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Sample records for surface-coated hierarchically nanoporous

  1. Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS)-Loaded Nanoporous Polymer as Anti-Biofilm Surface Coating Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Li; Molin, Søren; Yang, Liang

    2013-01-01

    -b-polydimethylsiloxane (1,2-PB-b-PDMS) block copolymer via chemical cross-linking of the 1,2-PB block followed by quantitative removal of the PDMS block. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was loaded into the nanoporous 1,2-PB from aqueous solution. The SDS-loaded nanoporous polymer films were shown to block bacterial attachment...

  2. Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS-Loaded Nanoporous Polymer as Anti-Biofilm Surface Coating Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokol Ndoni

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Biofilms cause extensive damage to industrial settings. Thus, it is important to improve the existing techniques and develop new strategies to prevent bacterial biofilm formation. In the present study, we have prepared nanoporous polymer films from a self-assembled 1,2-polybutadiene-b-polydimethylsiloxane (1,2-PB-b-PDMS block copolymer via chemical cross-linking of the 1,2-PB block followed by quantitative removal of the PDMS block. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS was loaded into the nanoporous 1,2-PB from aqueous solution. The SDS-loaded nanoporous polymer films were shown to block bacterial attachment in short-term (3 h and significantly reduce biofilm formation in long-term (1 week by gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli. Tuning the thickness or surface morphology of the nanoporous polymer films allowed to extent the anti-biofilm capability.

  3. Final Report of Optimization Algorithms for Hierarchical Problems, with Applications to Nanoporous Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, Stephen G.

    2013-11-11

    The research focuses on the modeling and optimization of nanoporous materials. In systems with hierarchical structure that we consider, the physics changes as the scale of the problem is reduced and it can be important to account for physics at the fine level to obtain accurate approximations at coarser levels. For example, nanoporous materials hold promise for energy production and storage. A significant issue is the fabrication of channels within these materials to allow rapid diffusion through the material. One goal of our research is to apply optimization methods to the design of nanoporous materials. Such problems are large and challenging, with hierarchical structure that we believe can be exploited, and with a large range of important scales, down to atomistic. This requires research on large-scale optimization for systems that exhibit different physics at different scales, and the development of algorithms applicable to designing nanoporous materials for many important applications in energy production, storage, distribution, and use. Our research has two major research thrusts. The first is hierarchical modeling. We plan to develop and study hierarchical optimization models for nanoporous materials. The models have hierarchical structure, and attempt to balance the conflicting aims of model fidelity and computational tractability. In addition, we analyze the general hierarchical model, as well as the specific application models, to determine their properties, particularly those properties that are relevant to the hierarchical optimization algorithms. The second thrust was to develop, analyze, and implement a class of hierarchical optimization algorithms, and apply them to the hierarchical models we have developed. We adapted and extended the optimization-based multigrid algorithms of Lewis and Nash to the optimization models exemplified by the hierarchical optimization model. This class of multigrid algorithms has been shown to be a powerful tool for

  4. Hierarchically Nanoporous Bioactive Glasses for High Efficiency Immobilization of Enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, W.; Min, D.D.; Zhang, X.D.

    2014-01-01

    Bioactive glasses with hierarchical nanoporosity and structures have been heavily involved in immobilization of enzymes. Because of meticulous design and ingenious hierarchical nanostructuration of porosities from yeast cell biotemplates, hierarchically nanostructured porous bioactive glasses can...... and products of catalytic reactions can freely diffuse through open mesopores (2–40 nm). The formation mechanism of hierarchically structured porous bioactive glasses, the immobilization mechanism of enzyme and the catalysis mechanism of immobilized enzyme are then discussed. The novel nanostructure...

  5. Hierarchical nanoporous metals as a path toward the ultimate three-dimensional functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Takeshi

    2017-01-01

    Nanoporous metals prepared via dealloying or selective leaching of solid solution alloys and compounds represent an emerging class of materials. They possess a three-dimensional (3D) structure of randomly interpenetrating ligaments/nanopores with sizes between 5 nm and several tens of micrometers, which can be tuned by varying their preparation conditions (such as dealloying time and temperature) or additional thermal coarsening. As compared to other nanostructured materials, nanoporous metals have many advantages, including their bicontinuous structure, tunable pore sizes, bulk form, good electrical conductivity, and high structural stability. Therefore, nanoporous metals represent ideal 3D materials with versatile functionality, which can be utilized in various fields. In this review, we describe the recent applications of nanoporous metals in molecular detection, catalysis, 3D graphene synthesis, hierarchical pore formation, and additive manufacturing (3D printing) together with our own achievements in these areas. Finally, we discuss possible ways of realizing the ultimate 3D functionality beyond the scope of nanoporous metals.

  6. Renewable Wood Pulp Paper Reactor with Hierarchical Micro/Nanopores for Continuous-Flow Nanocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Hirotaka; Namba, Naoko; Takahashi, Tsukasa; Nogi, Masaya; Nishina, Yuta

    2017-06-22

    Continuous-flow nanocatalysis based on metal nanoparticle catalyst-anchored flow reactors has recently provided an excellent platform for effective chemical manufacturing. However, there has been limited progress in porous structure design and recycling systems for metal nanoparticle-anchored flow reactors to create more efficient and sustainable catalytic processes. In this study, traditional paper is used for a highly efficient, recyclable, and even renewable flow reactor by tailoring the ultrastructures of wood pulp. The "paper reactor" offers hierarchically interconnected micro- and nanoscale pores, which can act as convective-flow and rapid-diffusion channels, respectively, for efficient access of reactants to metal nanoparticle catalysts. In continuous-flow, aqueous, room-temperature catalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol, a gold nanoparticle (AuNP)-anchored paper reactor with hierarchical micro/nanopores provided higher reaction efficiency than state-of-the-art AuNP-anchored flow reactors. Inspired by traditional paper materials, successful recycling and renewal of AuNP-anchored paper reactors were also demonstrated while high reaction efficiency was maintained. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  7. Hierarchical nanoporous platinum-copper alloy for simultaneous electrochemical determination of ascorbic acid, dopamine, and uric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Dianyun; Fan, Dawei; Wang, Jinping; Xu, Caixia

    2015-01-01

    A hierarchical nanoporous PtCu alloy was fabricated by two-step dealloying of a PtCuAl precursor alloy followed by annealing. The new alloy possesses interconnected hierarchical network architecture with bimodal distributions of ligaments and pores. It exhibits high electrochemical activity towards the oxidation of ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA), and uric acid (UA) at working potentials of 0.32, 0.47 and 0.61 V (vs. a mercury sulfate reference electrode), respectively. The new alloy was placed on a glassy carbon electrode and then displayed a wide linear response to AA, DA, and UA in the concentration ranges from 25 to 800 μM, 4 to 20 μM, and 10 to 70 μM, respectively. The lower detection limits are 17.5 μM, 2.8 µM and 5.7 μM at an S/N ratio of 3. (author)

  8. A three-dimensional hierarchical nanoporous PdCu alloy for enhanced electrocatalysis and biosensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Aihua; Geng Haoran; Xu Caixia; Qiu Huajun

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Nanotubular mesoporous PdCu (NM-PdCu) alloy is facilely fabricated via one-step metal replacement reaction between nanoporous Cu and H 2 PdCl 4 . → The NM-PdCu exhibits remarkably improved structure stability and electrocatalytic activity towards formic acid and hydrogen peroxide oxidation compared with NP-Pd. → When coupled with GOx, the GOx/NM-PdCu electrode can be used for sensitive detection of glucose over a wide concentration range. - Abstract: Nanoporous copper (NPC) obtained by dealloying CuAl alloy is used as both three-dimensional template and reducing agent for the fabrication of nanoporous PdCu alloy with hollow ligaments by a simple galvanic replacement reaction with H 2 PdCl 4 aqueous solution. Electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction characterizations demonstrate that after the replacement reaction, the ligaments become hollow tubular structure and the ligament shell is also comprised of small pores and nanoparticles with a typical size of ∼4 nm (third order porosity). The as-prepared nanotubular mesoporous PdCu alloy (NM-PdCu) structure exhibits remarkably improved electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of formic acid and H 2 O 2 compared with nanoporous Pd (NP-Pd), and can be used for sensitive electrochemical sensing applications. After coupled with glucose oxidase (GOx), the enzyme modified NM-PdCu electrode can sensitively detect glucose over a wide linear range (0.5-20 mM).

  9. A three-dimensional hierarchical nanoporous PdCu alloy for enhanced electrocatalysis and biosensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Aihua [Laboratory for Nanobioelectronics and Biosensors, Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, and Key Laboratory for Biofuels, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266101 (China); Geng Haoran [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China); Xu Caixia, E-mail: chm_xucx@ujn.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China); Qiu Huajun, E-mail: qiuhuajun@gmail.com [Laboratory for Nanobioelectronics and Biosensors, Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, and Key Laboratory for Biofuels, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266101 (China)

    2011-10-10

    Highlights: {yields} Nanotubular mesoporous PdCu (NM-PdCu) alloy is facilely fabricated via one-step metal replacement reaction between nanoporous Cu and H{sub 2}PdCl{sub 4}. {yields} The NM-PdCu exhibits remarkably improved structure stability and electrocatalytic activity towards formic acid and hydrogen peroxide oxidation compared with NP-Pd. {yields} When coupled with GOx, the GOx/NM-PdCu electrode can be used for sensitive detection of glucose over a wide concentration range. - Abstract: Nanoporous copper (NPC) obtained by dealloying CuAl alloy is used as both three-dimensional template and reducing agent for the fabrication of nanoporous PdCu alloy with hollow ligaments by a simple galvanic replacement reaction with H{sub 2}PdCl{sub 4} aqueous solution. Electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction characterizations demonstrate that after the replacement reaction, the ligaments become hollow tubular structure and the ligament shell is also comprised of small pores and nanoparticles with a typical size of {approx}4 nm (third order porosity). The as-prepared nanotubular mesoporous PdCu alloy (NM-PdCu) structure exhibits remarkably improved electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of formic acid and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} compared with nanoporous Pd (NP-Pd), and can be used for sensitive electrochemical sensing applications. After coupled with glucose oxidase (GOx), the enzyme modified NM-PdCu electrode can sensitively detect glucose over a wide linear range (0.5-20 mM).

  10. Hierarchically structured nanoporous carbon tubes for high pressure carbon dioxide adsorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Patzsch

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Mesoscopic, nanoporous carbon tubes were synthesized by a combination of the Stoeber process and the use of electrospun macrosized polystyrene fibres as structure directing templates. The obtained carbon tubes have a macroporous nature characterized by a thick wall structure and a high specific surface area of approximately 500 m²/g resulting from their micro- and mesopores. The micropore regime of the carbon tubes is composed of turbostratic graphitic areas observed in the microstructure. The employed templating process was also used for the synthesis of silicon carbide tubes. The characterization of all porous materials was performed by nitrogen adsorption at 77 K, Raman spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA, scanning electron microscopy (SEM as well as transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The adsorption of carbon dioxide on the carbon tubes at 25 °C at pressures of up to 30 bar was studied using a volumetric method. At 26 bar, an adsorption capacity of 4.9 mmol/g was observed. This is comparable to the adsorption capacity of molecular sieves and vertically aligned carbon nanotubes. The high pressure adsorption process of CO2 was found to irreversibly change the microporous structure of the carbon tubes.

  11. PS-b-PMMA/PLA blends for nanoporous templates with hierarchical and tunable pore size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thi-Hoa; Vayer, Marylène; Sinturel, Christophe

    2018-01-01

    Blends of poly(styrene)-block-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PS-b-PMMA) and poly(lactide) (PLA) were deposited in the form of thin films on the surface of modified silicon wafers and exposed to tetrahydrofuran (THF) vapor annealing. It was shown that in specific experimental conditions, a core-shell morphology consisting in cylinders with a PMMA shell and a PLA core, within a continuous matrix of PS, was formed. In this case, PLA naturally segregated in the core of the PMMA cylinders, minimizing the PS/PLA interaction, which constitutes the most incompatible pair (the interaction strength between the various components was confirmed in thin films of the corresponding polymer blends). Compared to other block copolymer/homopolymer blends described in the literature, this system exhibits unexpected high increase of the characteristic lengths of the system (center-to-center distance and diameter). This was attributed to a partial solubilization of the PLA in the PMMA corona (the two polymers are highly compatible), inducing an enhanced level of PS and PLA stretching caused by the strong repulsion between these two polymers. The selective extraction of the PLA yielded to porous domains with small dimensions (6 ± 2.5 nm), reaching the performances that are currently attained in highly incompatible block polymers with low molecular weight. Further PMMA removal revealed a second porosity level, with higher pores diameter and center-to-center distance compared to the neat PS-b-PMMA system. This work highlights how PS-b-PMMA, that currently represents one of the industrial standards nanoporous template precursors, can be modified in an easy and costless approach using PLA homopolymer addition.

  12. Electron curing of surface coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nablo, S.V.

    1974-01-01

    The technical development of electron curing of surface coatings has received great impetus since 1970 from dramatic changes in the economics of the conventional thermal process. The most important of these changes are reviewed, including: the Clear Air Act, increasing cost and restrictive allocation of energy, decreased availability and increased costs of solvents, competitive pressure for higher line productivity. The principles of free-radical initiated curing as they pertain to industrial coatings are reviewed. Although such electron initiated processes have been under active development for at least two decades, high volume production applications on an industrial scale have only recently appeared. These installations are surveyed with emphasis on the developments in machinery and coatings which have made this possible. The most significant economic advantages of electron curing are presented. In particular, the ability of electron curing to eliminate substrate damage and to eliminate the curing station (oven) as the pacing element for most industrial surface coating curing applications is discussed. Examples of several new processes of particular interest in the textile industry are reviewed, including the curing of transfer cast urethane films, flock adhesives, and graftable surface finishes

  13. Surface Coating of Plastic Parts for Business Machines (Industrial Surface Coating): New Source Performance Standards (NSPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn more about the new source performance standards (NSPS) for surface coating of plastic parts for business machines by reading the rule summary and history and finding the code of federal regulations as well as related rules.

  14. Hierarchically structured, nitrogen-doped carbon membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hong; Wu, Tao

    2017-01-01

    The present invention is a structure, method of making and method of use for a novel macroscopic hierarchically structured, nitrogen-doped, nano-porous carbon membrane (HNDCMs) with asymmetric and hierarchical pore architecture that can be produced

  15. Optimized nanoporous materials.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, Paul V. (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL); Langham, Mary Elizabeth; Jacobs, Benjamin W.; Ong, Markus D.; Narayan, Roger J. (North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC); Pierson, Bonnie E. (North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC); Gittard, Shaun D. (North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC); Robinson, David B.; Ham, Sung-Kyoung (Korea Basic Science Institute, Gangneung, South Korea); Chae, Weon-Sik (Korea Basic Science Institute, Gangneung, South Korea); Gough, Dara V. (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL); Wu, Chung-An Max; Ha, Cindy M.; Tran, Kim L.

    2009-09-01

    Nanoporous materials have maximum practical surface areas for electrical charge storage; every point in an electrode is within a few atoms of an interface at which charge can be stored. Metal-electrolyte interfaces make best use of surface area in porous materials. However, ion transport through long, narrow pores is slow. We seek to understand and optimize the tradeoff between capacity and transport. Modeling and measurements of nanoporous gold electrodes has allowed us to determine design principles, including the fact that these materials can deplete salt from the electrolyte, increasing resistance. We have developed fabrication techniques to demonstrate architectures inspired by these principles that may overcome identified obstacles. A key concept is that electrodes should be as close together as possible; this is likely to involve an interpenetrating pore structure. However, this may prove extremely challenging to fabricate at the finest scales; a hierarchically porous structure can be a worthy compromise.

  16. Biomimetic surface coatings from modular amphiphilic proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, James; Wan, Fan; Fischer, Stephen; Dick, Scott

    2010-03-01

    Recombinant DNA methods have been used to develop a library of diblock protein polymers for creating designer biofunctional interfaces. These proteins are composed of a surface-active, amphiphilic block joined to a disordered, water soluble block with an end terminal bioactive domain. The amphiphilic block has a strong affinity for many synthetic polymer surfaces, providing a facile means of imparting biological functionality to otherwise bio-neutral materials through physical self-assembly. We have incorporated a series of bioactive end domains into this diblock motif, including sequences that encode specific cell binding and signaling functions of extracellular matrix constituents (e.g. RGD and YIGSR). In this talk, we show that these diblock constructs self-assemble into biofunctional surface coatings on several model synthetic polymer materials. We demonstrate that surface adsorption of the proteins has minimal impacts on the presentation of the bioactive domains in the soluble block, and through the use of microscopic and cell proliferation assays, we show that the resulting biofunctional interfaces are capable of inducing appropriate cellular responses in a variety of human cell types.

  17. The use of a hierarchically platinum-free electrode composed of tin oxide decorated polypyrrole on nanoporous copper in catalysis of methanol electrooxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asghari, Elnaz, E-mail: elnazasghari@yahoo.com; Ashassi-Sorkhabi, Habib; Vahed, Akram; Rezaei-Moghadam, Babak; Charmi, Gholam Reza

    2016-01-01

    Tin oxide nanoparticles were synthesized through a galvanostatic pathway on polypyrrole, PPy, coated nanoporous copper. The morphology and surface analysis of the assemblies were evaluated by field emission scanning electron microscopy, FESEM, and energy dispersive X-ray, EDX, analysis, respectively. The electrocatalytic behavior of electrodes was studied by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry tests in methanol solution. FESEM results showed that uniformly distributed nanoparticles with diameters of about 20–30 nm have been dispersed on PPy matrix. Cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry tests in methanol solution showed a significant enhancement in the catalytic action of PPy after decoration of tin oxide nanoparticles. Porous Cu/PPy/SnO{sub x} electrodes showed enhanced anodic peak current density for methanol oxidation compared to smooth Cu/PPy/SnO{sub x} and porous Cu/PPy. The effects of synthesis current density and time on the electrocatalytic behavior of the electrodes were evaluated. The significant enhancement of electrocatalytic behavior of the Cu/PPy electrode after decoration of SnO{sub x} overlayer was attributed to the effect of tin oxide on the adsorption of intermediates of methanol oxidation as well as oxidation of bi-products such as CO; huge tendency of tin oxides for dehydrogenation of the alcohols and the increase in microscopic surface area of the electrodes were introduced as other affecting factors. - Highlights: • Nanoporous copper–zinc substrates were formed by chemical leaching of zinc. • Polypyrrole thin film was electrodeposited on nanoporous copper. • Thin oxide nanoparticles were synthesized electrochemically on polypyrrole layer. • The catalytic performance of the electrodes was evaluated for methanol oxidation.

  18. Microstructures of friction surfaced coatings. A TEM study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akram, Javed; Kalvala, Prasad Rao; Misra, Mano

    2016-01-01

    The microstructures of dissimilar metal welds between 9Cr-1Mo (Modified) (P91) and austenitic stainless steel (AISI 304) with Ni-based alloy interlayers (Inconel 625, Inconel 600 and Inconel 800H) are reported. These interlayers were deposited by the friction surfacing method one over the other on P91 alloy, which was finally friction welded to AISI 304. In this paper, the results of microstructural evolution in the friction surfaced coated interlayers (Inconel 625, 600, 800H) are reported. For comparative purposes, the microstructures of consumable rods (Inconel 625, 600, 800H) and dissimilar metal base metals (P91 and AISI 304) were also reported. Friction surfaced coatings exhibited dynamic recrystallization. In friction surfaced coatings, the carbide particles were found to be finer and distributed uniformly throughout the matrix, compared to their rod counterparts.

  19. Novel surface coating strategies for better battery materials

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wen, L

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available . Surface-coated cathodes have been demonstrated to be effective in blocking these surface processes and enhancing the electrochemical performance of the materials. For example, the electron-insulating but ion-conducting lithium carbonate (Li2CO3) has been... noticed that most LIB electrode materials have very poor electrical conductivity (e.g. lithium iron phosphate and lithium titanate are almost insulators).22,23 In this regard, surface coating of the electrode active materials with a conductive layer...

  20. Quantitation of Surface Coating on Nanoparticles Using Thermogravimetric Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongargaonkar, Alpana A; Clogston, Jeffrey D

    2018-01-01

    Nanoparticles are critical components in nanomedicine and nanotherapeutic applications. Some nanoparticles, such as metallic nanoparticles, consist of a surface coating or surface modification to aid in its dispersion and stability. This surface coating may affect the behavior of nanoparticles in a biological environment, thus it is important to measure. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) can be used to determine the amount of coating on the surface of the nanoparticle. TGA experiments run under inert atmosphere can also be used to determine residual metal content present in the sample. In this chapter, the TGA technique and experimental method are described.

  1. LANTHANUM STAINING OF THE SURFACE COAT OF CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Stephen M.

    1971-01-01

    Among the techniques which have been reported to stain the surface coat of cells, for electron microscopy, is lanthanum staining en bloc. Similarly, the presence of the cationic dye, Alcian blue 8GX, in a primary glutaraldehyde fixative has been reported to improve the preservation of the surface coat of cells of many types; however, the preserved coat is not very electron opaque unless thin sections are counterstained. The present paper shows that for several rat tissues lanthanum staining en bloc is an effective electron stain for the cell surface, giving excellent contrast, if combined sequentially with prefixation in an aldehyde fixative containing Alcian blue. The cationic substance cetylpyridinium chloride was found to have a similar effect to that of Alcian blue in enhancing the lanthanum staining of the surface coat material of the brush border of intestinal epithelial cells. The patterns of lanthanum staining obtained for the tissues studied strikingly resemble those reported in the literature where tissues are stained by several standard methods for demonstrating mucosubstances at the ultrastructural level. This fact and the reproduction of the effect of Alcian blue by cetylpyridinium chloride constitute a persuasive empirical argument that the material visualized is a mucopolysaccharide or mucopolysaccharide-protein complex. PMID:4108476

  2. An experimental study of flow boiling chf with porous surface coatings and surfactant solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarwar, Mohammad Sohail

    2007-02-01

    The boiling crisis or critical heat flux (CHF) phenomenon is an enormously studied topic of the boiling heat transfer. The great interest in the CHF is due to practical motives, since it is desirable to design an equipment (heat exchanger or boiler, etc) to operate at as high a heat flux as possible with optimum heat transfer rates but without the risk of physical burnout. This study consists of two parts of flow boiling CHF experiment: with porous surface coated tubes and by using surfactant solutions as working fluid. In first part, the effect of micro- and nano-porous inside surface coated vertical tubes on the CHF was determined for flow boiling of water in vertical round tubes at atmospheric pressure. CHF was measured for a smooth and three different coated tubes, at mass fluxes of 100∼300 kg/m 2 s and two inlet subcooling temperatures (50 .deg. C and 75 .deg. C). Greater CHF enhancement was found with microporous coatings. Al 2 O 3 microporous coatings with particle size <10 μm and coating thickness of 50 μm showed the best CHF enhancement. The maximum increase in the CHF was about 25% for microporous Al 2 O 3 . A wettability test was performed to study the physical mechanism of increase of CHF with microporous coated surfaces and contact angle was measured for smooth and coated surfaces. Pressure drop measurements were also performed across the coated tubes using the DP-cell apparatus. In second part, surfactant effect on the CHF was determined for water flow boiling at atmospheric pressure in a closed loop filled with solution of tri-sodium phosphate (TSP, Na 3 PO 4 ·12H 2 O). The TSP is usually added to the containment sump water to adjust pH level during accident in nuclear power plants. The CHF was measured for four different surfactant solutions of water in vertical tubes, at different mass fluxes (100 ∼ 500 kg/m 2 s) and two inlet subcooling temperatures (50 .deg. C and 75 .deg. C). Surfactant solutions in the range of 0.05%∼0.2% at low mass

  3. Plasma assisted surface coating/modification processes: An emerging technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalvins, T.

    1986-01-01

    A broad understanding of the numerous ion or plasma assisted surface coating/modification processes is sought. An awareness of the principles of these processes is needed before discussing in detail the ion nitriding technology. On the basis of surface modifications arising from ion or plasma energizing and interactions, it can be broadly classified as deposition of distinct overlay coatings (sputtering-dc, radio frequency, magnetron, reactive; ion plating-diode, triode) and surface property modification without forming a discrete coating (ion implantation, ion beam mixing, laser beam irradiation, ion nitriding, ion carburizing, plasma oxidation). These techniques offer a great flexibility and are capable in tailoring desirable chemical and structural surface properties independent of the bulk properties.

  4. Plasma assisted surface coating/modification processes - An emerging technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalvins, T.

    1987-01-01

    A broad understanding of the numerous ion or plasma assisted surface coating/modification processes is sought. An awareness of the principles of these processes is needed before discussing in detail the ion nitriding technology. On the basis of surface modifications arising from ion or plasma energizing and interactions, it can be broadly classified as deposition of distinct overlay coatings (sputtering-dc, radio frequency, magnetron, reactive; ion plating-diode, triode) and surface property modification without forming a discrete coating (ion implantation, ion beam mixing, laser beam irradiation, ion nitriding, ion carburizing, plasma oxidation. These techniques offer a great flexibility and are capable in tailoring desirable chemical and structural surface properties independent of the bulk properties.

  5. Enhanced propellant performance via environmentally friendly curable surface coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thelma Manning

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Surface coating of granular propellants is widely used in a multiplicity of propellants for small, medium and large caliber ammunition. All small caliber ball propellants exhibit burning progressivity due to application of effective deterrent coatings. Large perforated propellant grains have also begun utilizing plasticizing and impregnated deterrent coatings with the purpose of increasing charge weights for greater energy and velocity for the projectile. The deterrent coating and impregnation process utilizes volatile organic compounds (VOCs and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs which results in propellants that need to be forced air dried which impacts air quality. Propellants undergo temperature fluctuations during their life. Diffusion coefficients vary exponentially with variations in temperature. A small temperature increase can induce a faster migration, even over a short period of time, which can lead to large deviations in the concentration. This large concentration change in the ammunition becomes a safety or performance liability. The presence of both polymeric deterrents and nitroglycerin(NG in the nitrocellulose matrix and organic solvents leads to higher diffusion rates. This results in continued emissions of VOCs and HAPs. Conventional polymers tend to partition within the propellant matrix. In other words, localized mixing can occur between the polymer and underlying propellant. This is due to solvent induced softening of the polymer vehicle over the propellant grain. In effect this creates a path where migration can occur. Since nitrate esters, like NG, are relatively small, it can exude to the surface and create a highly unstable and dangerous situation for the warfighter. Curable polymers do not suffer from this partitioning due to “melting” because no VOC solvents are present. They remain surface coated. The small scale characterization testing, such as closed bomb testing, small scale sensitivity, thermal stability, and

  6. Thermal repellent properties of surface coating using silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y. Y.; Halim, M. S.; Aminudin, E.; Guntor, N. A.

    2017-11-01

    Extensive land development in urban areas is completely altering the surface profile of human living environment. As cities growing rapidly, impervious building and paved surfaces are replacing the natural landscape. In the developing countries with tropical climate, large masses of building elements, such as brick wall and concrete members, absorb and store large amount of heat, which in turn radiate back to the surrounding air during the night time. This bubble of heat is known as urban heat island (UHI). The use of high albedo urban surfaces is an inexpensive measure that can reduce surrounded temperature. Thus, the main focus of this study is to investigate the ability of silica, SiO2, with high albedo value, to be used as a thermal-repelled surface coating for brick wall. Three different silica coatings were used, namely silicone resin, silicone wax and rain repellent and one exterior commercial paint (jota shield paint) that commercially available in the market were applied on small-scale brick wall models. An uncoated sample also had been fabricated as a control sample for comparison. These models were placed at the outdoor space for solar exposure. Outdoor environment measurement was carried out where the ambient temperature, surface temperature, relative humidity and UV reflectance were recorded. The effect of different type of surface coating on temperature variation of the surface brick wall and the thermal performance of coatings as potential of heat reduction for brick wall have been studied. Based on the results, model with silicone resin achieved the lowest surface temperature which indicated that SiO2 can be potentially used to reduce heat absorption on the brick wall and further retains indoor passive thermal comfortability.

  7. Economic Analysis Of Radiation Surface Coating Of Parquet Flooring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danu, S.

    1989-01-01

    The surface coating of mosaic parquet flooring has been done using electron beam and UV irradiation in a pilot scale and technically successful. Economic analysis of the coating process will be discussed in this paper. Four kinds of irradiated parquet flooring were used for comparing costs and important factors on the analysis such as capital, production cost, selling price, break-event point, payout time and internal rate of return. The results showed there the higher quality of the products, the higher are its production cost and selling price. The selling price of irradiated parquet flooring per m2 for process A, B, C and D were Rp. 20,700; Rp. 23,900; Rp. 24,500; and Rp. 25,000 at the lowest profit level of 10% and RP. 25,500; Rp. 34,700; Rp. 35,500; and Rp. 36,400 at the highest profit level of 150% of the fixed capital. The total capital required were Rp. 1.9 billion up to 3.3 billion. (author). 5 refs, 9 tabs

  8. A conductive surface coating for Si-CNT radiation detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentini, Antonio, E-mail: antonio.valentini@ba.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70125 Bari (Italy); Valentini, Marco [INFN, Sezione di Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Ditaranto, Nicoletta [Dipartimento di Chimica, Università degli Studi di Bari, Via Amendola 173, 70126 Bari (Italy); Melisi, Domenico [INFN, Sezione di Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Aramo, Carla, E-mail: aramo@na.infn.it [INFN, Sezione di Napoli, Via Cintia 2, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Ambrosio, Antonio [CNR-SPIN U.O.S. di Napoli and Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Università degli Studi di Napoli “Federico II”, Via Cintia 2, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Casamassima, Giuseppe [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70125 Bari (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Cilmo, Marco [INFN, Sezione di Napoli, and Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Università degli Studi di Napoli “Federico II”, Via Cintia 2, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Fiandrini, Emanuele [INFN, Sezione di Perugia, and Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Perugia, Piazza Università 1, 06100 Perugia (Italy); Grossi, Valentina [INFN, Sezione di L’Aquila, and Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche e Chimiche, Università degli Studi dell’Aquila, Via Vetoio 10 Coppito, 67100 L’Aquila (Italy); and others

    2015-08-01

    Silicon–Carbon Nanotube radiation detectors need an electrically conductive coating layer to avoid the nanotube detachment from the silicon substrate and uniformly transmit the electric field to the entire nanotube active surface. Coating material must be transparent to the radiation of interest, and must provide the drain voltage necessary to collect charges generated by incident photons. For this purpose various materials have been tested and proposed in photodetector and photoconverter applications. In this article interface properties and electrical contact behavior of Indium Tin Oxide films on Carbon Nanotubes have been analyzed. Ion Beam Sputtering has been used to grow the transparent conductive layer on the nanotubes. The films were deposited at room temperature with Oxygen/Argon mixture into the sputtering beam, at fixed current and for different beam energies. Optical and electrical analyses have been performed on films. Surface chemical analysis and in depth profiling results obtained by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy of the Indium Tin Oxide layer on nanotubes have been used to obtain the interface composition. Results have been applied in photodetectors realization based on multi wall Carbon Nanotubes on silicon. - Highlights: • ITO was deposited by Ion Beam Sputtering on MWCNT. • ITO on CNT makes an inter-diffusion layer of the order of one hundred nanometers. • Improvements of quantum efficiency of photon detectors based on CNT with ITO.

  9. Surface Coating of Musa Brachycarpa Trunk Using UV-Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danu, Sugiarto; Sumarni, Anik; Nurhadi, Agus; Puspita, Rita

    2000-01-01

    An experiment on UV-curing of surface coating of Musa brachycarpa was carried out using urethane acrylate polymer films. Radiation curable material was the mixture of urethane acrylate resin, tripropylene glycol diacrylate monomer (TPGDA) and radical photo initiator of 2,2-dimethyl -2-hydroxy acetophenone. The TPGDA concentrations in the mixture with urethane acrylate resin were 60; 70 and 80% weight, Whereas concentrations of photo initiator were varied at the level 1.5:2.0 and 2.5% by weight based on resin and monomer mixture. Irradiation was conducted by using 80 Watt/cm intensity UV-light at the conveyor speed of 2: 3 and 4 m/min. Analysis and film properties observed were IR spectrum, gel fraction, hardness, abrasion resistance, glossy and chemical, solvent and stain resistances. Films have good resistances against 1% sodium carbonate, 5% acetic acid, 50% alcohol, thinner and red, blue and black permanent marker, except against 10% sodium hydroxide and 10% sulfuric acid. Optimum condition was achieved at the photo initiator concentration level of 2% and conveyor speed of 3 m/min

  10. Reflectance variability of surface coatings reveals characteristic eigenvalue spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, José M.; Díaz, José A.; Barros, Rui

    2012-10-01

    We have examined the trial-to-trial variability of the reflectance spectra of surface coatings containing effect pigments. Principal component analysis of reflectances was done at each detection angle separately. A method for classification of principal components is applied based on the eigenvalue spectra. It was found that the eigenvalue spectra follow characteristic power laws and depend on the detection angle. Three different subsets of principal components were examined to separate the relevant spectral features related to the pigments from other noise sources. Reconstruction of the reflectance spectra by taking only the first subset indicated that reflectance variability was higher at near-specular reflection, suggesting a correlation with the trial-to-trial deposition of effect pigments. Reconstruction by using the second subset indicates that variability was higher at short wavelengths. Finally, reconstruction by using only the third subset indicates that reflectance variability was not totally random as a function of the wavelength. The methods employed can be useful in the evaluation of color variability in industrial paint application processes.

  11. Nanoporous polymer electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Brian [Wheat Ridge, CO; Nguyen, Vinh [Wheat Ridge, CO

    2012-04-24

    A nanoporous polymer electrolyte and methods for making the polymer electrolyte are disclosed. The polymer electrolyte comprises a crosslinked self-assembly of a polymerizable salt surfactant, wherein the crosslinked self-assembly includes nanopores and wherein the crosslinked self-assembly has a conductivity of at least 1.0.times.10.sup.-6 S/cm at 25.degree. C. The method of making a polymer electrolyte comprises providing a polymerizable salt surfactant. The method further comprises crosslinking the polymerizable salt surfactant to form a nanoporous polymer electrolyte.

  12. 40 CFR 63.5743 - What standards must I meet for aluminum recreational boat surface coating operations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... recreational boat surface coating operations? 63.5743 Section 63.5743 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Manufacturing Standards for Aluminum Recreational Boat Surface Coating Operations § 63.5743 What standards must I meet for aluminum recreational boat surface coating operations? (a) For aluminum wipedown solvent...

  13. Nanoporous thermosetting polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Vijay I; Palmese, Giuseppe R

    2005-02-15

    Potential applications of nanoporous thermosetting polymers include polyelectrolytes in fuel cells, separation membranes, adsorption media, and sensors. Design of nanoporous polymers for such applications entails controlling permeability by tailoring pore size, structure, and interface chemistry. Nanoporous thermosetting polymers are often synthesized via free radical mechanisms using solvents that phase separate during polymerization. In this work, a novel technique for the synthesis of nanoporous thermosets is presented that is based on the reactive encapsulation of an inert solvent using step-growth cross-linking polymerization without micro/macroscopic phase separation. The criteria for selecting such a monomer-polymer-solvent system are discussed based on FTIR analysis, observed micro/macroscopic phase separation, and thermodynamics of swelling. Investigation of resulting network pore structures by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and small-angle X-ray scattering following extraction and supercritical drying using carbon dioxide showed that nanoporous polymeric materials with pore sizes ranging from 1 to 50 nm can be synthesized by varying the solvent content. The differences in the porous morphology of these materials compared to more common free radically polymerized analogues that exhibit phase separation were evident from SEM imaging. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the chemical activity of the nanoporous materials obtained by our method could be tailored by grafting appropriate functional groups at the pore interface.

  14. Nanoporous Ni with High Surface Area for Potential Hydrogen Storage Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaocao; Zhao, Haibo; Fu, Zhibing; Qu, Jing; Zhong, Minglong; Yang, Xi; Yi, Yong; Wang, Chaoyang

    2018-06-01

    Nanoporous metals with considerable specific surface areas and hierarchical pore structures exhibit promising applications in the field of hydrogen storage, electrocatalysis, and fuel cells. In this manuscript, a facile method is demonstrated for fabricating nanoporous Ni with a high surface area by using SiO₂ aerogel as a template, i.e., electroless plating of Ni into an SiO₂ aerogel template followed by removal of the template at moderate conditions. The effects of the prepared conditions, including the electroless plating time, temperature of the structure, and the magnetism of nanoporous Ni are investigated in detail. The resultant optimum nanoporous Ni with a special 3D flower-like structure exhibited a high specific surface area of about 120.5 m²/g. The special nanoporous Ni exhibited a promising prospect in the field of hydrogen storage, with a hydrogen capacity of 0.45 wt % on 4.5 MPa at room temperature.

  15. Clean Air Act Guidelines and Standards for Solvent Use and Surface Coating Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains the stationary sources of air pollution for the solvent use and surface coating industries, and their corresponding air pollution regulations. To learn more about the regulations for each industry, just click on the links below.

  16. Surface Coating of Wood Building Products: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about the NESHAP for surface coating of wood building products by reading the rule summary and history, with links to the federal register notices, additional documents, related rules and compliance information

  17. Hierarchically structured, nitrogen-doped carbon membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hong

    2017-08-03

    The present invention is a structure, method of making and method of use for a novel macroscopic hierarchically structured, nitrogen-doped, nano-porous carbon membrane (HNDCMs) with asymmetric and hierarchical pore architecture that can be produced on a large-scale approach. The unique HNDCM holds great promise as components in separation and advanced carbon devices because they could offer unconventional fluidic transport phenomena on the nanoscale. Overall, the invention set forth herein covers a hierarchically structured, nitrogen-doped carbon membranes and methods of making and using such a membranes.

  18. Hydrophilic nanoporous materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The present application discloses a method for preparing and rendering hydrophilic a nanoporous material of a polymer matrix which has a porosity of 0.1-90 percent (v/v), such that the ratio between the final water absorption (percent (w/w)) and the porosity (percent (v/v)) is at least 0.05, the ......The present application discloses a method for preparing and rendering hydrophilic a nanoporous material of a polymer matrix which has a porosity of 0.1-90 percent (v/v), such that the ratio between the final water absorption (percent (w/w)) and the porosity (percent (v/v)) is at least 0.......05, the method comprising the steps of: (a) preparing a precursor material comprising at least one polymeric component and having a first phase and a second phase; (b) removal of at least a part of the first phase of the precursor material prepared in step (a) so as to leave behind a nanoporous material...... of the polymer matrix; (c) irradiating at least a part of said nanoporous material with light of a wave length of in the range of 250-400 nm (or 200-700 nm) in the presence of oxygen and/or ozone. Corresponding hydrophilic nanoporous materials are also disclosed. L...

  19. Solid-State Nanopore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhishan Yuan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Solid-state nanopore has captured the attention of many researchers due to its characteristic of nanoscale. Now, different fabrication methods have been reported, which can be summarized into two broad categories: “top-down” etching technology and “bottom-up” shrinkage technology. Ion track etching method, mask etching method chemical solution etching method, and high-energy particle etching and shrinkage method are exhibited in this report. Besides, we also discussed applications of solid-state nanopore fabrication technology in DNA sequencing, protein detection, and energy conversion.

  20. Hierarchically Structured Electrospun Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole E. Zander

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional electrospun nanofibers have a myriad of applications ranging from scaffolds for tissue engineering to components of biosensors and energy harvesting devices. The generally smooth one-dimensional structure of the fibers has stood as a limitation to several interesting novel applications. Control of fiber diameter, porosity and collector geometry will be briefly discussed, as will more traditional methods for controlling fiber morphology and fiber mat architecture. The remainder of the review will focus on new techniques to prepare hierarchically structured fibers. Fibers with hierarchical primary structures—including helical, buckled, and beads-on-a-string fibers, as well as fibers with secondary structures, such as nanopores, nanopillars, nanorods, and internally structured fibers and their applications—will be discussed. These new materials with helical/buckled morphology are expected to possess unique optical and mechanical properties with possible applications for negative refractive index materials, highly stretchable/high-tensile-strength materials, and components in microelectromechanical devices. Core-shell type fibers enable a much wider variety of materials to be electrospun and are expected to be widely applied in the sensing, drug delivery/controlled release fields, and in the encapsulation of live cells for biological applications. Materials with a hierarchical secondary structure are expected to provide new superhydrophobic and self-cleaning materials.

  1. "Effect of nano-filled surface coating agent on fluoride release from conventional glass ionomer cement: An in vitro trial"

    OpenAIRE

    S Tiwari; B Nandlal

    2013-01-01

    Context: To overcome the drawbacks of glass ionomer cement of sensitivity to initial desiccation and moisture contamination the use of surface coating agent is recommended. The search in this area led to invent of use of nanofillers in surface coating agent, but its effect on fluoride release is not clear. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate and compare the fluoride release from conventional glass ionomer cement with and without surface coating agent. Settings and Design: This in vitro ...

  2. Nanopore sensors for DNA analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solovyeva, Vita; Venkatesan, B.M.; Shim, Jeong

    2012-01-01

    Solid-state nanopore sensors are promising devices for single DNA molecule detection and sequencing. This paper presents a review of our work on solid-state nanopores performed over the last decade. In particular, here we discuss atomic-layer-deposited (ALD)-based, graphene-based, and functionali......Solid-state nanopore sensors are promising devices for single DNA molecule detection and sequencing. This paper presents a review of our work on solid-state nanopores performed over the last decade. In particular, here we discuss atomic-layer-deposited (ALD)-based, graphene...

  3. Cellular Stress Response to Engineered Nanoparticles: Effect of Size, Surface Coating, and Cellular Uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    CELLULAR STRESS RESPONSE TO ENGINEERED NANOPARTICLES: EFFECT OF SIZE, SURFACE COATING, AND CELLULAR UPTAKE RY Prasad 1, JK McGee2, MG Killius1 D Ackerman2, CF Blackman2 DM DeMarini2 , SO Simmons2 1 Student Services Contractor, US EPA, RTP, NC 2 US EPA, RTP, NC The num...

  4. 40 CFR 63.5755 - How do I demonstrate compliance with the aluminum recreational boat surface coating spray gun...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the aluminum recreational boat surface coating spray gun cleaning work practice standards? 63.5755... surface coating spray gun cleaning work practice standards? You must demonstrate compliance with the aluminum coating spray gun cleaning work practice standards by meeting the requirements of paragraph (a) or...

  5. The technology of surface coatings by electron-beam (EB) with special reference to the wood industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlan bin Haji Mohd

    1989-01-01

    The use of electron-beam as a processing means in surface coatings is discussed. Special attention has been given to this technology in relation to the surface coatings of wood. The main features of its technology and industrial requirements are outlined. (author)

  6. Nanofluidic Device with Embedded Nanopore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuning; Reisner, Walter

    2014-03-01

    Nanofluidic based devices are robust methods for biomolecular sensing and single DNA manipulation. Nanopore-based DNA sensing has attractive features that make it a leading candidate as a single-molecule DNA sequencing technology. Nanochannel based extension of DNA, combined with enzymatic or denaturation-based barcoding schemes, is already a powerful approach for genome analysis. We believe that there is revolutionary potential in devices that combine nanochannels with nanpore detectors. In particular, due to the fast translocation of a DNA molecule through a standard nanopore configuration, there is an unfavorable trade-off between signal and sequence resolution. With a combined nanochannel-nanopore device, based on embedding a nanopore inside a nanochannel, we can in principle gain independent control over both DNA translocation speed and sensing signal, solving the key draw-back of the standard nanopore configuration. We demonstrate that we can detect - using fluorescent microscopy - successful translocation of DNA from the nanochannel out through the nanopore, a possible method to 'select' a given barcode for further analysis. We also show that in equilibrium DNA will not escape through an embedded sub-persistence length nanopore until a certain voltage bias is added.

  7. Inorganic Surface Coating with Fast Wetting-Dewetting Transitions for Liquid Manipulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yajie; Zhang, Liaoliao; Wang, Jue; Wang, Xinwei; Duan, Libing; Wang, Nan; Xiao, Fajun; Xie, Yanbo; Zhao, Jianlin

    2018-06-06

    Liquid manipulation is a fundamental issue for microfluidics and miniaturized sensors. Fast wetting-state transitions by optical methods have proven being efficient for liquid manipulations by organic surface coatings, however rarely been achieved by using inorganic coatings. Here, we report a fast optical-induced wetting-state transition surface achieved by inorganic coating, enabling tens of second transitions for a wetting-dewetting cycle, shortened from an hour, as typically reported. Here, we demonstrate a gravity-driven microfluidic reactor and switch it to a mixer after a second-step exposure in a minimum of within 80 s of UV exposure. The fast wetting-dewetting transition surfaces enable the fast switchable or erasable smart surfaces for water collection, miniature chemical reaction, or sensing systems by using inorganic surface coatings.

  8. TiO2 Surface Coating of Mn-Zn Dopped Ferrites Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solný, Tomáš; Ptacek, Petr; Másilko, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    This study deals with TiO2 coating of powder Mn-Zn ferrite in order to recieve photocatalytic layer on the top of these particles, forming core-shell catalyst. Powder catalysts are of great advance over the world due to the high surface area, considering the kinetics proceeds through heterogenous...... phase boundary catalysis. However their withdrawal from cleaning systems often requires energetically and economically demanding processes such as filtration and ultrafiltration. Since the ferrite is magnetic, the advantage of such formed core-shell photocatalyst is easibility of removing from...... photocatalytic decomposition system using external magnetic field. In this study the surface coating is performed, using Ti alkoxides mixtures with nanosized TiO2 particles and C and Au coating to form film layer of TiO2 on the surface of ferrite. XRD, SEM – EDS analyses are employed to study surface coating....

  9. Ultraviolet curing of acrylated liquid natural rubber for surface coating application

    OpenAIRE

    Kannikar Kwanming; Pairote Klinpituksa; Wae-asae Waehamad

    2009-01-01

    Ultraviolet curable acrylated liquid natural rubber was prepared by grafting of photosensitive molecule onto liquid natural rubber for surface coating application. The liquid natural rubber (LNR) was firstly obtained by degradation of natural rubber latex with hydrogen peroxide and cobalt acetylacetonate at 65oC for 72 hrs. The preparation of acrylated natural rubber was carried out by the reaction of acrylic acid and epoxidized liquid natural rubber (ELNR) prior obtained from LNR with formic...

  10. Surface Coatings as Xenon Diffusion Barriers for Improved Detection of Clandestine Nuclear Explosions

    OpenAIRE

    Bläckberg, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    This thesis investigates surface coatings as xenon diffusion barriers on plastic scintillators. The motivation for the work is improved radioxenon detection systems, used within the verification regime of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). One type of radioxenon detection systems used in this context is the Swedish SAUNA system. This system uses a cylindrical plastic scintillator cell to measure the beta decay from radioxenon isotopes. The detector cell also acts as a container...

  11. Surface coatings as xenon diffusion barriers on plastic scintillators : Improving Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty verification

    OpenAIRE

    Bläckberg, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    This thesis investigates the ability of transparent surface coatings to reduce xenon diffusion into plastic scintillators. The motivation for the work is improved radioxenon monitoring equipment, used with in the framework of the verification regime of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. A large part of the equipment used in this context incorporates plastic scintillators which are in direct contact with the radioactive gas to be detected. One problem with such setup is that radioxenon...

  12. Stabilizing lead bullets in shooting range soil by phosphate-based surface coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Hua

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Soil lead (Pb is well known as a threat to human health and ecosystem. Although relatively insoluble, lead bullets in shooting range soil can be readily released into soluble forms through natural weathering processes and thus pose significant human and environmental risks. In this study, laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate if the Pb bullets in shooting range soil can be stabilized through surface coating of phosphate-based materials. Results indicated that FePO4 or AlPO4 coatings, insoluble metal phosphates, have been successfully formed on the surface of the Pb bullets. The EPA Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP test showed that FePO4 or AlPO4 surface coating would effectively reduce the Pb solubility or leachability of the bullets. The surface coating under pH of <5.5 for 7 days could achieve 92–100% reduction, with 85–98% by FePO4 coating and 77–98% by AlPO4 coating as compared with the non-coating. Leachable Pb concentration in the contaminated shooting range soil was reduced by 85–98% or 77–98% as a result of the FePO4 or AlPO4 solution treatment. This study demonstrated that the FePO4 or AlPO4–based surface coating on lead bullets can effectively inhibit the Pb weathering and significantly reduce the Pb release from soil through in situ chemical stabilization, which could be potentially applicable as a cost-effective and environmental-sound technology for the remediation of Pb-contaminated shooting range soil.

  13. Catalytic nanoporous membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellin, Michael J; Hryn, John N; Elam, Jeffrey W

    2013-08-27

    A nanoporous catalytic membrane which displays several unique features Including pores which can go through the entire thickness of the membrane. The membrane has a higher catalytic and product selectivity than conventional catalysts. Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes serve as the catalyst substrate. This substrate is then subjected to Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD), which allows the controlled narrowing of the pores from 40 nm to 10 nm in the substrate by deposition of a preparatory material. Subsequent deposition of a catalytic layer on the inner surfaces of the pores reduces pore sizes to less than 10 nm and allows for a higher degree of reaction selectivity. The small pore sizes allow control over which molecules enter the pores, and the flow-through feature can allow for partial oxidation of reactant species as opposed to complete oxidation. A nanoporous separation membrane, produced by ALD is also provided for use in gaseous and liquid separations. The membrane has a high flow rate of material with 100% selectivity. Also provided is a method for producing a catalytic membrane having flow-through pores and discreet catalytic clusters adhering to the inside surfaces of the pores.

  14. Ultraviolet curing of acrylated liquid natural rubber for surface coating application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kannikar Kwanming

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultraviolet curable acrylated liquid natural rubber was prepared by grafting of photosensitive molecule onto liquid natural rubber for surface coating application. The liquid natural rubber (LNR was firstly obtained by degradation of natural rubber latex with hydrogen peroxide and cobalt acetylacetonate at 65oC for 72 hrs. The preparation of acrylated natural rubber was carried out by the reaction of acrylic acid and epoxidized liquid natural rubber (ELNR prior obtained from LNR with formic acid and hydrogen peroxide in the ratio of 2:1 by weight in toluene at 80oC for 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 hrs. It was found that the percentage of acrylate grafted onto liquid natural rubber depended on the reaction time. Surface coating was performed by using acrylated liquid natural rubber and 1,6-hexanediol diacrylate (HDDA or tripropylene glycol diacrylate (TPGDA as a crosslinker and Irgarcure 184 or Irgarcure 651 as a photoinitiator under UV exposure for 30, 60, and 90 seconds. The hardness test of cured products was investigated using the Pencil hardness test at pencil level of 2B to 6H. It was found that the highest hardness of surface coating was at pencil level of 4H for the product using TPGDA and Irgacure 651 in the ratio of 80:10 parts per hundred of rubber (phr. The cured products were able to resist to 2% H2SO4 and distilled water for more than 24 hrs.

  15. Surface coatings of unsaturated polyester resin Kamper wood (Dry obalan ops spp.) by using UV radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiarto Danu; Yusuf Sudo Hadi; Novi Eka Putri

    1999-01-01

    Kamper wood (Dryobalanops spp.) has high contribution in wood working industry and most of them need surface coating process. Radiation curing of surface coating, especially the use of ultra-violet (UV) light have potential to give contribution in the wood finishing. The experiment on surface coating of kamper wood has been conducted by using UV-radiation. Unsaturated polyester resin with the commercial name of Yucalac type 157 was used as coating materials after being added with styrene monomer, some fillers and radical photoinitiator of 2-hydroxy-2-2-methyl-l- phenyl propanone. Four photoinitiator concentration levels of 1.5 ; 2 ; 2.5 and 3 % by weight of resin were used. The coating materials were coated onto the wood panel samples by using high pressure sprayer. The wood samples were then exposed to irradiation by using 80 Watts/cm UV-source with variable conveyor speed of 3 ; 4 ; 5 and 5.8 m/min. Formulation of coating materials, pendulum hardness, adhesion, and gloss of cured films were evaluated

  16. Determination of nanoparticle surface coatings and nanoparticle purity using microscale thermogravimetric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, Elisabeth; Tyner, Katherine M; Poling, Christopher M; Blacklock, Jenifer L

    2014-02-04

    The use of nanoparticles in some applications (i.e., nanomedical, nanofiltration, or nanoelectronic) requires small samples with well-known purities and composition. In addition, when nanoparticles are introduced into complex environments (e.g., biological fluids), the particles may become coated with matter, such as proteins or lipid layers. Many of today's analytical techniques are not able to address small-scale samples of nanoparticles to determine purity and the presence of surface coatings. Through the use of an elevated-temperature quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) method we call microscale thermogravimetric analysis, or μ-TGA, the nanoparticle purity, as well as the presence of any surface coatings of nanomaterials, can be measured. Microscale thermogravimetric analysis is used to determine the presence and amount of surface-bound ligand coverage on gold nanoparticles and confirm the presence of a poly(ethylene glycol) coating on SiO2 nanoparticles. Results are compared to traditional analytical techniques to demonstrate reproducibility and validity of μ-TGA for determining the presence of nanoparticle surface coatings. Carbon nanotube samples are also analyzed and compared to conventional TGA. The results demonstrate μ-TGA is a valid method for quantitative determination of the coatings on nanoparticles, and in some cases, can provide purity and compositional data of the nanoparticles themselves.

  17. Behavior of Ag nanoparticles in soil: Effects of particle surface coating, aging and sewage sludge amendment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitley, Annie R.; Levard, Clément; Oostveen, Emily; Bertsch, Paul M.; Matocha, Chris J.; Kammer, Frank von der; Unrine, Jason M.

    2013-01-01

    This study addressed the relative importance of particle coating, sewage sludge amendment, and aging on aggregation and dissolution of manufactured Ag nanoparticles (Ag MNPs) in soil pore water. Ag MNPs with citrate (CIT) or polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) coatings were incubated with soil or municipal sewage sludge which was then amended to soil (1% or 3% sludge (w/w)). Pore waters were extracted after 1 week and 2 and 6 months and analyzed for chemical speciation, aggregation state and dissolution. Ag MNP coating had profound effects on aggregation state and partitioning to pore water in the absence of sewage sludge, but pre-incubation with sewage sludge negated these effects. This suggests that Ag MNP coating does not need to be taken into account to understand fate of AgMNPs applied to soil through biosolids amendment. Aging of soil also had profound effects that depended on Ag MNP coating and sludge amendment. -- Highlights: •Silver nanoparticle coating affects fate in unamended soils. •Citrated coated silver nanoparticles could be found in pore water for up to six months. •Pre-incubation of silver nanoparticles in sewage sludge negated effects of surface coating. •Weathered or reprecipitated particles found in pore water for up to two months in sludge amended soils. •Particle surface coating, sewage sludge amendment and aging all have important impacts. -- Behavior of manufactured silver nanoparticles in soil depends on surface coating, contact with sewage sludge, and aging

  18. Fabrication and Modification of Nanoporous Silicon Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Mauro; Liu, Xuewu

    2010-01-01

    Silicon-based nanoporous particles as biodegradable drug carriers are advantageous in permeation, controlled release, and targeting. The use of biodegradable nanoporous silicon and silicon dioxide, with proper surface treatments, allows sustained drug release within the target site over a period of days, or even weeks, due to selective surface coating. A variety of surface treatment protocols are available for silicon-based particles to be stabilized, functionalized, or modified as required. Coated polyethylene glycol (PEG) chains showed the effective depression of both plasma protein adsorption and cell attachment to the modified surfaces, as well as the advantage of long circulating. Porous silicon particles are micromachined by lithography. Compared to the synthesis route of the nanomaterials, the advantages include: (1) the capability to make different shapes, not only spherical particles but also square, rectangular, or ellipse cross sections, etc.; (2) the capability for very precise dimension control; (3) the capacity for porosity and pore profile control; and (4) allowance of complex surface modification. The particle patterns as small as 60 nm can be fabricated using the state-of-the-art photolithography. The pores in silicon can be fabricated by exposing the silicon in an HF/ethanol solution and then subjecting the pores to an electrical current. The size and shape of the pores inside silicon can be adjusted by the doping of the silicon, electrical current application, the composition of the electrolyte solution, and etching time. The surface of the silicon particles can be modified by many means to provide targeted delivery and on-site permanence for extended release. Multiple active agents can be co-loaded into the particles. Because the surface modification of particles can be done on wafers before the mechanical release, asymmetrical surface modification is feasible. Starting from silicon wafers, a treatment, such as KOH dipping or reactive ion

  19. Nanoporous polymer liquid core waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gopalakrishnan, Nimi; Christiansen, Mads Brøkner; Ndoni, Sokol

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate liquid core waveguides defined by UV to enable selective water infiltration in nanoporous polymers, creating an effective refractive index shift Δn=0.13. The mode confinement and propagation loss in these waveguides are presented.......We demonstrate liquid core waveguides defined by UV to enable selective water infiltration in nanoporous polymers, creating an effective refractive index shift Δn=0.13. The mode confinement and propagation loss in these waveguides are presented....

  20. THE SIZE AND SURFACE COATING OF NANOSILVER DIFFERENTIALLY AFFECTS BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY IN BLOOD BRAIN BARRIER (RBEC4) CELLS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linking the physical properties of nanoparticles with differences in their biological activity is critical for understanding their potential toxicity and mode of action. The influence of aggregate size, surface coating, and surface charge on nanosilver's (nanoAg) movement through...

  1. Impact of nanosilver on various DNA lesions and HPRT gene mutations - effects of charge and surface coating

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Huk, A.; Izak-Nau, E.; el Yamani, N.; Uggerud, H.; Vadset, M.; Zasońska, Beata Anna; Duschl, A.; Dusinska, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 12, 24 July (2015), 25_1-25_20 ISSN 1743-8977 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : silver nanomaterials * surface charge * surface coating Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 8.649, year: 2015

  2. Final Rule to Reduce Toxic Air Pollutants from Surface Coating of Plastic Parts and Products Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains an August 2004 fact sheet with information regarding the final NESHAP for Surface Coating of Plastic Parts and Products. This document provides a summary of the information for the information for this regulation.

  3. Highly active thermally stable nanoporous gold catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biener, Juergen; Wittstock, Arne; Biener, Monika M.; Bagge-Hansen, Michael; Baeumer, Marcus; Wichmann, Andre; Neuman, Bjoern

    2016-12-20

    In one embodiment, a system includes a nanoporous gold structure and a plurality of oxide particles deposited on the nanoporous gold structure; the oxide particles are characterized by a crystalline phase. In another embodiment, a method includes depositing oxide nanoparticles on a nanoporous gold support to form an active structure and functionalizing the deposited oxide nanoparticles.

  4. Creep of MDF panels under constant load and cyclic environmental conditions. Influence of surface coating

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández-Golfín Seco, J. I.; Díez Barra, M. Rafael

    1997-01-01

    Four different strategies of surface coating (based on 80 g m2 melamin impregnated papers) were used on 19 mm thick commercial MDF panels to assess its reological behaviour under cyclic humidity conditions (20ºC 30 % rh-20ºC 90 % rh). Three different levels of stress (20 %, 30 % and 40 %), based on the ultimate load in bending, were used. Tests were conducted by means of the three points load system. For the same stress level, the relative creep of MDF panels was higher than that in par...

  5. Surface coating influence on elastic properties of spruce wood by means of holographic vibration mode visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongova, M.; Urgela, Stanislav

    1999-07-01

    Physicoacoustical properties of wood influenced by surface coating are studied by modal analysis. Resonant spruce plates were coated by stain, nitrocellulose varnish, special violin paint and shellac. The modal testing was performed by electronic speckle pattern interferometry. For this purpose, equipment called VIBROVIZER was used. The collected values of physicoacoustical characteristics (density, Young's modulus, acoustic constant) were compared using the graphic plots of data. The 3D plots help to evaluate wooden plates from a viewpoint of the quality control. This fact offers new opportunity for musical instrument manufacturers.

  6. Optical response of a flat metallic surface coated with a monolayer array of latex spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Lei; Liu Xiaohan; Yin Haiwei; Zi Jian

    2010-01-01

    We report on the fabrication, characterization and simulation of a structure consisting of a flat metallic surface coated with a monolayer array of latex spheres. This structure shows interesting optical response: over flat metallic surfaces a series of reflection minima appear in reflection spectra. Numerical simulations revealed that the structure can support two types of surface modes: surface plasmon-polaritons bound at the metallic surface and guided modes confined to the array of latex spheres, or their hybrids. Both experimental and theoretical results indicated that these surface modes show well-defined band structures due to the introduced periodicity by the monolayer array of latex spheres.

  7. Surface Coating Constraint Induced Self-Discharging of Silicon Nanoparticles as Anodes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Langli; Zhao, Peng; Yang, Hui; Liu, Borui; Zhang, Jiguang; Cui, Yi; Yu, Guihua; Zhang, Sulin; Wang, Chong M.

