WorldWideScience

Sample records for surface-based geotechnical field

  1. Geotechnical field data and analysis report, July 1991--June 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Geotechnical Field Data and Analysis Report presents the data for the assessments of the geotechnical status of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). During the period of shaft sinking and construction of the principal underground access and experimental areas, reporting was on a quarterly basis. Since 1987, reporting has been carried out annually because excavation of the waste storage panels will take place more slowly and over an extended period. This report presents the data collected up to June 30, 1992. This report focuses on the presentation of geotechnical data from the various underground facilities including the shafts, shaft stations, access drifts, test rooms, and waste storage areas. It also describes the techniques used to acquire the data and the performance history of the instruments

  2. Geotechnical Field Data and Analysis Report, July 1989--June 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-03-01

    The Geotechnical Field Data and Analysis Report presents the data for the assessment of the geotechnical status of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). During the period of shaft sinking and construction of the principal underground access and experimental areas, reporting was on a quarterly basis. Since 1987, reporting has been carried out annually because excavation of the waste storage panels will take place more slowly and over an extended period. This report presents the data collected up to June 30, 1990. The report focuses on the presentation of geotechnical data from the various underground facilities including the shafts, shaft stations, access drifts, test rooms, and waste storage areas. It also describes the techniques used to acquire the data and the performance history of the instruments. 371 figs., 9 tabs

  3. Geotechnical Field Data and Analysis Report, July 1987--June 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-08-01

    The Geotechnical Field Data and Analysis Report (GFDAR) is prepared to provide a timely assessment of the geotechnical status of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). During the period of shaft sinking and construction of the principal underground access and experimental areas, reporting was on a quarterly basis. Because excavation of the waste storage panels will take place more slowly and over an extended period, reporting in the coming years will be on an annual cycle. Data collected before June 30 of the year of the report will be presented and analyzed. This report presents and analyzes all data collected between July 31, 1987, and June 30, 1988. 3 refs., 410 figs., 30 tabs

  4. Plasticity and Geotechnics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hai-Sui

    Plasticity and Geotechnics is the first attempt to summarize and present, in one volume, the major developments achieved to date in the field of plasticity theory for geotechnical materials and its applications to geotechnical analysis and design.

  5. Geotechnical Parameters from Seismic Measurements: Two Field Examples from Egypt and Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Khalil, Mohamed H.

    2016-03-18

    © 2016 EEGS. Geotechnical parameters were used to determine subsurface rock quality for construction purposes. We summarize the mathematical relationships used to calculate the geotechnical parameters from P- and S-wave velocities and density values. These relationships are applied to two field examples; the first is a regional seismic study in Egypt and the second is a 2-D seismic profile recorded in Saudi Arabia. Results from both field examples are used to determine the subsurface rock quality and locate zones that should be avoided during construction. We suggest combining all geotechnical parameters into one map using a normalized-weighted relation, which helps to locate the zones with high versus low rock quality for engineering purposes.

  6. From lab to field: Geotechnical properties for predicting embankment settlement on Lake Bonneville deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoagland, K.C.; Sampaco, C.L.; Anderson, L.R.; Caliendo, J.A.; Rausher, L.; Keane, E.

    1994-01-01

    The results of a laboratory analysis, to determine geotechnical properties of lacustrine Lake Bonneville deposits, within the I-15 corridor of Salt Lake City, Utah, is presented. Laboratory vertical and horizontal consolidation coefficients are compared with those back-calculated from observed, field settlement data and linear relationships established. The results are used to select vertical and horizontal field coefficients and predict settlement rate of an existing embankment, scheduled for enlargement. 27 refs., 9 figs

  7. Safety and emergency preparedness considerations for geotechnical field operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wemple, R.P.

    1989-04-01

    The GEO Energy Technology Department at Sandia National Laboratories is involved in several remote-site drilling and/or experimental operations each year. In 1987, the Geothermal Research Division of the Department developed a general set of Safe Operating Procedures (SOPs) that could be applied to a variety of projects. This general set is supplemented by site-specific SOPs as needed. Effective field operations require: integration of safety and emergency preparedness planning with overall project planning, training of field personnel and inventorying of local emergency support resources, and, developing a clear line of responsibility and authority to enforce the safety requirements. Copies of SOPs used in recent operations are included as examples of working documents for the reader.

  8. The relationship of structures and geological-building of Rudòany ore field to geotechnics features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vavrek Pavol

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The geostructural and geotechnical analysis was aimed at the concrete conditions of the Rudòany ore field at the Spiš region, the part of the Slovak Republic. Our research results make it possible to minimalize the negative influence of moisture liquidation of the mine field from the ecological point of view. The paper is devided into followings parts: present and future moisture liquidations and their influences on surface subsidences, the theoretical principles for the geotechnical evaluation of the subsidences and application of the principles.

  9. Design of Offshore Wind Turbine Support Structures: Selected topics in the field of geotechnical engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakmar, Christian LeBlanc

    Breaking the dependence on fossil fuels offers many opportunities for strengthened competitiveness, technological development and progress. Offshore wind power is a domestic, sustainable and largely untapped energy resource that provides an alternative to fossil fuels, reduces carbon emissions......, and decreases the economic and supply risks associated with reliance on imported fuels. Today, the modern offshore wind turbine offers competitive production prices for renewable energy and is therefore a key technology in achieving the energy and climate goals of the future. The overall aim of this Ph.......D. thesis was to enable low-cost and low-risk support structures to be designed in order to improve the economic feasibility of future offshore wind farms. The research work was divided in the following four selected research topics in the field of geotechnical engineering, relating to the monopile...

  10. Interim geotechnical data report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This issue, the Interim Geotechnical Field Data Report, presents information obtained from the geotechnical activities at the WIPP site underground facilities since the last quarterly report. It also includes cumulative plots which contain all previous data. Finally, it continues the geotechnical analyses and interpretations of the data. The GFDR is organized into two principal parts. The first part, Geotechnical Field Data, presents in graphical form all the data collected since April 1982 from the geomechanical instruments. Presented in the second part, Evaluation and Analyses, are preliminary interpretations and analyses of the data. In this report, continuing geotechnical assessment of all the facility features is presented. Also included in the second part are separate sections on evaluation and interpretation of the instrumentation measurements, and an updated description and evaluation of observed behavior of the underground openings

  11. The Evolving Role of Field and Laboratory Seismic Measurements in Geotechnical Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokoe, K. H.

    2017-12-01

    The geotechnical engineering has been faced with the problem of characterizing geological materials for site-specific design in the built environment since the profession began. When one of the design requirements included determining the dynamic response of important and critical facilities to earthquake shaking or other types of dynamic loads, seismically-based measurements in the field and laboratory became important tools for direct characterization of the stiffnesses and energy dissipation (material damping) of these materials. In the 1960s, field seismic measurements using small-strain body waves were adapted from exploration geophysics. At the same time, laboratory measurements began using dynamic, torsional, resonant-column devices to measure shear stiffness and material damping in shear. The laboratory measurements also allowed parameters such as material type, confinement state, and nonlinear straining to be evaluated. Today, seismic measurements are widely used and evolving because: (1) the measurements have a strong theoretical basis, (2) they can be performed in the field and laboratory, thus forming an important link between these measurements, and (3) in recent developments in field testing involving surface waves, they are noninvasive which makes them cost effective in comparison to other methods. Active field seismic measurements are used today over depths ranging from about 5 to 1000 m. Examples of shear-wave velocity (VS) profiles evaluated using boreholes, penetrometers, suspension logging, and Rayleigh-type surface waves are presented. The VS measurements were performed in materials ranging from uncemented soil to unweathered rock. The coefficients of variation (COVs) in the VS profiles are generally less than 0.15 over sites with surface areas of 50 km2 or more as long as material types are not laterally mixed. Interestingly, the largest COVs often occur around layer boundaries which vary vertically. It is also interesting to observe how the

  12. Geotechnical publications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-12-01

    The publications listed in this document report the results of research conducted by the Geotechnical Team, a part of the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) Office of Infrastructure R&D in McLean, Virginia. This document also collates, categorizes...

  13. Engineering geologic and geotechnical analysis of paleoseismic shaking using liquefaction effects: Field examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, R.A.; Obermeier, S.F.; Olson, S.M.

    2005-01-01

    The greatest impediments to the widespread acceptance of back-calculated ground motion characteristics from paleoliquefaction studies typically stem from three uncertainties: (1) the significance of changes in the geotechnical properties of post-liquefied sediments (e.g., "aging" and density changes), (2) the selection of appropriate geotechnical soil indices from individual paleoliquefaction sites, and (3) the methodology for integration of back-calculated results of strength of shaking from individual paleoliquefaction sites into a regional assessment of paleoseismic strength of shaking. Presented herein are two case studies that illustrate the methods outlined by Olson et al. [Engineering Geology, this issue] for addressing these uncertainties. The first case study is for a site near Memphis, Tennessee, wherein cone penetration test data from side-by-side locations, one of liquefaction and the other of no liquefaction, are used to readily discern that the influence of post-liquefaction "aging" and density changes on the measured in situ soil indices is minimal. In the second case study, 12 sites that are at scattered locations in the Wabash Valley and that exhibit paleoliquefaction features are analyzed. The features are first provisionally attributed to the Vincennes Earthquake, which occurred around 6100 years BP, and are used to illustrate our proposed approach for selecting representative soil indices of the liquefied sediments. These indices are used in back-calculating the strength of shaking at the individual sites, the results from which are then incorporated into a regional assessment of the moment magnitude, M, of the Vincennes Earthquake. The regional assessment validated the provisional assumption that the paleoliquefaction features at the scattered sites were induced by the Vincennes Earthquake, in the main, which was determined to have M ??? 7.5. The uncertainties and assumptions used in the assessment are discussed in detail. ?? 2004 Elsevier B

  14. Geotechnical Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    assessment are discussed in Construction Site Environmental Survey and Clearance Procedures Manual (Draft), EM 1110-1-4000, Walker (1988), and Borrelli ...EM 1110-1-1804 1 January 2001 US Army Corps of Engineers ENGINEER MANUAL Geotechnical Investigations ENGINEERING AND DESIGN Report Documentation Page...for all official USACE engineer regulations, circulars, manuals , and other documents originating from HQUSACE. Publications are provided in portable

  15. Forensic geotechnical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Babu, GL

    2016-01-01

    In this edited volume on advances in forensic geotechnical engineering, a number of technical contributions by experts and professionals in this area are included. The work is the outcome of deliberations at various conferences in the area conducted by Prof. G.L. Sivakumar Babu and Dr. V.V.S. Rao as secretary and Chairman of Technical Committee on Forensic Geotechnical Engineering of International Society for Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering (ISSMGE). This volume contains papers on topics such as guidelines, evidence/data collection, distress characterization, use of diagnostic tests (laboratory and field tests), back analysis, failure hypothesis formulation, role of instrumentation and sensor-based technologies, risk analysis, technical shortcomings. This volume will prove useful to researchers and practitioners alike.

  16. Near-field evaluation of subsidence and geotechnical remedial actions at hazardous and radioactive materials disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, S.J.; Gilbert, T.W.

    1985-03-01

    Geomechanical subsidence and differential settlement are a concern of radioactive- and hazardous-waste disposal site operators. Subsidence at these sites may result in periodic maintenance requirements, and in specific instances, dispersal of the contaminants from their original zone of confinement. Amelioration of geomechanical subsidence within the working environment of disposal site requires development, modification, demonstration, and quantitative evaluation of select geotechnical engineering technologies. To this end, dynamic consolidation/compaction alternatives (accelerating mass ground surface impact, vibratory rod or cylinder injection/withdrawal, and diesel hammer rod or cylinder injection) were tested under field conditions using simulated waste forms disposed from 1.0 to 5.0 m below grade in axisymmetric backfilled depressions. Monitoring and technical assessment of the alternatives' performance demonstrated matrix geologic media and waste package orthogonal acceleration and displacement maxima of 1.0 g and 6.0 x 10μ -4 m, respectively, at distances of only a few meters from accelerated mass impact or rod/cylinder injection points. Net physical displacement was significant within approximately 1.5 m. The tested dynamic consolidation alternatives were effective in prompting substantial geomechanical subsidence under controlled conditions as evidenced by structural failure of simulated waste forms and by waste-form compaction below grade as determined by visual inspection. 11 refs., 7 figs

  17. Kentucky geotechnical database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-01

    Development of a comprehensive dynamic, geotechnical database is described. Computer software selected to program the client/server application in windows environment, components and structure of the geotechnical database, and primary factors cons...

  18. Development of a prototype geotechnical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Archive geotechnical reports in the department contain valuable information such as site maps, : photographs, borehole data, laboratory and field test data, and design analyses. A proper use of the : information may bring significant cost saving for ...

  19. Underwater Geotechnical Foundations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Landris

    2001-01-01

    This report provides an overview and description of the design and construction of underwater geotechnical foundations and offers preliminary guidance based on past and current technology applications...

  20. Geotechnical Design Asssisted by Laboratory Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Niels; Dysli, Michel; Head, Ken H.

    1997-01-01

    Eurocode 7 Part 2 is intended to serve as a reference document for the use of laboratory tests for geotechnical design. It covers the execution and interpretation of the most commonly used laboratory tests. The standard aims at ensuring that adequate quality is reached in the execution of laborat......Eurocode 7 Part 2 is intended to serve as a reference document for the use of laboratory tests for geotechnical design. It covers the execution and interpretation of the most commonly used laboratory tests. The standard aims at ensuring that adequate quality is reached in the execution...... of laboratory tests and their interpretation. Within the framework of European Standardisation, Eurocode 7 Part 1 on the design of geotechnical structures was established. Complementary, Eurocode 7 Part 3 addresses field testing....

  1. Subsurface Geotechnical Parameters Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigby, D.; Mrugala, M.; Shideler, G.; Davidsavor, T.; Leem, J.; Buesch, D.; Sun, Y.; Potyondy, D.; Christianson, M.

    2003-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain Project is entering a the license application (LA) stage in its mission to develop the nation's first underground nuclear waste repository. After a number of years of gathering data related to site characterization, including activities ranging from laboratory and site investigations, to numerical modeling of processes associated with conditions to be encountered in the future repository, the Project is realigning its activities towards the License Application preparation. At the current stage, the major efforts are directed at translating the results of scientific investigations into sets of data needed to support the design, and to fulfill the licensing requirements and the repository design activities. This document addresses the program need to address specific technical questions so that an assessment can be made about the suitability and adequacy of data to license and construct a repository at the Yucca Mountain Site. In July 2002, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) published an Integrated Issue Resolution Status Report (NRC 2002). Included in this report were the Repository Design and Thermal-Mechanical Effects (RDTME) Key Technical Issues (KTI). Geotechnical agreements were formulated to resolve a number of KTI subissues, in particular, RDTME KTIs 3.04, 3.05, 3.07, and 3.19 relate to the physical, thermal and mechanical properties of the host rock (NRC 2002, pp. 2.1.1-28, 2.1.7-10 to 2.1.7-21, A-17, A-18, and A-20). The purpose of the Subsurface Geotechnical Parameters Report is to present an accounting of current geotechnical information that will help resolve KTI subissues and some other project needs. The report analyzes and summarizes available qualified geotechnical data. It evaluates the sufficiency and quality of existing data to support engineering design and performance assessment. In addition, the corroborative data obtained from tests performed by a number of research organizations is presented to reinforce

  2. Subsurface Geotechnical Parameters Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Rigby; M. Mrugala; G. Shideler; T. Davidsavor; J. Leem; D. Buesch; Y. Sun; D. Potyondy; M. Christianson

    2003-12-17

    The Yucca Mountain Project is entering a the license application (LA) stage in its mission to develop the nation's first underground nuclear waste repository. After a number of years of gathering data related to site characterization, including activities ranging from laboratory and site investigations, to numerical modeling of processes associated with conditions to be encountered in the future repository, the Project is realigning its activities towards the License Application preparation. At the current stage, the major efforts are directed at translating the results of scientific investigations into sets of data needed to support the design, and to fulfill the licensing requirements and the repository design activities. This document addresses the program need to address specific technical questions so that an assessment can be made about the suitability and adequacy of data to license and construct a repository at the Yucca Mountain Site. In July 2002, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) published an Integrated Issue Resolution Status Report (NRC 2002). Included in this report were the Repository Design and Thermal-Mechanical Effects (RDTME) Key Technical Issues (KTI). Geotechnical agreements were formulated to resolve a number of KTI subissues, in particular, RDTME KTIs 3.04, 3.05, 3.07, and 3.19 relate to the physical, thermal and mechanical properties of the host rock (NRC 2002, pp. 2.1.1-28, 2.1.7-10 to 2.1.7-21, A-17, A-18, and A-20). The purpose of the Subsurface Geotechnical Parameters Report is to present an accounting of current geotechnical information that will help resolve KTI subissues and some other project needs. The report analyzes and summarizes available qualified geotechnical data. It evaluates the sufficiency and quality of existing data to support engineering design and performance assessment. In addition, the corroborative data obtained from tests performed by a number of research organizations is presented to reinforce

  3. The new DMT SAFEGUARD low-cost GNSS measuring system and its application in the field of geotechnical deformation and movement monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    epoch. Based on these requirements DMT has developed the new DMT SAFEGUARD GNSS. In this article the latest developments in the field of low-cost GNSS are shown by different examples from industry and authorities. By means of a detailed accuracy study the DMT SAFEGUARD GNSS system applicability will be demonstrated. The study shows possibilities to detect coordinate shifts on sub centimeter level by using suitable data processing approaches and permanent network solutions. In addition to the DMT SAFEGUARD GNSS system this article illustrates the combination with further relevant sensors to integrated multisensorial networks. Such networks include geodetic data, geophysical data, geotechnical data, video, audio etc. For the central integration of all sensor types DMT has developed a web-based monitoring system - DMT SAFEGUARD which offers individual customizing, sophisticated analysis tools as well as comprehensive reporting options.

  4. Geotechnical Description of Mineral Deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasvári Tibor

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Performing various mineral deposits extraction methods requires thorough knowledge of the rock masses` geomechanical parameters. In the geotechnical description of mineral deposits there is proposed a methodical approarch at the collection, registration, and evaluation of rock masses` geological properties for geotechnics being applied within the mining industry.

  5. Geotechnical site assessment methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tunbridge, L.W.; Richards, L.R.

    1985-09-01

    A final report summarizing the research conducted on geotechnical site assessment methodology at the Carwynnen test mine in Cornwall. The geological setting of the test site in the Cornubian granite batholith is described. The effect of structure imposed by discontinuities on the engineering behaviour of rock masses is discussed and the scanline survey method of obtaining data on discontinuities in the rock mass is described. The applicability of some methods of statistical analysis for discontinuity data is reviewed. The requirement for remote geophysical methods of characterizing the mass is discussed and experiments using seismic and ultrasonic velocity measurements are reported. Methods of determining the in-situ stresses are described and the final results of a programme of in-situ stress measurements using the overcoring and hydrofracture methods are reported. (author)

  6. Geotechnical risk analysis user's guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    All geotechnical predictions involve uncertainties. These are accounted for additionally by conservative factors of safety. Risk based design, on the other hand, attempts to quantify uncertainties and to adjust design conservatism accordingly. Such m...

  7. Geotechnical information database - phase II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    The Louisiana Department of Transportation (LADOTD) has been collecting geotechnical data for : many years in a variety of different formats. Accessing this data and combining it with new data for : the purpose of design, analysis, visualization, and...

  8. Geotechnical properties of Egyptian collapsible soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled E. Gaaver

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The risk of constructing structures on collapsible soils presents significant challenges to geotechnical engineers due to sudden reduction in volume upon wetting. Identifying collapsible soils when encountered in the field and taking the needed precautions should substantially reduce the risk of such problems usually reported in buildings and highways. Collapsible soils are those unsaturated soils that can withstand relatively high pressure without showing significant change in volume, however upon wetting; they are susceptible to a large and sudden reduction in volume. Collapsible soils cover significant areas around the world. In Egypt, collapsible soils were observed within the northern portion of the western desert including Borg El-Arab region, and around the city of Cairo in Six-of-October plateau, and Tenth-of-Ramadan city. Settlements associated with development on untreated collapsible soils usually lead to expensive repairs. One method for treating collapsible soils is to densify their structure by compaction. The ongoing study presents the effect of compaction on the geotechnical properties of the collapsible soils. Undisturbed block samples were recovered from test pits at four sites in Borg El-Arab district, located at about 20 km west of the city of Alexandria, Egypt. The samples were tested in both unsoaked and soaked conditions. Influence of water inundation on the geotechnical properties of collapsible soils was demonstrated. A comparative study between natural undisturbed and compacted samples of collapsible soils was performed. An attempt was made to relate the collapse potential to the initial moisture content. An empirical correlation between California Bearing Ratio of the compacted collapsible soils and liquid limit was adopted. The presented simple relationships should enable the geotechnical engineers to estimate the complex parameters of collapsible soils using simple laboratory tests with a reasonable accuracy.

  9. Geotechnical research in the Hungarian Central Institute for the Development of Mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmieder, A.

    1979-01-01

    The paper describes the geotechnical project of the Hungarian Central Institute for the Development of Mining. The activities of the Department of Geophysics and Nuclear Technology in the field of isotope and radiochemistry for geotechnical research are discussed in detail. (Sz.J.)

  10. Geotechnical Aspects of Explosive Compaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Shakeran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Explosive Compaction (EC is the ground modification technique whereby the energy released from setting off explosives in subsoil inducing artificial earthquake effects, which compact the soil layers. The efficiency of EC predominantly depends on the soil profile, grain size distribution, initial status, and the intensity of energy applied to the soil. In this paper, in order to investigate the geotechnical aspects, which play an important role in performance of EC, a database has been compiled from thirteen-field tests or construction sites around the world, where EC has been successfully applied for modifying soil. This research focuses on evaluation of grain size distribution and initial stability status of deposits besides changes of soil penetration resistance due to EC. Results indicated suitable EC performance for unstable and liquefiable deposits having particle sizes ranging from gravel to silty sand with less than 40% silt content and less than 10% clay content. However, EC is most effective in fine-to-medium sands with a fine content less than 5% and hydraulically deposited with initial relative density ranging from 30% to 60%. Moreover, it has been observed that EC can be an effective method to improve the density, stability, and resistance of the target soils.

  11. Development of a geotechnical information database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this project was to create a database for existing, current, and future geotechnical records and data. : The project originated from the Geotechnical Design Section at the Louisiana Department of Transportation and : Development (LADOT...

  12. Holistic simulation of geotechnical installation processes numerical and physical modelling

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    The book provides suitable methods for the simulations of boundary value problems of geotechnical installation processes with reliable prediction for the deformation behavior of structures in static or dynamic interaction with the soil. It summarizes the basic research of a research group from scientists dealing with constitutive relations of soils and their implementations as well as contact element formulations in FE-codes. Numerical and physical experiments are presented providing benchmarks for future developments in this field. Boundary value problems have been formulated and solved with the developed tools in order to show the effectivity of the methods. Parametric studies of geotechnical installation processes in order to identify the governing parameters for the optimization of the process are given in such a way that the findings can be recommended to practice for further use. For many design engineers in practice the assessment of the serviceability of nearby structures due to geotechnical installat...

  13. Error Analysis for Geotechnical Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    methods for algegraic and differential systems." Geotechnical Seminar Notes, Arthur D. Litle, Inc., Cambridge. Hammersley, J.M. and D.C. Handscomb...lectures on choices under uncertainty. Adison-Wesley, Reading, Massachusetts. Rosenblueth , E. (1975). "Point estimates for probability moments," Proceedings

  14. geotechnical examination of the geophysical

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-11-03

    Nov 3, 2012 ... Abstract. This present work was carried out to determine the geotechnical properties of Olokoro lateritic soil. Tests were carried out on the sample soil which includes the Atterberg limit tests, particle size distribution analysis; sedimentation test, compaction test using the West African standard and California ...

  15. Geotechnical properties of some organoclays

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    surface active surfactants to modify the fundamental properties of soft clays. In this study, surfactant–clay complexes (organoclays) were developed using a raw clay mod- ification with four surfactants and their geotechnical properties were determined in laboratory conditions. Two of the surfactants are cationic (cetyl ...

  16. Geotechnical properties of some organoclays

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... Organoclay; surfactant; geotechnical properties; swelling pressure; hydraulic conductivity. Abstract. The engineering characteristics of clay are dependant on its mineral and chemical structure. When the clay soils interacted with water, their volume and shear strength and compressibility properties change ...

  17. In-Tank Processing (ITP) Geotechnical Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cumbust, R.J. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States); Salomone, L.A.

    1994-07-01

    A geotechnical investigation has been completed for the In Tank Processing Facility (ITP) which consists of buildings 241-96H and 241- 32H; and Tanks 241-948H, 241-949H, 241-950H, and 241-951H. The investigation consisted of a literature search for relevant technical data, field explorations, field and laboratory testing, and analyses. This document presents a summary of the scope and results to date of the investigations and engineering analyses for these facilities. A final geotechnical report, which will include a more detailed discussion and all associated boring logs, laboratory test results, and analyses will be issued in October 1994. The purpose of the investigation is to obtain geotechnical information to evaluate the seismic performance of the foundation materials and embankments under and around the ITP. The geotechnical engineering objectives of the investigation are to: (1) define the subsurface stratigraphy, (2) obtain representative engineering properties of the subsurface materials, (3) assess the competence of the subsurface materials under static and dynamic loads, (4) derive properties for seismic soil- structure interaction analysis, (5) evaluate the areal and vertical extent of horizons that might cause dynamic settlement or instability, and (6) determine settlement at the foundation level of the tanks.

  18. In-Tank Processing (ITP) Geotechnical Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cumbest, R.J.

    1999-01-15

    A geotechnical investigation has been completed for the In Tank Processing Facility (ITP) which consists of buildings 241-96H and 241-32H; and Tanks 241-948H, 241-949H, 241-950H, and 241-951H. The investigation consisted of a literature search for relevant technical data, field explorations, field and laboratory testing, and analyses. This document presents a summary of the scope and results to date of the investigations and engineering analyses for these facilities. A final geotechnical report, which will include a more detailed discussion and all associated boring logs, laboratory test results, and analyses will be issued in October 1994.The purpose of the investigation is to obtain geotechnical information to evaluate the seismic performance of the foundation materials and embankme nts under and around the ITP. The geotechnical engineering objectives of the investigation are to: 1) define the subsurface stratigraphy, 2) obtain representative engineering properties of the subsurface materials, 3) assess the competence of the subsurface materials under static and dynamic loads, 4) derive properties for seismic soil-structure interaction analysis, 5) evaluate the areal and vertical extent of horizons that might cause dynamic settlement or instability, and 6) determine settlement at the foundation level of the tanks.

  19. Geotechnical Engineering Circular No. 3: Design Guidance. Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering for Highways. Volume I - Design Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-05-01

    This document has been written to provide information on how to apply principles of geotechnical earthquake engineering to planning, design, and retrofit of highway facilities. Geotechnical earthquake engineering topics discussed in this document inc...

  20. Harbour Geotechnics. Book of extended abstracts.

    OpenAIRE

    Kikuchi, Yoshiaki; Pinto, Alexandre; Cerejeira, José

    2016-01-01

    Book of extended abstracts in correspondence to Workshop 2 "Harbour Geotechnics", held in 4th September 2016 at the University of Minho, in Guimarães, Portugal. The event was part of the 3rd ICTG 2016 - International Conference on Transportation Geotechnics (http://www.civil.uminho.pt/3rd-ICTG2016/).

  1. General Report for TC209 : Offshore Geotechnics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pisano, F.; Gavin, K.

    2017-01-01

    The present report overviews the 22 contributions submitted to the session on offshore geotechnics held by Technical Committee (TC) 209 at the 19th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering (ICSMGE). Following a general discussion on the nature (fundamental or applied)

  2. Harbour Geotechnics. E-book of presentations.

    OpenAIRE

    Kikuchi, Yoshiaki; Pinto, Alexandre; Cerejeira, José

    2016-01-01

    Book of presentations in correspondence to Workshop 2 "Harbour Geotechnics", held in 4th September 2016 at the University of Minho, in Guimarães, Portugal. The event was part of the 3rd ICTG 2016 - International Conference on Transportation Geotechnics (http://www.civil.uminho.pt/3rd-ICTG2016/).

  3. Geotechnical properties of Søvind Marl

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbech, Gitte Lyng; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents results of the analyses of the geotechnical properties of a fissured and highly plastic Danish tertiary clay, Søvind Marl.......This paper presents results of the analyses of the geotechnical properties of a fissured and highly plastic Danish tertiary clay, Søvind Marl....

  4. Commercial Light Water Reactor Tritium Extraction Facility Geotechnical Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, M R

    2000-01-11

    A geotechnical investigation program has been completed for the Circulating Light Water Reactor - Tritium Extraction Facility (CLWR-TEF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The program consisted of reviewing previous geotechnical and geologic data and reports, performing subsurface field exploration, field and laboratory testing and geologic and engineering analyses. The purpose of this investigation was to characterize the subsurface conditions for the CLWR-TEF in terms of subsurface stratigraphy and engineering properties for design and to perform selected engineering analyses. The objectives of the evaluation were to establish site-specific geologic conditions, obtain representative engineering properties of the subsurface and potential fill materials, evaluate the lateral and vertical extent of any soft zones encountered, and perform engineering analyses for slope stability, bearing capacity and settlement, and liquefaction potential. In addition, provide general recommendations for construction and earthwork.

  5. 2. Symposium environmental geotechnics. Papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klapperich, H.; Katzenbach, R.; Witt, K.J.; Griessl, D.

    2005-01-01

    The 2nd symposium of the chapter section 'Environmental Geotechnics' of DGGT follows the event in Weimar 2003 and focuses on the central topics of Landfill - Contaminated Sites - Brownfields. The stream 'Waste management - Waste Site technology' discusses legal requirements and technical alternatives, especially in view of many upcoming closures of landfill sites and associated surface sealing, as well as technical reports of case studies and developments. The contribution 'Ultimate storage of radioactive waste' illustrates the wider dimensions to geotechnical questions. Between the streams of 'Remediation Techniques' and 'Land Recycling/Land Management' a panel discussion 'From Brownfield Remediation to Land Management' is taking place. The aim is to discuss the way forward and the need to take up the opportunity for future town planning as well as the design of conversion sites and expansive former mining areas. Representatives of authorities involved and project participants have submitted their statements in advance to the following question: 1.) status of remediation - research and practice 2.) what practical significance is attributed to different remediation techniques for the remediation of brownfields? 3.) modern town planning/redevelopment of former mining areas - spatial planning - real estate economy - financing models for redeveloping land - which parameters/instruments work? (orig.)

  6. On Some Methods in Safety Evaluation in Geotechnics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puła, Wojciech; Zaskórski, Łukasz

    2015-06-01

    The paper demonstrates how the reliability methods can be utilised in order to evaluate safety in geotechnics. Special attention is paid to the so-called reliability based design that can play a useful and complementary role to Eurocode 7. In the first part, a brief review of first- and second-order reliability methods is given. Next, two examples of reliability-based design are demonstrated. The first one is focussed on bearing capacity calculation and is dedicated to comparison with EC7 requirements. The second one analyses a rigid pile subjected to lateral load and is oriented towards working stress design method. In the second part, applications of random field to safety evaluations in geotechnics are addressed. After a short review of the theory a Random Finite Element algorithm to reliability based design of shallow strip foundation is given. Finally, two illustrative examples for cohesive and cohesionless soils are demonstrated.

  7. Geological and geotechnical investigations for nuclear power plants sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, P.R.R.

    1984-09-01

    This dissertation presents a general methodology for the tasks of geological and geotechnical investigations, to be performed in the proposed sites for construction of nuclear Power Plants. In this work, items dealing with the standards applied to licensing of Nuclear Power Plants, with the selection process of sites and identification of geological and geotechnical parameters needed for the regional and local characterization of the area being studied, were incorporated. This dissertation also provides an aid to the writing of Technical Reports, which are part of the documentation an owner of a Nuclear Power Plant needs to submit to the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, to fulfill the nuclear installation licensing requirements. Moreover, this work can contribute to the planning of field and laboratory studies, needed to determine the parameters of the area under investigation, for the siting of Nuclear Power Plants. (Author) [pt

  8. Geological-geotechnical investigation for large horizontal directional drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Pedro R.R.; Rocha, Ronaldo; Avesani Neto, Jose Orlando; Placido, Rafael R.; Ignatius, Scandar G.; Galli, Vicente Luiz [Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas do Estado de Sao Paulo (IPT), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Amaral, Claudio S. [Centro de Pesquisa Leopoldo A. Miguez de Melo (CENPES/PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Use of Horizontal Directional Drilling - HDD for large diameter (OD>20 inches) pipeline installation started in the second half of the seventies. Since then the method became the preferred alternative for situations in which it is necessary an underground pipeline but there are concerns about digging trenches. Crossings of roadways, water bodies and environmental sensitive areas are typical examples of its application. Technical and economic feasibility of HDD depends significantly on the properties of the materials that will be drilled. Lack of information about these materials can lead to several problems as: schedule delays, cost elevation, pipeline damage, unforeseen environmental impacts and even the failure of the entire operation. Ground investigation campaigns for HDD should define a consistent geological-geotechnical model, which must include determination of behaviour parameters for soil and rock masses that will be drilled. Thus it is proposed an investigation in tree stages: review of available geological-geotechnical information, site reconnaissance, and field survey. (author)

  9. GEOTECHNICAL SAFETY ISSUES IN THE CITIES OF POLAR REGIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery Grebenets

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Arctic settlements built on permafrostface rather unique set of geotechnical challenges. On urbanized areas, technogenic transformation of natural landscapes due toconstruction of various types of infrastructure leads to changes in heat exchange in permafrost-atmosphere system. The spatial distribution and intensity of dangerous cryogenic processes in urbanized areas is substantially different from natural background settings found prior to construction. Climate change, especially pronounced in the Arctic, exacerbated these changes. Combination of technogenic pressure and climate change resulted in potentially hazardous situation in respect to operational safety of the buildings and structures built on permafrost. This paper is focused on geotechnical safety issues faced by the Arctic urban centers built on permafrost. Common types of technogenic impacts characteristic for urban settlements wereevaluated based on field observations and modeling techniques. The basic principles of development of deformations are discussed in respect to changing permafrost conditions and operational mode of the structures built on permafrost.

  10. On Some Methods in Safety Evaluation in Geotechnics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puła Wojciech

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper demonstrates how the reliability methods can be utilised in order to evaluate safety in geotechnics. Special attention is paid to the so-called reliability based design that can play a useful and complementary role to Eurocode 7. In the first part, a brief review of first- and second-order reliability methods is given. Next, two examples of reliability-based design are demonstrated. The first one is focussed on bearing capacity calculation and is dedicated to comparison with EC7 requirements. The second one analyses a rigid pile subjected to lateral load and is oriented towards working stress design method. In the second part, applications of random field to safety evaluations in geotechnics are addressed. After a short review of the theory a Random Finite Element algorithm to reliability based design of shallow strip foundation is given. Finally, two illustrative examples for cohesive and cohesionless soils are demonstrated.

  11. Quantitative analysis of spatial variability of geotechnical parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xing

    2018-04-01

    Geotechnical parameters are the basic parameters of geotechnical engineering design, while the geotechnical parameters have strong regional characteristics. At the same time, the spatial variability of geotechnical parameters has been recognized. It is gradually introduced into the reliability analysis of geotechnical engineering. Based on the statistical theory of geostatistical spatial information, the spatial variability of geotechnical parameters is quantitatively analyzed. At the same time, the evaluation of geotechnical parameters and the correlation coefficient between geotechnical parameters are calculated. A residential district of Tianjin Survey Institute was selected as the research object. There are 68 boreholes in this area and 9 layers of mechanical stratification. The parameters are water content, natural gravity, void ratio, liquid limit, plasticity index, liquidity index, compressibility coefficient, compressive modulus, internal friction angle, cohesion and SP index. According to the principle of statistical correlation, the correlation coefficient of geotechnical parameters is calculated. According to the correlation coefficient, the law of geotechnical parameters is obtained.

  12. The portable GIS applied to geotechnical inspections; O GIS portatil para inspecoes geotecnicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabaco, Lis M.; Lins, Alexandre F. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Costa, Rogerio M.; Freitas, Carlos F. [CONCREMAT, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to implement an interface using tool to pack the GIS application to carry out a field inspection. The solution was implemented on pocket equipment using a simplified map and database integrated with the GIS Corporative. The main objective is to avoid paper work in field inspections. The emphases are on geotechnical inspections in order to assist the recuperation of information about points with geotechnical risk. There are interfaces with external device as GPS for insertion of points of risk. A set of tools are developed for bidirectional synchronization among the Corporative GIS and the pocket devices. The project focused geotechnical inspections on field, in order to synchronize automatically the information collected with the pocket GIS application with a Web server, packing all information from field operation to managers. (author)

  13. 24th geotechnical laboratory testing short course

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    This is a 3-day workshop/short course to teach practicing professionals techniques and procedures for conducting high quality geotechnical laboratory tests. Transportation facility design and construction begins with an investigation of the type, ext...

  14. WisDOT geotechnical manual development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    The Wisconsin Department of Transportation currently has a Soils Manual and a Geotechnical Bulletin that provides some guidance : to Regional staff and consulting engineering firms on departmental policy and procedures. However, these two publication...

  15. Geotechnical design manual : research project capsule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The Louisiana Department of Transportation and Development (DOTD), through its Pavement : and Geotechnical Design section, has developed policies and procedures over the years utilizing its own methods and those incorporated from others (AASHTO, FHWA...

  16. The NGDC Seafloor Sediment Geotechnical Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NGDC Seafloor Sediment Geotechnical Properties Database contains test engineering properties data coded by students at NGDC from primarily U.S. Naval...

  17. Geotechnical information database - phase II : [technical summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    The Louisiana Department of Transportation (LADOTD) has collected geotechnical data for many years in a variety of diff erent formats. : Accessing this data and combining it with new data for the purpose of design, analysis, visualization, and report...

  18. Environmental Assessment Report: Geotechnical Field Investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-06-30

    western sector is used by the U. S. Marine Corps Air Station, Yuma. The eastern sector is used by Luke AFB and also serves as a training area for NATO...suspectum Rocky foothills, upper bajadas, rocky canyons Desert Iguana Dipsosaurus dorsalis Creosote bush scrub below 3300 feet elevation Fringe-toed... iguana , rattlesnakes, coyotes and numerous species of birds in the valley areas with mule deer and big- horn sheep present in the mountains. 2.2.7.4.2

  19. Development of geotechnical data schema in transportation : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    The objective of "Development of Geotechnical Data Schema in Transportation" is to develop an : international standard interchange format for geotechnical data. This standard will include a data : dictionary and XML schema which are GML compliant. Th...

  20. GIS-based Geotechnical Microzonation Mapping using Analytic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    based geotechnical ... Shire-Endasilasie is one of the rapidly growing cities in Tigray region, northern Ethiopia and currently the ... Based on the above, the present paper proposes a geotechnical microzonation model for Shire-. Endasilasie ...

  1. Comparison study of selected Geophysical and geotechnical parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Randi Warncke; Poulsen, Søren Erbs

    Successful foundation of constructions relies on accurate characterization of the geotechnical properties of the subsurface. By implementing data from geophysical surveys, the placement of geotechnical drillings can be significantly improved, potentially reducing the number of required drillings....

  2. Geotechnical problems that occur due to the fact of groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grujić Bojana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Beginning from the basic views on the main problem that occurs due to hydro-geomechanical processes, in particular the driving force caused by changing the pressure of groundwater, this paper will provide a review of the assessment of stresses and strains in the soil (soil and rock. The solution is a combination of the system of equations of the soil and ground water flow and caused geotechnical stresses or problems that occur in the soil. The paper will describe in detail the problem of subsidence due to pumping of water in the open pit-field problems and assessment of seepage forces in saturated or unsaturated loose materials.

  3. Geotechnical Seismic Hazard Evaluation At Sellano (Umbria, Italy) Using The GIS Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capilleri, P.; Maugeri, M.

    2008-01-01

    A tool that has been widely-used in civil engineering in recent years is the geographic information system (GIS). Geographic Information systems (GIS) are powerful tools for organizing, analyzing, and presenting spatial data. The GIS can be used by geotechnical engineers to aid preliminary assessment through to the final geotechnical design. The aim of this work is to provide some indications for the use of the GIS technique in the field of seismic geotechnical engineering, particularly as regards the problems of seismic hazard zonation maps. The study area is the village of Sellano located in the Umbrian Apennines in central Italy, about 45 km east of Perugia and 120 km north-east of Rome The increasing importance attributed to microzonation derives from the spatial variability of ground motion due to particular local conditions. The use of GIS tools can lead to an early identification of potential barriers to project completion during the design process that may help avoid later costly redesign

  4. Geotechnical Engineering Circular No. 3. Design Guidance: Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering for Highways. Volume II - Design Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-05-01

    This document presents a series of five design examples illustrating the principles and methods of geotechnical earthquake engineering and seismic design for highway facilities. These principles and methods are described in Volume I - Design Principl...

  5. Development of geotechnical analysis and design modules for the Virginia Department of Transportation's geotechnical database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    In 2003, an Internet-based Geotechnical Database Management System (GDBMS) was developed for the Virginia Department of Transportation (VDOT) using distributed Geographic Information System (GIS) methodology for data management, archival, retrieval, ...

  6. P-wave velocity test for assessment of geotechnical properties of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    -wave velocity test, a non-destructive and easy method to apply in both field and laboratory conditions, has increasingly been conducted to determine the geotechnical properties of rock materials. The aim of this study is to predict the rock properties including the uniaxial compressive strength, Schmidt hardness, modulus ...

  7. P-wave velocity test for assessment of geotechnical properties of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Abstract. P-wave velocity test, a non-destructive and easy method to apply in both field and laboratory con- ditions, has increasingly been conducted to determine the geotechnical properties of rock materials. The aim of this study is to predict the rock properties including the uniaxial compressive strength, Schmidt hardness,.

  8. Department of Mining and Geotechnics – 50 th Anniversary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ïurove Juraj

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The Mining faculty of the Technical High School in Košice (now BERG Faculty of the Technical University of Košice was found in 1952. In the first years this school consisted only of three Faculties, namely the Faculty of Mining, Faculty of Metallurgy and Faculty of Mechanical Engineering with few of Departments. Teaching and research activities at the Mining Faculty from begining has been based on the staff members of the Mining Department (now Department of Mining and Geotechnics. During the last 50 years Department of Mining has been growing in terms of the number of subject, laboratories, staff members, students etc., and finished their diploma in total 1101 mining engineers At the begin of this period Department was ment to meet the needs of the Slovak mineral industry relating to the education of engineers and research works in the following areas:,underground mining of mineral deposits, open pit mine, stability problems , rock mechanics, design and construction of mines, but now also in computing and information technologies. At present the Department offers courses in various fields of mining and geotechnics, which cover a very wide range of technical problems arising in mining industry and geotechnical praxis, including rescue, fire and safety course. Full-time study at the Department takes five years and leads to a Master´s degree of mining engineering. The study program comprises also an obligatory practical work. The students´practical training is usually divided into 2 terms each of 2-3 weeks duration. In the last semester the students are preparing their Master´s degree thesis.

  9. geotechnical characteristics of some southwestern Nigeria clays

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    waste disposal. Hence establishment of waste disposal sites requires the use of soils with suitable geotechnical characteristics to ensure adequate engineering ..... IGSL Limited. Department of the Environment (DoE) 1995. Landfill design, construction and operational practice. Waste Management paper 26B 1 and 2.

  10. Friction generated ultrasound from geotechnical materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, T J; Hill, R; Lai, E

    2004-04-01

    Drilling is a process involved with product manufacturing and for civil engineers, site preparation. The usual requirement is for efficient material removal. In this study, the friction pair interaction generated by a drilling process provides ultrasound information related to parameters for the geotechnical material being drilled, where the drill bit has non-degrading ultrasonic characteristics and no essential requirement for material removal. This study has considered monitoring the ultrasonic signal generated by a drilling process, with a view to characterising the parameters of the geotechnical material being drilled and provides a novel method to identify or characterise ground structures. Drilling of geotechnical material systems, typically involve the interaction of a rotating probe and a granular composite medium. The applied load and angular velocity are measured to determine their relevance to the ultrasonic signal. Samples of granular materials have been graded into controlled grain size ranges. Attention has been focused on determining the effects on the ultrasound signal of grain size, bulk density and the water content of the granular material. A comparison between the various granular samples of the different grain sizes, density, water content and the associated ultrasonic signal has been done. The effect of each variable, and existing theory for these effects is commented upon. The broad aim of this research is to evaluate ultrasonic monitoring of drilling and assess its potential for real-time geotechnical ground condition monitoring applications and offer it as an alternative to existing methods.

  11. Geotechnical characteristics of some Southwestern Nigerian clays ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The geotechnical characteristics of some southwestern Nigeria clays were evaluated with a view to determining their suitability for use as barrier soils in waste disposal sites. Clay soils (consisting of twenty disturbed and twenty undisturbed samples) were subjected to grain size, consistency limits and permeability tests.

  12. Hydrogeological And Geotechnical Investigations Of Gully Erosion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For many years, gully erosion and landslides are posing a serious threat to human existence, agricultural land, infrastructure and socio-economic activities in Calabar and its environs. Consequently, hydrogeological and geotechnical studies of gully erosion sites were carried out in order to provide information on the ...

  13. Geotechnical Engineering in US Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suescun-Florez, Eduardo; Iskander, Magued; Kapila, Vikram; Cain, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on the results of several geotechnical engineering-related science activities conducted with elementary-school students. Activities presented include soil permeability, contact stress, soil stratigraphy, shallow and deep foundations, and erosion in rivers. The permeability activity employed the LEGO NXT platform for data…

  14. Hydrogeological And Geotechnical Investigations Of Gully Erosion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Consequently, hydrogeological and geotechnical studies of gully erosion sites were carried out in order to provide information on the genesis and continual expansion of gullies in the area. The results indicate that gullies are located in the upper aquifer of the Benin Formation (Coastal Plain Sands). The estimated hydraulic ...

  15. Geotechnical hazards from large earthquakes and heavy rainfalls

    CERN Document Server

    Kazama, Motoki; Lee, Wei

    2017-01-01

    This book is a collection of papers presented at the International Workshop on Geotechnical Natural Hazards held July 12–15, 2014, in Kitakyushu, Japan. The workshop was the sixth in the series of Japan–Taiwan Joint Workshops on Geotechnical Hazards from Large Earthquakes and Heavy Rainfalls, held under the auspices of the Asian Technical Committee No. 3 on Geotechnology for Natural Hazards of the International Society for Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. It was co-organized by the Japanese Geotechnical Society and the Taiwanese Geotechnical Society. The contents of this book focus on geotechnical and natural hazard-related issues in Asia such as earthquakes, tsunami, rainfall-induced debris flows, slope failures, and landslides. The book contains the latest information and mitigation technology on earthquake- and rainfall-induced geotechnical natural hazards. By dissemination of the latest state-of-the-art research in the area, the information contained in this book will help researchers, des...

  16. Geotechnical quality control: low-level radioactive waste and uranium mill tailings disposable facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, H.V.; Spigolon, S.J.; Lutton, R.J.

    1983-06-01

    Among the many responsibilities, the owner or licensee establishes and oversees the quality control (QC) of geotechnical aspects during construction, operation, and closure of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) or uranium mill tailings disposal facilities. This report first focuses on geotechnical QC practices by identifying the geotechnical parameters that should be considered along with appropriate laboratory and field testing and observation techniques. Advantages and disadvantages of the tests are discussed. Preference is given to those standard testing techniques (e.g., ASTM and AASHTO) that are in widespread use and easily accessible to industry. Next, guidance is provided on establishing a geotechnical QC program. The frequency of testing is discussed along with specifications for appropriate field and observation control. Methods of relating laboratory testing and field testing are recommended. Various factors influencing QC and reports/documentation control are discussed. Finally, verification studies for confirming site characteristics and soil engineering properties related to design assumptions are explained. It is the intent of this report to provide a document that summarizes all elements necessary to properly implement a QC plan. To this end and since NRC's involvement will only be through its random inspection and enforcement function and is expected to be limited during the licensee's execution of the QC program (after licensing), emphasis is placed throughout this report on the need for proper QC documentation

  17. Geotechnical Classification of Søvind Marl

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbech, Gitte Lyng; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2012-01-01

    This article deals with the geotechnical classification properties of a Danish Eocene clay known as Søvind Marl. A large development is happening on locations where the soil consists of different varieties Danish Eocene clays. This gives a need for a better understanding of the properties...... and behavior of the clay. The geotechnical properties of the clay are very unique, due to the very high plasticity index of the soil, which is significantly higher than any other known clay. The Søvind Marl is a Tertiary deposit from the Eocene period, deposited under environmental circumstances very similar...... to the environment under which London Clay was deposited, however the properties do not resembles that of London Clay. The liquid limits of the Søvind Marl are very high, with values between 126% and 331%, and plasticity limit consistently around 50%. Besides the plasticity of the Søvind Marl other properties like...

  18. Geotechnical practice for waste disposal '87

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, R.D.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of a Specialty Conference sponsored by the Geotechnical Engineering Division of the American Society of Civil Engineers. Some of the titles of the papers include: Design of Waste Containment Structures, Site Characteristics for Waste Disposal, Containment of Low-Level Radioactive Material, Stabilized Fly Ash for Use in as Low-Permeability Barriers, and Hydrocarbon Refining Waste Stabilization for Landfills

  19. Geotechnical properties of gullying in Tomsk Oblast

    OpenAIRE

    Leonova, Anna Vladimirovna; Lomakina, K. M.; Dmitrieva, S. A.; Baranova, Anastasia Viktorovna

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with causes, conditions and factors of gullying in Tomsk Oblast, the case of site Grodnenskaya. A nuclear-power station was planned to be constructed in Closed Administrative Territorial Unit Seversk, which led to geotechnical investigation of the area to study the geological processes developing there. The investigation included reconnaissance traverse of the area, geological and geomorphic descriptions, and sampling. The area and percentage of the territory affected by the...

  20. Geotechnical Mapping of An-Najaf City, Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadher Hassan Al-Baghdadi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper submits a set geotechnical maps for the area of An-Najaf city, by using contour lines to represent the different geotechnical properties of the soil. The present research work is very important step toward preparing a geotechnical database for this region, to complete the geotechnical database over all the country, (Iraq. Using such a database is very important in geotechincal investigation, reconnaissance phase, of construction projects. Within this phase of site investigation, numbers, depths and locations of the boreholes needed, will be determined. A well known commercial software (SURFER 11, was used to produce the all the contour maps of geotechnical properties presented herein. A forty nine (49 contour maps were produced to cover the variations, within the geotechnical properties of the soil, to produce realistic description to these soil properties. Both Google maps and Universal Transverse Mercator coordinate system (UTM have been used in the contour maps for easy use.

  1. Utilisation of transparent synthetic soil surrogates in geotechnical physical models: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abideen Adekunle Ganiyu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Efforts to obtain non-intrusive measurement of deformations and spatial flow within soil mass prior to the advent of transparent soils have perceptible limitations. The transparent soil is a two-phase medium composed of both the synthetic aggregate and fluid components of identical refractive indices aiming at attaining transparency of the resulting soil. The transparency facilitates real life visualisation of soil continuum in physical models. When applied in conjunction with advanced photogrammetry and image processing techniques, transparent soils enable the quantification of the spatial deformation, displacement and multi-phase flow in physical model tests. Transparent synthetic soils have been successfully employed in geotechnical model tests as soil surrogates based on the testing results of their geotechnical properties which replicate those of natural soils. This paper presents a review on transparent synthetic soils and their numerous applications in geotechnical physical models. The properties of the aggregate materials are outlined and the features of the various transparent clays and sands available in the literature are described. The merits of transparent soil are highlighted and the need to amplify its application in geotechnical physical model researches is emphasised. This paper will serve as a concise compendium on the subject of transparent soils for future researchers in this field.

  2. Workshop 1: Geosynthetics in Transportation Geotechnics - Presentations e-Book

    OpenAIRE

    Tatsuoka, Fumio; Zornberg, Jorge; Machado do Vale, José Luís; Neves, José

    2016-01-01

    Book of presentations in correspondence to the Workshop 1 - Geosynthetics in Transportation Geotechnics - held on September 4, 2016, at the University of Minho in Guimarães, Portugal. The workshop was part of the 3rd ICTG 2016 - International Conference on Transportation Geotechnics.

  3. Geotechnical Analysis Report for July 2002 - June 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This Geotechnical Analysis Report (GAR) presents and interprets the geotechnical data from the underground excavations at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The data, which are obtained as part of a regular monitoring program, are used to characterize conditions, to compare actual performance to the design assumptions, and to evaluate and forecast the performance of the underground excavations.

  4. Geotechnical Analysis Report for July 2002 - June 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2004-03-03

    This Geotechnical Analysis Report (GAR) presents and interprets the geotechnical data from the underground excavations at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The data, which are obtained as part of a regular monitoring program, are used to characterize conditions, to compare actual performance to the design assumptions, and to evaluate and forecast the performance of the underground excavations.

  5. Assessment of some geotechnical properties of Nigerian coastal soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Basic geotechnical tests were then performed on the samples in the laboratory to determine their properties. Results obtained showed that the area is underlain predominantly ... Specifications for use as subgrade in the construction of roads. Keywords: geotechnical properties, hydraulic conductivity, California Bearing Ratio ...

  6. Geotechnical Monitoring of the Automobile Road

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsiy, Vladimir

    2017-12-01

    In the present article, the results of geotechnical monitoring of A-147 automobile road “Dzhubga-Sochi” are given. Some sections of the automobile road suffered from the landslide adjustment movements; it resulted in many deformations of the retaining structures, the damages of the roadbed and ground crawling over the retaining walls. The observation data made it possible to specify the borders of the active landslide and to form a forecast of the landslide activity in the sections of the automobile roads. Due to monitoring being carried out, there was substantiated the necessity to correct the service forms and records connected with the automobile road reconstruction.

  7. Probabilistic approaches for geotechnical site characterization and slope stability analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Zijun; Li, Dianqing

    2017-01-01

    This is the first book to revisit geotechnical site characterization from a probabilistic point of view and provide rational tools to probabilistically characterize geotechnical properties and underground stratigraphy using limited information obtained from a specific site. This book not only provides new probabilistic approaches for geotechnical site characterization and slope stability analysis, but also tackles the difficulties in practical implementation of these approaches. In addition, this book also develops efficient Monte Carlo simulation approaches for slope stability analysis and implements these approaches in a commonly available spreadsheet environment. These approaches and the software package are readily available to geotechnical practitioners and alleviate them from reliability computational algorithms. The readers will find useful information for a non-specialist to determine project-specific statistics of geotechnical properties and to perform probabilistic analysis of slope stability.

  8. Correlations of soil and rock properties in geotechnical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Ameratunga, Jay; Das, Braja M

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a one-stop reference to the empirical correlations used extensively in geotechnical engineering. Empirical correlations play a key role in geotechnical engineering designs and analysis. Laboratory and in situ testing of soils can add significant cost to a civil engineering project. By using appropriate empirical correlations, it is possible to derive many design parameters, thus limiting our reliance on these soil tests. The authors have decades of experience in geotechnical engineering, as professional engineers or researchers. The objective of this book is to present a critical evaluation of a wide range of empirical correlations reported in the literature, along with typical values of soil parameters, in the light of their experience and knowledge. This book will be a one-stop-shop for the practising professionals, geotechnical researchers and academics looking for specific correlations for estimating certain geotechnical parameters. The empirical correlations in the forms of equations a...

  9. Model tests of geosynthetic reinforced slopes in a geotechnical centrifuge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aklik, P.

    2012-01-01

    Geosynthetic-reinforced slopes and walls became very popular in recent years because of their financial, technical, and ecological advantages. Centrifuge modelling is a powerful tool for physical modelling of reinforced slopes and offers the advantage to observe the failure mechanisms of the slopes. In order to replicate the gravity induced stresses of a prototype structure in a geometrically 1/N reduced model, it is necessary to test the model in a gravitational field N times larger than that of the prototype structure. In this dissertation, geotextile-reinforced slope models were tested in a geotechnical centrifuge to identify the possible failure mechanisms. Slope models were tested by varying slope inclination, tensile strengths of the geotextiles, and overlapping lengths. Photographs of the geotextile reinforced slope models in flight were taken with a digital camera and the soil deformations of geotextile reinforced slopes were evaluated with Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The experimental results showed that failure of the centrifuge models initiated at midheight of the slope, and occurred due to geotextile breakage instead of pullout. The location of the shear surface is independent of the tensile strength of the geotextile; it is dependent on the shear strength of the soil. It is logical to see that the required acceleration of the centrifuge at slope failure was decreased with increasing slope inclination. An important contribution to the stability of the slope models was provided by the overlapping of the geotextile layers. It has a secondary reinforcement effect when it was prolonged and passed through the shear surface. Moreover, the location of the shear surface observed with PIV analysis exactly matches the tears of the retrieved geotextiles measured carefully after the centrifuge testing. It is concluded that PIV is an efficient tool to instrument the slope failures in a geotechnical centrifuge.(author) [de

  10. Geotechnical design of underground slate mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iglesias Comesaña, C.; Taboada Castro, J.; Arzúa Touriño, J.; Giráldez Pérez, E.; Martín Suárez, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Slate is one of the most important natural materials in Spain, with a potent extractive and processing industry concentrated in the autonomous communities of Galicia, Castile and León. Thanks to its resistance to external agents, its impermeability and its excellent cleavability, slate is used as for roofing and tiling. Almost all the active exploitations in our country where this resource is extracted are open pit mines, where the exploitation ratios have nearly reached their economic limit, making it necessary to look for alternatives that will allow the mining works to be continued. Underground mining is a solution that offers low exploitation ratios, with low spoil generation. The room-and-pillar method with barrier pillars is usually applied for the exploitation of slate deposits. There are several factors to be taken into account when designing a mine (economic, logistical, geotechnical, technical, environmental…), especially for an underground mine. This study focuses on the geotechnical design process of a room-and-pillar underground mine, based on the tributary area theory, the analysis of the tensions in the ground with numerical methods and the choice of an appropriate reinforcement in view of the expected instabilities. This explanation is completed with an example of a design that includes the estimate exploitation rates and production. [es

  11. Introduction of Microbial Biopolymers in Soil Treatment for Future Environmentally-Friendly and Sustainable Geotechnical Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilhan Chang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Soil treatment and improvement is commonly performed in the field of geotechnical engineering. Methods and materials to achieve this such as soil stabilization and mixing with cementitious binders have been utilized in engineered soil applications since the beginning of human civilization. Demand for environment-friendly and sustainable alternatives is currently rising. Since cement, the most commonly applied and effective soil treatment material, is responsible for heavy greenhouse gas emissions, alternatives such as geosynthetics, chemical polymers, geopolymers, microbial induction, and biopolymers are being actively studied. This study provides an overall review of the recent applications of biopolymers in geotechnical engineering. Biopolymers are microbially induced polymers that are high-tensile, innocuous, and eco-friendly. Soil–biopolymer interactions and related soil strengthening mechanisms are discussed in the context of recent experimental and microscopic studies. In addition, the economic feasibility of biopolymer implementation in the field is analyzed in comparison to ordinary cement, from environmental perspectives. Findings from this study demonstrate that biopolymers have strong potential to replace cement as a soil treatment material within the context of environment-friendly construction and development. Moreover, continuing research is suggested to ensure performance in terms of practical implementation, reliability, and durability of in situ biopolymer applications for geotechnical engineering purposes.

