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Sample records for surface-banded liquid dairy

  1. Greenhouse gas emissions from liquid dairy manure: Prediction and mitigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren O.

    2018-01-01

    prediction and mitigation. Although more representative emission factors may be determined at country level, this is both challenging and costly, and effects of management changes for GHG mitigation are not easily quantified. An empirical model of CH4 emissions during storage is discussed that is based......The handling and use of manure on livestock farms contributes to emissions of the greenhouse gases (GHG) CH4 and N2O, especially with liquid manure management. Dairy farms are diverse with respect to manure management, with practices ranging from daily spreading to long-term storage for more...... efficient recycling of manure nutrients for crop production. Opportunities for GHG mitigation will depend on the baseline situation with respect to handling and storage, and therefore prediction and mitigation at the farm level requires a dynamic description of housing systems and storage conditions...

  2. Surface band structures on Nb(001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, B.; Lo, W.; Chien, T.; Leung, T.C.; Lue, C.Y.; Chan, C.T.; Ho, K.M.

    1994-01-01

    We report the joint studies of experimental and theoretical surface band structures of Nb(001). Angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy was used to determine surface-state dispersions along three high-symmetry axes bar Γ bar M, bar Γ bar X, and bar M bar X in the surface Brillouin zone. Ten surface bands have been identified. The experimental data are compared to self-consistent pseudopotential calculations for the 11-layer Nb(001) slabs that are either bulk terminated or fully relaxed (with a 12% contraction for the first interlayer spacing). The band calculations for a 12% surface-contracted slab are in better agreement with the experimental results than those for a bulk-terminated slab, except for a surface resonance near the Fermi level, which is related to the spin-orbit interaction. The charge profiles for all surface states or resonances have been calculated. Surface contraction effects on the charge-density distribution and the energy position of surface states and resonances will also be discussed

  3. Municipal wastewater biological nutrient removal driven by the fermentation liquid of dairy wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Chen, Yinguang; Wu, Jiang

    2017-11-01

    Carbon substrate is required by biological nutrient removal (BNR) microorganism, but it is usually insufficient in the influent of many municipal wastewater treatment plants. In this study the use of ethanol-enriched fermentation liquid, which was derived from dairy wastewater, as the preferred carbon substrate of BNR was reported. First, the application of dairy wastewater and food processing wastewater and their fermentation liquid as the carbon substrate of BNR was compared in the short-term tests. The fermented wastewater showed higher BNR performance than the unfermented one, and the fermentation liquid of dairy wastewater (FL-DW), which was obtained under pH 8 and fermentation time of 6 day, exhibited the highest phosphorus (95.5%) and total nitrogen (97.6%) removal efficiencies due to its high ethanol content (57.9%). Then, the long-term performance of FL-DW acting as the carbon substrate of BNR was compared with that of acetate and ethanol, and the FL-DW showed the greatest phosphorus and total nitrogen removal. Further investigation showed that the use of FL-DW caused the highest polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) synthesis in BNR microbial cells, and more PHAs were used for phosphorus uptake and denitrification rather than glycogen synthesis and microbial growth. The FL-DW can be used as a preferred carbon substrate for BNR microbes. AB: aerobic end sludge active biomass; BNR: biological nutrient removal; DW: dairy wastewater; FL-DW: fermentation liquid of dairy wastewater; FPW: food processing wastewater; FL-FPW: fermentation liquid of food processing wastewater; PHAs: polyhydroxyalkanoates; PHB: poly-3-hydroxybutyrate; PHV: poly-3-hydroxyvalerate; PH2MV: poly-3-hydroxy-2- methylvalerate; PAOs: phosphorus accumulating organisms; SBR: sequencing batch reactor; SOP: soluble ortho-phosphorus; TN: total nitrogen; TSS: total suspended solids; VSS: volatile suspended solids; VFAs: volatile fatty acids; WWTPs: wastewater treatment plants.

  4. Impact of Anaerobic Digestion of Liquid Dairy Manure on Ammonia Volatilization Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koirala, K.

    2013-12-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the effect of anaerobic digestion (AD) on the mechanism of ammonia volatilization from liquid dairy manure, in storage or treatment lagoon, prior to land application. Physical-chemical properties of liquid dairy manure, which may affect ammonia volatilization process, were determined before and after AD. The properties of interest included: particle size distribution (PSD), total solids (TS), volatile solids (VS), viscosity, pH, total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN), and ionic strength (IS). The overall mass transfer coefficient of ammonia (KoL) and the NH3 fraction of TAN (β) for the undigested (UD) and AD manures were then experimentally determined in a laboratory convective emission chamber (CEC) at a constant wind speed of 1.5 m s-1 and fixed air temperature of 25 °C at liquid manure temperatures of 15, 25, and 35 °C. The PSD indicated non-normal left skewed distribution for both AD and UD manures particles, suggestive of heavier concentrations of particles towards the lower particle size range. The volume median diameters (VMD) for solids from UD and AD were not significantly different (p= 0.65), but the geometric standard deviations (GSD) were significantly different (p = 0.001), indicating slightly larger particles but more widely distributed solids in UD than AD manure. Results also indicated significantly higher pH, TAN, ionic strength (IS) and viscosity in AD manure. The KoL and β for AD manure determined under identical conditions (air temperature, liquid temperature, and airflow) were significantly higher (p > 0.05) than for UD manure. Overall, these findings suggest that AD of dairy manure significantly increased initial ammonia volatilization potential from liquid dairy manure; with the largest increase (~62%) emanating from increased ammonium dissociation. The initial flux of ammonia, during the experiment period, was ~84% more from AD than in UD dairy manure. Keywords. Process based models, mass transfer

  5. Enhancing the biomethane potential of liquid dairy cow manure by addition of solid manure fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Israel; Figueroa-González, Ivonne; Miguel, José Ángel; Bonilla-Morte, Luis; Quijano, Guillermo

    2016-12-01

    To assess the effect of adding solid manure fractions on the biomethane potential (BMP) of liquid dairy cow manure and on the biokinetic parameters of the process. The methanogenic potential of liquid dairy cow manure was strongly effected by adding a solid manure fraction. The 90/10 % (w/w) liquid/solid manure fraction mixture was the best substrate for CH 4 production. This substrate mixture improved by 50 % the final CH 4 production per g substrate and decreased the lag time by 220 % relative to the reference BMP test without the addition. Moreover, the addition of 20 % solid manure fraction adversely affected both the final CH 4 production and the maximum methane production rate, while increased the lag time by 400 % compared to the reference BMP test without addition. Liquid dairy cow manure should be supplemented with no more than 10 % of solid manure fraction in order to improve the biomethane potential of this important agro-industrial residue.

  6. Effects of solid-liquid separation and storage on monensin attenuation in dairy waste management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafner, Sarah C; Watanabe, Naoko; Harter, Thomas; Bergamaschi, Brian A; Parikh, Sanjai J

    2017-04-01

    Environmental release of veterinary pharmaceuticals has been of regulatory concern for more than a decade. Monensin is a feed additive antibiotic that is prevalent throughout the dairy industry and is excreted in dairy waste. This study investigates the potential of dairy waste management practices to alter the amount of monensin available for release into the environment. Analysis of wastewater and groundwater from two dairy farms in California consistently concluded that monensin is most present in lagoon water and groundwater downgradient of lagoons. Since the lagoons represent a direct source of monensin to groundwater, the effect of waste management, by mechanical screen separation and lagoon aeration, on aqueous monensin concentration was investigated through construction of lagoon microcosms. The results indicate that monensin attenuation is not improved by increased solid-liquid separation prior to storage in lagoons, as monensin is rapidly desorbed after dilution with water. Monensin is also shown to be easily degraded in lagoon microcosms receiving aeration, but is relatively stable and available for leaching under typical anaerobic lagoon conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of solid-liquid separation and storage on monensin attenuation in dairy waste management systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafner, Sarah C.; Watanabe, Naoko; Harter, Thomas; Bergamaschi, Brian; Parikh, Sanjai J.

    2017-01-01

    Environmental release of veterinary pharmaceuticals has been of regulatory concern for more than a decade. Monensin is a feed additive antibiotic that is prevalent throughout the dairy industry and is excreted in dairy waste. This study investigates the potential of dairy waste management practices to alter the amount of monensin available for release into the environment. Analysis of wastewater and groundwater from two dairy farms in California consistently concluded that monensin is most present in lagoon water and groundwater downgradient of lagoons. Since the lagoons represent a direct source of monensin to groundwater, the effect of waste management, by mechanical screen separation and lagoon aeration, on aqueous monensin concentration was investigated through construction of lagoon microcosms. The results indicate that monensin attenuation is not improved by increased solid-liquid separation prior to storage in lagoons, as monensin is rapidly desorbed after dilution with water. Monensin is also shown to be easily degraded in lagoon microcosms receiving aeration, but is relatively stable and available for leaching under typical anaerobic lagoon conditions.

  8. Antifouling Biomimetic Liquid-Infused Stainless Steel: Application to Dairy Industrial Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouaghi, Sawsen; Six, Thierry; Bellayer, Séverine; Moradi, Sona; Hatzikiriakos, Savvas G; Dargent, Thomas; Thomy, Vincent; Coffinier, Yannick; André, Christophe; Delaplace, Guillaume; Jimenez, Maude

    2017-08-09

    Fouling is a widespread and costly issue, faced by all food-processing industries. Particularly, in the dairy sector, where thermal treatments are mandatory to ensure product safety, heat-induced fouling represents up to 80% of the total production costs. Significant environmental impacts, due the massive consumption of water and energy, are also to deplore. Fouling control solutions are thus desperately needed, as they would lead to substantial financial gains as well as tremendous progress toward eco-responsible processes. This work aims at presenting a novel and very promising dairy fouling-mitigation strategy, inspired by nature, and to test its antifouling performances in real industrial conditions. Slippery liquid-infused surfaces were successfully designed directly on food grade stainless steel, via femtosecond laser ablation, followed by fluorosilanization and impregnation with an inert perfluorinated oil. Resulting hydrophobic surfaces (water contact angle of 112°) exhibited an extremely slippery nature (contact angle hysteresis of 0.6°). Outstanding fouling-release performances were obtained for these liquid-infused surfaces as absolutely no trace of dairy deposit was found after 90 min of pasteurization test in pilot-scale equipment followed by a short water rinse.

  9. The Addition of Hatchery Liquid Waste to Dairy Manure Improves Anaerobic Digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WRT Lopes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to determine the optimal inclusion level of liquid egg hatchery waste for the anaerobic co-digestion of dairy cattle manure. A completely randomized experimental was applied, with seven treatments (liquid hatchery waste to cattle manure ratios of0: 100, 5:95, 10:90, 15:85, 20:80, 25:75 and 30:70, with five replicates (batch digester model each. The evaluated variables were disappearance of total solids (TS, volatile solids (VS, and neutral detergent fiber (NDF, and specific production of biogas and of methane. Maximum TS and VS disappearance of 41.3% and 49.6%, were obtained at 15.5% and 16.0% liquid hatchery waste inclusion levels. The addition of 22.3% liquid hatchery considerably reduced NDF substrate content (53.2%. Maximum specific biogas production was obtained with 17% liquid hatchery waste, with the addition of 181.7 and 229.5 L kg-1TS and VS, respectively. The highest methane production, at 120.1 and 151.8 L CH4 kg-1TS and VS, was obtained with the inclusion of 17.5 and 18.0% liquid hatchery waste, respectively. The addition of liquid hatchery waste atratios of up to 15.5%in co-digestion with cattle manure reduced solid and fiber levels in the effluent, and improved biogas and methane production.

  10. Application of liquid semen technology under the seasonal dairy production system in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, D H; Standley, N T; Xu, Z Z

    2018-01-16

    Systems for preserving semen in liquid form for artificial insemination were developed before cryopreserved semen became widely available in the 1960s. Advantages of liquid semen include reduced number of sperm per dose, reduced storage and transportation costs, increased insemination speed and safety in the field. A liquid semen dose requires one tenth the sperm number in a frozen semen dose to achieve equivalent fertility (24 day non-return rate: 67.6% for liquid versus 67.8% for frozen). The main disadvantage of liquid semen is its relatively short shelf life, thus limiting its application mainly to countries, like New Zealand and Ireland, with predominantly seasonal dairy production systems. Nevertheless, successful application of liquid semen technology can improve the rate of genetic gain by increasing the utilization of elite sires. This brief review covers the principles of liquid semen preservation and describes why and how this technology is implemented by Livestock Improvement Corporation in New Zealand. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Spatiotemporal soil organic carbon dynamics in irrigated corn silage-alfalfa production systems receiving liquid dairy manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accurately measuring soil organic C (SOC) stock changes over time is essential for verifying agronomic management effects on C sequestration. This study quantified the spatial and temporal changes in SOC stocks on adjacent 65-ha corn silage-alfalfa production fields receiving liquid dairy manure in...

  12. Effects of feeding betaine-containing liquid supplement to transition dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, A P A; Bernard, J K; Guo, J-R; Weng, X-S; Emanuele, S; Davis, R; Dahl, G E; Tao, S

    2017-02-01

    Betaine is a natural compound found in sugar beets that serves as a methyl donor and organic osmolyte when fed to animals. The objective was to evaluate the effect of feeding betaine-containing molasses on performance of transition dairy cows during late summer in 2 trials. In early September, cows were randomly assigned to betaine (BET) or control (CON) groups either shortly after dry off (trial 1; n = 10 per treatment) or 24 d before calving (trial 2; n = 8 per treatment) based on parity and previous mature equivalent milk yield. Cows were fed common diets supplemented either with a liquid supplement made of molasses from sugar cane and condensed beet solubles containing betaine [BET, 89.1 g/kg of dry matter (DM)] or a sugar cane molasses-based liquid supplement without betaine (CON) until 8 wk postpartum. The liquid supplements had similar nutrient contents and were fed at a rate of 1.1 and 1.4 kg DM/d for pre- and postpartum cows, respectively. Starting at their entry in the studies, cows were housed in the same freestall barn without a cooling system. After calving, all cows were housed in the same barn cooled by misters and fans and milked thrice daily. Intake was recorded daily and body weight and body condition score were assessed every 2 wk. Milk yield was recorded at each milking and composition was analyzed weekly. Blood samples were collected weekly from a subset of cows to assess concentrations of metabolites and AA. No treatment effects were apparent for DM intake and body weight in the prepartum and postpartum periods. For cows enrolled at dry off, BET supported higher milk yield (45.1 vs. 41.9 kg/d) and fat content (4.78 vs. 4.34%) and elevated plasma concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate in early lactation compared to CON. However, no differences were observed for milk yield, most milk component contents and yields, and blood metabolites between treatments for cows enrolled during the close-up period. Compared to cows

  13. Pathogen inactivation in liquid dairy manure during anaerobic and aerobic digestions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, S.; Pandey, P.; Castillo, A. R.; Vaddella, V. K.

    2014-12-01

    Controlling manure-borne pathogens such as E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes are crucial for protecting surface and ground water as well as mitigating risks to human health. In California dairy farms, flushing of dairy manure (mainly animal feces and urine) from freestall barns and subsequent liquid-solid manure separation is a common practice for handling animal waste. The liquid manure fraction is generally pumped into the settling ponds and it goes into aerobic and/or anaerobic lagoons for extended period of time. Considering the importance of controlling pathogens in animal waste, the objective of the study was to understand the effects of anaerobic and aerobic digestions on the survival of three human pathogens in animal waste. The pathogen inactivation was assessed at four temperatures (30, 35, 42, and 50 °C), and the relationships between temperature and pathogen decay were estimated. Results showed a steady decrease of E. coli levels in aerobic and anaerobic digestion processes over the time; however, the decay rates varied with pathogens. The effect of temperature on Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes survival was different than the E. coli survival. In thermophilic temperatures (42 and 50 °C), decay rate was considerable greater compared to the mesophilic temperatures (30 and 35°C). The E. coli log reductions at 50 °C were 2.1 in both aerobic and anaerobic digestions after 13 days of incubation. The Salmonella spp. log reductions at 50 °C were 5.5 in aerobic digestion, and 5.9 in anaerobic digestion. The Listeria monocytogenes log reductions at 50 °C were 5.0 in aerobic digestion, and 5.6 in anaerobic digestion. The log reduction of E. coli, Salmonella spp., and Listeria monocytogens at 30 °C in aerobic environment were 0.1, 4.7, and 5.6, respectively. In anaerobic environment, the corresponding reductions were 0.4, 4.3, and 5.6, respectively. We anticipate that the outcomes of the study will help improving the

  14. Production performance and milk fatty acids profile in grazing dairy cows offered ground corn or liquid molasses as the sole supplemental nonstructural carbohydrate source

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to compare the effects of corn meal or liquid molasses fed as the sole supplemental nonstructural carbohydrate source on milk yield and composition, milk fatty acids, and N use efficiency in grazing dairy cows. Ten multiparous organically-certified Jersey cows averagi...

  15. Quantitative measurement of vitamin K2 (menaquinones) in various fermented dairy products using a reliable high-performance liquid chromatography method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoury, E; Jourdon, K; Boyaval, P; Fourcassié, P

    2013-03-01

    We evaluated menaquinone contents in a large set of 62 fermented dairy products samples by using a new liquid chromatography method for accurate quantification of lipo-soluble vitamin K(2), including distribution of individual menaquinones. The method used a simple and rapid purification step to remove matrix components in various fermented dairy products 3 times faster than a reference preparation step. Moreover, the chromatography elution time was significantly shortened and resolution and efficiency were optimized. We observed wide diversity of vitamin K(2) contents in the set of fermented dairy products, from undetectable to 1,100 ng/g of product, and a remarkable diversity of menaquinone forms among products. These observations relate to the main microorganism species currently in the different fermented product technologies. The major form in this large set of fermented dairy products was menaquinone (MK)-9, and contents of MK-9 and MK-8 forms were correlated, that of MK-9 being around 4 times that of MK-8, suggesting that microorganisms able to produce MK-9 also produce MK-8. This was not the case for the other menaquinones, which were produced independently of each other. Finally, no obvious link was established between MK-9 content and fat content or pH of the fermented dairy products. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Development of a mechanistic model to represent the dynamics of liquid flow out of the rumen and to predict the rate of passage of liquid in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, S; Lanzas, C; Tedeschi, L O; Fox, D G

    2007-02-01

    , the model accounted for 40, 70, and 90% of the variation, with root mean square prediction errors of 9.25 kg, 1.84 kg/h, and 0.013 h(-1) for liquid content in the rumen, liquid outflow rate, and fractional rate of liquid passage, respectively. A sensitivity analysis showed that dry matter intake, followed by body weight and time spent eating, were the most important input variables for predicting the dynamics of liquid flow from the rumen. We conclude that this model can be used to understand the factors that affect the dynamics of liquid flow out of the rumen and to predict the fractional rate of liquid passage from the RR in dairy cattle.

  17. Intensive liquid feeding of dairy calves with a medium crude protein milk replacer: Effects on performance, rumen, and blood parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula, M R; Oltramari, C E; Silva, J T; Gallo, M P C; Mourão, G B; Bittar, C M M

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different liquid-feeding systems using a medium crude protein milk replacer on performance, rumen, and blood parameters. Thirty newborn Holstein calves were blocked according to birth weight and date of birth, and randomly distributed to different liquid-feeding systems: conventional (4 L/d), intensive (8 L/d), or step-up/step-down (wk 1, 4 L/d; wk 2 to 6, 8 L/d; wk 7 and 8, 4 L/d). The commercial milk replacer (12.5% solids, 20.2% crude protein, 15.6% fat) was fed twice daily (0700 and 1700 h) until calves were weaned, at 8 wk of age. Calves were individually housed in wood hutches, with free access to water and starter concentrate, and to hay only after weaning. They were followed through 10 wk of age. Milk replacer and starter intake were inversely affected by feeding system. After weaning, starter intake and hay intake were similar among feeding systems. Total dry matter intake was higher during the liquid-feeding period for calves on the intensive system compared to calves on the conventional system, but conventional feeding resulted in the highest dry matter intake after weaning. Feed efficiency was similar among feeding systems before and after weaning. Average body weight and daily gain were not affected by feeding system before or after weaning. During liquid feeding, diarrhea occurrence was lower for calves on the conventional system; however, when calves on the step-up/step-down system were fed lower volumes of liquid feed, diarrhea occurrence was similar to that of calves on the conventional system. Plasma concentrations of β-hydroxybutyrate were higher for calves on the conventional system, reflecting starter intake. Rumen pH, short-chain fatty acids, and N-NH 3 were not affected by feeding system. Feeding higher volumes of milk replacer with a medium crude protein content had no beneficial effect on the performance of calves up to 10 wk of age. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science

  18. Rapid ion-pair liquid chromatographic method for the determination of fenbendazole marker residue in fermented dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vousdouka, Venetia I; Papapanagiotou, Elias P; Angelidis, Apostolos S; Fletouris, Dimitrios J

    2017-04-15

    A simple, rapid and sensitive liquid chromatographic method that allows for the quantitative determination of fenbendazole residues in fermented dairy products is described. Samples were extracted with a mixture of acetonitrile-phosphoric acid and the extracts were defatted with hexane to be further partitioned into ethyl acetate. The organic layer was evaporated to dryness and the residue was reconstituted in mobile phase. Separation of fenbendazole and its sulphoxide, sulphone, and p-hydroxylated metabolites was carried out isocratically with a mobile phase containing both positively and negatively charged pairing ions. Overall recoveries ranged from 79.8 to 88.8%, while precision data, based on within and between days variations, suggested an overall relative standard deviation of 6.3-11.0%. The detection and quantification limits were lower than 9 and 21μg/kg, respectively. The method has been successfully applied to quantitate fenbendazole residues in Feta cheese and yoghurt made from spiked and incurred ovine milk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Yeast mixture of liquid beer and cassava pulp with rice straw for the growth of dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamphayae, Sukanya; Kumagai, Hajime; Butcha, Patima; Ritruechai, Viroj; Udchachon, Supachai

    2017-03-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of mixtures of liquid brewer's yeast (LBY) and cassava pulp (CVP) with rice straw (RS) on feed intake, digestibility, rumen fermentation, and growth of dairy heifers. Sixteen Holstein crossbred heifers (13.8 ± 1.6 months old, 210 ± 23 kg body weight (BW)) were randomly allocated to four feeding treatments with four replications, which were 0:0:100 (RS), 0:70:30 (0%LBY), 20:50:30 (20%LBY), and 50:20:30 (50%LBY), respectively, for LBY/CVP/RS on a fresh matter basis. The heifers were offered conventional concentrate at 1.5% initial body weight daily and fed the treatment diets ad libitum. Average daily gain and feed intake were not significantly different among the treatments. The heifers fed 50%LBY had the highest crude protein (CP) intake and DM, OM, and CP digestibility (P < 0.05). The ruminal pH did not differ significantly among treatments, while NH 3 -N was the highest (P < 0.05) in 50%LBY. Total volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations and the molar proportion of each VFA were not significantly different among the treatments. Blood urea nitrogen concentrations of 50%LBY were the highest among the treatments (P < 0.05). The results indicated that 50%LBY improved CP digestibility.