    2015-10-01

    One of the key challenges of Si-based anodes for lithium ion batteries is the large volume change upon lithiation and delithiation, which commonly leads to electrochemo-mechanical degradation and subsequent fast capacity fading. Recent studies have shown that applying nanometer-thick coating layers on Si nanoparticle (SiNPs) enhances cyclability and capacity retention. However, it is far from clear how the coating layer function from the point of view of both surface chemistry and electrochemo-mechanical effect. Herein, we use in situ transmission electron microscopy to investigate the lithiation/delithiation kinetics of SiNPs coated with a conductive polymer, polypyrrole (PPy). We discovered that this coating layer can lead to “self-delithiation” or “self-discharging” at different stages of lithiation. We rationalized that the self-discharging is driven by the internal compressive stress generated inside the lithiated SiNPs due to the constraint effect of the coating layer. We also noticed that the critical size of lithiation-induced fracture of SiNPs is increased from ~ 150 nm for bare SiNPs to ~ 380 nm for the PPy-coated SiNPs, showing a mechanically protective role of the coating layer. These observations demonstrate both beneficial and detrimental roles of the surface coatings, shedding light on rational design of surface coatings for silicon to retain high-power and high capacity as anode for lithium ion batteries.

  8. Determination of elastic mechanical characteristics of surface coatings from analysis of signals obtained by impulse excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyaguly, E.; Craştiu, I.; Deac, S.; Gozman-Pop, C.; Drăgănescu, G.; Bereteu, L.

    2018-01-01

    Most of the surface coatings are based on the synthetic polymers, which are substances composed from very large molecules that form tough, flexible, adhesive films when applied to surfaces. The other components of surface coverings materials are pigments that provide colour, opacity, gloss and other properties. Surface coatings are two-phase composite materials: constitute a polymer matrix on the one side, and on the other side of the pigments and additives dispersed in the matrix. Their role is not only aesthetically but also to ensure anticorrosive protection or even improve some mechanical properties of coated surfaces. In this paper it will follow, starting from the mechanical properties of the substrate, the metallic sheet in general, to determine the new properties of the assembly of substrate and the two coating layers, also the determination of mechanical properties of the layers. From the analysis of vibroacoustic signals obtained by the impulse excitation of the sample, one can determine the elasticity modulus. These results come to validate the results based on finite element analysis (FEA) of the same samples.

  9. "Effect of nano-filled surface coating agent on fluoride release from conventional glass ionomer cement: an in vitro trial".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, S; Nandlal, B

    2013-01-01

    To overcome the drawbacks of glass ionomer cement of sensitivity to initial desiccation and moisture contamination the use of surface coating agent is recommended. The search in this area led to invent of use of nanofillers in surface coating agent, but its effect on fluoride release is not clear. The aim of this study is to evaluate and compare the fluoride release from conventional glass ionomer cement with and without surface coating agent. This in vitro study comprised of total 80 samples (40 samples of each with and without surface coating). Specimens were prepared, G coat plus was applied and light cured. Fluoride release of the sample was measured every 24 h for 7 days and weekly from 7th to 21 st day using Sension4 pH/ISE/MV Meter. Descriptive Statistics, Repeated Measure ANOVA, Paired Sample t-test, Independent Sample t-test, Scheffe post hoc test. Mean values clearly reveal a significant decrease in the fluoride release from day 1 to day 21 for both groups. Non-coated group released significantly more fluoride than surface coated group (Pagent will reduce the amount of fluoride released into oral environment as compared to non-coated group and at the same time releasing fluoride into surrounding cavity walls to create zones of inhibition into the cavity floor to help internal remineralization.

  10. Microstructures of friction surfaced coatings. A TEM study; Gefuege durch Reibauftragschweissen aufgetragener Beschichtungen. Eine TEM-Untersuchung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akram, Javed; Kalvala, Prasad Rao; Misra, Mano [Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering; Dilip, J. John Samuel [Louisville Univ., KY (United States). Dept. of Industrial Engineering; Pal, Deepankar; Stucker, Brent [Louisville Univ., KY (United States). Dept. of Industrial Engineering; 3D Sim, Park City, UT (United States)

    2016-05-15

    The microstructures of dissimilar metal welds between 9Cr-1Mo (Modified) (P91) and austenitic stainless steel (AISI 304) with Ni-based alloy interlayers (Inconel 625, Inconel 600 and Inconel 800H) are reported. These interlayers were deposited by the friction surfacing method one over the other on P91 alloy, which was finally friction welded to AISI 304. In this paper, the results of microstructural evolution in the friction surfaced coated interlayers (Inconel 625, 600, 800H) are reported. For comparative purposes, the microstructures of consumable rods (Inconel 625, 600, 800H) and dissimilar metal base metals (P91 and AISI 304) were also reported. Friction surfaced coatings exhibited dynamic recrystallization. In friction surfaced coatings, the carbide particles were found to be finer and distributed uniformly throughout the matrix, compared to their rod counterparts.

  11. Sliding friction and wear behaviors of surface-coated natural serpentine mineral powders as lubricant additive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Baosen; Xu Yi; Gao Fei; Shi Peijing; Xu Binshi; Wu Yixiong

    2011-01-01

    This work aims to investigate the friction and wear properties of surface-coated natural serpentine powders (SP) suspended in diesel engine oil using an Optimal SRV oscillating friction and wear tester. The worn surface was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Results indicated that the additives can improve the wear resistance and decrease friction coefficient of carbon steel friction couples. The 0.5 wt% content of serpentine powders is found most efficient in reducing friction and wear at the load of 50 N. The SEM and XPS analysis results demonstrate that a tribofilm forms on the worn surface, which is responsible for the decrease in friction and wear, mainly with iron oxides, silicon oxides, graphite and organic compounds.

  12. Performance of coils wound from long lengths of surface-coated, reacted, BSCCO-2212 conductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, M.S.; Hazelton, D.W.; Gardner, M.T. [Intermagnetics General Corp., Latham, NY (United States)] [and others

    1996-10-01

    React-before-wind surface-coated BSCCO-2212 is being established as a relatively low cost HTS conductor for practical applications. Quality tape is presently being manufactured in 450-500m lengths at a cost estimated to be 1/3-1/5 of the industry costs of BSCCO-2223 powder-in-tube tape. Robust, mechanically sound coils for applications ranging from NMR insert magnets to transformer windings are being made from this BSCCO-2212 tape. The coils have performed consistently through test and thermal cycling without degradation and as projected from short sample measurements. A hybrid approach, which uses mainly BSCCO- 2212 augmented by BSCCO-2223 conductor in the high radial field end regions, is expected to halve magnet system costs.

  13. Surface coating of jeungjing wood (Paraserianthes Falcataria (L) NIELSEN) with acrylate resins by using radiation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suhariyono, Gatot

    1998-01-01

    An experiment on surface coating with acrylate resins has been done by using radiation technique to improve the quality and added value of jeunjing wood (Paraserianthes Falcataria (L) NIELSEN). Doses used in Electron Beam (BE) radiation were 20, 40, and 60 kGy. Epoxy acrylate and ester acrylate resins were used as coating materials after added with tripropylene glycol diacylate (TPGDA) monomer, 2,2-dimethyl-2hidroxy acetophenone (Darocur 1173) photoinitiator and talc as base coat. Top coat consists of este acrylate Setacure AM 548, after added with titanium dioxide OK 412 as additive respectively. Titanium dioxides in the mixture were varied at the concentration level of 0, 2, 4 and 6 % by weight. Conventional coating as comparison was carried out by using varnish as coating material. The results showed that the properties of film on jeunjing wood by EB curing are better than that of conventional one. (authors)

  14. Effects of surface coatings on the light collection in plastic scintillators used for radioxenon detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bläckberg, L; Klintenberg, M; Sjöstrand, H; Ringbom, A

    2012-01-01

    Atomic layer deposition coatings are under investigation to reduce the diffusion of radioxenon into plastic scintillators. This paper investigates the impact of such surface coating on the light collection efficiency in a cylindrical geometry. A high and uniform light collection efficiency is important to preserve detector resolution. Monte Carlo simulations and measurements have been carried out to study the influence of coating thickness, refractive index and surface quality. It was found that it is important to achieve a smooth coating and good optical match between the refractive indices of the coating and the plastic scintillator. Taking into account these considerations, the detector under study could be coated without a significant degradation of its resolution.

  15. Materials selection of surface coatings in an advanced size reduction facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, J.L.; Younger, A.F.

    1980-01-01

    A materials selection test program was conducted to characterize optimum interior surface coatings for an advanced size reduction facility. The equipment to be processed by this facility consists of stainless steel apparatus (e.g., glove boxes, piping, and tanks) used for the chemical recovery of plutonium. Test results showed that a primary requirement for a satisfactory coating is ease of decontamination. A closely related concern is the resistance of paint films to nitric acid - plutonium environments. A vinyl copolymer base paint was the only coating, of eight paints tested, with properties that permitted satisfactory decontamination of plutonium and also performed equal to or better than the other paints in the chemical resistance, radiation stability, and impact tests

  16. Surface coating and magnetic properties of Sm2Fe17Nx materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguchi, K.; Machida, K.; Nishimura, M.; Adachi, G.

    1998-01-01

    Surface coating for finely ground Sm 2 Fe 17 N x (x=-3) powders (diameter 2 Fe 17 N x and (Zn,In)/Cu/Sm 2 Fe 17 N x , showed good oxidation-resistivity and thermal stability compared with the samples prepared without the Cu metal pre-coating, Zn/Sm 2 Fe 17 N x . The epoxy resin- or In metal-bonded magnets produced from the above coated powders, Zn/Cu/Sm 2 Fe 17 N x and (Zn,In)/Cu/Sm 2 Fe 17 N x , under warm molding conditions provided a flux loss of around -15% after standing in air at 120 C for 1000 h, but 30-40% for the conventional injection-type resin-bonded magnets prepared from Nd-Fe-B powders. (orig.)

  17. Surface coating affects behavior of metallic nanoparticles in a biological environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darija Domazet Jurašin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Silver (AgNPs and maghemite, i.e., superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs are promising candidates for new medical applications, which implies the need for strict information regarding their physicochemical characteristics and behavior in a biological environment. The currently developed AgNPs and SPIONs encompass a myriad of sizes and surface coatings, which affect NPs properties and may improve their biocompatibility. This study is aimed to evaluate the effects of surface coating on colloidal stability and behavior of AgNPs and SPIONs in modelled biological environments using dynamic and electrophoretic light scattering techniques, as well as transmission electron microscopy to visualize the behavior of the NP. Three dispersion media were investigated: ultrapure water (UW, biological cell culture medium without addition of protein (BM, and BM supplemented with common serum protein (BMP. The obtained results showed that different coating agents on AgNPs and SPIONs produced different stabilities in the same biological media. The combination of negative charge and high adsorption strength of coating agents proved to be important for achieving good stability of metallic NPs in electrolyte-rich fluids. Most importantly, the presence of proteins provided colloidal stabilization to metallic NPs in biological fluids regardless of their chemical composition, surface structure and surface charge. In addition, an assessment of AgNP and SPION behavior in real biological fluids, rat whole blood (WhBl and blood plasma (BlPl, revealed that the composition of a biological medium is crucial for the colloidal stability and type of metallic NP transformation. Our results highlight the importance of physicochemical characterization and stability evaluation of metallic NPs in a variety of biological systems including as many NP properties as possible.

  18. Applied electric field enhances DRG neurite growth: influence of stimulation media, surface coating and growth supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Matthew D.; Willits, Rebecca Kuntz

    2009-08-01

    Electrical therapies have been found to aid repair of nerve injuries and have been shown to increase and direct neurite outgrowth during stimulation. This enhanced neural growth existed even after the electric field (EF) or stimulation was removed, but the factors that may influence the enhanced growth, such as stimulation media or surface coating, have not been fully investigated. This study characterized neurite outgrowth and branching under various conditions: EF magnitude and application time, ECM surface coating, medium during EF application and growth supplements. A uniform, low-magnitude EF (24 or 44 V m-1) was applied to dissociated chick embryo dorsal root ganglia seeded on collagen or laminin-coated surfaces. During the growth period, cells were either exposed to NGF or N2, and during stimulation cells were exposed to either unsupplemented media (Ca2+) or PBS (no Ca2+). Parallel controls for each experiment included cells exposed to the chamber with no stimulation and cells remaining outside the chamber. After brief electrical stimulation (10 min), neurite length significantly increased 24 h after application for all conditions studied. Of particular interest, increased stimulation time (10-100 min) further enhanced neurite length on laminin but not on collagen surfaces. Neurite branching was not affected by stimulation on any surface, and no preferential growth of neurites was noted after stimulation. Overall, the results of this report suggest that short-duration electric stimulation is sufficient to enhance neurite length under a variety of conditions. While further data are needed to fully elucidate a mechanism for this increased growth, these data suggest that one focus of those investigations should be the interaction between the growth cone and the substrata.

  19. Bacteriomimetic poly-γ-glutamic acid surface coating for hemocompatibility and safety of nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Gayong; Kim, Dongyoon; Kim, Jinyoung; Suh, Min Sung; Kim, Youn Kyu; Oh, Yu-Kyoung

    2017-08-01

    Poly-γ-glutamic acid (PGA), a major component of the bacterial capsule, is known to confer hydrophilicity to bacterial surfaces and protect bacteria from interactions with blood cells. We tested whether applying a bacteriomimetic surface coating of PGA modulates interactions of nanomaterials with blood cells or affects their safety and photothermal antitumor efficacy. Amphiphilic PGA (APGA), prepared by grafting phenylalanine residues to PGA, was used to anchor PGA to reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanosheets, a model of hydrophobic nanomaterials. Surface coating of rGO with bacterial capsule-like APGA yielded APGA-tethered rGO nanosheets (ArGO). ArGO nanosheets remained stable in serum over 4 weeks, whereas rGO in plain form precipitated in serum within 5 minutes. Moreover, ArGO did not interact with blood cells, whereas rGO in plain form or as a physical mixture with PGA formed aggregates with blood cells. Mice administered ArGO at a dose of 50 mg/kg showed 100% survival and no hepatic or renal toxicity. No mice survived exposure at the same dose of rGO or a PGA/rGO mixture. Following intravenous administration, ArGO showed a greater distribution to tumors and prolonged tumor retention compared with other nanosheet formulations. Irradiation with near-infrared light completely ablated tumors in mice treated with ArGO. Our results indicate that a bacteriomimetic surface modification of nanomaterials with bacterial capsule-like APGA improves the stability in blood, biocompatibility, tumor distribution, and photothermal antitumor efficacy of rGO. Although APGA was used here to coat the surfaces of rGO, it could be applicable to coat surfaces of other hydrophobic nanomaterials.

  20. Genotoxicity assessment of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with different particle sizes and surface coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yanping; Xia, Qiyue; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Shuyang; Cheng, Feng; Wang, Li; Li, Hongxia; Xiao, Kai; Zhong, Zhihui

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) have been widely used for various biomedical applications such as magnetic resonance imaging and drug delivery. However, their potential toxic effects, including genotoxicity, need to be thoroughly understood. In the present study, the genotoxicity of IONPs with different particle sizes (10, 30 nm) and surface coatings (PEG, PEI) were assessed using three standard genotoxicity assays, the Salmonella typhimurium reverse mutation assay (Ames test), the in vitro mammalian chromosome aberration test, and the in vivo micronucleus assay. In the Ames test, SMG-10 (PEG coating, 10 nm) showed a positive mutagenic response in all the five test bacterial strains with and without metabolic activation, whereas SEI-10 (PEI coating, 10 nm) showed no mutagenesis in all tester strains regardless of metabolic activation. SMG-30 (PEG coating, 30 nm) was not mutagenic in the absence of metabolic activation, and became mutagenic in the presence of metabolic activation. In the chromosomal aberration test, no increase in the incidence of chromosomal aberrations was observed for all three IONPs. In the in vivo micronucleus test, there was no evidence of increased micronuclei frequencies for all three IONPs, indicating that they were not clastogenic in vivo. Taken together, our results demonstrated that IONPs with PEG coating exhibited mutagenic activity without chromosomal and clastogenic abnormalities, and smaller IONPs (SMG-10) had stronger mutagenic potential than larger ones (SMG-30); whereas, IONPs with SEI coating (SEI-10) were not genotoxic in all three standard genotoxicity assays. This suggests that the mutagenicity of IONPs depends on their particle size and surface coating. (paper)

  1. Electric double layer capacitance on hierarchical porous carbons in an organic electrolyte

    OpenAIRE

    Yamada, Hirotoshi; Moriguchi, Isamu; Kudo, Tetsuichi

    2008-01-01

    Nanoporous carbons were prepared by using colloidal crystal as a template. Nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms and transmission electron microscope images revealed that the porous carbons exhibit hierarchical porous structures with meso/macropores and micropores. Electric double layer capacitor performance of the porous carbons was investigated in an organic electrolyte of 1 M LiClO4 in propylene carbonate and dimethoxy ethane. The hierarchical porous carbons exhibited large specific dou...

  2. Nanoporous Polymeric Grating-Based Biosensors

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Tieyu

    2012-05-02

    We demonstrate the utilization of an interferometrically created nanoporous polymeric gratings as a platform for biosensing applications. Aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES)-functionalized nanoporous polymeric gratings was fabricated by combining holographic interference patterning and APTES-functionalization of pre-polymer syrup. The successful detection of multiple biomolecules indicates that the biofunctionalized nanoporous polymeric gratings can act as biosensing platforms which are label-free, inexpensive, and applicable as high-throughput assays. Copyright © 2010 by ASME.

  3. Nanoporous Polymeric Grating-Based Biosensors

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Tieyu; Hsiao, Vincent; Zheng, Yue Bing; Huang, Tony Jun

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate the utilization of an interferometrically created nanoporous polymeric gratings as a platform for biosensing applications. Aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES)-functionalized nanoporous polymeric gratings was fabricated by combining holographic interference patterning and APTES-functionalization of pre-polymer syrup. The successful detection of multiple biomolecules indicates that the biofunctionalized nanoporous polymeric gratings can act as biosensing platforms which are label-free, inexpensive, and applicable as high-throughput assays. Copyright © 2010 by ASME.

  4. Threading DNA through nanopores for biosensing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fyta, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This review outlines the recent achievements in the field of nanopore research. Nanopores are typically used in single-molecule experiments and are believed to have a high potential to realize an ultra-fast and very cheap genome sequencer. Here, the various types of nanopore materials, ranging from biological to 2D nanopores are discussed together with their advantages and disadvantages. These nanopores can utilize different protocols to read out the DNA nucleobases. Although, the first nanopore devices have reached the market, many still have issues which do not allow a full realization of a nanopore sequencer able to sequence the human genome in about a day. Ways to control the DNA, its dynamics and speed as the biomolecule translocates the nanopore in order to increase the signal-to-noise ratio in the reading-out process are examined in this review. Finally, the advantages, as well as the drawbacks in distinguishing the DNA nucleotides, i.e., the genetic information, are presented in view of their importance in the field of nanopore sequencing. (topical review)

  5. A nanoporous gold membrane for sensing applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swe Zin Oo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Design and fabrication of three-dimensionally structured, gold membranes containing hexagonally close-packed microcavities with nanopores in the base, are described. Our aim is to create a nanoporous structure with localized enhancement of the fluorescence or Raman scattering at, and in the nanopore when excited with light of approximately 600 nm, with a view to provide sensitive detection of biomolecules. A range of geometries of the nanopore integrated into hexagonally close-packed assemblies of gold micro-cavities was first evaluated theoretically. The optimal size and shape of the nanopore in a single microcavity were then considered to provide the highest localized plasmon enhancement (of fluorescence or Raman scattering at the very center of the nanopore for a bioanalyte traversing through. The optimized design was established to be a 1200 nm diameter cavity of 600 nm depth with a 50 nm square nanopore with rounded corners in the base. A gold 3D-structured membrane containing these sized microcavities with the integrated nanopore was successfully fabricated and ‘proof of concept’ Raman scattering experiments are described. Keywords: Nanopore, Polymer sphere, Gold membrane, Plasmons, Sensing, SERS

  6. 40 CFR 63.5752 - How do I calculate the organic HAP content of aluminum recreational boat surface coatings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Manufacturing Standards for Aluminum Recreational Boat Surface Coating Operations § 63.5752 How do I calculate... fraction of organic HAP in coating i, kilograms of organic HAP per kilogram of coating. p = number of..., activator, or additive k, kilograms per liter. Wk= mass fraction of organic HAP in thinner, activator, or...

  7. 16 CFR 1145.2 - Paint (and other similar surface-coating materials) containing lead; toys, children's articles...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... materials) containing lead; toys, children's articles, and articles of furniture bearing such paint (or... materials) containing lead; toys, children's articles, and articles of furniture bearing such paint (or...) Paint and other similar surface-coating materials containing lead and toys, children's articles, and...

  8. Nano-anisotropic surface coating based on drug immobilized pendant polymer to suppress macrophage adhesion response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaladhar, K; Renz, H; Sharma, C P

    2015-04-01

    Exploring drug molecules for material design, to harness concepts of nano-anisotropy and ligand-receptor interactions, are rather elusive. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the bottom-up design of a single-step and bio-interactive polymeric surface coating, based on drug based pendant polymer. This can be applied on to polystyrene (PS) substrates, to suppress macrophage adhesion and spreading. The drug molecule is used in this coating for two purposes. The first one is drug as a "pendant" group, to produce nano-anisotropic properties that can enable adhesion of the coatings to the substrate. The second purpose is to use the drug as a "ligand", to produce ligand-receptor interaction, between the bound ligand and receptors of albumin, to develop a self-albumin coat over the surface, by the preferential binding of albumin in biological environment, to reduce macrophage adhesion. Our in silico studies show that, diclofenac (DIC) is an ideal drug based "ligand" for albumin. This can also act as a "pendant" group with planar aryl groups. The combination of these two factors can help to harness, both nano-anisotropic properties and biological functions to the polymeric coating. Further, the drug, diclofenac (DIC) is immobilized to the polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), to develop the pendant polymer (PVA-DIC). The interaction of bound DIC with the albumin is a ligand-receptor based interaction, as per the studies by circular dichroism, differential scanning calorimetry, and SDS-PAGE. The non-polar π-π* interactions are regulating; the interactions between PVA bound DIC-DIC interactions, leading to "nano-anisotropic condensation" to form distinct "nano-anisotropic segments" inside the polymeric coating. This is evident from, the thermo-responsiveness and uniform size of nanoparticles, as well as regular roughness in the surface coating, with similar properties as that of nanoparticles. In addition, the hydrophobic DIC-polystyrene (PS) interactions, between the PVA

  9. Influence of Nanopore Shapes on Thermal Conductivity of Two-Dimensional Nanoporous Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cong-Liang; Huang, Zun; Lin, Zi-Zhen; Feng, Yan-Hui; Zhang, Xin-Xin; Wang, Ge

    2016-12-01

    The influence of nanopore shapes on the electronic thermal conductivity (ETC) was studied in this paper. It turns out that with same porosity, the ETC will be quite different for different nanopore shapes, caused by the different channel width for different nanopore shapes. With same channel width, the influence of different nanopore shapes can be approximately omitted if the nanopore is small enough (smaller than 0.5 times EMFP in this paper). The ETC anisotropy was discovered for triangle nanopores at a large porosity with a large nanopore size, while there is a similar ETC for small pore size. It confirmed that the structure difference for small pore size may not be seen by electrons in their moving.

  10. On the specific surface area of nanoporous materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Detsi, E.; De Jong, E.; Zinchenko, A.; Vukovic, Z.; Vukovic, I.; Punzhin, S.; Loos, K.; ten Brinke, G.; De Raedt, H. A.; Onck, P. R.; De Hosson, J. T. M.

    2011-01-01

    A proper quantification of the specific surface area of nanoporous materials is necessary for a better understanding of the properties that are affected by the high surface-area-to-volume ratio of nanoporous metals, nanoporous polymers and nanoporous ceramics. In this paper we derive an analytical

  11. Influence of Surface Coating of Magnetic Nanoparticles on Mechanical Properties of Polymer Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarar, Ecem; Karakas, Gizem; Rende, Deniz; Ozisik, Rahmi; Malta, Seyda

    Polymer nanocomposites have emerged as promising materials due to improved properties when compared with conventional bulk polymers. Nanofillers are natural or synthetic organic/inorganic particles that are less than 100 nm in at least one dimension. Even the addition of trace amounts of nanofillers to polymers may lad to unique combinations of properties. Among variety of inorganic nanofillers, iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles are of great interest due to their unique physical and chemical properties, such as low toxicity, biocompatibility, large magnetization and conductivity, owing to their extremely small size and large specific surface area. In this study, approximately 8-10 nm magnetic nanoparticles coated with either citric acid or oleic acid are synthesized and blended with poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) or poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO). The hydrophobicity/hydrophillicity of the polymer and the surface coating on the iron oxide nanoparticles are exploited to control the dispersion state of nanoparticles, and the effect of dispersion on mechanical and thermal properties of the nanocomposite are investigated via experimental methods such as dynamic mechanical analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. This material is based upon work partially supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. CMMI-1538730 and TUBITAK 112M666.

  12. Engineered Chimeric Peptides as Antimicrobial Surface Coating Agents toward Infection-Free Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazici, Hilal; O'Neill, Mary B; Kacar, Turgay; Wilson, Brandon R; Oren, E Emre; Sarikaya, Mehmet; Tamerler, Candan

    2016-03-02

    Prevention of bacterial colonization and consequent biofilm formation remains a major challenge in implantable medical devices. Implant-associated infections are not only a major cause of implant failures but also their conventional treatment with antibiotics brings further complications due to the escalation in multidrug resistance to a variety of bacterial species. Owing to their unique properties, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have gained significant attention as effective agents to combat colonization of microorganisms. These peptides have been shown to exhibit a wide spectrum of activities with specificity to a target cell while having a low tendency for developing bacterial resistance. Engineering biomaterial surfaces that feature AMP properties, therefore, offer a promising approach to prevent implant infections. Here, we engineered a chimeric peptide with bifunctionality that both forms a robust solid-surface coating while presenting antimicrobial property. The individual domains of the chimeric peptides were evaluated for their solid-binding kinetics to titanium substrate as well as for their antimicrobial properties in solution. The antimicrobial efficacy of the chimeric peptide on the implant material was evaluated in vitro against infection by a variety of bacteria, including Streptococcus mutans, Staphylococcus. epidermidis, and Escherichia coli, which are commonly found in oral and orthopedic implant related surgeries. Our results demonstrate significant improvement in reducing bacterial colonization onto titanium surfaces below the detectable limit. Engineered chimeric peptides with freely displayed antimicrobial domains could be a potential solution for developing infection-free surfaces by engineering implant interfaces with highly reduced bacterial colonization property.

  13. An investigation on the performance characteristics of solar flat plate collector with different selective surface coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madhukeshwara, N. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, B.I.E.T, Davanagere, Karnataka (India); Prakash, E.S. [Department of Studies in Mechanical Engineering, U.B.D.T.C.E, Davanagere, Karnataka (India)

    2012-07-01

    In the present work, investigations are made to study performance characteristics of solar flat plate collector with different selective surface coatings. Flat plate collector is one of the important solar energy trapping device which uses air or water as working fluid. Of the many solar collector concepts presently being developed, the relative simple flat plate solar collector has found the widest application so far. Its characteristics are known, and compared with other collector types, it is the easiest and least expensive to fabricate, install, and maintain. Moreover, it is capable of using both the diffuse and the direct beam solar radiation. For residential and commercial use, flat plate collectors can produce heat at sufficiently high temperatures to heat swimming pools, domestic hot water, and buildings; they also can operate a cooling unit, particularly if the incident sunlight is increased by the use of reflector. Temperatures up to 70 C are easily attained by flat plate collectors. With very careful engineering using special surfaces, reflectors to increase the incident radiation and heat resistant materials, higher operating temperatures are feasible.

  14. Influence of organic surface coatings on the sorption of anticonvulsants on mineral surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Shen; Cwiertny, David M

    2013-10-01

    Here, we explore the role that sorption to mineral surfaces plays in the fate of two commonly encountered effluent-derived pharmaceuticals, the anticonvulsants phenytoin and carbamazepine. Adsorption isotherms and pH-edge experiments are consistent with electrostatics governing anticonvulsant uptake on metal oxides typically found in soil and aquifer material (e.g., Si, Al, Fe, Mn, and Ti). Appreciable, albeit limited, adsorption was observed only for phenytoin, which is anionic above pH 8.3, on the iron oxides hematite and ferrihydrite. Adsorption increased substantially in the presence of cationic and anionic surfactants, species also commonly encountered in wastewater effluent. For carbamazepine, we propose the enhanced uptake results entirely from hydrophobic interactions with apolar tails of surfactant surface coatings. For phenytoin, adsorption also arises from the ability of surfactants to alter the net charge of the mineral surface and thereby further enhance favorable electrostatic interactions with its anionic form. Collectively, our results demonstrate that although pristine mineral surfaces are likely not major sinks for phenytoin and carbamazepine in the environment, their alteration with organic matter, particularly surfactants, can considerably increase their ability to retain these emerging pollutants in subsurface systems.

  15. Development of surface coatings for air-lubricated, compliant journal bearings to 650 C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhushan, B.; Gray, S.

    1978-01-01

    Surface coatings for an air-lubricated, compliant journal for an automotive gas turbine engine were tested to find those capable of withstanding temperatures of either 540 C (1000 F) or 650 C (1200 F). Also, the coatings have to be capable of surviving the start-stop sliding contact cycles prior to rotor lift-off and at touchdown. Selected coating combinations were tested in start-stop tests at 14 kPa (2 psi) loading for 2000 cycles at room and maximum temperatures. Specific coating recommendations are: Cdo and graphite on foil versus chrome carbide on journal up to 370 C (700 F); NASA PS-120 (Tribaloy 400, silver, and CaF2) on journal versus uncoated foil up to 540 C (1000 F); and chemically adherent Cr2O3 on journal and foil up to 650 C (1200 F). The chemically adherent Cr2O3 coating system was further tested successfully at 35 kPa (5 psi) loading for 2000 start-stop cycles.

  16. Effect of Anti-Sticking Nanostructured Surface Coating on Minimally Invasive Electrosurgical Device in Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Han-Yi; Ou, Keng-Liang; Chiang, Hsi-Jen; Lin, Li-Hsiang

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the extent of thermal injury in the brain after the use of a minimally invasive electrosurgical device with a nanostructured copper-doped diamond-like carbon (DLC-Cu) surface coating. To effectively utilize an electrosurgical device in clinical surgery, it is important to decrease the thermal injury to the adjacent tissues. The surface characteristics and morphology of DLC-Cu thin film was evaluated using a contact angle goniometer, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. Three-dimensional biomedical brain models were reconstructed using magnetic resonance images to simulate the electrosurgical procedure. Results indicated that the temperature was reduced significantly when a minimally invasive electrosurgical device with a DLC-Cu thin film coating (DLC-Cu-SS) was used. Temperatures decreased with the use of devices with increasing film thickness. Thermographic data revealed that surgical temperatures in an animal model were significantly lower with the DLC-Cu-SS electrosurgical device compared to an untreated device. Furthermore, the DLC-Cu-SS device created a relatively small region of injury and lateral thermal range. As described above, the biomedical nanostructured film reduced excessive thermal injury with the use of a minimally invasive electrosurgical device in the brain.

  17. Modeled heating and surface erosion comparing motile (gas borne) and stationary (surface coating) inert particle additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckingham, A.C.; Siekhaus, W.J.

    1982-01-01

    The unsteady, non-similar, chemically reactive, turbulent boundary layer equations are modified for gas plus dispersed solid particle mixtures, for gas phase turbulent combustion reactions and for heterogeneous gas-solid surface erosive reactions. The exterior (ballistic core) edge boundary conditions for the solutions are modified to include dispersed particle influences on core propellant combustion-generated turbulence levels, combustion reactants and products, and reaction-induced, non-isentropic mixture states. The wall surface (in this study it is always steel) is considered either bare or coated with a fixed particle coating which is conceptually non-reactive, insulative, and non-ablative. Two families of solutions are compared. These correspond to: (1) consideration of gas-borne, free-slip, almost spontaneously mobile (motile) solid particle additives which influence the turbulent heat transfer at the uncoated steel surface and, in contrast, (2) consideration of particle-free, gas phase turbulent heat transfer to the insulated surface coated by stationary particles. Significant differences in erosive heat transfer are found in comparing the two families of solutions over a substantial range of interior ballistic flow conditions. The most effective influences on reducing erosive heat transfer appear to favor mobile, gas-borne particle additives

  18. UV Defined Nanoporous Liquid Core Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Mads Brøkner; Gopalakrishnan, Nimi; Ndoni, Sokol

    2011-01-01

    Nanoporous liquid core waveguides, where both core and cladding are made from the same material, are presented. The nanoporous polymer used is intrinsically hydrophobic, but selective UV exposure enables it to infiltrate with an aqueous solution, thus raising the refractive index from 1.26 to 1...

  19. Gyroid nanoporous scaffold for conductive polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Fengxiao; Schulte, Lars; Zhang, Weimin

    2011-01-01

    Conductive nanoporous polymers with interconnected large surface area have been prepared by depositing polypyrrole onto nanocavity walls of nanoporous 1,2-polybutadiene films with gyroid morphology. Vapor phase polymerization of pyrrole was used to generate ultrathin films and prevent pore blocking...

  20. Nanopore sensors : From hybrid to abiotic systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kocer, Armagan; Tauk, Lara; Dejardin, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    The use of nanopores of well controlled geometry for sensing molecules in solution is reviewed. Focus is concentrated especially on synthetic track-etch pores in polymer foils and on biological nanopores, i.e. ion channels. After a brief section about multipore sensors, specific attention is

  1. Nanoporous metals for advanced energy technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Ding, Yi

    2016-01-01

    This book covers the state-of-the-art research in nanoporous metals for potential applications in advanced energy fields, including proton exchange membrane fuel cells, Li batteries (Li ion, Li-S, and Li-O2), and supercapacitors. The related structural design and performance of nanoporous metals as well as possible mechanisms and challenges are fully addressed. The formation mechanisms of nanoporous metals during dealloying, the microstructures of nanoporous metals and characterization methods, as well as miscrostructural regulation of nanoporous metals through alloy design of precursors and surface diffusion control are also covered in detail. This is an ideal book for researchers, engineers, graduate students, and government/industry officers who are in charge of R&D investments and strategy related to energy technologies.

  2. Nanopores formed by DNA origami: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Nicholas A W; Keyser, Ulrich F

    2014-10-01

    Nanopores have emerged over the past two decades to become an important technique in single molecule experimental physics and biomolecule sensing. Recently DNA nanotechnology, in particular DNA origami, has been used for the formation of nanopores in insulating materials. DNA origami is a very attractive technique for the formation of nanopores since it enables the construction of 3D shapes with precise control over geometry and surface functionality. DNA origami has been applied to nanopore research by forming hybrid architectures with solid state nanopores and by direct insertion into lipid bilayers. This review discusses recent experimental work in this area and provides an outlook for future avenues and challenges. Copyright © 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Selective hierarchical patterning of silicon nanostructures via soft nanostencil lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Ke; Ding, Junjun; Wathuthanthri, Ishan; Choi, Chang-Hwan

    2017-11-17

    It is challenging to hierarchically pattern high-aspect-ratio nanostructures on microstructures using conventional lithographic techniques, where photoresist (PR) film is not able to uniformly cover on the microstructures as the aspect ratio increases. Such non-uniformity causes poor definition of nanopatterns over the microstructures. Nanostencil lithography can provide an alternative means to hierarchically construct nanostructures on microstructures via direct deposition or plasma etching through a free-standing nanoporous membrane. In this work, we demonstrate the multiscale hierarchical fabrication of high-aspect-ratio nanostructures on microstructures of silicon using a free-standing nanostencil, which is a nanoporous membrane consisting of metal (Cr), PR, and anti-reflective coating. The nanostencil membrane is used as a deposition mask to define Cr nanodot patterns on the predefined silicon microstructures. Then, deep reactive ion etching is used to hierarchically create nanostructures on the microstructures using the Cr nanodots as an etch mask. With simple modification of the main fabrication processes, high-aspect-ratio nanopillars are selectively defined only on top of the microstructures, on bottom, or on both top and bottom.

  4. Designing robust alumina nanowires-on-nanopores structures: superhydrophobic surfaces with slippery or sticky water adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Shan; Tian, Dong; Miao, Xinrui; Yang, Xiaojun; Deng, Wenli

    2013-11-01

    Hierarchical alumina surfaces with different morphologies were fabricated by a simple one-step anodization method. These alumina films were fabricated by a new raw material: silica gel plate (aluminum foil with a low purity of 97.17%). The modulation of anodizing time enabled the formation of nanowires-on-nanopores hybrid nanostructures having controllable nanowires topographies through a self-assembly process. The resultant structures were demonstrated to be able to achieve superhydrophobicity without any hydrophobic coating layer. More interestingly, it is found that the as-prepared superhydrophobic alumina surfaces exhibited high contrast water adhesion. Hierarchical alumina film with nanowire bunches-on-nanopores (WBOP) morphology presents extremely slippery property which can obtain a sliding angle (SA) as low as 1°, nanowire pyramids-on-nanopores (WPOP) structure shows strongly sticky water adhesion with the adhesive ability to support 15 μL inverted water droplet at most. The obtained superhydrophobic alumina surfaces show remarkable mechanical durability even treated by crimping or pressing without impact on the water-repellent performance. Moreover, the created surfaces also show excellent resistivity to ice water, boiling water, high temperature, organic solvent and oil contamination, which could expand their usefulness and efficacy in harsh conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Feasibility of Cathode Surface Coating Technology for High-Energy Lithium-ion and Beyond-Lithium-ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalluri, Sujith; Yoon, Moonsu; Jo, Minki; Liu, Hua Kun; Dou, Shi Xue; Cho, Jaephil; Guo, Zaiping

    2017-12-01

    Cathode material degradation during cycling is one of the key obstacles to upgrading lithium-ion and beyond-lithium-ion batteries for high-energy and varied-temperature applications. Herein, we highlight recent progress in material surface-coating as the foremost solution to resist the surface phase-transitions and cracking in cathode particles in mono-valent (Li, Na, K) and multi-valent (Mg, Ca, Al) ion batteries under high-voltage and varied-temperature conditions. Importantly, we shed light on the future of materials surface-coating technology with possible research directions. In this regard, we provide our viewpoint on a novel hybrid surface-coating strategy, which has been successfully evaluated in LiCoO 2 -based-Li-ion cells under adverse conditions with industrial specifications for customer-demanding applications. The proposed coating strategy includes a first surface-coating of the as-prepared cathode powders (by sol-gel) and then an ultra-thin ceramic-oxide coating on their electrodes (by atomic-layer deposition). What makes it appealing for industry applications is that such a coating strategy can effectively maintain the integrity of materials under electro-mechanical stress, at the cathode particle and electrode- levels. Furthermore, it leads to improved energy-density and voltage retention at 4.55 V and 45 °C with highly loaded electrodes (≈24 mg.cm -2 ). Finally, the development of this coating technology for beyond-lithium-ion batteries could be a major research challenge, but one that is viable. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Surface coatings on quartz grains in bentonites and their relevance to human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendlandt, Richard F.; Harrison, Wendy J.; Vaughan, David J.

    2007-01-01

    The cytotoxicity of quartz in the human lung is recognized to be dependent on both the inherent properties of the silica dust and external factors related to the history of the dust and including the presence of surface contamination. In this study, the physical and chemical surface properties of quartz grains in commercial bentonite deposits from the western (South Dakota) and southern (Alabama) USA were investigated. Measured quartz contents of bentonites range from 1.9 to 8.5 wt% with the <10 μm size fraction comprising 6-45% of this total. Trace element contents (Fe-Ti-Al) of quartz grains from any given bentonite are similar, indicating a single origin for the quartz with little if any contamination from other sources. Surface coatings are pervasive on all quartz grains and resist removal by repeated vigorous washings and reaction with HCl. Textural attributes and XPS and EDS analyses of these coatings are consistent with most being montmorillonite and, less frequently, mixtures of montmorillonite and opaline silica. Opaline silica (opal-A and opal-CT) occurs in two texturally distinct generations: an early massive grain-coating event and as later lepispheres. Montmorillonite coating thicknesses range from <1 μm to more than 10 μm thick. Surfaces of plagioclase, K-feldspar, and biotite grains are conspicuously devoid of montmorillonite coatings, but may show sparse distributions of opal-CT lepispheres. HRTEM has not confirmed a topotactic relationship or atomic structural concordance between montmorillonite coatings and underlying quartz grains. Alternatively, a precursor volcanic glass phase that coats the quartz surfaces during volcanic eruption and/or preferential early precipitation of opaline silica on quartz may provide substrates for development of montmorillonite coatings. Estimations of montmorillonite biodurability under pulmonary pH conditions suggest possible prolonged sequestration of respired bentonite quartz grains from contact with lung

  7. Generating Chondromimetic Mesenchymal Stem Cell Spheroids by Regulating Media Composition and Surface Coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridharan, BanuPriya; Laflin, Amy D; Detamore, Michael S

    2018-04-01

    Spheroids of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in cartilage tissue engineering have been shown to enhance regenerative potential owing to their 3D structure. In this study, we explored the possibility of priming spheroids under different media to replace the use of inductive surface coatings for chondrogenic differentiation. Rat bone marrow-derived MSCs were organized into cell spheroids by the hanging drop technique and subsequently cultured on hyaluronic acid (HA) coated or non-coated well plates under different cell media conditions. Endpoint analysis included cell viability, DNA and Glycosaminoglycan (GAG) and collagen content, gene expression and immunohistochemistry. For chondrogenic applications, MSC spheroids derived on non-coated surfaces outperformed the spheroids derived from HA-coated surfaces in matrix synthesis and collagen II gene expression. Spheroids on non-coated surfaces gave rise to the highest collagen and GAG when primed with medium containing insulin-like growth factor (IGF) for 1 week during spheroid formation. Spheroids that were grown in chondroinductive raw material-inclusive media such as aggrecan or chondroitin sulfate exhibited the highest Collagen II gene expression in the non-coated surface at 1 week. Media priming by growth factors and raw materials might be a more predictive influencer of chondrogenesis compared to inductive-surfaces. Such tailored bioactivity of the stem cell spheroids in the stage of the spheroid formation may give rise to a platform technology that may eventually produce spheroids capable of chondrogenesis achieved by mere media manipulation, skipping the need for additional culture on a modified surface, that paves the way for cost-effective technologies.

  8. Nanoporous carbon for electrochemical capacitors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegal, Michael P.; Bunker, Bruce Conrad; Limmer, Steven J.; Yelton, William Graham

    2010-05-01

    Nanoporous carbon (NPC) is a purely graphitic material with highly controlled densities ranging from less than 0.1 to 2.0 g/cm3, grown via pulsed-laser deposition. Decreasing the density of NPC increases the interplanar spacing between graphene-sheet fragments. This ability to tune the interplanar spacing makes NPC an ideal model system to study the behavior of carbon electrodes in electrochemical capacitors and batteries. We examine the capacitance of NPC films in alkaline and acidic electrolytes, and measure specific capacitances as high as 242 F/g.

  9. Nanoporous carbon for electrochemical capacitors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overmyer, Donald L.; Siegal, Michael P.; Bunker, Bruce Conrad; Limmer, Steven J.; Yelton, William Graham

    2010-04-01

    Nanoporous carbon (NPC) is a purely graphitic material with highly controlled densities ranging from less than 0.1 to 2.0 g/cm3, grown via pulsed-laser deposition. Decreasing the density of NPC increases the interplanar spacing between graphene-sheet fragments. This ability to tune the interplanar spacing makes NPC an ideal model system to study the behavior of carbon electrodes in electrochemical capacitors and batteries. We examine the capacitance of NPC films in alkaline and acidic electrolytes, and measure specific capacitances as high as 242 F/g.

  10. Thermal conductivity model for nanoporous thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Congliang; Zhao, Xinpeng; Regner, Keith; Yang, Ronggui

    2018-03-01

    Nanoporous thin films have attracted great interest because of their extremely low thermal conductivity and potential applications in thin thermal insulators and thermoelectrics. Although there are some numerical and experimental studies about the thermal conductivity of nanoporous thin films, a simplified model is still needed to provide a straightforward prediction. In this paper, by including the phonon scattering lifetimes due to film thickness boundary scattering, nanopore scattering and the frequency-dependent intrinsic phonon-phonon scattering, a fitting-parameter-free model based on the kinetic theory of phonon transport is developed to predict both the in-plane and the cross-plane thermal conductivities of nanoporous thin films. With input parameters such as the lattice constants, thermal conductivity, and the group velocity of acoustic phonons of bulk silicon, our model shows a good agreement with available experimental and numerical results of nanoporous silicon thin films. It illustrates that the size effect of film thickness boundary scattering not only depends on the film thickness but also on the size of nanopores, and a larger nanopore leads to a stronger size effect of the film thickness. Our model also reveals that there are different optimal structures for getting the lowest in-plane and cross-plane thermal conductivities.

  11. Adiabatic burst evaporation from bicontinuous nanoporous membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichilmann, Sachar; Rücker, Kerstin; Haase, Markus; Enke, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Evaporation of volatile liquids from nanoporous media with bicontinuous morphology and pore diameters of a few 10 nm is an ubiquitous process. For example, such drying processes occur during syntheses of nanoporous materials by sol–gel chemistry or by spinodal decomposition in the presence of solvents as well as during solution impregnation of nanoporous hosts with functional guests. It is commonly assumed that drying is endothermic and driven by non-equilibrium partial pressures of the evaporating species in the gas phase. We show that nearly half of the liquid evaporates in an adiabatic mode involving burst-like liquid-to-gas conversions. During single adiabatic burst evaporation events liquid volumes of up to 107 μm3 are converted to gas. The adiabatic liquid-to-gas conversions occur if air invasion fronts get unstable because of the built-up of high capillary pressures. Adiabatic evaporation bursts propagate avalanche-like through the nanopore systems until the air invasion fronts have reached new stable configurations. Adiabatic cavitation bursts thus compete with Haines jumps involving air invasion front relaxation by local liquid flow without enhanced mass transport out of the nanoporous medium and prevail if the mean pore diameter is in the range of a few 10 nm. The results reported here may help optimize membrane preparation via solvent-based approaches, solution-loading of nanopore systems with guest materials as well as routine use of nanoporous membranes with bicontinuous morphology and may contribute to better understanding of adsorption/desorption processes in nanoporous media. PMID:25926406

  12. Catalytic pyrolysis of Laminaria japonica over nanoporous catalysts using Py-GC/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeon Jong-Ki

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The catalytic pyrolysis of Laminaria japonica was carried out over a hierarchical meso-MFI zeolite (Meso-MFI and nanoporous Al-MCM-48 using pyrolysis gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS. The effect of the catalyst type on the product distribution and chemical composition of the bio-oil was examined using Py-GC/MS. The Meso-MFI exhibited a higher activity in deoxygenation and aromatization during the catalytic pyrolysis of L. japonica. Meanwhile, the catalytic activity of Al-MCM-48 was lower than that of Meso-MFI due to its weak acidity.

  13. Nanopore biosensors for detection of proteins and nucleic acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maglia, Giovanni; Soskine, Mikhael

    2014-01-01

    Described herein are nanopore biosensors based on a modified cytolysin protein. The nanopore biosensors accommodate macromoiecules including proteins and nucleic acids, and may additionally comprise ligands with selective binding properties.

  14. Effect of hierarchical pore structure on ALP expression of MC3T3-E1 cells on bioglass films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Cuixia; Zhuang, Junjun; Dong, Lingqing; Cheng, Kui; Weng, Wenjian

    2017-08-01

    Hierarchical porous bioglass films on the tantalum were designed to enhance osteointegration of metallic implants. The films were prepared by a sol-gel method using P123 as the mesopore template and polystyrene microsphere as the nanopore template. The films with 5.4nm mesopores and 100nm nanopores (MBG-100) elicited an obviously elongated morphology of the cultured MC3T3-E1 cells, as a result, a higher alkaline phosphatase level was expressed. It is suggested that the nanopores play an important role in regulating cellular behavior by initial protein adsorption through nanopore curvatures. The mesopores were proven very effective for loading rhBMP-2, and the rhBMP-2 loaded on MBG-100 films showed a better function of enhancing osteogenic differentiation, which is attributed to that the nanopore structure could expedite rhBMP-2 release and provide a microenvironment for intensifying the interaction of rhBMP-2 with the cells. Hence, the cell osteogenic differentiation can be enhanced by hierarchical porous bioglass films through both the porous structure and rhBMP-2 induction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Development of radiation curable surface coating based on soybean oil. part II: Evaluation of the prepared acrylated resin as surface coatings by using EB or UV sources for radiation curing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, M.S.; Said, H.M.; Moussa, I.M.

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a growing trend in using vegetable oils as raw materials in acylation production that can be cured by UV/EB systems. The acrylated resin formulates by using individually different functional acrylate monomers were prepared and cured by EB or UV sources. The characterization properties of the cured films were investigated in terms of pendulum hardness, bending, impact, gloss, adhesion and chemical tests. Other formulations were prepared by mixing a constant ratio of different functional acrylate monomers and exposed to UV or EB irradiation. The results showed that the hardness of cured films were increased by increasing the functionality of monomers with excellent adhesion for all formulations but at expense of other properties involving bending and impact tests. Therefore, it can be deduce that the hardness of the curing surface coating by using EB was found to be nearly twice the hardness of the curing surface coating by using UV irradiation. Also, the best formulations which have given good chemical and mechanical properties are (mono-di) functional acrylate monomer resin under EB and (mono-tri) functional acrylate monomer resin under UV irradiation

  16. Optimization of photoelectrochemical water splitting performance on hierarchical TiO 2 nanotube arrays

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Z.; Wang, Peng

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we show that by varying the voltages during two-step anodization the morphology of the hierarchical top-layer/bottom-tube TiO 2 (TiO 2 NTs) can be finely tuned between nanoring/nanotube, nanopore/nanotube, and nanohole-nanocave/nanotube morphologies. This allows us to optimize the photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting performance on the hierarchical TiO 2 NTs. The optimized photocurrent density and photoconversion efficiency in this study, occurring on the nanopore/nanotube TiO 2 NTs, were 1.59 mA cm -2 at 1.23 V vs. RHE and 0.84% respectively, which are the highest values ever reported on pristine TiO 2 materials under illumination of AM 1.5G. Our findings contribute to further improvement of the energy conversion efficiency of TiO 2-based devices.

  17. Optimization of photoelectrochemical water splitting performance on hierarchical TiO 2 nanotube arrays

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Z.

    2012-02-10

    In this paper, we show that by varying the voltages during two-step anodization the morphology of the hierarchical top-layer/bottom-tube TiO 2 (TiO 2 NTs) can be finely tuned between nanoring/nanotube, nanopore/nanotube, and nanohole-nanocave/nanotube morphologies. This allows us to optimize the photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting performance on the hierarchical TiO 2 NTs. The optimized photocurrent density and photoconversion efficiency in this study, occurring on the nanopore/nanotube TiO 2 NTs, were 1.59 mA cm -2 at 1.23 V vs. RHE and 0.84% respectively, which are the highest values ever reported on pristine TiO 2 materials under illumination of AM 1.5G. Our findings contribute to further improvement of the energy conversion efficiency of TiO 2-based devices.

  18. Directed self-assembly of nanoporous metallic- and bimetallic nanoparticle thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietsch, Torsten [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Konstanz (Germany); Gindy, Nabil; Fahmi, Amir [Department of Mechanical, Materials and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-01

    Nanoporous thin films attracted considerable interest due to potential applications in optical coatings, catalysis, sensors as well as electronic devices. Recently, such films were prepared by post deposition treatments. The present study is focused on the fabrication of nanoporous thin films via directed self-assembly of hybrid materials. Due to the nature of this process no additional treatments are necessary to develop the pores. Hierarchical nanoporous structures are fabricated directly via deposition of polymer templated Au-nanoparticles onto hydrophilic substrates. These films exhibit two different pore diameters and a total pore density of more than 10{sup 10} holes per cm{sup 2}. Control over the pore size is achieved by changing the molecular weight of the PS-b-P4VP diblock copolymer. Moreover, the porous morphology is used as a template to fabricate bimetallic nanostructured thin films. Such well-defined nanostructures, not only exhibit unique physical properties but also provide control over the hydrophobicity of the coated surfaces.

  19. Sealing-free fast-response paraffin/nanoporous gold hybrid actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xing-Long; Jin, Hai-Jun

    2017-09-01

    Paraffin-based actuators can deliver large actuation strokes and high actuation stress, but often suffer from a low response rate and leaking problems. Here, we report a new paraffin/metal hybrid actuator, which was fabricated by infiltrating nanoporous gold with paraffin. It exhibits a fast actuation rate owing to the high thermal conductivity of the inter-connected metal phase, and requires no external sealing because liquid paraffin can be well confined in nanoscale channels, due to the large capillarity. We found that in this hybrid actuator, the stress generated by actuation is negligibly small when the characteristic size of the nanoporous gold (L) is above ˜70 nm, and increases dramatically with a decreasing size when L paraffin wax—the paraffin in smaller pores can sustain larger tensile stress, and thus the contraction of paraffin during cooling can be translated into larger compression stress and strain energy in a metal framework, leading to a larger actuation stress and energy. We also demonstrate that complex actuation motions can be achieved by incorporating hierarchical-structured nanoporous metal with paraffin.

  20. Ultrasensitive nonenzymatic sensing of glucose on Ni(OH)2-coated nanoporous gold film with two pairs of electron mediators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Man-man; Yin, Xiang-le; Zhou, Chao-hui; Xia, Yue; Huang, Wei; Li, Zelin

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Ni(OH) 2 -coated nanoporous Au film was facilely prepared by electrochemical methods. • Incorporation of Ni(OH) 2 into/on nanoporous Au engendered mutual stabilization. • Ni(II)/Ni(III) and Au/Au(I) co-mediated electrocatalytic oxidation of glucose. • A 4 nm Ni(OH) 2 coating significantly improved electrocatalysis and sensing of NPGF. • The sensor was successfully applied to detect glucose in human blood serum. - Abstract: Fabrication of new advanced nonenzymatic electrochemical nano-sensors of glucose has recently attracted intensive attention. In this work, we designed a novel ultrasensitive nonenzymatic amperometric sensor for detection of glucose by incorporating two pairs of effective electron mediators, Ni(II)/Ni(III) and Au/Au(I), into a nanoporous structure, namely a nanoporous gold film (NPGF) coated with a thin layer of nickel hydroxide about 4 nm in thickness. The NPGF with high roughness was quickly prepared by anodic potential step, and the thin surface coating of Ni(OH) 2 was easily obtained by electrooxidizing the electrodeposited Ni coverlayer. The incorporation of thin Ni(OH) 2 coating into/on the NPGF led to mutual stabilization without changing the nanoporous structure. The Ni(OH) 2 /NPGF electrode fabricated totally by facile electrochemical methods at room temperature showed high electrocatalytic activity for the oxidation of glucose within a wide potential range (−0.5∼0.2 V) due to co-mediating of the two pairs of electron mediators including their coupling Ni(III) + Au = Ni(II) + Au(I). The electrode also demonstrated excellent performance in sensing glucose concentration with a wide linear range (2 μM∼7 mM), ultrasensitivity (3529 μA mM −1 cm −2 ), low detection limit (0.73 μM), good repeatability, and long-term stability (3 weeks), which was successfully applied to detect glucose in a human blood serum sample by standard addition method with satisfactory recovery. This work is

  1. TiO2 nanowire-templated hierarchical nanowire network as water-repelling coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hang, Tian; Chen, Hui-Jiuan; Xiao, Shuai; Yang, Chengduan; Chen, Meiwan; Tao, Jun; Shieh, Han-ping; Yang, Bo-ru; Liu, Chuan; Xie, Xi

    2017-12-01

    Extraordinary water-repelling properties of superhydrophobic surfaces make them novel candidates for a great variety of potential applications. A general approach to achieve superhydrophobicity requires low-energy coating on the surface and roughness on nano- and micrometre scale. However, typical construction of superhydrophobic surfaces with micro-nano structure through top-down fabrication is restricted by sophisticated fabrication techniques and limited choices of substrate materials. Micro-nanoscale topographies templated by conventional microparticles through surface coating may produce large variations in roughness and uncontrollable defects, resulting in poorly controlled surface morphology and wettability. In this work, micro-nanoscale hierarchical nanowire network was fabricated to construct self-cleaning coating using one-dimensional TiO2 nanowires as microscale templates. Hierarchical structure with homogeneous morphology was achieved by branching ZnO nanowires on the TiO2 nanowire backbones through hydrothermal reaction. The hierarchical nanowire network displayed homogeneous micro/nano-topography, in contrast to hierarchical structure templated by traditional microparticles. This hierarchical nanowire network film exhibited high repellency to both water and cell culture medium after functionalization with fluorinated organic molecules. The hierarchical structure templated by TiO2 nanowire coating significantly increased the surface superhydrophobicity compared to vertical ZnO nanowires with nanotopography alone. Our results demonstrated a promising strategy of using nanowires as microscale templates for the rational design of hierarchical coatings with desired superhydrophobicity that can also be applied to various substrate materials.

  2. Nanoporous Mo2C functionalized 3D carbon architecture anode for boosting flavins mediated interfacial bioelectrocatalysis in microbial fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Long; Lu, Zhisong; Huang, Yunhong; Long, Zhong-er; Qiao, Yan

    2017-08-01

    An efficient microbial electrocatalysis in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) needs both high loading of microbes (biocatalysts) and robust interfacial electron transfer from microbes to electrode. Herein a nanoporous molybdenum carbide (Mo2C) functionalized carbon felt electrode with rich 3D hierarchical porous architecture is applied as MFC anode to achieve superior electrocatalytic performance. The nanoporous Mo2C functionalized anode exhibits strikingly improved microbial electrocatalysis in MFCs with 5-fold higher power density and long-term stability of electricity production. The great enhancement is attributed to the introduction of rough Mo2C nanostructural interface into macroporous carbon architecture for promoting microbial growth with great excretion of endogenous electron shuttles (flavins) and rich available nanopores for enlarging electrochemically active surface area. Importantly, the nanoporous Mo2C functionalized anode is revealed for the first time to have unique electrocatalytic activity towards redox reaction of flavins with more negative redox potential, indicating a more favourable thermodynamic driving force for anodic electron transfer. This work not only provides a promising electrode for high performance MFCs but also brings up a new insight into the effect of nanostructured materials on interfacial bioelectrocatalysis.

  3. Controlling the role of nanopore morphology in capillary condensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, Fèlix; Chiang, Casey E; Ruminski, Anne M; Sailor, Michael J; Schuller, Ivan K

    2012-05-01

    The effect of pore morphology on capillary condensation and evaporation in nanoporous silicon is studied experimentally. A variety of cooperative and local effects are observed in tailored nanopores with well-defined regions by directly probing gas adsorption in each region using optical interferometry. All observations are ascribed to the ability of the nanopore region to access the gas reservoir directly and the nucleation of liquid bridges at local heterogeneities within the nanopore region. These assumptions, consistent with recent simulations, can be extended to any real nanoporous system.

  4. ELECTROCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF NANOPOROUS CARBON ELECTRODES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Nigu

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrical double layer and electrochemical characteristics at the nanoporous carbon | (C2H54NBF4 + acetonitrile interface have been studied by the cyclic voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy methods. The value of zero charge potential (0.23 V vs. SCE in H2O, the region of ideal polarizability and other characteristics have been established. Analysis of complex plane plots shows that the nanoporous carbon | x M (C2H54NBF4 + acetonitrile interface can be simulated by the equivalent circuit, in which the two parallel conduction parts in the solid and liquid phases are interconnected by the double layer capacitance in parallel with the complex admittance of hindered reaction of the charge transfer process. The values of the characteristic frequency depend on the electrolyte concentration and on the electrode potential, i.e. on the nature of ions adsorbed at the surface of nanoporous carbon electrode.