  12. Evolution of porosity in geotechnical composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrologou, Pavlos; Dudeney, Alvan William L; Grattoni, Carlos A

    2005-07-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) (H1) transverse relaxation measurements were carried out on 37x70-mm cylindrical mineral/organic composites to determine and monitor the porosity evolution. Porosity is related, in principle, to the stability of such materials in geotechnical applications, for example, engineering foundations. The specimens represented novel formulations of mixed "wastes" containing coarse screened mineral, digested sewage sludge, quicklime, and pulverized fuel ash mixed and compacted together to form mechanically competent material. The measurements on a selected formulation indicated initially low porosity (<12%) that becomes lower over 6 months ( approximately 8%) due to pozzolanic reactions occurring. A relaxation time cutoff of 1.5 ms between "bound" and 'mobile' pore water much lower than sandstones (33 ms) was observed. The results confirmed that the NMR method allows a more reliable assessment of porosity and pore-size evolution.

  13. Geotechnical properties of the Cassino Beach mud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Cláudio R. R.; Alves, Antonio M. L.

    2009-03-01

    Knowledge of the marine soils properties, together with hydrodynamic and climatic data, plays an important role for a better understanding of the dynamic behavior of sandy and muddy coasts. This paper deals with reporting and basic interpretation of two campaigns of exploration and characterization of the mud of Cassino Beach, southern Brazil, carried out during the years of 2004 and 2005. Samples were obtained by means of cores collected at some locations offshore, and were submitted to various laboratory geotechnical tests, including determination of the physical index, grain size distribution, Atterberg limits, and shear resistance by both triaxial and shear vane tests. Results confirm the existence of a very soft soil deposit offshore Cassino Beach, highly plastic, compressible, and viscous, forming an important database for further studies.

  14. Reconsolidated Salt as a Geotechnical Barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Francis D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gadbury, Casey [USDOE Carlsbad Field Office, NM (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Salt as a geologic medium has several attributes favorable to long-term isolation of waste placed in mined openings. Salt formations are largely impermeable and induced fractures heal as stress returns to equilibrium. Permanent isolation also depends upon the ability to construct geotechnical barriers that achieve nearly the same high-performance characteristics attributed to the native salt formation. Salt repository seal concepts often include elements of reconstituted granular salt. As a specific case in point, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant recently received regulatory approval to change the disposal panel closure design from an engineered barrier constructed of a salt-based concrete to one that employs simple run-of-mine salt and temporary bulkheads for isolation from ventilation. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant is a radioactive waste disposal repository for defense-related transuranic elements mined from the Permian evaporite salt beds in southeast New Mexico. Its approved shaft seal design incorporates barrier components comprising salt-based concrete, bentonite, and substantial depths of crushed salt compacted to enhance reconsolidation. This paper will focus on crushed salt behavior when applied as drift closures to isolate disposal rooms during operations. Scientific aspects of salt reconsolidation have been studied extensively. The technical basis for geotechnical barrier performance has been strengthened by recent experimental findings and analogue comparisons. The panel closure change was accompanied by recognition that granular salt will return to a physical state similar to the halite surrounding it. Use of run-of-mine salt ensures physical and chemical compatibility with the repository environment and simplifies ongoing disposal operations. Our current knowledge and expected outcome of research can be assimilated with lessons learned to put forward designs and operational concepts for the next generation of salt repositories. Mined salt

  15. Reconsolidated Salt as a Geotechnical Barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, Francis D.; Gadbury, Casey

    2015-01-01

    Salt as a geologic medium has several attributes favorable to long-term isolation of waste placed in mined openings. Salt formations are largely impermeable and induced fractures heal as stress returns to equilibrium. Permanent isolation also depends upon the ability to construct geotechnical barriers that achieve nearly the same high-performance characteristics attributed to the native salt formation. Salt repository seal concepts often include elements of reconstituted granular salt. As a specific case in point, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant recently received regulatory approval to change the disposal panel closure design from an engineered barrier constructed of a salt-based concrete to one that employs simple run-of-mine salt and temporary bulkheads for isolation from ventilation. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant is a radioactive waste disposal repository for defense-related transuranic elements mined from the Permian evaporite salt beds in southeast New Mexico. Its approved shaft seal design incorporates barrier components comprising salt-based concrete, bentonite, and substantial depths of crushed salt compacted to enhance reconsolidation. This paper will focus on crushed salt behavior when applied as drift closures to isolate disposal rooms during operations. Scientific aspects of salt reconsolidation have been studied extensively. The technical basis for geotechnical barrier performance has been strengthened by recent experimental findings and analogue comparisons. The panel closure change was accompanied by recognition that granular salt will return to a physical state similar to the halite surrounding it. Use of run-of-mine salt ensures physical and chemical compatibility with the repository environment and simplifies ongoing disposal operations. Our current knowledge and expected outcome of research can be assimilated with lessons learned to put forward designs and operational concepts for the next generation of salt repositories. Mined salt

  16. Geotechnical information database - Phase II : research project capsule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    The Louisiana Department of Transportation (LADOTD) has been collecting : geotechnical data for many years in a variety of diff erent formats. Accessing this data : and combining it with new data for the purpose of design, analysis, visualization, an...

  17. Making KYTC geotechnical reports available on the web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    The Geotechnical Branch of the Kentucky Transportation Cabinet (KYTC) prepares technical reports that contain drawings, explanations, and recommendations for road and structure construction projects in Kentucky. These design reports, once complete, a...

  18. Procedures for establishing geotechnical design parameters from two data sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Missouri Department of Transportation (MoDOT) recently adopted new provisions for geotechnical design that require that : the mean value and the coefficient of variation (COV) for the mean value of design parameters be established in order to : d...

  19. Geotechnical properties of marine soil off north Konkan Coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ilangovan, D.; Jayakumar, S.; Naik, R.L.

    for various geotechnical properties. These sediments were found to have less bulk density, low carbonate content, high plasticity index with very low undrained shear strength. Grain size distribution shows that the sediments consist of 60% to 80% silt with 18...

  20. End-user interest in geotechnical data management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    In conducting geotechnical site investigations, large volumes of subsurface information and associated test data : are generated. The current practice relies on paper-based filing systems that are often difficult and cumbersome : to access by users. ...

  1. Geotechnical data management at the Virginia Department of Transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    This report describes the development and implementation of the geotechnical data management system at the Virginia Department of Transportation (VDOT). The purpose of this project was to develop a practical, comprehensive, enterprise-wide system for...

  2. Geotechnical properties of surface sediments in the INDEX area

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Khadge, N.H.

    As a part of the environmental impact assessment studies, geotechnical properties of sediments were determined in the Central Indian Basin. The undrained shear strength and index properties of the siliceous sediments were determined on 20 box cores...

  3. Evaluation of the geotechnical properties of MSW in two Brazilian landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Sandro Lemos; Karimpour-Fard, Mehran; Shariatmadari, Nader; Carvalho, Miriam Fatima; do Nascimento, Julio C F

    2010-12-01

    The characteristics of municipal solid waste (MSW) play a key role in many aspects of waste disposal facilities and landfills. Because most of a landfill is made up of MSW, the overall stability of the landfill slopes are governed by the strength parameters and physical properties of the MSW. These parameters are also important in interactions involving the waste body and the landfill structures: cover liner, leachate and gas collection systems. On the other hand, the composition of the waste, which affects the geotechnical behavior of the MSW, is dependent on a variety of factors such as climate, disposal technology, the culture and habits of the local community. It is therefore essential that the design and stability evaluations of landfills in each region be performed based on the local conditions and the geotechnical characteristic of the MSW. The Bandeirantes Landfill, BL, in São Paulo and the Metropolitan Center Landfill, MCL, in Salvador, are among the biggest landfills in Brazil. These two disposal facilities have been used for the development of research involving waste mechanics in recent years. Considerable work has been made in the laboratory and in the field to evaluate parameters such as water and organic contents, composition, permeability, and shear strength. This paper shows and analyzes the results of tests performed on these two landfills. The authors believe that these results could be a good reference for certain aspects and geotechnical properties of MSW materials in countries with similar conditions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Geotechnical characterization of a triassic clay-cement mixes

    OpenAIRE

    Zokaitė, Kamilė

    2016-01-01

    Geotechnical Characterization of a Triassic Clay-Cement Mix. This thesis deals with modification of Triassic clay with cement, using soil-cement mixing method. For tracking of the changes in geotechnical parameters between clay-cement mix and natural Triassic clay, data from earlier researches were used. During the preparation of the clay-cement mix, 40 % of water was added to the dry natural clay. Also there were made three different groups of specimens were they had different amount of ceme...

  5. Potential Use of Geotechnical Fabric in Airfield Runway Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-01

    Company. b. Tvpar 3401 - a nonwoven , heat-bonded polypropylene fabric produced by E. I. DuPont De Nemours & Company. c. Mirafi 50OX - a woven, split tape...for geotechnical fabric include ieofabric, filter 3 cloth, geotextile, and civil engineering fabric. Approximately 50 dif- ferent geotechnical...fabrics are commerciall- ivailable in the United States, in both woven and nonwoven styles and in weights from less than 3 oz/sq yd LO over 26 oz/sq yd

  6. Geotechnical analysis report for July 1993--June 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    The geotechnical data from the underground excavations at the WIPP are interpreted and presented in this Geotechnical Analysis Report. The data are used to characterize conditions, assess design assumptions, and understand and predict the performance of the underground excavations during operations. The data are obtained as part of a regular monitoring program. The format of the Geotechnical Analysis Report was selected to meet the needs of several audiences. This report focuses on the geotechnical performance of the various underground facilities including the shafts, shaft stations, access drifts, experimental rooms, and waste storage areas. The results of excavation effects, investigations, stratigraphic mapping, and other geologic studies are also included. The report provides an evaluation of the geotechnical aspects of performance in the context of the relevant design criteria and also describes the techniques used to acquire the data and the performance history of the instruments. The depth and breadth of the evaluation for the different underground facilities varies according to the types and quantities of data that are available, and the complexity of the recorded geotechnical responses

  7. Managing geotechnical risk on US design-build transport projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin McLain

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Awarding design-build (DB contracts before a complete subsurface investigation is completed, makes mitigating the risk of differing site conditions difficult, if not impossible. The purpose of the study was to identify effective practices for managing geotechnical risk in DB projects, and it reports the results of a survey that included responses from 42 of 50 US state departments of transportation and a content analysis of DB requests for proposals from 26 states to gauge the client’s perspective, as well as 11 structured interviews with DB contractors to obtain the perspective from the other side of the DB contract.  A suite of DB geotechnical risk manage tools is presented based on the results of the analysis. Effective practices were found in three areas: enhancing communications on geotechnical issues before final proposals are submitted; the use of project-specific differing site conditions clauses; and expediting geotechnical design reviews after award. The major finding is that contract verbiage alone is not sufficient to transfer the risk of changed site conditions. The agency must actively communicate all the geotechnical information on hand at the time of the DB procurement and develop a contract strategy that reduces/retires the risk of geotechnical uncertainty as expeditiously as possible after award.

  8. Geotechnical analysis report for July 1993--June 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The geotechnical data from the underground excavations at the WIPP are interpreted and presented in this Geotechnical Analysis Report. The data are used to characterize conditions, assess design assumptions, and understand and predict the performance of the underground excavations during operations. The data are obtained as part of a regular monitoring program. The format of the Geotechnical Analysis Report was selected to meet the needs of several audiences. This report focuses on the geotechnical performance of the various underground facilities including the shafts, shaft stations, access drifts, experimental rooms, and waste storage areas. The results of excavation effects, investigations, stratigraphic mapping, and other geologic studies are also included. The report provides an evaluation of the geotechnical aspects of performance in the context of the relevant design criteria and also describes the techniques used to acquire the data and the performance history of the instruments. The depth and breadth of the evaluation for the different underground facilities varies according to the types and quantities of data that are available, and the complexity of the recorded geotechnical responses.

  9. Geotechnical assessments of upgrading power transmission lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Andrew [Coffey Geotechnics Ltd., Harrogate (United Kingdom)

    2012-11-01

    One of the consequences of increasing demand for energy is a corresponding requirement for increased energy distribution. This trend is likely to be magnified by the current tendency to generate power in locations remote from centres of population. New power transmission routes are expensive and awkward to develop, and there are therefore benefits to be gained by upgrading existing routes. However, this in turn raises problems of a different nature. The re-use of any structure must necessarily imply the acceptance of unknowns. The upgrading of transmission lines is no exception to this, particularly when assessing foundations, which in their nature are not visible. A risk-based approach is therefore used. This paper describes some of the geotechnical aspects of the assessment of electric power transmission lines for upgrading. It briefly describes the background, then discusses some of the problems encountered and the methods used to address them. These methods are based mainly on information obtained from desk studies and walkover surveys, with a limited amount of intrusive investigation. (orig.)

  10. Geotechnical investigations of the PEP site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gould, R.S.

    1976-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to summarize the general nature of the geology and rock and soil formations of the PEP site as they relate to the design and construction of the project; to describe site investigation programs and to catalog the geotechnical information presently available about the site. The recently-completed investigation of subterranean conditions around the PEP ring when coupled with previous surveys gives us a good understanding of what to expect with regard to tunneling, undertaking larger underground excavations and constructing research halls are the interaction areas. It bears out the predictions made in Jacobs and Associates' report of 1973; i.e., that the ring housing construction is classified as soft-ground tunneling and that large underground openings, such as region 10 and the injection junction structures, will require great attention to support. A shield or shields will probably be required. On the positive side, the site affords very good conditions for soft-ground tunneling. Water will be a problem in some areas, but not an unsolvable one. The possibility of encountering lethal or explosive gases, almost always the case in tunneling in California's coastal formations, exists but has not been ascertained. Finally, no reasons to change current cost estimates or schedules have merged from the investigation. 13 refs., 1 fig

  11. Subsidence monitoring with geotechnical instruments in the Mexicali Valley, Baja California, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowacka, E.; Sarychikhina, O.; Márquez Ramírez, V. H.; Robles, B.; Nava, F. A.; Farfán, F.; García Arthur, M. A.

    2015-11-01

    The Mexicali Valley (northwestern Mexico), situated in the southern part of the San Andreas fault system, is an area with high tectonic deformation, recent volcanism, and active seismicity. Since 1973, fluid extraction, from the 1500-3000 m depth range, at the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field (CPGF), has influenced deformation in the Mexicali Valley area, accelerating the subsidence and causing slip along the traces of tectonic faults that limit the subsidence area. Detailed field mapping done since 1989 (González et al., 1998; Glowacka et al., 2005; Suárez-Vidal et al., 2008) in the vicinity of the CPGF shows that many subsidence induced fractures, fissures, collapse features, small grabens, and fresh scarps are related to the known tectonic faults. Subsidence and fault rupture are causing damage to infrastructure, such as roads, railroad tracks, irrigation channels, and agricultural fields. Since 1996, geotechnical instruments installed by CICESE (Centro de Investigación Ciéntifica y de Educación Superior de Ensenada, B.C.) have operated in the Mexicali Valley, for continuous recording of deformation phenomena. Instruments are installed over or very close to the affected faults. To date, the network includes four crackmeters and eight tiltmeters; all instruments have sampling intervals in the 1 to 20 min range. Instrumental records typically show continuous creep, episodic slip events related mainly to the subsidence process, and coseismic slip discontinuities (Glowacka et al., 1999, 2005, 2010; Sarychikhina et al., 2015). The area has also been monitored by levelling surveys every few years and, since the 1990's by studies based on DInSAR data (Carnec and Fabriol, 1999; Hansen, 2001; Sarychikhina et al., 2011). In this work we use data from levelling, DInSAR, and geotechnical instruments records to compare the subsidence caused by anthropogenic activity and/or seismicity with slip recorded by geotechnical instruments, in an attempt to obtain more information

  12. Subsidence monitoring with geotechnical instruments in the Mexicali Valley, Baja California, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Glowacka

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Mexicali Valley (northwestern Mexico, situated in the southern part of the San Andreas fault system, is an area with high tectonic deformation, recent volcanism, and active seismicity. Since 1973, fluid extraction, from the 1500–3000 m depth range, at the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field (CPGF, has influenced deformation in the Mexicali Valley area, accelerating the subsidence and causing slip along the traces of tectonic faults that limit the subsidence area. Detailed field mapping done since 1989 (González et al., 1998; Glowacka et al., 2005; Suárez-Vidal et al., 2008 in the vicinity of the CPGF shows that many subsidence induced fractures, fissures, collapse features, small grabens, and fresh scarps are related to the known tectonic faults. Subsidence and fault rupture are causing damage to infrastructure, such as roads, railroad tracks, irrigation channels, and agricultural fields. Since 1996, geotechnical instruments installed by CICESE (Centro de Investigación Ciéntifica y de Educación Superior de Ensenada, B.C. have operated in the Mexicali Valley, for continuous recording of deformation phenomena. Instruments are installed over or very close to the affected faults. To date, the network includes four crackmeters and eight tiltmeters; all instruments have sampling intervals in the 1 to 20 min range. Instrumental records typically show continuous creep, episodic slip events related mainly to the subsidence process, and coseismic slip discontinuities (Glowacka et al., 1999, 2005, 2010; Sarychikhina et al., 2015. The area has also been monitored by levelling surveys every few years and, since the 1990's by studies based on DInSAR data (Carnec and Fabriol, 1999; Hansen, 2001; Sarychikhina et al., 2011. In this work we use data from levelling, DInSAR, and geotechnical instruments records to compare the subsidence caused by anthropogenic activity and/or seismicity with slip recorded by geotechnical instruments, in an attempt to obtain

  13. Analysis of change orders in geotechnical engineering work at INDOT : [technical summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    There was a perception at INDOT that the number of change orders connected with geotechnical work was excessive, and that, as a consequence, geotechnical projects were not completed on time or within budget. It was reported that INDOT construction pr...

  14. 6th international conference on case histories in geotechnical engineering August 2008conference report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Due to uncertainty in the nature of soils, a systematic study of the performance of geotechnical structures and its match with predictions is extremely important. Therefore, considerable research effort is being devoted to geotechnical engineering th...

  15. Development of bilateral data transferability in the Virginia Department of Transportation's Geotechnical Database Management System Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    An Internet-based, spatiotemporal Geotechnical Database Management System (GDBMS) Framework was designed, developed, and implemented at the Virginia Department of Transportation (VDOT) in 2002 to retrieve, manage, archive, and analyze geotechnical da...

  16. Studies on geotechnical properties of subsoil in south east coastal region of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Susom; Barik, D. K.

    2017-11-01

    Soil testing and analysis has become essential before commencement of any activity or process on soil i.e. residential construction, road construction etc. It is the most important work particularly in coastal area as these areas are more vulnerable to the natural disastrous like tsunami and cyclone. In India, there is lack of facility to collect and analyse the soil from the field. Hence, to study the various characteristics of the coastal region sub soil, Old Mahabalipuram area, which is the South East region of India has been chosen in this study. The aim of this study is to collect and analyse the soil sample from various localities of the Old Mahabalipuram area. The analysed soil data will be helpful for the people who are working in the field of Geotechnical in coastal region of India to make decision. The soil sample collected from different boreholes have undergone various field and laboratory tests like Pressuremeter Test, Field Permeability Test, Electrical Resistivity Test, Standard Penetration Test, Shear Test, Atterberg Limits etc. are performed including rock tests to know the geotechnical properties of the soil samples for each and every stratum

  17. Geotechnical Analysis of Paleoseismic Shaking Using Liquefaction Features: Part I. Major Updating of Analysis Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Scott M.; Green, Russell A.; Obermeier, Stephen F.

    2003-01-01

    A new methodology is proposed for the geotechnical analysis of strength of paleoseismic shaking using liquefaction effects. The proposed method provides recommendations for selection of both individual and regionally located test sites, techniques for validation of field data for use in back-analysis, and use of a recently developed energy-based solution to back-calculate paleoearthquake magnitude and strength of shaking. The proposed method allows investigators to assess the influence of post-earthquake density change and aging. The proposed method also describes how the back-calculations from individual sites should be integrated into a regional assessment of paleoseismic parameters.

  18. Geotechnical investigation for seismic issues for K-reactor area at Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, G.; Reeves, C.Q.

    1991-01-01

    A geotechnical investigation has been completed at Savannah River Site to characterize the foundation conditions in K-Reactor Area and confirm soil design properties for use in seismic qualification of structures. The scope of field work included ten soil borings to a 200-foot depth with split-spoon and undisturbed sampling. Additionally, 42 cone penetrometer tests were performed with seismic down-hole measurements. Three cross-hole shear wave velocity tests were also completed to confirm the assumed dynamic properties which had been used in preliminary seismic analysis

  19. Executive committee report: geotechnical instrumentation working group meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilder, D.G.; Rogue, F.; Beloff, W.R.; Binnall, E.; Gregory, E.C.

    1982-01-01

    Responding to the widespread need for the geotechnical community to discuss instrumentation for nuclear waste repositories, a meeting was held December 2 and 3, 1981, in Denver, Colorado. This report gives the group's consensus recommendations to aid in making decisions for development of instrumentation for future repository work. The main conclusions of the working group meeting were as follows: (1) monitoring of geotechnical parameters in nuclear waste repositories will be necessary to meet licensing requirements; (2) currently available instruments are underdeveloped for this monitoring; (3) research and development to provide adequate instrumentation will need to be performed under federal sponsorship by national laboratories, universities, contractors, and consultants; and (4) a NASA-type reliability program is needed to meet the quality assurance, durability, calibration, and time schedule demands of geotechnical instrumentation development. This will require significant financial commitments from the federal sector

  20. Geotechnical behavior of the MSW in Tianziling landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiang-Rong; Jin, Jian-Min; Fang, Peng-Fei

    2003-01-01

    The valley shaped Tianziling landfill of Hangzhou in China built in 1991 to dispose of municipal solid waste (MSW) was designed for a service life of 13 years. The problem of waste landfill slope stability and expansion must be considered from the geotechnical engineering point of view, for which purpose, it is necessary to understand the geotechnical properties of the MSW in the landfill, some of whose physical properties were measured by common geotechnical tests, such as those on unit weight, water content, organic matter content, specific gravity, coefficient of permeability, compressibility, etc. The mechanical properties were studied by direct shear test, triaxial compression test, and static and dynamic penetration tests. Some strength parameters for engineering analysis were obtained.

  1. Seismic impact of the railway on the geotechnical constructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolárik, Martin; Pinka, Miroslav

    2017-09-01

    Nowadays, the focus on more ecological means of material and persons transport is still higher. Big loads can be transported on railways more effectively and with lower environment impact than on roads. The geotechnical structures are inherent parts of railway infrastructure, such as embankments, sides of notches and, of course, tunnels, foundation constructions of buildings or pillars of bridges and the others geotechnical constructions (e.g. retaining walls, culverts, transition area of bridges). By train pass, vibrations are caused and these vibrations are relayed to the soil. These vibrations can make adverse impact to surrounding objects and to technologies placed in. This so far uncared-for influence gets into the foreground by current trend of everyday life technical equipment increasing. The article introduces different kinds of geotechnical structures and the influence of by-passing railway transport on their constructions and surroundings. The data are evaluated in the amplitude and frequency domain.

  2. Celebrating 25 years of Syncrude`s Geotechnical Review Board

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKenna, G.

    1998-09-01

    An historical review of Syncrude`s Geotechnical Review Board (GRB) was presented, relating some of the successes of the Board over the past 25 years since its establishment. A list of the type of challenges faced by Syncrude where the GRB`s guidance and counselling proved to be critical, is also included. The GRB was established in the 1970s to help Syncrude manage its geotechnical-based risks and to enhance its long-range chances to be successful in oil sands mining. Mining oil sands was breaking new ground back then, consequently, the geotechnical risks were largely unknown and the potential of heavy financial losses were great. Under such circumstances making the right decisions in dealing with geotechnical risks was vital to success. The fact that 25 years later Syncrude is still operating on the basis of those earlier decisions and still relies heavily on the expertise of the Board for recommendations and guidance is a testimony to the value of the GRB to Syncrude`s operations. The GRB`s success is credited to the Board`s world-wide expertise, objectivity, focus on the big issues, risk-based approach and its excellent working partnership with Syncrude employees. Dragline mining and tailings management are the areas that benefited the most from the Board`s involvement, but the Board has been involved in every facet of geotechnical-based risk management. Some of the geotechnical challenges that the GRB has helped Syncrude to overcome include dam construction of muskeg foundation, heavy foundations on gassy and temperature-sensitive soils, coring and testing of gassy/expansive oil sands and haul roads, highwall design utilizing locked sands, winter construction of large fluid retaining embankments and characterization and management of fluid fine tailings. 3 refs., 1 graph, 3 figs.

  3. Enabling Geotechnical Data for Broader Use by the Spatial Data Infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zand, Amir Ghasem

    2011-01-01

    Geotechnical data are one of the most prevalent data types in civil engineering projects. The majority of the civil engineering projects that are in use today are designed using site-specific geotechnical data. The usage of geotechnical data is not limited to construction projects. This data is used in a wide range of applications, including…

  4. 10 CFR 60.141 - Confirmation of geotechnical and design parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confirmation of geotechnical and design parameters. 60.141... IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES Performance Confirmation Program § 60.141 Confirmation of geotechnical and..., measurement, testing, and geologic mapping shall be conducted to ensure that geotechnical and design...

  5. 10 CFR 63.132 - Confirmation of geotechnical and design parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confirmation of geotechnical and design parameters. 63.132... Confirmation of geotechnical and design parameters. (a) During repository construction and operation, a... that geotechnical and design parameters are confirmed and to ensure that appropriate action is taken to...

  6. Geotechnical Analysis Report for July 2004 - June 2005, Volume 2, Supporting Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This report is a compilation of geotechnical data presented as plots for each active instrument installed in the underground at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) through June 30, 2005. A summary of the geotechnical analyses that were performed using the enclosed data is provided in Volume 1 of the Geotechnical Analysis Report (GAR).

  7. Geotechnical Analysis Report for July 2004 - June 2005, Volume 2, Supporting Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2006-03-20

    This report is a compilation of geotechnical data presented as plots for each active instrument installed in the underground at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) through June 30, 2005. A summary of the geotechnical analyses that were performed using the enclosed data is provided in Volume 1 of the Geotechnical Analysis Report (GAR).

  8. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Geotechnical Analysis Report for July 2005 - June 2006, Volume 2, Supporting Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2007-03-25

    This report is a compilation of geotechnical data presented as plots for each active instrument installed in the underground at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) through June 30, 2006. A summary of the geotechnical analyses that were performed using the enclosed data is provided in Volume 1 of the Geotechnical Analysis Report (GAR).

  9. P-wave velocity test for assessment of geotechnical properties of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    947. P-wave velocity test for assessment of geotechnical properties of some rock materials. SAFFET YAGIZ. Faculty of Engineering, Department of Geological ... ditions, has increasingly been conducted to determine the geotechnical properties of rock materials. ... ing method used in civil, geotechnical and mining pro-.

  10. Geology and geotechnic in the implantation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, P.R.R.

    1984-01-01

    It is presented a general methodology for geological and geotechnical investigations to be performed in sites selected for the construction of nucldar power plants. Items dealing with the standards applied to licensing of a nuclear power plants, the selection process of sites and identification of geological and geotechnical parameters needed for the regional and local characterization of the area being studied, were incorporated. It is also provided an aid to the writing of technical reports, which are part of the documentation an owner of a nuclear power plant needs to submit to the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, to fulfill the nuclear installation licensing requirements. (Author) [pt

  11. Geotechnical investigation report for proposed array of six 40-meter diameter antennas, Pioneer site, DSS 11, Goldstone, California tracking complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweitzer, J. S.

    1979-01-01

    The geotechnical investigation was conducted in three disciplines: (1) geological field reconnaissance of the general area of proposed construction; (2) geophysical seismic refraction survey of the localized area surrounding the six proposed antenna sites, including shear wave velocity determination; and (3) detailed foundation engineering investigation of each of the six sites. The investigations indicate that the six sites selected are relatively free from geologic hazards which would inhibit the proposed construction or future antenna operations.

  12. Geotechnical Tests on Asteroid Simulant Orgueil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Alexander D'marco

    2017-01-01

    In the last 100 years, the global population has more than quadrupled to over seven billion people. At the same time, the demand for food and standard of living has been increasing which has amplified the global water use by nearly eight times from approximately 500 to 4000 cu km per yr from 1900 to 2010. With the increasing concern to sustain the growing population on Earth it is necessary to seek other approaches to ensure that our planet will have resources for generations to come. In recent years, the advancement of space travel and technology has allowed the idea of mining asteroids with resources closer to becoming a reality. During the duration of the internship at NASA Kennedy Space Center, several geotechnical tests were conducted on BP-1 lunar simulant and asteroid simulant Orgueil. The tests that were conducted on BP-1 was to practice utilizing the equipment that will be used on the asteroid simulant and the data from those tests will be omitted from report. Understanding the soil mechanics of asteroid simulant Orgueil will help provide basis for future technological advances and prepare scientists for the conditions they may encounter when mining asteroids becomes reality in the distant future. Distinct tests were conducted to determine grain size distribution, unconsolidated density, and maximum density. Once the basic properties are known, the asteroid simulant will be altered to different levels of compaction using a vibrator table to see how compaction affects the density. After different intervals of vibration compaction, a miniature vane shear test will be conducted. Laboratory vane shear testing is a reliable tool to investigate strength anisotropy in the vertical and horizontal directions of a very soft to stiff saturated fine-grained clayey soil. This test will provide us with a rapid determination of the shear strength on the undisturbed compacted regolith. The results of these tests will shed light on how much torque is necessary to drill

  13. New Principles of Process Control in Geotechnics by Acoustic Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leššo, I.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The contribution describes the new solution of the control of rotary drilling process as some elementary process in geotechnics. The article presents the first results of research on the utilization of acoustic methods in identification process by optimal control of rotary drilling.

  14. Geotechnical Ultimate Limit State Design Using Finite Elements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkgreve, R.B.J.; Post, M.

    2015-01-01

    Displacement-based finite element calculations are primarily used for serviceability limit state (SLS) analysis, but the finite element method also offers possibilities for ultimate limit state (ULS) design in geotechnical engineering. The combined use of SLS and ULS calculations with partial safety

  15. Geotechnical investigation of some failed sections along Osogbo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The samples were subjected to geotechnical analyses such as particle size analysis, natural moisture content, specific gravity, Atterberg limits, compaction and California Bearing Ratio (CBR). Results of the geological mapping revealed that the road pavement is underlain by schist with pegmatite intrusion, whose minerals ...

  16. Geotechnical and physico chemical properties of clays associated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative studies of geotechnical properties of soils from landslide scars within volcanic rocks in Alou Sub-Division located in the Bambouto caldera and from a major landslide scar within Precambrian metamorphic rocks (gneisses and granites) located at Kekem indicated a range of bulk densities of 0.93 to 1.12 g/ml ...

  17. geotechnical assessment of lateritic soils from a dumpsite in ilorin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    This study is aimed at assessing the effects of leachate that is generated from the dumpsite on the qualities of soil underlying the waste. The geotechnical properties of the soils and possible upgrading of the site to a modern solid waste containment facility such as sanitary landfill were also evaluated. Study area description.

  18. Expanding Hydro-Geotechnical Considerations in Eia Studies: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hydro-geotechnical mapping of the study area, which lies within the Sombreiro – Warri deltaic plain in the Niger Delta area, comprised the drilling of representative boreholes as monitoring wells. Three (3) boreholes were sunk in the area with soil and water samples collected for laboratory analyses according to ...

  19. Geotechnical Properties of Makurdi Shale and Effects on Foundations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Geotechnical Properties of Makurdi Shale and Effects on Foundations. IO Agbede, P Smart ... Ten disturbed soil samples were collected from a third site of a proposed site for a light building and subjected to engineering classification tests. Based on the outcome of the second set of experiments, a foundation other than the ...

  20. Geotechnical Analysis Report for July 2003 - June 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This report contains an assessment of the geotechnical status of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). During the excavation of the principal underground access and experimental areas, the status was reported quarterly. Since 1987, when the initial construction phase was completed, reports have been published annually. This report presents and analyzes data collected from July 1, 2003, to June 30, 2004.

  1. Geotechnical Analysis Report for July 2003 - June 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2005-03-20

    This report contains an assessment of the geotechnical status of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). During the excavation of the principal underground access and experimental areas, the status was reported quarterly. Since 1987, when the initial construction phase was completed, reports have been published annually. This report presents and analyzes data collected from July 1, 2003, to June 30, 2004.

  2. Geotechnical Characterization of some Clayey Soils for Use as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No Abstract. Keywords: Landfill Liner, Waste management, Cation Exchange Capacity, Hydraulic conductivity, Geotechnical characterization. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jasem.v19i2.6 · AJOL African Journals ...

  3. Geotechnical problems of cultural heritage due to floods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Herle, I.; Herbstová, Vladislava; Kupka, M.; Kolymbas, D.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 5 (2010), s. 446-451 ISSN 0887-3828 Grant - others:evropská komise(XE) FP6 Project cultural heritage protection against flood (CHEF) SSPI-044251 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20710524 Keywords : geotechnical engineering * floods * soil mechanics Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage Impact factor: 0.293, year: 2010

  4. The future of the finite element method in geotechnics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkgreve, R.B.J.

    2012-01-01

    In this presentation a vision is given on tlie fiiture of the finite element method (FEM) for geotechnical engineering and design. In the past 20 years the FEM has proven to be a powerful method for estimating deformation, stability and groundwater flow in geoteclmical stmctures. Much has been

  5. GIS-based Geotechnical Microzonation Mapping using Analytic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... (GIS)-based geotechnical microzonation model/map using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) for Shire-Endasilasie, a rapidly growing city in Tigray, northern Ethiopia. The influencing factors considered as inputs for the development of the model are (i) slope gradient, (ii) bed rock and soil type, (iii) swelling potential of soil ...

  6. Statistical Analysis of Geo-electric Imaging and Geotechnical Test ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    12

    assessment of influencing factors is important. Here, we present a multiple regression analyses of both geoelectric (Electrical Resistivity. Tomography, ERT, Induced Polarization Imaging, IPI) and geotechnical site investigations. (Standard Penetration Test, SPT) for two profiles at a construction site for CGEWHO Complex.

  7. Project-Based Learning in Geotechnics: Cooperative versus Collaborative Teamwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho-Lopes, Margarida; Macedo, Joaquim

    2016-01-01

    Since 2007/2008 project-based learning models have been used to deliver two fundamental courses on Geotechnics in University of Aveiro, Portugal. These models have evolved and have encompassed either cooperative or collaborative teamwork. Using data collected in five editions of each course (Soil Mechanics I and Soil Mechanics II), the different…

  8. Expanding Hydro-Geotechnical Considerations in Eia Studies: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL

    analysis in order to determine the local groundwater flow direction, and how ... aquifer or not. The aim of this paper, therefore, is to present an integrated study on the hydro-geotechnical aspects, for better understanding of their importance in EIA studies. GEOLOGY OF ... subsidence and deposition arising from a succession.

  9. 25 The Geotechnical Properties Of Clay Occurrences Around Kutigi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    `123456789jkl''''#

    Abstract. The aim of this research project is to investigate occurrences of clay around Kutigi with an objective to determine its geotechnical properties. The study area (Kutigi) falls within the Bida Basin of Niger State. The methodology of research includes detailed mapping of the area, collection of clay samples, ...

  10. Geotechnical Survey, Dredgeability Of Soil Sediments And Siltation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The volume of siltation was determined by hydrographic and topographical surveys using Global Positioning System and Total Station Tec-hniques to obtain data on the area and thickness of the sediments. The rate of siltation had more than doubled since the construction. The geotechnical characteristics of the sediments ...

  11. Geophysical and geotechnical evaluation of foundation conditions of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Geophysical and geotechnical evaluation of foundation conditions of a site in Ago-Iwoye area, southwestern Nigeria. NO Adebisi, MO Oluruntola. Abstract. No Abstract. Journal of Mining and Geology Vol. 42(1) 2006: 79-84. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  12. Incorporating Learning Outcomes into an Introductory Geotechnical Engineering Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiegel, Gregg L.

    2013-01-01

    The article describes the process of incorporating a set of learning outcomes into a geotechnical engineering course. The outcomes were developed using Bloom's taxonomy and define the knowledge, skills, and abilities the students are expected to achieve upon completion of the course. Each outcome begins with an action-oriented verb corresponding…

  13. Geotechnical aspects of site evaluation and foundations for nuclear power plants. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This publication is a revision of the former safety standards of IAEA Safety Series No. 50-SG-S8. The scope has been extended to cover not only foundations but also design questions related to geotechnical science and engineering, such as the bearing capacity of foundations, design of earth structures and design of buried structures Seismic aspects also play an important role in this field, and consequently the Safety Guide on Evaluation of Seismic Hazards for Nuclear Power Plants, Safety Standards Series No. NS-G-3.3, which discusses the determination of seismic input motion, is referenced on several occasions. The present Safety Guide provides an interpretation of the Safety Requirements on Site Evaluation for Nuclear Installations and guidance on how to implement them. It is intended for the use of safety assessors or regulators involved in the licensing process as well as the designers of nuclear power plants, and it provides them with guidance on the methods and procedures for analyses to support the assessment of the geotechnical aspects of the safety of nuclear power plants

  14. Geotechnical aspects of site evaluation and foundations for nuclear power plants. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This publication is a revision of the former safety standards of IAEA Safety Series No. 50-SG-S8. The scope has been extended to cover not only foundations but also design questions related to geotechnical science and engineering, such as the bearing capacity of foundations, design of earth structures and design of buried structures. Seismic aspects also play an important role in this field, and consequently the Safety Guide on Evaluation of Seismic Hazards for Nuclear Power Plants, Safety Standards Series No. NS-G-3.3, which discusses the determination of seismic input motion, is referenced on several occasions. The present Safety Guide provides an interpretation of the Safety Requirements on Site Evaluation for Nuclear Installations and guidance on how to implement them. It is intended for the use of safety assessors or regulators involved in the licensing process as well as the designers of nuclear power plants, and it provides them with guidance on the methods and procedures for analyses to support the assessment of the geotechnical aspects of the safety of nuclear power plants

  15. Geotechnical aspects of site evaluation and foundations for nuclear power plants. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This publication is a revision of the former safety standards of IAEA Safety Series No. 50-SG-S8. The scope has been extended to cover not only foundations but also design questions related to geotechnical science and engineering, such as the bearing capacity of foundations, design of earth structures and design of buried structures. Seismic aspects also play an important role in this field, and consequently the Safety Guide on Evaluation of Seismic Hazards for Nuclear Power Plants, Safety Standards Series No. NS-G-3.3, which discusses the determination of seismic input motion, is referenced on several occasions. The present Safety Guide provides an interpretation of the Safety Requirements on Site Evaluation for Nuclear Installations and guidance on how to implement them. It is intended for the use of safety assessors or regulators involved in the licensing process as well as the designers of nuclear power plants, and it provides them with guidance on the methods and procedures for analyses to support the assessment of the geotechnical aspects of the safety of nuclear power plants

  16. Quantifying the Effects of Riparian Vegetation on Geotechnical Strength, and Resistance to Hydraulic Erosion: Alluvial Streambanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankhead, Natasha; Simon, Andrew; Thomas, Robert

    2010-05-01

    Streambank erosion by mass failure is actually a combination of hydraulic processes operating with a tendency to steepen the bank, and geotechnical (slope stability) processes operating on the bank mass. Riparian vegetation has a number of effects on the mechanics of these processes through direct root reinforcement, modification of shear strength through effects on pore-water pressure, increased resistance of the bank surface to hydraulic shear and reduced effective, hydraulic stress through increases in roughness. These effects can be classified as those that affect geotechnical stability, and those that affect hydraulic processes acting at the bank face and toe. Both aspects were investigated using a combination of modeling, field work and laboratory studies. Previous research has shown that the effect of mechanical root-reinforcement on geotechnical stability can be considerable, particularly on banks less than 3 m-high. Calculation and modeling of estimates of root-reinforcement were initially conducted using simple perpendicular root models, but recent work has made use of a fiber-bundle method so that progressive root breaking can be accounted for. Combining field and laboratory testing, the RipRoot fiber-bundle model was shown to provide more accurate estimates of root-reinforcement by allowing for progressive root breaking. Root-reinforcement is a function of a number of variables including root density, rooting depth and root orientations relative to the failure surface. For example, different distributions of root orientations relative to the failure plane can dramatically affect the shape and peak of the loading curves attained for a given bundle of roots; for 500 sycamore roots median reinforcement varied from 4.86 to 15.08 kPa on a slope and from 9.49 to 14.82 kPa when growing on the top of a streambank. To test the effect of common North American riparian-plant species on pore-water pressure within a streambank, young riparian trees and grasses were

  17. Holistic simulation of geotechnical installation processes benchmarks and simulations

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book examines in detail the entire process involved in implementing geotechnical projects, from a well-defined initial stress and deformation state, to the completion of the installation process.   The individual chapters provide the fundamental knowledge needed to effectively improve soil-structure interaction models. Further, they present the results of theoretical fundamental research on suitable constitutive models, contact formulations, and efficient numerical implementations and algorithms. Applications of fundamental research on boundary value problems are also considered in order to improve the implementation of the theoretical models developed. Subsequent chapters highlight parametric studies of the respective geotechnical installation process, as well as elementary and large-scale model tests under well-defined conditions, in order to identify the most essential parameters for optimizing the process. The book provides suitable methods for simulating boundary value problems in connection with g...

  18. Geotechnical problems in the consolidation of buildings of historical interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Calabresi

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available The structural damages of ancient structures and monuments are very often due to differential settlements of their foundations, or to other effects of soil-structure interaction. A correct analysis of the damaging phenomena should be based on a sound geotechnical engineering approach, which requires expensive and long investigations on the mechanical characteristics of the foundation soils. However the last decade’s progress in construction technologies has offered a new and flexible kind of solutions to consolidate foundation structures that are often quicker and less expensive than a serious and complete geotechnical study. Therefore very often one of the above-mentioned solutions is simply adopted avoiding any previous study. The paper briefly illustrates the main negative effects of that approach, referring to some interesting case histories.

  19. Geotechnical characterization of a Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Ash from a Michigan monofill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zekkos, Dimitrios; Kabalan, Mohammad; Syal, Sita Marie; Hambright, Matt; Sahadewa, Andhika

    2013-06-01

    A field and laboratory geotechnical characterization study of a Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Ash disposed of at the Carleton Farms monofill in Michigan was performed. Field characterization consisted of field observations, collection of four bulk samples and performance of shear wave velocity measurements at two locations. Laboratory characterization consisted of basic geotechnical characterization, i.e., grain size distribution, Atterberg limits, specific gravity tests, compaction tests as well as moisture and organic content assessment followed by direct shear and triaxial shear testing. The test results of this investigation are compared to results in the literature. The grain size distribution of the samples was found to be very similar and consistent with the grain size distribution data available in the literature, but the compaction characteristics were found to vary significantly. Specific gravities were also lower than specific gravities of silicic soils. Shear strengths were higher than typically reported for sandy soils, even for MSWI ash specimens at a loose state. Strain rate was not found to impact the shear resistance. Significant differences in triaxial shear were observed between a dry and a saturated specimen not only in terms of peak shear resistance, but also in terms of stress-strain response. In situ shear wave velocities ranged from 500 to 800 m/s at a depth of about 8m, to 1100-1200 m/s at a depth of 50 m. These high shear wave velocities are consistent with field observations indicating the formation of cemented blocks of ash with time, but this "ageing" process in MSWI ash is still not well understood and additional research is needed. An improved understanding of the long-term behavior of MSWI ash, including the effects of moisture and ash chemical composition on the ageing process, as well as the leaching characteristics of the material, may promote unbound utilization of the ash in civil infrastructure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier

  20. Geotechnical techniques for the construction of reactive barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day; O'Hannesin; Marsden

    1999-06-30

    One of the newest and most promising remediation techniques for the treatment of contaminated groundwater and soil is the reactive barrier wall (commonly known as PRB for permeable reactive barrier or reactive barrier). Although a variety of treatment media and strategies are available, the most common technique is to bury granular iron in a trench so that contaminated groundwater passes through the reactive materials, the contaminants are removed and the water becomes 'clean'. The principal advantages of the technique are the elimination of pumping, mass excavation, off-site disposal, and a very significant reduction in costs. The use of this technology is now becoming better known and implemented. Special construction considerations need to be made when planning the installation of reactive barriers or PRBs to ensure the design life of the installation and to be cost-effective. Geotechnical techniques such as slurry trenching, deep soil mixing, and grouting can be used to simplify and improve the installation of reactive materials relative to conventional trench and fill methods. These techniques make it possible to reduce the hazards to workers during installation, reduce waste and reduce costs for most installations. To date, most PRBs have been installed to shallow depths using construction methods such as open trenching and/or shored excavations. While these methods are usable, they are limited to shallow depths and more disruptive to the site's normal use. Geotechnical techniques are more quickly installed and less disruptive to site activities and thus more effective. Recently, laboratory studies and pilot projects have demonstrated that geotechnical techniques can be used successfully to install reactive barriers. This paper describes the factors that are important in designing a reactive barrier or PRB installation and discusses some of the potential problems and pitfalls that can be avoided with careful planning and the use of geotechnical techniques

  1. Data dictionary and formatting standard for dissemination of geotechnical data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, J.; Bobbitt, J.I.; Ponti, D.J.; Shimel, S.A.; ,

    2004-01-01

    A pilot system for archiving and web dissemination of geotechnical data collected and stored by various agencies is currently under development. Part of the scope of this project, sponsored by the Consortium of Organizations for Strong-Motion Observation Systems (COSMOS) and by the Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center (PEER) Lifelines Program, is the development of a data dictionary and formatting standard. This paper presents the data model along with the basic structure of the data dictionary tables for this pilot system.

  2. Analysis of Change Orders in Geotechnical Engineering Work at INDOT

    OpenAIRE

    Duvvuru Mohan, Varenya Kumar; Prezzi, Monica; McCullouch, Bob

    2011-01-01

    Change orders represent a cost to the State and to tax payers that often extremely large because contractors tend to charge very large amounts to any additional work that deviates from the work that was originally planned. Therefore, efforts must be made to reduce the occurrence of change orders in order to provide significant cost savings to the state of Indiana and save taxpayer dollars. The proposed research, in this context, developed a set of guidelines to allow the geotechnical office o...

  3. UCIMS: Advances in geotechnical construction and performance monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Siebenmann

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Crossrail project currently under construction in Central London has been described as “The Big Dig on Steroids”, obviously referencing the Central Artery/Tunnel project in Boston completed in 2007. To address the multiple demands for timely construction performance monitoring, Crossrail envisioned the underground construction information management system (UCIMS to monitor construction progress and structural health along the entire route, with a network of geotechnical instruments (i.e. slope inclinometers, extensometers, piezometers, etc. and tunnel boring machine (TBM position information. The UCIMS is a geospatially referenced relational database that was developed using an open source geographic information system (GIS that allowed all stakeholders near immediate feedback of construction performance. The purpose of this article is to provide a brief history of geotechnical and structural monitoring software, to describe the structure and operation of the UCIMS, and to demonstrate how the functionality afforded by this system provided the requisite feedback to the stakeholders. Examples will be given regarding how the data management and visualization concepts incorporated into the UCIMS advanced the geotechnical construction industry.

  4. Geotechnical analysis report for July 1994--June 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-09-01

    The geotechnical data from the underground excavations at the WIPP are interpreted and presented in this Geotechnical Analysis Report. The data are used to characterize conditions, assess design assumptions, and understand and predict the performance of the underground excavations during operations. The data are obtained as part of a regular monitoring program. They do not include data from tests performed by Sandia National Laboratories, the Scientific Advisor to the project in support of performance assessment studies. Geotechnical Analysis Reports have been prepared routinely and made available to the public since 1983. During the Site and Preliminary Design Validation Program, the Architect/Engineer for the project produced the reports on a quarterly basis to document the geomechanical performance during and immediately after construction of the underground. Upon completion of the constriction phase of the project in 1987, the reports have been prepared annually by the Management and Operating Contractor for the facility. This report describes the performance and conditions of selected areas from July 1, 1994, to June 30, 1995

  5. Geotechnical research on Jiangnan Tu-Dun tomb historical remains in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jiang; Onitsuka, Katsutada

    2004-03-01

    Geotechnical research on historical remains can provide new data and distinctive viewpoint for research on soil mechanics. Two Jiangnan Tu-Dun tombs historical remains were investigated by means of in situ and laboratory geotechnical tests. In the present paper the geotechnical properties of these man-made earthworks, especially ageing effect on consolidation and direct shear, and compaction properties of earth fill are discussed.

  6. Geotechnical Study and Foundation Structural Design, Next Generation Ionosonde (NEXION) Installation, Thule Air Base, Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    ER D C/ CR RE L TR -1 5- 13 Geotechnical Study and Foundation Structural Design, Next Generation Ionosonde (NEXION) Installation, Thule...15-13 October 2015 Geotechnical Study and Foundation Structural Design, Next Generation Ionosonde (NEXION) Installation, Thule Air Base, Greenland...the results of our geotechnical and structural design for the transmitter antenna of the Next Generation Ionosonde (NEXION) at Thule Air Base

  7. TBV-322/TBD-325 RESOLUTION ANALYSIS: GEOTECHNICAL ROCK PROPERTIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M.J. Mrugala

    1999-01-01

    The process of underground excavation design is being performed in several phases to satisfy the requirements of Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). These phases were conceptualized to satisfy increasingly focused requirements as the YMP progresses and more detailed site characterization data are acquired. At the time that initial design analyses were prepared, the rock mass parameters were derived from the exploratory core drillings, and as such their values were considered preliminary. Field evidence was needed to verify the magnitudes of these parameters. According to the respective YMP procedures, incomplete data that require further verification are flagged by the TBV (To Be Verified) designation and data that are not available are flagged by the TBD (To Be Determined) designation. Field mapping activities performed during the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) Main Loop (i.e., the North Ramp, Main Drift, and South Ramp) tunnel excavation resulted in accumulation of the field data that enlarge and complement the initial, core-derived rock property database. To date, a number of the ESF design confirmation analyses have been completed in a form of topical reports. These reports were prepared to satisfy the requirements of 10 CFR 60.141, ''Confirmation of Geotechnical and Design Parameters''. The design confirmation analyses are documentary in nature and provide a detailed account of the origin and derivation of rock mass parameters. The successive enlargement of the initial, core-derived rock property database created the need for development of meaningful procedures for data interpretation. In effect, each rock parameter has been represented by several values ranging in magnitudes. In a subsequent analysis (CRWMS M andO 1998a) the data were evaluated for consistency. The values of rock property data included in the topical analyses summarize both the initial core-derived and the field-obtained rock property data. Evaluation and verification of

  8. Exposures of geotechnical laboratory workers to respirable crystalline silica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, S K; Bigelow, P L; Sharp-Geiger, R; Buchan, R M

    1999-01-01

    Geotechnical laboratory testing involves the determination of the physical properties of soil, rock, and other building materials for engineering purposes. Individuals working in these laboratories are exposed to airborne soil, rock, and other dusts during the preparation and testing of these materials. Crystalline silica as quartz is a common constituent of these materials and represents a potential hazard to geotechnical laboratory workers when airborne as a respirable dust. The authors conducted an examination of the potential for geotechnical laboratory workers to be exposed to respirable dust and respirable quartz during the performance of three routine laboratory tasks. A task-based exposure assessment strategy was used. Although respirable dust was generated during the performance of each of these tasks, its impact on exposures was generally overridden by the presence of respirable quartz in the dust. Quartz content in the respirable dust ranged from below the detection limit to greater than 50 percent. Mean exposure to respirable quartz, based on the duration of the task and assuming no other exposures for the rest of the 8-hour day, exceeded the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) "action level" (the exposure level at which certain actions must be taken) of 0.025 mg/m3. If exposure was assumed to continue for the rest of the 8-hour day at the measured concentration, mean exposure to respirable quartz exceeded the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV) time-weighted average (TWA), the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) PEL, and the NIOSH REL. Seven percent of 57 individual task exposure measurements exceeded the TLV-TWA and the PEL, 18 percent exceeded the REL, and another 12 percent exceeded excursion limits as defined by ACGIH. The results of this study support the conclusion that geotechnical laboratory workers are potentially exposed to respirable

  9. The Stinger: A Geotechnical Sensing Package for Robotic Scouting on a Small Planetary Rover, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Flawless operation of planetary mobility systems, excavation, mining and ISRU operations, regolith transport and many others depend on knowledge of geotechnical...

  10. Geotechnical materials considerations for conceptual repository design in the Palo Duro Basin, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Versluis, W.S.; Balderman, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    The Palo Duro Basin is only one of numerous potential repository locations for placement of a nuclear waste repository. Conceptual designs in the Palo Duro Basin involve considerations of the character and properties of the geologic materials found on several sites throughout the Basin. The first consideration presented includes current basin exploration results and interpretations of engineering properties for the basin geologic sequences. The next consideration presented includes identification of the characteristics of rock taken from the geologic sequence of interest through laboratory and field testing. Values for materials properties of representative samples are obtained for input into modeling of the material response to repository placement. Conceptual designs which respond to these geotechnical considerations are discussed. 4 references, 4 figures, 4 tables

  11. Surfaced-based investigations plan, Volume 4: Yucca Mountain Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    This document represents a detailed summary of design plans for surface-based investigations to be conducted for site characterization of the Yucca Mountain site. These plans are current as of December 1988. The description of surface-based site characterization activities contained in this document is intended to give all interested parties an understanding of the current plans for site characterization of Yucca Mountain. The maps presented in Volume 4 are products of the Geographic Information System (GIS) being used by the Yucca Mountain Project. The ARC/INFO GIS software, developed by Environmental Systems Research Institute, was used to digitize and process these SBIP maps. The maps were prepared using existing US Geological Survey (USGS) maps as a planimetric base. Roads and other surface features were interpreted from a variety of sources and entered into the GIS. Sources include the USGS maps, 1976 USGS orthophotoquads and aerial photography, 1986 and 1987 aerial photography, surveyed coordinates of field sites, and a combination of various maps, figures, descriptions and approximate coordinates of proposed locations for future activities

  12. Development of the interconnectivity and enhancement (ICE) module in the Virginia Department of Transportation's Geotechnical Database Management System Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    An Internet-based, spatiotemporal Geotechnical Database Management System (GDBMS) Framework was implemented at the Virginia Department of Transportation (VDOT) in 2002 to manage geotechnical data using a distributed Geographical Information System (G...

  13. Geotechnics in controlled sanitary landfills. Geotecnia en vertederos sanitarios controlados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Alciturri, J.M.; Palma, J.M.; Sagaceta, C.; Caizal, J.

    Landfills, which were very used after the 2nd World War, still play an important role in wastes disposal. Nowadays, there are included new technologies to increase their yield, to reduce their pollutant capacity and once it is finished to make possible their recovery for other uses. This can be obtained through complex techniques, which make of the project and explotation of a landfill an activity in which different branches of engineering participate. The authors of this article explain us how geotechnics take part in this subject. (Author)

  14. Specificity of Geotechnical Measurements and Practice of Polish Offshore Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogumil Laczynski

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available As offshore market in Europe grows faster and faster, new sea areas are being managed and new ideas on how to use the sea potential are being developed. In North Sea, where offshore industry conducts intensive expansion since late 1960s, numerous wind farms, oil and gas platforms and pipelines have been put into operation following extensive research, including geotechnical measurement. Recently, a great number of similar projects is under development in Baltic Sea, inter alia in Polish EEZ, natural conditions of which vary from the North Sea significantly. In this paper, those differences are described together with some solutions to problems thereby arising.

  15. Geotechnical characterization and construction methods for SSC tunnel excavation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, P.P.; Lundin, T.K.

    1990-06-01

    The site for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) facility was selected in 1988 after a nationwide proposal competition. The selected site is located in Ellis County, Texas, surrounding the town of Waxahachie which is about 30 miles (48 km) south of the City of Dallas central business district. This paper will describe the geotechnical conditions anticipated for excavation at the SSC site. A general geologic and geomechanical description of the rock present will be followed by a summary of the site-specific conceptual design for the tunneled components of the SSC machine. The Supercollider project will include about 70 miles (113) km of tunnel excavation

  16. Bayesian statistical analysis of censored data in geotechnical engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Tarp-Johansen, Niels Jacob; Denver, Hans

    2000-01-01

    The geotechnical engineer is often faced with the problem ofhow to assess the statistical properties of a soil parameter on the basis ofa sample measured in-situ or in the laboratory with the defect that somevalues have been replaced by interval bounds because the corresponding soilparameter values...... is available about the soil parameter distribution.The present paper shows how a characteristic value by computer calcula-tions can be assessed systematically from the actual sample of censored datasupplemented with prior information from a soil parameter data base....

  17. Geotechnical Perspectives on the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francke, Chris T.; Hansen, Frank D.; Knowles, M. Kathyn; Patchet, Stanley J.; Rempe, Norbert T.

    1999-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is the first nuclear waste repository certified by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. Success in regulatory compliance resulted from an excellent natural setting for such a repository, a facility with multiple, redundant safety systems, and from a rigorous, transparent scientific and technical evaluation. The WIPP story, which has evolved over the past 25 years, has generated a library of publications and analyses. Details of the multifaceted program are contained in the cited references. Selected geotechnical highlights prove the eminent suitability of the WIPP to serve its congressionally mandated purpose

  18. Training Course in Geotechnical and Foundation Engineering. Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering: Reference Manual. Chapters 4, Ground Motion Characterization, and 8, Liquefaction and Seismic Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-12-01

    This manual was written to provide training on how to apply principles of geotechnical earthquake engineering to planning, design, and retrofit of highway facilities. Reproduced here are two chapters 4 and 8 in the settlement, respectively. These cha...