  20. Utilization Of Golden Snail As Alternative Liquid Organic Fertilizer LOF On Paddy Farmers In Dairi Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameilia Zuliyanti Siregar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Golden snail Pomaceae canaliculata is a pest of rice plants and used as a food source to be processed into satay seasoning spices biscuits pastry candy crackers animal feed and fertilizer. In Lae Parira village the golden snail is very diverse. Because of this reason the preliminary study and utilization of golden snail used for of liquid organic fertilizer called LOF or and microorganisms local MOL. The golden snail is obtained from a livestock that is still alive and then washed boiled and removed from its shell. The golden snail meat is cut into small pieces separated from the intestine and other visceral organs. Flesh of golden snail give coconut water dilute brown sugar EM4 and fermentation until 10-14 days. The use of mashed LOF can be sprayed on the surface of the soil or all parts of the plant. For fertilization in rice plants the recommended dose of 250 ml15 liters of water is sprayed on the rice age 10 days after planting and repeated again at interval distance of 15 days. Fertilization on the plant recommended 200ml 15 liters of water sprayed on leaves and soil 7 days after planting and repeated every 7 days. The golden snail is potensial used for fertilizer in paddy plantation environmentally.

  1. Treating separated liquid dairy manure derived from mesophilic anaerobic digester effluent to reduce indicator pathogens and Salmonella concentrations for use as organic fertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Elizabeth W; Ogejo, Jactone A; Krometis, Leigh Anne H

    2015-01-01

    Dairy manure has much potential for use as an organic fertilizer in the United States. However, the levels of indicator organisms and pathogens in dairy manure can be ten times higher than stipulated use guidelines by the National Organic Standards Board (NOSB) even after undergoing anaerobic digestion at mesophilic temperatures. The objective of this study was to identify pasteurization temperatures and treatment durations to reduce fecal coliforms, E. coli, and Salmonella concentrations in separated liquid dairy manure (SLDM) of a mesophilic anaerobic digester effluent to levels sufficient for use as an organic fertilizer. Samples of SLDM were pasteurized at 70, 75, and 80°C for durations of 0 to 120 min. Fecal coliforms, E. coli, and Salmonella concentrations were assessed via culture-based techniques. All of the tested pasteurization temperatures and duration combinations reduced microbial concentrations to levels below the NOSB guidelines. The fecal coliforms and E. coli reductions ranged 2from 0.76 to 1.34 logs, while Salmonella concentrations were reduced by more than 99% at all the pasteurization temperatures and active treatment durations.

  2. Comparison of pregnancy outcomes using either an Ovsynch or a Cosynch protocol for the first timed AI with liquid or frozen semen in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchardt, S; Schüller, L; Wolf, L; Wesenauer, C; Heuwieser, W

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate fertility to the first timed AI (TAI) using either liquid semen or frozen semen after an Ovsynch or a Cosynch protocol in lactating dairy cows. The hypothesis was that there is an increase in fertility to the first TAI when cows are inseminated with liquid semen compared to that when frozen semen is used in a Cosynch protocol. Lactating dairy cows (n = 1724; 540 primiparous, 1184 multiparous) from 9 commercial dairy farms were enrolled on a weekly basis to facilitate first timed AI. Two experiments were conducted. In experiment 1, all cows received GnRH, 7 d later PGF 2α , and then received one of the following treatments: 1) GnRH + TAI with liquid semen 56 h after PGF 2α ; 2) GnRH + TAI with frozen semen 56 h after PGF 2α ; 3) GnRH 56 h after PGF 2α  + TAI with liquid semen 12-16 h after the second GnRH; 4) GnRH 56 h after PGF 2α  + TAI with frozen semen 12-16 h after the second GnRH. In experiment 2, all cows received GnRH, 7 d later PGF 2α , and then received treatments 3 or 4 as described for experiment 1. Number of sperm per straw was 20 × 10 6 sperm/straw and 10 × 10 6 sperm/straw for frozen and liquid semen, respectively. Pregnancy diagnosis was performed by ultrasound scanning at 39 d after TAI. In experiment 1 (n = 1263), there was an interaction of semen preservation method by TAI protocol. Cows inseminated with liquid semen concurrently with the second GnRH (Cosynch-56) achieved greater pregnancy per AI (P/AI) than cows inseminated with frozen semen using the same synchronization protocol (20.0% vs. 27.5%; P = 0.032). There was no effect of semen preservation method (liquid semen 32.3% vs. frozen semen 28.6%; P = 0.330) when cows were inseminated approximately 16 h after the second GnRH injection (Ovsynch-56). Parity affected P/AI with primiparous having a greater P/AI than multiparous cows (34.8% vs. 20.2%; P = 0.001). In experiment 2 (n = 377), there was no effect of

  3. Nutrients and sediment in frozen-ground runoff from no-till fields receiving liquid-dairy and solid-beef manures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komiskey, Matthew J.; Stuntebeck, Todd D.; Frame, Dennis R.; Madison, Fred W.

    2011-01-01

    Nutrients and sediment in surface runoff from frozen agricultural fields were monitored within three small (16.0 ha [39.5 ac] or less), adjacent basins at a no-till farm in southwest Wisconsin during four winters from 2003 to 2004 through 2006 to 2007. Runoff depths and flow-weighted constituent concentrations were compared to determine the impacts of surface-applied liquid-dairy or solid-beef manure to frozen and/or snow-covered ground. Despite varying the manure type and the rate and timing of applications, runoff depths were not significantly different among basins within each winter period. Sediment losses were low (generally less than 22 kg ha−1 [20 lb ac−1] in any year) and any statistical differences in sediment concentrations among basins were not related to the presence or absence of manure or the amount of runoff. Concentrations and losses of total nitrogen and total phosphorus were significantly increased in basins that had either manure type applied less than one week preceding runoff. These increases occurred despite relatively low application rates. Lower concentrations and losses were measured in basins that had manure applied in fall and early winter and an extended period of time (months) had elapsed before the first runoff event. The highest mean, flow-weighted concentrations of total nitrogen (31.8 mg L−1) and total phosphorus (10.9 mg L−1) occurred in winter 2003 to 2004, when liquid-dairy manure was applied less than one week before runoff. On average, dissolved phosphorus accounted for over 80% of all phosphorus measured in runoff during frozen-ground periods. The data collected as part of this study add to the limited information on the quantity and quality of frozen-ground runoff at field edges, and the results highlight the importance of manure management decisions during frozen-ground periods to minimize nutrients lost in surface runoff.

  4. Orbital-angular-momentum based origin of Rashba-type surface band splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seung Ryong; Kim, Choong H; Yu, Jaejun; Han, Jung Hoon; Kim, Changyoung

    2011-10-07

    We propose that the existence of local orbital angular momentum (OAM) on the surfaces of high-Z materials plays a crucial role in the formation of Rashba-type surface band splitting. Local OAM state in a Bloch wave function produces an asymmetric charge distribution (electric dipole). The surface-normal electric field then aligns the electric dipole and results in chiral OAM states and the relevant Rashba-type splitting. Therefore, the band splitting originates from electric dipole interaction, not from the relativistic Zeeman splitting as proposed in the original Rashba picture. The characteristic spin chiral structure of Rashba states is formed through the spin-orbit coupling and thus is a secondary effect to the chiral OAM. Results from first-principles calculations on a single Bi layer under an external electric field verify the key predictions of the new model.

  5. Dairy goat kids fed liquid diets in substitution of goat milk and slaughtered at different ages: an economic viability analysis using Monte Carlo techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knupp, L S; Veloso, C M; Marcondes, M I; Silveira, T S; Silva, A L; Souza, N O; Knupp, S N R; Cannas, A

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the economic viability of producing dairy goat kids fed liquid diets in alternative of goat milk and slaughtered at two different ages. Forty-eight male newborn Saanen and Alpine kids were selected and allocated to four groups using a completely randomized factorial design: goat milk (GM), cow milk (CM), commercial milk replacer (CMR) and fermented cow colostrum (FC). Each group was then divided into two groups: slaughter at 60 and 90 days of age. The animals received Tifton hay and concentrate ad libitum. The values of total costs of liquid and solid feed plus labor, income and average gross margin were calculated. The data were then analyzed using the Monte Carlo techniques with the @Risk 5.5 software, with 1000 iterations of the variables being studied through the model. The kids fed GM and CMR generated negative profitability values when slaughtered at 60 days (US$ -16.4 and US$ -2.17, respectively) and also at 90 days (US$ -30.8 and US$ -0.18, respectively). The risk analysis showed that there is a 98% probability that profitability would be negative when GM is used. In this regard, CM and FC presented low risk when the kids were slaughtered at 60 days (8.5% and 21.2%, respectively) and an even lower risk when animals were slaughtered at 90 days (5.2% and 3.8%, respectively). The kids fed CM and slaughtered at 90 days presented the highest average gross income (US$ 67.88) and also average gross margin (US$ 18.43/animal). For the 60-day rearing regime to be economically viable, the CMR cost should not exceed 11.47% of the animal-selling price. This implies that the replacer cannot cost more than US$ 0.39 and 0.43/kg for the 60- and 90-day feeding regimes, respectively. The sensitivity analysis showed that the variables with the greatest impact on the final model's results were animal selling price, liquid diet cost, final weight at slaughter and labor. In conclusion, the production of male dairy goat kids can be economically

  6. Investigation of the presence of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyric acid and α-hydroxyisocaproic acid in bovine whole milk and fermented dairy products by a validated liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehling, Stefan; Reddy, Todime M

    2014-02-19

    A simple, rugged, quantitative, and confirmatory method based on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was developed and comprehensively validated for the analysis of the leucine metabolites β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyric acid (HMB) and α-hydroxyisocaproic acid (HICA) in bovine whole milk and yogurt. Mean accuracy (90-110% for HMB and 85-115% for HICA) and total precision (dairy products with HMB and/or HICA appears to be justified.

  7. Direct observation of a surface resonance state and surface band inversion control in black phosphorus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlen, N.; Sanna, A.; Senkovskiy, B. V.; Petaccia, L.; Fedorov, A. V.; Profeta, G.; Grüneis, A.

    2018-01-01

    We report a Cs-doping-induced band inversion and the direct observation of a surface resonance state with an elliptical Fermi surface in black phosphorus (BP) using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. By selectively inducing a higher electron concentration (1.7 ×1014cm-2 ) in the topmost layer, the changes in the Coulomb potential are sufficiently large to cause surface band inversion between the parabolic valence band of BP and a parabolic surface state around the Γ point of the BP Brillouin zone. Tight-binding calculations reveal that band gap openings at the crossing points in the two high-symmetry directions of the Brillouin zone require out-of-plane hopping and breaking of the glide mirror symmetry. Ab initio calculations are in very good agreement with the experiment if a stacking fault on the BP surface is taken into account. The demonstrated level of control over the band structure suggests the potential application of few-layer phosphorene in topological field-effect transistors.

  8. Trigger of the Ubiquitous Surface Band Bending in 3D Topological Insulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Frantzeskakis

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The main scientific activity in the field of topological insulators (TIs consists of determining their electronic structure by means of magnetotransport and electron spectroscopy with a view to devices based on topological transport. There is, however, a caveat in this approach. There are systematic experimental discrepancies on the electronic structure of the most pristine surfaces of TI single crystals as determined by Shubnikov–de Haas oscillations and by angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES. We identify intense ultraviolet illumination—that is inherent to an ARPES experiment—as the source for these experimental differences. We explicitly show that illumination is the key parameter, or in other words, the trigger, for energetic shifts of electronic bands near the surface of a TI crystal. This finding revisits the common belief that surface decoration is the principal cause of surface band bending and explains why band bending is not a prime issue in illumination-free magnetotransport studies. Our study further clarifies the role of illumination on the electronic band structure of TIs by revealing its dual effect: downward band bending on very small time scales followed by band flattening at large time scales. Our results therefore allow us to present and predict the complete evolution of the band structure of TIs in a typical ARPES experiment. By virtue of our findings, we pinpoint two alternatives of how to approach flat-band conditions by means of photon-based techniques and we suggest a microscopic mechanism that can explain the underlying phenomena.

  9. Trigger of the Ubiquitous Surface Band Bending in 3D Topological Insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantzeskakis, E.; Ramankutty, S. V.; de Jong, N.; Huang, Y. K.; Pan, Y.; Tytarenko, A.; Radovic, M.; Plumb, N. C.; Shi, M.; Varykhalov, A.; de Visser, A.; van Heumen, E.; Golden, M. S.

    2017-10-01

    The main scientific activity in the field of topological insulators (TIs) consists of determining their electronic structure by means of magnetotransport and electron spectroscopy with a view to devices based on topological transport. There is, however, a caveat in this approach. There are systematic experimental discrepancies on the electronic structure of the most pristine surfaces of TI single crystals as determined by Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations and by angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES). We identify intense ultraviolet illumination—that is inherent to an ARPES experiment—as the source for these experimental differences. We explicitly show that illumination is the key parameter, or in other words, the trigger, for energetic shifts of electronic bands near the surface of a TI crystal. This finding revisits the common belief that surface decoration is the principal cause of surface band bending and explains why band bending is not a prime issue in illumination-free magnetotransport studies. Our study further clarifies the role of illumination on the electronic band structure of TIs by revealing its dual effect: downward band bending on very small time scales followed by band flattening at large time scales. Our results therefore allow us to present and predict the complete evolution of the band structure of TIs in a typical ARPES experiment. By virtue of our findings, we pinpoint two alternatives of how to approach flat-band conditions by means of photon-based techniques and we suggest a microscopic mechanism that can explain the underlying phenomena.

  10. Rapid and automated analysis of aflatoxin M1 in milk and dairy products by online solid phase extraction coupled to ultra-high-pressure-liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campone, Luca; Piccinelli, Anna Lisa; Celano, Rita; Pagano, Imma; Russo, Mariateresa; Rastrelli, Luca

    2016-01-08

    This study reports a fast and automated analytical procedure for the analysis of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in milk and dairy products. The method is based on the simultaneous protein precipitation and AFM1 extraction, by salt-induced liquid-liquid extraction (SI-LLE), followed by an online solid-phase extraction (online SPE) coupled to ultra-high-pressure-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) analysis to the automatic pre-concentration, clean up and sensitive and selective determination of AFM1. The main parameters affecting the extraction efficiency and accuracy of the analytical method were studied in detail. In the optimal conditions, acetonitrile and NaCl were used as extraction/denaturant solvent and salting-out agent in SI-LLE, respectively. After centrifugation, the organic phase (acetonitrile) was diluted with water (1:9 v/v) and purified (1mL) by online C18 cartridge coupled with an UHPLC column. Finally, selected reaction monitoring (SRM) acquisition mode was applied to the detection of AFM1. Validation studies were carried out on different dairy products (whole and skimmed cow milk, yogurt, goat milk, and powder infant formula), providing method quantification limits about 25 times lower than AFM1 maximum levels permitted by EU regulation 1881/2006 in milk and dairy products for direct human consumption. Recoveries (86-102%) and repeatability (RSDmilk and dairy products studied. The proposed method improves the performance of AFM1 analysis in milk samples as AFM1 determination is performed with a degree of accuracy higher than the conventional methods. Other advantages are the reduction of sample preparation procedure, time and cost of the analysis, enabling high sample throughput that meet the current concerns of food safety and the public health protection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The Effect of DNA Extraction Methods on Observed Microbial Communities from Fibrous and Liquid Rumen Fractions of Dairy Cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Jueeli D; van den Bogert, Bartholomeus; Edwards, Joan E; Boekhorst, Jos; van Gastelen, Sanne; Saccenti, Edoardo; Plugge, Caroline M; Smidt, Hauke

    2018-01-01

    DNA based methods have been widely used to study the complexity of the rumen microbiota, and it is well known that the method of DNA extraction is a critical step in enabling accurate assessment of this complexity. Rumen fluid (RF) and fibrous content (FC) fractions differ substantially in terms of their physical nature and associated microorganisms. The aim of this study was therefore to assess the effect of four DNA extraction methods (RBB, PBB, FDSS, PQIAmini) differing in cell lysis and/or DNA recovery methods on the observed microbial diversity in RF and FC fractions using samples from four rumen cannulated dairy cows fed 100% grass silage (GS100), 67% GS and 33% maize silage (GS67MS33), 33% GS and 67% MS (GS33MS67), or 100% MS (MS100). An ANOVA statistical test was applied on DNA quality and yield measurements, and it was found that the DNA yield was significantly affected by extraction method ( p extraction ( p = 0.08) but was affected by fraction ( p = 0.03). On the other hand, the 260/230 ratio was affected by extraction method ( p extraction procedures yielded DNA suitable for further analysis of bacterial, archaeal and anaerobic fungal communities using quantitative PCR and pyrosequencing of relevant taxonomic markers. Redundancy analysis (RDA) of bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequence data at the family level showed that there was a significant effect of rumen fraction ( p = 0.012), and that PBB ( p = 0.012) and FDSS ( p = 0.024) also significantly contributed to explaining the observed variation in bacterial community composition. Whilst the DNA extraction method affected the apparent bacterial community composition, no single extraction method could be concluded to be ineffective. No obvious effect of DNA extraction method on the anaerobic fungi or archaea was observed, although fraction effects were evident for both. In summary, the comprehensive assessment of observed communities of bacteria, archaea and anaerobic fungi described here provides insight

  12. The Effect of DNA Extraction Methods on Observed Microbial Communities from Fibrous and Liquid Rumen Fractions of Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jueeli D. Vaidya

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA based methods have been widely used to study the complexity of the rumen microbiota, and it is well known that the method of DNA extraction is a critical step in enabling accurate assessment of this complexity. Rumen fluid (RF and fibrous content (FC fractions differ substantially in terms of their physical nature and associated microorganisms. The aim of this study was therefore to assess the effect of four DNA extraction methods (RBB, PBB, FDSS, PQIAmini differing in cell lysis and/or DNA recovery methods on the observed microbial diversity in RF and FC fractions using samples from four rumen cannulated dairy cows fed 100% grass silage (GS100, 67% GS and 33% maize silage (GS67MS33, 33% GS and 67% MS (GS33MS67, or 100% MS (MS100. An ANOVA statistical test was applied on DNA quality and yield measurements, and it was found that the DNA yield was significantly affected by extraction method (p < 0.001 and fraction (p < 0.001. The 260/280 ratio was not affected by extraction (p = 0.08 but was affected by fraction (p = 0.03. On the other hand, the 260/230 ratio was affected by extraction method (p < 0.001 but not affected by fraction (p = 0.8. However, all four extraction procedures yielded DNA suitable for further analysis of bacterial, archaeal and anaerobic fungal communities using quantitative PCR and pyrosequencing of relevant taxonomic markers. Redundancy analysis (RDA of bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequence data at the family level showed that there was a significant effect of rumen fraction (p = 0.012, and that PBB (p = 0.012 and FDSS (p = 0.024 also significantly contributed to explaining the observed variation in bacterial community composition. Whilst the DNA extraction method affected the apparent bacterial community composition, no single extraction method could be concluded to be ineffective. No obvious effect of DNA extraction method on the anaerobic fungi or archaea was observed, although fraction effects were evident for both. In

  13. Dairy development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leegwater, P.; Hoorweg, J.C.

    2000-01-01

    The growth of the dairy sector as it has occurred in Kilifi and Malindi Districts is one of the few examples of successful agricultural development in the coastal region in the past decades. Between 1985 and 1997 dairy cattle have more than doubled in number. Three livestock systems are described:

  14. Determination of bovine lactoferrin in dairy products by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry based on tryptic signature peptides employing an isotope-labeled winged peptide as internal standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jingshun; Lai, Shiyun; Cai, Zengxuan; Chen, Qi; Huang, Baifen; Ren, Yiping

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A UHPLC–MS/MS method for quantification of bovine lactoferrin was developed. • Tryptic fragment LRPVAAEIYGTK was chosen as signature peptide of bovine lactoferrin. • A winged peptide containing isotopically-labeled signature peptide was designed as internal standard. • The method for determining lactoferrin does not discriminate between the different forms of lactoferrin. • Meet the growing demand to quantify bovine lactoferrin in different dairy products. - Abstract: A new and sensitive determination method was developed for bovine lactoferrin in dairy products including infant formulas based on the signature peptide by ultra high-performance liquid chromatography and triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry under the multiple reaction monitoring mode. The simple pretreatment procedures included the addition of a winged peptide containing the isotope-labeled signature peptide as internal standard, followed by an enzymatic digestion with trypsin. The signature peptide was chosen and identified from the tryptic hydrolyzates of bovine lactoferrin by ultra high-performance liquid chromatography and quadrupole-time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry based on sequence database search. Analytes were separated on an ACQUITY UPLC BEH 300 C18 column and monitored by MS/MS in seven minutes. Quantitative result bias due to matrix effect and tryptic efficiency was corrected through the use of synthetic isotope-labeled standards. The limit of detection and limit of quantification were 0.3 mg/100 g and 1.0 mg/100 g, respectively. Bovine lactoferrin within the concentration range of 10–1000 nmol L −1 showed a strong linear relationship with a linear correlation coefficient (r) of >0.998. The intra- and inter-day precision of the method were RSD < 6.5% and RSD < 7.1%, respectively. Excellent repeatability (RSD < 6.4%) substantially supported the application of this method for the determination of bovine lactoferrin in dairy samples. The present

  15. Determination of bovine lactoferrin in dairy products by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry based on tryptic signature peptides employing an isotope-labeled winged peptide as internal standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jingshun [Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Hangzhou 310051 (China); Lai, Shiyun [Beingmate Research Institute, Beingmate Baby and Child Food Co., Ltd., Hangzhou 310007 (China); Cai, Zengxuan [Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Hangzhou 310051 (China); Chen, Qi [Beingmate Research Institute, Beingmate Baby and Child Food Co., Ltd., Hangzhou 310007 (China); Huang, Baifen [Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Hangzhou 310051 (China); Ren, Yiping, E-mail: renyiping@263.net [Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Hangzhou 310051 (China)

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: • A UHPLC–MS/MS method for quantification of bovine lactoferrin was developed. • Tryptic fragment LRPVAAEIYGTK was chosen as signature peptide of bovine lactoferrin. • A winged peptide containing isotopically-labeled signature peptide was designed as internal standard. • The method for determining lactoferrin does not discriminate between the different forms of lactoferrin. • Meet the growing demand to quantify bovine lactoferrin in different dairy products. Abstract: A new and sensitive determination method was developed for bovine lactoferrin in dairy products including infant formulas based on the signature peptide by ultra high-performance liquid chromatography and triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry under the multiple reaction monitoring mode. The simple pretreatment procedures included the addition of a winged peptide containing the isotope-labeled signature peptide as internal standard, followed by an enzymatic digestion with trypsin. The signature peptide was chosen and identified from the tryptic hydrolyzates of bovine lactoferrin by ultra high-performance liquid chromatography and quadrupole-time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry based on sequence database search. Analytes were separated on an ACQUITY UPLC BEH 300 C18 column and monitored by MS/MS in seven minutes. Quantitative result bias due to matrix effect and tryptic efficiency was corrected through the use of synthetic isotope-labeled standards. The limit of detection and limit of quantification were 0.3 mg/100 g and 1.0 mg/100 g, respectively. Bovine lactoferrin within the concentration range of 10–1000 nmol L⁻¹ showed a strong linear relationship with a linear correlation coefficient (r) of >0.998. The intra- and inter-day precision of the method were RSD < 6.5% and RSD < 7.1%, respectively. Excellent repeatability (RSD < 6.4%) substantially supported the application of this method for the determination of bovine lactoferrin in dairy samples. The present method