  5. Dynamic crack propagation through nanoporous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thao; Wilkerson, Justin

    2015-06-01

    The deformation and failure of nanoporous metals may be considerably different than that of more traditional bulk porous metals. The length scales in traditional bulk porous metals are typically large enough for classic plasticity and buckling to be operative. However, the extremely small length scales associated with nanoporous metals may inhibit classic plasticity mechanisms. Here, we motivate an alternative nanovoid growth mechanism mediated by dislocation emission. Following an approach similar to Lubarda and co-workers, we make use of stability arguments applied to the analytic solutions of the elastic interactions of dislocations and voids to derive a simple stress-based criterion for emission activation. We then propose a dynamic nanovoid growth law that is motivated by the kinetics of dislocation emission. The resulting failure model is implemented into a commercial finite element software to simulate dynamic crack growth. The simulations reveal that crack propagation through a nanoporous media proceeds at somewhat faster velocities than through the more traditional bulk porous metal.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of ruthenium-decorated nanoporous platinum materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Xinsheng; Koczkur, Kallum; Chen, Aicheng

    2007-01-01

    We report on the synthesis of novel three-dimensional nanoporous Pt-Ru bimetallic networks by decorating nanoporous Pt networks with Ru using a hydrothermally assisted precipitating process. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) were used to characterize the morphology and the composition of the nanoporous Pt-Ru networks formed. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed that, after protected annealing treatment, Pt-Ru bimetallic material was formed. The electrocatalytic activity of the synthesized nanoporous Pt-Ru networks was characterized using electrochemical oxidation of methanol as a probe. The electrocatalytic activity of the nanoporous Pt networks significantly increases with the increments of decorated Ru and reaches the highest value with 41% of Ru. The peak current of methanol oxidation on the nanoporous Pt-Ru(41%) bimetallic networks is over 180% higher than that on the nanoporous Pt networks without Ru decoration. This is very desirable for fuel cell development and electrochemical sensor design

  7. Nonsymmetric gas transfer phenomena in nanoporous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurchatov, I.M.

    2011-01-01

    The regularities of nonsymmetric gas (nitrogen, helium, hydrogen, carbon dioxide) transfer in nanoporous materials are investigated. The effects of anisotropy and hysteresis of permeability in nanoporous media with pore gradient and porosity in objects of various nature are found out. The following objects are studied: polyethylene terephthalate track membranes with asymmetric pore form, commercial polyvinyl trimethylsilane gas-separation membranes with continuous distribution of pores over the membrane thickness and porous composite membranes (born nitride, silicon carbide, aluminium oxide) prepared by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis with abrupt change of pore dimensions over the thickness. The possible mechanisms of nonsymmetric gas transfer effects are under consideration [ru

  8. Expanding the functionality and applications of nanopore sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venta, Kimberly E.

    Nanopore sensors have developed into powerful tools for single-molecule studies since their inception two decades ago. Nanopore sensors function as nanoscale Coulter counters, by monitoring ionic current modulations as particles pass through a nanopore. While nanopore sensors can be used to study any nanoscale particle, their most notable application is as a low cost, fast alternative to current DNA sequencing technologies. In recent years, signifcant progress has been made toward the goal of nanopore-based DNA sequencing, which requires an ambitious combination of a low-noise and high-bandwidth nanopore measurement system and spatial resolution. In this dissertation, nanopore sensors in thin membranes are developed to improve dimensional resolution, and these membranes are used in parallel with a high-bandwidth amplfier. Using this nanopore sensor system, the signals of three DNA homopolymers are differentiated for the first time in solid-state nanopores. The nanopore noise is also reduced through the addition of a layer of SU8, a spin-on polymer, to the supporting chip structure. By increasing the temporal and spatial resolution of nanopore sensors, studies of shorter molecules are now possible. Nanopore sensors are beginning to be used for the study and characterization of nanoparticles. Nanoparticles have found many uses from biomedical imaging to next-generation solar cells. However, further insights into the formation and characterization of nanoparticles would aid in developing improved synthesis methods leading to more effective and customizable nanoparticles. This dissertation presents two methods of employing nanopore sensors to benet nanoparticle characterization and fabrication. Nanopores were used to study the formation of individual nanoparticles and serve as nanoparticle growth templates that could be exploited to create custom nanoparticle arrays. Additionally, nanopore sensors were used to characterize the surface charge density of anisotropic

  9. Rutile TiO₂ particles exert size and surface coating dependent retention and lesions on the murine brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lili; Bai, Ru; Li, Bai; Ge, Cuicui; Du, Jiangfeng; Liu, Ying; Le Guyader, Laurent; Zhao, Yuliang; Wu, Yanchuan; He, Shida; Ma, Yongmei; Chen, Chunying

    2011-11-10

    The rising commercial use and large-scale production of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) may lead to unintended exposure to humans. The central nervous system (CNS) is a potential susceptible target of the inhaled NPs, but so far the amount of studies on this aspect is limited. Here, we focus on the potential neurological lesion in the brain induced by the intranasally instilled titanium dioxide (TiO₂) particles in rutile phase and of various sizes and surface coatings. Female mice were intranasally instilled with four different types of TiO₂ particles (i.e. two types of hydrophobic particles in micro- and nano-sized without coating and two types of water-soluble hydrophilic nano-sized particles with silica surface coating) every other day for 30 days. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) were used to determine the titanium contents in the sub-brain regions. Then, the pathological examination of brain tissues and measurements of the monoamine neurotransmitter levels in the sub-brain regions were performed. We found significant up-regulation of Ti contents in the cerebral cortex and striatum after intranasal instillation of hydrophilic TiO₂ NPs. Moreover, TiO₂ NPs exposure, in particular the hydrophilic NPs, caused obvious morphological changes of neurons in the cerebral cortex and significant disturbance of the monoamine neurotransmitter levels in the sub-brain regions studied. Thus, our results indicate that the surface modification of the NPs plays an important role on their effects on the brain. In addition, the difference in neurotoxicity of the two types of hydrophilic NPs may be induced by the shape differences of the materials. The present results suggest that physicochemical properties like size, shape and surface modification of the nanomaterials should be considered when evaluating their neurological effects. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Nanopore formation on Au coated pyramid under electron beam irradiations (plasmonic nanopore on pyramid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong Soo Choi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available There have been tremendous interests about the single molecule analysis using a sold-state nanopore. The solid-state nanopore can be fabricated either by drilling technique, or diffusion technique by using electron beam irradiations. The solid-state SiN nanopore device with electrical detection technique recently fabricated, however, the solid-state Au nanopore with optical detection technique can be better utilized as the next generation single molecule sensor. In this report, the nanometer size openings with its size less than 10 nm on the diffused membrane on the 200 nm Au pyramid were fabricated by using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM electron beam irradiations, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, etc. After the sample was being kept under a room environment for several months, several Au (111 clusters with ~6 nm diameter formed via Ostwald ripening are observed using a high resolution TEM imaging. The nanopore with Au nanoclusters on the diffused membrane can be utilized as an optical nanopore device. Keywords: Electron beam irradiation, Surface diffusion, Carbon contamination, Au cluster, Ostwald ripening

  11. Nanoporous silica membranes with high hydrothermal stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boffa, Vittorio; Magnacca, Giualiana; Yue, Yuanzheng

    to improve the stability of nanoporous silica structure. This work is a quantitative study on the impact of type and concentration of transition metal ions on the microporous structure and stability of amorphous silica-based membranes, which provides information on how to design chemical compositions...

  12. Gassmann Theory Applies to Nanoporous Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gor, Gennady Y.; Gurevich, Boris

    2018-01-01

    Recent progress in extraction of unconventional hydrocarbon resources has ignited the interest in the studies of nanoporous media. Since many thermodynamic and mechanical properties of nanoscale solids and fluids differ from the analogous bulk materials, it is not obvious whether wave propagation in nanoporous media can be described using the same framework as in macroporous media. Here we test the validity of Gassmann equation using two published sets of ultrasonic measurements for a model nanoporous medium, Vycor glass, saturated with two different fluids, argon, and n-hexane. Predictions of the Gassmann theory depend on the bulk and shear moduli of the dry samples, which are known from ultrasonic measurements and the bulk moduli of the solid and fluid constituents. The solid bulk modulus can be estimated from adsorption-induced deformation or from elastic effective medium theory. The fluid modulus can be calculated according to the Tait-Murnaghan equation at the solvation pressure in the pore. Substitution of these parameters into the Gassmann equation provides predictions consistent with measured data. Our findings set up a theoretical framework for investigation of fluid-saturated nanoporous media using ultrasonic elastic wave propagation.

  13. 1/f noise in graphene nanopores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heerema, S J; Schneider, G F; Rozemuller, M; Vicarelli, L; Zandbergen, H W; Dekker, C

    2015-01-01

    Graphene nanopores are receiving great attention due to their atomically thin membranes and intrinsic electrical properties that appear greatly beneficial for biosensing and DNA sequencing. Here, we present an extensive study of the low-frequency 1/f noise in the ionic current through graphene nanopores and compare it to noise levels in silicon nitride pore currents. We find that the 1/f noise magnitude is very high for graphene nanopores: typically two orders of magnitude higher than for silicon nitride pores. This is a drawback as it significantly lowers the signal-to-noise ratio in DNA translocation experiments. We evaluate possible explanations for these exceptionally high noise levels in graphene pores. From examining the noise for pores of different diameters and at various salt concentrations, we find that in contrast to silicon nitride pores, the 1/f noise in graphene pores does not follow Hooge’s relation. In addition, from studying the dependence on the buffer pH, we show that the increased noise cannot be explained by charge fluctuations of chemical groups on the pore rim. Finally, we compare single and bilayer graphene to few-layer and multi-layer graphene and boron nitride (h-BN), and we find that the noise reduces with layer thickness for both materials, which suggests that mechanical fluctuations may be the underlying cause of the high 1/f noise levels in monolayer graphene nanopore devices. (paper)

  14. Optical characterization of nanoporous AAO sensor substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassu, Aschalew; Farley, Carlton W.; Sharma, Anup

    2014-05-01

    Nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) has been investigated as an ideal and cost-effective chemical and biosensing platform. In this paper, we report the optical properties of periodic 100 micron thick nanoporous anodic alumina membranes with uniform and high density cylindrical pores penetrating the entire thickness of the substrate, ranging in size from 18 nm to 150 nm in diameter and pore periods from 44 nm to 243 nm. The surface geometry of the top and bottom surface of each membrane is studied using atomic force microscopy. The optical properties including transmittance, reflectance, and absorbance spectra on both sides of each substrate are studied and found to be symmetrical. It is observed that, as the pore size increases, the peak resonance intensity in transmittance decreases and in absorbance increases. The effects of the pore sizes on the optical properties of the bare nanoporous membranes and the benefit of using arrays of nanohole arrays with varying hole size and periodicity as a chemical sensing platform is also discussed. To characterize the optical sensing technique, transmittance and reflectance measurements of various concentrations of a standard chemical adsorbed on the bare nanoporous substrates are investigated. The preliminary results presented here show variation in transmittance and reflectance spectra with the concentration of the chemical used or the amount of the material adsorbed on the surface of the substrate.

  15. Online Coupling of Flow-Field Flow Fractionation and Single Particle Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry: Characterization of Nanoparticle Surface Coating Thickness and Aggregation State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surface coating thickness and aggregation state have strong influence on the environmental fate, transport, and toxicity of engineered nanomaterials. In this study, flow-field flow fractionation coupled on-line with single particle inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry i...

  16. Recent advances in nanopore-based nucleic acid analysis and sequencing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Jidong; Fang, Ying; Hou, Junfeng

    2016-01-01

    Nanopore-based sequencing platforms are transforming the field of genomic science. This review (containing 116 references) highlights some recent progress on nanopore-based nucleic acid analysis and sequencing. These studies are classified into three categories, biological, solid-state, and hybrid nanopores, according to their nanoporous materials. We begin with a brief description of the translocation-based detection mechanism of nanopores. Next, specific examples are given in nanopore-based nucleic acid analysis and sequencing, with an emphasis on identifying strategies that can improve the resolution of nanopores. This review concludes with a discussion of future research directions that will advance the practical applications of nanopore technology. (author)

  17. Recent Advances in Nanoporous Membranes for Water Purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuqing Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoporous materials exhibit wide applications in the fields of electrocatalysis, nanodevice fabrication, energy, and environmental science, as well as analytical science. In this review, we present a summary of recent studies on nanoporous membranes for water purification application. The types and fabrication strategies of various nanoporous membranes are first introduced, and then the fabricated nanoporous membranes for removing various water pollutants, such as salt, metallic ions, anions, nanoparticles, organic chemicals, and biological substrates, are demonstrated and discussed. This work will be valuable for readers to understand the design and fabrication of various nanoporous membranes, and their potential purification mechanisms towards different water pollutants. In addition, it will be helpful for developing new nanoporous materials for quick, economic, and high-performance water purification.

  18. Catalysis with hierarchical zeolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Martin Spangsberg; Taarning, Esben; Egeblad, Kresten

    2011-01-01

    Hierarchical (or mesoporous) zeolites have attracted significant attention during the first decade of the 21st century, and so far this interest continues to increase. There have already been several reviews giving detailed accounts of the developments emphasizing different aspects of this research...... topic. Until now, the main reason for developing hierarchical zeolites has been to achieve heterogeneous catalysts with improved performance but this particular facet has not yet been reviewed in detail. Thus, the present paper summaries and categorizes the catalytic studies utilizing hierarchical...... zeolites that have been reported hitherto. Prototypical examples from some of the different categories of catalytic reactions that have been studied using hierarchical zeolite catalysts are highlighted. This clearly illustrates the different ways that improved performance can be achieved with this family...

  19. Hierarchical Network Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomadsen, Tommy

    2005-01-01

    Communication networks are immensely important today, since both companies and individuals use numerous services that rely on them. This thesis considers the design of hierarchical (communication) networks. Hierarchical networks consist of layers of networks and are well-suited for coping...... with changing and increasing demands. Two-layer networks consist of one backbone network, which interconnects cluster networks. The clusters consist of nodes and links, which connect the nodes. One node in each cluster is a hub node, and the backbone interconnects the hub nodes of each cluster and thus...... the clusters. The design of hierarchical networks involves clustering of nodes, hub selection, and network design, i.e. selection of links and routing of ows. Hierarchical networks have been in use for decades, but integrated design of these networks has only been considered for very special types of networks...

  20. Micromechanics of hierarchical materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishnaevsky, Leon, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    A short overview of micromechanical models of hierarchical materials (hybrid composites, biomaterials, fractal materials, etc.) is given. Several examples of the modeling of strength and damage in hierarchical materials are summarized, among them, 3D FE model of hybrid composites...... with nanoengineered matrix, fiber bundle model of UD composites with hierarchically clustered fibers and 3D multilevel model of wood considered as a gradient, cellular material with layered composite cell walls. The main areas of research in micromechanics of hierarchical materials are identified, among them......, the investigations of the effects of load redistribution between reinforcing elements at different scale levels, of the possibilities to control different material properties and to ensure synergy of strengthening effects at different scale levels and using the nanoreinforcement effects. The main future directions...

  1. Programming with Hierarchical Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørbæk, Peter

    This report desribes the hierarchical maps used as a central data structure in the Corundum framework. We describe its most prominent features, ague for its usefulness and briefly describe some of the software prototypes implemented using the technology....

  2. Introduction into Hierarchical Matrices

    KAUST Repository

    Litvinenko, Alexander

    2013-12-05

    Hierarchical matrices allow us to reduce computational storage and cost from cubic to almost linear. This technique can be applied for solving PDEs, integral equations, matrix equations and approximation of large covariance and precision matrices.

  3. Introduction into Hierarchical Matrices

    KAUST Repository

    Litvinenko, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Hierarchical matrices allow us to reduce computational storage and cost from cubic to almost linear. This technique can be applied for solving PDEs, integral equations, matrix equations and approximation of large covariance and precision matrices.

  4. Study of polymer molecules and conformations with a nanopore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovchenko, Jene A.; Li, Jiali; Stein, Derek; Gershow, Marc H.

    2010-12-07

    The invention features methods for evaluating the conformation of a polymer, for example, for determining the conformational distribution of a plurality of polymers and to detect binding or denaturation events. The methods employ a nanopore which the polymer, e.g., a nucleic acid, traverses. As the polymer traverses the nanopore, measurements of transport properties of the nanopore yield data on the conformation of the polymer.

  5. Energy absorption behaviors of nanoporous materials functionalized (NMF) liquids

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Tae Wan

    2011-01-01

    For many decades, people have been actively investigating high-performance energy absorption materials, so as to develop lightweight and small-sized protective and damping devices, such as blast mitigation helmets, vehicle armors, etc. Recently, the high energy absorption efficiency of nanoporous materials functionalized (NMF) liquids has drawn considerable attention. A NMF liquid is usually a liquid suspension of nanoporous particles with large nanopore surface areas (100 - 2,000 m²/g). The ...

  6. Nanoporous Polymeric Grating-Based Optical Biosensors (Preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hsiao, Vincent K; Waldeisen, John R; Lloyd, Pamela F; Bunning, Timothy J; Huang, Tony J

    2007-01-01

    .... The fabrication process of the nanoporous polymeric grating involves holographic interference patterning and a functionalized pre-polymer syrup that facilitates the immobilization of biomolecules...

  7. Nanoporous Cyclic Brush Polymers for Selective Carbon Dioxide Capture

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the proposed work is to develop advanced synthetic methodologies that afford nanoporous materials with selective uptake affinity towards carbon...

  8. Nanoporous Membrane Technologies for Pathogen Collection, Separation, and Detection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Sang W; Shang, Hao; Lee, Gil U; Griffin, Matthew T; Fulton, Jack

    2003-01-01

    Partial contents: Nanoporous Membranes, Membrane Chemistries, Characterization of Membrane Chemistries,Protein Fouling, Collector,Gas and Liquid Permeabilities, Membrane Permeabilities in the Presence of Water...

  9. Impact of surface coating and environmental conditions on the fate and transport of silver nanoparticles in the aquatic environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, Laura-Jayne A.; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Lead, Jamie R., E-mail: Jlead@mailbox.sc.edu [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Center for Environmental Nanoscience and Risk (CENR), Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia 29208 (United States); Baalousha, Mohammed, E-mail: Mbaalous@mailbox.sc.edu [Center for Environmental Nanoscience and Risk (CENR), Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia 29208 (United States)

    2016-10-15

    The role of surface coating (polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and citrate) and water chemistry on the fate and behavior of AgNPs in aquatic microcosms is reported in this study. The migration and transformation of the AgNPs was examined in low (ultrapure water-UPW) and high ionic strength (moderately hard water – MHW) preparations, and in the presence of modeled natural organic matter (NOM) of Suwannee River Fulvic Acid (SRFA). The migration and fate of the AgNPs in the microcosms was validated using a sedimentation-diffusion model and the aggregation behavior was monitored by UV–visible spectrometry (UV–vis). Dissolved and particulate Ag concentrations (% Ag) were analyzed by ultrafiltration methods. Imaging of the AgNPs was captured using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results indicate that PVP-coated AgNPs (PVP-AgNPs) remained stable for 28 days with similarly distributed concentrations of the PVP-AgNPs throughout the columns in each of the water conditions after approximately 96 h (4 days). The sedimentation-diffusion model confirmed PVP-AgNP stability in each condition, by showing diffusion dominated transport by using the original unaltered AgNP sizes to fit the parameters. In comparison, citrate AgNPs were largely unstable in the more complex water preparations (MHW). In MHW, aggregation dominated behavior followed by sedimentation/dissolution controlled transport was observed. The addition of SRFA to MHW resulted in small stabilizing effects, to the citrate coated AgNPs, producing smaller sized AgNPs (TEM) and mixed sedimentation and diffusion migration compared the studies absent of SRFA. The results suggest that surface coating and solution chemistry has a major impact on AgNP stability, furthermore the corresponding modeling will support the experimental understanding of the overall fate of AgNPs in the environment. - Highlights: • Aquatic microcosms were used to study the transport and behavior of AgNPs • Experiments were conducted in low

  10. Impact of surface coating and environmental conditions on the fate and transport of silver nanoparticles in the aquatic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, Laura-Jayne A.; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia; Lead, Jamie R.; Baalousha, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    The role of surface coating (polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and citrate) and water chemistry on the fate and behavior of AgNPs in aquatic microcosms is reported in this study. The migration and transformation of the AgNPs was examined in low (ultrapure water-UPW) and high ionic strength (moderately hard water – MHW) preparations, and in the presence of modeled natural organic matter (NOM) of Suwannee River Fulvic Acid (SRFA). The migration and fate of the AgNPs in the microcosms was validated using a sedimentation-diffusion model and the aggregation behavior was monitored by UV–visible spectrometry (UV–vis). Dissolved and particulate Ag concentrations (% Ag) were analyzed by ultrafiltration methods. Imaging of the AgNPs was captured using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results indicate that PVP-coated AgNPs (PVP-AgNPs) remained stable for 28 days with similarly distributed concentrations of the PVP-AgNPs throughout the columns in each of the water conditions after approximately 96 h (4 days). The sedimentation-diffusion model confirmed PVP-AgNP stability in each condition, by showing diffusion dominated transport by using the original unaltered AgNP sizes to fit the parameters. In comparison, citrate AgNPs were largely unstable in the more complex water preparations (MHW). In MHW, aggregation dominated behavior followed by sedimentation/dissolution controlled transport was observed. The addition of SRFA to MHW resulted in small stabilizing effects, to the citrate coated AgNPs, producing smaller sized AgNPs (TEM) and mixed sedimentation and diffusion migration compared the studies absent of SRFA. The results suggest that surface coating and solution chemistry has a major impact on AgNP stability, furthermore the corresponding modeling will support the experimental understanding of the overall fate of AgNPs in the environment. - Highlights: • Aquatic microcosms were used to study the transport and behavior of AgNPs • Experiments were conducted in low

  11. Ordered arrays of nanoporous gold nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Wang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A combination of a “top-down” approach (substrate-conformal imprint lithography and two “bottom-up” approaches (dewetting and dealloying enables fabrication of perfectly ordered 2-dimensional arrays of nanoporous gold nanoparticles. The dewetting of Au/Ag bilayers on the periodically prepatterned substrates leads to the interdiffusion of Au and Ag and the formation of an array of Au–Ag alloy nanoparticles. The array of alloy nanoparticles is transformed into an array of nanoporous gold nanoparticles by a following dealloying step. Large areas of this new type of material arrangement can be realized with this technique. In addition, this technique allows for the control of particle size, particle spacing, and ligament size (or pore size by varying the period of the structure, total metal layer thickness, and the thickness ratio of the as-deposited bilayers.

  12. Force fluctuations assist nanopore unzipping of DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viasnoff, V; Chiaruttini, N; Muzard, J; Bockelmann, U

    2010-01-01

    We experimentally study the statistical distributions and the voltage dependence of the unzipping time of 45 base-pair-long double-stranded DNA through a nanopore. We then propose a quantitative theoretical description considering the nanopore unzipping process as a random walk of the opening fork through the DNA sequence energy landscape biased by a time-fluctuating force. To achieve quantitative agreement fluctuations need to be correlated over the millisecond range and have an amplitude of order k B T/bp. Significantly slower or faster fluctuations are not appropriate, suggesting that the unzipping process is efficiently enhanced by noise in the kHz range. We further show that the unzipping time of short 15 base-pair hairpins does not always increase with the global stability of the double helix and we theoretically study the role of DNA elasticity on the conversion of the electrical bias into a mechanical unzipping force.

  13. Thermodynamics phase changes of nanopore fluids

    KAUST Repository

    Islam, Akand W.; Patzek, Tadeusz; Sun, Alexander Y.

    2015-01-01

    The van der Waals (vdW) equation (Eq.) is modified to describe thermodynamic of phase behavior of fluids confined in nanopore. Our aim is to compute pressures exerted by the fluid molecules and to investigate how they change due to pore proximity by assuming the pore wall is inert. No additional scaling of model parameters is imposed and original volume and energy parameters are used in the calculations. Our results clearly show the phase changes due to confinement. The critical shifts of temperatures and pressures are in good agreement compared to the laboratory data and molecular simulation. Peng-Robinson (PR) equation-of-state (EOS) has resulted in different effect than the vdW. This work delivers insights into the nature of fluid behavior in extremely low-permeability nanoporous media, especially in the tight shale reservoirs, below the critical temperatures. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

  14. Thermodynamics phase changes of nanopore fluids

    KAUST Repository

    Islam, Akand W.

    2015-07-01

    The van der Waals (vdW) equation (Eq.) is modified to describe thermodynamic of phase behavior of fluids confined in nanopore. Our aim is to compute pressures exerted by the fluid molecules and to investigate how they change due to pore proximity by assuming the pore wall is inert. No additional scaling of model parameters is imposed and original volume and energy parameters are used in the calculations. Our results clearly show the phase changes due to confinement. The critical shifts of temperatures and pressures are in good agreement compared to the laboratory data and molecular simulation. Peng-Robinson (PR) equation-of-state (EOS) has resulted in different effect than the vdW. This work delivers insights into the nature of fluid behavior in extremely low-permeability nanoporous media, especially in the tight shale reservoirs, below the critical temperatures. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

  15. Functional Nanoporous Polymers from Block Copolymer Precursors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Fengxiao

    Abstract Self-assembly of block copolymers provides well-defined morphologies with characteristic length scales in the nanometer range. Nanoporous polymers prepared by selective removal of one block from self-assembled block copolymers offer great technological promise due to their many potential...... functionalities remains a great challenge due to the limitation of available polymer synthesis and the nanoscale confinement of the porous cavities. The main topic of this thesis is to develop methods for fabrication of functional nanoporous polymers from block copolymer precursors. A method has been developed......, where living anionic polymerization and atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) are combined to synthesize a polydimethylsiloxane-b-poly(tert-butyl acrylate)-b-polystyrene (PDMS-b-PtBA-b-PS) triblock copolymer precursor. By using either anhydrous hydrogen fluoride or trifluoroacetic acid, PtBA block...

  16. Nanoporous hard data: optical encoding of information within nanoporous anodic alumina photonic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Abel; Law, Cheryl Suwen; Pereira, Taj; Losic, Dusan

    2016-04-21

    Herein, we present a method for storing binary data within the spectral signature of nanoporous anodic alumina photonic crystals. A rationally designed multi-sinusoidal anodisation approach makes it possible to engineer the photonic stop band of nanoporous anodic alumina with precision. As a result, the transmission spectrum of these photonic nanostructures can be engineered to feature well-resolved and selectively positioned characteristic peaks across the UV-visible spectrum. Using this property, we implement an 8-bit binary code and assess the versatility and capability of this system by a series of experiments aiming to encode different information within the nanoporous anodic alumina photonic crystals. The obtained results reveal that the proposed nanosized platform is robust, chemically stable, versatile and has a set of unique properties for data storage, opening new opportunities for developing advanced nanophotonic tools for a wide range of applications, including sensing, photonic tagging, self-reporting drug releasing systems and secure encoding of information.

  17. Cell tagging with clinically approved iron oxides: feasibility and effect of lipofection, particle size, and surface coating on labeling efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matuszewski, Lars; Persigehl, Thorsten; Wall, Alexander; Schwindt, Wolfram; Tombach, Bernd; Fobker, Manfred; Poremba, Christopher; Ebert, Wolfgang; Heindel, Walter; Bremer, Christoph

    2005-04-01

    To evaluate the effect of lipofection, particle size, and surface coating on labeling efficiency of mammalian cells with superparamagnetic iron oxides (SPIOs). Institutional Review Board approval was not required. Different human cell lines (lung and breast cancer, fibrosarcoma, leukocytes) were tagged by using carboxydextran-coated SPIOs of various hydrodynamic diameters (17-65 nm) and a dextran-coated iron oxide (150 nm). Cells were incubated with increasing concentrations of iron (0.01-1.00 mg of iron [Fe] per milliliter), including or excluding a transfection medium (TM). Cellular iron uptake was analyzed qualitatively at light and electron microscopy and was quantified at atomic emission spectroscopy. Cell visibility was assessed with gradient- and spin-echo magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Effects of iron concentration in the medium and of lipofection on cellular SPIO uptake were analyzed with analysis of variance and two-tailed Student t test, respectively. Iron oxide uptake increased in a dose-dependent manner with higher iron concentrations in the medium. The TM significantly increased the iron load of cells (up to 2.6-fold, P .05). As few as 10 000 cells could be detected with clinically available MR techniques by using this approach. Lipofection-based cell tagging is a simple method for efficient cell labeling with clinically approved iron oxide-based contrast agents. Large particle size and carboxydextran coating are preferable for cell tagging with endocytosis- and lipofection-based methods. (c) RSNA, 2005.

  18. Microstructural studies on friction surfaced coatings of Ni-based alloys; Gefuegeuntersuchungen an reibgeschweissten Beschichtungen von Ni-Basislegierungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akram, Javed; Puli, Ramesh; Kalvala, Prasad Rao; Misra, Mano [Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering

    2015-07-01

    Inconel 625, Inconel 600, Inconel 800H were friction surfaced on steel and Inconel substrates. The interface between steel and Ni-based alloys showed intermixing of two alloys while the interface between two Ni-based alloys showed no such intermixing. The XRD results confirmed that this intermixed zone consisted of mechanical mix two separate metals and no intermetallics were noticed. Friction surfaced Inconel coatings were metallurgically bonded to steel and Inconel substrates with out any physical defects such as voids or cracks. Friction surfaced coatings showed equiaxed fine grained microstructures (4-18 μm) compared with their consumable rod counterparts (12 - 85 μm). Scanning electron microscope electron backscattered diffraction results showed that the coatings consisted of mainly high angle grain boundaries indicative of dynamic recrystallization mechanism. The temperatures recorded using Infra Red camera showed that the temperature attained at the interface between rod and the substrate is about 1100 C. The grain size of the consumable rod was relatively fine near the coating/substrate interface and relatively coarser away from interface indicating the change in strain and temperature the rod experienced at or away from the interface.

  19. Enhanced healing of rabbit segmental radius defects with surface-coated calcium phosphate cement/bone morphogenetic protein-2 scaffolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Yi; Hou, Juan; Yin, ManLi [Engineering Research Center for Biomedical Materials of Ministry of Education, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Wang, Jing, E-mail: biomatwj@163.com [Engineering Research Center for Biomedical Materials of Ministry of Education, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Liu, ChangSheng, E-mail: csliu@sh163.net [Engineering Research Center for Biomedical Materials of Ministry of Education, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); The State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China)

    2014-11-01

    Large osseous defects remain a difficult clinical problem in orthopedic surgery owing to the limited effective therapeutic options, and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) is useful for its potent osteoinductive properties in bone regeneration. Here we build a strategy to achieve prolonged duration time and help inducting new bone formation by using water-soluble polymers as a protective film. In this study, calcium phosphate cement (CPC) scaffolds were prepared as the matrix and combined with sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC-Na), hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC), and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) respectively to protect from the digestion of rhBMP-2. After being implanted in the mouse thigh muscles, the surface-modified composite scaffolds evidently induced ectopic bone formation. In addition, we further evaluated the in vivo effects of surface-modified scaffolds in a rabbit radius critical defect by radiography, three dimensional micro-computed tomographic (μCT) imaging, synchrotron radiation-based micro-computed tomographic (SRμCT) imaging, histological analysis, and biomechanical measurement. The HPMC-modified CPC scaffold was regarded as the best combination for segmental bone regeneration in rabbit radius. - Highlights: • A simple surface-coating method was used to fabricate composite scaffolds. • Growth factor was protected from rapid depletion via superficial coating. • Significant promotion of bone regeneration was achieved. • HPMC-modification displayed optimal effect of bone regeneration.

  20. Osseoconductivity of a Specific Streptavidin-Biotin-Fibronectin Surface Coating of Biotinylated Titanium Implants - A Rabbit Animal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kämmerer, Peer W; Lehnert, Michael; Al-Nawas, Bilal; Kumar, Vinay V; Hagmann, Sebastien; Alshihri, Abdulmonem; Frerich, Bernhard; Veith, Michael

    2015-10-01

    Biofunctionalized implant surfaces may accelerate bony integration and increase long-term stability. The aim of the study was to evaluate the osseous reaction toward biomimetic titanium implants surfaces coated with quasicovalent immobilized fibronectin in an in vivo animal model. A total of 84 implants (uncoated [control 1, n = 36], streptavidin-biotin coated [test 1, n = 24], streptavidin-biotin-fibronectin coated [test 2, n = 24]) were inserted 1 mm supracortically in the proximal tibia of 12 rabbits. The samples were examined after 3 and 6 weeks. Total bone-implant contact (tBIC; %), bone-implant contact in the cortical (cBIC; %) and in the spongious bone (sBIC; %) as well as the percentage of linear bone fill (PLF; %) were evaluated. After 3 weeks, streptavidin-biotin-fibronectin implants had a significant higher sBIC (p = .043) and PLF (p = .007) compared with the uncoated samples. After 6 weeks, this difference was significant for tBIC (p = .016) and cBIC (p biotin-coated implants showed less bone growth at both time points of all examined parameters when compared with their counterparts (all p biotin-fibronectin system on smooth surface titanium shows a beneficial faster osseous healing in vivo. Besides, an antifouling effect of the streptavidin-biotin coating was proven. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. The magnetic field application for the gas discharge plasma control in processes of surface coating and modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asadullin, T Ya; Galeev, I G

    2017-01-01

    In this paper the method of magnetic field application to control the gas discharge plasma effect on the various surfaces in processes of surface coating and modification is considered. The magnetic field directed perpendicular to the direction of electric current in the gas discharge plasma channel is capable to reject this plasma channel due to action of Lorentz force on the moving electrically charged particles [1,2]. The three-dimensional spatial structure of magnetic field is created by system of necessary quantity of the magnets located perpendicular to the direction of course of electric current in the gas-discharge plasma channel. The formation of necessary spatial distribution of magnetic field makes possible to obtain a required distribution of plasma parameters near the processed surfaces. This way of the plasma channel parameters spatial distribution management is the most suitable for application in processes of plasma impact on a surface of irregular shape and in cases when the selective impact of plasma on a part of a surface of a product is required. It is necessary to apply automated computer management of the process parameters [3] to the most effective plasma impact. (paper)

  2. Effects of surface coating process conditions on the water permeation and salt rejection properties of composite polyamide reverse osmosis membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Louie, Jennifer Sarah

    2011-02-01

    The application of polymer surface coatings to improve the fouling resistance of reverse osmosis membranes tends to increase flow resistance across the membrane. This paper presents a systematic analysis on how membrane properties and performance are impacted by the coating process steps, and investigates how such effects could contribute to lower water flux. On one hand, simply pre-soaking dry aromatic polyamide composite membranes in aliphatic alcohols results in a significant increase in water flux, which is attributed to wetting of pores in the selective polyamide layer and to changes in the polymer structure. This flux increase was not readily reversible, based on a 300-h water permeation test. Conversely, drying a wetted membrane led to a decrease in water flux, which we hypothesize is caused by increased interchain hydrogen-bonding in the selective layer. This drop in water flux was not permanent; higher flux was observed if the same wetted/dried membrane was then re-soaked in ethanol prior to the water permeation experiment. An ethanol pre-soaking step also increased water flux of a PEBAX-coated membrane by nearly 70%. In contrast to the reduction in water flux caused by the specific treatment sequence of ethanol-swelling followed by drying, this same sequence actually increased gas transport. The eight- to ten-fold increase in Knudsen diffusion-based gas permeance after this pre-treatment was attributed to an increase in the number or size of membrane defects. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  3. Understanding Energy Absorption Behaviors of Nanoporous Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-23

    induced liquid infiltration in nanopores. J. Appl. Phys. 100, 014308.1-3 (2006). 26. Surani, F. B. and Qiao, Y. Energy absorption of a polyacrylic ...that the infiltration pressure decreases as the cation size increases (Fig.K-2). The ionic radii of cesium, potassium , sodium and lithium are...REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB NO. 0704-0188 Public Reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour

  4. Broadband Spectroscopy of Nanoporous-Gold Promoter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Nakatani

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of UV photocatalysis on TiO2 particles was increased by mixing TiO2 particles with nanoporous gold (NPG with pore diameters of 10–40 nm. This means that NPG acts as a promoter in the photocatalytic reaction of TiO2. Broadband spectroscopic results from millimeter wave to ultra violet of NPG membrane are discussed to estimate plasmonic effect on the catalysis.

  5. Controlling Ionic Transport for Device Design in Synthetic Nanopores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalman, Eric Boyd

    Polymer nanopores present a number of behaviors not seen in microscale systems, such as ion current rectification, ionic selectivity, size exclusion and potential dependent ion concentrations in and near the pore. The existence of these effects stems from the small size of nanopores with respect to the characteristic length scales of surface interactions at the interface between the nanopore surface and the solution within it. The large surface-to-volume ratio due to the nanoscale geometry of a nanopore, as well as similarity in scale between geometry and interaction demands the solution interact with the nanopore walls. As surfaces in solution almost always carry residual charge, these surface forces are primarily the electrostatic interactions between the charge groups on the pore surface and the ions in solution. These interactions may be used by the experimentalist to control ionic transport through synthetic nanopores, and use them as a template for the construction of devices. In this research, we present our work on creating a number of ionic analogs to seminal electronic devices, specifically diodes, and transistors, by controlling ionic transport through the electrostatic interactions between a single synthetic nanopore and ions. Control is achieved by "doping" the effective charge carrier concentration in specific regions of the nanopore through manipulation of the pore's surface charge. This manipulation occurs through two mechanisms: chemical modification of the surface charge and electrostatic manipulation of the local internal nanopore potential using a gate electrode. Additionally, the innate selectivity of the charged nanopores walls allows for the separation of charges in solution. This well-known effect, which spawns measureable quantities, the streaming potential and current, has been used to create nanoscale water desalination membranes. We attempt to create a device using membranes with large nanopore densities for the desalination of water

  6. Tuneable graphene nanopores for single biomolecule detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dirini, Feras; Mohammed, Mahmood A; Hossain, Md Sharafat; Hossain, Faruque M; Nirmalathas, Ampalavanapillai; Skafidas, Efstratios

    2016-05-21

    Solid-state nanopores are promising candidates for next generation DNA and protein sequencing. However, once fabricated, such devices lack tuneability, which greatly restricts their biosensing capabilities. Here we propose a new class of solid-state graphene-based nanopore devices that exhibit a unique capability of self-tuneability, which is used to control their conductance, tuning it to levels comparable to the changes caused by the translocation of a single biomolecule, and hence, enabling high detection sensitivities. Our presented quantum simulation results suggest that the smallest amino acid, glycine, when present in water and in an aqueous saline solution can be detected with high sensitivity, up to a 90% change in conductance. Our results also suggest that passivating the device with nitrogen, making it an n-type device, greatly enhances its sensitivity, and makes it highly sensitive to not only the translocation of a single biomolecule, but more interestingly to intramolecular electrostatics within the biomolecule. Sensitive detection of the carboxyl group within the glycine molecule, which carries a charge equivalent to a single electron, is achieved with a conductance change that reaches as high as 99% when present in an aqueous saline solution. The presented findings suggest that tuneable graphene nanopores, with their capability of probing intramolecular electrostatics, could pave the way towards a new generation of single biomolecule detection devices.

  7. Characterization of nanoporous shales with gas sorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joewondo, N.; Prasad, M.

    2017-12-01

    The understanding of the fluid flow in porous media requires the knowledge of the pore system involved. Fluid flow in fine grained shales falls under different regime than transport regime in conventional reservoir due to the different average pore sizes in the two materials; the average pore diameter of conventional sandstones is on the micrometer scale, while of shales can be as small as several nanometers. Mercury intrusion porosimetry is normally used to characterize the pores of conventional reservoir, however with increasingly small pores, the injection pressure required to imbibe the pores becomes infinitely large due to surface tension. Characterization of pores can be expressed by a pore size distribution (PSD) plot, which reflects distribution of pore volume or surface area with respect to pore size. For the case of nanoporous materials, the surface area, which serves as the interface between the rock matrix and fluid, becomes increasingly large and important. Physisorption of gas has been extensively studied as a method of nanoporous solid characterization (particularly for the application of catalysis, metal organic frameworks, etc). The PSD is obtained by matching the experimental result to the calculated theoretical result (using Density Functional Theory (DFT), a quantum mechanics based modelling method for molecular scale interactions). We present the challenges and experimental result of Nitrogen and CO2 gas sorption on shales with various mineralogy and the interpreted PSD obtained by DFT method. Our result shows significant surface area contributed by the nanopores of shales, hence the importance of surface area measurements for the characterization of shales.

  8. Parallel hierarchical radiosity rendering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, Michael [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1993-07-01

    In this dissertation, the step-by-step development of a scalable parallel hierarchical radiosity renderer is documented. First, a new look is taken at the traditional radiosity equation, and a new form is presented in which the matrix of linear system coefficients is transformed into a symmetric matrix, thereby simplifying the problem and enabling a new solution technique to be applied. Next, the state-of-the-art hierarchical radiosity methods are examined for their suitability to parallel implementation, and scalability. Significant enhancements are also discovered which both improve their theoretical foundations and improve the images they generate. The resultant hierarchical radiosity algorithm is then examined for sources of parallelism, and for an architectural mapping. Several architectural mappings are discussed. A few key algorithmic changes are suggested during the process of making the algorithm parallel. Next, the performance, efficiency, and scalability of the algorithm are analyzed. The dissertation closes with a discussion of several ideas which have the potential to further enhance the hierarchical radiosity method, or provide an entirely new forum for the application of hierarchical methods.

  9. Surface tectonics of nanoporous networks of melamine-capped molecular building blocks formed through interface Schiff-base reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuan-He; Wang, Dong; Wan, Li-Jun

    2013-10-01

    Control over the assembly of molecules on a surface is of great importance for the fabrication of molecule-based miniature devices. Melamine (MA) and molecules with terminal MA units are promising candidates for supramolecular interfacial packing patterning, owing to their multiple hydrogen-bonding sites. Herein, we report the formation of self-assembled structures of MA-capped molecules through a simple on-surface synthetic route. MA terminal groups were successfully fabricated onto rigid molecular cores with 2-fold and 3-fold symmetry through interfacial Schiff-base reactions between MA and aldehyde groups. Sub-molecular scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) imaging of the resultant adlayer revealed the formation of nanoporous networks. Detailed structural analysis indicated that strong hydrogen-bonding interactions between the MA groups persistently drove the formation of nanoporous networks. Herein, we demonstrate that functional groups with strong hydrogen-bond-formation ability are promising building blocks for the guided assembly of nanoporous networks and other hierarchical 2D assemblies. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Neutrosophic Hierarchical Clustering Algoritms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rıdvan Şahin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Interval neutrosophic set (INS is a generalization of interval valued intuitionistic fuzzy set (IVIFS, whose the membership and non-membership values of elements consist of fuzzy range, while single valued neutrosophic set (SVNS is regarded as extension of intuitionistic fuzzy set (IFS. In this paper, we extend the hierarchical clustering techniques proposed for IFSs and IVIFSs to SVNSs and INSs respectively. Based on the traditional hierarchical clustering procedure, the single valued neutrosophic aggregation operator, and the basic distance measures between SVNSs, we define a single valued neutrosophic hierarchical clustering algorithm for clustering SVNSs. Then we extend the algorithm to classify an interval neutrosophic data. Finally, we present some numerical examples in order to show the effectiveness and availability of the developed clustering algorithms.

  11. Direct laser writing for nanoporous liquid core laser sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossmann, Tobias; Christiansen, Mads Brøkner; Peterson, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    We report the fabrication of nanoporous liquid core lasers via direct laser writing based on two-photon absorption in combination with thiolene-chemistry. As gain medium Rhodamine 6G was embedded in the nanoporous polybutadiene matrix. The lasing devices with thresholds of 19 µJ/mm2 were measured...

  12. UV patterned nanoporous solid-liquid core waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gopalakrishnan, Nimi; Sagar, Kaushal Shashikant; Christiansen, Mads Brøkner

    2010-01-01

    Nanoporous Solid-Liquid core waveguides were prepared by UV induced surface modification of hydrophobic nanoporous polymers. With this method, the index contrast (delta n = 0.20) is a result of selective water infiltration. The waveguide core is defined by UV light, rendering the exposed part...

  13. Physisorption of SDS in a Hydrocarbon Nanoporous Polymer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Li; Wang, Yanwei; Vigild, Martin Etchells

    2010-01-01

    Surface modification of nanoporous 1,2-polybutadiene of pore diameter similar to 15 nm was accomplished by physisorption of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in water. Loading of the aqueous solution and the accompanying physisorption of SDS into the hydrophobic nanoporous films were investigated in a...

  14. DNA and ion transport through solid-state nanopores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, R.M.M.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes experimental work on a novel type of devices capable of detecting single-(bio)molecules; nanometer-sized pores, or nanopores. Individual nanopores are placed in between two electrolyte-filled liquid compartments and (bio)molecules are electrophoretically driven through them.

  15. Photophysics and energy transfer studies of Alq3 confined in the voids of nanoporous anodic alumina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadpour, Arash; Utkin, Ilya; Bodepudi, Srikrishna Chanakya; Kar, Piyush; Fedosejevs, Robert; Pramanik, Sandipan; Shankar, Karthik

    2013-04-01

    We report on a hierarchical nanoarchitecture wherein distinct chromophores are deterministically placed at two different types of sites in a nanoporous metal oxide framework. One chromophore, namely Tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminium(III) (Alq3), is embedded in the 1-2 nm sized nanovoids of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) and another chromophore (carboxyfluorescein or pyrenebutyric acid) is anchored in the form of a monolayer to the surface of the walls of the cylindrical nanopores (- 20 nm in diameter) of AAO. We found the luminescence maximum to occur at 492 nm, blueshifted by at least 18 nm from the value in solutions and thin films. The excited state decay of Alq3 molecules in nanovoids was found to be biexponential with a fast component of 338 ps and a slower component of 2.26 ns, different from Alq3 thin films and solutions. Using a combination of steady state and time-resolved luminescence studies, we found that efficient Forster-type resonance energy transfer (FRET) from Alq3 in the nanovoids to the carboxyfluorescein monolayer could be used to pump the emission of surface-bound chromophores. Conversely, the emission of nanovoid-confined Alq3 could be pumped by energy transfer from a pyrenebutyric acid monolayer. Such intra-nanoarchitecture interactions between chromophores deterministically placed in different spatial locations are important in applications such as organic light emitting diodes, chemical sensors, energy transfer fluorescent labels, light harvesting antennas and organic spintronics.

  16. Ultra-Thin Solid-State Nanopores: Fabrication and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Aaron Tzeyang

    Solid-state nanopores are a nanofluidic platform with unique advantages for single-molecule analysis and filtration applications. However, significant improvements in device performance and scalable fabrication methods are needed to make nanopore devices competitive with existing technologies. This dissertation investigates the potential advantages of ultra-thin nanopores in which the thickness of the membrane is significantly smaller than the nanopore diameter. Novel, scalable fabrication methods were first developed and then utilized to examine device performance for water filtration and single molecule sensing applications. Fabrication of nanometer-thin pores in silicon nitride membranes was achieved using a feedback-controlled ion beam method in which ion sputtering is arrested upon detection of the first few ions that drill through the membrane. Performing fabrication at liquid nitrogen temperatures prevents surface atom rearrangements that have previously complicated similar processes. A novel cross-sectional imaging method was also developed to allow careful examination of the full nanopore geometry. Atomically-thin graphene nanopores were fabricated via an electrical pulse method in which sub-microsecond electrical pulses applied across a graphene membrane in electrolyte solution are used to create a defect in the membrane and controllably enlarge it into a nanopore. This method dramatically increases the accuracy and reliability of graphene nanopore production, allowing consistent production of single nanopores down to subnanometer sizes. In filtration applications in which nanopores are used to selectively restrict the passage of dissolved contaminants, ultra-thin nanopores minimize the flow resistance, increasing throughput and energy-efficiency. The ability of graphene nanopores to separate different ions was characterized via ionic conductance and reversal potential measurements. Graphene nanopores were observed to conduct cations preferentially over

  17. Nanoparticle mechanics: deformation detection via nanopore resistive pulse sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darvish, Armin; Goyal, Gaurav; Aneja, Rachna; Sundaram, Ramalingam V. K.; Lee, Kidan; Ahn, Chi Won; Kim, Ki-Bum; Vlahovska, Petia M.; Kim, Min Jun

    2016-07-01

    Solid-state nanopores have been widely used in the past for single-particle analysis of nanoparticles, liposomes, exosomes and viruses. The shape of soft particles, particularly liposomes with a bilayer membrane, can greatly differ inside the nanopore compared to bulk solution as the electric field inside the nanopores can cause liposome electrodeformation. Such deformations can compromise size measurement and characterization of particles, but are often neglected in nanopore resistive pulse sensing. In this paper, we investigated the deformation of various liposomes inside nanopores. We observed a significant difference in resistive pulse characteristics between soft liposomes and rigid polystyrene nanoparticles especially at higher applied voltages. We used theoretical simulations to demonstrate that the difference can be explained by shape deformation of liposomes as they translocate through the nanopores. Comparing our results with the findings from electrodeformation experiments, we demonstrated that the rigidity of liposomes can be qualitatively compared using resistive pulse characteristics. This application of nanopores can provide new opportunities to study the mechanics at the nanoscale, to investigate properties of great value in fundamental biophysics and cellular mechanobiology, such as virus deformability and fusogenicity, and in applied sciences for designing novel drug/gene delivery systems.Solid-state nanopores have been widely used in the past for single-particle analysis of nanoparticles, liposomes, exosomes and viruses. The shape of soft particles, particularly liposomes with a bilayer membrane, can greatly differ inside the nanopore compared to bulk solution as the electric field inside the nanopores can cause liposome electrodeformation. Such deformations can compromise size measurement and characterization of particles, but are often neglected in nanopore resistive pulse sensing. In this paper, we investigated the deformation of various

  18. Pseudocapacitive and hierarchically ordered porous electrode materials supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saruhan, B.; Gönüllü, Y.; Arndt, B.

    2013-05-01

    Commercially available double layer capacitors store energy in an electrostatic field. This forms in the form of a double layer by charged particles arranged on two electrodes consisting mostly of active carbon. Such double layer capacitors exhibit a low energy density, so that components with large capacity according to large electrode areas are required. Our research focuses on the development of new electrode materials to realize the production of electrical energy storage systems with high energy density and high power density. Metal oxide based electrodes increase the energy density and the capacitance by addition of pseudo capacitance to the static capacitance present by the double layer super-capacitor electrodes. The so-called hybrid asymmetric cell capacitors combine both types of energy storage in a single component. In this work, the production routes followed in our laboratories for synthesis of nano-porous and aligned metal oxide electrodes using the electrochemical and sputter deposition as well as anodization methods will be described. Our characterisation studies concentrate on electrodes having redox metal-oxides (e.g. MnOx and WOx) and hierarchically aligned nano-porous Li-doped TiO2-NTs. The material specific and electrochemical properties achieved with these electrodes will be presented.

  19. Surface effects on the mechanical properties of nanoporous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Re; Li Xide; Feng Xiqiao; Qin Qinghua; Liu Jianlin

    2011-01-01

    Using the theory of surface elasticity, we investigate the mechanical properties of nanoporous materials. The classical theory of porous materials is modified to account for surface effects, which become increasingly important as the characteristic sizes of microstructures shrink to nanometers. First, a refined Timoshenko beam model is presented to predict the effective elastic modulus of nanoporous materials. Then the surface effects on the elastic microstructural buckling behavior of nanoporous materials are examined. In particular, nanoporous gold is taken as an example to illustrate the application of the proposed model. The results reveal that both the elastic modulus and the critical buckling behavior of nanoporous materials exhibit a distinct dependence on the characteristic sizes of microstructures, e.g. the average ligament width.

  20. Surface effects on the mechanical properties of nanoporous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia Re [School of Power and Mechanical Engineering, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Li Xide; Feng Xiqiao [AML, Department of Engineering Mechanics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Qin Qinghua [School of Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Liu Jianlin, E-mail: fengxq@tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Engineering Mechanics, China University of Petroleum, Qingdao 266555 (China)

    2011-07-01

    Using the theory of surface elasticity, we investigate the mechanical properties of nanoporous materials. The classical theory of porous materials is modified to account for surface effects, which become increasingly important as the characteristic sizes of microstructures shrink to nanometers. First, a refined Timoshenko beam model is presented to predict the effective elastic modulus of nanoporous materials. Then the surface effects on the elastic microstructural buckling behavior of nanoporous materials are examined. In particular, nanoporous gold is taken as an example to illustrate the application of the proposed model. The results reveal that both the elastic modulus and the critical buckling behavior of nanoporous materials exhibit a distinct dependence on the characteristic sizes of microstructures, e.g. the average ligament width.

  1. Synthesis of single-crystal-like nanoporous carbon membranes and their application in overall water splitting

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hong

    2017-01-04

    Nanoporous graphitic carbon membranes with defined chemical composition and pore architecture are novel nanomaterials that are actively pursued. Compared with easy-to-make porous carbon powders that dominate the porous carbon research and applications in energy generation/conversion and environmental remediation, porous carbon membranes are synthetically more challenging though rather appealing from an application perspective due to their structural integrity, interconnectivity and purity. Here we report a simple bottom–up approach to fabricate large-size, freestanding and porous carbon membranes that feature an unusual single-crystal-like graphitic order and hierarchical pore architecture plus favourable nitrogen doping. When loaded with cobalt nanoparticles, such carbon membranes serve as high-performance carbon-based non-noble metal electrocatalyst for overall water splitting.

  2. Synthesis of single-crystal-like nanoporous carbon membranes and their application in overall water splitting

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hong; Min, Shixiong; Ma, Chun; Liu, Zhixiong; Zhang, Weiyi; Wang, Qiang; Li, Debao; Li, Yangyang; Turner, Stuart; Han, Yu; Zhu, Haibo; Abou-Hamad, Edy; Hedhili, Mohamed N.; Pan, Jun; Yu, Weili; Huang, Kuo-Wei; Li, Lain-Jong; Yuan, Jiayin; Antonietti, Markus; Wu, Tao

    2017-01-01

    Nanoporous graphitic carbon membranes with defined chemical composition and pore architecture are novel nanomaterials that are actively pursued. Compared with easy-to-make porous carbon powders that dominate the porous carbon research and applications in energy generation/conversion and environmental remediation, porous carbon membranes are synthetically more challenging though rather appealing from an application perspective due to their structural integrity, interconnectivity and purity. Here we report a simple bottom–up approach to fabricate large-size, freestanding and porous carbon membranes that feature an unusual single-crystal-like graphitic order and hierarchical pore architecture plus favourable nitrogen doping. When loaded with cobalt nanoparticles, such carbon membranes serve as high-performance carbon-based non-noble metal electrocatalyst for overall water splitting.

  3. Optically Transparent Wood from a Nanoporous Cellulosic Template: Combining Functional and Structural Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanyuan; Fu, Qiliang; Yu, Shun; Yan, Min; Berglund, Lars

    2016-04-11

    Optically transparent wood (TW) with transmittance as high as 85% and haze of 71% was obtained using a delignified nanoporous wood template. The template was prepared by removing the light-absorbing lignin component, creating nanoporosity in the wood cell wall. Transparent wood was prepared by successful impregnation of lumen and the nanoscale cellulose fiber network in the cell wall with refractive-index-matched prepolymerized methyl methacrylate (MMA). During the process, the hierarchical wood structure was preserved. Optical properties of TW are tunable by changing the cellulose volume fraction. The synergy between wood and PMMA was observed for mechanical properties. Lightweight and strong transparent wood is a potential candidate for lightweight low-cost, light-transmitting buildings and transparent solar cell windows.

  4. Surface coating changes the physiological and biochemical impacts of nano-TiO2 in basil (Ocimum basilicum) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Wenjuan; Du, Wenchao; Barrios, Ana C; Armendariz, Raul; Zuverza-Mena, Nubia; Ji, Zhaoxia; Chang, Chong Hyun; Zink, Jeffrey I; Hernandez-Viezcas, Jose A; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2017-03-01

    Little is known about the effects of surface coating on the interaction of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) with plants. In this study, basil (Ocimum basilicum) was cultivated for 65 days in soil amended with unmodified, hydrophobic (coated with aluminum oxide and dimethicone), and hydrophilic (coated with aluminum oxide and glycerol) titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO 2 ) at 125, 250, 500, and 750 mg nano-TiO 2 kg -1 soil. ICP-OES/MS, SPAD meter, and UV/Vis spectrometry were used to determine Ti and essential elements in tissues, relative chlorophyll content, carbohydrates, and antioxidant response, respectively. Compared with control, hydrophobic and hydrophilic nano-TiO 2 significantly reduced seed germination by 41% and 59%, respectively, while unmodified and hydrophobic nano-TiO 2 significantly decreased shoot biomass by 31% and 37%, respectively (p ≤ 0.05). Roots exposed to hydrophobic particles at 750 mg kg -1 had 87% and 40% more Ti than the pristine and hydrophilic nano-TiO 2 ; however, no differences were found in shoots. The three types of particles affected the homeostasis of essential elements: at 500 mg kg - 1 , unmodified particles increased Cu (104%) and Fe (90%); hydrophilic increased Fe (90%); while hydrophobic increased Mn (339%) but reduced Ca (71%), Cu (58%), and P (40%). However, only hydrophobic particles significantly reduced root elongation by 53%. Unmodified, hydrophobic, and hydrophilic particles significantly reduced total sugar by 39%, 38%, and 66%, respectively, compared with control. Moreover, unmodified particles significantly decreased reducing sugar (34%), while hydrophobic particles significantly reduced starch (35%). Although the three particles affected basil plants, coated particles impacted the most its nutritional quality, since they altered more essential elements, starch, and reducing sugars. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Surfactant-free carnauba wax dispersion and its use for layer-by-layer assembled protective surface coatings on wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozhechnikova, Alina; Bellanger, Hervé; Michen, Benjamin; Burgert, Ingo; Österberg, Monika

    2017-02-01

    Protection from liquid water and UV radiation are equally important, and a sophisticated approach is needed when developing surface coatings that preserve the natural and well-appreciated aesthetic appearance of wood. In order to prevent degradation and prolong the service life of timber, a protective coating was assembled using carnauba wax particles and zinc oxide nanoparticles via layer-by-layer deposition in water. For this purpose, a facile sonication route was developed to produce aqueous wax dispersion without any surfactants or stabilizers. The suspension was stable above pH 4 due to the electrostatic repulsion between the negatively charged wax particles. The particle size could be controlled by the initial wax concentration with average particle sizes ranging from 260 to 360 nm for 1 and 10 g/L, respectively. The deposition of wax particles onto the surface of spruce wood introduced additional roughness to the wood surface at micron level, while zinc oxide provided nano roughness and UV-absorbing properties. In addition to making wood superhydrophobic, this novel multilayer coating enhanced the natural moisture buffering capability of spruce. Moreover, wood surfaces prepared in this fashion showed a significant reduction in color change after exposure to UV light. A degradation of the wax through photocatalytic activity of the ZnO particles was measured by FTIR, indicating that further studies are required to achieve long-term stability. Nevertheless, the developed coating showed a unique combination of superhydrophobicity and excellent moisture buffering ability and some UV protection, all achieved using an environmentally friendly coating process, which is beneficial to retain the natural appearance of wood and improve indoor air quality and comfort.

  6. Novel Hierarchical Micro/Nano Modified Surfaces for Dental Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela STRNAD

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Present paper presents the modification at nano scale level of the surfaces of Ti6Al4V alloy that were previously modified at micro scale level by acid etching (AE or by sand blasting with large grit and acid etching (SLA. Continuous, self-ordered nanostructured (nanoporous/nanotubular oxide layers superimposed onto micro rough topographies were developed by using electrochemical anodization in fluoride based solutions, and optimized process parameters. Novel hierarchical micro/nano modified surfaces, with well developed oxide nanotubes of 40-110 nm in diameter, were synthesis by anodization in 1M H3PO4 + 0.4 wt% HF electrolyte, at anodization potential of 24 V, applied with a potential ramp of 0.08 V/s.

  7. Hierarchical wave functions revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Dingping.

    1997-11-01

    We study the hierarchical wave functions on a sphere and on a torus. We simplify some wave functions on a sphere or a torus using the analytic properties of wave functions. The open question, the construction of the wave function for quasi electron excitation on a torus, is also solved in this paper. (author)

  8. Hierarchical Porous Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grote, Christopher John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-07

    Materials Design is often at the forefront of technological innovation. While there has always been a push to generate increasingly low density materials, such as aero or hydrogels, more recently the idea of bicontinuous structures has gone more into play. This review will cover some of the methods and applications for generating both porous, and hierarchically porous structures.

  9. The Hierarchical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Sofron

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on the hierarchical perspective, one of the methods for representing space that was used before the discovery of the Renaissance linear perspective. The hierarchical perspective has a more or less pronounced scientific character and its study offers us a clear image of the way the representatives of the cultures that developed it used to perceive the sensitive reality. This type of perspective is an original method of representing three-dimensional space on a flat surface, which characterises the art of Ancient Egypt and much of the art of the Middle Ages, being identified in the Eastern European Byzantine art, as well as in the Western European Pre-Romanesque and Romanesque art. At the same time, the hierarchical perspective is also present in naive painting and infantile drawing. Reminiscences of this method can be recognised also in the works of some precursors of the Italian Renaissance. The hierarchical perspective can be viewed as a subjective ranking criterion, according to which the elements are visually represented by taking into account their relevance within the image while perception is ignored. This paper aims to show how the main objective of the artists of those times was not to faithfully represent the objective reality, but rather to emphasize the essence of the world and its perennial aspects. This may represent a possible explanation for the refusal of perspective in the Egyptian, Romanesque and Byzantine painting, characterised by a marked two-dimensionality.

