of the radiation field when

  11. Mode-locking of an InAs Quantum Dot Based Vertical External Cavity Surface Emitting Laser Using Atomic Layer Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-16

    catalyzed on either a copper foil or on nickel coated substrates. The graphene must be transferred off of these substrates and then on to the DBR/spacer to...properties of graphene in both the exfoliated single layer graphene (SLG) and few layer graphene (FLG) flakes . Sun et al. make use of bile salts to...semiconductors and dielectrics is the transfer of CVD graphene grown on copper foils. The graphene is grown on thin Cu-foils by CVD using methane and

  12. The con focal laser scanning microscope: a powerful tool for the investigation of micro devices and nano structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montereali, R.M.; Baldacchini, G.; Bonfigli, F.; Vincenti, M.A.; Almaviva, S.

    2008-01-01

    In the last years the Con focal Laser Scanning Microscope (CLSM), a versatile and powerful optical instrument, gained a strong increase of interest in the scientific community, not only for biological applications, but also for the characterization of materials, microstructures and devices. The conditions that favoured its wide diffusion are surely the large availability of laser sources and powerful computer-imaging and data-processing systems at relatively low cost; however, the main reason that contributed to its popularity is the ability to obtain tri dimensional reconstruction of a great variety of biological and non-biological samples with sub micrometric resolution. In this report we show the main properties and characteristics of the Con focal Microscope Nikon Eclipse 80-i C1, which has operated sinc more than two years in the Solid State Laser and Spectroscopy Laboratory of the ENEA Research Center in Frascati. Some of the results obtained in the characterization of luminescent micro and nano structures based on lithium fluoride color centers will be presented [it

  13. UV laser-induced high resolution cleaving of Si wafers for micro-nano devices and polymeric waveguide characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casquel, R.; Holgado, M.; Garcia-Ballesteros, J.J.; Zinoviev, K.; Fernandez-Sanchez, C.; Sanza, F.J.; Molpeceres, C.; Laguna, M.F.; Llobera, A.; Ocana, J.L.; Dominguez, C.

    2011-01-01

    In this work we propose a method for cleaving silicon-based photonic chips by using a laser based micromachining system, consisting of a ND:YVO 4 laser emitting at 355 nm in nanosecond pulse regime and a micropositioning system. The laser makes grooved marks placed at the desired locations and directions where cleaves have to be initiated, and after several processing steps, a crack appears and propagate along the crystallographic planes of the silicon wafer. This allows cleavage of the chips automatically and with high positioning accuracy, and provides polished vertical facets with better quality than the obtained with other cleaving process, which eases the optical characterization of photonic devices. This method has been found to be particularly useful when cleaving small-sized chips, where manual cleaving is hard to perform; and also for polymeric waveguides, whose facets get damaged or even destroyed with polishing or manual cleaving processing. Influence of length of the grooved line and speed of processing is studied for a variety of silicon chips. An application for cleaving and characterizing sol-gel waveguides is presented. The total amount of light coupled is higher than when using any other procedure.

  14. UV laser-induced high resolution cleaving of Si wafers for micro-nano devices and polymeric waveguide characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casquel, R., E-mail: rafael.casquel@upm.es [Centro Laser UPM, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Campus Sur UPM, 28031 Madrid (Spain); Holgado, M.; Garcia-Ballesteros, J.J. [Centro Laser UPM, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Campus Sur UPM, 28031 Madrid (Spain); Zinoviev, K.; Fernandez-Sanchez, C. [Instituto de Microelectronica de Barcelona, Centro Nacional de Microelectronica - CSIC, Campus Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Sanza, F.J.; Molpeceres, C.; Laguna, M.F. [Centro Laser UPM, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Campus Sur UPM, 28031 Madrid (Spain); Llobera, A. [Instituto de Microelectronica de Barcelona, Centro Nacional de Microelectronica - CSIC, Campus Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Ocana, J.L. [Centro Laser UPM, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Campus Sur UPM, 28031 Madrid (Spain); Dominguez, C. [Instituto de Microelectronica de Barcelona, Centro Nacional de Microelectronica - CSIC, Campus Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)

    2011-04-01

    In this work we propose a method for cleaving silicon-based photonic chips by using a laser based micromachining system, consisting of a ND:YVO{sub 4} laser emitting at 355 nm in nanosecond pulse regime and a micropositioning system. The laser makes grooved marks placed at the desired locations and directions where cleaves have to be initiated, and after several processing steps, a crack appears and propagate along the crystallographic planes of the silicon wafer. This allows cleavage of the chips automatically and with high positioning accuracy, and provides polished vertical facets with better quality than the obtained with other cleaving process, which eases the optical characterization of photonic devices. This method has been found to be particularly useful when cleaving small-sized chips, where manual cleaving is hard to perform; and also for polymeric waveguides, whose facets get damaged or even destroyed with polishing or manual cleaving processing. Influence of length of the grooved line and speed of processing is studied for a variety of silicon chips. An application for cleaving and characterizing sol-gel waveguides is presented. The total amount of light coupled is higher than when using any other procedure.

  15. Ultra-compact laser beam steering device using holographically formed two dimensional photonic crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Xinyuan; Chen, Xiaonan; Chen, Maggie Yihong; Wang, Alan Xiaolong; Jiang, Wei; Chen, Ray T

    2010-03-01

    In this paper, we report the theoretical study of polymer-based photonic crystals for laser beam steering which is based on the superprism effect as well as the experiment fabrication of the two dimensional photonic crystals for the laser beam steering. Superprism effect, the principle for beam steering, was separately studied in details through EFC (Equifrequency Contour) analysis. Polymer based photonic crystals were fabricated through double exposure holographic interference method using SU8-2007. The experiment results showed a beam steering angle of 10 degree for 30 nm wavelength variation.

  16. Semiconductor Laser Diode Pumps for Inertial Fusion Energy Lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deri, R.J.

    2011-01-01

    Solid-state lasers have been demonstrated as attractive drivers for inertial confinement fusion on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and at the Omega Facility at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) in Rochester, NY. For power plant applications, these lasers must be pumped by semiconductor diode lasers to achieve the required laser system efficiency, repetition rate, and lifetime. Inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plants will require approximately 40-to-80 GW of peak pump power, and must operate efficiently and with high system availability for decades. These considerations lead to requirements on the efficiency, price, and production capacity of the semiconductor pump sources. This document provides a brief summary of these requirements, and how they can be met by a natural evolution of the current semiconductor laser industry. The detailed technical requirements described in this document flow down from a laser ampl9ifier design described elsewhere. In brief, laser amplifiers comprising multiple Nd:glass gain slabs are face-pumped by two planar diode arrays, each delivering 30 to 40 MW of peak power at 872 nm during a ∼ 200 (micro)s quasi-CW (QCW) pulse with a repetition rate in the range of 10 to 20 Hz. The baseline design of the diode array employs a 2D mosaic of submodules to facilitate manufacturing. As a baseline, they envision that each submodule is an array of vertically stacked, 1 cm wide, edge-emitting diode bars, an industry standard form factor. These stacks are mounted on a common backplane providing cooling and current drive. Stacks are conductively cooled to the backplane, to minimize both diode package cost and the number of fluid interconnects for improved reliability. While the baseline assessment in this document is based on edge-emitting devices, the amplifier design does not preclude future use of surface emitting diodes, which may offer appreciable future cost reductions and

  17. Blue laser diode (LD) and light emitting diode (LED) applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergh, Arpad A.

    2004-01-01

    The family of blue LEDs, edge emitting and surface emitting lasers, enable a number of applications. Blue lasers are used in digital applications such as optical storage in high density DVDs. The resolution of the spot size and hence the storage density is diffraction limited and is inversely proportional to the square of the wavelength of the laser. Other applications include printing, optical scanners, and high-resolution photo-lithography. As light emitters, blue LEDs are used for signaling and in direct view large area emissive displays. They are also making inroads into signage and LCD back-lighting, mobile platforms, and decorative accent lighting in curtains, furniture, etc. Blue LEDs produce white light either with phosphor wavelength converters or in combination with red and green LEDs. The full potential of LED light sources will require three devices to enable complete control over color and intensity. Sensing and medical/bio applications have a major impact on home security, on monitoring the environment, and on health care. New emerging diagnostic and therapeutic applications will improve the quality and reduce the cost of health care. (copyright 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  18. Blue laser diode (LD) and light emitting diode (LED) applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergh, Arpad A [Optoelectronics Industry Development Association (OIDA), 1133 Connecticut Avenue, NW, Suite 600, Washington, DC 20036-4329 (United States)

    2004-09-01

    The family of blue LEDs, edge emitting and surface emitting lasers, enable a number of applications. Blue lasers are used in digital applications such as optical storage in high density DVDs. The resolution of the spot size and hence the storage density is diffraction limited and is inversely proportional to the square of the wavelength of the laser. Other applications include printing, optical scanners, and high-resolution photo-lithography. As light emitters, blue LEDs are used for signaling and in direct view large area emissive displays. They are also making inroads into signage and LCD back-lighting, mobile platforms, and decorative accent lighting in curtains, furniture, etc. Blue LEDs produce white light either with phosphor wavelength converters or in combination with red and green LEDs. The full potential of LED light sources will require three devices to enable complete control over color and intensity. Sensing and medical/bio applications have a major impact on home security, on monitoring the environment, and on health care. New emerging diagnostic and therapeutic applications will improve the quality and reduce the cost of health care. (copyright 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  19. Toward continuous-wave operation of organic semiconductor lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandanayaka, Atula S. D.; Matsushima, Toshinori; Bencheikh, Fatima; Yoshida, Kou; Inoue, Munetomo; Fujihara, Takashi; Goushi, Kenichi; Ribierre, Jean-Charles; Adachi, Chihaya

    2017-01-01

    The demonstration of continuous-wave lasing from organic semiconductor films is highly desirable for practical applications in the areas of spectroscopy, data communication, and sensing, but it still remains a challenging objective. We report low-threshold surface-emitting organic distributed feedback lasers operating in the quasi–continuous-wave regime at 80 MHz as well as under long-pulse photoexcitation of 30 ms. This outstanding performance was achieved using an organic semiconductor thin film with high optical gain, high photoluminescence quantum yield, and no triplet absorption losses at the lasing wavelength combined with a mixed-order distributed feedback grating to achieve a low lasing threshold. A simple encapsulation technique greatly reduced the laser-induced thermal degradation and suppressed the ablation of the gain medium otherwise taking place under intense continuous-wave photoexcitation. Overall, this study provides evidence that the development of a continuous-wave organic semiconductor laser technology is possible via the engineering of the gain medium and the device architecture. PMID:28508042

  20. UV laser drilling of SiC for semiconductor device fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krueger, Olaf; Schoene, Gerd; Wernicke, Tim; John, Wilfred; Wuerfl, Joachim; Traenkle, Guenther [Ferdinand-Braun-Institut fuer Hoechstfrequenztechnik, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Str. 4, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2007-04-15

    Pulsed UV laser processing is used to drill micro holes in silicon carbide (SiC) wafers supporting AlGaN/GaN transistor structures. Direct laser ablation using nanosecond pulses has been proven to provide an efficient way to create through and blind holes in 400 {mu}m thick SiC. When drilling through, openings in the front pads are formed, while blind holes stop {approx}40 {mu}m before the backside and were advanced to the electrical contact pad by subsequent plasma etching without an additional mask. Low induction connections (vias) between the transistor's source pads and the ground on the backside were formed by metallization of the holes. Micro vias having aspect ratios of 5-6 have been processed in 400 {mu}m SiC. The process flow from wafer layout to laser drilling is available including an automated beam alignment that allows a positioning accuracy of {+-}1 {mu}m with respect to existing patterns on the wafer. As proven by electrical dc and rf measurements the laser-assisted via technologies have successfully been implemented into fabrication of AlGaN/GaN high-power transistors.

  1. Printed organic smart devices characterized by ultra-short laser pulses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pastorelli, Francesco

    Resume: In this study, we demonstrate that nonlinear optical microscopy is a promising technique to characterize organic printed electronics. Using ultrashort laser pulses we stimulate two-photon absorption in a roll coated polymer semiconductor and map the resulting two-photon induced...

  2. Femtosecond Laser Processing of Membranes for Sensor Devices on different Bulk Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann Zehetner

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate that diaphragms for sensor applications can be fabricated by laser ablation in a~variety of substrates such as ceramics, glass, sapphire or SiC. However, ablation can cause pinholes in membranes made of SiC, Si and metals. Our experiments indicate that pinhole defects in the ablated membranes are affected by ripple structures related to the polarization of the laser. From our simulation results on light propagation in Laser-Induced Periodic Surface Structures (LIPSS we find out that they are acting as a slot waveguide in SiC material. The results further show that field intensity is enhanced inside LIPSS and spreads out at surface distortions promoting the formation of pinholes. The membrane corner area is most vulnerable for pinhole formation. Pinholes funnel laser radiation into the bulk material causing structural damage and stress in the membrane. We show that a~polarization flipping technique inhibits the formation of pin holes caused by LIPSS.

  3. Influence of interface conditions on laser diode ignition of pyrotechnic mixtures: application to the design of an ignition device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Opdebeck, Frederic; Gillard, Philippe [Laboratoire Energetique Explosions et Structures de l' Universite d' Orleans, 63 boulevard de Lattre de Tassigny, 18020 cedex, Bourges (France); Radenac, D' Erwann [Laboratoire de combustion et de detonique, ENSMA, BP 109, 86960 cedex, Futuroscope (France)

    2003-01-01

    This paper treats of numerical modelling which simulates the laser ignition of pyrotechnic mixtures. The computation zone is divided into two fields. The first is used to take account of the heat loss with the outside. It can represent an optical fibre or a sapphire protective porthole. The second field represents the reactive tablet which absorbs the laser diode's beam. A specific feature of the model is that it incorporates a thermal contact resistance R{sub c} between the two computation fields. Through knowledge of the thermal, optical and kinetic properties, this code makes it possible to compute the ignition conditions. The latter are defined by the energy E{sub 50} and the time t{sub i} of ignition of any pyrotechnic mixture and for various ignition systems.This work was validated in the case of an ignition system consisting of a laser diode with an optical lens re-focussing system. The reactive tablet contains 62% by mass of iron and 38% by mass of KClO{sub 4}. Its porosity is 25.8%. After an evaluation of the laser's coefficient of absorption, the variations of the ignition parameters E{sub 50} and t{sub i} are studied as a function of the thermal contact resistance R{sub c}. Temperature profiles are obtained as a function of time and for various values of the thermal contact resistance R{sub c}. More fundamental observations are made concerning the position of the hot spot corresponding to priming. From this study, which concerns the heat exchange between the two media, several practical conclusions are given concerning the design of an ignition device. By evaluation of the thermal contact resistance R{sub c}, comparison with test results becomes possible and the results of the computations are in reasonable agreement with the test measurements. (authors)

  4. A simple laser-based device for simultaneous microbial culture and absorbance measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrevaya, X. C.; Cortón, E.; Areso, O.; Mauas, P. J. D.

    2013-07-01

    In this work we present a device specifically designed to study microbial growth with several applications related to environmental microbiology and other areas of research as astrobiology. The Automated Measuring and Cultivation device (AMC-d) enables semi-continuous absorbance measurements directly during cultivation. It can measure simultaneously up to 16 samples. Growth curves using low and fast growing microorganism were plotted, including Escherichia coli and Haloferax volcanii, a halophilic archaeon.

  5. A Simple Laser-Based Device for Simultaneous Microbial Culture and Absorbance Measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Abrevaya, X. C.; Cortón, E.; Areso, O.; Mauas, P. J. D.

    2012-01-01

    In this work we present a device specifically designed to study microbial growth with several applications related to environmental microbiology and other areas of research as astrobiology. The Automated Measuring and Cultivation device (AMC-d) enables semi-continuous absorbance measurements directly during cultivation. It can measure simultaneously up to 16 samples. Growth curves using low and fast growing microorganism were plotted, including Escherichia coli and Haloferax volcanii, a halop...

  6. Adjustable mounting device for high-volume production of beam-shaping systems for high-power diode lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haag, Sebastian; Bernhardt, Henning; Rübenach, Olaf; Haverkamp, Tobias; Müller, Tobias; Zontar, Daniel; Brecher, Christian

    2015-02-01

    In many applications for high-power diode lasers, the production of beam-shaping and homogenizing optical systems experience rising volumes and dynamical market demands. The automation of assembly processes on flexible and reconfigurable machines can contribute to a more responsive and scalable production. The paper presents a flexible mounting device designed for the challenging assembly of side-tab based optical systems. It provides design elements for precisely referencing and fixating two optical elements in a well-defined geometric relation. Side tabs are presented to the machine allowing the application of glue and a rotating mechanism allows the attachment to the optical elements. The device can be adjusted to fit different form factors and it can be used in high-volume assembly machines. The paper shows the utilization of the device for a collimation module consisting of a fast-axis and a slow-axis collimation lens. Results regarding the repeatability and process capability of bonding side tab assemblies as well as estimates from 3D simulation for overall performance indicators achieved such as cycle time and throughput will be discussed.

  7. Application of diamond window for infrared laser diagnostics in a tokamak device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, Yasunori; Chiba, Shinichi; Inoue, Akira

    2004-01-01

    Chemical vapor deposited diamond disks have been successfully applied as the vacuum windows for infrared CO 2 laser interferometry and polarimetry used in electron density measurement in the JT-60U tokamak. In comparison with the conventional zinc-selenide windows, the Faraday rotation component of diamond windows was negligible. This results in an improvement of the Faraday rotation measurement of tokamak plasma by polarimetry

  8. Experimental application of pulsed Ho:YAG laser-induced liquid jet as a novel rigid neuroendoscopic dissection device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohki, Tomohiro; Nakagawa, Atsuhiro; Hirano, Takayuki; Hashimoto, Tokitada; Menezes, Viren; Jokura, Hidefumi; Uenohara, Hiroshi; Sato, Yasuhiko; Saito, Tsutomu; Shirane, Reizo; Tominaga, Teiji; Takayama, Kazuyoshi

    2004-01-01

    Although water jet technology has been considered as a feasible neuroendoscopic dissection methodology because of its ability to perform selective tissue dissection without thermal damage, problems associated with continuous use of water and the ensuing fountain-effect-with catapulting of the tissue-could make water jets unsuitable for endoscopic use, in terms of safety and ease of handling. Therefore, the authors experimented with minimization of water usage during the application of a pulsed holmium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Ho:YAG) laser-induced liquid jet (LILJ), while assuring the dissection quality and the controllability of a conventional water jet dissection device. We have developed the LILJ generator for use as a rigid neuroendoscope, discerned its mechanical behavior, and evaluated its dissection ability using the cadaveric rabbit ventricular wall. The LILJ generator is incorporated into the tip of a stainless steel tube (length: 22 cm; internal diameter: 1.0 mm; external diameter: 1.4 mm), so that the device can be inserted into a commercial, rigid neuroendoscope. Briefly, the LILJ is generated by irradiating an internally supplied water column within the stainless steel tube using the pulsed Ho:YAG laser (wave length: 2.1 microm, pulse duration time: 350 microseconds) and is then ejected through the metal nozzle (internal diameter: 100 microm). The Ho:YAG laser pulse energy is conveyed through optical quartz fiber (core diameter: 400 microm), while cold water (5 degrees C) is internally supplied at a rate of 40 ml/hour. The relationship between laser energy (range: 40-433 mJ/pulse), standoff distance (defined as the distance between the tip of the optical fiber and the nozzle end; range: 10-30 mm), and the velocity, shape, pressure, and average volume of the ejected jet were analyzed by means of high-speed camera, PVDF needle hydrophone, and digital scale. The quality of the dissection plane, the preservation of blood vessels, and the penetration depth

  9. Lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Milonni, Peter W

    1988-01-01

    A comprehensive introduction to the operating principles and applications of lasers. Explains basic principles, including the necessary elements of classical and quantum physics. Provides concise discussions of various laser types including gas, solid state, semiconductor, and free electron lasers, as well as of laser resonators, diffraction, optical coherence, and many applications including holography, phase conjugation, wave mixing, and nonlinear optics. Incorporates many intuitive explanations and practical examples. Discussions are self-contained in a consistent notation and in a style that should appeal to physicists, chemists, optical scientists and engineers.

  10. Excimer laser doping technique for application in an integrated CdTe imaging device

    CERN Document Server

    Mochizuki, D; Aoki, T; Tomita, Y; Nihashi, T; Hatanaka, Y

    1999-01-01

    CdTe is an attractive semiconductor material for applications in solid-state high-energy X-ray and gamma-ray imaging systems because of its high absorption coefficient, large band gap, good mobility lifetime product of holes and stability at normal atmospheric conditions. We propose a new concept for fabricating an integrated CdTe with monolithic circuit configuration for two-dimensional imaging systems suitable for medical, research or industrial applications and operation at room temperature. A new doping technique has been recently developed that employs excimer laser radiation to diffuse impurity atoms into the semiconductor. Accordingly, heavily doped n- and p-type layers with resistivities less than 1 OMEGA cm can be formed on the high resistive CdTe crystals. We have further extended this technique for doping with spatial pattern. We will present the laser doping technique and various results thus obtained. Spatially patterned doping is demonstrated and we propose the use of these doping techniques for...

  11. Beam Transport Devices for the 10 kW IR Free Electron Laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence Dillon-Townes; Michael Bevins; David Kashy; Stephanie Slachtouski; Ronald Lassiter; George Neil; Michelle Shinn; Joseph Gubeli; Christopher Behre; David Douglas; David W. Waldman; George Biallas; Lawrence Munk; Christopher Gould

    2005-01-01

    Beam transport components for the 10kW IR Free Electron Laser (FEL) at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) were designed to manage (1) electron beam transport and (2) photon beam transport. An overview of the components will be presented in this paper. The electron beam transport components were designed to address RF heating, maintain an accelerator transport vacuum of 1 x 10 -8 torr, deliver photons to the optical cavity, and provide 50 kW of beam absorption during the energy recovery process. The components presented include a novel shielded bellows, a novel zero length beam clipper, a one decade differential pumping station with a 7.62 cm (3.0 inch) aperture, and a 50 kW beam dump. The photon beam transport components were designed to address the management of photons delivered by the accelerator transport. The optical cavity manages the photons and optical transport delivers the 10 kW of laser power to experimental labs. The optical cavity component presented is a unique high reflector vessel and the optical transport component presented is a turning mirror cassette

  12. Use of the AlGaAs native oxide in AlGaAs-GaAs quantum well heterostructure laser devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ries, M.J.; Chen, E.I.; Holonyak, Chen N. Jr.

    1995-01-01

    At atmospheric conditions high Al Composition Al x Ga 1-x As (x ≥0.7) in Al x Ga 1-x As-GaAs heterostructures is subject to failure via hydrolyzation. In contrast, open-quotes wetclose quotes oxidation at higher temperatures (≥400 degrees C) produces stable AlGaAs native oxides that prove to be useful in quantum well heterostructure devices. The open-quotes wetclose quotes oxidation process results in the conversion of high Al composition heterostructure material into a stable low refractive index, current-blocking native oxide, which can be used to define cavities and current paths. The oxidation can be used to passivate exposed Al-bearing surfaces. Its selective, anisotropic nature is also useful for the fabrication of both planar and non-planar devices, including buried-oxide heterostructures. The III-V native oxide has been used in the fabrication of single-stripe and stripe array lasers, ring lasers, coupled-cavity lasers, buried-oxide verticle cavity lasers, deep-oxide waveguides, deep-oxide lasers, and high reliability LED's. Also, the native oxide of A1As has been demonstrated in field effect transistor operation. The use of the III-V native oxide in various device applications is described

  13. Femtosecond Laser Direct Write Integration of Multi-Protein Patterns and 3D Microstructures into 3D Glass Microfluidic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Serien

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Microfluidic devices and biochips offer miniaturized laboratories for the separation, reaction, and analysis of biochemical materials with high sensitivity and low reagent consumption. The integration of functional or biomimetic elements further functionalizes microfluidic devices for more complex biological studies. The recently proposed ship-in-a-bottle integration based on laser direct writing allows the construction of microcomponents made of photosensitive polymer inside closed microfluidic structures. Here, we expand this technology to integrate proteinaceous two-dimensional (2D and three-dimensional (3D microstructures with the aid of photo-induced cross-linking into glass microchannels. The concept is demonstrated with bovine serum albumin and enhanced green fluorescent protein, each mixed with photoinitiator (Sodium 4-[2-(4-Morpholino benzoyl-2-dimethylamino] butylbenzenesulfonate. Unlike the polymer integration, fabrication over the entire channel cross-section is challenging. Two proteins are integrated into the same channel to demonstrate multi-protein patterning. Using 50% w/w glycerol solvent instead of 100% water achieves almost the same fabrication resolution for in-channel fabrication as on-surface fabrication due to the improved refractive index matching, enabling the fabrication of 3D microstructures. A glycerol-water solvent also reduces the risk of drying samples. We believe this technology can integrate diverse proteins to contribute to the versatility of microfluidics.