  16. Melamine detection by mid- and near-infrared (MIR/NIR) spectroscopy: a quick and sensitive method for dairy products analysis including liquid milk, infant formula, and milk powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balabin, Roman M; Smirnov, Sergey V

    2011-07-15

    Melamine (2,4,6-triamino-1,3,5-triazine) is a nitrogen-rich chemical implicated in the pet and human food recalls and in the global food safety scares involving milk products. Due to the serious health concerns associated with melamine consumption and the extensive scope of affected products, rapid and sensitive methods to detect melamine's presence are essential. We propose the use of spectroscopy data-produced by near-infrared (near-IR/NIR) and mid-infrared (mid-IR/MIR) spectroscopies, in particular-for melamine detection in complex dairy matrixes. None of the up-to-date reported IR-based methods for melamine detection has unambiguously shown its wide applicability to different dairy products as well as limit of detection (LOD) below 1 ppm on independent sample set. It was found that infrared spectroscopy is an effective tool to detect melamine in dairy products, such as infant formula, milk powder, or liquid milk. ALOD below 1 ppm (0.76±0.11 ppm) can be reached if a correct spectrum preprocessing (pretreatment) technique and a correct multivariate (MDA) algorithm-partial least squares regression (PLS), polynomial PLS (Poly-PLS), artificial neural network (ANN), support vector regression (SVR), or least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM)-are used for spectrum analysis. The relationship between MIR/NIR spectrum of milk products and melamine content is nonlinear. Thus, nonlinear regression methods are needed to correctly predict the triazine-derivative content of milk products. It can be concluded that mid- and near-infrared spectroscopy can be regarded as a quick, sensitive, robust, and low-cost method for liquid milk, infant formula, and milk powder analysis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Revisiting magnetism of capped Au and ZnO nanoparticles: Surface band structure and atomic orbital with giant magnetic moment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernando, Antonio; Crespo, Patricia [Instituto de Magnetismo Aplicado, UCM-CSIC-ADIF, Las Rozas. P.O. Box 155, 28230 Madrid (Spain); Dept. Fisica de Materiales, Universidad Complutense, Madrid (Spain); Garcia, Miguel Angel [Instituto de Ceramica y Vidrio, CSIC, C/ Kelsen, 5, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Coey, Michael [Trinity College Dublin, Dublin (Ireland); Ayuela, Andres; Echenique, Pedro Miguel [Centro de Fisica de Materiales, CFM-MPC CSIC-UPV/EHU, Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC), 20018 San Sebastian (Spain); Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Fac. de Quimicas, Universidad del Pais Vasco UPV-EHU, 20018 San Sebastian (Spain)

    2011-10-15

    In this article we review the exotic magnetism of nanoparticles (NPs) formed by substances that are not magnetic in bulk as described with generality in Section 1. In particular, the intrinsic character of the magnetism observed on capped Au and ZnO NPs is analysed. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) analysis has shown that the magnetic moments are intrinsic and lie in the Au and Zn atoms, respectively, as analysed in Section 2, where the general theoretical ideas are also revisited. Since impurity atoms bonded to the surface act as donor or acceptor of electrons that occupy the surface states, the anomalous magnetic response is analysed in terms of the surface band in Section 3. Finally, Section 4 summarizes our last theoretical proposal. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. Technical note: development and validation of a method using ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry for determination of vitamin B12 concentrations in milk and dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zironi, E; Gazzotti, T; Barbarossa, A; Devicienti, C; Scardilli, M; Pagliuca, G

    2013-05-01

    A method using ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry was developed to measure cobalamins in naturally enriched raw milk and to evaluate their fate during thermal treatments and along the process of cheese making. After addition of methotrexate as internal standard, samples were submitted to heat treatment in the presence of cyanide, which converts all the less-stable cobalamins into cyanocobalamin; then, purification was performed by a solid-phase extraction step. Reverse-phase ultra performance liquid chromatography separation coupled with tandem mass spectrometry provided a fast and reliable determination. Mass spectrometric analysis was carried out in multiple reaction monitoring mode. The monitored transitions were m/z 678.36 → 147.10 and 678.36 → 359.30 for vitamin B12 and m/z 455.22 → 175.13 and 455.22 → 308.22 for methotrexate (internal standard). The limit of quantification was 2 ng/g. The method showed good linearity from 2 to 20 ng/g (R(2) ≥ 0.98) and intra- and interday precisions were always less than 19%. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Anaerobic co-digestion of cheese whey and the screened liquid fraction of dairy manure in a single continuously stirred tank reactor process: Limits in co-substrate ratios and organic loading rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, Carlos; Muñoz, Noelia; Rico, José Luis

    2015-01-01

    Mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of cheese whey and the screened liquid fraction of dairy manure was investigated with the aim of determining the treatment limits in terms of the cheese whey fraction in feed and the organic loading rate. The results of a continuous stirred tank reactor that was operated with a hydraulic retention time of 15.6 days showed that the co-digestion process was possible with a cheese whey fraction as high as 85% in the feed. The efficiency of the process was similar within the range of the 15-85% cheese whey fraction. To study the effect of the increasing loading rate, the HRT was progressively shortened with the 65% cheese whey fraction in the feed. The reactor efficiency dropped as the HRT decreased but enabled a stable operation over 8.7 days of HRT. At these operating conditions, a volumetric methane production rate of 1.37 m(3) CH4 m(-3) d(-1) was achieved. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Multi-residue analysis of veterinary drugs, pesticides and mycotoxins in dairy products by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry using low-temperature cleanup and solid phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jie; Peng, Tao; Zhu, Ailing; He, Jianli; Chang, Qiaoying; Hu, Xueyan; Chen, Hui; Fan, Chunlin; Jiang, Wenxiao; Chen, Min; Li, Jiancheng; Ding, Shuangyang; Jiang, Haiyang

    2015-10-01

    A multi-class multi-residue analysis method for determination of veterinary drugs, pesticides and mycotoxins in dairy products by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has been established. These 17 classes, a total of 40 kinds of target compounds were chosen because their administration to food-producing animals is banned or regulated in China and may be potentially abused or misused. Samples were extracted with acetonitrile-ethyl acetate-acetic acid (49.5+49.5+1, v/v/v). Most of lipids in the extract were removed by low-temperature cleanup, prior to solid phase extraction on HLB cartridges. The quantification and confirmation of the 40 analytes were performed by LC-MS/MS with electro-spray ionization (ESI) interface in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The limits of detection (LODs) and limits of quantification (LOQs) were 0.006-0.3μg/kg and 0.02-1.0μg/kg, respectively. The spiked recoveries in milk, yogurt, milk powder and cheese samples were from 67.3% to 106.9%. The repeatability and the within-laboratory reproducibility were less than 12.7% and 13.9%. Applying this method, our results revealed the presences of chloramphenicol, cimeterol, and flunixin at the concentration of 0.027-0.452μg/kg in some samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Validation and application of a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry based method for the assessment of the co-occurrence of mycotoxins in maize silages from dairy farms in NW Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagnac, Thierry; Latorre, Alicia; Fernández Lorenzo, Bruno; Llompart, Maria

    2016-12-01

    The first objective of this study was the validation of an efficient multi-analyte method for the simultaneous detection and quantification of mycotoxins in maize silage, by reverse-phase liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionisation triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-HESI-MS/MS). A simple liquid/solid extraction was performed either with clean-up on Mycospin 400 columns or without any clean-up. Almost all the target mycotoxins showed highly-suppressed signals in the presence of a matrix, emphasising the need to quantitate mycotoxins by means of matrix-matched calibrations. An alternative validation method based on ISO 11843 and on a single factor balanced design was implemented. The achieved average recoveries from spiked samples at three levels ranged from 60% to 122% with relative standard deviations (rsd) below 11%. Limits of Detection (LODs) and Limits of Quantification (LOQs) were between 0.02-17.1 µg kg -1 and 0.06-57 µg kg -1 . The calculated repeatability and within-lab reproducibility ranged from 5.2 to 23.2% and from 7.2 to 23.9%, respectively. Finally, the decision limit and detection capacity, CCα and CCβ, were calculated for all mycotoxins having regulated/recommended contents in feed. The validated method was applied to 148 samples collected over two years in 19 dairy farms from Galicia (NW Spain). Of the analysed samples, 62% contained at least one mycotoxin. Zearalenone (ZEA), deoxynivalenol (DON), fumonisins B1 and B2, roquefortine C, α-zearalenol, β-zearalenol, enniatins B and B1, andrastin A, marcfortine A, verruculogen and mycophenolic acid were quantified, the highest average detection frequency being for enniatin B (51%). DON, mycophenolic acid and ZEA plus metabolites (α-zearalenol, β-zearalenol) were the most abundant mycotoxins.

  2. Dairy farming and dairy industry in Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beldman, A.; Berkum, van S.; Kortstee, H.; Zijlstra, J.

    2017-01-01

    Iran is a country with a long dairy tradition. Dairy production has increased to a level of about 9bn kg of milk per year. The ambition in the sector is to further increase production and to improve the quality of the milk to be able to export. Based on the analysis of available data and on a field

  3. Simultaneous determination of vitamins A and D3 in dairy products by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barakat, I. S. A.; Hammouri, M. K.; Habib, I.

    2015-10-01

    A potential method for simultaneous determination of vitamin A and vitamin D3 (25- hydroxyvitamin D3) in fresh milk samples is addressed. The method is based on combination of high performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry during the course of analysis. The method applied for determination of vitamins A and D3 on eighteen (18) different fresh milk samples using liquid chromatography along with tandem -mass spectrometry. The work describes the suitability of the proposed method for the simultaneous determination of both vitamins using LC-MS/MS as a specific and quantitative technique. The vitamins of milk were separated by C18 Thermo gold column(100mm × 4.6mm × 5 μm) with a flow rate of 1ml/min (using an isocratic mobile phase). The method was validated using duplicate analyses, relative recovery experiment, and comparative analysis with control samples. Liquid- liquid extraction was employed as a pre-concentration step with n-hexane - dichloromethane mixture (90%:10%) as an extraction solvent. The molecular ions (m/z) appeared near 286 and 385nm and for the base peaks were appeared near 255 and 355nm for vitamins A and D3. Good correlation coefficients were obtained, 0.9999 for vitamin D3 and 0.9994 for vitamin A. The limit of detection and the limit of quantification were found to be 0.09ng/ml and 0.54ng/ml for vitamin D3 and 0.32ng/ml and 1.8ng/ml and for vitamin A. The proposed method showed excellent recoveries, about 98% for both vitamins A and D3.

  4. Determination of the surface band bending in InxGa1−xN films by hard x-ray photoemission spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mickael Lozac'h, Shigenori Ueda, Shitao Liu, Hideki Yoshikawa, Sang Liwen, Xinqiang Wang, Bo Shen, Kazuaki Sakoda, Keisuke Kobayashi and Masatomo Sumiya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Core-level and valence band spectra of InxGa1−xN films were measured using hard x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (HX-PES. Fine structure, caused by the coupling of the localized Ga 3d and In 4d with N 2s states, was experimentally observed in the films. Because of the large detection depth of HX-PES (~20 nm, the spectra contain both surface and bulk information due to the surface band bending. The InxGa1−xN films (x = 0–0.21 exhibited upward surface band bending, and the valence band maximum was shifted to lower binding energy when the mole fraction of InN was increased. On the other hand, downward surface band bending was confirmed for an InN film with low carrier density despite its n-type conduction. Although the Fermi level (EF near the surface of the InN film was detected inside the conduction band as reported previously, it can be concluded that EF in the bulk of the film must be located in the band gap below the conduction band minimum.

  5. Determination of annatto in high-fat dairy products, margarine and hard candy by solvent extraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, F E; Lawrence, J F

    1995-01-01

    Utilizing solvents such as ethanolic aqueous ammonia, petroleum ether, hexane and chloroform, annatto components alpha- and beta-norbixin and alpha- and beta-bixin were extracted from cheese, butter, margarine and hard candy. After transferring the extract into a solution of aqueous acetic acid in methanol, bixin and norbixin were determined quantitatively using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and an absorbance detector set at 500 nm. Recovery of norbixin from spiked cheese samples averaged 92.6% over a range of 1 to 110 micrograms/g. Commercial cheese samples were found to contain 1.1-68.8 microgram/g total norbixin, and two samples also contained 5.1-5.6 micrograms/g total bixin. Samples of uncoloured butter were spiked with bixin and recovery averaged 93.2% over a range of 0.1 to 445 micrograms/g. Levels of 0.2 microgram/g total bixin and 0.91 microgram/g total norbixin were found in one commercial butter sample; the others contained trace levels of both compounds. Hard candies were prepared in the laboratory and recovery studies conducted. Recovery of norbixin averaged 88%.

  6. Probiotic fermented dairy products

    OpenAIRE

    Adnan Tamime; Rajka Božanić; Irena Rogelj

    2003-01-01

    Fermented dairy products are the most popular vehicle used in theindustry for the implantation of the probiotic microflora in humans. Therefore this paper provides an overview of new knowledge on probiotic fermented dairy products. It involves historical developments, commercial probiotic microorganisms and products, and their therapeutic properties, possibilities of quality improvement of different types of newly developed fermented dairy products together with fermented goat’s milk products.

  7. Probiotic fermented dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Tamime

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Fermented dairy products are the most popular vehicle used in theindustry for the implantation of the probiotic microflora in humans. Therefore this paper provides an overview of new knowledge on probiotic fermented dairy products. It involves historical developments, commercial probiotic microorganisms and products, and their therapeutic properties, possibilities of quality improvement of different types of newly developed fermented dairy products together with fermented goat’s milk products.

  8. Dairy Free Kids

    OpenAIRE

    Dairy Free Kids

    2014-01-01

    I am a Mom of two young boys both of whom have a dairy intolerance. My older boy is 4 and my younger boy is 1. It has been a long journey from finding out my child has a dairy intolerance through to realisation of exactly what that means day to day for him to reaching a stage where it is second nature for all of us. For my older child it was all new, a big learning curve. By the time son number two started showing similar symptoms it was simple to take him off dairy and keep him off dairy.

  9. Dairy Wise, A Whole-Farm Dairy Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schils, R.L.M.; Haan, de M.H.A.; Hemmer, J.G.A.; Pol, van den A.; Boer, de J.A.; Evers, A.G.; Holshof, G.; Middelkoop, van J.C.; Zom, R.L.G.

    2007-01-01

    A whole-farm dairy model was developed and evaluated. The DairyWise model is an empirical model that simulated technical, environmental, and financial processes on a dairy farm. The central component is the FeedSupply model that balanced the herd requirements, as generated by the DairyHerd model,

  10. Metal Ni-loaded g-C3N4 for enhanced photocatalytic H2 evolution activity: the change in surface band bending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Lingling; Xu, Dandan; Zhang, Lijing; Lin, Yanhong; Wang, Dejun; Xie, Tengfeng

    2015-11-28

    A series of Ni@g-C3N4 composites were synthesized by a simple solvent thermal method using melamine and acetylacetone nickel as precursors. The results of X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy indicate that Ni was successfully loaded on g-C3N4. And the Ni loaded greatly enhances the photocatalytic H2 evolution activity of g-C3N4 compared to the pure g-C3N4. In order to study the role of Ni, the surface photovoltage, the surface photocurrent and photoluminescence measurements were used to investigate the photogenerated charge properties of g-C3N4. What is more, Mott-Schottky plots and work function measurements confirmed the surface band bending change of g-C3N4 contacting with Ni. Those results demonstrate that Ni coating deepens surface band bending of g-C3N4, resulting in higher separation efficiency of photogenerated charge carriers, which is contributed to the enhanced photocatalytic H2 evolution activity.

  11. DairyBISS Baseline report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buizer, N.N.; Berhanu, Tinsae; Murutse, Girmay; Vugt, van S.M.

    2015-01-01

    This baseline report of the Dairy Business Information Service and Support (DairyBISS) project presents the findings of a baseline survey among 103 commercial farms and 31 firms and advisors working in the dairy value chain. Additional results from the survey among commercial dairy farms are

  12. Dairy goat nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Ronchi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Good goat nutrition is fundamental to the success and sustainability of dairy goat farming in terms of economics, goat health, high quality products, and minimizing environmental impact.

  13. Traditional Indonesian dairy foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surono, Ingrid S

    2015-01-01

    Indonesia is the largest archipelago blessed with one of the richest mega-biodiversities and also home to one of the most diverse cuisines and traditional fermented foods. There are 3 types of traditional dairy foods, namely the butter-like product minyak samin; yogurt-like product dadih; and cheese-like products dali or bagot in horbo, dangke, litsusu, and cologanti, which reflect the culture of dairy product consumption in Indonesia.

  14. Dairy Propionibacteria: Versatile Probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabah, Houem; Rosa do Carmo, Fillipe Luiz; Jan, Gwénaël

    2017-05-13

    Dairy propionibacteria are used as cheese ripening starters, as biopreservative and as beneficial additives, in the food industry. The main species, Propionibacterium freudenreichii, is known as GRAS (Generally Recognized As Safe, USA, FDA). In addition to another dairy species, Propionibacterium acidipropionici, they are included in QPS (Qualified Presumption of Safety) list. Additional to their well-known technological application, dairy propionibacteria increasingly attract attention for their promising probiotic properties. The purpose of this review is to summarize the probiotic characteristics of dairy propionibacteria reported by the updated literature. Indeed, they meet the selection criteria for probiotic bacteria, such as the ability to endure digestive stressing conditions and to adhere to intestinal epithelial cells. This is a prerequisite to bacterial persistence within the gut. The reported beneficial effects are ranked according to property's type: microbiota modulation, immunomodulation, and cancer modulation. The proposed molecular mechanisms are discussed. Dairy propionibacteria are described as producers of nutraceuticals and beneficial metabolites that are responsible for their versatile probiotic attributes include short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), conjugated fatty acids, surface proteins, and 1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphtoic acid (DHNA). These metabolites possess beneficial properties and their production depends on the strain and on the growth medium. The choice of the fermented food matrix may thus determine the probiotic properties of the ingested product. This review approaches dairy propionibacteria, with an interest in both technological abilities and probiotic attributes.

  15. Comparison of Dairy Manure Anaerobic Digestion Performance in Gas-lift and Bubble Column Digesters

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Jing

    2009-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is one of the most promising management options for dairy manure treatment. Manure wastewater from dairy farms has been used for methane production for decades. However, performance failure due to inadequate mixing is routine. In general, the mixng of anaerobic digester is achived throguh mechnical stirring, liquid circulation, and gas circulation, among which the gas circulation proves to be the most effcient way. In this work, we studied the liquid flow pattern of tw...

  16. Chemical and microbiological water quality of subsurface agricultural drains during a field trial of liquid dairy manure effluent application rate and varying tillage practices, Upper Tiffin Watershed, southeastern Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haack, Sheridan Kidd; Duris, Joseph W.

    2008-01-01

    A field trial was done in the Upper Tiffin River Watershed, in southeastern Michigan, to determine the influence of liquid dairy manure effluent (LDME) management practices on the quality of agricultural subsurface-drain water. Samples from subsurface drains were analyzed for nutrients, fecal-coliform and Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria, antibiotics, chemicals typically detected in wastewater, and the occurrence of genes indicating the presence of shiga-toxin-producing E. coli, or of bovine-specific Bacteroidetes bacteria. Samples were collected from November 2, 2006, to March 20, 2007, from eight subsurface drains under field plots that received no LDME and no tillage (controls) or received 4,000 or 8,000 gallons per acre (gal/acre) of LDME and either no tillage or two different types of tillage. The two types of tillage tested were (1) ground-driven, rotary, subsurface cultivation and (2) rolling-tine aeration. Samples were collected before LDME application and at 4 hours, and 1, 2, 6, 7, and 14 days post-application. Nutrient concentrations were high in subsurface-drain water throughout the field-trial period and could not be attributed to the field-trial LDME application. Of the 59 drain-water samples, including those collected before LDME application and control samples for each date, 56 had concentrations greater than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), Ecoregion VI recommended surface-water criterion for total phosphorus, and all samples had concentrations greater than the recommended total nitrogen criterion. Nitrate + nitrite nitrogen concentration exceeded 20 milligrams per liter for every sample and contributed most to the total nitrogen concentrations. Substantial increases in drain-water concentrations of organic and ammonia nitrogen and total phosphorus were found for all treatments, including controls, at 14 days post-application after 0.84 inch of rainfall over 2 days. E. coli concentrations exceeded the USEPA recreational

  17. Effects of surface treatment using aqua regia solution on the change of surface band bending of p-type GaN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Kyu; Kim, Ki-Jeong; Kim, Bongsoo; Kim, Jae Nam; Kwak, Joon Seop; Park, Yong Jo; Lee, Jong-Lam

    2001-03-01

    Effects of surface treatment on the change of band bending at the surface of p-type GaN were studied using synchrotron radiation photoemission spectroscopy, and the results were used to interpret the reduction of contact resistivity by the surface treatment. The contact resistivity on p-type GaN decreased from (5.1±1.2)×10-1 to (9.3±3.5)×10-5Ω cm2 by the surface treatment using aqua regia prior to Pt deposition. Surface band bending was reduced by 0.58 eV and 0.87 eV after the surface treatments by HCl and aqua regia solutions, respectively. The atomic ratio of Ga/N decreased as the photoelectron detection angle was decreased, indicating that the surface oxide was mainly composed of Ga and O, GaOx, formed during high-temperature annealing for the generation of holes, and Ga vacancies, VGa, were produced below the GaOx layer. Consequently, the aqua regia treatment plays a role in removing GaOx formed on p-type GaN, leading to the shift of the Fermi level toward the energy levels of VGa located near the valence band edge. This causes the decrease of barrier height for the transport of holes, resulting in the good ohmic contacts to p-type GaN.

  18. Dairy chemistry and physics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walstra, P.; Jenness, R.

    1984-01-01

    Milk and products made from it affect the lives of a large proportion of the world’s population. Many dairy products are consumed at times and in places far removed from the point at which the milk was produced. This is made possible by the chemical and physical treatments and fractionations applied

  19. Dairy wastewater treatment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-08-04

    Aug 4, 2009 ... organic sources into methane via anaerobic process. Whey is considered as highly pollutant effluent with res- pect to COD level (60-80 g/l) (Mc-Hugh et al., 2006;. Gannoun et al., 2008). There are number of biological treatment processes to treat dairy wastewater such as activated sludge system, anaerobic ...