  19. 78 FR 70042 - Proposed Issuance of the NPDES General Permit for Oil and Gas Geotechnical Surveying and Related...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-22

    ... AGENCY Proposed Issuance of the NPDES General Permit for Oil and Gas Geotechnical Surveying and Related... National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) General Permit for Oil and Gas Geotechnical...). As proposed, the Geotechnical General Permit authorizes twelve types of discharges from facilities...

  20. Large scale debris-flow hazard assessment: a geotechnical approach and GIS modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Delmonaco

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A deterministic distributed model has been developed for large-scale debris-flow hazard analysis in the basin of River Vezza (Tuscany Region – Italy. This area (51.6 km 2 was affected by over 250 landslides. These were classified as debris/earth flow mainly involving the metamorphic geological formations outcropping in the area, triggered by the pluviometric event of 19 June 1996. In the last decades landslide hazard and risk analysis have been favoured by the development of GIS techniques permitting the generalisation, synthesis and modelling of stability conditions on a large scale investigation (>1:10 000. In this work, the main results derived by the application of a geotechnical model coupled with a hydrological model for the assessment of debris flows hazard analysis, are reported. This analysis has been developed starting by the following steps: landslide inventory map derived by aerial photo interpretation, direct field survey, generation of a database and digital maps, elaboration of a DTM and derived themes (i.e. slope angle map, definition of a superficial soil thickness map, geotechnical soil characterisation through implementation of a backanalysis on test slopes, laboratory test analysis, inference of the influence of precipitation, for distinct return times, on ponding time and pore pressure generation, implementation of a slope stability model (infinite slope model and generalisation of the safety factor for estimated rainfall events with different return times. Such an approach has allowed the identification of potential source areas of debris flow triggering. This is used to detected precipitation events with estimated return time of 10, 50, 75 and 100 years. The model shows a dramatic decrease of safety conditions for the simulation when is related to a 75 years return time rainfall event. It corresponds to an estimated cumulated daily intensity of 280–330 mm. This value can be considered the hydrological triggering

  1. Using Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT as a tool in geotechnical investigation of the substrate of a highway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maślakowski Maciej

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Geological and geotechnical engineering field tests, like structure drillings and dynamic (DPL, DPSH or static probing (CPT, are considered for a fundamental source of information about soil and water environments. Since Eurocode 7 has been introduced, it has become more common to use also dilatometers (DMT or pressure meters (PMT. Results obtained using all the mentioned tests are always of a discrete nature - information is provided in certain points in the field. However, they determine the basis for creating spatial models of geological structure and geotechnical condi- tions of a substratum. The range and number of investigations conducted (including drilling, probing and laboratory tests influence precision, in which a geological structure is identified and thus, also affect probability of compatibility between spatial model and real geological conditions of a substratum. In the paper, results of non-invasive electrical resistivity tomography (ERT method are presented, comprising 2-dimensional image of a soil medium resistance. Electrical resistance is a parameter that reflects diversification of a soil medium, considering its lithological aspect. In addition, when combined with drilling results, it can be used to accurate determination of boundaries between soil layers. Carrying out of ERT tests in the field during expressway construction contributed to identification of weak, low-strength soils like organic soils (peat, aggradated mud and of soft consistency cohesive soils. These kinds of soil are the main cause for unacceptable deformations appearing in the new road engineering structure.

  2. Geotechnical properties of cemented sands in steep slopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, B.D.; Sitar, N.

    2009-01-01

    An investigation into the geotechnical properties specific to assessing the stability of weakly and moderately cemented sand cliffs is presented. A case study from eroding coastal cliffs located in central California provides both the data and impetus for this study. Herein, weakly cemented sand is defined as having an unconfined compressive strength (UCS) of less than 100 kPa, and moderately cemented sand is defined as having UCS between 100 and 400 kPa. Testing shows that both materials fail in a brittle fashion and can be modeled effectively using linear Mohr-Coulomb strength parameters, although for weakly cemented sands, curvature of the failure envelope is more evident with decreasing friction and increasing cohesion at higher confinement. Triaxial tests performed to simulate the evolving stress state of an eroding cliff, using a reduction in confinement-type stress path, result in an order of magnitude decrease in strain at failure and a more brittle response. Tests aimed at examining the influence of wetting on steep slopes show that a 60% decrease in UCS, a 50% drop in cohesion, and 80% decrease in the tensile strength occurs in moderately cemented sand upon introduction to water. In weakly cemented sands, all compressive, cohesive, and tensile strength is lost upon wetting and saturation. The results indicate that particular attention must be given to the relative level of cementation, the effects of groundwater or surficial seepage, and the small-scale strain response when performing geotechnical slope stability analyses on these materials. ?? 2009 ASCE.

  3. Investigation of a slope endangered by rainfall-induced landslides using 3D resistivity tomography and geotechnical testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedel, S.; Thielen, A.; Springman, S. M.

    2006-10-01

    Rainfall-induced landslides pose a common problem in areas with slopes steeper than the friction angle of the soil. A series of such landslides in North Switzerland inspired a detailed geophysical and geotechnical site investigation prior to a monitoring experiment. High-resolution 2D and 3D electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) was used to derive a detailed subsurface image, which was verified by direct penetration tests, boreholes and laboratory analysis of soil samples with respect to grain size distribution and plasticity. Resolution analysis of ERT configurations proved a combination of Wenner-, Schlumberger- and Dipole-Dipole data to be a reasonable compromise between measurement time and model accuracy. Furthermore, a statistical approach to reducing subjectivity in the interpretation of 3D resistivity models is suggested. Applying this classification scheme to field data yields a model in very good agreement with the geotechnical model. The 3D resistivity model is then interpreted quantitatively using laboratory data and a constitutive relation accounting for clay and silt contents. The dominant influence of saturation on resistivity predicted by this model is confirmed and exemplified during repeated surveys in a dry and a wet period. In wet summer 2004, a silty sand layer of high water saturation is confined between two less permeable layers, the sandstone bedrock below and a clayey sand layer on top. This layer may locally form an aquifer, which becomes rapidly saturated during heavy rainfalls and contributes to the risk of failure. The combined ERT and geotechnical survey helped to optimize the design of the forthcoming monitoring experiment and may be used as a guideline for the investigation of similar slope conditions.

  4. Proceedings of GeoEdmonton 2008 : the 61. Canadian geotechnical conference and 9. joint CGS/IAH-CNC groundwater conference : a heritage of innovation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, D. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Skirrow, R. [Alberta Transportation, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Froese, C. [Alberta Geological Survey, Edmonton, AB (Canada)] (comps.) (and others)

    2008-07-01

    This conference provided a forum for more than 500 delegates from industry, government universities and research centres to share their professional knowledge on research and development that affects all sectors of geotechnical engineering, applied geology and hydrogeology. Accomplishments in the geoenvironmental field were also highlighted. The geotechnical sessions were entitled: pile foundations and load testing; excavations and special foundation issues; reinforced soil and soil-structure interactions; advances in modelling, constitutive issues; advances in modelling, consolidation and other applications; advances in modelling, discrete elements and slope stability; embankments and dams; landfills and barriers; fundamental soil mechanics; soil mechanics and ground movement; GIS and remote sensing; landslides and slopes; cone penetration tests and liquefaction assessment; rock mechanics; engineering geology; geoenvironmental sustainability; oilsand and petroleum geomechanics; and, oilsand tailings. The hydrogeology sessions were entitled: paste tailings and cemented paste backfill; acid mine drainage and containment issues; contaminated sites; cold regions; instrumentation, insitu testing and field applications; transportation geotechniques; urban geohazards; staff retention and motivation; geotechnical education for modern practice; regional issues and studies; policy, regulation and conservation; groundwater and development; groundwater and surface water interactions; groundwater and terrain interactions; aquicludes and aquitards; general hydrogeology; and, geochemistry and contaminant hydrogeology. The conference featured more than 250 presentations, of which 42 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

  5. Interim report - geotechnical site assessment methodology. Vol.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tunbridge, L.W.; Richards, L.R.

    1983-05-01

    An interim report summarizing the research conducted on geotechnical site assessment methodology at the Carwynnen test mine in Cornwall. The geological setting of the test site in the Cornubian granite batholith is described. The effect of structure imposed by discontinuities on the engineering behaviour of rock masses is discussed and the scanline survey method of obtaining data on discontinuities in the rock mass is described. The requirement for remote geophysical methods of characterizing the mass is discussed and initial experiments using seismic and ultrasonic velocity measurements are reported. Computer programs to perform statistical analysis of the discontinuity patterns are described. Overcoring and hydraulic fracturing methods of determining the in-situ stress are briefly described and the results of a programme of in-situ stress measurements using the overcoring method are reported. (author)

  6. Geotechnical support and topical studies for nuclear waste geologic repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The present report lists the technical reviews and comments made during the fiscal year 1988 and summarizes the technical progress of the topical studies. In the area of technical assistance, there were numerous activities detailed in the next section. These included 24 geotechnical support activities, including reviews of 6 Study Plans (SP) and participation in 6 SP Review Workshops, review of one whole document Site Characterization Plan (SCP) and participation in the Assembled Document SCP Review Workshops by 6 LBL reviewers; the hosting of a DOE program review, the rewriting of the project statement of work, 2 trips to technical and planning meetings; preparation of proposed work statements for two new topics for DOE, and 5 instances of technical assistance to DOE. These activities are described in a Table in the following section entitled ''Geoscience Technical Support for Nuclear Waste Geologic Repositories.''

  7. Incorporating learning outcomes into an introductory geotechnical engineering course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiegel, Gregg L.

    2013-06-01

    The article describes the process of incorporating a set of learning outcomes into a geotechnical engineering course. The outcomes were developed using Bloom's taxonomy and define the knowledge, skills, and abilities the students are expected to achieve upon completion of the course. Each outcome begins with an action-oriented verb corresponding to one of six levels of achievement in the cognitive domain (remember, understand, apply, analyse, evaluate, and create). The article includes a listing of outcomes articulated for several course topics. The article also summarises how the outcomes were linked to lesson plans and assignments. Example formative and summative assessment methods and results are presented with the results of teaching evaluations, which indicate that students value this approach to course design. The article concludes with a discussion of how the above approach has been implemented in upper-division courses. Outcomes are presented for a course on earth retention systems.

  8. Geotechnical support and topical studies for nuclear waste geologic repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    The present report lists the technical reviews and comments made during the fiscal year 1988 and summarizes the technical progress of the topical studies. In the area of technical assistance, there were numerous activities detailed in the next section. These included 24 geotechnical support activities, including reviews of 6 Study Plans (SP) and participation in 6 SP Review Workshops, review of one whole document Site Characterization Plan (SCP) and participation in the Assembled Document SCP Review Workshops by 6 LBL reviewers; the hosting of a DOE program review, the rewriting of the project statement of work, 2 trips to technical and planning meetings; preparation of proposed work statements for two new topics for DOE, and 5 instances of technical assistance to DOE. These activities are described in a Table in the following section entitled Geoscience Technical Support for Nuclear Waste Geologic Repositories.''

  9. Bentonite. Geotechnical barrier and source for microbial life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matschiavelli, Nicole; Kluge, Sindy; Cherkouk, Andrea; Steglich, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Due to their properties, namely a high swelling capacity and a low hydraulic conductivity, Bentonites fulfil as geotechnical barrier a sealing and buffering function in the nuclear waste repository. Depending on the mineral composition Bentonites contain many suitable electron-donors and -acceptors, enabling potential microbial life. For the potential repository of highly radioactive waste the microbial mediated transformation of Bentonite could influence its properties as a barrier material. Microcosms were set up containing Bentonite and anaerobic synthetic Opalinus-clay-pore water solution under an N 2 /CO 2 -atmosphere to elucidate the microbial potential within selected Bentonites. Substrates like acetate and lactate were supplemented to stimulate potential microbial activity. First results show that bentonites represent a source for microbial life, demonstrated by the consumption of lactate and the formation of pyruvate. Furthermore, microbial iron-reduction was determined, which plays a crucial role in Betonite-transformation.

  10. Bentonite. Geotechnical barrier and source for microbial life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matschiavelli, Nicole; Kluge, Sindy; Cherkouk, Andrea [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). HZDR Young Investigator Group; Steglich, Jennifer

    2017-06-01

    Due to their properties, namely a high swelling capacity and a low hydraulic conductivity, Bentonites fulfil as geotechnical barrier a sealing and buffering function in the nuclear waste repository. Depending on the mineral composition Bentonites contain many suitable electron-donors and -acceptors, enabling potential microbial life. For the potential repository of highly radioactive waste the microbial mediated transformation of Bentonite could influence its properties as a barrier material. Microcosms were set up containing Bentonite and anaerobic synthetic Opalinus-clay-pore water solution under an N{sub 2}/CO{sub 2}-atmosphere to elucidate the microbial potential within selected Bentonites. Substrates like acetate and lactate were supplemented to stimulate potential microbial activity. First results show that bentonites represent a source for microbial life, demonstrated by the consumption of lactate and the formation of pyruvate. Furthermore, microbial iron-reduction was determined, which plays a crucial role in Betonite-transformation.

  11. Ferrosilt (Red Mud): Geotechnical Properties and Soil Mechanical Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenny, F. C.

    The disposal of ferrosilt tailings creates problems because of the rather unusual geotechnical properties. Ferrosilt samples from three different bauxites were tested in connection with the alumina plant project in Wilhelmshaven (West Germany). The results of these laboratory tests explain various ferrosilt slides experienced during the past. Should ferrosilt be utilized for application where better physical qualities of the material are required it is possible to separate the coarser fraction from the finer fractions by using cyclons. The soil mechanical properties of the coarser fraction — called ferrosilt-sand — is of much better quality than the ferrosilt proper. On the other hand the quality of the finder fractions is not much inferior to the ferrosilt.

  12. Holistic simulation of geotechnical installation processes theoretical results and applications

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book provides recent developments and improvements in the modeling as well as application examples and is a complementary work to the previous Lecture Notes Vols. 77 and 80. It summarizes the fundamental work from scientists dealing with the development of constitutive models for soils, especially cyclic loading with special attention to the numerical implementation. In this volume the neo-hypoplasticity and the ISA (intergranular strain anisotropy) model in their extended version are presented. Furthermore, new contact elements with non-linear constitutive material laws and examples for their applications are given. Comparisons between the experimental and the numerical results show the effectiveness and the drawbacks and provide a useful and comprehensive pool for all the constitutive model developers and scientists in geotechnical engineering, who like to prove the soundness of new approaches.

  13. Geotechnical site assessment for underground radioactive waste disposal in rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, J.A.

    1986-05-01

    This report contains a state-of-the-art review of the geotechnical assessment of Land 3 and Land 4 repository sites (at 100 - 300 m depth in rock) for intermediate level radioactive waste disposal. The principles established are also valid for the disposal of low and high level waste in rock. The text summarizes the results of 21 DoE research contract reports, firstly 'in series' by providing a technical review of each report and then 'in parallel' by considering the current state of knowledge in the context of the subjects in an interaction matrix framework. 1214 references are cited. It is concluded that four further research projects are required for site assessment procedures to be developed or confirmed. These are coupled modelling, mechanical properties, water flow and establishment of 2 phase site assessment procedures. (author)

  14. Project-based learning in Geotechnics: cooperative versus collaborative teamwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho-Lopes, Margarida; Macedo, Joaquim

    2016-01-01

    Since 2007/2008 project-based learning models have been used to deliver two fundamental courses on Geotechnics in University of Aveiro, Portugal. These models have evolved and have encompassed either cooperative or collaborative teamwork. Using data collected in five editions of each course (Soil Mechanics I and Soil Mechanics II), the different characteristics of the models using cooperative or collaborative teamwork are pointed out and analysed, namely in terms of the students' perceptions. The data collected include informal feedback from students, monitoring of their marks and academic performance, and answers to two sets of questionnaires: developed for these courses, and institutional. The data indicate students have good opinion of the project-based learning model, though collaborative teamwork is the best rated. The overall efficacy of the models was analysed (sum of their effectiveness, efficiency and attractiveness). The collaborative model was found more adequate.

  15. Geotechnical Analysis Report for July 2001 - June 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2002-09-20

    This Geotechnical Analysis Report (GAR) presents and interprets the geotechnical data from the underground excavations at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The data, which are obtained as part of a regular monitoring program, are used to characterize conditions, to compare actual performance to the design assumptions, and to evaluate and forecast the performance of the underground excavations. GARs have been available to the public since 1983. During the Site and Preliminary Design Validation (SPDV) Program, the architect/engineer for the project produced these reports on a quarterly basis to document the geomechanical performance during and immediately after excavation of the underground facility. Since the completion of the construction phase of the project in 1987, the management and operating contractor for the facility has prepared these reports annually. This report describes the performance and condition of selected areas from July 1, 2001, to June 30, 2002. It is divided into ten chapters. The remainder of Chapter 1 provides background information on WIPP, its mission, and the purpose and scope of the geomechanical monitoring program. Chapter 2 describes the local and regional geology of the WIPP site. Chapters 3 and 4 describe the geomechanical instrumentation located in the shafts and shaft stations, present the data collected by that instrumentation, and provide interpretation of these data. Chapters 5, 6, and 7 present the results of geomechanical monitoring in the three main portions of the WIPP underground facility (the access drifts, the Northern Experimental Area, and the Waste Disposal Area). Chapter 8 discusses the results of the Geoscience Program, which include fracture and stratigraphic mapping, borehole and core logging, and borehole observations. Chapter 9 summarizes the results of the geomechanical monitoring and compares the current excavation performance to the design requirements. Chapter 10 lists the References and Bibliography.

  16. Geotechnical properties of municipal solid waste at Laogang Landfill, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shi-Jin; Gao, Ke-Wei; Chen, Yi-Xin; Li, Yao; Zhang, L M; Chen, H X

    2017-05-01

    Landfills have been widely constructed all around the world in order to properly dispose municipal solid waste (MSW). Understanding geotechnical properties of MSW is essential for the design and operation of landfills. A comprehensive investigation of geotechnical properties of MSW at the largest landfill in China was conducted, including waste composition, unit weight, void ratio, water content, hydraulic conductivity, and shear behavior. A large-scale rigid-wall permeameter and a direct-shear apparatus were adopted to test the hydraulic conductivity and shear behavior of the MSW, respectively. The composition of the MSW varied with age. With the depth increasing from 0 to 16m, the unit weight increased from 7.2 to 12.5kN/m 3 , while the void ratio decreased from 2.5 to 1.76. The water content ranged between 30.0% and 68.9% but did not show a trend with depth. The hydraulic conductivity of the MSW ranged between 4.6×10 -4 and 6.7×10 -3 cm/s. It decreased as the dry unit weight increased and was sensitive to changes in dry unit weight in deeper layers. Displacement-hardening was observed during the whole shearing process and the shear strength increased with the normal stress, the displacement rate, and the unit weight. The friction angle and cohesion varied from (15.7°, 29.1kPa) to (21.9°, 18.3kPa) with depth increasing from 4 to 16m. The shear strength of the MSW obtained in this study was lower than the reported values in other countries, which was caused by the less fibrous materials in the specimens in this study. The results in this study will provide guidance in the design and operation of the landfills in China. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Geotechnical Analysis Report for July 1998 - June 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westinghouse

    2002-01-01

    This Geotechnical Analysis Report (GAR) presents and interprets the geotechnical data from the underground excavations at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The data, which are obtained as part of a regular monitoring program, are used to characterize conditions, to compare actual performance to the design assumptions, and to evaluate and forecast the performance of the underground excavations during operations. GARs have been available to the public since 1983. During the Site and Preliminary Design Validation (SPDV) Program, the architect/engineer for the project produced these reports on a quarterly basis to document the geomechanical performance during and immediately after excavation of the underground facility. Since the completion of the construction phase of the project in 1987, the management and operating contractor for the facility has prepared these reports annually. This report describes the performance and condition of selected areas from July 1, 1998, to June 30, 1999. It is divided into nine chapters. The remainder of Chapter 1.0 provides background information on the WIPP, its mission, and the purpose and scope of the geomechanical monitoring program. Chapter 2.0 describes the local and regional geology of the WIPP site. Chapters 3.0 and 4.0 describe the geomechanical instrumentation located in the shafts and shaft stations, present the data collected by that instrumentation, and provide interpretation of these data. Chapters 5.0, 6.0, and 7.0 present the results of geomechanical monitoring in the three main portions of the WIPP underground facility (the access drifts, the Northern Experimental Area, and the Waste Disposal Area). Chapter 8.0 discusses the results of the Geoscience Program, which includes fracture mapping, borehole logging, and borehole observations. Chapter 9.0 summarizes the results of the geomechanical monitoring and compares the current excavation performance to the design requirements

  18. Geotechnical Analysis Report for July 2000-June 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westinghouse TRU Solutions

    2002-01-01

    This Geotechnical Analysis Report (GAR) presents and interprets the geotechnical data from the underground excavations at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The data, which are obtained as part of a regular monitoring program, are used to characterize conditions, to compare actual performance to the design assumptions, and to evaluate and forecast the performance of the underground excavations during operations. GARs have been available to the public since 1983. During the Site and Preliminary Design Validation (SPDV) Program, the architect/engineer for the project produced these reports on a quarterly basis to document the geomechanical performance during and immediately after excavation of the underground facility. Since the completion of the construction phase of the project in 1987, the management and operating contractor for the facility has prepared these reports annually. This report describes the performance and condition of selected areas from July 1, 2000, to June 30, 2001. It is divided into ten chapters. The remainder of Chapter 1 provides background information on WIPP, its mission, and the purpose and scope of the geomechanical monitoring program. Chapter 2 describes the local and regional geology of the WIPP site. Chapters 3 and 4 describe the geomechanical instrumentation located in the shafts and shaft stations, present the data collected by that instrumentation, and provide interpretation of these data. Chapters 5, 6, and 7 present the results of geomechanical monitoring in the three main portions of the WIPP underground facility (the access drifts, the Northern Experimental Area, and the Waste Disposal Area). Chapter 8 discusses the results of the Geoscience Program, which include fracture and stratigraphic mapping, borehole and core logging, and borehole observations. Chapter 9 provides an assessment of the hydrologic conditions near the Exhaust Shaft. Chapter 10 summarizes the results of the geomechanical monitoring and compares the

  19. Geotechnical Analysis Report for July 1999-June 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westinghouse TRU Solutions

    2002-10-01

    This Geotechnical Analysis Report (GAR) presents and interprets the geotechnical data from the underground excavations at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The data, which are obtained as part of a regular monitoring program, are used to characterize conditions, to compare actual performance to the design assumptions, and to evaluate and forecast the performance of the underground excavations during operations. GARs have been available to the public since 1983. During the Site and Preliminary Design Validation (SPDV) Program, the architect/engineer for the project produced these reports on a quarterly basis to document the geomechanical performance during and immediately after excavation of the underground facility. Since the completion of the construction phase of the project in 1987, the management and operating contractor for the facility has prepared these reports annually. This report describes the performance and condition of selected areas from July 1, 1999, to June 30, 2000. It is divided into ten chapters. The remainder of Chapter 1 provides background information on the WIPP, its mission, and the purpose and scope of the geomechanical monitoring program. Chapter 2 describes the local and regional geology of the WIPP site. Chapters 3 and 4 describe the geomechanical instrumentation located in the shafts and shaft stations, present the data collected by that instrumentation, and provide interpretation of these data. Chapters 5, 6, and 7 present the results of geomechanical monitoring in the three main portions of the WIPP underground facility (the access drifts, the Northern Experimental Area, and the Waste Disposal Area). Chapter 8 discusses the results of the Geoscience Program, which includes fracture mapping, borehole logging, and borehole observations. Chapter 9 provides an assessment of the hydrologic conditions near the Exhaust Shaft. Chapter 10 summarizes the results of the geomechanical monitoring and compares the current excavation

  20. Geotechnical Analysis Report for July 2001 - June 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2002-01-01

    This Geotechnical Analysis Report (GAR) presents and interprets the geotechnical data from the underground excavations at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The data, which are obtained as part of a regular monitoring program, are used to characterize conditions, to compare actual performance to the design assumptions, and to evaluate and forecast the performance of the underground excavations. GARs have been available to the public since 1983. During the Site and Preliminary Design Validation (SPDV) Program, the architect/engineer for the project produced these reports on a quarterly basis to document the geomechanical performance during and immediately after excavation of the underground facility. Since the completion of the construction phase of the project in 1987, the management and operating contractor for the facility has prepared these reports annually. This report describes the performance and condition of selected areas from July 1, 2001, to June 30, 2002. It is divided into ten chapters. The remainder of Chapter 1 provides background information on WIPP, its mission, and the purpose and scope of the geomechanical monitoring program. Chapter 2 describes the local and regional geology of the WIPP site. Chapters 3 and 4 describe the geomechanical instrumentation located in the shafts and shaft stations, present the data collected by that instrumentation, and provide interpretation of these data. Chapters 5, 6, and 7 present the results of geomechanical monitoring in the three main portions of the WIPP underground facility (the access drifts, the Northern Experimental Area, and the Waste Disposal Area). Chapter 8 discusses the results of the Geoscience Program, which include fracture and stratigraphic mapping, borehole and core logging, and borehole observations. Chapter 9 summarizes the results of the geomechanical monitoring and compares the current excavation performance to the design requirements. Chapter 10 lists the References and Bibliography

  1. Geotechnical Analysis Report for July 2000-June 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westinghouse TRU Solutions

    2002-09-26

    This Geotechnical Analysis Report (GAR) presents and interprets the geotechnical data from the underground excavations at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The data, which are obtained as part of a regular monitoring program, are used to characterize conditions, to compare actual performance to the design assumptions, and to evaluate and forecast the performance of the underground excavations during operations. GARs have been available to the public since 1983. During the Site and Preliminary Design Validation (SPDV) Program, the architect/engineer for the project produced these reports on a quarterly basis to document the geomechanical performance during and immediately after excavation of the underground facility. Since the completion of the construction phase of the project in 1987, the management and operating contractor for the facility has prepared these reports annually. This report describes the performance and condition of selected areas from July 1, 2000, to June 30, 2001. It is divided into ten chapters. The remainder of Chapter 1 provides background information on WIPP, its mission, and the purpose and scope of the geomechanical monitoring program. Chapter 2 describes the local and regional geology of the WIPP site. Chapters 3 and 4 describe the geomechanical instrumentation located in the shafts and shaft stations, present the data collected by that instrumentation, and provide interpretation of these data. Chapters 5, 6, and 7 present the results of geomechanical monitoring in the three main portions of the WIPP underground facility (the access drifts, the Northern Experimental Area, and the Waste Disposal Area). Chapter 8 discusses the results of the Geoscience Program, which include fracture and stratigraphic mapping, borehole and core logging, and borehole observations. Chapter 9 provides an assessment of the hydrologic conditions near the Exhaust Shaft. Chapter 10 summarizes the results of the geomechanical monitoring and compares the

  2. Geotechnical Analysis Report for July 1999 - June 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westinghouse TRU Solutions

    2002-01-01

    This Geotechnical Analysis Report (GAR) presents and interprets the geotechnical data from the underground excavations at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The data, which are obtained as part of a regular monitoring program, are used to characterize conditions, to compare actual performance to the design assumptions, and to evaluate and forecast the performance of the underground excavations during operations. GARs have been available to the public since 1983. During the Site and Preliminary Design Validation (SPDV) Program, the architect/engineer for the project produced these reports on a quarterly basis to document the geomechanical performance during and immediately after excavation of the underground facility. Since the completion of the construction phase of the project in 1987, the management and operating contractor for the facility has prepared these reports annually. This report describes the performance and condition of selected areas from July 1, 1999, to June 30, 2000. It is divided into ten chapters. The remainder of Chapter 1 provides background information on the WIPP, its mission, and the purpose and scope of the geomechanical monitoring program. Chapter 2 describes the local and regional geology of the WIPP site. Chapters 3 and 4 describe the geomechanical instrumentation located in the shafts and shaft stations, present the data collected by that instrumentation, and provide interpretation of these data. Chapters 5, 6, and 7 present the results of geomechanical monitoring in the three main portions of the WIPP underground facility (the access drifts, the Northern Experimental Area, and the Waste Disposal Area). Chapter 8 discusses the results of the Geoscience Program, which includes fracture mapping, borehole logging, and borehole observations. Chapter 9 provides an assessment of the hydrologic conditions near the Exhaust Shaft. Chapter 10 summarizes the results of the geomechanical monitoring and compares the current excavation

  3. GEOTECHNICAL MODELS OF THE ARCH FOUNDATIONS OF THE MASLENICA BRIDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Novosel

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available On the site of Maslenica bridge structural tectonic, geophysical and engineering geological investigations, geotechnical drilling and laboratory sample testings were performed. Maslenica anticline is characteristic for the investigated area. It is built from the limestone of Cretaceous age. The anticline has an asymmetrical form with the vergence of the axial plane towards the north. Reverse faults with recent activities are present. The recent activity was proved by the discovery of the broken stalactite with the displacement of 11 cm, whose age is 36000 years. On quite young stalactites (stalagmites in the cave on the west side, no displacements were noticed. For the next period of 500 years the maximal possible displacement of 2.0 cm is foreseen. Smaller caves with the dimensions of 1 m3, were formed on the intersections of the reverse faults and greater joints. The canyon Novsko ždrilo was formed in the fault shear zone with tectonic transport to the right. According to the range of fracture, three characteristic types of rock masses were separated by engineering geological investigations. According to »Geomechanical classification« (RMR the first type corresponds to II to III class, while the second type corresponds to IV class, and the third type corresponds to V class (mylonite. Because of the complexity of the terrain structure, original engineering geological bases of design have not enabled the direct application of the analysis of stress-strain behaviour. Because of that the simplified geotechnical models were done. They enabled the projecting of foundation in the rock mass and renewal of poor quality rock mass.

  4. Geotechnical and geomechanical parameters required for characterization of sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel, D.E.

    1982-01-01

    Characterization of disposal sites will involve geotechnical investigations and measurement of dozens of geomechanical parameters. The required investigations may be performed in stages, beginning with a preliminary study, or in a single evaluation. The geotechnical investigation will deal with the actual disposal site and the immediate area surrounding the site, and may include more detailed evaluation of the waste, disposal pits, and waste handling or processing structures. With respect to the actual site, the investigation is likely to focus on evaluating: (1) the types of subsurface soils or rocks present; (2) stability of the site; (3) potential for erosion; (4) ground water conditions; and (5) sources for construction materials. A variety of tests, some routine and some requiring state-of-the-art techniques, would be needed to measure parameters related to strength, compressibility, and permeability. The important mechanical properties of the waste (average density, compressibility, and potential for generation of gas) may be measured or, in some cases, estimated from experience. Detailed characterization will also be needed to evaluate stability of the walls of disposal pits, earthen covers over pits, any liner for the pit, any internal drains for the pit, and any internal system for collection or control of gas. Measurement and evaluation of most of these parameters is within the current state-of-practice. The parameters that will be the most difficult to measure and, at the same time, are of critical importance, are compressibility of the waste, characteristics of the earthen cover over the waste, and hydraulic conductivity of soils that contain thin sand seams, cracks, joints, or other hydraulic defects

  5. Development of a geotechnical GIS for subsurface characterization with three dimensional modeling capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    The New Hampshire Department of Transportation initiated this research to develop a geographical information system (GIS) that : visualizes subsurface conditions three dimensionally by pulling together geotechnical data containing spatial references....

  6. Implementation and transition of data interchange for geotechnical and geoenvironmental specialists (DIGGS v2.0).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Data Interchange for Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Specialists (DIGGS) is an XML-based system : developed under a Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) State Pooled Funding Study led by the : Ohio Department of Transportation (ODOT) from 2005 to ...

  7. pLog enterprise-enterprise GIS-based geotechnical data management system enhancements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Recent eorts by the Louisiana Department of Transportation and Development (DOTD) and the : Louisiana Transportation Research Center (LTRC) have developed a Geotechnical Information : Database, with a Geographic Information System (GIS) interface....

  8. Recent Advances and Future Challenges for Artificial Neural Systems in Geotechnical Engineering Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Shahin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial neural networks (ANNs are a form of artificial intelligence that has proved to provide a high level of competency in solving many complex engineering problems that are beyond the computational capability of classical mathematics and traditional procedures. In particular, ANNs have been applied successfully to almost all aspects of geotechnical engineering problems. Despite the increasing number and diversity of ANN applications in geotechnical engineering, the contents of reported applications indicate that the progress in ANN development and procedures is marginal and not moving forward since the mid-1990s. This paper presents a brief overview of ANN applications in geotechnical engineering, briefly provides an overview of the operation of ANN modeling, investigates the current research directions of ANNs in geotechnical engineering, and discusses some ANN modeling issues that need further attention in the future, including model robustness; transparency and knowledge extraction; extrapolation; uncertainty.

  9. Sustainable use of oil sands for geotechnical construction and road building

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anochie-Boateng, Joseph

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available established essential trends in oil sand behavior for developing laboratory guidelines and test protocols and typical material characterization models for their sustainable use in geotechnical and road building applications....

  10. Shallow subsurface structures and geotechnical characteristics of Tal El-Amarna area, middle Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Toni

    2013-12-01

    The concluded Vs and Vp values provide a preliminary estimation of the geotechnical parameters and site classification for the shallow soil as they are of great interest in civil engineering applications.

  11. Sustainable use of oil sands for geotechnical construction and road building

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anochie-Boateng, Joseph

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This symposium provides a forum for exchange of ideas on current research nationally and internationally on the use of industrial byproducts and other recycled materials in geotechnical construction. A key objective is to identify new opportunities...

  12. Utilization of multimode Love wave dispersion curve inversion for geotechnical site investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamimu, La; Nawawi, Mohd; Safani, Jamhir

    2011-01-01

    Inversion codes based on a modified genetic algorithm (GA) have been developed to invert multimode Love wave dispersion curves. The multimode Love wave dispersion curves were synthesized from the profile representing shear-wave velocity reversal using a full SH (shear horizontal) waveform. In this study, we used a frequency–slowness transform to extract the dispersion curve from the full SH waveform. Dispersion curves overlain in dispersion images were picked manually. These curves were then inverted using the modified GA. To assess the accuracy of the inversion results, differences between the true and inverted shear-wave velocity profile were quantified in terms of shear-wave velocity and thickness errors, E S and E H . Our numerical modeling showed that the inversion of multimode dispersion curves can significantly provide the better assessment of a shear-wave velocity structure, especially with a velocity reversal profile at typical geotechnical site investigations. This approach has been applied on field data acquired at a site in Niigata prefecture, Japan. In these field data, our inversion results show good agreement between the calculated and experimental dispersion curves and accurately detect low velocity layer targets

  13. Geologic and geotechnical contributions to the Itataia mine project, State of Ceara, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tognon, A.A.; Virgili, J.C.; Mueller, M.

    1984-01-01

    The procedures and systematics involved in obtaining basic geologic-geotechnical geomechanical and hydrogeo-technical parameters to serve as an aid in the planning of mining activities for the Itataia deposit located in the Itatira uranium district are presented and discussed. The studies were performed in order to provide the essential elements for an initial geologic-geotechnical characterization of the massif. (D.J.M.) [pt

  14. AECL strategy for surface-based investigations of potential disposal sites and the development of a geosphere model for a site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitaker, S.H.; Brown, A.; Davison, C.C.; Gascoyne, M.; Lodha, G.S.; Stevenson, D.R.; Thorne, G.A.; Tomsons, D.

    1994-05-01

    The objective of this report is to summarize AECL's strategy for surface-based geotechnical site investigations used in screening and evaluating candidate areas and candidate sites for a nuclear fuel waste repository and for the development of geosphere models of sites. The report is one of several prepared by national nuclear fuel waste management programs for the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. (SKB) to provide international background on site investigations for SKB's R and D programme on siting.The scope of the report is limited to surface-based investigations of the geosphere, those done at surface or in boreholes drilled from surface. The report discusses AECL's investigation strategy and the methods proposed for use in surface-based reconnaissance and detailed site investigations at potential repository sites. Site investigations done for AECL's Underground Research Laboratory are used to illustrate the approach. The report also discusses AECL's strategy for developing conceptual and mathematical models of geological conditions at sites and the use of these models in developing a model (Geosphere Model) for use in assessing the performance of the disposal system after a repository is closed. Models based on the site data obtained at the URL are used to illustrate the approach. Finally, the report summarizes the lessons learned from AECL's R and D program on site investigations and mentions some recent developments in the R and D program. 120 refs, 33 figs, 7 tabs

  15. Environmental and Geotechnical Assessment of the Steel Slags as a Material for Road Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Sas

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Slags are the final solid wastes from the steel industry. Their production from waste and associated materials is a proper implementation of the basic objectives and principles of the waste management. This study aims to investigate the chemical and selected significant geotechnical parameters of steel slag as the alternative materials used in road construction. These investigations are strongly desired for successful application in engineering. Young’s modules E, and resilient modules Mr showed that their values corresponding with requirements for subbase (principal or auxiliary and riding surface as well. Tested mechanical properties were conducted in soaked and un-soaked (optimal moisture content conditions. The designated high content of chromium and zinc are strongly associated with the internal crystal structure of steel slag. The results do not lead to threats when they are applied in roads’ structures. Mechanical characterization was obtained by performing California bearing ratio (CBR tests for steel slag in fixed compaction and moisture content conditions. Moreover, cyclic loading of steel slag was conducted with the application of cyclic California bearing ratio (cCBR apparatus to characterization of this material as a controlled low-strength material. Finally, field studies that consist of static load plate VSS tests were presented.

  16. Environmental and Geotechnical Assessment of the Steel Slags as a Material for Road Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sas, Wojciech; Głuchowski, Andrzej; Radziemska, Maja; Dzięcioł, Justyna; Szymański, Alojzy

    2015-07-30

    Slags are the final solid wastes from the steel industry. Their production from waste and associated materials is a proper implementation of the basic objectives and principles of the waste management. This study aims to investigate the chemical and selected significant geotechnical parameters of steel slag as the alternative materials used in road construction. These investigations are strongly desired for successful application in engineering. Young's modules E , and resilient modules M r showed that their values corresponding with requirements for subbase (principal or auxiliary) and riding surface as well. Tested mechanical properties were conducted in soaked and un-soaked (optimal moisture content) conditions. The designated high content of chromium and zinc are strongly associated with the internal crystal structure of steel slag. The results do not lead to threats when they are applied in roads' structures. Mechanical characterization was obtained by performing California bearing ratio (CBR) tests for steel slag in fixed compaction and moisture content conditions. Moreover, cyclic loading of steel slag was conducted with the application of cyclic California bearing ratio (cCBR) apparatus to characterization of this material as a controlled low-strength material. Finally, field studies that consist of static load plate VSS tests were presented.

  17. Development of AN Open-Source Automatic Deformation Monitoring System for Geodetical and Geotechnical Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, P.; Schweimler, B.

    2016-04-01

    The deformation monitoring of structures and buildings is an important task field of modern engineering surveying, ensuring the standing and reliability of supervised objects over a long period. Several commercial hardware and software solutions for the realization of such monitoring measurements are available on the market. In addition to them, a research team at the Neubrandenburg University of Applied Sciences (NUAS) is actively developing a software package for monitoring purposes in geodesy and geotechnics, which is distributed under an open source licence and free of charge. The task of managing an open source project is well-known in computer science, but it is fairly new in a geodetic context. This paper contributes to that issue by detailing applications, frameworks, and interfaces for the design and implementation of open hardware and software solutions for sensor control, sensor networks, and data management in automatic deformation monitoring. It will be discussed how the development effort of networked applications can be reduced by using free programming tools, cloud computing technologies, and rapid prototyping methods.

  18. Underwater noise from geotechnical drilling and standard penetration testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbe, Christine; McPherson, Craig

    2017-09-01

    Geotechnical site investigations prior to marine construction typically involve shallow, small-core drilling and standard penetration testing (SPT), during which a small tube is hammered into the ground at the bottom of the borehole. Drilling (120 kW, 83 mm diameter drillbit, 1500 rpm, 16-17 m drill depth in sand and mudstone) and SPT (50 mm diameter test tube, 15 mm wall thickness, 100 kg hammer, 1 m drop height) by a jack-up rig in 7-13 m of water were recorded with a drifting hydrophone at 10-50 m range. Source levels were 142-145 dB re 1 μPa rms @ 1 m (30-2000 Hz) for drilling and 151-160 dB re 1 μPa 2 s @ 1 m (20-24 000 Hz) for SPT.

  19. Geotechnical reconnaissance of the 2002 Denali fault, Alaska, earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayen, R.; Thompson, E.; Minasian, D.; Moss, R.E.S.; Collins, B.D.; Sitar, N.; Dreger, D.; Carver, G.

    2004-01-01

    The 2002 M7.9 Denali fault earthquake resulted in 340 km of ruptures along three separate faults, causing widespread liquefaction in the fluvial deposits of the alpine valleys of the Alaska Range and eastern lowlands of the Tanana River. Areas affected by liquefaction are largely confined to Holocene alluvial deposits, man-made embankments, and backfills. Liquefaction damage, sparse surrounding the fault rupture in the western region, was abundant and severe on the eastern rivers: the Robertson, Slana, Tok, Chisana, Nabesna and Tanana Rivers. Synthetic seismograms from a kinematic source model suggest that the eastern region of the rupture zone had elevated strong-motion levels due to rupture directivity, supporting observations of elevated geotechnical damage. We use augered soil samples and shear-wave velocity profiles made with a portable apparatus for the spectral analysis of surface waves (SASW) to characterize soil properties and stiffness at liquefaction sites and three trans-Alaska pipeline pump station accelerometer locations. ?? 2004, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  20. Geotechnical support and topical studies for nuclear waste geologic repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-12-01

    This multidisciplinary project was initiated in fiscal year 1986. It comprises two major interrelated tasks, technical assistance and topical studies. The present report lists the technical reviews and comments made during the fiscal year 1989 and summarizes the technical progress of the topical studies. The major task was a study of the mechanical, hydraulic, geophysical and geochemical properties of fractures in geologic rock masses. In the area of technical assistance, there were a total of 30 geotechnical support activities, including reviews of 15 study plans (SP) and participation in 5 SP Review Workshops; in-depth multidisciplinary review of 5 Exploratory Shaft Facility (ESF) Study Plans and presentation of results to DOE; preparation and revision of a white paper and proposed work statement on preclosure monitoring and performance confirmation as an outgrowth of a request made by DOE to LBL; the hosting of a DOE program review; with DOE's encouragement, preparation of 8 papers for the International High-Level Radioactive Waste Management Conference to be held in April, 1990 in Las Vegas, Nevada; and 5 instances of general technical assistance to DOE

  1. Groundwater movements around a repository. Geological and geotechnical conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stille, H.; Burgess, A.; Lindblom, U.E.

    1977-09-01

    The report was prepared as one of a series of technical reports within a study of the groundwater movements around a repository for radioactive waste in the Precambrian bedrock of Sweden. This assessment is intended to provide basic geotechnical data for the analysis. These data include properties and conditions that are representative of the intact rock, the rock mass in general, and the groundwater regime. As there exist a considerable range in the mineralogy of potentially suitable plutonic rocks and since a specific site has not yet been selected, all of the parameters presented in this report must be based on presumptive geological and hydrogeological conditions. Where possible, data for two potential site areas, namely Oskarshamn and Forsmark, are presented. This report is divided into four parts. First, a brief description of the procedure for modelling groundwater movements is presented, along with a tabulation of the important parameters. Secondly, a description of the geological and hydrogeological conditions of the Fennoscandian shield, as well as of the two general site areas, is given. The final two sections of the report provide thermomechanical and geohydrological characteristics and properties of the host rock

  2. GEOTECHNICAL PROPERTIES OF SANDY SOIL CONTAMINATED WITH INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAHDI O. KARKUSH

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work is devoted for studying the geotechnical and chemical properties of intact and contaminated sandy soil samples. The soil samples were obtained from Al-Kufa city that is located in the south-west of Iraq. The contaminant is a by-product industrial wastewater disposed from the refinery that supplies fuel for the thermal electricity power plant. The intact sandy soil samples were contaminated in the laboratory with four percentages of 10, 20, 40 and 100% of the weight of distilled water used in the soaking process and the soaking process continued for thirty days. The results of tests showed a slight increase in both liquid limit and particle size and a significant increase in the optimum moisture content with increasing the percentages of the contaminant. However, with increasing the percentages of the contaminant, there was a slight decrease in the specific gravity and maximum dry unit weight. In addition, there was a considerable decrease in the angle of internal friction and the coefficient of permeability. The angle of internal friction of contaminated soil samples decreased by 18 to 26% with increasing the contaminant percentage from 10 to 100%. The cohesion of soil samples decreased by 7 to 33% with increasing the contaminant percentage, this conclusion is limited to the soil samples contaminated with 10, 20 and 40%, but the cohesion of soil sample contaminated with 100 % of industrial wastewater increased by 7%.

  3. Role to Be Played by Independent Geotechnical Supervision in the Foundation for Bridge Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobala, Dariusz; Rybak, Jarosław

    2017-10-01

    Some remarks concerning the necessity of employing an independent and over all ethical geotechnical survey were presented in the paper. Starting from the design phase, through the whole construction process, the importance of geotechnical engineer is stated in legal acts. Numerous testing technologies serve for the calibration of geotechnical technologies and allow for confirming the quality and capacity of piles. Special emphasis was payed to the involvement of scientifical and research institutions which can not only serve services but also can postprocess and methodize collected data. Such databases enable for new codes, methods and recommendations. Selection of deep foundations for bridge-type structures is most often dependent on complex geotechnical conditions, concentrated loads and constraints for pier displacements. Besides the last ones, prior to more common introduction of the design-construct system, could be a convenient justification for design engineer, who imposed deep foundation because he did not want or was not able to estimate the effect of pier settlement on civil engineering structure. The paper provides some notes about the need to engage a geotechnical supervising service of high competency and ethical quality during engineering and construction stages of foundations for bridge-type structures where legal requirements are of special consideration. Successive stages of projects are reviewed and research methods used for current calibration of geotechnical technologies and verification of geotechnical work quality are analysed. Special attention is given to potential involvement of independent R&D institutions which, apart from rendering specific services, also collect and systemize the research results thus enabling, in the long term, to revise engineering standards, instructions and guidelines.

  4. Transient Convection, Diffusion, and Adsorption in Surface-Based Biosensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rasmus; Bruus, Henrik; Callisen, Thomas H.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical and computational investigation of convection, diffusion, and adsorption in surface-based biosensors. In particular, we study the transport dynamics in a model geometry of a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor. The work, however, is equally relevant for other...... microfluidic surface-based biosensors, operating under flow conditions. A widely adopted approximate quasi-steady theory to capture convective and diffusive mass transport is reviewed, and an analytical solution is presented. An expression of the Damköhler number is derived in terms of the nondimensional...... concentration to the maximum surface capacity is critical for reliable use of the quasi-steady theory. Finally, our results provide users of surface-based biosensors with a tool for correcting experimentally obtained adsorption rate constants....

  5. Application of Crushed Concrete in Geotechnical Engineering - Selected Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawalec, Jacek; Kwiecien, Slawomir; Pilipenko, Anton; Rybak, Jarosław

    2017-12-01

    The reuse of building materials becomes an important issue in sustainable engineering. As the technical requirements for civil engineering structures changes with time and the life time is limited, the need of building new objects meets the necessity of recycling of the existing ones. In the case of steel structures, the possibility of recycling is obvious, also in the case of wooden constructions, the possibility of “burning” solves the problem. The concrete waste is generated mainly as a result of the demolition and reconstruction of residential and industrial buildings. These types of waste are basically made from crushed rocks and cement minerals and contain non-hydrated cement particles in its composition. Concrete poses a lot of problems mainly for two reasons. It is difficult to crush, heavy and hard to transport and demanding in reuse. Different fractions (particle sizes) may be used for different purposes. Starting from very fine particles which can be used in concrete production, through regular 16-300 mm fractions used to form new fills and fill the mats, up to very irregular mixtures used to form stone columns by means of Impulse Compaction or in Dynamic Replacement. The presented study juxtaposes authors experience with crushed concrete used in civil engineering, mainly in geotechnical projects. Authors’ experiences comprise the application of crushed concrete in the new concrete production in Russia, changing pulverized bridge into the fill of mesh sacks, or mattresses used as an effective way to protect the shoreline and the New Orleans East land bridge after Katrina storm (forming a new shoreline better able to withstand wave actions), and finally the use of very irregular concrete fractions to form stone columns in week soils on the example of railway and road projects in Poland. Selected case studies are presented and summarized with regard to social, technical and economic issues including energy consumption needed for proposed technologies

  6. Development of a debris flow model in a geotechnical centrifuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Miguel Angel; Wu, Wei

    2013-04-01

    Debris flows occur in three main stages. At first the initial soil mass, which rests in a rigid configuration, reaches a critic state releasing a finite mass over a failure surface. In the second stage the released mass starts being transported downhill in a dynamic motion. Segregation, erosion, entrainment, and variable channel geometry are among the more common characteristics of this stage. Finally, at the third stage the transported mass plus the mass gained or loosed during the transportation stage reach a flat and/or a wide area and its deposition starts, going back to a rigid configuration. The lack of understanding and predictability of debris flow from the traditional theoretical approaches has lead that in the last two decades the mechanics of debris flows started to be analysed around the world. Nevertheless, the validation of recent numerical advances with experimental data is required. Centrifuge modelling is an experimental tool that allows the test of natural processes under defined boundary conditions in a small scale configuration, with a good level of accuracy in comparison with a full scale test. This paper presents the development of a debris flow model in a geotechnical centrifuge focused on the second stage of the debris flow process explained before. A small scale model of an inclined flume will be developed, with laboratory instrumentation able to measure the pore pressure, normal stress, and velocity path, developed in a scaled debris flow in motion. The model aims to reproduce in a controlled environment the main parameters of debris flow motion. This work is carried under the EC 7th Framework Programme as part of the MUMOLADE project. The dataset and data-analysis obtained from the tests will provide a qualitative description of debris flow motion-mechanics and be of valuable information for MUMOLADE co-researchers and for the debris flow research community in general.

  7. A contactless positioning system for monitoring discontinuities in three dimensions with geological and geotechnical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi-Montes, Natalia; Rowberry, Matt; Frontera, Carlos; Baroň, Ivo; Garcés, Javier; Blahůt, Jan; Pérez-López, Raúl; Pennos, Christos; Martí, Xavi

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, a contactless positioning system is presented which has been designed to monitor the kinematic behavior of mechanical discontinuities in three dimensions. The positioning system comprises a neodymium magnet, fixed on one side of a discontinuity, and a magnetoresistive sensing array, fixed on the opposing side. Each of the anisotropic magnetoresistive sensors in the sensing array records the magnetic field along three orthogonal directions. The positioning system intrinsically generates compact data packages which are transmitted effectively using a range of standard wireless telecommunication technologies. These data are then modeled using a global least squares fitting procedure in which the adjustable parameters are represented by the position and orientation of the neodymium magnet. The instrumental resolution of the positioning system can be tuned depending on the strength of the magnetic field generated by the neodymium magnet and the distance between the neodymium magnet and the magnetoresistive sensing array. For a typical installation, the displacement resolution is shown to be circa 10 μm while the rotation resolution is circa 0.1°. The first permanently deployed positioning system was established in June 2016 to monitor the behavior of an N-S trending fault located at the contact between the eastern Alps and the Vienna Basin. The robust design of the positioning system is demonstrated by the fact that no interruptions in the broadcasted data streams have occurred since its installation. It has a range of potential applications in many areas of basic and applied research including geology, geotechnical engineering, and structural health monitoring.

  8. A contactless positioning system for monitoring discontinuities in three dimensions with geological and geotechnical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi-Montes, Natalia; Rowberry, Matt; Frontera, Carlos; BaroÅ, Ivo; Garcés, Javier; Blahůt, Jan; Pérez-López, Raúl; Pennos, Christos; Martí, Xavi

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, a contactless positioning system is presented which has been designed to monitor the kinematic behavior of mechanical discontinuities in three dimensions. The positioning system comprises a neodymium magnet, fixed on one side of a discontinuity, and a magnetoresistive sensing array, fixed on the opposing side. Each of the anisotropic magnetoresistive sensors in the sensing array records the magnetic field along three orthogonal directions. The positioning system intrinsically generates compact data packages which are transmitted effectively using a range of standard wireless telecommunication technologies. These data are then modeled using a global least squares fitting procedure in which the adjustable parameters are represented by the position and orientation of the neodymium magnet. The instrumental resolution of the positioning system can be tuned depending on the strength of the magnetic field generated by the neodymium magnet and the distance between the neodymium magnet and the magnetoresistive sensing array. For a typical installation, the displacement resolution is shown to be circa 10 μm while the rotation resolution is circa 0.1°. The first permanently deployed positioning system was established in June 2016 to monitor the behavior of an N-S trending fault located at the contact between the eastern Alps and the Vienna Basin. The robust design of the positioning system is demonstrated by the fact that no interruptions in the broadcasted data streams have occurred since its installation. It has a range of potential applications in many areas of basic and applied research including geology, geotechnical engineering, and structural health monitoring.

  9. Comparison Between Two Methods for Estimating the Vertical Scale of Fluctuation for Modeling Random Geotechnical Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieczyńska-Kozłowska, Joanna M.

    2015-12-01

    The design process in geotechnical engineering requires the most accurate mapping of soil. The difficulty lies in the spatial variability of soil parameters, which has been a site of investigation of many researches for many years. This study analyses the soil-modeling problem by suggesting two effective methods of acquiring information for modeling that consists of variability from cone penetration test (CPT). The first method has been used in geotechnical engineering, but the second one has not been associated with geotechnics so far. Both methods are applied to a case study in which the parameters of changes are estimated. The knowledge of the variability of parameters allows in a long term more effective estimation, for example, bearing capacity probability of failure.

  10. Geotechnical and Physico-Chemical Characterization of Low Lime Fly Ashes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Ali Baig Moghal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to explore the possibility of using low-lime fly ashes, the physical and chemical properties which have a direct bearing on their geotechnical and geoenvironmental behaviors have been investigated. In this paper, two types of low-lime fly ashes, originating from India, have been used. A brief account of various methods adopted in characterizing their physical, chemical, and geotechnical properties is presented. The relative importance of each of these properties in enhancing the bulk applicability of fly ashes has been brought out.

  11. Geotechnical effects of the 2015 magnitude 7.8 Gorkha, Nepal, earthquake and aftershocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Robb E. S.; Thompson, Eric M.; Kieffer, D Scott; Tiwari, Binod; Hashash, Youssef M A; Acharya, Indra; Adhikari, Basanta; Asimaki, Domniki; Clahan, Kevin B.; Collins, Brian D.; Dahal, Sachindra; Jibson, Randall W.; Khadka, Diwakar; Macdonald, Amy; Madugo, Chris L M; Mason, H Benjamin; Pehlivan, Menzer; Rayamajhi, Deepak; Uprety, Sital

    2015-01-01

    This article summarizes the geotechnical effects of the 25 April 2015 M 7.8 Gorkha, Nepal, earthquake and aftershocks, as documented by a reconnaissance team that undertook a broad engineering and scientific assessment of the damage and collected perishable data for future analysis. Brief descriptions are provided of ground shaking, surface fault rupture, landsliding, soil failure, and infrastructure performance. The goal of this reconnaissance effort, led by Geotechnical Extreme Events Reconnaissance, is to learn from earthquakes and mitigate hazards in future earthquakes.

  12. Efficient Non-Linear Finite Element Implementation of Elasto-Plasticity for Geotechnical Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Johan

    More and more geotechnical structures are being designed on the basis of computer simulation of the soil behaviour. This is due to the fact that precise modelling of soil behaviour and all but the simplest geometries result in equations that are impossible to solve using hand-calculation methods......-Brown material. The efficiency and validity are demonstrated by comparing the finite-element results with well-known solutions for simple geometries. A common geotechnical problem is the assessment of slope stability. For slopes with simple geometries and consisting of a linear Mohr-Coulomb material, this can...

  13. Development of a geotechnical and geophysical database for seismic zonation of the Ankara Basin, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koçkar, Mustafa K.; Akgün, Haluk

    2008-07-01

    Engineering geological and geotechnical site characteristics were assessed and seismic hazard studies performed for the Upper Pliocene to Pleistocene fluvial and Quaternary alluvial and terrace deposits for a site west of Ankara, Turkey. Sediment conditions were determined and a soil profile was characterized by surface geophysical methods. These studies were integrated with existing in-situ characterization studies to create a seismic and geotechnical database for the site. A seismic zonation map of the site was then prepared. Site classification systems were assigned to account for site effects in relation to seismic hazard assessments. The consequences of the seismic hazards were investigated and recommendations were presented.

  14. A contactless positioning system for monitoring discontinuities in three dimensions with geological and geotechnical applications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rinaldi-Montes, N.; Rowberry, Matthew David; Frontera, C.; Baroň, I.; Garcés, G.; Blahůt, Jan; Pérez-López, R.; Pennos, C.; Martí, Xavier

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 7 (2017), č. článku 074501. ISSN 0034-6748 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2010008 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : mechanical discontinuities * contactless positioning system * magnetoresistive sensing * geotechnical engineering * structural health monitoring Subject RIV: JB - Sensors, Measurment, Regulation; BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism (FZU-D) OBOR OECD: Environmental and geological engineering , geotechnics; Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) (FZU-D) Impact factor: 1.515, year: 2016

  15. Low-level waste disposal site geotechnical subsidence corrective measures: technical progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, S.J.; Winterhalder, J.A.; Gilbert, T.W.

    1983-01-01

    A geotechnical test facility has been constructed at the Hanford Site Richland Site Richland, Washington. The purpose of this facility is to quantitatively evaluate the performance of alternative technologies to ameliorate geomechanical subsidence in solid waste burial structures. Alternatives to be tested include; accelerating mass ground surface impact, and two optional subsurface rod injection/withdrawal techniques. The alternatives involve the principle of dynamic consolidation of buried waste and matrix materials. A description of the geotechnical test facility, the monitoring instrumentation used therein, laboratory soil mechanics data evaluation, and facility baseline monitoring data are presented. 6 references, 5 figures

  16. Geotechnical issues and guidelines for storage of compressed air in excavated hard rock caverns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, R.D.; Doherty, T.J.; Fossum, A.F.