  14. Laser Nanosoldering of Golden and Magnetite Particles and its Possible Application in 3D Printing Devices and Four-Valued Non-Volatile Memories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaworski Jacek

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the 3D printing methods have been developing rapidly. This article presents researches about a new composite consisted of golden and magnetite nanoparticles which could be used for this technique. Preparation of golden nanoparticles by laser ablation and their soldering by laser green light irradiation proceeded in water environment. Magnetite was obtained on chemical way. During experiments it was tested a change of a size of nanoparticles during laser irradiation, surface plasmon resonance, zeta potential. The obtained golden - magnetite composite material was magnetic after laser irradiation. On the end there was considered the application it for 3D printing devices, water filters and four-valued non-volatile memories.

  15. Laser self-mixing interferometry in VCSELs - an ultra-compact and massproduceable deflection detection system for nanomechanical polymer cantilever sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, David; Yvind, Kresten; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    2008-01-01

    We have realised an ultra-compact deflection detection system based on laser self-mixing interferometry in a Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser (VCSEL). The system can be used together with polymer nanomechanical cantilevers to form chemical sensors capable of detecting less than 1nm deflection....

  16. Automatic Laser Pointer Detection Algorithm for Environment Control Device Systems Based on Template Matching and Genetic Tuning of Fuzzy Rule-Based Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a new approach for laser-based environment device control systems based on the automatic design of a Fuzzy Rule-Based System for laser pointer detection. The idea is to improve the success rate of the previous approaches decreasing as much as possible the false offs and increasing the success rate in images with laser spot, i.e., the detection of a false laser spot (since this could lead to dangerous situations. To this end, we propose to analyze both, the morphology and color of a laser spot image together, thus developing a new robust algorithm. Genetic Fuzzy Systems have also been employed to improve the laser spot system detection by means of a fine tuning of the involved membership functions thus reducing the system false offs, which is the main objective in this problem. The system presented in this paper, makes use of a Fuzzy Rule-Based System adjusted by a Genetic Algorithm, which, based on laser morphology and color analysis, shows a better success rate than previous approaches.

  17. Laser-assisted ultrathin bare die packaging: a route to a new class of microelectronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinov, Val R.; Swenson, Orven; Atanasov, Yuriy; Schneck, Nathan

    2013-03-01

    Ultrathin flip-chip semiconductor die packaging on paper substrates is an enabling technology for a variety of extremely low-cost electronic devices with huge market potential such as RFID smart forms, smart labels, smart tickets, banknotes, security documents, etc. Highly flexible and imperceptible dice are possible only at a thickness of less than 50 μm, preferably down to 10-20 μm or less. Several cents per die cost is achievable only if the die size is size and thickness. LEAP-packaged RFID-enabled paper for financial and security applications is also demonstrated. The cost of packaging using LEAP is lower compared to the conventional pick-and-place methods while the rate of packaging is much higher and independent of the die size.

  18. Excimer Laser Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Basting, Dirk

    2005-01-01

    This comprehensive survey on Excimer Lasers investigates the current range of the technology, applications and devices of this commonly used laser source, as well as the future of new technologies, such as F2 laser technology. Additional chapters on optics, devices and laser systems complete this compact handbook. A must read for laser technology students, process application researchers, engineers or anyone interested in excimer laser technology. An effective and understandable introduction to the current and future status of excimer laser technology.

  19. Augmenting convection-enhanced delivery through simultaneous co-delivery of fluids and laser energy with a fiberoptic microneedle device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, R. Lyle; Ecker, Tobias; Andriani, Rudy; Robertson, John; Rossmeisl, John; Rylander, Christopher G.

    2013-03-01

    This paper describes a new infusion catheter, based on our fiberoptic microneedle device (FMD), designed with the objective of photothermally augmenting the volumetric dispersal of infused therapeutics. We hypothesize that concurrent delivery of laser energy, causing mild localized photothermal heating (4-5 °C), will increase the spatial dispersal of infused chemotherapy over a long infusion period. Agarose brain phantoms, which mimic the brain's mechanical and fluid conduction properties, were constructed from 0.6 wt% Agarose in aqueous solution. FMDs were fabricated by adhering a multimode fiberoptic to a silica capillary tube, such that their flat-polished tips co-terminated. Continuous wave 1064 nm light was delivered simultaneously with FD&C Blue #2 (5%) dye into phantoms. Preliminary experiments, where co-delivery was tested against fluid delivery alone (through symmetrical infusions into in vivo rodent models), were also conducted. In the Agarose phantoms, volumetric dispersal was demonstrated to increase by more than 3-fold over a four-hour infusion time frame for co-delivery relative to infusion-only controls. Both forward and backward (reflux) infusions were also observed to increase slightly. Increased volumetric dispersal was demonstrated with co-delivery in an in vivo rodent model. Photothermal augmentation of infusion was demonstrated to influence the directionality and increase the volume of dye dispersal in Agarose brain phantoms. With further development, FMDs may enable a greater distribution of chemotherapeutic agents during CED therapy of brain tumors.

  20. Fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, T.K.

    1977-01-01

    Three types of thermonuclear fusion devices currently under development are reviewed for an electric utilities management audience. Overall design features of laser fusion, tokamak, and magnetic mirror type reactors are described and illustrated. Thrusts and trends in current research on these devices that promise to improve performance are briefly reviewed. Twenty photographs and drawings are included

  1. Laser-Assisted Simultaneous Transfer and Patterning of Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotube Arrays on Polymer Substrates for Flexible Devices

    KAUST Repository

    In, Jung Bin; Lee, Daeho; Fornasiero, Francesco; Noy, Aleksandr; Grigoropoulos, Costas P.

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a laser-assisted dry transfer technique for assembling patterns of vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays on a flexible polymeric substrate. A laser beam is applied to the interface of a nanotube array and a polycarbonate sheet

  2. Towards large-scale production of solution-processed organic tandem modules based on ternary composites: Design of the intermediate layer, device optimization and laser based module processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ning; Kubis, Peter; Forberich, Karen

    2014-01-01

    on commercially available materials, which enhances the absorption of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and as a result increase the PCE of the P3HT-based large-scale OPV devices; 3. laser-based module processing, which provides an excellent processing resolution and as a result can bring the power conversion...... efficiency (PCE) of mass-produced organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices close to the highest PCE values achieved for lab-scale solar cells through a significant increase in the geometrical fill factor. We believe that the combination of the above mentioned concepts provides a clear roadmap to push OPV towards...

  3. Treatment of inflammatory facial acne vulgaris with combination 595-nm pulsed-dye laser with dynamic-cooling-device and 1,450-nm diode laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaich, Adrienne S; Friedman, Paul M; Jih, Ming H; Goldberg, Leonard H

    2006-03-01

    The 585-nm pulsed-dye laser and the 1,450-nm diode laser have been found effective for the treatment of mild-to-moderate inflammatory facial acne. This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the combined treatment with the 595-nm pulsed-dye laser and the 1,450-nm diode laser for inflammatory facial acne. Fifteen patients with inflammatory facial acne were treated with a combination of the 595-nm pulsed-dye laser and the 1,450-nm diode laser. Patients' subjective response to treatment was evaluated regarding improvement in acne, acne scarring, oiliness, and redness of the skin. All patients had reductions in acne lesion counts. Mean lesion counts decreased 52% (P < 0.01), 63% (P < 0.01), and 84% (P < 0.01) after one, two, and three treatments, respectively. Patients described moderate-to-marked improvement in acne, acne scarring, and post-inflammatory erythema. Adverse effects were limited to mild, transient erythema. The combination of the 595-nm pulsed-dye laser and the 1,450-nm diode laser is safe and effective for the treatment of inflammatory facial acne, acne scarring, and post-inflammatory erythema. 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Self-assembled InAs/InP quantum dots and quantum dashes: Material structures and devices

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Mohammed Zahed Mustafa; Ng, Tien Khee; Ooi, Boon S.

    2014-01-01

    The advances in lasers, electronic and photonic integrated circuits (EPIC), optical interconnects as well as the modulation techniques allow the present day society to embrace the convenience of broadband, high speed internet and mobile network connectivity. However, the steep increase in energy demand and bandwidth requirement calls for further innovation in ultra-compact EPIC technologies. In the optical domain, advancement in the laser technologies beyond the current quantum well (Qwell) based laser technologies are already taking place and presenting very promising results. Homogeneously grown quantum dot (Qdot) lasers and optical amplifiers, can serve in the future energy saving information and communication technologies (ICT) as the work-horse for transmitting and amplifying information through optical fiber. The encouraging results in the zero-dimensional (0D) structures emitting at 980 nm, in the form of vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL), are already operational at low threshold current density and capable of 40 Gbps error-free transmission at 108 fJ/bit. Subsequent achievements for lasers and amplifiers operating in the O-, C-, L-, U-bands, and beyond will eventually lay the foundation for green ICT. On the hand, the inhomogeneously grown quasi 0D quantum dash (Qdash) lasers are brilliant solutions for potential broadband connectivity in server farms or access network. A single broadband Qdash laser operating in the stimulated emission mode can replace tens of discrete narrow-band lasers in dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) transmission thereby further saving energy, cost and footprint. We herein reviewed the1 progress of both Qdots and Qdash devices, based on the InAs/InGaAlAs/InP and InAs/InGaAsP/InP material systems, from the angles of growth and device performance. In particular, we discussed the progress in lasers, semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOA), mode locked lasers, and superluminescent diodes, which are the building

  5. Self-assembled InAs/InP quantum dots and quantum dashes: Material structures and devices

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Mohammed Zahed Mustafa

    2014-11-01

    The advances in lasers, electronic and photonic integrated circuits (EPIC), optical interconnects as well as the modulation techniques allow the present day society to embrace the convenience of broadband, high speed internet and mobile network connectivity. However, the steep increase in energy demand and bandwidth requirement calls for further innovation in ultra-compact EPIC technologies. In the optical domain, advancement in the laser technologies beyond the current quantum well (Qwell) based laser technologies are already taking place and presenting very promising results. Homogeneously grown quantum dot (Qdot) lasers and optical amplifiers, can serve in the future energy saving information and communication technologies (ICT) as the work-horse for transmitting and amplifying information through optical fiber. The encouraging results in the zero-dimensional (0D) structures emitting at 980 nm, in the form of vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL), are already operational at low threshold current density and capable of 40 Gbps error-free transmission at 108 fJ/bit. Subsequent achievements for lasers and amplifiers operating in the O-, C-, L-, U-bands, and beyond will eventually lay the foundation for green ICT. On the hand, the inhomogeneously grown quasi 0D quantum dash (Qdash) lasers are brilliant solutions for potential broadband connectivity in server farms or access network. A single broadband Qdash laser operating in the stimulated emission mode can replace tens of discrete narrow-band lasers in dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) transmission thereby further saving energy, cost and footprint. We herein reviewed the1 progress of both Qdots and Qdash devices, based on the InAs/InGaAlAs/InP and InAs/InGaAsP/InP material systems, from the angles of growth and device performance. In particular, we discussed the progress in lasers, semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOA), mode locked lasers, and superluminescent diodes, which are the building

  6. Infrared laser spectroscopic trace gas sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigrist, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Chemical sensing and analyses of gas samples by laser spectroscopic methods are attractive owing to several advantages such as high sensitivity and specificity, large dynamic range, multi-component capability, and lack of pretreatment or preconcentration procedures. The preferred wavelength range comprises the fundamental molecular absorption range in the mid-infared between 3 and 15 μm, whereas the near-infrared range covers the (10-100 times weaker) higher harmonics and combination bands. The availability of near-infrared and, particularly, of broadly tunable mid-infrared sources like external cavity quantum cascade lasers (EC-QCLs), interband cascade lasers (ICLs), difference frequency generation (DFG), optical parametric oscillators (OPOs), recent developments of diode-pumped lead salt semiconductor lasers, of supercontinuum sources or of frequency combs have eased the implementation of laser-based sensing devices. Sensitive techniques for molecular absorption measurements include multipass absorption, various configurations of cavity-enhanced techniques such as cavity ringdown (CRD), or of photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) including quartz-enhanced (QEPAS) or cantilever-enhanced (CEPAS) techniques. The application requirements finally determine the optimum selection of laser source and detection scheme. In this tutorial talk I shall discuss the basic principles, present various experimental setups and illustrate the performance of selected systems for chemical sensing of selected key atmospheric species. Applications include an early example of continuous vehicle emission measurements with a mobile CO2-laser PAS system [1]. The fast analysis of C1-C4 alkanes at sub-ppm concentrations in gas mixtures is of great interest for the petrochemical industry and was recently achieved with a new type of mid-infrared diode-pumped piezoelectrically tuned lead salt vertical external cavity surface emitting laser (VECSEL) [2]. Another example concerns measurements on short

  7. A laser gyro with a four-mirror square resonator: formulas for simulating the dynamics of the synchronisation zone parameters of the frequencies of counterpropagating waves during the device operation in the self-heating regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondarenko, E A

    2014-01-01

    For a laser gyro with a four-mirror square resonator we have developed a mathematical model, which allows one to simulate the temporal behaviour of the synchronisation zone parameters of the frequencies of counterpropagating waves in a situation when the device operates in the self-heating regime and is switched-on at different initial temperatures. (laser gyroscopes)

  8. Tunable, multiwavelength-swept fiber laser based on nematic liquid crystal device for fiber-optic electric-field sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Ji; Kim, Sung-Jo; Ko, Myeong Ock; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Jeon, Min Yong

    2018-03-01

    We propose a tunable multiwavelength-swept laser based on a nematic liquid crystal (NLC) Fabry-Perot (FP) etalon, which is embedded in the resonator of a wavelength-swept laser. We achieve the continuous wavelength tuning of the multiwavelength-swept laser by applying the electric field to the NLC FP etalon. The free spectral range of the fabricated NLC FP etalon is approximately 7.9 nm. When the electric field applied to the NLC FP etalon exceeds the threshold value (Fréedericksz threshold voltage), the output of the multiwavelength-swept laser can be tuned continuously. The tuning range of the multiwavelength-swept laser can be achieved at a value greater than 75 nm, which has a considerably wider tunable range than a conventional multiwavelength laser based on an NLC FP etalon. The slope efficiencies in the spectral and temporal domains for the tunable multiwavelength-swept laser are 22.2 nm/(mVrms / μm) and 0.17 ms/(mVrms / μm), respectively in the linear region. Therefore, the developed multiwavelength-swept laser based on the NLC FP etalon can be applied to an electric-field sensor. Because the wavelength measurement and time measurement have a linear relationship, the electric-field sensor can detect a rapid change in the electric-field intensity by measuring the peak change of the pulse in the temporal domain using the NLC FP etalon-based multiwavelength-swept laser.

  9. The value of calcaneal bone mass measurement using a dual X-ray laser calscan device in risk screening for osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulseren Kayalar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate how bone mineral density in the calcaneus measured by a dual energy X-ray laser (DXL correlates with bone mineral density in the spine and hip in Turkish women over 40 years of age and to determine whether calcaneal dual energy X-ray laser variables are associated with clinical risk factors to the same extent as axial bone mineral density measurements obtained using dual energy x-ray absorbtiometry (DXA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 2,884 Turkish women, aged 40-90 years, living in Ankara were randomly selected. Calcaneal bone mineral density was evaluated using a dual energy X-ray laser Calscan device. Subjects exhibiting a calcaneal dual energy X-ray laser T- score <-2.5 received a referral for DXA of the spine and hip. Besides dual energy X-ray laser measurements, all subjects were questioned about their medical history and the most relevant risk factors for osteoporosis. RESULTS: Using a T-score threshold of -2.5, which is recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO, dual energy X-ray laser calcaneal measurements showed that 13% of the subjects had osteoporosis, while another 56% had osteopenia. The mean calcaneal dual energy X-ray laser T-score of postmenopausal subjects who were smokers with a positive history of fracture, hormone replacement therapy (HRT, covered dressing style, lower educational level, no regular exercise habits, and low tea consumption was significantly lower than that obtained for the other group (p<0.05. A significant correlation was observed between the calcaneal dual energy X-ray laser T-score and age (r=-0.465, p=0.001, body mass index (BMI (r=0.223, p=0.001, number of live births (r=-0.229, p=0.001, breast feeding time (r=-0.064, p=0.001, and age at menarche (r=-0.050, p=0.008. The correlations between calcaneal DXL and DXA T-scores (r=0.340, p=0.001 and calcaneal DXL and DXA Z-scores (r=0.360, p=0.001 at the spine, and calcaneal DXL and DXA T- scores (r=0.28, p=0.001 and calcaneal

  10. Hybrid vertical-cavity laser with lateral emission into a silicon waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Gyeong Cheol; Xue, Weiqi; Taghizadeh, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    into the waveguide integrated with the laser. This laser has the advantages of long-wavelength vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, such as low threshold and high side-mode suppression ratio, while allowing integration with silicon photonic circuits, and is fabricated using CMOS compatible processes. It has......We experimentally demonstrate an optically-pumped III-V/Si vertical-cavity laser with lateral emission into a silicon waveguide. This on-chip hybrid laser comprises a distributed Bragg reflector, a III-V active layer, and a high-contrast grating reflector, which simultaneously funnels light...

  11. Treatment of burn scars in Fitzpatrick phototype III patients with a combination of pulsed dye laser and non-ablative fractional resurfacing 1550 nm erbium:glass/1927 nm thulium laser devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Joy; Champlain, Amanda; Weddington, Charles; Moy, Lauren; Tung, Rebecca

    2018-01-01

    Burn scars cause cosmetic disfigurement and psychosocial distress. We present two Fitzpatrick phototype (FP) III patients with burn scars successfully treated with combination pulsed dye laser (PDL) and non-ablative fractional lasers (NAFL). A 30-year-old, FP III woman with a history of a second-degree burn injury to the bilateral arms and legs affecting 30% body surface area (BSA) presented for cosmetic treatment. The patient received three treatments with 595 nm PDL (7 mm, 8 J, 6 ms), six with the 1550 nm erbium:glass laser (30 mJ, 14% density, 4-8 passes) and five with the 1927 nm thulium laser (10 mJ, 30% density, 4-8 passes). Treated burn scars improved significantly in thickness, texture and colour. A 33-year-old, FP III man with a history of a second-degree burn injury of the left neck and arm affecting 7% BSA presented for cosmetic treatment. The patient received two treatments with 595 nm PDL (5 mm, 7.5 J, 6 ms), four with the 1550 nm erbium:glass laser (30 mJ, 14% density, 4-8 passes) and two with the 1927 nm thulium laser (10 mJ, 30% density, 4-8 passes). The burn scars became thinner, smoother and more normal in pigmentation and appearance. Our patients' burn scars were treated with a combination of PDL and NAFL (two wavelengths). The PDL targets scar hypervascularity, the 1550 nm erbium:glass stimulates collagen remodelling and the 1927 nm thulium targets epidermal processes, particularly hyperpigmentation. This combination addresses scar thickness, texture and colour with a low side effect profile and is particularly advantageous in patients at higher risk of post-procedure hyperpigmentation. Our cases suggest the combination of 595nm PDL plus NAFL 1550 nm erbium:glass/1927 nm thulium device is effective and well-tolerated for burn scar treatment in skin of colour.

  12. A simple and cost-effective method for fabrication of integrated electronic-microfluidic devices using a laser-patterned PDMS layer

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Ming

    2011-12-03

    We report a simple and cost-effective method for fabricating integrated electronic-microfluidic devices with multilayer configurations. A CO 2 laser plotter was employed to directly write patterns on a transferred polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) layer, which served as both a bonding and a working layer. The integration of electronics in microfluidic devices was achieved by an alignment bonding of top and bottom electrode-patterned substrates fabricated with conventional lithography, sputtering and lift-off techniques. Processes of the developed fabrication method were illustrated. Major issues associated with this method as PDMS surface treatment and characterization, thickness-control of the transferred PDMS layer, and laser parameters optimization were discussed, along with the examination and testing of bonding with two representative materials (glass and silicon). The capability of this method was further demonstrated by fabricating a microfluidic chip with sputter-coated electrodes on the top and bottom substrates. The device functioning as a microparticle focusing and trapping chip was experimentally verified. It is confirmed that the proposed method has many advantages, including simple and fast fabrication process, low cost, easy integration of electronics, strong bonding strength, chemical and biological compatibility, etc. © Springer-Verlag 2011.

  13. Remarkably High Conversion Efficiency of Inverted Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells: From Ultrafast Laser Spectroscopy and Electron Microscopy to Device Fabrication and Optimization

    KAUST Repository

    Alsulami, Qana

    2016-04-10

    In organic donor-acceptor systems, ultrafast interfacial charge transfer (CT), charge separation (CS), and charge recombination (CR) are key determinants of the overall performance of photovoltaic devices. However, a profound understanding of these photophysical processes at device interfaces remains superficial, creating a major bottleneck that circumvents advancements and the optimization of these solar cells. Here, results from time-resolved laser spectroscopy and high-resolution electron microscopy are examined to provide the fundamental information necessary to fabricate and optimize organic solar cell devices. In real time, CT and CS are monitored at the interface between three fullerene acceptors (FAs) (PC71BM, PC61BM, and IC60BA) and the PTB7-Th donor polymer. Femtosecond transient absorption (fs-TA) data demonstrates that photoinduced electron transfer from the PTB7-Th polymer to each FA occurs on the sub-picosecond time scale, leading to the formation of long-lived radical ions. It is also found that the power conversion efficiency improves from 2% in IC60BA-based solar cells to >9% in PC71BM-based devices, in support of our time-resolved results. The insights reported in this manuscript provide a clear understanding of the key variables involved at the device interface, paving the way for the exploitation of efficient CS and subsequently improving the photoconversion efficiency. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. A study of optical design and optimization applied to lens module of laser beam shaping of advanced modern optical device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Cheng-Mu; Fang, Yi-Chin; Chen, Zhen Hsiang

    2011-10-01

    This study used the aspheric lens to realize the laser flat-top optimization, and applied the genetic algorithm (GA) to find the optimal results. Using the characteristics of aspheric lens to obtain the optimized high quality Nd: YAG 355 waveband laser flat-top optical system, this study employed the Light tools LDS (least damped square) and the GA of artificial intelligence optimization method to determine the optimal aspheric coefficient and obtain the optimal solution. This study applied the aspheric lens with GA for the flattening of laser beams using two aspheric lenses in the aspheric surface optical system to complete 80% spot narrowing under standard deviation of 0.6142.