  10. Electrochemical fabrication of nanoporous polypyrrole thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Mei; Yuan Jinying; Shi Gaoquan

    2008-01-01

    Polypyrrole thin films with pores in nanometer scale were synthesized by direct electrochemical oxidation of pyrrole in a mixed electrolyte of isopropyl alcohol, boron trifluoride diethyl etherate, sodium dodecylsulfonate and poly(ethylene glycol) using well-aligned ZnO nanowires arrays as templates. The thin films exhibit high conductivity of ca. σ rt ∼ 20.5 s/cm and can be driven to bend during redox processes in 1.0 M lithium perchlorate aqueous solution. The movement rate of an actuator based on this nanoporous film was measured to be over 90 o /s at a driving potential of 0.8 V (vs. Ag/AgCl)

  11. Retroreflection from nanoporous InP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prislopski, S.Ya.; Naumenko, E.K.; Gaponenko, S.V.; Tiginyanu, I.M.; Ghimpu, L.; Sirbu, L.; Monaico, E.

    2013-01-01

    Pronounced retroreflection behavior is reported for a fishnet nanoporous strongly absorbing semiconductor material. Retroreflection appears with diffusive specular reflection for all angles of incidence. Retroreflection is apparent by the naked eye with day light illumination and exhibits no selectivity with respect to wavelength and polarization of incident light featuring minor depolarization of retroreflected light. The phenomenon can be classified neither as coherent backscattering nor as Anderson localization of light. The primary model includes light scattering from strongly absorptive and refractive super-wavelength clusters existing within the porous fishnet structure. We found that retroreflection vanishes for wavelength where absorption becomes negligible. (authors)

  12. Fabrication of nanoporous nuclear track membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Liangqiang; Wang Shicheng; Ju Xin; Masaru Yoshida; Yasunari Maekawa

    2001-01-01

    Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polycarbonate (PC) films were irradiated by S, Kr and Xe ions and were illuminated with ultraviolet light. The normalized track etch rate for PET and PC films etched in different conditions were measured by conductometric experiments. It is shown that normalized track etch rate can be over 1000 for PET films, 2000 for PC films under optimized condition. TEM photographs of copper nanowires electroplated into nanoporous nuclear track membranes show that the narrowest wire diameter of copper nanowires is 20 nm and that the pore diameter calculated by conductometric experiments is in agreement with the wire diameter measured by TEM when the pore diameter is over 30 nm

  13. Meso-/Nanoporous Semiconducting Metal Oxides for Gas Sensor Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Duc Hoa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Development and/or design of new materials and/or structures for effective gas sensor applications with fast response and high sensitivity, selectivity, and stability are very important issues in the gas sensor technology. This critical review introduces our recent progress in the development of meso-/nanoporous semiconducting metal oxides and their applications to gas sensors. First, the basic concepts of resistive gas sensors and the recent synthesis of meso-/nanoporous metal oxides for gas sensor applications are introduced. The advantages of meso-/nanoporous metal oxides are also presented, taking into account the crystallinity and ordered/disordered porous structures. Second, the synthesis methods of meso-/nanoporous metal oxides including the soft-template, hard-template, and temple-free methods are introduced, in which the advantages and disadvantages of each synthetic method are figured out. Third, the applications of meso-/nanoporous metal oxides as gas sensors are presented. The gas nanosensors are designed based on meso-/nanoporous metal oxides for effective detection of toxic gases. The sensitivity, selectivity, and stability of the meso-/nanoporous gas nanosensors are also discussed. Finally, some conclusions and an outlook are presented.

  14. Modulation of Molecular Flux Using a Graphene Nanopore Capacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankla, Manish; Aksimentiev, Aleksei

    2017-04-20

    Modulation of ionic current flowing through nanoscale pores is one of the fundamental biological processes. Inspired by nature, nanopores in synthetic solid-state membranes are being developed to enable rapid analysis of biological macromolecules and to serve as elements of nanofludic circuits. Here, we theoretically investigate ion and water transport through a graphene-insulator-graphene membrane containing a single, electrolyte-filled nanopore. By means of all-atom molecular dynamics simulations, we show that the charge state of such a graphene nanopore capacitor can regulate both the selectivity and the magnitude of the nanopore ionic current. At a fixed transmembrane bias, the ionic current can be switched from being carried by an equal mixture of cations and anions to being carried almost exclusively by either cationic or anionic species, depending on the sign of the charge assigned to both plates of the capacitor. Assigning the plates of the capacitor opposite sign charges can either increase the nanopore current or reduce it substantially, depending on the polarity of the bias driving the transmembrane current. Facilitated by the changes of the nanopore surface charge, such ionic current modulations are found to occur despite the physical dimensions of the nanopore being an order of magnitude larger than the screening length of the electrolyte. The ionic current rectification is accompanied by a pronounced electro-osmotic effect that can transport neutral molecules such as proteins and drugs across the solid-state membrane and thereby serve as an interface between electronic and chemical signals.

  15. Hierarchical species distribution models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefley, Trevor J.; Hooten, Mevin B.

    2016-01-01

    Determining the distribution pattern of a species is important to increase scientific knowledge, inform management decisions, and conserve biodiversity. To infer spatial and temporal patterns, species distribution models have been developed for use with many sampling designs and types of data. Recently, it has been shown that count, presence-absence, and presence-only data can be conceptualized as arising from a point process distribution. Therefore, it is important to understand properties of the point process distribution. We examine how the hierarchical species distribution modeling framework has been used to incorporate a wide array of regression and theory-based components while accounting for the data collection process and making use of auxiliary information. The hierarchical modeling framework allows us to demonstrate how several commonly used species distribution models can be derived from the point process distribution, highlight areas of potential overlap between different models, and suggest areas where further research is needed.

  16. Bayesian nonparametric hierarchical modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunson, David B

    2009-04-01

    In biomedical research, hierarchical models are very widely used to accommodate dependence in multivariate and longitudinal data and for borrowing of information across data from different sources. A primary concern in hierarchical modeling is sensitivity to parametric assumptions, such as linearity and normality of the random effects. Parametric assumptions on latent variable distributions can be challenging to check and are typically unwarranted, given available prior knowledge. This article reviews some recent developments in Bayesian nonparametric methods motivated by complex, multivariate and functional data collected in biomedical studies. The author provides a brief review of flexible parametric approaches relying on finite mixtures and latent class modeling. Dirichlet process mixture models are motivated by the need to generalize these approaches to avoid assuming a fixed finite number of classes. Focusing on an epidemiology application, the author illustrates the practical utility and potential of nonparametric Bayes methods.

  17. Surfactant-free carnauba wax dispersion and its use for layer-by-layer assembled protective surface coatings on wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lozhechnikova, Alina; Bellanger, Hervé; Michen, Benjamin; Burgert, Ingo; Österberg, Monika

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A facile sonication route to produce aqueous wax dispersions is developed. • The wax dispersion is naturally stable and free of surfactants or stabilizers. • Wax and ZnO particles are coated onto wood using layer-by-layer assembly. • The coating brings superhydrophobicity while preserving moisture buffering. • ZnO improves the color stability of wood to UV light. - Abstract: Protection from liquid water and UV radiation are equally important, and a sophisticated approach is needed when developing surface coatings that preserve the natural and well-appreciated aesthetic appearance of wood. In order to prevent degradation and prolong the service life of timber, a protective coating was assembled using carnauba wax particles and zinc oxide nanoparticles via layer-by-layer deposition in water. For this purpose, a facile sonication route was developed to produce aqueous wax dispersion without any surfactants or stabilizers. The suspension was stable above pH 4 due to the electrostatic repulsion between the negatively charged wax particles. The particle size could be controlled by the initial wax concentration with average particle sizes ranging from 260 to 360 nm for 1 and 10 g/L, respectively. The deposition of wax particles onto the surface of spruce wood introduced additional roughness to the wood surface at micron level, while zinc oxide provided nano roughness and UV-absorbing properties. In addition to making wood superhydrophobic, this novel multilayer coating enhanced the natural moisture buffering capability of spruce. Moreover, wood surfaces prepared in this fashion showed a significant reduction in color change after exposure to UV light. A degradation of the wax through photocatalytic activity of the ZnO particles was measured by FTIR, indicating that further studies are required to achieve long-term stability. Nevertheless, the developed coating showed a unique combination of superhydrophobicity and excellent moisture buffering

  18. Surfactant-free carnauba wax dispersion and its use for layer-by-layer assembled protective surface coatings on wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lozhechnikova, Alina [Department of Forest Products Technology, School of Chemical Technology, Aalto University, P.O. Box 16300, FI-00076, Aalto (Finland); Bellanger, Hervé; Michen, Benjamin; Burgert, Ingo [Institute for Building Materials (IfB), Wood Materials Science, ETH Zürich, Stefano-Franscini-Platz 3, 8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Applied Wood Materials Laboratory, Empa − Swiss Federal Laboratories for Material Testing and Research, 8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Österberg, Monika, E-mail: monika.osterberg@aalto.fi [Department of Forest Products Technology, School of Chemical Technology, Aalto University, P.O. Box 16300, FI-00076, Aalto (Finland)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • A facile sonication route to produce aqueous wax dispersions is developed. • The wax dispersion is naturally stable and free of surfactants or stabilizers. • Wax and ZnO particles are coated onto wood using layer-by-layer assembly. • The coating brings superhydrophobicity while preserving moisture buffering. • ZnO improves the color stability of wood to UV light. - Abstract: Protection from liquid water and UV radiation are equally important, and a sophisticated approach is needed when developing surface coatings that preserve the natural and well-appreciated aesthetic appearance of wood. In order to prevent degradation and prolong the service life of timber, a protective coating was assembled using carnauba wax particles and zinc oxide nanoparticles via layer-by-layer deposition in water. For this purpose, a facile sonication route was developed to produce aqueous wax dispersion without any surfactants or stabilizers. The suspension was stable above pH 4 due to the electrostatic repulsion between the negatively charged wax particles. The particle size could be controlled by the initial wax concentration with average particle sizes ranging from 260 to 360 nm for 1 and 10 g/L, respectively. The deposition of wax particles onto the surface of spruce wood introduced additional roughness to the wood surface at micron level, while zinc oxide provided nano roughness and UV-absorbing properties. In addition to making wood superhydrophobic, this novel multilayer coating enhanced the natural moisture buffering capability of spruce. Moreover, wood surfaces prepared in this fashion showed a significant reduction in color change after exposure to UV light. A degradation of the wax through photocatalytic activity of the ZnO particles was measured by FTIR, indicating that further studies are required to achieve long-term stability. Nevertheless, the developed coating showed a unique combination of superhydrophobicity and excellent moisture buffering

  19. Food contact surfaces coated with nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide: effect on Listeria monocytogenes survival under different light sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, D.; Teixeira, P. [Institute for Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Centre of Biological Engineering, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Tavares, C.J. [Center of Physics, University of Minho, Campus de Azurém, 4800-058 Guimarães (Portugal); Azeredo, J., E-mail: jazeredo@deb.uminho.pt [Institute for Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Centre of Biological Engineering, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal)

    2013-04-01

    Improvement of food safety is a very important issue, and is on the basis of production and application of new/modified food contact surfaces. Titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) and, more recently, nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide (N-TiO{sub 2}) coatings are among the possible forms to enhance food contact surfaces performance in terms of higher hygiene and easier sanitation. In this context, the present work aimed at evaluating the bactericidal activity of an N-TiO{sub 2} coating on glass and stainless steel under two different sources of visible light – fluorescent and incandescent – and ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. Listeria monocytogenes was chosen as representative of major foodborne pathogens and its survival was tested on N-TiO{sub 2} coated coupons. In terms of survival percentage, good results were obtained after exposure of coated surfaces to all light types since, apart from the value obtained after exposing glass to fluorescent light (56.3%), survival rates were always below 50%. However, no effective disinfection was obtained, given that for a disinfectant or sanitizing agent to be claimed as effective it needs to be able to promote at least a 3-log reduction of the microbial load, which was not observed for any of the experimental conditions assessed. Even so, UV irradiation was the most successful on eliminating cells on coated surfaces, since the amount of bacteria was reduced to 1.49 × 10{sup 6} CFU/ml on glass and 2.37 × 10{sup 7} on stainless steel. In contrast, both visible light sources had only slightly decreased the amount of viable cells, which remained in the range of 8 log CFU/ml. Hence, although some bactericidal effect was accomplished under visible light, UV was the most effective light source on promoting photocatalytic reactions on N-TiO{sub 2} coated coupons and none of the experimental conditions have reached a satisfactory disinfection level. Thus, this surface coating needs further research and improvement in order to become truly

  20. Food contact surfaces coated with nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide: effect on Listeria monocytogenes survival under different light sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, D.; Teixeira, P.; Tavares, C.J.; Azeredo, J.

    2013-01-01

    Improvement of food safety is a very important issue, and is on the basis of production and application of new/modified food contact surfaces. Titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) and, more recently, nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide (N-TiO 2 ) coatings are among the possible forms to enhance food contact surfaces performance in terms of higher hygiene and easier sanitation. In this context, the present work aimed at evaluating the bactericidal activity of an N-TiO 2 coating on glass and stainless steel under two different sources of visible light – fluorescent and incandescent – and ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. Listeria monocytogenes was chosen as representative of major foodborne pathogens and its survival was tested on N-TiO 2 coated coupons. In terms of survival percentage, good results were obtained after exposure of coated surfaces to all light types since, apart from the value obtained after exposing glass to fluorescent light (56.3%), survival rates were always below 50%. However, no effective disinfection was obtained, given that for a disinfectant or sanitizing agent to be claimed as effective it needs to be able to promote at least a 3-log reduction of the microbial load, which was not observed for any of the experimental conditions assessed. Even so, UV irradiation was the most successful on eliminating cells on coated surfaces, since the amount of bacteria was reduced to 1.49 × 10 6 CFU/ml on glass and 2.37 × 10 7 on stainless steel. In contrast, both visible light sources had only slightly decreased the amount of viable cells, which remained in the range of 8 log CFU/ml. Hence, although some bactericidal effect was accomplished under visible light, UV was the most effective light source on promoting photocatalytic reactions on N-TiO 2 coated coupons and none of the experimental conditions have reached a satisfactory disinfection level. Thus, this surface coating needs further research and improvement in order to become truly effective against foodborne

  1. Food contact surfaces coated with nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide: effect on Listeria monocytogenes survival under different light sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, D.; Teixeira, P.; Tavares, C. J.; Azeredo, J.

    2013-04-01

    Improvement of food safety is a very important issue, and is on the basis of production and application of new/modified food contact surfaces. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) and, more recently, nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide (N-TiO2) coatings are among the possible forms to enhance food contact surfaces performance in terms of higher hygiene and easier sanitation. In this context, the present work aimed at evaluating the bactericidal activity of an N-TiO2 coating on glass and stainless steel under two different sources of visible light - fluorescent and incandescent - and ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. Listeria monocytogenes was chosen as representative of major foodborne pathogens and its survival was tested on N-TiO2 coated coupons. In terms of survival percentage, good results were obtained after exposure of coated surfaces to all light types since, apart from the value obtained after exposing glass to fluorescent light (56.3%), survival rates were always below 50%. However, no effective disinfection was obtained, given that for a disinfectant or sanitizing agent to be claimed as effective it needs to be able to promote at least a 3-log reduction of the microbial load, which was not observed for any of the experimental conditions assessed. Even so, UV irradiation was the most successful on eliminating cells on coated surfaces, since the amount of bacteria was reduced to 1.49 × 106 CFU/ml on glass and 2.37 × 107 on stainless steel. In contrast, both visible light sources had only slightly decreased the amount of viable cells, which remained in the range of 8 log CFU/ml. Hence, although some bactericidal effect was accomplished under visible light, UV was the most effective light source on promoting photocatalytic reactions on N-TiO2 coated coupons and none of the experimental conditions have reached a satisfactory disinfection level. Thus, this surface coating needs further research and improvement in order to become truly effective against foodborne pathogens and

  2. Hierarchically Structured Electrospun Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-07

    in the natural lotus and silver ragwort leaves. Figure 4. Examples of electrospun bio-mimics of natural hierarchical structures. (A) Lotus leaf...B) pillared poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) electrospun fiber mimic; (C) silver ragwort leaf; (D) electrospun fiber mimic made from nylon 6 and...domains containing the protein in the surrounding EVA fibers [115]. A wide variety of core-shell fibers have been generated, including PCL/ gelatin

  3. Hierarchical video summarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratakonda, Krishna; Sezan, M. Ibrahim; Crinon, Regis J.

    1998-12-01

    We address the problem of key-frame summarization of vide in the absence of any a priori information about its content. This is a common problem that is encountered in home videos. We propose a hierarchical key-frame summarization algorithm where a coarse-to-fine key-frame summary is generated. A hierarchical key-frame summary facilitates multi-level browsing where the user can quickly discover the content of the video by accessing its coarsest but most compact summary and then view a desired segment of the video with increasingly more detail. At the finest level, the summary is generated on the basis of color features of video frames, using an extension of a recently proposed key-frame extraction algorithm. The finest level key-frames are recursively clustered using a novel pairwise K-means clustering approach with temporal consecutiveness constraint. We also address summarization of MPEG-2 compressed video without fully decoding the bitstream. We also propose efficient mechanisms that facilitate decoding the video when the hierarchical summary is utilized in browsing and playback of video segments starting at selected key-frames.

  4. Buckling Causes Nonlinear Dynamics of Filamentous Viruses Driven through Nanopores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, Angus; de Haan, Hendrick W; Tang, Jay X; Stein, Derek

    2018-02-16

    Measurements and Langevin dynamics simulations of filamentous viruses driven through solid-state nanopores reveal a superlinear rise in the translocation velocity with driving force. The mobility also scales with the length of the virus in a nontrivial way that depends on the force. These dynamics are consequences of the buckling of the leading portion of a virus as it emerges from the nanopore and is put under compressive stress by the viscous forces it encounters. The leading tip of a buckled virus stalls and this reduces the total viscous drag force. We present a scaling theory that connects the solid mechanics to the nonlinear dynamics of polyelectrolytes translocating nanopores.

  5. Nanoporous carbon actuator and methods of use thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biener, Juergen [San Leandro, CA; Baumann, Theodore F [Discovery Bay, CA; Shao, Lihua [Karlsruhe, DE; Weissmueller, Joerg [Stutensee, DE

    2012-07-31

    An electrochemically driveable actuator according to one embodiment includes a nanoporous carbon aerogel composition capable of exhibiting charge-induced reversible strain when wetted by an electrolyte and a voltage is applied thereto. An electrochemically driven actuator according to another embodiment includes a nanoporous carbon aerogel composition wetted by an electrolyte; and a mechanism for causing charge-induced reversible strain of the composition. A method for electrochemically actuating an object according to one embodiment includes causing charge-induced reversible strain of a nanoporous carbon aerogel composition wetted with an electrolyte to actuate the object by the strain.

  6. Electrically tunable solid-state silicon nanopore ion filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gracheva Maria

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractWe show that a nanopore in a silicon membrane connected to a voltage source can be used as an electrically tunable ion filter. By applying a voltage between the heavily doped semiconductor and the electrolyte, it is possible to invert the ion population inside the nanopore and vary the conductance for both cations and anions in order to achieve selective conduction of ions even in the presence of significant surface charges in the membrane. Our model based on the solution of the Poisson equation and linear transport theory indicates that in narrow nanopores substantial gain can be achieved by controlling electrically the width of the charge double layer.

  7. Nanoporous Glasses for Nuclear Waste Containment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Woignier

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Research is in progress to incorporate nuclear waste in new matrices with high structural stability, resistance to thermal shock, and high chemical durability. Interactions with water are important for materials used as a containment matrix for the radio nuclides. It is indispensable to improve their chemical durability to limit the possible release of radioactive chemical species, if the glass structure is attacked by corrosion. By associating high structural stability and high chemical durability, silica glass optimizes the properties of a suitable host matrix. According to an easy sintering stage, nanoporous glasses such as xerogels, aerogels, and composite gels are alternative ways to synthesize silica glass at relatively low temperatures (≈1,000–1,200°C. Nuclear wastes exist as aqueous salt solutions and we propose using the open pore structure of the nanoporous glass to enable migration of the solution throughout the solid volume. The loaded material is then sintered, thereby trapping the radioactive chemical species. The structure of the sintered materials (glass ceramics is that of nanocomposites: actinide phases (~100 nm embedded in a vitreous silica matrix. Our results showed a large improvement in the chemical durability of glass ceramic over conventional nuclear glass.

  8. Nanoporous ultrahigh specific surface polyacrylonitrile fibres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lifeng; Hsieh, Y-L

    2006-01-01

    The concept of phase separation was coupled with electrospinning to generate polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) bicomponent fibres that, upon removal of the phase-separated PEO domains, became nanoporous. Electrospinning of PAN (150 kDa) with 15-50% w/w PEO (10 kDa) at a 8% w/w total concentration in N,N-dimethylformamide produced fibres with decreasing averaged diameters from 390 to 130 nm. Evidence of phase separation between PAN and PEO in the bicomponent fibres was indicated by the characteristic PAN and PEO peaks by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging, and confirmed by the co-existence of PAN cyclization and PEO melting by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and the presence of PEO crystalline diffraction by wide-angle x-ray scattering (WAXS). Removal of PEO by dissolution in water was confirmed by the matched mass loss to PEO fraction and the absence of PEO by FTIR and DSC. The water-treated bicomponent fibres appeared slightly larger in diameter and contained internal pores of nanometre scale. The nanoporous fibres generated from 50/50 PAN/PEO bicomponent precursor contained internal pores of a few nanometres to tens of nanometres in size and had 50% higher pore volume and 2.5-fold higher specific surface

  9. Structural evolution in nanoporous anodic aluminium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocca, Emmanuel; Vantelon, Delphine; Reguer, Solenn; Mirambet, François

    2012-01-01

    Nanoporous and self-organized layers of aluminium alloys are used in many applications as membranes, templates for nanometric objects or corrosion protection for aluminium alloys. The use of this nanometric structure widely remains empirical, especially in the case of very small pores ( 4 into AlO 6 cluster and a partial release of sulphate ions are an important chemical transformation of the amorphous structure. This structural transformation defines the chemistry (pH and surface charge) inside the nanopores, the ageing behaviour and the possible incorporation or diffusion of chemical species in the nanostructure. Highlights: ► Investigations of local chemical environment of aluminium atoms in anodic aluminium oxide. ► The oxide structure is constituted by 2/3 of aluminium in tetrahedral coordination 1/3 in octahedral coordination. ► In contact with water, AlO 4 clusters are transformed into AlO 6 cluster and the aluminium sulphate bonds are hydrolysed. ► These transformations induce a pH decrease inside the nanostructure.

  10. Cavitation and pore blocking in nanoporous glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichenbach, C; Kalies, G; Enke, D; Klank, D

    2011-09-06

    In gas adsorption studies, porous glasses are frequently referred to as model materials for highly disordered mesopore systems. Numerous works suggest that an accurate interpretation of physisorption isotherms requires a complete understanding of network effects upon adsorption and desorption, respectively. The present article deals with nitrogen and argon adsorption at different temperatures (77 and 87 K) performed on a series of novel nanoporous glasses (NPG) with different mean pore widths. NPG samples contain smaller mesopores and significantly higher microporosity than porous Vycor glass or controlled pore glass. Since the mean pore width of NPG can be tuned sensitively, the evolution of adsorption characteristics with respect to a broadening pore network can be investigated starting from the narrowest nanopore width. With an increasing mean pore width, a H2-type hysteresis develops gradually which finally transforms into a H1-type. In this connection, a transition from a cavitation-induced desorption toward desorption controlled by pore blocking can be observed. Furthermore, we find concrete hints for a pore size dependence of the relative pressure of cavitation in highly disordered pore systems. By comparing nitrogen and argon adsorption, a comprehensive insight into adsorption mechanisms in novel disordered materials is provided. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  11. Selective Template Wetting Routes to Hierarchical Polymer Films: Polymer Nanotubes from Phase-Separated Films via Solvent Annealing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Hao-Wen; Cheng, Ming-Hsiang; Chi, Mu-Huan; Chang, Chun-Wei; Chen, Jiun-Tai

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate a novel wetting method to prepare hierarchical polymer films with polymer nanotubes on selective regions. This strategy is based on the selective wetting abilities of polymer chains, annealed in different solvent vapors, into the nanopores of porous templates. Phase-separated films of polystyrene (PS) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), two commonly used polymers, are prepared as a model system. After anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates are placed on the films, the samples are annealed in vapors of acetic acid, in which the PMMA chains are swollen and wet the nanopores of the AAO templates selectively. As a result, hierarchical polymer films containing PMMA nanotubes can be obtained after the AAO templates are removed. The distribution of the PMMA nanotubes of the hierarchical polymer films can also be controlled by changing the compositions of the polymer blends. This work not only presents a novel method to fabricate hierarchical polymer films with polymer nanotubes on selective regions, but also gives a deeper understanding in the selective wetting ability of polymer chains in solvent vapors.

  12. Analysis of the cytotoxicity of hierarchical nanoporous graphenic carbon against human gliblastoma grade IV cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaworski, Sławomir; Biniecka, Paulina; Bugajska, Zaneta

    2017-01-01

    conductivity. These unique properties and ability to transfer charge create a possibility of employing HNC as a moderator of tumor cell growth. As the charge of HNC may interfere with cell membranes by adhesion and by bonding with cell receptors, it may block the supply of nutrients. The interactions of HNC...

  13. Chemical Reaction Equilibrium in Nanoporous Materials: NO Dimerization Reaction in Carbon Slit Nanopores

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lísal, Martin; Brennan, J.K.; Smith, W.R.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 124, č. 6 (2006), s. 64712.1-64712.14 ISSN 0021-9606 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/05/0725; GA AV ČR(CZ) 1ET400720507; GA AV ČR(CZ) 1ET400720409 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : nanopore * NO dimerization * reaction Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.166, year: 2006

  14. Nonfaradaic nanoporous electrochemistry for conductometry at high electrolyte concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Je Hyun; Kang, Chung Mu; Choi, Hyoungseon; Kim, Beom Jin; Jang, Woohyuk; Lim, Sung Yul; Kim, Hee Chan; Chung, Taek Dong

    2015-02-17

    Nanoporous electrified surfaces create a unique nonfaradaic electrochemical behavior that is sensitively influenced by pore size, morphology, ionic strength, and electric field modulation. Here, we report the contributions of ion concentration and applied ac frequency to the electrode impedance through an electrical double layer overlap and ion transport along the nanopores. Nanoporous Pt with uniform pore size and geometry (L2-ePt) responded more sensitively to conductivity changes in aqueous solutions than Pt black with poor uniformity despite similar real surface areas and enabled the previously difficult quantitative conductometry measurements at high electrolyte concentrations. The nanopores of L2-ePt were more effective in reducing the electrode impedance and exhibited superior linear responses to not only flat Pt but also Pt black, leading to successful conductometric detection in ion chromatography without ion suppressors and at high ionic strengths.

  15. Information Dynamics of a Nonlinear Stochastic Nanopore System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Gilpin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Nanopores have become a subject of interest in the scientific community due to their potential uses in nanometer-scale laboratory and research applications, including infectious disease diagnostics and DNA sequencing. Additionally, they display behavioral similarity to molecular and cellular scale physiological processes. Recent advances in information theory have made it possible to probe the information dynamics of nonlinear stochastic dynamical systems, such as autonomously fluctuating nanopore systems, which has enhanced our understanding of the physical systems they model. We present the results of local (LER and specific entropy rate (SER computations from a simulation study of an autonomously fluctuating nanopore system. We learn that both metrics show increases that correspond to fluctuations in the nanopore current, indicating fundamental changes in information generation surrounding these fluctuations.

  16. Side-gated ultrathin-channel nanopore FET sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagi, Itaru; Haga, Takanobu; Ando, Masahiko; Yamamoto, Jiro; Mine, Toshiyuki; Ishida, Takeshi; Hatano, Toshiyuki; Akahori, Rena; Yokoi, Takahide; Anazawa, Takashi; Oura, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    A side-gated, ultrathin-channel nanopore FET (SGNAFET) is proposed for fast and label-free DNA sequencing. The concept of the SGNAFET comprises the detection of changes in the channel current during DNA translocation through a nanopore and identifying the four types of nucleotides as a result of these changes. To achieve this goal, both p- and n-type SGNAFETs with a channel thicknesses of 2 or 4 nm were fabricated, and the stable transistor operation of both SGNAFETs in air, water, and a KCl buffer solution were confirmed. In addition, synchronized current changes were observed between the ionic current through the nanopore and the SGNAFET’s drain current during DNA translocation through the nanopore. (paper)

  17. Hydrophilic nanoporous polystyrenes and 1,2-polybutadienes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Fengxiao; Jankova Atanasova, Katja; Vigild, Martin Etchells

    2008-01-01

    Nanoporous polymers from ordered block copolymers having hydrophilic cavity surfaces were successfully prepared by two methodologies: ' 1. Nanoporous polystyrenes fromPtBA-b-PS diblock or PDMS-b-PtBA-b-PS triblock copolymer precursors by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), or combination...... of living anionic polymerization~ and ATRP r~spectively. The one, PtBA block, can be modified to the hydrophilic PAA, where the dther, polydimethysiloxane (PDMS) block, can be fully degraded. Deprotection of the tert-butyl groups in PtBA and the selective etching of PDMS· chains were accomplished...... by applying HF or TFA in one step. Thus both the di- and triblock copolymers after such a treatment resulted. in nanoporous polystyrenes with hexagonal cavities of different nanosizes (6-11 nm, Figure 1). 2. Nanoporous I,2-polybutadienes (I,2-PB) by grafting various acrylic monomers onto the pore. surfaces...

  18. Stable lithium electrodeposition in liquid and nanoporous solid electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Yingying; Tu, Zhengyuan; Archer, Lynden A.

    2014-01-01

    of these metals and their inability to form uniform electrodeposits on surfaces with inevitable defects. We report on electrodeposition of lithium in simple liquid electrolytes and in nanoporous solids infused with liquid electrolytes. We find that simple liquid

  19. Multistep Current Signal in Protein Translocation through Graphene Nanopores

    KAUST Repository

    Bonome, Emma Letizia; Lepore, Rosalba; Raimondo, Domenico; Cecconi, Fabio; Tramontano, Anna; Chinappi, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    of graphene constitute a major advantage for molecule characterization. Here we analyze the translocation pathway of the thioredoxin protein across a graphene nanopore, and the related ionic currents, by integrating two nonequilibrium molecular dynamics

  20. Nanoporous Polymer-Ceramic Composite Electrolytes for Lithium Metal Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Tu, Zhengyuan; Kambe, Yu; Lu, Yingying; Archer, Lynden A.

    2013-01-01

    A nanoporous composite material that offers the unique combination of high room-temperature ionic conductivity and high mechanical modulus is reported. When used as the separator/electrolyte in lithium batteries employing metallic lithium as anode

  1. Capacitance-Power-Hysteresis Trilemma in Nanoporous Supercapacitors

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Alpha A; Vella, Dominic; Goriely, Alain; Kondrat, Svyatoslav

    2015-01-01

    Nanoporous supercapacitors are an important player in the field of energy storage that fill the gap between dielectric capacitors and batteries. The key challenge in the development of supercapacitors is the perceived trade-off between capacitance and power delivery. Current efforts to boost the capacitance of nanoporous supercapacitors focus on reducing the pore size so that they can only accommodate a single layer of ions. However, this tight packing compromises the charging dynamics and he...

  2. Nanoporous ionic organic networks: from synthesis to materials applications

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Jian-Ke; Antonietti, Markus; Yuan, Jiayin

    2016-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed rapid progress in the synthesis of nanoporous organic networks or polymer frameworks for various potential applications. Generally speaking, functionalization of porous networks to add extra properties and enhance materials performance could be achieved either during the pore formation (thus a concurrent approach) or by post-synthetic modification (a sequential approach). Nanoporous organic networks which include ion pairs bound in a covalent manner are of specia...

  3. Polyelectrolyte layer-by-layer deposition in cylindrical nanopores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzara, Thomas D; Lau, K H Aaron; Abou-Kandil, Ahmed I; Caminade, Anne-Marie; Majoral, Jean-Pierre; Knoll, Wolfgang

    2010-07-27

    Layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition of polyelectrolytes within nanopores in terms of the pore size and the ionic strength was experimentally studied. Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes, which have aligned, cylindrical, nonintersecting pores, were used as a model nanoporous system. Furthermore, the AAO membranes were also employed as planar optical waveguides to enable in situ monitoring of the LbL process within the nanopores by optical waveguide spectroscopy (OWS). Structurally well-defined N,N-disubstituted hydrazine phosphorus-containing dendrimers of the fourth generation, with peripherally charged groups and diameters of approximately 7 nm, were used as the model polyelectrolytes. The pore diameter of the AAO was varied between 30-116 nm and the ionic strength was varied over 3 orders of magnitude. The dependence of the deposited layer thickness on ionic strength within the nanopores is found to be significantly stronger than LbL deposition on a planar surface. Furthermore, deposition within the nanopores can become inhibited even if the pore diameter is much larger than the diameter of the G4-polyelectrolyte, or if the screening length is insignificant relative to the dendrimer diameter at high ionic strengths. Our results will aid in the template preparation of polyelectrolyte multilayer nanotubes, and our experimental approach may be useful for investigating theories regarding the partitioning of nano-objects within nanopores where electrostatic interactions are dominant. Furthermore, we show that the enhanced ionic strength dependence of polyelectrolyte transport within the nanopores can be used to selectively deposit a LbL multilayer atop a nanoporous substrate.

  4. Nanotopography effects on astrocyte attachment to nanoporous gold surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtulus, Ozge; Seker, Erkin

    2012-01-01

    Nanoporous gold, synthesized by a self-assembly process, is a new biomaterial with desirable attributes, including tunable nanotopography, drug delivery potential, electrical conductivity, and compatibility with conventional microfabrication techniques. This study reports on the effect of nanotopography in guiding cellular attachment on nanoporous gold surfaces. While the changes in topography do not affect adherent cell density, average cell area displays a non-monotonic dependence on nanotopography.

  5. Applications of Synthetic Microchannel and Nanopore Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkle, Thomas Preston

    This thesis describes research conducted on the physics and applications of micro- and nanoscale ion-conducting channels. Making use of the nanoscale physics that takes place in the vicinity of charged surfaces, there is the possibility that nanopores, holes on the order of 1 nm in size, could be used to make complex integrated ionic circuits. For inspiration on what such circuits could achieve we only need to look to biology systems, immensely complex machines that at their most basic level require precise control of ions and intercellular electric potentials to function. In order to contribute to the ever expanding field of nanopore research, we engineered novel hybrid insulator-conductor nanopores that behave analagously to ionic diodes, which allow passage of current flow in one direction but severely limit the current in the opposite direction. The experiments revealed that surface polarization of the conducting material can induce the formation of an electrical double layer in the same way static surface charges can. Furthermore, we showed that the hybrid device behaved similar to an ionic diode, and could see potential use as a standard rectifying element in ionic circuits. Another application based on ion conducting channels is resistive pulse sensing, a single particle detection and characterization method. We present three main experiments that expand the capacity of resistive pulse sensing for particle characterization. First, we demonstrate how resistive pulse sensing in pores with longitudinal irregularities can be used to measure the lengths of individual nanoparticles. Then, we describe an entirely new hybrid approach to resistive pulse sensing, whereby the electrical measurements are combined with simultaneous optical imaging. The hybrid method allows for validation of the resistive pulse signals and will greatly contribute to their interpretability. We present experiments that explore some of the possibilities of the hybrid method. Then, building

  6. Context updates are hierarchical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Karl Ingason

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This squib studies the order in which elements are added to the shared context of interlocutors in a conversation. It focuses on context updates within one hierarchical structure and argues that structurally higher elements are entered into the context before lower elements, even if the structurally higher elements are pronounced after the lower elements. The crucial data are drawn from a comparison of relative clauses in two head-initial languages, English and Icelandic, and two head-final languages, Korean and Japanese. The findings have consequences for any theory of a dynamic semantics.

  7. The structurally effect of surface coated rhamnogalacturonan I on response of the osteoblast-like cell line SaOS-2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svava, Rikke; Gurzawska, Katarzyna; Yihau, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Osseointegration is important when implants are inserted into the bone and can be improved by biochemical surface coating of the implant. In this paper enzymatically modified rhamnogalacturonan I (RG-I) from apple and lupin was used for biochemical coating of aminated surfaces and the importance...... remove small fragments of galacturonic acid (GalA) and binding studies showed that the purity of the RG-I molecules was important for the quality of the coating. The structure of RG-I and osteoblast-like cells' viability were positively correlated so that high content of 1,4-linked galactose (Gal...

  8. DNA Origami-Graphene Hybrid Nanopore for DNA Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barati Farimani, Amir; Dibaeinia, Payam; Aluru, Narayana R

    2017-01-11

    DNA origami nanostructures can be used to functionalize solid-state nanopores for single molecule studies. In this study, we characterized a nanopore in a DNA origami-graphene heterostructure for DNA detection. The DNA origami nanopore is functionalized with a specific nucleotide type at the edge of the pore. Using extensive molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we computed and analyzed the ionic conductivity of nanopores in heterostructures carpeted with one or two layers of DNA origami on graphene. We demonstrate that a nanopore in DNA origami-graphene gives rise to distinguishable dwell times for the four DNA base types, whereas for a nanopore in bare graphene, the dwell time is almost the same for all types of bases. The specific interactions (hydrogen bonds) between DNA origami and the translocating DNA strand yield different residence times and ionic currents. We also conclude that the speed of DNA translocation decreases due to the friction between the dangling bases at the pore mouth and the sequencing DNA strands.

  9. Effects of pore design on mechanical properties of nanoporous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, Nicholas; Becton, Matthew; Zhang, Liuyang; Wang, Xianqiao

    2017-01-01

    Nanoporous silicon has been emerging as a powerful building block for next-generation sensors, catalysts, transistors, and tissue scaffolds. The capability to design novel devices with desired mechanical properties is paramount to their reliability and serviceability. In order to bring further resolution to the highly variable mechanical characteristics of nanoporous silicon, here we perform molecular dynamics simulations to study the effects of ligament thickness, relative density, and pore geometry/orientation on the mechanical properties of nanoporous silicon, thereby determining its Young's modulus, ultimate strength, and toughness as well as the scaling laws versus the features of interior ligaments. Results show that pore shape and pattern dictate stress accumulation inside the designed structure, leading to the corresponding failure signature, such as stretching-dominated, bending-dominated, or stochastic failure signatures, in nanoporous silicon. The nanostructure of the material is also seen to drive or mute size effects such as “smaller is stronger” and “smaller is ductile”. This investigation provides useful insight into the behavior of nanoporous silicon and how one might leverage its promising applications. - Graphical abstract: Molecular dynamics simulations are performed to study the effects of ligament thickness, relative density, and pore geometry/orientation on the mechanical properties of nanoporous silicon, thereby determining its Young's modulus, ultimate strength, and toughness as well as the scaling trends versus the features of interior ligaments.

  10. Synthesis and electrochemical study of Pt-based nanoporous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jingpeng; Holt-Hindle, Peter; MacDonald, Duncan; Thomas, Dan F.; Chen Aicheng

    2008-01-01

    In the present work, a variety of Pt-based bimetallic nanostructured materials including nanoporous Pt, Pt-Ru, Pt-Ir, Pt-Pd and Pt-Pb networks have been directly grown on titanium substrates via a facile hydrothermal method. The as-fabricated electrodes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and electrochemical methods. The active surface areas of these nanoporous Pt-based alloy catalysts are increased by over 68 (Pt-Pd), 69 (Pt-Ru) and 113 (Pt-Ir) fold compared to a polycrystalline Pt electrode. All these synthesized nanoporous electrodes exhibit superb electrocatalytic performance towards electrochemical oxidation of methanol and formic acid. Among the five nanoporous Pt-based electrodes, the Pt-Ir shows the highest peak current density at +0.50 V, with 68 times of enhancement compared to the polycrystalline Pt for methanol oxidation, and with 86 times of enhancement in formic acid oxidation; whereas the catalytic activity of the nanoporous Pt-Pb electrode outperforms the other materials in formic acid oxidation at the low potential regions, delivering an enhanced current density by 280-fold compared to the polycrystalline Pt at +0.15 V. The new approach described in this study is suitable for synthesizing a wide range of bi-metallic and tri-metallic nanoporous materials, desirable for electrochemical sensor design and potential application in fuel cells

  11. Synthesis and electrochemical study of Pt-based nanoporous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Jingpeng [Department of Chemistry, Lakehead University, Thunder Bay, Ontario P7B 5E1 (Canada); Department of Chemistry, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1 (Canada); Holt-Hindle, Peter; MacDonald, Duncan [Department of Chemistry, Lakehead University, Thunder Bay, Ontario P7B 5E1 (Canada); Thomas, Dan F. [Department of Chemistry, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1 (Canada); Chen Aicheng [Department of Chemistry, Lakehead University, Thunder Bay, Ontario P7B 5E1 (Canada)], E-mail: aicheng.chen@lakeheadu.ca

    2008-10-01

    In the present work, a variety of Pt-based bimetallic nanostructured materials including nanoporous Pt, Pt-Ru, Pt-Ir, Pt-Pd and Pt-Pb networks have been directly grown on titanium substrates via a facile hydrothermal method. The as-fabricated electrodes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and electrochemical methods. The active surface areas of these nanoporous Pt-based alloy catalysts are increased by over 68 (Pt-Pd), 69 (Pt-Ru) and 113 (Pt-Ir) fold compared to a polycrystalline Pt electrode. All these synthesized nanoporous electrodes exhibit superb electrocatalytic performance towards electrochemical oxidation of methanol and formic acid. Among the five nanoporous Pt-based electrodes, the Pt-Ir shows the highest peak current density at +0.50 V, with 68 times of enhancement compared to the polycrystalline Pt for methanol oxidation, and with 86 times of enhancement in formic acid oxidation; whereas the catalytic activity of the nanoporous Pt-Pb electrode outperforms the other materials in formic acid oxidation at the low potential regions, delivering an enhanced current density by 280-fold compared to the polycrystalline Pt at +0.15 V. The new approach described in this study is suitable for synthesizing a wide range of bi-metallic and tri-metallic nanoporous materials, desirable for electrochemical sensor design and potential application in fuel cells.0.

  12. Synthesis and electrochemical study of Pt-based nanoporous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jingpeng [Department of Chemistry, Lakehead University, Thunder Bay, Ontario P7B 5E1 (Canada); Department of Chemistry, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1 (Canada); Holt-Hindle, Peter; MacDonald, Duncan; Chen, Aicheng [Department of Chemistry, Lakehead University, Thunder Bay, Ontario P7B 5E1 (Canada); Thomas, Dan F. [Department of Chemistry, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1 (Canada)

    2008-10-01

    In the present work, a variety of Pt-based bimetallic nanostructured materials including nanoporous Pt, Pt-Ru, Pt-Ir, Pt-Pd and Pt-Pb networks have been directly grown on titanium substrates via a facile hydrothermal method. The as-fabricated electrodes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and electrochemical methods. The active surface areas of these nanoporous Pt-based alloy catalysts are increased by over 68 (Pt-Pd), 69 (Pt-Ru) and 113 (Pt-Ir) fold compared to a polycrystalline Pt electrode. All these synthesized nanoporous electrodes exhibit superb electrocatalytic performance towards electrochemical oxidation of methanol and formic acid. Among the five nanoporous Pt-based electrodes, the Pt-Ir shows the highest peak current density at +0.50 V, with 68 times of enhancement compared to the polycrystalline Pt for methanol oxidation, and with 86 times of enhancement in formic acid oxidation; whereas the catalytic activity of the nanoporous Pt-Pb electrode outperforms the other materials in formic acid oxidation at the low potential regions, delivering an enhanced current density by 280-fold compared to the polycrystalline Pt at +0.15 V. The new approach described in this study is suitable for synthesizing a wide range of bi-metallic and tri-metallic nanoporous materials, desirable for electrochemical sensor design and potential application in fuel cells. (author)

  13. Streaming current magnetic fields in a charged nanopore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Abraham; Taheri, Peyman; Kostiuk, Larry W.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic fields induced by currents created in pressure driven flows inside a solid-state charged nanopore were modeled by numerically solving a system of steady state continuum partial differential equations, i.e., Poisson, Nernst-Planck, Ampere and Navier-Stokes equations (PNPANS). This analysis was based on non-dimensional transport governing equations that were scaled using Debye length as the characteristic length scale, and applied to a finite length cylindrical nano-channel. The comparison of numerical and analytical studies shows an excellent agreement and verified the magnetic fields density both inside and outside the nanopore. The radially non-uniform currents resulted in highly non-uniform magnetic fields within the nanopore that decay as 1/r outside the nanopore. It is worth noting that for either streaming currents or streaming potential cases, the maximum magnetic field occurred inside the pore in the vicinity of nanopore wall, as opposed to a cylindrical conductor that carries a steady electric current where the maximum magnetic fields occur at the perimeter of conductor. Based on these results, it is suggested and envisaged that non-invasive external magnetic fields readouts generated by streaming/ionic currents may be viewed as secondary electronic signatures of biomolecules to complement and enhance current DNA nanopore sequencing techniques. PMID:27833119

  14. Antibacterial activity of zinc oxide-coated nanoporous alumina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skoog, S.A. [Joint Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of North Carolina and North Carolina State University, Box 7115, Raleigh, NC 27695-7115 (United States); Bayati, M.R. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Box 7907, Raleigh, NC 27695-7907 (United States); Petrochenko, P.E. [Joint Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of North Carolina and North Carolina State University, Box 7115, Raleigh, NC 27695-7115 (United States); Division of Biology, Office of Science and Engineering Laboratories, Center for Devices and Radiological Health, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, MD 20993 (United States); Stafslien, S.; Daniels, J.; Cilz, N. [Center for Nanoscale Science and Engineering, North Dakota State University, 1805 Research Park Drive, Fargo, ND 58102 (United States); Comstock, D.J.; Elam, J.W. [Energy Systems Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Narayan, R.J., E-mail: roger_narayan@msn.com [Joint Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of North Carolina and North Carolina State University, Box 7115, Raleigh, NC 27695-7115 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Box 7907, Raleigh, NC 27695-7907 (United States)

    2012-07-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Atomic layer deposition was used to deposit ZnO on nanoporous alumina membranes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Scanning electron microscopy showed continuous coatings of zinc oxide nanocrystals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Activity against B. subtilis, E. coli, S. aureus, and S. epidermidis was shown. - Abstract: Nanoporous alumina membranes, also known as anodized aluminum oxide membranes, are being investigated for use in treatment of burn injuries and other skin wounds. In this study, atomic layer deposition was used for coating the surfaces of nanoporous alumina membranes with zinc oxide. Agar diffusion assays were used to show activity of zinc oxide-coated nanoporous alumina membranes against several bacteria found on the skin surface, including Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis. On the other hand, zinc oxide-coated nanoporous alumina membranes did not show activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis, and Candida albicans. These results suggest that zinc oxide-coated nanoporous alumina membranes have activity against some Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria that are associated with skin colonization and skin infection.

  15. Impedance nanopore biosensor: influence of pore dimensions on biosensing performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Krishna; Yu, Jingxian; Priest, Craig; Shapter, Joe G; Losic, Dusan

    2014-03-07

    Knowledge about electrochemical and electrical properties of nanopore structures and the influence of pore dimensions on these properties is important for the development of nanopore biosensing devices. The aim of this study was to explore the influence of nanopore dimensions (diameter and length) on biosensing performance using non-faradic electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Nanoporous alumina membranes (NPAMs) prepared by self-ordered electrochemical anodization of aluminium were used as model nanopore sensing platforms. NPAMs with different pore diameters (25-65 nm) and lengths (4-18 μm) were prepared and the internal pore surface chemistry was modified by covalently attaching streptavidin and biotin. The performance of this antibody nanopore biosensing platform was evaluated using various concentrations of biotin as a model analyte. EIS measurements of pore resistivity and conductivity were carried out for pores with different diameters and lengths. The results showed that smaller pore dimensions of 25 nm and pore lengths up to 10 μm provide better biosensing performance.

  16. Detecting Hierarchical Structure in Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herlau, Tue; Mørup, Morten; Schmidt, Mikkel Nørgaard

    2012-01-01

    Many real-world networks exhibit hierarchical organization. Previous models of hierarchies within relational data has focused on binary trees; however, for many networks it is unknown whether there is hierarchical structure, and if there is, a binary tree might not account well for it. We propose...... a generative Bayesian model that is able to infer whether hierarchies are present or not from a hypothesis space encompassing all types of hierarchical tree structures. For efficient inference we propose a collapsed Gibbs sampling procedure that jointly infers a partition and its hierarchical structure....... On synthetic and real data we demonstrate that our model can detect hierarchical structure leading to better link-prediction than competing models. Our model can be used to detect if a network exhibits hierarchical structure, thereby leading to a better comprehension and statistical account the network....

  17. Biological Nanopores: Confined Spaces for Electrochemical Single-Molecule Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Chan; Long, Yi-Tao

    2018-02-20

    Nanopore sensing is developing into a powerful single-molecule approach to investigate the features of biomolecules that are not accessible by studying ensemble systems. When a target molecule is transported through a nanopore, the ions occupying the pore are excluded, resulting in an electrical signal from the intermittent ionic blockade event. By statistical analysis of the amplitudes, duration, frequencies, and shapes of the blockade events, many properties of the target molecule can be obtained in real time at the single-molecule level, including its size, conformation, structure, charge, geometry, and interactions with other molecules. With the development of the use of α-hemolysin to characterize individual polynucleotides, nanopore technology has attracted a wide range of research interest in the fields of biology, physics, chemistry, and nanoscience. As a powerful single-molecule analytical method, nanopore technology has been applied for the detection of various biomolecules, including oligonucleotides, peptides, oligosaccharides, organic molecules, and disease-related proteins. In this Account, we highlight recent developments of biological nanopores in DNA-based sensing and in studying the conformational structures of DNA and RNA. Furthermore, we introduce the application of biological nanopores to investigate the conformations of peptides affected by charge, length, and dipole moment and to study disease-related proteins' structures and aggregation transitions influenced by an inhibitor, a promoter, or an applied voltage. To improve the sensing ability of biological nanopores and further extend their application to a wider range of molecular sensing, we focus on exploring novel biological nanopores, such as aerolysin and Stable Protein 1. Aerolysin exhibits an especially high sensitivity for the detection of single oligonucleotides both in current separation and duration. Finally, to facilitate the use of nanopore measurements and statistical analysis

  18. Electrochemical fabrication of nanoporous polypyrrole thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Mei [Key Laboratory of Organic Optoelectronics and Molecular Engineering (Ministry of Education), Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China); Yuan Jinying [Key Laboratory of Organic Optoelectronics and Molecular Engineering (Ministry of Education), Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China)], E-mail: yuanjy@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn; Shi Gaoquan [Key Laboratory of Organic Optoelectronics and Molecular Engineering (Ministry of Education), Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China)], E-mail: gshi@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn

    2008-04-30

    Polypyrrole thin films with pores in nanometer scale were synthesized by direct electrochemical oxidation of pyrrole in a mixed electrolyte of isopropyl alcohol, boron trifluoride diethyl etherate, sodium dodecylsulfonate and poly(ethylene glycol) using well-aligned ZnO nanowires arrays as templates. The thin films exhibit high conductivity of ca. {sigma}{sub rt} {approx} 20.5 s/cm and can be driven to bend during redox processes in 1.0 M lithium perchlorate aqueous solution. The movement rate of an actuator based on this nanoporous film was measured to be over 90{sup o}/s at a driving potential of 0.8 V (vs. Ag/AgCl)

  19. Nanoporous-carbon films for microsensor preconcentrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, M. P.; Overmyer, D. L.; Kottenstette, R. J.; Tallant, D. R.; Yelton, W. G.

    2002-05-01

    Nanoporous-carbon (NPC) films are grown using physical processes such as low-power pulsed-laser deposition with attenuation of the ablated carbon species kinetic energy attained by using an inert background gas. With room-temperature growth and negligible residual stress, NPC can coat nearly any substrate to any desired thickness. Control of the deposition energetics yields precise morphology, density, and hence, porosity, with no discernable variation in chemical bonding. We produce NPC films 8 μm thick with density <0.2 g/cm3. The well-controlled porosity, i.e., available surface area, is demonstrated by using films with different thicknesses as a preconcentrator for a nerve-gas simulant.

  20. High Capacity Hydrogen Storage on Nanoporous Biocarbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burress, Jacob; Wood, Mikael; Gordon, Michael; Parilla, Phillip; Benham, Michael; Wexler, Carlos; Hawthorne, Fred; Pfeifer, Peter

    2008-03-01

    The Alliance for Collaborative Research in Alternative Fuel Technology (http://all-craft.missouri.edu) has been optimizing nanoporous biocarbon for high capacity hydrogen storage. The hydrogen storage was measured gravimetrically and volumetrically (Sievert's apparatus). These measurements have been validated by NREL and Hiden Isochema. Sample S-33/k, our current best performer, stores 73-91 g H2/kg carbon at 77 K and 47 bar, and 1.0-1.6 g H2/kg carbon at 293 K and 47 bar. Hydrogen isotherms run by Hiden Isochema have given experimental binding energies of 8.8 kJ/mol compared to the binding energy of graphite of 5 kJ/mol. Results from a novel boron doping technique will also be presented. The benefits and validity of using boron-doping on carbon will also be discussed.

  1. Rapid resistome mapping using nanopore sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Helm, Eric; Imamovic, Lejla; Hashim Ellabaan, Mostafa M; van Schaik, Willem; Koza, Anna; Sommer, Morten O A

    2017-05-05

    The emergence of antibiotic resistance in human pathogens has become a major threat to modern medicine. The outcome of antibiotic treatment can be affected by the composition of the gut. Accordingly, knowledge of the gut resistome composition could enable more effective and individualized treatment of bacterial infections. Yet, rapid workflows for resistome characterization are lacking. To address this challenge we developed the poreFUME workflow that deploys functional metagenomic selections and nanopore sequencing to resistome mapping. We demonstrate the approach by functionally characterizing the gut resistome of an ICU (intensive care unit) patient. The accuracy of the poreFUME pipeline is with >97% sufficient for the annotation of antibiotic resistance genes. The poreFUME pipeline provides a promising approach for efficient resistome profiling that could inform antibiotic treatment decisions in the future. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  2. Ultrafiltration by gyroid nanoporous polymer membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Li; Szewczykowski, Piotr Przemyslaw; Clausen, Lydia D.

    2011-01-01

    the effect of membrane fouling on the flux decline and rejection profiles. Significant fouling occurred in the case of hydrophobic membranes in contact with water solutions, while in the presence of high concentration of ethanol in the filtration solution and in the case of hydrophilized membranes...... the fouling was reduced. The observed rejection of PEG was compared with theoretic predictions, as described by the Bungay–Brenner model. The model satisfactorily described the rejection profile of PEG up to 12kg/mol through hydrophobic membranes in the presence of excess ethanol. A significantly reduced......Gyroid nanoporous cross-linked 1,2-polybutadiene membranes with uniform pores were developed for ultrafiltration applications. The gyroid porosity has the advantage of isotropic percolation with no need for structure pre-alignment. The effects of solvent and surface photo...

  3. Multilayer Nanoporous Graphene Membranes for Water Desalination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Tanugi, David; Lin, Li-Chiang; Grossman, Jeffrey C

    2016-02-10

    While single-layer nanoporous graphene (NPG) has shown promise as a reverse osmosis (RO) desalination membrane, multilayer graphene membranes can be synthesized more economically than the single-layer material. In this work, we build upon the knowledge gained to date toward single-layer graphene to explore how multilayer NPG might serve as a RO membrane in water desalination using classical molecular dynamic simulations. We show that, while multilayer NPG exhibits similarly promising desalination properties to single-layer membranes, their separation performance can be designed by manipulating various configurational variables in the multilayer case. This work establishes an atomic-level understanding of the effects of additional NPG layers, layer separation, and pore alignment on desalination performance, providing useful guidelines for the design of multilayer NPG membranes.

  4. Hierarchical quark mass matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasin, A.

    1998-02-01

    I define a set of conditions that the most general hierarchical Yukawa mass matrices have to satisfy so that the leading rotations in the diagonalization matrix are a pair of (2,3) and (1,2) rotations. In addition to Fritzsch structures, examples of such hierarchical structures include also matrices with (1,3) elements of the same order or even much larger than the (1,2) elements. Such matrices can be obtained in the framework of a flavor theory. To leading order, the values of the angle in the (2,3) plane (s 23 ) and the angle in the (1,2) plane (s 12 ) do not depend on the order in which they are taken when diagonalizing. We find that any of the Cabbibo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix parametrizations that consist of at least one (1,2) and one (2,3) rotation may be suitable. In the particular case when the s 13 diagonalization angles are sufficiently small compared to the product s 12 s 23 , two special CKM parametrizations emerge: the R 12 R 23 R 12 parametrization follows with s 23 taken before the s 12 rotation, and vice versa for the R 23 R 12 R 23 parametrization. (author)

  5. Hierarchical partial order ranking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsen, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Assessing the potential impact on environmental and human health from the production and use of chemicals or from polluted sites involves a multi-criteria evaluation scheme. A priori several parameters are to address, e.g., production tonnage, specific release scenarios, geographical and site-specific factors in addition to various substance dependent parameters. Further socio-economic factors may be taken into consideration. The number of parameters to be included may well appear to be prohibitive for developing a sensible model. The study introduces hierarchical partial order ranking (HPOR) that remedies this problem. By HPOR the original parameters are initially grouped based on their mutual connection and a set of meta-descriptors is derived representing the ranking corresponding to the single groups of descriptors, respectively. A second partial order ranking is carried out based on the meta-descriptors, the final ranking being disclosed though average ranks. An illustrative example on the prioritisation of polluted sites is given. - Hierarchical partial order ranking of polluted sites has been developed for prioritization based on a large number of parameters

  6. Facile Fabrication of a Hierarchical Superhydrophobic Coating with Aluminate Coupling Agent Modified Kaolin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A superhydrophobic coating was fabricated from the dispersion of unmodified kaolin particles and aluminate coupling agent in anhydrous ethanol. Through surface modification, water contact angle of the coating prepared by modified kaolin particles increased dramatically from 0° to 152°, and the sliding angle decreased from 90° to 3°. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the surface morphology. A structure composed of micro-nano hierarchical component, combined with the surface modification by aluminate coupling agent which reduced the surface energy greatly, was found to be responsible for the superhydrophobicity. The method adopted is relatively simple, facile, and cost-effective and can potentially be applied to large water-repellent surface coatings.

  7. Nested and Hierarchical Archimax copulas

    KAUST Repository

    Hofert, Marius; Huser, Raphaë l; Prasad, Avinash

    2017-01-01

    The class of Archimax copulas is generalized to nested and hierarchical Archimax copulas in several ways. First, nested extreme-value copulas or nested stable tail dependence functions are introduced to construct nested Archimax copulas based on a single frailty variable. Second, a hierarchical construction of d-norm generators is presented to construct hierarchical stable tail dependence functions and thus hierarchical extreme-value copulas. Moreover, one can, by itself or additionally, introduce nested frailties to extend Archimax copulas to nested Archimax copulas in a similar way as nested Archimedean copulas extend Archimedean copulas. Further results include a general formula for the density of Archimax copulas.

  8. Nested and Hierarchical Archimax copulas

    KAUST Repository

    Hofert, Marius

    2017-07-03

    The class of Archimax copulas is generalized to nested and hierarchical Archimax copulas in several ways. First, nested extreme-value copulas or nested stable tail dependence functions are introduced to construct nested Archimax copulas based on a single frailty variable. Second, a hierarchical construction of d-norm generators is presented to construct hierarchical stable tail dependence functions and thus hierarchical extreme-value copulas. Moreover, one can, by itself or additionally, introduce nested frailties to extend Archimax copulas to nested Archimax copulas in a similar way as nested Archimedean copulas extend Archimedean copulas. Further results include a general formula for the density of Archimax copulas.