  20. Dairy cow disability weights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnel, Craig S; McNeil, Ashleigh A; Hadrich, Joleen C; Lombard, Jason E; Garry, Franklyn B; Heller, Jane

    2017-08-01

    Over the past 175 years, data related to human disease and death have progressed to a summary measure of population health, the Disability-Adjusted Life Year (DALY). As dairies have intensified there has been no equivalent measure of the impact of disease on the productive life and well-being of animals. The development of a disease-adjusted metric requires a consistent set of disability weights that reflect the relative severity of important diseases. The objective of this study was to use an international survey of dairy authorities to derive disability weights for primary disease categories recorded on dairies. National and international dairy health and management authorities were contacted through professional organizations, dairy industry publications and conferences, and industry contacts. Estimates of minimum, most likely, and maximum disability weights were derived for 12 common dairy cow diseases. Survey participants were asked to estimate the impact of each disease on overall health and milk production. Diseases were classified from 1 (minimal adverse effects) to 10 (death). The data was modelled using BetaPERT distributions to demonstrate the variation in these dynamic disease processes, and to identify the most likely aggregated disability weights for each disease classification. A single disability weight was assigned to each disease using the average of the combined medians for the minimum, most likely, and maximum severity scores. A total of 96 respondents provided estimates of disability weights. The final disability weight values resulted in the following order from least to most severe: retained placenta, diarrhea, ketosis, metritis, mastitis, milk fever, lame (hoof only), calving trauma, left displaced abomasum, pneumonia, musculoskeletal injury (leg, hip, back), and right displaced abomasum. The peaks of the probability density functions indicated that for certain disease states such as retained placenta there was a relatively narrow range of

  1. 7 CFR 1150.112 - Dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Dairy products. 1150.112 Section 1150.112 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1150.112 Dairy products. Dairy products means products manufactured for human...

  2. Probiotic Delivery through Fermentation: Dairy vs. Non-Dairy Beverages

    OpenAIRE

    Chaminda Senaka Ranadheera; Janak K. Vidanarachchi; Ramon Silva Rocha; Adriano G. Cruz; Said Ajlouni

    2017-01-01

    Probiotics are live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host, mainly through the process of replacing or including beneficial bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract. Fermented dairy foods such as yogurt, fermented milk and cheese are the major vehicle in delivering probiotics, and probiotic delivery have been traditionally associated with these fermented dairy foods. Additionally, many other non-dairy probiotic products and non-food form ...

  3. Survey of dairy housing and manure management practices in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, D; Price, P L; Rossow, H A; Silva-del-Rio, N; Karle, B M; Robinson, P H; DePeters, E J; Fadel, J G

    2011-09-01

    In 2007, a descriptive survey was mailed to all dairies in Glenn (G) and Tulare (T) Counties to identify current and future opportunities of manure management practices on California dairies. The purpose was to provide baseline information for development of outreach curriculum and a decision support tool to quantify potential benefits of various N management options on dairy farms. Such baseline information is valuable to staff regulating dairy facilities (e.g., San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District and Central Valley Regional Water Quality Control Board), dairy trade association representatives, and technology vendors. Response rates for each county were similar at 29.7% (n=19; G) and 26.7% (n=88; T). Mean milking herd size averaged 570 (range 50 to 3,000) cows in G and 1,800 (range 196 to 9,286) cows in T. Survey data are reported by location due to differences between counties in herd size, housing facilities, and climate. Freestalls are common housing facilities (63.2%, G; 38.6%, T) and separated solids and corral scrapings are commonly used as bedding in freestalls (81.8% G and 79.4% T). The most common methods of manure collection were flushing and scraping (18.8%, G; 44.7%, T), only flushing (43.8%, G; 34.1%, T), or only scraping daily or less frequently than daily (37.5%, G; 20.0%, T). Most dairy farms in G (63.2%) and T (70.5%) used some method of separating solids from liquids. However, mechanical separation systems alone were used by 5.3% G and 11.4% T of dairy farms. Storage or treatment ponds were found on 95.9% of dairies. Respondents identified existing manure management practices and did not indicate any new technologies were in use or being considered for manure management. Survey results were used to describe the 2 predominant manure management pathways of manure collection, storage, treatment, and utilization. Survey results will be used to develop and disseminate targeted information on manure treatment technologies, and on

  4. Genomic dairy cattle breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Thomas; Sandøe, Peter

    2010-01-01

    , unfavourable genetic trends for metabolic, reproductive, claw and leg diseases indicate that these attempts have been insufficient. Today, novel genome-wide sequencing techniques are revolutionising dairy cattle breeding; these enable genetic changes to occur at least twice as rapidly as previously. While......, a number of potential risks are discussed, including detrimental genetic trends for non-measured welfare traits, the increased chance of spreading unfavourable mutations, reduced sharing of information arising from concerns over patents, and an increased monopoly within dairy cattle breeding that may make...... negative effects on animal welfare and to invest in breeding for increased animal welfare. Researchers are encouraged to further investigate the long-term effects of various breeding schemes that rely on genomic breeding values....

  5. Milk and dairy products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiechen, A.; Heine, K.; Bundesanstalt fuer Milchforschung, Kiel

    1985-01-01

    Gammaspectroscopic measurements are taken as an example to describe the monitoring programme of the FRG for monitoring of milk and dairy products. A table shows the number of milk samples taken every year in the FRG in the general environment, and in the vicinity of nuclear installations, together with the radioactivity data obtained by gammaspectroscopy. Due to the decreasing radioactivity as a result of the nuclear weapons tests fallout, the number of samples taken in the general environment has been cut down to half over the period under review. The monitoring capacity set free by this decision has been used during this period for enhanced monitoring of milk and dairy products in regions where nuclear installations such as nuclear power plants have been operating. The nuclides of interest are Sr-90, Cs-137, J-131. (orig./DG) [de

  6. Dairy cow nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Tame, Mike

    2008-01-01

    This review pulls together the results of over 40 research projects and brings us up to date with the latest in thinking on dairy cow nutrition, incorporates the findings of a wide range of organic trials and draws some clear recommendations on appropriate strategies for forage type and management, supplementary feeding, ration formulation and farming systems. It raises important issues around sustainability versus optimum production and highlights future research priorities.

  7. U.S. Dairy Forage Research Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Vision: Leading the world in integrated dairy forage systems research. Mission: Providing dairy industry solutions for food security, environmental sustainability,...

  8. U.S. DAIRY FORAGE RESEARCH CENTER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Vision: Leading the world in integrated dairy forage systems research. Mission: Providing dairy industry solutions for food security, environmental sustainability,...

  9. Caring Dairy: A Sustainable Dairy Farming Initiative in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calker, van K.J.; Hooch Antink, R.H.J.; Beldman, A.C.G.; Mauser, A.

    2005-01-01

    Interest in the concept of sustainability in dairy farming has grown as a result of the continuous pressure on farm incomes, occurrence of animal diseases with a major impact on the image of dairy farming, concerns about animal welfare, and environmental problems caused by agriculture. There are,

  10. Entrepreneurship of Dutch dairy farmers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergevoet, R.H.M.

    2005-01-01

    Several developments in the Netherlands as well as in the other countries within the EU are forcing dairy farmers to reconsider their involvement in dairy production. Farmers are being called to account more for the entrepreneurial element of their farming behaviour. Up till now it was unclear how

  11. Dairy Proteins and Energy Balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Line Quist

    High protein diets affect energy balance beneficially through decreased hunger, enhanced satiety and increased energy expenditure. Dairy products are a major source of protein. Dairy proteins are comprised of two classes, casein (80%) and whey proteins (20%), which are both of high quality......, but casein is absorbed slowly and whey is absorbed rapidly. The present PhD study investigated the effects of total dairy proteins, whey, and casein, on energy balance and the mechanisms behind any differences in the effects of the specific proteins. The results do not support the hypothesis that dairy...... proteins, whey or casein are more beneficial than other protein sources in the regulation of energy balance, and suggest that dairy proteins, whey or casein seem to play only a minor role, if any, in the prevention and treatment of obesity....

  12. The Dairy - Business Plan

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Natalie

    2013-01-01

    The Bachelor thesis in question has been composed to help the founders of a small start-up company, in the holiday rental industry, succeed in running a sustainable business. The purpose was to create a practical plan for setting up and running the Dairy, a two-bedroom holiday rental in the rural Devon countryside. The business plan discussed the location and facilities of the holiday rental along with a comprehensive account of its competitors. The Dairy’s marketing activity and risk asses...

  13. Liquids and liquid mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Rowlinson, J S; Baldwin, J E; Buckingham, A D; Danishefsky, S

    2013-01-01

    Liquids and Liquid Mixtures, Third Edition explores the equilibrium properties of liquids and liquid mixtures and relates them to the properties of the constituent molecules using the methods of statistical thermodynamics. Topics covered include the critical state, fluid mixtures at high pressures, and the statistical thermodynamics of fluids and mixtures. This book consists of eight chapters and begins with an overview of the liquid state and the thermodynamic properties of liquids and liquid mixtures, including vapor pressure and heat capacities. The discussion then turns to the thermodynami

  14. Anaerobic Digesters Change the Phosphorus Leaching Behavior of Dairy Manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjerison, R.; Gooch, C.; Pronto, J.; Walter, M. T.

    2009-12-01

    This study analyzed how anaerobic digestion of dairy manure might change the amount, form, and rate of phosphorus (P) leached by rainfall. Anaerobic digestion has become an increasingly popular manure management option because it generates methane that can be used to make energy, but little is known about the behavior of P when digested manure is applied to fields. Leaching experiments were performed using simulated rainfall on digester influent (undigested manure) and effluent (digested manure) collected from a dairy farm near Ithaca, NY. A previously published manure-P model was applied to the experimental data to quantify rates of P leaching. Dissolved P-leaching from digested and undigested manures were similar to each other, although digested manures appear to generally leach more dissolved P. Interestingly, both digester influent and effluent leached dissolved P more rapidly and in greater quantities than fresh manure, i.e., manure from a dairy barn floor. It is suggested that the key difference between the liquid manures in this study and “fresh” manure is that fresh manure has a higher solids content, i.e., it is less liquid than the manure used in anaerobic digesters. The findings of this study suggest that it is important to avoid field spreading of liquid manures when rainfall is imminent or fields are wet in order to prevent nonpoint P loading to streams and lakes.

  15. Imagining the ideal dairy farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Clarissa S; Hötzel, Maria José; Weary, Daniel M; Robbins, Jesse A; von Keyserlingk, Marina A G

    2016-02-01

    Practices in agriculture can have negative effects on the environment, rural communities, food safety, and animal welfare. Although disagreements are possible about specific issues and potential solutions, it is widely recognized that public input is needed in the development of socially sustainable agriculture systems. The aim of this study was to assess the views of people not affiliated with the dairy industry on what they perceived to be the ideal dairy farm and their associated reasons. Through an online survey, participants were invited to respond to the following open-ended question: "What do you consider to be an ideal dairy farm and why are these characteristics important to you?" Although participants referenced social, economic, and ecological aspects of dairy farming, animal welfare was the primary issue raised. Concern was expressed directly about the quality of life for the animals, and the indirect effect of animal welfare on milk quality. Thus participants appeared to hold an ethic for dairy farming that included concern for the animal, as well as economic, social, and environmental aspects of the dairy system. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Probiotic Delivery through Fermentation: Dairy vs. Non-Dairy Beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaminda Senaka Ranadheera

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics are live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host, mainly through the process of replacing or including beneficial bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract. Fermented dairy foods such as yogurt, fermented milk and cheese are the major vehicle in delivering probiotics, and probiotic delivery have been traditionally associated with these fermented dairy foods. Additionally, many other non-dairy probiotic products and non-food form such as capsules, pills and tablets are also available and some of these non-food forms are highly popular among the consumers. Certain non-dairy probiotic foods, especially beverages that are non-fermented products, can also play an important role in probiotic delivery. There is an increasing demand for non-dairy probiotic foods (both fermented and non-fermented including fruit and vegetable juices, soy and certain cereal products due to vegetarianism, lactose intolerance and dairy allergies, as well as interest in low cholesterol foods. In this context, this review mainly focus on the different types of probiotic food products including beverages with special reference to their viability followed by a brief account on the applicability of using fermented and non-fermented beverage products in probiotic delivery.

  17. The impact of the local dairy cattle farm toward the river water quality in Gunungpati Subdistrict Central Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Widiastuti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available People’s awareness on the living environment nowadays is not yet comes up to the dairy-farmer community. In fact, the dairy-farm subsector contributes load pollution in the form of waste. The waste that is produced by a dairy-farm can be in the form of solid waste and liquid waste. There is still no cultivation effort toward the wastes in a traditional dairy-farmyet, thus most of the wastes are disposed to the closest river, so that in the surrounding dairy farm area is frequently found pollution toward the water quality. The aim of this study is to identify the effect of environment pollution that is caused by local dairy farm in Gunungpati Sub-district, especially toward the river water and residents’ well. The result of this study in Nangkasawit Village before and after the dairy farm was build was still under the quality standard for the third rate water quality. In Plalangan Village, the water quality was also under the quality standard, except for COD concentration. In the Sumurejo Village there was an upturn tendency on the observation value, but the water quality was under the quality standard, except for Fe concentration. Based on the Biodiversity Index before and after the dairy farm was established in Nangkasawit, Plalangan, and Sumurejo were 2.22, 1.49, 2.11, 1.90, 1.78, and 1.88, respectively. It means that Nangkasawit showed no pollution before the dairy farm was established, while there was a medium pollution after the dairy farm establishment.  In Plalangan, the water was clear, but it was light polluted after the dairy farm was established. In Sumurejo, before and after the dairy farm establishment the water was light category pollution.

  18. General Characteristics and Treatment Possibilities of Dairy Wastewater – A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Kolev Slavov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The milk processing industry is one of the world’s staple industries, thus the treatment possibilities of dairy effluents have been attracting more and more attention. The purpose of the paper is to review contemporary research on dairy wastewater. The origin, categories, as well as liquid by-products and general indicators of real dairy wastewater are described. Different procedures applied for dairy wastewater management are summarised. Attention is focused on in-factory treatment technologies with the emphasis on biological processes. Aerobic and anaerobic methods with both their advantages and disadvantages are discussed in detail. Consecutive anaerobic and aerobic systems are analysed, too. Finally, future research niches are identified.

  19. Application of nitrate and water isotopes to assessment of groundwater quality beneath dairy farms in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, M. B.; Harter, T.; Kendall, C.; Silva, S. R.

    2009-12-01

    In California’s Central Valley, nitrate contamination of drinking water wells is a significant concern, and there are multiple potential sources of nitrate in this area including septic discharge, synthetic and manure fertilizers, and concentrated animal feeding operations. Dairies represent the majority of animal feeding operations in California, and have been shown to be potential sources of nitrate, salinity, dissolved organic carbon, and pathogens to groundwater. Within individual dairies, different land use areas including barns and freestalls, corrals, liquid waste lagoons, and fields for forage crops (often fertilized with animal waste, synthetic fertilizer, or both), each of which may have different impacts on the groundwater. In this study, groundwater samples were collected from two dairies in the San Joaquin Valley, where the water table is fairly shallow, and from five dairies in the Tulare Lake Basin, where the water table is much deeper. In each dairy, nitrate isotopes, water isotopes, nutrient concentrations, and other chemical and physical parameters were measured in monitoring wells located within different land use areas of the dairies. Across all sampled dairy wells, δ15N-NO3 ranged from +3.2 to +49.4‰, and δ18O-NO3 ranged from -3.1 to +19.2‰. Mean nitrate concentrations, δ15N-NO3, and δ18O-NO3 were significantly higher in the northern (San Joaquin Valley) dairy wells in comparison to the southern (Tulare Lake Basin) dairy wells. No consistent differences in nitrate isotopic compositions were found between the different land use areas, and large spatial variability in both nitrate concentrations and nitrate isotopic composition was observed within most of the individual dairies. These results emphasize the challenges associated with monitoring groundwater beneath dairies due to high spatial heterogeneity in the aquifer and groundwater constituents. At four of the seven dairies, δ18O and δ2H of the ground water in wells located

  20. Dairy farmers' attitudes and intentions towards improving dairy cow foot health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijnis, M.R.N.; Hogeveen, H.; Garforth, C.J.; Stassen, E.N.

    2013-01-01

    Dairy cow foot health is a subject of concern because it is considered to be the most important welfare problem in dairy farming and causes economic losses for the farmer. In order to improve dairy cow foot health it is important to take into account the attitude and intention of dairy farmers. In

  1. Value-Added Dairy Products from Grass-Based Dairy Farms: A Case Study in Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingbin; Parsons, Robert; Colby, Jennifer; Castle, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    On-farm processing of value-added dairy products can be a way for small dairy farms to diversify production and increase revenue. This article examines characteristics of three groups of Vermont farmers who have grass-based dairy farms--those producing value-added dairy products, those interested in such products, and those not interested in such…

  2. Metabolomics to Explore Impact of Dairy Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zheng

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dairy products are an important component in the Western diet and represent a valuable source of nutrients for humans. However, a reliable dairy intake assessment in nutrition research is crucial to correctly elucidate the link between dairy intake and human health. Metabolomics is considered a potential tool for assessment of dietary intake instead of traditional methods, such as food frequency questionnaires, food records, and 24-h recalls. Metabolomics has been successfully applied to discriminate between consumption of different dairy products under different experimental conditions. Moreover, potential metabolites related to dairy intake were identified, although these metabolites need to be further validated in other intervention studies before they can be used as valid biomarkers of dairy consumption. Therefore, this review provides an overview of metabolomics for assessment of dairy intake in order to better clarify the role of dairy products in human nutrition and health.

  3. A tale of two dairies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estabrook, Barry

    2010-01-01

    Milk has always been susceptible to price fluctuations. Farmers are used to putting away money during good times to see themselves through lean times. Recently, however, the cycles have become more violent, with lows falling lower and highs rising not quite so high and the intervals between peaks and valleys shrinking. In 1970, when milk was bringing farmers the same amount that it is today, there were nearly 650,000 dairy farms in the United States. Now there are fewer than one tenth as many, only about 54,000. The largest 1 percent of dairy farms (a figure than includes only enormous factory farms with over 2,000 cows) produced nearly one quarter of the milk we consume. Recently, dairy farmers banded together to propose a radical solution to the dairy crisis. In order to survive, they concluded, American dairy farmers would have to join together to control the supply of milk, an approach along lines similar to the one taken in Canada.

  4. Dairy cow monitoring by RFID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevan Stankovski

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Dairy cows identification and monitoring on small cattle farms are usually based on the utilization of barcode technology. This kind of identification technology is unsuitable for dairy cows milking and feeding process automation. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID technology is a better solution in this case. This paper describes the research and implementation of the milking cycle´s automated monitoring with the use of RFID tags conducted on a small cattle farm in the Republic of Serbia. This solution is based on RFID system which consists of two parts. First part includes control box, two Ultra High Frequency (UHF RFID readers operating at frequency of 915 MHz and RFID tags glued onto the dairy cow ear labels. Second part includes software modules for acquisition and collecting data from RFID tags to build up an archive due to supervision and analysis of the milking cycle. Reading accuracy of RFID system in the observed period was 99.8 % in average. A group of dairy cows having a settled milking cycle within an interval of 12h ± 5 % had a 1.5 % better yield and a 0.08 better quality in comparison with a group of dairy cows having a milking cycle variance higher than 20 %. RFID system implemented in described way can be easily integrated into a new or existing farm management system in order to have better production results which depend on several factors including settled milking cycles.

  5. Trends in dairy and non-dairy probiotic products - a review

    OpenAIRE

    Vijaya Kumar, Bathal; Vijayendra, Sistla Venkata Naga; Reddy, Obulam Vijaya Sarathi

    2015-01-01

    Health awareness has grown to a greater extent among consumers and they are looking for healthy probiotic counterparts. Keeping in this view, the present review focuses recent developments in dairy and non-dairy probiotic products. All over the world, dairy probiotics are being commercialized in many different forms. However, the allergy and lactose intolerance are the major set-backs to dairy probiotics. Whereas, flavor and refreshing nature are the major advantages of non-dairy drinks, espe...

  6. Dairy beverages and energy balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Arne; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Gilbert, Jo-Anne

    2010-01-01

    to exist. We have found that high versus low calcium intakes from dairy products had no effect on 24-h energy expenditure or substrate oxidation rates, but fecal fat excretion increased approximately 2.5-fold on the high-calcium diets. In a meta-analysis of intervention studies we found that increasing...... dairy calcium intake by 1200mg/day resulted in increased fecal fat excretion by 5.2 (1.6-8.8) g/day. Newer research shows that humans possess taste receptors for calcium in the gastrointestinal tract and that signaling may be linked to appetite regulation. A new line of evidence suggests...... that an inadequate calcium intake during an energy restricted weight loss program may trigger hunger and impair compliance to the diet. These mechanisms may be part of the explanation for the protective effects of dairy products with regard to obesity and metabolic syndrome....

  7. Continuous lactation in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Torben Gosvig; Nielsen, Mette Benedicte Olaf; Andersen, Jens Bech

    2008-01-01

    function may be achievable in continuously milked high-yielding dairy cows as a result of the genetic selection for lactation performance and hence longevity of mammary epithelial cells. The milk production and mammary nutrient uptake in response to omission of the dry period for cows with an expected peak...... milk yield higher than 45 kg/d were studied in 28 Holstein dairy cows managed without bovine somatotropin. Performance and metabolic parameters were followed in late gestation and in the following early lactation. Fourteen cows were milked continuously throughout late gestation, and another 14 dairy...... cows experienced a 7-wk prepartum dry period. Continuous milking during the prepartum period reduced milk production in the following early lactation period by >20%. The reduced milk production could not be readily ascribed to inefficiency of the mechanisms responsible for nutrient uptake...

  8. Dairy products and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tholstrup, Tine

    2006-02-01

    Although it has often been postulated that the consumption of dairy products is associated with a high risk of coronary heart disease, study results have been conflicting. This review summarizes recent observational and human intervention trial findings on dairy products and cardiovascular disease. Results from more recent observational studies on dairy products and milk disagree. This may be because of the very different methods used combined with several methodological problems. A somewhat surprising beneficial association between the intake of dairy products and the metabolic syndrome was observed in some studies, although not in a single study of elderly women. Milk may have the same cholesterol-raising properties as butter, whereas cheese does not seem to increase plasma cholesterol. Some milk products fermented by specific bacterial strains have been shown to have rather moderate cholesterol-reducing properties. There is also good evidence that certain fermented products (especially by Lactobacillus helveticus) have a mildly decreasing effect on hypertension, probably because of bioactive peptides. When guiding principles such as balance, variety and moderation are stressed, there is no strong evidence that dairy products increase the risk of coronary heart disease in healthy men of all ages or young and middle-aged healthy women. Human studies should investigate the role of dairy products with respect to sex and age by including classic and novel risk markers of coronary heart disease. Specific fermented milks may be beneficial in the future prevention of hypertension. The beneficially neutral effect of cheese on coronary heart disease risk factors should be elucidated further.