    1982-04-01

    The results of a literature survey on the stability of excavated hard rock caverns are presented. The objective of the study was to develop geotechnical criteria for the design of compressed air energy storage (CAES) caverns in hard rock formations. These criteria involve geologic, hydrological, geochemical, geothermal, and in situ stress state characteristics of generic rock masses. Their relevance to CAES caverns, and the identification of required research areas, are identified throughout the text. This literature survey and analysis strongly suggests that the chief geotechnical issues for the development and operation of CAES caverns in hard rock are impermeability for containment, stability for sound openings, and hydrostatic balance.

  17. Geotechnical environmental aspects of geothermal power generation at Herber, Imperial Valley, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-10-01

    The feasibility of constructing a 25-50 MWe geothermal power plant using low salinity hydrothermal fluid as the energy source was assessed. Here, the geotechnical aspects of geothermal power generation and their relationship to environmental impacts in the Imperial Valley of California were investigated. Geology, geophysics, hydrogeology, seismicity and subsidence are discussed in terms of the availability of data, state-of-the-art analytical techniques, historical and technical background and interpretation of current data. Estimates of the impact of these geotechnical factors on the environment in the Imperial Valley, if geothermal development proceeds, are discussed.

  18. Physicochemical and Geotechnical Alterations to MX-80 Bentonite at the Waste Canister Interface in an Engineered Barrier System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher W. Davies

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the basic geomechanical and mineralogical evolution of the bentonite barrier under various experimental boundary conditions which replicated the near-field Thermo-Hydro-Chemico (THC conditions in a repository. The relationships between the physicochemical alterations and changes in the geotechnical properties have seldom been studied, especially on a consistent dataset. This paper attempts to link the physicochemical properties of Na-bentonite (MX-80 to the macro-scale engineering functionality of the bentonite post THC exposure. Experiments investigated the impact of THC variables on the engineering and physicochemical functionality of the bentonite with respect to its application within a High-Level Waste (HLW engineered barrier system. Intrinsic alterations to the MX-80 bentonite under relatively short-term exposure to hydrothermal and chemical conditions were measured. Additionally, two long-term tests were conducted under ambient conditions to consider the impact of exposure duration. The intrinsic measurements were then related to the overall performance of the bentonite as a candidate barrier material for application in a UK geological disposal facility. Findings indicate that exposure to thermo-saline-corrosion conditions (i.e., corrosion products derived from structural grade 275 carbon steel inhibits the free swell capacity and plasticity of the bentonite. However, the measured values remained above the design limits set out for the Swedish multi-barrier concept, from which the UK concept may take a lead. Corrosion alone does not appear to significantly affect the geotechnical measurements compared with the influence of thermal loading and high saline pore water after relatively short-term exposure. Thermal and corrosion exposure displayed no impact on the intrinsic swelling of the smectite component, indicating that no significant structural alteration had occurred. However, when exploring more complex saline

  19. Geotechnical Impacts of Hurricane Harvey Along the Texas, USA Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallegan, S. M.; Stark, N.; Jafari, N.; Ravichandran, N.; Shafii, I.; Bassal, P.; Figlus, J.

    2017-12-01

    As part of the NSF-funded Geotechnical Extreme Events Reconnaissance (GEER) Association response to Hurricane Harvey, a team of engineers and scientists mobilized to the coastal cities of Texas, USA from 1 to 5 September 2017. Damage to coastal and riverine structures due to erosion by storm surge, waves, and coastal and riverine flooding was assessed in a wide coastal zone between Corpus Christi and Galveston. Making initial landfall near Rockport, Texas on 26 August 2017, Hurricane Harvey was classified as a category 4 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson scale with wind speeds exceeding 130 mph and an atmospheric pressure of 938 mbar. The storm stalled over the Houston area, pouring 40 inches of rain on an area encompassing more than 3,000 square miles. Hurricane Harvey, which remained a named storm for 117 hours after initial landfall, slowly moved east into the Gulf of Mexico and made final landfall near Cameron, Louisiana on 30 August. The GEER team surveyed sixteen main sites, extending from Mustang Island in the southwest to Galveston in the northeast and as far inland as Rosenburg. In Port Aransas, beach erosion and undercutting along a beach access road near Aransas Pass were observed. Due to several tide gauge failures in this area, the nearest NOAA tide gauge (#8775870 near Corpus Christi) was used to estimate water levels of 1.35 m, approximately 1.0 m above the predicted tide. In Holiday Beach, anchored retaining walls were inundated, causing backside scour along the entire length and exposing the sheetpile wall anchors. Along the Colorado River at the Highway 35 bridge near Bay City, active riverbank failure was observed and a sheet pile wall was found collapsed. Significant sediment deposits lined the vegetated riverbanks. A USGS stream gage recorded gage heights greater than 45 ft, exceeding the flood stage of 44 ft. Fronting a rubblemound seawall in Surfside Beach, a runnel and ridge formation was observed. Nearby at San Luis Pass, infilled scour

  20. Research of geotechnical properties of slope covers from Jamne and Jaszcze stream valleys in Gorce Mts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tymoteusz Adam Zydroń

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The test results pertaining to geotechnical parameters of slope covers from valleys of two mountainous streams from Gorce Mts. are presented in the paper. The tests were carried out in the context of slope stability estimation of the analyzed watersheds. The field studies included determination of basic physical properties of soil at several sites within the studied area, laboratory tests involved determination of particle size distribution, consistency limits, permeability coefficients and shear strengths, which were carried out at direct shear box and CIU tests in triaxial apparatus. The test results revealed that the tested slope covers can be described as coarse-grained soils with low content of clay fraction, characterized by low plasticity. The values of the internal friction angle of the average bad land were high and ranged from 28 to 38 degrees, whereas cohesion varied from 0 to 7 kPa. Generally, the higher values of angle of internal friction and lower cohesion were obtained from triaxial tests. The values of permeability coefficients determined using the infiltration method allow to characterize tested soils as a semi-permeable medium. The stability calculations using the SINMAP model have shown that a significant part of the analyzed area is prone to mass movements, giving a more conservative assessment of landslide vulnerability than the results of the SOPO report. The probabilistic slope stability calculation results indicate that the likelihood of slope failure increases significantly on the slopes with the inclination exceeding 20 degrees, and the results of the calculations providing a more detailed information of the mass movements susceptibility of the area than were obtained using the SINMAP model.

  1. The Use of Mini-projects in the Teaching of Geotechnics to Civil Engineering Undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, W. F.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Geotechnics (which encompasses soil and rock mechanics, engineering geology, foundation design, and ground engineering methods) is a major component of virtually all civil engineering courses. Show how mini-projects are used to teach this subject. Format of projects, development of presentation skills, and assessment considerations are discussed.…

  2. Geotechnical and leaching properties of flowable fill incorporating waste foundry sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, An; Tikalsky, Paul J

    2008-11-01

    Waste foundry sand (WFS) can be converted into flowable fill for geotechnical applications. In this study, WFS samples were obtained from 17 independent metal casting facilities with different casting processes, thus representing a good range of WFS properties. The laboratory studies include physical, geotechnical and leaching properties of flowable fills consisting of WFS, cement, and fly ash mixed to different water contents. The main properties measured include WFS physical properties (density, particle gradation, grain shape, and fine content), WFS flowable fill geotechnical properties (unconfined compressive strength, hydraulic conductivity, setting time, and bleeding), and the fill's leaching properties (heavy metals and organics in the bleed water and the leachate extracted from hardened WFS flowable fills). The test results indicate that in terms of the physical properties, most of the data fall within narrow ranges, although data from the copper/aluminum-based WFS samples might fall beyond the ranges. Geotechnical properties of WFS flowable fills in both fresh and hardened phases were verified conforming to the features of specified flowable fills. Material leaching analyses indicate that the toxicity of WFS flowable fills is below regulated criteria. A mix formulation range originated from this study is proposed for the design of WFS made flowable fill.

  3. Assessing geotechnical centrifuge modelling in addressing variably saturated flow in soil and fractured rock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brendon R; Brouwers, Luke B; Van Tonder, Warren D; Dippenaar, Matthys A

    2017-05-01

    The vadose zone typically comprises soil underlain by fractured rock. Often, surface water and groundwater parameters are readily available, but variably saturated flow through soil and rock are oversimplified or estimated as input for hydrological models. In this paper, a series of geotechnical centrifuge experiments are conducted to contribute to the knowledge gaps in: (i) variably saturated flow and dispersion in soil and (ii) variably saturated flow in discrete vertical and horizontal fractures. Findings from the research show that the hydraulic gradient, and not the hydraulic conductivity, is scaled for seepage flow in the geotechnical centrifuge. Furthermore, geotechnical centrifuge modelling has been proven as a viable experimental tool for the modelling of hydrodynamic dispersion as well as the replication of similar flow mechanisms for unsaturated fracture flow, as previously observed in literature. Despite the imminent challenges of modelling variable saturation in the vadose zone, the geotechnical centrifuge offers a powerful experimental tool to physically model and observe variably saturated flow. This can be used to give valuable insight into mechanisms associated with solid-fluid interaction problems under these conditions. Findings from future research can be used to validate current numerical modelling techniques and address the subsequent influence on aquifer recharge and vulnerability, contaminant transport, waste disposal, dam construction, slope stability and seepage into subsurface excavations.

  4. The Position of Geotechnical Engineering and Risk Management in Dutch Higher Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broere, W.; Van Dalen, J.; Van der Schrier, J.

    2015-01-01

    As part of the Dutch national research program GeoImpuls an inventory has been made of the state of the education at Dutch institutes of higher education and post-graduate education in so far as this education concerns geotechncial engineering and geotechnical risk management. Significant

  5. Geotechnical Site Assessment by Seismic Piezocone Test in North of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Firouzianbandpey, Sarah; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl

    2013-01-01

    different empirical correlations between cone data and shear wave velocity measurements to estimate geotechnical parameters but their validity still needs to be verified in a case study and uncertainty remains about the choice of empirical correlations. In this study a site at the East Harbor of Aalborg...

  6. Environments for Fostering Effective Critical Thinking in Geotechnical Engineering Education (Geo-EFFECTs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Charles E.; Gassman, Sarah L.; Huffman, Jeffrey T.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the development, implementation, and assessment of instructional materials for geotechnical engineering concepts using the Environments for Fostering Effective Critical Thinking (EFFECTs) pedagogical framework. The central learning goals of engineering EFFECTs are to (i) improve the understanding and retention of a specific…

  7. Preliminary geotechnical properties of deepsea sediments from the Central Indian Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Khadge, N.H.

    Geotechnical properties of the Plio-Pleistocene sediments from nodule bearing area in the Central Indian Basin have been studied to know shear strength and water content variation with depth. It reveals that surface sediments have low (less than 1 k...

  8. Electric imaging and laboratory resistivity testing for geotechnical investigation of Pusan clay deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giao, P. H.; Chung, S. G.; Kim, D. Y.; Tanaka, H.

    2003-03-01

    Large-scale reclamation works for new land development in the Nakdong River plain have been extensively carried out on soft clays. Several geotechnical characteristics of the clays could not be well evaluated, partly due to easy disturbance during drilling and sampling. Consequently, geophysical methods, seen as nondestructive testing tools, have been applied in geotechnical investigation of Pusan clays for the first time. In this study, the 2D electric imaging technique was employed to map the thick soft clay deposits in four reclamation sites. The Pusan clay deposit was very well mapped. Electric resistivity of Pusan clays was measured on over 50 core samples in the laboratory, and then correlated with other geotechnical parameters such as salinity, organic content, water content, plasticity, unit weight and sampling depth. Additionally, electric resistivity of about 20 natural clays collected worldwide was measured and compared to that of the Pusan clays as an initial effort in creating a database of clay electric resistivity to help further application of electric imaging in geotechnical investigation of clayey soils.

  9. On the practical use of the Material Point Method for offshore geotechnical applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkgreve, R.B.J.; Burg, M; Liim, L.J.; Andreykiv, A

    2017-01-01

    The Material Point Method (MPM) has been developed as a special finite element-based method for large deformation analysis, material flow and contact problems. When it comes to applications in soil, MPM can provide solutions where conventional FEM faces its limitations. Examples of geotechnical

  10. P-wave velocity test for assessment of geotechnical properties of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The aim of this study is to predict the rock properties including the uniaxial compressive strength, Schmidt hardness, modulus of elasticity, water absorption and effective porosity, slake durability index, saturated and dry density of rock using -wave velocity (p). For this purpose geotechnical properties of nine different rock ...

  11. Underground geotechnical and geological investigations at Ekati Mine-Koala North: case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubec, Jaroslav; Long, Larry; Nowicki, Tom; Dyck, Darren

    2004-09-01

    Since 1998, BHP Billiton has mined diamonds at the Ekati Diamond Mine™ near Lac de Gras in the Northwest Territories of Canada. Current operations are based on mining multiple pipes by the open-pit method, but as some pits deepen, converting to underground mining is being considered. As a test of underground mining methods and to provide access to the lower elevations of the Panda and Koala pipes, the Koala North pipe is being developed for underground mining. Initially, the top 40 m of the pipe were mined as an open pit to provide grade information and a prepared surface for the transition to underground mining. Currently, Koala North is being developed as an open-benching, mechanized, trackless operation. Although the method was successfully used at several De Beers diamond operations in South Africa, it has never been tested in an Arctic environment. This case study describes basic geology, mining method layout and ongoing geological and geotechnical investigation. From the beginning of underground development, geotechnical daily routines have been fully integrated within the technical services department, which supports the operation. Geotechnical, geological and structural information obtained from underground mapping and core logging is compiled, processed, reviewed and analyzed on site by the geotechnical staff. Conclusions and recommendations are implemented as part of the operations in a timely manner. This ongoing ;live; process enables the operators to make the most efficient use of resources both for ground support and excavations as well as to address safety issues, which are the top priority.

  12. Geotechnical Evaluation of a Ghanaian Black Cotton Soil for use as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    “Hydraulic conductivity of compacted lateritic soils.” Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvi- ronmental Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 131, No. 8, pp. 1034 – 1041. Osinubi, K.J. (2006), “Influence of compactive ef- fort on lime-slag treated tropical black clay”,. Journal of materials in civil engineering, ASCE. Vol. 18, No.2, pp. 175-181.

  13. Surface-based GPR underestimates below-stump root biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Butnor; Lisa J. Samuelson; Thomas A. Stokes; Kurt H. Johnsen; Peter H. Anderson; Carlos A. Gonzalez-Benecke

    2016-01-01

    Aims While lateral root mass is readily detectable with ground penetrating radar (GPR), the roots beneath a tree (below-stump) and overlapping lateral roots near large trees are problematic for surface-based antennas operated in reflection mode. We sought to determine if tree size (DBH) effects GPR root detection proximal to longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill) and if...

  14. The Role of Geotechnical Monitoring at Design of Foundation Structures and their Verification – Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drusa Marián

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available For a long time, design of the square foundations has not posed a problem in engineering practice. Foundations are designed on the basis of determining the bearing capacity of the subsoil, where irregularities in its determination oftentimes affect the efficiency (economy, while possible failures of bearing resistance of foundation soil are rare. More important factor is the resulting deformation of second limit state under consideration - settlement, relative settlement, tilting and excessive deformation. The current pressure on the cost reduction of design preparation and obtaining important data from geotechnical survey often results in many cases into adverse effects of settlement and differential settlement of foundations of the buildings. The question lies in a variety of analytical methods for assessing the service ability of limit states used in European countries as well as the underestimation of the proposal risks. Authors of the article want to document the fact that the most important influence on adequate and safe design is the most accurate determination of geotechnical parameters and the appropriate selection of the calculation method. For the purposes of explanation, Monte Carlo simulation technique was used to test a variety of geotechnical parameters, which will be presented in second part of article. If all construction processes are carried out successfully, rarely are the buildings evaluated once again. However, when the opportunity to participate in the stage of engineering survey and collection of geotechnical parameters as well as the control of the construction process by tools of geotechnical monitoring presents itself, it is valuable to perform the analysis of the entire process for pointing out hidden risks.

  15. Rovdrill{sup R} and the Rovdrill{sup R} 'M' series, pushing the limits of the offshore geotechnical investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, Allan [Perry Slingsby Systems Inc., North Yorkshire (United Kingdom)

    2008-07-01

    This paper will describe the development and actual field performance of a new remotely operated sub sea drilling, coring and in-situ soil sampling rig - Rovdrill{sup R}, the paper will further describe the subsequent development of the latest generation Rovdrill{sup R} the Rovdrill{sup R} 'M' Series which represents the very latest in leading edge remotely operated seabed mode rigs. We are seeing the potential for continued and sustained growth in the sub sea mineral exploration market, which will call for new and innovative complimentary equipment and processes to be developed, currently the pioneering nature of this work often carries with it limited budgets and hence the necessity for economic, yet effective solutions to new and complex sub sea intervention problems. This, in addition to the ever increasing activity levels in the offshore geotechnical investigation arenas, particularly the increasing number of sub sea oil and gas construction and shallow water renewable energy system installation projects, is driving us - as leading providers of sub sea intervention systems to develop complimentary and competitive solutions. The Rovdrill{sup R} product is one such system, which having already enjoyed some initial recognition and acceptance as a competent geotechnical data acquisition tool has now been further developed to service a much wider and expanding market. (author)

  16. Effect of benthic disturbance on geotechnical characteristics of sediments from nodule mining area in the Central Indian Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Khadge, N.H.

    Benthic disturbance is carried out in the Central Indian Basin for environmental impact assessment studies. Geotechnical measurements were made on sediments collected before and after disturbing the top 10-15 cm of the seafloor. Results indicate...

  17. Laboratory assessment of the influence of the proportion of waste foundry sand on the geotechnical engineering properties of clayey soils

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mgangira, Martin B

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil improvement can be achieved through mechanical stabilisation using industrial byproducts. Clayey soils were blended with waste foundry sand to examine its influence on the geotechnical engineering properties of the soils. The waste foundry sand...

  18. Geotechnical investigations made on the soils under the accelerographic stations of Ancona-Rocca and Ancona-Palombina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontanive, A.; Gorelli, V.

    1991-05-01

    This report presents the results of the geotechnical investigations, made on the soils under the accelerographic stations of Ancona-Rocca and Ancona-Palombina, which, during 1972 seismic crisis, recorded a great number of significant accelerograms. (author)

  19. Geotechnical aspects of subsurface seabed disposal of high level radioactive wastes. Annual progress report, January--December 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, A.J.; Calnan, D,I.

    1978-05-01

    The status of the following major studies is reported: geotechnical properties of deep sea clays; experimental water migration studies;laboratory hole closure experiments; and in-site heat transfer experiments. (LK)

  20. Geotechnical aspects of subsurface seabed disposal of high level radioactive wastes. Annual progress report, January--December 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, A.J.; Calnan, D.I.

    1978-05-01

    The status of the following major studies is reported: geotechnical properties of deep sea clays; experimental water migration studies;laboratory hole closure experiments; and in-site heat transfer experiments

  1. Testing the ability of a proposed geotechnical based method to evaluate the liquefaction potential analysis subjected to earthquake vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbaszadeh Shahri, A.; Behzadafshar, K.; Esfandiyari, B.; Rajablou, R.

    2010-12-01

    During the earthquakes a number of earth dams have had severe damages or suffered major displacements as a result of liquefaction, thus modeling by computer codes can provide a reliable tool to predict the response of the dam foundation against earthquakes. These modeling can be used in the design of new dams or safety assessments of existing ones. In this paper, on base of the field and laboratory tests and by combination of several software packages a seismic geotechnical based analysis procedure is proposed and verified by comparison with computer model tests, field and laboratory experiences. Verification or validation of the analyses relies to ability of the applied computer codes. By use of Silakhor earthquake (2006, Ms 6.1) and in order to check the efficiency of the proposed framework, the procedure is applied to the Korzan earth dam of Iran which is located in Hamedan Province to analyze and estimate the liquefaction and safety factor. Design and development of a computer code by authors which named as “Abbas Converter” with graphical user interface which operates as logic connecter function that can computes and models the soil profiles is the critical point of this study and the results are confirm and proved the ability of the generated computer code on evaluation of soil behavior under the earthquake excitations. Also this code can make and render facilitate this study more than previous have done, and take over the encountered problem.

  2. Geologic and Geotechnical contributions to the Lagoa da Rabicha and Cachoeira mines projects, Lagoa Real, State of Bahia, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tognon, A.A.; Costanzo Junior, J.; Ojima, L.M.; Oliveira Braga, T. de; Mueller, M.

    1984-01-01

    The procedures and systematics involved in obtaining basic geologic-geotechnical, geomechanical and hydrogeotechnical parameters to serve as an aid in the planning of mining activities for the Lagoa da Rabicha and Cachoeira deposists, located in the Lagoa Real uranium District, are presented and discussed. These deposits occur in the Caetite massif, composed mainly of Gneissic lithologies. The studies were performed in order to provide the essential elements for an initial Geologic-Geotechnical characterization of the massifs. (D.J.M.) [pt

  3. Seismic refraction technique aplications in the geotechnical characterization of the Cachoeira deposit massif, Caetite, State of Bahia, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malagutti Filho, W.; Oliveira Braga, T. de.

    1984-01-01

    Geophysical surveys throught the Cachoeira Uranium deposit massif were carried out with the purpose of assisting in the geotechnical characterization for the implantation of the Mining-Industrial Complex projects on the Lagoa Real uranium deposits, Caetite municipality, state of Bahia, Brazil. This study discusses the methodology utilized in the geophysical surveys and their results as well as their applications to the geotechnical characterization as a whole. (D.J.M.) [pt

  4. Surface-based determination of the pelvic coordinate system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fieten, Lorenz; Eschweiler, Jörg; Heger, Stefan; Kabir, Koroush; Gravius, Sascha; de la Fuente, Matías; Radermacher, Klaus

    2009-02-01

    In total hip replacement (THR) one technical factor influencing the risk of dislocation is cup orientation. Computer-assisted surgery systems allow for cup navigation in anatomy-based reference frames. The pelvic coordinate system most used for cup navigation in THR is based on the mid-sagittal plane (MSP) and the anterior pelvic plane (APP). From a geometrical point of view, the MSP can be considered as a mirror plane, whereas the APP can be considered as a tangent plane comprising the anterior superior iliac spines (ASIS) and the pubic tubercles. In most systems relying on the pelvic coordinate system, the most anterior points of the ASIS and the pubic tubercles are selected manually. As manual selection of landmark points is a tedious, time-consuming and error-prone task, a surface-based approach for combined MSP and APP computation is presented in this paper: Homologous points defining the MSP and the landmark points defining the APP are selected automatically from surface patches. It is investigated how MSP computation can benefit from APP computation and vice versa, and clinical perspectives of combined MSP and APP computation are discussed. Experimental results on computed tomography data show that the surface-based approach can improve accuracy.

  5. In-tank Precipitation Facility (ITP) and H-Tank Farm (HTF) geotechnical report, WSRC-TR-95-0057, Revision 0, Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    A geotechnical study has been completed in H-Area for the In-Tank Precipitation Facility (ITP) and the balance of the H-Area Tank Farm (HTF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina. The study consisted of subsurface field exploration, field and laboratory testing, and engineering analyses. The purpose of these investigations is to evaluate the overall stability of the H-Area tanks under static and dynamic conditions. The objectives of the study are to define the site-specific geological conditions at ITP and HTF, obtain engineering properties for the assessment of the stability of the native soils and embankment under static and dynamic loads (i.e., slope stability, liquefaction potential, and potential settlements), and derive properties for soil-structure interaction studies

  6. In-tank Precipitation Facility (ITP) and H-Tank Farm (HTF) geotechnical report, WSRC-TR-95-0057, Revision 0, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-01-01

    A geotechnical study has been completed in H-Area for the In-Tank Precipitation Facility (ITP) and the balance of the H-Area Tank Farm (HTF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina. The study consisted of subsurface field exploration, field and laboratory testing, and engineering analyses. The purpose of these investigations is to evaluate the overall stability of the H-Area tanks under static and dynamic conditions. The objectives of the study are to define the site-specific geological conditions at ITP and HTF, obtain engineering properties for the assessment of the stability of the native soils and embankment under static and dynamic loads (i.e., slope stability, liquefaction potential, and potential settlements), and derive properties for soil-structure interaction studies.

  7. Baseline practices and user needs for Web dissemination of geotechnical data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, L.L.; Brown, M.P.; Chambers, D.; Davis, C.A.; Diehl, J.; Hitchcock, C.S.; Holzer, T.L.; Nigbor, R.L.; Plumb, C.; Real, C.; Reimer, M.; Steidl, J.H.; Sun, J.I.; Tinsley, J.C.; Vaughn, D.; ,

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the findings and recommendations of the User Scenario Work Group (USWG) in identifying a baseline of current practices within the geo-professional community and prioritizing desired functional requirements in the development of a comprehensive geotechnical information management system. This work was conducted as an initial phase of a larger project to demonstrate the effectiveness of a web based virtual data center for the dissemination of geotechnical data from multiple linked databases of various government and private sector organizations. An online survey was administered over the course of several months to practitioners across the nation. The results from the survey were compiled and examined to provide direction to the other project teams in the development of user-driven prototype data system.

  8. Quarry geotechnical report for the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-11-01

    This report has been prepared for the United States Department of Energy's (DOE) Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) by the Project Management Contractor (PMC), which is MK-Ferguson Company (MK-Ferguson) with Jacobs Engineering Group (JEG) as its designated subcontractor. The Weldon Spring site (WSS) comprises the Weldon Spring quarry area and the Weldon Spring chemical plant and raffinate pit areas. This report presents the results of geotechnical investigations conducted during 1989--1990 at the proposed Weldon Spring quarry staging and water treatment facilities in the quarry area. The facilities are intended for treatment of water removed from the quarry area. An access road and a decontamination pad will be necessary for handling and transportation of bulk waste. Results of previous geotechnical investigations performed by other geoscience and environmental engineering firms in the quarry area, were reviewed, summarized and incorporated into this report. Well logging, stratigraphy data, piezometer data, elevations, and soil characteristics are also included

  9. Suggested best practice for geotechnical characterisation of permafrost in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agergaard, Frederik Ancker; Ingeman-Nielsen, Thomas; Foged, Niels Nielsen

    2012-01-01

    Even though permafrost is a specialty within Nordic geotechnical engineering, engineers and researcher will be faced with managing the consequences of projected climatic influences to construction design in permafrost areas. This requires the determination of the frozen soil engineering propertie...... properties should be preferred, while soil residual salinity should always be determined. The procedure for determination of strength and deformation properties should be subject to projected soil temperature at end of construction service lifetime.......Even though permafrost is a specialty within Nordic geotechnical engineering, engineers and researcher will be faced with managing the consequences of projected climatic influences to construction design in permafrost areas. This requires the determination of the frozen soil engineering properties...... largely influenced by the content of ice in the soil. This paper presents and discusses different methodologies for laboratory determination of the soil bulk density, ice content, unfrozen water content, strength and deformation properties as well as thermal properties from frozen soil core samples...

  10. The Geotechnical Board National Research Council. [Annual] activities report, March 1, 1991--June 30, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smeallie, P.H.

    1993-08-11

    This report covers the activities of the Geotechnical Board and its two national committees, the US National Committee for Rock Mechanics (USNC/RM) and the US National Committee on Tunneling Technology (USNC/TT), for the period from March 1, 1991 to June 30, 1992. The report covers a 16-month period, through June of this year, to bring the reporting period in line with the National Research Council`s (NRC) fiscal year. Subsequent reports will cover the 12-month period July 1--June 30, unless individual contracts require otherwise. A description of the Geotechnical Board and its committees within the context of the National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council, as well as lists of current members of the board and national committees can be found in Attachment A.

  11. Environments for fostering effective critical thinking in geotechnical engineering education (Geo-EFFECTs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Charles E.; Gassman, Sarah L.; Huffman, Jeffrey T.

    2013-06-01

    This paper describes the development, implementation, and assessment of instructional materials for geotechnical engineering concepts using the Environments for Fostering Effective Critical Thinking (EFFECTs) pedagogical framework. The central learning goals of engineering EFFECTs are to (i) improve the understanding and retention of a specific set of concepts that provide core knowledge and (ii) encourage students to recognise and develop critical thinking skills that lead to growth in engineering judgement. The practice of geotechnical engineering deals with complex and uncertain soil conditions, where critical thought and judgement are imperative. Three geo-EFFECTs were created in the context of levee reconstruction, levee permeability, and settlement of a tower structure. Students often provided inaccurate estimates to driving questions set in those contexts; when given opportunities for self-exploration and self-correction in the EFFECT structure, students often achieved more accurate final solutions. Overall, results suggest that EFFECTs have a measurable, positive impact on student learning.

  12. Review of geotechnical measurement techniques for a nuclear waste repository in bedded salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    This report presents a description of geotechnical measurement techniques that can provide the data necessary for safe development - i.e., location, design, construction, operation, decommissioning and abandonment - of a radioactive waste repository in bedded salt. Geotechnical data obtained by a diversity of measurement techniques are required during all phases of respository evolution. The techniques discussed in this report are grouped in the following categories: geologic, geophysical and geodetic; rock mechanics; hydrologic, hydrogeologic and water quality; and thermal. The major contribution of the report is the presentation of extensive tables that provide a review of available measurement techniques for each of these categories. The techniques are also discussed in the text to the extent necessary to describe the measurements and associated instruments, and to evaluate the applicability or limitations of the method. More detailed discussions of thermal phenomena, creep laws and geophysical methods are contained in the appendices; references to detailed explanations of measurement techniques and instrumentation are inluded throughout the report.

  13. Review of geotechnical measurement techniques for a nuclear waste repository in bedded salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-12-01

    This report presents a description of geotechnical measurement techniques that can provide the data necessary for safe development - i.e., location, design, construction, operation, decommissioning and abandonment - of a radioactive waste repository in bedded salt. Geotechnical data obtained by a diversity of measurement techniques are required during all phases of respository evolution. The techniques discussed in this report are grouped in the following categories: geologic, geophysical and geodetic; rock mechanics; hydrologic, hydrogeologic and water quality; and thermal. The major contribution of the report is the presentation of extensive tables that provide a review of available measurement techniques for each of these categories. The techniques are also discussed in the text to the extent necessary to describe the measurements and associated instruments, and to evaluate the applicability or limitations of the method. More detailed discussions of thermal phenomena, creep laws and geophysical methods are contained in the appendices; references to detailed explanations of measurement techniques and instrumentation are inluded throughout the report

  14. An overview of the geotechnical damage brought by the 2016 Kumamoto Earthquake, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemanta Hazarika,; Takaji Kokusho,; Kayen, Robert E.; Dashti, Shideh; Yutaka Tanoue,; Shuuichi Kuroda and Kentaro Kuribayashi,; Daisuke Matsumoto,; Furuichi, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    The 2016 Kumamoto earthquake with a moment magnitude of 7.0 (Japanese intensity = 7) that struck on April 16 brought devastation in many areas of Kumamoto Prefecture and partly in Oita Prefecture in Kyushu Region, Japan. The earthquake succeeds a foreshock of magnitude 6.5 (Japanese intensity = 7) on April 14. The authors conducted two surveys on the devastated areas: one during April 16-17, and the other during May 11-14. This report summarizes the damage brought to geotechnical structures by the two consecutive earthquakes within a span of twenty-eight hours. This report highlights some of the observed damage and identifies reasons for such damage. The geotechnical challenges towards mitigation of losses from such earthquakes are also suggested.

  15. Geotechnical modeling of high-level nuclear waste disposal by rock melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuze, F.E.

    1981-12-01

    A new strategy has been developed for the geotechnical modeling of nuclear waste disposal by rock melting (DRM). Three seeparate tasks were performed to reach this objective: a review of the four scenarios which have been proposed for DRM, to date; an evaluation of computer-based numerical models which could be used to analyze the mechanical, thermal, and hydraulic processes involved in DRM; and a critical review of rock mass properties which are relevant to the design and safety of waste disposal by rock melting. It is concluded that several geotechnical aspects of DRM can be studied realistically with current state-of-the-art model capabilities and knowledge of material properties. The next step in the feasibility study of DRM should be a best-estimate calculation of the four cavity-melt and canister-burial concepts. These new analyses will indicate the most critical areas for subsequent research

  16. The Contribution of Robert F. Corwin to Self-Potential and Geotechnical Geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitterman, D. V.

    2007-12-01

    Throughout his career, Robert F. Corwin developed innovative geophysical methods to solve geotechnical problems. Most notable is his work on self-potential (SP) where his focus was a blend of electricity and water, a potentially lethal brew, to solve very practical problems. Corwin's work in SP started with the idea of applying the technique to marine mineral exploration; this early work is characterized by a theme that ran through his career: understanding the effects that can influence measurements, developing methodologies to obtain consistent and reliable data, and interpreting those data in a conservative and believable manner supported by the facts. He expanded the electricity-water connection to geothermal fluids and the SP signals produced by them. He was involved in geothermal exploration throughout the western U.S. including Alaska and Mexico. In addition to developing reliable field techniques he worked on interpretational methods that made SP interpretation quantitative. Corwin's most significant contribution was the study of leaky dams using SP. Water leakage produces an SP anomaly because of the electrokinetic properties of geologic materials. Through a series of SP studies for the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers he developed a methodology for making and interpreting SP measurements that helped locate, assess, and remediate leakage. This success led to numerous surveys throughout Canada for regional power authorities. Corwin returned to marine geophysical studies throughout his career including SP measurements to locate moveable concrete mats placed in the Mississippi River to control bank erosion. Because of changes in river flow, these large articulated mats were often undercut, moved, and reburied causing hazardous bank conditions. SP and electrical resistivity measurements were found to accurately locate the mats. Corwin also worked on electrical resistivity measurements of the ocean floor. Starting with stationary

  17. Development of a geotechnical information database : technical summary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    The knowledge of existing soil conditions prior to road and bridge construction can : reduce construction cost, time, and headaches. The field data and laboratory results : collected far in advance of project construction are often slow to reach the ...

  18. Effects of biochar amendment on geotechnical properties of landfill cover soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Krishna R; Yaghoubi, Poupak; Yukselen-Aksoy, Yeliz

    2015-06-01

    Biochar is a carbon-rich product obtained when plant-based biomass is heated in a closed container with little or no available oxygen. Biochar-amended soil has the potential to serve as a landfill cover material that can oxidise methane emissions for two reasons: biochar amendment can increase the methane retention time and also enhance the biological activity that can promote the methanotrophic oxidation of methane. Hydraulic conductivity, compressibility and shear strength are the most important geotechnical properties that are required for the design of effective and stable landfill cover systems, but no studies have been reported on these properties for biochar-amended landfill cover soils. This article presents physicochemical and geotechnical properties of a biochar, a landfill cover soil and biochar-amended soils. Specifically, the effects of amending 5%, 10% and 20% biochar (of different particle sizes as produced, size-20 and size-40) to soil on its physicochemical properties, such as moisture content, organic content, specific gravity and pH, as well as geotechnical properties, such as hydraulic conductivity, compressibility and shear strength, were determined from laboratory testing. Soil or biochar samples were prepared by mixing them with 20% deionised water based on dry weight. Samples of soil amended with 5%, 10% and 20% biochar (w/w) as-is or of different select sizes, were also prepared at 20% initial moisture content. The results show that the hydraulic conductivity of the soil increases, compressibility of the soil decreases and shear strength of the soil increases with an increase in the biochar amendment, and with a decrease in biochar particle size. Overall, the study revealed that biochar-amended soils can possess excellent geotechnical properties to serve as stable landfill cover materials. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Estimation of geotechnical parameters on the basis of geophysical methods and geostatistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brom, Aleksander; Natonik, Adrianna

    2017-12-01

    The paper presents possible implementation of ordinary cokriging and geophysical investigation on humidity data acquired in geotechnical studies. The Author describes concept of geostatistics, terminology of geostatistical modelling, spatial correlation functions, principles of solving cokriging systems, advantages of (co-)kriging in comparison with other interpolation methods, obstacles in this type of attempt. Cross validation and discussion of results was performed with an indication of prospect of applying similar procedures in various researches..

  20. Assessing subsurface strata using geophysical and geotechnical methods for designing structures near ground cracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlFouzan, F.; Dafalla, M.; Mutaz, E.

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents a combined approach using both geophysical and geotechnical approaches to study and evaluate the subsurface strata near ground for sites suffering from faults and cracks. It demonstrates how both techniques can be utilized to gather useful information for design geotechnical engineers. The safe distance for construction close to a ground crack is mainly dependant on the subsurface stratification and the engineering properties of underlying soils or rocks. Other factors include the area geology and concepts of safety margins. This study is carried out for a site in Al-Qassim region, Saudi Arabia. This type of faults and cracks can normally occur due to a geological or physical event or due to the nature and properties of the subsurface material. The geotechnical works included advancing rotary boreholes to depths of 25m to 31m with sampling and testing. The geophysical method used included performing 2D electrical resistivity profiles. The results of geophysical and geotechnical works showed good and close agreement. The use of 2D electrical resistivity was found useful to establish the layer thicknesses of shale and highly plastic clay. This cannot be determined without deep and expensive direct boring investigation. The results showed that a thick layer of expansive soil, which is considered a high-risk soil type containing large percentage of highly plastic clay materials, underlies the site. The volume changes due to humidity variations can result in either swelling or shrinking. These changes can have significant impact on engineering structures such as light buildings and roads. The logic of placing structures in close vicinity of the cracks is based on lateral stresses exerted on the crack face. The layer thickness is a detrimental factor to establish a safe design distance. Stress distribution analysis procedure is explained.

  1. Evolution of geotechnical investigations in Italy after the Second World War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferruccio Cestari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the writer presents the evolution of on site geothecnical investigations based on its own real-life experiences during more than fifty years of activity, both in Italy and in many sites abroad. The object of the paper is to give a panorama of methods and equipments development, to perform geotechnical site investigations, from a very poor initial practice to an European and Worldwide appreciated mastery of this activity

  2. Geotechnical characterization and seismic response of shallow geological formations in downtown Lisbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Teves-Costa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available  The geological and geotechnical characterization of shallow formations is one of the main steps in performing a microzonation study. This paper presents an example of the usefulness of the information compiled in a geological and geotechnical database for the estimation of the seismic response of the shallower formations of the Lisbon downtown area of Baixa. The geotechnical characterization of this area was performed based on the analysis of Standard Penetration Test (SPT data compiled in the geological and geotechnical database. This database, connected to a geoscientific information system (CGIS, allows, also, the definition of 2D geological profiles used for estimating the thickness of the shallower layers. The shear-wave velocities (VS for each layer were estimated from empirical correlations using mean SPT values computed from the statistical evaluation of the compiled data. These VS values were further calibrated with ambient vibration recording analysis. The seismic response of Baixa’s superficial deposits was estimated by applying a 1D equivalent linear method to a set of soil profiles, regularly distributed across the area, and using synthetic accelerograms to simulate input motions associated with probable earthquake occurrences in Lisbon. The results are presented in terms of maps of predominant frequencies, with the corresponding amplification level, as well as spectral amplification factors for 1 Hz and 2.5 Hz. The results show that the fundamental frequency of the Baixa area is between 1.2 Hz and 2 Hz, for the whole central valley, reaching 3 Hz near the edges where anthroprogenic and alluvial deposits have less expression. Amplification factors up to 5 were obtained. These results were achieved regardless of the considered input motion. The similarity of the obtained fundamental frequency with the natural frequency of Baixa’s old building stock increases the probability of resonance effects in future earthquakes.

  3. Historical Jeroným Mine in Čistá – Underground Experimental Geotechnical Laboratory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaláb, Zdeněk; Hrubešová, E.; Kořínek, R.; Žůrek, P.; Kukutsch, Radovan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 1 (2012), s. 54-65 ISSN 1211-0728 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA105/09/0089 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3086906 Keywords : Jeroným Mine * geotechnical laboratory * monitoring Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure http://www. ita -aites.cz/files/tunel/komplet/tunel_1_12.pdf

  4. Brief Overlook on the Occupational Accidents Occurring During the Geotechnical Site Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akboğa Kale, Özge; Eskişar, Tuğba

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate occupational accidents reported in geotechnical site works. Variables of the accidents are categorized as the year and month of accidents, the technical codes used for defining the scope of work trades, end use and project type and cost, nature and cause of accidents, occupation of the victims and finally the cause of fatality. As a result, it is seen that the majority of victims were construction laborers or in special trade constructors who were working on a new project or new additions to an existing project. The geotechnical phase of the projects was whether excavation, landfill, sewer-water treatment, pipeline construction, commercial building or road construction. As the outcomes of the study it is evaluated that excavation, trenching and installing pipe or pile driving were the main causes of the accidents while trench collapse, struck by a falling object / projectile and wall collapse were the main causes of fatality. Moreover, it is established that more than half of the fatalities were due to asphyxia followed by fracture. These findings show that accidents occurred in geotechnical works do not only have high frequency but also high severity. This study emphasizes project specific countermeasures should be taken regarding the nature, cost and importance of the project and the occupation variabilities working on the project.

  5. On the geotechnical characterisation of the polluted submarine sediments from Taranto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitone, Claudia; Federico, Antonio; Puzrin, Alexander M; Ploetze, Michael; Carrassi, Elettra; Todaro, Francesco

    2016-07-01

    This paper reports the results of the first geomechanical laboratory experiments carried out on the polluted submarine clayey sediments of the Mar Piccolo in Taranto (South of Italy). The study had to face with extreme difficulties for the very soft consistency of the sediments and the contaminants. The mineralogy, composition and physical properties of the sediments were analysed, along with their compression and shearing behaviour. The investigation involved sediments up to about 20 m below the seafloor, along three vertical profiles in the most polluted area of the Mar Piccolo, facing the Italian Navy Arsenal. The experimental results were used to derive a preliminary geotechnical model of the site, necessary for the selection and design of the most sustainable in situ mitigation solutions. Moreover, the experimental data reveal that the clayey sediments of the most polluted top layer do not follow the classical geotechnical correlations for normally consolidated deposits. This seems to open interesting perspectives about the effects of pollutants on the geotechnical behaviour of the investigated sediments.

  6. CPT Profiling and Laboratory Data Correlations for Deriving of Selected Geotechnical Parameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulko Roman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, can be seen a new trend in engineering geological survey, where laboratory analysis are replaced by in situ testing methods, which are more efficient and cost effective, and time saving too. A regular engineering geological survey cannot be provided by simple core drillings, macroscopic description (sometimes very subjective, and then geotechnical parameters are established based on indicative standardized values or archive values from previous geotechnical standards. The engineering geological survey is trustworthy if is composed of laboratory and in-situ testing supplemented by indirect methods of testing, [1]. The prevalence of rotary core drilling for obtaining laboratory soil samples from various depths (every 1 to 3 m, cannot be a more enhanced as continues evaluation of strata and properties e.g. by CPT Piezocone (every 1 cm. Core drillings survey generally uses small amounts of soil samples, but this is resulting to a lower representation of the subsoil and underestimation of parameters. Higher amounts of soil samples make laboratory testing time-consuming and results from this testing can be influenced by the storage and processing of the soil samples. Preference for geotechnical surveys with in situ testing is therefore a more suitable option. In situ testing using static and dynamic penetration tests can be used as a supplement or as a replacement for the (traditional methods of surveying.

  7. Investigation of geotechnical parameters from CSEM mapping and monitoring data at the oases Kharga and Baris of Sahara desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachay, Olga; Khachay, Oleg; Attia, Magdy; Khalil, Ahmed; Mekkawi, Mahmoud; Soliman, Mamdouh

    2016-04-01

    The site of investigation, oasis Kharga, is located at about 600 km south of Cairo, Egypt; Baris is about 90 km from Kharga also to south and towards more inside the desert. The work was aimed to investigate the rock mass stability at Baris and to estimate the water intake in the Oasis Kharga. A controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM) approach developed earlier by IGF UB RAS (Geophysical Federal Institute, Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Science) is applied to image the ranked deformation levels in the massive structure of the Baris. The wide profile system of observation has been used to monitor the three components of the alternating magnetic field along predefined measuring lines in the study area. Here we can show the first results that we shall continue during some cycles of monitoring. The second part of our work was linked with mapping the massif structure inside the oasis City, where only using our device we could construct the geoelectrical sections for 5 profiles and show the real structure of the water volume and its complicated structure up to 200 meters depth recording the values of real not apparent resistivity. The analytical treatments provided good information about the structure of the rock massive and its rank of degradation, the lateral distribution of the geotechnical heterogeneity, and finally a conclusive outcome about foundation stability. We can conclude that the general dynamic state close to the destruction level within the investigation areas is getting worse over the time; this is reflected in the crack's densities and positions, also on the changes in the lateral distribution of geoelectrical heterogeneity as an indicator of the saturation of the surface rock in the study area with water [1,2]. References 1. Magdy A. Atya, Olga A. Hachay, Mamdouh M. Soliman, Oleg Y. Khachay, Ahmed B. Khalill, Mahmoud Gaballah, Fathy F.Shaaban and Ibrahim A.El. Hemali. CSEM imaging of the near surface dynamics and its impact for foundation stability

  8. A Liquid-Surface-Based Three-Axis Inclination Sensor for Measurement of Stage Tilt Motions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Yuki; Kataoka, Satoshi; Ishikawa, Tatsuya; Chen, Yuan-Liu; Chen, Xiuguo; Matsukuma, Hiraku; Gao, Wei

    2018-01-30

    In this paper a new concept of a liquid-surface-based three-axis inclination sensor for evaluation of angular error motion of a precision linear slide, which is often used in the field of precision engineering such as ultra-precision machine tools, coordinate measuring machines (CMMs) and so on, is proposed. In the liquid-surface-based three-axis inclination sensor, a reference float mounting a line scale grating having periodic line grating structures is made to float over a liquid surface, while its three-axis angular motion is measured by using an optical sensor head based on the three-axis laser autocollimation capable of measuring three-axis angular motion of the scale grating. As the first step of research, in this paper, theoretical analysis on the angular motion of the reference float about each axis has been carried out based on simplified kinematic models to evaluate the possibility of realizing the proposed concept of a three-axis inclination sensor. In addition, based on the theoretical analyses results, a prototype three-axis inclination sensor has been designed and developed. Through some basic experiments with the prototype, the possibility of simultaneous three-axis inclination measurement by the proposed concept has been verified.

  9. Predicting Geotechnical Investigation Using the Knowledge Based System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojan Žlender

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the optimal number of investigation points and each field test and laboratory test for a proper description of a building site. These optimal numbers are defined based on their minimum and maximum number and with the equivalent investigation ratio. The total increments of minimum and maximum number of investigation points for different building site conditions were determined. To facilitate the decision-making process for a number of investigation points, an Adaptive Network Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS was proposed. The obtained fuzzy inference system considers the influence of several entry parameters and computes the equivalent investigation ratio. The developed model (ANFIS-SI can be applied to characterize any building site. The ANFIS-SI model takes into account project factors which are evaluated with a rating from 1 to 10. The model ANFIS-SI, with integrated recommendations can be used as a systematic decision support tool for engineers to evaluate the number of investigation points, field tests, and laboratory tests for a proper description of a building site. The determination of the optimal number of investigative points and the optimal number of each field test and laboratory test is presented on reference case.

  10. Geophysical/Geotechnical Applications to Urban Transformation: Example of District of Yildirim of Bursa City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabulut, Savas; Imre, Nazire; Yeziz, Hatice; Caglak, Faruk; Tezel, Okan; Ozcep, Ferhat

    2013-04-01

    The city of Bursa, which is located near to the North Anatolian Fault Zone has a very active tectonic regime. The city has a local site effect problem, which is the subject of many studies for this region due to take place in the middle of the basin of the city center. However, in line with the law of new urban transformation, Turkey has started renovation of damaged old buildings and sub-urban buildings. The first example of study has been conducted in Bursa City Center in the district of Yıldırım and that has covered a big area. We used Turkish/Eurocode-8 Standard and Microzonation Criteria for all of this study. The study area covered 7 sub-district areas in particular the southern part of the conservancy district of the plains and northern part of the Uludag slope. We carried out geophysical (microtremors, seismic refraction method, surface wave analysis methods (MASW-MAM) and vertical electrical sounding) and geotechnical (boring up to 20 m and laboratory testing) studies at 75 sites to estimate elastical parameters, soil group, soil classification, and geological cross-sections. The study area was divided into two sub-areas as slope rubble (in the southern part) and alluvial deposits by using borehole data. Standard penetration tests were applied for each 1.5 m to all the boreholes and to estimate mechanical and index properties of soils, several laboratory test were applied to soil/rock specimens. Several soil problems such as soil bearing capacity, soil liquefaction potential, soil settlement analysis, soil amplification, soil expansion analysis were solved by using the results of geophysical, geotechnical and laboratory data. For the study area, deterministic and probabilistic earthquake hazard analysis was performed and ground motion level (magnitude and accelaration of design earthquake) was estimated as Mw:7.4 and a: 0.41 g for exceedence rate of 30% in 50 years. These values guided the solution of soil dynamic analysis. Vs30 map of soils for the

  11. Automated landmark identification for human cortical surface-based registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anticevic, Alan; Repovs, Grega; Dierker, Donna L; Harwell, John W; Coalson, Timothy S; Barch, Deanna M; Van Essen, David C

    2012-02-01

    Volume-based registration (VBR) is the predominant method used in human neuroimaging to compensate for individual variability. However, surface-based registration (SBR) techniques have an inherent advantage over VBR because they respect the topology of the convoluted cortical sheet. There is evidence that existing SBR methods indeed confer a registration advantage over affine VBR. Landmark-SBR constrains registration using explicit landmarks to represent corresponding geographical locations on individual and atlas surfaces. The need for manual landmark identification has been an impediment to the widespread adoption of Landmark-SBR. To circumvent this obstacle, we have implemented and evaluated an automated landmark identification (ALI) algorithm for registration to the human PALS-B12 atlas. We compared ALI performance with that from two trained human raters and one expert anatomical rater (ENR). We employed both quantitative and qualitative quality assurance metrics, including a biologically meaningful analysis of hemispheric asymmetry. ALI performed well across all quality assurance tests, indicating that it yields robust and largely accurate results that require only modest manual correction (<10 min per subject). ALI largely circumvents human error and bias and enables high throughput analysis of large neuroimaging datasets for inter-subject registration to an atlas. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Small reactor power systems for manned planetary surface bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Harvey S.

    1987-12-01

    A preliminary feasibility study of the potential application of small nuclear reactor space power systems to manned planetary surface base missions was conducted. The purpose of the study was to identify and assess the technology, performance, and safety issues associated with integration of reactor power systems with an evolutionary manned planetary surface exploration scenario. The requirements and characteristics of a variety of human-rated modular reactor power system configurations selected for a range of power levels from 25 kWe to hundreds of kilowatts is described. Trade-off analyses for reactor power systems utilizing both man-made and indigenous shielding materials are provided to examine performance, installation and operational safety feasibility issues. The results of this study have confirmed the preliminary feasibility of a wide variety of small reactor power plant configurations for growth oriented manned planetary surface exploration missions. The capability for power level growth with increasing manned presence, while maintaining safe radiation levels, was favorably assessed for nominal 25 to 100 kWe modular configurations. No feasibility limitations or technical barriers were identified and the use of both distance and indigenous planetary soil material for human rated radiation shielding were shown to be viable and attractive options.

  13. Evaluation of road failure vulnerability section through integrated geophysical and geotechnical studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adiat, K. A. N.; Akinlalu, A. A.; Adegoroye, A. A.

    2017-06-01

    In order to investigate the competence of the proposed road for pavement stability, geotechnical and geophysical investigations involving Land Magnetic, Very Low Frequency Electromagnetic (VLF-EM) and Electrical Resistivity methods were carried out along Akure-Ipinsa road Southwestern Nigeria. The magnetic profile was qualitatively and quantitatively interpreted to produce geomagnetic section that provides information on the basement topography and structural disposition beneath the proposed road. Similarly, the VLF-EM profile was equally interpreted to provide information on the possible occurrence of linear features beneath the study area. These linear features pose a potential risk to the proposed road as they are capable of undermining the stability of the pavement structure. The geoelectric parameters obtained from the quantitative interpretation of the VES data were used to generate geoelectric section. The geoelectric section generated shows that the study area was underlain by four geoelectric layers namely the topsoil, the weathered layer, the partly weathered/fractured basement and the fresh basement. The major part of the topsoil, which constitutes the subgrade, is characterized by relatively low resistivity values (road. This therefore suggests that the layer is composed of incompetent materials that are unsuitable for engineering structures. Furthermore, fractured basement was also delineated beneath some portion of the proposed road. Since fracture is a weak zone, its presence can facilitate failure of the proposed road especially when it is occurring at shallow depth. The geotechnical results reveal that most of the investigated soil samples are clayey in nature. Integration of the results demonstrates that there is a good correlation between geophysical results and the geotechnical results. Furthermore, a vulnerability section that divided the road segments into three zones based on the degree of vulnerability was produced. These zones were high

  14. SIG Contribution in the Making of Geotechnical Maps in Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, António; Pais, Luís Andrade; Rodrigues, Carlos; Carvalho, Paulo

    2017-10-01

    The use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has spread to several science areas, from oceanography to geotechnics. Its application in the urban mapping was intensified in the last century, which allowed a great development, due to the use of geographic database, new analysis tools and, more recently, free open source software. Geotechnical cartography struggle with a permanent and large environment re-organization in urban area, due to new building construction, trenching and the drilling of sampling wells and holes. This creates an extra important and largest volume of data at any pre-existence geological map. The main problem results on the fact that the natural environment is covered with buildings and communications system. The purpose of this work is to create a viable geographic information base for geotechnical mapping through a free GIS computer program and open source, with non-traditional cartographic sources, giving preference to open platforms. QGIS was used as software and “Google Maps”, “Bing Maps” and “OpenStreetMap” were applied as cartographic sources using the “OpenLayers plugin” module. Finally, we also pretend to identify and delimit the degree of granite’s change and fracturing areas using a “Streetview” platform. This model has cartographic input which are a geological map study area, open cartographic web archives and the use of “Streetview” platform. The output has several layouts, such as topography intersection (roads, borders, etc.), with geological map and the bordering area of Guarda Urban Zone. The use of this platform types decrease the collect data time and, sometimes, a careful observation of pictures that were taken during excavations may reveal important details for geological mapping in the study area.

  15. Geotechnical parameter spatial distribution stochastic analysis based on multi-precision information assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C.; Rubin, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Spatial distribution of important geotechnical parameter named compression modulus Es contributes considerably to the understanding of the underlying geological processes and the adequate assessment of the Es mechanics effects for differential settlement of large continuous structure foundation. These analyses should be derived using an assimilating approach that combines in-situ static cone penetration test (CPT) with borehole experiments. To achieve such a task, the Es distribution of stratum of silty clay in region A of China Expo Center (Shanghai) is studied using the Bayesian-maximum entropy method. This method integrates rigorously and efficiently multi-precision of different geotechnical investigations and sources of uncertainty. Single CPT samplings were modeled as a rational probability density curve by maximum entropy theory. Spatial prior multivariate probability density function (PDF) and likelihood PDF of the CPT positions were built by borehole experiments and the potential value of the prediction point, then, preceding numerical integration on the CPT probability density curves, the posterior probability density curve of the prediction point would be calculated by the Bayesian reverse interpolation framework. The results were compared between Gaussian Sequential Stochastic Simulation and Bayesian methods. The differences were also discussed between single CPT samplings of normal distribution and simulated probability density curve based on maximum entropy theory. It is shown that the study of Es spatial distributions can be improved by properly incorporating CPT sampling variation into interpolation process, whereas more informative estimations are generated by considering CPT Uncertainty for the estimation points. Calculation illustrates the significance of stochastic Es characterization in a stratum, and identifies limitations associated with inadequate geostatistical interpolation techniques. This characterization results will provide a multi

  16. Geotechnical conditions of Bulgaria and site selection for radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iliev, I.; Tacheva, E.

    1993-01-01

    A comparative study of the complex structure of the Bulgarian lands and the engineering geological criteria for site selection of national repositories for high level radwastes is made. A detailed description of the following geotechnical conditions of Bulgaria's territory is given: genetic, lithological and engineering-geological types of rocks; physico-mechanical parameters of the most widespread rocky and semi-rocky engineering geological types; fissuring of the rocks; rock massifs; geodynamic processes. The number of promising variants for repositories have been classified according to the structure of the rock massif and the engineering-geological properties of the layers which are promising for the purpose. The following sites are investigated: 1) sites in one-type homogeneous rock massifs of high strength and elasticity; 2) sites of various type massifs with a promising layer of rocks with medium strength and elasticity; 3) sites in various type massifs with a promising layer of plastic rocks of low strength. It is concluded that the complexity of the geotechnical and other conditions in the territory of Bulgaria would predetermine the deficiency of the list of the properties required for the selected sites. The building up of engineering defence will be needed to offset that deficiency and their problems will be resolved after the specific site have been chosen. Geotechnical elements should be likewise envisaged within the general pattern of the monitoring needed. The designing, installing and putting into operation of the monitoring systems should be accomplished as early as the stage of the detailed investigation of the site selected. 19 refs., 2 suppls. (author)

  17. Update of assessment of geotechnical risks, strategic petroleum reserve, Weeks Island site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, S.J. [ed.

    1994-12-01

    This report is a critical reassessment of the geotechnical risks of continuing oil storage at the Weeks Island Strategic Petroleum Reserve site. It reviews all previous risk abatement recommendations, subsequent mitigative actions, and new information. Of increased concern, due to the discovery of a surface levels, is the long term maintainability of the mine as an oil storage repository. Mine operational changes are supported in order to facilitate monitoring of water entry diagnostics. These changes are also intended to minimize the volume in the mine available for water entry. Specific recommendations are made to implement the mine changes.

  18. Geologic logs of geotechnical cores from the subsurface Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Katherine L.; Ponti, Daniel J.; Tinsley, John C.; Gatti, Emma; Pagenkopp, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This report presents and summarizes descriptive geologic logs of geotechnical cores collected from 2009–12 in the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta, California, by the California Department of Water Resources. Graphic logs are presented for 1,785.7 ft of retained cores from 56 borehole sites throughout the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. Most core sections are from a depth of ~100–200 feet. Cores primarily contain mud, silt, and sand lithologies. Tephra (volcanic ash and pumice), paleosols, and gravels are also documented in some core sections. Geologic observations contained in the core logs in this report provide stratigraphic context for subsequent sampling and data for future chronostratigraphic subsurface correlations.