  9. Biomimetic glass nanopores employing aptamer gates responsive to a small molecule†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelow, Alexis E.; Schepelina, Olga; White, Ryan J.; Vallée-Bélisle, Alexis

    2011-01-01

    We report the preparation of 20 and 65 nm radii glass nanopores whose surface is modified with DNA aptamers controlling the molecular transport through the nanopores in response to small molecule binding. PMID:20865192

  10. A catheter friction tester using balance sensor: Combined evaluation of the effects of mechanical properties of tubing materials and surface coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Røn, Troels; Jacobsen, Kristina Pilgaard; Lee, Seunghwan

    2018-04-24

    In this study, we introduce a new experimental approach to characterize the forces emerging from simulated catherization. This setup allows for a linear translation of urinary catheters in vertical direction as controlled by an actuator. By employing silicone-based elastomer with a duct of comparable diameter with catheters as urethra model, sliding contacts during the translation of catheters along the duct is generated. A most unique design and operation feature of this setup is that a digital balance was employed as the sensor to detect emerging forces from simulated catherization. Moreover, the possibility to give a variation in environment (ambient air vs. water), clearance, elasticity, and curvature of silicone-based urethra model allows for the detection of forces arising from diverse simulated catherization conditions. Two types of commercially available catheters varying in tubing materials and surface coatings were tested together with their respective uncoated catheter tubing. The first set of testing on the catheter samples showed that this setup can probe the combined effect from flexural strain of bulk tubing materials and slipperiness of surface coatings, both of which are expected to affect the comfort and smooth gliding in clinical catherization. We argue that this new experimental setup can provide unique and valuable information in preclinical friction testing of urinary catheters. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Atomic layer deposition of ruthenium surface-coating on porous platinum catalysts for high-performance direct ethanol solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Heon Jae; Kim, Jun Woo; Jang, Dong Young; Shim, Joon Hyung

    2015-09-01

    Pt-Ru bi-metallic catalysts are synthesized by atomic layer deposition (ALD) of Ru surface-coating on sputtered Pt mesh. The catalysts are evaluated in direct ethanol solid oxide fuel cells (DESOFCs) in the temperature range of 300-500 °C. Island-growth of the ALD Ru coating is confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses. The performance of the DESOFCs is evaluated based on the current-voltage output and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Genuine reduction of the polarization impedance, and enhanced power output with improved surface kinetics are achieved with the optimized ALD Ru surface-coating compared to bare Pt. The chemical composition of the Pt/ALD Ru electrode surface after fuel cell operation is analyzed via XPS. Enhanced cell performance is clearly achieved, attributed to the effective Pt/ALD Ru bi-metallic catalysis, including oxidation of Cdbnd O by Ru, and de-protonation of ethanol and cleavage of C-C bonds by Pt, as supported by surface morphology analysis which confirms formation of a large amount of carbon on bare Pt after the ethanol-fuel-cell test.

  12. Transmutations across hierarchical levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neill, R.V.

    1977-01-01

    The development of large-scale ecological models depends implicitly on a concept known as hierarchy theory which views biological systems in a series of hierarchical levels (i.e., organism, population, trophic level, ecosystem). The theory states that an explanation of a biological phenomenon is provided when it is shown to be the consequence of the activities of the system's components, which are themselves systems in the next lower level of the hierarchy. Thus, the behavior of a population is explained by the behavior of the organisms in the population. The initial step in any modeling project is, therefore, to identify the system components and the interactions between them. A series of examples of transmutations in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems are presented to show how and why changes occur. The types of changes are summarized and possible implications of transmutation for hierarchy theory, for the modeler, and for the ecological theoretician are discussed

  13. Trees and Hierarchical Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Haeseler, Arndt

    1990-01-01

    The "raison d'etre" of hierarchical dustering theory stems from one basic phe­ nomenon: This is the notorious non-transitivity of similarity relations. In spite of the fact that very often two objects may be quite similar to a third without being that similar to each other, one still wants to dassify objects according to their similarity. This should be achieved by grouping them into a hierarchy of non-overlapping dusters such that any two objects in ~ne duster appear to be more related to each other than they are to objects outside this duster. In everyday life, as well as in essentially every field of scientific investigation, there is an urge to reduce complexity by recognizing and establishing reasonable das­ sification schemes. Unfortunately, this is counterbalanced by the experience of seemingly unavoidable deadlocks caused by the existence of sequences of objects, each comparatively similar to the next, but the last rather different from the first.

  14. Optimisation by hierarchical search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zintchenko, Ilia; Hastings, Matthew; Troyer, Matthias

    2015-03-01

    Finding optimal values for a set of variables relative to a cost function gives rise to some of the hardest problems in physics, computer science and applied mathematics. Although often very simple in their formulation, these problems have a complex cost function landscape which prevents currently known algorithms from efficiently finding the global optimum. Countless techniques have been proposed to partially circumvent this problem, but an efficient method is yet to be found. We present a heuristic, general purpose approach to potentially improve the performance of conventional algorithms or special purpose hardware devices by optimising groups of variables in a hierarchical way. We apply this approach to problems in combinatorial optimisation, machine learning and other fields.

  15. Fluid Behavior and Fluid-Solid Interactions in Nanoporous Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, H.

    2015-12-01

    Although shale oil/gas production in the US has increased exponentially, the low energy recovery is a daunting problem needed to be solved for its sustainability and continued growth, especially in light of the recent oil/gas price decline. This is apparently related to the small porosity (a few to a few hundred nm) and low permeability (10-16-10-20 m2) of tight shale formations. The fundamental question lies in the anomalous behavior of fluids in nanopores due to confinement effects, which, however, remains poorly understood. In this study, we combined experimental characterization and observations, particularly using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), with pore-scale modeling using lattice Boltzmann method (LBM), to examine the fluid behavior and fluid-solid interactions in nanopores at reservoir conditions. Experimentally, we characterized the compositions and microstructures of a shale sample from Wolfcamp, Texas, using a variety of analytical techniques. Our analyses reveal that the shale sample is made of organic-matter (OM)-lean and OM-rich layers that exhibit different chemical and mineral compositions, and microstructural characteristics. Using the hydrostatic pressure system and gas-mixing setup we developed, in-situ SANS measurements were conducted at pressures up to 20 kpsi on shale samples imbibed with water or water-methane solutions. The obtained results indicate that capillary effect plays a significant role in fluid-nanopore interactions and the associated changes in nanopore structures vary with pore size and pressure. Computationally, we performed LBM modeling to simulate the flow behavior of methane in kerogen nanoporous structure. The correction factor, which is the ratio of apparent permeability to intrinsic permeability, was calculated. Our results show that the correction factor is always greater than one (non-continuum/non-Darcy effects) and increases with decreasing nanopore size, intrinsic permeability and pressure. Hence, the

  16. Ion current rectification, limiting and overlimiting conductances in nanopores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liesbeth van Oeffelen

    Full Text Available Previous reports on Poisson-Nernst-Planck (PNP simulations of solid-state nanopores have focused on steady state behaviour under simplified boundary conditions. These are Neumann boundary conditions for the voltage at the pore walls, and in some cases also Donnan equilibrium boundary conditions for concentrations and voltages at both entrances of the nanopore. In this paper, we report time-dependent and steady state PNP simulations under less restrictive boundary conditions, including Neumann boundary conditions applied throughout the membrane relatively far away from the nanopore. We simulated ion currents through cylindrical and conical nanopores with several surface charge configurations, studying the spatial and temporal dependence of the currents contributed by each ion species. This revealed that, due to slow co-diffusion of oppositely charged ions, steady state is generally not reached in simulations or in practice. Furthermore, it is shown that ion concentration polarization is responsible for the observed limiting conductances and ion current rectification in nanopores with asymmetric surface charges or shapes. Hence, after more than a decade of collective research attempting to understand the nature of ion current rectification in solid-state nanopores, a relatively intuitive model is retrieved. Moreover, we measured and simulated current-voltage characteristics of rectifying silicon nitride nanopores presenting overlimiting conductances. The similarity between measurement and simulation shows that overlimiting conductances can result from the increased conductance of the electric double-layer at the membrane surface at the depletion side due to voltage-induced polarization charges. The MATLAB source code of the simulation software is available via the website http://micr.vub.ac.be.

  17. How hierarchical is language use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Stefan L.; Bod, Rens; Christiansen, Morten H.

    2012-01-01

    It is generally assumed that hierarchical phrase structure plays a central role in human language. However, considerations of simplicity and evolutionary continuity suggest that hierarchical structure should not be invoked too hastily. Indeed, recent neurophysiological, behavioural and computational studies show that sequential sentence structure has considerable explanatory power and that hierarchical processing is often not involved. In this paper, we review evidence from the recent literature supporting the hypothesis that sequential structure may be fundamental to the comprehension, production and acquisition of human language. Moreover, we provide a preliminary sketch outlining a non-hierarchical model of language use and discuss its implications and testable predictions. If linguistic phenomena can be explained by sequential rather than hierarchical structure, this will have considerable impact in a wide range of fields, such as linguistics, ethology, cognitive neuroscience, psychology and computer science. PMID:22977157

  18. Single molecule transistor based nanopore for the detection of nicotine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, S. J., E-mail: ray.sjr@gmail.com [Institute of Materials Science, Technical University of Darmstadt, Alarich-Weiss-Str. 2, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2014-12-28

    A nanopore based detection methodology was proposed and investigated for the detection of Nicotine. This technique uses a Single Molecular Transistor working as a nanopore operational in the Coulomb Blockade regime. When the Nicotine molecule is pulled through the nanopore area surrounded by the Source(S), Drain (D), and Gate electrodes, the charge stability diagram can detect the presence of the molecule and is unique for a specific molecular structure. Due to the weak coupling between the different electrodes which is set by the nanopore size, the molecular energy states stay almost unaffected by the electrostatic environment that can be realised from the charge stability diagram. Identification of different orientation and position of the Nicotine molecule within the nanopore area can be made from specific regions of overlap between different charge states on the stability diagram that could be used as an electronic fingerprint for detection. This method could be advantageous and useful to detect the presence of Nicotine in smoke which is usually performed using chemical chromatography techniques.

  19. Biomimetic novel nanoporous niobium oxide coating for orthopaedic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauline, S. Anne; Rajendran, N.

    2014-01-01

    Niobium oxide was synthesized by sol-gel methodology and a crystalline, nanoporous and adherent coating of Nb2O5 was deposited on 316L SS using the spin coating technique and heat treatment. The synthesis conditions were optimized to obtain a nanoporous morphology. The coating was characterized using attenuated total reflectance-Infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and the formation of crystalline Nb2O5 coating with nanoporous morphology was confirmed. Mechanical studies confirmed that the coating has excellent adherence to the substrate and the hardness value of the coating was excellent. Contact angle analysis showed increased hydrophilicity for the coated substrate. In vitro bioactivity test confirmed that the Nb2O5 coating with nanoporous morphology facilitated the growth of hydroxyapatite (HAp). This was further confirmed by the solution analysis test where increased uptake of calcium and phosphorous ions from simulated body fluid (SBF) was observed. Electrochemical evaluation of the coating confirmed that the crystalline coating is insulative and protective in nature and offered excellent corrosion protection to 316L SS. Thus, this study confirmed that the nanoporous crystalline Nb2O5 coating conferred bioactivity and enhanced corrosion resistance on 316L SS.

  20. Biomimetic novel nanoporous niobium oxide coating for orthopaedic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pauline, S. Anne; Rajendran, N., E-mail: nrajendran@annauniv.edu

    2014-01-30

    Niobium oxide was synthesized by sol–gel methodology and a crystalline, nanoporous and adherent coating of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} was deposited on 316L SS using the spin coating technique and heat treatment. The synthesis conditions were optimized to obtain a nanoporous morphology. The coating was characterized using attenuated total reflectance-Infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and the formation of crystalline Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} coating with nanoporous morphology was confirmed. Mechanical studies confirmed that the coating has excellent adherence to the substrate and the hardness value of the coating was excellent. Contact angle analysis showed increased hydrophilicity for the coated substrate. In vitro bioactivity test confirmed that the Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} coating with nanoporous morphology facilitated the growth of hydroxyapatite (HAp). This was further confirmed by the solution analysis test where increased uptake of calcium and phosphorous ions from simulated body fluid (SBF) was observed. Electrochemical evaluation of the coating confirmed that the crystalline coating is insulative and protective in nature and offered excellent corrosion protection to 316L SS. Thus, this study confirmed that the nanoporous crystalline Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} coating conferred bioactivity and enhanced corrosion resistance on 316L SS.

  1. Silicon deposition in nanopores using a liquid precursor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Takashi; Tatsuda, Narihito; Yano, Kazuhisa; Shimoda, Tatsuya

    2016-11-01

    Techniques for depositing silicon into nanosized spaces are vital for the further scaling down of next-generation devices in the semiconductor industry. In this study, we filled silicon into 3.5-nm-diameter nanopores with an aspect ratio of 70 by exploiting thermodynamic behaviour based on the van der Waals energy of vaporized cyclopentasilane (CPS). We originally synthesized CPS as a liquid precursor for semiconducting silicon. Here we used CPS as a gas source in thermal chemical vapour deposition under atmospheric pressure because vaporized CPS can fill nanopores spontaneously. Our estimation of the free energy of CPS based on Lifshitz van der Waals theory clarified the filling mechanism, where CPS vapour in the nanopores readily undergoes capillary condensation because of its large molar volume compared to those of other vapours such as water, toluene, silane, and disilane. Consequently, a liquid-specific feature was observed during the deposition process; specifically, condensed CPS penetrated into the nanopores spontaneously via capillary force. The CPS that filled the nanopores was then transformed into solid silicon by thermal decomposition at 400 °C. The developed method is expected to be used as a nanoscale silicon filling technology, which is critical for the fabrication of future quantum scale silicon devices.

  2. Understanding focused ion beam guided anodic alumina nanopore development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Bo; Lu, Kathy; Tian Zhipeng

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: → We study the effect of FIB patterning on pore evolution during anodization. → FIB patterned concaves with 1.5 nm depth can effectively guide nanopore growth. → The edge effect of FIB guided patterns causes nanopores to bend. → Anodization window is enlarged to 50-80 V for 150 nm interpore distance hexagonal arrays. - Abstract: Focused ion beam (FIB) patterning in combination with anodization has shown great promise in creating unique pore patterns. This work is aimed to understand the effect of the FIB patterned sites in guiding anodized pore development. Highly ordered porous anodic alumina has been created with the guidance of FIB created patterns on electropolished aluminum followed by oxalic acid anodization. Shallow concaves created by the FIB with only 1.5 nm depth can effectively guide the growth of ordered nanopore patterns. With the guidance of the FIB pattern, the anodization rate is much faster and the nanopore growth direction bends at the boundary of the FIB patterned and un-patterned regions. FIB patterning also enlarges the anodization window; ordered nanopore arrays with 150 nm interpore distances can be produced under an applied potential from 50 V to 80 V. The fundamental understanding of these unique processes is discussed.

  3. Single molecule transistor based nanopore for the detection of nicotine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    A nanopore based detection methodology was proposed and investigated for the detection of Nicotine. This technique uses a Single Molecular Transistor working as a nanopore operational in the Coulomb Blockade regime. When the Nicotine molecule is pulled through the nanopore area surrounded by the Source(S), Drain (D), and Gate electrodes, the charge stability diagram can detect the presence of the molecule and is unique for a specific molecular structure. Due to the weak coupling between the different electrodes which is set by the nanopore size, the molecular energy states stay almost unaffected by the electrostatic environment that can be realised from the charge stability diagram. Identification of different orientation and position of the Nicotine molecule within the nanopore area can be made from specific regions of overlap between different charge states on the stability diagram that could be used as an electronic fingerprint for detection. This method could be advantageous and useful to detect the presence of Nicotine in smoke which is usually performed using chemical chromatography techniques.

  4. Nanoporous Pirani sensor based on anodic aluminum oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Gwang-Jae; Kim, Woo Young; Shim, Hyun Bin; Lee, Hee Chul

    2016-09-01

    A nanoporous Pirani sensor based on anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) is proposed, and the quantitative relationship between the performance of the sensor and the porosity of the AAO membrane is characterized with a theoretical model. The proposed Pirani sensor is composed of a metallic resistor on a suspended nanoporous membrane, which simultaneously serves as the sensing area and the supporting structure. The AAO membrane has numerous vertically-tufted nanopores, resulting in a lower measurable pressure limit due to both the increased effective sensing area and the decreased effective thermal loss through the supporting structure. Additionally, the suspended AAO membrane structure, with its outer periphery anchored to the substrate, known as a closed-type design, is demonstrated using nanopores of AAO as an etch hole without a bulk micromachining process used on the substrate. In a CMOS-compatible process, a 200 μm × 200 μm nanoporous Pirani sensor with porosity of 25% was capable of measuring the pressure from 0.1 mTorr to 760 Torr. With adjustment of the porosity of the AAO, the measurable range could be extended toward lower pressures of more than one decade compared to a non-porous membrane with an identical footprint.

  5. Antibacterial hemostatic dressings with nanoporous bioglass containing silver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu G

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Gangfeng Hu,1 Luwei Xiao,2 Peijian Tong,2 Dawei Bi,1 Hui Wang,1 Haitao Ma,1 Gang Zhu,1 Hui Liu21The First People’s Hospital of Xiaoshan, Hangzhou, China; 2Zhejiang Traditional Chinese Medical University, Hangzhou, ChinaAbstract: Nanoporous bioglass containing silver (n-BGS was fabricated using the sol-gel method, with cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide as template. The results showed that n-BGS with nanoporous structure had a surface area of 467 m2/g and a pore size of around 6 nm, and exhibited a significantly higher water absorption rate compared with BGS without nanopores. The n-BGS containing small amounts of silver (Ag had a slight effect on its surface area. The n-BGS containing 0.02 wt% Ag, without cytotoxicity, had a good antibacterial effect on Escherichia coli, and its antibacterial rate reached 99% in 12 hours. The n-BGS’s clotting ability significantly decreased prothrombin time (PT and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT, indicating n-BGS with a higher surface area could significantly promote blood clotting (by decreasing clotting time compared with BGS without nanopores. Effective hemostasis was achieved in skin injury models, and bleeding time was reduced. It is suggested that n-BGS could be a good dressing, with antibacterial and hemostatic properties, which might shorten wound bleeding time and control hemorrhage.Keywords: antibacterial, bioglass, cytotoxicity, dressing, hemostasis, nanopore, silver

  6. Vapor nucleation paths in lyophobic nanopores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinti, Antonio; Giacomello, Alberto; Casciola, Carlo Massimo

    2018-04-19

    In recent years, technologies revolving around the use of lyophobic nanopores gained considerable attention in both fundamental and applied research. Owing to the enormous internal surface area, heterogeneous lyophobic systems (HLS), constituted by a nanoporous lyophobic material and a non-wetting liquid, are promising candidates for the efficient storage or dissipation of mechanical energy. These diverse applications both rely on the forced intrusion and extrusion of the non-wetting liquid inside the pores; the behavior of HLS for storage or dissipation depends on the hysteresis between these two processes, which, in turn, are determined by the microscopic details of the system. It is easy to understand that molecular simulations provide an unmatched tool for understanding phenomena at these scales. In this contribution we use advanced atomistic simulation techniques in order to study the nucleation of vapor bubbles inside lyophobic mesopores. The use of the string method in collective variables allows us to overcome the computational challenges associated with the activated nature of the phenomenon, rendering a detailed picture of nucleation in confinement. In particular, this rare event method efficiently searches for the most probable nucleation path(s) in otherwise intractable, high-dimensional free-energy landscapes. Results reveal the existence of several independent nucleation paths associated with different free-energy barriers. In particular, there is a family of asymmetric transition paths, in which a bubble forms at one of the walls; the other family involves the formation of axisymmetric bubbles with an annulus shape. The computed free-energy profiles reveal that the asymmetric path is significantly more probable than the symmetric one, while the exact position where the asymmetric bubble forms is less relevant for the free energetics of the process. A comparison of the atomistic results with continuum models is also presented, showing how, for simple

  7. Directed Hierarchical Patterning of Polycarbonate Bisphenol A Glass Surface along Predictable Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazen Khaled

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a new approach in designing textured and hierarchical surfaces on polycarbonate bisphenol A type glass to improve hydrophobicity and dust repellent application for solar panels. Solvent- and vapor-induced crystallization of thermoplastic glass polycarbonate bisphenol A (PC is carried out to create hierarchically structured surfaces. In this approach dichloromethane (DCM and acetone are used in sequence. Samples are initially immersed in DCM liquid to generate nanopores, followed by exposing to acetone vapor resulting in the generation of hierarchical structure along the interporous sites. The effects of exposure time on the size, density, and distance of the generated spherules and gaps are studied and correlated with the optical transmittance and contact angle measurements at the surface. At optimized exposure time a contact angle of 98° was achieved with 80% optical transmittance. To further increase the hydrophobicity while maintaining optical properties, the hierarchical surfaces were coated with a transparent composite of tetraethyl orthosilicate as precursor and hexamethyldisilazane as silylation agent resulting in an average contact angle of 135.8° and transmittance of around 70%. FTIR and AFM characterization techniques are employed to study the composition and morphology of the generated surfaces.

  8. Ion transport by gating voltage to nanopores produced via metal-assisted chemical etching method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Toan, Nguyen; Inomata, Naoki; Toda, Masaya; Ono, Takahito

    2018-05-01

    In this work, we report a simple and low-cost way to create nanopores that can be employed for various applications in nanofluidics. Nano sized Ag particles in the range from 1 to 20 nm are formed on a silicon substrate with a de-wetting method. Then the silicon nanopores with an approximate 15 nm average diameter and 200 μm height are successfully produced by the metal-assisted chemical etching method. In addition, electrically driven ion transport in the nanopores is demonstrated for nanofluidic applications. Ion transport through the nanopores is observed and could be controlled by an application of a gating voltage to the nanopores.

  9. Synthesis of ordered large-scale ZnO nanopore arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, G.Q.; Shen, W.Z.; Zheng, M.J.; Fan, D.H.

    2006-01-01

    An effective approach is demonstrated for growing ordered large-scale ZnO nanopore arrays through radio-frequency magnetron sputtering deposition on porous alumina membranes (PAMs). The realization of highly ordered hexagonal ZnO nanopore arrays benefits from the unique properties of ZnO (hexagonal structure, polar surfaces, and preferable growth directions) and PAMs (controllable hexagonal nanopores and localized negative charges). Further evidence has been shown through the effects of nanorod size and thermal treatment of PAMs on the yielded morphology of ZnO nanopore arrays. This approach opens the possibility of creating regular semiconducting nanopore arrays for the application of filters, sensors, and templates

  10. Tuning ligament shape in dealloyed nanoporous tin and the impact of nanoscale morphology on its applications in Na-ion alloy battery anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detsi, Eric; Petrissans, Xavier; Yan, Yan; Cook, John B.; Deng, Ziling; Liang, Yu-Lun; Dunn, Bruce; Tolbert, Sarah H.

    2018-05-01

    Control over the morphology of nanostructured materials is of primary importance in structure-property relationship studies. Although the size of ligaments and pores in dealloyed nanoporous metals can be controlled by thermal and/or (electro)chemical treatments, tuning the shape of those ligaments is much harder. In the present work, we use corroding media with different reactivity to effectively tailor the ligament shape in nanoporous tin (NP-Sn) during dealloying by free corrosion. NP-Sn architectures with nanowire and granular ligament shapes were made by controlling the pH of the corroding solution, and thus the rate of Sn oxidation relative to the etching rate of the sacrificial component. The standard nanowire structure was formed under acidic conditions where oxidation was slow, but a hierarchical granular structure was formed when fusion of the Sn nanocrystals was inhibited by surface oxidation. To demonstrate the advantages of this architectural control, these two materials systems were investigated as electrodes for Na-ion battery anodes. Similar initial Na storage capacities of ˜500 and 550 mAh/g were achieved in the nanowire and granular materials, respectively, but the cycle life of the two materials was quite different. NP-Sn with a granular ligament shape showed enhanced stability with a capacity retention of ˜55 % over 95 cycles at a specific current of 40 mA/g. By contrast, NP-Sn with a nanowire ligament shape showed very fast capacity fading within the first 10 cycles. This work thus demonstrates the dramatic impact of the nanoscale morphology on the electrochemical performance of nanoporous materials and highlights the need for both shape and size control in dealloyed nanoporous metals.

  11. Hierarchical Discriminant Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Lu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Internet of Things (IoT generates lots of high-dimensional sensor intelligent data. The processing of high-dimensional data (e.g., data visualization and data classification is very difficult, so it requires excellent subspace learning algorithms to learn a latent subspace to preserve the intrinsic structure of the high-dimensional data, and abandon the least useful information in the subsequent processing. In this context, many subspace learning algorithms have been presented. However, in the process of transforming the high-dimensional data into the low-dimensional space, the huge difference between the sum of inter-class distance and the sum of intra-class distance for distinct data may cause a bias problem. That means that the impact of intra-class distance is overwhelmed. To address this problem, we propose a novel algorithm called Hierarchical Discriminant Analysis (HDA. It minimizes the sum of intra-class distance first, and then maximizes the sum of inter-class distance. This proposed method balances the bias from the inter-class and that from the intra-class to achieve better performance. Extensive experiments are conducted on several benchmark face datasets. The results reveal that HDA obtains better performance than other dimensionality reduction algorithms.

  12. Hierarchical Linked Views

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erbacher, Robert; Frincke, Deb

    2007-07-02

    Coordinated views have proven critical to the development of effective visualization environments. This results from the fact that a single view or representation of the data cannot show all of the intricacies of a given data set. Additionally, users will often need to correlate more data parameters than can effectively be integrated into a single visual display. Typically, development of multiple-linked views results in an adhoc configuration of views and associated interactions. The hierarchical model we are proposing is geared towards more effective organization of such environments and the views they encompass. At the same time, this model can effectively integrate much of the prior work on interactive and visual frameworks. Additionally, we expand the concept of views to incorporate perceptual views. This is related to the fact that visual displays can have information encoded at various levels of focus. Thus, a global view of the display provides overall trends of the data while focusing in on individual elements provides detailed specifics. By integrating interaction and perception into a single model, we show how one impacts the other. Typically, interaction and perception are considered separately, however, when interaction is being considered at a fundamental level and allowed to direct/modify the visualization directly we must consider them simultaneously and how they impact one another.

  13. Diffusive Silicon Nanopore Membranes for Hemodialysis Applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Kim

    Full Text Available Hemodialysis using hollow-fiber membranes provides life-sustaining treatment for nearly 2 million patients worldwide with end stage renal disease (ESRD. However, patients on hemodialysis have worse long-term outcomes compared to kidney transplant or other chronic illnesses. Additionally, the underlying membrane technology of polymer hollow-fiber membranes has not fundamentally changed in over four decades. Therefore, we have proposed a fundamentally different approach using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS fabrication techniques to create thin-flat sheets of silicon-based membranes for implantable or portable hemodialysis applications. The silicon nanopore membranes (SNM have biomimetic slit-pore geometry and uniform pores size distribution that allow for exceptional permeability and selectivity. A quantitative diffusion model identified structural limits to diffusive solute transport and motivated a new microfabrication technique to create SNM with enhanced diffusive transport. We performed in vitro testing and extracorporeal testing in pigs on prototype membranes with an effective surface area of 2.52 cm2 and 2.02 cm2, respectively. The diffusive clearance was a two-fold improvement in with the new microfabrication technique and was consistent with our mathematical model. These results establish the feasibility of using SNM for hemodialysis applications with additional scale-up.

  14. Biodegradable nanoporous nanoparticles for human serum analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pujia, A.; De Angelis, F.; Scumaci, D.; Gaspari, M.; Liberale, C.; Candeloro, P.; Cuda, G.; Di Fabrizio, E.

    2010-01-01

    Modern medicine and biology search for new powerful tool for biomarkers discovery, appears one of the most promising approaches for early cancer diagnosis. Nowadays, the low molecular weight fraction of human serum is the most informative source of biomarkers, but their study and identification are very difficult due to the incredible complexity of the raw human serum. In this work we describe a novel tool for the filtration of crude human serum or other bio-fluid based on water soluble nanoparticles. Nanoparticles with a pore size of about 2-3 nm, and diameters of 200 nm were obtained by ultrasonication of nanoporous silicon. The porous nanoparticles act as a nanosieve able to exclusively harvest the low molecular weight fraction of the fluid thanks to a controllable pore size. After a short incubation, the infiltrated nanosieves can be extracted from the starting fluid by means of centrifugation, and dissolved in water in a few minutes to give the captured molecules back in their native state, without degradation and contamination. The raw fluid is so split in two components of high and low molecular weight, that are both available for further analyses with any other investigation technique. Here, fluorescence spectroscopy, 2D-gel electrophoresis, and mass spectrometry are exploited to show the split of different bio-fluids under physiological condition. A cut-off (or split level) of 13 kDa is demonstrated also for human serum.

  15. Enzyme specific activity in functionalized nanoporous supports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei Chenghong; Soares, Thereza A; Shin, Yongsoon; Liu Jun; Ackerman, Eric J

    2008-01-01

    Here we reveal that enzyme specific activity can be increased substantially by changing the protein loading density (P LD ) in functionalized nanoporous supports so that the enzyme immobilization efficiency (I e , defined as the ratio of the specific activity of the immobilized enzyme to the specific activity of the free enzyme in solution) can be much higher than 100%. A net negatively charged glucose oxidase (GOX) and a net positively charged organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH) were entrapped spontaneously in NH 2 - and HOOC-functionalized mesoporous silica (300 A, FMS) respectively. The specific activity of GOX entrapped in FMS increased with decreasing P LD . With decreasing P LD , I e of GOX in FMS increased from 150%. Unlike GOX, OPH in HOOC-FMS showed increased specific activity with increasing P LD . With increasing P LD , the corresponding I e of OPH in FMS increased from 100% to>200%. A protein structure-based analysis of the protein surface charges directing the electrostatic interaction-based orientation of the protein molecules in FMS demonstrates that substrate access to GOX molecules in FMS is limited at high P LD , consequently lowering the GOX specific activity. In contrast, substrate access to OPH molecules in FMS remains open at high P LD and may promote a more favorable confinement environment that enhances the OPH activity

  16. Phonon bottleneck identification in disordered nanoporous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Giuseppe; Grossman, Jeffrey C.

    2017-09-01

    Nanoporous materials are a promising platform for thermoelectrics in that they offer high thermal conductivity tunability while preserving good electrical properties, a crucial requirement for high-efficiency thermal energy conversion. Understanding the impact of the pore arrangement on thermal transport is pivotal to engineering realistic materials, where pore disorder is unavoidable. Although there has been considerable progress in modeling thermal size effects in nanostructures, it has remained a challenge to screen such materials over a large phase space due to the slow simulation time required for accurate results. We use density functional theory in connection with the Boltzmann transport equation to perform calculations of thermal conductivity in disordered porous materials. By leveraging graph theory and regressive analysis, we identify the set of pores representing the phonon bottleneck and obtain a descriptor for thermal transport, based on the sum of the pore-pore distances between such pores. This approach provide a simple tool to estimate phonon suppression in realistic porous materials for thermoelectric applications and enhance our understanding of heat transport in disordered materials.

  17. Environmental Green Chemistry Applications of Nanoporous Carbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, J.; Garcia, A; Poon, P

    2010-01-01

    Influence of surface properties of nanoporous carbons on activity and selectivity during the photooxidation of 4-chlorophenol on UV-irradiated TiO{sub 2} was performed. Characterization by infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectronic spectroscopy and X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy confirm the presence of a contact interface between both solids and suggest the coordination of some functional organic groups of the carbon surface, mainly ethers and carboxylic acids, to metallic centre Ti{sup +4} in TiO{sub 2}. Changes in surface pH of carbons from basic to neutral or acid remarkably increase the production of 4-chlorocathecol by a factor of 22 on TiO{sub 2}-Carbon in comparison of TiO{sub 2} alone. A scheme of interaction between TiO{sub 2} and carbon is proposed to the increased photoactivity of TiO{sub 2} and a reaction mechanism for the different intermediate products detected is also proposed. Results showed that TiO{sub 2}-Carbon can be used as an alternative photocatalyst for environmental green chemistry and selective organic synthesis applications.

  18. Diffusive Silicon Nanopore Membranes for Hemodialysis Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Steven; Feinberg, Benjamin; Kant, Rishi; Chui, Benjamin; Goldman, Ken; Park, Jaehyun; Moses, Willieford; Blaha, Charles; Iqbal, Zohora; Chow, Clarence; Wright, Nathan; Fissell, William H.; Zydney, Andrew; Roy, Shuvo

    2016-01-01

    Hemodialysis using hollow-fiber membranes provides life-sustaining treatment for nearly 2 million patients worldwide with end stage renal disease (ESRD). However, patients on hemodialysis have worse long-term outcomes compared to kidney transplant or other chronic illnesses. Additionally, the underlying membrane technology of polymer hollow-fiber membranes has not fundamentally changed in over four decades. Therefore, we have proposed a fundamentally different approach using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) fabrication techniques to create thin-flat sheets of silicon-based membranes for implantable or portable hemodialysis applications. The silicon nanopore membranes (SNM) have biomimetic slit-pore geometry and uniform pores size distribution that allow for exceptional permeability and selectivity. A quantitative diffusion model identified structural limits to diffusive solute transport and motivated a new microfabrication technique to create SNM with enhanced diffusive transport. We performed in vitro testing and extracorporeal testing in pigs on prototype membranes with an effective surface area of 2.52 cm2 and 2.02 cm2, respectively. The diffusive clearance was a two-fold improvement in with the new microfabrication technique and was consistent with our mathematical model. These results establish the feasibility of using SNM for hemodialysis applications with additional scale-up. PMID:27438878

  19. Nanoporous Au: an unsupported pure gold catalyst?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittstock, A; Neumann, B; Schaefer, A; Dumbuya, K; Kuebel, C; Biener, M; Zielasek, V; Steinrueck, H; Gottfried, M; Biener, J; Hamza, A; B?umer, M

    2008-09-04

    The unique properties of gold especially in low temperature CO oxidation have been ascribed to a combination of various effects. In particular, particle sizes below a few nm and specific particle-support interactions have been shown to play important roles. On the contrary, recent reports revealed that monolithic nanoporous gold (npAu) prepared by leaching a less noble metal, such as Ag, out of the corresponding alloy can also exhibit remarkably high catalytic activity for CO oxidation, even though no support is present. Therefore, it was claimed to be a pure and unsupported gold catalyst. We investigated npAu with respect to its morphology, surface composition and catalytic properties. In particular, we studied the reaction kinetics for low temperature CO oxidation in detail taking mass transport limitation due to the porous structure of the material into account. Our results reveal that Ag, even if removed almost completely from the bulk, segregates to the surface resulting in surface concentrations of up to 10 at%. Our data suggest that this Ag plays a significant role in activation of molecular oxygen. Therefore, npAu should be considered as a bimetallic catalyst rather than a pure Au catalyst.

  20. On site DNA barcoding by nanopore sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Menegon

    Full Text Available Biodiversity research is becoming increasingly dependent on genomics, which allows the unprecedented digitization and understanding of the planet's biological heritage. The use of genetic markers i.e. DNA barcoding, has proved to be a powerful tool in species identification. However, full exploitation of this approach is hampered by the high sequencing costs and the absence of equipped facilities in biodiversity-rich countries. In the present work, we developed a portable sequencing laboratory based on the portable DNA sequencer from Oxford Nanopore Technologies, the MinION. Complementary laboratory equipment and reagents were selected to be used in remote and tough environmental conditions. The performance of the MinION sequencer and the portable laboratory was tested for DNA barcoding in a mimicking tropical environment, as well as in a remote rainforest of Tanzania lacking electricity. Despite the relatively high sequencing error-rate of the MinION, the development of a suitable pipeline for data analysis allowed the accurate identification of different species of vertebrates including amphibians, reptiles and mammals. In situ sequencing of a wild frog allowed us to rapidly identify the species captured, thus confirming that effective DNA barcoding in the field is possible. These results open new perspectives for real-time-on-site DNA sequencing thus potentially increasing opportunities for the understanding of biodiversity in areas lacking conventional laboratory facilities.

  1. Structure of poly(di-n-hexylsilane) in nanoporous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korotkova, I.; Sakhno, T.; Drobit'ko, I.; Sakhno, Yu.; Ostapenko, N.

    2010-01-01

    Graphical abstract: On the basis of theoretical calculations using TD/CEP-31G method we found and interpreted the complexation mechanism of poly(di-n-hexylsilane) incorporated in nanoporous materials. - Abstract: In this work the effects of solvent polarity and conformation changing on the electronic characteristics of poly(di-n-hexylsilane) incorporated in the nanoporous materials are calculated. The dependence of energy levels of electronic-excited states of investigated compounds is analyzed as a function of the Si-Si-Si-Si twist angle and length of Si-Si and Si-C bonds. The possibility of complex formation between silicon atom of polymer and oxygen ions of nanoporous materials is shown.

  2. Noise and its reduction in graphene based nanopore devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Ashvani; Park, Kyeong-Beom; Kim, Hyun-Mi; Kim, Ki-Bum

    2013-01-01

    Ionic current fluctuations in graphene nanopore devices are a ubiquitous phenomenon and are responsible for degraded spatial and temporal resolution. Here, we descriptively investigate the impact of different substrate materials (Si and quartz) and membrane thicknesses on noise characteristics of graphene nanopore devices. To mitigate the membrane fluctuations and pin-hole defects, a SiN x membrane is transferred onto the substrate and a pore of approximately 70 nm in diameter is perforated prior to the graphene transfer. Comprehensive noise study reveals that the few layer graphene transferred onto the quartz substrate possesses low noise level and higher signal to noise ratio as compared to single layer graphene, without deteriorating the spatial resolution. The findings here point to improvement of graphene based nanopore devices for exciting opportunities in future single-molecule genomic screening devices. (paper)

  3. Protein sequencing via nanopore based devices: a nanofluidics perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinappi, Mauro; Cecconi, Fabio

    2018-05-01

    Proteins perform a huge number of central functions in living organisms, thus all the new techniques allowing their precise, fast and accurate characterization at single-molecule level certainly represent a burst in proteomics with important biomedical impact. In this review, we describe the recent progresses in the developing of nanopore based devices for protein sequencing. We start with a critical analysis of the main technical requirements for nanopore protein sequencing, summarizing some ideas and methodologies that have recently appeared in the literature. In the last sections, we focus on the physical modelling of the transport phenomena occurring in nanopore based devices. The multiscale nature of the problem is discussed and, in this respect, some of the main possible computational approaches are illustrated.

  4. Detection of DNA hybridizations using solid-state nanopores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balagurusamy, Venkat S K; Weinger, Paul; Sean Ling, Xinsheng

    2010-01-01

    We report an experimental study of using DNA translocation through solid-state nanopores to detect the sequential arrangement of two double-stranded 12-mer hybridization segments on a single-stranded DNA molecule. The sample DNA is a trimer molecule formed by hybridizing three single-stranded oligonucleotides. A polystyrene bead is attached to the end of the trimer DNA, providing a mechanism in slowing down the translocation and suppressing the thermal diffusion, thereby allowing the detection of short features of DNA by standard patch-clamp electronics. The electrical signature of the translocation of a trimer molecule through a nanopore has been identified successfully in the temporal traces of ionic current. The results reported here represent the first successful attempt in using a solid-state nanopore as an ionic scanning device in resolving individual hybridization segments (or 'probes') on a DNA molecule.

  5. Detection of DNA hybridizations using solid-state nanopores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balagurusamy, Venkat S K; Weinger, Paul; Sean Ling, Xinsheng, E-mail: Xinsheng_Ling@brown.edu [Department of Physics, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912 (United States)

    2010-08-20

    We report an experimental study of using DNA translocation through solid-state nanopores to detect the sequential arrangement of two double-stranded 12-mer hybridization segments on a single-stranded DNA molecule. The sample DNA is a trimer molecule formed by hybridizing three single-stranded oligonucleotides. A polystyrene bead is attached to the end of the trimer DNA, providing a mechanism in slowing down the translocation and suppressing the thermal diffusion, thereby allowing the detection of short features of DNA by standard patch-clamp electronics. The electrical signature of the translocation of a trimer molecule through a nanopore has been identified successfully in the temporal traces of ionic current. The results reported here represent the first successful attempt in using a solid-state nanopore as an ionic scanning device in resolving individual hybridization segments (or 'probes') on a DNA molecule.

  6. Detecting and identifying small molecules in a nanopore flux capacitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bearden, Samuel; Zhang, Guigen; McClure, Ethan

    2016-01-01

    A new method of molecular detection in a metallic-semiconductor nanopore was developed and evaluated with experimental and computational methods. Measurements were made of the charging potential of the electrical double layer (EDL) capacitance as charge-carrying small molecules translocated the nanopore. Signals in the charging potential were found to be correlated to the physical properties of analyte molecules. From the measured signals, we were able to distinguish molecules with different valence charge or similar valence charge but different size. The relative magnitude of the signals from different analytes was consistent over a wide range of experimental conditions, suggesting that the detected signals are likely due to single molecules. Computational modeling of the nanopore system indicated that the double layer potential signal may be described in terms of disruption of the EDL structure due to the size and charge of the analyte molecule, in agreement with Huckel and Debye’s analysis of the electrical atmosphere of electrolyte solutions. (paper)

  7. Capillary condensation and evaporation in alumina nanopores with controlled modulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruschi, Lorenzo; Mistura, Giampaolo; Liu, Lifeng; Lee, Woo; Gösele, Ulrich; Coasne, Benoit

    2010-07-20

    Capillary condensation in nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide presenting not interconnected pores with controlled modulations is studied using adsorption experiments and molecular simulations. Both the experimental and simulation data show that capillary condensation and evaporation are driven by the smallest size of the nanopore (constriction). The adsorption isotherms for the open and closed pores are almost identical if constrictions are added to the system. The latter result implies that the type of pore ending does not matter in modulated pores. Thus, the presence of hysteresis loops observed in adsorption isotherms measured in straight nanopores with closed bottom ends can be explained in terms of geometrical inhomogeneities along the pore axis. More generally, these results provide a general picture of capillary condensation and evaporation in constricted or modulated pores that can be used for the interpretation of adsorption in disordered porous materials.

  8. Nanoporous cerium oxide thin film for glucose biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Shibu; Arya, Sunil K; Singh, S P; Sreenivas, K; Malhotra, B D; Gupta, Vinay

    2009-03-15

    Nanoporous cerium oxide (CeO(2)) thin film deposited onto platinum (Pt) coated glass plate using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) has been utilized for immobilization of glucose oxidase (GOx). Atomic force microscopy studies reveal the formation of nanoporous surface morphology of CeO(2) thin film. Response studies carried out using differential pulsed voltammetry (DPV) and optical measurements show that the GOx/CeO(2)/Pt bio-electrode shows linearity in the range of 25-300 mg/dl of glucose concentration. The low value of Michaelis-Menten constant (1.01 mM) indicates enhanced enzyme affinity of GOx to glucose. The observed results show promising application of the nanoporous CeO(2) thin film for glucose sensing application without any surface functionalization or mediator.

  9. Multistep Current Signal in Protein Translocation through Graphene Nanopores

    KAUST Repository

    Bonome, Emma Letizia

    2015-05-07

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. In nanopore sensing experiments, the properties of molecules are probed by the variation of ionic currents flowing through the nanopore. In this context, the electronic properties and the single-layer thickness of graphene constitute a major advantage for molecule characterization. Here we analyze the translocation pathway of the thioredoxin protein across a graphene nanopore, and the related ionic currents, by integrating two nonequilibrium molecular dynamics methods with a bioinformatic structural analysis. To obtain a qualitative picture of the translocation process and to identify salient features we performed unsupervised structural clustering on translocation conformations. This allowed us to identify some specific and robust translocation intermediates, characterized by significantly different ionic current flows. We found that the ion current strictly anticorrelates with the amount of pore occupancy by thioredoxin residues, providing a putative explanation of the multilevel current scenario observed in recently published translocation experiments.

  10. Transport behavior of water molecules through two-dimensional nanopores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Chongqin; Li, Hui; Meng, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Water transport through a two-dimensional nanoporous membrane has attracted increasing attention in recent years thanks to great demands in water purification and desalination applications. However, few studies have been reported on the microscopic mechanisms of water transport through structured nanopores, especially at the atomistic scale. Here we investigate the microstructure of water flow through two-dimensional model graphene membrane containing a variety of nanopores of different size by using molecular dynamics simulations. Our results clearly indicate that the continuum flow transits to discrete molecular flow patterns with decreasing pore sizes. While for pores with a diameter ≥15 Å water flux exhibits a linear dependence on the pore area, a nonlinear relationship between water flux and pore area has been identified for smaller pores. We attribute this deviation from linear behavior to the presence of discrete water flow, which is strongly influenced by the water-membrane interaction and hydrogen bonding between water molecules

  11. Surface coating of siRNA-peptidomimetic nano-self-assemblies with anionic lipid bilayers: enhanced gene silencing and reduced adverse effects in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xianghui; de Groot, Anne Marit; Sijts, Alice J. A. M.; Broere, Femke; Oude Blenke, Erik; Colombo, Stefano; van Eden, Willem; Franzyk, Henrik; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck; Foged, Camilla

    2015-11-01

    Cationic vectors have demonstrated the potential to facilitate intracellular delivery of therapeutic oligonucleotides. However, enhanced transfection efficiency is usually associated with adverse effects, which also proves to be a challenge for vectors based on cationic peptides. In this study a series of proteolytically stable palmitoylated α-peptide/β-peptoid peptidomimetics with a systematically varied number of repeating lysine and homoarginine residues was shown to self-assemble with small interfering RNA (siRNA). The resulting well-defined nanocomplexes were coated with anionic lipids giving rise to net anionic liposomes. These complexes and the corresponding liposomes were optimized towards efficient gene silencing and low adverse effects. The optimal anionic liposomes mediated a high silencing effect, which was comparable to that of the control (cationic Lipofectamine 2000), and did not display any noticeable cytotoxicity and immunogenicity in vitro. In contrast, the corresponding nanocomplexes mediated a reduced silencing effect with a more narrow safety window. The surface coating with anionic lipid bilayers led to partial decomplexation of the siRNA-peptidomimetic nanocomplex core of the liposomes, which facilitated siRNA release. Additionally, the optimal anionic liposomes showed efficient intracellular uptake and endosomal escape. Therefore, these findings suggest that a more efficacious and safe formulation can be achieved by surface coating of the siRNA-peptidomimetic nano-self-assemblies with anionic lipid bilayers.Cationic vectors have demonstrated the potential to facilitate intracellular delivery of therapeutic oligonucleotides. However, enhanced transfection efficiency is usually associated with adverse effects, which also proves to be a challenge for vectors based on cationic peptides. In this study a series of proteolytically stable palmitoylated α-peptide/β-peptoid peptidomimetics with a systematically varied number of repeating lysine

  12. Comparative Evaluation of Fluoride Releasing Ability of Various Restorative Materials after the Application of Surface Coating Agents - An In-vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishore, Gvs; Sai-Sankar, A J; Pratap-Gowd, Mjs; Sridhar, M; Pranitha, Kakarla; Sai-Krishna, V S

    2016-12-01

    Fluoride plays a key role in prevention of dental caries and is also an essential element for oral health promotion both in children and adults. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of surface coating (petroleum jelly, G-Coat Plus) on the fluoride releasing property of conventional Glass Ionomer Cement (GIC) and Zirconomer. A total of 30 disk shaped brass mold specimens (6±0.1mm in diameter and 2±0.1mm thickness) for each test group were fabricated with conventional GIC (Group A) and Zirconomer (Group B). These test groups were further divided into three subgroups of 10 each. The unprotected specimens act as control (Group A1 and B1), G-Coat Plus specimens as (Group A2 and B2) and for the remaining specimens petroleum jelly was applied (Group A3 and B3). Fluoride ion concentration was measured with a combination of fluoride ion specific electrode and ion analyzer for every 24 hours for 15 days. The data was statistically analyzed using Kruskal Wallis and Mann-Whitney U test. The Group B released significantly more fluoride than Group A. Among all the subgroups the greatest amount of fluoride was released from Group B1, in the first 24 hours followed by A1 and B2. The least was observed on 15 th day with Group B3 and A3. Both the tested materials (GIC and Zirconomer) used in the study exhibited fluoride release whether protected or unprotected with surface coating. Though there was a difference between the groups, the pattern of fluoride release was similar and continuous throughout the study period i.e., first the initial burst followed by sustained release. The results revealed Zirconomer released more fluoride and is comparable to conventional GIC.

  13. Comparative Evaluation of Fluoride Releasing Ability of Various Restorative Materials after the Application of Surface Coating Agents – An In-vitro Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishore, GVS; Sai-Sankar, AJ; Sridhar, M; Pranitha, Kakarla; Sai-Krishna, VS

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Fluoride plays a key role in prevention of dental caries and is also an essential element for oral health promotion both in children and adults. Aim The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of surface coating (petroleum jelly, G-Coat Plus) on the fluoride releasing property of conventional Glass Ionomer Cement (GIC) and Zirconomer. Materials and Methods A total of 30 disk shaped brass mold specimens (6±0.1mm in diameter and 2±0.1mm thickness) for each test group were fabricated with conventional GIC (Group A) and Zirconomer (Group B). These test groups were further divided into three subgroups of 10 each. The unprotected specimens act as control (Group A1 and B1), G-Coat Plus specimens as (Group A2 and B2) and for the remaining specimens petroleum jelly was applied (Group A3 and B3). Fluoride ion concentration was measured with a combination of fluoride ion specific electrode and ion analyzer for every 24 hours for 15 days. The data was statistically analyzed using Kruskal Wallis and Mann-Whitney U test. Results The Group B released significantly more fluoride than Group A. Among all the subgroups the greatest amount of fluoride was released from Group B1, in the first 24 hours followed by A1 and B2. The least was observed on 15th day with Group B3 and A3. Conclusion Both the tested materials (GIC and Zirconomer) used in the study exhibited fluoride release whether protected or unprotected with surface coating. Though there was a difference between the groups, the pattern of fluoride release was similar and continuous throughout the study period i.e., first the initial burst followed by sustained release. The results revealed Zirconomer released more fluoride and is comparable to conventional GIC. PMID:28209001

  14. Sequencing and Analysis of the Pseudomonas fluorescens GcM5-1A Genome: A Pathogen Living in the Surface Coat of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Feng

    Full Text Available It is known that several bacteria are adherent to the surface coat of pine wood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, but their function and role in the pathogenesis of pine wilt disease remains debatable. The Pseudomonas fluorescens GcM5-1A is a bacterium isolated from the surface coat of pine wood nematodes. In previous studies, GcM5-1A was evident in connection with the pathogenicity of pine wilt disease. In this study, we report the de novo sequencing of the GcM5-1A genome. A 600-Mb collection of high-quality reads was obtained and assembled into sequence contigs spanning a 6.01-Mb length. Sequence annotation predicted 5,413 open reading frames, of which 2,988 were homologous to genes in the other four sequenced P. fluorescens isolates (SBW25, WH6, Pf0-1 and Pf-5 and 1,137 were unique to GcM5-1A. Phylogenetic studies and genome comparison revealed that GcM5-1A is more closely related to SBW25 and WH6 isolates than to Pf0-1 and Pf-5 isolates. Towards study of pathogenesis, we identified 79 candidate virulence factors in the genome of GcM5-1A, including the Alg, Fl, Waa gene families, and genes coding the major pathogenic protein fliC. In addition, genes for a complete T3SS system were identified in the genome of GcM5-1A. Such systems have proved to play a critical role in subverting and colonizing the host organisms of many gram-negative pathogenic bacteria. Although the functions of the candidate virulence factors need yet to be deciphered experimentally, the availability of this genome provides a basic platform to obtain informative clues to be addressed in future studies by the pine wilt disease research community.

  15. Nanopore wall-liquid interaction under scope of molecular dynamics study: Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukanov, A. A.; Psakhie, S. G.

    2017-12-01

    The present review is devoted to the analysis of recent molecular dynamics based on the numerical studies of molecular aspects of solid-fluid interaction in nanoscale channels. Nanopore wall-liquid interaction plays the crucial role in such processes as gas separation, water desalination, liquids decontamination, hydrocarbons and water transport in nano-fractured geological formations. Molecular dynamics simulation is one of the most suitable tools to study molecular level effects occurred in such multicomponent systems. The nanopores are classified by their geometry to four groups: nanopore in nanosheet, nanotube-like pore, slit-shaped nanopore and soft-matter nanopore. The review is focused on the functionalized nanopores in boron nitride nanosheets as novel selective membranes and on the slit-shaped nanopores formed by minerals.

  16. Influence of nanopore surface charge and magnesium ion on polyadenosine translocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepoitevin, Mathilde; Bechelany, Mikhael; Janot, Jean-Marc; Balme, Sebastien; Coulon, Pierre Eugène; Cambedouzou, Julien

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the influence of a nanopore surface state and the addition of Mg 2+ on poly-adenosine translocation. To do so, two kinds of nanopores with a low aspect ratio (diameter ∼3–5 nm, length 30 nm) were tailored: the first one with a negative charge surface and the second one uncharged. It was shown that the velocity and the energy barrier strongly depend on the nanopore surface. Typically if the nanopore and polyA exhibit a similar charge, the macromolecule velocity increases and its global energy barrier of entrance in the nanopore decreases, as opposed to the non-charged nanopore. Moreover, the addition of a divalent chelating cation induces an increase of energy barrier of entrance, as expected. However, for a negative nanopore, this effect is counterbalanced by the inversion of the surface charge induced by the adsorption of divalent cations. (paper)

  17. Nanopore Electrochemistry: A Nexus for Molecular Control of Electron Transfer Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Pore-based structures occur widely in living organisms. Ion channels embedded in cell membranes, for example, provide pathways, where electron and proton transfer are coupled to the exchange of vital molecules. Learning from mother nature, a recent surge in activity has focused on artificial nanopore architectures to effect electrochemical transformations not accessible in larger structures. Here, we highlight these exciting advances. Starting with a brief overview of nanopore electrodes, including the early history and development of nanopore sensing based on nanopore-confined electrochemistry, we address the core concepts and special characteristics of nanopores in electron transfer. We describe nanopore-based electrochemical sensing and processing, discuss performance limits and challenges, and conclude with an outlook for next-generation nanopore electrode sensing platforms and the opportunities they present. PMID:29392173

  18. Nanopore Electrochemistry: A Nexus for Molecular Control of Electron Transfer Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaiyu Fu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Pore-based structures occur widely in living organisms. Ion channels embedded in cell membranes, for example, provide pathways, where electron and proton transfer are coupled to the exchange of vital molecules. Learning from mother nature, a recent surge in activity has focused on artificial nanopore architectures to effect electrochemical transformations not accessible in larger structures. Here, we highlight these exciting advances. Starting with a brief overview of nanopore electrodes, including the early history and development of nanopore sensing based on nanopore-confined electrochemistry, we address the core concepts and special characteristics of nanopores in electron transfer. We describe nanopore-based electrochemical sensing and processing, discuss performance limits and challenges, and conclude with an outlook for next-generation nanopore electrode sensing platforms and the opportunities they present.

  19. 3D architecture constructed via the confined growth of MoS2 nanosheets in nanoporous carbon derived from metal-organic frameworks for efficient hydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yun; Zhou, Xiaoli; Ding, Tao; Wang, Chunde; Yang, Qing

    2015-11-21

    The design and synthesis of robust, high-performance and low-cost three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical structured materials for the electrochemical reduction of water to generate hydrogen is of great significance for practical water splitting applications. In this study, we develop an in situ space-confined method to synthesize an MoS2-based 3D hierarchical structure, in which the MoS2 nanosheets grow in the confined nanopores of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs)-derived 3D carbons as electrocatalysts for efficient hydrogen production. Benefiting from its unique structure, which has more exposed active sites and enhanced conductivity, the as-prepared MoS2/3D nanoporous carbon (3D-NPC) composite exhibits remarkable electrocatalytic activity for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) with a small onset overpotential of ∼0.16 V, large cathodic currents, small Tafel slope of 51 mV per decade and good durability. We anticipate that this in situ confined growth provides new insights into the construction of high performance catalysts for energy storage and conversion.

  20. Coarsening by network restructuring in model nanoporous gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolluri, Kedarnath; Demkowicz, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Using atomistic modeling, we show that restructuring of the network of interconnected ligaments causes coarsening in a model of nanoporous gold. The restructuring arises from the collapse of some ligaments onto neighboring ones and is enabled by localized plasticity at ligaments and nodes. This mechanism may explain the occurrence of enclosed voids and reduction in volume in nanoporous metals during their synthesis. An expression is developed for the critical ligament radius below which coarsening by network restructuring may occur spontaneously, setting a lower limit to the ligament dimensions of nanofoams.

  1. Nanoporous zinc oxide films prepared by magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghimpu, L.; Lupan, O.; Popescu, L.; Tiginyanu, I.M.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate an inexpensive approach for the fabrication of nanoporous zinc oxide films by using magnetron sputtering. Study of the structural properties proves the crystallographic perfection of porous nanostructures and the possibility of its controlling by adjusting the technological parameters in the growth process. The XRD pattern of nanoporous ZnO films exhibits high intensity of the peaks relative to the background signal which is indicative of the ZnO hexagonal phase and a good crystallinity of the samples grown by magnetron sputtering.

  2. Active sieving across driven nanopores for tunable selectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marbach, Sophie; Bocquet, Lydéric

    2017-10-01

    Molecular separation traditionally relies on sieving processes across passive nanoporous membranes. Here we explore theoretically the concept of non-equilibrium active sieving. We investigate a simple model for an active noisy nanopore, where gating—in terms of size or charge—is externally driven at a tunable frequency. Our analytical and numerical results unveil a rich sieving diagram in terms of the forced gating frequency. Unexpectedly, the separation ability is strongly increased as compared to its passive (zero frequency) counterpart. It also points to the possibility of tuning dynamically the osmotic pressure. Active separation outperforms passive sieving and represents a promising avenue for advanced filtration.

  3. Discriminating Bacteria with Optical Sensors Based on Functionalized Nanoporous Xerogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Crunaire

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An innovative and low-cost method is proposed for the detection and discrimination of indole-positive pathogen bacteria. The method allows the non-invasive detection of gaseous indole, released by bacteria, with nanoporous colorimetric sensors. The innovation comes from the use of nanoporous matrices doped with 4-(dimethylamino-cinnamaldehyde, which act as sponges to trap and concentrate the targeted analyte and turn from transparent to dark green, long before the colonies get visible with naked eyes. With such sensors, it was possible to discriminate E. coli from H. alvei, two indole-positive and negative bacteria after seven hours of incubation.

  4. Direct hierarchical assembly of nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ting; Zhao, Yue; Thorkelsson, Kari

    2014-07-22

    The present invention provides hierarchical assemblies of a block copolymer, a bifunctional linking compound and a nanoparticle. The block copolymers form one micro-domain and the nanoparticles another micro-domain.

  5. Hierarchical materials: Background and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    Hierarchical design draws inspiration from analysis of biological materials and has opened new possibilities for enhancing performance and enabling new functionalities and extraordinary properties. With the development of nanotechnology, the necessary technological requirements for the manufactur...

  6. Functional annotation of hierarchical modularity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanchana Padmanabhan

    Full Text Available In biological networks of molecular interactions in a cell, network motifs that are biologically relevant are also functionally coherent, or form functional modules. These functionally coherent modules combine in a hierarchical manner into larger, less cohesive subsystems, thus revealing one of the essential design principles of system-level cellular organization and function-hierarchical modularity. Arguably, hierarchical modularity has not been explicitly taken into consideration by most, if not all, functional annotation systems. As a result, the existing methods would often fail to assign a statistically significant functional coherence score to biologically relevant molecular machines. We developed a methodology for hierarchical functional annotation. Given the hierarchical taxonomy of functional concepts (e.g., Gene Ontology and the association of individual genes or proteins with these concepts (e.g., GO terms, our method will assign a Hierarchical Modularity Score (HMS to each node in the hierarchy of functional modules; the HMS score and its p-value measure functional coherence of each module in the hierarchy. While existing methods annotate each module with a set of "enriched" functional terms in a bag of genes, our complementary method provides the hierarchical functional annotation of the modules and their hierarchically organized components. A hierarchical organization of functional modules often comes as a bi-product of cluster analysis of gene expression data or protein interaction data. Otherwise, our method will automatically build such a hierarchy by directly incorporating the functional taxonomy information into the hierarchy search process and by allowing multi-functional genes to be part of more than one component in the hierarchy. In addition, its underlying HMS scoring metric ensures that functional specificity of the terms across different levels of the hierarchical taxonomy is properly treated. We have evaluated our

  7. Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Spontaneous Imbibition in Nanopores and Recovery of Asphaltenic Crude Oils Using Surfactants for EOR Applications Simulations de dynamique moléculaire d’imbibition spontanée dans des nanopores et pour la récupération d’huiles brutes asphalténiques en utilisant des agents tensioactifs pour des applications d’EOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stukan M.R.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We present Molecular Dynamics (MD simulations of the imbibition process in nanopores in case of two different mechanisms of the wettability modification. We compare the imbibition of an aqueous surfactant solution into an oil-wet pore driven by surfactant adsorption onto the oil-wet rock surface (coating mechanism and the imbibition of an aqueous surfactants solution driven by surfactants removing the contaminant molecules from the originally water-wet surface (cleaning mechanism. Our results show qualitative difference in the imbibition dynamics in these two cases and indicate that MD simulation is a useful tool to investigate details of the imbibition mechanisms at the pore scale with direct implications for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR operations. Nous presentons des simulations de Dynamique Moleculaire (DM du processus d’imbibition dans des nanopores dans le cas de deux mecanismes differents de modification de mouillabilite. Nous comparons l’imbibition d’une solution aqueuse d’agent tensioactif dans un pore mouille d’huile entrainee par une adsorption d’agent tensioactif sur la surface de roche mouillee d’huile (mecanisme de revetement et l’imbibition d’une solution aqueuse d’agent tensioactif entrainee par des agents tensioactifs eliminant les molecules contaminantes de la surface originellement mouillee d’eau (mecanisme de nettoyage. Nos resultats montrent une difference qualitative en matiere de dynamique d’imbibition dans ces deux cas et indiquent que la simulation de DM constitue un outil utile pour etudier les mecanismes d’imbibition a l’echelle des pores avec des implications directes pour des operations de recuperation renforcee d’huile (EOR, Enhanced Oil Recovery.