  15. Efficacy and safety of a low-level laser device in the treatment of male and female pattern hair loss: a multicenter, randomized, sham device-controlled, double-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Joaquin J; Wikramanayake, Tongyu C; Bergfeld, Wilma; Hordinsky, Maria; Hickman, Janet G; Hamblin, Michael R; Schachner, Lawrence A

    2014-04-01

    Male and female pattern hair loss are common, chronic dermatologic disorders with limited therapeutic options. In recent years, a number of commercial devices using low-level laser therapy have been promoted, but there have been little peer-reviewed data on their efficacy. To determine whether treatment with a low-level laser device, the US FDA-cleared HairMax Lasercomb®, increases terminal hair density in both men and women with pattern hair loss. Randomized, sham device-controlled, double-blind clinical trials were conducted at multiple institutional and private practices. A total of 146 male and 188 female subjects with pattern hair loss were screened. A total of 128 male and 141 female subjects were randomized to receive either a lasercomb (one of three models) or a sham device in concealed sealed packets, and were treated on the whole scalp three times a week for 26 weeks. Terminal hair density of the target area was evaluated at baseline and at 16- and 26-week follow-ups, and analyzed to determine whether the hypothesis formulated prior to data collection, that lasercomb treatment would increase terminal hair density, was correct. The site investigators and the subjects remained blinded to the type of device they dispensed/received throughout the study. The evaluator of masked digital photographs was blinded to which trial arm the subject belonged. Seventy-eight, 63, 49, and 79 subjects were randomized in four trials of 9-beam lasercomb treatment in female subjects, 12-beam lasercomb treatment in female subjects, 7-beam lasercomb treatment in male subjects, and 9- and 12-beam lasercomb treatment in male subjects, compared with the sham device, respectively. Nineteen female and 25 male subjects were lost to follow-up. Among the remaining 122 female and 103 male subjects in the efficacy analysis, the mean terminal hair count at 26 weeks increased from baseline by 20.2, 20.6, 18.4, 20.9, and 25.7 per cm2 in 9-beam lasercomb-treated female subjects, 12-beam

  16. ZnCdMgSe as a Materials Platform for Advanced Photonic Devices: Broadband Quantum Cascade Detectors and Green Semiconductor Disk Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jesus, Joel

    The ZnCdMgSe family of II-VI materials has unique and promising characteristics that may be useful in practical applications. For example they can be grown lattice matched to InP substrates with lattice matched bandgaps that span from 2.1 to 3.5 eV, they can be successfully doped n-type, have a large conduction band offset (CBO) with no intervalley scattering present when strained, they have lower average phonon energies, and the InP lattice constant lies in the middle of the ZnSe and CdSe binaries compounds giving room to experiment with tensile and compressive stress. However they have not been studied in detail for use in practical devices. Here we have identified two types of devices that are being currently developed that benefit from the ZnCdMgSe-based material properties. These are the intersubband (ISB) quantum cascade (QC) detectors and optically pumped semiconductor lasers that emit in the visible range. The paucity for semiconductor lasers operating in the green-orange portion of the visible spectrum can be easily overcome with the ZnCdMgSe materials system developed in our research. The non-strain limited, large CBO available allows to expand the operating wavelength of ISB devices providing shorter and longer wavelengths than the currently commercially available devices. This property can also be exploited to develop broadband room temperature operation ISB detectors. The work presented here focused first on using the ZnCdMgSe-based material properties and parameter to understand and predict the interband and intersubband transitions of its heterostructures. We did this by studying an active region of a QC device by contactless electroreflectance, photoluminescence, FTIR transmittance and correlating the measurements to the quantum well structure by transfer matrix modeling. Then we worked on optimizing the ZnCdMgSe material heterostructures quality by studying the effects of growth interruptions on their optical and optoelectronic properties of

  17. Application of a particle separation device to reduce inductively coupled plasma-enhanced elemental fractionation in laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillong, Marcel; Kuhn, Hans-Rudolf; Guenther, Detlef

    2003-01-01

    The particle size distribution of laser ablation aerosols are a function of the wavelength, the energy density and the pulse duration of the laser, as well as the sample matrix and the gas environment. Further the size of the particles affects the vaporization and ionization efficiency in the inductively coupled plasma (ICP). Some matrices produce large particles, which are not completely vaporized and ionized in the ICP. The previous work has shown that analytical results such as matrix-independent calibration, accuracy and precision can be significantly influenced by the particle sizes of the particles. To minimize the particle size related incomplete conversion of the sample to ions in the ICP a particle separation device was developed, which allows effective particle separation using centrifugal forces in a thin coiled tube. In this device, the particle cut-off size is varied by changing the number of turns in the coil, as well as by changing the gas flow and the tube diameter. The interaction of the laser with the different samples leads to varying particle size distributions. When carrying out quantitative analysis with non-matrix matched calibration reference materials, it was shown that different particle cut-off sizes were required depending on the ICP conditions and the instrument used for analysis. Various sample materials were investigated in this study to demonstrate the applicability of the device. For silicate matrices, the capability of the ICP to produce ions was significantly reduced for particles larger than 0.5 μm, and was dependent on the element monitored. To reduce memory effects caused by the separated particles, a washout procedure was developed, which additionally allowed the analysis of the trapped particles. These results clearly demonstrate the very important particle size dependent ICP-MS signal response and the potential of the described particle size based separator for the reduction of ICP induced elemental fractionation

  18. Study of novel plasma devices generated by high power lasers coupled with a micro-pulse power technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishida, A; Chen, Z L; Jin, Z; Kondo, K; Nakagawa, M; Kodama, R; Arima, H; Yoneda, H

    2008-01-01

    The authors have proposed introducing a micro pulse power technology in high power laser plasma experiments to boost up the return current, resulting in efficiently guiding of energetic electrons. High current pulse power generators with a pulse laser trigger system generate high-density plasma that is well conductor. To efficiently guiding by using a micro pulse power, we estimated parameter of a micro pulse power system that is voltage of rise time, current, charging voltage and capacitance

  19. Laser-induced local activation of Mg-doped GaN with a high lateral resolution for high power vertical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurose, Noriko; Matsumoto, Kota; Yamada, Fumihiko; Roffi, Teuku Muhammad; Kamiya, Itaru; Iwata, Naotaka; Aoyagi, Yoshinobu

    2018-01-01

    A method for laser-induced local p-type activation of an as-grown Mg-doped GaN sample with a high lateral resolution is developed for realizing high power vertical devices for the first time. As-grown Mg-doped GaN is converted to p-type GaN in a confined local area. The transition from an insulating to a p-type area is realized to take place within about 1-2 μm fine resolution. The results show that the technique can be applied in fabricating the devices such as vertical field effect transistors, vertical bipolar transistors and vertical Schottkey diode so on with a current confinement region using a p-type carrier-blocking layer formed by this technique.

  20. Analysis of chemical degradation mechanism of phosphorescent organic light emitting devices by laser-desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabelo de Moraes, Ines; Scholz, Sebastian; Luessem, Bjoern; Leo, Karl [Institut fuer Angewandte Photophysik, Technische Universitaet Dresden (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) have attracted much interest for their potential application in full color flat-panel displays and as an alternative lighting source. However, low efficiency, and the short operation lifetime, in particular in the case of blue emitting devices, are the major limitations for the current OLEDs commercialization. In order to overcome these limitations, a deep knowledge about the aging and the degradation mechanism is required. Our work focuses on the chemical degradation mechanism of different iridium based emitter materials like FIrpic (light blue) and Ir(ppy)3 (green), commonly used in OLEDs. For this purpose, the devices were aged by electrical driving until the luminance reached 6% of the initial luminance. The laser-desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry was used to determine specific degradation pathways.

  1. 3D Participatory Sensing with Low-Cost Mobile Devices for Crop Height Assessment--A Comparison with Terrestrial Laser Scanning Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Marx

    Full Text Available The integration of local agricultural knowledge deepens the understanding of complex phenomena such as the association between climate variability, crop yields and undernutrition. Participatory Sensing (PS is a concept which enables laymen to easily gather geodata with standard low-cost mobile devices, offering new and efficient opportunities for agricultural monitoring. This study presents a methodological approach for crop height assessment based on PS. In-field crop height variations of a maize field in Heidelberg, Germany, are gathered with smartphones and handheld GPS devices by 19 participants. The comparison of crop height values measured by the participants to reference data based on terrestrial laser scanning (TLS results in R2 = 0.63 for the handheld GPS devices and R2 = 0.24 for the smartphone-based approach. RMSE for the comparison between crop height models (CHM derived from PS and TLS data is 10.45 cm (GPS devices and 14.69 cm (smartphones. Furthermore, the results indicate that incorporating participants' cognitive abilities in the data collection process potentially improves the quality data captured with the PS approach. The proposed PS methods serve as a fundament to collect agricultural parameters on field-level by incorporating local people. Combined with other methods such as remote sensing, PS opens new perspectives to support agricultural development.

  2. 3D Participatory Sensing with Low-Cost Mobile Devices for Crop Height Assessment--A Comparison with Terrestrial Laser Scanning Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Sabrina; Hämmerle, Martin; Klonner, Carolin; Höfle, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    The integration of local agricultural knowledge deepens the understanding of complex phenomena such as the association between climate variability, crop yields and undernutrition. Participatory Sensing (PS) is a concept which enables laymen to easily gather geodata with standard low-cost mobile devices, offering new and efficient opportunities for agricultural monitoring. This study presents a methodological approach for crop height assessment based on PS. In-field crop height variations of a maize field in Heidelberg, Germany, are gathered with smartphones and handheld GPS devices by 19 participants. The comparison of crop height values measured by the participants to reference data based on terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) results in R2 = 0.63 for the handheld GPS devices and R2 = 0.24 for the smartphone-based approach. RMSE for the comparison between crop height models (CHM) derived from PS and TLS data is 10.45 cm (GPS devices) and 14.69 cm (smartphones). Furthermore, the results indicate that incorporating participants' cognitive abilities in the data collection process potentially improves the quality data captured with the PS approach. The proposed PS methods serve as a fundament to collect agricultural parameters on field-level by incorporating local people. Combined with other methods such as remote sensing, PS opens new perspectives to support agricultural development.

  3. Metasurface external cavity laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Luyao, E-mail: luyaoxu.ee@ucla.edu; Curwen, Christopher A.; Williams, Benjamin S. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); California NanoSystems Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Hon, Philip W. C.; Itoh, Tatsuo [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Chen, Qi-Sheng [Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems, Redondo Beach, California 90278 (United States)

    2015-11-30

    A vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting-laser is demonstrated in the terahertz range, which is based upon an amplifying metasurface reflector composed of a sub-wavelength array of antenna-coupled quantum-cascade sub-cavities. Lasing is possible when the metasurface reflector is placed into a low-loss external cavity such that the external cavity—not the sub-cavities—determines the beam properties. A near-Gaussian beam of 4.3° × 5.1° divergence is observed and an output power level >5 mW is achieved. The polarized response of the metasurface allows the use of a wire-grid polarizer as an output coupler that is continuously tunable.

  4. 9th International Workshop on Application of Lasers and Storage Devices in Atomic Nuclei Research: Recent Achievements and Future Prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Kowalska, Magdalena; LASER 2013

    2014-01-01

    Since the beginning, the Workshop has been devoted to the application of lasers in atomic nuclear research. (Details can be found in the proceedings of the previous 6th to 8th workshops: Hyperfine Interactions: volumes 164 (2004), 171 (2006) and 196, (2009).) The subject of the previous VIII Workshop (LASER 2009) was broadened, combining two key technologies of modern research: lasers and ion storage techniques. This combination has opened the event to the new research opportunities for investigations in atomic and nuclear physics, for detection of quantum effects in particle ensembles as well as for precision spectroscopy especially for testing fundamental interactions and symmetries. Due to the increased interest in the previous edition, we decided to retain its title and topics for the 2013 edition stressing on atomic properties of superheavy elements and methods of their investigation.

  5. Process and device for the excitation and selective dissociation by absorption of a laser light and application to isotopic enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigny, Paul.

    1975-01-01

    The description is given of a process for the excitation and selective dissociation by absorption of the monochromatic light emitted by a high power laser. The laser light at frequency ν 1 is beamed on to an isotopic mixture of gaseous molecules, some of these molecules presenting transitions, between two vibration levels corresponding to a given isotope, separated by an energy interval ΔE 1 =2h ν 1 , and the molecules of a given isotopic species are thus preferentially dissociated into several component parts [fr

  6. High brightness diode lasers controlled by volume Bragg gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glebov, Leonid

    2017-02-01

    Volume Bragg gratings (VBGs) recorded in photo-thermo-refractive (PTR) glass are holographic optical elements that are effective spectral and angular filters withstanding high power laser radiation. Reflecting VBGs are narrow-band spectral filters while transmitting VBGs are narrow-band angular filters. The use of these optical elements in external resonators of semiconductor lasers enables extremely resonant feedback that provides dramatic spectral and angular narrowing of laser diodes radiation without significant power and efficiency penalty. Spectral narrowing of laser diodes by reflecting VBGs demonstrated in wide spectral region from near UV to 3 μm. Commercially available VBGs have spectral width ranged from few nanometers to few tens of picometers. Efficient spectral locking was demonstrated for edge emitters (single diodes, bars, modules, and stacks), vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs), grating coupled surface emitting lasers (GCSELs), and interband cascade lasers (ICLs). The use of multiplexed VBGs provides multiwavelength emission from a single emitter. Spectrally locked semiconductor lasers demonstrated CW power from milliwatts to a kilowatt. Angular narrowing by transmitting VBGs enables single transverse mode emission from wide aperture diode lasers having resonators with great Fresnel numbers. This feature provides close to diffraction limit divergence along a slow axis of wide stripe edge emitters. Radiation exchange between lasers by means of spatially profiled or multiplexed VBGs enables coherent combining of diode lasers. Sequence of VBGs or multiplexed VBGs enable spectral combining of spectrally narrowed diode lasers or laser modules. Thus the use of VBGs for diode lasers beam control provides dramatic increase of brightness.

  7. Laser applications in materials processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ready, J.F.

    1980-01-01

    The seminar focused on laser annealing of semiconductors, laser processing of semiconductor devices and formation of coatings and powders, surface modification with lasers, and specialized laser processing methods. Papers were presented on the theoretical analysis of thermal and mass transport during laser annealing, applications of scanning continuous-wave and pulsed lasers in silicon technology, laser techniques in photovoltaic applications, and the synthesis of ceramic powders from laser-heated gas-phase reactants. Other papers included: reflectance changes of metals during laser irradiation, surface-alloying using high-power continuous lasers, laser growth of silicon ribbon, and commercial laser-shock processes

  8. Establishing a Quantitative Relationship Between Ion and Pulsed-Laser Induced Single Event Soft Errors in Advanced Semiconductor Devices

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Radiation is a pervasive environmental challenge in space and the upper atmosphere. Ions can interact with microelectronic devices and create unwanted charge leading...

  9. Management of Retrograde Peri-Implantitis Using an Air-Abrasive Device, Er,Cr:YSGG Laser, and Guided Bone Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Soldatos

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The placement of an implant in a previously infected site is an important etiologic factor contributing to implant failure. The aim of this case report is to present the management of retrograde peri-implantitis (RPI in a first maxillary molar site, 2 years after the implant placement. The RPI was treated using an air-abrasive device, Er,Cr:YSGG laser, and guided bone regeneration (GBR. Case Description. A 65-year-old Caucasian male presented with a draining fistula associated with an implant at tooth #3. Tooth #3 revealed periapical radiolucency two years before the implant placement. Tooth #3 was extracted, and a ridge preservation procedure was performed followed by implant rehabilitation. A periapical radiograph (PA showed lack of bone density around the implant apex. The site was decontaminated with an air-abrasive device and Er,Cr:YSGG laser, and GBR was performed. The patient was seen every two weeks until suture removal, followed by monthly visits for 12 months. The periapical X-rays, from 6 to 13 months postoperatively, showed increased bone density around the implant apex, with no signs of residual clinical or radiographic pathology and probing depths ≤4 mm. Conclusions. The etiology of RPI in this case was the placement of an implant in a previously infected site. The use of an air-abrasive device, Er,Cr:YSGG, and GBR was utilized to treat this case of RPI. The site was monitored for 13 months, and increased radiographic bone density was noted.

  10. Measurements of line-averaged electron density of pulsed plasmas using a He-Ne laser interferometer in a magnetized coaxial plasma gun device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, D.; Sakuma, I.; Kitagawa, Y.; Kikuchi, Y.; Fukumoto, N.; Nagata, M.

    2012-10-01

    In next step of fusion devices such as ITER, lifetime of plasma-facing materials (PFMs) is strongly affected by transient heat and particle loads during type I edge localized modes (ELMs) and disruption. To clarify damage characteristics of the PFMs, transient heat and particle loads have been simulated by using a plasma gun device. We have performed simulation experiments by using a magnetized coaxial plasma gun (MCPG) device at University of Hyogo. The line-averaged electron density measured by a He-Ne interferometer is 2x10^21 m-3 in a drift tube. The plasma velocity measured by a time of flight technique and ion Doppler spectrometer was 70 km/s, corresponding to the ion energy of 100 eV for helium. Thus, the ion flux density is 1.4x10^26 m-2s-1. On the other hand, the MCPG is connected to a target chamber for material irradiation experiments. It is important to measure plasma parameters in front of target materials in the target chamber. In particular, a vapor cloud layer in front of the target material produced by the pulsed plasma irradiation has to be characterized in order to understand surface damage of PFMs under ELM-like plasma bombardment. In the conference, preliminary results of application of the He-Ne laser interferometer for the above experiment will be shown.

  11. Custom-made titanium devices as membranes for bone augmentation in implant treatment: Modeling accuracy of titanium products constructed with selective laser melting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otawa, Naruto; Sumida, Tomoki; Kitagaki, Hisashi; Sasaki, Kiyoyuki; Fujibayashi, Shunsuke; Takemoto, Mitsuru; Nakamura, Takashi; Yamada, Tomohiro; Mori, Yoshihide; Matsushita, Tomiharu

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to verify the modeling accuracy of various products, and to produce custom-made devices for bone augmentation in individual patients requiring implantation. Two-(2D) and three-dimensional (3D) specimens and custom-made devices that were designed as membranes for guided bone regeneration (GBR) were produced using a computer-aided design (CAD) and rapid prototyping (RP) method. The CAD design was produced using a 3D printing machine and selective laser melting (SLM) with pure titanium (Ti) powder. The modeling accuracy was evaluated with regard to: the dimensional accuracy of the 2D and 3D specimens; the accuracy of pore structure of the 2D specimens; the accuracy of porosity of the 3D specimens; and the error between CAD design and the scanned real product by overlapped images. The accuracy of the 2D and 3D specimens indicated precise results in various parameters, which were tolerant in ISO 2768-1. The error of overlapped images between the CAD and scanned data indicated that accuracy was sufficient for GBR. In integrating area of all devices, the maximum and average error were 292 and 139 μm, respectively. High modeling accuracy can be achieved in various products using the CAD/RP-SLM method. These results suggest the possibility of clinical applications. Copyright © 2015 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. An Ambipolar BODIPY Derivative for a White Exciplex OLED and Cholesteric Liquid Crystal Laser toward Multifunctional Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapran, Marian; Angioni, Enrico; Findlay, Neil J; Breig, Benjamin; Cherpak, Vladyslav; Stakhira, Pavlo; Tuttle, Tell; Volyniuk, Dmytro; Grazulevicius, Juozas V; Nastishin, Yuriy A; Lavrentovich, Oleg D; Skabara, Peter J

    2017-02-08

    A new interface engineering method is demonstrated for the preparation of an efficient white organic light-emitting diode (WOLED) by embedding an ultrathin layer of the novel ambipolar red emissive compound 4,4-difluoro-2,6-di(4-hexylthiopen-2-yl)-1,3,5,7,8-pentamethyl-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene (bThBODIPY) in the exciplex formation region. The compound shows a hole and electron mobility of 3.3 × 10 -4 and 2 × 10 -4 cm 2 V -1 s -1 , respectively, at electric fields higher than 5.3 × 10 5 V cm -1 . The resulting WOLED exhibited a maximum luminance of 6579 cd m -2 with CIE 1931 color coordinates (0.39; 0.35). The bThBODIPY dye is also demonstrated to be an effective laser dye for a cholesteric liquid crystal (ChLC) laser. New construction of the ChLC laser, by which a flat capillary with an optically isotropic dye solution is sandwiched between two dye-free ChLC cells, provides photonic lasing at a wavelength well matched with that of a dye-doped planar ChLC cell.

  13. Evaluation of a combined laser-radio frequency device (Polaris WR) for the nonablative treatment of facial wrinkles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulick, Michael

    2005-06-01

    Nonablative wrinkle reduction or skin tightening is desired by individuals who, ideally, hope to have the skin improvement associated with chemical or laser ablative techniques but without the undesirable recovery process. Electro-optical synergy (ELOS) technology that combines radio frequency (RF) and diode laser energy (900 nm) was used to treat 15 patients in this IRB sanctioned study. Energy settings were based on the depth of wrinkles (the greater the depth and concentration of wrinkles, the higher the RF setting) and ranged from 50-100 J/cm2 RF and 15 J/cm2 for the optical, laser component. Patients received three full-face treatments, and results were evaluated by comparison of standardized photographs and patient questionnaire given prior to each treatment and one month after the third treatment. The primary investigator and three other "blinded" physicians evaluated these photographs using Fitzpatrick's wrinkle classification to assess the improvement, if any, between the initial and final visit. Eight patients completed the study. Explanation for the exclusion of the remaining six patients were: one decided to have surgery, two felt the treatment was too painful, and three moved out of the area. Following treatment, all patients had mild swelling (resolved skin hyperemia (resolved skin wrinkles (range 14%-32%). There were no adverse side effects. The major concern of the patients was the discomfort associated with the treatment. As part of an FDA investigation to assess efficacy, long-term follow-up was not a part of this study protocol.

  14. Diode lasers and arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streifer, W.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses the principles of operation of III-V semiconductor diode lasers, the use of distributed feedback, and high power laser arrays. The semiconductor laser is a robust, miniature, versatile device, which directly converts electricity to light with very high efficiency. Applications to pumping solid-state lasers and to fiber optic and point-to-point communications are reviewed

  15. Development of laser-based techniques for in situ characterization of the first wall in ITER and future fusion devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Philipps, V.; Malaquias, A.; Hakola, A.; Karhunen, J.; Maddaluno, G.; Almaviva, S.; Caneve, L.; Colao, F.; Fortuna, E.; Gasior, P.; Kubkowska, M.; Czarnecka, A.; Laan, M.; Lissovski, A.; Paris, P.; van der Meiden, H. J.; Petersson, P.; Rubel, M.; Huber, A.; Zlobinski, M.; Schweer, B.; Gierse, N.; Xiao, Q.; Sergienko, G.

    2013-01-01

    Analysis and understanding of wall erosion, material transport and fuel retention are among the most important tasks for ITER and future devices, since these questions determine largely the lifetime and availability of the fusion reactor. These data are also of extreme value to improve the

  16. [Assessment of rehabilitation progress in patients with cervical radicular pain syndrome after application of high intensity laser therapy - HILT and Saunders traction device].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haładaj, Robert; Pingot, Julia; Pingot, Mariusz

    2015-07-01

    Osteoarthritis of the spine is a major global health problem, it is an epidemic of our times. It affects all parts of the spine, but the hardest to treat is its cervical region. The cervical spine is most mobile, delicate and sensitive to any load. It requires special care in conservative treatment. To date the selection of effective therapeutic approaches has been controversial. The aim of the study was to assess the progress of rehabilitation in patients with cervical radicular pain syndrome after using two different methods of treatment: HILT and spinal axial traction with the use of Saunders device. The randomized study included 150 patients (81 women and 69 men, aged 24-67 years, mean age 45.5) divided into two groups of 75 patients each with characteristic symptoms of radicular pain. The measurement of the range of cervical spine movement of the cervical spine, visual analog scale for pain - VAS and a NDI questionnaire (Neck Disability Index - Polish version) - an indicator of functional disorders - were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the two different therapies. The results obtained by Saunders method remained significantly higher than those obtained when HILT laser therapy was used for most of the examined parameters. A thorough analysis of the results showed greater analgesic efficacy, improved global mobility and reduced functional impairment in patients treated with Saunders method. Both therapeutic methods manifest analgesic effect and a positive impact on the improvement of range of cervical spine movement in patients with radicular pain in this spine region. HILT laser therapy and Saunders traction device reduce neck disability index in the treated patients. © 2015 MEDPRESS.