  9. Características de carcaça de bezerros de rebanhos leiteiros desmamados precocemente e alimentados com diferentes dietas líquidas Effect of feeding different liquid diets on carcass characteristics of early weaned dairy calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Bento Mancio

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o rendimento de carcaça e o desenvolvimento dos órgãos e vísceras de 40 bezerros mestiços F1 Holandês x Gir alimentados com diferentes dietas líquidas, à base de leite integral ou colostro fermentado, associados ou não com óleo de soja (45 mL, com ou sem a aplicação do promotor de crescimento Zeranol. Cada animal recebeu dieta composta por ração concentrada (23% de proteína bruta, feno de capim-tifton à vontade e três litros de leite ou colostro fermentado por dia. Os animais foram abatidos com peso médio de 57,38 kg e aproximadamente 60 dias de idade. Não houve efeito das dietas fornecidas aos animais sobre o peso dos órgãos e dos componentes não-integrantes da carcaça. Entretanto, os bezerros tratados com leite e Zeranol apresentaram maiores pesos de carne industrial. A área de olho de lombo dos bezerros não foi influenciada pela associação dos diferentes tipos de dietas com o Zeranol, apresentando um valor médio de 15,27 cm². O colostro fermentado sem a adição de Zeranol e apresentou pesos, para rúmen-retículo, intestino delgado e mesentério, de 954, 2.076 e 619 g, respectivamente. A presença do óleo de soja na dieta líquida elevou a porcentagem de gordura interna dos bezerros. A utilização do Zeranol acarretou comprimento de carcaça 5% superior nos animais tratados com leite e 5,5% inferior nos animais tratados com colostro, enquanto o uso do colostro fermentado sem Zeranol resultou em carcaças 5% mais pesadas que o de leite integral sem Zeranol. Desempenho (peso de carcaça quente e fria semelhante aos dos animais tratados com leite e promotor de crescimento foi obtido com o tratamento Zeranol + colostro fermentado. Animais tratados com leite apresentaram maiores proporções de osso e de gordura na carcaça.Carcass yield and growth of organs and innards of 40 crossbreed F1 Holstein X Gir calves fed different liquid diets (whole milk or fermented colostrum-based diets, supplemented or

  10. Identification of the bacterial microflora in dairy products by temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogier, Jean-Claude; Son, Olivier; Gruss, Alexandra; Tailliez, Patrick; Delacroix-Buchet, Agnes

    2002-08-01

    Numerous microorganisms, including bacteria, yeasts, and molds, are present in cheeses, forming a complex ecosystem. Among these organisms, bacteria are responsible for most of the physicochemical and aromatic transformations that are intrinsic to the cheesemaking process. Identification of the bacteria that constitute the cheese ecosystem is essential for understanding their individual contributions to cheese production. We used temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TTGE) to identify different bacterial species present in several dairy products, including members of the genera Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, Enterococcus, Pediococcus, Streptococcus, and Staphylococcus. The TTGE technique is based on electrophoretic separation of 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) fragments by using a temperature gradient. It was optimized to reveal differences in the 16S rDNA V3 regions of bacteria with low-G+C-content genomes. Using multiple control strains, we first set up a species database in which each species (or group of species) was characterized by a specific TTGE fingerprint. TTGE was then applied to controlled dairy ecosystems with defined compositions, including liquid (starter), semisolid (home-made fermented milk), and solid (miniature cheese models) matrices. Finally, the potential of TTGE to describe the bacterial microflora of unknown ecosystems was tested with various commercial dairy products. Subspecies, species, or groups of species of lactic acid bacteria were distinguished in dairy samples. In conclusion, TTGE was shown to distinguish bacterial species in vitro, as well as in both liquid and solid dairy products.

  11. Authenticity assessment of dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente, Miguel Angel; Juárez, Manuela

    2005-01-01

    The authenticity of dairy products has become a focal point, attracting the attention of scientists, producers, consumers, and policymakers. Among many others, some of the practices not allowed in milk and milk products are the substitution of part of the fat or proteins, admixtures of milk of different species, additions of low-cost dairy products (mainly whey derivatives), or mislabeling of products protected by denomination of origin. A range of analytical methods to detect frauds have been developed, modified, and continually reassessed to be one step ahead of manufacturers who pursue these illegal activities. Traditional procedures to assess the authenticity of dairy products include chromatographic, electrophoretic, and immunoenzymatic methods. New approaches such as capillary electrophoresis, polymerase chain reaction, and isotope ratio mass spectrometry have also emerged alongside the latest developments in the former procedures. This work intends to provide an updated and extensive overview since 1991 on the principal applications of all these techniques together with their advantages and disadvantages for detecting the authenticity of dairy products. The scope and limits of different tools are also discussed.

  12. Lameness detection in dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hertem, Van T.; Bahr, C.; Schlageter Tello, A.; Viazzi, S.; Steensels, M.; Romanini, C.E.B.; Lokhorst, C.; Maltz, E.; Halachmi, I.; Berckmans, D.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate if a multi-sensor system (milk, activity, body posture) was a better classifier for lameness than the single-sensor-based detection models. Between September 2013 and August 2014, 3629 cow observations were collected on a commercial dairy farm in

  13. Pain evaluation in dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gleerup, Karina Charlotte Bech; Andersen, Pia Haubro; Munksgaard, Lene

    2015-01-01

    Pain compromises the welfare of animals. A prerequisite for being able to alleviate pain is that we are able to recognize it. Potential behavioural signs of pain were investigated for dairy cattle with the aim of constructing a pain scale for use under production conditions. Forty-three cows were......, piloerection, was also significant but seemed difficult to use as it changed rapidly; p 

  14. Teat Condition in Dairy Cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neijenhuis, F.

    2004-01-01

    The dairy cow's teat is the first line of defence against mastitis pathogens. The milking process may affect the teat's condition, increasing the risk of mastitis. It is well-proven that teat-ends with severe erosions or broken skin will have an increased risk of mastitis. However, more common

  15. Teat condition in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neijenhuis, Francesca

    2004-01-01

    The dairy cow's teat is the first line of defence against mastitis pathogens. The milking process may affect the teat's condition, increasing the risk of mastitis. It is well-proven that teat-ends with severe erosions or broken skin will have an increased risk of mastitis. However, more common

  16. Glycerol from biodiesel production: the new corn for dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn S Donkin

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Glycerol, also known as glycerin, is a colorless, odorless, hygroscopic, and sweet-tasting viscous liquid. It is a sugar alcohol with high solubility index in water and has a wide range of applications in the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. The use of glycerol in diets for dairy cattle is not novel; however, this interest has been renewed due to the increased availability and favorable pricing of glycerol as a consequence of recent growth in the biofuels industry. Experimental evidence supports the use of glycerol as a transition cow therapy but feeding rates are low, ranging from 5 to 8 % of the diet DM. There is a paucity of research that examines the use of glycerol as a macro-ingredient in rations for lactating dairy cows. Most reports indicate a lack of effect of addition of glycerol to the diet when it replaces corn or corn starch. Recent feeding experiments with lactating dairy cows indicate replacing corn with glycerol to a level of 15% of the ration DM does not adversely effect milk production or composition. Milk production was 37.0, 36.9, 37.3, 36.4 ± 0.6 kg/d and feed intake was 24.0, 24.5, 24.6, 24.1 ± 0.5 kg/d for 0, 5, 10 and 15% glycerol treatments respectively and did not differ (P > 0.05 except for a modest reduction in feed intake during the first 7 days for the 15% glycerol treatment. Glycerol fed to dairy cattle is fermented to volatile fatty acids in the rumen and early reports indicated that glycerol is almost entirely fermented to propionate. In vitro data indicates glycerol fermentation increases the production of propionate and butyrate at the expense of acetate. Rumen microbes appear to adapt to glycerol feeding and consequently, cows fed glycerol also require an adaptation period to glycerol inclusion. Debate exists regarding the fate of glycerol in the rumen and although most reports suggest that glycerol is largely fermented in the rumen, the extent of rumen digestion may depend on level of

  17. Foods for Special Dietary Needs: Non-dairy Plant-based Milk Substitutes and Fermented Dairy-type Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkinen, Outi Elina; Wanhalinna, Viivi; Zannini, Emanuele; Arendt, Elke Karin

    2016-01-01

    A growing number of consumers opt for plant-based milk substitutes for medical reasons or as a lifestyle choice. Medical reasons include lactose intolerance, with a worldwide prevalence of 75%, and cow's milk allergy. Also, in countries where mammal milk is scarce and expensive, plant milk substitutes serve as a more affordable option. However, many of these products have sensory characteristics objectionable to the mainstream western palate. Technologically, plant milk substitutes are suspensions of dissolved and disintegrated plant material in water, resembling cow's milk in appearance. They are manufactured by extracting the plant material in water, separating the liquid, and formulating the final product. Homogenization and thermal treatments are necessary to improve the suspension and microbial stabilities of commercial products that can be consumed as such or be further processed into fermented dairy-type products. The nutritional properties depend on the plant source, processing, and fortification. As some products have extremely low protein and calcium contents, consumer awareness is important when plant milk substitutes are used to replace cow's milk in the diet, e.g. in the case of dairy intolerances. If formulated into palatable and nutritionally adequate products, plant-based substitutes can offer a sustainable alternative to dairy products.

  18. Milk Peptidomics to Identify Functional Peptides and for Quality Control of Dairy Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallas, David; Nielsen, Søren Drud

    2018-01-01

    Human milk and dairy products are important parts of human nutrition. In addition to supplying nutrients, milk proteins contain fragments-peptides-with important biological functions that are released during processing or digestion. Besides their potential functional relevance, peptides released during processing can be used as markers of ripening stage or product deterioration. Hence, identification and quantification of peptides in milk can be used to assay potential health benefits or product quality. This chapter describes how to extract, identify, and analyze peptides within breast milk, dairy products, and dairy digestive samples. We describe how to analyze extracted peptides with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, to use software to identify peptides based on database searching, and to extract peak areas for relative quantification of each peptide. We describe methods for data analysis, including predicting which enzymes are responsible for protein cleavage, identifying the site specificity of protein breakdown, mapping identified peptides to known bioactive peptides, and applying models to predict novel functional peptides.

  19. Radiation methods in dairy production and processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganguli, N.C.

    1975-01-01

    Various uses of radiotracers and radiation in dairy technology are described. In dairy production, radiotracers are used for studying: (1) rumen metabolism leading to protein synthesis (2) total body water, blood volume and sodium (3) minerals metabolism (4) relation between climatic stress and thyroid functioning of dairy animals (5) volume of milk in mammary glands (6) hormone level in dairy animals and (7) spermatozoa metabolism. In dairy processing, radiotracers are used for studying: (1) compositional analysis of milk and milk products and (2) efficiency of cleaning agents for cleaning dairy equipment. Ionizing radiation is used for: (1) preservation of milk and milk products and (2) sterilization of packaging materials. Radiation source has been used to monitor the over-run in ice-cream and the fill control for fluid in papar cartons. (M.G.B.)

  20. PRODUCTION OF BIOGAS FROM DAIRY WASTE WATER

    OpenAIRE

    S. Karthiyayini; A. Sivabharathy; C. Sreehari; M. Sreepoorani; V. Vinjth

    2017-01-01

    Pollution caused by dairy effluents is a serious problem throughout the world. The major source of waste water is from dairy industry. The effluent from dairy processing unit affects the environment. As a solution our aim is to produce bio-gas from diary wastewater. There are various treatment technologies, among them anaerobic treatment technology is simple and encouraged due to the following advantages such as low cost of construction, pH stability, low maintenance and repair. The biogas is...

  1. Effect of Dairy Beef Quality Assurance Training on Dairy Worker Knowledge and Welfare-Related Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Ashley E.; Ahola, Jason K.; Chahine, Mireille; Roman-Muniz, I. Noa

    2016-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine whether on-farm dairy beef quality assurance (BQA) training affected dairy worker knowledge of BQA and welfare-related practices. Dairy personnel who participated in the BQA training were administered an exam before and after the training to gauge the amount of knowledge gained. The average exam score was 21.0…

  2. Measures to improve dairy cow foot health: consequences for farmer income and dairy cow welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijnis, M.R.N.; Hogeveen, H.; Stassen, E.N.

    2013-01-01

    Dairy farming in western countries with cubicle housing is an efficient way of dairy farming. Though, a disadvantage is the high prevalence and incidence of foot disorders (clinical and subclinical), which cause high economic losses and also seriously impair the welfare of dairy cattle. To point out

  3. Vitamin D status of dairy cattle: Outcomes of current practices in the dairy industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The need for vitamin D supplementation of dairy cattle has been known for the better part of the last century and is well-appreciated by dairy producers and nutritionists. Whether current recommendations and practices for supplemental vitamin D are meeting the needs of dairy cattle, however, is not...

  4. Trends in dairy and non-dairy probiotic products - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijaya Kumar, Bathal; Vijayendra, Sistla Venkata Naga; Reddy, Obulam Vijaya Sarathi

    2015-10-01

    Health awareness has grown to a greater extent among consumers and they are looking for healthy probiotic counterparts. Keeping in this view, the present review focuses recent developments in dairy and non-dairy probiotic products. All over the world, dairy probiotics are being commercialized in many different forms. However, the allergy and lactose intolerance are the major set-backs to dairy probiotics. Whereas, flavor and refreshing nature are the major advantages of non-dairy drinks, especially fruit juices. Phenotypic and genotypic similarities between dairy and non-dairy probiotics along with the matrix dependency of cell viability and cell functionality are reviewed. The heterogeneous food matrices of non-dairy food carriers are the major constraints for the survival of the probiotics, while the probiotic strains from non-dairy sources are satisfactory. Technological and functional properties, besides the viability of the probiotics used in fermented products of non-dairy origin are extremely important to get a competitive advantage in the world market. The functional attributes of dairy and non-dairy probiotic products are further enhanced by adding prebiotics such as galacto-oligosaccharide, fructo-oligosaccharide and inulin.

  5. Invited review : Changes in the dairy industry affecting dairy cattle health and welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barkema, H W; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Kastelic, J P; Lam, T J G M; Luby, C; Roy, J-P; LeBlanc, S J; Keefe, G P; Kelton, D F

    2015-01-01

    The dairy industry in the developed world has undergone profound changes over recent decades. In this paper, we present an overview of some of the most important recent changes in the dairy industry that affect health and welfare of dairy cows, as well as the science associated with these changes.

  6. Strengthening Dairy Cooperative through National Development of Livestock Region

    OpenAIRE

    Priyono; A.Priyanti

    2016-01-01

    Establishment of dairy cattle development region needs to be conducted in accordance with the national dairy industry development plan. Dairy cattle regions have been designed and equipped with infrastructure supplies, supporting facilities, technologies, finance, processing, marketing, institutional and human resources. Dairy cooperative is one of the marketing channels of milk and milk products which have strategic roles to support the national dairy industry. Collaborations between dairy c...

  7. Bioactive Lipids in Dairy Fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellgren, Lars; Nordby, Pernille

    2017-01-01

    Milk fat is the most important energy source for the newborn infant beside its important role as energy source, milk fat also contain a range of bioactive lipids, that potentially can modulate the immune response and metabolic regulation in the child. In this chapter we review the literature...... on bioactive dairy fatty acids: conjugated linoleic acid, branched chained and odd chained fatty acids, as well as bioactive complex lipids such as sphingomyelin and gangliosides....

  8. Metagenomic Analysis of Dairy Bacteriophages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muhammed, Musemma K.; Kot, Witold; Neve, Horst

    2017-01-01

    Despite their huge potential for characterizing the biodiversity of phages, metagenomic studies are currently not available for dairy bacteriophages, partly due to the lack of a standard procedure for phage extraction. We optimized an extraction method that allows to remove the bulk protein from ...... diversity. Possible co-induction of temperate P335 prophages and satellite phages in one of the whey mixtures was also observed....

  9. Using Bacteriocins in Milk and Dairy Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim Güneş Altuntaş

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriocins produced by bacteria are ribosomally synthesed and antimicrobial peptides. Lots of strains of bacteria can produce bacteriocin. There are lots of researchs on using bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB which are known as safe (GRAS in foods. With this respect bacteriocin experiments have been generally in meat and dairy products where can become spoilage easily. It is allowed to use nisin in cheese a dairy product, and with cheese the experiments about using nisin, pediocin, lacticin, variacin etc. are going on the other dairy products. In this review some experiments on using bacteriocins and their results on milk and dairy products are reported.

  10. Variation among Dairy Cows in Rumen Liquid Fermentation Characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Jan; Løvendahl, Peter; Kristensen, Lise

    Volatile fatty acids are the main energy product from rumen fermentation. This study investigated the individuality of VFA concentrations in samples of rumen fluid obtained from 10 Holstein cows using a esophageal probe to take samples repeatedly over a 7 week period. Systematic changes were seen...

  11. Effects of dairy manure storage conditions on the survival of E. coli O157:H7 and listeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dairy manure is regularly applied to crop fields as a solid or liquid to improve the soil nutrient status. However, pathogens may survive during manure storage and enter the environment during application. In this study, three storage practices were evaluated to understand the survival patterns of E...

  12. Planning of dairy farm and dairy plant based ecotourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarnyoto, A. S.; Tama, I. P.; Tantrika, C. F. M.

    2017-06-01

    One of a dairy production company producing pasteurized milk and yoghurt drink, whose brand has widely known in East Java, has a factory plant in Batu City, one of tourism destinations in Indonesia. Behind the factory plant, there is a vacant land with an estimated total area of 2.3 ha and a vacant cowshed which had not been used for cattle ranching. Because of that, the company planned to develop the vacant land as a dairy farm and plant based ecotourism. In addition, dairy farm and dairy plant based tourism attractions are still rarely found in Batu. Thus, the first aim of this study was to analyse the potencies of the company that related to future plans of ecotourism built. The second aim was to set up the strategies that can be done in order to actualize the ecotourism project. The next aim was to plan the ecotourism, especially the facilities planning and the facilities arrangement on the vacant land. Strategic management approach was used to analyse the potencies and to determine the strategies. To select the proper facilities, tourists were asked to give appraisal by using questionnaire. Appraisal result was mapped onto four quadrants spatial map to see advantages and shortcomings of each facility along with choosing the right facilities to be built. Those facilities and tourist activities were compared with ecotourism criteria to make sure that the facilities were appropriate to provide not only entertainment but also ecotourism function. To arrange the chosen facilities, the step in Systematic Layout Planning were conducted to generate a propose layout of facilities arrangement. Based on potencies analysis, in Internal-External matrix, the company current position was on quadrant 2 (grow and build), with the most appropriate strategy was intensive or integrative. The proposed strategies were to build the new infrastructure, to renovate cowshed, and to add new tourism facilities on the land. There were 11 selected facilities based on MDS. Moreover, based

  13. Brief of requirements of the dairy cow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, J.M.R.; Ursinus, W.W.; Schepers, F.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.; Dixhoorn, van I.D.E.

    2009-01-01

    This report lists the brief of requirements of the dairy cow, based on her needs (also listed). The BoR indicates the actor’s needs with regards to the animal husbandry system. BoR of the main actors are incorporated in the redesign of a dairy husbandry system in the project Cow Power

  14. Determinants of dairy consumption expenditure in urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main purpose of the study was to examine the level of household expenditure on dairy products and to identify the principal factors that influence the level of consumption expenditure on dairy products across households in Accra and Kumasi. Structured questionnaire was used to elicit primary information from a total of ...

  15. Tracking Zoonotic Pathogens in Dairy Production Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dairy farming is a highly productive system producing ample amounts of high-quality milk and meat from fewer cows on less land on fewer, but larger, farms. Despite this consolidation and modernization zoonotic pathogenic bacteria and protozoans remain problems on the modern dairy farm. Although past...

  16. Reproductive performance by dairy cows fed supplemental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clinical metabolic disorders and clinical puerperal complications were not affected by chromium methionine supplementation. The results of this experiment showed that chromium methionine supplementation in multiparous dairy cows diet may improve their reproductive performance in transition period. Key words: Dairy ...

  17. Business opportunities in the Mexican dairy industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnands, J.H.M.; Armenta Gutierrez, B.M.; Poelarends, J.J.; Valk, van der O.M.C.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the Mexican and Dutch business opportunities in the dairy industry in Mexico. The report discusses first the external environment of the Mexican dairy sector: the economic developments, the country's overall competitiveness, and the economic and agricultural policies. Next, it

  18. Engineering to support wellbeing of dairy animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caja, Gerardo; Castro-Costa, Andreia; Knight, Christopher Harold

    2016-01-01

    Current trends in the global milk market and the recent abolition of milk quotas have accelerated the trend of the European dairy industry towards larger farm sizes and higher-yielding animals. Dairy cows remain in focus, but there is a growing interest in other dairy species, whose milk is often...... directed to traditional and protected designation of origin and gourmet dairy products. The challenge for dairy farms in general is to achieve the best possible standards of animal health and welfare, together with high lactational performance and minimal environmental impact. For larger farms, this may...... need to be done with a much lower ratio of husbandry staff to animals. Recent engineering advances and the decreasing cost of electronic technologies has allowed the development of 'sensing solutions' that automatically collect data, such as physiological parameters, production measures and behavioural...

  19. DAIRY BUSINESS: THE CASE OF BULGARIAN DAIRY CATTLE FARMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsvetana HARIZANOVA-METODIEVA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to explore differences between dairy cattle farmers in Bulgaria, according to certain factors. Information about the social characteristics of the farmers (educational level, gender, and age, and about the farm characteristics (number of cows in the main herd, average milk yield, and the rate of return on investment was collected. Sixty percent of the farmers were up to 50 years of age. Fifty percent of the farmers had had a secondary education and the rest had gained a university degree. The study found that only one of the 20 farmers was a woman. It was found that the group of farmers with a university degree had lower average age than the group of farmers with secondary school. There was no significant difference in the rate of return between the two groups of farms in terms of the effectiveness of the farm. The difference in the number of cows in the main herd was not significant too. The research identified a need for additional training for farmers in order to reduce their dependence on hired workers. It was found that farmers attend basic courses in the field of agriculture and livestock breeding in order to fill the gap between the existing levels of knowledge of farmers and the necessary skills for the effective management of dairy farms.

  20. Phosphorus and the dairy cow

    OpenAIRE

    Ekelund, Adrienne

    2003-01-01

    The general aim of the present work was to investigate phosphorus balance in the dairy cow, with reference to the amount and source of phosphorus. Furthermore, biochemical bone markers were used to study the bone turnover during the lactation and dry period. Phosphorus is located in every cell of the body and has more known functions than any other mineral element in the animal body. Phosphorus is also an important constituent of milk, and is therefore required in large amounts in a high yiel...

  1. Replacement policies for dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Relund; Kristensen, Anders Ringgaard

    2010-01-01

    In a recent paper a hierarchical Markov decision processes (MDP) with finite state and action space was formulated for the dairy cow replacement problem with stage lengths of 1 d. Bayesian updating was used to predict the performance of each cow in the herd and economic decisions were based...... on the prediction. The model can be used to assist the farmer in replacement decisions on a daily basis and is based on daily milk yield measurements that are available in modern milking systems. This talk will present the results of the paper and discuss directions for further research....