  8. Hierarchical architecture of active knits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abel, Julianna; Luntz, Jonathan; Brei, Diann

    2013-01-01

    Nature eloquently utilizes hierarchical structures to form the world around us. Applying the hierarchical architecture paradigm to smart materials can provide a basis for a new genre of actuators which produce complex actuation motions. One promising example of cellular architecture—active knits—provides complex three-dimensional distributed actuation motions with expanded operational performance through a hierarchically organized structure. The hierarchical structure arranges a single fiber of active material, such as shape memory alloys (SMAs), into a cellular network of interlacing adjacent loops according to a knitting grid. This paper defines a four-level hierarchical classification of knit structures: the basic knit loop, knit patterns, grid patterns, and restructured grids. Each level of the hierarchy provides increased architectural complexity, resulting in expanded kinematic actuation motions of active knits. The range of kinematic actuation motions are displayed through experimental examples of different SMA active knits. The results from this paper illustrate and classify the ways in which each level of the hierarchical knit architecture leverages the performance of the base smart material to generate unique actuation motions, providing necessary insight to best exploit this new actuation paradigm. (paper)

  9. Electrochromic artificial muscles based on nanoporous metal-polymer composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Detsi, E.; Onck, P. R.; De Hosson, J. T. M.

    2013-01-01

    This work shows that a nano-coating of electrochromic polymer grown onto the ligaments of nanoporous gold causes reversible dimensional and color changes during electrochemical actuation. This combination of electromechanical and optical properties opens additional avenues for the applications of

  10. Nanopore Sequencing as a Rapidly Deployable Ebola Outbreak Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoenen, Thomas; Groseth, Allison; Rosenke, Kyle; Fischer, Robert J; Hoenen, Andreas; Judson, Seth D; Martellaro, Cynthia; Falzarano, Darryl; Marzi, Andrea; Squires, R Burke; Wollenberg, Kurt R; de Wit, Emmie; Prescott, Joseph; Safronetz, David; van Doremalen, Neeltje; Bushmaker, Trenton; Feldmann, Friederike; McNally, Kristin; Bolay, Fatorma K; Fields, Barry; Sealy, Tara; Rayfield, Mark; Nichol, Stuart T; Zoon, Kathryn C; Massaquoi, Moses; Munster, Vincent J; Feldmann, Heinz

    2016-02-01

    Rapid sequencing of RNA/DNA from pathogen samples obtained during disease outbreaks provides critical scientific and public health information. However, challenges exist for exporting samples to laboratories or establishing conventional sequencers in remote outbreak regions. We successfully used a novel, pocket-sized nanopore sequencer at a field diagnostic laboratory in Liberia during the current Ebola virus outbreak.

  11. Nanoporous gold assembly of glucose oxidase for electrochemical biosensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Xinxin; Ulstrup, Jens; Li, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Nanoporous gold (NPG) is composed of three-dimensional (3D) bicontinuous nanostructures with large surface area. Nano-channels inside NPG provide an ideal local environment for immobilization of enzyme molecules with expected stabilization of the protein molecules. In this work, glucose oxidase (...

  12. Hydrogen storage in nanoporous carbon materials: myth and facts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczyk, Piotr; Hołyst, Robert; Terrones, Mauricio; Terrones, Humberto

    2007-04-21

    We used Grand canonical Monte Carlo simulation to model the hydrogen storage in the primitive, gyroid, diamond, and quasi-periodic icosahedral nanoporous carbon materials and in carbon nanotubes. We found that none of the investigated nanoporous carbon materials satisfy the US Department of Energy goal of volumetric density and mass storage for automotive application (6 wt% and 45 kg H(2) m(-3)) at considered storage condition. Our calculations indicate that quasi-periodic icosahedral nanoporous carbon material can reach the 6 wt% at 3.8 MPa and 77 K, but the volumetric density does not exceed 24 kg H(2) m(-3). The bundle of single-walled carbon nanotubes can store only up to 4.5 wt%, but with high volumetric density of 42 kg H(2) m(-3). All investigated nanoporous carbon materials are not effective against compression above 20 MPa at 77 K because the adsorbed density approaches the density of the bulk fluid. It follows from this work that geometry of carbon surfaces can enhance the storage capacity only to a limited extent. Only a combination of the most effective structure with appropriate additives (metals) can provide an efficient storage medium for hydrogen in the quest for a source of "clean" energy.

  13. Liquid Core Waveguides by UV Modification of Nanoporous Polymer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Mads Brøkner; Gopalakrishnan, Nimi; Sagar, Kaushal Shashikant

    2011-01-01

    Liquid core waveguides are fabricated from a self-assembled nanoporous polymer, with a porosity of 40%. The high porosity results in an effective refractive index of 1.26 for visible light, i.e. below the refractive index of aqueous solutions. However, since the polymer is hydrophobic, fluids...

  14. Mechanical stability of nanoporous metals with small ligament sizes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowson, Douglas A.; Farkas, Diana; Corcoran, Sean G.

    2009-01-01

    Digital samples of nanoporous gold with small ligament sizes were studied by atomistic simulation using different interatomic potentials that represent varying surface stress values. We predict a surface relaxation driven mechanical instability for these materials. Plastic deformation is induced by the surface stress without external load, related to the combination of the surface stress value and the surface to volume ratio.

  15. Gate modulation of proton transport in a nanopore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Lanju; Yeh, Li-Hsien; Qian, Shizhi

    2016-03-14

    Proton transport in confined spaces plays a crucial role in many biological processes as well as in modern technological applications, such as fuel cells. To achieve active control of proton conductance, we investigate for the first time the gate modulation of proton transport in a pH-regulated nanopore by a multi-ion model. The model takes into account surface protonation/deprotonation reactions, surface curvature, electroosmotic flow, Stern layer, and electric double layer overlap. The proposed model is validated by good agreement with the existing experimental data on nanopore conductance with and without a gate voltage. The results show that the modulation of proton transport in a nanopore depends on the concentration of the background salt and solution pH. Without background salt, the gated nanopore exhibits an interesting ambipolar conductance behavior when pH is close to the isoelectric point of the dielectric pore material, and the net ionic and proton conductance can be actively regulated with a gate voltage as low as 1 V. The higher the background salt concentration, the lower is the performance of the gate control on the proton transport.

  16. Solid-state nanopores for probing DNA and protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plesa, C.

    2015-01-01

    Solid-state nanopores are small nanometer-scale holes in thin membranes. When used to separate two chambers containing salt solution, any biomolecule passing from one chamber to the other is forced to pass through the pore constriction. An electric field applied across the membrane is used to create

  17. Fine-tuning the feature size of nanoporous silver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Detsi, Eric; Vukovic, Zorica; Punzhin, Sergey; Bronsveld, Paul M.; Onck, Patrick R.; De Hosson, Jeff Th M.

    2012-01-01

    We show that the characteristic ligament size of nanoporous Ag synthesized by chemical dissolution of Al from Ag-Al alloys can be tuned from the current submicrometer size (similar to 100-500 nm) down to a much smaller length scale (similar to 30-60 nm). This is achieved by suppressing the formation

  18. Ion transport in sub-5-nm graphene nanopores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suk, Myung E.; Aluru, N. R.

    2014-01-01

    Graphene nanopore is a promising device for single molecule sensing, including DNA bases, as its single atom thickness provides high spatial resolution. To attain high sensitivity, the size of the molecule should be comparable to the pore diameter. However, when the pore diameter approaches the size of the molecule, ion properties and dynamics may deviate from the bulk values and continuum analysis may not be accurate. In this paper, we investigate the static and dynamic properties of ions with and without an external voltage drop in sub-5-nm graphene nanopores using molecular dynamics simulations. Ion concentration in graphene nanopores sharply drops from the bulk concentration when the pore radius is smaller than 0.9 nm. Ion mobility in the pore is also smaller than bulk ion mobility due to the layered liquid structure in the pore-axial direction. Our results show that a continuum analysis can be appropriate when the pore radius is larger than 0.9 nm if pore conductivity is properly defined. Since many applications of graphene nanopores, such as DNA and protein sensing, involve ion transport, the results presented here will be useful not only in understanding the behavior of ion transport but also in designing bio-molecular sensors

  19. Warming up human body by nanoporous metallized polyethylene textile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Lili; Song, Alex Y; Wu, Peilin; Hsu, Po-Chun; Peng, Yucan; Chen, Jun; Liu, Chong; Catrysse, Peter B; Liu, Yayuan; Yang, Ankun; Zhou, Chenxing; Zhou, Chenyu; Fan, Shanhui; Cui, Yi

    2017-09-19

    Space heating accounts for the largest energy end-use of buildings that imposes significant burden on the society. The energy wasted for heating the empty space of the entire building can be saved by passively heating the immediate environment around the human body. Here, we demonstrate a nanophotonic structure textile with tailored infrared (IR) property for passive personal heating using nanoporous metallized polyethylene. By constructing an IR-reflective layer on an IR-transparent layer with embedded nanopores, the nanoporous metallized polyethylene textile achieves a minimal IR emissivity (10.1%) on the outer surface that effectively suppresses heat radiation loss without sacrificing wearing comfort. This enables 7.1 °C decrease of the set-point compared to normal textile, greatly outperforming other radiative heating textiles by more than 3 °C. This large set-point expansion can save more than 35% of building heating energy in a cost-effective way, and ultimately contribute to the relief of global energy and climate issues.Energy wasted for heating the empty space of the entire building can be saved by passively heating the immediate environment around the human body. Here, the authors show a nanophotonic structure textile with tailored infrared property for passive personal heating using nanoporous metallized polyethylene.

  20. High-density nanopore array for selective biomolecule transport.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Kamlesh D.

    2011-11-01

    Development of sophisticated tools capable of manipulating molecules at their own length scale enables new methods for chemical synthesis and detection. Although nanoscale devices have been developed to perform individual tasks, little work has been done on developing a truly scalable platform: a system that combines multiple components for sequential processing, as well as simultaneously processing and identifying the millions of potential species that may be present in a biological sample. The development of a scalable micro-nanofluidic device is limited in part by the ability to combine different materials (polymers, metals, semiconductors) onto a single chip, and the challenges with locally controlling the chemical, electrical, and mechanical properties within a micro or nanochannel. We have developed a unique construct known as a molecular gate: a multilayered polymer based device that combines microscale fluid channels with nanofluidic interconnects. Molecular gates have been demonstrated to selectively transport molecules between channels based on size or charge. In order to fully utilize these structures, we need to develop methods to actively control transport and identify species inside a nanopore. While previous work has been limited to creating electrical connections off-channel or metallizing the entire nanopore wall, we now have the ability to create multiple, separate conductive connections at the interior surface of a nanopore. These interior electrodes will be used for direct sensing of biological molecules, probing the electrical potential and charge distribution at the surface, and to actively turn on and off electrically driven transport of molecules through nanopores.

  1. Ergodicity of a single particle confined in a nanopore

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernardi, S.; Hansen, Jesper Schmidt; Frascolli, F.

    2012-01-01

    -ergodic component of the phase space for energy levels typical of experiments, is surprisingly small, i.e. we conclude that the ergodic hypothesis is a reasonable approximation even for a single particle trapped in a nanopore. Due to the numerical scope of this work, our focus will be the onset of ergodic behavior...

  2. Probe DNA-Cisplatin Interaction with Solid-State Nanopores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhi; Hu, Ying; Li, Wei; Xu, Zhi; Wang, Pengye; Bai, Xuedong; Shan, Xinyan; Lu, Xinghua; Nanopore Collaboration

    2014-03-01

    Understanding the mechanism of DNA-cisplatin interaction is essential for clinical application and novel drug design. As an emerging single-molecule technology, solid-state nanopore has been employed in biomolecule detection and probing DNA-molecule interactions. Herein, we reported a real-time monitoring of DNA-cisplatin interaction by employing solid-state SiN nanopores. The DNA-cisplatin interacting process is clearly classified into three stages by measuring the capture rate of DNA-cisplatin adducts. In the first stage, the negative charged DNA molecules were partially discharged due to the bonding of positive charged cisplatin and forming of mono-adducts. In the second stage, forming of DNA-cisplatin di-adducts with the adjacent bases results in DNA bending and softening. The capture rate increases since the softened bi-adducts experience a lower barrier to thread into the nanopores. In the third stage, complex structures, such as micro-loop, are formed and the DNA-cisplatin adducts are aggregated. The capture rate decreases to zero as the aggregated adduct grows to the size of the pore. The characteristic time of this stage was found to be linear with the diameter of the nanopore and this dynamic process can be described with a second-order reaction model. We are grateful to Laboratory of Microfabrication, Dr. Y. Yao, and Prof. R.C. Yu (Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences) for technical assistance.

  3. Performance improvement of silicon solar cells by nanoporous silicon coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzhafarov T. D.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper the method is shown to improve the photovoltaic parameters of screen-printed silicon solar cells by nanoporous silicon film formation on the frontal surface of the cell using the electrochemical etching. The possible mechanisms responsible for observed improvement of silicon solar cell performance are discussed.

  4. Concentration Polarization in Translocation of DNA through Nanopores and Nanochannels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, S.; Dubsky, P.; van den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C.T.

    2012-01-01

    In this Letter we provide a theory to show that high-field electrokinetic translocation of DNA through nanopores or nanochannels causes large transient variations of the ionic concentrations in front and at the back of the DNA due to concentration polarization (CP). The CP causes strong local

  5. Nanopore fabricated in pyramidal HfO2 film by dielectric breakdown method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yifan; Chen, Qi; Deng, Tao; Liu, Zewen

    2017-10-01

    The dielectric breakdown method provides an innovative solution to fabricate solid-state nanopores on insulating films. A nanopore generation event via this method is considered to be caused by random charged traps (i.e., structural defects) and high electric fields in the membrane. Thus, the position and number of nanopores on planar films prepared by the dielectric breakdown method is hard to control. In this paper, we propose to fabricate nanopores on pyramidal HfO2 films (10-nm and 15-nm-thick) to improve the ability to control the location and number during the fabrication process. Since the electric field intensity gets enhanced at the corners of the pyramid-shaped film, the probability of nanopore occurrence at vertex and edge areas increases. This priority of appearance provides us chance to control the location and number of nanopores by monitoring a sudden irreversible discrete increase in current. The experimental results showed that the probability of nanopore occurrence decreases in an order from the vertex area, the edge area to the side face area. The sizes of nanopores ranging from 30 nm to 10 nm were obtained. Nanopores fabricated on the pyramid-shaped HfO2 film also showed an obvious ion current rectification characteristic, which might improve the nanopore performance as a biomolecule sequencing platform.

  6. Multichannel detection of ionic currents through two nanopores fabricated on integrated Si3N4 membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagi, Itaru; Akahori, Rena; Aoki, Mayu; Harada, Kunio; Takeda, Ken-Ichi

    2016-08-16

    Integration of solid-state nanopores and multichannel detection of signals from each nanopore are effective measures for realizing high-throughput nanopore sensors. In the present study, we demonstrated fabrication of Si3N4 membrane arrays and the simultaneous measurement of ionic currents through two nanopores formed in two adjacent membranes. Membranes with thicknesses as low as 6.4 nm and small nanopores with diameters of less than 2 nm could be fabricated using the poly-Si sacrificial-layer process and multilevel pulse-voltage injection. Using the fabricated nanopore membranes, we successfully achieved simultaneous detection of clear ionic-current blockades when single-stranded short homopolymers (poly(dA)60) passed through two nanopores. In addition, we investigated the signal crosstalk and leakage current among separated chambers. When two nanopores were isolated on the front surface of the membrane, there was no signal crosstalk or leakage current between the chambers. However, when two nanopores were isolated on the backside of the Si substrate, signal crosstalk and leakage current were observed owing to high-capacitance coupling between the chambers and electrolysis of water on the surface of the Si substrate. The signal crosstalk and leakage current could be suppressed by oxidizing the exposed Si surface in the membrane chip. Finally, the observed ionic-current blockade when poly(dA)60 passed through the nanopore in the oxidized chip was approximately half of that observed in the non-oxidized chip.

  7. Highly sensitive detection using microring resonator and nanopores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougot-Robin, K.; Hoste, J. W.; Le Thomas, N.; Bienstman, P.; Edel, J. B.

    2016-04-01

    One of the most significant challenges facing physical and biological scientists is the accurate detection and identification of single molecules in free-solution environments. The ability to perform such sensitive and selective measurements opens new avenues for a large number of applications in biological, medical and chemical analysis, where small sample volumes and low analyte concentrations are the norm. Access to information at the single or few molecules scale is rendered possible by a fine combination of recent advances in technologies. We propose a novel detection method that combines highly sensitive label-free resonant sensing obtained with high-Q microcavities and position control in nanoscale pores (nanopores). In addition to be label-free and highly sensitive, our technique is immobilization free and does not rely on surface biochemistry to bind probes on a chip. This is a significant advantage, both in term of biology uncertainties and fewer biological preparation steps. Through combination of high-Q photonic structures with translocation through nanopore at the end of a pipette, or through a solid-state membrane, we believe significant advances can be achieved in the field of biosensing. Silicon microrings are highly advantageous in term of sensitivity, multiplexing, and microfabrication and are chosen for this study. In term of nanopores, we both consider nanopore at the end of a nanopipette, with the pore being approach from the pipette with nanoprecise mechanical control. Alternatively, solid state nanopores can be fabricated through a membrane, supporting the ring. Both configuration are discussed in this paper, in term of implementation and sensitivity.

  8. Development of a 3D origami multiplex electrochemical immunodevice using a nanoporous silver-paper electrode and metal ion functionalized nanoporous gold-chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weiping; Li, Long; Li, Meng; Yu, Jinghua; Ge, Shenguang; Yan, Mei; Song, Xianrang

    2013-10-25

    A simple and sensitive 3D microfluidic origami multiplex electrochemical immunodevice was developed for the first time using a novel nanoporous silver modified paper working electrode as a sensor platform and different metal ion functionalized nanoporous gold-chitosan as a tracer.

  9. Influence of epoxy, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and rhodium surface coatings on surface roughness, nano-mechanical properties and biofilm adhesion of nickel titanium (Ni-Ti) archwires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiry, Moshabab A.; AlShahrani, Ibrahim; Almoammar, Salem; Durgesh, Bangalore H.; Kheraif, Abdulaziz A. Al; Hashem, Mohamed I.

    2018-02-01

    Aim. To investigate the effect of epoxy, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and rhodium surface coatings on surface roughness, nano-mechanical properties and biofilm adhesion of nickel titanium (Ni-Ti) archwires Methods. Three different coated (Epoxy, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and rhodium) and one uncoated Ni-Ti archwires were evaluated in the present study. Surface roughness (Ra) was assessed using a non-contact surface profilometer. The mechanical properties (nano-hardness and elastic modulus) were measured using a nanoindenter. Bacterial adhesion assays were performed using Streptococcus mutans (MS) and streptococcus sobrinus (SS) in an in-vitro set up. The data obtained were analyzed using analyses of variance, Tukey’s post hoc test and Pearson’s correlation coefficient test. Result. The highest Ra values (1.29 ± 0.49) were obtained for epoxy coated wires and lowest Ra values (0.29 ± 0.16) were obtained for the uncoated wires. No significant differences in the Ra values were observed between the rhodium coated and uncoated archwires (P > 0.05). The highest nano-hardness (3.72 ± 0.24) and elastic modulus values (61.15 ± 2.59) were obtained for uncoated archwires and the lowest nano-hardness (0.18 ± 0.10) and elastic modulus values (4.84 ± 0.65) were observed for epoxy coated archwires. No significant differences in nano-hardness and elastic modulus values were observed between the coated archwires (P > 0.05). The adhesion of Streptococcus mutans (MS) to the wires was significantly greater than that of streptococcus sobrinus (SS). The epoxy coated wires demonstrated an increased adhesion of MS and SS and the uncoated wires demonstrated decreased biofilm adhesion. The Spearman correlation test showed that MS and SS adhesion was positively correlated with the surface roughness of the wires. Conclusion. The different surface coatings significantly influence the roughness, nano-mechanical properties and biofilm adhesion parameters of the archwires. The

  10. Nanoporous-carbon adsorbers for chemical microsensors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overmyer, Donald L.; Siegal, Michael P.; Staton, Alan W.; Provencio, Paula Polyak; Yelton, William Graham

    2004-11-01

    Chemical microsensors rely on partitioning of airborne chemicals into films to collect and measure trace quantities of hazardous vapors. Polymer sensor coatings used today are typically slow to respond and difficult to apply reproducibly. The objective of this project was to produce a durable sensor coating material based on graphitic nanoporous-carbon (NPC), a new material first studied at Sandia, for collection and detection of volatile organic compounds (VOC), toxic industrial chemicals (TIC), chemical warfare agents (CWA) and nuclear processing precursors (NPP). Preliminary studies using NPC films on exploratory surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) devices and as a {micro}ChemLab membrane preconcentrator suggested that NPC may outperform existing, irreproducible coatings for SAW sensor and {micro}ChemLab preconcentrator applications. Success of this project will provide a strategic advantage to the development of a robust, manufacturable, highly-sensitive chemical microsensor for public health, industrial, and national security needs. We use pulsed-laser deposition to grow NPC films at room-temperature with negligible residual stress, and hence, can be deposited onto nearly any substrate material to any thickness. Controlled deposition yields reproducible NPC density, morphology, and porosity, without any discernable variation in surface chemistry. NPC coatings > 20 {micro}m thick with density < 5% that of graphite have been demonstrated. NPC can be 'doped' with nearly any metal during growth to provide further enhancements in analyte detection and selectivity. Optimized NPC-coated SAW devices were compared directly to commonly-used polymer coated SAWs for sensitivity to a variety of VOC, TIC, CWA and NPP. In every analyte, NPC outperforms each polymer coating by multiple orders-of-magnitude in detection sensitivity, with improvements ranging from 103 to 108 times greater detection sensitivity! NPC-coated SAW sensors appear capable of detecting most analytes

  11. Deliberate change without hierarchical influence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Sladjana; Kesting, Peter; Ulhøi, John Parm

    2017-01-01

    reveals that deliberate change is indeed achievable in a non-hierarchical collaborative OSS community context. However, it presupposes the presence and active involvement of informal change agents. The paper identifies and specifies four key drivers for change agents’ influence. Originality....../value The findings contribute to organisational analysis by providing a deeper understanding of the importance of leadership in making deliberate change possible in non-hierarchical settings. It points to the importance of “change-by-conviction”, essentially based on voluntary behaviour. This can open the door...

  12. Electronic conductance model in constricted MoS{sub 2} with nanopores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarathy, Aditya [Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Leburton, Jean-Pierre, E-mail: jleburto@illinois.edu [Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2016-02-01

    We describe a self-consistent model for electronic transport in a molybdenum di-sulphide (MoS{sub 2}) layer containing a nanopore in a constricted geometry. Our approach is based on a semi-classical thermionic Poisson-Boltzmann technique using a two-valley model within the effective mass approximation to investigate perturbations caused by the nanopore on the electronic current. In particular, we show that the effect of the nanopore on the conductance is reduced as the nanopore is moved from the center to the layer edges. Our model is applied to the detection of DNA translocating through the nanopore, which reveals current features similar to those as predicted in nanopore graphene layers.

  13. Theoretical and experimental studies on ionic currents in nanopore-based biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Li, Chu; Ma, Jian; Wu, Yingdong; Ni, Zhonghua; Chen, Yunfei

    2014-12-01

    Novel generation of analytical technology based on nanopores has provided possibilities to fabricate nanofluidic devices for low-cost DNA sequencing or rapid biosensing. In this paper, a simplified model was suggested to describe DNA molecule's translocation through a nanopore, and the internal potential, ion concentration, ionic flowing speed and ionic current in nanopores with different sizes were theoretically calculated and discussed on the basis of Poisson-Boltzmann equation, Navier-Stokes equation and Nernst-Planck equation by considering several important parameters, such as the applied voltage, the thickness and the electric potential distributions in nanopores. In this way, the basic ionic currents, the modulated ionic currents and the current drops induced by translocation were obtained, and the size effects of the nanopores were carefully compared and discussed based on the calculated results and experimental data, which indicated that nanopores with a size of 10 nm or so are more advantageous to achieve high quality ionic current signals in DNA sensing.

  14. Molecular sieving through a graphene nanopore: non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chengzhen Sun; Bofeng Bai

    2017-01-01

    Two-dimensional graphene nanopores have shown great promise as ultra-permeable molecular sieves based on their size-sieving effects.We design a nitrogen/hydrogen modified graphene nanopore and conduct a transient non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation on its molecular sieving effects.The distinct time-varying molecular crossing numbers show that this special nanopore can efficiently sieve CO2 and H2S molecules from CH4 molecules with high selectivity.By analyzing the molecular structure and pore functionalization-related molecular orientation and permeable zone in the nanopore,density distribution in the molecular adsorption layer on the graphene surface,as well as other features,the molecular sieving mechanisms of graphene nanopores are revealed.Finally,several implications on the design of highly-efficient graphene nanopores,especially for determining the porosity and chemical functionalization,as gas separation membranes are summarized based on the identified phenomena and mechanisms.

  15. Alumina plate containing photosystem I reaction center complex oriented inside plate-penetrating silica nanopores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamidaki, Chihiro; Kondo, Toru; Noji, Tomoyasu; Itoh, Tetsuji; Yamaguchi, Akira; Itoh, Shigeru

    2013-08-22

    The photosynthetic photosystem I reaction center complex (PSI-RC), which has a molecular diameter of 21 nm with 100 pigments, was incorporated into silica nanopores with a 100-nm diameter that penetrates an alumina plate of 60-μm thickness to make up an inorganic-biological hybrid photocell. PSI-RCs, purified from a thermophilic cyanobacterium, were stable inside the nanopores and rapidly photoreduced a mediator dye methyl viologen. The reduced dye was more stable inside nanopores suggesting the decrease of dissolved oxygen. The analysis by a cryogenic electron spin paramagnetic resonance indicated the oriented arrangement of RCs inside the 100-nm nanopores, with their surface parallel to the silica wall and perpendicular to the plane of the alumina plate. PSI RC complex in the semicrystalline orientation inside silica nanopores can be a new type of light energy conversion unit to supply strong reducing power selectively to other molecules inside or outside nanopores.

  16. Multi-layered hierarchical nanostructures for transparent monolithic dye-sensitized solar cell architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passoni, Luca; Fumagalli, Francesco; Perego, Andrea; Bellani, Sebastiano; Mazzolini, Piero; Di Fonzo, Fabio

    2017-06-01

    Monolithic dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) architectures hold great potential for building-integrated photovoltaics applications. They indeed benefit from lower weight and manufacturing costs as they avoid the use of a transparent conductive oxide (TCO)-coated glass counter electrode. In this work, a transparent monolithic DSC comprising a hierarchical 1D nanostructure stack is fabricated by physical vapor deposition techniques. The proof of concept device comprises hyperbranched TiO2 nanostructures, sensitized by the prototypical N719, as photoanode, a hierarchical nanoporous Al2O3 spacer, and a microporous indium tin oxide (ITO) top electrode. An overall 3.12% power conversion efficiency with 60% transmittance outside the dye absorption spectral window is demonstrated. The introduction of a porous TCO layer allows an efficient trade-off between transparency and power conversion. The porous ITO exhibits submicrometer voids and supports annealing temperatures above 400 °C without compromising its optoelectronical properties. After thermal annealing at 500 °C, the resistivity, mobility, and carrier concentration of the 800 nm-thick porous ITO layer are found to be respectively 2.3 × 10-3 Ω cm-1, 11 cm2 V-1 s-1, and 1.62 × 1020 cm-3, resulting in a series resistance in the complete device architecture of 45 Ω. Electrochemical impedance and intensity-modulated photocurrent/photovoltage spectroscopy give insight into the electronic charge dynamic within the hierarchical monolithic DSCs, paving the way for potential device architecture improvements.

  17. Ultrathin Hierarchical Porous Carbon Nanosheets for High-Performance Supercapacitors and Redox Electrolyte Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaramulu, Kolleboyina; Dubal, Deepak P; Nagar, Bhawna; Ranc, Vaclav; Tomanec, Ondrej; Petr, Martin; Datta, Kasibhatta Kumara Ramanatha; Zboril, Radek; Gómez-Romero, Pedro; Fischer, Roland A

    2018-04-01

    The design of advanced high-energy-density supercapacitors requires the design of unique materials that combine hierarchical nanoporous structures with high surface area to facilitate ion transport and excellent electrolyte permeability. Here, shape-controlled 2D nanoporous carbon sheets (NPSs) with graphitic wall structure through the pyrolysis of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are developed. As a proof-of-concept application, the obtained NPSs are used as the electrode material for a supercapacitor. The carbon-sheet-based symmetric cell shows an ultrahigh Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET)-area-normalized capacitance of 21.4 µF cm -2 (233 F g -1 ), exceeding other carbon-based supercapacitors. The addition of potassium iodide as redox-active species in a sulfuric acid (supporting electrolyte) leads to the ground-breaking enhancement in the energy density up to 90 Wh kg -1 , which is higher than commercial aqueous rechargeable batteries, maintaining its superior power density. Thus, the new material provides a double profits strategy such as battery-level energy and capacitor-level power density. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Influence of defects on the ordering degree of nanopores made from anodic aluminum oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Wenhui; Fei Guangtao; Chen Xiaomeng; Xue Fanghong; Xu Xijin

    2006-01-01

    Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates with highly ordered nanoporous structure were fabricated by means of the electrochemical anodization under the constant anodic voltage and electrolyte temperature. The dependence of the ordering degree of nanopores on the point defects, dislocation configuration and grain boundary of aluminum is qualitatively analyzed. Experiment results show that the size of the ordered region of nanopores depends strongly on the point defects, dislocation cell configuration

  19. Effect of surface coating with magnesium stearate via mechanical dry powder coating approach on the aerosol performance of micronized drug powders from dry powder inhalers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qi Tony; Qu, Li; Gengenbach, Thomas; Larson, Ian; Stewart, Peter J; Morton, David A V

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of particle surface coating with magnesium stearate on the aerosolization of dry powder inhaler formulations. Micronized salbutamol sulphate as a model drug was dry coated with magnesium stearate using a mechanofusion technique. The coating quality was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Powder bulk and flow properties were assessed by bulk densities and shear cell measurements. The aerosol performance was studied by laser diffraction and supported by a twin-stage impinger. High degrees of coating coverage were achieved after mechanofusion, as measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Concomitant significant increases occurred in powder bulk densities and in aerosol performance after coating. The apparent optimum performance corresponded with using 2% w/w magnesium stearate. In contrast, traditional blending resulted in no significant changes in either bulk or aerosolization behaviour compared to the untreated sample. It is believed that conventional low-shear blending provides insufficient energy levels to expose host micronized particle surfaces from agglomerates and to distribute guest coating material effectively for coating. A simple ultra-high-shear mechanical dry powder coating step was shown as highly effective in producing ultra-thin coatings on micronized powders and to substantially improve the powder aerosolization efficiency.

  20. Stochastic nanopore sensors for the detection of terrorist agents: Current status and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Aihua; Zhao Qitao [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019-0065 (United States); Guan Xiyun, E-mail: xguan@uta.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019-0065 (United States)

    2010-08-24

    Nanopore stochastic sensor works by monitoring the ionic current modulations induced by the passage of analytes of interest through a single pore, which can be obtained from a biological ion channel by self-assembly or artificially fabricated in a solid-state membrane. In this minireview, we overview the use of biological nanopores and artificial nanopores for the detection of terrorist agents including explosives, organophosphorus nerve agents, nitrogen mustards, organoarsenic compounds, toxins, and viruses. We also discuss the current challenge in the development of deployable nanopore sensors for real-world applications.

  1. Nanochannel Device with Embedded Nanopore: a New Approach for Single-Molecule DNA Analysis and Manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuning; Reisner, Walter

    2013-03-01

    Nanopore and nanochannel based devices are robust methods for biomolecular sensing and single DNA manipulation. Nanopore-based DNA sensing has attractive features that make it a leading candidate as a single-molecule DNA sequencing technology. Nanochannel based extension of DNA, combined with enzymatic or denaturation-based barcoding schemes, is already a powerful approach for genome analysis. We believe that there is revolutionary potential in devices that combine nanochannels with embedded pore detectors. In particular, due to the fast translocation of a DNA molecule through a standard nanopore configuration, there is an unfavorable trade-off between signal and sequence resolution. With a combined nanochannel-nanopore device, based on embedding a pore inside a nanochannel, we can in principle gain independent control over both DNA translocation speed and sensing signal, solving the key draw-back of the standard nanopore configuration. We demonstrate that we can optically detect successful translocation of DNA from the nanochannel out through the nanopore, a possible method to 'select' a given barcode for further analysis. In particular, we show that in equilibrium DNA will not escape through an embedded sub-persistence length nanopore, suggesting that the pore could be used as a nanoscale window through which to interrogate a nanochannel extended DNA molecule. Furthermore, electrical measurements through the nanopore are performed, indicating that DNA sensing is feasible using the nanochannel-nanopore device.

  2. Gradient and alternating diameter nanopore templates by focused ion beam guided anodization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Bo; Lu, Kathy; Tian Zhipeng

    2010-01-01

    Ordered arrays of anodic alumina nanopores with uniform pore diameters have been fabricated by self-organized anodization of aluminum. However, gradient or alternating diameter nanopore arrays with designed interpore distances have not been possible. In this study, focused ion beam lithography is used to fabricate hexagonally arranged concaves with different diameters in designed arrangements on aluminum surfaces. The patterns are then used to guide the further growth of alumina nanopores in the subsequent oxalic acid anodization. Gradient and alternating nanopore arrangements have been attained by FIB patterning guided oxalic acid anodization. The fundamental understanding of the process is discussed.

  3. Hierarchical self-assembly of two-length-scale multiblock copolymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brinke, Gerrit ten; Loos, Katja; Vukovic, Ivana; Du Sart, Gerrit Gobius

    2011-01-01

    The self-assembly in diblock copolymer-based supramolecules, obtained by hydrogen bonding short side chains to one of the blocks, as well as in two-length-scale linear terpolymers results in hierarchical structure formation. The orientation of the different domains, e.g. layers in the case of a lamellar-in-lamellar structure, is determined by the molecular architecture, graft-like versus linear, and the relative magnitude of the interactions involved. In both cases parallel and perpendicular arrangements have been observed. The comb-shaped supramolecules approach is ideally suited for the preparation of nanoporous structures. A bicontinuous morphology with the supramolecular comb block forming the channels was finally achieved by extending the original approach to suitable triblock copolymer-based supramolecules.

  4. Modular networks with hierarchical organization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Several networks occurring in real life have modular structures that are arranged in a hierarchical fashion. In this paper, we have proposed a model for such networks, using a stochastic generation method. Using this model we show that, the scaling relation between the clustering and degree of the nodes is not a necessary ...

  5. Hierarchical Microaggressions in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kathryn; Anderson, Myron; Stewart, Saran

    2015-01-01

    Although there has been substantial research examining the effects of microaggressions in the public sphere, there has been little research that examines microaggressions in the workplace. This study explores the types of microaggressions that affect employees at universities. We coin the term "hierarchical microaggression" to represent…

  6. Micropore and nanopore fabrication in hollow antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Matthew R; Shang, Tao; Hawkins, Aaron R; Rudenko, Mikhail; Measor, Philip; Schmidt, Holger

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate the fabrication of micropore and nanopore features in hollow antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides to create an electrical and optical analysis platform that can size select and detect a single nanoparticle. Micropores (4 μm diameter) are reactive-ion etched through the top SiO(2) and SiN layers of the waveguides, leaving a thin SiN membrane above the hollow core. Nanopores are formed in the SiN membranes using a focused ion-beam etch process that provides control over the pore size. Openings as small as 20 nm in diameter are created. Optical loss measurements indicate that micropores did not significantly alter the loss along the waveguide.

  7. Non-dissipative energy capture of confined liquid in nanopores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Baoxing; Chen, Xi [Columbia Nanomechanics Research Center, Department of Earth and Environmental Engineering, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Lu, Weiyi; Zhao, Cang [Department of Structural Engineering, University of California–San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0085 (United States); Qiao, Yu, E-mail: yqiao@ucsd.edu [Department of Structural Engineering, University of California–San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0085 (United States); Program of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California–San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)

    2014-05-19

    In the past, energy absorption of protection/damping materials is mainly based on energy dissipation, which causes a fundamental conflict between the requirements of safety/comfort and efficiency. In the current study, a nanofluidic “energy capture” system is reported, which is based on nanoporous materials and nonwetting liquid. Both molecular dynamics simulations and experiments show that as the liquid overcomes the capillary effect and infiltrates into the nanopores, the mechanical energy of a stress wave could be temporarily stored by the confined liquid phase and isolated from the wave energy transmission path. Such a system can work under a relatively low pressure for mitigating high-pressure stress waves, not necessarily involved in any energy dissipation processes.

  8. Non-dissipative energy capture of confined liquid in nanopores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Baoxing; Chen, Xi; Lu, Weiyi; Zhao, Cang; Qiao, Yu

    2014-01-01

    In the past, energy absorption of protection/damping materials is mainly based on energy dissipation, which causes a fundamental conflict between the requirements of safety/comfort and efficiency. In the current study, a nanofluidic “energy capture” system is reported, which is based on nanoporous materials and nonwetting liquid. Both molecular dynamics simulations and experiments show that as the liquid overcomes the capillary effect and infiltrates into the nanopores, the mechanical energy of a stress wave could be temporarily stored by the confined liquid phase and isolated from the wave energy transmission path. Such a system can work under a relatively low pressure for mitigating high-pressure stress waves, not necessarily involved in any energy dissipation processes.

  9. InP nanopore arrays for photoelectrochemical hydrogen generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Zheng, Maojun; Zhang, Bin; Zhu, Changqing; Wang, Faze; Song, Jingnan; Zhong, Miao; Ma, Li; Shen, Wenzhong

    2016-02-19

    We report a facile and large-scale fabrication of highly ordered one-dimensional (1D) indium phosphide (InP) nanopore arrays (NPs) and their application as photoelectrodes for photoelectrochemical (PEC) hydrogen production. These InP NPs exhibit superior PEC performance due to their excellent light-trapping characteristics, high-quality 1D conducting channels and large surface areas. The photocurrent density of optimized InP NPs is 8.9 times higher than that of planar counterpart at an applied potential of +0.3 V versus RHE under AM 1.5G illumination (100 mW cm(-2)). In addition, the onset potential of InP NPs exhibits 105 mV of cathodic shift relative to planar control. The superior performance of the nanoporous samples is further explained by Mott-Schottky and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy ananlysis.

  10. Supercapacitive transport of pharmacologic agents using nanoporous gold electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittard, Shaun D; Pierson, Bonnie E; Ha, Cindy M; Wu, Chung-An Max; Narayan, Roger J; Robinson, David B

    2010-02-01

    In this study, nanoporous gold supercapacitors were produced by electrochemical dealloying of gold-silver alloy. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy confirmed completion of the dealloying process and generation of a porous gold material with approximately 10 nm diameter pores. Cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry of the nanoporous gold electrodes indicated that these materials exhibited supercapacitor behavior. The storage capacity of the electrodes measured by chronoamperometry was approximately 3 mC at 200 mV. Electrochemical storage and voltage-controlled delivery of two model pharmacologic agents, benzylammonium and salicylic acid, was demonstrated. These results suggest that capacitance-based storage and delivery of pharmacologic agents may serve as an alternative to conventional drug delivery methods.

  11. Capacitance-Power-Hysteresis Trilemma in Nanoporous Supercapacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alpha A. Lee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nanoporous supercapacitors are an important player in the field of energy storage that fill the gap between dielectric capacitors and batteries. The key challenge in the development of supercapacitors is the perceived trade-off between capacitance and power delivery. Current efforts to boost the capacitance of nanoporous supercapacitors focus on reducing the pore size so that they can only accommodate a single layer of ions. However, this tight packing compromises the charging dynamics and hence power density. We show via an analytical theory and Monte Carlo simulations that charging is sensitively dependent on the affinity of ions to the pores, and that high capacitances can be obtained for ionophobic pores of widths significantly larger than the ion diameter. Our theory also predicts that charging can be hysteretic with a significant energy loss per cycle for intermediate ionophilicities. We use these observations to explore the parameter regimes in which a capacitance-power-hysteresis trilemma may be avoided.

  12. Resizing metal-coated nanopores using a scanning electron microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chansin, Guillaume A T; Hong, Jongin; Dusting, Jonathan; deMello, Andrew J; Albrecht, Tim; Edel, Joshua B

    2011-10-04

    Electron beam-induced shrinkage provides a convenient way of resizing solid-state nanopores in Si(3) N(4) membranes. Here, a scanning electron microscope (SEM) has been used to resize a range of different focussed ion beam-milled nanopores in Al-coated Si(3) N(4) membranes. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectra and SEM images acquired during resizing highlight that a time-variant carbon deposition process is the dominant mechanism of pore shrinkage, although granular structures on the membrane surface in the vicinity of the pores suggest that competing processes may occur. Shrinkage is observed on the Al side of the pore as well as on the Si(3) N(4) side, while the shrinkage rate is observed to be dependent on a variety of factors. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Titanium nitride stamps replicating nanoporous anodic alumina films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navas, D; Sanchez, O; Asenjo, A; Jaafar, M; Baldonedo, J L; Vazquez, M; Hernandez-Velez, M

    2007-01-01

    Fabrication of nanostructured TiN films by magnetron sputtering using nanoporous anodic alumina films (NAAF) as substrates is reported. These hard nanostructured films could be used for pre-patterning aluminium foils and to obtain nanoporous films replicating the starting NAAF over a wide range of pore diameters and spacings. Pre-patterned Al foils are obtained by compression with pressures lower than those previously reported, then a new NAAF can be fabricated by means of only one anodization process. As an example, one of the TiN stamps was used for pre-patterning an Al foil at a pressure of 200 kg cm -2 and then it was anodized in oxalic acid solution obtaining the corresponding replica of the starting NAAF

  14. Nanoporous Anodic Alumina: A Versatile Platform for Optical Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Santos

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Nanoporous anodic alumina (NAA has become one of the most promising nanomaterials in optical biosensing as a result of its unique physical and chemical properties. Many studies have demonstrated the outstanding capabilities of NAA for developing optical biosensors in combination with different optical techniques. These results reveal that NAA is a promising alternative to other widely explored nanoporous platforms, such as porous silicon. This review is aimed at reporting on the recent advances and current stage of development of NAA-based optical biosensing devices. The different optical detection techniques, principles and concepts are described in detail along with relevant examples of optical biosensing devices using NAA sensing platforms. Furthermore, we summarise the performance of these devices and provide a future perspective on this promising research field.

  15. Elastic constants of nanoporous III-V semiconductors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janovská, Michaela; Sedlák, Petr; Kruisová, Alena; Seiner, Hanuš; Landa, Michal; Grym, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 24 (2015) ISSN 0022-3727 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36566G Institutional support: RVO:61388998 ; RVO:67985882 Keywords : nanoporous semiconductors * resonant ultrasound spectroscopy * finite elements modelling Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism; BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism (URE-Y) Impact factor: 2.772, year: 2015 http://iopscience.iop.org/0022-3727/48/24/245102/article

  16. Mathematical modeling and simulation of nanopore blocking by precipitation

    KAUST Repository

    Wolfram, M-T

    2010-10-29

    High surface charges of polymer pore walls and applied electric fields can lead to the formation and subsequent dissolution of precipitates in nanopores. These precipitates block the pore, leading to current fluctuations. We present an extended Poisson-Nernst-Planck system which includes chemical reactions of precipitation and dissolution. We discuss the mathematical modeling and present 2D numerical simulations. © 2010 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  17. Parametric study of thin film evaporation from nanoporous membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, Kyle L.; Barabadi, Banafsheh; Lu, Zhengmao; Zhang, TieJun; Wang, Evelyn N.

    2017-10-01

    The performance and lifetime of advanced electronics are often dictated by the ability to dissipate heat generated within the device. Thin film evaporation from nanoporous membranes is a promising thermal management approach, which reduces the thermal transport distance across the liquid film while also providing passive capillary pumping of liquid to the evaporating interface. In this work, we investigated the dependence of thin film evaporation from nanoporous membranes on a variety of geometric parameters. Anodic aluminum oxide membranes were used as experimental templates, where pore radii of 28-75 nm, porosities of 0.1-0.35, and meniscus locations down to 1 μm within the pore were tested. We demonstrated different heat transfer regimes and observed more than an order of magnitude increase in dissipated heat flux by operating in the pore-level evaporation regime. The pore diameter had little effect on pore-level evaporation performance due to the negligible conduction resistance from the pore wall to the evaporating interface. The dissipated heat flux scaled with porosity as the evaporative area increased. Furthermore, moving the meniscus as little as 1 μm into the pore decreased the dissipated heat flux by more than a factor of two due to the added resistance to vapor escaping the pore. The experimental results elucidate thin film evaporation from nanopores and confirm findings of recent modeling efforts. This work also provides guidance for the design of future thin film evaporation devices for advanced thermal management. Furthermore, evaporation from nanopores is relevant to water purification, chemical separations, microfluidics, and natural processes such as transpiration.

  18. DeepSimulator: a deep simulator for Nanopore sequencing

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yu

    2017-12-23

    Motivation: Oxford Nanopore sequencing is a rapidly developed sequencing technology in recent years. To keep pace with the explosion of the downstream data analytical tools, a versatile Nanopore sequencing simulator is needed to complement the experimental data as well as to benchmark those newly developed tools. However, all the currently available simulators are based on simple statistics of the produced reads, which have difficulty in capturing the complex nature of the Nanopore sequencing procedure, the main task of which is the generation of raw electrical current signals. Results: Here we propose a deep learning based simulator, DeepSimulator, to mimic the entire pipeline of Nanopore sequencing. Starting from a given reference genome or assembled contigs, we simulate the electrical current signals by a context-dependent deep learning model, followed by a base-calling procedure to yield simulated reads. This workflow mimics the sequencing procedure more naturally. The thorough experiments performed across four species show that the signals generated by our context-dependent model are more similar to the experimentally obtained signals than the ones generated by the official context-independent pore model. In terms of the simulated reads, we provide a parameter interface to users so that they can obtain the reads with different accuracies ranging from 83% to 97%. The reads generated by the default parameter have almost the same properties as the real data. Two case studies demonstrate the application of DeepSimulator to benefit the development of tools in de novo assembly and in low coverage SNP detection. Availability: The software can be accessed freely at: https://github.com/lykaust15/DeepSimulator.

  19. Drug loading of nanoporous TiO2 films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayon, Arturo A; Cantu, Michael; Chava, Kalpana; Agrawal, C Mauli; Feldman, Marc D; Johnson, Dave; Patel, Devang; Marton, Denes; Shi, Emily

    2006-01-01

    The loading of therapeutic amounts of drug on a nanoporous TiO 2 surface is described. This novel drug-loading scheme on a biocompatible surface, when employed on medical implants, will benefit patients who require the deployment of drug-eluting implants. Anticoagulants, analgesics and antibiotics can be considered on the associated implants for drug delivery during the time of maximal pain or risk for patients undergoing orthopedic procedures. Therefore, this scheme will maximize the chances of patient recovery. (communication)

  20. Antibacterial Activity of Zinc Oxide-Coated Nanoporous Alumina

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    made nanoporous alumina membranes, which were created by means of anodic oxidation of aluminum in an oxalic acid electrolyte, for treatment of skin...this study. All of the solutions were prepared using 18 M de-ionized water (lab supply) and trace metal grade nitric acid (Thermo Fisher Scientific...low production cost, repro- ducible reproduction, and facile reproduction approach for these materials. Using in vitro studies, keratinocytes (HaCaT

  1. Effects of Confinement on Chemical Reaction Equilibrium in Nanoporous Materials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smith, W.R.; Lísal, Martin; Brennan, J.K.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 3984, - (2006), s. 743-751 ISSN 0302-9743 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/05/0725; GA AV ČR 1ET400720507 Grant - others:NRCC(CA) OGP 1041 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : nanoporous materials * chemical reaction equilibrium Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 0.402, year: 2005

  2. Nanoporous Polymer-Ceramic Composite Electrolytes for Lithium Metal Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Tu, Zhengyuan

    2013-09-16

    A nanoporous composite material that offers the unique combination of high room-temperature ionic conductivity and high mechanical modulus is reported. When used as the separator/electrolyte in lithium batteries employing metallic lithium as anode, the material displays unprecedented cycling stability and excellent ability to prevent premature cell failure by dendrite-induced short circuits © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Warming up human body by nanoporous metallized polyethylene textile

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Lili; Song, Alex Y.; Wu, Peilin; Hsu, Po-Chun; Peng, Yucan; Chen, Jun; Liu, Chong; Catrysse, Peter B.; Liu, Yayuan; Yang, Ankun; Zhou, Chenxing; Zhou, Chenyu; Fan, Shanhui; Cui, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Space heating accounts for the largest energy end-use of buildings that imposes significant burden on the society. The energy wasted for heating the empty space of the entire building can be saved by passively heating the immediate environment around the human body. Here, we demonstrate a nanophotonic structure textile with tailored infrared (IR) property for passive personal heating using nanoporous metallized polyethylene. By constructing an IR-reflective layer on an IR-transparent layer wi...

  4. Nanoscale volcanoes: accretion of matter at ion-sculpted nanopores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsui, Toshiyuki; Stein, Derek; Kim, Young-Rok; Hoogerheide, David; Golovchenko, J A

    2006-01-27

    We demonstrate the formation of nanoscale volcano-like structures induced by ion-beam irradiation of nanoscale pores in freestanding silicon nitride membranes. Accreted matter is delivered to the volcanoes from micrometer distances along the surface. Volcano formation accompanies nanopore shrinking and depends on geometrical factors and the presence of a conducting layer on the membrane's back surface. We argue that surface electric fields play an important role in accounting for the experimental observations.

  5. Mechanisms of water infiltration into conical hydrophobic nanopores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ling; Zhao, Jianbing; Yin, Chun-Yang; Culligan, Patricia J; Chen, Xi

    2009-08-14

    Fluid channels with inclined solid walls (e.g. cone- and slit-shaped pores) have wide and promising applications in micro- and nano-engineering and science. In this paper, we use molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to investigate the mechanisms of water infiltration (adsorption) into cone-shaped nanopores made of a hydrophobic graphene sheet. When the apex angle is relatively small, an external pressure is required to initiate infiltration and the pressure should keep increasing in order to further advance the water front inside the nanopore. By enlarging the apex angle, the pressure required for sustaining infiltration can be effectively lowered. When the apex angle is sufficiently large, under ambient condition water can spontaneously infiltrate to a certain depth of the nanopore, after which an external pressure is still required to infiltrate more water molecules. The unusual involvement of both spontaneous and pressure-assisted infiltration mechanisms in the case of blunt nanocones, as well as other unique nanofluid characteristics, is explained by the Young's relation enriched with the size effects of surface tension and contact angle in the nanoscale confinement.

  6. Surface effects on the mechanical properties of nanoporous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Zixing; Zhang Cungang; Liu Qiang; Yang Zhenyu

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, surface effects on the mechanical behaviour of nanoporous materials are investigated using the theory of surface elasticity and Timoshenko beam theory based on the tetrakaidecahedron (or Kelvin) open-cell foam model. Meanwhile, the influence of surface elasticity and residual surface stress on the mechanical properties of nanoporous materials is discussed. In addition, the results derived from the theory of Euler-Bernoulli beam model are also provided for comparison. Theoretical results show that the effective Young's modulus of the nanoporous materials increases as the diameter of the strut decreases, but in contrast Poisson's ratio and the brittle collapse strength decrease with the diameter of the strut. The contribution of shear deformation to surface effects on elastic properties is more significant, while the surface effects on brittle collapse strength are not sensitive to shear deformation, and it can even be neglected. As the strut size increases, the present results can be reduced to the cases without considering surface effects, which verifies the efficiency of the present model to a certain extent.

  7. Oxford Nanopore MinION Sequencing and Genome Assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hengyun Lu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The revolution of genome sequencing is continuing after the successful second-generation sequencing (SGS technology. The third-generation sequencing (TGS technology, led by Pacific Biosciences (PacBio, is progressing rapidly, moving from a technology once only capable of providing data for small genome analysis, or for performing targeted screening, to one that promises high quality de novo assembly and structural variation detection for human-sized genomes. In 2014, the MinION, the first commercial sequencer using nanopore technology, was released by Oxford Nanopore Technologies (ONT. MinION identifies DNA bases by measuring the changes in electrical conductivity generated as DNA strands pass through a biological pore. Its portability, affordability, and speed in data production makes it suitable for real-time applications, the release of the long read sequencer MinION has thus generated much excitement and interest in the genomics community. While de novo genome assemblies can be cheaply produced from SGS data, assembly continuity is often relatively poor, due to the limited ability of short reads to handle long repeats. Assembly quality can be greatly improved by using TGS long reads, since repetitive regions can be easily expanded into using longer sequencing lengths, despite having higher error rates at the base level. The potential of nanopore sequencing has been demonstrated by various studies in genome surveillance at locations where rapid and reliable sequencing is needed, but where resources are limited.

  8. Nanoporous ionic organic networks: from synthesis to materials applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jian-Ke; Antonietti, Markus; Yuan, Jiayin

    2016-11-21

    The past decade has witnessed rapid progress in the synthesis of nanoporous organic networks or polymer frameworks for various potential applications. Generally speaking, functionalization of porous networks to add extra properties and enhance materials performance could be achieved either during the pore formation (thus a concurrent approach) or by post-synthetic modification (a sequential approach). Nanoporous organic networks which include ion pairs bound in a covalent manner are of special importance and possess extreme application profiles. Within these nanoporous ionic organic networks (NIONs), here with a pore size in the range from sub-1 nm to 100 nm, we observe a synergistic coupling of the electrostatic interaction of charges, the nanoconfinement within pores and the addressable functional units in soft matter resulting in a wide variety of functions and applications, above all catalysis, energy storage and conversion, as well as environment-related operations. This review aims to highlight the recent progress in this area, and seeks to raise original perspectives that will stimulate future advancements at both the fundamental and applied level.

  9. Nanoindentation and micro-compression testing of nanoporous gold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epler, Eike; Volkert, Cynthia A. [Institut fuer Materialphysik, Georg-August-Universitaet Goettingen (Germany); Balk, T. John [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Kentucky (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Recent studies on materials such as nanoporous Au have shown that the strength of open-cell foams can be increased at a fixed porosity by decreasing the foam length scale (ligament diameter and length). This effect is attributed to the difficulty of activating dislocations in sub-micron crystal volumes. If high strength nanoporous materials are to be used to advantage in technical applications, the details of the parameters determining their strength need to be understood. In this study, the mechanical response of nanoporous Au fabricated by electrochemical dissolution from a Au-Ag alloy, is investigated by indentation using a cube corner tip as well as by micro-compression testing of columns fabricated by focused ion beam machining. The tests reveal a significant time-dependence or creep behavior in the 30% relative density foam that is not observed in fully dense gold. The origins of this effect will be probed by varying the length scale of the foam. In addition, a large scatter in mechanical behavior, particularly in the elastic response, is observed from position to position and sample to sample, which is attributed to small variations in the open cell structure.

  10. Evolution of Surface Nanopores in Pressurised Gyrospun Polymeric Microfibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Eranka Illangakoon

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The selection of a solvent or solvent system and the ensuing polymer–solvent interactions are crucial factors affecting the preparation of fibers with multiple morphologies. A range of poly(methylmethacrylate fibers were prepared by pressurised gyration using acetone, chloroform, N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF, ethyl acetate and dichloromethane as solvents. It was found that microscale fibers with surface nanopores were formed when using chloroform, ethyl acetate and dichloromethane and poreless fibers were formed when using acetone and DMF as the solvent. These observations are explained on the basis of the physical properties of the solvents and mechanisms of pore formation. The formation of porous fibers is caused by many solvent properties such as volatility, solubility parameters, vapour pressure and surface tension. Cross-sectional images show that the nanopores are only on the surface of the fibers and they were not inter-connected. Further, the results show that fibers with desired nanopores (40–400 nm can be prepared by carefully selecting the solvent and applied pressure in the gyration process.

  11. Monitoring tetracycline through a solid-state nanopore sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuechuan; Chen, Yanling; Fu, Yongqi; Ying, Cuifeng; Feng, Yanxiao; Huang, Qimeng; Wang, Chao; Pei, De-Sheng; Wang, Deqiang

    2016-06-01

    Antibiotics as emerging environmental contaminants, are widely used in both human and veterinary medicines. A solid-state nanopore sensing method is reported in this article to detect Tetracycline, which is based on Tet-off and Tet-on systems. rtTA (reverse tetracycline-controlled trans-activator) and TRE (Tetracycline Responsive Element) could bind each other under the action of Tetracycline to form one complex. When the complex passes through nanopores with 8 ~ 9 nanometers in diameter, we could detect the concentrations of Tet from 2 ng/mL to 2000 ng/mL. According to the Logistic model, we could define three growth zones of Tetracycline for rtTA and TRE. The slow growth zone is 0-39.5 ng/mL. The rapid growth zone is 39.5-529.7 ng/mL. The saturated zone is > 529.7 ng/mL. Compared to the previous methods, the nanopore sensor could detect and quantify these different kinds of molecule at the single-molecule level.

  12. Selective Electrochemical Detection of Epinephrine Using Gold Nanoporous Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina M. Fouad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Epinephrine (EP is one of the important catecholamine neurotransmitters that play an important role in the mammalian central nervous system. Therefore, it is necessary to determine the change of its concentrations. Nanoporous materials have wide applications that include catalysis, energy storages, environmental pollution control, wastewater treatment, and sensing applications. These unique properties could be attributable to their high surface area, a large pore volume, and uniform pore sizes. A gold nanoporous layer modified gold electrode was prepared and applied for the selective determination of epinephrine neurotransmitter at low concentration in the presence of several other substances including ascorbic acid (AA and uric acid (UA. The constructed electrode was characterized using scanning electron microscopy and cyclic voltammetry. The resulting electrode showed a selective detection of epinephrine with the interferences of dopamine and uric acid over a wide linear range (from 50 μM to 1 mM. The coverage of gold nanoporous on the surface of gold electrode represents a promising electrochemical sensor with high selectivity and sensitivity.

  13. Understanding improved osteoblast behavior on select nanoporous anodic alumina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Siyu; Li, Changyan; Ni, Shirong; Chen, Ting; Webster, Thomas J

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to prepare different sized porous anodic alumina (PAA) and examine preosteoblast (MC3T3-E1) attachment and proliferation on such nanoporous surfaces. In this study, PAA with tunable pore sizes (25 nm, 50 nm, and 75 nm) were fabricated by a two-step anodizing procedure in oxalic acid. The surface morphology and elemental composition of PAA were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. The nanopore arrays on all of the PAA samples were highly regular. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis suggested that the chemistry of PAA and flat aluminum surfaces were similar. However, contact angles were significantly greater on all of the PAA compared to flat aluminum substrates, which consequently altered protein adsorption profiles. The attachment and proliferation of preosteoblasts were determined for up to 7 days in culture using field emission scanning electron microscopy and a Cell Counting Kit-8. Results showed that nanoporous surfaces did not enhance initial preosteoblast attachment, whereas preosteoblast proliferation dramatically increased when the PAA pore size was either 50 nm or 75 nm compared to all other samples (Paluminum by modifying surface nano-roughness alone (and not changing chemistry) through an anodization process to improve osteoblast density, and, thus, should be further studied as a bioactive interface for orthopedic applications. PMID:25045263

  14. A Nanoporous Carbon/Exfoliated Graphite Composite For Supercapacitor Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosi, Memoria; Ekaputra, Muhamad P.; Iskandar, Ferry; Abdullah, Mikrajuddin; Khairurrijal

    2010-12-01

    Nanoporous carbon was prepared from coconut shells using a simple heating method. The nanoporous carbon is subjected to different treatments: without activation, activation with polyethylene glycol (PEG), and activation with sodium hydroxide (NaOH)-PEG. The exfoliated graphite was synthesized from graphite powder oxidized with zinc acetate (ZnAc) and intercalated with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and NaOH. A composite was made by mixing the nanoporous carbon with NaOH-PEG activation, the exfoliated graphite and a binder of PVA solution, grinding the mixture, and annealing it using ultrasonic bath for 1 hour. All of as-synthesized materials were characterized by employing a scanning electron microscope (SEM), a MATLAB's image processing toolbox, and an x-ray diffractometer (XRD). It was confirmed that the composite is crystalline with (002) and (004) orientations. In addition, it was also found that the composite has a high surface area, a high distribution of pore sizes less than 40 nm, and a high porosity (67%). Noting that the pore sizes less than 20 nm are significant for ionic species storage and those in the range of 20 to 40 nm are very accessible for ionic clusters mobility across the pores, the composite is a promising material for the application as supercapacitor electrodes.