  17. 671-nm microsystem diode laser based on portable Raman sensor device for in-situ identification of meat spoilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowoidnich, Kay; Schmidt, Heinar; Schwägele, Fredi; Kronfeldt, Heinz-Detlef

    2011-05-01

    Based on a miniaturized optical bench with attached 671 nm microsystem diode laser we present a portable Raman system for the rapid in-situ characterization of meat spoilage. It consists of a handheld sensor head (dimensions: 210 x 240 x 60 mm3) for Raman signal excitation and collection including the Raman optical bench, a laser driver, and a battery pack. The backscattered Raman radiation from the sample is analyzed by means of a custom-designed miniature spectrometer (dimensions: 200 x 190 x 70 mm3) with a resolution of 8 cm-1 which is fiber-optically coupled to the sensor head. A netbook is used to control the detector and for data recording. Selected cuts from pork (musculus longissimus dorsi and ham) stored refrigerated at 5 °C were investigated in timedependent measurement series up to three weeks to assess the suitability of the system for the rapid detection of meat spoilage. Using a laser power of 100 mW at the sample meat spectra can be obtained with typical integration times of 5 - 10 seconds. The complex spectra were analyzed by the multivariate statistical tool PCA (principal components analysis) to determine the spectral changes occurring during the storage period. Additionally, the Raman data were correlated with reference analyses performed in parallel. In that way, a distinction between fresh and spoiled meat can be found in the time slot of 7 - 8 days after slaughter. The applicability of the system for the rapid spoilage detection of meat and other food products will be discussed.

  18. First demonstration of orange-yellow light emitter devices in InGaP/InAlGaP laser structure using strain-induced quantum well intermixing technique

    KAUST Repository

    Majid, Mohammed A.

    2016-03-07

    In this paper, a novel strain-induced quantum well intermixing (QWI) technique is employed on InGaP/InAlGaP material system to promote interdiffusion via application of a thick-dielectric encapsulant layer, in conjunction with cycle annealing at elevated temperature. Broad area devices fabricated from this novel cost-effective QWI technique lased at room-temperature at a wavelength as short as 608nm with a total output power of ~46mW. This is the shortest- wavelength electrically pumped visible semiconductor laser, and the first report of lasing action yet reported from post- growth interdiffused process. Furthermore, we also demonstrate the first yellow superluminescent diode (SLD) at a wavelength of 583nm with a total two-facet output power of ~4.5mW - the highest optical power ever reported at this wavelength in this material system. The demonstration of the yellow SLD without complicated multiquantum barriers to suppress the carrier overflow will have a great impact in realizing the yellow laser diode. © (2016) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

  19. First demonstration of orange-yellow light emitter devices in InGaP/InAlGaP laser structure using strain-induced quantum well intermixing technique

    KAUST Repository

    Majid, Mohammed Abdul; Al-Jabr, Ahmad; Elafandy, Rami T.; Oubei, Hassan M.; Alias, Mohd Sharizal; Alnahhas, Bayan A.; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Ng, Tien Khee; Shehata, Mohamed; Ooi, Boon S.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a novel strain-induced quantum well intermixing (QWI) technique is employed on InGaP/InAlGaP material system to promote interdiffusion via application of a thick-dielectric encapsulant layer, in conjunction with cycle annealing at elevated temperature. Broad area devices fabricated from this novel cost-effective QWI technique lased at room-temperature at a wavelength as short as 608nm with a total output power of ~46mW. This is the shortest- wavelength electrically pumped visible semiconductor laser, and the first report of lasing action yet reported from post- growth interdiffused process. Furthermore, we also demonstrate the first yellow superluminescent diode (SLD) at a wavelength of 583nm with a total two-facet output power of ~4.5mW - the highest optical power ever reported at this wavelength in this material system. The demonstration of the yellow SLD without complicated multiquantum barriers to suppress the carrier overflow will have a great impact in realizing the yellow laser diode. © (2016) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

  20. IV-VI mid-IR tunable lasers and detectors with external resonant cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zogg, H.; Rahim, M.; Khiar, A.; Fill, M.; Felder, F.; Quack, N.; Blunier, S.; Dual, J.

    2009-08-01

    Wavelength tunable emitters and detectors in the mid-IR wavelength region allow applications including thermal imaging and spectroscopy. Such devices may be realized using a resonant cavity. By mechanically changing the cavity length with MEMS mirror techniques, the wavelengths may be tuned over a considerable range. Vertical external cavity surface emitting lasers (VECSEL) may be applied for gas spectroscopy. Resonant cavity enhanced detectors (RCED) are sensitive at the cavity resonance only. They may be applied for low resolution spectroscopy, and, when arrays of such detectors are realized, as multicolor IR-FPA or IR-AFPA (IR-adaptive focal plane arrays). We review mid-infrared RCEDs and VECSELs using narrow gap IV-VI (lead chalcogenide) materials like PbTe and PbSe as the active medium. IV-VIs are fault tolerant and allow easy wavelength tuning. The VECSELs operate up to above room temperature and emit in the 4 - 5 μm range with a PbSe active layer. RCEDs with PbTe absorbing layers above 200 K operating temperature have higher sensitivities than the theoretical limit for a similar broad-band detector coupled with a passive tunable band-filter.

  1. Semipolar GaN-based laser diodes for Gbit/s white lighting communication: devices to systems

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Changmin

    2018-02-23

    We report the high-speed performance of semipolar GaN ridge laser diodes at 410 nm and the dynamic characteristics including differential gain, damping, and the intrinsic maximum bandwidth. To the best of our knowledge, the achieved modulation bandwidth of 6.8 GHz is the highest reported value in the blue-violet spectrum. The calculated differential gain of ~3 x 10-16 cm2, which is a critical factor in high-speed modulation, proved theoretical predictions of higher gain in semipolar GaN laser diodes than the conventional c-plane counterparts. In addition, we demonstrate the first novel white lighting communication system by using our near-ultraviolet (NUV) LDs and pumping red-, green-, and blueemitting phosphors. This system satisfies both purposes of high-speed communication and high-quality white light illumination. A high data rate of 1.5 Gbit/s using on-off keying (OOK) modulation together with a high color rendering index (CRI) of 80 has been measured.

  2. Methods of Laser Spectroscopy in Devices for Continuous Monitoring of O2 and CO Content in Boiler Smoke Gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Firago

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Application efficiency of various absorption laser spectroscopy methods for determination of gas component concentration in boiler smoke gases has been studied in the paper, O2 and CO absorption spectra have been analyzed, optimum absorption lines in near IR spectral range (about 0.76 µm for O2 and 1.56 µm for CO have been selected and graphical dependences of intensity and half-width of the selected lines on the investigated medium temperature and pressure have been shown. Processes of monitoring CO and O2 content in boiler smoke gases while using basic laser spectroscopy methods have been simulated and measuring errors have been analyzed. It has been found out that in order to decrease methodical errors of concentration measuring it is necessary to take into account the investigated medium temperature and pressure. The paper shows that the least errors of continuous CO and O2 concentration monitoring at the presence of variations in dissipative losses have been ensured by the modified correlation method though its threshold sensitivity is less than integral and correlation ones.

  3. Laser system using ultra-short laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantus, Marcos [Okemos, MI; Lozovoy, Vadim V [Okemos, MI; Comstock, Matthew [Milford, MI

    2009-10-27

    A laser system using ultrashort laser pulses is provided. In another aspect of the present invention, the system includes a laser, pulse shaper and detection device. A further aspect of the present invention employs a femtosecond laser and binary pulse shaping (BPS). Still another aspect of the present invention uses a laser beam pulse, a pulse shaper and a SHG crystal.

  4. Laser-cut paper-based device for the detection of dengue non-structural NS1 protein and specific IgM in human samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theillet, G; Rubens, A; Foucault, F; Dalbon, P; Rozand, C; Leparc-Goffart, I; Bedin, F

    2018-03-10

    The incidence of flavivirus infections has increased dramatically in recent decades in tropical and sub-tropical areas worldwide, affecting hundreds of millions of people each year. Dengue viruses are typically transmitted by mosquitoes and can cause a wide range of symptoms from flu-like fever to organ impairment and death. Although conventional diagnostic tests can provide early diagnosis of acute dengue infections, access to these tests is often limited in developing countries. Consequently, there is an urgent need to develop affordable, simple, rapid, and robust diagnostic tools that can be used at 'Point of Care' settings. Early diagnosis is crucial to improve patient management and reduce the risk of complications. In the present study, a novel laser-cut device made of glass-fiber paper was designed and tested for the detection of the dengue Non Structural 1 (NS1) viral protein and specific IgM in blood and plasma. The device, called PAD, was able to detect around 25 ng/mL of NS1 protein in various sample types in 8 minutes, following a few simple steps. The PAD was also able to detect specific IgM in human plasmas in less than 10 minutes. The PAD appears to have all the potential to assist health workers in early diagnosis of dengue fever or other tropical fevers caused by flaviviruses.

  5. High-contrast gratings for long-wavelength laser integration on silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciancalepore, Corrado; Descos, Antoine; Bordel, Damien; Duprez, Hélène; Letartre, Xavier; Menezo, Sylvie; Ben Bakir, Badhise

    2014-02-01

    Silicon photonics is increasingly considered as the most promising way-out to the relentless growth of data traffic in today's telecommunications infrastructures, driving an increase in transmission rates and computing capabilities. This is in fact challenging the intrinsic limit of copper-based, short-reach interconnects and microelectronic circuits in data centers and server architectures to offer enough modulation bandwidth at reasonable power dissipation. In the context of the heterogeneous integration of III-V direct-bandgap materials on silicon, optics with high-contrast metastructures enables the efficient implementation of optical functions such as laser feedback, input/output (I/O) to active/passive components, and optical filtering, while heterogeneous integration of III-V layers provides sufficient optical gain, resulting in silicon-integrated laser sources. The latest ensure reduced packaging costs and reduced footprint for the optical transceivers, a key point for the short reach communications. The invited talk will introduce the audience to the latest breakthroughs concerning the use of high-contrast gratings (HCGs) for the integration of III-V-on-Si verticalcavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) as well as Fabry-Perot edge-emitters (EELs) in the main telecom band around 1.55 μm. The strong near-field mode overlap within HCG mirrors can be exploited to implement unique optical functions such as dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM): a 16-λ100-GHz-spaced channels VCSEL array is demonstrated. On the other hand, high fabrication yields obtained via molecular wafer bonding of III-V alloys on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) conjugate excellent device performances with cost-effective high-throughput production, supporting industrial needs for a rapid research-to-market transfer.

  6. Laser transmitter system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dye, R.A.

    1975-01-01

    A laser transmitter system is disclosed which utilizes mechanical energy for generating an output pulse. The laser system includes a current developing device such as a piezoelectric crystal which charges a storage device such as a capacitor in response to a mechanical input signal. The capacitor is coupled to a switching device, such as a silicon controlled rectifier (SCR). The switching device is coupled to a laser transmitter such as a GaAs laser diode, which provides an output signal in response to the capacitor being discharged

  7. Study of a low power dissipation, miniature laser-pumped rubidium frequency standard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Guo-Bin; Zhao Feng; Gu Si-Hong

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies a miniature low power consumption laser-pumped atom vapour cell clock scheme. Pumping 87Rb with a vertical cavity surface emitting laser diode pump and locking the laser frequency on a Doppler-broadened spectral line,it records a 5×10-11τ-1/2 (τ<500 s) frequency stability with a table-top system in a primary experiment.The study reveals that the evaluated scheme is at the level of 2.7 watts power consumption,90 cm3 volume and 10-12τ- 1/2 short-term frequency stability.

  8. Combined Laser-Doppler Flowmetry and Spectrophotometry: Feasibility Study of a Novel Device for Monitoring Local Cortical Microcirculation during Aneurysm Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Björn; Kreuzer, Maximilian; Bischoff, Barbara; Wolf, Dennis; Schmitt, Hubert; Eyupoglu, Ilker Y; Rössler, Karl; Buchfelder, Michael; Ganslandt, Oliver; Wiendieck, Kurt

    2017-01-01

    Background  Monitoring of cortical cerebral perfusion is essential, especially in neurovascular surgery. Study Aims  To test a novel noninvasive laser-Doppler flowmetry and spectrophotometry device for feasibility during elective cerebral aneurysm surgery. Material and Methods  In this prospective single-institution nonrandomized trial, we studied local cerebral microcirculation using the noninvasive laser-Doppler spectrophotometer "Oxygen-to-see" (O2C) in 20 consecutive patients (15 female, 5 male; median age: 60.5 ± 11.7 years) who were operated on for incidental cerebral aneurysms. Capillary-venous oxygenation (oxygen saturation ["SO 2 "]), postcapillary venous filling pressures (relative hemoglobin content ["rHb"]), blood cell velocity ("velo"), and blood flow ("flow") were measured in 7-mm tissue depth using a subdural fiberoptic probe. Results  Representative recordings were acquired immediately after dural opening over a median time span of 88 ± 21.8 seconds (range: 60-128 seconds) before surgical manipulation. Baseline values (median ± 2 standard deviations) of brain perfusion as measured with the O2C device were SO 2 , 39 ± 16.6%; rHb, 53 ± 18.6 arbitrary units (AU); velo, 60 ± 20.4 AU; and flow, 311 ± 72.8 AU. Placement of the self-retaining retractor led to a decrease in SO 2 of 17% ± 29% ( p  < .05) and flow of 10% ± 11% ( p  < .01); rHb increased by 18% ± 20% ( p  < .01), and velo remained unchanged. Retractor removal caused the opposite with an increased flow of 10% ± 7% ( p  < 0.001) and velo (3% ± 6%, p  = 0.11), but a decrease in SO 2 of 24% ± 33% ( p  = 0.09) and rHb of 12% ± 20% ( p =0.18). No neurologic or surgical complications occurred. Conclusion  Using this novel noninvasive system, we were able to measure local cerebral microcirculation during aneurysm surgery. Our data indicate that this device is able to detect changes during routine

  9. Evaluation of a noninvasive, dual-wavelength laser-suction and massage device for the regional treatment of cellulite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulick, Michael I

    2010-06-01

    Cellulite is a condition usually limited to women. The most common location for this surface irregularity is the thigh. Evaluation of treatment efficacy is difficult because of the reliance on patient satisfaction surveys and flash photography, which can "flatten" surface texture. Reproducibility of photographs is also difficult, as subtle changes in body position can affect appearance. Twenty women with mild to moderate cellulite of their lateral thighs were enrolled. Pretreatment and posttreatment assessment included patient weight, body mass index, percentage body fat, standard digital photographs, VECTRA three-dimensional images, and patient questionnaire. Patients received two treatments per week for 4 weeks. Treatment time was 15 minutes per thigh using the SmoothShapes device. Patients were evaluated 1, 3, and 6 months after their last treatment. To be considered improved after treatment, both thighs needed clear improvement in contour as determined by the "untextured" images obtained with the VECTRA camera system. This device depicts skin contour independent of incident lighting. There were no complications. Seventeen patients had complete data for analysis. Ninety-four percent of the patients felt their cellulite was improved. VECTRA analysis showed 82 percent improvement at 1 month, 76 percent improvement at 3 months, and 76 percent improvement at 6 months. Initial cellulite irregularities and improvement were more difficult to discern using standard digital photographs. There was an average increase in patient weight, body mass index, and percentage body fat at 6 months. The SmoothShapes device provided improvement in surface contour (cellulite) 6 months after the last treatment in the majority of the patients based on patient survey and VECTRA analysis.

  10. Safe and effective one-session fractional skin resurfacing using a carbon dioxide laser device in super-pulse mode: a clinical and histologic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trelles, Mario A; Shohat, Michael; Urdiales, Fernando

    2011-02-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO(2)) laser ablative fractional resurfacing produces skin damage, with removal of the epidermis and variable portions of the dermis as well as associated residual heating, resulting in new collagen formation and skin tightening. The nonresurfaced epidermis helps tissue to heal rapidly, with short-term postoperative erythema. The results for 40 patients (8 men and 32 women) after a single session of a fractional CO(2) resurfacing mode were studied. The treatments included resurfacing of the full face, periocular upper lip, and residual acne scars. The patients had skin prototypes 2 to 4 and wrinkle degrees 1 to 3. The histologic effects, efficacy, and treatment safety in various clinical conditions and for different phototypes are discussed. The CO(2) laser for fractional treatment is used in super-pulse mode. The beam is split by a lens into several microbeams, and super-pulse repetition is limited by the pulse width. The laser needs a power adaptation to meet the set fluence per microbeam. Laser pulsing can operate repeatedly on the same spot or be moved randomly over the skin, using several passes to achieve a desired residual thermal effect. Low, medium, and high settings are preprogrammed in the device, and they indicate the strength of resurfacing. A single treatment was given with the patient under topical anesthesia. However, the anesthesia was injected on areas of scar tissue. Medium settings (2 Hz, 30 W, 60 mJ) were used, and two passes were made for dark skins and degree 1 wrinkles. High settings (2 Hz, 60 W, 120 mJ) were used, and three passes were made for degree 3 wrinkles and scar tissue. Postoperatively, resurfaced areas were treated with an ointment of gentamycin, Retinol Palmitate, and DL-methionine (Novartis; Farmaceutics, S.A., Barcelona, Spain). Once epithelialization was achieved, antipigment and sun protection agents were recommended. Evaluations were performed 15 days and 2 months after treatment by both patients and

  11. Semiconductor quantum-dot lasers and amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Borri, Paola; Ledentsov, N. N.

    2002-01-01

    -power surface emitting VCSELs. We investigated the ultrafast dynamics of quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifiers. The dephasing time at room temperature of the ground-state transition in semiconductor quantum dots is around 250 fs in an unbiased amplifier, decreasing to below 50 fs when the amplifier...... is biased to positive net gain. We have further measured gain recovery times in quantum dot amplifiers that are significantly lower than in bulk and quantum-well semiconductor optical amplifiers. This is promising for future demonstration of quantum dot devices with high modulation bandwidth...

  12. 21 CFR 886.4390 - Ophthalmic laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic laser. 886.4390 Section 886.4390 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4390 Ophthalmic laser. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic laser is an AC-powered device intended to coagulate or cut tissue of the eye, orbit, or surrounding skin...

  13. A comparison of ion beam measurements by retarding field energy analyzer and laser induced fluorescence in helicon plasma devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulbrandsen, N., E-mail: njal.gulbrandsen@uit.no; Fredriksen, Å. [Department of Physics and Technology, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, 9037 Tromsø (Norway); Carr, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States); Department of Physics, Texas Lutheran University, Seguin, Texas 78155 (United States); Scime, E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Both Laser-Induced Fluorescence (LIF) and Retarding Field Energy Analyzers (RFEA) have been applied to the investigation of beams formed in inductively coupled helicon plasmas. While the LIF technique provides a direct measurement of the velocity distribution in the plasma, the RFEA measures ion flux as a function of a retarding potential. In this paper, we present a method to compare the two techniques, by converting the LIF velocity distribution to an equivalent of a RFEA measurement. We applied this method to compare new LIF and RFEA measurements in two different experiments; the Hot Helicon Experiment (HELIX) - Large Experiment on Instabilities and Anisotropies (LEIA) at West Virginia University and Njord at University of Tromsø. We find good agreement between beam energies of the two methods. In agreement with earlier observations, the RFEA is found to measure ion beams with densities too low for the LIF to resolve. In addition, we present measurements of the axial development of the ion beam in both experiments. Beam densities drop exponentially with distance from the source, both in LIF and RFEA measurements. The effective quenching cross section from LIF in LEIA is found to be σ{sub b,*}=4×10{sup −19} m{sup 2}, and the effective beam collisional cross sections by RFEA in Njord to be σ{sub b}=1.7×10{sup −18} m{sup 2}.

  14. Proceedings of the twenty fifth national laser symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    The topics covered in this symposium are: laser materials, devices and components, nonlinear, quantum optics and atomic optics, ultrafast lasers and applications, physics and technology of lasers, lasers in nuclear science and technology, lasers in material science, laser plasma interaction, lasers in industry and defence, lasers in spectroscopy and applications, lasers in chemistry, biology and medicine, laser based instrumentation and electronics and instrumentation for lasers. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  15. Multi-sensors multi-baseline mapping system for mobile robot using stereovision camera and laser-range device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Faisal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Countless applications today are using mobile robots, including autonomous navigation, security patrolling, housework, search-and-rescue operations, material handling, manufacturing, and automated transportation systems. Regardless of the application, a mobile robot must use a robust autonomous navigation system. Autonomous navigation remains one of the primary challenges in the mobile-robot industry; many control algorithms and techniques have been recently developed that aim to overcome this challenge. Among autonomous navigation methods, vision-based systems have been growing in recent years due to rapid gains in computational power and the reliability of visual sensors. The primary focus of research into vision-based navigation is to allow a mobile robot to navigate in an unstructured environment without collision. In recent years, several researchers have looked at methods for setting up autonomous mobile robots for navigational tasks. Among these methods, stereovision-based navigation is a promising approach for reliable and efficient navigation. In this article, we create and develop a novel mapping system for a robust autonomous navigation system. The main contribution of this article is the fuse of the multi-baseline stereovision (narrow and wide baselines and laser-range reading data to enhance the accuracy of the point cloud, to reduce the ambiguity of correspondence matching, and to extend the field of view of the proposed mapping system to 180°. Another contribution is the pruning the region of interest of the three-dimensional point clouds to reduce the computational burden involved in the stereo process. Therefore, we called the proposed system multi-sensors multi-baseline mapping system. The experimental results illustrate the robustness and accuracy of the proposed system.

  16. Laser Propulsion - Quo Vadis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohn, Willy L.

    2008-01-01

    First, an introductory overview of the different types of laser propulsion techniques will be given and illustrated by some historical examples. Second, laser devices available for basic experiments will be reviewed ranging from low power lasers sources to inertial confinement laser facilities. Subsequently, a status of work will show the impasse in which the laser propulsion community is currently engaged. Revisiting the basic relations leads to new avenues in ablative and direct laser propulsion for ground based and space based applications. Hereby, special attention will be devoted to the impact of emerging ultra-short pulse lasers on the coupling coefficient and specific impulse. In particular, laser sources and laser propulsion techniques will be tested in microgravity environment. A novel approach to debris removal will be discussed with respect to the Satellite Laser Ranging (SRL) facilities. Finally, some non technical issues will be raised aimed at the future prospects of laser propulsion in the international community

  17. Polarization Properties of Laser Solitons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Rodriguez

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to summarize the results obtained for the state of polarization in the emission of a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with frequency-selective feedback added. We start our research with the single soliton; this situation presents two perpendicular main orientations, connected by a hysteresis loop. In addition, we also find the formation of a ring-shaped intensity distribution, the vortex state, that shows two homogeneous states of polarization with very close values to those found in the soliton. For both cases above, the study shows the spatially resolved value of the orientation angle. It is important to also remark the appearance of a non-negligible amount of circular light that gives vectorial character to all the different emissions investigated.

  18. Radiation emitting devices regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-01-01

    The Radiation Emitting Devices Regulations are the regulations referred to in the Radiation Emitting Devices Act and relate to the operation of devices. They include standards of design and construction, standards of functioning, warning symbol specifications in addition to information relating to the seizure and detention of machines failing to comply with the regulations. The radiation emitting devices consist of the following: television receivers, extra-oral dental x-ray equipment, microwave ovens, baggage inspection x-ray devices, demonstration--type gas discharge devices, photofluorographic x-ray equipment, laser scanners, demonstration lasers, low energy electron microscopes, high intensity mercury vapour discharge lamps, sunlamps, diagnostic x-ray equipment, ultrasound therapy devices, x-ray diffraction equipment, cabinet x-ray equipment and therapeutic x-ray equipment

  19. Microfluidic Dye Lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Anders; Balslev, Søren; Gersborg-Hansen, Morten

    2006-01-01

    A technology for miniaturized, polymer based lasers, suitable for integration with planar waveguides and microfluidic networks is presented. The microfluidic dye laser device consists of a microfluidic channel with an embedded optical resonator. The devices are fabricated in a thin polymer film...