  2. Subclinical laminitis in dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, H K; Shannon, D; Neilson, D R

    1989-08-19

    By causing poorer horn quality, subclinical laminitis is considered to be a major predisposing cause of other hoof problems, particularly sole ulcers in newly calved heifers. In this study the hind hooves of 136 female Friesian/Holstein cattle aged between four months and two years were examined to discover at what age the signs of subclinical laminitis appeared. Sole haemorrhages were found in the hoof horn of calves as young as five months. The consistent finding of these lesions in heifers of all ages indicated that subclinical laminitis of varying degree was a common condition during the early growing period of young dairy heifers.

  3. Dairy constituents and neurocognitive health in ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camfield, David A; Owen, Lauren; Scholey, Andrew B; Pipingas, Andrew; Stough, Con

    2011-07-01

    Age-related cognitive decline (ARCD) and dementia are of increasing concern to an ageing population. In recent years, there has been considerable research focused on effective dietary interventions that may prevent or ameliorate ARCD and dementia. While a number of studies have considered the impact that dairy products may have on physiological health, particularly with regard to the metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular health, further research is currently needed in order to establish the impact that dairy products have in the promotion of healthy brain function during ageing. The present review considers the available evidence for the positive effects of dairy products on the metabolic syndrome and glucose regulation, with consideration of the implications for neurocognitive health. A literature search of current (September 2010) meta-analyses/reviews and original research regarding dairy products and cognition was conducted through SCOPUS using the following search terms for dairy consituents: dairy, milk, cheese, yoghurt, probiotics, whey protein, alpha lactalbumin, calcium, B-12, bioactive peptides and colostrinin (CLN). These search terms for dairy products were combined with the following search terms related to cognition and health: cognition, cognitive decline, dementia, Alzheimer's disease, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, insulin resistance and glucose regulation. Concerns regarding SFA and other fatty acids found in dairy products are also reviewed in relation to different forms of dairy products. The review also considers recent evidence for positive neurocognitive effects associated with bioactive peptides, CLN and proline-rich polypeptides, α-lactalbumin, vitamin B12, calcium and probiotics. Future directions for the extraction and purification of beneficial constituents are also discussed. It is concluded that low-fat dairy products, when consumed regularly as part of a balanced diet, may have a number of beneficial outcomes for neurocognitive health

  4. Consuming the daily recommended amounts of dairy products ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Nutrients; Nutrient adequacy; Dairy; Nutrition and health; NHANES. Consuming the daily ... by adding the necessary number of dairy servings, using the dairy composite designed by USDA, to each participant's diet to meet the dairy .... The National Cancer Institute method21,22 was used to estimate usual intake ...

  5. Establishment of a ruminal protein degradation data base for dairy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    diets for high-producing dairy cattle. UDP values were obtained using sheep, growing cattle and lactating dairy cows eating less feed than normally consumed by high- producing dairy cattle. ... producing dairy cows consuming large amounts of feed, may ... Holstein cows with an average dry-matter intake of 20,8. (:!

  6. Costs of Producing Biogas at Dairy Farms in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebrezgabher, S.A.; Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    By 2020, Dutch dairy chains envisage to be self-sufficient with regard to energy used by dairy farms and dairy processors. This would require dairy farms to produce 25 PJ per year, possibly by a combination of wind, solar and biogas. This paper focuses on biogas. To evaluate the project’s viability

  7. Dairy development and nutrition in Kilifi District, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leegwater, P.; Ngolo, J.; Hoorweg, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    The objectives of this study on dairy development in Kilifi District, Kenya, are, first, to assess the importance of - small-scale - intensive dairy farming as promoted by the Ministry of Livestock through the National Dairy Development Programme (DDP) compared with other types of small-scale dairy

  8. DAIRY TECHNOLOGY IMPACTS ON LIVEHOODS OF DAIRY PRODUCERS IN CENTRAL ETHIOPIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kassahun Melesse

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A survey was conducted in 2012 to assess the impact of dairy technologies on the livelihood of dairying households in Ada’a and Lume districts of central Ethiopia. A total of 108 dairy farms were interviewed using structured questionnaire. Dairying has significant contribution as a sustainable source of income to the dairy producing households. It contributed about 62% and 66% of the total monthly income in Ada’a and Lume districts, respectively. Dairying was the first income source for about 80% and 62% of the dairy producing households in Ada’a and Lume districts, respectively. On the other hand, 92.9 % and 88.9 % of the respondents in Ada’a and Lume districts respectively explained that dairy technology adoption has significantly increased their household income. About 56% and 32% of households in Ada’a and Lume districts were found to save money from dairying in a traditional form of saving. Adoption of dairy technologies has also an impact on the consumption of milk and milk products as all family members in about 77.5% and 87.1% of households in Ada’a and Lume districts, respectively could consume more milk.

  9. Developing a Contemporary Dairy Foods Extension Program: A Training and Technical Resource Needs Assessment of Pennsylvania Dairy Foods Processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrko, Joseph; Kaylegian, Kerry E.

    2015-01-01

    Growth in the dairy industry and the passage of the Food Safety Modernization Act have renewed interest in dairy foods processing extension positions. A needs assessment survey was sent to Pennsylvania dairy processors and raw milk providers to guide priorities for a dairy foods extension program. The successful development and delivery of…

  10. 16S rRNA analysis of diversity of manure microbial community in dairy farm environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Pramod; Chiu, Colleen; Miao, Max; Wang, Yi; Settles, Matthew; Del Rio, Noelia Silva; Castillo, Alejandro; Souza, Alex; Pereira, Richard; Jeannotte, Richard

    2018-01-01

    Dairy farms generate a considerable amount of manure, which is applied in cropland as fertilizer. While the use of manure as fertilizer reduces the application of chemical fertilizers, the main concern with regards to manure application is microbial pollution. Manure is a reservoir of a broad range of microbial populations, including pathogens, which have potential to cause contamination and pose risks to public and animal health. Despite the widespread use of manure fertilizer, the change in microbial diversity of manure under various treatment processes is still not well-understood. We hypothesize that the microbial population of animal waste changes with manure handling used in a farm environment. Consequential microbial risk caused by animal manure may depend on manure handling. In this study, a reconnaissance effort for sampling dairy manure in California Central Valley followed by 16S rRNA analysis of content and diversity was undertaken to understand the microbiome of manure after various handling processes. The microbial community analysis of manure revealed that the population in liquid manure differs from that in solid manure. For instance, the bacteria of genus Sulfuriomonas were unique in liquid samples, while the bacteria of genus Thermos were observed only in solid samples. Bacteria of genus Clostridium were present in both solid and liquid samples. The population among liquid samples was comparable, as was the population among solid samples. These findings suggest that the mode of manure application (i.e., liquid versus solid) could have a potential impact on the microbiome of cropland receiving manure as fertilizers.

  11. Detection of Subclinical Ketosis in Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Zhang, Guowen Liu1, Hongbin Wang, Xiaobing Li1 and Zhe Wang1*

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Ketosis is a common metabolic disorder frequently observed in dairy cows during the early lactation period. It is characterized by increased levels of ketone bodies in the blood, urine, and milk. Subclinical ketosis (SCK in dairy cattle is an excess level of circulating ketone bodies in the absence of clinical signs of ketosis. Usually, detection of SCK is carried out by testing the ketone concentrations in blood, urine, and milk. Here, This review overview the detection methods for SCK in dairy cows, including cowside and laboratory tests.

  12. Comprehensive Review of the Impact of Dairy Foods and Dairy Fat on Cardiometabolic Risk123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouin-Chartier, Jean-Philippe; Côté, Julie Anne; Labonté, Marie-Ève; Brassard, Didier; Tessier-Grenier, Maude; Desroches, Sophie; Couture, Patrick; Lamarche, Benoît

    2016-01-01

    Because regular-fat dairy products are a major source of cholesterol-raising saturated fatty acids (SFAs), current US and Canadian dietary guidelines for cardiovascular health recommend the consumption of low-fat dairy products. Yet, numerous randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have reported rather mixed effects of reduced- and regular-fat dairy consumption on blood lipid concentrations and on many other cardiometabolic disease risk factors, such as blood pressure and inflammation markers. Thus, the focus on low-fat dairy in current dietary guidelines is being challenged, creating confusion within health professional circles and the public. This narrative review provides perspective on the research pertaining to the impact of dairy consumption and dairy fat on traditional and emerging cardiometabolic disease risk factors. This comprehensive assessment of evidence from RCTs suggests that there is no apparent risk of potential harmful effects of dairy consumption, irrespective of the content of dairy fat, on a large array of cardiometabolic variables, including lipid-related risk factors, blood pressure, inflammation, insulin resistance, and vascular function. This suggests that the purported detrimental effects of SFAs on cardiometabolic health may in fact be nullified when they are consumed as part of complex food matrices such as those in cheese and other dairy foods. Thus, the focus on low-fat dairy products in current guidelines apparently is not entirely supported by the existing literature and may need to be revisited on the basis of this evidence. Future studies addressing key research gaps in this area will be extremely informative to better appreciate the impact of dairy food matrices, as well as dairy fat specifically, on cardiometabolic health. PMID:28140322

  13. Dairy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a Member Donate Now! One Time Monthly In Memory In Honor Become a Member En Español Type 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community Meal Planning Sign In Search: Search More Sites Search ≡ Are You At Risk? Diabetes Basics Living with Diabetes Food & Fitness In My Community Advocacy Research & Practice Ways ...

  14. MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM SUSP. PARATUBERCULOSIS IN DAIRY PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Marchetti

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP is the etiologic agent of paratuberculosis. The disease affects cows and other ruminants and causes high economic losses, mainly for dairy production. MAP may also have a role in the development of Crohn’s disease in humans. Infected animals shed viable MAP with milk and faeces and humans may assume MAP via the consumption of contaminated milk and dairy products. Current methods of milk pasteurization are not sufficient to kill all MAP cells present in milk and MAP has been found in raw or pasteurized milk and isolated from cheese. The aim of this paper is to review the current knowledge about MAP in dairy production. We analyzed studies on milk contamination, effect of pasteurization and methods for identification of MAP that can be applied to dairy products.

  15. Dairy Dilemma: Are You Getting Enough Calcium?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to grow and stay strong. The body also needs vitamin D to absorb calcium. Nutrition surveys have shown ... found in dairy products. How much calcium and vitamin D you need depends on your age and other factors. If ...

  16. International genomic evaluation methods for dairy cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background Genomic evaluations are rapidly replacing traditional evaluation systems used for dairy cattle selection. Economies of scale in genomics promote cooperation across country borders. Genomic information can be transferred across countries using simple conversion equations, by modifying mult...

  17. Spoilage microorganisms in milk and dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Skelin

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Spoilage microorganisms cause changes of primary characteristics and properties of milk and dairy products. The product defects depends on the specific species and number of microorganisms involved in pre- and post- technological processing. Most often, these changes are related to single undesirable sensory characteristic, smell, flavour or conistency. However, in the case of heavier microbial contamination all these undesirable characteristics can occur simultaneously. Besides, even small changes caused by presence of spoilage microorganisms lead to decreased quality of milk and various dairy products. Despite of the importance for the overall quality, the control of spoilage microorganisms for dairy industry is not obligated and therefore, only a few producers control them. Therefore, the present study describes the undesirable effect of spoilage microorganisms on quality of raw, pasteurized and sterilized milk, fermented milk, butter, sour cream and cheeses with the intention to emphasize the importance and significance of their control in the dairy industry.

  18. Dairy propionibacteria as probiotics: recent evidences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altieri, Clelia

    2016-10-01

    Nowdays there is evidence that dairy propionibacteria display probiotic properties, which as yet have been underestimated. The aim of this paper is to review the recent highlights of data representing the probiotic potential of dairy propionibacteria, studied both by general selection criteria (useful for all probiotic potentials), and by more specific and innovative approach. Dairy propionibacteria show a robust nature, that makes them able to overcome technological hurdles, allowing their future use in various fermented probiotic foods. In addition to the general selection criteria for probiotics in areas such as food safety, technological and digestive stress tolerance, many potential health benefits have been recently described for dairy propionibacteria, including, production of several active molecules and adhesion capability, that can mean a steady action in modulation of microbiota and of metabolic activity in the gut; their impact on intestinal inflammation, modulation of the immune system, potential modulation of risk factors for cancer development modulation of intestinal absorption.

  19. [Use of Phaseolus vulgaris and Vigna sinensis in a fermented dairy drink].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granito, Marisela; Trujillo, Lesma; Guerra, Marisa

    2004-06-01

    The objective of this work was to develop a new kind fermented dairy drink, partially substituted with clear varieties of Phaseolus vulgaris (caraota) and Vigna sinensis (frijol). The formulation of fermented dairy drinks included sterile extracts of caraota and frijol, as partial substitutes which replaced milk: 10, 20 and 30%. The mixtures were inoculated with 2% of a mixture of Lactobacillus acidophillus, Streptococcus thermophilus and Bifidobacterium sp. and were incubated at 42 degrees C for 7 hours. Mango and guava jams were used as flavorings at 20%. On the basis of the sensorial evaluation the mixtures 10% frijol-mango, 10% frijol-guava, 30% caraota-mango and 20% caraota-guava were selected. In the selected fermented dairy drinks, the levels of protein, soluble and insoluble fiber, available and resistant starches were increased and the protein digestibility was 81%. The technical feasibility of partial substitution of milk with extracts of Phaseolus vulgaris or Vigna sinensis. For the elaboration of a fermented dairy drink similar to the liquid yogurt kind was demonstrated.

  20. Short communication: a food-systems approach to assessing dairy product waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridoutt, B G; Baird, D L; Bastiaans, K; Darnell, R; Hendrie, G A; Riley, M; Sanguansri, P; Syrette, J; Noakes, M; Keating, B A

    2014-10-01

    Concern about world population increase, food security, and the environmental burdens of food production have made food-waste reduction a social and environmental priority. In this context, the quantification of dairy product waste is especially difficult due to the varied means of disposal, by solid and liquid waste streams, and due to inclusion as an ingredient in many processed foods. In this study, food intake data from the Australian National Nutrition Survey (>13,000 participants; >4,500 food items) were disaggregated into basic foods and total national dairy product intake was expressed in whole-milk equivalents. This result was compared with total domestic milk supply, indicating a level of waste of 29% for dairy products in the Australian food system. With national food-waste reduction targets becoming increasingly common, reliable estimates of food waste at the national scale are important for goal setting, baseline reporting, and performance monitoring. For this purpose, the systems approach to assessing food waste demonstrated in this project is deemed to have advantages over other common methods of food-waste assessment, such as bin audits, waste diaries, and surveys. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Metabolomic biomarkers identify differences in milk produced by Holstein cows and other minor dairy animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongxin; Zheng, Nan; Zhao, Xiaowei; Zhang, Yangdong; Han, Rongwei; Yang, Jinhui; Zhao, Shengguo; Li, Songli; Guo, Tongjun; Zang, Changjiang; Wang, Jiaqi

    2016-03-16

    Several milk metabolites are associated with breeds or species of dairy animals. A better understanding of milk metabolites from different dairy animals would advance their use in evaluating milk traits and detecting milk adulteration. The objective of this study was to characterize the milk metabolite profiles of Chinese Holstein, Jersey, yak, buffalo, goat, camel, and horse and identify any differences using non-targeted metabolomic approaches. Milk samples were tested using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Data were analyzed using a multivariate analysis of variance and differences in milk metabolites between Holstein and the other dairy animals were assessed using orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis. Differential metabolites were identified and some metabolites, such as choline and succinic acid, were used to distinguish Holstein milk from that of the other studied animals. Metabolic pathway analysis of different metabolites revealed that glycerophospholipid metabolism as well as valine, leucine, and isoleucine biosynthesis were shared in the other ruminant animals (Jersey, buffalo, yak, and goat), and biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids was shared in the non-ruminant animals (camel and horse). These results can be useful for gaining a better understanding of the differences in milk synthesis between Holstein and the other dairy animals. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Herd factors associated with dairy cow mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnel, C; Lombard, J; Wagner, B; Kopral, C; Garry, F

    2015-08-01

    Summary studies of dairy cow removal indicate increasing levels of mortality over the past several decades. This poses a serious problem for the US dairy industry. The objective of this project was to evaluate associations between facilities, herd management practices, disease occurrence and death rates on US dairy operations through an analysis of the National Animal Health Monitoring System's Dairy 2007 survey. The survey included farms in 17 states that represented 79.5% of US dairy operations and 82.5% of the US dairy cow population. During the first phase of the study operations were randomly selected from a sampling list maintained by the National Agricultural Statistics Service. Only farms that participated in phase I and had 30 or more dairy cows were eligible to participate in phase II. In total, 459 farms had complete data for all selected variables and were included in this analysis. Univariable associations between dairy cow mortality and 162 a priori identified operation-level management practices or characteristics were evaluated. Sixty of the 162 management factors explored in the univariate analysis met initial screening criteria and were further evaluated in a multivariable model exploring more complex relationships. The final weighted, negative binomial regression model included six variables. Based on the incidence rate ratio, this model predicted 32.0% less mortality for operations that vaccinated heifers for at least one of the following: bovine viral diarrhea, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, parainfluenza 3, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, Haemophilus somnus, leptospirosis, Salmonella, Escherichia coli or clostridia. The final multivariable model also predicted a 27.0% increase in mortality for operations from which a bulk tank milk sample tested ELISA positive for bovine leukosis virus. Additionally, an 18.0% higher mortality was predicted for operations that used necropsies to determine the cause of death for some proportion of dead

  3. Exporting: an avenue for dairy cooperatives

    OpenAIRE

    Spatz, Karen J.; Brainich, Eric

    1990-01-01

    One avenue of growth for U.S. dairy cooperatives is exporting. Long- term market development is one ingredient for success in international sales. Given possible trade liberalization, cooperatives should evaluate their position in the global marketplace and develop a plan to ensure growth and stability for members. The first part of this report evaluates world dairy market conditions. It looks at trends in world trade and cost of production and policies of major milk-producing countries. Vari...

  4. 1999 BUSINESS ANALYSIS SUMMARY FOR DAIRY FARMS

    OpenAIRE

    Nott, Sherrill B.

    2000-01-01

    This report is a summary of the financial and production records kept by dairy farmers enrolled in the Telfarm/MicroTel record program through Michigan State University Extension., or were accounting clients of AgriSolutions in Michigan, or of Farm Credit Services of Escanaba. This report has three purposes: 1)to provide statistical information about the financial results on dairy farms during 1999; 2)to provide production costs for comparative analysis and forward planning; and 3)to provide ...

  5. 1997 BUSINESS ANALYSIS SUMMARY FOR DAIRY FARMS

    OpenAIRE

    Nott, Sherrill B.

    1998-01-01

    This report is a summary of the financial and production records kept by dairy farmers enrolled in the Telfarm/MicroTel record program through Michigan State University Extension, or were accounting clients of either AgriSolutions or Salisbury Management Services. This report has three purposes: 1)to provide statistical information about the financial results on dairy farms during 1997; 2)to provide production costs for comparative analysis and forward planning; and 3)to provide information o...

  6. The concept evaluation of dairy cattle nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    ROUBÍČKOVÁ, Jana

    2011-01-01

    Bachelor thesis gives a comprehensive overview of the dairy cow nutrition and assesses the system of nutrition and feeding in relation to milk production. The main part is devoted to the basics of dairy cow nutrition, the main nutrient requirements and composition of feed diets. There was assessed composition of feed rations for the year 2010 in working conditions on the School farm Měšice. The recommendations were designed to improve the nutrition level on the farm on the based data.

  7. Regular-fat dairy and human health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Arne; Bradley, Beth H Rice; Brenna, J Thomas

    2016-01-01

    In recent history, some dietary recommendations have treated dairy fat as an unnecessary source of calories and saturated fat in the human diet. These assumptions, however, have recently been brought into question by current research on regular fat dairy products and human health. In an effort to......, cheese and yogurt, can be important components of an overall healthy dietary pattern. Systematic examination of the effects of dietary patterns that include regular-fat milk, cheese and yogurt on human health is warranted....

  8. Strengthening Dairy Cooperative through National Development of Livestock Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyono

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Establishment of dairy cattle development region needs to be conducted in accordance with the national dairy industry development plan. Dairy cattle regions have been designed and equipped with infrastructure supplies, supporting facilities, technologies, finance, processing, marketing, institutional and human resources. Dairy cooperative is one of the marketing channels of milk and milk products which have strategic roles to support the national dairy industry. Collaborations between dairy cooperatives and smallholder farmers within a district region have to be done based on agricultural ecosystems, agribusiness system, integrated farming and participatory approach. This may improve dairy cooperatives as an independent and competitive institution. Strengthening dairy cooperatives in national region dairy cattle was carried out through institutional inventory and dairy cooperatives performance; requirement of capital access, market and networks as well as education and managerial training; certification and accreditation feasibility analysis and information and technology utilization. Establishment of emerging dairy cooperatives towards small and micro enterprises is carried out by directing them to establish cooperatives which have legal certainty and business development opportunities. The impact of strengthening dairy cooperative may support dairy cattle development through increase population and milk production. Sustainable dairy cattle development needs to be supported by regional and national government policies.

  9. LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION COLUMNS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, J.D.

    1957-12-31

    This patent relates to liquid-liquid extraction columns having a means for pulsing the liquid in the column to give it an oscillatory up and down movement, and consists of a packed column, an inlet pipe for the dispersed liquid phase and an outlet pipe for the continuous liquid phase located in the direct communication with the liquid in the lower part of said column, an inlet pipe for the continuous liquid phase and an outlet pipe for the dispersed liquid phase located in direct communication with the liquid in the upper part of said column, a tube having one end communicating with liquid in the lower part of said column and having its upper end located above the level of said outlet pipe for the dispersed phase, and a piston and cylinder connected to the upper end of said tube for applying a pulsating pneumatic pressure to the surface of the liquid in said tube so that said surface rises and falls in said tube.

  10. Fermented dairy products: knowledge and consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hekmat, Sharareh; Koba, Lesia

    2006-01-01

    Much has been published on the nutritional and health benefits of fermented dairy products, especially those containing probiotic microorganisms. However, consumers may not be familiar with the term "fermented dairy products," and therefore may not take full advantage of them. University students' knowledge and consumption patterns of fermented dairy products were assessed. University students (n=223) completed a survey consisting of a section on demographics and another on knowledge and consumption patterns. The majority of respondents (62%) were not familiar with the term "fermented dairy products." Most respondents consumed yogourt a few times a week (40%) or a few times a month (30%). Almost all respondents (92%) were unable to identify the difference between regular and probiotic yogourt. Most respondents (93%) had not heard of acidophilus milk, but the majority (65%) would be willing to try it. Most respondents were unsure whether sour cream (65%), yogourt beverages (74%), and cheddar cheese (61%) were fermented dairy products. Sixty percent of respondents never consumed yogourt drinks. Education is needed about fermented dairy products, especially probiotics, and their nutritional and health benefits. Such education may increase their acceptability and consumption.