  15. Modeling of 1D Anomalous Diffusion in Fractured Nanoporous Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albinali Ali

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Fractured nanoporous reservoirs include multi-scale and discontinuous fractures coupled with a complex nanoporous matrix. Such systems cannot be described by the conventional dual-porosity (or multi-porosity idealizations due to the presence of different flow mechanisms at multiple scales. More detailed modeling approaches, such as Discrete Fracture Network (DFN models, similarly suffer from the extensive data requirements dictated by the intricacy of the flow scales, which eventually deter the utility of these models. This paper discusses the utility and construction of 1D analytical and numerical anomalous diffusion models for heterogeneous, nanoporous media, which is commonly encountered in oil and gas production from tight, unconventional reservoirs with fractured horizontal wells. A fractional form of Darcy’s law, which incorporates the non-local and hereditary nature of flow, is coupled with the classical mass conservation equation to derive a fractional diffusion equation in space and time. Results show excellent agreement with established solutions under asymptotic conditions and are consistent with the physical intuitions.

  16. An engineered ClyA nanopore detects folded target proteins by selective external association and pore entry.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soskine, Mikhael; Biesemans, Annemie; Moeyaert, Benjamien; Cheley, Stephen; Bayley, Hagan; Maglia, Giovanni

    Nanopores have been used in label-free single-molecule studies, including investigations of chemical reactions, nucleic acid analysis, and applications in sensing. Biological nanopores generally perform better than artificial nanopores as sensors, but they have disadvantages including a fixed

  17. Using Synthetic Nanopores for Single-Molecule Analyses: Detecting SNPs, Trapping DNA Molecules, and the Prospects for Sequencing DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrov, Valentin V.

    2009-01-01

    This work focuses on studying properties of DNA molecules and DNA-protein interactions using synthetic nanopores, and it examines the prospects of sequencing DNA using synthetic nanopores. We have developed a method for discriminating between alleles that uses a synthetic nanopore to measure the binding of a restriction enzyme to DNA. There exists…

  18. Differential trypanosome surface coat regulation by a CCCH protein that co-associates with procyclin mRNA cis-elements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pegine Walrad

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The genome of Trypanosoma brucei is unusual in being regulated almost entirely at the post-transcriptional level. In terms of regulation, the best-studied genes are procyclins, which encode a family of major surface GPI-anchored glycoproteins (EP1, EP2, EP3, GPEET that show differential expression in the parasite's tsetse-fly vector. Although procyclin mRNA cis-regulatory sequences have provided the paradigm for post-transcriptional control in kinetoplastid parasites, trans-acting regulators of procyclin mRNAs are unidentified, despite intensive effort over 15 years. Here we identify the developmental regulator, TbZFP3, a CCCH-class predicted RNA binding protein, as an isoform-specific regulator of Procyclin surface coat expression in trypanosomes. We demonstrate (i that endogenous TbZFP3 shows sequence-specific co-precipitation of EP1 and GPEET, but not EP2 and EP3, procyclin mRNA isoforms, (ii that ectopic overexpression of TbZFP3 does not perturb the mRNA abundance of procyclin transcripts, but rather that (iii their protein expression is regulated in an isoform-specific manner, as evidenced by mass spectrometric analysis of the Procyclin expression signature in the transgenic cell lines. The TbZFP3 mRNA-protein complex (TbZFP3mRNP is identified as a trans-regulator of differential surface protein expression in trypanosomes. Moreover, its sequence-specific interactions with procyclin mRNAs are compatible with long-established predictions for Procyclin regulation. Combined with the known association of TbZFP3 with the translational apparatus, this study provides a long-sought missing link between surface protein cis-regulatory signals and the gene expression machinery in trypanosomes.

  19. Air formaldehyde and solvent concentrations during surface coating with acid-curing lacquers and paints in the woodworking and furniture industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorud, Syvert; Gjolstad, Merete; Ellingsen, Dag G; Molander, Paal

    2005-06-01

    An investigation of contemporary exposure to formaldehyde and organic solvents has been carried out during surface coating with acid-curing lacquers and paints in the Norwegian woodworking and furniture industry over a period of 3 years. The investigation covered 27 factories of different sizes and with different types of production, and totally 557 parallel formaldehyde and solvent samples were collected. The formaldehyde concentration (geometric mean) was 0.15 ppm (range 0.01-1.48 ppm) with about 10% of the samples exceeding the Norwegian occupational exposure limit of 0.5 ppm. The solvent concentration as additive effect (geometric mean) was 0.13 (range 0.0004-5.08) and about 5% of the samples exceeded the Norwegian occupational exposure limit. The most frequently occurring solvents from acid-curing lacquers were n-butyl acetate, ethanol, ethyl acetate and 1-butanol, which were found in 88-98% of the samples. Toluene, n-butyl acetate and 1-butanol were the only solvents with maximum concentrations exceeding their respective occupational exposure limits. Curtain painting machine operators were exposed to the highest concentrations of both formaldehyde (geometric mean 0.51 ppm, range 0.08-1.48 ppm) and organic solvents (additive effect, geometric mean 1.18, range 0.02-5.08). Other painting application work tasks such as automatic and manual spray-painting, manual painting and dip painting, showed on average considerably lower concentrations of both formaldehyde (geometric means 0.07-0.16 ppm) and organic solvents (additive effect, geometric mean 0.02-0.18). Non-painting work tasks also displayed moderate concentrations of formaldehyde (geometric means 0.11-0.17 ppm) and organic solvents (additive effect, geometric mean 0.04-0.07).

  20. Adhesion of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Tannerella forsythia to dentin and titanium with sandblasted and acid etched surface coated with serum and serum proteins - An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eick, Sigrun; Kindblom, Christian; Mizgalska, Danuta; Magdoń, Anna; Jurczyk, Karolina; Sculean, Anton; Stavropoulos, Andreas

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the adhesion of selected bacterial strains incl. expression of important virulence factors at dentin and titanium SLA surfaces coated with layers of serum proteins. Dentin- and moderately rough SLA titanium-discs were coated overnight with human serum, or IgG, or human serum albumin (HSA). Thereafter, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, or a six-species mixture were added for 4h and 24h. The number of adhered bacteria (colony forming units; CFU) was determined. Arg-gingipain activity of P. gingivalis and mRNA expressions of P. gingivalis and T. forsythia proteases and T. forsythia protease inhibitor were measured. Coating specimens never resulted in differences exceeding 1.1 log10 CFU, comparing to controls, irrespective the substrate. Counts of T. forsythia were statistically significantly higher at titanium than dentin, the difference was up to 3.7 log10 CFU after 24h (p=0.002). No statistically significant variation regarding adhesion of the mixed culture was detected between surfaces or among coatings. Arg-gingipain activity of P. gingivalis was associated with log10 CFU but not with the surface or the coating. Titanium negatively influenced mRNA expression of T. forsythia protease inhibitor at 24h (p=0.026 uncoated, p=0.009 with serum). The present findings indicate that: a) single bacterial species (T. forsythia) can adhere more readily to titanium SLA than to dentin, b) low expression of T. forsythia protease inhibitor may influence the virulence of the species on titanium SLA surfaces in comparison with teeth, and c) surface properties (e.g. material and/or protein layers) do not appear to significantly influence multi-species adhesion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Automatic Hierarchical Color Image Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Huang

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Organizing images into semantic categories can be extremely useful for content-based image retrieval and image annotation. Grouping images into semantic classes is a difficult problem, however. Image classification attempts to solve this hard problem by using low-level image features. In this paper, we propose a method for hierarchical classification of images via supervised learning. This scheme relies on using a good low-level feature and subsequently performing feature-space reconfiguration using singular value decomposition to reduce noise and dimensionality. We use the training data to obtain a hierarchical classification tree that can be used to categorize new images. Our experimental results suggest that this scheme not only performs better than standard nearest-neighbor techniques, but also has both storage and computational advantages.

  2. Hierarchical matrices algorithms and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Hackbusch, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    This self-contained monograph presents matrix algorithms and their analysis. The new technique enables not only the solution of linear systems but also the approximation of matrix functions, e.g., the matrix exponential. Other applications include the solution of matrix equations, e.g., the Lyapunov or Riccati equation. The required mathematical background can be found in the appendix. The numerical treatment of fully populated large-scale matrices is usually rather costly. However, the technique of hierarchical matrices makes it possible to store matrices and to perform matrix operations approximately with almost linear cost and a controllable degree of approximation error. For important classes of matrices, the computational cost increases only logarithmically with the approximation error. The operations provided include the matrix inversion and LU decomposition. Since large-scale linear algebra problems are standard in scientific computing, the subject of hierarchical matrices is of interest to scientists ...

  3. Hierarchical Semantic Model of Geovideo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XIE Xiao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The public security incidents were getting increasingly challenging with regard to their new features, including multi-scale mobility, multistage dynamic evolution, as well as spatiotemporal concurrency and uncertainty in the complex urban environment. However, the existing video models, which were used/designed for independent archive or local analysis of surveillance video, have seriously inhibited emergency response to the urgent requirements.Aiming at the explicit representation of change mechanism in video, the paper proposed a novel hierarchical geovideo semantic model using UML. This model was characterized by the hierarchical representation of both data structure and semantics based on the change-oriented three domains (feature domain, process domain and event domain instead of overall semantic description of video streaming; combining both geographical semantics and video content semantics, in support of global semantic association between multiple geovideo data. The public security incidents by video surveillance are inspected as an example to illustrate the validity of this model.

  4. Hybrid and hierarchical composite materials

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Chang-Soo; Sano, Tomoko

    2015-01-01

    This book addresses a broad spectrum of areas in both hybrid materials and hierarchical composites, including recent development of processing technologies, structural designs, modern computer simulation techniques, and the relationships between the processing-structure-property-performance. Each topic is introduced at length with numerous  and detailed examples and over 150 illustrations.   In addition, the authors present a method of categorizing these materials, so that representative examples of all material classes are discussed.

  5. Hierarchical analysis of urban space

    OpenAIRE

    Kataeva, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Multi-level structure of urban space, multitude of subjects of its transformation, which follow asymmetric interests, multilevel system of institutions which regulate interaction in the "population business government -public organizations" system, determine the use of hierarchic approach to the analysis of urban space. The article observes theoretical justification of using this approach to study correlations and peculiarities of interaction in urban space as in an intricately organized syst...

  6. Statistical Significance for Hierarchical Clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimes, Patrick K.; Liu, Yufeng; Hayes, D. Neil; Marron, J. S.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Cluster analysis has proved to be an invaluable tool for the exploratory and unsupervised analysis of high dimensional datasets. Among methods for clustering, hierarchical approaches have enjoyed substantial popularity in genomics and other fields for their ability to simultaneously uncover multiple layers of clustering structure. A critical and challenging question in cluster analysis is whether the identified clusters represent important underlying structure or are artifacts of natural sampling variation. Few approaches have been proposed for addressing this problem in the context of hierarchical clustering, for which the problem is further complicated by the natural tree structure of the partition, and the multiplicity of tests required to parse the layers of nested clusters. In this paper, we propose a Monte Carlo based approach for testing statistical significance in hierarchical clustering which addresses these issues. The approach is implemented as a sequential testing procedure guaranteeing control of the family-wise error rate. Theoretical justification is provided for our approach, and its power to detect true clustering structure is illustrated through several simulation studies and applications to two cancer gene expression datasets. PMID:28099990

  7. Nanoporous materials for reducing the over potential of creating hydrogen by water electrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Marc A.; Leonard, Kevin C.

    2016-06-14

    Disclosed is an electrolyzer including an electrode including a nanoporous oxide-coated conducting material. Also disclosed is a method of producing a gas through electrolysis by contacting an aqueous solution with an electrode connected to an electrical power source, wherein the electrode includes a nanoporous oxide-coated conducting material.

  8. Electrokinetic transport of nanoparticles to opening of nanopores on cell membrane during electroporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Movahed, Saeid [University of Toronto, Department of Chemistry (Canada); Li Dongqing, E-mail: dongqing@mme.uwaterloo.ca [University of Waterloo, Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering (Canada)

    2013-04-15

    Nanoparticle transport to the opening of the single nanopore created on the cell membrane during the electroporation is studied. First, the permeabilization of a single cell located in a microchannel is investigated. When the nanopores are created, the transport of the nanoparticles from the surrounding liquid to the opening of one of the created nanopores is examined. It was found that the negatively charged nanoparticles preferably move into the nanopores from the side of the cell membrane that faces the negative electrode. Opposite to the electro-osmotic flow effect, the electrophoretic force tends to draw the negatively charged nanoparticles into the opening of the nanopores. The effect of the Brownian force is negligible in comparison with the electro-osmosis and the electrophoresis. Smaller nanoparticles with stronger surface charge transport more easily to the opening of the nanopores. Positively charged nanoparticles preferably enter the nanopores from the side of the cell membrane that faces the positive electrode. On this side, both the electrophoretic and the electro-osmotic forces are in the same directions and contribute to bring the positively charged particles into the nanopores.

  9. Ion selection of charge-modified large nanopores in a graphene sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shijun; Xue, Jianming; Kang, Wei

    2013-09-01

    Water desalination becomes an increasingly important approach for clean water supply to meet the rapidly growing demand of population boost, industrialization, and urbanization. The main challenge in current desalination technologies lies in the reduction of energy consumption and economic costs. Here, we propose to use charged nanopores drilled in a graphene sheet as ion exchange membranes to promote the efficiency and capacity of desalination systems. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we investigate the selective ion transport behavior of electric-field-driven KCl electrolyte solution through charge modified graphene nanopores. Our results reveal that the presence of negative charges at the edge of graphene nanopore can remarkably impede the passage of Cl- while enhance the transport of K+, which is an indication of ion selectivity for electrolytes. We further demonstrate that this selectivity is dependent on the pore size and total charge number assigned at the nanopore edge. By adjusting the nanopore diameter and electric charge on the graphene nanopore, a nearly complete rejection of Cl- can be realized. The electrical resistance of nanoporous graphene, which is a key parameter to evaluate the performance of ion exchange membranes, is found two orders of magnitude lower than commercially used membranes. Our results thus suggest that graphene nanopores are promising candidates to be used in electrodialysis technology for water desalinations with a high permselectivity.

  10. Physical Model for Rapid and Accurate Determination of Nanopore Size via Conductance Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Chenyu; Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Shi-Li

    2017-10-27

    Nanopores have been explored for various biochemical and nanoparticle analyses, primarily via characterizing the ionic current through the pores. At present, however, size determination for solid-state nanopores is experimentally tedious and theoretically unaccountable. Here, we establish a physical model by introducing an effective transport length, L eff , that measures, for a symmetric nanopore, twice the distance from the center of the nanopore where the electric field is the highest to the point along the nanopore axis where the electric field falls to e -1 of this maximum. By [Formula: see text], a simple expression S 0 = f (G, σ, h, β) is derived to algebraically correlate minimum nanopore cross-section area S 0 to nanopore conductance G, electrolyte conductivity σ, and membrane thickness h with β to denote pore shape that is determined by the pore fabrication technique. The model agrees excellently with experimental results for nanopores in graphene, single-layer MoS 2 , and ultrathin SiN x films. The generality of the model is verified by applying it to micrometer-size pores.

  11. Solid-state nanopores for scanning single molecules and mimicking biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kowalczyk, S.W.

    2011-01-01

    Solid-state nanopores, nanometer-size holes in a thin synthetic membrane, are a versatile tool for the detection and manipulation of charged biomolecules. This thesis describes mostly experimental work on DNA translocation through solid-state nanopores, which we study at the single-molecule level.

  12. Fabrication of Low Noise Borosilicate Glass Nanopores for Single Molecule Sensing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayesh A Bafna

    Full Text Available We show low-cost fabrication and characterization of borosilicate glass nanopores for single molecule sensing. Nanopores with diameters of ~100 nm were fabricated in borosilicate glass capillaries using laser assisted glass puller. We further achieve controlled reduction and nanometer-size control in pore diameter by sculpting them under constant electron beam exposure. We successfully fabricate pore diameters down to 6 nm. We next show electrical characterization and low-noise behavior of these borosilicate nanopores and compare their taper geometries. We show, for the first time, a comprehensive characterization of glass nanopore conductance across six-orders of magnitude (1M-1μM of salt conditions, highlighting the role of buffer conditions. Finally, we demonstrate single molecule sensing capabilities of these devices with real-time translocation experiments of individual λ-DNA molecules. We observe distinct current blockage signatures of linear as well as folded DNA molecules as they undergo voltage-driven translocation through the glass nanopores. We find increased signal to noise for single molecule detection for higher trans-nanopore driving voltages. We propose these nanopores will expand the realm of applications for nanopore platform.

  13. BIOLOGICAL NANOPORES FOR BIOPOLYMER SENSING AND SEQUENCING BASED ON FRAC ACTINOPORIN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maglia, Giovanni; Wloka, Carsten; Mutter, Natalie Lisa; Soskine, Misha; Huang, Gang

    2018-01-01

    The invention relates generally to the field of nanopores and the use thereof in various applications, such as analysis of biopolymer s and macromolecules, typically by making electrical measurements during translocation through a nanopores. Provided is a system comprising a funnel- shaped

  14. Where bio meets nano: The many uses for nanoporous aluminium oxide in biotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingham, C.J.; Maat, ter J.; Vos, de W.M.

    2012-01-01

    Porous aluminum oxide (PAO) is a ceramic formed by an anodization process of pure aluminum that enables the controllable assembly of exceptionally dense and regular nanopores in a planar membrane. As a consequence, PAO has a high porosity, nanopores with high aspect ratio, biocompatibility and the

  15. Research Update: Triblock copolymers as templates to synthesize inorganic nanoporous materials

    OpenAIRE

    Yunqi Li; Bishnu Prasad Bastakoti; Yusuke Yamauchi

    2016-01-01

    This review focuses on the application of triblock copolymers as designed templates to synthesize nanoporous materials with various compositions. Asymmetric triblock copolymers have several advantages compared with symmetric triblock copolymers and diblock copolymers, because the presence of three distinct domains can provide more functional features to direct the resultant nanoporous materials. Here we clearly describe significant contributions of asymmetric triblock copolymers, especially p...

  16. Electrochemistry at the edge of a single graphene layer in a nanopore

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banerjee, Sutanuka; Shim, Jeong; Rivera, J.

    2013-01-01

    We study the electrochemistry of single layer graphene edges using a nanopore-based structure consisting of stacked graphene and AlO dielectric layers. Nanopores, with diameters ranging from 5 to 20 nm, are formed by an electron beam sculpting process on the stacked layers. This leads to a unique...

  17. Microtome Sliced Block Copolymers and Nanoporous Polymers as Masks for Nanolithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shvets, Violetta; Schulte, Lars; Ndoni, Sokol

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Block copolymers self-assembling properties are commonly used for creation of very fine nanostructures [1]. Goal of our project is to test new methods of the block-copolymer lithography mask preparation: macroscopic pieces of block-copolymers or nanoporous polymers with cross...... PDMS can be chemically etched from the PB matrix by tetrabutylammonium fluoride in tetrahydrofuran and macroscopic nanoporous PB piece is obtained. Both block-copolymer piece and nanoporous polymer piece were sliced with cryomicrotome perpendicular to the axis of cylinder alignment and flakes...... of etching patterns appear only under the certain parts of thick flakes and are not continuous. Although flakes from block copolymer are thinner and more uniform in thickness than flakes from nanoporous polymer, quality of patterns under nanoporous flakes appeared to be better than under block copolymer...

  18. A novel input-parasitic compensation technique for a nanopore-based CMOS DNA detection sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungsuk

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents a novel input-parasitic compensation (IPC) technique for a nanopore-based complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) DNA detection sensor. A resistive-feedback transimpedance amplifier is typically adopted as the headstage of a DNA detection sensor to amplify the minute ionic currents generated from a nanopore and convert them to a readable voltage range for digitization. But, parasitic capacitances arising from the headstage input and the nanopore often cause headstage saturation during nanopore sensing, thereby resulting in significant DNA data loss. To compensate for the unwanted saturation, in this work, we propose an area-efficient and automated IPC technique, customized for a low-noise DNA detection sensor, fabricated using a 0.35- μm CMOS process; we demonstrated this prototype in a benchtop test using an α-hemolysin ( α-HL) protein nanopore.

  19. Electro-osmotic flow through nanopores in thin and ultrathin membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikov, Dmitriy V.; Hulings, Zachery K.; Gracheva, Maria E.

    2017-06-01

    We theoretically study how the electro-osmotic fluid velocity in a charged cylindrical nanopore in a thin solid state membrane depends on the pore's geometry, membrane charge, and electrolyte concentration. We find that when the pore's length is comparable to its diameter, the velocity profile develops a concave shape with a minimum along the pore axis unlike the situation in very long nanopores with a maximum velocity along the central pore axis. This effect is attributed to the induced pressure along the nanopore axis due to the fluid flow expansion and contraction near the exit or entrance to the pore and to the reduction of electric field inside the nanopore. The induced pressure is maximal when the pore's length is about equal to its diameter while decreasing for both longer and shorter nanopores. A model for the fluid velocity incorporating these effects is developed and shown to be in a good agreement with numerically computed results.

  20. Lithography-based fabrication of nanopore arrays in freestanding SiN and graphene membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschueren, Daniel V.; Yang, Wayne; Dekker, Cees

    2018-04-01

    We report a simple and scalable technique for the fabrication of nanopore arrays on freestanding SiN and graphene membranes based on electron-beam lithography and reactive ion etching. By controlling the dose of the single-shot electron-beam exposure, circular nanopores of any size down to 16 nm in diameter can be fabricated in both materials at high accuracy and precision. We demonstrate the sensing capabilities of these nanopores by translocating dsDNA through pores fabricated using this method, and find signal-to-noise characteristics on par with transmission-electron-microscope-drilled nanopores. This versatile lithography-based approach allows for the high-throughput manufacturing of nanopores and can in principle be used on any substrate, in particular membranes made out of transferable two-dimensional materials.

  1. Solid-state nanopores of controlled geometry fabricated in a transmission electron microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Hui; Egerton, Ray F.

    2017-11-01

    Energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy and electron tomography were applied to in situ studies of the formation, shape, and diameter of nanopores formed in a silicon nitride membrane in a transmission electron microscope. The nanopore geometry was observed in three dimensions by electron tomography. Drilling conditions, such as probe current, beam convergence angle, and probe position, affect the formation rate and the geometry of the pores. With a beam convergence semi-angle of α = 22 mrad, a conical shaped nanopore is formed but at α = 45 mrad, double-cone (hourglass-shaped) nanopores were produced. Nanopores with an effective diameter between 10 nm and 1.8 nm were fabricated by controlling the drilling time.

  2. Single-Molecule Sensing with Nanopore Confinement: from Chemical Reactions to Biological Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yao; Ying, Yi-Lun; Gao, Rui; Long, Yi-Tao

    2018-03-25

    The nanopore can generate an electrochemical confinement for single-molecule sensing which help understand the fundamental chemical principle in nanoscale dimensions. By observing the generated ionic current, individual bond-making and bond-breaking steps, single biomolecule dynamic conformational changes and electron transfer processes that occur within pore can be monitored with high temporal and current resolution. These single-molecule studies in nanopore confinement are revealing information about the fundamental chemical and biological processes that cannot be extracted from ensemble measurements. In this concept, we introduce and discuss the electrochemical confinement effects on single-molecule covalent reactions, conformational dynamics of individual molecules and host-guest interactions in protein nanopores. Then, we extend the concept of nanopore confinement effects to confine electrochemical redox reactions in solid-state nanopores for developing new sensing mechanisms. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Mechanical Properties of Nanoporous Au: From Empirical Evidence to Phenomenological Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Pia

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present work focuses on the development of a theoretical model aimed at relating the mechanical properties of nanoporous metals to the bending response of thick ligaments. The model describes the structure of nanoporous metal foams in terms of an idealized regular lattice of massive cubic nodes and thick ligaments with square cross-sections. Following a general introduction to the subject, model predictions are compared with Young’s modulus and the yield strength of nanoporous Au foams determined experimentally and available in literature. It is shown that the model provides a quantitative description of the elastic and plastic deformation behavior of nanoporous metals, reproducing to a satisfactory extent the experimental Young’s modulus and yield strength values of nanoporous Au.

  4. Generation of nanobubbles by ceramic membrane filters: The dependence of bubble size and zeta potential on surface coating, pore size and injected gas pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ahmed Khaled Abdella; Sun, Cuizhen; Hua, Likun; Zhang, Zhibin; Zhang, Yanhao; Zhang, Wen; Marhaba, Taha

    2018-07-01

    Generation of gaseous nanobubbles (NBs) by simple, efficient, and scalable methods is critical for industrialization and applications of nanobubbles. Traditional generation methods mainly rely on hydrodynamic, acoustic, particle, and optical cavitation. These generation processes render issues such as high energy consumption, non-flexibility, and complexity. This research investigated the use of tubular ceramic nanofiltration membranes to generate NBs in water with air, nitrogen and oxygen gases. This system injects pressurized gases through a tubular ceramic membrane with nanopores to create NBs. The effects of membrane pores size, surface energy, and the injected gas pressures on the bubble size and zeta potential were examined. The results show that the gas injection pressure had considerable effects on the bubble size, zeta potential, pH, and dissolved oxygen of the produced NBs. For example, increasing the injection air pressure from 69 kPa to 414 kPa, the air bubble size was reduced from 600 to 340 nm respectively. Membrane pores size and surface energy also had significant effects on sizes and zeta potentials of NBs. The results presented here aim to fill out the gaps of fundamental knowledge about NBs and development of efficient generation methods. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Role of aluminum doping on phase transformations in nanoporous titania anodic oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayata, Fatma [Istanbul Bilgi University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, 34060, Eyup, Istanbul (Turkey); Ürgen, Mustafa, E-mail: urgen@itu.edu.tr [Istanbul Technical University, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, 34469, Maslak, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2015-10-15

    The role of aluminium doping on anatase to rutile phase transformation of nanoporous titanium oxide films were investigated. For this purpose pure and aluminum doped metal films were deposited on alumina substrates by cathodic arc physical deposition. The nanoporous anodic oxides were prepared by porous anodizing of pure and aluminum doped titanium metallic films in an ethylene glycol + NH{sub 4}F based electrolyte. Nanoporous amorphous structures with 60–80 nm diameter and 2–4 μm length were formed on the surfaces of alumina substrates. The amorphous undoped and Al-doped TiO{sub 2} anodic oxides were heat-treated at different temperatures in the range of 280–720 °C for the investigation of their crystallization behavior. The combined effects of nanoporous structure and Al doping on crystallization behavior of titania were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and micro Raman analysis. The results indicated that both Al ions incorporated into the TiO{sub 2} structure and the nanoporous structure retarded the rutile formation. It was also revealed that presence or absence of metallic film underneath the nanopores has a major contribution to anatase-rutile transformation. - Highlights: • Al-doped TiO{sub 2} nanopores were grown on alumina substrates using anodization method. • The crystallization behavior of nanoporous Al-doped TiO{sub 2} were investigated. • Al doping into nanoporous TiO{sub 2} retarded the anatase-rutile transformation. • Nanostructuring has significant role in controlling rutile formation temperature. • The absence of the metallic film under the nanopores delayed the rutile formation.

  6. A plan to reduce volatile organic compound emissions from consumer products in Canada (excluding windshield washer fluid and surface coatings) : final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-12-01

    This report highlights the recommendations made by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment for the development of a guideline to provide a means by which to reduce (VOC) emissions from consumer products (excluding windshield washer fluid and surface coatings) in Canada. VOCs and nitrogen oxides react photochemically in the presence of sunlight to create ground-level ozone, a primary component of urban smog which has a detrimental effect on human health, agricultural crops and building materials. In recent years, most urban areas of Canada have shown an annual increase in the maximum acceptable air quality levels for ground level ozone. Reducing emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from consumer products was first suggested in 1990 by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment in phase one of their program entitled the 'Management plan for nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds'. Phase 2 of the program was implemented in 1997 to harmonize the emissions reduction program with the United States Environmental Protection Agency regulations. The Canadian Environmental Protection Agency (CEPA) recommended the following control options: (1) a CEPA guideline should be developed which states the maximum VOC and high-volatility organic compound (HVOC) content in Canadian consumer products including hair care products, herbicides, insecticides, air fresheners, deodorants, fungicides, surface cleaners, fragrance products, anti-microbial agents, laundry products and automotive detailing products. These limits should be identical to those found in the 1998 U.S. Final Rule for Consumer Products, (2) the CEPA guideline should require that records specifying VOC content in weight-per cent be maintained for a period of three years, (3) the CEPA guideline should include a declaration procedure for Canadian importers and manufacturers of consumer products to report to Environment Canada regarding the VOC content of their products, and

  7. Hierarchal scalar and vector tetrahedra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, J.P.; Forghani, B.

    1993-01-01

    A new set of scalar and vector tetrahedral finite elements are presented. The elements are hierarchal, allowing mixing of polynomial orders; scalar orders up to 3 and vector orders up to 2 are defined. The vector elements impose tangential continuity on the field but not normal continuity, making them suitable for representing the vector electric or magnetic field. Further, the scalar and vector elements are such that they can easily be used in the same mesh, a requirement of many quasi-static formulations. Results are presented for two 50 Hz problems: the Bath Cube, and TEAM Problem 7

  8. Constructing hierarchical porous nanospheres for versatile microwave response approaches: the effect of architectural design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Bin; Liang, Xiaohui; Yi, Heng; Gong, He; Ji, Guangbin; Chen, Jiabin; Xu, Guoyue; Du, Youwei

    2017-10-24

    Owing to their immense potential in functionalized applications, tremendous interest has been devoted to the design and synthesis of nanostructures. The introduction of sufficient amount of microwaves into the absorbers on the premise that the dissipation capacity is strong enough remains a key challenge. Pursuing a general methodology to overcome the incompatibility is of great importance. There is widespread interest in designing the materials with specific architectures. Herein, the common absorber candidates were chosen to feature the hierarchical porous Fe 3 O 4 @C@Fe 3 O 4 nanospheres. Due to the reduced skin effect (induced by low-conductivity Fe 3 O 4 outer layer), multiple interfacial polarizations and scattering (due to the ternary hierarchical structures and nanoporous inner core) as well as the improved magnetic dissipation ability (because of multiple magnetic components), the material design enabled a promising microwave absorption performance. This study not only illustrates the primary mechanisms for the improved microwave absorption performance but also underscores the potential in designing the particular architectures as a strategy for achieving the compatibility characteristics.

  9. Plasmonic devices and sensors built from ordered nanoporous materials.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, Benjamin W.; Kobayashi, Yoji (University of California, Berkeley); Houk, Ronald J. T.; Allendorf, Mark D.; Long, Jeffrey R. (University of California, Berkeley); Robertson, Ian M. (University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL); House, Stephen D. (University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL); Graham, Dennis D. (University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL); Talin, Albert Alec (National Institute of Standards & Technology, Gaithersburg, MD); Chang, Noel N. (University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL); El Gabaly Marquez, Farid

    2009-09-01

    The objective of this project is to lay the foundation for using ordered nanoporous materials known as metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) to create devices and sensors whose properties are determined by the dimensions of the MOF lattice. Our hypothesis is that because of the very short (tens of angstroms) distances between pores within the unit cell of these materials, enhanced electro-optical properties will be obtained when the nanopores are infiltrated to create nanoclusters of metals and other materials. Synthetic methods used to produce metal nanoparticles in disordered templates or in solution typically lead to a distribution of particle sizes. In addition, creation of the smallest clusters, with sizes of a few to tens of atoms, remains very challenging. Nanoporous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a promising solution to these problems, since their long-range crystalline order creates completely uniform pore sizes with potential for both steric and chemical stabilization. We report results of synthetic efforts. First, we describe a systematic investigation of silver nanocluster formation within MOFs using three representative MOF templates. The as-synthesized clusters are spectroscopically consistent with dimensions {le} 1 nm, with a significant fraction existing as Ag{sub 3} clusters, as shown by electron paramagnetic resonance. Importantly, we show conclusively that very rapid TEM-induced MOF degradation leads to agglomeration and stable, easily imaged particles, explaining prior reports of particles larger than MOF pores. These results solve an important riddle concerning MOF-based templates and suggest that heterostructures composed of highly uniform arrays of nanoparticles within MOFs are feasible. Second, a preliminary study of methods to incorporate fulleride (K{sub 3}C{sub 60}) guest molecules within MOF pores that will impart electrical conductivity is described.

  10. Ultrathin nanoporous membranes for insulator-based dielectrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukaibo, Hitomi; Wang, Tonghui; Perez-Gonzalez, Victor H.; Getpreecharsawas, Jirachai; Wurzer, Jack; Lapizco-Encinas, Blanca H.; McGrath, James L.

    2018-06-01

    Insulator-based dielectrophoresis (iDEP) is a simple, scalable mechanism that can be used for directly manipulating particle trajectories in pore-based filtration and separation processes. However, iDEP manipulation of nanoparticles presents unique challenges as the dielectrophoretic force ({F}{{D}{{E}}{{P}}}) exerted on the nanoparticles can easily be overshadowed by opposing kinetic forces. In this study, a molecularly thin, SiN-based nanoporous membrane (NPN) is explored as a breakthrough technology that enhances {F}{{D}{{E}}{{P}}}. By numerically assessing the gradient of the electric field square ({{\

  11. On the stability of surface-confined nanoporous molecular networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghijsens, Elke; Adisoejoso, Jinne, E-mail: Jinne.adisoejoso@chem.kuleuven.be, E-mail: tobe@chem.es.osaka-u.ac.jp, E-mail: Steven.DeFeyter@chem.kuleuven.be; Van Gorp, Hans; Destoop, Iris; Ivasenko, Oleksandr; Van der Auweraer, Mark; De Feyter, Steven, E-mail: Jinne.adisoejoso@chem.kuleuven.be, E-mail: tobe@chem.es.osaka-u.ac.jp, E-mail: Steven.DeFeyter@chem.kuleuven.be [Department of Chemistry, Division of Molecular Imaging and Photonics, KU Leuven—University of Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200 F, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Noguchi, Aya; Tahara, Kazukuni; Tobe, Yoshito, E-mail: Jinne.adisoejoso@chem.kuleuven.be, E-mail: tobe@chem.es.osaka-u.ac.jp, E-mail: Steven.DeFeyter@chem.kuleuven.be [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Division of Frontier Materials Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan)

    2015-03-14

    Self-assembly of molecular building blocks into two-dimensional nanoporous networks has been a topic of broad interest for many years. However, various factors govern the specific outcome of the self-assembly process, and understanding and controlling these are key to successful creation. In this work, the self-assembly of two alkylated dehydrobenzo[12]annulene building blocks was compared at the liquid-solid interface. It turned out that only a small chemical modification within the building blocks resulted in enhanced domain sizes and stability of the porous packing relative to the dense linear packing. Applying a thermodynamic model for phase transition revealed some key aspects for network formation.

  12. Novel insights into nanopore deformation caused by capillary condensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, Gerrit; Prass, Johannes; Paris, Oskar; Schoen, Martin

    2008-08-22

    By means of in situ small-angle x-ray diffraction experiments and semi-grand-canonical ensemble Monte Carlo simulations we demonstrate that sorption and condensation of a fluid confined within nanopores is capable of deforming the pore walls. At low pressures the pore is widened due to a repulsive interaction caused by collisions of the fluid molecules with the walls. At capillary condensation the pores contract abruptly on account of attractive fluid-wall interactions whereas for larger pressures they expand again. These features cannot solely be accounted for by effects related to pore-wall curvature but have to be attributed to fluid-wall dispersion forces instead.

  13. Nanoporous network channels from self-assembled triblock copolymer supramolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Sart, Gerrit Gobius; Vukovic, Ivana; Vukovic, Zorica; Polushkin, Evgeny; Hiekkataipale, Panu; Ruokolainen, Janne; Loos, Katja; ten Brinke, Gerrit

    2011-02-16

    Supramolecular complexes of a poly(tert-butoxystyrene)-block-polystyrene-block-poly(4-vinylpyridine) triblock copolymers and less than stoichiometric amounts of pentadecylphenol (PDP) are shown to self-assemble into a core-shell gyroid morphology with the core channels formed by the hydrogen-bonded P4VP(PDP)complexes. After structure formation, PDP was removed using a simple washing procedure, resulting in well-ordered nanoporous films that were used as templates for nickel plating. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Combustion Synthesis Of Ultralow-density Nanoporous Gold Foams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tappan, Bruce C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mueller, Alex H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Steiner, Stephen A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Luther, Erik P [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    A new synthetic pathway for producing nanoporous gold monoliths through combustion synthesis from Au bistetrazoJeamine complexes has been demonstrated. Applications of interest for Au nanofoams include new substrates for nanoparticle-mediated catalysis, embedded antennas, and spectroscopy. Integrated support-and-catalystin-one nanocomposites prepared through combustion synthesis of mixed AuBTA/metal oxide pellets would also be an interesting technology approach for low-cost in-line catalytic conversion media. Furthermore, we envision preparation of ultrahigh surface area gold electrodes for application in electrochemical devices through this method.

  15. Plasmonic resonance of colloidal silver in nanoporous matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreeva, O V; Saitov, S V; Andreeva, N V; Sidorov, A I

    2014-01-01

    The object of the study in this paper – silver nanoporous silicate matrix with pore size less than 20 nm. Colloidal silver particles with volume concentration about 10 −4 are formed within free volume of pores of silicate matrix by chemical method. Changes in the attenuation spectra of the investigated object during changing of the refractive index of free volume of pores from 1.0 to 1.5 are reviewed. Comparison of the obtained experimental data with the results of calculations was carried out

  16. Loops in hierarchical channel networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katifori, Eleni; Magnasco, Marcelo

    2012-02-01

    Nature provides us with many examples of planar distribution and structural networks having dense sets of closed loops. An archetype of this form of network organization is the vasculature of dicotyledonous leaves, which showcases a hierarchically-nested architecture. Although a number of methods have been proposed to measure aspects of the structure of such networks, a robust metric to quantify their hierarchical organization is still lacking. We present an algorithmic framework that allows mapping loopy networks to binary trees, preserving in the connectivity of the trees the architecture of the original graph. We apply this framework to investigate computer generated and natural graphs extracted from digitized images of dicotyledonous leaves and animal vasculature. We calculate various metrics on the corresponding trees and discuss the relationship of these quantities to the architectural organization of the original graphs. This algorithmic framework decouples the geometric information from the metric topology (connectivity and edge weight) and it ultimately allows us to perform a quantitative statistical comparison between predictions of theoretical models and naturally occurring loopy graphs.

  17. Hierarchically nested river landform sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasternack, G. B.; Weber, M. D.; Brown, R. A.; Baig, D.

    2017-12-01

    River corridors exhibit landforms nested within landforms repeatedly down spatial scales. In this study we developed, tested, and implemented a new way to create river classifications by mapping domains of fluvial processes with respect to the hierarchical organization of topographic complexity that drives fluvial dynamism. We tested this approach on flow convergence routing, a morphodynamic mechanism with different states depending on the structure of nondimensional topographic variability. Five nondimensional landform types with unique functionality (nozzle, wide bar, normal channel, constricted pool, and oversized) represent this process at any flow. When this typology is nested at base flow, bankfull, and floodprone scales it creates a system with up to 125 functional types. This shows how a single mechanism produces complex dynamism via nesting. Given the classification, we answered nine specific scientific questions to investigate the abundance, sequencing, and hierarchical nesting of these new landform types using a 35-km gravel/cobble river segment of the Yuba River in California. The nested structure of flow convergence routing landforms found in this study revealed that bankfull landforms are nested within specific floodprone valley landform types, and these types control bankfull morphodynamics during moderate to large floods. As a result, this study calls into question the prevailing theory that the bankfull channel of a gravel/cobble river is controlled by in-channel, bankfull, and/or small flood flows. Such flows are too small to initiate widespread sediment transport in a gravel/cobble river with topographic complexity.

  18. Stability of glassy hierarchical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, M.; Camargo-Forero, L.; Vicsek, T.

    2018-02-01

    The structure of interactions in most animal and human societies can be best represented by complex hierarchical networks. In order to maintain close-to-optimal function both stability and adaptability are necessary. Here we investigate the stability of hierarchical networks that emerge from the simulations of an organization type with an efficiency function reminiscent of the Hamiltonian of spin glasses. Using this quantitative approach we find a number of expected (from everyday observations) and highly non-trivial results for the obtained locally optimal networks, including, for example: (i) stability increases with growing efficiency and level of hierarchy; (ii) the same perturbation results in a larger change for more efficient states; (iii) networks with a lower level of hierarchy become more efficient after perturbation; (iv) due to the huge number of possible optimal states only a small fraction of them exhibit resilience and, finally, (v) ‘attacks’ targeting the nodes selectively (regarding their position in the hierarchy) can result in paradoxical outcomes.

  19. Hierarchical modeling of active materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taya, Minoru

    2003-01-01

    Intelligent (or smart) materials are increasingly becoming key materials for use in actuators and sensors. If an intelligent material is used as a sensor, it can be embedded in a variety of structure functioning as a health monitoring system to make their life longer with high reliability. If an intelligent material is used as an active material in an actuator, it plays a key role of making dynamic movement of the actuator under a set of stimuli. This talk intends to cover two different active materials in actuators, (1) piezoelectric laminate with FGM microstructure, (2) ferromagnetic shape memory alloy (FSMA). The advantage of using the FGM piezo laminate is to enhance its fatigue life while maintaining large bending displacement, while that of use in FSMA is its fast actuation while providing a large force and stroke capability. Use of hierarchical modeling of the above active materials is a key design step in optimizing its microstructure for enhancement of their performance. I will discuss briefly hierarchical modeling of the above two active materials. For FGM piezo laminate, we will use both micromechanical model and laminate theory, while for FSMA, the modeling interfacing nano-structure, microstructure and macro-behavior is discussed. (author)

  20. Hierarchical organisation of causal graphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dziopa, P.

    1993-01-01

    This paper deals with the design of a supervision system using a hierarchy of models formed by graphs, in which the variables are the nodes and the causal relations between the variables of the arcs. To obtain a representation of the variables evolutions which contains only the relevant features of their real evolutions, the causal relations are completed with qualitative transfer functions (QTFs) which produce roughly the behaviour of the classical transfer functions. Major improvements have been made in the building of the hierarchical organization. First, the basic variables of the uppermost level and the causal relations between them are chosen. The next graph is built by adding intermediary variables to the upper graph. When the undermost graph has been built, the transfer functions parameters corresponding to its causal relations are identified. The second task consists in the upwelling of the information from the undermost graph to the uppermost one. A fusion procedure of the causal relations has been designed to compute the QFTs relevant for each level. This procedure aims to reduce the number of parameters needed to represent an evolution at a high level of abstraction. These techniques have been applied to the hierarchical modelling of nuclear process. (authors). 8 refs., 12 figs

  1. Basic evaluation of typical nanoporous silica nanoparticles in being drug carrier: Structure, wettability and hemolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Guo, Yingyu

    2017-04-01

    Herein, the present work devoted to study the basic capacity of nanoporous silica nanoparticles in being drug carrier that covered structure, wettability and hemolysis so as to provide crucial evaluation. Typical nanoporous silica nanoparticles that consist of nanoporous silica nanoparticles (NSN), amino modified nanoporous silica nanoparticles (amino-NSN), carboxyl modified nanoporous silica nanoparticles (carboxyl-NSN) and hierachical nanoporous silica nanoparticles (hierachical-NSN) were studied. The results showed that their wettability and hemolysis were closely related to structure and surface modification. Basically, wettability became stronger as the amount of OH on the surface of NSN was higher. Both large nanopores and surface modification can reduce the wettability of NSN. Furthermore, NSN series were safe to be used when they circulated into the blood in low concentration, while if high concentration can not be avoided during administration, high porosity or amino modification of NSN were safer to be considered. It is believed that the basic evaluation of NSN can make contribution in providing scientific instruction for designing drug loaded NSN systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Precise fabrication of a 5 nm graphene nanopore with a helium ion microscope for biomolecule detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yunsheng; Huang, Qimeng; Zhao, Yue; Zhou, Daming; Ying, Cuifeng; Wang, Deqiang

    2017-01-01

    We report a scalable method to fabricate high-quality graphene nanopores for biomolecule detection using a helium ion microscope (HIM). HIM milling shows promising capabilities for precisely controlling the size and shape, and may allow for the potential production of nanopores at wafer scale. Nanopores could be fabricated at different sizes ranging from 5 to 30 nm in diameter in few minutes. Compared with the current solid-state nanopore fabrication techniques, e.g. transmission electron microscopy, HIM is fast. Furthermore, we investigated the exposure-time dependence of graphene nanopore formation: the rate of pore expansion did not follow a simple linear relationship with exposure time, but a fast expansion rate at short exposure time and a slow rate at long exposure time. In addition, we performed biomolecule detection with our patterned graphene nanopore. The ionic current signals induced by 20-base single-stranded DNA homopolymers could be used as a basis for homopolymer differentiation. However, the charge interaction of homopolymer chains with graphene nanopores, and the conformations of homopolymer chains need to be further considered to improve the accuracy of discrimination.

  3. Electrochemically etched nanoporous silicon membrane for separation of biological molecules in mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burham, Norhafizah; Azlan Hamzah, Azrul; Yunas, Jumril; Yeop Majlis, Burhanuddin

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a technique for separating biological molecules in mixture using nanoporous silicon membrane. Nanopores were formed using electrochemical etching process (ECE) by etching a prefabricated silicon membrane in hydrofluoric acid (HF) and ethanol, and then directly bonding it with PDMS to form a complete filtration system for separating biological molecules. Tygon S3™ tubings were used as fluid interconnection between PDMS molds and silicon membrane during testing. Electrochemical etching parameters were manipulated to control pore structure and size. In this work, nanopores with sizes of less than 50 nm, embedded on top of columnar structures have been fabricated using high current densities and variable HF concentrations. Zinc oxide was diluted with deionized (DI) water and mixed with biological molecules and non-biological particles, namely protein standard, serum albumin and sodium chloride. Zinc oxide particles were trapped on the nanoporous silicon surface, while biological molecules of sizes up to 12 nm penetrated the nanoporous silicon membrane. The filtered particles were inspected using a Zetasizer Nano SP for particle size measurement and count. The Zetasizer Nano SP results revealed that more than 95% of the biological molecules in the mixture were filtered out by the nanoporous silicon membrane. The nanoporous silicon membrane fabricated in this work is integratable into bio-MEMS and Lab-on-Chip components to separate two or more types of biomolecules at once. The membrane is especially useful for the development of artificial kidney.

  4. Biomimetic Mineralization of Gold Nanoclusters as Multifunctional Thin Films for Glass Nanopore Modification, Characterization, and Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Sumei; Ding, Shushu; Liu, Yingzi; Zhu, Anwei; Shi, Guoyue

    2017-08-01

    Hurdles of nanopore modification and characterization restrain the development of glass capillary-based nanopore sensing platforms. In this article, a simple but effective biomimetic mineralization method was developed to decorate glass nanopore with a thin film of bovine serum albumin-protected Au nanocluster (BSA-Au NC). The BSA-Au NC film emitted a strong red fluorescence whereby nondestructive characterization of Au film decorated at the inner surface of glass nanopore can be facilely achieved by a fluorescence microscopy. Besides, the BSA molecules played dual roles in the fabrication of functionalized Au thin film in glass nanopore: they not only directed the synthesis of fluorescent Au thin film but also provided binding sites for recognition, thus achieving synthesis-modification integration. This occurred due to the ionized carboxyl groups (-COO - ) of a BSA coating layer on Au NCs which can interacted with arginine (Arg) via guanidinium groups. The added Arg selectively led to the change in the charge and ionic current of BSA-Au NC film-decorated glass nanopore. Such ionic current responses can be used for quantifying Arg with a detection limit down to 1 fM, which was more sensitive than that of previous sensing systems. Together, the designed method exhibited great promise in providing a facile and controllable solution for glass nanopore modification, characterization, and sensing.

  5. In vitro extracellular recording and stimulation performance of nanoporous gold-modified multi-electrode arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong Hee; Kim, Gook Hwa; Kim, Ah Young; Han, Young Hwan; Chung, Myung-Ae; Jung, Sang-Don

    2015-12-01

    Objective. Nanoporous gold (Au) structures can reduce the impedance and enhance the charge injection capability of multi-electrode arrays (MEAs) used for interfacing neuronal networks. Even though there are various nanoporous Au preparation techniques, fabrication of MEA based on low-cost electro-codeposition of Ag:Au has not been performed. In this work, we have modified a Au MEA via the electro-codeposition of Ag:Au alloy, followed by the chemical etching of Ag, and report on the in vitro extracellular recording and stimulation performance of the nanoporous Au-modified MEA. Approach. Ag:Au alloy was electro-codeposited on a bilayer lift-off resist sputter-deposition passivated Au MEA followed by chemical etching of Ag to form a porous Au structure. Main results. The porous Au structure was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and tunneling electron microscopy and found to have an interconnected nanoporous Au structure. The impedance value of the nanoporous Au-modified MEA is 15.4 ± 0.55 kΩ at 1 kHz, accompanied by the base noise V rms of 2.4 ± 0.3 μV. The charge injection limit of the nanoporous Au-modified electrode estimated from voltage transient measurement is approximately 1 mC cm-2, which is comparable to roughened platinum and carbon nanotube electrodes. The charge injection capability of the nanoporous Au-modified MEA was confirmed by observing stimulus-induced spikes at above 0.2 V. The nanoporous Au-modified MEA showed mechanical durability upon ultrasonic treatment for up to an hour. Significance. Electro-codeposition of Ag:Au alloy combined with chemical etching Ag is a low-cost process for fabricating nanoporous Au-modified MEA suitable for establishing the stimulus-response relationship of cultured neuronal networks.

  6. In vitro extracellular recording and stimulation performance of nanoporous gold-modified multi-electrode arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong Hee; Kim, Gook Hwa; Kim, Ah Young; Han, Young Hwan; Chung, Myung-Ae; Jung, Sang-Don

    2015-12-01

    Nanoporous gold (Au) structures can reduce the impedance and enhance the charge injection capability of multi-electrode arrays (MEAs) used for interfacing neuronal networks. Even though there are various nanoporous Au preparation techniques, fabrication of MEA based on low-cost electro-codeposition of Ag:Au has not been performed. In this work, we have modified a Au MEA via the electro-codeposition of Ag:Au alloy, followed by the chemical etching of Ag, and report on the in vitro extracellular recording and stimulation performance of the nanoporous Au-modified MEA. Ag:Au alloy was electro-codeposited on a bilayer lift-off resist sputter-deposition passivated Au MEA followed by chemical etching of Ag to form a porous Au structure. The porous Au structure was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and tunneling electron microscopy and found to have an interconnected nanoporous Au structure. The impedance value of the nanoporous Au-modified MEA is 15.4 ± 0.55 kΩ at 1 kHz, accompanied by the base noise V rms of 2.4 ± 0.3 μV. The charge injection limit of the nanoporous Au-modified electrode estimated from voltage transient measurement is approximately 1 mC cm(-2), which is comparable to roughened platinum and carbon nanotube electrodes. The charge injection capability of the nanoporous Au-modified MEA was confirmed by observing stimulus-induced spikes at above 0.2 V. The nanoporous Au-modified MEA showed mechanical durability upon ultrasonic treatment for up to an hour. Electro-codeposition of Ag:Au alloy combined with chemical etching Ag is a low-cost process for fabricating nanoporous Au-modified MEA suitable for establishing the stimulus-response relationship of cultured neuronal networks.

  7. High-energy supercapacitors based on hierarchical porous carbon with an ultrahigh ion-accessible surface area in ionic liquid electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Hui; Xu, Fei; Li, Zenghui; Fu, Ruowen; Wu, Dingcai

    2013-05-01

    A very important yet really challenging issue to address is how to greatly increase the energy density of supercapacitors to approach or even exceed those of batteries without sacrificing the power density. Herein we report the fabrication of a new class of ultrahigh surface area hierarchical porous carbon (UHSA-HPC) based on the pore formation and widening of polystyrene-derived HPC by KOH activation, and highlight its superior ability for energy storage in supercapacitors with ionic liquid (IL) as electrolyte. The UHSA-HPC with a surface area of more than 3000 m2 g-1 shows an extremely high energy density, i.e., 118 W h kg-1 at a power density of 100 W kg-1. This is ascribed to its unique hierarchical nanonetwork structure with a large number of small-sized nanopores for IL storage and an ideal meso-/macroporous network for IL transfer.A very important yet really challenging issue to address is how to greatly increase the energy density of supercapacitors to approach or even exceed those of batteries without sacrificing the power density. Herein we report the fabrication of a new class of ultrahigh surface area hierarchical porous carbon (UHSA-HPC) based on the pore formation and widening of polystyrene-derived HPC by KOH activation, and highlight its superior ability for energy storage in supercapacitors with ionic liquid (IL) as electrolyte. The UHSA-HPC with a surface area of more than 3000 m2 g-1 shows an extremely high energy density, i.e., 118 W h kg-1 at a power density of 100 W kg-1. This is ascribed to its unique hierarchical nanonetwork structure with a large number of small-sized nanopores for IL storage and an ideal meso-/macroporous network for IL transfer. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Sample preparation, material characterization, electrochemical characterization and specific mass capacitance and energy density. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr00738c

  8. An ordered array of hierarchical spheres for surface-enhanced Raman scattering detection of traces of pesticide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaoye; Zheng, Peng; Meng, Guowen; Huang, Qing; Zhu, Chuhong; Han, Fangming; Huang, Zhulin; Li, Zhongbo; Wang, Zhaoming; Wu, Nianqiang

    2016-09-01

    An ordered array of hierarchically-structured core-nanosphere@space-layer@shell-nanoparticles has been fabricated for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) detection. To fabricate this hierarchically-structured chip, a long-range ordered array of Au/Ag-nanospheres is first patterned in the nano-bowls on the planar surface of ordered nanoporous anodic titanium oxide template. A ultra-thin alumina middle space-layer is then conformally coated on the Au/Ag-nanospheres, and Ag-nanoparticles are finally deposited on the surface of the alumina space-layer to form an ordered array of Au/Ag-nanosphere@Al2O3-layer@Ag-nanoparticles. Finite-difference time-domain simulation shows that SERS hot spots are created between the neighboring Ag-nanoparticles. The ordered array of hierarchical nanostructures is used as the SERS-substrate for a trial detection of methyl parathion (a pesticide) in water and a limit of detection of 1 nM is reached, indicating its promising potential in rapid monitoring of organic pollutants in aquatic environment.

  9. Skin-Inspired Hierarchical Polymer Architectures with Gradient Stiffness for Spacer-Free, Ultrathin, and Highly Sensitive Triboelectric Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Minjeong; Lim, Seongdong; Cho, Soowon; Lee, Youngoh; Na, Sangyun; Baig, Chunggi; Ko, Hyunhyub

    2018-04-24

    The gradient stiffness between stiff epidermis and soft dermis with interlocked microridge structures in human skin induces effective stress transmission to underlying mechanoreceptors for enhanced tactile sensing. Inspired by skin structure and function, we fabricate hierarchical nanoporous and interlocked microridge structured polymers with gradient stiffness for spacer-free, ultrathin, and highly sensitive triboelectric sensors (TESs). The skin-inspired hierarchical polymers with gradient elastic modulus enhance the compressibility and contact areal differences due to effective transmission of the external stress from stiff to soft layers, resulting in highly sensitive TESs capable of detecting human vital signs and voice. In addition, the microridges in the interlocked polymers provide an effective variation of gap distance between interlocked layers without using the bulk spacer and thus facilitate the ultrathin and flexible design of TESs that could be worn on the body and detect a variety of pressing, bending, and twisting motions even in humid and underwater environments. Our TESs exhibit the highest power density (46.7 μW/cm 2 ), pressure (0.55 V/kPa), and bending (∼0.1 V/°) sensitivities ever reported on flexible TESs. The proposed design of hierarchical polymer architectures for the flexible and wearable TESs can find numerous applications in next-generation wearable electronics.

  10. Multiscale Morphology of Nanoporous Copper Made from Intermetallic Phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egle, Tobias; Harvard University, Cambridge, MA; Barroo, Cédric; Janvelyan, Nare; Baumgaertel, Andreas C.

    2017-01-01

    Many application-relevant properties of nanoporous metals critically depend on their multiscale architecture. For example, the intrinsically high step-edge density of curved surfaces at the nanoscale provides highly reactive sites for catalysis, whereas the macroscale pore and grain morphology determines the macroscopic properties, such as mass transport, electrical conductivity, or mechanical properties. Here, in this work, we systematically study the effects of alloy composition and dealloying conditions on the multiscale morphology of nanoporous copper (np-Cu) made from various commercial Zn–Cu precursor alloys. Using a combination of X-ray diffraction, electron backscatter diffraction, and focused ion beam cross-sectional analysis, our results reveal that the macroscopic grain structure of the starting alloy surprisingly survives the dealloying process, despite a change in crystal structure from body-centered cubic (Zn–Cu starting alloy) to face-centered cubic (Cu). The nanoscale structure can be controlled by the acid used for dealloying with HCl leading to a larger and more faceted ligament morphology compared to that of H_3PO_4. Finally, anhydrous ethanol dehydrogenation was used as a probe reaction to test the effect of the nanoscale ligament morphology on the apparent activation energy of the reaction.

  11. Nanoporous metal/oxide hybrid electrodes for electrochemical supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Xingyou; Hirata, Akihiko; Fujita, Takeshi; Chen, Mingwei

    2011-04-01

    Electrochemical supercapacitors can deliver high levels of electrical power and offer long operating lifetimes, but their energy storage density is too low for many important applications. Pseudocapacitive transition-metal oxides such as MnO2 could be used to make electrodes in such supercapacitors, because they are predicted to have a high capacitance for storing electrical charge while also being inexpensive and not harmful to the environment. However, the poor conductivity of MnO2 (10-5-10-6 S cm-1) limits the charge/discharge rate for high-power applications. Here, we show that hybrid structures made of nanoporous gold and nanocrystalline MnO2 have enhanced conductivity, resulting in a specific capacitance of the constituent MnO2 (~1,145 F g-1) that is close to the theoretical value. The nanoporous gold allows electron transport through the MnO2, and facilitates fast ion diffusion between the MnO2 and the electrolytes while also acting as a double-layer capacitor. The high specific capacitances and charge/discharge rates offered by such hybrid structures make them promising candidates as electrodes in supercapacitors, combining high-energy storage densities with high levels of power delivery.

  12. Ultrahigh Flux Thin Film Boiling Heat Transfer Through Nanoporous Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingyang; Chen, Renkun

    2018-05-09

    Phase change heat transfer is fundamentally important for thermal energy conversion and management, such as in electronics with power density over 1 kW/cm 2 . The critical heat flux (CHF) of phase change heat transfer, either evaporation or boiling, is limited by vapor flux from the liquid-vapor interface, known as the upper limit of heat flux. This limit could in theory be greater than 1 kW/cm 2 on a planar surface, but its experimental realization has remained elusive. Here, we utilized nanoporous membranes to realize a new "thin film boiling" regime that resulted in an unprecedentedly high CHF of over 1.2 kW/cm 2 on a planar surface, which is within a factor of 4 of the theoretical limit, and can be increased to a higher value if mechanical strength of the membranes can be improved (demonstrated with 1.85 kW/cm 2 CHF in this work). The liquid supply is achieved through a simple nanoporous membrane that supports the liquid film where its thickness automatically decreases as heat flux increases. The thin film configuration reduces the conductive thermal resistance, leads to high frequency bubble departure, and provides separate liquid-vapor pathways, therefore significantly enhances the heat transfer. Our work provides a new nanostructuring approach to achieve ultrahigh heat flux in phase change heat transfer and will benefit both theoretical understanding and application in thermal management of high power devices of boiling heat transfer.

  13. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy of nanoporous anodic alumina template

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahzad, K.