  20. Pulsed Nd:YAG laser deposition of indium tin oxide thin films in different gases and organic light emitting device applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong, T.Y.; Tou, T.Y.; Yow, H.K.; Safran, G.

    2008-01-01

    The microstructures, electrical and optical properties of indium-doped tin oxide (ITO) films, deposited on glass substrates in different background gases by a pulsed Nd:YAG laser, were characterized. The optimal pressure for obtaining the lowest resistivity in ITO thin film is inversely proportional to the molecular weight of the background gases, namely the argon (Ar), oxygen (O 2 ), nitrogen (N 2 ) and helium (He). While substrate heating to 250 deg. C decreased the ITO resistivity to -4 Ω cm, obtaining the optical transmittance of higher than 90% depended mainly on the background gas pressure for O 2 and Ar. Obtaining the lowest ITO resistivity, however, did not beget a high optical transmittance for ITO deposition in N 2 and He. Scanning electron microscope pictures show distinct differences in microstructures due to the background gas: nanostructures when using Ar and N 2 but polycrystalline for using O 2 and He. The ITO surface roughness varied with the deposition distance. The effects on the molecularly doped, single-layer organic light emitting device (OLED) operation and performance were also investigated. Only ITO thin films prepared in O 2 and Ar are suitable for the fabrication OLED with performance comparable to that fabricated on the commercially available, magnetron-sputtered ITO

  1. A method to obtain the thermal parameters and the photothermal transduction efficiency in an optical hyperthermia device based on laser irradiation of gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez López de Pablo, Cristina; Olmedo, José Javier Serrano; Rosales, Alejandra Mina; Ramírez Hernández, Norma; Del Pozo Guerrero, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Optical hyperthermia systems based on the laser irradiation of gold nanorods seem to be a promising tool in the development of therapies against cancer. After a proof of concept in which the authors demonstrated the efficiency of this kind of systems, a modeling process based on an equivalent thermal-electric circuit has been carried out to determine the thermal parameters of the system and an energy balance obtained from the time-dependent heating and cooling temperature curves of the irradiated samples in order to obtain the photothermal transduction efficiency. By knowing this parameter, it is possible to increase the effectiveness of the treatments, thanks to the possibility of predicting the response of the device depending on the working configuration. As an example, the thermal behavior of two different kinds of nanoparticles is compared. The results show that, under identical conditions, the use of PEGylated gold nanorods allows for a more efficient heating compared with bare nanorods, and therefore, it results in a more effective therapy.

  2. A full time-domain approach to spatio-temporal dynamics of semiconductor lasers. II. Spatio-temporal dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhringer, Klaus; Hess, Ortwin

    The spatio-temporal dynamics of novel semiconductor lasers is discussed on the basis of a space- and momentum-dependent full time-domain approach. To this means the space-, time-, and momentum-dependent Full-Time Domain Maxwell Semiconductor Bloch equations, derived and discussed in our preceding paper I [K. Böhringer, O. Hess, A full time-domain approach to spatio-temporal dynamics of semiconductor lasers. I. Theoretical formulation], are solved by direct numerical integration. Focussing on the device physics of novel semiconductor lasers that profit, in particular, from recent advances in nanoscience and nanotechnology, we discuss the examples of photonic band edge surface emitting lasers (PBE-SEL) and semiconductor disc lasers (SDLs). It is demonstrated that photonic crystal effects can be obtained for finite crystal structures, and leading to a significant improvement in laser performance such as reduced lasing thresholds. In SDLs, a modern device concept designed to increase the power output of surface-emitters in combination with near-diffraction-limited beam quality, we explore the complex interplay between the intracavity optical fields and the quantum well gain material in SDL structures. Our simulations reveal the dynamical balance between carrier generation due to pumping into high energy states, momentum relaxation of carriers, and stimulated recombination from states near the band edge. Our full time-domain approach is shown to also be an excellent framework for the modelling of the interaction of high-intensity femtosecond and picosecond pulses with semiconductor nanostructures. It is demonstrated that group velocity dispersion, dynamical gain saturation and fast self-phase modulation (SPM) are the main causes for the induced changes and asymmetries in the amplified pulse shape and spectrum of an ultrashort high-intensity pulse. We attest that the time constants of the intraband scattering processes are critical to gain recovery. Moreover, we present

  3. The material system (AlGaIn)(AsSb). Properties and suitability for GaSb based vertical-resonator laser diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dier, Oliver

    2008-01-01

    The present thesis studies the particular properties of GaSb-based materials, where they differ from pure arsenides or phosphides, and also the impact of theses properties on long-wavelength vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs). The goal is the first realisation of an electrically pumped VCSEL with a current aperture in this material system. After the basics, which are necessary for the understanding of the physical effects, the special features of antimony-containing materials are discussed with a focus on topics like band-structure, doping issues and miscibility gaps, which are relevant for devices. A VCSEL-structure optimized for long-wavelength applications is presented using an appropriate description of the device in its optical, electrical and thermal properties. A focus of this work is on the growth of laser-structures by molecular beam epitaxy. Annealing studies on this material showed a good prediction of the final wavelength after the temperature step, which is necessary due to the overgrowth of the tunnel-junction. The full-width at half maximum of the low-temperature photoluminescence signal shows a very low value of 3.95 meV for the quaternary active region. By using the type-II-band alignment of GaSb:Si and InAsSb:Si a low-resistive tunneljunction has been realised. After completion of the device processing a strong electroluminescence outside the DBR stopband and resonant modes within the stopband were found. A linear shift of the emission wavelength with temperature of 0.23 nm/K between -11 C and +30 C was found. (orig.)

  4. High brightness diode-pumped organic solid-state laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Zhuang; Mhibik, Oussama; Nafa, Malik; Chénais, Sébastien; Forget, Sébastien, E-mail: sebastien.forget@univ-paris13.fr [Université Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Laboratoire de Physique des Lasers, F-93430, Villetaneuse (France); CNRS, UMR 7538, LPL, F-93430, Villetaneuse (France)

    2015-02-02

    High-power, diffraction-limited organic solid-state laser operation has been achieved in a vertical external cavity surface-emitting organic laser (VECSOL), pumped by a low-cost compact blue laser diode. The diode-pumped VECSOLs were demonstrated with various dyes in a polymer matrix, leading to laser emissions from 540 nm to 660 nm. Optimization of both the pump pulse duration and output coupling leads to a pump slope efficiency of 11% for a DCM based VECSOLs. We report output pulse energy up to 280 nJ with 100 ns long pump pulses, leading to a peak power of 3.5 W in a circularly symmetric, diffraction-limited beam.

  5. Proceedings of national laser symposium (NLS-2000)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallik, Amitav; Srivastava, K.N.; Pal, Suranjan

    2000-01-01

    This proceedings comprise of a series of invited talks on selected topics in lasers and wide range of contributed papers. The main topics are laser physics and research, laser devices and technology, laser materials and spectroscopy, quantum optics, non-linear optics ultra-fast phenomenon, laser produced plasma, high power lasers, laser instrumentation, medical applications and industrial applications of lasers and fiber optics. The papers relevant to INIS Database are indexed separately

  6. Semiconductor-based, large-area, flexible, electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Amit [Knoxville, TN

    2011-03-15

    Novel articles and methods to fabricate the same resulting in flexible, large-area, triaxially textured, single-crystal or single-crystal-like, semiconductor-based, electronic devices are disclosed. Potential applications of resulting articles are in areas of photovoltaic devices, flat-panel displays, thermophotovoltaic devices, ferroelectric devices, light emitting diode devices, computer hard disc drive devices, magnetoresistance based devices, photoluminescence based devices, non-volatile memory devices, dielectric devices, thermoelectric devices and quantum dot laser devices.

  7. Physics of photonic devices

    CERN Document Server

    Chuang, Shun Lien

    2009-01-01

    The most up-to-date book available on the physics of photonic devices This new edition of Physics of Photonic Devices incorporates significant advancements in the field of photonics that have occurred since publication of the first edition (Physics of Optoelectronic Devices). New topics covered include a brief history of the invention of semiconductor lasers, the Lorentz dipole method and metal plasmas, matrix optics, surface plasma waveguides, optical ring resonators, integrated electroabsorption modulator-lasers, and solar cells. It also introduces exciting new fields of research such as:

  8. Lasers in periodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elavarasu, Sugumari; Naveen, Devisree; Thangavelu, Arthiie

    2012-08-01

    Laser is one of the most captivating technologies in dental practice since Theodore Maiman in 1960 invented the ruby laser. Lasers in dentistry have revolutionized several areas of treatment in the last three and a half decades of the 20(th) century. Introduced as an alternative to mechanical cutting device, laser has now become an instrument of choice in many dental applications. Evidence suggests its use in initial periodontal therapy, surgery, and more recently, its utility in salvaging implant opens up a wide range of applications. More research with better designs are a necessity before lasers can become a part of dental armamentarium. This paper gives an insight to laser in periodontics.

  9. The diagnostic accuracy of a laser fluorescence device and digital radiography in detecting approximal caries lesions in posterior permanent teeth: an in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menem, R; Barngkgei, I; Beiruti, N; Al Haffar, I; Joury, Easter

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this in vivo study was to test the diagnostic accuracy of a pen-type laser fluorescence (LFpen) device in detecting approximal caries lesions, in posterior permanent teeth, at the cavitation and non-cavitation thresholds, and compare it with that of digital bitewing radiography. Thirty patients (aged 18-37), who attended the Faculty of Dentistry at Damascus University for a dental examination, were consecutively screened. Ninety approximal surfaces of posterior permanent teeth without frank cavitations, enamel hypoplasia or restorations were selected and examined using the LFpen (DIAGNOdent pen) and digital bitewing radiography. The reference standard was the visual-tactile inspection, after performing temporary tooth separation, using orthodontic rubber rings, placed for 7 days. The status of included approximal surfaces was recorded as intact/sound, with white/brown spots or cavitated. One trained examiner performed all examinations. There were statistically significant differences in LFpen readings between the three types of approximal surface status (P 16 and 8 at the cavitation and non-cavitation thresholds respectively. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy (measured by the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve) were 100, 85 and 95 and 92, 90 and 95% at the cavitation and non-cavitation thresholds respectively. The intra-class correlation coefficient for intra-examiner reliability was 0.95. The diagnostic accuracy of the LFpen was significantly higher than that of digital bitewing radiography (P < 0.001). The LFpen's diagnostic performance was accurate and significantly better than digital bitewing radiography in detecting approximal caries lesions, in posterior permanent teeth.

  10. Novel plasmon nano-lasers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hill, M.T.; Marell, M.J.H.

    2010-01-01

    We will discuss some of the latest developments in metallic and plasmonic nano-lasers. Furthermore we will present our latest results on further miniaturization of electrically pumped plasmonic nano-lasers and also DFB Plasmon mode devices.

  11. Laser beam diagnostics for kilowatt power pulsed YAG laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yi; Leong, Keng H.

    1992-01-01

    There is a growing need for high power YAG laser beam diagnostics with the recent introduction of such lasers in laser material processing. In this paper, we will describe the use of a commercially available laser beam analyzer (Prometec) to profile the laser beam from a 1600 W pulsed Nd:YAG laser that has a 1 mm fiber optic beam delivery system. The selection of laser pulse frequency and pulse width for the measurement is discussed. Laser beam propagation parameters by various optical components such as fibers and lenses can be determined from measurements using this device. The importance of such measurements will be discussed

  12. Tight control of light trapping in surface addressable photonic crystal membranes: application to spectrally and spatially selective optical devices (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letartre, Xavier; Blanchard, Cédric; Grillet, Christian; Jamois, Cécile; Leclercq, Jean-Louis; Viktorovitch, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    Surface addressable Photonic Crystal Membranes (PCM) are 1D or 2D photonic crystals formed in a slab waveguides where Bloch modes located above the light line are exploited. These modes are responsible for resonances in the reflection spectrum whose bandwidth can be adjusted at will. These resonances result from the coupling between a guided mode of the membrane and a free-space mode through the pattern of the photonic crystal. If broadband, these structures represent an ideal mirror to form compact vertical microcavity with 3D confinement of photons and polarization selectivity. Among numerous devices, low threshold VCSELs with remarkable and tunable modal properties have been demonstrated. Narrow band PCMs (or high Q resonators) have also been extensively used for surface addressable optoelectronic devices where an active material is embedded into the membrane, leading to the demonstration of low threshold surface emitting lasers, nonlinear bistables, optical traps... In this presentation, we will describe the main physical rules which govern the lifetime of photons in these resonant modes. More specifically, it will be emphasized that the Q factor of the PCM is determined, to the first order, by the integral overlap between the electromagnetic field distributions of the guided and free space modes and of the dielectric periodic perturbation which is applied to the homogeneous membrane to get the photonic crystal. It turns out that the symmetries of these distributions are of prime importance for the strength of the resonance. It will be shown that, by molding in-plane or vertical symmetries of Bloch modes, spectrally and spatially selective light absorbers or emitters can be designed. First proof of concept devices will be also presented.

  13. Radiation effects in optoelectronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, C.E.

    1977-03-01

    A summary is given of studies on radiation effects in light-emitting diodes, laser diodes, detectors, optical isolators and optical fibers. It is shown that the study of radiation damage in these devices can provide valuable information concerning the nature of the devices themselves, as well as methods of hardening these devices for applications in radiation environments

  14. Oxygen measurement by multimode diode lasers employing gas correlation spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Xiutao; Somesfalean, Gabriel; Chen, Bin; Zhang, Zhiguo

    2009-02-10

    Multimode diode laser (MDL)-based correlation spectroscopy (COSPEC) was used to measure oxygen in ambient air, thereby employing a diode laser (DL) having an emission spectrum that overlaps the oxygen absorption lines of the A band. A sensitivity of 700 ppm m was achieved with good accuracy (2%) and linearity (R(2)=0.999). For comparison, measurements of ambient oxygen were also performed by tunable DL absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) technique employing a vertical cavity surface emitting laser. We demonstrate that, despite slightly degraded sensitivity, the MDL-based COSPEC-based oxygen sensor has the advantages of high stability, low cost, ease-of-use, and relaxed requirements in component selection and instrument buildup compared with the TDLAS-based instrument.

  15. Fundamentals of metasurface lasers based on resonant dark states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Droulias, Sotiris; Technology - Hellas; Jain, Aditya; Koschny, Thomas; Soukoulis, Costas M.; Technology - Hellas; Ames Laboratory and Iowa State University, Ames, IA

    2017-01-01

    Recently, our group proposed a metamaterial laser design based on explicitly coupled dark resonant states in low-loss dielectrics, which conceptually separates the gain-coupled resonant photonic state responsible for macroscopic stimulated emission from the coupling to specific free-space propagating modes, allowing independent adjustment of the lasing state and its coherent radiation output. Due to this functionality, it is now possible to make lasers that can overcome the trade-off between system dimensions and Q factor, especially for surface emitting lasers with deeply subwavelength thickness. In this paper, we give a detailed discussion of the key functionality and benefits of this design, such as radiation damping tunability, directionality, subwavelength integration, and simple layer-by-layer fabrication. Finally, we examine in detail the fundamental design tradeoffs that establish the principle of operation and must be taken into account and give guidance for realistic implementations.

  16. Instrument-independent flux units for laser Doppler perfusion monitoring assessed in a multi-device study on the renal cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petoukhova, AL; Steenbergen, W; Morales, F; Graaff, R; de Jong, ED; Elstrodt, JM; de Mul, FFM; Rakhorst, G

    To investigate the feasibility of instrument-independent perfusion units for laser Doppler flowmetry, a comparison was performed of two commercial fiberoptic laser Doppler perfusion monitors measuring the same flux situation for two different types of probes. In vivo measurements were performed on

  17. Instrument-independent flux units for laser Doppler perfusion monitoring assessed in a multi-device study on the renal cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petoukhova, Anna; Steenbergen, Wiendelt; Morales, F.; Graaff, R.; de Jong, Ed; Elstrodt, J.M.; de Mul, F.F.M.; Rakhorst, G.

    2003-01-01

    To investigate the feasibility of instrument-independent perfusion units for laser Doppler flowmetry, a comparison was performed of two commercial fiberoptic laser Doppler perfusion monitors measuring the same flux situation for two different types of probes. In vivo measurements were performed on

  18. Quantitative assessment of growing hair counts, thickness and colour during and after treatments with a low-fluence, home-device laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen-Petersen, D; Barbet-Pfeilsticker, M; Beerwerth, F

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: At-home laser and intense pulsed-light hair removal continues to grow in popularity and availability. A relatively limited body of evidence is available on the course of hair growth during and after low-fluence laser usage. OBJECTIVES: To assess growing hair counts, thickness and colo...

  19. Combination of a Nd:YAG laser and a liquid cooling device to (Zr53Cu30Ni9Al8)Si0.5 bulk metallic glass welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, H.S.; Chen, H.G.; Jang, J.S.C.; Chiou, M.S.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → A liquid cooling device (LCD) helps to produce a lower initial welding temperature. → A lower initial welding temperature leads to a faster welding thermal cycle (WTC). → A faster WTC produces a crystallization free weld for a laser welded Zr-based BMG. - Abstract: Using pre-selected welding parameters, a crystallization-free weld for (Zr 53 Cu 30 Ni 9 Al 8 )Si 0.5 bulk metallic glass (BMG) was successfully produced by adopting a Nd:YAG pulse laser in combination with a liquid cooling device (LCD). When a LCD was employed, a faster cooling rate and shorter retention time for the crystallization temperature interval were produced, thus, no crystallization was observed in the weld fusion zone (WFZ) or heat affected zone (HAZ). The hardness in those areas did not differ significantly in comparison to the parent material (PM). For the room temperature laser weld (LCD was not employed), HAZ crystallization seemed unavoidable, although no crystallization occurred within the WFZ. The major crystalline phase in the HAZ was identified as Zr 2 Cu. When the precipitates were greater in the crystallized area (i.e., HAZ), cracks were more likely to form, thus, hardness in the area was decreased.

  20. Low Defect Density Substrates and High-Quality Epi-Substrate Interfaces for ABCS Devices and Progress Toward Phonon-Mediated THz Lasers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goodhue, William; Bliss, David; Krishnaswami, Kannan; Vangala, Shivashankar; Li, Jin; Zhu, Beihong

    2005-01-01

    ... has been developing technology for producing low defect density substrates and high-quality epi-substrate interfaces for ABCS device applications as well as developing fabrication and device concepts...

  1. Charge transport and X-ray dosimetry performance of a single crystal CVD diamond device fabricated with pulsed laser deposited electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Rahman, M.A.E.; Abdel-Rahman, M.A.E.; Lohstroh, A.; Bryant, P.; Jayawardena, I.

    2013-01-01

    The deposition of amorphous Carbon mixed with Nickel (C/Ni) as electrodes for a diamond radiation detector using Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) was demonstrated previously as a novel technique for producing near-tissue equivalent X-ray dosimeters based on polycrystalline diamond. In this study, we present the first characterisation of a single crystal CVD diamond sandwich detector (of 80 nm thickness) fabricated with this method, labelled SC-C/Ni. To examine the performance of PLD C/Ni as an electrical contact, alpha spectroscopy and x-ray induced photocurrents were studied as a function of applied bias voltage at room temperature and compared to those of polycrystalline CVD diamond detectors (PC-C/Ni); the spectroscopy data allows us to separate electron and hole contributions to the charge transport, whereas the X-ray data was investigated in terms of, linearity and dose rate dependence, sensitivity, signal to noise ratio, photoconductive gain, reproducibility and time response (rise and fall-off times). In the case of electron sensitive alpha induced signals, a charge collection efficiency (CCE) higher than 90 % has been observed at a bias of -40 V and 100 % CCE at -300 V, with an energy resolution of ∼3 % for 5.49 MeV alpha particles. The hole sample showed very poor spectroscopy performance for hole sensitive signals up to 200 Volt; this inhibited a similar numerical analysis to be carried out in a meaningful way. The dosimetric characteristic show a high signal to noise ratio (SNR) of ∼7.3x10 3 , an approximately linear relationship between the photocurrent and the dose rate and a sensitivity of 4.87 μC/Gy.mm 3 . The photoconductive gain is estimated to around 20, this gain might be supported by hole trapping effects as indicated in the alpha spectroscopy. The observed rise and fall-off times are less than 2 and 0.56 seconds, respectively - and mainly reflect the switching time of the X-ray tube used.The reproducibility of (0.504 %) approaches the value

  2. 21 CFR 884.6200 - Assisted reproduction laser system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assisted reproduction laser system. 884.6200... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6200 Assisted reproduction laser system. (a) Identification. The assisted reproduction laser system is a device...

  3. Double lens device for tunable harmonic generation of laser beams in KBBF/RBBF crystals or other non-linear optic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminski, Adam

    2017-08-22

    A method and apparatus to generate harmonically related laser wavelengths includes a pair of lenses at opposing faces of a non-linear optical material. The lenses are configured to promote incoming and outgoing beams to be normal to each outer lens surface over a range of acceptance angles of the incoming laser beam. This reduces reflection loss for higher efficiency operation. Additionally, the lenses allow a wider range of wavelengths for lasers for more universal application. Examples of the lenses include plano-cylindrical and plano-spherical form factors.

  4. Optical and Electrical Characterization of InGaAsN used for 1.3 µm lasers

    OpenAIRE

    Dumitras, Gheorghe

    2007-01-01

    This work represents a study of the quaternary semiconductor alloy InGaAsN, which is used in quantum-well lasers. The optical part deals with absorption as well as normal and time-resolved photoluminescence. The results of this part are used for the optimization of InGaAsN growth by molecular beam epitaxy for state-of-the-art 1.3 µm Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers (VCSEL). The influence of the thermal annealing on the optical properties of InGaAsN quantum-wells is examined. By means o...

  5. Radiographic film digitizing devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFee, W.H.

    1988-01-01

    Until recently, all film digitizing devices for use with teleradiology or picture archiving and communication systems used a video camera to capture an image of the radiograph for subsequent digitization. The development of film digitizers that use a laser beam to scan the film represents a significant advancement in digital technology, resulting in improved image quality compared with video scanners. This paper discusses differences in resolution, efficiency, reliability, and the cost between these two types of devices. The results of a modified receiver operating characteristic comparison study of a video scanner and a laser scanner manufactured by the same company are also discussed

  6. Laser materials processing with diode lasers

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Lin; Lawrence, Jonathan; Spencer, Julian T.

    1996-01-01

    Laser materials processing is currently dominated by CO2, Nd-YAG and Excimer lasers. Continuous advances in semiconductor laser technology over the last decade have increased the average power output of the devices annualy by two fold, resulting in the commercial availability of the diode lasers today with delivery output powers in excess of 60W in CW mode and 5kW in qasi-CW mode. The advantages of compactness, high reliability, high efficiency and potential low cost, due to the mass producti...

  7. Nanowire Lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Couteau C.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We review principles and trends in the use of semiconductor nanowires as gain media for stimulated emission and lasing. Semiconductor nanowires have recently been widely studied for use in integrated optoelectronic devices, such as light-emitting diodes (LEDs, solar cells, and transistors. Intensive research has also been conducted in the use of nanowires for subwavelength laser systems that take advantage of their quasione- dimensional (1D nature, flexibility in material choice and combination, and intrinsic optoelectronic properties. First, we provide an overview on using quasi-1D nanowire systems to realize subwavelength lasers with efficient, directional, and low-threshold emission. We then describe the state of the art for nanowire lasers in terms of materials, geometry, andwavelength tunability.Next,we present the basics of lasing in semiconductor nanowires, define the key parameters for stimulated emission, and introduce the properties of nanowires. We then review advanced nanowire laser designs from the literature. Finally, we present interesting perspectives for low-threshold nanoscale light sources and optical interconnects. We intend to illustrate the potential of nanolasers inmany applications, such as nanophotonic devices that integrate electronics and photonics for next-generation optoelectronic devices. For instance, these building blocks for nanoscale photonics can be used for data storage and biomedical applications when coupled to on-chip characterization tools. These nanoscale monochromatic laser light sources promise breakthroughs in nanophotonics, as they can operate at room temperature, can potentially be electrically driven, and can yield a better understanding of intrinsic nanomaterial properties and surface-state effects in lowdimensional semiconductor systems.