  19. WSSRAP chemical plant geotechnical investigations for the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-12-01

    This document has been prepared for the United states Department of Energy (DOE) Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) by the Project Management Contractor (PMC), which consists of MK-Ferguson Company (MKF) and Morrison Knudsen Corporation Environmental Services Group (MKES) with Jacobs Engineering Group (JEG) as MKF's predesignated subcontractor. This report presents the results of site geotechnical investigations conducted by the PMC in the vicinity of the Weldon Spring chemical plant and raffinate pits (WSCP/RP) and in potential on-site and off-site clayey material borrow sources. The WSCP/RP is the proposed disposal cell (DC) site. 39 refs., 24 figs., 12 tabs

  20. The spatial information system EramSIS in the service of geotechnical monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heller, M.; Skrzyppek, J.; Croise, J. [Colenco Power Engineering Ltd, Baden (Switzerland); Mauke, R. [Bundesamt Fur Strahlenschutz (BfS), Salzgitter (Germany); Mohlfeld, M. [Zerna, Kopper Und Partner (ZKP), Bochum (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Backfilling activities in the Morsleben radioactive waste repository (ERAM) began in 2003. They are necessary to stabilize the intensely mined central part of the repository. Thanks to geotechnical monitoring it is possible to ensure the local structural stability and the mandatory operational safety. The use of the integrated spatial information system EramSIS right from an early stage makes it possible to locate the great number of continuously acquired measurement results in a three-dimensional model on the computer screen. The interactive visualization proved to greatly facilitate the interpretation of the various types of information. (authors)

  1. Dynamic strain detection using a fiber Bragg grating sensor array for geotechnical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Hattenberger, Cornelia; Naumann, M.; Borm, Gunter

    2003-03-01

    In recent years fiber Bragg gratings have been successfully introduced as sensors for strain, temperature and pressure variations. Their performance and reliability has been proven in many practical applications including strain monitoring in civil engineering and tunneling, downhole monitoring in oil reservoirs and flow assurance monitoring in pipelines. The gratings have great potential to at as true structurally integrated sensor elements. They can be embedded in typical structural or reinforcing elements of civil and geotechnical buildings. Several methods of interrogation schemes are established depending on the desired accuracy and resolution of the measurement. The most important methods are the linear discriminator, the tunable Fbry-Perot filter technique, and several interferometer setups.

  2. Contribution to the management of urban risks in Pinar del Río city using a 3D geological-geotechnical model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Ordaz-Hernández

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to elaborate a geological-geotechnical model in three dimensions for the Cenozoic section which is the shallowest of Pinar del Rio City. It is intended that the model obtained is used in future as an interpretative basis for geotechnical phenomena arising in the urban environment. The procedure fallowed can be easily applied to other worldwide studies, mainly in the areas that exist a big volume of geotechnical information. The procedure fallowed can be easily reproduced in other study cases worldwide, specifically counting on a wide volume of geotechnical information. Six Engineering Geological Types (EGT are identified in the model, namely, Artificial fill, Vegetation layer, Marine alluvial coarse grained soil, Marine alluvial fine grained soil, Eluvial soil and Bed rock. The 3D geological-geotechnical model illustrates the spatial arrangement of the EGT above, and can contribute significantly at decision making in urban planning.

  3. Rockfall risk evaluation using geotechnical survey, remote sensing data, and GIS: a case study from western Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolakopoulos, Konstantinos; Depountis, Nikolaos; Vagenas, Nikolaos; Kavoura, Katerina; Vlaxaki, Eleni; Kelasidis, George; Sabatakakis, Nikolaos

    2015-06-01

    In this paper a specific example of the synergistic use of geotechnical survey, remote sensing data and GIS for rockfall risk evaluation is presented. The study area is located in Western Greece. Extensive rockfalls have been recorded along Patras - Ioannina highway just after the cable-stayed bridge of Rio-Antirrio, at Klokova site. The rockfalls include medium- sized limestone boulders with volume up to 1.5m3. A detailed engineering geological survey was conducted including rockmass characterization, laboratory testing and geological - geotechnical mapping. Many Rockfall trajectory simulations were done. Rockfall risk along the road was estimated using spatial analysis in a GIS environment.

  4. Estimating the geotechnical Parameters from CSEM monitoring Data for the Buildings and the Environment at the City of 15th May, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachay, Olga; Atya, Magdy; Khachay, Oleg

    2015-04-01

    The site of investigation, 15th May city, is a new suburb of Helwan, at about 35 km south of Cairo, Egypt. The work is aimed to investigate the rock mass stability at "Quarter 27" in 15th May City, which is linked with cracks formation into the buildings. A controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM) approach developed earlier by IGF UB RAS (Geophysical Federal Institute, Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Science) is applied to image the ranked deformation levels in the massive structure. The wide profile system of observation has been used to monitor the three components of the alternating magnetic field along predefined measuring lines in the study area. Four cycles of observation have been carried out in 2008, 2010, 2011, and 2012. The acquired data sets have been subjected to analytical processing procedure to estimate the changes in the geotechnical parameters during the time of these four cycles of observation. The analytical treatments provided good information about the structure of the rock massive and its rank of degradation, the lateral distribution of the geotechnical heterogeneity, and finally a conclusive outcome about foundation stability. We conclude that the general dynamic state close to the destruction level within the investigation area is getting worse over the time; this is reflected in the crack's densities and positions, also on the changes in the lateral distribution of geoelectric heterogeneity as an indicator of the saturation of the surface rock in the study area with water [1]. Reference 1. Magdy A. Atya, Olga A. Hachay, Mamdouh M. Soliman, Oleg Y. Khachay, Ahmed B. Khalill, Mahmoud Gaballah, Fathy F.Shaaban and Ibrahim A.El. Hemali. CSEM imaging of the near surface dynamics and its impact for foundation stability at quarter 27,15-th of May City, Helwan, Egypt. // Earth sciences research journal, 2010,Vol.14, N1, p.76-87.

  5. Analysis of Prognosis of Lowland River Bed Erosion Based on Geotechnical Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smaga, Agnieszka

    2015-12-01

    The river erosion is a complex process, the dynamics of which is very difficult to predict. Its intensity largely depends on hydraulic conditions of the river channel. However, it is also thought that natural resistance of the subsoil has a great influence on the scale of the erosion process. Predicting the effects of this process is extremely important in the case of constructing a piling structure (for example, artificial reservoirs). The partition of the river channel causes significant lowering of the river channel bed downstream the dam which threatens the stability of hydro technical and engineering (bridges) buildings. To stop this unwanted phenomenon, stabilizing thresholds are built. However, random location of thresholds significantly reduces their effectiveness. Therefore, taking under consideration natural geotechnical conditions of the subsoil appears to be extremely important. In the light of the current development of in-situ tests in geotechnics, an attempt to use results from these tests to predict the bed erosion rate was made. The analysis includes results from CPTU and DPL tests, which were carried out in the Warta River valley downstream the Jeziorsko reservoir. In the paper, the general diagrams for the procedure of obtaining and processing the data are shown. As a result, the author presents two multidimensional bed erosion rate models built based on hydraulic data and results from CPTU or DPL tests. These models allow taking more effective actions, leading to the neutralization of the effects of the intensive bed erosion process.

  6. Austrian Guideline for Geomechanical Design of Tunnels - Necessity for Cooperation between Geologists, Geotechnical and Civil Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Ludwig; Eder, Stefan; Mattle, Bruno; Hammer, Helmut

    Rising competitive pressure in the construction business, ever tighter schedules being set up by the clients and ongoing disputes between engineering geologists and civil engineers about the role of geotechnical engineers have - in the last few years - led to increasing discussions between engineers and geologists about the allocation of competences during the design process of underground structures. In the course of this debate, which is often polemic and anything but objective, important information is quite frequently lost - a development which may not only be to the disadvantage of the client but which may also do damage to the reputation of the professions involved. The design procedure of the new Austrian guideline for the geomechanical design of underground structures requires a close collaboration of geologists, geotechnical and civil engineers, yet without allocating competences. While preparing the tender documents for the first construction lot of the Northern feeder line of the Brenner base tunnel, the necessity of a close cooperation of the involved professions became apparent due to the complex geological situation encountered in the project area and the enormous amount of data available. Despite these difficult boundary conditions, the successful application of the guideline was last but not least the result of the joint efforts of the multidisciplinary design team.

  7. Quality assurance aspects of geotechnical practices for underground radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    In August 1988, the National Research Council, through the Geotechnical Board and the Board on Radioactive Waste Management, held a colloquium to discuss the practice of quality assurance that is being implemented in the high-level radioactive waste storage program. The intent of the colloquium was to bring together program managers of the Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory Commission, to discuss with the technical community both the advantages and problems associated with applying current quality assurance practices to underground science and engineering. The colloquium program included talks from 14 individuals that provided a variety of perspectives on both programmatic and technical issues. The talks initiated extended discussions from the 71 participants representing 7 government agencies, 8 academic institutions, and 22 private companies. The competencies of the participants were many and varied including, among others, geochemistry, hydrology, geotechnical engineering, computer programming, engineering and structural geology, underground design and construction, rock mechanics, laboratory testing, systems engineering, nuclear engineering, law, and environmental science. Based on a transcript of the meeting, this report summarizes the talks and discussions which took place. 2 figs

  8. Effect of adding natural pozzolana on geotechnical properties of lime-stabilized clayey soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aref al-Swaidani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Clayey soils in Syria cover a total area of more than 20,000 km2 of the country, most of which are located in the southwestern region. In many places of the country, the clayey soils caused severe damage to infrastructures. Extensive studies have been carried out on the stabilization of clayey soils using lime. Syria is rich in both lime and natural pozzolana. However, few works have been conducted to investigate the influence of adding natural pozzolana on the geotechnical properties of lime-treated clayey soils. The aim of this paper is to understand the effect of adding natural pozzolana on some geotechnical properties of lime-stabilized clayey soils. Natural pozzolana and lime are added to soil within the range of 0%–20% and 0%–8%, respectively. Consistency, compaction, California bearing ratio (CBR and linear shrinkage properties are particularly investigated. The test results show that the investigated properties of lime-treated clayey soils can be considerably enhanced when the natural pozzolana is added as a stabilizing agent. Analysis results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX show significant changes in the microstructure of the treated clayey soil. A better flocculation of clayey particles and further formation of cementing materials in the natural pozzolana-lime-treated clayey soil are clearly observed.

  9. Quality assurance aspects of geotechnical practices for underground radioactive waste repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    In August 1988, the National Research Council, through the Geotechnical Board and the Board on Radioactive Waste Management, held a colloquium to discuss the practice of quality assurance that is being implemented in the high-level radioactive waste storage program. The intent of the colloquium was to bring together program managers of the Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory Commission, to discuss with the technical community both the advantages and problems associated with applying current quality assurance practices to underground science and engineering. The colloquium program included talks from 14 individuals that provided a variety of perspectives on both programmatic and technical issues. The talks initiated extended discussions from the 71 participants representing 7 government agencies, 8 academic institutions, and 22 private companies. The competencies of the participants were many and varied including, among others, geochemistry, hydrology, geotechnical engineering, computer programming, engineering and structural geology, underground design and construction, rock mechanics, laboratory testing, systems engineering, nuclear engineering, law, and environmental science. Based on a transcript of the meeting, this report summarizes the talks and discussions which took place. 2 figs.

  10. Geotechnical characterization of boom clay in relation to the disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horseman, S.T.; Winter, M.G.; Enwistle, D.C.

    1987-01-01

    This report describes the results of a laboratory study on the geotechnical properties of the Tertiary Boom clay. Tests were performed on 'undisturbed' samples of clay taken from a location 247 m below surface at the SCK/CEN experimental site at Mol in Belgium. In geotechnical terms, the Boom clay (at depth) may be described as a hard, high-plasticity, overconsolidated clay. Test methods have included (a) the one-dimensional consolidation test with consolidation stresses up to 32 MPa, (b) the one dimensional swelling pressure test, (c) the isotropically-consolidated, undrained (CIU) triaxial test with pore pressure measurement, and (d) the unconsolidated undrained (UU) triaxial test. All triaxial tests were load-controlled. Limited test results are presented on pore pressure responses during heating under undrained conditions and on the effect of elevated temperature (80 O C) on deformability and strength. It is found that significantly large excess pore pressures (circa 1 MPa under in situ stress conditions) may be developed during heating from ambient laboratory temperature to 80 O C. The effect is due, at least in part, to the expansion of the pore fluid

  11. Quality assurance in management of geotechnical experiments for nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dormuth, K.W.; Simmons, G.R.

    1992-01-01

    Research and development (R and D) of technology for the disposal of nuclear fuel waste in plutonic rock is being undertaken in the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program, jointly funded by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) Research and Ontario Hydro under the auspices of the CANDU Owner's Group. A major component of the R and D is geotechnical research to improve the understanding of the response of the host rock to a waste repository; investigate the interactions between the waste package, sealing systems, and rock; elucidate geotechnical factors affecting potential transport of waste elements from the repository; and establish and refine techniques and procedures for repository engineering. Nine major experimental activities are currently in various stages of planning and implementation at AECL's Underground Research Laboratory (URL). A general description of a quality assurance (QA) program developed at AECL for R and D on nuclear waste disposal has been published previously. This QA program is project-oriented and is designed specifically for and R and D environment. The full application of the QA program is being phased into the management of the operating phase experiments because some activities were under way prior to establishment of the QA program

  12. Difficult Geotechnical Conditions Under the Palace Complex, Case Study from Cianowice, Near Krakow, Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Mastalerczyk, Joanna; Gil, Regina

    2016-10-01

    The palace complex in Cianowice near Krakow (Lesser Poland, Poland) built around 1890, after 1945 ceased to function as a residential, so the whole building underwent successive devastation. Military activities, ad hoc repairs and long-term shortage of funds in Poland, led to the destruction of the magnificent assumptions. Since 2006. Palace remained completely unsecured and unattended. Performed in 2012-2015 modernization of the historic palace with the expansion of the basement (for residential building multigenerational) has become the occasion for a thorough diagnosis of the prevailing geotechnical conditions and the state of preservation of threads stone and brick walls and vaults chambers basement. Difficult ground conditions, water penetration, lack of insulation of horizontal and vertical has become one of the main causes of the destruction of the foundations and walls of basements. Moisture from the ground, rising damp in the walls (with dissolved salts in it), evaporate causing erosion of the walls. The result it led to the weakening of the structural and breakout layers of walls. The phenomenon has become particularly clear after the geotechnical surveys, excavations and complete discovery of the basement walls. The conducted works related to general technical renovation and restoration, included foundations (lining and insulation), walls, floors and roof. The assumption palace in Cianowice, through appropriate interference with the use of modern and introduction of a new substance, in any manner that emphasizes value and historical monument became possible to restore the important significance of the object and place.

  13. Influence of benthic macrofauna on the geotechnical and geophysical properties of surficial sediment, North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowden, A. A.; Jago, C. F.; Jones, S. E.

    1998-09-01

    Spatial and temporal variations in the structure of an Amphiura-Echinocardium macrobenthic community were studied in relation to geotechnical and geophysical properties of the seabed at a muddy-sand site in the seasonally stratified region of the southern North Sea. Vertical profiles of geotechnical properties were recorded in sediments collected by box corer. Maxima in water, organic matter, and fine particle contents coincided with the presence of the burrowing brittle star Amphiura filiformis and the mud shrimp Callianassa subterranea in the upper and lower parts, respectively, of the cores. A significant relationship existed between the abundance of A. filiformis and the water content of the upper 0.05 m of the bed. There were important temporal variations in rigidity modulus, derived from acoustic shear wave propagation in freshly recovered cores, of the upper 0.06 m of the sediment. The rigidity modulus was 45% greater in January than in May and this has been related to the burrowing/feeding activity of the macrobenthic community; there was an inverse relationship between A. filiformis abundance and bed rigidity. Thus the bed had a lower bulk density and lower rigidity in summer due to biological modification of the sediment fabric. This implies that the bed was less resistant to erosion in the summer. Such an effect may be important during summer storms in the shallowest parts of the seasonally stratified zone (ie close to shelf fronts).

  14. Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm Coupled with Finite Element Limit Equilibrium Method for Geotechnical Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjun Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a modified particle swarm optimization algorithm coupled with the finite element limit equilibrium method (FELEM for the minimum factor of safety and the location of associated noncircular critical failure surfaces for various geotechnical practices. During the search process, the stress compatibility constraints coupled with the geometrical and kinematical compatibility constraints are firstly established based on the features of slope geometry and stress distribution to guarantee realistic slip surfaces from being unreasonable. Furthermore, in the FELEM, based on rigorous theoretical analyses and derivation, it is noted that the physical meaning of the factor of safety can be formulated on the basis of strength reserving theory rather than the overloading theory. Consequently, compared with the limit equilibrium method (LEM and the shear strength reduction method (SSRM through several numerical examples, the FELEM in conjunction with the improved search strategy is proved to be an effective and efficient approach to routine analysis and design in geotechnical practices with a high level of confidence.

  15. Geotechnical instrumentation requirements for atdepth testing and repository monitoring in tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    This paper outlines geotechnical instrumentation requirements for the possible establishment of a nuclear waste repository in tuff on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has specified a continuing program to confirm performance during the operational period of the repository, which could last 50 years. Minimum required geotechnical measurements for confirmation of performance include thermal and thermomechanical responses; changes in stress, strain, and displacements; and pore pressure and groundwater flow characteristics. Conditions expected in tuff are: maximum rock temperatures of less than 250 0 C, stresses less than 100 MPa, strains between + or -0.01 mm/mm, and pore pressures less than 35 KPa in the unsaturated zone where hydraulic head is not the primary contributor. The paper describes instrumentation needed to make the desired measurements. In general, the instrumentation and data system are required to be stable and reliable for tens of years. Designs must consider requirements for temperature stability, temperature expansion compensation, moisture resistance, and long-term durability in mining-type environments. Severe requirements such as these suggest consideration of techniques for in-situ replacement of instrumentation. State-of-the-art instrumentation is briefly described along with a discussion of needs for refinement, replacement/recalibration and instrumentation development

  16. Modelling of XCO2 Surfaces Based on Flight Tests of TanSat Instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The TanSat carbon satellite is to be launched at the end of 2016. In order to verify the performance of its instruments, a flight test of TanSat instruments was conducted in Jilin Province in September, 2015. The flight test area covered a total area of about 11,000 km2 and the underlying surface cover included several lakes, forest land, grassland, wetland, farmland, a thermal power plant and numerous cities and villages. We modeled the column-average dry-air mole fraction of atmospheric carbon dioxide (XCO2 surface based on flight test data which measured the near- and short-wave infrared (NIR reflected solar radiation in the absorption bands at around 760 and 1610 nm. However, it is difficult to directly analyze the spatial distribution of XCO2 in the flight area using the limited flight test data and the approximate surface of XCO2, which was obtained by regression modeling, which is not very accurate either. We therefore used the high accuracy surface modeling (HASM platform to fill the gaps where there is no information on XCO2 in the flight test area, which takes the approximate surface of XCO2 as its driving field and the XCO2 observations retrieved from the flight test as its optimum control constraints. High accuracy surfaces of XCO2 were constructed with HASM based on the flight’s observations. The results showed that the mean XCO2 in the flight test area is about 400 ppm and that XCO2 over urban areas is much higher than in other places. Compared with OCO-2’s XCO2, the mean difference is 0.7 ppm and the standard deviation is 0.95 ppm. Therefore, the modelling of the XCO2 surface based on the flight test of the TanSat instruments fell within an expected and acceptable range.

  17. Imaging of Ground Ice with Surface-Based Geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    intrusive ice feature occurring in existing permafrost ter- rain when surface water infiltrates into downward-propagated contraction cracks ...testing and pavement color testing was performed. 2.1.2 Creamer’s Field We constructed one transect at this site, which is located north of Fair

  18. Scaling and Predicting the Geotechnical Resistance Provided by Alfalfa in Experimental Studies of Alluvial-Channel Morphology and Planform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankhead, N.; Simon, A.

    2008-12-01

    Several complex interactions occur between riparian vegetation and bank stability processes. Although there are both positive and negative effects of riparian vegetation on streambank stability, a link between increased vegetation density and decreased bank erosion and lateral migration rates of channels has generally been recorded. The ability of vegetation to promote increased bank stability leads to a positive feedback, in which bank stability then allows the growth and establishment of more vegetation. To study interactions between vegetation density and channel planform, past flume studies have used alfalfa sprouts (Medicago sativa), seeded over the entire floodplain in varying densities. Such studies have observed reductions in braiding intensity with increased alfalfa density. It has been assumed in these studies that the alfalfa sprouts increase the resistance of the bank material to lateral erosion. When alfalfa sprouts are scaled up they simulate mature riparian trees well. However, the geotechnical properties of alfalfa roots, and quantification of the increase in resistance provided to the banks under different densities of alfalfa have thus far been ignored. It is therefore unknown if the resistance provided by the alfalfa roots also scales well to real-world root-reinforcement values. To quantify additional bank strength, alfalfa sprouts were grown in sand and the roots tested at regular intervals to measure tensile strength. Results of tensile-strength measurements for alfalfa sprouts displayed the typical non-linear decrease of tensile strength (in MPa) with increasing root diameter. Values for the additional cohesion provided by alfalfa roots were calculated by inputting alfalfa tensile-strength and root density data to the root-reinforcement model, RipRoot, resulting in root-reinforcement values of 0 to 11.8 kPa. These values are similar to those that would be expected under field conditions. The root-cohesion values calculated for alfalfa sprouts

  19. Geotechnical properties of municipal solid waste at different phases of biodegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Krishna R; Hettiarachchi, Hiroshan; Gangathulasi, Janardhanan; Bogner, Jean E

    2011-11-01

    This paper presents the results of laboratory investigation conducted to determine the variation of geotechnical properties of synthetic municipal solid waste (MSW) at different phases of degradation. Synthetic MSW samples were prepared based on the composition of MSW generated in the United States and were degraded in bioreactors with leachate recirculation. Degradation of the synthetic MSW was quantified based on the gas composition and organic content, and the samples exhumed from the bioreactor cells at different phases of degradation were tested for the geotechnical properties. Hydraulic conductivity, compressibility and shear strength of initial and degraded synthetic MSW were all determined at constant initial moisture content of 50% on wet weight basis. Hydraulic conductivity of synthetic MSW was reduced by two orders of magnitude due to degradation. Compression ratio was reduced from 0.34 for initial fresh waste to 0.15 for the mostly degraded waste. Direct shear tests showed that the fresh and degraded synthetic MSW exhibited continuous strength gain with increase in horizontal deformation, with the cohesion increased from 1 kPa for fresh MSW to 16-40 kPa for degraded MSW and the friction angle decreased from 35° for fresh MSW to 28° for degraded MSW. During the triaxial tests under CU condition, the total strength parameters, cohesion and friction angle, were found to vary from 21 to 57 kPa and 1° to 9°, respectively, while the effective strength parameters, cohesion and friction angle varied from 18 to 56 kPa and from 1° to 11°, respectively. Similar to direct shear test results, as the waste degrades an increase in cohesion and slight decrease in friction angle was observed. Decreased friction angle and increased cohesion with increased degradation is believed to be due to the highly cohesive nature of the synthetic MSW. Variation of synthetic MSW properties from this study also suggests that significant changes in geotechnical properties of MSW

  20. Filling the gap between geophysics and geotechnics in landslide process understanding: a data fusion methodology to integrate multi-source information in hydro-mechanical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernadie, S.; Gance, J.; Grandjean, G.; Malet, J.

    2013-12-01

    The population increase and the rising issue of climate change impact the long term stability of mountain slopes. So far, it is not yet possible to assess in all cases conditions for failure, reactivation or rapid surges of slopes. The main reason identified by Van Asch et al. (2007) is the excessive conceptualization of the slope in the models. Therefore to improve our forecasting capability, considering local information such as the local slope geometry, the soil material variability, hydrological processes and the presence of fissures are of first importance. Geophysical imaging, combined with geotechnical tests, is an adapted tool to obtain such detailed information. The development of near-surface geophysics in the last three decades encourages the use of multiple geophysical methods for slope investigations. However, fusion of real data is little used in this domain and a gap still exists between the data processed by the geophysicists and the slope hydro-mechanical models developed by the geotechnical engineers. Starting from this statement, we propose a methodological flowchart of multi-source geophysical and geotechnical data integration to construct a slope hydro-mechanical model of a selected profile at the Super-Sauze landslide. Based on data fusion concepts, the methodology aims at integrating various data in order to create a geological and a geotechnical model of the slope profile. The input data consist in seismic and geoelectrical tomographies (that give access to a spatially distributed information on the soil physical state) supplemented by punctual geotechnical tests (dynamic penetration tests). The tomograms and the geotechnical tests are combined into a unique interpreted model characterized by different geotechnical domains. We use the fuzzy logic clustering method in order to take into account the uncertainty coming from each input data. Then an unstructured finite element mesh, adapted to the resolution of the different input data and

  1. Electromagnetic controllable surfaces based on trapped-mode effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Dmitriev

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present some recent results of our theoretical investigations of electromagnetically controllable surfaces. These surfaces are designed on the basis of periodic arrays made of metallic inclusions of special form which are placed on a thin substrate of active material (magnetized ferrite or optically active semiconductor. The main peculiarity of the studied structures is their capability to support the trapped-mode resonance which is a result of the antiphase current oscillations in the elements of a periodic cell. Several effects, namely: tuning the position of passband and the linear and nonlinear (bistable transmission switching are considered when an external static magnetic field or optical excitation are applied. Our numerical calculations are fulfilled in both microwave and optical regions.

  2. Geotechnical aspects of the January 2003 Tecoma'n, Mexico, earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartman, Joseph; Rodriguez-Marek, Adrian; Macari, Emir J.; Deaton, Scott; Ramirez-Reynaga, Marti'n; Ochoa, Carlos N.; Callan, Sean; Keefer, David; Repetto, Pedro; Ovando-Shelley, Efrai'n

    2005-01-01

    Ground failure was the most prominent geotechnical engineering feature of the 21 January 2003 Mw 7.6 Tecoma´n earthquake. Ground failure impacted structures, industrial facilities, roads, water supply canals, and other critical infrastructure in the state of Colima and in parts of the neighboring states of Jalisco and Michoaca´n. Landslides and soil liquefaction were the most common type of ground failure, followed by seismic compression of unsaturated materials. Reinforced earth structures generally performed well during the earthquake, though some structures experienced permanent lateral deformations up to 10 cm. Different ground improvement techniques had been used to enhance the liquefaction resistance of several sites in the region, all of which performed well and exhibited no signs of damage or significant ground deformation. Earth dams in the region experienced some degree of permanent deformation but remained fully functional after the earthquake.

  3. Geotechnical evaluation of rocks and soils in Catoca kimberlitic mining complex (Angola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingos M. Dos Santos Neves-Margarida

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Landslides and rock sliding occur very frequently in the mining area of Catoca, located in Angola. Therefore, a physical/mechanical and geotechnical characterization of the massif and the rock matrix was carried out adopting the landslide classifications as proposed by Hutchinson and Varnes. The safety factor was applied based on the structural weakness coefficient (λ; resulting in 0.70 in surface rocks, sandstones and intraformational sands; 0.58 in oversaturated eluvial gneiss; 0.50 in cracked gneiss and 0.47 in the ore compound of weathered, moist kimberlitic porphyric and weathered porphyric kimberlite. These results indicate the low strength of the massif and the need to reformulate the activities in the mine and the construction of more stable slopes. It could also be observed that deformation of rocks in the slopes and the cuts in the Catoca mine is conditioned by the movement of underground water within the rock massif itself.

  4. Geotechnical Properties of Yunokura Landslide Dam Induced by 2008 Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzuoka, Ryosuke; Sento, Noriaki; Mori, Tomohiro; Kazama, Motoki

    The 2008 Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku earthquake caused more than 50 landslide dams made of the collapsed soils and rocks. In this paper the geotechnical properties of a landslide dam were investigated in order to study the stability of landslide dam against seepage and overtopping. The in-situ tests were carried out at Yunokura landslide dam which is one of the largest landslide dams along the Hasama River. In addition the laboratory tests with the disturbed samples obtained at Yunokura were performed. The tests results show that the rock ratio in the boring core varied with depth. The soil parts without rocks were relatively soft with lower N values and lower elastic wave velocities. The permeability coefficients of plastic soil samples were lower than the coefficient measured at the bore hole. The erosion resistances of the samples were higher than that of a non-plastic soil.

  5. Interrogation of fibre Bragg gratings through a fibre optic rotary joint on a geotechnical centrifuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Ricardo; James, Stephen W.; Marshall, Alec; Heron, Charles; Korposh, Sergiy

    2016-05-01

    The monitoring of an array of fibre Bragg gratings (FBGs) strain sensors was performed through a single channel, single mode fibre optic rotary joint (FORJ) mounted on a geotechnical centrifuge. The array of three FBGs was attached to an aluminum plate that was anchored at the ends and placed on the model platform of the centrifuge. Acceleration forces of up to 50g were applied and the reflection signal of the monitored FBGs recorded dynamically using a 2.5kHz FBG interrogator placed outside the centrifuge. The use of a FORJ allowed the monitoring of the FBGs without submitting the FBG interrogator to the high g-forces experienced in the centrifuge.

  6. [Geotechnical Board activities and funding]. [Annual] activites report, July 1, 1992--June 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smeallie, P.H.

    1993-07-23

    The Geotechnical Board, a part of the US National Research Council, which is the operating arm of the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering, serves to advise the federal government and others on issues where geotechnology can have an impact, such as environmental remediation and infrastructure development. The board met three times during the reporting period to review current projects and to initiate activities that move the knowledge base of geotechnology forward. The board operates with two long-standing national committees, the US National Committee for Rock Mechanics and the US National Committee on Tunneling Technology. It also conducts special studies at the request of the government. A list of attachments is given.

  7. Analysis of the influence of granular fractions on geotechnical characteristics for soils with similar behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia-Florentina DOBRESCU

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a series of experimental tests related to the influence of granular fractions on geotechnical characteristics, using different methods of investigation and assessment. The soil samples selected for the study were collected from two different areas in Romania (Tulcea and Calafat, where similar soil categories were intercepted from the point of view of properties and behavior. Based on laboratory tests, the analysis consisted in establishing the predominant lithological types, the results being processed in order to reveal the variation of specific properties. The research has allowed conducting comparative and correlative analyses, based on the characteristics of soil types (silty and sandy loess, which led to outlined similarities of studied collapsible soils.

  8. Temperature effects on geotechnical and hydraulic properties of bentonite hydrated with inorganic salt solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rashid, H. M. A.; Kawamoto, K.; Saito, T.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015, International Journal of GEOMATE. This study investigated the combined effect of temperature and single-species salt solutions on geotechnical properties (swell index and liquid limit) and hydraulic conductivity of bentonite applying different cation types, concentrations, and temperatures....... Results showed that both the swell index and the liquid limit decreased with an increase in salt concentration irrespective of the type of cation. Monovalent cations showed higher values of the swell index and the liquid limit compared to divalent cations. In general, the swell index of bentonite...... increased whereas the liquid limit decreased with increasing temperature for all cation types and concentrations. Significant and high correlations were found between swell index and liquid limit of bentonite at all three temperatures. Hydraulic conductivity of bentonite was found to increase...

  9. Preparatory mining and geotechnical work for safe closure of the Asse mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, M.W.; Schauermann, V.; Kappei, G.

    2002-01-01

    After the GSF Research Centre for Environment and Health discontinued its own research into the safe ultimate storage of waste hazardous to the environment in deep geological formations and the work of the Institute for Deep Storage was likewise suspended there is no longer any need to continue operation of the Asse mine for research purposes. Hence the closure of the mine is being prepared on the basis of the Federal Mining Act. The GSF accordingly has to submit a final operating plan, with which a comprehensive safety report containing inter alia proof of the long-time safety should be enclosed. The proof should be furnished according to the specific location and takes into account the geological, hydrogeological, geochemical, geotechnical, mining-related conditions and the radionuclide inventory in the Asse mine. (orig.) [de

  10. Geotechnical evaluation of the proposed WIPP site in southeast New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weart, W.D.

    1978-10-01

    The Department of Energy is proposing to demonstrate the acceptability of geologic disposal of radioactive waste by locating a Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in the salt beds 26 miles east of Carlsbad, New Mexico. The WIPP will serve as a permanent repository for defense generated transuranic contaminated waste and will also be used as a facility in which experiments and demonstrations with all radioactive waste types can be conducted. The present area being proposed for the WIPP is the second such location in the Delaware Basin for which new site data have been developed; the first site proved geologically unacceptable. Ecologic and socioeconomic aspects have been investigated and extensive geophysical, geological and hydrologic studies have been conducted to allow an evaluation of site acceptability. Geotechnical aspects of site characterization are examined. These studies are now sufficiently complete that the site can be recommended for further development of the WIPP

  11. Geotechnical assessment of road failure and slope monitoring along Nsukka-Adoru-Idah highway, Southeastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maduka, Raphael Iweanya; Igwe, Ogbonnaya; Ayogu, Nnadozie Onyekachi; Ayogu, Chinero Nneka; Nwachukwu, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The quality of highway pavement is greatly influenced by the subgrade materials, the general geology of the area, and the materials used for construction. Investigation into the 75-km Nsukka-Adoru-Idah highway revealed that the pavement was underlain by three lithological units-Imo, Nsukka, and Ajali formations. The geotechnical evaluation carried out in the study includes the particle size distribution, Atterberg limit, specific gravity, compaction tests, and California bearing ratio (CBR). The base course has clay/silt (7-14%), fine sand (1-4%), medium sand (6-13%), and coarse sand (65-86%), while the subgrade presented clay/silt (74-82%), fine sand (6-9%), medium sand (10-17%), and coarse sand (1-3%). The average specific gravity results for the studied base course and subgrades are 2.58 and 2.52. Liquid limit (LL) result ranges from 27 to 60%, while plastic limit (PL) ranges between 17 and 24%, and plasticity index (PI) ranges from 5 to 39%. The maximum dry density (MDD) result ranges from 1.70 to 2.10 mg/m 3 , while the optimum moisture content (OMC) for the samples ranges between 14.1 and 18.0%. The CBR result for soaked and unsoaked samples ranges from 37 to 74 and 48 to 83%, respectively. The low unsoaked CBR ( 30% and PI > 12%) failed the stipulated Nigerian standard, signifying the need for stabilization. A geotechnical model of a highway road cut generated a factor of safety of 1.45, indicating possibility of slope failure.

  12. Waste Isolation PIlot Plant Geotechnical Analysis Report for July 2005 - June 2006, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2006-04-03

    This Geotechnical Analysis Report (GAR) presents and interprets geotechnical data from the underground excavations at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The data, which are obtained as part of a regular monitoring program, are used to characterize conditions, to compare actual performance to the design assumptions, and to evaluate and forecast the performance of the underground excavations. GARs have been available to the public since 1983. During the Site and Preliminary Design Validation (SPDV) Program, the architect/engineer for the project produced these reports quarterly to document the geomechanical performance during and immediately after early excavations of the underground facility. Since completion of the construction phase of the project in 1987, the management and operating contractor for the facility has prepared these reports annually. This report describes the performance and condition of selected areas from July 1, 2005, to June 30, 2006. It is divided into nine chapters. Chapter 1 provides background information on WIPP, its mission, and the purpose and scope of the geomechanical monitoring program. Chapter 2 describes the local and regional geology of the WIPP site. Chapters 3 and 4 describe the geomechanical instrumentation in the shafts and shaft stations, present the data collected by that instrumentation, and provide interpretation of these data. Chapters 5 and 6 present the results of geomechanical monitoring in the two main portions of the WIPP underground (the access drifts and the waste disposal area). Chapter 7 discusses the results of the Geoscience Program, which include fracture mapping and borehole observations. Chapter 8 summarizes the results of geomechanical monitoring and compares the current excavation performance to the design requirements. Chapter 9 lists references.

  13. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Geotechnical Analysis Report for July 2004 - June 2005, Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This Geotechnical Analysis Report (GAR) presents and interprets the geotechnical data from the underground excavations at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The data, which are obtained as part of a regular monitoring program, are used to characterize conditions, to compare actual performance to the design assumptions, and to evaluate and forecast the performance of the underground excavations. GARs have been available to the public since 1983. During the Site and Preliminary Design Validation (SPDV) Program, the architect/engineer for the project produced these reports quarterly to document the geomechanical performance during and immediately after early excavations of the underground facility. Since the completion of the construction phase of the project in 1987, the management and operating contractor for the facility has prepared these reports annually. This report describes the performance and condition of selected areas from July 1, 2004, to June 30, 2005. It is divided into nine chapters. Chapter 1 provides background information on WIPP, its mission, and the purpose and scope of the Geomechanical Monitoring Program. Chapter 2 describes the local and regional geology of the WIPP site. Chapters 3 and 4 describe the geomechanical instrumentation in the shafts and shaft stations, present the data collected by that instrumentation, and provide interpretation of these data. Chapters 5 and 6 present the results of geomechanical monitoring in the two main portions of the WIPP underground (the access drifts and the waste disposal area). Chapter 7 discusses the results of the Geoscience Program, which include fracture mapping and borehole observations. Chapter 8 summarizes the results of the geomechanical monitoring and compares the current excavation performance to the design requirements. Chapter 9 lists the references and bibliography.

  14. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Geotechnical Analysis Report for July 2004 - June 2005, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2006-04-03

    This Geotechnical Analysis Report (GAR) presents and interprets the geotechnical data from the underground excavations at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The data, which are obtained as part of a regular monitoring program, are used to characterize conditions, to compare actual performance to the design assumptions, and to evaluate and forecast the performance of the underground excavations. GARs have been available to the public since 1983. During the Site and Preliminary Design Validation (SPDV) Program, the architect/engineer for the project produced these reports quarterly to document the geomechanical performance during and immediately after early excavations of the underground facility. Since the completion of the construction phase of the project in 1987, the management and operating contractor for the facility has prepared these reports annually. This report describes the performance and condition of selected areas from July 1, 2004, to June 30, 2005. It is divided into nine chapters. Chapter 1 provides background information on WIPP, its mission, and the purpose and scope of the Geomechanical Monitoring Program. Chapter 2 describes the local and regional geology of the WIPP site. Chapters 3 and 4 describe the geomechanical instrumentation in the shafts and shaft stations, present the data collected by that instrumentation, and provide interpretation of these data. Chapters 5 and 6 present the results of geomechanical monitoring in the two main portions of the WIPP underground (the access drifts and the waste disposal area). Chapter 7 discusses the results of the Geoscience Program, which include fracture mapping and borehole observations. Chapter 8 summarizes the results of the geomechanical monitoring and compares the current excavation performance to the design requirements. Chapter 9 lists the references and bibliography.

  15. Geotechnical conditions and ice loading for an offshore drilling platform in the Canadian Beaufort Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martens, S.; Eshraghian, A.; Rogers, B. [Klohn Crippen Berger Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This paper addressed the geotechnical aspects of the deployment of the steel drilling caisson (SDC) at the Paktoa site in the Canadian Beaufort Sea. The SDC is a bottom founded mobile offshore drilling platform that can operate in 8 to 25 m of water in an Arctic environment. It is mated to a submersible barge in order to resist large ice forces on the structure at sites with relatively weak soils, without the need for site preparation. To date, the SDC has been deployed at 8 sites in the Canadian and Alaskan Beaufort Sea. This paper focused on the Paktoa location, where the SDC was deployed 50 km offshore in a water depth of 14 m during the winter of 2005-2006. Geotechnical investigations were conducted from the landfast ice prior to deployment and from the SDC deck. This paper described the soil properties and design loading; design stability; and deformation analysis. The environmental loads considered for the SDC design included ice push, waves and earthquakes. The ice loading was the dominant loading case. The instrumentation installed in the seabed included 2 push-in piezometers and an inclinometer. An ice loading event in February 2006 resulted in considerable displacements in the in-place inclinometer string below the SDC. Several analysis methods were used to estimate the magnitude of the ice load during this event in order to better understand the magnitude of ice loading for future Arctic deployments of gravity based drilling platforms. It was concluded that further deployments should have a minimum of 2 and preferably 4 in-place inclinometer strings to measure real-time deformation of the seabed to enable measurement of rotation of the structure that may occur due to asymmetrical ice loading. 10 refs., 2 tabs., 15 figs.

  16. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Geotechnical Analysis Report for July 2005 - June 2006, Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This Geotechnical Analysis Report (GAR) presents and interprets geotechnical data from the underground excavations at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The data, which are obtained as part of a regular monitoring program, are used to characterize conditions, to compare actual performance to the design assumptions, and to evaluate and forecast the performance of the underground excavations. GARs have been available to the public since 1983. During the Site and Preliminary Design Validation (SPDV) Program, the architect/engineer for the project produced these reports quarterly to document the geomechanical performance during and immediately after early excavations of the underground facility. Since completion of the construction phase of the project in 1987, the management and operating contractor for the facility has prepared these reports annually. This report describes the performance and condition of selected areas from July 1, 2005, to June 30, 2006. It is divided into nine chapters. Chapter 1 provides background information on WIPP, its mission, and the purpose and scope of the geomechanical monitoring program. Chapter 2 describes the local and regional geology of the WIPP site. Chapters 3 and 4 describe the geomechanical instrumentation in the shafts and shaft stations, present the data collected by that instrumentation, and provide interpretation of these data. Chapters 5 and 6 present the results of geomechanical monitoring in the two main portions of the WIPP underground (the access drifts and the waste disposal area). Chapter 7 discusses the results of the Geoscience Program, which include fracture mapping and borehole observations. Chapter 8 summarizes the results of geomechanical monitoring and compares the current excavation performance to the design requirements. Chapter 9 lists references.

  17. Monitoring and prediction of geotechnical and environmental risks for security in natural gas transportation; Monitoramento e previsao de riscos geotecnicos e ambientais para seguranca no transporte do gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamecki, Paulo R.; Ligocki, Laryssa P.; Andrade, Heber A.C.; Manzolli, Andre; Horbatiuk, Borys W.D. [LACTEC - Instituto de Tecnologia para o Desenvolvimento, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Strieder, Adelir J.; Quadros, Telmo F.P.; Buffon, Sergio A.; Stupf, Leonardo; Bressani, Luiz A.; Bica, Adriano V. Damiani [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Schiafino, Antonio V.; Bastos, Cesar B. [Fundacao Universidade Federal do Rio Grande (FURG), RS (Brazil); Radu, Marcos S.; Nascimento Filho, Lenart P. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Santoro, Alcides [Centro de Tecnologias do Gas (CTGAS), Natal, RN (Brazil); Vasconcellos, Carlos R.A.; Oliveira, Hudson R. [TBG - Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    In order to take care of the consumption issues, often the bands of pipelines have to cross regions that do not present ideal conditions in terms of geotechnical and geologic characteristics. The present work describes a research in progress, involving a partnership between LACTEC, UFRGS, RedeGasEnergia and FINEP, that aims the development of a methodology for instrumentation and remote monitoring of places which present risks to the infrastructure of the gas-lines and the environment, due to geological and geotechnical conditions, as well as the definition of these places. The methodology is practically concluded and will be applied in the place defined for the case study in natural gas Bolivia-Brazil gas-line. Satellite images are being used, along whit computational modeling, geophysical methods, exploratory boreholes and field and laboratory tests, for the definition of points of risk. In the remote monitoring, besides a data communication system, residual stress test of the pipelines, strain gauges and automatic instruments, inclinometers, piezometer and pluviometers are being used. (author)

  18. Incorporating the site variability and laboratory/in-situ testing variability of soil properties in geotechnical engineering design : research project capsule : technology transfer program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    While structural engineering deals with mostly homogeneous manmade materials : (e.g., concrete and steel), geotechnical engineering typically involves highly varied : natural materials (e.g., soil and rock). As a result, high variance of the resistan...

  19. Foundation integrity assessment using integrated geophysical and geotechnical techniques: case study in crystalline basement complex, southwestern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olayanju, G. M.; Mogaji, K. A.; Lim, H. S.; Ojo, T. S.

    2017-06-01

    The determination of parameters comprising exact depth to bedrock and its lithological type, lateral changes in lithology, and detection of fractures, cracks, or faults are essential to designing formidable foundations and assessing the integrity of civil engineering structures. In this study, soil and site characterization in a typical hard rock geologic terrain in southwestern Nigeria were carried out employing integrated geophysical and geotechnical techniques to address tragedies in civil engineering infrastructural development. The deployed geophysical measurements involved running both very low frequency electromagnetic (VLF-EM) and electrical resistivity methods (dipole-dipole imaging and vertical electrical sounding (VES) techniques) along the established traverses, while the latter technique entailed conducting geological laboratory sieve analysis and Atterberg limit-index tests upon the collected soil samples in the area. The results of the geophysical measurement, based on the interpreted VLF-EM and dipole-dipole data, revealed conductive zones and linear features interpreted as fractures/faults which endanger the foundations of public infrastructures. The delineation of four distinct geoelectric layers in the area—comprised of topsoil, lateritic/clayey substratum, weathered layer, and bedrock—were based on the VES results. Strong evidence, including high degree of decomposition and fracturing of underlying bedrock revealed by the VES results, confirmed the VLF-EM and dipole-dipole results. Furthermore, values in the range of 74.2%-77.8%, 55%-62.5%, 23.4%-24.5%, 7.7%-8.2%, 19.5%-22.4%, and 31.65%-38.25% were obtained for these geotechnical parameters viz soil percentage passing 0.075 mm sieve size, liquid limit, plasticity index, linear shrinkage, natural moisture content, and plastic limit, respectively, resulting from the geotechnical analysis of the soil samples. The comparatively analyzed geophysical and geotechnical results revealed a high

  20. Zoning and Geotechnical Characterization of soils from the port of Veracruz; Zonificacion y Caracterizacion geotecnica de los Suelos del Puerto de Veracruz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenz, O.; Ochoa Sanchez, O. A.

    2012-07-01

    Describes the geological province that hosts the city of Veracruz and the morphological traits that resulted from the activity that preceded the Quaternary on the other hand, presents the geotechnical characteristics of the soil, which constitute the different deposits that make up the ground to throughout the length and breadth of the urban sprawl from Veracruz and urban areas, and then after, make a zoning proposal from the point of view geotechnical. (Author) 25 refs.

  1. Surface based cardiac and respiratory motion extraction for pulmonary structures from multi-phase CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Berg, Jens; Barschdorf, Hans; Blaffert, Thomas; Kabus, Sven; Lorenz, Cristian

    2007-03-01

    During medical imaging and therapeutic interventions, pulmonary structures are in general subject to cardiac and respiratory motion. This motion leads potentially to artefacts and blurring in the resulting image material and to uncertainties during interventions. This paper presents a new automatic approach for surface based motion tracking of pulmonary structures and reports on the results for cardiac and respiratory induced motion. The method applies an active shape approach to ad-hoc generated surface representations of the pulmonary structures for phase to phase surface tracking. Input of the method are multi-phase CT data, either cardiac or respiratory gated. The iso-surface representing the transition between air or lung parenchyma to soft tissue, is triangulated for a selected phase p 0. An active shape procedure is initialised in the image of phase p I using the generated surface in p 0. The used internal energy term penalizes shape deformation as compared to p 0. The process is iterated for all phases p i to p i+1 of the complete cycle. Since the mesh topology is the same for all phases, the vertices of the triangular mesh can be treated as pseudo-landmarks defining tissue trajectories. A dense motion field is interpolated. The motion field was especially designed to estimate the error margins for radiotherapy. In the case of respiratory motion extraction, a validation on ten biphasic thorax CT images (2.5mm slice distance) was performed with expert landmarks placed at vessel bifurcations. The mean error on landmark position was below 2.6mm. We further applied the method to ECG gated images and estimated the influence of the heart beat on lung tissue displacement.

  2. Technical Note: Example of the Application of Jet Grouting to the Neutralisation of Geotechnical Hazard in Shaft Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dybeł Piotr

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a geotechnical hazard neutralisation technology for shaft structures. The diagnosis of problems with uncontrolled subsidence of the ventilation duct provided by the authors enabled the development of a schedule of works required for the protection and reinforcement of foundation soil in the shaft area. The technology of protection works was selected after the analysis of the technical condition of shaft structures as well as hydrological and geomechanical conditions. Due to the closeness of the shaft lining, it was necessary to form grout columns using jet grouting and low-pressure grouting technologies. The article presents the issues related to the selected technology and its application to the neutralisation of the emergent geotechnical hazard. The method of performance of recommended works was also described together with their impact on the technical condition of structures discussed as well as their functionality and usage.

  3. Geotechnical maps development through the use of geo-technologies to implement and monitor pipelines in a GIS environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueira, Ernesto Goldfarb [ESTEIO Engenharia e Aerolevantamentos S.A, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Figueira, Isabella Francoso Rebutini; Bongiolo, Alessandra de Barros e Silva [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Cutritiba, PR (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The variations of the geologic characteristics of the subsurface materials can have direct impact in the pipeline projects. The elaboration of a geotechnical zoning have intention to reduce, among others, these uncertainties and consequently to minimize costs of implantation and maintenance. The present paper intends to present the experiences obtained through the elaboration of a geotechnical zoning as well as a panorama of the tools and currently available methods. The pipes studied, object of this work, are situated in Rio de Janeiro state, between Cabiunas and Duque de Caxias cities, with an extension upper 200 km, crossing lands with very different characteristics, from fluvial marine lowlands, constituted of quaternary sediments to mountain regions, formed of metamorphic and igneous rocks. The database used in an GIS environment include satellite images, three-dimensional models of the land, digital air photographs, laser airborne for generation of digital elevation models DEM, geologic, geomorphologic, pedological maps and land surveys. The integration of these different levels of information, also with the digital 3D photo interpretation with the geomorphologic contacts, beyond maps of declivity generated from xyz data, resulted in geotechnical maps, scale 1:10.000, with the order of 750 meters borders for each side of the pipeline direction. (author)

  4. Recent Advances in Tsunami-Seabed-Structure Interaction from Geotechnical and Hydrodynamic Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassa, S.

    2017-12-01

    This presentation shows some recent research advances on tsunami-seabed-structure interaction following the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake Tsunami, Japan. It presents a concise summary and discussion of utilizing a geotechnical centrifuge and a large-scale hydro flume for the modelling of tsunami-seabed-structure interaction. I highlight here the role of tsunami-induced seepage in piping/boiling, erosion and bearing capacity decrease and failure of the rubble/seabed foundation. A comparison and discussion are made on the stability assessment for the design of tsunami-resistant structures on the basis of the results from both geo-centrifuge and large-scale hydrodynamic experiments. The concurrent processes of the instability involving the scour of the mound/sandy seabed, bearing capacity failure and flow of the foundation and the failure of caisson breakwaters under tsunami overflow and seepage coupling are made clear in this presentation. Three series of experiments were conducted under fifty gravities. The first series of experiments targeted the instability of the mounds themselves, and the second series of experiments clarified how the mound scour would affect the overall stability of the caissons. The third series of experiments examined the effect of a countermeasure on the basis of the results from the two series of experiments. The experimental results first demonstrated that the coupled overflow-seepage actions promoted the development of the mound scour significantly, and caused bearing capacity failure of the mound, resulting in the total failure of the caisson breakwater, which otherwise remained stable without the coupling effect. The velocity vectors obtained from the high-resolution image analysis illustrated the series of such concurrent scour/bearing-capacity-failure/flow processes leading to the instability of the breakwater. The stability of the breakwaters was significantly improved with decreasing hydraulic gradient underneath the caissons due to an

  5. Geologic and geotechnical investigation of the Windsor Park subdivision North Las Vegas, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linnert, L.M.; Werle, J.L.; Stilley, A.N.; Olsen, B.L.

    1994-01-01

    The Windsor Park subdivision in North Las Vegas, Nevada has received widespread attention for damage to the homes and infrastructure from fissures, land subsidence and adverse soil conditions. Between March and July, 1992, Converse Consultants Southwest, Inc. conducted a geologic and geotechnical investigation for the Windsor Park Revitalization Project. The purpose of the work was to investigate the probable factors contributing to the reported damage and distress in the area, evaluate the potential for future damage, and assess the feasibility of possible mitigation and repair. The site is constructed on the juncture of at least two subsidence-related fault scarps, and earth fissures have been extensively mapped in the Windsor Park and surrounding area. A total of twenty-one trenches and fifteen borings were located within the subdivision and around the perimeter to observe subsurface geologic features and to collect samples for laboratory testing. The primary causes of damage within the development were found to be (1) earth fissuring and (2) expansive clays. The risk of future damage to structures at the Windsor Park site was also evaluated. A high potential for fissuring was found at the site, and future structural distress in the area will likely be similar to past damage. Although engineering upgrades will reduce the risk posed by underlying expansive clays, they cannot totally eliminate the risk from fissuring. 10 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  6. Biogeomorphological implications of microscale interactions between sediment geotechnics and marine benthos: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, John M. H.; Meadows, Azra; Meadows, Peter S.

    2002-09-01

    At the foundations of biogeomorphological processes in the sea lie interactions between the activities of marine benthic animals and the geotechnical properties of their sedimentary environments. The potential significance of these interactions, which take place at a microscale level of millimetres to metres, for the large-scale geomorphology of the seabed has rarely been appreciated. In the context of this review, large-scale is defined as greater than 50 m to hundreds of kilometres. The present review addresses this link, drawing examples from a wide range of marine environments, including estuaries, the intertidal zone, continental shelves and slopes, and the deep sea. It firstly considers sediment stabilisation, slope failure, sediment mixing, biodeposition, sediment compaction, and hydrodynamic effects. This is followed by a consideration of two extremes of the ecological pyramid—the effects of marine meiofauna and marine vertebrates. The final section draws attention to the central role of faunal mucus and extracellular polymeric material (ECPM) in many of the microscale interactions that we describe. The implications of these microscale biological processes and features are discussed in terms of their influence on and control of the large-scale geomorphology of the seabed.

  7. Numerical Verification Of Geotechnical Structure In Unfavourable Geological Conditions – Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drusa Marián

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Numerical modelling represents a powerful tool not only for special geotechnical calculations in cases of complicated and difficult structure design or their foundation conditions, but also for regular tasks of structure foundation. Finite element method is the most utilized method of numerical modelling. This method was used for calculations of the retaining wall monitored during 5 years after construction. Retaining wall of the parking lot with the facing from gabion blocks was chosen for numerical model. Besides the unfavourable geological conditions, a soft nature of the facing was also a difficult part of the modelling. This paper presents the results of the modelling when exact geometry, material characteristics and construction stages were simulated. The results capture the trend of displacements even though the basic material models were utilized. The modelling proved the ability of the finite element method to model the retaining structure with sufficient accuracy as well as reasonable demand on quality and quantity of input data. This method can then be used as a regular design tool during project preparation.

  8. Assessment of geotechnical properties of uncemented/cemented clayey soil incorporated with waste crumb rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JITENDRA SINGH YADAV

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Discarded waste tires are becoming a serious threat to health, environment, and ecological systems worldwide if it is not disposed of properly. Every year 1000 million of waste tires are discarded. This number may grow up to 1200 million by the year 2030. On the other hand, construction of civil engineering structures such as buildings, dams, highways, etc. are at high risk of differential settlement, especially in the case of weak or soft clay, which is due to its low shear strength and high compressibility. The paper aims to assess geotechnical properties of uncemented/cemented clayey soil incorporated with waste crumb rubber. Compaction parameters, unconfined compressive strength, split tensile strength, toughness index, CBR values and swelling pressure of rubberized uncemented/cemented clayey soil (3%, and 6% cement and different percentage of crumb rubber have been obtained. After rigorous extensive study, it has been concluded that unconfined compressive strength and split tensile strength of rubberized cemented clayey soil decreases with the increase of the percentage of crumb rubber whereas the axial, and diametral strain are found to be increased with the addition of crumb rubber up to 5% after that it starts to decrease. The CBR values, swelling pressure, and toughness index of uncemented/cemented clayey soil was significantly affected by incorporation of crumb rubber. SEM studies have also been incorporated in this investigation.

  9. Use of recycled aggregates from construction and demolition waste in geotechnical applications: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Rafaela; Silva, Rui Vasco; Brito, Jorge de; Dhir, Ravindra

    2016-03-01

    The use of recycled aggregates (RA) in construction constitutes a significant step towards a more sustainable society and also creates a new market opportunity to be exploited. In recent years, several case-studies have emerged in which RA were used in Geotechnical applications, such as filling materials and in unbound pavement layers. This paper presents a review of the most important physical properties of different types of RA and their comparison with natural aggregates (NA), and how these properties affect their hydraulic and mechanical behaviour when compacted. Specifically, the effects of compaction on grading size distribution curves and density are analysed, as well as the consequences of particle crushing on the resilient modulus, CBR and permeability. The paper also contains an analysis of the influence of incorporating different RA types on the performance of unbound road pavement layers as compared with those built with NA by means of the International Roughness Index and deflection values. The results collected from the literature indicate that the performance of most RA is comparable to that of NA and can be used in unbound pavement layers or in other applications requiring compaction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Kalman Filters in Geotechnical Monitoring of Ground Subsidence Using Data from MEMS Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng; Azzam, Rafig; Fernández-Steeger, Tomás M

    2016-07-19

    The fast development of wireless sensor networks and MEMS make it possible to set up today real-time wireless geotechnical monitoring. To handle interferences and noises from the output data, Kalman filter can be selected as a method to achieve a more realistic estimate of the observations. In this paper, a one-day wireless measurement using accelerometers and inclinometers was deployed on top of a tunnel section under construction in order to monitor ground subsidence. The normal vectors of the sensors were firstly obtained with the help of rotation matrices, and then be projected to the plane of longitudinal section, by which the dip angles over time would be obtained via a trigonometric function. Finally, a centralized Kalman filter was applied to estimate the tilt angles of the sensor nodes based on the data from the embedded accelerometer and the inclinometer. Comparing the results from two sensor nodes deployed away and on the track respectively, the passing of the tunnel boring machine can be identified from unusual performances. Using this method, the ground settlement due to excavation can be measured and a real-time monitoring of ground subsidence can be realized.

  11. Geotechnical characterization of mined clay from Appalachian Ohio: challenges and implications for the clay mining industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Anthony R; Hettiarachchi, Hiroshan

    2011-07-01

    Clayey soil found in coal mines in Appalachian Ohio is often sold to landfills for constructing Recompacted Soil Liners (RSL) in landfills. Since clayey soils possess low hydraulic conductivity, the suitability of mined clay for RSL in Ohio is first assessed by determining its clay content. When soil samples are tested in a laboratory, the same engineering properties are typically expected for the soils originated from the same source, provided that the testing techniques applied are standard, but mined clay from Appalachian Ohio has shown drastic differences in particle size distribution depending on the sampling and/or laboratory processing methods. Sometimes more than a 10 percent decrease in the clay content is observed in the samples collected at the stockpiles, compared to those collected through reverse circulation drilling. This discrepancy poses a challenge to geotechnical engineers who work on the prequalification process of RSL material as it can result in misleading estimates of the hydraulic conductivity of the samples. This paper describes a laboratory investigation conducted on mined clay from Appalachian Ohio to determine how and why the standard sampling and/or processing methods can affect the grain-size distributions. The variation in the clay content was determined to be due to heavy concentrations of shale fragments in the clayey soils. It was also concluded that, in order to obtain reliable grain size distributions from the samples collected at a stockpile of mined clay, the material needs to be processed using a soil grinder. Otherwise, the samples should be collected through drilling.