    2010-01-01

    Room temperature EIS characterization of nanoporous anodic alumina prepared at 40 V and 60 V has been done in 0.3 M oxalic acid solution. Rapid decrease in impedance was observed for the template prepared at 40 V. EIS study of porous anodic alumina template prepared in 0.3 M oxalic acid has been done in different electrolytes. Templates prepared in 0.3 M sulfuric acid solution were also characterized for comparison. Rapid decrease in the thickness of nonporous anodic film was observed with an increase of aggressiveness of electrolyte. Temperature based systematic study of EIS measurement has been done for porous anodic alumina template at different temperatures. Formation of micropores was observed in the nanoporous anodic alumina film formed on aluminum in 0.3 M oxalic acid solution which accelerates the dissolution rate with increase of measurement temperature. In addition to these, electropolishing behavior of pure aluminum has also been studied in different electrolytes and it was observed that electropolishing conditions prior to anodization are extremely important. (author)

  14. Modeling the self-assembly of ordered nanoporous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monson, Peter [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Auerbach, Scott [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States)

    2017-11-13

    This report describes progress on a collaborative project on the multiscale modeling of the assembly processes in the synthesis of nanoporous materials. Such materials are of enormous importance in modern technology with application in the chemical process industries, biomedicine and biotechnology as well as microelectronics. The project focuses on two important classes of materials: i) microporous crystalline materials, such as zeolites, and ii) ordered mesoporous materials. In the first case the pores are part of the crystalline structure, while in the second the structures are amorphous on the atomistic length scale but where surfactant templating gives rise to order on the length scale of 2 - 20 nm. We have developed a modeling framework that encompasses both these kinds of materials. Our models focus on the assembly of corner sharing silica tetrahedra in the presence of structure directing agents. We emphasize a balance between sufficient realism in the models and computational tractibility given the complex many-body phenomena. We use both on-lattice and off-lattice models and the primary computational tools are Monte Carlo simulations with sampling techniques and ensembles appropriate to specific situations. Our modeling approach is the first to capture silica polymerization, nanopore crystallization, and mesopore formation through computer-simulated self assembly.

  15. Development of electrochemical supercapacitors with uniform nanoporous silver network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Rui; Liu, Xiongjun; Wang, Hui; Wu, Yuan; Lu, Z.P.

    2015-01-01

    Metal oxides such as manganese dioxide (MnO 2 ) are often used as electrode materials for supercapacitors due to their high specific capacitance. In practice, however, their specific capacitance is much smaller than the theoretical limit due to the low electrical conductivity and serious agglomeration. In the present work, we demonstrate that highly conductive nanoporous silver (NPS) network with uniform continuous nanoporosity and high surface area which was fabricated by dealloying Ag-Mg-Ca metallic glasses can be employed as supports and collectors for MnO 2 capacitors. By plating the MnO 2 nanocrystals into the nanopore structure, the NPS/MnO 2 composite electrode provides fast ionic conduction and excellent electron-proton transport, resulting in an ultrahigh specific capacitance of the plated active MnO 2 (∼1088 F g −1 ), which is close to the theoretical limit. The unique combination of high specific capacitance and long cycle life enhanced by the current composite structure makes the NPS/MnO 2 composite promising for electrochemical supercapacitor as electrode material. In addition, our findings suggest that the uniform NPS network is capable for improving capacitance performance of metal oxides in electrochemical supercapacitors.

  16. Gas adsorption and capillary condensation in nanoporous alumina films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casanova, Felix; Chiang, Casey E; Li, Chang-Peng; Roshchin, Igor V; Schuller, Ivan K [Physics Department, University of California-San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Ruminski, Anne M; Sailor, Michael J [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California-San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)], E-mail: casanova@physics.ucsd.edu

    2008-08-06

    Gas adsorption and capillary condensation of organic vapors are studied by optical interferometry, using anodized nanoporous alumina films with controlled geometry (cylindrical pores with diameters in the range of 10-60 nm). The optical response of the film is optimized with respect to the geometric parameters of the pores, for potential performance as a gas sensor device. The average thickness of the adsorbed film at low relative pressures is not affected by the pore size. Capillary evaporation of the liquid from the nanopores occurs at the liquid-vapor equilibrium described by the classical Kelvin equation with a hemispherical meniscus. Due to the almost complete wetting, we can quantitatively describe the condensation for isopropanol using the Cohan model with a cylindrical meniscus in the Kelvin equation. This model describes the observed hysteresis and allows us to use the adsorption branch of the isotherm to calculate the pore size distribution of the sample in good agreement with independent structural measurements. The condensation for toluene lacks reproducibility due to incomplete surface wetting. This exemplifies the relevant role of the fluid-solid (van der Waals) interactions in the hysteretic behavior of capillary condensation.

  17. Gas adsorption and capillary condensation in nanoporous alumina films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casanova, Felix; Chiang, Casey E; Li, Chang-Peng; Roshchin, Igor V; Schuller, Ivan K; Ruminski, Anne M; Sailor, Michael J

    2008-01-01

    Gas adsorption and capillary condensation of organic vapors are studied by optical interferometry, using anodized nanoporous alumina films with controlled geometry (cylindrical pores with diameters in the range of 10-60 nm). The optical response of the film is optimized with respect to the geometric parameters of the pores, for potential performance as a gas sensor device. The average thickness of the adsorbed film at low relative pressures is not affected by the pore size. Capillary evaporation of the liquid from the nanopores occurs at the liquid-vapor equilibrium described by the classical Kelvin equation with a hemispherical meniscus. Due to the almost complete wetting, we can quantitatively describe the condensation for isopropanol using the Cohan model with a cylindrical meniscus in the Kelvin equation. This model describes the observed hysteresis and allows us to use the adsorption branch of the isotherm to calculate the pore size distribution of the sample in good agreement with independent structural measurements. The condensation for toluene lacks reproducibility due to incomplete surface wetting. This exemplifies the relevant role of the fluid-solid (van der Waals) interactions in the hysteretic behavior of capillary condensation

  18. Gas adsorption and capillary condensation in nanoporous alumina films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, Fèlix; Chiang, Casey E; Li, Chang-Peng; Roshchin, Igor V; Ruminski, Anne M; Sailor, Michael J; Schuller, Ivan K

    2008-08-06

    Gas adsorption and capillary condensation of organic vapors are studied by optical interferometry, using anodized nanoporous alumina films with controlled geometry (cylindrical pores with diameters in the range of 10-60 nm). The optical response of the film is optimized with respect to the geometric parameters of the pores, for potential performance as a gas sensor device. The average thickness of the adsorbed film at low relative pressures is not affected by the pore size. Capillary evaporation of the liquid from the nanopores occurs at the liquid-vapor equilibrium described by the classical Kelvin equation with a hemispherical meniscus. Due to the almost complete wetting, we can quantitatively describe the condensation for isopropanol using the Cohan model with a cylindrical meniscus in the Kelvin equation. This model describes the observed hysteresis and allows us to use the adsorption branch of the isotherm to calculate the pore size distribution of the sample in good agreement with independent structural measurements. The condensation for toluene lacks reproducibility due to incomplete surface wetting. This exemplifies the relevant role of the fluid-solid (van der Waals) interactions in the hysteretic behavior of capillary condensation.

  19. Combined HRTEM and PEELS analysis of nanoporous and amorphous carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, J.L.; Fan, X. D.; Bursill, L.A.

    1997-01-01

    Both the mass density (1.37 kgm/m 3 ) and sp 2 +sp 3 bonding fraction (0.15) were determined for an unusual nanoporous amorphous carbon consisting of curved single graphitic sheets. A combination of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and parallel electron energy loss spectroscopy (PEELS) was used. The values of these two parameters provide important constraints for the determination of the structure of this relatively low density variety of nanoporous carbon. The results are relevant also in the search for negatively-curved Schwarzite-related carbon structures. New date are also presented for highly-oriented pyrollytic graphite (HOPG), chemically vapour deposited (CVD) diamond, C 60 , glassy carbon (GC) and evaporated amorphous carbon (EAC); these are compared with the results for NAC. Kramers-Kronig analysis (KKA) of the low-loss PEELS data shows that the band gaps of both NAC and EAC are collapsed relative to that of CVD diamond. 18 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs

  20. Synthesis and characterization of electrical conducting nanoporous carbon structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Mir, L.; Kraiem, S.; Bengagi, M.; Elaloui, E.; Ouederni, A.; Alaya, S.

    2007-01-01

    Nanoporous organic xerogel compounds were prepared by sol-gel method from pyrogallol-formaldehyde (PF) mixtures in water using perchloric acid as catalyst. The preparation conditions of electrical conducting carbon (ECC) structures were explored by changing the pyrolysis temperature. The effect of this preparation parameters on the structural and electrical properties of the obtained ECCs were studied, respectively, by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), nitrogen adsorption isotherms, IR spectroscopy and electrical conductivity measurements. The analysis of the obtained results revealed that, the polymeric insulating phase was transformed progressively with pyrolysis temperature into carbon conducting phase; this means the formation of long continuous conducting path for charge carriers when the carbon microparticles inside the structure agglomerated with thermal treatment and the samples exhibited tangible percolation behaviour where the percolation threshold can be determined by pyrolysis temperature. The temperature-dependent conductivity and the I(V) characteristics of the obtained ECC structures show a non-ohmic behaviour. The results obtained from TGA and differential thermal analyser (DTA) thermograms, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) micrographs, IR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction revealed that, the obtained ECC structures consist of amorphous and nanoporous electrical conducting carbon materials

  1. Combined HRTEM and PEELS analysis of nanoporous and amorphous carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, J.L.; Fan, X. D.; Bursill, L.A.

    1997-06-01

    Both the mass density (1.37 kgm/m{sup 3}) and sp{sup 2}+sp{sup 3} bonding fraction (0.15) were determined for an unusual nanoporous amorphous carbon consisting of curved single graphitic sheets. A combination of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and parallel electron energy loss spectroscopy (PEELS) was used. The values of these two parameters provide important constraints for the determination of the structure of this relatively low density variety of nanoporous carbon. The results are relevant also in the search for negatively-curved Schwarzite-related carbon structures. New date are also presented for highly-oriented pyrollytic graphite (HOPG), chemically vapour deposited (CVD) diamond, C{sub 60}, glassy carbon (GC) and evaporated amorphous carbon (EAC); these are compared with the results for NAC. Kramers-Kronig analysis (KKA) of the low-loss PEELS data shows that the band gaps of both NAC and EAC are collapsed relative to that of CVD diamond. 18 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs.

  2. Fabrication of Polymer Microneedle Electrodes Coated with Nanoporous Parylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishinaka, Yuya; Jun, Rina; Setia Prihandana, Gunawan; Miki, Norihisa

    2013-06-01

    In this study, we demonstrate the fabrication of polymer microneedle electrodes covered with a nanoporous parylene film that can serve as flexible electrodes for a brain-machine interface. In brain wave measurement, the electric impedance of electrodes should be below 10 kΩ at 15 Hz, and the conductive layer needs to be protected to survive its insertion into the stratum corneum. Polymer microneedles can be used as substrates for flexible electrodes, which can compensate for the movement of the skin; however, the adhesion between a conductive metal film, such as a silver film, and a polymer, such as poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), is weak. Therefore, we coated the electrode surface with a nanoporous parylene film, following the vapor deposition of a silver film. When the porosity of the parylene film is appropriate, it protects the silver film while allowing the electrode to have sufficient conductivity. The porosity can be controlled by adjusting the amount of the parylene dimer used for the deposition or the parylene film thickness. We experimentally verified that a conductive membrane was successfully protected while maintaining a conductivity below 10 kΩ when the thickness of the parylene film was between 25 and 38 nm.

  3. On the anodic aluminium oxide refractive index of nanoporous templates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hierro-Rodriguez, A; Rocha-Rodrigues, P; Araujo, J P; Valdés-Bango, F; Alameda, J M; Teixeira, J M; Jorge, P A S; Santos, J L; Guerreiro, A

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we have determined the intrinsic refractive index of anodic aluminium oxide, which is originated by the formation of nanoporous alumina templates. Different templates have been fabricated by the conventional two-step anodization procedure in oxalic acid. Their porosities were modified by chemical wet etching allowing the tuning of their effective refractive indexes (air-filled nanopores  +  anodic aluminium oxide). By standard spectroscopic light transmission measurements, the effective refractive index for each different template was extracted in the VIS–NIR region. The determination of the intrinsic anodic aluminium oxide refractive index was performed by using the Maxwell–Garnett homogenization theory. The results are coincident for all the fabricated samples. The obtained refractive index (∼1.55) is quite lower (∼22%) than the commonly used Al 2 O 3 handbook value (∼1.75), showing that the amorphous nature of the anodic oxide structure strongly conditions its optical properties. This difference is critical for the correct design and modeling of optical plasmonic metamaterials based on anodic aluminium oxide nanoporous templates. (paper)

  4. Enhanced microcontact printing of proteins on nanoporous silica surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blinka, Ellen; Hu Ye; Gopal, Ashwini; Hoshino, Kazunori; Lin, Kevin; Zhang, John X J [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78758 (United States); Loeffler, Kathryn; Liu Xuewu; Ferrari, Mauro, E-mail: John.Zhang@engr.utexas.edu [Department of Nanomedicine and Biomedical Engineering, University of Texas Health Science Service, Houston, TX 77031 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    We demonstrate porous silica surface modification, combined with microcontact printing, as an effective method for enhanced protein patterning and adsorption on arbitrary surfaces. Compared to conventional chemical treatments, this approach offers scalability and long-term device stability without requiring complex chemical activation. Two chemical surface treatments using functionalization with the commonly used 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) and glutaraldehyde (GA) were compared with the nanoporous silica surface on the basis of protein adsorption. The deposited thickness and uniformity of porous silica films were evaluated for fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled rabbit immunoglobulin G (R-IgG) protein printed onto the substrates via patterned polydimethlysiloxane (PDMS) stamps. A more complete transfer of proteins was observed on porous silica substrates compared to chemically functionalized substrates. A comparison of different pore sizes (4-6 nm) and porous silica thicknesses (96-200 nm) indicates that porous silica with 4 nm diameter, 57% porosity and a thickness of 96 nm provided a suitable environment for complete transfer of R-IgG proteins. Both fluorescence microscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used for protein layer characterizations. A porous silica layer is biocompatible, providing a favorable transfer medium with minimal damage to the proteins. A patterned immunoassay microchip was developed to demonstrate the retained protein function after printing on nanoporous surfaces, which enables printable and robust immunoassay detection for point-of-care applications.

  5. Stepwise Nanopore Evolution in One-Dimensional Nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Jang Wook

    2010-04-14

    We report that established simple lithium (Li) ion battery cycles can be used to produce nanopores inside various useful one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures such as zinc oxide, silicon, and silver nanowires. Moreover, porosities of these 1D nanomaterials can be controlled in a stepwise manner by the number of Li-battery cycles. Subsequent pore characterization at the end of each cycle allows us to obtain detailed snapshots of the distinct pore evolution properties in each material due to their different atomic diffusion rates and types of chemical bonds. Also, this stepwise characterization led us to the first observation of pore size increases during cycling, which can be interpreted as a similar phenomenon to Ostwald ripening in analogous nanoparticle cases. Finally, we take advantage of the unique combination of nanoporosity and 1D materials and demonstrate nanoporous silicon nanowires (poSiNWs) as excellent supercapacitor (SC) electrodes in high power operations compared to existing devices with activated carbon. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  6. Formation and evolution of nanoporous bimetallic Ag-Cu alloy by electrochemically dealloying Mg-(Ag-Cu)-Y metallic glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ran; Wu, Na; Liu, Jijuan; Jin, Yu; Chen, Xiao-Bo; Zhang, Tao

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Uniform nanoporous Ag-Cu alloy was fabricated by dealloying Mg-based metallic glass. • The nanoporous structure was built up with numerous Ag-Cu ligaments. • The nanoporous ligaments show two-stage coarsening behavior with dealloying time. • The formation and evolution mechanisms of the nanoporous structure were clarified. • It could provide new guidance to the synthesis of nanoporous multi-component alloys. - Abstract: A three-dimensional nanoporous bimetallic Ag-Cu alloy with uniform chemical composition has been fabricated by dealloying Mg_6_5Ag_1_2_._5Cu_1_2_._5Y_1_0 metallic glass in dilute (0.04 M) H_2SO_4 aqueous solution under free-corrosion conditions. The nanoporous Ag-Cu evolves through two distinct stages. First, ligaments of the nanoporous structure, consisting of supersaturated Ag(Cu) solid solution with a constant Ag/Cu mole ratio of 1:1, are yielded. Second, with excessive immersion, some Cu atoms separate from the metastable nanoporous matrix and form spherical Cu particles on the sample surface. Formation and evolution mechanisms of the nanoporous structure are proposed.

  7. Application of Multi-Species Microbial Bioassay to Assess the Effects of Engineered Nanoparticles in the Aquatic Environment: Potential of a Luminous Microbial Array for Toxicity Risk Assessment (LumiMARA on Testing for Surface-Coated Silver Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YounJung Jung

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Four different manufactured surface-coated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs with coating of citrate, tannic acid, polyethylene glycol, and branched polyethylenimine were used in this study. The toxicity of surface-coated AgNPs was evaluated by a luminous microbial array for toxicity risk assessment (LumiMARA using multi-species of luminescent bacteria. The salt stability of four different AgNPs was measured by UV absorbance at 400 nm wavelength, and different surface-charged AgNPs in combination with bacteria were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Both branched polyethylenimine (BPEI-AgNPs and polyethylene glycol (PEG-AgNPs were shown to be stable with 2% NaCl (non-aggregation, whereas both citrate (Cit-AgNPs and tannic acid (Tan-AgNPs rapidly aggregated in 2% NaCl solution. The values of the 50% effective concentration (EC50 for BPEI-AgNPs in marine bacteria strains (1.57 to 5.19 mg/L were lower than those for the other surface-coated AgNPs (i.e., Cit-AgNPs, Tan-AgNPs, and PEG-AgNPs. It appears that the toxicity of AgNPs could be activated by the interaction of positively charged AgNPs with the negatively charged bacterial cell wall from the results of LumiMARA. LumiMARA for toxicity screening has advantageous compared to a single-species bioassay and is applicable for environmental samples as displaying ranges of assessment results.

  8. Surprising transformation of a block copolymer into a high performance polystyrene ultrafiltration membrane with a hierarchically organized pore structure

    KAUST Repository

    Shevate, Rahul

    2018-02-08

    We describe the preparation of hierarchical polystyrene nanoporous membranes with a very narrow pore size distribution and an extremely high porosity. The nanoporous structure is formed as a result of unusual degradation of the poly(4-vinyl pyridine) block from self-assembled poly(styrene)-b-poly(4-vinyl pyridine) (PS-b-P4VP) membranes through the formation of an unstable pyridinium intermediate in an alkaline medium. During this process, the confined swelling and controlled degradation produced a tunable pore size. We unequivocally confirmed the successful elimination of the P4VP block from a PS-b-P4VPVP membrane using 1D/2D NMR spectroscopy and other characterization techniques. Surprisingly, the long range ordered surface porosity was preserved even after degradation of the P4VP block from the main chain of the diblock copolymer, as revealed by SEM. Aside from a drastically improved water flux (∼67% increase) compared to the PS-b-P4VP membrane, the hydraulic permeability measurements validated pH independent behaviour of the isoporous PS membrane over a wide pH range from 3 to 10. The effect of the pore size on protein transport rate and selectivity (a) was investigated for lysozyme (Lys), bovine serum albumin (BSA) and globulin-γ (IgG). A high selectivity of 42 (Lys/IgG) and 30 (BSA/IgG) was attained, making the membranes attractive for size selective separation of biomolecules from their synthetic model mixture solutions.

  9. Multicollinearity in hierarchical linear models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Han; Jiang, Shanhe; Land, Kenneth C

    2015-09-01

    This study investigates an ill-posed problem (multicollinearity) in Hierarchical Linear Models from both the data and the model perspectives. We propose an intuitive, effective approach to diagnosing the presence of multicollinearity and its remedies in this class of models. A simulation study demonstrates the impacts of multicollinearity on coefficient estimates, associated standard errors, and variance components at various levels of multicollinearity for finite sample sizes typical in social science studies. We further investigate the role multicollinearity plays at each level for estimation of coefficient parameters in terms of shrinkage. Based on these analyses, we recommend a top-down method for assessing multicollinearity in HLMs that first examines the contextual predictors (Level-2 in a two-level model) and then the individual predictors (Level-1) and uses the results for data collection, research problem redefinition, model re-specification, variable selection and estimation of a final model. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Distributed hierarchical radiation monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barak, D.

    1985-01-01

    A solution to the problem of monitoring the radiation levels in and around a nuclear facility is presented in this paper. This is a private case of a large scale general purpose data acqisition system with high reliability, availability and short maintenance time. The physical layout of the detectors in the plant, and the strict control demands dictated a distributed and hierarchical system. The system is comprised of three levels, each level contains modules. Level one contains the Control modules which collects data from groups of detectors and executes emergency local control tasks. In level two are the Group controllers which concentrate data from the Control modules, and enable local display and communication. The system computer is in level three, enabling the plant operator to receive information from the detectors and execute control tasks. The described system was built and is operating successfully for about two years. (author)

  11. Hierarchical Control for Smart Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trangbæk, K; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    of autonomous consumers. The control system is tasked with balancing electric power production and consumption within the smart grid, and makes active use of the flexibility of a large number of power producing and/or power consuming units. The objective is to accommodate the load variation on the grid, arising......This paper deals with hierarchical model predictive control (MPC) of smart grid systems. The design consists of a high level MPC controller, a second level of so-called aggregators, which reduces the computational and communication-related load on the high-level control, and a lower level...... on one hand from varying consumption, and on the other hand by natural variations in power production e.g. from wind turbines. The high-level MPC problem is solved using quadratic optimisation, while the aggregator level can either involve quadratic optimisation or simple sorting-based min-max solutions...

  12. Silver Films with Hierarchical Chirality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Liguo; Cao, Yuanyuan; Duan, Yingying; Han, Lu; Che, Shunai

    2017-07-17

    Physical fabrication of chiral metallic films usually results in singular or large-sized chirality, restricting the optical asymmetric responses to long electromagnetic wavelengths. The chiral molecule-induced formation of silver films prepared chemically on a copper substrate through a redox reaction is presented. Three levels of chirality were identified: primary twisted nanoflakes with atomic crystal lattices, secondary helical stacking of these nanoflakes to form nanoplates, and tertiary micrometer-sized circinates consisting of chiral arranged nanoplates. The chiral Ag films exhibited multiple plasmonic absorption- and scattering-based optical activities at UV/Vis wavelengths based on their hierarchical chirality. The Ag films showed chiral selectivity for amino acids in catalytic electrochemical reactions, which originated from their primary atomic crystal lattices. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Hierarchical coarse-graining transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancaldi, Vera; King, Peter R; Christensen, Kim

    2009-03-01

    We present a hierarchical transform that can be applied to Laplace-like differential equations such as Darcy's equation for single-phase flow in a porous medium. A finite-difference discretization scheme is used to set the equation in the form of an eigenvalue problem. Within the formalism suggested, the pressure field is decomposed into an average value and fluctuations of different kinds and at different scales. The application of the transform to the equation allows us to calculate the unknown pressure with a varying level of detail. A procedure is suggested to localize important features in the pressure field based only on the fine-scale permeability, and hence we develop a form of adaptive coarse graining. The formalism and method are described and demonstrated using two synthetic toy problems.

  14. Inactivation of Vegetative Cells, but Not Spores, of Bacillus anthracis, B. cereus, and B. subtilis on Stainless Steel Surfaces Coated with an Antimicrobial Silver- and Zinc-Containing Zeolite Formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeano, Belinda; Korff, Emily; Nicholson, Wayne L.

    2003-01-01

    Stainless steel surfaces coated with paints containing a silver- and zinc-containing zeolite (AgION antimicrobial) were assayed in comparison to uncoated stainless steel for antimicrobial activity against vegetative cells and spores of three Bacillus species, namely, B. anthracis Sterne, B. cereus T, and B. subtilis 168. Under the test conditions (25°C and 80% relative humidity), the zeolite coating produced approximately 3 log10 inactivation of vegetative cells within a 5- to 24-h period, but viability of spores of the three species was not significantly affected. PMID:12839825

  15. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles for topical applications: effect of surface coating and loading into hydrogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mekkawy AI

    2017-01-01

    -AgNPs dispersions using several gelling agents (sodium carboxymethyl cellulose [Na CMC], sodium alginate, hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose, Pluronic F-127, and chitosan. The prepared formulations were evaluated for their viscosity, spreadability, in vitro drug release, and antibacterial activity, and the combined effect of the type of surface coating and the polymers utilized to form the gel was studied. The in vivo wound-healing activity and antibacterial efficacy of Na CMC hydrogel loaded with PEG-coated AgNPs in comparison to the commercially available silver sulfadiazine cream (Dermazin® were evaluated. Superior antibacterial activity and wound-healing capability, with normal skin appearance and hair growth, were demonstrated for the hydrogel formulations, as compared to the silver sulfadiazine cream. Histological examination of the treated skin was performed using light microscopy, whereas the location of AgNPs in the skin epidermal layers was visualized using transmission electron microscopy. Keywords: silver nanoparticles, green synthesis, coating agents, hydrogel, wound healing, antibacterial activity

  16. Adaptive hierarchical multi-agent organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghijsen, M.; Jansweijer, W.N.H.; Wielinga, B.J.; Babuška, R.; Groen, F.C.A.

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter, we discuss the design of adaptive hierarchical organizations for multi-agent systems (MAS). Hierarchical organizations have a number of advantages such as their ability to handle complex problems and their scalability to large organizations. By introducing adaptivity in the

  17. The Case for a Hierarchical Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaucouleurs, G. de

    1970-01-01

    The development of modern theoretical cosmology is presented and some questionable assumptions of orthodox cosmology are pointed out. Suggests that recent observations indicate that hierarchical clustering is a basic factor in cosmology. The implications of hierarchical models of the universe are considered. Bibliography. (LC)

  18. Discovering hierarchical structure in normal relational data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Mikkel Nørgaard; Herlau, Tue; Mørup, Morten

    2014-01-01

    -parametric generative model for hierarchical clustering of similarity based on multifurcating Gibbs fragmentation trees. This allows us to infer and display the posterior distribution of hierarchical structures that comply with the data. We demonstrate the utility of our method on synthetic data and data of functional...

  19. Biased trapping issue on weighted hierarchical networks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    archical networks which are based on the classic scale-free hierarchical networks. ... Weighted hierarchical networks; weight-dependent walks; mean first passage ..... The weighted networks can mimic some real-world natural and social systems to ... the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education ...

  20. Hierarchically Nanostructured Materials for Sustainable Environmental Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng eRen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a comprehensive overview of the hierarchical nanostructured materials with either geometry or composition complexity in environmental applications. The hierarchical nanostructures offer advantages of high surface area, synergistic interactions and multiple functionalities towards water remediation, environmental gas sensing and monitoring as well as catalytic gas treatment. Recent advances in synthetic strategies for various hierarchical morphologies such as hollow spheres and urchin-shaped architectures have been reviewed. In addition to the chemical synthesis, the physical mechanisms associated with the materials design and device fabrication have been discussed for each specific application. The development and application of hierarchical complex perovskite oxide nanostructures have also been introduced in photocatalytic water remediation, gas sensing and catalytic converter. Hierarchical nanostructures will open up many possibilities for materials design and device fabrication in environmental chemistry and technology.

  1. Hierarchical Rhetorical Sentence Categorization for Scientific Papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachman, G. H.; Khodra, M. L.; Widyantoro, D. H.

    2018-03-01

    Important information in scientific papers can be composed of rhetorical sentences that is structured from certain categories. To get this information, text categorization should be conducted. Actually, some works in this task have been completed by employing word frequency, semantic similarity words, hierarchical classification, and the others. Therefore, this paper aims to present the rhetorical sentence categorization from scientific paper by employing TF-IDF and Word2Vec to capture word frequency and semantic similarity words and employing hierarchical classification. Every experiment is tested in two classifiers, namely Naïve Bayes and SVM Linear. This paper shows that hierarchical classifier is better than flat classifier employing either TF-IDF or Word2Vec, although it increases only almost 2% from 27.82% when using flat classifier until 29.61% when using hierarchical classifier. It shows also different learning model for child-category can be built by hierarchical classifier.

  2. Processing of hierarchical syntactic structure in music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelsch, Stefan; Rohrmeier, Martin; Torrecuso, Renzo; Jentschke, Sebastian

    2013-09-17

    Hierarchical structure with nested nonlocal dependencies is a key feature of human language and can be identified theoretically in most pieces of tonal music. However, previous studies have argued against the perception of such structures in music. Here, we show processing of nonlocal dependencies in music. We presented chorales by J. S. Bach and modified versions in which the hierarchical structure was rendered irregular whereas the local structure was kept intact. Brain electric responses differed between regular and irregular hierarchical structures, in both musicians and nonmusicians. This finding indicates that, when listening to music, humans apply cognitive processes that are capable of dealing with long-distance dependencies resulting from hierarchically organized syntactic structures. Our results reveal that a brain mechanism fundamental for syntactic processing is engaged during the perception of music, indicating that processing of hierarchical structure with nested nonlocal dependencies is not just a key component of human language, but a multidomain capacity of human cognition.

  3. Membranes from nanoporous 1D and 2D materials: A review of opportunities, developments, and challenges

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Wun-gwi; Nair, Sankar

    2013-01-01

    strategies to process these materials into membranes and thin films with high performance. This work provides the first comprehensive review of this emerging area. We first discuss approaches for the synthesis and structural characterization of nanoporous 1D

  4. Brittle-to-ductile transition of lithiated silicon electrodes: Crazing to stable nanopore growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Haoran; Chew, Huck Beng; Wang, Xueju; Xia, Shuman

    2015-01-01

    Using first principle calculations, we uncover the underlying mechanisms explaining the brittle-to-ductile transition of Li x Si electrodes in lithium ion batteries with increasing Li content. We show that plasticity initiates at x = ∼ 0.5 with the formation of a craze-like network of nanopores separated by Si–Si bonds, while subsequent failure is still brittle-like with the breaking of Si–Si bonds. Transition to ductile behavior occurs at x ⩾ 1 due to the increased density of highly stretchable Li–Li bonds, which delays nanopore formation and stabilizes nanopore growth. Collapse of the nanopores during unloading of the Li x Si alloys leads to significant strain recovery

  5. Nanoporous Insulating Oxide Deionization Device Having Asymmetric Electrodes and Method of Use Thereof

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A nanoporous insulating oxide deionization device, method of manufacture and method of use thereof for deionizing a water supply (such as a hard water supply), for...

  6. Interconnected V2O5 nanoporous network for high-performance supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanakumar, B; Purushothaman, Kamatchi K; Muralidharan, G

    2012-09-26

    Vanadium pentoxide (V(2)O(5)) has attracted attention for supercapcitor applications because of its extensive multifunctional properties. In the present study, V(2)O(5) nanoporous network was synthesized via simple capping-agent-assisted precipitation technique and it is further annealed at different temperatures. The effect of annealing temperature on the morphology, electrochemical and structural properties, and stability upon oxidation-reduction cycling has been analyzed for supercapacitor application. We achieved highest specific capacitance of 316 F g(-1) for interconnected V(2)O(5) nanoporous network. This interconnected nanoporous network creates facile nanochannels for ion diffusion and facilitates the easy accessibility of ions. Moreover, after six hundred consecutive cycling processes the specific capacitance has changed only by 24%. A simple cost-effective preparation technique of V(2)O(5) nanoporous network with excellent capacitive behavior, energy density, and stability encourages its possible commercial exploitation for the development of high-performance supercapacitors.

  7. Brittle-to-ductile transition of lithiated silicon electrodes: Crazing to stable nanopore growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Haoran; Chew, Huck Beng, E-mail: hbchew@illinois.edu [Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Wang, Xueju; Xia, Shuman [Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States)

    2015-09-14

    Using first principle calculations, we uncover the underlying mechanisms explaining the brittle-to-ductile transition of Li{sub x}Si electrodes in lithium ion batteries with increasing Li content. We show that plasticity initiates at x = ∼ 0.5 with the formation of a craze-like network of nanopores separated by Si–Si bonds, while subsequent failure is still brittle-like with the breaking of Si–Si bonds. Transition to ductile behavior occurs at x ⩾ 1 due to the increased density of highly stretchable Li–Li bonds, which delays nanopore formation and stabilizes nanopore growth. Collapse of the nanopores during unloading of the Li{sub x}Si alloys leads to significant strain recovery.

  8. Engineering of highly ordered TiO2 nanopore arrays by anodization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huijie; Huang, Zhennan; Zhang, Li; Ding, Jie; Ma, Zhaoxia; Liu, Yong; Kou, Shengzhong; Yang, Hangsheng

    2016-07-01

    Finite element analysis was used to simulate the current density distributions in the TiO2 barrier layer formed at the initial stage of Ti anodization. The morphology modification of the barrier layer was found to induce current density distribution change. By starting the anodization with proper TiO2 barrier layer morphology, the current density distribution can be adjusted to favor the formation of either nanotube arrays or nanopore arrays of anodic TiO2. We also found that the addition of sodium acetate into the electrolyte suppressed both the field-assisted chemical dissolution of TiO2 and the TiF62- hydrolysis induced TiO2 deposition during anodization, and thus further favored the nanopore formation. Accordingly, highly ordered anodic TiO2 nanopore arrays, similar to anodic aluminum oxide nanopore arrays, were successfully prepared.

  9. High-flux water desalination with interfacial salt sieving effect in nanoporous carbon composite membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Wei; Chen, Shuyu; Liang, Tengfei; Zhang, Qiang; Fan, Zhongli; Yin, Hang; Huang, Kuo-Wei; Zhang, Xixiang; Lai, Zhiping; Sheng, Ping

    2018-01-01

    Freshwater flux and energy consumption are two important benchmarks for the membrane desalination process. Here, we show that nanoporous carbon composite membranes, which comprise a layer of porous carbon fibre structures grown on a porous ceramic

  10. Study of preparation and surface morphology of self-ordered nanoporous alumina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Elisa Marchezini; Martins, Maximiliano Delany; Silva, Ronald Arreguy

    2013-01-01

    Nanoporous alumina is a typical material that exhibits self-ordered nanochannels spontaneously organized in hexagonal shape. Produced by anodizing of metallic aluminum, it has been used as a template for production of materials at the nanoscale. This work aimed to study the preparation of nanoporous alumina by anodic anodizing of metallic aluminum substrates. The nanoporous alumina was prepared following the methodology proposed by Masuda and Fukuda (1995), a two-step method consisting of anodizing the aluminum sample in the potentiostatic mode, removing the layer of aluminum oxide (alumina) formed and then repeat the anodization process under the same conditions as the first anodization. This method produces nanoporous alumina with narrow pore diameter distribution and well-ordered structure. (author)

  11. Nanoporous layered silicate AMH-3/cellulose acetate nanocomposite membranes for gas separations

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Wun-gwi; Lee, Jong Suk; Bucknall, David G.; Koros, William J.; Nair, Sankar

    2013-01-01

    Nanoporous layered silicate/polymer composite membranes are of interest because they can exploit the high aspect ratio of exfoliated selective flakes/layers to enhance molecular sieving and create a highly tortuous transport path for the slower

  12. Nanoporous Activated Carbon Derived from Rice Husk for High Performance Supercapacitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaxing Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoporous activated carbon material was produced from the waste rice husks (RHs by precarbonizing RHs and activating with KOH. The morphology, structure, and specific surface area were investigated. The nanoporous carbon has the average pore size of 2.2 nm and high specific area of 2523.4 m2 g−1. The specific capacitance of the nanoporous carbon is calculated to be 250 F g−1 at the current density of 1 A g−1 and remains 80% for 198 F g−1 at the current density of 20 A g−1. The nanoporous carbon electrode exhibits long-term cycle life and could keep stable capacitance till 10,000 cycles. The consistently high specific capacitance, rate capacity, and long-term cycle life ability makes it a potential candidate as electrode material for supercapacitor.

  13. Nanopore arrays in a silicon membrane for parallel single-molecule detection: fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Torsten; Zhang, Miao; Sychugov, Ilya; Roxhed, Niclas; Linnros, Jan

    2015-08-01

    Solid state nanopores enable translocation and detection of single bio-molecules such as DNA in buffer solutions. Here, sub-10 nm nanopore arrays in silicon membranes were fabricated by using electron-beam lithography to define etch pits and by using a subsequent electrochemical etching step. This approach effectively decouples positioning of the pores and the control of their size, where the pore size essentially results from the anodizing current and time in the etching cell. Nanopores with diameters as small as 7 nm, fully penetrating 300 nm thick membranes, were obtained. The presented fabrication scheme to form large arrays of nanopores is attractive for parallel bio-molecule sensing and DNA sequencing using optical techniques. In particular the signal-to-noise ratio is improved compared to other alternatives such as nitride membranes suffering from a high-luminescence background.

  14. Nanoporous carbon tunable resistor/transistor and methods of production thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biener, Juergen; Baumann, Theodore F; Dasgupta, Subho; Hahn, Horst

    2014-04-22

    In one embodiment, a tunable resistor/transistor includes a porous material that is electrically coupled between a source electrode and a drain electrode, wherein the porous material acts as an active channel, an electrolyte solution saturating the active channel, the electrolyte solution being adapted for altering an electrical resistance of the active channel based on an applied electrochemical potential, wherein the active channel comprises nanoporous carbon arranged in a three-dimensional structure. In another embodiment, a method for forming the tunable resistor/transistor includes forming a source electrode, forming a drain electrode, and forming a monolithic nanoporous carbon material that acts as an active channel and selectively couples the source electrode to the drain electrode electrically. In any embodiment, the electrolyte solution saturating the nanoporous carbon active channel is adapted for altering an electrical resistance of the nanoporous carbon active channel based on an applied electrochemical potential.

  15. Self-ordered, controlled structure nanoporous membranes using constant current anodization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwan; Tang, Yun; Ouyang, Min

    2008-12-01

    We report a constant current (CC) based anodization technique to fabricate and control structure of mechanically stable anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes with a long-range ordered hexagonal nanopore pattern. For the first time we show that interpore distance (Dint) of a self-ordered nanopore feature can be continuously tuned over a broad range with CC anodization and is uniquely defined by the conductivity of sulfuric acid as electrolyte. We further demonstrate that this technique can offer new degrees of freedom for engineering planar nanopore structures by fine tailoring the CC based anodization process. Our results not only facilitate further understanding of self-ordering mechanism of alumina membranes but also provide a fast, simple (without requirement of prepatterning or preoxide layer), and flexible methodology for controlling complex nanoporous structures, thus offering promising practical applications in nanotechnology.

  16. Brittle-to-ductile transition of lithiated silicon electrodes: Crazing to stable nanopore growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haoran; Wang, Xueju; Xia, Shuman; Chew, Huck Beng

    2015-09-14

    Using first principle calculations, we uncover the underlying mechanisms explaining the brittle-to-ductile transition of LixSi electrodes in lithium ion batteries with increasing Li content. We show that plasticity initiates at x = ∼ 0.5 with the formation of a craze-like network of nanopores separated by Si-Si bonds, while subsequent failure is still brittle-like with the breaking of Si-Si bonds. Transition to ductile behavior occurs at x ⩾ 1 due to the increased density of highly stretchable Li-Li bonds, which delays nanopore formation and stabilizes nanopore growth. Collapse of the nanopores during unloading of the LixSi alloys leads to significant strain recovery.

  17. Influence of adsorption thermodynamics on guest diffusivities in nanoporous crystalline materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krishna, R.; van Baten, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Published experimental data, underpinned by molecular simulations, are used to highlight the strong influence of adsorption thermodynamics on diffusivities of guest molecules inside ordered nanoporous crystalline materials such as zeolites, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), and zeolitic imidazolate

  18. Water desalination with a single-layer MoS2 nanopore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiranian, Mohammad; Farimani, Amir Barati; Aluru, Narayana R.

    2015-10-01

    Efficient desalination of water continues to be a problem facing the society. Advances in nanotechnology have led to the development of a variety of nanoporous membranes for water purification. Here we show, by performing molecular dynamics simulations, that a nanopore in a single-layer molybdenum disulfide can effectively reject ions and allow transport of water at a high rate. More than 88% of ions are rejected by membranes having pore areas ranging from 20 to 60 Å2. Water flux is found to be two to five orders of magnitude greater than that of other known nanoporous membranes. Pore chemistry is shown to play a significant role in modulating the water flux. Pores with only molybdenum atoms on their edges lead to higher fluxes, which are ~70% greater than that of graphene nanopores. These observations are explained by permeation coefficients, energy barriers, water density and velocity distributions in the pores.

  19. Swelling, Functionalization, and Structural Changes of the Nanoporous Layered Silicates AMH-3 and MCM-22

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Wun-gwi; Choi, Sunho; Nair, Sankar

    2011-01-01

    Nanoporous layered silicate materials contain 2D-planar sheets of nanoscopic thickness and ordered porous structure. In comparison to porous 3D-framework materials such as zeolites, they have advantages such as significantly increased surface area

  20. Stability and Catalytic Kinetics of Horseradish Peroxidase Confined in Nanoporous SBA-15

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ikemoto, Hediki; Chi, Qijin; Ulstrup, Jens

    2010-01-01

    We have synthesized nanoporous silica, SBA-15 in the 1 m size range with the pore diameter of 7.6 nm. The redox enzyme horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was entrapped in the pores to form nanostructured hybrid materials. The catalytic activity of free and immobilized enzyme was first compared at room...... likely due to different hydrogen bonding of water and increased hydration strength of the protein inside the nanopores....

  1. Fabrication and textural characterization of nanoporous carbon electrodes embedded with CuO nanoparticles for supercapacitors

    OpenAIRE

    Kumaresa P S Prasad, Dattatray S Dhawale, Thiripuranthagan Sivakumar, Salem S Aldeyab, Javaid S M Zaidi, Katsuhiko Ariga and Ajayan Vinu

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a novel strategy of fabricating nanoporous carbons loaded with different amounts of CuO nanoparticles via a hard templating approach, using copper-containing mesoporous silica as the template and sucrose as the carbon source. The nature and dispersion of the CuO nanoparticles on the surface of the nanoporous carbons were investigated by x-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). XRD r...

  2. Fluid-mechanic model for fabrication of nanoporous fibers by electrospinning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Chengxu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A charged jet in the electrospinning process for fabrication of nanoporous fibers is studied theoretically. A fluid-mechanic model considering solvent evaporation is established to research the effect of solvent evaporation on nanopore structure formation. The model gives a powerful tool to offering in-depth physical under-standing and controlling over electrospinning parameters such as voltage, flow rate, and solvent evaporation rate.

  3. Fluid-mechanic model for fabrication of nanoporous fibers by electrospinning

    OpenAIRE

    Fan Chengxu; Sun Zhaoyang; Xu Lan

    2017-01-01

    A charged jet in the electrospinning process for fabrication of nanoporous fibers is studied theoretically. A fluid-mechanic model considering solvent evaporation is established to research the effect of solvent evaporation on nanopore structure formation. The model gives a powerful tool to offering in-depth physical under-standing and controlling over electrospinning parameters such as voltage, flow rate, and solvent evaporation rate.

  4. Microstructure evolution in nanoporous gold thin films made from sputter-deposited precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gwak, Eun-Ji; Kang, Na-Ri; Baek, Un Bong; Lee, Hae Moo; Nahm, Seung Hoon; Kim, Ju-Young

    2013-01-01

    We fabricate almost crack-free 1.5 μm thick nanoporous gold thin films using free-corrosion dealloying and transfer processes from sputter-deposited precursors. By controlling the temperature and the concentration of the nitric acid solution during free-corrosion dealloying, we obtain ligament sizes in nanoporous gold between 22 and 155 nm. We investigate the effects of dissolution rate of Ag atoms, surface diffusivity of Au atoms and formation of Ag oxide on nanoporosity evolution

  5. Rapid manufacturing of low-noise membranes for nanopore sensors by trans-chip illumination lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssen, Xander J A; Jonsson, Magnus P; Plesa, Calin; Soni, Gautam V; Dekker, Cees; Dekker, Nynke H

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the concept of nanopore sensing has matured from a proof-of-principle method to a widespread, versatile technique for the study of biomolecular properties and interactions. While traditional nanopore devices based on a nanopore in a single layer membrane supported on a silicon chip can be rapidly fabricated using standard microfabrication methods, chips with additional insulating layers beyond the membrane region can provide significantly lower noise levels, but at the expense of requiring more costly and time-consuming fabrication steps. Here we present a novel fabrication protocol that overcomes this issue by enabling rapid and reproducible manufacturing of low-noise membranes for nanopore experiments. The fabrication protocol, termed trans-chip illumination lithography, is based on illuminating a membrane-containing wafer from its backside such that a photoresist (applied on the wafer’s top side) is exposed exclusively in the membrane regions. Trans-chip illumination lithography permits the local modification of membrane regions and hence the fabrication of nanopore chips containing locally patterned insulating layers. This is achieved while maintaining a well-defined area containing a single thin membrane for nanopore drilling. The trans-chip illumination lithography method achieves this without relying on separate masks, thereby eliminating time-consuming alignment steps as well as the need for a mask aligner. Using the presented approach, we demonstrate rapid and reproducible fabrication of nanopore chips that contain small (12 μm × 12 μm) free-standing silicon nitride membranes surrounded by insulating layers. The electrical noise characteristics of these nanopore chips are shown to be superior to those of simpler designs without insulating layers and comparable in quality to more complex designs that are more challenging to fabricate. (paper)

  6. Fabrication and characterization of a flow-through nanoporous gold nanowire/AAO composite membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, L; Lee, W; Huang, Z; Scholz, R; Goesele, U [Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics, Weinberg 2, D-06120 Halle (Germany)

    2008-08-20

    The fabrication of a composite membrane of nanoporous gold nanowires and anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) is demonstrated by the electrodeposition of Au-Ag alloy nanowires into an AAO membrane, followed by selective etching of silver from the alloy nanowires. This composite membrane is advantageous for flow-through type catalytic reactions. The morphology evolution of the nanoporous gold nanowires as a function of the diameter of the Au-Ag nanowire 'precursors' is also investigated.

  7. Fabrication and characterization of a flow-through nanoporous gold nanowire/AAO composite membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, L; Lee, W; Huang, Z; Scholz, R; Goesele, U

    2008-01-01

    The fabrication of a composite membrane of nanoporous gold nanowires and anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) is demonstrated by the electrodeposition of Au-Ag alloy nanowires into an AAO membrane, followed by selective etching of silver from the alloy nanowires. This composite membrane is advantageous for flow-through type catalytic reactions. The morphology evolution of the nanoporous gold nanowires as a function of the diameter of the Au-Ag nanowire 'precursors' is also investigated

  8. Fabrication and characterization of a flow-through nanoporous gold nanowire/AAO composite membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L; Lee, W; Huang, Z; Scholz, R; Gösele, U

    2008-08-20

    The fabrication of a composite membrane of nanoporous gold nanowires and anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) is demonstrated by the electrodeposition of Au-Ag alloy nanowires into an AAO membrane, followed by selective etching of silver from the alloy nanowires. This composite membrane is advantageous for flow-through type catalytic reactions. The morphology evolution of the nanoporous gold nanowires as a function of the diameter of the Au-Ag nanowire 'precursors' is also investigated.

  9. Understanding improved osteoblast behavior on select nanoporous anodic alumina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni S

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Siyu Ni,1 Changyan Li,1 Shirong Ni,2 Ting Chen,1 Thomas J Webster3,4 1College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Pathophysiology, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA; 4Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials Research, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Abstract: The aim of this study was to prepare different sized porous anodic alumina (PAA and examine preosteoblast (MC3T3-E1 attachment and proliferation on such nanoporous surfaces. In this study, PAA with tunable pore sizes (25 nm, 50 nm, and 75 nm were fabricated by a two-step anodizing procedure in oxalic acid. The surface morphology and elemental composition of PAA were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. The nanopore arrays on all of the PAA samples were highly regular. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis suggested that the chemistry of PAA and flat aluminum surfaces were similar. However, contact angles were significantly greater on all of the PAA compared to flat aluminum substrates, which consequently altered protein adsorption profiles. The attachment and proliferation of preosteoblasts were determined for up to 7 days in culture using field emission scanning electron microscopy and a Cell Counting Kit-8. Results showed that nanoporous surfaces did not enhance initial preosteoblast attachment, whereas preosteoblast proliferation dramatically increased when the PAA pore size was either 50 nm or 75 nm compared to all other samples (P<0.05. Thus, this study showed that one can alter surface energy of aluminum by modifying surface nano-roughness alone (and not changing chemistry through an anodization process to improve osteoblast density, and, thus, should be

  10. Recent progress in molecular simulation of nanoporous graphene membranes for gas separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatemi, S. Mahmood; Baniasadi, Aminreza; Moradi, Mahrokh

    2017-07-01

    If an ideal membrane for gas separation is to be obtained, the following three characteristics should be considered: the membrane should be as thin as possible, be mechanically robust, and have welldefined pore sizes. These features will maximize its solvent flux, preserve it from fracture, and guarantee its selectivity. Graphene is made up of a hexagonal honeycomb lattice of carbon atoms with sp 2 hybridization state forming a one-atom-thick sheet of graphite. Following conversion of the honeycomb lattices into nanopores with a specific geometry and size, a nanoporous graphene membrane that offers high efficiency as a separation membrane because of the ultrafast molecular permeation rate as a result of its one-atom thickness is obtained. Applications of nanoporous graphene membranes for gas separation have been receiving remarkably increasing attention because nanoporous graphene membranes show promising results in this area. This review focuses on the recent advances in nanoporous graphene membranes for applications in gas separation, with a major emphasis on theoretical works. The attractive properties of nanoporous graphene membranes introduce make them appropriate candidates for gas separation and gas molecular-sieving processes in nanoscale dimensions.

  11. Nanoporous biomaterials for uremic toxin adsorption in artificial kidney systems: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, Wee-Keat; Ishikawa, Kunio; Othman, Radzali; Yeoh, Fei-Yee

    2017-07-01

    Hemodialysis, one of the earliest artificial kidney systems, removes uremic toxins via diffusion through a semipermeable porous membrane into the dialysate fluid. Miniaturization of the present hemodialysis system into a portable and wearable device to maintain continuous removal of uremic toxins would require that the amount of dialysate used within a closed-system is greatly reduced. Diffused uremic toxins within a closed-system dialysate need to be removed to maintain the optimum concentration gradient for continuous uremic toxin removal by the dialyzer. In this dialysate regenerative system, adsorption of uremic toxins by nanoporous biomaterials is essential. Throughout the years of artificial kidney development, activated carbon has been identified as a potential adsorbent for uremic toxins. Adsorption of uremic toxins necessitates nanoporous biomaterials, especially activated carbon. Nanoporous biomaterials are also utilized in hemoperfusion for uremic toxin removal. Further miniaturization of artificial kidney system and improvements on uremic toxin adsorption capacity would require high performance nanoporous biomaterials which possess not only higher surface area, controlled pore size, but also designed architecture or structure and surface functional groups. This article reviews on various nanoporous biomaterials used in current artificial kidney systems and several emerging nanoporous biomaterials. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 1232-1240, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Pore structure and function of synthetic nanopores with fixed charges: tip shape and rectification properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RamIrez, Patricio [Departament de Fisica Aplicada, Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, E-46022 Valencia (Spain); Apel, Pavel Yu [Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Joliot-Curie street 6, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Cervera, Javier; Mafe, Salvador [Departament de Fisica de la Terra i Termodinamica, Universitat de Valencia, E-46100 Burjassot (Spain)], E-mail: patraho@fis.upv.es

    2008-08-06

    We present a complete theoretical study of the relationship between the structure (tip shape and dimensions) and function (selectivity and rectification) of asymmetric nanopores on the basis of previous experimental studies. The theoretical model uses a continuum approach based on the Nernst-Planck equations. According to our results, the nanopore transport properties, such as current-voltage (I-V) characteristics, conductance, rectification ratio, and selectivity, are dictated mainly by the shape of the pore tip (we have distinguished bullet-like, conical, trumpet-like, and hybrid shapes) and the concentration of pore surface charges. As a consequence, the nanopore performance in practical applications will depend not only on the base and tip openings but also on the pore shape. In particular, we show that the pore opening dimensions estimated from the pore conductance can be very different, depending on the pore shape assumed. The results obtained can also be of practical relevance for the design of nanopores, nanopipettes, and nanoelectrodes, where the electrical interactions between the charges attached to the nanostructure and the mobile charges confined in the reduced volume of the inside solution dictate the device performance in practical applications. Because single tracks are the elementary building blocks for nanoporous membranes, the understanding and control of their individual properties should also be crucial in protein separation, water desalination, and bio-molecule detection using arrays of identical nanopores.

  13. Pore structure and function of synthetic nanopores with fixed charges: tip shape and rectification properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RamIrez, Patricio; Apel, Pavel Yu; Cervera, Javier; Mafe, Salvador

    2008-01-01

    We present a complete theoretical study of the relationship between the structure (tip shape and dimensions) and function (selectivity and rectification) of asymmetric nanopores on the basis of previous experimental studies. The theoretical model uses a continuum approach based on the Nernst-Planck equations. According to our results, the nanopore transport properties, such as current-voltage (I-V) characteristics, conductance, rectification ratio, and selectivity, are dictated mainly by the shape of the pore tip (we have distinguished bullet-like, conical, trumpet-like, and hybrid shapes) and the concentration of pore surface charges. As a consequence, the nanopore performance in practical applications will depend not only on the base and tip openings but also on the pore shape. In particular, we show that the pore opening dimensions estimated from the pore conductance can be very different, depending on the pore shape assumed. The results obtained can also be of practical relevance for the design of nanopores, nanopipettes, and nanoelectrodes, where the electrical interactions between the charges attached to the nanostructure and the mobile charges confined in the reduced volume of the inside solution dictate the device performance in practical applications. Because single tracks are the elementary building blocks for nanoporous membranes, the understanding and control of their individual properties should also be crucial in protein separation, water desalination, and bio-molecule detection using arrays of identical nanopores

  14. Pore structure and function of synthetic nanopores with fixed charges: tip shape and rectification properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Patricio; Apel, Pavel Yu; Cervera, Javier; Mafé, Salvador

    2008-08-06

    We present a complete theoretical study of the relationship between the structure (tip shape and dimensions) and function (selectivity and rectification) of asymmetric nanopores on the basis of previous experimental studies. The theoretical model uses a continuum approach based on the Nernst-Planck equations. According to our results, the nanopore transport properties, such as current-voltage (I-V) characteristics, conductance, rectification ratio, and selectivity, are dictated mainly by the shape of the pore tip (we have distinguished bullet-like, conical, trumpet-like, and hybrid shapes) and the concentration of pore surface charges. As a consequence, the nanopore performance in practical applications will depend not only on the base and tip openings but also on the pore shape. In particular, we show that the pore opening dimensions estimated from the pore conductance can be very different, depending on the pore shape assumed. The results obtained can also be of practical relevance for the design of nanopores, nanopipettes, and nanoelectrodes, where the electrical interactions between the charges attached to the nanostructure and the mobile charges confined in the reduced volume of the inside solution dictate the device performance in practical applications. Because single tracks are the elementary building blocks for nanoporous membranes, the understanding and control of their individual properties should also be crucial in protein separation, water desalination, and bio-molecule detection using arrays of identical nanopores.

  15. Computational and experimental study of nanoporous membranes for water desalination and decontamination.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hickner, Michael A. (Penn State University, University Park, PA); Chinn, Douglas Alan (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Adalsteinsson, Helgi; Long, Kevin R. (Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX); Kent, Michael Stuart (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Debusschere, Bert J.; Zendejas, Frank J.; Tran, Huu M.; Najm, Habib N.; Simmons, Blake Alexander

    2008-11-01

    Fundamentals of ion transport in nanopores were studied through a joint experimental and computational effort. The study evaluated both nanoporous polymer membranes and track-etched nanoporous polycarbonate membranes. The track-etched membranes provide a geometrically well characterized platform, while the polymer membranes are more closely related to ion exchange systems currently deployed in RO and ED applications. The experimental effort explored transport properties of the different membrane materials. Poly(aniline) membranes showed that flux could be controlled by templating with molecules of defined size. Track-etched polycarbonate membranes were modified using oxygen plasma treatments, UV-ozone exposure, and UV-ozone with thermal grafting, providing an avenue to functionalized membranes, increased wettability, and improved surface characteristic lifetimes. The modeling effort resulted in a novel multiphysics multiscale simulation model for field-driven transport in nanopores. This model was applied to a parametric study of the effects of pore charge and field strength on ion transport and charge exclusion in a nanopore representative of a track-etched polycarbonate membrane. The goal of this research was to uncover the factors that control the flux of ions through a nanoporous material and to develop tools and capabilities for further studies. Continuation studies will build toward more specific applications, such as polymers with attached sulfonate groups, and complex modeling methods and geometries.

  16. Hierarchical ordering with partial pairwise hierarchical relationships on the macaque brain data sets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woosang Lim

    Full Text Available Hierarchical organizations of information processing in the brain networks have been known to exist and widely studied. To find proper hierarchical structures in the macaque brain, the traditional methods need the entire pairwise hierarchical relationships between cortical areas. In this paper, we present a new method that discovers hierarchical structures of macaque brain networks by using partial information of pairwise hierarchical relationships. Our method uses a graph-based manifold learning to exploit inherent relationship, and computes pseudo distances of hierarchical levels for every pair of cortical areas. Then, we compute hierarchy levels of all cortical areas by minimizing the sum of squared hierarchical distance errors with the hierarchical information of few cortical areas. We evaluate our method on the macaque brain data sets whose true hierarchical levels are known as the FV91 model. The experimental results show that hierarchy levels computed by our method are similar to the FV91 model, and its errors are much smaller than the errors of hierarchical clustering approaches.

  17. Bistable collective behavior of polymers tethered in a nanopore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmanovic, Dino; Bailey, Joe; Harker, Anthony H.; Fassati, Ariberto; Hoogenboom, Bart W.; Ford, Ian J.

    2012-06-01

    Polymer-coated pores play a crucial role in nucleo-cytoplasmic transport and in a number of biomimetic and nanotechnological applications. Here we present Monte Carlo and Density Functional Theory approaches to identify different collective phases of end-grafted polymers in a nanopore and to study their relative stability as a function of intermolecular interactions. Over a range of system parameters that is relevant for nuclear pore complexes, we observe two distinct phases: one with the bulk of the polymers condensed at the wall of the pore, and the other with the polymers condensed along its central axis. The relative stability of these two phases depends on the interpolymer interactions. The existence the two phases suggests a mechanism in which marginal changes in these interactions, possibly induced by nuclear transport receptors, cause the pore to transform between open and closed configurations, which will influence transport through the pore.

  18. Effects of rotational symmetry breaking in polymer-coated nanopores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmanović, D.; Kerr-Winter, M.; Eccleston, R. C.; Hoogenboom, B. W.; Ford, I. J.

    2015-01-01

    The statistical theory of polymers tethered around the inner surface of a cylindrical channel has traditionally employed the assumption that the equilibrium density of the polymers is independent of the azimuthal coordinate. However, simulations have shown that this rotational symmetry can be broken when there are attractive interactions between the polymers. We investigate the phases that emerge in these circumstances, and we quantify the effect of the symmetry assumption on the phase behavior of the system. In the absence of this assumption, one can observe large differences in the equilibrium densities between the rotationally symmetric case and the non-rotationally symmetric case. A simple analytical model is developed that illustrates the driving thermodynamic forces responsible for this symmetry breaking. Our results have implications for the current understanding of the behavior of polymers in cylindrical nanopores.

  19. Effects of rotational symmetry breaking in polymer-coated nanopores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osmanović, D.; Hoogenboom, B. W.; Ford, I. J. [London Centre for Nanotechnology (LCN) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Kerr-Winter, M.; Eccleston, R. C. [Centre for Mathematics, Physics and Engineering in the Life Sciences and Experimental Biology, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-21

    The statistical theory of polymers tethered around the inner surface of a cylindrical channel has traditionally employed the assumption that the equilibrium density of the polymers is independent of the azimuthal coordinate. However, simulations have shown that this rotational symmetry can be broken when there are attractive interactions between the polymers. We investigate the phases that emerge in these circumstances, and we quantify the effect of the symmetry assumption on the phase behavior of the system. In the absence of this assumption, one can observe large differences in the equilibrium densities between the rotationally symmetric case and the non-rotationally symmetric case. A simple analytical model is developed that illustrates the driving thermodynamic forces responsible for this symmetry breaking. Our results have implications for the current understanding of the behavior of polymers in cylindrical nanopores.

  20. Real-time visualization of perforin nanopore assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Carl; Hodel, Adrian W.; Brennan, Amelia J.; Lukoyanova, Natalya; Tran, Sharon; House, Colin M.; Kondos, Stephanie C.; Whisstock, James C.; Dunstone, Michelle A.; Trapani, Joseph A.; Voskoboinik, Ilia; Saibil, Helen R.; Hoogenboom, Bart W.

    2017-05-01

    Perforin is a key protein of the vertebrate immune system. Secreted by cytotoxic lymphocytes as soluble monomers, perforin can self-assemble into oligomeric pores of 10-20 nm inner diameter in the membranes of virus-infected and cancerous cells. These large pores facilitate the entry of pro-apoptotic granzymes, thereby rapidly killing the target cell. To elucidate the pathways of perforin pore assembly, we carried out real-time atomic force microscopy and electron microscopy studies. Our experiments reveal that the pore assembly proceeds via a membrane-bound prepore intermediate state, typically consisting of up to approximately eight loosely but irreversibly assembled monomeric subunits. These short oligomers convert to more closely packed membrane nanopore assemblies, which can subsequently recruit additional prepore oligomers to grow the pore size.