  8. Proceedings of the twenty fourth DAE-BRNS national laser symposium: abstract book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The topics covered in this symposium are: physics and technology of lasers, lasers in nuclear science and technology, laser materials, devices and components, nonlinear, quantum optics and atomic optics, ultrafast lasers and applications, lasers in material science, laser plasma interaction, lasers in industry and defence, lasers in spectroscopy and applications, lasers in chemistry, biology and medicine, laser based instrumentation and electronics and instrumentation for lasers. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  9. Metallic DFB lasers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marell, M.J.H.; Nötzel, R.; Smit, M.K.; Hill, M.T.; Pozo, J.; Mortensen, M.; Urbach, P.; Leijtens, X.; Yousefi, M.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present our latest results on the design, fabrication and characterization of metal coated DFB lasers. These devices are based on a specialform of the metal-insulator-metal waveguides, which support plasmon gap modes. The distributed feedback provides control over the laser ~

  10. Comparative analysis of bacterial decrease by Er:YAG laser radiation and by a tip mounted on a high-rotation device after remove of carious tissue in dentine: study 'in anima mobile'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blay, Claudia Campos

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze bacterial decrease after removal of carious tissue in dentine by Er:YAG laser, comparing the results with those achieved by using a tip mounted on a high-rotation device. In view of the difficulty of totally eliminating microorganisms from dentine, even after removing all the carious tissue, and since the presence of a smear layer is a proven fact, it would be extremely convenient to eliminate or to achieve better disinfecting of this notoriously contaminated dentine layer, so as to prevent failure of the restoration process in most cases. For this study, we selected 30 pre-molars and molars with caries rated as medium sized and which required restoration treatment. The teeth were divided in two groups, where 15 teeth received conventional treatment (control group - I) and 15 teeth were treated with Er:YAG laser (Kavo Key Laser) (laser group - II). Microbiologic analysis was used in order to determine presence or absence of bacteria. In group I as well as in group II a previous curettage of part of the dentine caries was performed, and the sample was seeded in an Agar culture medium and incubated at 37 deg C for 72 hours, for a quantitative analysis of bacteria colony forming units (c.f.u.) and qualitative bacterial analysis. After this procedure, carious lesions were removed in group I, using a spherical diamond drill mounted on a high rotation tip, followed by cleaning of the cavity with chlorhexidine digluconate at 2%. In group II, an Er:YAG laser emitting a wave length of 2,94 μm, delivering a 250 mJ energy per pulse at a repetition rate of 2 Hz was used for carious tissue removal. Furthermore in group II (laser), the cavity was conditioned by performing a sweeping at all walls of the preparation with the 50/10 fiber (Kavo), in contact mode, using an energy of 60 mJ per pulse at a frequency of 10 Hz. After removing all caries and performing a cleaning operation in both groups, dentine shavings were collected and seeded

  11. Lasers '89

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, D.G.; Shay, T.M.

    1990-01-01

    This book covers the following topics: XUV, X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Lasers, excimer lasers, chemical lasers, nuclear pumped lasers, high power gas lasers, solid state lasers, laser spectroscopy. The paper presented include: Development of KrF lasers for fusion and Nuclear driven solid-state lasers

  12. The material system (AlGaIn)(AsSb). Properties and suitability for GaSb based vertical-resonator laser diodes; Das Materialsystem (AlGaIn)(AsSb). Eigenschaften und Eignung fuer GaSb-basierte Vertikalresonator-Laserdioden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dier, Oliver

    2008-07-01

    The present thesis studies the particular properties of GaSb-based materials, where they differ from pure arsenides or phosphides, and also the impact of theses properties on long-wavelength vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs). The goal is the first realisation of an electrically pumped VCSEL with a current aperture in this material system. After the basics, which are necessary for the understanding of the physical effects, the special features of antimony-containing materials are discussed with a focus on topics like band-structure, doping issues and miscibility gaps, which are relevant for devices. A VCSEL-structure optimized for long-wavelength applications is presented using an appropriate description of the device in its optical, electrical and thermal properties. A focus of this work is on the growth of laser-structures by molecular beam epitaxy. Annealing studies on this material showed a good prediction of the final wavelength after the temperature step, which is necessary due to the overgrowth of the tunnel-junction. The full-width at half maximum of the low-temperature photoluminescence signal shows a very low value of 3.95 meV for the quaternary active region. By using the type-II-band alignment of GaSb:Si and InAsSb:Si a low-resistive tunneljunction has been realised. After completion of the device processing a strong electroluminescence outside the DBR stopband and resonant modes within the stopband were found. A linear shift of the emission wavelength with temperature of 0.23 nm/K between -11 C and +30 C was found. (orig.)

  13. Device Performance and Reliability Improvements of AlGaN/GaN/Si MOSFET Using Defect-Free Gate Recess and Laser Annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-15

    of AlGaN/GaN/Si MOSFET Using Defect-Free Gate Recess and Laser Annealing 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA2386-11-1-4077 5b. GRANT NUMBER Grant AOARD...MOSFET Using Defect-Free Gate Recess and Laser Annealing ”. Under the USAF-Taiwan research program, the partner institution was National Chiao Tung...CHAPTER 1: In Situ Atomic Layer Deposition Half Cycle Study of Al2O3 Growth on AlGaN/GaN - Initial and wet chemical treated AlGaN surfaces were

  14. Key techniques for space-based solar pumped semiconductor lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yang; Xiong, Sheng-jun; Liu, Xiao-long; Han, Wei-hua

    2014-12-01

    In space, the absence of atmospheric turbulence, absorption, dispersion and aerosol factors on laser transmission. Therefore, space-based laser has important values in satellite communication, satellite attitude controlling, space debris clearing, and long distance energy transmission, etc. On the other hand, solar energy is a kind of clean and renewable resources, the average intensity of solar irradiation on the earth is 1353W/m2, and it is even higher in space. Therefore, the space-based solar pumped lasers has attracted much research in recent years, most research focuses on solar pumped solid state lasers and solar pumped fiber lasers. The two lasing principle is based on stimulated emission of the rare earth ions such as Nd, Yb, Cr. The rare earth ions absorb light only in narrow bands. This leads to inefficient absorption of the broad-band solar spectrum, and increases the system heating load, which make the system solar to laser power conversion efficiency very low. As a solar pumped semiconductor lasers could absorb all photons with energy greater than the bandgap. Thus, solar pumped semiconductor lasers could have considerably higher efficiencies than other solar pumped lasers. Besides, solar pumped semiconductor lasers has smaller volume chip, simpler structure and better heat dissipation, it can be mounted on a small satellite platform, can compose satellite array, which can greatly improve the output power of the system, and have flexible character. This paper summarizes the research progress of space-based solar pumped semiconductor lasers, analyses of the key technologies based on several application areas, including the processing of semiconductor chip, the design of small and efficient solar condenser, and the cooling system of lasers, etc. We conclude that the solar pumped vertical cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers will have a wide application prospects in the space.

  15. Organic solid-state lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Forget, Sébastien

    2013-01-01

    Organic lasers are broadly tunable coherent sources, potentially compact, convenient and manufactured at low-costs. Appeared in the mid 60’s as solid-state alternatives for liquid dye lasers, they recently gained a new dimension after the demonstration of organic semiconductor lasers in the 90's. More recently, new perspectives appeared at the nanoscale, with organic polariton and surface plasmon lasers. After a brief reminder to laser physics, a first chapter exposes what makes organic solid-state organic lasers specific. The laser architectures used in organic lasers are then reviewed, with a state-of-the-art review of the performances of devices with regard to output power, threshold, lifetime, beam quality etc. A survey of the recent trends in the field is given, highlighting the latest developments with a special focus on the challenges remaining for achieving direct electrical pumping of organic semiconductor lasers. A last chapter covers the applications of organic solid-state lasers.

  16. Semiconductor-based, large-area, flexible, electronic devices on {110} oriented substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Amit

    2014-08-05

    Novel articles and methods to fabricate the same resulting in flexible, oriented, semiconductor-based, electronic devices on {110} textured substrates are disclosed. Potential applications of resulting articles are in areas of photovoltaic devices, flat-panel displays, thermophotovoltaic devices, ferroelectric devices, light emitting diode devices, computer hard disc drive devices, magnetoresistance based devices, photoluminescence based devices, non-volatile memory devices, dielectric devices, thermoelectric devices and quantum dot laser devices.

  17. [100] or [110] aligned, semiconductor-based, large-area, flexible, electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Amit

    2015-03-24

    Novel articles and methods to fabricate the same resulting in flexible, large-area, [100] or [110] textured, semiconductor-based, electronic devices are disclosed. Potential applications of resulting articles are in areas of photovoltaic devices, flat-panel displays, thermophotovoltaic devices, ferroelectric devices, light emitting diode devices, computer hard disc drive devices, magnetoresistance based devices, photoluminescence based devices, non-volatile memory devices, dielectric devices, thermoelectric devices and quantum dot laser devices.

  18. {100} or 45.degree.-rotated {100}, semiconductor-based, large-area, flexible, electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Amit [Knoxville, TN

    2012-05-15

    Novel articles and methods to fabricate the same resulting in flexible, {100} or 45.degree.-rotated {100} oriented, semiconductor-based, electronic devices are disclosed. Potential applications of resulting articles are in areas of photovoltaic devices, flat-panel displays, thermophotovoltaic devices, ferroelectric devices, light emitting diode devices, computer hard disc drive devices, magnetoresistance based devices, photoluminescence based devices, non-volatile memory devices, dielectric devices, thermoelectric devices and quantum dot laser devices.

  19. Elevation scanning laser/multi-sensor hazard detection system controller and mirror/mast speed control components. [roving vehicle electromechanical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, J.; Yerazunis, S. W.

    1978-01-01

    The electro-mechanical and electronic systems involved with pointing a laser beam from a roving vehicle along a desired vector are described. A rotating 8 sided mirror, driven by a phase-locked dc motor servo system, and monitored by a precision optical shaft encoder is used. This upper assembly is then rotated about an orthogonal axis to allow scanning into all 360 deg around the vehicle. This axis is also driven by a phase locked dc motor servo-system, and monitored with an optical shaft encoder. The electronics are realized in standard TTL integrated circuits with UV-erasable proms used to store desired coordinates of laser fire. Related topics such as the interface to the existing test vehicle are discussed.

  20. Laser-cutting pneumatics

    OpenAIRE

    Groenhuis, Vincent; Stramigioli, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Pneumatic devices require tight tolerances to keep them leak-free. Specialized companies offer various off-the-shelf devices, while these work well for many applications, there are also situations where custom design and production of pneumatic parts are desired. Cost efficiency, design flexibility, rapid prototyping, and MRI compatibility requirements are reasons why we investigated a method to design and produce different pneumatic devices using a laser cutter from acrylic, acetal, and rubb...

  1. Future prospects of laser diodes and fiber lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Ken-ichi

    2000-01-01

    For the next century we should develop new concepts for coherent control of light generation and propagation. Owing to the recent development of ultra fine structures in semiconductor lasers, fiber lasers, and various kinds of waveguide structure, we can make optical devices which control the light propagation artificially. But, the phase locking and phase control of multiple laser oscillators are one of the most important directions of laser science and technology. The coherent summation has been a dream of laser since 1960. Is it possible to solve this old and quite challenging problem for laser science? This is also a very basic concept because the laser action based on the stimulated emission is the process of coherent summation of huge number of photons emitted from individual atoms. In this paper, I discuss the fundamental direction of laser research in the next ten or twenty years. The active optics and laser technology should be combined intrinsically in near future. (author)

  2. Advanced lasers for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krupke, W.F.; George, E.V.; Haas, R.A.

    1979-01-01

    Laser drive systems' performance requirements for fusion reactors are developed following a review of the principles of inertial confinement fusion and of the technical status of fusion research lasers (Nd:glass; CO 2 , iodine). These requirements are analyzed in the context of energy-storing laser media with respect to laser systems design issues: optical damage and breakdown, medium excitation, parasitics and superfluorescence depumping, energy extraction physics, medium optical quality, and gas flow. Three types of energy-storing laser media of potential utility are identified and singled out for detailed review: (1) Group VI atomic lasers, (2) rare earth solid state hybrid lasers, and (3) rare earth molecular vapor lasers. The use of highly-radiative laser media, particularly the rare-gas monohalide excimers, are discussed in the context of short pulse fusion applications. The concept of backward wave Raman pulse compression is considered as an attractive technique for this purpose. The basic physics and device parameters of these four laser systems are reviewed and conceptual designs for high energy laser systems are presented. Preliminary estimates for systems efficiencies are given. (Auth.)

  3. Histologic effects of resurfacing lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Joshua R; Greene, Ryan M; Green, Jeremy B

    2014-02-01

    By utilizing resurfacing lasers, physicians can significantly improve the appearance of sun-damaged skin, scars, and more. The carbon dioxide and erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet lasers were the first ablative resurfacing lasers to offer impressive results although these earlier treatments were associated with significant downtime. Later, nonablative resurfacing lasers such as the neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser proved effective, after a series of treatments with less downtime, but with more modest results. The theory of fractional photothermolysis has revolutionized resurfacing laser technology by increasing the safety profile of the devices while delivering clinical efficacy. A review of the histologic and molecular consequences of the resurfacing laser-tissue interaction allows for a better understanding of the devices and their clinical effects. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  4. Photonic quasi-crystal terahertz lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitiello, Miriam Serena; Nobile, Michele; Ronzani, Alberto; Tredicucci, Alessandro; Castellano, Fabrizio; Talora, Valerio; Li, Lianhe; Linfield, Edmund H.; Davies, A. Giles

    2014-12-01

    Quasi-crystal structures do not present a full spatial periodicity but are nevertheless constructed starting from deterministic generation rules. When made of different dielectric materials, they often possess fascinating optical properties, which lie between those of periodic photonic crystals and those of a random arrangement of scatterers. Indeed, they can support extended band-like states with pseudogaps in the energy spectrum, but lacking translational invariance, they also intrinsically feature a pattern of ‘defects’, which can give rise to critically localized modes confined in space, similar to Anderson modes in random structures. If used as laser resonators, photonic quasi-crystals open up design possibilities that are simply not possible in a conventional periodic photonic crystal. In this letter, we exploit the concept of a 2D photonic quasi crystal in an electrically injected laser; specifically, we pattern the top surface of a terahertz quantum-cascade laser with a Penrose tiling of pentagonal rotational symmetry, reaching 0.1-0.2% wall-plug efficiencies and 65 mW peak output powers with characteristic surface-emitting conical beam profiles, result of the rich quasi-crystal Fourier spectrum.

  5. Laser direct-write and crystallization of FeSi II micro-dot array for NIR light-emitting device application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narazaki, Aiko; Kurosaki, Ryozo; Sato, Tadatake; Kawaguchi, Yoshizo; Niino, Hiroyuki

    2007-02-01

    We printed FeSi II micro-dot array on various kinds of substrates utilizing laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT). An amorphous FeSi II was deposited by sputtering on a transparent plate as a source film. A single KrF excimer laser pulse through a mask-projection system was imaged with a small micrometer-sized grid pattern onto a film/plate interface, resulting in the deposition of FeSi II micro-dot array on a facing substrate with a high number density of 10 4 mm -2. FeSi II in the β crystalline phase is a promising eco-friendly semiconductor because of NIR electroluminescence used for optical networking as well as abundant components reserve on the earth and non-toxicity. However, the β-FeSi II film fabrication generally required high-temperature multi-processes which hamper its integration and performance reproducibility. Using the LIFT of micro-dot array, we succeeded in room-temperature preparation of β-FeSi II. Micro-Raman spectroscopy confirmed the β crystalline phase in the micro-dots deposited on an unheated silica glass substrate. Thus, the LIFT is useful for integrating functional micro-dot array accompanied by the crystallization at lower temperatures.

  6. Laser Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauger, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Describes lasers and indicates that learning about laser technology and creating laser technology activities are among the teacher enhancement processes needed to strengthen technology education. (JOW)

  7. Guidelines on the safety of light-based home-use hair removal devices from the European Society for Laser Dermatology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Town, Graham; Ash, C; Dierickx, C

    2012-01-01

    . These guidelines provide a definition of light-based home-use technology, to inform healthcare professionals about home-use light-based technology and encourage manufacturers wishing to sell in Europe to adopt 'best practice'. The review presents the current status on standards and regulation issues and considers...... home-use safety issues, encompassing human, device and electrical safety, given risks to the eyes and skin from optical radiation both to the consumer and persons in the vicinity. Proposed technical measurement methodology is considered with focus on recognized critical parameters for the safe use...... of light-based hair removal technology including recording the technical performance and safety claims of a range of home-use hair removal devices. The literature review emphasizes potential adverse incidents and safety aspects of treating cosmetic conditions, such as unwanted hair growth. Although some...

  8. Data processing correction of the irising effect of a fast-gating intensified charge-coupled device on laser-pulse-excited spectra

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ondič, Lukáš; Dohnalová, Kateřina; Pelant, Ivan; Žídek, K.; de Boer, W.D.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 81, č. 6 (2010), 063104/1-063104/5 ISSN 0034-6748 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN400100701; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA101120804; GA MŠk LC510; GA AV ČR KJB100100903 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : irising effect * intensifier charge-coupled device Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.598, year: 2010

  9. Bistability in a laser with injected signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorobantu, I.A.; Vlad, V.I.; Ursu, I.

    1987-04-01

    A unified description of bistability is given in free running lasers, optical bistable devices, ring lasers and lasers with an injected signal (LIS). A general review of laser instabilities is also presented in the frame of the theory of elementary catastrophes, emphasizing the apparence of higher order catastrophes in the case of a LIS suggesting thus a possibility to devise from first principles the whole hierarchy of laser instabilities. Experimental results on the bistability in the polarisation of LIS are also discussed. (authors)

  10. An optical laser device for mapping 3D geometry of underwater karst structures: first tests in the Ox BelHa system, Yucatan, Mexico; Un dispositivo laser optico para la cartografia 3D de la geometria de estructuras karsticas submarinas: primeros resultados en el sistema de Ox BelHa, Yucatan, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiller, A.; Renard, P.

    2016-07-01

    In the course of extended hydrological studies in the coastal Karst plain of Yucatan, near the town of Tulum amongst others, a novel laser scanning device was developed and applied for the acquisition of the 3d-geometry of ground water conduits. The method is derived from similar industrial systems and for the first time adapted to the specific measurement conditions in underwater cave systems. The device projects a laser line over the whole perimeter at a certain position. This line represents the intersection of a plane with the cave walls. The line is imaged with a wide angle camera system. Through proper design and calibration of the device it is possible to derive the true scale geometry of the perimeter via special image processing techniques. By acquiring regularly spaced images it is possible to reconstruct the true scale and 3 d-shape of a tunnel through the incorporation of location and attitude data. In a first test in the Ox Bel Ha under-water cave system, about 800 metres of tunnels have been scanned down to water depths of 20 metres. The raw data is further interpolated using the ODSIM-algorithm in order to delineate the 3D geometry of the cave system. The method provides easy, operable acquisition of the 3-D geometry of caves in clear water with superior resolution and speed and significantly facilitates the measurement in underwater tunnels as well as in dry tunnels. The data gathered represents crucial input to the study of the state, dynamics and genesis of the complex karst water regime. (Author)

  11. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT LASER TOUCH AND TECHNOLOGIES, LLC LASER TOUCH MODEL LT-B512

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of Laser Touch model LT-B512 targeting device manufactured by Laser Touch and Technologies, LLC, for manual spray painting operations. The relative transfer efficiency (TE) improved an avera...

  12. GaN-based vertical-cavity laser performance improvements using tunnel-junction-cascaded active regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piprek, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    This Letter investigates the output power enhancement achieved by tunnel junction insertion into the InGaN multi-quantum well (MQW) active region of a 410 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser which enables the repeated use of carriers for light generation (carrier recycling). While the number of quantum wells remains unchanged, the tunnel junction eliminates absorption caused by the non-uniform MQW carrier distribution. The thermal resistance drops and the excess bias lead to a surprisingly small rise in self-heating.

  13. SU-E-J-138: An IGRT QA Device for Measuring with Tenths-Millimeter Accuracy KV and MV Isocenter Congruence, Couch Travel and Laser Alignment of Accelerators Used for SRS and SBRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brezovich, I; Popple, R; Duan, J; Huang, M; Benhabib, S; Shen, S; Cardan, R; Wu, X [University of Alabama Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To develop a practical device having sufficient accuracy for daily QA tests of accelerators used for SRS and SBRT. Methods: The UAB (Universal Alignment Ball) consists of a 6.35 mm (1/4 inch) diameter tungsten sphere located concentrically within a 25.4 mm (1 inch) diameter acrylic plastic (PMMA) sphere. The spheres are embedded in polystyrene foam, which, in turn, is surrounded by a cylindrical PMMA shell. The UAB is placed on the couch and aligned with wall lasers according to marks that have known positions in relation to the center of the spheres. Using planar and cone beam images the couch is shifted till the surface of the PMMA sphere matches Eclipse-generated circular contours. Anterior and lateral MV images taken with small MLC openings allow measurement of distance between kV and MV isocenter, laser and MLC alignment. Measurements were taken over a one-month period. Results: Artifacts from the tungsten sphere were confined within the PMMA sphere and did not affect cone beam localization of the sphere boundary, allowing 0.1 mm precise alignment with a computer-generated circle centered at kV isocenter. In tests extending over a one-month period, the distance between kV and MV isocenters along the vertical, longitudinal and lateral directions was 0.125 +/−0.06, 0.19 +/−0.08, and 0.02 +/−0.08 mm, respectively. Laser misalignment along these directions was 0.34 +/- 0.15, 0.74 +/−0.29, and 0.49 +/−0.22 mm. Automated couch shifts moved the spheres to within 0.1 mm of the selected position. The center of a 1cmx1cm MLC-defined field remained within +/−0.2 mm of the tungsten sphere center as the gantry was rotated. Conclusion: The UAB is practical for daily end-to-end QA tests of accelerator alignment. It provides tenths-mm accuracy for measuring agreement of kV and MV isocenters, couch motions, gantry flex and laser alignment.

  14. Precision alignment device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, N.E.

    1988-03-10

    Apparatus for providing automatic alignment of beam devices having an associated structure for directing, collimating, focusing, reflecting, or otherwise modifying the main beam. A reference laser is attached to the structure enclosing the main beam producing apparatus and produces a reference beam substantially parallel to the main beam. Detector modules containing optical switching devices and optical detectors are positioned in the path of the reference beam and are effective to produce an electrical output indicative of the alignment of the main beam. This electrical output drives servomotor operated adjustment screws to adjust the position of elements of the structure associated with the main beam to maintain alignment of the main beam. 5 figs.

  15. Lasers in endodontics: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frentzen, Matthias; Braun, Andreas; Koort, Hans J.

    2002-06-01

    The interest in endodontic use of dental laser systems is increasing. Developing laser technology and a better understanding of laser effects widened the spectrum of possible endodontic indications. Various laser systems including excimer-, argon+-, diode-, Nd:YAG-, Er:YAG- and CO2-lasers are used in pulp diagnosis, treatment of hypersensitivity, pulp capping, sterilization of root canals, root canal shaping and obturation or apicoectomy. With the development of new delivery systems - thin and flexible fibers - for many different wavelengths laser applications in endodontics may increase. Since laser devices are still relatively costly, access to them is limited. Most of the clinical applications are laser assisted procedures such as the removing of pulp remnants and debris or disinfection of infected root canals. The essential question is whether a laser can provide improved treatment over conventional care. To perform laser therapy in endodontics today different laser types with adopted wavelengths and pulse widths are needed, each specific to a particular application. Looking into the future we will need endodontic laser equipment providing optimal laser parameters for different treatment modalities. Nevertheless, the quantity of research reports from the last decade promises a genuine future for lasers in endodontics.