  11. Fermented dairy food and CVD risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapsell, Linda C

    2015-04-01

    Fermented dairy foods such as yoghurt and cheese are commonly found in the Mediterranean diet. Recent landmark research has confirmed the effect of the Mediterranean diet on reducing the CVD risk, but the relative contributions of fermented dairy foods have not been fully articulated. The present study provides a review of the relationship between fermented dairy foods consumption and CVD risk in the context of the whole diet. Studies show that people who eat healthier diets may be more likely to consume yoghurt, so there is a challenge in attributing separate effects to yoghurt. Analyses from large population studies list yoghurt as the food most negatively associated with the risk of weight gain (a problem that may lead to CVD). There is some suggestion that fermented dairy foods consumption (yoghurt or cheese) may be associated with reduced inflammatory biomarkers associated with the development of CVD. Dietary trials suggest that cheese may not have the same effect on raising LDL-cholesterol levels as butter with the same saturated fat content. The same might be stated for yoghurt. The use of different probiotic cultures and other aspects of study design remain a problem for research. Nevertheless, population studies from a range of countries have shown that a reduced risk of CVD occurs with the consumption of fermented dairy foods. A combination of evidence is necessary, and more research is always valuable, but indications remain that fermented dairy foods such as cheese and yoghurt are integral to diets that are protective against CVD.

  12. Food preference for milk and dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Derflerová Brázdová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Milk and dairy products constitute an important source of energy and nutrients for humans. Food preferences may significantly influence the actual consumption (and thus nutrition of people at the population level. The objective of the present large-scale survey was to specify current preferences for milk and dairy products with regard to age and sex. The study was conducted across the Moravia region, Czech Republic, on a sample of 451 individuals divided into 4 age groups: children, adolescents, young adults, and elderly people. A graphic scale questionnaire was administered, with respondents rating their degree of preference for each food item by drawing a mark on a 35 mm line. Out of the 115 items in the questionnaire, 11 items represented dairy products. Data was analysed by means of a general linear model using IBM SPSS Statistics software. Preference for milk was lower in the elderly group than the other groups (P P < 0.01. The overall preference for dairy products (21.6 was lower than the average preference for all foods on the list (22.5. The cross-sectional study revealed intergenerational differences in preferences for specific dairy products, which were most marked in case of cream, processed cheese, blue cheese, and buttermilk. The knowledge of these differences might help promote more focused action at the community level directed at increasing the overall consumption of dairy products in the population.

  13. Foot disorders in dairy cattle: impact on cow and dairy farmer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijnis, M.R.N.; Beerda, B.; Hogeveen, H.; Stassen, E.N.

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers the economic consequences and the welfare impact of foot disorders in dairy cattle and the association between them, taking into account clinical and subclinical foot disorders. In dairy farming with cubicle housing and concrete floors, foot disorders are a major welfare problem

  14. Ploidy Variation in Kluyveromyces marxianus Separates Dairy and Non-dairy Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl A. Ortiz-Merino

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Kluyveromyces marxianus is traditionally associated with fermented dairy products, but can also be isolated from diverse non-dairy environments. Because of thermotolerance, rapid growth and other traits, many different strains are being developed for food and industrial applications but there is, as yet, little understanding of the genetic diversity or population genetics of this species. K. marxianus shows a high level of phenotypic variation but the only phenotype that has been clearly linked to a genetic polymorphism is lactose utilisation, which is controlled by variation in the LAC12 gene. The genomes of several strains have been sequenced in recent years and, in this study, we sequenced a further nine strains from different origins. Analysis of the Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs in 14 strains was carried out to examine genome structure and genetic diversity. SNP diversity in K. marxianus is relatively high, with up to 3% DNA sequence divergence between alleles. It was found that the isolates include haploid, diploid, and triploid strains, as shown by both SNP analysis and flow cytometry. Diploids and triploids contain long genomic tracts showing loss of heterozygosity (LOH. All six isolates from dairy environments were diploid or triploid, whereas 6 out 7 isolates from non-dairy environment were haploid. This also correlated with the presence of functional LAC12 alleles only in dairy haplotypes. The diploids were hybrids between a non-dairy and a dairy haplotype, whereas triploids included three copies of a dairy haplotype.

  15. Consumers' Motivations and Dairy Production Beliefs Regarding Participation in an Educational Dairy Farm Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFollette, Lindsay K.; Knobloch, Neil A.; Schutz, Michael M.; Brady, Colleen M.

    2015-01-01

    Exploratory discriminant analysis was used to determine the extent adult consumers' interest motivation to participate in a free educational dairy farm event and their beliefs of the dairy industry could correctly classify the respondents' predicted participation in a nonformal educational event. The most prominent conclusion of the study was that…

  16. Concentration of nutritional important minerals in Croatian goat and cow milk and some dairy products made of these

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hardi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The concentration of the minerals (Ca, Mg and P and trace elements (Zn, Fe were determined in goat and cow’s dairy products. The aim of this work was to determine the concentrations of mentioned minerals and trace elements in fermented dairy products made of goat milk, as well as in East Croatia traditional White Slice goat cheese. Obtained results show that goat milk and dairy products from goat milk had higher concentration of Mg and Fe than these of cow milk. Goat milk and dairy products from goat milk also had higher concentration of P, whereas the concentration of Ca was equally in goat and cow milk. However, significantly lower concentrations of Zn in goat milk and goat milk products were determined. Levels of analyzed major and trace minerals were higher in fermented dairy products and cheeses than in liquid milk. The levels of major and trace minerals in White Slice cheese were greater than those in fermented milk products. High content of phosphorus in White Slice goat cheese than in White Slice cow cheese was determined.

  17. Neuropathology of organophosphate poisoning in dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulvian Sani

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate pathological changes in brain tissues of Frisien Holstein dairy cattle affected by organophosphate (OP. The study was directed to anticipate spongiform encephalopathy. Samples consisted of animal feeds, sera and brain tissues were collected from Lembang, West Java. Animal feeds (fodders and commercial feed were collected directly from the dairy farms around Lembang. Sera (31 samples were from dairy cattle owned by the local farmers and brain tissues were from the local animal slaughter house. Pesticide residues were analysed following a standard procedure using gas chromatography (GC. There was an interaction between pesticide residues in animal feeds, residue level of pesticides in sera and brain tissues to cause encephalopathy in dairy cattle. Pesticide contamination in animal feeds was regarded as the source of encephalopathy in dairy cattle. The total average of OP residues (16.8 ppb were lower than organochlorines/OC (18.7 ppb in fodder, showing that pesticides were originated from the contaminated soils. On the other hand, the total average of OP residues in commercial feeds (12.0 ppb, sera (85.6 ppb and brain tissues (22.7 ppb were higher than OC (1.8; 16.7; and 5.1 ppb. The OP appears more frequently used for dairy farm activity as insecticides. Histopathological examination for brain tissues of dairy cattle showed that most cattle were diagnosed as encephalopathy with microscopic changes of vacuolation, neuronal necrosis, chromatolysis of neurons and nucleolysis of neurons. The encephalopathy was confirmed in rats intoxicated with chlorpyrifos methyl as severe brain damage with spongiform-like lesions.

  18. Improving smallholder livelihoods: Dairy production in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Ulicky

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Tanzania is primarily an agro-based economy, characterized by subsistence agricultural production that employs more than 80% of the population and contributes up to 45% of the GDP (2005. This country is endowed with a cattle population of 21.3 M, composed mainly of indigenous Zebu breeds and about 680 000 improved dairy animals. About 70% of the milk produced comes from the traditional sector (indigenous cattle kept in rural areas, while the remaining 30% comes from improved cattle, mainly kept by smallholder producers. In Northern Tanzania and particularly in Hai district of Kilimanjaro Region, some dairy farmers organize themselves into small producer groups for the purpose of milk collecting, marketing and general promotion of the dairy sector in their community. Nronga Women Dairy Cooperative Society (NWDCS Limited is one of such organizations dedicated to improve the well-being of the Nronga village community through promoting small-scale dairy farming and its flow-on benefits. Milk flows out of the village, and services for investment and dairy production flow into the village, ensuring a sustainable financial circulation necessary for poverty reduction, rural development and better life for the rural community. In 2001 NWDCS introduced a school milk feeding program that has attracted Australian donors since 2005. Guided by Global Development Group, a multi-faceted project, integrating micro-enterprises, business, education and child health/nutrition, was proposed and initiated by building a dairy plant in Hai District headquarters, the Boma plant. In March 2013, the Australian High Commission to East Africa approved Direct Aid Program funding of AUD 30 000 towards the NWDCS - Biogas Pilot Project in Tanzania, which included the renovation of zero-grazing cow shade units, the construction of 6-m3 biodigester plants on each farm, and encouragement of the use of bioslurry for pasture production and home gardens.

  19. Subsidizing Liquidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malinova, Katya; Park, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Facing increased competition over the last decade, many stock exchanges changed their trading fees to maker-taker pricing, an incentive scheme that rewards liquidity suppliers and charges liquidity demanders. Using a change in trading fees on the Toronto Stock Exchange, we study whether and why t...

  20. Managing liquidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pokutta, Sebastian; Schmaltz, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Large banking groups face the question of how to optimally allocate and generate liquidity: in a central liquidity hub or in many decentralized branches. We translate this question into a facility location problem under uncertainty. We show that volatility is the key driver behind (de...

  1. Characterizing sources of nitrate leaching from an irrigated dairy farm in Merced County, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Schans, Martin L; Harter, Thomas; Leijnse, Anton; Mathews, Marsha C; Meyer, Roland D

    2009-11-03

    Dairy farms comprise a complex landscape of groundwater pollution sources. The objective of our work is to develop a method to quantify nitrate leaching to shallow groundwater from different management units at dairy farms. Total nitrate loads are determined by the sequential calibration of a sub-regional scale and a farm-scale three-dimensional groundwater flow and transport model using observations at different spatial scales. These observations include local measurements of groundwater heads and nitrate concentrations in an extensive monitoring well network, providing data at a scale of a few meters and measurements of discharge rates and nitrate concentrations in a tile-drain network, providing data integrated across multiple farms. The various measurement scales are different from the spatial scales of the calibration parameters, which are the recharge and nitrogen leaching rates from individual management units. The calibration procedure offers a conceptual framework for using field measurements at different spatial scales to estimate recharge N concentrations at the management unit scale. It provides a map of spatially varying dairy farming impact on groundwater nitrogen. The method is applied to a dairy farm located in a relatively vulnerable hydrogeologic region in California. Potential sources within the dairy farm are divided into three categories, representing different manure management units: animal exercise yards and feeding areas (corrals), liquid manure holding ponds, and manure irrigated forage fields. Estimated average nitrogen leaching is 872 kg/ha/year, 807 kg/ha/year and 486 kg/ha/year for corrals, ponds and fields respectively. Results are applied to evaluate the accuracy of nitrogen mass balances often used by regulatory agencies to assess groundwater impacts. Calibrated leaching rates compare favorably to field and farm scale nitrogen mass balances. These data and interpretations provide a basis for developing improved management strategies.

  2. Effects of handling parameters on hydrogen sulfide emission from stored dairy manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriamanohiarisoamanana, Fetra J; Sakamoto, Yushi; Yamashiro, Takaki; Yasui, Seiichi; Iwasaki, Masahiro; Ihara, Ikko; Tsuji, Osamu; Umetsu, Kazutaka

    2015-05-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) emission from liquid manure in the process preceding field application is an important issue in fertigation systems. Given that H2S poses a significant health risk, it is important to determine the effects of different handling parameters on H2S emissions to prevent health risks to farmers. In this study, the effects of total solids (TS; 3, 5, 7, 9, and 11%) and mixing speed (100, 200, 300, and 400 rpm), duration (5, 15, 30, and 60 min), and frequency (one, two, three, and four times a day) on H2S emissions from two different dairy manures were investigated. The results indicate that the quantity of sulfur-containing substrate intake determines the potential of dairy manure to emit H2S because manure from cows fed with concentrate-based feed generates higher amounts of H2S than manure from cows fed with forage-based feed. The H2S concentration increased with TS concentration and reached a maximum of 1133 ppm at a TS of 9%; thereafter, it decreased with further increases in TS concentration. H2S emission increased with mixing speed with a peak concentration of 3996 ppm at 400 rpm. A similar trend was observed for mixing duration. However, there were no significant differences between the amounts H2S emitted at different frequencies of mixing (P > 0.05). The results indicate that mixing speed, duration, and TS are the major determinants of the quantity of H2S emitted from dairy manure. Therefore, to prevent health risks associated with H2S emission from dairy manure, it is recommended that the mixing speed and duration should be kept as low as possible, while a TS concentration of above 9% should be applied during the fertigation of dairy manure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Life cycle assessment of dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taufiq, Fierly Muhammad; Padmi, Tri; Rahardyan, Dan Benno

    2016-03-01

    In 2013 the population of dairy cattle in Indonesia had reached 636,000 head with a 4.61% growth rate per year. The inputs were energy, water, and feed. These inputs produced outputs, such as emissions, solid waste and liquid waste. This research compared the maintenance systems in modern farms and local farms. The data were collected from 30 local farmers and one modern farm. This research used the life cycle assessment (LCA) method. LCA is based on ISO 14040. LCA consists of several stages: the goal and scope definition, inventory analysis, impact assessment, and interpretation. This research used the cradle to gate concept and fat corrected milk (FCM) as the function unit. The impacts of these activities could generate global warming potential (GWP), acidification potential (AP), and eutrophication potential (EP). The calculations showed that the systems in local farms had the greatest emissions result over all impacts. In the case of local farms, the GWP was 2.34 kg CO2 eq/L of milk FCM, AP was 0.12 g SO2 eq/L of milk FCM, and EP was 18.28 g PO43- $P{O_{\\rm{4}}}^{{\\rm{3}} - }$ eq/L milk FCM. While the impact from the modern farm was GWP of 1.52 kg CO2 eq/L of milk FCM, AP of 0.02 g SO2 eq/L of milk FCM, and EP of 0.353 g PO43- $P{O_{\\rm{4}}}^{{\\rm{3}} - }$ eq/L of milk FCM. Based on the total-weighted result, the GWP had the greatest impact from the overall life cycle phase of milk production. The total-weighted result obtained was of 0.298 EUR/L of FCM from a local farm and 0.189 EUR/L of FCM from the modern farm. This amount could be used to remediate the global warming, acidification, and eutrophication impacts of milk production.

  4. Consuming the daily recommended amounts of dairy products ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , but children and adults do not consume the recommended amounts from this ... Modelling was performed by adding the necessary number of dairy servings, using the dairy composite designed by USDA, to each participant's diet to meet the ...

  5. Meat, dairy, and cancer1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abid, Zaynah; Cross, Amanda J; Sinha, Rashmi

    2014-01-01

    In 2007 the World Cancer Research Fund and American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) report judged that the evidence for an association between red and processed meat consumption and colorectal cancer was convincing. In addition, the effect of other animal products on cancer risk has been studied, and the WCRF/AICR report concluded that milk probably decreases the risk of colorectal cancer but diets high in calcium probably increase the risk of prostate cancer, whereas there was limited evidence for an association between milk and bladder cancer and insufficient evidence for other cancers. There are several potential mechanisms relating meat to cancer, including heterocyclic amines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, N-nitroso compounds, and heme iron. Although the evidence in favor of a link between red and processed meat and colorectal cancer is convincing, the relations with other cancers are unclear. In this review, we summarize cohort studies conducted by the National Cancer Institute on meat and dairy intake in relation to cancer since the 2007 WCRF/AICR report. We also report the findings of meta-analyses published since 2007. PMID:24847855

  6. The welfare of dairy buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Winckler

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper addresses the issue of buffalo welfare. Firstly, the biological characteristics and behavioural needs of buffalo are considered. Subsequently, the effects of intensive farming and some animalrelated indicators, to be used for a monitoring scheme of buffalo welfare at farm level, are described. The attention was focused on the following indicators: excessive thinning or fattening assessed with Body Condition Score (BCS systems; cleanliness (the presence of mud may be considered positively, whereas a thick and compact layer of dung may be regarded negatively; health status (lameness, hoof overgrowth, injuries, etc.; social, aggressive, oral abnormal behaviours; animal-human relationship (avoidance distance at manger; positive indicators (qualitative assessment of behaviour, etc.; housing factors. The indicators are discussed on the basis of their validity (meaningful with respect to animal welfare, reliability (reflecting the tendency to give the same results on repeated measurements and feasibility (concerning time and money consumed. For some aspects, the differences between buffalo and dairy cattle are also highlighted.

  7. "Subclinical" laminitis in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermunt, J J

    1992-12-01

    In dairying countries worldwide, the economic importance of lameness in cattle is now recognised. Laminitis is regarded as a major predisposing factor in lameness caused by claw disorders such as white zone lesions, sole ulcer, and heel horn erosion. The existence of subclinical laminitis was first suggested in the late 1970s by Dutch workers describing the symptoms of sole haemorrhages and yellowish-coloured, soft sole horn. In an attempt to clarify some of the confusing and often conflicting terminology, the literature on laminitis is reviewed. Disturbed haemodynamics, in particular repeated or prolonged dilation of arteriovenous anastomoses, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of both equine and bovine laminitis. Some characteristics of the vascular system of the bovine claw which may be of importance in the pathophysiology of the subclinical laminitis syndrome are therefore discussed. Clinical observations suggest that subclinical laminitis is a multifactorial disease. The different factors that are or may be involved in its aetiology vary in complexity and severity according to the management protocol of the animals. The possible involvement of subclinical laminitis in claw lesions is assessed.

  8. Dairy and cardiovascular health: Friend or foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markey, O; Vasilopoulou, D; Givens, D I; Lovegrove, J A

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevalence at a global level is predicted to increase substantially over the next decade due to the increasing ageing population and incidence of obesity. Hence, there is an urgent requirement to focus on modifiable contributors to CVD risk, including a high dietary intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA). As an important source of SFA in the UK diet, milk and dairy products are often targeted for SFA reduction. The current paper acknowledges that milk is a complex food and that simply focusing on the link between SFA and CVD risk overlooks the other beneficial nutrients of dairy foods. The body of existing prospective evidence exploring the impact of milk and dairy consumption on risk factors for CVD is reviewed. The current paper highlights that high milk consumption may be beneficial to cardiovascular health, while illustrating that the evidence is less clear for cheese and butter intake. The option of manipulating the fatty acid profile of ruminant milk is discussed as a potential dietary strategy for lowering SFA intake at a population level. The review highlights that there is a necessity to perform more well-controlled human intervention-based research that provides a more holistic evaluation of fat-reduced and fat-modified dairy consumption on CVD risk factors including vascular function, arterial stiffness, postprandial lipaemia and markers of inflammation. Additionally, further research is required to investigate the impact of different dairy products and the effect of the specific food matrix on CVD development. PMID:25400508

  9. Nutritional strategies to optimize dairy cattle immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sordillo, L M

    2016-06-01

    Dairy cattle are susceptible to increased incidence and severity of both metabolic and infectious diseases during the periparturient period. A major contributing factor to increased health disorders is alterations in bovine immune mechanisms. Indeed, uncontrolled inflammation is a major contributing factor and a common link among several economically important infectious and metabolic diseases including mastitis, retained placenta, metritis, displaced abomasum, and ketosis. The nutritional status of dairy cows and the metabolism of specific nutrients are critical regulators of immune cell function. There is now a greater appreciation that certain mediators of the immune system can have a reciprocal effect on the metabolism of nutrients. Thus, any disturbances in nutritional or immunological homeostasis can provide deleterious feedback loops that can further enhance health disorders, increase production losses, and decrease the availability of safe and nutritious dairy foods for a growing global population. This review will discuss the complex interactions between nutrient metabolism and immune functions in periparturient dairy cattle. Details of how either deficiencies or overexposure to macro- and micronutrients can contribute to immune dysfunction and the subsequent development of health disorders will be presented. Specifically, the ways in which altered nutrient metabolism and oxidative stress can interact to compromise the immune system in transition cows will be discussed. A better understanding of the linkages between nutrition and immunity may facilitate the design of nutritional regimens that will reduce disease susceptibility in early lactation cows. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Possibilities and requirements for organic dairy breeding lines

    OpenAIRE

    Kargo, Morten; Hjortø, Line; Thomasen, Jørn Rind

    2016-01-01

    Possibilities and requirements for organic dairy breeding lines Until now, improvements in the efficiency of organic dairy production have mainly occurred through better management, feeding and production strategies, using the dairy cattle breeds developed in conventional production systems. The potential of breeding lines of dairy cattle that are genetically adapted to organic milk production is essentially unexploited even though specific lines offer the potential to breed for cows with...

  11. Teaching dairy production medicine to entry-level veterinarians: the summer dairy institute model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nydam, Charles W; Nydam, Daryl V; Guard, Charles L; Gilbert, Robert O

    2009-01-01

    Food supply veterinarians who intend to enter dairy cattle practice or other related career activities are in need of up-graded skills to better serve the dairy industry as it continues to evolve. The time available for students to increase their abilities within the conventional professional curriculum is scarce, especially as those with food-supply interests are a minority of students competing for time and resources. The dairy industry has need of skilled veterinarians who are not only well versed in their traditional capabilities, but who also have an understanding of the complete picture of that industry as a "farm-to-fork" experience. Society at large also stands to benefit from the presence of skilled dairy veterinarians contributing to the production of safe, affordable dairy foodstuffs in a manner deemed sustainable and humane. Veterinarians in practice can and do acquire the necessary skills to make themselves relevant to their clients and consumers; however, better preparation of entry-level veterinarians could increase their value to their employers, clients, themselves, and society in a more timely manner. Cornell University's College of Veterinary Medicine developed the Summer Dairy Institute to provide an avenue for advancing the skills of new veterinarians as a means to address the current and future needs of the dairy industry. This article describes the need for, concept of, and experience with that program.

  12. 7 CFR 58.627 - Milk and dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Milk and dairy products. 58.627 Section 58.627... Material § 58.627 Milk and dairy products. To produce ice cream and related products the raw milk and cream..., GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR APPROVED PLANTS AND STANDARDS FOR GRADES OF DAIRY PRODUCTS 1 General...

  13. Behaviour of dairy cows under modern housing and management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wierenga, H.K.

    1991-01-01

    The results of behavioural studies of dairy cows' behaviour under some modern housing and management conditions are presented. Social dominance in dairy cows is studied and methods to describe social dominance are discussed. The lying behaviour of dairy cows is studied under various

  14. Reproductive and Lactation Performance of Crossbreed Dairy Cows ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For several years, Ethiopia ranked first in cattle population in Africa. However, the dairy industry is not as developed as that of East African countries including Ethiopia. This study was conducted to assess the reproductive and lactation performance and factors affecting crossbreed dairy cattle in intensive dairy farm in ...

  15. Smallholder dairying in Kenya: the assessment of the technical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dairying in Kenya remains a multi-purpose cattle system providing milk, manure and capital assets to the farmer. Dairy activities in Kenya are predominantly run by smallholders and are concentrated in the high and medium potential areas. Smallholders operating 1-3 dairy cows on small farms are predominant in Kenya.

  16. Groundwater quality on dairy farms in central South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dairy farms in central South Africa depend mostly on groundwater for domestic needs and dairy activities. Groundwater samples were collected from 37 dairy farms during 2009 and 2013. Sixteen water quality parameters were tested and compared to the standard. Four parameters in 2009 and six in 2013 exhibited 100% ...