  12. Geotechnical maps for recommendation on bored pile capacity in Nakhon Ratchasima municipality, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suksun Horpibulsuk

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of geotechnical maps in Nakhon Ratchasima municipality, Nakhon Ratchasima province, Thailand based on the boring logs and in situ test results collected from public and private sector sources. The standard penetration number, N was used to identify the soil type. The soil deposits in Nakhon Ratchasima municipality are divided into three layers: medium-to-stiff silty clay with N 50. The medium-to-stiff silty clay layer has a thickness varying from 1.8 to 7.5 metres and an average N value of 14 with a relatively low standard deviation of 1.08. The first hard silty clay layer has a thickness varying from 1.2 to 3.0 metres and an average N value of 42 with a standard deviation of 1.37. For a practical application in foundation engineering in which the pile tips of the bored piles are located in the second hard stratum with N > 50, eight pile tip zones with approximated load capacity are recommended for pile lengths of 3-10 metres.

  13. Interrelationships among geotechnical and leaching properties of a cement-stabilized contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogbara, Reginald B

    2017-01-28

    Relationships among selected performance properties have been established using experimental data from a cement-stabilized mixed contaminated soil. The sandy soil was spiked with 3,000 mg/kg each of Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn, and 10,000 mg/kg of diesel. It was then treated with 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% dosages of Portland cement. Different water contents were considered for lower dosage mixes. Selected geotechnical and leaching properties were determined on 28-day old samples. These include unconfined compressive strength (UCS), bulk density, porosity, hydraulic conductivity, leachate pH and granular leachability of contaminants. Interrelationships among these properties were deduced using the most reasonable best fits determined by specialized curve fitting software. Strong quadratic and log-linear relationships exist between hydraulic conductivity and UCS, with increasing binder and water contents, respectively. However, the strength of interrelationships between hydraulic conductivity and porosity, UCS and porosity, and UCS and bulk density varies with binder and water contents. Leachate pH and granular leachability of contaminants are best related to UCS and hydraulic conductivity by a power law and an exponential function, respectively. These results suggest how the accuracy of not-easily-measurable performance properties may be constrained from simpler ones. Comparisons with some published performance properties data support this.

  14. GEOTECHNICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF LATERITIC SOIL STABILIZED WITH SAWDUST ASH-LIME MIXTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emeka Segun Nnochiri

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses the geotechnical characteristics of lateritic soil and sawdust ash lime (SDAL mixtures. Preliminary tests were carried out on the natural soil sample for identification and classification purposes. The sawdust was mixed with lime for stabilization in the ratio 2:1. This mixture was thereafter added to the lateritic soil in varying proportions of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10% by weight of soil. Addition of SDAL increased values of Optimum Moisture Content (OMC from 17.0% at 0% SDAL to 26.5% at 10% SDAL by weight of soil, also, values of Maximum Dry Density (MDD decreased from 2040 kg/m3 at 0% SDAL to 1415 kg/m3 at 10% SDAL. Values of Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS increased from 38.58 kN/m2 at 0% SDAL to highest value of 129.63 kN/m2 at 6% SDAL. The values of liquid limits and plasticity index of the soil were effectively reduced with the addition of the SDAL, from 54.0% at 0% SDAL to 49.0% at 10% SDAL and from 13.7% at 0% SDAL to 12.5% at 10% SDAL respectively. It was therefore concluded that the sawdust ash lime (SDAL mixture can serve as a cheap soil stabilizing agent for poor lateritic soil.

  15. Geomembranes with incorporated optical fiber sensors for geotechnical and environmental applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borns, D.J.

    1997-01-01

    This research covers the development of optical-fiber sensors and the methods to incorporate the sensors within geomembranes during manufacture. Such systems are being developed to monitor the effects of strain on geomembranes including the location of tears. Other possible measurements utilize moisture and fluid-level sensors. Since the use of geomembranes in geotechnical and environmental applications is widespread and monitoring systems are generally lacking, the potential for this technology is significant. For example, a geomembrane-and-sensor system addresses the need to monitor landfill stabilization in general and specifically the behavior of geomembranes used in liner and cover designs. We have demonstrated that glass and plastic fibers can be attached to a geomembrane (1) during extrusion and lamination and (2) by hot shoe welding, glued tape runners, and welded runners. Using these methods, we have manufactured 30 m lengths of geomembrane with continuous optical Fiber across the length. Our preliminary focus has been on strain sensors to monitor landfill subsidence. We have utilized existing and newly developed strain sensors, e.g., microbend, Bragg grating, and adsorption band sensors. These sensors have been installed as arrays into several test membranes at a manufacturing scale (e.g., 3 to 4 m wide). The prototype monitoring systems were installed in laboratory test frames, and the sensors measured the strains across the membranes as they were loaded. We plan to scale these experiments up to the size of landfill cover system using a test cell under construction

  16. Geotechnical aspects in the epicentral region of the 2011, Mw5.8 Mineral, Virginia earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Russell A.; Lasley, Samuel; Carter, Mark W.; Munsey, Jeffrey W.; Maurer, Brett W.; Tuttle, Martitia P.

    2015-01-01

    A reconnaissance team documented the geotechnical and geological aspects in the epicentral region of the Mw (moment magnitude) 5.8 Mineral, Virginia (USA), earthquake of 23 August 2011. Tectonically and seismically induced ground deformations, evidence of liquefaction, rock slides, river bank slumps, ground subsidence, performance of earthen dams, damage to public infrastructure and lifelines, and other effects of the earthquake were documented. This moderate earthquake provided the rare opportunity to collect data to help assess current geoengineering practices in the region, as well as to assess seismic performance of the aging infrastructure in the region. Ground failures included two marginal liquefaction sites, a river bank slump, four minor rockfalls, and a ~4-m-wide, ~12-m-long, ~0.3-m-deep subsidence on a residential property. Damage to lifelines included subsidence of the approaches for a bridge and a water main break to a heavily corroded, 5-cm-diameter valve in Mineral, Virginia. Observed damage to dams, landfills, and public-use properties included a small, shallow slide in the temporary (“working”) clay cap of the county landfill, damage to two earthen dams (one in the epicentral region and one further away near Bedford, Virginia), and substantial structural damage to two public school buildings.

  17. Geotechnical aspects for the optimization of dump design at Chinh Bac Mine waste dump in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchsschwanz, M.; Ziegler, M. [Aachen Univ., Aachen (Germany). Dept. of Geotechnical Engineering; Ahmad, S.; Fernandez, J.B.P.; Martens, P.N. [Aachen Univ., Aachen (Germany). Inst. of Mining Engineering; Deissmann, G. [Brenk Systemplanung GmbH, Aachen (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Vietnam's Quang Ninh province is one of the country's most important coal producing regions. Several open pit mines are being operated in the area by Nui Beo Coal Company (NBCC). The construction of large waste dumps for overburden removed by blasting have led to environmental problems at the mining sites, including dust emissions from mining and dumping operations; ground and surface water contamination by acid mine drainage; and slope stability problems caused by heavy rainfall and dump movements. This paper discussed investigations regarding the influence of the dump layout on slope stability and erosion. The paper described the project site and ongoing activities for the development of optimized stabilization and rehabilitation concepts with a particular focus on geotechnical aspects. The site was described in terms of coal and waste rock production; Chinh Bac waste rock dump; crack mapping; material properties of dumped material; density; and settlements. Ongoing activities focus on the effect of benches on slope stability; influence of benches on erosion; and layered dumping. 7 refs., 4 figs.

  18. Geotechnical properties of peat soil stabilised with shredded waste tyre chips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Rahgozar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available To accommodate major civil engineering projects in or in the vicinity of peatlands, it is essential to stabilise peat deposits. On the other hand, the accumulation of waste tyres in recent decades has caused environmental problems around the world. An effective remedy for both issues is to use scrap tyre material to stabilise problematic peat soils. This article reports an experimental investigation of the effects of adding shredded tyre chips on the stability and bearing capacity of peat soil. Peat soil samples from the Chaghakhor Wetland (Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari Province, Iran were mixed with sand at a constant dosage of 400 kg m-3 and different percentages (0 %, 5 %, 10 %, 15 % and 20 % by weight of shredded tyre chips. The unconfined compressive strength, effective cohesion, angle of internal friction and coefficient of permeability were measured for all of these mixtures. The results showed that adding shredded tyre chips significantly improved the geotechnical properties of the peat soil. The mixture with 10 % shredded tyre chips showed the highest unconfined compressive strength; the one with 15 % tyre chips exhibited the highest ductility; and adding 20 % shredded tyre chips provided the highest values for angle of internal friction, effective cohesion and coefficient of permeability. Scanning Electron Micrographs (SEM showed that the pore spaces in the stabilised peat were mostly filled with sand.

  19. Kalman Filters in Geotechnical Monitoring of Ground Subsidence Using Data from MEMS Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng; Azzam, Rafig; Fernández-Steeger, Tomás M.

    2016-01-01

    The fast development of wireless sensor networks and MEMS make it possible to set up today real-time wireless geotechnical monitoring. To handle interferences and noises from the output data, Kalman filter can be selected as a method to achieve a more realistic estimate of the observations. In this paper, a one-day wireless measurement using accelerometers and inclinometers was deployed on top of a tunnel section under construction in order to monitor ground subsidence. The normal vectors of the sensors were firstly obtained with the help of rotation matrices, and then be projected to the plane of longitudinal section, by which the dip angles over time would be obtained via a trigonometric function. Finally, a centralized Kalman filter was applied to estimate the tilt angles of the sensor nodes based on the data from the embedded accelerometer and the inclinometer. Comparing the results from two sensor nodes deployed away and on the track respectively, the passing of the tunnel boring machine can be identified from unusual performances. Using this method, the ground settlement due to excavation can be measured and a real-time monitoring of ground subsidence can be realized. PMID:27447630

  20. Microtremor Study of Site Effect for Disaster Mitigation and Geotechnical Purpose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aswad, Sabrianto; Altin Massinai, Muh.; Syamsuddin

    2018-03-01

    Makassar city have relatively lower earthquake vulnerability compared to other regions in Indonesia, however detailed mapping related to seismic wave amplification needs to be done in the interest of geotechnical, regional planning and disaster mitigation. It is generally known that the magnitude of the damage during the occurrence of earthquakes or tremor occur periodically is influenced by the dynamic characteristics of the building as a function of seismic wave amplification. The degree of seismic wave amplification depends on several factors, including the thickness of the sediment layer, the level of compaction and the geological age factor. The purpose of this research is to investigate seismic vulnerability in Makassar by using spectral comparison through microtremor measurement. There are several of the approaches that can be done and microtremor is the easiest and cheapest method to understand these dynamic characteristics without causing damage effects. Spectra comparison technique used was popular by Nakamura, which is comparison technique of horizontal component noise spectra and the vertical component in sediment areas (H/V spectra). Results from seismic vulnerability index (SVI) distribution maps show values ranging from 0, 14 - 158, 31. In general, the eastern part of the city of Makassar near from coastal areas is more vulnerable to damage especially earthquakes or periodic earth tremor with certain dominant frequency compared with the western part of Makassar City.

  1. Earth as Building Material – an overview of RILEM activities and recent Innovations in Geotechnics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyncke Johan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of the different earth building techniques, the latest innovations and the normative aspects. The oldest man made earth constructions known to exist date back to 10 000 BC. Since then, earth has remained a popular building material throughout history. With time, different techniques evolved, starting from sundried adobe blocks to cob constructions, rammed earth walls and compressed earth bricks. Today these techniques are still being optimized and alternative binders, specifically adapted admixtures and surface treatments are being developed. Even though nearly one third of the world’s population lives in an earth construction, few specific building standards and testing methods exist. Many of the tests used today are based on tests for concrete and thus do not take into account the complex nature of earth constructions, such as their sensitivity to water. RILEM, the union of Laboratories and Experts in Construction Materials, Systems and Structures, set up a new Technical Committee in 2016: TC TCE (Testing and Characterisation of Earth-based building materials and elements. This committee, consisting of an international group of experts on the topic, aim to define testing procedures for earth as a building construction material. To end with, this paper also gives a short introduction to “Deep soil mixing”, an “earth” building technique dedicated to geotechnical engineering.

  2. Geographically distributed hybrid testing & collaboration between geotechnical centrifuge and structures laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojaghi, Mobin; Martínez, Ignacio Lamata; Dietz, Matt S.; Williams, Martin S.; Blakeborough, Anthony; Crewe, Adam J.; Taylor, Colin A.; Madabhushi, S. P. Gopal; Haigh, Stuart K.

    2018-01-01

    Distributed Hybrid Testing (DHT) is an experimental technique designed to capitalise on advances in modern networking infrastructure to overcome traditional laboratory capacity limitations. By coupling the heterogeneous test apparatus and computational resources of geographically distributed laboratories, DHT provides the means to take on complex, multi-disciplinary challenges with new forms of communication and collaboration. To introduce the opportunity and practicability afforded by DHT, here an exemplar multi-site test is addressed in which a dedicated fibre network and suite of custom software is used to connect the geotechnical centrifuge at the University of Cambridge with a variety of structural dynamics loading apparatus at the University of Oxford and the University of Bristol. While centrifuge time-scaling prevents real-time rates of loading in this test, such experiments may be used to gain valuable insights into physical phenomena, test procedure and accuracy. These and other related experiments have led to the development of the real-time DHT technique and the creation of a flexible framework that aims to facilitate future distributed tests within the UK and beyond. As a further example, a real-time DHT experiment between structural labs using this framework for testing across the Internet is also presented.

  3. Deriner hydropower scheme : geotechnical issues and the particular case of the spillway tunnels design and construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cekerevac, C.; Wohnlich, A. [STUCKY SA, Remens (Switzerland)

    2009-07-01

    Geotechnical issues related to the construction of the Deriner dam and overflow spillways in Turkey were discussed in this paper. As the first phase in the Coruh River development plan, the dam will be one of the highest dams in the world with an annual production of 2300 GWh of electrical energy. Excavations for the dam were conducted in a highly fractured and weathered rock mass. Finite element analyses and structural discontinuity analyses were conducted to ensure the dam's future reliability. The rock mass was comprised of granodiorite intruded by diabase dykes. The upper layer of the rock was decompressed and heavily jointed. Unconfined compression tests were conducted to determine the strength of the intact rocks. Triaxial tests were conducted on rock cores in order to determine Mohr-Coulomb shear strength peak parameters. A joint survey was conducted to determine rock mechanical and joint shear strength properties. Two gated spillway tunnels were designed to evacuate floodwater, and static and dynamic in situ tests were conducted to estimate the deformability of the rock mass. The surrounding dam excavation was simulated using the finite element method. Standard rock mass classifications and rock wedge stability analyses were used to design tunnel supports. The design was successfully applied to the spillway excavation area. 10 refs., 5 tabs., 9 figs.

  4. Geotechnical support and topical studies for nuclear waste geologic repositories: Annual report, fiscal year 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This multidisciplinary project was initiated in fiscal year 1986. It comprises 11 reports in two major interrelated tasks: The technical assistance part of the project includes reviewing the progress of the major projects in the DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive waste Management (OCRWM) Program and advising the Engineering and Geotechnology Division on significant technical issues facing each project; analyzing geotechnical data, reports, tests, surveys and plans for the different projects; reviewing and commenting on major technical reports and other program documents such as Site Characterization Plans (SCP) and Study Plans; and providing scientific and technical input at technical meetings. The topical studies activity comprises studies on scientific and technical ions and issues of significance to in-situ testing, test analysis methods, and site characterization of nuclear waste geologic repositories. The subjects of study were selected based on discussions with DOE staff. One minor topic is a preliminary consideration and planning exercise for postclosure monitoring studies. The major task, with subtasks involving various geoscience disciplines, is a study of the mechanical, hydraulic, geophysical and geochemical properties of fractures in geologic rock masses

  5. “Wave - Particle Duality” and Soil Liquefaction in Geotechnical Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Demin

    2017-10-01

    In the disaster situation of multi-earthquake, with the phenomenon of vibrating phenomenon and the occurrence of cracks in the surface soil, the collapse of the buildings on the ground are caused. The author tries to explain the phenomenon of earthquake disaster in this geotechnical engineering by using the wave-particle duality theory of sunlight. And proposed the sun in the physics of the already high frequency of the weak light superimposed into the low frequency of the low light wave volatility, once again superimposed, superimposed as a lower frequency of linear light, the energy from low to high. Sunlight from weak light into a strong sunlight, that is, the sun near the observation may be weak light or black sunspots is composed of black holes. By long distance, the convergence of light becomes into a dazzling luminous body. Light from the numerous light quantum and an energy line form a half-space infinite volatility curve, and the role of light plays under the linear form of particles. When the night is manifested of l black approaching unconnected light quantum. The author plays the earth as the sun, compared to the deep pressure of low-viscosity clay soil pore, water performance is complex. Similar to the surface of the sun’s spectrum, saturated silty sand is showed volatility, Ground surface high-energy clay showed particle properties. Particle performance is shear strength.

  6. Geotechnical response of pipelines shallowly embedded in clayey and sandy soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Jose Renato M.S. [Military Institute of Engineering (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Borges, Ricardo G. [Centro de Pesquisa Leopoldo A. Miguez de Melo (CENPES/PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Feitoza, Jaquelline; Almeida, Maria C.F.; Almeida, Marcio S.S. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia

    2009-07-01

    Offshore and onshore pipelines used for oil and gas transportation are often buried to avoid eventual damages and also to provide movement constraint. The soil cover supply resistance against upward and lateral displacements of the pipe caused by thermally-induced axial loading, which can lead to structural buckling. The clear understanding of this behavior is critical for the development of new analysis tools and new design criteria which could minimize future accidents. In this way, research on pipe-soil interaction behavior has been undertaken using both clayey and sandy soils through physical and numerical simulations. This paper is part of a research effort to provide a pipe-soil interaction guideline suitable for application in pipeline design along the Brazilian coast. This work presents a comprehensive set of lateral buckling simulation tests using the COPPE-UFRJ geotechnical centrifuge. The chosen soils are typical of the Brazilian coast and therefore very representative of tropical regions. Physical and numerical results are compared and other research works are considered in order to assess the overall uplift resistance. In flight T-bar and cone penetration tests were undertaken to provide a soil resistance profile which was used to trace dimensionless curves that could be adopted in similar design situations. (author)

  7. Geotechnical characterization for the Main Drift of the Exploratory Studies Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kicker, D.C.; Martin, E.R.; Brechtel, C.E.; Stone, C.A.; Kessel, D.S.

    1997-07-01

    Geotechnical characterization of the Main Drift of the Exploratory Studies Facility was based on borehole data collected in site characterization drilling and on scanline rock mass quality data collected during the excavation of the North Ramp. The Main Drift is the planned 3,131-m near-horizontal tunnel to be excavated at the potential repository horizon for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. Main Drift borehole data consisted of three holes--USW SD-7, SD-9, and SD-12--drilled along the tunnel alignment. In addition, boreholes USW UZ-14, NRG-6, and NRG-7/7A were used to supplement the database on subsurface rock conditions. Specific data summarized and presented included lithologic and rock structure core logs, rock mechanics laboratory testing, and rock mass quality indices. Cross sections with stratigraphic and thermal-mechanical units were also presented. Topics discussed in the report include geologic setting, geologic features of engineering and construction significance, anticipated ground conditions, and the range of required ground support. Rock structural and rock mass quality data have been developed for each 3-m interval of core in the middle nonlithophysal stratigraphic zone of the Topopah Spring Tuff Formation. The distribution of the rock mass quality data in all boreholes used to characterize the Main Drift was assumed to be representative of the variability of the rock mass conditions to be encountered in the Main Drift. Observations in the North Ramp tunnel have been used to project conditions in the lower lithophysal zone and in fault zones

  8. Geotechnical characterization for the Main Drift of the Exploratory Studies Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kicker, D.C.; Martin, E.R.; Brechtel, C.E.; Stone, C.A. [Agapito Associates, Inc., Las Vegas, NV (United States); Kessel, D.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Yucca Mountain Project Management

    1997-07-01

    Geotechnical characterization of the Main Drift of the Exploratory Studies Facility was based on borehole data collected in site characterization drilling and on scanline rock mass quality data collected during the excavation of the North Ramp. The Main Drift is the planned 3,131-m near-horizontal tunnel to be excavated at the potential repository horizon for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. Main Drift borehole data consisted of three holes--USW SD-7, SD-9, and SD-12--drilled along the tunnel alignment. In addition, boreholes USW UZ-14, NRG-6, and NRG-7/7A were used to supplement the database on subsurface rock conditions. Specific data summarized and presented included lithologic and rock structure core logs, rock mechanics laboratory testing, and rock mass quality indices. Cross sections with stratigraphic and thermal-mechanical units were also presented. Topics discussed in the report include geologic setting, geologic features of engineering and construction significance, anticipated ground conditions, and the range of required ground support. Rock structural and rock mass quality data have been developed for each 3-m interval of core in the middle nonlithophysal stratigraphic zone of the Topopah Spring Tuff Formation. The distribution of the rock mass quality data in all boreholes used to characterize the Main Drift was assumed to be representative of the variability of the rock mass conditions to be encountered in the Main Drift. Observations in the North Ramp tunnel have been used to project conditions in the lower lithophysal zone and in fault zones.

  9. Theoretical and Experimental Analysis of Adsorption in Surface-based Biosensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rasmus

    The present Ph.D. dissertation concerns the application of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy, which is a surface-based biosensor technology, for studies of adsorption dynamics. The thesis contains both experimental and theoretical work. In the theoretical part we develop the theory...... for convection, diffusion, and adsorption in surface-based biosensors in general. In particular, we study the transport dynamics in a model geometry of a Biacore SPR sensor. An approximate quasi-steady theory, which has been widely adopted in the SPR literature to capture convective and diffusive mass transport...... is critical for reliable use of the quasi-steady theory. Our theoretical results provide users of surface-based biosensors with a tool of correcting experimentally obtained adsorption rate constants, based on the quasisteady theory. Finally, the consequence of adsorption on all surfaces present in the flow...

  10. Report of the geotechnical panel on the effective life of rooms in Panel 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    An evaluation of the effective life of underground rooms in Panel I of the waste storage area of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) was performed during April 1991 by a panel of geotechnical experts. The evaluation addressed concerns regarding WIPP's ability to complete a test program proposed for Panel 1. This program currently requires bins containing controlled quantities of contact-handled (CH) transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste to be placed in rooms in the panel. The bins will be monitored to obtain data on the potential generation of gases from the degradation of wastes emplaced in the WIPP underground facility. The purpose of the evaluation was (1) to provide an estimate of the life expectancy of the rooms in Panel 1; and (2) if necessary, to recommend additional remedial actions that would improve the longevity of Panel 1 rooms to allow the testing to be successfully completed. Panel 1, the first panel to be mined in the waste storage area, was developed to receive waste for a demonstration phase that was scheduled to start in October 1988. Mining of the panel began during the second half of 1986 and was completed to final dimensions in June 1988. The original plan was to store drums of CH TRU waste in rooms for a period of 5 years. The demonstration phase was changed to an experimental program that will use CH TRU waste in bin scale tests which will be located in Panel 1. For the purposes of this report, a nine-year test period beginning July, 1991, was assumed to be necessary to complete these bin scale tests

  11. Geotechnical properties of fresh municipal solid waste at Orchard Hills Landfill, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Krishna R; Hettiarachchi, Hiroshan; Parakalla, Naveen S; Gangathulasi, Janardhanan; Bogner, Jean E

    2009-02-01

    This paper presents the results of a laboratory investigation to determine the geotechnical properties of fresh municipal solid waste (MSW) collected from the working phase of Orchard Hills Landfill located in Davis Junction (Illinois, USA). Laboratory testing was conducted on shredded MSW to determine the compaction, hydraulic conductivity, compressibility, and shear strength properties at in-situ gravimetric moisture content of 44%. In addition, the effect of increased moisture content during leachate recirculation on compressibility and shear strength of MSW was also investigated by testing samples with variable gravimetric moisture contents ranging from 44% to 100%. Based on Standard Proctor tests, a maximum dry density of 420 kg/m(3) was observed at 70% optimum moisture content. The hydraulic conductivity varied in a wide range of 10(-8)-10(-4)m/s and decreased with increase in dry density. Compression ratio values varied in a close range of 0.24-0.33 with no specific trend with the increase in moisture content. Based on direct shear tests, drained cohesion varied from 31 to 64 kPa and the drained friction angle ranged from 26 to 30 degrees. Neither cohesion nor friction angle demonstrated any correlation with the moisture content, within the range of moisture contents tested. The consolidated undrained triaxial shear tests on saturated MSW showed the total strength parameters (c and phi) to be 32 kPa and 12 degrees, and the effective strength parameters (c' and phi') to be 38 kPa and 16 degrees. The angle of friction (phi) decreased and cohesion (c) value increased with the increase in strain. The effective cohesion (c') increased with increase in strain; however, the effective angle of friction (phi') decreased first and then increased with the increase in strain. Such strain-dependent shear strength properties should be properly accounted in the stability analysis of bioreactor landfills.

  12. Geotechnical considerations for concurrent pillar recovery in close-distance multiple seams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peter; Tulu, Berk; Sears, Morgan; Trackemas, Jack

    2018-01-01

    Room-and-pillar mining with pillar recovery has historically been associated with more than 25% of all ground fall fatalities in underground coal mines in the United States. The risk of ground falls during pillar recovery increases in multiple-seam mining conditions. The hazards associated with pillar recovery in multiple-seam mining include roof cutters, roof falls, rib rolls, coal outbursts, and floor heave. When pillar recovery is planned in multiple seams, it is critical to properly design the mining sequence and panel layout to minimize potential seam interaction. This paper addresses geotechnical considerations for concurrent pillar recovery in two coal seams with 21 m of interburden under about 305 m of depth of cover. The study finds that, for interburden thickness of 21 m, the multiple-seam mining influence zone in the lower seam is directly under the barrier pillar within about 30 m from the gob edge of the upper seam. The peak stress in the interburden transfers down at an angle of approximately 20°away from the gob, and the entries and crosscuts in the influence zone are subjected to elevated stress during development and retreat. The study also suggests that, for full pillar recovery in close-distance multiple-seam scenarios, it is optimal to superimpose the gobs in both seams, but it is not necessary to superimpose the pillars. If the entries and/or crosscuts in the lower seam are developed outside the gob line of the upper seam, additional roof and rib support needs to be considered to account for the elevated stress in the multiple-seam influence zone.

  13. Fabric and Geotechnical behavior of the volcanic clays of Xalapa, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenz, O.

    2009-01-01

    The City of Xalapa is nailed in the Eastern part of the Axis Mexican Neovolcanico and is laid the foundations, in its majority, clays of volcanic origin of the Quaternary. These ashes have a peculiar behavior when the micro climate around them varies, as shown in previous slides of the slope and embankments. On the other hand, these clays problems for their identification, as these soils are rich in halloysite and to a lesser extent by allophones. To understand the microstructure in natural state of the clay one studies the characteristics physical-chemistries of his components by the method of ionic chromatography and the chemical isolated particle composition is analysed with an transmission electron microscope (TEM) with a connected detector of dispersion of X-ray energy. On the other hand, the mineralogical composition is obtained from X-ray diffractometer of dust in argillaceous fraction. The morphology of particles is identified by means of the TEM. Limits liquid associated with the specific surface of particles, this last one determined by adsorption of N 2 . The fabric of the clay in natural and artificial state (with different methods from compaction) in the scanning electron microscope (SEM) is compared. In accordance with the above-mentioned, it is studied the levels of the fabric, the morphology of the pores and the type of connections of the particles. In order to verify the hypothesis that the mechanical properties of the soil depend on the fabric of this artificial and natural samples prepared and geotechnical behavior is characterized to observe its answer and to compare it. Also it is observed as it influences the fabric in the deformation of this one under constant suction. The residual strength is investigated carefully and it is compared with that of the peak. (Author) 35 refs

  14. Geological And Geotechnical Investigations Of Axum Dam Site Tigray Northern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leulalem

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Geological and geotechnical study was conducted in concrete gravity dam which is planned to be constructed in the Maychew River 40 km south of Axum town for the purpose of water supply for the town. The objectives of this research were to map geology of the area to characterize geological defects within and around dam site to evaluate the water tightness of the dam site and to determine the bearing capacity of the dam foundation. The research involved review of different literatures lithological and structural mapping characterizing rock masses by using different rock mass classification methods interpretation of subsurface data geophysical core drilled data test pit data etc.. Results of the study indicate that the area is underlain by Quaternary sediments metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks. The Quaternary sediments are characterized by low permeability low plasticity and are poorly graded nature. Metasedimentary rocks are found covering the right abutment of the dam whereas at reservoir area it is found intercalating with metavolcanic rocks. These rocks are moderately jointed and sheared with faulting and folding noticed due to these they have a relatively high permeability. Metavolcanic rocks which are found covering the left abutment are strong less permeable and fractured. Most of discontinuities such as fractures bedding and foliation in the study area are oriented E-W NNW-SSE and NNE-SSW. The VES tomography and drilled core result revealed that the potential problems seepageleakage could occur due to presence of faults joints karstified black limestone lithological variations groundwater depth and topography at right abutment. Differential settlements may also occur because empirically estimated moduli of deformation Ed of rock masses indicate that for right abutment much less than left abutment and different geological defects across the dam axis. To minimize these problems contact grouting and consolidation grouting are recommended

  15. Delineating Bukit Bunuh impact crater boundary by geophysical and geotechnical investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azwin, I. N., E-mail: nurazwinismail@yahoo.com; Rosli, S.; Nordiana, M. M.; Ragu, R. R.; Mark, J. [Geophysics Section, School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang (Malaysia); Mokhtar, S. [Centre for Global Archaeological Research Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang (Malaysia)

    2015-03-30

    Evidences of crater morphology and shock metamorphism in Bukit Bunuh, Lenggong, Malaysia were found during the archaeological research conducted by the Centre for Global Archaeological Research Malaysia, Universiti Sains Malaysia. In order to register Bukit Bunuh as one of the world meteorite impact site, detailed studies are needed to verify the boundary of the crater accordingly. Geophysical study was conducted utilising the seismic refraction and 2-D electrical resistivity method. Seismic refraction survey was done using ABEM MK8 24 channel seismograph with 14Hz geophones and 40kg weight drop while 2-D electrical resistivity survey was performed using ABEM SAS4000 Terrameter and ES10-64C electrode selector with pole-dipole array. Bedrock depths were digitized from the sections obtained. The produced bedrock topography map shows that there is low bedrock level circulated by high elevated bedrock and interpreted as crater and rim respectively with diameter approximately 8km. There are also few spots of high elevated bedrock appear at the centre of the crater which interpreted as rebounds zone. Generally, the research area is divided into two layers where the first layer with velocity 400-1100 m/s and resistivity value of 10-800 Om predominantly consists of alluvium mix with gravel and boulders. Second layer represents granitic bedrock with depth of 5-50m having velocity >2100 m/s and resistivity value of >1500 Om. This research is strengthen by good correlation between geophysical data and geotechnical borehole records executed inside and outside of the crater, on the rim, as well as at the rebound area.

  16. Seismic Microzonation Based on Geotechnical Parameters - Estimation of Site Effects in Bucharest (Romania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehret, D.; Hannich, D.

    2004-12-01

    Romania frequently is hit by strong intermediate depth earthquakes occurring in the Vrancea area in the SE Carpathians. During the 20th century four major earthquakes (moment magnitudes between MW = 6.9 and MW = 7.7) occurred in this region which strongly affected the Romanian capital Bucharest (1.9 mio. inhabitants). Due to the large hypocentral distance between the Vrancea area and Bucharest (approx. 160 km) influences of source directivity and travel path effects are assumed to be constant in the entire city. Therefore significant lateral variations in ground motion must be caused by site effects, related to near-surface geology, mainly dominated by large alluvial and diluvial deposits and anthropogenic backfill. The objective of this study, which is part of the German Collaborative Research Center (CRC) 461 `Strong Earthquakes: A Challenge for Geosciences and Civil Engineering', is to quantify the local influence of site effects on earthquake triggered ground motion and to generate a microzonation map of Bucharest. At first a numerical modelling of ground response was performed by using one-dimensional linear-elastic approaches and geotechnical data, derived from the digital geological subsurface model. The analysis of ground motion was carried out at discrete points. For these raster dots the transfer functions were computed and parameterised by characteristic shake parameters (e. g. dominant frequencies, peak amplifications or spectral amplifications at characteristic frequencies). After spatial interpolation of the computed values these parameters could be presented in continuous microzonation maps. Further the surficial ground motion was computed using a novel (visco-) hypoplastic constitutive law that also takes non-linear soil behaviour into account. The results of both approaches were compared with each other and indicate, that the consideration of non-linear effects is required to get more realistic results for the microzonation.

  17. GEOTECHNICAL ASSESSMENT AND INSTRUMENTATION NEEDS FOR NUCLEAR WASTE ISOLATION IN CRYSTALLINE AND ARGILLACEOUS ROCKS SYMPOSIUM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Authors, Various

    1978-12-19

    Today there exists in the United States a large volume of nuclear wastes that result from both military and commercial activities. The United States has to date placed major emphasis on disposal in only one rock type--salt--whereas other nations have considered other rock types, such as granite in England and Sweden and clays in Belgium. No comprehensive evaluation of isolation in rocks other than salt has been made in the United States, and it is most appropriate that other rock types be evaluated both for constructing disposal sites in areas devoid of salt and also for having alternative waste management plans in case substantial problems are encountered in using salt as a disposal medium. To evaluate the state-of-the-art, research needs, and research priorities related to waste disposal in largely-impermeable rocks, scientists and engineers working on geologic aspects of nuclear waste disposal were brought together. The Geotechnical Assessment and Instrumentation Needs (GAIN) Symposium for Nuclear Waste Isolation in Crystalline and Argillaceous Rocks was held July 16-20, 1978 in Berkeley. This report and recommendations are the proceedings from that symposium. The location, design, and testing of a potential nuclear waste disposal site are both a geologic and an engineering problem. Disposal requires isolating the wastes from the surface and subsurface of the earth for a period of time of ten to hundreds of thousands of years. Engineers have never before been called upon to predict the behavior of structures or the flow of groundwater so far into the future.

  18. Geotechnical Characterization of Mined Clay from Appalachian Ohio: Challenges and Implications for the Clay Mining Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Anthony R.; Hettiarachchi, Hiroshan

    2011-01-01

    Clayey soil found in coal mines in Appalachian Ohio is often sold to landfills for constructing Recompacted Soil Liners (RSL) in landfills. Since clayey soils possess low hydraulic conductivity, the suitability of mined clay for RSL in Ohio is first assessed by determining its clay content. When soil samples are tested in a laboratory, the same engineering properties are typically expected for the soils originated from the same source, provided that the testing techniques applied are standard, but mined clay from Appalachian Ohio has shown drastic differences in particle size distribution depending on the sampling and/or laboratory processing methods. Sometimes more than a 10 percent decrease in the clay content is observed in the samples collected at the stockpiles, compared to those collected through reverse circulation drilling. This discrepancy poses a challenge to geotechnical engineers who work on the prequalification process of RSL material as it can result in misleading estimates of the hydraulic conductivity of the samples. This paper describes a laboratory investigation conducted on mined clay from Appalachian Ohio to determine how and why the standard sampling and/or processing methods can affect the grain-size distributions. The variation in the clay content was determined to be due to heavy concentrations of shale fragments in the clayey soils. It was also concluded that, in order to obtain reliable grain size distributions from the samples collected at a stockpile of mined clay, the material needs to be processed using a soil grinder. Otherwise, the samples should be collected through drilling. PMID:21845150

  19. Analyzing soil electrical and strength parameters using geophysical and geotechnical methods in Sungai Batu, Kedah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Nabila; Nordiana, M. M.; Azwin, I. N.; Saidin, Mokhtar

    2017-07-01

    Engineering structures require strong foundations to prevent hazards occur due to lack of understanding the subsurface soil. Geophysical and geotechnical surveys were conducted in Sungai Batu, Kedah to determine the effectiveness of correlating electrical parameters for vertical resolution and to evaluate soil strength by integrating Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) and Standard Penetration Test (SPT). Results from ERT and GPR showed heterogeneity in the subsurface stratigraphy from surface to 8.6 m depth. The inversion model showed two zones of saturated (150 Ωm). The integration of ERT, GPR and SPT is applied at the borehole position which is at distance of 9.5 m of the survey line. The resistivity values at distance of 9.5 m range from 7 - 30 Ωm due to soil formed by sedimentation originated from fluvial system (sandy clay and clay). Calculated electrical conductivity values from GPR radargram coincide and in range with values from ERT. At distance of 9.5 m, the electrical conductivity range from 32 - 148 mS/m. The N-value from SPT showed low value with range of 12 - 20. The correlation of electrical parameters from ERT and GPR showed good agreement which is effective for vertical resolution. Low resistivity (high conductivity), low N-value and heterogeneity of the soil denote unstable subsurface. Sandy clay/clay in Sungai Batu are detrimental for shallow foundation as the soil material is susceptible to subsidence and has irregular characteristics influenced by the weather. Hence, the soils up to 8 m depth were u nstable, weak and may cause harm to building structure.

  20. River embankment characterization: The joint use of geophysical and geotechnical techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perri, Maria Teresa; Boaga, Jacopo; Bersan, Silvia; Cassiani, Giorgio; Cola, Simonetta; Deiana, Rita; Simonini, Paolo; Patti, Salvatore

    2014-11-01

    Recent flood events in Northern Italy (particularly in the Veneto Region) have brought river embankments into the focus of public attention. Many of these embankments are more than 100 years old and have been repeatedly repaired, so that detailed information on their current structure is generally missing. The monitoring of these structures is currently based, for the most part, on visual inspection and localized measurements of the embankment material parameters. However, this monitoring is generally insufficient to ensure an adequate safety level against floods. For these reasons there is an increasing demand for fast and accurate investigation methods, such as geophysical techniques. These techniques can provide detailed information on the subsurface structures, are non-invasive, cost-effective, and faster than traditional methods. However, they need verification in order to provide reliable results, particularly in complex and reworked man-made structures such as embankments. In this paper we present a case study in which three different geophysical techniques have been applied: electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), frequency domain electromagnetic induction (FDEM) and Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR). Two test sites have been selected, both located in the Province of Venice (NE Italy) where the Tagliamento River has large embankments. The results obtained with these techniques have been calibrated against evidence resolving from geotechnical investigations. The pros and cons of each technique, as well as their relative merit at identifying the specific features of the embankments in this area, are highlighted. The results demonstrate that geophysical techniques can provide very valuable information for embankment characterization, provided that the data interpretation is constrained via direct evidence, albeit limited in space.

  1. Enhanced Bank-Stability Modeling With Coupled Geotechnical, Hydraulic and Near-Bank Groundwater Sub-Models: Development and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, R. E.; Simon, A.; Bankhead, N.

    2008-12-01

    Physically-based, deterministic bank-stability models have recently been developed to effectively simulate the driving and resisting forces governing streambank erosion. Significant advances have been made in the manner in which groundwater flow through variably saturated porous media, planar and circular geotechnical failures and fluvial sediment transport are simulated. However, to date, coupling these models has required tedious exporting and conversion of geometries and results and manual remeshing. In this presentation, we introduce the first fully integrated suite of models that deterministically simulate the controlling hydrologic, hydraulic and geotechnical processes that govern streambank erosion and channel-width adjustment. The model suite incorporates routines that: 1. Permit the user to enter between 5 and 23 points to describe the bank cross-sectional geometry; 2. Automatically generate a mesh by which to implicitly discretize the 2-D Richards equation utilizing finite volumes. The resulting pentadiagonal matrix is solved iteratively with Stone's Strongly Implicit Procedure (SIP). Timesteps are automatically adjusted to minimize mass balance and truncation errors; 3. Evaluate the force-equilibrium factor of safety (Fs), permitting the simulation of planar and cantilever shear failures with a horizontal slice method and planar shear failures with tension cracks with a rigorous vertical slice method. A random walk approach is adopted to search for the minimum Fs; 4. Estimate the increase in cohesion due to vegetation with a global load-sharing Fibre Bundle Model; and 5. Simulate the erosion of the bank face and bank toe with an excess shear stress approach. Management options to increase slope stability (through the addition of vegetation) and reduce channel- boundary erodibility (through the addition of natural and artificial structures) are also incorporated. We illustrate the efficacy of the modeling approach with a series of case studies in which

  2. Report on geotechnical tests with model structures Work Package - Deliverable number: WP 7.2 – D72.2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gintautas, Tomas; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2017-01-01

    This report aims to give a comprehensive summary of the geotechnical tests with model structures that have been performed in work package 7.2 task 7.2.2 within the IRPWIND project. The large-scale tests are intended to determine soil-structure interaction effects in order to support probabilistic...... calculations of the reliability of offshore wind turbine support structures. These calculations are mainly performed in work package 7.4 of the IRPWIND project. However, this report already includes the development of a probabilistic model for the axial bearing capacity / resistance that is obtained using...

  3. Investigation on the effect of geometrical and geotechnical parameters on elongated offshore piles using fuzzy inference systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminfar, Ali; Mojtahedi, Alireza; Ahmadi, Hamid; Aminfar, Mohammad Hossain

    2017-06-01

    Among numerous offshore structures used in oil extraction, jacket platforms are still the most favorable ones in shallow waters. In such structures, log piles are used to pin the substructure of the platform to the seabed. The pile's geometrical and geotechnical properties are considered as the main parameters in designing these structures. In this study, ANSYS was used as the FE modeling software to study the geometrical and geotechnical properties of the offshore piles and their effects on supporting jacket platforms. For this purpose, the FE analysis has been done to provide the preliminary data for the fuzzy-logic post-process. The resulting data were implemented to create Fuzzy Inference System (FIS) classifications. The resultant data of the sensitivity analysis suggested that the orientation degree is the main factor in the pile's geometrical behavior because piles which had the optimal operational degree of about 5° are more sustained. Finally, the results showed that the related fuzzified data supported the FE model and provided an insight for extended offshore pile designs.

  4. Geotechnical consulting at the stages of design and full repair: A case study of village school in Minusinsk region, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalimov, Oleg; Strelnikov, Dmitry

    2017-11-01

    The article provides an experimental material showing an investigation of soil under the foundations base of a dangerous block of the building. The investigation was carried out by applying load from a stamp on the soil with a jack supporting the foundation base of the deformed building. There were originally offered two options to strengthen the foundation - a broader base and improvement of the soil with the plate. However, quite a different option was accepted due to the full scale tests. The effective way to strengthen the foundation is measures undertaken without strengthening the soil and without increasing the width of the base, using the actual soil with deformations stabilized for years of operation. The strengthening of the bearing brick walls was made by tightening the main face laying with steel channel profiles to make a firm contact with the foundations. The conducted investigation is an example of geotechnical consulting and improvement of the geotechnical maintenance of dangerous structures at the stages of investigation, design and reconstruction.

  5. Pipeline integrity management: integration of geotechnical and mechanical assessment to control potential risks due to external forces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malpartida Moya, John E.; Sota, Giancarlo Massucco de la; Seri, Walter [Compania Operadora de Gas del Amazonas, Lima (Peru)

    2009-07-01

    Every pipeline integrity management system evaluates and controls various threats. On pipelines which have particular characteristics as it is the case of the Andean pipelines and pipelines crossing jungles, one of the main threats are the external forces. Even, this threat causes a greater number of failures than other threats like corrosion or the third part damage. Facing this situation, the pipeline integrity management system of TgP has achieved an important development in the use and suitable handling of the information provided by diverse techniques of pipeline mechanical inspection and geotechnical inspection of the right-of-way (ROW). This document presents our methodology, which interrelate information of the in-line inspection, information of geotechnical inspections of the ROW, instrumentation (Strain Gages), topographic monitoring, among others. All this information is supported in a Geographic Information System (GIS) which allows us to integrate the information. By means of the pipeline integrity management system we control potential risks due to external forces, we have been able to act before events become critical, with no occurrence of failures. This system allows us simultaneously to optimize efforts and preserve the mechanical integrity of our pipelines, not producing neither personal nor environmental nor economical affectation. (author)

  6. Combined analysis of 2-D electrical resistivity, seismic refraction and geotechnical investigations for Bukit Bunuh complex crater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azwin, I N; Saad, Rosli; Nordiana, M M; Bery, Andy Anderson; Hidayah, I N E; Saidin, Mokhtar

    2015-01-01

    Interest in studying impact crater on earth has increased tremendously due to its importance in geologic events, earth inhabitant history as well as economic value. The existences of few shock metamorphism and crater morphology evidences are discovered in Bukit Bunuh, Malaysia thus detailed studies are performed using geophysical and geotechnical methods to verify the type of the crater and characteristics accordingly. This paper presents the combined analysis of 2-D electrical resistivity, seismic refraction, geotechnical SPT N value, moisture content and RQD within the study area. Three stages of data acquisition are made starting with regional study followed by detailed study on West side and East side. Bulk resistivity and p-wave seismic velocity were digitized from 2-D resistivity and seismic sections at specific distance and depth for corresponding boreholes and samples taken. Generally, Bukit Bunuh shows the complex crater characteristics. Standard table of bulk resistivity and p-wave seismic velocity against SPT N value, moisture content and RQD are produce according to geological classifications of impact crater; inside crater, rim/slumped terrace and outside crater

  7. Combined analysis of 2-D electrical resistivity, seismic refraction and geotechnical investigations for Bukit Bunuh complex crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azwin, I. N.; Saad, Rosli; Saidin, Mokhtar; Nordiana, M. M.; Anderson Bery, Andy; Hidayah, I. N. E.

    2015-01-01

    Interest in studying impact crater on earth has increased tremendously due to its importance in geologic events, earth inhabitant history as well as economic value. The existences of few shock metamorphism and crater morphology evidences are discovered in Bukit Bunuh, Malaysia thus detailed studies are performed using geophysical and geotechnical methods to verify the type of the crater and characteristics accordingly. This paper presents the combined analysis of 2-D electrical resistivity, seismic refraction, geotechnical SPT N value, moisture content and RQD within the study area. Three stages of data acquisition are made starting with regional study followed by detailed study on West side and East side. Bulk resistivity and p-wave seismic velocity were digitized from 2-D resistivity and seismic sections at specific distance and depth for corresponding boreholes and samples taken. Generally, Bukit Bunuh shows the complex crater characteristics. Standard table of bulk resistivity and p-wave seismic velocity against SPT N value, moisture content and RQD are produce according to geological classifications of impact crater; inside crater, rim/slumped terrace and outside crater.

  8. Geotechnical applications of LiDAR pertaining to geomechanical evaluation and hazard identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lato, Matthew J.

    respect to numerous engineering projects that are affected by geomechanical stability issues. The ability to efficiently and accurately map discontinuities, detect changes, and standardize roadside geomechanical stability analyses from remote locations will fundamentally change the state-of-practice of geotechnical investigation workflows and repeatable monitoring. This, in turn, will lead to earlier detection and definition of potential zones of instability, will allow for progressive monitoring and risk analysis, and will indicate the need for pro-active slope improvement and stabilization.

  9. Preliminary Geotechnical Investigation of Two Basaltic Landslide Sites in Mauritius, Offshore Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhoopendra, D.; Fukuoka, H.; Kuwano, T.; Ichikawa, K.

    2016-12-01

    Landslide hazards in developing areas in Mauritius became a great challenge as well as a fundamental concern for the government and the citizen of the country. In recent years, landslide disasters have caused losses of both public and private properties. In 2005, a large-scale landslide at Chitrakoot affected 54 houses and infrastructures, and it was reactivated in 2006, damaging another 14 houses. Vallee Pitot landslide is frequently reactivated in these years and threatening several houses in the densely-populated zone. Being of volcanic origin, Mauritius has observed dramatic and quick weathering of the soil which may partly contribute to creating landslide-prone geo-environment. This study focuses on the preliminary geotechnical investigation of the two basaltic landslide areas in Mauritius. A recent investigation was conducted jointly by JICA (Japan International Cooperation Agency) and Ministry of Public Infrastructure and Land Transport of Government of Mauritius on both sites from 2012 to 2015 to survey the landslide surface and to implement countermeasures works.Both sites are located in the highly populated area in the capital city of Mauritius.The geological features of the sites were studied with the borehole core logging data obtained from 6 boreholes and it was found that possible sliding surface was observed in the colluvium layer consisting of gravels and stiff silty-clays, at depths from 6 to 10 m below the ground surface. The rate of landslide movement during heavy rainfall amount exceeding 100 mm/hr was elaborated with past records of extensometers installed on these sites. Colluvium samples from both sites of the same characteristics with the sliding surface were tested in the ring shear apparatus in Japan under different normal stresses reducing from 300 kPa to 50 kPa step-wise at a shear velocity of 0.02 mm/min under drained condition to obtain the residual friction angle (φ) and the cohesion (c). Obtained residual friction angle and cohesion

  10. Detection of epileptogenic cortical malformations with surface-based MRI morphometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Thesen

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging has revolutionized the detection of structural abnormalities in patients with epilepsy. However, many focal abnormalities remain undetected in routine visual inspection. Here we use an automated, surface-based method for quantifying morphometric features related to epileptogenic cortical malformations to detect abnormal cortical thickness and blurred gray-white matter boundaries. Using MRI morphometry at 3T with surface-based spherical averaging techniques that precisely align anatomical structures between individual brains, we compared single patients with known lesions to a large normal control group to detect clusters of abnormal cortical thickness, gray-white matter contrast, local gyrification, sulcal depth, jacobian distance and curvature. To assess the effects of threshold and smoothing on detection sensitivity and specificity, we systematically varied these parameters with different thresholds and smoothing levels. To test the effectiveness of the technique to detect lesions of epileptogenic character, we compared the detected structural abnormalities to expert-tracings, intracranial EEG, pathology and surgical outcome in a homogeneous patient sample. With optimal parameters and by combining thickness and GWC, the surface-based detection method identified 92% of cortical lesions (sensitivity with few false positives (96% specificity, successfully discriminating patients from controls 94% of the time. The detected structural abnormalities were related to the seizure onset zones, abnormal histology and positive outcome in all surgical patients. However, the method failed to adequately describe lesion extent in most cases. Automated surface-based MRI morphometry, if used with optimized parameters, may be a valuable additional clinical tool to improve the detection of subtle or previously occult malformations and therefore could improve identification of patients with intractable focal epilepsy who may benefit from

  11. Detection of epileptogenic cortical malformations with surface-based MRI morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thesen, Thomas; Quinn, Brian T; Carlson, Chad; Devinsky, Orrin; DuBois, Jonathan; McDonald, Carrie R; French, Jacqueline; Leventer, Richard; Felsovalyi, Olga; Wang, Xiuyuan; Halgren, Eric; Kuzniecky, Ruben

    2011-02-04

    Magnetic resonance imaging has revolutionized the detection of structural abnormalities in patients with epilepsy. However, many focal abnormalities remain undetected in routine visual inspection. Here we use an automated, surface-based method for quantifying morphometric features related to epileptogenic cortical malformations to detect abnormal cortical thickness and blurred gray-white matter boundaries. Using MRI morphometry at 3T with surface-based spherical averaging techniques that precisely align anatomical structures between individual brains, we compared single patients with known lesions to a large normal control group to detect clusters of abnormal cortical thickness, gray-white matter contrast, local gyrification, sulcal depth, jacobian distance and curvature. To assess the effects of threshold and smoothing on detection sensitivity and specificity, we systematically varied these parameters with different thresholds and smoothing levels. To test the effectiveness of the technique to detect lesions of epileptogenic character, we compared the detected structural abnormalities to expert-tracings, intracranial EEG, pathology and surgical outcome in a homogeneous patient sample. With optimal parameters and by combining thickness and GWC, the surface-based detection method identified 92% of cortical lesions (sensitivity) with few false positives (96% specificity), successfully discriminating patients from controls 94% of the time. The detected structural abnormalities were related to the seizure onset zones, abnormal histology and positive outcome in all surgical patients. However, the method failed to adequately describe lesion extent in most cases. Automated surface-based MRI morphometry, if used with optimized parameters, may be a valuable additional clinical tool to improve the detection of subtle or previously occult malformations and therefore could improve identification of patients with intractable focal epilepsy who may benefit from surgery.

  12. Direct heat applications of geothermal energy in The Geysers/Clear Lake region. Volume I. Geotechnical assessment, agribusiness applications, socioeconomic assessment, engineering assessment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-08-01

    The different uses to which geothermal heat and fluids could be applied as a direct utilization of resource or as heat utilization are explored. The following aspects are covered: geotechnical assessment, agricultural and industrial applications, socioeconomic assessment, and engineering assessment. (MHR)

  13. Geotechnical characterization through in situ and laboratory tests of several geological formations present in the route of the Future Fix Connection between Spain and Morocco through Gibraltar Strait

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perucho Martinez, A.; Diez Torres, J. A.; Muniz Menendez, M.; Cano Linares, H.; Ruiz Fonticiella, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    CEDEX and SECEGSA (Sociedad Española para la Comunicación Fija a través del Estrecho de Gibraltar), Have been collaborating since a few decades ago to study different technical aspects related to the Fix Connection through the Gibraltar Strait, mainly in relation to the geological and geotechnical properties of the different formations present in the route. In order to do so, many studies of geotechnical characterization of materials, in situ and laboratory testing campaigns have been carried out. Furthermore, they have participated in some Expertise Committees carrying out some advice work related to studies performed by other organizations. This paper presents a brief description of the most relevant aspects of the main geological and geotechnical studies performed related to this Project of the Future Fix Connection and obtained through the study of SECEGSAs extensive data base. Moreover, it includes a synopsis of the geotechnical characterization carried out through in situ and laboratory tests on different Miocene and Eocene formations from the Algeciras Unit, present in the route of the future Fix Connection between Spain and gibraltar through the Gibraltar Strait. (Author)

  14. Geotechnical and Surface Wave Investigation of Liquefaction and Strong Motion Instrumentation sites of the Denali Fault, Mw 7.9, Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayen, R.; Thompson, E.; Minasian, D.; Collins, B.; Moss, R.; Sitar, N.; Carver, G.

    2003-12-01

    fault crossing, liquefaction features are abundant. To characterize soil properties, we used a portable continuous sine wave-spectral analysis of surface waves (CSS-SASW) apparatus to profile the shear wave velocity of the ground, and an auger to profile the corresponding texture of the river deposits. We occupied 25 liquefaction evaluation test sites along with the three Alyeska seismometer sites. On the Nabesna, Delta and other rivers, we only find liquefaction features in soil deposits where normalized shear wave velocities fall below 225 m/s. Severity of fissures and lateral spreads dramatically increase in soils as the velocities fall, especially below 170 m/s. In some cases, the most pronounced ground failures are far from the fault zone (60-100 km) in extremely loose, low velocity fine sands. Geotechnical testing performed on field samples revealed that liquefied soils ranged from well graded sandy gravels in close proximity to the fault (plasticity silts at greater distances. At the Alyeska pump station seismometer sites, we are able to invert profiles of shear wave velocity to depths of 140-200 meters. The averaged NEHRP (30 meter) velocities for pump stations 9, 10, and 11 are 376 m/s, 316 m/s, and 362 m/s, respectively.

  15. Improving the geotechnical properties of expansive soils by mixture with olive mill wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ureña, C.; Azañón, J. M.; Corpas, F.; Nieto, F.; León-Buendía, C.

    2012-04-01

    In Southern Spain, Olive grove is an artificial forest which has a surface of 18.000 km2, representing more than 25% of olive oil world production. During the manufacturing process of this oil, different types of residues are generated. The most important is a biomass called olive mill wastewater. It is a dark colored liquid which can not be directly poured onto natural watercourses. On the one hand, part of this biomass is burnt to produce electrical energy or treated to make a bio-diesel. On the other hand, we propose the use of olive mill wastewater as a stabilization agent for expansive clayey soils. Using raw biomass as a stabilization agent two objectives are achieved: adding value to biomass and reducing the problems of expansive soils. Moreover, an important reduction of economic costs can take place. A pure bentonite clay was chosen as a sample of original expansive soil. It is abundant in Southern Spain and its main component is Na-Montmorillonite. Bentonite is very susceptible to changes in the environmental available moisture and very unsuitable for its use in civil engineering due to its low bearing capacity, high plasticity and volume changes. Several dosages (5%, 10%, 15%) of olive mill wastewater were added to the original sample of bentonite. To study eventual improvements in the mechanical properties of soil, Proctor, Atterberg Limits, California Bearing Ratio, Swelling Pressure and X-Ray Diffraction tests were carried out, following Spanish standards UNE by AENOR. Both geotechnical and mineralogical characterizations were developed at two different curing times: 15 and 30 days. The Plasticity Index (PI) of the original bentonite soil was 251 (High Plasticity). The addition of 15% of olive mill wastewater yielded reductions of PI similar to those produced by the addition of 5% of Portland cement. The California Bearing Ratio (CBR) values increased slightly after the treatment with biomass leading to very similar values to those obtained after the

  16. A select bibliography with abstracts of reports related to Waste Isolation Pilot Plant geotechnical studies (1972--1990)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powers, D.W.; Martin, M.L.

    1993-08-01

    This select bibliography contains 941 entries. Each bibliographic entry contains the citation of a report, conference paper, or journal article containing geotechnical information about the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The entries cover the period from 1972, when investigation began for a WIPP Site in southeastern New Mexico, through December 1990. Each entry is followed by an abstract. If an abstract or suitable summary existed, it has been included; 316 abstracts were written for other documents. For some entries, an annotation has been provided to clarify the abstract, comment on the setting and significance of the document, or guide the reader to related reports. An index of key words/phrases is included for all entries

  17. Mapping refuse profile in Singapore old dumping ground through electrical resistivity, S-wave velocity and geotechnical monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Ke; Tong, Huan Huan; Noh, Omar; Wang, Jing-Yuan; Giannis, Apostolos

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to track the refuse profile in Lorong Halus Dumping Ground, the largest landfill in Singapore, by electrical resistivity and surface wave velocity after 25 years of closure. Data were analyzed using an orthogonal set of plots by spreading 24 lines in two perpendicular geophone-orientation directions. Both geophysical techniques determined that refuse boundary depth was 13 ± 2 m. The refuse boundary revealed a certain degree of variance, mainly ascribed to the different principle of measurements, as well as the high heterogeneity of the subsurface. Discrepancy was higher in spots with greater heterogeneity. 3D analysis was further conducted detecting refuse pockets, leachate mounding and gas channels. Geotechnical monitoring (borehole) confirmed geophysical outcomes tracing different layers such as soil capping, decomposed refuse materials and inorganic wastes. Combining the geophysical methods with borehole monitoring, a comprehensive layout of the dumping site was presented showing the hot spots of interests.