  16. Laser Resurfacing Pearls

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Sonia; Alam, Murad

    2012-01-01

    Ablative skin resurfacing using the carbon dioxide laser was long considered the gold standard for treatment of photoaging, acne scars, and rhytids. However, conventional full-face carbon dioxide resurfacing is associated with significant risk of side effects and a prolonged postoperative recovery period. Fractional resurfacing has recently revolutionized laser surgery by offering close to comparable results with minimal side effects and a more rapid recovery. Although fractional devices have...

  17. Laser pumped lasers for isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, S.M.

    1976-01-01

    A study of the isotope separation laser requirements reveals that high pressure polyatomic molecular gas laser pumped lasers can attain the necessary characteristics including tunability, energy output, pulse width, and repetition rate. The results of a search, made for molecules meeting the appropriate requirements for one of several pump schemes utilizing a CO 2 laser and with output in the 12 μm or 16μm wavelength range, are presented. Several methods of pumping are reviewed and two novel pump schemes are presented. A laser pumped laser device design is given, and operation of this device and associated diagnostic equipment is confirmed by repeating experiments in OCS and NH 3 . The results of OCS laser experiments show that an improvement in pump rate and output per unit length is obtained with the device, using a wedged transverse pumping scheme. A new multi-line laser system in NH 3 pumped by a TEA CO 2 laser is reported. More than forty transitions spanning the wavelength range of 9.2 to 13.8 μm are observed and identified. A strong output at 12.08 μm is one of the closest lines yet found to the required laser isotope separation wavelength. Far infrared emission near 65 μm is observed and is responsible for populating levels which lase in pure ammonia near 12.3 μm. Buffer gas (e.g., N 2 or He) pressures of approximately 40--800 torr cause energy transfer by collision-induced rotationaltransitions from the pumped antisymmetric to the lasing symmetric levels in the nu 2 = 1 band of ammonia. Most of the observed lines are aP(J,K) transitions which originate from the nu 2 /sup s/ band. Measurements of the pressure dependence of the laser output shows that some lines lase at pressures greater than one atmosphere. Transient behavior of the 12.08 μm line is calculated from a simplified analytic model and these calculations are compared to the experimental results

  18. Fibre Optic Communication Key Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Grote, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    The book gives an in-depth description of the key devices of current and next generation fibre optic communication networks. In particular, the book covers devices such as semiconductor lasers, optical amplifiers, modulators, wavelength filters, and detectors but the relevant properties of optical fibres as well. The presentations include the physical principles underlying the various devices, the technologies used for the realization of the different devices, typical performance characteristics and limitations, and development trends towards more advanced components are also illustrated. Thus the scope of the book spans relevant principles, state-of-the-art implementations, the status of current research and expected future components.

  19. Data processing correction of the irising effect of a fast-gating intensified charge-coupled device on laser-pulse-excited luminescence spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondic, L; Dohnalová, K; Pelant, I; Zídek, K; de Boer, W D A M

    2010-06-01

    Intensified charge-coupled devices (ICCDs) comprise the advantages of both fast gating detectors and spectrally broad CCDs into one device that enables temporally and spectrally resolved measurements with a few nanosecond resolution. Gating of the measured signal occurs in the image intensifier tube, where a high voltage is applied between the detector photocathode and a microchannel plate electron multiplier. An issue arises in time-resolved luminescence spectroscopy when signal onset characterization is required. In this case, the transient gate closing process that causes the detected signal always arises in the middle of the ICCD chip regardless of the spectral detection window--the so-called irising effect. We demonstrate that in case when the detection gate width is comparable to the opening/closing time and the gate is pretriggered with respect to the signal onset, the irising effect causes the obtained data to be strongly distorted. At the same time, we propose a software procedure that leads to the spectral correction of the irising effect and demonstrate its validity on the distorted data.

  20. Laser-driven accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    Several devices for using laser fields have been proposed and they can be classified in three broad categories - 'far-field' accelerators (such as the principle of inverse free electron lasers), 'media' accelerators (which, for example, use the inverse Cherenkov effect or laser-controlled plasma waves), and 'near-field' accelerators (using a loaded guiding structure such as cavities or gratings). These different approaches come from the fact that a particle cannot be accelerated by the absorption of single photons (because of momentum conservation) and thus some other element has to intervene. (orig./HSI).

  1. Simulations of laser undulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton, S. V.; Biedron, S. B.; Einstein, J. E.

    2016-09-01

    We perform a series of single-pass, one-D free-electron laser simulations based on an electron beam from a standard linear accelerator coupled with a so-called laser undulator, a specialized device that is more compact than a standard undulator based on magnetic materials. The longitudinal field profiles of such lasers undulators are intriguing as one must and can tailor the profile for the needs of creating the virtual undulator. We present and discuss several results of recent simulations and our future steps.

  2. Direct laser writing for nanoporous liquid core laser sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossmann, Tobias; Christiansen, Mads Brøkner; Peterson, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    We report the fabrication of nanoporous liquid core lasers via direct laser writing based on two-photon absorption in combination with thiolene-chemistry. As gain medium Rhodamine 6G was embedded in the nanoporous polybutadiene matrix. The lasing devices with thresholds of 19 µJ/mm2 were measured...

  3. Lens Coupled Quantum Cascade Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qing (Inventor); Lee, Alan Wei Min (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Terahertz quantum cascade (QC) devices are disclosed that can operate, e.g., in a range of about 1 THz to about 10 THz. In some embodiments, QC lasers are disclosed in which an optical element (e.g., a lens) is coupled to an output facet of the laser's active region to enhance coupling of the lasing radiation from the active region to an external environment. In other embodiments, terahertz amplifier and tunable terahertz QC lasers are disclosed.

  4. Hybrid fiber-rod laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Raymond J.; Dawson, Jay W.; Messerly, Michael J.; Barty, Christopher P. J.

    2012-12-18

    Single, or near single transverse mode waveguide definition is produced using a single homogeneous medium to transport both the pump excitation light and generated laser light. By properly configuring the pump deposition and resulting thermal power generation in the waveguide device, a thermal focusing power is established that supports perturbation-stable guided wave propagation of an appropriately configured single or near single transverse mode laser beam and/or laser pulse.

  5. Laser-aided plasma diagnostics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donne, A. J. H.; Barth, C. J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper will focus on two types of laser-aided diagnostics: Thomson scattering and laser-induced fluorescence. Thomson scattering is a very powerful diagnostic, which is applied at nearly every magnetic confinement device. Depending on the experimental conditions different plasma parameters can

  6. Transfiguring structural, optical and dielectric properties of cadmium thiourea acetate crystal by the addition of L-threonine for laser assisted device applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Rupali B.; Anis, Mohd; Hussaini, S. S.; Shirsat, Mahendra D.

    2018-03-01

    Present investigation reports the growth of pure and L-threonine (LT) doped cadmium thiourea acetate (CTA) crystals by slow solution evaporation technique followed by structural, optical and dielectric characterization studies. A bulk single crystal of LT-CTA has been grown at temperature 38 °C. The single crystal x-ray diffraction technique has been employed to confirm the structural parameters of pure and LT doped CTA crystals. The increase in optical transparency of LT-CTA crystal was ascertained in the range of 200 to 900 nm using UV-visible spectral analysis. The widened optical band gap of the LT-CTA crystal is found to be 4.7 eV. Pure and doped crystals are subjected to FT-IR analysis to indicate the presence of functional groups quantitatively. Appreciable enhancement in second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency of LT-CTA crystal with reference to parent CTA was confirmed from Kurtz-Perry SHG test (1.31 times of CTA crystal). The assertive influence of LT on electrical properties of grown crystals has been investigated in the temperature range 35 °C-120 °C. Electronic purity and the color centered photoluminescence emission nature of pure and IA-CTA crystals were justified by luminescence analysis. With the aid of single beam Z-scan analysis, the Kerr lensing nonlinearity was identified and the magnitude of TONLO parameters has been determined. The cubic susceptibility (χ3) and figure of merit (FOM) was found to be 4.81 × 10-4esu and 978.35. Results vitalize LT-CTA for laser stabilization systems.

  7. Ho3+-Yb3+ codoped tellurite based glasses in visible lasers and optical devices: Judd-Ofelt analysis and frequency upconversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azam, Mohd; Rai, Vineet Kumar

    2017-04-01

    The optical absorption and frequency upconversion emission in the Ho3+/Yb3+ codoped TeO2-ZnO (TZ), TeO2-ZnO-WO3 (TZW) and TeO2-ZnO-WO3-TiO2 (TZWTi) glasses prepared by melting and quenching method has been studied. Judd-Ofelt theory has been used to calculate the Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters (Ω2, Ω4 and Ω6), transition probabilities, radiative lifetimes, absorption cross sections and the branching ratios. Upconversion (UC) emission bands centered at ∼ 549 nm, ∼658 nm and ∼754 nm are observed upon 980 nm excitation. On codoping with the Yb3+ ions at 3.0 mol% the upconversion emission intensity enhancement of about ∼57 times, ∼342 times and ∼480 times for the green band whereas for the red band arising from the Ho3+ ions it is about ∼71 times, ∼438 times and ∼707 times respectively have been observed. The enhancement observed in the UC emission intensity is explained on the basis of efficient energy transfer from Yb3+ to Ho3+, larger absorption cross section, larger oscillator strengths and increase in the local field corrections factor. The spectroscopic quality factor Ω4/Ω6 has been calculated to get the information about the developed materials for laser applications. The upconversion emission cross section determined on the basis of Judd-Ofelt analysis is found to be maximum for Ho-Yb-TZWTi glass. The nephelauxetic ratio, bonding and covalency parameters have been calculated to know the nature of bonding between the rare earth ions and neighbouring oxygen atoms. The high color purity 83.8% has been reported in the codoped glasses at ∼81.2 W/cm2 pump power density.

  8. Spent fuel container alignment device and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Stewart D.; Chapek, George V.

    1996-01-01

    An alignment device is used with a spent fuel shipping container including a plurality of fuel pockets for spent fuel arranged in an annular array and having a rotatable cover including an access opening therein. The alignment device includes a lightweight plate which is installed over the access opening of the cover. A laser device is mounted on the plate so as to emit a laser beam through a laser admittance window in the cover into the container in the direction of a pre-established target associated with a particular fuel pocket. An indexing arrangement on the container provides an indication of the angular position of the rotatable cover when the laser beam produced by the laser is brought into alignment with the target of the associated fuel pocket.

  9. Sixteenth International Laser Radar Conference, Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mccormick, M.P.

    1992-07-01

    Given here are extended abstracts of papers presented at the 16th International Laser Radar Conference, held in Cambridge, Massachusetts, July 20-24, 1992. Topics discussed include the Mt. Pinatubo volcanic dust laser observations, global change, ozone measurements, Earth mesospheric measurements, wind measurements, imaging, ranging, water vapor measurements, and laser devices and technology

  10. Radiation effects in optoelectronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, C.E.; Wiczer, J.J.

    1984-05-01

    Purpose of this report is to provide not only a summary of radiation damage studies at Sandia National Laboratories, but also of those in the literature on the components of optoelectronic systems: light emitting diodes (LEDs), laser diodes, photodetectors, optical fibers, and optical isolators. This review of radiation damage in optoelectronic components is structured according to device type. In each section, a brief discussion of those device properties relevant to radiation effects is given

  11. Photovoltaic device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reese, Jason A; Keenihan, James R; Gaston, Ryan S; Kauffmann, Keith L; Langmaid, Joseph A; Lopez, Leonardo; Maak, Kevin D; Mills, Michael E; Ramesh, Narayan; Teli, Samar R

    2017-03-21

    The present invention is premised upon an improved photovoltaic device ("PV device"), more particularly to an improved photovoltaic device with a multilayered photovoltaic cell assembly and a body portion joined at an interface region and including an intermediate layer, at least one interconnecting structural member, relieving feature, unique component geometry, or any combination thereof.

  12. Photovoltaic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Jason A.; Keenihan, James R.; Gaston, Ryan S.; Kauffmann, Keith L.; Langmaid, Joseph A.; Lopez, Leonardo C.; Maak, Kevin D.; Mills, Michael E.; Ramesh, Narayan; Teli, Samar R.

    2015-06-02

    The present invention is premised upon an improved photovoltaic device ("PV device"), more particularly to an improved photovoltaic device with a multilayered photovoltaic cell assembly and a body portion joined at an interface region and including an intermediate layer, at least one interconnecting structural member, relieving feature, unique component geometry, or any combination thereof.

  13. Photovoltaic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Jason A.; Keenihan, James R.; Gaston, Ryan S.; Kauffmann, Keith L.; Langmaid, Joseph A.; Lopez, Leonardo C.; Maak, Kevin D.; Mills, Michael E.; Ramesh, Narayan; Teli, Samar R.

    2015-09-01

    The present invention is premised upon an improved photovoltaic device ("PV device"), more particularly to an improved photovoltaic device (10) with a multilayered photovoltaic cell assembly (100) and a body portion (200) joined at an interface region (410) and including an intermediate layer (500), at least one interconnecting structural member (1500), relieving feature (2500), unique component geometry, or any combination thereof.

  14. Semiconductor processing with excimer lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, R.T.; Narayan, J.; Christie, W.H.; van der Leeden, G.A.; Rothe, D.E.; Cheng, L.J.

    1983-01-01

    The advantages of pulsed excimer lasers for semiconductor processing are reviewed. Extensive comparisons of the quality of annealing of ion-implanted Si obtained with XeCl and ruby lasers have been made. The results indicate that irrespective of the large differences in the optical properties of Si at uv and visible wavelengths, the efficiency of usage of the incident energy for annealing is comparable for the two lasers. However, because of the excellent optical beam quality, the XeCl laser can provide superior control of the surface melting and the resulting junction depth. Furthermore, the concentrations of electrically active point defects in the XeCl laser annealed region are 2 to 3 orders of magnitude lower than that obtained from ruby or Nd:YAG lasers. All these results seem to suggest that XeCl lasers should be suitable for fabricating not only solar cells but also the more advanced device structures required for VLSI or VHSIC applications

  15. A hybrid CATV/16-QAM-OFDM visible laser light communication system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Chun-Yu; Li, Chung-Yi; Lu, Hai-Han; Chen, Chia-Yi; Jhang, Tai-Wei; Ruan, Sheng-Siang; Wu, Kuan-Hung

    2014-01-01

    A visible laser light communication (VLLC) system employing a vertical cavity surface emitting laser and spatial light modulator with hybrid CATV/16-QAM-OFDM modulating signals over a 5 m free-space link is proposed and demonstrated. With the assistance of a push-pull scheme, low-noise amplifier, and equalizer, good performances of composite second-order and composite triple beat are obtained, accompanied by an acceptable carrier-to-noise ratio performance for a CATV signal, and a low bit error rate value and clear constellation map are achieved for a 16-QAM-OFDM signal. Such a hybrid CATV/16-QAM-OFDM VLLC system would be attractive for providing services including CATV, Internet and telecommunication services. (paper)

  16. Infrared plasmonic nano-lasers based on Metal Insulator Metal waveguides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hill, M.T.

    2010-01-01

    We will present our latest results on metal-insulator-metal waveguide devices, in particular reducing the dimensions of devices and distributed feedback lasers. Also we will examine potential useful applications for metal nano-lasers.

  17. Pathway to a compact SASE FEL device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dattoli, G.; Di Palma, E.; Petrillo, V.; Rau, Julietta V.; Sabia, E.; Spassovsky, I.; Biedron, S. G.; Einstein, J.; Milton, S. V.

    2015-10-01

    Newly developed high peak power lasers have opened the possibilities of driving coherent light sources operating with laser plasma accelerated beams and wave undulators. We speculate on the combination of these two concepts and show that the merging of the underlying technologies could lead to new and interesting possibilities to achieve truly compact, coherent radiator devices.

  18. Pathway to a compact SASE FEL device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dattoli, G., E-mail: giuseppe.dattoli@enea.it [ENEA – Centro Ricerche Frascati, Via Enrico Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Di Palma, E. [ENEA – Centro Ricerche Frascati, Via Enrico Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Petrillo, V. [Università degli Studi di Milano, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Rau, Julietta V. [Istituto di Struttura della Materia, ISM-CNR, Via del Fosso del Cavaliere, 100-00133 Rome (Italy); Sabia, E.; Spassovsky, I. [ENEA – Centro Ricerche Frascati, Via Enrico Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Biedron, S.G.; Einstein, J.; Milton, S.V. [CSU – Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    2015-10-21

    Newly developed high peak power lasers have opened the possibilities of driving coherent light sources operating with laser plasma accelerated beams and wave undulators. We speculate on the combination of these two concepts and show that the merging of the underlying technologies could lead to new and interesting possibilities to achieve truly compact, coherent radiator devices.

  19. Some characteristics of isotopic separation laser systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pochon, E.

    1988-01-01

    The principle of Laser Isotope Separation (LIS) is simple and based on either selective electronic photoexcitation and photoionization of atomic vapor, or selective vibrational photoexcitation and photodissociation of molecules in the gas phase. These processes, respectively called SILVA (AVLIS) and SILMO (MLIS) in France, both use specific laser systems with wavelengths spanning from infrared to ultraviolet. This article describes briefly some of the characteristics of a SILVA laser system. Following a three-step process, a SILVA laser system is based on dye copper vapor lasers. The pulse dye lasers provide the tunable laser light and are optically pumped by copper vapor laser operating at high repetition rates. In order to meet plant laser system requirements, the main improvements under way relate to copper vapor laser devices the power capability, efficiency, reliability and lifetime of which have to be increased. 1 fig

  20. Magnetically switched power supply system for lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacala, Thomas J. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A laser power supply system is described in which separate pulses are utilized to avalanche ionize the gas within the laser and then produce a sustained discharge to cause the gas to emit light energy. A pulsed voltage source is used to charge a storage device such as a distributed capacitance. A transmission line or other suitable electrical conductor connects the storage device to the laser. A saturable inductor switch is coupled in the transmission line for containing the energy within the storage device until the voltage level across the storage device reaches a predetermined level, which level is less than that required to avalanche ionize the gas. An avalanche ionization pulse generating circuit is coupled to the laser for generating a high voltage pulse of sufficient amplitude to avalanche ionize the laser gas. Once the laser gas is avalanche ionized, the energy within the storage device is discharged through the saturable inductor switch into the laser to provide the sustained discharge. The avalanche ionization generating circuit may include a separate voltage source which is connected across the laser or may be in the form of a voltage multiplier circuit connected between the storage device and the laser.

  1. Photovoltaic conversion of laser energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirn, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    The Schottky barrier photovoltaic converter is suggested as an alternative to the p/n junction photovoltaic devices for the conversion of laser energy to electrical energy. The structure, current, output, and voltage output of the Schottky device are summarized. The more advanced concepts of the multilayer Schottky barrier cell and the AMOS solar cell are briefly considered.

  2. Nanophotonic Devices for Optical Interconnect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Thourhout, D.; Spuesens, T.; Selvaraja, S.K.

    2010-01-01

    We review recent progress in nanophotonic devices for compact optical interconnect networks. We focus on microdisk-laser-based transmitters and discuss improved design and advanced functionality including all-optical wavelength conversion and flip-flops. Next we discuss the fabrication uniformity...... of the passive routing circuits and their thermal tuning. Finally, we discuss the performance of a wavelength selective detector....

  3. Laser semiconductor diode integrated with frequency doubler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tighineanu, I.; Dorogan, V.; Suruceanu, G.

    2003-01-01

    The invention relates to the technology of optoelectronic semiconductor devices and may be used in the production of laser semiconductor diodes integrated with optical nonlinear elements. The laser semiconductor diode integrated with frequency doubler includes a semiconductor substrate, a laser structure with waveguide. metal contacts in the waveguide of the laser structure it is formed a nanostructured field so that the nanostructure provides for the fulfillment of the phase synchronism conditions

  4. 21 CFR 886.1360 - Visual field laser instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Visual field laser instrument. 886.1360 Section 886.1360 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1360 Visual field laser instrument...

  5. See laser testing at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Anatolievich Novikov

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The main problem for laser SEE testing at different temperatures is to determine correlation between laser pulse energy and LET. In the first approximation, LET values with the same laser pulse energy and different temperatures are directly proportional to the absorption coefficient of laser light in a semiconductor. Use of tabulated values could lead to errors and absorption coefficient should be determined for each sensitive volume of device under test (DUT. Temperature dependence of absorption coefficient could be determined using ionization response of DUT in power supply circuit under local laser irradiation. Using this approach a satisfactory correlation of ion and laser SEE test result was observed.

  6. Innovations: laser-cutting nickel-titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickson, T.R.; Moore, B.; Toyama, N. [LPL Systems, Inc., Mountain View, CA (United States)

    2002-07-01

    Laser-cutting is well established as the preferred method for manufacturing many endovascular medical devices. Sometimes laser processing has been poorly understood by nickel-titanium (NiTi) material suppliers, medical device manufacturers, and device designers, but the field has made important strides in the past several years. A variety of sample, nonspecific applications are presented for cutting tubing and sheet stock. Limiting constraints, key considerations, and areas for future development are identified. (orig.)

  7. Plasma devices for focusing extreme light pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, J.; Gonoskov, A.A.; Nakatsutsumi, M.; Nazarov, W.; Quere, F.; Sergeev, A.M.; Yan, X.Q.

    2014-01-01

    Since the inception of the laser, there has been a constant push toward increasing the laser peak intensity, as this has lead to opening the exploration of new territories, and the production of compact sources of particles and radiation with unprecedented characteristics. However, increasing the peak laser intensity is usually performed by enhancing the produced laser properties, either by lowering its duration or increasing its energy, which involves a great level of complexity for the laser chain, or comes at great cost. Focusing tightly is another possibility to increase the laser intensity, but this comes at the risk of damaging the optics with target debris, as it requires their placement in close proximity to the interaction region. Plasma devices are an attractive, compact alternative to tightly focus extreme light pulses and further increase the final laser intensity. (authors)

  8. Current role of resurfacing lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hantash, B M; Gladstone, H B

    2009-06-01

    Resurfacing lasers have been the treatment of choice for diminishing rhytids and tightening skin. The carbon dioxide and erbium lasers have been the gold and silver standards. Despite their effectiveness, these resurfacing lasers have a very high risk profile including scarring, hyperpigmentation and hypopigmentation. Because of these side effects, various practitioners have tried alternative settings for these lasers as well as alternative wavelengths, particularly in the infrared spectrum. These devices have had less downtime, but their effectiveness has been limited to fine wrinkles. As with selective photothemolysis, a major advance in the field has been fractionated resurfacing which incorporates grids of microthermal zones that spares islands of skin. This concept permits less tissue damage and quicker tissue regeneration. Initially, fractionated resurfacing was limited to the nonablative mid-infrared spectrum. These resurfacing lasers is appropriate for those patients with acne scars, uneven skin tone, mild to moderate photodamage, and is somewhat effective for melasma. Importantly, because there is less overall tissue damage and stimulation of melanocytes, these lasers can be used in darker skin types. Downtime is 2-4 days of erythema and scaling. Yet, these nonablative fractionated devices required 5-6 treatments to achieve a moderate effect. Logically, the fractionated resurfacing has now been applied to the CO2 and the Erbium:Yag lasers. These devices can treat deeper wrinkles and tighten skin. Downtime appears to be 5-7 days. The long term effectiveness and the question of whether these fractionated devices will approach the efficacy of the standard resurfacing lasers is still in question. Ultimately either integrated devices which may use fractionated resurfacing, radiofrequency and a sensitizer, or combining different lasers in a single treatment may prove to be the most effective in reducing rhtyides, smoothing the skin topography and tightening the

  9. Sealing device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose

    2013-12-10

    A sealing device for sealing a gap between a dovetail of a bucket assembly and a rotor wheel is disclosed. The sealing device includes a cover plate configured to cover the gap and a retention member protruding from the cover plate and configured to engage the dovetail. The sealing device provides a seal against the gap when the bucket assemply is subjected to a centrifugal force.

  10. Microfluidic Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Yu-Chong (Inventor); Zheng, Siyang (Inventor); Lin, Jeffrey Chun-Hui (Inventor); Kasdan, Harvey L. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Described herein are particular embodiments relating to a microfluidic device that may be utilized for cell sensing, counting, and/or sorting. Particular aspects relate to a microfabricated device that is capable of differentiating single cell types from dense cell populations. One particular embodiment relates a device and methods of using the same for sensing, counting, and/or sorting leukocytes from whole, undiluted blood samples.

  11. Gauging device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qurnell, F.D.; Patterson, C.B.

    1979-01-01

    A gauge supporting device for measuring say a square tube comprises a pair of rods or guides in tension between a pair of end members, the end members being spaced apart by a compression member or members. The tensioned guides provide planes of reference for measuring devices moved therealong on a carriage. The device is especially useful for making on site dimensional measurements of components, such as irradiated and therefore radioactive components, that cannot readily be transported to an inspection laboratory. (UK)

  12. Minimally invasive non-thermal laser technology using laser-induced optical breakdown for skin rejuvenation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habbema, L.; Verhagen, R.; Van Hal, R.; Liu, Y.; Varghese, B.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a novel, minimally invasive laser technology for skin rejuvenation by creating isolated microscopic lesions within tissue below the epidermis using laser induced optical breakdown. Using an in-house built prototype device, tightly focused near-infrared laser pulses are used to create

  13. Fibre optic communication key devices

    CERN Document Server

    Grote, Norbert

    2017-01-01

    The book gives an in-depth description of key devices of current and next generation fibre optic communication networks. Devices treated include semiconductor lasers, optical amplifiers, modulators, wavelength filters and other passives, detectors, all-optical switches, but relevant properties of optical fibres and network aspects are included as well. The presentations include the physical principles underlying the various devices, technologies used for their realization, typical performance characteristics and limitations, but development trends towards more advanced components are also illustrated. This new edition of a successful book was expanded and updated extensively. The new edition covers among others lasers for optical communication, optical switches, hybrid integration, monolithic integration and silicon photonics. The main focus is on Indium phosphide-based structures but silicon photonics is included as well. The book covers relevant principles, state-of-the-art implementations, status of curren...

  14. Laser therapy of muscle injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawood, Munqith S; Al-Salihi, Anam Rasheed; Qasim, Amenah Wala'a

    2013-05-01

    Low-level lasers are used in general therapy and healing process due to their good photo-bio-stimulation effects. In this paper, the effects of diode laser and Nd:YAG laser on the healing process of practically managed skeletal muscle trauma has been successfully studied. Standard impact trauma was induced by using a specially designed mechanical device. The impacted muscle was left for 3 days for complete development of blunt trauma. After that it was irradiated by five laser sessions for 5 days. Two types of lasers were used; 785-nm diode laser and 1.064-nm Nd:YAG laser, both in continuous and pulsed modes. A special electronic circuit was designed and implemented to modulate the diode laser for this purpose. Tissue samples of crushed skeletal muscle have been dissected from the injured irradiated muscle then bio-chemically analyzed for the regeneration of contractile and collagenous proteins using Lowry assay for protein determination and Reddy and Enwemeka assay for hydroxyproline determination. The results showed that both lasers stimulate the regeneration capability of traumatized skeletal muscle. The diode laser in CW and pulsed modes showed better results than the Nd:YAG in accelerating the preservation of the normal tissue content of collagenous and contractile proteins beside controlling the regeneration of non-functional fibrous tissue. This study proved that the healing achieved by the laser treatment was faster than the control group by 15-20 days.

  15. The Newest Laser Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Baek Yeon

    2007-01-01

    This book mentions laser processing with laser principle, laser history, laser beam property, laser kinds, foundation of laser processing such as laser oscillation, characteristic of laser processing, laser for processing and its characteristic, processing of laser hole including conception of processing of laser hole and each material, and hole processing of metal material, cut of laser, reality of cut, laser welding, laser surface hardening, application case of special processing and safety measurement of laser.

  16. BRAKE DEVICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, T.J.

    1959-03-10

    A brake device is described for utilization in connection with a control rod. The device comprises a pair of parallelogram link mechanisms, a control rod moveable rectilinearly therebetween in opposite directions, and shoes resiliently supported by the mechanism for frictional engagement with the control rod.

  17. Multiphoton microscopy in every lab: the promise of ultrafast semiconductor disk lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emaury, Florian; Voigt, Fabian F.; Bethge, Philipp; Waldburger, Dominik; Link, Sandro M.; Carta, Stefano; van der Bourg, Alexander; Helmchen, Fritjof; Keller, Ursula

    2017-07-01

    We use an ultrafast diode-pumped semiconductor disk laser (SDL) to demonstrate several applications in multiphoton microscopy. The ultrafast SDL is based on an optically pumped Vertical External Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (VECSEL) passively mode-locked with a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM) and generates 170-fs pulses at a center wavelength of 1027 nm with a repetition rate of 1.63 GHz. We demonstrate the suitability of this laser for structural and functional multiphoton in vivo imaging in both Drosophila larvae and mice for a variety of fluorophores (including mKate2, tdTomato, Texas Red, OGB-1, and R-CaMP1.07) and for endogenous second-harmonic generation in muscle cell sarcomeres. We can demonstrate equivalent signal levels compared to a standard 80-MHz Ti:Sapphire laser when we increase the average power by a factor of 4.5 as predicted by theory. In addition, we compare the bleaching properties of both laser systems in fixed Drosophila larvae and find similar bleaching kinetics despite the large difference in pulse repetition rates. Our results highlight the great potential of ultrafast diode-pumped SDLs for creating a cost-efficient and compact alternative light source compared to standard Ti:Sapphire lasers for multiphoton imaging.

  18. Ultralow-threshold electrically pumped quantum-dot photonic-crystal nanocavity laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Bryan; Mayer, Marie A.; Shambat, Gary; Sarmiento, Tomas; Harris, James; Haller, Eugene E.; Vučković, Jelena

    2011-05-01

    Efficient, low-threshold and compact semiconductor laser sources are under investigation for many applications in high-speed communications, information processing and optical interconnects. The best edge-emitting and vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers have thresholds on the order of 100 µA (refs 1,2), but dissipate too much power to be practical for many applications, particularly optical interconnects. Optically pumped photonic-crystal nanocavity lasers represent the state of the art in low-threshold lasers; however, to be practical, techniques to electrically pump these structures must be developed. Here, we demonstrate a quantum-dot photonic-crystal nanocavity laser in gallium arsenide pumped by a lateral p-i-n junction formed by ion implantation. Continuous-wave lasing is observed at temperatures up to 150 K. Thresholds of only 181 nA at 50 K and 287 nA at 150 K are observed--the lowest thresholds ever observed in any type of electrically pumped laser.

  19. High power laser downhole cutting tools and systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zediker, Mark S; Rinzler, Charles C; Faircloth, Brian O; Koblick, Yeshaya; Moxley, Joel F

    2015-01-20

    Downhole cutting systems, devices and methods for utilizing 10 kW or more laser energy transmitted deep into the earth with the suppression of associated nonlinear phenomena. Systems and devices for the laser cutting operations within a borehole in the earth. These systems and devices can deliver high power laser energy down a deep borehole, while maintaining the high power to perform cutting operations in such boreholes deep within the earth.

  20. PLASMA DEVICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gow, J.D.; Wilcox, J.M.

    1961-12-26

    A device is designed for producing and confining highenergy plasma from which neutrons are generated in copious quantities. A rotating sheath of electrons is established in a radial electric field and axial magnetic field produced within the device. The electron sheath serves as a strong ionizing medium to gas introdueed thereto and also functions as an extremely effective heating mechanism to the resulting plasma. In addition, improved confinement of the plasma is obtained by ring magnetic mirror fields produced at the ends of the device. Such ring mirror fields are defined by the magnetic field lines at the ends of the device diverging radially outward from the axis of the device and thereafter converging at spatial annular surfaces disposed concentrically thereabout. (AFC)

  1. Dynamically variable spot size laser system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradl, Paul R. (Inventor); Hurst, John F. (Inventor); Middleton, James R. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A Dynamically Variable Spot Size (DVSS) laser system for bonding metal components includes an elongated housing containing a light entry aperture coupled to a laser beam transmission cable and a light exit aperture. A plurality of lenses contained within the housing focus a laser beam from the light entry aperture through the light exit aperture. The lenses may be dynamically adjusted to vary the spot size of the laser. A plurality of interoperable safety devices, including a manually depressible interlock switch, an internal proximity sensor, a remotely operated potentiometer, a remotely activated toggle and a power supply interlock, prevent activation of the laser and DVSS laser system if each safety device does not provide a closed circuit. The remotely operated potentiometer also provides continuous variability in laser energy output.

  2. Development of underwater laser cutting technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Seiichi; Inaba, Takanori; Inose, Koutarou; Matsumoto, Naoyuki; Sakakibara, Yuji

    2015-01-01

    In is desirable to use remote underwater device for the decommissioning work of highly radioactive components such as the nuclear internals from a view point of reducing the ranitidine exposure to the worker. Underwater laser cutting technology has advantages. First advantage in underwater laser cutting technology is that low reaction force during cutting, namely, remote operability is superior. Second point is that underwater laser cutting generates a little amount of secondary waste, because cutting kerf size is very small. Third point is that underwater laser cutting has low risk of the process delay, because device trouble is hard to happen. While underwater laser cutting has many advantages, the careful consideration in the safe treatment of the offgas which underwater laser cutting generates is necessary. This paper describes outline of underwater laser cutting technology developed by IHI Corporation (IHI) and that this technology is effective in various dismantling works in water. (author)

  3. Noise induced stabilization of chaotic free-running laser diode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virte, Martin, E-mail: mvirte@b-phot.org [Brussels Photonics Team, Department of Applied Physics and Photonics, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussel (Belgium)

    2016-05-15

    In this paper, we investigate theoretically the stabilization of a free-running vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser exhibiting polarization chaos dynamics. We report the existence of a boundary isolating the chaotic attractor on one side and a steady-state on the other side and identify the unstable periodic orbit playing the role of separatrix. In addition, we highlight a small range of parameters where the chaotic attractor passes through this boundary, and therefore where chaos only appears as a transient behaviour. Then, including the effect of spontaneous emission noise in the laser, we demonstrate that, for realistic levels of noise, the system is systematically pushed over the separating solution. As a result, we show that the chaotic dynamics cannot be sustained unless the steady-state on the other side of the separatrix becomes unstable. Finally, we link the stability of this steady-state to a small value of the birefringence in the laser cavity and discuss the significance of this result on future experimental work.

  4. Fraxelated radiofrequency device for acne scars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Babar K.; Khokher, Sairah

    2012-09-01

    Acne scars can be improved with various treatments such as topical creams, chemical peels, dermal fillers, microdermabrasion, laser, and radiofrequency devices. Some of these treatments especially lasers and deep chemical peels can have significant side effects such as post inflammatory hyperpigmentation in darker skin types. Fraxelated RF Laser devices have been reported to have lower incidence of side effects in all skin phototypes. Nine patients between ages 18 and 35 of various skin phototypes were selected from a private practice and treated with a RF fraxelated device (E-matrix) for acne scars. Outcomes were measured by physician observation, subjective feedback received by patients, and comparison of before and after photographs. In this small group of patients with various skin phototypes, fraxelated radiofrequency device improved acne scars with minimal side effects and downtime.

  5. Monolithic Rare Earth Doped PTR Glass Laser, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Development of airborne and spaceborne laser systems dictates a number of extremely challenging requirements for such fine optical devices. These requirements...

  6. High-power planar dielectric waveguide lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepherd, D.P.; Hettrick, S.J.; Li, C.; Mackenzie, J.I.; Beach, R.J.; Mitchell, S.C.; Meissner, H.E.

    2001-01-01

    The advantages and potential hazards of using a planar waveguide as the host in a high-power diode-pumped laser system are described. The techniques discussed include the use of proximity-coupled diodes, double-clad waveguides, unstable resonators, tapers, and integrated passive Q switches. Laser devices are described based on Yb 3+ -, Nd 3+ -, and Tm 3+ -doped YAG, and monolithic and highly compact waveguide lasers with outputs greater than 10 W are demonstrated. The prospects for scaling to the 100 W level and for further integration of devices for added functionality in a monolithic laser system are discussed. (author)

  7. High Efficiency Mask Based Laser Materials Processing with TEA-CO2 - and Excimer Laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bastue, Jens; Olsen, Flemmming Ove

    1997-01-01

    In general, mask based laser materials processing techniques suffer from a very low energy efficiency. We have developed a simple device called an energy enhancer, which is capable of increasing the energy efficiency of typical mask based laser materials processing systems. A short review of the ...... line marking with TEA-CO2 laser of high speed canning lines. The second one is manufactured for marking or microdrilling with excimer laser....

  8. Achievement report for fiscal 1999 on research and development of technologies for medical welfare equipment. Chromosome image analysis and diagnosis device with confocal scanning laser microscope; 1999 nendo iryo fukushi kiki gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Kyoshoten laser kenbikyo ni yoru zensenshokutai gazo kaiseki shindan sochi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-05-01

    The device is now satisfactorily capable of all image processing functions (bi-levelling, color deviation, brilliance adjustment, etc.) with the exception the karyotyping function. A substance that emits fluorescence by laser excitation is developed (for labelling the probe). A direct labelling method is studied, in which nucleic acid probes (nucleic acid labelled for chromosomal identification) will prove to be remarkably high in sensitivity. A new fluorescent reagent is synthesized, which is a BHHCT-4-dUTP to act as a nucleic acid probe. It is found that the new substance is superior to the conventional fluorescent substances in terms of stability and that all chromosomes may be forced into hybridization (selective combination of a probe with a peculiar chromosome) when various probes are labelled by this substance. A programing unit is constructed for a chromosomal aberration database. Items needed relative to chromosomes and parameters relative to chromosomal aberration data are appropriately arranged, and conditions to satisfy for their development into a database are studied. A rough design of an interface is complete. (NEDO)

  9. Cerenkov Maser and Cerenkov Laser Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    takes care of the tl1me-sicna~ , Rhas charge collectinc or the diel.,:triz liner causes ... e vau:f00Ś A. u. Ten ;mberI problets of’ beatl Jvnanics...abstraetere~vd its Block 20, It different from. We -. 71 A III. SUPPLEME14TARY NOTES The view, opinions, aind/or findings contained in this report are...ti~o~, ftnauthor(s) and should not be construed as an official Department of the Arr’y Position, j~olicy, or decision, unless so designated by other

  10. Sealing devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulson, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    A sealing device for minimising the leakage of toxic or radioactive contaminated environments through a biological shield along an opening through which a flexible component moves that penetrates the shield. The sealing device comprises an outer tubular member which extends over a length not less than the maximum longitudinal movement of the component along the opening. An inner sealing block is located intermediate the length of the component by connectors and is positioned in the bore of the outer tubular member to slide in the bore and effect a seal over the entire longitudinal movement of the component. The cross-section of the device may be circular and the block may be of polytetrafluoroethylene or of nylon impregnated with molybdenum or may be metallic. A number of the sealing devices may be combined into an assembly for a plurality of adjacent longitudinally movable components, each adapted to sustain a tensile load, providing the various drives of a master-slave manipulator. (author)

  11. Ferroelectric devices

    CERN Document Server

    Uchino, Kenji

    2009-01-01

    Updating its bestselling predecessor, Ferroelectric Devices, Second Edition assesses the last decade of developments-and setbacks-in the commercialization of ferroelectricity. Field pioneer and esteemed author Uchino provides insight into why this relatively nascent and interdisciplinary process has failed so far without a systematic accumulation of fundamental knowledge regarding materials and device development.Filling the informational void, this collection of information reviews state-of-the-art research and development trends reflecting nano and optical technologies, environmental regulat

  12. SOR/72-43 Radiation Emitting Devices Regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1972-01-01

    These Regulations of 10 February 1972, supplemented by SOR/77-895, lay down the classes of radiation emitting devices for the purposes of the Radiation Emitting Devices Act. They lay down their standards of design and construction and warning sign specifications and provide for the procedure to be followed by inspectors of such devices. The devices include inter alia extra-oral dental x-ray equipment, baggage inspection x-ray devices, laser scanners, television receivers. (NEA)

  13. The application of cost-effective lasers in coherent UDWDM-OFDM-PON aided by effective phase noise suppression methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yue; Yang, Chuanchuan; Yang, Feng; Li, Hongbin

    2014-03-24

    Digital coherent passive optical network (PON), especially the coherent orthogonal frequency division multiplexing PON (OFDM-PON), is a strong candidate for the 2nd-stage-next-generation PON (NG-PON2). As is known, OFDM is very sensitive to the laser phase noise which severely limits the application of the cost-effective distributed feedback (DFB) lasers and more energy-efficient vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSEL) in the coherent OFDM-PON. The current long-reach coherent OFDM-PON experiments always choose the expensive external cavity laser (ECL) as the optical source for its narrow linewidth (usuallyOFDM-PON and study the possibility of the application of the DFB lasers and VCSEL in coherent OFDM-PON. A typical long-reach coherent ultra dense wavelength division multiplexing (UDWDM) OFDM-PON has been set up. The numerical results prove that the OBE method can stand severe phase noise of the lasers in this architecture and the DFB lasers as well as VCSEL can be used in coherent OFDM-PON. In this paper, we have also analyzed the performance of the RF-pilot-aided (RFP) phase noise suppression method in coherent OFDM-PON.

  14. Preliminary clinical results with the ISL laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppeler, Thomas; Gloor, Balder

    1992-08-01

    The ISL laser (Intelligent Surgical Lasers, Inc.), a Nd:YLF picosecond pulse laser, is currently being used under investigational device exemption to perform microsurgery of the anterior segment of the eye. At different study sites procedures for cataract fragmentation and iridotomy, as well as for posterior capsulotomy after cataract surgery, are under evaluation. Other potential applications include: sclerostomy ab interno, the cutting of membranes in the anterior and posterior segment of the eye; corneal incisions; and corneal intrastromal effects. We discuss various clinically relevant aspects of the use of this picosecond laser. An overview of different computer controlled laser patterns is given.

  15. Silicon photonics fundamentals and devices

    CERN Document Server

    Deen, M Jamal

    2012-01-01

    The creation of affordable high speed optical communications using standard semiconductor manufacturing technology is a principal aim of silicon photonics research. This would involve replacing copper connections with optical fibres or waveguides, and electrons with photons. With applications such as telecommunications and information processing, light detection, spectroscopy, holography and robotics, silicon photonics has the potential to revolutionise electronic-only systems. Providing an overview of the physics, technology and device operation of photonic devices using exclusively silicon and related alloys, the book includes: * Basic Properties of Silicon * Quantum Wells, Wires, Dots and Superlattices * Absorption Processes in Semiconductors * Light Emitters in Silicon * Photodetectors , Photodiodes and Phototransistors * Raman Lasers including Raman Scattering * Guided Lightwaves * Planar Waveguide Devices * Fabrication Techniques and Material Systems Silicon Photonics: Fundamentals and Devices outlines ...

  16. Fs-laser processing of polydimethylsiloxane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atanasov, Petar A., E-mail: paatanas@ie.bas.bg; Nedyalkov, Nikolay N. [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tsarigradsko Shose, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Valova, Eugenia I.; Georgieva, Zhenya S.; Armyanov, Stefan A.; Kolev, Konstantin N. [Rostislaw Kaischew Institute of Physical Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Block 11, Sofia 1113 (Bulgaria); Amoruso, Salvatore; Wang, Xuan; Bruzzese, Ricardo [CNR-SPIN, Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Complesso Universitario di Monte S. Angelo, Via Cintia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Sawczak, Miroslaw; Śliwiński, Gerard [Photophysics Department, The Szewalski Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences, 14 Fiszera St, 80-231 Gdańsk (Poland)

    2014-07-14

    We present an experimental analysis on surface structuring of polydimethylsiloxane films with UV (263 nm) femtosecond laser pulses, in air. Laser processed areas are analyzed by optical microscopy, SEM, and μ-Raman spectroscopy. The laser-treated sample shows the formation of a randomly nanostructured surface morphology. μ-Raman spectra, carried out at both 514 and 785 nm excitation wavelengths, prior and after laser treatment allow evidencing the changes in the sample structure. The influence of the laser fluence on the surface morphology is studied. Finally, successful electro-less metallization of the laser-processed sample is achieved, even after several months from the laser-treatment contrary to previous observation with nanosecond pulses. Our findings address the effectiveness of fs-laser treatment and chemical metallization of polydimethylsiloxane films with perspective technological interest in micro-fabrication devices for MEMS and nano-electromechanical systems.

  17. Collective processing device for spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irie, Hiroaki; Taniguchi, Noboru.

    1996-01-01

    The device of the present invention comprises a sealing vessel, a transporting device for transporting spent fuels to the sealing vessel, a laser beam cutting device for cutting the transported spent fuels, a dissolving device for dissolving the cut spent fuels, and a recovering device for recovering radioactive materials from the spent fuels during processing. Reprocessing treatments comprising each processing of dismantling, shearing and dissolving are conducted in the sealing vessel can ensure a sealing barrier for the radioactive materials (fissionable products and heavy nuclides). Then, since spent fuels can be processed in a state of assemblies, and the spent fuels are easily placed in the sealing vessel, operation efficiency is improved, as well as operation cost is saved. Further, since the spent fuels can be cut by a remote laser beam operation, there can be prevented operator's exposure due to radioactive materials released from the spent fuels during cutting operation. (T.M.)

  18. Photonic devices prepared by embossing in PDMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jandura, D., E-mail: jandura@fyzika.uniza.sk; Pudis, D.; Berezina, S.

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Fabrication technology of photonic devices based on embossing in PDMS is presented. • Analysis of morphological properties of prepared devices in PDMS by CLSM and AFM. • Spectral characterization of PDMS ring resonator proved the resonator functionality. - Abstract: In this paper, we present useful technique for fabrication of novel photonic devices created in the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). We use combination of direct laser writing in thin photoresist layer with embossing process of liquid PDMS. We prepared ring resonator and Mach-Zehnder interferometer in PDMS. The shape of prepared PDMS photonic devices was analyzed by confocal laser microscope and atomic force microscope. Optical characterization of these devices reveals extinction ratios of up to 20 dB.

  19. Laser resurfacing pearls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sonia; Alam, Murad

    2012-08-01

    Ablative skin resurfacing using the carbon dioxide laser was long considered the gold standard for treatment of photoaging, acne scars, and rhytids. However, conventional full-face carbon dioxide resurfacing is associated with significant risk of side effects and a prolonged postoperative recovery period. Fractional resurfacing has recently revolutionized laser surgery by offering close to comparable results with minimal side effects and a more rapid recovery. Although fractional devices have grown in popularity, and have essentially replaced traditional resurfacing, fractional resurfacing can still be a challenging modality to control precisely due to hardware variations across comparable devices, the range of settings that can be used, and patient-specific considerations. Certain precautions and rules of thumb can reduce the risk associated with fractional resurfacing, and increase the likelihood of a good outcome.

  20. Improving Reliability of High Power Quasi-CW Laser Diode Arrays for Pumping Solid State Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amzajerdian, Farzin; Meadows, Byron L.; Baker, Nathaniel R.; Barnes, Bruce W.; Baggott, Renee S.; Lockard, George E.; Singh, Upendra N.; Kavaya, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    Most Lidar applications rely on moderate to high power solid state lasers to generate the required transmitted pulses. However, the reliability of solid state lasers, which can operate autonomously over long periods, is constrained by their laser diode pump arrays. Thermal cycling of the active regions is considered the primary reason for rapid degradation of the quasi-CW high power laser diode arrays, and the excessive temperature rise is the leading suspect in premature failure. The thermal issues of laser diode arrays are even more drastic for 2-micron solid state lasers which require considerably longer pump pulses compared to the more commonly used pump arrays for 1-micron lasers. This paper describes several advanced packaging techniques being employed for more efficient heat removal from the active regions of the laser diode bars. Experimental results for several high power laser diode array devices will be reported and their performance when operated at long pulsewidths of about 1msec will be described.