  18. Geotechnical characterization of the North Ramp of the Exploratory Studies Facility: Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. Volume 1, Data summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brechtel, C.E.; Lin, Ming; Martin, E. [Agapito Associates, Inc., Grand Junction, CO (United States); Kessel, D.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-05-01

    This report presents the results of geological and geotechnical characterization of the Miocene volcanic tuff rocks of the Timber Mountain and Paintbrush groups that the tunnel boring machine will encounter during excavation of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) North Ramp. The is being constructed by the DOE as part of the Yucca Mountain Project site characterization activities. The purpose of these activities is to evaluate the feasibility of locating a potential high-level nuclear waste repository on lands adjacent to the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This report was prepared as part of the Soil and Rock Properties Studies in accordance with the 8.3.1.14.2 Study Plan. This report is volume 1 of the data summary.

  19. Digital geospatial presentation of geoelectrical and geotechnical data for the lower American River and flood plain, east Sacramento, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Lyndsay B.; Burton, Bethany L.; Powers, Michael H.; Asch, Theodore H.

    2015-01-01

    To characterize the extent and thickness of lithologic units that may have differing scour potential, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, has performed several geoelectrical surveys of the lower American River channel and flood plain between Cal Expo and the Rio Americano High School in east Sacramento, California. Additional geotechnical data have been collected by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and its contractors. Data resulting from these surveys have been compiled into similar database formats and converted to uniform geospatial datums and projections. These data have been visualized in a digital three-dimensional framework project that can be viewed using freely available software. These data facilitate a comprehensive analysis of the resistivity structure underlying the lower American River corridor and assist in levee system management.

  20. GEOTECHNICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF SOILS FOR FOREST ROADS: THE CASE OF MONTE ALEGRE FARM, BELONGING TO DURATEX S.A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Cardoso Machado

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available This research applied geotechnical tests to roads aiming at subsidizing the decision making process for improving theconstruction and maintenance patterns of access roads. In order to achieve this, characterization experiments (particle sizedistribution, specific weight of solids, consistence limits, compactation and CBR, in 13 samples of soils were done. The resultsindicated that, according to the technical specifications of DNER (1996, 2 samples of soils were classified as material forreinforcement of sandy soil, 11 as material to be used in road pavement sub-base and no one sample was considered appropriate for beingused in highways base. Therefore, evidencing the need of applying techniques that alter local soil properties, such as, chemical stabilization.

  1. A select bibliography with abstracts of reports related to Waste Isolation Pilot Plant geotechnical studies (1972--1990)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, D.W. [Powers (Dennis W.), Anthony, TX (United States); Martin, M.L. [International Technology, Inc., Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1993-08-01

    This select bibliography contains 941 entries. Each bibliographic entry contains the citation of a report, conference paper, or journal article containing geotechnical information about the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The entries cover the period from 1972, when investigation began for a WIPP Site in southeastern New Mexico, through December 1990. Each entry is followed by an abstract. If an abstract or suitable summary existed, it has been included; 316 abstracts were written for other documents. For some entries, an annotation has been provided to clarify the abstract, comment on the setting and significance of the document, or guide the reader to related reports. An index of key words/phrases is included for all entries.

  2. Geotechnical characterization of the North Ramp of the Exploratory Studies Facility: Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. Volume 1, Data summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brechtel, C.E.; Lin, Ming; Martin, E.; Kessel, D.S.

    1995-05-01

    This report presents the results of geological and geotechnical characterization of the Miocene volcanic tuff rocks of the Timber Mountain and Paintbrush groups that the tunnel boring machine will encounter during excavation of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) North Ramp. The is being constructed by the DOE as part of the Yucca Mountain Project site characterization activities. The purpose of these activities is to evaluate the feasibility of locating a potential high-level nuclear waste repository on lands adjacent to the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This report was prepared as part of the Soil and Rock Properties Studies in accordance with the 8.3.1.14.2 Study Plan. This report is volume 1 of the data summary

  3. Understanding Mississippi Delta Subsidence through Stratigraphic and Geotechnical Analysis of a Continuous Holocene Core at a Subsidence Superstation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgeman, J.; Tornqvist, T. E.; Jafari, N.; Allison, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    Land-surface subsidence can be a major contributor to the relative sea-level rise that is threatening coastal communities. Loosely constrained subsidence rate estimates across the Mississippi Delta make it difficult to differentiate between subsidence mechanisms and complicate modeling efforts. New data from a nearly 40 m long, 12 cm diameter core taken during the installation of a subsidence monitoring superstation near the Mississippi River, SW of New Orleans, provides insight into the stratigraphic and geotechnical properties of the Holocene succession. Stratigraphically, the core can be grouped into three sections. The top 12 m is dominated by clastic overbank sediment with interspersed organic-rich layers. The middle section, 12-35 m consists predominately of mud, and the bottom section, 35-38.7 m, is marked by a transition into a Holocene-aged basal peat (11,350-11,190 cal BP) which overlies densely packed Pleistocene sediment. Radiocarbon and OSL ages show up to 6 m of vertical displacement since 3,000 cal BP. We infer that most of this was due to compaction of the thick underlying mud package. The top ­­­­­ 70 cm of the core is a peat that represents the modern marsh surface and is inducing minimal surface loading. This is consistent with the negligible shallow subsidence rate as seen at a nearby rod-surface elevation table - marker horizon station and the initial strainmeter data. Future compaction scenarios for the superstation can be modeled from the stratigraphic and geotechnical properties of the core, including the loading from the planned Mid-Barataria sediment diversion which is expected to dramatically change the coastal landscape in this region.

  4. Current status of the surface-based investigations in the MIU project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Katushi; Osawa, Hideaki

    2001-01-01

    Tono Geoscience Center (TGC) has been conducting a wide range of geoscientific research in order to build a firm scientific and technological basis for the research and development of geological disposal. One of the major components of the ongoing geoscientific research program is the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) project in the Tono region, central Japan. The R and D work of the MIU project has the following main goals: Develop comprehensive investigation techniques for the geological environment. Develop a range of engineering techniques for deep underground application. A wide range of geoscientific research and development activities of the MIU project is planned in three phases a 20 years period; Phase one: surface-based investigation. Phase two: construction. Phase three: operations. The MIU site has been investigated by geological, hydrogeological, hydrochemical and rock mechanical surveys on the surface. Based on this information, modeling and simulation works have been conducted in the different investigation stages. Technological knowledge and experience have been accumulated, which allow application of the methodologies and techniques to characterize the deep geological environment in crystalline rock. This report presents the results of the investigations from fiscal 1996 to 1999 in phase one. (author)

  5. The importance of surface-based cues for face discrimination in non-human primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Lisa A; Taubert, Jessica

    2011-07-07

    Understanding how individual identity is processed from faces remains a complex problem. Contrast reversal, showing faces in photographic negative, impairs face recognition in humans and demonstrates the importance of surface-based information (shading and pigmentation) in face recognition. We tested the importance of contrast information for face encoding in chimpanzees and rhesus monkeys using a computerized face-matching task. Results showed that contrast reversal (positive to negative) selectively impaired face processing in these two species, although the impairment was greater for chimpanzees. Unlike chimpanzees, however, monkeys performed just as well matching negative to positive faces, suggesting that they retained some ability to extract identity information from negative faces. A control task showed that chimpanzees, but not rhesus monkeys, performed significantly better matching face parts compared with whole faces after a contrast reversal, suggesting that contrast reversal acts selectively on face processing, rather than general visual-processing mechanisms. These results confirm the importance of surface-based cues for face processing in chimpanzees and humans, while the results were less salient for rhesus monkeys. These findings make a significant contribution to understanding the evolution of cognitive specializations for face processing among primates, and suggest potential differences between monkeys and apes.

  6. The utilization of coal mining wastes as filling material in reinforced earth structures: geotechnical and electrochemical characteristics; Utilizacion de los esteriles del carbon como material de relleno para estructuras de tierra reforzada: caracteristicas geotecnicas y electroquimicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Canibana, J.; Pardo, F.; Sopena, L.M.; Perez, J.J.; Torres, M; Martinez, C.; Gonzalez, M.R. [Laboratorio Geotecnia CEDEX, MOPTMA (Spain)

    1996-06-01

    This paper summarizes the geotechnical and electrochemical properties of coal mining wastes (mine stones). Such properties are the starting basis from which the technical feasibility of using coal mining wastes in reinforced earth structures can be determined. (Author) 9 refs.

  7. A surface-based analysis of language lateralization and cortical asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greve, Douglas N; Van der Haegen, Lise; Cai, Qing; Stufflebeam, Steven; Sabuncu, Mert R; Fischl, Bruce; Brysbaert, Marc

    2013-09-01

    Among brain functions, language is one of the most lateralized. Cortical language areas are also some of the most asymmetrical in the brain. An open question is whether the asymmetry in function is linked to the asymmetry in anatomy. To address this question, we measured anatomical asymmetry in 34 participants shown with fMRI to have language dominance of the left hemisphere (LLD) and 21 participants shown to have atypical right hemisphere dominance (RLD). All participants were healthy and left-handed, and most (80%) were female. Gray matter (GM) volume asymmetry was measured using an automated surface-based technique in both ROIs and exploratory analyses. In the ROI analysis, a significant difference between LLD and RLD was found in the insula. No differences were found in planum temporale (PT), pars opercularis (POp), pars triangularis (PTr), or Heschl's gyrus (HG). The PT, POp, insula, and HG were all significantly left lateralized in both LLD and RLD participants. Both the positive and negative ROI findings replicate a previous study using manually labeled ROIs in a different cohort [Keller, S. S., Roberts, N., Garcia-Finana, M., Mohammadi, S., Ringelstein, E. B., Knecht, S., et al. Can the language-dominant hemisphere be predicted by brain anatomy? Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 23, 2013-2029, 2011]. The exploratory analysis was accomplished using a new surface-based registration that aligns cortical folding patterns across both subject and hemisphere. A small but significant cluster was found in the superior temporal gyrus that overlapped with the PT. A cluster was also found in the ventral occipitotemporal cortex corresponding to the visual word recognition area. The surface-based analysis also makes it possible to disentangle the effects of GM volume, thickness, and surface area while removing the effects of curvature. For both the ROI and exploratory analyses, the difference between LLD and RLD volume laterality was most strongly driven by differences

  8. A Surface-based Analysis of Language Lateralization and Cortical Asymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greve, Douglas N.; Van der Haegen, Lise; Cai, Qing; Stufflebeam, Steven; Sabuncu, Mert R.; Fischl, Bruce; Bysbaert, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Among brain functions, language is one of the most lateralized. Cortical language areas are also some of the most asymmetrical in the brain. An open question is whether the asymmetry in function is linked to the asymmetry in anatomy. To address this question, we measured anatomical asymmetry in 34 participants shown with fMRI to have language dominance of the left hemisphere (LLD) and 21 participants shown to have atypical right hemisphere dominance (RLD). All participants were healthy and left-handed, and most (80%) were female. Gray matter (GM) volume asymmetry was measured using an automated surface-based technique in both ROIs and exploratory analyses. In the ROI analysis, a significant difference between LLD and RLD was found in the insula. No differences were found in planum temporale (PT), pars opercularis (POp), pars triangularis (PTr), or Heschl’s gyrus (HG). The PT, POp, insula, and HG were all significantly left lateralized in both LLD and RLD participants. Both the positive and negative ROI findings replicate a previous study using manually labeled ROIs in a different cohort [Keller, S. S., Roberts, N., Garcia-Finana, M., Mohammadi, S., Ringelstein, E. B., Knecht, S., et al. Can the language-dominant hemisphere be predicted by brain anatomy? Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 23, 2013–2029, 2011]. The exploratory analysis was accomplished using a new surface-based registration that aligns cortical folding patterns across both subject and hemisphere. A small but significant cluster was found in the superior temporal gyrus that overlapped with the PT. A cluster was also found in the ventral occipitotemporal cortex corresponding to the visual word recognition area. The surface-based analysis also makes it possible to disentangle the effects of GM volume, thickness, and surface area while removing the effects of curvature. For both the ROI and exploratory analyses, the difference between LLD and RLD volume laterality was most strongly driven by

  9. Surface-Based Body Shape Index and Its Relationship with All-Cause Mortality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Ashiqur Rahman

    Full Text Available Obesity is a global public health challenge. In the US, for instance, obesity prevalence remains high at more than one-third of the adult population, while over two-thirds are obese or overweight. Obesity is associated with various health problems, such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs, depression, some forms of cancer, sleep apnea, osteoarthritis, among others. The body mass index (BMI is one of the best known measures of obesity. The BMI, however, has serious limitations, for instance, its inability to capture the distribution of lean mass and adipose tissue, which is a better predictor of diabetes and CVDs, and its curved ("U-shaped" relationship with mortality hazard. Other anthropometric measures and their relation to obesity have been studied, each with its advantages and limitations. In this work, we introduce a new anthropometric measure (called Surface-based Body Shape Index, SBSI that accounts for both body shape and body size, and evaluate its performance as a predictor of all-cause mortality.We analyzed data on 11,808 subjects (ages 18-85, from the National Health and Human Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999-2004, with 8-year mortality follow up. Based on the analysis, we introduce a new body shape index constructed from four important anthropometric determinants of body shape and body size: body surface area (BSA, vertical trunk circumference (VTC, height (H and waist circumference (WC. The surface-based body shape index (SBSI is defined as follows: SBSI = ((H(7/4(WC(5/6/(BSA VTC (1 SBSI has negative correlation with BMI and weight respectively, no correlation with WC, and shows a generally linear relationship with age. Results on mortality hazard prediction using both the Cox proportionality model, and Kaplan-Meier curves each show that SBSI outperforms currently popular body shape indices (e.g., BMI, WC, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, A Body Shape Index (ABSI in predicting all

  10. Surface-based geometric modelling using teaching trees for advanced robots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Akira; Ogasawara, Tsukasa; Tsukune, Hideo; Oshima, Masaki

    2000-01-01

    Geometric modelling of the environment is important in robot motion planning. Generally, shapes can be stored in a data base, so the elements that need to be decided are positions and orientations. In this paper, surface-based geometric modelling using a teaching tree is proposed. In this modelling, combinations of surfaces are considered in order to decide positions and orientations of objects. The combinations are represented by a depth-first tree, which makes it easy for the operator to select one combination out of several. This method is effective not only in the case when perfect data can be obtained, but also when conditions for measurement of three-dimensional data are unfavorable, which often occur in the environment of a working robot. (author)

  11. Study on geological environment in the Tono area. An approach to surface-based investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-12-01

    Mizunami Underground Research (MIU) Project has aimed at preparation of basis of investigation, analysis and evaluation of geology of deep underground and basis of engineering technologies of ultra deep underground. This report stated an approach and information of surface-based investigation for ground water flow system and MIU Project by the following contents, 1) objects and preconditions, 2) information of geological environment for analysis of material transition and design of borehole, 3) modeling, 4) tests and investigations and 5) concept of investigation. The reference data consists of results of studies such as the geological construction model, topography, geologic map, structural map, linear structure and estimated fault, permeability, underground stream characteristics, the quality of underground water and rock mechanics. (S.Y.)

  12. Herramientas para análisis por confiabilidad en geotecnia: La teoría Tools for reliability analysis in geotechnical engineering: The theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Augusto Hidalgo Montoya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se analizan algunas de las fuentes de incertidumbre en los diseños geotécnicos como son la determinación de los parámetros mecánicos y las suposiciones realizadas para definir los modelos y teorías empleados. Posteriormente, se presentan y comparan tres técnicas probabilísticas para la evaluación de la incertidumbre en diversos procesos geotécnicos.In this work, many sources of uncertainty in geotechnical design as the estimation of mechanical parameters and the premises for models and theories are analyzed. Subsequently, three probabilistic tools for valuation of the uncertainty in many geotechnical processes are presented and compared.

  13. A Response Surface-Based Cost Model for Wind Farm Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jie; Chowdhury, Souma; Messac, Achille; Castillo, Luciano

    2012-01-01

    A Response Surface-Based Wind Farm Cost (RS-WFC) model is developed for the engineering planning of wind farms. The RS-WFC model is developed using Extended Radial Basis Functions (E-RBF) for onshore wind farms in the U.S. This model is then used to explore the influences of different design and economic parameters, including number of turbines, rotor diameter and labor cost, on the cost of a wind farm. The RS-WFC model is composed of three components that estimate the effects of engineering and economic factors on (i) the installation cost, (ii) the annual Operation and Maintenance (O and M) cost, and (iii) the total annual cost of a wind farm. The accuracy of the cost model is favorably established through comparison with pertinent commercial data. The final RS-WFC model provided interesting insights into cost variation with respect to critical engineering and economic parameters. In addition, a newly developed analytical wind farm engineering model is used to determine the power generated by the farm, and the subsequent Cost of Energy (COE). This COE is optimized for a unidirectional uniform “incoming wind speed” scenario using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). We found that the COE could be appreciably minimized through layout optimization, thereby yielding significant cost savings. - Highlights: ► We present a Response Surface-Based Wind Farm Cost (RS-WFC) model for wind farm design. ► The model could estimate installation cost, Operation and Maintenance cost, and total annual cost of a wind farm. ► The Cost of Energy is optimized using Particle Swarm Optimization. ► Layout optimization could yield significant cost savings.

  14. On the use of the Norwegian Geotechnical Institute's prototype seabed-coupled shear wave vibrator for shallow soil characterization - I. Acquisition and processing of multimodal surface waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanneste, Maarten; Madshus, Christian; Socco, Valentina L.; Maraschini, Margherita; Sparrevik, Per M.; Westerdahl, Harald; Duffaut, Kenneth; Skomedal, Eiliv; Bjørnarâ, Tore I.

    2011-04-01

    Pure shear wave data are only very rarely acquired for offshore site investigations and exploration. Here, we present details of a novel, seabed-coupled, shear wave vibrator and field data recorded by a densely populated, multicomponent ocean-bottom cable, to improve shallow soil characterization. The prototype shear wave vibrator uses vibroseis technology adopted for marine environments through its instalment on top of a suction anchor, assuring seabed coupling in combination with self-weight penetration. The prototype is depth rated to 1500 m water depth, and can be rotated while installed in the seabed. The philosophy is to acquire fully complementary seismic data to conventional P- and P-to-S-converted waves, in particular for 2-D profiling, VSP (vertical seismic profiling) or monitoring purposes, thereby exploiting advantages of shear waves over compressional waves for determining, for example, anisotropy, small-strain shear modulus and excess pore pressures/effective stress. The source was primarily designed for reservoir depths. However, significant energy is emitted as surface waves, which provide detailed geotechnical information through mapping of shear wave velocities in potentially high resolution of the upper soil units. To fully utilize pure shear wave content, a proper analysis of surface waves is paramount, due to the proximity of surface wave propagation speed with shear wave velocities. The experiment was carried out in the northern North Sea in 364 m water depth. Cable dragging was necessary to obtain close receiver spacing (2.5 m effective spacing), with total line length of 600 m. Frequency-waveform transforms reveal both Scholte and Love waves. Up to six surface wave modes are identified, that is, fundamental mode and several higher surface wave modes. The occurrence of these two different dispersive surface wave types with well-resolved higher modes allows for a unique analysis and inversion scheme for high-resolution mapping of physical

  15. Mini-review of the geotechnical parameters of municipal solid waste: Mechanical and biological pre-treated versus raw untreated waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovic, Igor

    2016-09-01

    The most viable option for biostabilisation of old sanitary landfills, filled with raw municipal solid waste, is the so-called bioreactor landfill. Even today, bioreactor landfills are viable options in many economically developing countries. However, in order to reduce the biodegradable component of landfilled waste, mechanical and biological treatment has become a widely accepted waste treatment technology, especially in more prosperous countries. Given that mechanical and biological treatment alters the geotechnical properties of raw waste material, the design of sanitary landfills which accepts mechanically and biologically treated waste, should be carried out with a distinct set of geotechnical parameters. However, under the assumption that 'waste is waste', some design engineers might be tempted to use geotechnical parameters of untreated raw municipal solid waste and mechanical and biological pre-treated municipal solid waste interchangeably. Therefore, to provide guidelines for use and to provide an aggregated source of this information, this mini-review provides comparisons of geotechnical parameters of mechanical and biological pre-treated waste and raw untreated waste at various decomposition stages. This comparison reveals reasonable correlations between the hydraulic conductivity values of untreated and mechanical and biological pre-treated municipal solid waste. It is recognised that particle size might have a significant influence on the hydraulic conductivity of both municipal solid waste types. However, the compression ratios and shear strengths of untreated and pre-treated municipal solid waste do not show such strong correlations. Furthermore, another emerging topic that requires appropriate attention is the recovery of resources that are embedded in old landfills. Therefore, the presented results provide a valuable tool for engineers designing landfills for mechanical and biological pre-treated waste or bioreactor landfills for untreated raw

  16. Ring wall storages. An essential contribution of the geotechnics to te energy storage; Ringwallspeicher. Ein essentieller Beitrag der Geotechnik zur Energiespeicherung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popp, Matthias [Matthias Popp Ingenieurbuero Erneuerbare Energien, Energiespeicherung, Wuppertal (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    The author of the contribution under consideration reports on ring wall storages as an essential contribution to the geotechnical engineering for energy storage. At first, renewable energies as well as the storage requirements for the compensation of the volatility of electricity from wind power and solar energy are described. Subsequently, the storage technologies for energy management requirements as well as the need for water and land area of pumped storage systems are presented with special emphasis of ring wall storages.

  17. Environmental assessment of ashes - Course development by the Swedish Geotechnical Institute and the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences in cooperation; Miljoeriskvaerdering av askor - Kursutveckling av SGI och SLU i samarbete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiberg, Charlotta; Olsson, Susanna; Thelin, Gunnar; Egnell, Gustav; Haanell, Bjoern

    2008-06-15

    Recently many research projects in the field of ashes from energy production and the possibilities to reuse them have been carried out in Sweden. A lot of material including new guidelines, recommendations et cetera has been published. It is difficult to navigate in this vast amount of information, also for professionals and persons in authority that shall assess the benefit and risks with using ashes in different applications. In this project current knowledge and material that is available in guidelines, handbooks, research, legislation and more have been compiled and is presented in this text book (also including list of references and project assignments.). The course material is intended to: Show possibilities to reuse ashes from energy production in different applications. Inform about ashes environmental and geotechnical properties Inform about available guidelines, reports et cetera. The intention is to use this text book as part of course literature at a university course that aims at raising the level of knowledge about ashes from energy production and support an environmentally friendly use of ashes. The text book can be used for selfstudies, in seminars, courses and so on. This text book is intended for anyone that is interested in environmental assessment, residual products and/or reuse of ashes, for example professionals and persons in authority at municipalities, students, producers of ash, persons that use or want to use residual products et cetera

  18. Impact of Geotechnical Factors on the Safety of Low Embankment Dams From the Perspective of Technical and Safety Supervision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasana Andrej

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Our research deals with a broad spectrum of problems concerning the variability of geotechnical factors and their influence on the safety of the biggest group of dam constructions in Slovakia, i.e., low earthfill dams. Its specific aim is the observation of their risk factors by using our experience and knowledge gained while working in the sector of technical and safety supervision. To achieve the aims of a research thesis, we analyzed 39 low earthfill dams. We performed observations and documented their conditions with the aim of clarifying the risk factors. After an analysis of the information materials that characterize dams and after a statistical analysis of the measurement results in situ, including measurements from technical and safety supervision databases, we performed an analysis by using mathematical modeling to evaluate the safety of the dam constructions. Out of the total number of 39 dam constructions, an analysis of the stability of the dam slopes was performed on 37 dams, and deformation problems were analyzed on 28 of the dams. Filtration problems were analyzed at 26 dams, and a complete evaluation of the intensity of filtration movements was performed on 19 of the constructions.

  19. Laboratory Evaluation of the Effects of 3-Chloride Compounds on the Geotechnical Properties of an Expansive Subgrade Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, G.; Anjan Kumar, M.; Raju, G. V. R. Prasada

    2017-12-01

    Expansive soils are known to be problematic due to their nature and behavior. These soils show volume changes due to changes in moisture content, which cause distortions to structures constructed on them. Relentless efforts are being made all over the world to find solution to the problems of expansive soils. In the case of flexible pavements, unless the subgrade is appropriately treated during the construction stage, the maintenance cost will increase substantially due to deterioration. There are many methods of stabilising expansive subgrade soils. Chemical stabilisation is one such technique employed in improving the engineering properties of the expansive soil. Investigations on chemical stabilization of expansive soils revealed that conventionally used lime could be replaced by the chloride compound chemicals because of their ready dissolvability in water, ease of mixing with soil and supply of sufficient cations for ready cation exchange. The main objective of this work is to study the effectiveness of three chloride compound chemicals, ammonium chloride (NH4Cl), magnesium chloride (MgCl2) and aluminum chloride (AlCl3) on the geotechnical properties of an expansive soil. The chemicals content up to 2% were added to the soil and its effect on the index limits, swell pressure, compaction characteristics as well as California bearing ratio are studied. It was observed that aluminum chloride chemical content has a significantly higher influence than the other two chemicals and it could be recognized as an effective chemical stabilizer.

  20. Geotechnical studies at Jaduguda uranium mine for optimisation of stopping and support parameters in molybdenite shear zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, A.K.; Sinha, A.; Prasad, L.; Prasad, M.; Raju, N.M.

    1991-01-01

    In recent years, a few geotechnical studies have been conducted by the Central Mining Research Station, Dhanbad, at Jaduguda mine to improve ground control system and to optimise stopping parameters in the wide orebody zone at deeper levels and thus to add to productivity and recovery of these mines ensuring adequate safety. The replacement of mechanical point-anchored rock-bolts by full column cement grouted bolts, installed as per the designed pattern, has improved the ground condition, decreased the consumption of timber supports by around 70%, curtailed the support installation time and reduced the support cost to a remarkable extent even at the most problematic sites of Jaduguda mine. The analysis of stress development observations in the slope pillars of this mine reveals that the size of the slope pillars may be reduced by 20% in width which means an extra recovery of about 75 to 100 tonnes of ore per pillar per slice. In this paper, the authors have presented a brief account of their studies at this mine in the last four years. (author). 10 refs., 10 tabs., 9 figs

  1. Near surface geotechnical and geophysical data cross validated for site characterization applications. The cases of selected accelerometric stations in Crete island (Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loupasakis, Constantinos; Tsangaratos, Paraskevas; Rozos, Dimitrios; Rondoyianni, Theodora; Vafidis, Antonis; Steiakakis, Emanouil; Agioutantis, Zacharias; Savvaidis, Alexandros; Soupios, Pantelis; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Papadopoulos, Nikos; Sarris, Apostolos; Mangriotis, Maria-Dafni; Dikmen, Unal

    2015-04-01

    The near surface ground conditions are highly important for the design of civil constructions. These conditions determine primarily the ability of the foundation formations to bear loads, the stress - strain relations and the corresponding deformations, as well as the soil amplification and corresponding peak ground motion in case of dynamic loading. The static and dynamic geotechnical parameters as well as the ground-type/soil-category can be determined by combining geotechnical and geophysical methods, such as engineering geological surface mapping, geotechnical drilling, in situ and laboratory testing and geophysical investigations. The above mentioned methods were combined for the site characterization in selected sites of the Hellenic Accelerometric Network (HAN) in the area of Crete Island. The combination of the geotechnical and geophysical methods in thirteen (13) sites provided sufficient information about their limitations, setting up the minimum tests requirements in relation to the type of the geological formations. The reduced accuracy of the surface mapping in urban sites, the uncertainties introduced by the geophysical survey in sites with complex geology and the 1-D data provided by the geotechnical drills are some of the causes affecting the right order and the quantity of the necessary investigation methods. Through this study the gradual improvement on the accuracy of the site characterization data in regards to the applied investigation techniques is presented by providing characteristic examples from the total number of thirteen sites. As an example of the gradual improvement of the knowledge about the ground conditions the case of AGN1 strong motion station, located at Agios Nikolaos city (Eastern Crete), is briefly presented. According to the medium scale geological map of IGME the station was supposed to be founded over limestone. The detailed geological mapping reveled that a few meters of loose alluvial deposits occupy the area, expected

  2. Surface-based morphometry reveals the neuroanatomical basis of the five-factor model of personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccelli, Roberta; Toschi, Nicola; Nigro, Salvatore; Terracciano, Antonio; Passamonti, Luca

    2017-04-01

    The five-factor model (FFM) is a widely used taxonomy of human personality; yet its neuro anatomical basis remains unclear. This is partly because past associations between gray-matter volume and FFM were driven by different surface-based morphometry (SBM) indices (i.e. cortical thickness, surface area, cortical folding or any combination of them). To overcome this limitation, we used Free-Surfer to study how variability in SBM measures was related to the FFM in n = 507 participants from the Human Connectome Project.Neuroticism was associated with thicker cortex and smaller area and folding in prefrontal-temporal regions. Extraversion was linked to thicker pre-cuneus and smaller superior temporal cortex area. Openness was linked to thinner cortex and greater area and folding in prefrontal-parietal regions. Agreeableness was correlated to thinner prefrontal cortex and smaller fusiform gyrus area. Conscientiousness was associated with thicker cortex and smaller area and folding in prefrontal regions. These findings demonstrate that anatomical variability in prefrontal cortices is linked to individual differences in the socio-cognitive dispositions described by the FFM. Cortical thickness and surface area/folding were inversely related each others as a function of different FFM traits (neuroticism, extraversion and consciousness vs openness), which may reflect brain maturational effects that predispose or protect against psychiatric disorders. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  3. Brain morphology in children with 47, XYY syndrome: a voxel- and surface-based morphometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepage, J-F; Hong, D S; Raman, M; Marzelli, M; Roeltgen, D P; Lai, S; Ross, J; Reiss, A L

    2014-02-01

    The neurocognitive and behavioral profile of individuals with 47,XYY is increasingly documented; however, very little is known about the effect of a supernumerary Y-chromosome on brain development. Establishing the neural phenotype associated with 47,XYY may prove valuable in clarifying the role of Y-chromosome gene dosage effects, a potential factor in several neuropsychiatric disorders that show a prevalence bias toward males, including autism spectrum disorders. Here, we investigated brain structure in 10 young boys with 47,XYY and 10 age-matched healthy controls by combining voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and surface-based morphometry (SBM). The VBM results show the existence of altered gray matter volume (GMV) in the insular and parietal regions of 47,XYY relative to controls, changes that were paralleled by extensive modifications in white matter (WM) bilaterally in the frontal and superior parietal lobes. The SBM analyses corroborated these findings and revealed the presence of abnormal surface area and cortical thinning in regions with abnormal GMV and WMV. Overall, these preliminary results demonstrate a significant impact of a supernumerary Y-chromosome on brain development, provide a neural basis for the motor, speech and behavior regulation difficulties associated with 47,XYY and may relate to sexual dimorphism in these areas. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  4. Mechanically durable underwater superoleophobic surfaces based on hydrophilic bulk metals for oil/water separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Huadong; Lian, Zhongxu; Xu, Jinkai; Wan, Yanling; Wang, Zuobin; Li, Yiquan; Yu, Zhanjiang; Weng, Zhankun

    2018-04-01

    Despite the success of previous methods for fabricating underwater superoleophobic surfaces, most of the surfaces based on soft materials are prone to collapse and deformation due to their mechanically fragile nature, and they fail to perform their designed functions after the surface materials are damaged in water. In this work, the nanosecond laser-induced oxide coatings on hydrophilic bulk metals are reported which overcomes the limitation and shows the robust underwater superoleophobicity to a mechanical challenge encountered by surfaces deployed in water environment. The results show that the surface materials have the advantage that the underwater superoleophobicity is still preserved after the surfaces are scratched by knife or sandpaper and even completely destroyed because of the hydrophilic property of damaged materials in water. It is important that the results provide a guide for the design of durable underwater superoleophobic surfaces, and the development of superoleophobic materials in many potential applications such as the oil-repellent and the oil/water separation. Additionally, the nanosecond laser technology is simple, cost-effective and suitable for the large-area and mass fabrication of mechanically durable underwater superoleophobic metal materials.

  5. Investigation of KDP crystal surface based on an improved bidimensional empirical mode decomposition method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lei; Yan, Jihong; Chen, Wanqun; An, Shi

    2018-03-01

    This paper proposed a novel spatial frequency analysis method for the investigation of potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystal surface based on an improved bidimensional empirical mode decomposition (BEMD) method. Aiming to eliminate end effects of the BEMD method and improve the intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) for the efficient identification of texture features, a denoising process was embedded in the sifting iteration of BEMD method. With removing redundant information in decomposed sub-components of KDP crystal surface, middle spatial frequencies of the cutting and feeding processes were identified. Comparative study with the power spectral density method, two-dimensional wavelet transform (2D-WT), as well as the traditional BEMD method, demonstrated that the method developed in this paper can efficiently extract texture features and reveal gradient development of KDP crystal surface. Furthermore, the proposed method was a self-adaptive data driven technique without prior knowledge, which overcame shortcomings of the 2D-WT model such as the parameters selection. Additionally, the proposed method was a promising tool for the application of online monitoring and optimal control of precision machining process.

  6. Fast surface-based travel depth estimation algorithm for macromolecule surface shape description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giard, Joachim; Alface, Patrice Rondao; Gala, Jean-Luc; Macq, Benoît

    2011-01-01

    Travel Depth, introduced by Coleman and Sharp in 2006, is a physical interpretation of molecular depth, a term frequently used to describe the shape of a molecular active site or binding site. Travel Depth can be seen as the physical distance a solvent molecule would have to travel from a point of the surface, i.e., the Solvent-Excluded Surface (SES), to its convex hull. Existing algorithms providing an estimation of the Travel Depth are based on a regular sampling of the molecule volume and the use of the Dijkstra's shortest path algorithm. Since Travel Depth is only defined on the molecular surface, this volume-based approach is characterized by a large computational complexity due to the processing of unnecessary samples lying inside or outside the molecule. In this paper, we propose a surface-based approach that restricts the processing to data defined on the SES. This algorithm significantly reduces the complexity of Travel Depth estimation and makes possible the analysis of large macromolecule surface shape description with high resolution. Experimental results show that compared to existing methods, the proposed algorithm achieves accurate estimations with considerably reduced processing times.

  7. The Necessity of Combining Geologists and Engineers for Fieldwork in the Practice of Geotechnics

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, Michael H.

    This paper reviews the post-graduate training that can only be accomplished by having engineers and geologists working together in the field. It describes how meaningful communication and mutual appreciation of fundamental issues concerning a definition of ground and a prediction of how it will respond to engineering, and environmental, change may be established. Fieldwork suitable for achieving this and an awareness of fundamental misconceptions is also described.

  8. Subsidence monitoring with geotechnical instruments in the Mexicali Valley, Baja California, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    E. Glowacka; O. Sarychikhina; V. H. Márquez Ramírez; B. Robles; F. A. Nava; F. Farfán; M. A. García Arthur

    2015-01-01

    The Mexicali Valley (northwestern Mexico), situated in the southern part of the San Andreas fault system, is an area with high tectonic deformation, recent volcanism, and active seismicity. Since 1973, fluid extraction, from the 1500–3000 m depth range, at the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field (CPGF), has influenced deformation in the Mexicali Valley area, accelerating the subsidence and causing slip along the traces of tectonic faults that limit the subsidence area. Detailed fi...

  9. Numerical stability for velocity-based 2-phase formulation for geotechnical dynamic analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mieremet, M.M.J.

    2015-01-01

    As a master student in AppliedMathematics at the Delft University of Technology I am highly educated in Numerical Analysis. My interest in this field even mademe choose elective courses such as Advanced Numerical Methods, Applied Finite Elements and Computational Fluid Dynamics. In my search for a challenging graduationproject I chose a research proposal on the material point method, an extension of the finite element method that is well-suited for problems involving large deformations. The p...

  10. Some Tests on Heather Field Moraine Clay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Mogens B.; Jacobsen, Moust

    This report deals with oedometer tests on three samples of moraine clay from the Heather Field in the English part of the North Sea. The tests have been carried out in the very unelastic apparatus used in Denmark and with special test procedures differing from the ones used elsewhere. In Denmark...... Moraine Clay covers a large part of the surface, and it has therefore been investigated extensively in the field and in the laboratories during the last 25 years. It is to day - from a geotechnical point of view - the best known clay in Denmark. It could therefore be of some interest to compare...... the English North Sea moraine clays with the corresponding Danish Moraine Clays. The Danish test procedures are explained in details and some comments are given in the hope that they may not be banalities all of them....

  11. ENGINEERING GEOLOGICAL AND GEOTECHNICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PLOČE BY-PASS ROAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duško Barčot

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The Ploče by-pass road will be constructed partly in limestones and partly in clayey-silty-sandy sediments. In order to obtain reliable data for purposes of safe foundation technique for the road and respective structures, field and laboratory investigations were performed. The results are given in this paper. The limestones were classified based on Geological Strength Index (GSI while the properties of clayey-silty-sandy sediments were determined in the laboratory. The obtained results were used as a base for geostatic calculations by a numerical model and for the design of foundations (the paper is published in Croatian.

  12. ENGINEERING GEOLOGICAL AND GEOTECHNICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PLOČE BY-PASS ROAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duško Barčot

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The Ploče by-pass road will be constructed partly in limestones and partly in clayey-silty-sandy sediments. In order to obtain reliable data for purposes of safe foundation technique for the road and respective structures, field and laboratory investigations were performed. The results are given in this paper. The limestnes were classified based on Geological Strength Index (GSI while properties of clayey-silty-sandy sediments were determined in the laboratory. The obtained results were used as a bas for geostatic calculations by a numerical model and for the design of foundations (the paper is published in Croatian.

  13. Field Trial of Resin-Based Composite Materials for the Treatment of Surface Collapses Associated with Former Shallow Coal Mining

    OpenAIRE

    Philip T. Broughton; Mark P. Bettney; Isla L. Smail

    2016-01-01

    Effective treatment of ground instability is essential when managing the impacts associated with historic mining. A field trial was undertaken by the Coal Authority to investigate the geotechnical performance and potential use of composite materials comprising resin and fill or stone to safely treat surface collapses, such as crown-holes, associated with shallow mining. Test pits were loosely filled with various granular fill materials. The fill material was injected with commercially availab...

  14. Repair, Evaluation, Maintenance, and Rehabilitation Research Program. Stability of Rubble-Mound Breakwater and Jetty Toes; Survey of Field Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-12-01

    report was prepared: Problem Area Problem Area J CS Concrete and Steel Structures EM Electrical and Mechanical GT Geotechnical El Environmental Impacts HY...Hydraulics OM Operations Management CO Coastal For example, Technical Report REMR-CS-1 is the first report published under the Concrete and Steel ...1 TITLE (include Security Clasification ) Stability of Rubble-Mound Breakwater and Jetty Toes; Survey of Field Experience 12 PERSONAL AUTHOR(S

  15. A Surface-Based Spatial Registration Method Based on Sense Three-Dimensional Scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yifeng; Xu, Xiufang; Wang, Manning

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of a surface-based registration method based on a low-cost, hand-held Sense three-dimensional (3D) scanner in image-guided neurosurgery system. The scanner was calibrated prior and fixed on a tripod before registration. During registration, a part of the head surface was scanned at first and the spatial position of the adapter was recorded. Then the scanner was taken off from the tripod and the entire head surface was scanned by moving the scanner around the patient's head. All the scan points were aligned to the recorded spatial position to form a unique point cloud of the head by the automatic mosaic function of the scanner. The coordinates of the scan points were transformed from the device space to the adapter space by a calibration matrix, and then to the patient space. A 2-step patient-to-image registration method was then performed to register the patient space to the image space. The experimental results showed that the mean target registration error of 15 targets on the surface of the phantom was 1.61±0.09 mm. In a clinical experiment, the mean target registration error of 7 targets on the patient's head surface was 2.50±0.31 mm, which was sufficient to meet clinical requirements. It is feasible to use the Sense 3D scanner for patient-to-image registration, and the low-cost Sense 3D scanner can take the place of the current used scanner in the image-guided neurosurgery system.

  16. Multimodal surface-based morphometry reveals diffuse cortical atrophy in traumatic brain injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorenson Donna J

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI often present with significant cognitive deficits without corresponding evidence of cortical damage on neuroradiological examinations. One explanation for this puzzling observation is that the diffuse cortical abnormalities that characterize TBI are difficult to detect with standard imaging procedures. Here we investigated a patient with severe TBI-related cognitive impairments whose scan was interpreted as normal by a board-certified radiologist in order to determine if quantitative neuroimaging could detect cortical abnormalities not evident with standard neuroimaging procedures. Methods Cortical abnormalities were quantified using multimodal surfaced-based morphometry (MSBM that statistically combined information from high-resolution structural MRI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI. Normal values of cortical anatomy and cortical and pericortical DTI properties were quantified in a population of 43 healthy control subjects. Corresponding measures from the patient were obtained in two independent imaging sessions. These data were quantified using both the average values for each lobe and the measurements from each point on the cortical surface. The results were statistically analyzed as z-scores from the mean with a p Results The TBI patient showed significant regional abnormalities in cortical thickness, gray matter diffusivity and pericortical white matter integrity that replicated across imaging sessions. Consistent with the patient's impaired performance on neuropsychological tests of executive function, cortical abnormalities were most pronounced in the frontal lobes. Conclusions MSBM is a promising tool for detecting subtle cortical abnormalities with high sensitivity and selectivity. MSBM may be particularly useful in evaluating cortical structure in TBI and other neurological conditions that produce diffuse abnormalities in both cortical structure and tissue properties.

  17. Surface-based brain morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging in schizoaffective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landin-Romero, Ramón; Canales-Rodríguez, Erick J; Kumfor, Fiona; Moreno-Alcázar, Ana; Madre, Mercè; Maristany, Teresa; Pomarol-Clotet, Edith; Amann, Benedikt L

    2017-01-01

    The profile of grey matter abnormalities and related white-matter pathology in schizoaffective disorder has only been studied to a limited extent. The aim of this study was to identify grey- and white-matter abnormalities in patients with schizoaffective disorder using complementary structural imaging techniques. Forty-five patients meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition criteria and Research Diagnostic Criteria for schizoaffective disorder and 45 matched healthy controls underwent structural-T1 and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging to enable surface-based brain morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging analyses. Analyses were conducted to determine group differences in cortical volume, cortical thickness and surface area, as well as in fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity. At a threshold of p = 0.05 corrected, all measures revealed significant differences between patients and controls at the group level. Spatial overlap of abnormalities was observed across the various structural neuroimaging measures. In grey matter, patients with schizoaffective disorder showed abnormalities in the frontal and temporal lobes, striatum, fusiform, cuneus, precuneus, lingual and limbic regions. White-matter abnormalities were identified in tracts connecting these areas, including the corpus callosum, superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculi, anterior thalamic radiation, uncinate fasciculus and cingulum bundle. The spatial overlap of abnormalities across the different imaging techniques suggests widespread and consistent brain pathology in schizoaffective disorder. The abnormalities were mainly detected in areas that have commonly been reported to be abnormal in schizophrenia, and to some extent in bipolar disorder, which may explain the clinical and aetiological overlap in these disorders.

  18. Assessing dry density and gravimetric water content of soils in geotechnics with complex conductivity measurements : preliminary investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaouane, C.; Beck, Y.; Fauchard, C.; Chouteau, M.

    2012-12-01

    Quality controls of geotechnical works need gravimetric water content (w) and dry density (γd) measurements. Afterwards, results are compared to Proctor tests and referred to soil classification. Depending on the class of soils, different objectives must be achieved. Those measurements are usually carried out with neutron and gamma probes. Combined use of theses probes directly access (w, γd). Theses probes show great disadvantages as: nuclear hazard, heavy on-site, transporation and storage restrictions and low sampling volumes. Last decades showed a strong development of electrical and electromagnetic methods for mapping water content in soils. Still, their use in Geotechnics is limited due to interfacial effects neglected in common models but strong in compacted soils. We first showed that (w, γd) is equivalent to (φ, Sr) assuming density of particles γs=2.7 (g.cm-3). This assumption is true for common soils used in civil engineering. That first relationship allows us to work with meaningful parameters for geophysicists. Revil&Florsh recently adapted Vinegar&Waxman model for Spectal Induced Polarization (SIP) measurements at low frequencies (oil-bearing sands, we investigated its potential for compacted soils. Former DC-resistivity (ρ) measurements were carried out on a silty fined-grained soil (A1 in GTR classification or ML-CL in USCS) in a cylindrical cell (radius ~4 cm, heigth 7 cm). Median diameter of grain was 50 μm. For each measurement, samples were compacted at Proctor energy. We assessed (w, γd) by weighting and drying samples. We obtained γd = 1.6-1.9 (g.cm-3) and w=7-14% which lead to φ=0.3-0.4 and Sr=0.3-0.8. Tap water (ρw= 30 Ω.m) was used for the experiment. We first evaluated the saturation factor n=1.35 by fitting a power law ρ/ρw =a*Sr^n+b. a=0.223 agreed with φ^(-n)=F, F being the formation factor. This leads to a mean tortuosity α=1.47. b=0.5 might be related to surface conductivity. An empirical Rhoades-Corwin model also fit

  19. Enviro-geotechnical considerations in waste containment system design and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, H.Y.; Daniels, J.L.; Inyang, H.I.

    1997-01-01

    The effectiveness of waste control facilities hinges on careful evaluation of the overall planning, analysis and design of the entire system prior to construction. At present, most work is focused on the waste controlling system itself, with little attention given to the local environmental factors surrounding the facility sites. Containment materials including geomembranes, geotextiles and clay amended soils have received intense scrutiny. This paper, however, focuses on three relatively important issues relating to the characterization of the surrounding geomedia. Leakage through naturally occurring low-permeability soil layers, shrinkages swelling, cracking and effects of dynamic loads on system components are often responsible for a waste containment breach. In this paper, these mechanisms and their synergistic effects are explained in terms of the particle energy field theory. It is hoped that this additional information may assist the designer to be aware or take precaution to design safer future waste control facilities

  20. Sexual dimorphism of the human tibia through time: insights into shape variation using a surface-based approach

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brzobohatá, Hana; Krajíček, V.; Horák, Z.; Velemínská, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 11 (2016), č. článku e0166461. E-ISSN 1932-6203 Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : human tibia * geometric morphometrics * sexual dimorphism * surface-based analysis Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology Impact factor: 2.806, year: 2016

  1. The influence of delta formation mechanism on geotechnical property sequence of the late Pleistocene-Holocene sediments in the Mekong River Delta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Truong Minh; van Lap, Nguyen; Oanh, Ta Thi Kim; Jiro, Takemura

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the study was to characterize a variety of microstructure development-levels and geotechnical property sequences of the late Pleistocene-Holocene deposits in the Mekong River delta (MRD), and the paper furthermore discusses the influences of delta formation mechanisms on them. The survey associated the geotechnical engineering and the sedimentary geology of the late Pleistocene-Holocene deposits at five sites and also undifferentiated Pleistocene sediments. A cross-section which was rebuilt in the delta progradation-direction and between the Mekong and Bassac rivers represents the stratigraphy. Each sedimentary unit was formed under a different delta formation mechanism and revealed a typical geotechnical property sequence. The mechanical behaviors of the sediment succession in the tide-dominated delta with significant fluvial-activity and material source tend to be more cohesionless soils and strengths than those in the tide- and wave-dominated delta and even the coast. The particular tendency of the mechanical behavior of the deposit succession can be reasonably estimated from the delta formation mechanism. The characteristics of the clay minerals from the Mekong River produced the argillaceous soil which does not have extremely high plasticity. The microstructure development-levels are low to very high indicating how to choose hydraulic conductivity value, k, for estimating overconsolidation ratio, OCR, by the piezocone penetration tests (CPTU). The OCR of sediments in the delta types strangely change with depth but none less than 1. The post-depositional processes significantly influenced the microstructure development, particularly the dehydrating and oxidizing processes.

  2. Connectomic and Surface-Based Morphometric Correlates of Acute Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Acqua, Patrizia; Johannes, Sönke; Mica, Ladislav; Simmen, Hans-Peter; Glaab, Richard; Fandino, Javier; Schwendinger, Markus; Meier, Christoph; Ulbrich, Erika J.; Müller, Andreas; Jäncke, Lutz; Hänggi, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Reduced integrity of white matter (WM) pathways and subtle anomalies in gray matter (GM) morphology have been hypothesized as mechanisms in mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). However, findings on structural brain changes in early stages after mTBI are inconsistent and findings related to early symptoms severity are rare. Fifty-one patients were assessed with multimodal neuroimaging and clinical methods exclusively within 7 days following mTBI and compared to 53 controls. Whole-brain connectivity based on diffusion tensor imaging was subjected to network-based statistics, whereas cortical surface area, thickness, and volume based on T1-weighted MRI scans were investigated using surface-based morphometric analysis. Reduced connectivity strength within a subnetwork of 59 edges located predominantly in bilateral frontal lobes was significantly associated with higher levels of self-reported symptoms. In addition, cortical surface area decreases were associated with stronger complaints in five clusters located in bilateral frontal and postcentral cortices, and in the right inferior temporal region. Alterations in WM and GM were localized in similar brain regions and moderately-to-strongly related to each other. Furthermore, the reduction of cortical surface area in the frontal regions was correlated with poorer attentive-executive performance in the mTBI group. Finally, group differences were detected in both the WM and GM, especially when focusing on a subgroup of patients with greater complaints, indicating the importance of classifying mTBI patients according to severity of symptoms. This study provides evidence that mTBI affects not only the integrity of WM networks by means of axonal damage but also the morphology of the cortex during the initial post-injury period. These anomalies might be greater in the acute period than previously believed and the involvement of frontal brain regions was consistently pronounced in both findings. The dysconnected subnetwork

  3. Connectomic and surface-based morphometric correlates of acute mild traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia eDall'Acqua

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Reduced integrity of white matter (WM pathways and subtle anomalies in gray matter (GM morphology have been hypothesized as mechanisms in mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI. However, findings on structural brain changes in early stages after mTBI are inconsistent and findings related to early symptoms severity are rare.Fifty-one patients were assessed with multimodal neuroimaging and clinical methods exclusively within 7 days following mTBI and compared to 53 controls. Whole-brain connectivity based on diffusion tensor imaging was subjected to network-based statistics, whereas cortical surface area, thickness, and volume based on T1-weighted MRI scans were investigated using surface-based morphometric analysis. Reduced connectivity strength within a subnetwork of 59 edges located predominantly in bilateral frontal lobes was significantly associated with higher levels of self-reported symptoms. In addition, cortical surface area decreases were associated with stronger complaints in five clusters located in bilateral frontal and postcentral cortices, and in the right inferior temporal region. Alterations in WM and GM were localized in similar brain regions and moderately-to-strongly related to each other. Furthermore, the reduction of cortical surface area in the frontal regions was correlated with poorer attentive-executive performance in the mTBI group. Finally, group differences were detected in both the WM and GM, especially when focusing on a subgroup of patients with greater complaints, indicating the importance of classifying mTBI patients according to severity of symptoms. This study provides evidence that mTBI affects not only the integrity of WM networks by means of axonal damage but also the morphology of the cortex during the initial post-injury period. These anomalies might be greater in the acute period than previously believed and the involvement of frontal brain regions was consistently pronounced in both findings. The dysconnected

  4. Geological and geotechnical aspects of the foundation pit of Kaiga atomic power plant reactor building 2, Kaiga, Uttara Kannada district, Karnataka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katti, Vinod J.; Shah, V.L.; Pande, A.K.

    2014-01-01

    In India Nuclear Power Plants are constructed as per the guidelines laid by IAEA and AERB. Before concrete is poured into reactor building pits, they are systematically mapped and Iithostructural maps are prepared for pit base and side walls. The constraints noticed are carefully attended with geotechnical solutions and remedies to make foundation safe for the entire period of reactor life. Similarly, pit of Kaiga Reactor Building II was systematically mapped for circular base and side walls. Geo-engineering solutions like scrapping out loose, foliated schistose patches, scooping out soft altered zones, filling with grouting, rock-bolting rock segments with major joints and fractures for stopping seepage points were suggested. (author)

  5. Integrity of geotechnical barriers. Pt. 1. Structural pre-analysis. Report on work package 9.2. Preliminary safety analysis for the site Gorleben

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller-Hoeppe, Nina; Engelhardt, Hans-Joachim; Lerch, Christian; Linkamp, Michael; Buhmann, Dieter; Czaikowski, Oliver; Herbert, Hans-Juergen; Wieczorek, Klaus; Xie, Mingliang

    2012-07-01

    The work package 9.2 of the preliminary safety analysis for the site Gorleben covers the integrity of geotechnical barriers. The report includes the issues Basis for the design of the closure system; design of the closure system; constructional design of the closure system - demonstration of the technical functionality; salt grit compaction; consideration of the functional time periods of the closures; pre-analysis of the closures; description of the modified design for the closure of the mining shaft; construction sequence/performance approach; deepened hydraulic pre-analysis of the closure system; plausibility assessment of the thermal design; evaluation of the closures system based on the pre-analysis.

  6. Geotechnical behaviour of low-permeability soils in surfactant-enhanced electrokinetic remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Vizcaíno, Rubén; Navarro, Vicente; Alonso, Juan; Yustres, Ángel; Cañizares, Pablo; Rodrigo, Manuel A; Sáez, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Electrokinetic processes provide the basis of a range of very interesting techniques for the remediation of polluted soils. These techniques consist of the application of a current field in the soil that develops different transport mechanisms capable of mobilizing several types of pollutants. However, the use of these techniques could generate nondesirable effects related to the geomechanical behavior of the soil, reducing the effectiveness of the processes. In the case of the remediation of polluted soils with plasticity index higher than 35, an excessive shrinkage can be observed in remediation test. For this reason, the continued evaporation that takes place in the sample top can lead to the development of cracks, distorting the electrokinetic transport regime, and consequently, the development of the operation. On the other hand, when analyzing silty soils, in the surroundings of injection surfactant wells, high seepages can be generated that give rise to the development of piping processes. In this article methods are described to allow a reduction, or to even eliminate, both problems.

  7. Evaluation Study of Boundary and Depth of the Soil Structure for Geotechnical Site Investigation using MASW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Arisona

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study reviews the correlation between the experimental Rayleigh dispersion curve and the Vp & Vs ground model versus depth. Six samples of stations A , B , C , D ,  E  and  F  were used in the experiment.The geophone spacing used was set 1 m and total length of each line was 23 m. The result shows positive significance (best fit of R2 that ranges from 0.80 to 0.90. The fk (frequency-wave number method dispersion curves analysis confirmed that the soil structure investigated is divided into three zones: (1 Unsaturated soil zone (clay soil, in which the layer is dominated by soil with typically alluvial clayey silt and sand. The Vp ranges from 240 m/s to 255 m/s at a depth of 2 to 8 m. (2 The intermediate zone (stiff soil, in which the layer is dominated by sand, silt, clayey sand, sandy clay and clay of low plasticity. This structure is interpreted as partially saturated soil zone, the soil is typically very dense. It contains soft rock typically fill with cobble, sand, slight gravel and highly weathered at depth of 18 to 30 m with Vp of  255 to 300 m/s. (3 Saturated soil zone at a depth of  8 to 18 m with Vp of 300 to 390 m/s. There is a very good agreement between wave-number (k and phase velocity (Vw  produced. Both the two parameters shows similar pattern in the topsoil and subsurface layer, which constitute boundary field of soil structure. Moreover, relationship between phase velocity versus wave-length shows best fit of model from inversion with measured value (observed in  implementation of the boundary and depth of each layer.

  8. Geotechnical studies relevant to the containment of underground nuclear explosions at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heuze, F.E.

    1982-05-01

    The Department of Energy and the Department of Defense are actively pursuing a program of nuclear weapons testing by underground explosions at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Over the past 11 years, scores of tests have been conducted and the safety record is very good. In the short run, emphasis is put on preventing the release of radioactive materials into the atmosphere. In the long run, the subsidence and collapse of the ground above the nuclear cavities also are matters of interest. Currently, estimation of containment is based mostly on empiricism derived from extensive experience and on a combination of physical/mechanical testing and numerical modeling. When measured directly, the mechanical material properties are obtained from short-term laboratory tests on small, conventional samples. This practice does not determine the large effects of scale and time on measured stiffnesses and strengths of geological materials. Because of the limited data base of properties and in situ conditions, the input to otherwise fairly sophisticated computer programs is subject to several simplifying assumptions; some of them can have a nonconservative impact on the calculated results. As for the long-term, subsidence and collapse phenomena simply have not been studied to any significant degree. This report examines the geomechanical aspects of procedures currently used to estimate containment of undergroung explosions at NTS. Based on this examination, it is concluded that state-of-the-art geological engineering practice in the areas of field testing, large scale laboratory measurements, and numerical modeling can be drawn upon to complement the current approach.

  9. Geotechnical studies relevant to the containment of underground nuclear explosions at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuze, F.E.

    1982-05-01

    The Department of Energy and the Department of Defense are actively pursuing a program of nuclear weapons testing by underground explosions at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Over the past 11 years, scores of tests have been conducted and the safety record is very good. In the short run, emphasis is put on preventing the release of radioactive materials into the atmosphere. In the long run, the subsidence and collapse of the ground above the nuclear cavities also are matters of interest. Currently, estimation of containment is based mostly on empiricism derived from extensive experience and on a combination of physical/mechanical testing and numerical modeling. When measured directly, the mechanical material properties are obtained from short-term laboratory tests on small, conventional samples. This practice does not determine the large effects of scale and time on measured stiffnesses and strengths of geological materials. Because of the limited data base of properties and in situ conditions, the input to otherwise fairly sophisticated computer programs is subject to several simplifying assumptions; some of them can have a nonconservative impact on the calculated results. As for the long-term, subsidence and collapse phenomena simply have not been studied to any significant degree. This report examines the geomechanical aspects of procedures currently used to estimate containment of undergroung explosions at NTS. Based on this examination, it is concluded that state-of-the-art geological engineering practice in the areas of field testing, large scale laboratory measurements, and numerical modeling can be drawn upon to complement the current approach

  10. Assessment of the Efficiency of Consolidation Treatment through Injections of Expanding Resins by Geotechnical Tests and 3D Electrical Resistivity Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apuani, T; Giani, G P; d'Attoli, M; Fischanger, F; Morelli, G; Ranieri, G; Santarato, G

    2015-01-01

    The design and execution of consolidation treatment of settled foundations by means of injection of polyurethane expanding resins require a proper investigation of the state of the foundation soil, in order to better identify anomalies responsible for the instability. To monitor the injection process, a procedure has been developed, which involves, in combination with traditional geotechnical tests, the application of a noninvasive, geophysical technique based on the electrical resistivity, which is strongly sensitive to presence of water or voids. Three-dimensional electrical resistivity tomography is a useful tool to produce effective 3D images of the foundation soils before, during, and after the injections. The achieved information allows designing the consolidation scheme and monitoring its effects on the treated volumes in real time. To better understand the complex processes induced by the treatment and to learn how variations of resistivity accompany increase of stiffness, an experiment was carried out in a full-scale test site. Injections of polyurethane expanding resin were performed as in real worksite conditions. Results confirm that the experimented approach by means of 3D resistivity imaging allows a reliable procedure of consolidation, and geotechnical tests demonstrate the increase of mechanical stiffness.

  11. Physical and geotechnical properties and assessment of sediment stability on the continental slope and basin of the Bransfield Basin (Antarctica Peninsula)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, D.; Ercilla, G.; Estrada, F.; Alonso, B.; Baraza, J.; Lee, H.; Kayen, R.; Chiocci, F.

    2004-01-01

    Our investigation is centred on the continental slope of the Antarctic Peninsula and adjacent basin. Type of sediments, sedimentary stratigraphy, and physical and geotechnical characterization of the sediments have been integrated. Four different types of sediments have been defined: diamictons, silty and muddy turbidites, muddy, silty and muddy matrix embedded clast contourites. There is a close correspondence between the physical properties (density, magnetic susceptibility and p-wave velocity) and the texture and/or fabric as laminations and stratification. From a quantitative point of view, only a few statistical correlations between textural and physical properties have been found. Within the geotechnical properties, only water content is most influenced by texture. This slope, with a maximum gradient observed (20??), is stable, according to the stability under gravitational loading concepts, and the maximum stable slope that would range from 22?? to 29??. Nevertheless, different instability features have been observed. Volcanic activity, bottom currents, glacial loading-unloading or earthquakes can be considered as potential mechanisms to induce instability in this area. Copyright ?? Taylor & Francis Inc.

  12. Integration of geotechnical and geophysical techniques for the characterization of a small earth-filled canal dyke and the localization of water leakage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bièvre, Grégory; Lacroix, Pascal; Oxarango, Laurent; Goutaland, David; Monnot, Guy; Fargier, Yannick

    2017-04-01

    This paper investigates the combined use of extensive geotechnical, hydrogeological and geophysical techniques to assess a small earth dyke with a permanent hydraulic head, namely a canal embankment. The experimental site was chosen because of known issues regarding internal erosion and piping phenomena. Two leakages were visually located following the emptying of the canal prior to remediation works. The results showed a good agreement between the geophysical imaging techniques (Electrical Resistivity Tomography, P- and SH-waves Tomography) and the geotechnical data to detect the depth to the bedrock and its lateral variations. It appeared that surface waves might not be fully adapted for dyke investigation because of the particular geometry of the studied dyke, non-respectful of the 1D assumption, and which induced depth and velocity discrepancies retrieved from Rayleigh and Love waves inversion. The use of these classical prospecting techniques however did not allow to directly locate the two leakages within the studied earth dyke. The analysis of ambient vibration time series with a modified beam-forming algorithm allowed to localize the most energetic water flow prior to remediation works. It was not possible to detect the leakage after remediation works, suggesting that they efficiently contributed to significantly reduce the water flow. The second leakage was not detected probably because of a non-turbulent water flow, generating few energetic vibrations.

  13. Applications of Response Surface-Based Methods to Noise Analysis in the Conceptual Design of Revolutionary Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Geoffrey A.; Olson, Erik D.

    2004-01-01

    Due to the growing problem of noise in today's air transportation system, there have arisen needs to incorporate noise considerations in the conceptual design of revolutionary aircraft. Through the use of response surfaces, complex noise models may be converted into polynomial equations for rapid and simplified evaluation. This conversion allows many of the commonly used response surface-based trade space exploration methods to be applied to noise analysis. This methodology is demonstrated using a noise model of a notional 300 passenger Blended-Wing-Body (BWB) transport. Response surfaces are created relating source noise levels of the BWB vehicle to its corresponding FAR-36 certification noise levels and the resulting trade space is explored. Methods demonstrated include: single point analysis, parametric study, an optimization technique for inverse analysis, sensitivity studies, and probabilistic analysis. Extended applications of response surface-based methods in noise analysis are also discussed.

  14. Mechanism of the December 2015 Catastrophic Landslide at the Shenzhen Landfill and Controlling Geotechnical Risks of Urbanization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueping Yin

    2016-06-01

    also investigated the post-failure soil dynamics parameters of the landslide deposit using cone penetration, triaxial, and ring-shear tests in order to simulate the characteristics of a flowing slide with a long run-out due to the liquefaction effect. Finally, we conclude the paper with lessons from the tens of catastrophic landslides of municipal solid waste around the world and discuss how to better manage the geotechnical risks of urbanization.

  15. DEM simulation of granular flows in a centrifugal acceleration field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Miguel Angel; Peng, Chong; Wu, Wei

    2017-04-01

    The main purpose of mass-flow experimental models is abstracting distinctive features of natural granular flows, and allow its systematic study in the laboratory. In this process, particle size, space, time, and stress scales must be considered for the proper representation of specific phenomena [5]. One of the most challenging tasks in small scale models, is matching the range of stresses and strains among the particle and fluid media observed in a field event. Centrifuge modelling offers an alternative to upscale all gravity-driven processes, and it has been recently employed in the simulation of granular flows [1, 2, 3, 6, 7]. Centrifuge scaling principles are presented in Ref. [4], collecting a wide spectrum of static and dynamic models. However, for the case of kinematic processes, the non-uniformity of the centrifugal acceleration field plays a major role (i.e., Coriolis and inertial effects). In this work, we discuss a general formulation for the centrifugal acceleration field, implemented in a discrete element model framework (DEM), and validated with centrifuge experimental results. Conventional DEM simulations relate the volumetric forces as a function of the gravitational force Gp = mpg. However, in the local coordinate system of a rotating centrifuge model, the cylindrical centrifugal acceleration field needs to be included. In this rotating system, the centrifugal acceleration of a particle depends on the rotating speed of the centrifuge, as well as the position and speed of the particle in the rotating model. Therefore, we obtain the formulation of centrifugal acceleration field by coordinate transformation. The numerical model is validated with a series of centrifuge experiments of monodispersed glass beads, flowing down an inclined plane at different acceleration levels and slope angles. Further discussion leads to the numerical parameterization necessary for simulating equivalent granular flows under an augmented acceleration field. The premise of

  16. Relationship between cloud radiative forcing, cloud fraction and cloud albedo, and new surface-based approach for determining cloud albedo

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Liu; W. Wu; M. P. Jensen; T. Toto

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on three interconnected topics: (1) quantitative relationship between surface shortwave cloud radiative forcing, cloud fraction, and cloud albedo; (2) surfaced-based approach for measuring cloud albedo; (3) multiscale (diurnal, annual and inter-annual) variations and covariations of surface shortwave cloud radiative forcing, cloud fraction, and cloud albedo. An analytical expression is first derived to quantify the relationship between cloud radiative forcing, cloud fractio...

  17. Relationship between cloud radiative forcing, cloud fraction and cloud albedo, and new surface-based approach for determining cloud albedo

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Liu; W. Wu; M. P. Jensen; T. Toto

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on three interconnected topics: (1) quantitative relationship between surface shortwave cloud radiative forcing, cloud fraction, and cloud albedo; (2) surface-based approach for measuring cloud albedo; (3) multiscale (diurnal, annual and inter-annual) variations and covariations of surface shortwave cloud radiative forcing, cloud fraction, and cloud albedo. An analytical expression is first derived to quantify the relationship between cloud radiative forcing, cloud fraction...

  18. Geotechnical reconnaissance of the Mississippi River Delta flood-protection system after Hurricane Katrina: Chapter 3C in Science and the storms-the USGS response to the hurricanes of 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Ronaldo; Summers, David; Hoffman, David; Rogers, J. David; Sevi, Adam; Witt, Emitt C.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the post-Hurricane Katrina conditions of the flood-protection system of levees and floodwalls that failed in the environs of the Mississippi River Delta and New Orleans, La. Damage conditions and suggested mechanisms of failure are presented from the geotechnical point of view.

  19. National geotechnical centrifuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallam, J. A.; Kunz, N.; Vallotton, W. C.

    1982-01-01

    A high G-ton centrifuge, able to take a 2700 kg (6000 lb) payload up to 300 G, is described. The stability of dams and embankments, the bearing capacity of soil foundations, and the dynamic behavior of foundations due to vibration of machinery are examples of applications. A power rating of 6,000 kW (9,000 hp) was established for the motor. An acceptable maximum speed of 70 rpm was determined. A speed increase with a ratio of 1:3 is discussed. The isolated tension straps, the anti-spreader bar and the flexwall bucket, and safety precautions are also discussed.

  20. Lubrication and thermal characteristics of mechanical seal with porous surface based on cavitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huilong, Chen; Muzi, Zuo; Tong, Liu; Yu, Wang; Cheng, Xu; Qiangbo, Wu

    2014-04-01

    The theory model of mechanical seals with laser-textured porous surface (LST-MS) was established. The liquid film of LST-MS was simulated by the Fluent software, using full cavitation model and non-cavitation model separately. Dynamic mesh technique and relationship between viscosity and temperature were applied to simulate the internal flow field and heat characteristics of LST-MS, based on the more accurate cavitation model. Influence of porous depth ratio porous diameter ɛ and porous density SP on lubrication performance and the variation of lubrication and thermal properties with shaft speed and sealing pressure were analyzed. The results indicate that the strongest hydrodynamic pressure effect and the biggest thickness of liquid film are obtained when ɛ and SP are respectively about 0.025 and 0.5 which were thought to be the optimum value. The frictional heat leads to the increase of liquid film temperature and the decrease of medium viscosity with the shaft speed increasing. The hydrodynamic pressure effect increases as shaft speed increasing, however it decreases as the impact of frictional heat.

  1. Determination of Soil Moisture Content using Laboratory Experimental and Field Electrical Resistivity Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazreek, Z. A. M.; Rosli, S.; Fauziah, A.; Wijeyesekera, D. C.; Ashraf, M. I. M.; Faizal, T. B. M.; Kamarudin, A. F.; Rais, Y.; Dan, M. F. Md; Azhar, A. T. S.; Hafiz, Z. M.

    2018-04-01

    The efficiency of civil engineering structure require comprehensive geotechnical data obtained from site investigation. In the past, conventional site investigation was heavily related to drilling techniques thus suffer from several limitations such as time consuming, expensive and limited data collection. Consequently, this study presents determination of soil moisture content using laboratory experimental and field electrical resistivity values (ERV). Field and laboratory electrical resistivity (ER) test were performed using ABEM SAS4000 and Nilsson400 soil resistance meter. Soil sample used for resistivity test was tested for characterization test specifically on particle size distribution and moisture content test according to BS1377 (1990). Field ER data was processed using RES2DINV software while laboratory ER data was analyzed using SPSS and Excel software. Correlation of ERV and moisture content shows some medium relationship due to its r = 0.506. Moreover, coefficient of determination, R2 analyzed has demonstrate that the statistical correlation obtain was very good due to its R2 value of 0.9382. In order to determine soil moisture content based on statistical correlation (w = 110.68ρ-0.347), correction factor, C was established through laboratory and field ERV given as 19.27. Finally, this study has shown that soil basic geotechnical properties with particular reference to water content was applicably determined using integration of laboratory and field ERV data analysis thus able to compliment conventional approach due to its economic, fast and wider data coverage.

  2. Surface-based reconstruction and diffusion MRI in the assessment of gray and white matter damage in multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffini, Matteo; Bergsland, Niels; LaganÃ, Marcella; Tavazzi, Eleonora; Tortorella, Paola; Rovaris, Marco; Baselli, Giuseppe

    2014-03-01

    Despite advances in the application of nonconventional MRI techniques in furthering the understanding of multiple sclerosis pathogenic mechanisms, there are still many unanswered questions, such as the relationship between gray and white matter damage. We applied a combination of advanced surface-based reconstruction and diffusion tensor imaging techniques to address this issue. We found significant relationships between white matter tract integrity indices and corresponding cortical structures. Our results suggest a direct link between damage in white and gray matter and contribute to the notion of gray matter loss relating to clinical disability.

  3. Surface-Based Regional Homogeneity in First-Episode, Drug-Naïve Major Depression: A Resting-State fMRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Jie Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Previous volume-based regional homogeneity (ReHo studies neglected the intersubject variability in cortical folding patterns. Recently, surface-based ReHo was developed to reduce the intersubject variability and to increase statistical power. The present study used this novel surface-based ReHo approach to explore the brain functional activity differences between first-episode, drug-naïve MDD patients and healthy controls. Methods. Thirty-three first-episode, drug-naïve MDD patients and 32 healthy controls participated in structural and resting-state fMRI scans. MDD patients were rated with a 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression prior to the scan. Results. In comparison with the healthy controls, MDD patients showed reduced surface-based ReHo in the left insula. There was no increase in surface-based ReHo in MDD patients. The surface-based ReHo value in the left insula was not significantly correlated with the clinical information or the depressive scores in the MDD group. Conclusions. The decreased surface-based ReHo in the left insula in MDD may lead to the abnormal top-down cortical-limbic regulation of emotional and cognitive information. The surface-based ReHo may be a useful index to explore the pathophysiological mechanism of MDD.

  4. Geotechnical characterization of the North Ramp of the Exploratory Studies Facility: Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. Volume 2, NRG corehole data appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brechtel, C.E.; Lin, Ming; Martin, E. [Agapito Associates, Inc., Grand Junction, CO (United States); Kessel, D.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-05-01

    This report presents the results of the geological and geotechnical characterization of the Miocene volcanic tuff rocks of the Timber Mountain and Paintbrush groups that the tunnel boring machine will encounter during excavations of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) North Ramp. The information in this report was developed to support the design of the ESF North Ramp. The ESF is being constructed by the DOE as part of the Yucca Mountain Project site characterization activities. The purpose of these activities is to evaluate the potential to locate the national high-level nuclear waste repository on land within and adjacent to the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nye County, Nevada. This report was prepared as part of the Soil and Rock Properties Studies in accordance with the 8.3.1.14.2 Study Plan to Provide Soil and Rock Properties. This is volume 2 which contains NRG Corehole Data for each of the NRG Holes.

  5. Herramientas para análisis por confiabilidad en geotecnia: Aplicación Tools for reliability analysis in geotechnical engineering: Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Augusto Hidalgo Montoya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajoseaplicaron los métodos FOSM y de las estimativas puntuales (MEP en la evaluación de la probabilidad de falla contra deslizamiento de una estructura de contención. Entre otras conclusiones, se resalta que es necesario definir valores de referencia para determinar la probabilidad de falla aceptable en obras geotécnicas, ya que existe un vacío en este tema.In this work, in order to calculate the failure probability against sliding of a contention structure, FOSM and point estimates methods (PEM were used. As a conclusion, it is highlighted that it is necessary to define values of acceptable failure probability in geotechnical design, because there is a void in this aspect.

  6. Geotechnical characterization of the North Ramp of the Exploratory Studies Facility: Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. Volume 2, NRG corehole data appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brechtel, C.E.; Lin, Ming; Martin, E.; Kessel, D.S.

    1995-05-01

    This report presents the results of the geological and geotechnical characterization of the Miocene volcanic tuff rocks of the Timber Mountain and Paintbrush groups that the tunnel boring machine will encounter during excavations of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) North Ramp. The information in this report was developed to support the design of the ESF North Ramp. The ESF is being constructed by the DOE as part of the Yucca Mountain Project site characterization activities. The purpose of these activities is to evaluate the potential to locate the national high-level nuclear waste repository on land within and adjacent to the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nye County, Nevada. This report was prepared as part of the Soil and Rock Properties Studies in accordance with the 8.3.1.14.2 Study Plan to Provide Soil and Rock Properties. This is volume 2 which contains NRG Corehole Data for each of the NRG Holes

  7. Geologic evaluation of six nonwelded tuff sites in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain, Nevada for a surface-based test facility for the Yucca Mountain Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broxton, D.E.; Chipera, S.J.; Byers, F.M. Jr.; Rautman, C.A.

    1993-10-01

    Outcrops of nonwelded tuff at six locations in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, were examined to determine their suitability for hosting a surface-based test facility for the Yucca Mountain Project. Investigators will use this facility to test equipment and procedures for the Exploratory Studies Facility and to conduct site characterization field experiments. The outcrops investigated contain rocks that include or are similar to the tuffaceous beds of Calico Hills, an important geologic and hydrologic barrier between the potential repository and the water table. The tuffaceous beds of Calico Hills at the site of the potential repository consist of both vitric and zeolitic tuffs, thus three of the outcrops examined are vitric tuffs and three are zeolitic tuffs. New data were collected to determine the lithology, chemistry, mineralogy, and modal petrography of the outcrops. Some preliminary data on hydrologic properties are also presented. Evaluation of suitability of the six sites is based on a comparison of their geologic characteristics to those found in the tuffaceous beds of Calico Hills within the exploration block

  8. Cauchy problem as a two-surface based ‘geometrodynamics’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rácz, István

    2015-01-01

    Four-dimensional spacetimes foliated by a two-parameter family of homologous two-surfaces are considered in Einstein's theory of gravity. By combining a 1 + (1 + 2) decomposition, the canonical form of the spacetime metric and a suitable specification of the conformal structure of the foliating two-surfaces, a gauge fixing is introduced. It is shown that, in terms of the chosen geometrically distinguished variables, the 1 + 3 Hamiltonian and momentum constraints can be recast into the form of a parabolic equation and a first order symmetric hyperbolic system, respectively. Initial data to this system can be given on one of the two-surfaces foliating the three-dimensional initial data surface. The 1 + 3 reduced Einstein's equations are also determined. By combining the 1 + 3 momentum constraint with the reduced system of the secondary 1 + 2 decomposition, a mixed hyperbolic-hyperbolic system is formed. It is shown that solutions to this mixed hyperbolic-hyperbolic system are also solutions to the full set of Einstein's equations provided that the 1 + 3 Hamiltonian constraint is solved on the initial data surface {{Σ }0} and the 1 + 2 Hamiltonian and momentum type expressions vanish on a world-tube yielded by the Lie transport of one of the two-surfaces foliating {{Σ }0} along the time evolution vector field. Whenever the foliating two-surfaces are compact without boundary in the spacetime and a regular origin exists on the time-slices—this is the location where the foliating two-surfaces smoothly reduce to a point—it suffices to guarantee that the 1 + 3 Hamiltonian constraint holds on the initial data surface. A short discussion on the use of the geometrically distinguished variables in identifying the degrees of freedom of gravity are also included. Dedicated to Zoltán Cseke on the occasion of his 70th birthday.

  9. Incorporating and Compensating Cerebrospinal Fluid in Surface-Based Forward Models of Magneto- and Electroencephalography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matti Stenroos

    Full Text Available MEG/EEG source imaging is usually done using a three-shell (3-S or a simpler head model. Such models omit cerebrospinal fluid (CSF that strongly affects the volume currents. We present a four-compartment (4-C boundary-element (BEM model that incorporates the CSF and is computationally efficient and straightforward to build using freely available software. We propose a way for compensating the omission of CSF by decreasing the skull conductivity of the 3-S model, and study the robustness of the 4-C and 3-S models to errors in skull conductivity. We generated dense boundary meshes using MRI datasets and automated SimNIBS pipeline. Then, we built a dense 4-C reference model using Galerkin BEM, and 4-C and 3-S test models using coarser meshes and both Galerkin and collocation BEMs. We compared field topographies of cortical sources, applying various skull conductivities and fitting conductivities that minimized the relative error in 4-C and 3-S models. When the CSF was left out from the EEG model, our compensated, unbiased approach improved the accuracy of the 3-S model considerably compared to the conventional approach, where CSF is neglected without any compensation (mean relative error 40%. The error due to the omission of CSF was of the same order in MEG and compensated EEG. EEG has, however, large overall error due to uncertain skull conductivity. Our results show that a realistic 4-C MEG/EEG model can be implemented using standard tools and basic BEM, without excessive workload or computational burden. If the CSF is omitted, compensated skull conductivity should be used in EEG.

  10. Bioturbation, geochemistry and geotechnics of sediments affected by the oxygen minimum zone on the Oman continental slope and abyssal plain, Arabian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Azra; Meadows, Peter S.; West, Fraser J. C.; Murray, John M. H.

    2000-01-01

    We investigate the way the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) alters interactions between bioturbation and sediment geochemistry, and geotechnical properties. Sediments are compared within and below the OMZ on the Oman continental slope and adjacent abyssal plain during the post monsoonal autumn season. Quantitative measurements were made of Eh and pH, of total organic matter (TOM) and carbonate, of water content and shear strength, and of bioturbation structures in vertical profiles of subcores taken from spade-box core samples. The OMZ stations had distinctively low redox conditions and high carbonate content, and different geotechnical properties and different bioturbation structures than stations below the OMZ on the abyssal plain. These differences are related to the degree of anoxia and to water depth. Within the OMZ, Eh, pH and carbonate increased with water depth, and TOM and water content decreased. We also noted the presence of subsurface sediment heterogeneity on the continental slope within the OMZ. In the OMZ, Eh, water content and bioturbation decreased with increasing sediment depth. There was a slight decrease in pH in the top 5 cm at all stations. Shear strength nearly always increased with increasing sediment depth. At each water depth correlations show down-core trends in these parameters, while across all water depths correlations were significant at deeper sediment depths (20-30 cm). An Eh-pH diagram identified two water-depth groupings: 391-1008 and 1265-3396 m. Cluster analysis showed the upper and lower sediment depths form separate clusters, the break occurring at 4-7.5 cm; while there are also distinct clusters related to water depth. We relate our results to bottom-water oxygen concentrations reported by other investigators, and to regional-scale geochemical processes.

  11. Investigation of the mechanical behaviour of gas-hydrate bearing clayey sediments from the Gulf of Guinea using in-situ geotechnical measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taleb, F.; Garziglia, S.; Sultan, N.

    2017-12-01

    Expanding needs for energy resources and concerns about climate change have moved industrial and academic interests towards regions where specific thermobaric conditions allow the formation of gas hydrates (GH). While significant advances have been made to characterize the fabric and structure of these metastable geo-compounds, considerable uncertainty remains regarding the impact of their mechanical properties on the seafloor morphology and stability. This is particularly true for gas hydrates-bearing fine-grained sediments, which remain challenging to preserve or synthesise prior to laboratory testing. As a step towards understanding the mechanical consequences of the concentration and distribution of GH in this type of sediments, this work uses acoustic and geotechnical in situ measurements collected in a high gas flux system offshore Nigeria. Acoustic measurements of compressional wave velocity were shown to be convenient means of both detecting and quantifying gas hydrates in marine sediments. Geotechnical data derived from piezocone readings and their distribution in normalised soil classification charts allowed identifying distinct features of gas hydrates-bearing clayey sediments; such as a mechanical behaviour sharing similarities with that of cemented clays. Correlations between acoustic and piezocone data showed that the stiffness and strength tend to generally increase with increasing GH concentrations. However, several sediment intervals sharing the same hydrates concentration have revealed different features of mechanical behaviour. This was linked to the presence of various GH morphologies within the marine sediments such as groups of hydrate veins or massive hydrate nodules. This in-situ approach allowing both understanding the heterogeneous distribution of GH and characterising their host sediment seems key to assess the potential link between seafloor stability and GH dissociation/dissolution caused by human activities or by natural environmental

  12. In-Tank Precipitation Facility (ITP) and H-Tank Farm (HTF) geotechnical report, WSRC-TR-95-0057, Revision 0, Volume 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The SRS/ITP Soil Evaluation Testing Program was developed and performed to investigate the behavior of the soil deposits at the Savannah River Site's In-Tank Precipitation facility under dynamic loading. There were two distinct soil deposits involved in the current testing program: the Tobacco Road formation (sampled at depths between 28 and 100 feet at the site) and the Santee formation (sampled from depths between 170 and 180 feet). The Tobacco Road samples consisted of clayey sands (typically open-quotes SCclose quotes by the Unified Soil Classification System), yellow to reddish-brown in color with fine to medium sized sand particles. The Santee samples were also clayey sands, but nearly white in color. The two types of cyclic triaxial tests performed at the U.C. Berkeley Geotechnical Laboratories as part of this testing program were (a) traditional liquefaction tests and (b) low-amplitude cyclic tests designed to provide information on threshold strains for these specimens. This report describes the results of both the liquefaction testing component of the study, which was limited to the soils from the Tobacco Road formation, and the low-amplitude testing of both Tobacco Road and Santee specimens. Additional information was obtained from some of the specimens by (a) measuring the volumetric strains of many of the specimens when drainage (and reconsolidation) was permitted following liquefaction, or (b) determining the residual stress-strain behavior of other specimens subjected to monotonic loading immediately following liquefaction. This document is Volume 6 of the In-Tank Precipitation Facility (ITP) and H-Tank Farm (HTF) Geotechnical Report, and contains laboratory test results

  13. Geotechnical Applications of the Self-Potential Method. Report 3. Development of Self-Potential Interpretation Techniques for Seepage Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-02-01

    D. V., and Corwin, R. F. 1982. Inversion of Self-Potential Data from the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field , Mexico : Geophysics, Vol 47, No. 6, pp 938...type curves, and shows a field example for which quantitative tech- niques were used to interpret SP data for a geothermal area in terms of heat and...bibliography E Electrode studies DS Dam seepage investigation F In- field seepage investigation G Geothermal investigation L Laboratory measurement of streaming

  14. Evolution of surface-based deformable image registration for adaptive radiotherapy of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richter Anne

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the performance of surface-based deformable image registration (DR for adaptive radiotherapy of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. Methods Based on 13 patients with locally advanced NSCLC, CT images acquired at treatment planning, midway and the end of the radio- (n = 1 or radiochemotherapy (n = 12 course were used for evaluation of DR. All CT images were manually [gross tumor volume (GTV] and automatically [organs-at-risk (OAR lung, spinal cord, vertebral spine, trachea, aorta, outline] segmented. Contours were transformed into 3D meshes using the Pinnacle treatment planning system and corresponding mesh points defined control points for DR with interpolation within the structures. Using these deformation maps, follow-up CT images were transformed into the planning images and compared with the original planning CT images. Results A progressive tumor shrinkage was observed with median GTV volumes of 170 cm3 (range 42 cm3 - 353 cm3, 124 cm3 (19 cm3 - 325 cm3 and 100 cm3 (10 cm3 - 270 cm3 at treatment planning, mid-way and at the end of treatment. Without DR, correlation coefficients (CC were 0.76 ± 0.11 and 0.74 ± 0.10 for comparison of the planning CT and the CT images acquired mid-way and at the end of treatment, respectively; DR significantly improved the CC to 0.88 ± 0.03 and 0.86 ± 0.05 (p = 0.001, respectively. With manual landmark registration as reference, DR reduced uncertainties on the GTV surface from 11.8 mm ± 5.1 mm to 2.9 mm ± 1.2 mm. Regarding the carina and intrapulmonary vessel bifurcations, DR reduced uncertainties by about 40% with residual errors of 4 mm to 6 mm on average. Severe deformation artefacts were observed in patients with resolving atelectasis and pleural effusion, in one patient, where the tumor was located around large bronchi and separate segmentation of the GTV and OARs was not possible, and in one patient, where no clear shrinkage but more a decay of the tumor was observed

  15. A computer vision system for rapid search inspired by surface-based attention mechanisms from human perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Johannes; Park, Jong-Han; Obermayer, Klaus

    2014-12-01

    Humans are highly efficient at visual search tasks by focusing selective attention on a small but relevant region of a visual scene. Recent results from biological vision suggest that surfaces of distinct physical objects form the basic units of this attentional process. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate how such surface-based attention mechanisms can speed up a computer vision system for visual search. The system uses fast perceptual grouping of depth cues to represent the visual world at the level of surfaces. This representation is stored in short-term memory and updated over time. A top-down guided attention mechanism sequentially selects one of the surfaces for detailed inspection by a recognition module. We show that the proposed attention framework requires little computational overhead (about 11 ms), but enables the system to operate in real-time and leads to a substantial increase in search efficiency. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Dual-frequency surface-based Ground-Penetrating Radar (GPR) for the quantitative study of soil-water infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klenk, Patrick; Jaumann, Stefan; Keicher, Viktoria; Roth, Kurt

    2015-04-01

    High-resolution surface-based GPR measurements allow studying the evolution of the capillary fringe in very dynamic hydraulic regimes. We use a dual-frequency surface-based multichannel GPR system to investigate imbibition, drainage, and infiltration in a complicated but known subsurface structure. These hydraulic dynamics are induced by varying the ground water table through pumping water into and out of an observation well or by infiltration with a sprinkler system. The precision of our GPR measurements permits to place close scrutiny on the underlying hydraulic processes. Here, we specifically focus on an experiment featuring high-resolution monitoring of two artificially induced infiltration events into two different kinds of sands at our test site by an eight channel, dual-frequency GPR system measuring at center frequencies of 200 and 600 MHz. During these infiltration events, which lasted for several hours each, 2D-common offset data were acquired along the 20 m center axis of our test site at a time resolution of approximately one radargram per minute. The subsequent relaxation of the system has been monitored by repeated status measurements for about three months. In this presentation, we (i) show the efficacy of our dual-frequency multichannel setup for quantitative studies of both the highly dynamic infiltration phase and the increasingly small variations during subsequent months of relaxation, (ii) assess the currently attainable precision with our commercial GPR instruments, and (iii) discuss the use of observed differences in the GPR response of the different materials for estimating soil hydraulic properties from these datasets.

  17. Sexual Dimorphism of the Human Tibia through Time: Insights into Shape Variation Using a Surface-Based Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Brzobohatá

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a three-dimensional (3D morphometrical assessment of human tibia sexual dimorphism based on whole bone digital representation. To detect shape-size and shape differences between sexes, we used geometric morphometric tools and colour-coded surface deviation maps. The surface-based methodology enabled analysis of sexually dimorphic features throughout the shaft and articular ends of the tibia. The overall study dataset consisted of 183 3D models of adult tibiae from three Czech population subsets, dating to the early medieval (9-10th century (N = 65, early 20th century (N = 61 and 21st-century (N = 57. The time gap between the chronologically most distant and contemporary datasets was more than 1200 years. The results showed that, in all three datasets, sexual dimorphism was pronounced. There were some sex-dimorphic characteristics common to all three samples, such as tuberosity protrusion, anteriorly bowed shaft and relatively larger articular ends in males. Diachronic comparisons also revealed substantial shape variation related to the most dimorphic area. Male/female distinctions showed a consistent temporal trend regarding the location of dimorphic areas (shifting distally with time, while the maximal deviation between male and female digitized surfaces fluctuated and reached the lowest level in the 21st-century sample. Sex determination on a whole-surface basis yielded the lowest return of correct sex assignment in the 20th-century group, which represented the lowest socioeconomic status. The temporal variation could be attributed to changes in living conditions, the decreasing lower limb loading/labour division in the last 12 centuries having the greatest effect. Overall, the results showed that a surface-based approach is successful for analysing complex long bone geometry.

  18. Automated detection of focal cortical dysplasia type II with surface-based magnetic resonance imaging postprocessing and machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Bo; Krishnan, Balu; Adler, Sophie; Wagstyl, Konrad; Hu, Wenhan; Jones, Stephen; Najm, Imad; Alexopoulos, Andreas; Zhang, Kai; Zhang, Jianguo; Ding, Meiping; Wang, Shuang; Wang, Zhong Irene

    2018-04-10

    Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) is a major pathology in patients undergoing surgical resection to treat pharmacoresistant epilepsy. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) postprocessing methods may provide essential help for detection of FCD. In this study, we utilized surface-based MRI morphometry and machine learning for automated lesion detection in a mixed cohort of patients with FCD type II from 3 different epilepsy centers. Sixty-one patients with pharmacoresistant epilepsy and histologically proven FCD type II were included in the study. The patients had been evaluated at 3 different epilepsy centers using 3 different MRI scanners. T1-volumetric sequence was used for postprocessing. A normal database was constructed with 120 healthy controls. We also included 35 healthy test controls and 15 disease test controls with histologically confirmed hippocampal sclerosis to assess specificity. Features were calculated and incorporated into a nonlinear neural network classifier, which was trained to identify lesional cluster. We optimized the threshold of the output probability map from the classifier by performing receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses. Success of detection was defined by overlap between the final cluster and the manual labeling. Performance was evaluated using k-fold cross-validation. The threshold of 0.9 showed optimal sensitivity of 73.7% and specificity of 90.0%. The area under the curve for the ROC analysis was 0.75, which suggests a discriminative classifier. Sensitivity and specificity were not significantly different for patients from different centers, suggesting robustness of performance. Correct detection rate was significantly lower in patients with initially normal MRI than patients with unequivocally positive MRI. Subgroup analysis showed the size of the training group and normal control database impacted classifier performance. Automated surface-based MRI morphometry equipped with machine learning showed robust performance across

  19. Hydrogeological characterization on surface-based investigation phase in the Mizunami underground research laboratory project, in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saegusa, Hiromitsu; Onoe, Hironori; Takeuchi, Shinji; Takeuchi, Ryuji; Ohyama, Takuya

    2007-01-01

    The Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) project is being carried out by Japan Atomic Energy Agency in the Cretaceous Toki granite in the Tono area, central Japan. The MIU project is a purpose-built generic underground research laboratory project that is planned for a broad scientific study of the deep geological environment as a basis of research and development for geological disposal of nuclear wastes. One of the main goals of the MIU project is to establish comprehensive techniques for investigation, analysis, and assessment of the deep geological environment. The MIU project has three overlapping phases: Surface-based Investigation (Phase I), Construction (Phase II) and Operation (Phase III). Hydrogeological investigations using a stepwise process in Phase I have been carried out in order to obtain information on important properties such as, location of water conducting features, hydraulic conductivity and so on. Hydrogeological modeling and groundwater flow simulations in Phase I have been carried out in order to synthesize these investigation results, to evaluate the uncertainty of the hydrogeological model and to identify the main issues for further investigations. Using the stepwise hydrogeological characterization approach and combining the investigation with modeling and simulation, understanding of the hydrogeological environment has been progressively improved. (authors)

  20. Influence of APOE Genotype on Hippocampal Atrophy over Time - An N=1925 Surface-Based ADNI Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolun Li

    Full Text Available The apolipoprotein E (APOE e4 genotype is a powerful risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD. In the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI cohort, we previously reported significant baseline structural differences in APOE e4 carriers relative to non-carriers, involving the left hippocampus more than the right--a difference more pronounced in e4 homozygotes than heterozygotes. We now examine the longitudinal effects of APOE genotype on hippocampal morphometry at 6-, 12- and 24-months, in the ADNI cohort. We employed a new automated surface registration system based on conformal geometry and tensor-based morphometry. Among different hippocampal surfaces, we computed high-order correspondences, using a novel inverse-consistent surface-based fluid registration method and multivariate statistics consisting of multivariate tensor-based morphometry (mTBM and radial distance. At each time point, using Hotelling's T(2 test, we found significant morphological deformation in APOE e4 carriers relative to non-carriers in the full cohort as well as in the non-demented (pooled MCI and control subjects at each follow-up interval. In the complete ADNI cohort, we found greater atrophy of the left hippocampus than the right, and this asymmetry was more pronounced in e4 homozygotes than heterozygotes. These findings, combined with our earlier investigations, demonstrate an e4 dose effect on accelerated hippocampal atrophy, and support the enrichment of prevention trial cohorts with e4 carriers.

  1. Characterizing a New Surface-Based Shortwave Cloud Retrieval Technique, Based on Transmitted Radiance for Soil and Vegetated Surface Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick J. McBride

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an approach using the GEneralized Nonlinear Retrieval Analysis (GENRA tool and general inverse theory diagnostics including the maximum likelihood solution and the Shannon information content to investigate the performance of a new spectral technique for the retrieval of cloud optical properties from surface based transmittance measurements. The cumulative retrieval information over broad ranges in cloud optical thickness (τ, droplet effective radius (re, and overhead sun angles is quantified under two conditions known to impact transmitted radiation; the variability in land surface albedo and atmospheric water vapor content. Our conclusions are: (1 the retrieved cloud properties are more sensitive to the natural variability in land surface albedo than to water vapor content; (2 the new spectral technique is more accurate (but still imprecise than a standard approach, in particular for τ between 5 and 60 and re less than approximately 20 μm; and (3 the retrieved cloud properties are dependent on sun angle for clouds of  from 5 to 10 and re < 10 μm, with maximum sensitivity obtained for an overhead sun.

  2. GIS modeling of seismic vulnerability of residential fabrics considering geotechnical, structural, social and physical distance indicators in Tehran using multi-criteria decision-making techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaie, F.; Panahi, M.

    2015-03-01

    The main issue in determining seismic vulnerability is having a comprehensive view of all probable damages related to earthquake occurrence. Therefore, taking into account factors such as peak ground acceleration at the time of earthquake occurrence, the type of structures, population distribution among different age groups, level of education and the physical distance to hospitals (or medical care centers) and categorizing them into four indicators of geotechnical, structural, social and physical distance to needed facilities and from dangerous ones will provide us with a better and more exact outcome. To this end, this paper uses the analytic hierarchy process to study the importance of criteria or alternatives and uses the geographical information system to study the vulnerability of Tehran to an earthquake. This study focuses on the fact that Tehran is surrounded by three active and major faults: Mosha, North Tehran and Rey. In order to comprehensively determine the vulnerability, three scenarios are developed. In each scenario, seismic vulnerability of different areas in Tehran is analyzed and classified into four levels: high, medium, low and safe. The results show that, regarding seismic vulnerability, the faults of Mosha, North Tehran and Rey make, respectively, 6, 16 and 10% of Tehran highly vulnerable, while 34, 14 and 27% is safe.

  3. GIS modelling of seismic vulnerability of residential fabrics considering geotechnical, structural, social and physical distance indicators in Tehran city using multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaie, F.; Panahi, M.

    2014-09-01

    The main issue in determining the seismic vulnerability is having a comprehensive view to all probable damages related to earthquake occurrence. Therefore, taking factors such as peak ground acceleration (PGA) in the time of earthquake occurrence, the type of structures, population distribution among different age groups, level of education, the physical distance to a hospitals (or medical care centers), etc. into account and categorized under four indicators of geotechnical, structural, social and physical distance to needed facilities and distance from dangerous ones will provide us with a better and more exact outcome. To this end in this paper using analytic hierarchy process (AHP), the amount of importance of criteria or alternatives are determined and using geographical information system (GIS), the vulnerability of Tehran metropolitan as a result of an earthquake, is studied. This study focuses on the fact that Tehran is surrounded by three active and major faults of the Mosha, North Tehran and Rey. In order to comprehensively determine the vulnerability, three scenarios are developed. In each scenario, seismic vulnerability of different areas in Tehran city is analysed and classified into four levels including high, medium, low and safe. The results show that regarding seismic vulnerability, the faults of Mosha, North Tehran and Rey respectively make 6, 16 and 10% of Tehran area highly vulnerable and also 34, 14 and 27% are safe.

  4. Visual field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perimetry; Tangent screen exam; Automated perimetry exam; Goldmann visual field exam; Humphrey visual field exam ... Confrontation visual field exam. This is a quick and basic check of the visual field. The health care provider ...

  5. Geotechnical and large-scale numerical studies of direct ultimate storage of fuel elements. Part project I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pahl, A.; Heusermann, S.; Hanisch, J.; Liedtke, L.

    1991-01-01

    Within the framework of geological investigations of the experimental field for thermal simulation of drift emplacement (TSS), a new model of the formation of the Asse structure was worked out. Consequently, that structure is not a typical salt dome, but was formed by a combination of gravitational sliding of the cap rock and halotectonic salt ascent. The TSS experimental field is situated in the center of the Asse structure, north-east of the so-called main saddle. The storage galleries are located completely within the Stassfurt main salt which consists of halotectonically relatively slightly loaded rock salt and anhydrite. The engineering geology exploration concentrated on an improved treatment of core material. A total of about 250 m of core material was considered, paying special attention to stress relaxation cracks occuring very frequently in salt cores. (orig./DG) [de

  6. Final report on the surface-based investigation phase (phase 1) at the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saegusa, Hiromitsu; Matsuoka, Toshiyuki

    2011-03-01

    The Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) Project is a comprehensive research project investigating the deep underground environment within crystalline rock being conducted by Japan Atomic Energy Agency at Mizunami City in Gifu Prefecture, central Japan and its role is defined in 'Framework for Nuclear Energy Policy' by Japan Atomic Energy Commission. The MIU Project has three overlapping phases: Surface-based Investigation phase (Phase I), Construction phase (Phase II), and Operation phase (Phase III), with a total duration of 20 years. The overall project goals of the MIU Project from Phase I through to Phase III are: 1) to establish techniques for investigation, analysis and assessment of the deep geological environment, and 2) to develop a range of engineering for deep underground application. During Phase I, the overall project goals were supported by Phase I goals. For the overall project goals 1), the Phase I goals were set to construct models of the geological environment from all surface-based investigation results that describe the geological environment prior to excavation and predict excavation response. For the overall project goals 2), the Phase I goals were set to formulate detailed design concepts and a construction plan for the underground facilities. This report summarizes the Phase I investigation which was completed in March 2005. The authors believe this report will make an important milestone, since this report clarifies how the Phase I goals are achieved and evaluate the future issues thereby direct the research which will be conducted during Phase II. With regard to the overall project goals 1), 'To establish techniques for investigation, analysis and assessment of the deep geological environment,' a step-wise investigation was conducted by iterating investigation, interpretation, and assessment, thereby understanding of geologic environment was progressively and effectively improved with progress of investigation. An optimal

  7. A surface based approach for cortical thickness comparison between PiB+ and PiB- healthy control subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doré, Vincent; Bourgeat, Pierrick; Fripp, Jurgen; Acosta, Oscar; Chetelat, Gael; Szoeke, Cassandra; Ellis, Kathryn A.; Martins, Ralph N.; Villemagne, Victor; Masters, Colin L.; Ames, David; Rowe, Christopher C.; Salvado, Olivier

    2012-02-01

    β-amyloid has been shown to play a crucial role in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In vivo β-amyloid imaging using [11C]Pittsburgh compound Β (PiB) positron emission tomography has made it possible to analyze the relationship between β-amyloid deposition and different pathological markers involved in AD. PiB allows us to stratify the population between subjects which are likely to have prodromal AD, and those who don't. The comparison of the cortical thickness in these different groups is important to better understanding and detect the first symptoms of the disease which may lead to an earlier therapeutic care to reduce neurone loss. Several techniques have been developed to compare the cortical volume and/or thickness between AD and HC groups. However due to the noise introduced by the cortical thickness estimation and by the registration, these methods do not allow to unveil any major different when comparing prodromal AD groups with healthy control subjects group. To improve our understanding of where initial Alzheimer neurodegeneration occurs in the cortex we have developed a surface based technique, and have applied it to the discrimination between PIB-positive and PiB-negative HCs. We first identify the regions where AD patients show high cortical atrophy by using an AD/PiB- HC vertex-wise T-test. In each of these discriminating regions, comparison between PiB+ HC, PiB- HC and AD are performed. We found some significant differences between the two HC groups in the hippocampus and in the temporal lobe for both hemisphere and in the precuneus and occipital regions only for the left hemisphere.

  8. Geotechnical evaluation of some properties of the physical and chemical soil selected sites in Najaf – Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal R. Mauff

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted on selected soil in the governorate of Al- Najaf, for the purpose of identifying some of the physical and chemical properties and its importance to the establishment of engineering at the site, and based on the investigation of the engineering. For soil investigation, with a 10-borehole test. It was found from the results obtained from field and laboratory work that soil study area like the soil Mesopotamian plain areas where silty clay is high plasticity interspersed with shallow sandy soils of some sites, which need some engineering treatments to improve their quality

  9. Geotechnical design of underground slate mines; Diseño geotécnico de minas subterráneas de pizarra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iglesias Comesaña, C.; Taboada Castro, J.; Arzúa Touriño, J.; Giráldez Pérez, E.; Martín Suárez, J.M.

    2017-09-01

    Slate is one of the most important natural materials in Spain, with a potent extractive and processing industry concentrated in the autonomous communities of Galicia, Castile and León. Thanks to its resistance to external agents, its impermeability and its excellent cleavability, slate is used as for roofing and tiling. Almost all the active exploitations in our country where this resource is extracted are open pit mines, where the exploitation ratios have nearly reached their economic limit, making it necessary to look for alternatives that will allow the mining works to be continued. Underground mining is a solution that offers low exploitation ratios, with low spoil generation. The room-and-pillar method with barrier pillars is usually applied for the exploitation of slate deposits. There are several factors to be taken into account when designing a mine (economic, logistical, geotechnical, technical, environmental…), especially for an underground mine. This study focuses on the geotechnical design process of a room-and-pillar underground mine, based on the tributary area theory, the analysis of the tensions in the ground with numerical methods and the choice of an appropriate reinforcement in view of the expected instabilities. This explanation is completed with an example of a design that includes the estimate exploitation rates and production. [Spanish] La pizarra es uno de los materiales naturales más importantes de España, con una potente industria extractiva y de elaboración concentrada en las comunidades autónomas de Galicia y Castilla y León. Gracias a su resistencia a los agentes externos, a su impermeabilidad y a su excelente fisilidad, la pizarra es utilizada como elemento para techar y para solados. La práctica totalidad de las explotaciones activas en nuestro país extraen este recurso en minas a cielo abierto, cuyos ratios se aproximan al ratio límite económico, haciendo necesaria la búsqueda de una alternativa que permita continuar las

  10. Mars surface-based factory: Computer control of a water treatment system to support a space colony on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brice, R.; Mosley, J.; Willis, D.; Coleman, K.; Martin, C.; Shelby, L.; Kelley, U.; Renfro, E.; Griffith, G.; Warsame, A.

    1989-01-01

    In a continued effort to design a surface-based factory on Mars for the production of oxygen and water, the Design Group at Prairie View A&M University made a preliminary study of the surface and atmospheric composition on Mars and determined the mass densities of the various gases in the martian atmosphere. Based on the initial studies, the design group determined oxygen and water to be the two products that could be produced economically under the martian conditions. Studies were also made on present production techniques to obtain water and oxygen. Analyses were made to evaluate the current methods of production that were adaptable to the martian conditions. The detailed report was contained in an Interim Report submitted to NASA/USRA in Aug. of 1986. Even though the initial effort was the production of oxygen and water, we found it necessary to produce some diluted gases that can be mixed with oxygen to constitute 'breathable' air. In Phase 2--Task 1A, the Prairie View A&M University team completed the conceptual design of a breathable-air manufacturing system, a means of drilling for underground water, and storage of water for future use. The design objective of the team for the 1987-1988 academic year was the conceptual design of an integrated system for the supply of quality water for biological consumption, farming, and residential and industrial use. The design has also been completed. Phase 2--Task 1C is the present task for the Prairie View Design Team. This is a continuation of the previous task, and the continuation of this effort is the investigation into the extraction of water from beneath the surface and an alternative method of extraction from ice formations on the surface of Mars if accessible. In addition to investigation of water extraction, a system for computer control of extraction and treatment was developed with emphasis on fully automated control with robotic repair and maintenance. It is expected that oxygen- and water-producing plants

  11. Phase Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Toshiyuki

    The term phase field has recently become known across many fields of materials science. The meaning of phase field is the spatial and temporal order parameter field defined in a continuum-diffused interface model. By using the phase field order parameters, many types of complex microstructure changes observed in materials science are described effectively. This methodology has been referred to as the phase field method, phase field simulation, phase field modeling, phase field approach, etc. In this chapter, the basic concept and theoretical background for the phase field approach is explained in Sects. 21.1 and 21.2. The overview of recent applications of the phase field method is demonstrated in Sects. 21.3 to 21.6.

  12. Geophysical monitoring of near surface CO2 injection at Svelvik - Learnings from the CO2FieldLab experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querendez, Etor; Romdhane, Anouar; Jordan, Michael; Eliasson, Peder; Grimstad, Alv-Arne

    2014-05-01

    A CO2 migration field laboratory for testing monitoring methods and tools has been established in the glaciofluvial-glaciomarine Holocene deposits of the Svelvik ridge, near Oslo (Norway). At the site, feasibility, sensitivity, acquisition geometry and usefulness of various surface and subsurface monitoring tools are investigated during controlled CO2 injection experiments. In a first stage, a shallow CO2 injection experiment was conducted in September 2011. Approximately 1700 kg of CO2 was injected at 18 m depth below surface in an unconsolidated sand formation. The objectives of this experiment were to (i) detect and, where possible, quantify migrated CO2 concentrations at the surface and very shallow subsurface, (ii) evaluate the sensitivity of the monitoring tools and (iii) study the impact of the vadose zone on observed measurements. Results showed that all deployed monitoring tools (for surface and near-surface gas monitoring, subsurface water monitoring and subsurface geophysical monitoring) where able to detect the presence of CO2 even though the CO2 plume did not migrate vertically as expected in what was thought to be an homogeneous unconsolidated sand structure. The upper part of the site revealed to be more heterogeneous than expected, mainly due to the highly variable lamination and channelling of the morainic sediments and to the presence of pebble and cobble beds sporadically showing throughout the deposits. Building on the learnings from the 18m depth injection experiment, a second experiment is being planned for a deeper injection, at a depth of 65m. Re-processing of the appraisal 2D multi-channel seismic with state-of-the-art processing techniques, like Linear Radon coherent and random noise attenuation and Full Waveform Inversion followed by pre-stack depth migration, corroborate the presence of heterogeneities at the near surface. Based on the re-interpreted seismic sections, a more realistic 3D geomodel, where the complex topography of the site

  13. On guided versus deflected fields in controlled-source electromagnetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swidinsky, Andrei

    2015-06-01

    The detection of electrically resistive targets in applied geophysics is of interest to the hydrocarbon, mining and geotechnical industries. Elongated thin resistive bodies have been extensively studied in the context of offshore hydrocarbon exploration. Such targets guide electromagnetic fields in a process which superficially resembles seismic refraction. On the other hand, compact resistive bodies deflect current in a process which has more similarities to diffraction and scattering. The response of a real geological structure is a non-trivial combination of these elements-guiding along the target and deflection around its edges. In this note the electromagnetic responses of two end-member models are compared: a resistive layer, which guides the electromagnetic signal, and a resistive cylinder, which deflects the fields. Results show that the response of a finite resistive target tends to saturate at a much lower resistivity than a resistive layer, under identical survey configurations. Furthermore, while the guided electromagnetic fields generated by a buried resistive layer contain both anomalous horizontal and vertical components, the process of electromagnetic deflection from a buried resistive cylinder creates mainly anomalous vertical fields. Finally, the transmitter orientation with respect to the position of a finite body is an important survey parameter: when the distance to the target is much less than the host skin depth, a transmitter pointing towards the resistive cylinder will produce a stronger signal than a transmitter oriented azimuthally with respect to the cylinder surface. The opposite situation is observed when the distance to the target is greater than the host skin depth.

  14. A Global Survey and Interactive Map Suite of Deep Underground Facilities; Examples of Geotechnical and Engineering Capabilities, Achievements, Challenges: (Mines, Shafts, Tunnels, Boreholes, Sites and Underground Facilities for Nuclear Waste and Physics R&D)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tynan, M. C.; Russell, G. P.; Perry, F.; Kelley, R.; Champenois, S. T.

    2017-12-01

    This global survey presents a synthesis of some notable geotechnical and engineering information reflected in four interactive layer maps for selected: 1) deep mines and shafts; 2) existing, considered or planned radioactive waste management deep underground studies, sites, or disposal facilities; 3) deep large diameter boreholes, and 4) physics underground laboratories and facilities from around the world. These data are intended to facilitate user access to basic information and references regarding deep underground "facilities", history, activities, and plans. In general, the interactive maps and database [http://gis.inl.gov/globalsites/] provide each facility's approximate site location, geology, and engineered features (e.g.: access, geometry, depth, diameter, year of operations, groundwater, lithology, host unit name and age, basin; operator, management organization, geographic data, nearby cultural features, other). Although the survey is not all encompassing, it is a comprehensive review of many of the significant existing and historical underground facilities discussed in the literature addressing radioactive waste management and deep mined geologic disposal safety systems. The global survey is intended to support and to inform: 1) interested parties and decision makers; 2) radioactive waste disposal and siting option evaluations, and 3) safety case development as a communication tool applicable to any mined geologic disposal facility as a demonstration of historical and current engineering and geotechnical capabilities available for use in deep underground facility siting, planning, construction, operations and monitoring.

  15. Magnetic Fields

    OpenAIRE

    Schöller, Markus; Hubrig, Swetlana

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, we give a brief introduction into the use of the Zeeman effect in astronomy and the general detection of magnetic fields in stars, concentrating on the use of FORS2 for longitudinal magnetic field measurements.

  16. Geotechnical characterization through in situ and laboratory tests of several geological formations present in the route of the Future Fix Connection between Spain and Morocco through Gibraltar Strait; Caracterizacion geotecnica mediante ensayos in situ y de laboratorio de algunas formaciones geologicas presentes en la traza de la Futura Conexion Fija entre Espana y Marruecos a traves del estrecho de Gibraltar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perucho Martinez, A.; Diez Torres, J. A.; Muniz Menendez, M.; Cano Linares, H.; Ruiz Fonticiella, J. M.

    2015-07-01

    CEDEX and SECEGSA (Sociedad Española para la Comunicación Fija a través del Estrecho de Gibraltar), Have been collaborating since a few decades ago to study different technical aspects related to the Fix Connection through the Gibraltar Strait, mainly in relation to the geological and geotechnical properties of the different formations present in the route. In order to do so, many studies of geotechnical characterization of materials, in situ and laboratory testing campaigns have been carried out. Furthermore, they have participated in some Expertise Committees carrying out some advice work related to studies performed by other organizations. This paper presents a brief description of the most relevant aspects of the main geological and geotechnical studies performed related to this Project of the Future Fix Connection and obtained through the study of SECEGSAs extensive data base. Moreover, it includes a synopsis of the geotechnical characterization carried out through in situ and laboratory tests on different Miocene and Eocene formations from the Algeciras Unit, present in the route of the future Fix Connection between Spain and gibraltar through the Gibraltar Strait. (Author)

  17. Geotechnical properties of some organoclays

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Park J, Vipulanandan C, Kim J W and Oh M H 2006 Effects of surfactants and electrolyte solutions on the properties of soil. Environ. Geol. 49: 977–989. Tjong S C 2006 Structural and mechanical properties of polymer nanocomposites. Materials Science and. Engineering 53: 73–197. Tuncan A, Tuncan M, Yalcin M and ...

  18. Handbook for Marine Geotechnical Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    some waterjetting to remove sediment infilling, could provide such information. 2.3.6 Survey Line Spacing For small and relatively low risk...pipe while pumping drilling fluid down the pipe. The fluid carries the soil cuttings to the seafloor surface and is not returned to the ship (open...should be pulled out of the barrel and cut into sections 3 to 6 feet long. The top and bottom of each section and the position of each section in the

  19. Magnetic Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils

    2015-01-01

    of the fluid flow at the top of the core. However, what is measured at or near the surface of the Earth is the superposition of the core field and fields caused by magnetized rocks in the Earth’s crust, by electric currents flowing in the ionosphere, magnetosphere, and oceans, and by currents induced......he Earth has a large and complicated magnetic field, the major part of which is produced by a self-sustaining dynamo operating in the fluid outer core. Magnetic field observations provide one of the few tools for remote sensing the Earth’s deep interior, especially regarding the dynamics...... in the Earth by time-varying external fields. These sources have their specific characteristics in terms of spatial and temporal variations, and their proper separation, based on magnetic measurements, is a major challenge. Such a separation is a prerequisite for remote sensing by means of magnetic field...

  20. Bottom ash from fluidising bed boilers as filler material in district heating pipe culverts. Chemical and geotechnical characterisation; Pannsand som kringfyllnadsmaterial foer fjaerrvaermeroergravar. Kemisk och geoteknisk karaktaerisering av fluidbaeddsand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersson, Roger; Rogbeck, Jan; Suer, Pascal

    2004-01-01

    Bottom ashes from fluid bed boilers have been characterised, both geotechnically and chemically, in order to investigate the possibility to use them as filler material in district heating pipe culverts. Bottom ashes from both biofuel boilers and waste boilers are represented in this project. The companies which ashes have been characterised are Sundsvall Energi AB, Sydkraft OestVaerme AB, Sydkraft MaelarVaerme AB, Eskilstuna Miljoe och Energi, Stora Enso Fors, Soederenergi and Fortum Vaerme. A total of ten ashes have been analysed where three ashes originates from Sundsvall Energi AB, two from Sydkraft OestVaerme AB and one from the each of the remaining companies. The chemical analyses have been performed both on fresh ashes and on ashes aged for three months. The geotechnical analyses performed are grain size distribution, packing abilities and permeability. Chemical analyses performed are total content, available content, leaching tests (leaching both by shaking method and column procedure) and organic analyses (PAH, EOX, TOC, dioxin and fenol). The geotechnical analyses show that the ashes fulfils the demands that are put on the filler material used in district heating pipe culverts. When using the ashes in applications, light compaction should be performed due to the risk of crushing the material which may cause an increased amount of fine material. The leachability of fine material is larger than for coarse material. The ashes are relatively insensitive to precipitation. Bio fuel based bottom ashes have a lower content of environmental affecting substances than waste fuel based ashes. This is also shown in the leaching analyses. The leaching water from fresh ashes contains a higher concentration of leachable components than aged ashes. When aged the pH in the ashes decreases due to carbon uptake and hydration and this makes metals as Pb, Cu, Cr and Zn less mobile. On the other hand, an increase in leachability of Sb, Mo and SO{sub 4} is shown when the ashes