  17. 21 CFR 1210.11 - Sanitary inspection of dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sanitary inspection of dairy farms. 1210.11... UNDER THE FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Inspection and Testing § 1210.11 Sanitary inspection of dairy farms. The sanitary conditions of any dairy farm producing milk or cream to be shipped or transported into...

  18. Metastable liquids

    CERN Document Server

    Balibar, S

    2003-01-01

    How far can one supercool a liquid before it crystallizes? How much can one stretch it before cavitation occurs? In order to answer such questions, we have studied liquid helium, a model system. In this review, we show the limitations of the elementary 'standard nucleation theory'. We then show that the existence of 'spinodal' limits needs to be considered in the framework of 'density functional' methods. We also briefly consider the possibility of nucleation by quantum tunnelling. The main emphasis is on cavitation and crystallization in liquid helium, but we also mention several connections with more classical systems, in particular water.

  19. Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice (KAP) of Dairy Products in Chinese Urban Population and the Effects on Dairy Intake Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Ai; Szeto, Ignatius Man-Yau; Wang, Yan; Li, Ce; Pan, Min; Li, Ting; Wang, Peiyu; Zhang, Yumei

    2017-01-01

    Insufficient intake of dairy products is a nutritional problem of concern in China. However, the knowledge, attitude, and practice of consuming dairy products in the Chinese population remain unknown. A total of 1739 subjects from eight cities in China participated in this study. A questionnaire was used to measure knowledge of and attitude toward dairy. A semi-food intake frequency questionnaire was used to obtain the frequencies and amount of different kinds of dairy product intake. Calcium...

  20. Dairy Products and Health: Recent Insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunick, Michael H; Van Hekken, Diane L

    2015-11-04

    Milk, cheese, yogurt, and other dairy products have long been known to provide good nutrition. Major healthful contributors to the diets of many people include the protein, minerals, vitamins, and fatty acids present in milk. Recent studies have shown that consumption of dairy products appears to be beneficial in muscle building, lowering blood pressure and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and preventing tooth decay, diabetes, cancer, and obesity. Additional benefits might be provided by organic milk and by probiotic microorganisms using milk products as a vehicle. New research on dairy products and nutrition will improve our understanding of the connections between these products, the bioactive compounds in them, and their effects on the human body.

  1. Genomic selection in small dairy cattle populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomasen, Jørn Rind

    Genomic selection provides more accurate estimation of genetic merit for breeding candidates without own recordings and is now an integrated part of most dairy breeding schemes. However, the method has turned out to be less efficient in the numerically smaler breeds. This thesis focuses on optimi......Genomic selection provides more accurate estimation of genetic merit for breeding candidates without own recordings and is now an integrated part of most dairy breeding schemes. However, the method has turned out to be less efficient in the numerically smaler breeds. This thesis focuses...... on optimization of genomc selction for a small dairy cattle breed such as Danish Jersey. Implementing genetic superior breeding schemes thus requires more accurate genomc predictions. Besides international collaboration, genotyping of cows is an efficient way to obtain more accurate genomic predictions...

  2. Invited review: Changes in the dairy industry affecting dairy cattle health and welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkema, H W; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Kastelic, J P; Lam, T J G M; Luby, C; Roy, J-P; LeBlanc, S J; Keefe, G P; Kelton, D F

    2015-11-01

    The dairy industry in the developed world has undergone profound changes over recent decades. In this paper, we present an overview of some of the most important recent changes in the dairy industry that affect health and welfare of dairy cows, as well as the science associated with these changes. Additionally, knowledge gaps are identified where research is needed to guide the dairy industry through changes that are occurring now or that we expect will occur in the future. The number of farms has decreased considerably, whereas herd size has increased. As a result, an increasing number of dairy farms depend on hired (nonfamily) labor. Regular professional communication and establishment of farm-specific protocols are essential to minimize human errors and ensure consistency of practices. Average milk production per cow has increased, partly because of improvements in nutrition and management but also because of genetic selection for milk production. Adoption of new technologies (e.g., automated calf feeders, cow activity monitors, and automated milking systems) is accelerating. However, utilization of the data and action lists that these systems generate for health and welfare of livestock is still largely unrealized, and more training of dairy farmers, their employees, and their advisors is necessary. Concurrently, to remain competitive and to preserve their social license to operate, farmers are increasingly required to adopt increased standards for food safety and biosecurity, become less reliant on the use of antimicrobials and hormones, and provide assurances regarding animal welfare. Partly because of increasing herd size but also in response to animal welfare regulations in some countries, the proportion of dairy herds housed in tiestalls has decreased considerably. Although in some countries access to pasture is regulated, in countries that traditionally practiced seasonal grazing, fewer farmers let their dairy cows graze in the summer. The proportion of

  3. Chronic copper toxicity in a dairy herd

    OpenAIRE

    Perrin, David J.; Schiefer, H. Bruno; Blakley, Barry R.

    1990-01-01

    The addition of excessive copper to a commercially prepared dairy ration caused chronic copper toxicity in a dairy herd. A formulation error by a feed company resulted in copper levels of 800 to 1,000 mg/kg in the “as fed concentrate,” amounting to about 400-500 mg copper/kg of the whole ration. Five animals died with typical signs of acute copper toxicity, including intravascular hemolysis and methemoglobinemia. A further 39 cows died on the farm from a combination of debilitation and second...

  4. Rattlesnake Envenomation in Three Dairy Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Smith

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cases of rattlesnake envenomation in dairy goats are lacking. These cases present three dairy goats presented to a veterinary referral hospital for envenomation of Northern Pacific Rattlesnake (Crotalus oreganus. Treatments and clinical characteristics reported are similar to those for llamas, alpacas, and horses. These cases suggest that quick treatment in the event of a bite may have a more favorable clinical response. Existing rattlesnake bite scoring systems applicable to other species may be applicable to goats, and existing respiratory pathology may predispose goats to a less favorable outcome.

  5. Dairy products and plasma cholesterol levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Ohlsson

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol synthesized in the body or ingested is an essential lipid component for human survival from our earliest life. Newborns ingest about 3–4 times the amount per body weight through mother's milk compared to the dietary intake of adults. A birth level of 1.7 mmol/L plasma total cholesterol will increase to 4–4.5 mmol/L during the nursing period and continue to increase from adulthood around 40% throughout life. Coronary artery disease and other metabolic disorders are strongly associated with low-density lipoprotein (LDL and high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol as well as triacylglycerol concentration. Milk fat contains a broad range of fatty acids and some have a negative impact on the cholesterol rich lipoproteins. The saturated fatty acids (SFAs, such as palmitic acid (C16:0, myristic acid (C14:0, and lauric acid (C12:0, increase total plasma cholesterol, especially LDL, and constitute 11.3 g/L of bovine milk, which is 44.8% of total fatty acid in milk fat. Replacement of dairy SFA and trans-fatty acids with polyunsaturated fatty acids decreases plasma cholesterol, especially LDL cholesterol, and is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. Available data shows different effects on lipoproteins for different dairy products and there is uncertainty as to the impact a reasonable intake amount of dairy items has on cardiovascular risk. The aim of this review is to elucidate the effect of milk components and dairy products on total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, and the LDL/HDL quotients. Based on eight recent randomized controlled trials of parallel or cross-over design and recent reviews it can be concluded that replacement of saturated fat mainly (but not exclusively derived from high-fat dairy products with low-fat dairy products lowers LDL/HDL cholesterol and total/HDL cholesterol ratios. Whey, dairy fractions enriched in polar lipids, and techniques such as fermentation, or fortification of cows feeding can be used

  6. Mineral elements in milk and dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šimun Zamberlin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Mineral elements occur in milk and dairy products as inorganic ions and salts, as well as part of organic molecules, such as proteins, fats, carbohydrates and nucleic acids. The chemical form of mineral elements is important because it determines their absorption in the intestine and their biological utilization. The mineral composition of milk is not constant because it depends on lactation phase, nutritional status of the animal, and environmental and genetic factors. The objective of this research is to point out the research results of chemical form, content and nutritional importance of individual mineral elements that are present in various milks and dairy products.

  7. A 100-Year Review: Reproductive technologies in dairy science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, S G; Hasler, J F

    2017-12-01

    Reproductive technology revolutionized dairy production during the past century. Artificial insemination was first successfully applied to cattle in the early 1900s. The next major developments involved semen extenders, invention of the electroejaculator, progeny testing, addition of antibiotics to semen during the 1930s and 1940s, and the major discovery of sperm cryopreservation with glycerol in 1949. The 1950s and 1960s were particularly productive with the development of protocols for the superovulation of cattle with both pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin/equine chorionic gonadotrophin and FSH, the first successful bovine embryo transfer, the discovery of sperm capacitation, the birth of rabbits after in vitro fertilization, and the development of insulated liquid nitrogen tanks. Improved semen extenders and the replacement of glass ampules with plastic semen straws followed. Some of the most noteworthy developments in the 1970s included the initial successes with in vitro culture of embryos, calves born after chromosomal sexing as embryos, embryo splitting resulting in the birth of twins, and development of computer-assisted semen analysis. The 1980s brought flow cytometric separation of X- and Y-bearing sperm, in vitro fertilization leading to the birth of live calves, clones produced by nuclear transfer from embryonic cells, and ovum pick-up via ultrasound-guided follicular aspiration. The 20th century ended with the birth of calves produced from AI with sexed semen, sheep and cattle clones produced by nuclear transfer from adult somatic cell nuclei, and the birth of transgenic cloned calves. The 21st century has seen the introduction of perhaps the most powerful biotechnology since the development of artificial insemination and cryopreservation. Quick, inexpensive genomic analysis via the use of single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping chips is revolutionizing the cattle breeding industry. Now, with the introduction of genome editing technology, the

  8. Liquid explosives

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jiping

    2015-01-01

    The book drawing on the author's nearly half a century of energetic materials research experience intends to systematically review the global researches on liquid explosives. The book focuses on the study of the conception, explosion mechanism, properties and preparation of liquid explosives. It provides a combination of theoretical knowledge and practical examples in a reader-friendly style. The book is likely to be interest of university researchers and graduate students in the fields of energetic materials, blasting engineering and mining.

  9. Screening of antibiotics and chemical analysis of penicillin residue in fresh milk and traditional dairy products in Oyo state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Olufemi Olatoye

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: There are global public health and economic concerns on chemical residues in food of animal origin. The use of antibiotics in dairy cattle for the treatment of diseases such as mastitis has contributed to the presence of residues in dairy products. Penicillin residues as low as 1 ppb can lead to allergic reactions and shift of resistance patterns in microbial population as well as interfere with the processing of several dairy products. Antibiotic monitoring is an essential quality control measure in safe milk production. This study was aimed at determining antibiotic residue contamination and the level of penicillin in dairy products from Fulani cattle herds in Oyo State. Materials and Methods: The presence of antibiotic residues in 328 samples of fresh milk, 180 local cheese (wara, and 90 fermented milk (nono from Southwest, Nigeria were determined using Premi® test kit (R-Biopharm AG, Germany followed by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of penicillin-G residue. Results: Antibiotic residues were obtained in 40.8%, 24.4% and 62.3% fresh milk, wara and nono, respectively. Penicillin-G residue was also detected in 41.1% fresh milk, 40.2% nono and 24.4% wara at mean concentrations of 15.22±0.61, 8.24±0.50 and 7.6±0.60 μg/L with 39.3%, 36.7% and 21.1%, respectively, containing penicillin residue above recommended Codex maximum residue limit (MRL of 5 μg/L in dairy. There was no significant difference between the mean penicillin residues in all the dairy products in this study. Conclusion: The results are of food safety concern since the bulk of the samples and substantial quantities of dairy products in Oyo state contained violative levels of antibiotic residues including penicillin residues in concentrations above the MRL. This could be due to indiscriminate and unregulated administration of antibiotics to dairy cattle. Regulatory control of antibiotic use, rapid screening of milk and dairy farmers

  10. Dairy cow handling facilities and the perception of Beef Quality Assurance on Colorado dairies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, A E; Olea-Popelka, F J; Grandin, T; Woerner, D R; Roman-Muniz, I N

    2014-02-01

    A survey was conducted on Colorado dairies to assess attitudes and practices regarding Dairy Beef Quality Assurance (DBQA). The objectives were to (1) assess the need for a new handling facility that would allow all injections to be administered via DBQA standards; (2) establish if Colorado dairy producers are concerned with DBQA; and (3) assess differences in responses between dairy owners and herdsmen. Of the 95 dairies contacted, 20 (21%) agreed to participate, with a median herd size of 1,178. When asked to rank the following 7 traits--efficiency, animal safety, human safety, ease of animal handling, ease of operation, inject per Beef Quality Assurance (BQA) procedures, and cost--in order of priority when designing a new handling facility, human and animal safety were ranked highest in priority (first or second) by the majority of participants, with ease of animal handling and efficiency ranked next. Interestingly, the administration of injections per BQA standards was ranked sixth or seventh by most participants. Respondents estimated the average annual income from the sale of cull cows to be 4.6% of all dairy income, with 50% receiving at least one carcass discount or condemnation in the past 12 mo. Although almost all of the participating dairy farmers stated that the preferred injection site for medications was the neck region, a significant number admitted to using alternate injection sites. In contrast, no difference was found between responses regarding the preferred and actual location for intravenous injections. Although most participating producers are aware of BQA injection guidelines, they perceive efficiency as more important, which could result in injections being administered in locations not promoted by BQA. Dairy owners and herdsmen disagreed in whether or not workers had been injured in the animal handling area in the last 12 mo. Handling facilities that allow for an efficient and safe way to administer drugs according to BQA guidelines and

  11. Staphylococcus aureus entrance into the dairy chain: Tracking S. aureus from dairy cow to cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Kümmel

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important contagious mastitis pathogens in dairy cattle. Due to its zoonotic potential, control of S. aureus is not only of great economic importance in the dairy industry but also a significant public health concern. The aim of this study was to decipher the potential of bovine udder associated S. aureus as reservoir for S. aureus contamination in dairy production and processing. From 18 farms, delivering their milk to an alpine dairy plant for the production of smeared semi-hard and hard cheese. 1176 quarter milk (QM samples of all cows in lactation (n = 294 and representative samples form bulk tank milk (BTM of all farms were surveyed for coagulase positive (CPS and coagulase negative Staphylococci (CNS. Furthermore, samples from different steps of the cheese manufacturing process were tested for CPS and CNS. As revealed by chemometric-assisted FTIR spectroscopy and molecular subtyping (spa typing and multi locus sequence typing, dairy cattle represent indeed an important, yet underreported, entrance point of S. aureus into the dairy chain. Our data clearly show that certain S. aureus subtypes are present in primary production as well as in the cheese processing at the dairy plant. However, although a considerable diversity of S. aureus subtypes was observed in QM and BTM at the farms, only certain S. aureus subtypes were able to enter and persist in the cheese manufacturing at the dairy plant and could be isolated from cheese until day fourteen of ripening. Farm strains belonging to the FTIR cluster B1 and B3, which show genetic characteristics (t2953, ST8, enterotoxin profile: sea/sed/sej of the recently described S. aureus genotype B, most successfully contaminated the cheese production at the dairy plant. Thus our study fosters the hypothesis that genotype B S. aureus represent a specific challenge in control of S. aureus in the dairy chain that requires effective clearance strategies and hygienic

  12. Wicked problems: a value chain approach from Vietnam's dairy product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoi, Nguyen Viet

    2013-12-01

    In the past few years, dairy industry has become one of the fastest growing sectors in the packaged food industry of Vietnam. However, the value-added creation among different activities in the value chain of Vietnam dairy sector is distributed unequally. In the production activities, the dairy farmers gain low value-added rate due to high input cost. Whereas the processing activities, which managed by big companies, generates high profitability and Vietnamese consumers seem to have few choices due to the lack of dairy companies in the market. These wicked problems caused an unsustainable development to the dairy value chain of Vietnam. This paper, therefore, will map and analyze the value chain of the dairy industry in Vietnam. It will also assess the value created in each activity in order to imply solutions for a sustainable development of Vietnam's dairy industry. M10, M11.

  13. Dairy Tool Box Talks: A Comprehensive Worker Training in Dairy Farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovai, Maristela; Carroll, Heidi; Foos, Rebecca; Erickson, Tracey; Garcia, Alvaro

    2016-01-01

    Today's dairies are growing rapidly, with increasing dependence on Latino immigrant workers. This requires new educational strategies for improving milk quality and introduction to state-of-the-art dairy farming practices. It also creates knowledge gaps pertaining to the health of animals and workers, mainly due to the lack of time and language barriers. Owners, managers, and herdsmen assign training duties to more experienced employees, which may not promote "best practices" and may perpetuate bad habits. A comprehensive and periodic training program administered by qualified personnel is currently needed and will enhance the sustainability of the dairy industry. Strategic management and employee satisfaction will be achieved through proper training in the employee's language, typically Spanish. The training needs to address not only current industry standards but also social and cultural differences. An innovative training course was developed following the same structure used by the engineering and construction industries, giving farm workers basic understanding of animal care and handling, cow comfort, and personal safety. The "Dairy Tool Box Talks" program was conducted over a 10-week period with nine sessions according to farm's various employee work shifts. Bulk milk bacterial counts and somatic cell counts were used to evaluate milk quality on the three dairy farms participating in the program. "Dairy Tool Box Talks" resulted in a general sense of employee satisfaction, significant learning outcomes, and enthusiasm about the topics covered. We conclude this article by highlighting the importance of educational programs aimed at improving overall cross-cultural training.

  14. Linear Classification of Dairy Cattle. Slide Script.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipiorski, James; Spike, Peter

    This slide script, part of a series of slide scripts designed for use in vocational agriculture classes, deals with principles of the linear classification of dairy cattle. Included in the guide are narrations for use with 63 slides, which illustrate the following areas that are considered in the linear classification system: stature, strength,…

  15. 7 CFR 58.519 - Dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Material § 58.519 Dairy products. (a) Raw skim milk. All raw skim milk obtained from a secondary source... above. Skim milk after being pasteurized and separated shall be cooled to 45 °F. or lower unless the... used, shall be prepared from raw milk or skim milk that meets the same quality requirements outlined...

  16. 77 FR 8717 - Dairy Product Mandatory Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    .... AMS is responsible for verifying the sales information submitted by reporting entities to NASS. To... dairy product plants subject to mandatory reporting of sales data. There are 51 reporting entities that report data for one or more plants. (Plant numbers and numbers of reporting entities have been updated...

  17. 76 FR 34004 - Dairy Product Mandatory Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ... profile information available on the Internet, AMS estimates that almost half of the reporting entities... approximately $511. The majority of reporting entities report data to NASS through a secure web-based... reporting entities as a result of implementing this rule as proposed. Under the current Dairy Product...

  18. DAIRY PRODUCTION: A NUTRITION INTERVENTION IN A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study to assess the impact of dairy production on the nutritional status of preschool children aged between 24 and 59 months in Mumias Division, a predominantly sugarcane growing zone of Western Kenya was undertaken between 1997 and 1998. Nutritional status was assessed by taking height, weight and age of the ...

  19. 1998 BUSINESS ANALYSIS SUMMARY FOR DAIRY FARMS

    OpenAIRE

    Nott, Sherrill B.

    1999-01-01

    This report has three purposes: 1)to provide statistical information about the financial results on dairy farms during 1998; 2)to provide production costs for comparative analysis and forward planning; and 3)to provide information on the trends in resource use, income and costs during the last few years.

  20. Strontium 90 in Swedish dairy milk 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillberg-Wickman, M.; Oestergren, I.

    1980-01-01

    The contamination of strontium-90 in Swedish milk during 1978 is practically the same as in 1977. The country-wide mean ratio of strontium-90 to calcium in milk is 0.12 Bq 90 Sr(gCa) -1 , based on monthly determinations of samples obtained from 8 dairy plants situated throughout the country. (author)

  1. Automated behaviour monitoring in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, de R.M.; Verhoeven, P.H.F.M.; Hogewerf, P.H.; Ipema, A.H.

    2011-01-01

    Acceleration sensors in a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) were used to monitor the behaviour of dairy cows. The data processing from 3D acceleration into behaviour classification (lying, standing or walking) was based on a two-steps method: first the distinction between lying and standing/walking was

  2. Modelling heat processing of dairy products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hotrum, N.; Fox, M.B.; Lieverloo, H.; Smit, E.; Jong, de P.; Schutyser, M.A.I.

    2010-01-01

    This chapter discusses the application of computer modelling to optimise the heat processing of milk. The chapter first reviews types of heat processing equipment used in the dairy industry. Then, the types of objectives that can be achieved using model-based process optimisation are discussed.

  3. Silage alcohols in dairy cow nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raun, Birgitte Marie Løvendahl

    Corn silages with high propanol concentrations has been suspected to cause reduced feed intake and health problems for dairy cows in the post-pattum transition period. With the increasing use of hetero fermentative inoculants to support corn silage fermentation it is likely that silage concentrat...

  4. Benchmarking nutrient use efficiency of dairy farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mu, W.; Groen, E.A.; Middelaar, van C.E.; Bokkers, E.A.M.; Hennart, S.; Stilmant, D.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    The nutrient use efficiency (NUE) of a system, generally computed as the amount of nutrients in valuable outputs over the amount of nutrients in all inputs, is commonly used to benchmark the environmental performance of dairy farms. Benchmarking the NUE of farms, however, may lead to biased

  5. Selective breeding in organic dairy production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, W.J.

    2009-01-01

    Organic dairy farming started to take off in the early 1990s, when the European Union laid down organic standards for animal production. Until now, however, only incidental steps have been taken towards organic breeding and organic farmers mainly use breeding stock from conventional breeding

  6. 7 CFR 1170.4 - Dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Dairy products. 1170.4 Section 1170.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Marketing Agreement Act of 1937; and (b) Substantially identical products designated by the Secretary in...

  7. Modelling spray drying processes for dairy products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdurmen, Ruud E.M.; Straatsma, Han; Verschueren, Maykel; van Haren, Jan; Smit, Erik; Bargeman, Gerrald; de Jong, Peter

    2002-01-01

    NIZO food research (The Netherlands) has been working for the food industry, the dairy industry in particular, for over 50 years. During the past 15 years NIZO food research has put a lot of effort into developing predictive computer models for the food industry. Nowadays the main challenges in the

  8. Selection for body weight in dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenen, E.P.C.

    2001-01-01

    This thesis deals with selection for body weight (BW) in dairy cattle. The economic efficiency of present breeding schemes might increase further when selection decisions also consider information on BW as BW relates to feed costs and revenues from beef production. However, the practical

  9. Selective dry cow treatment in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherpenzeel, C.G.M.

    2017-01-01

    In the dairy industry, udder health is associated with mastitis management, of which blanket dry cow treatment has been an important part for decades. To prevent the udder from new intramammary infections during the dry period, the use of blanket dry cow treatment has been advocated for more than 50

  10. Supplementation of dairy weaners grazing tropical pastures

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tropical pastures for growth of dairy replacement heifers, and to assess the need for ... restricted by intake of digestible nutrients. Tropical pastures ... 1983, 13(l). Table 1 Effect of rnaize or maize plus cotton seed meal on the growth of weaner calves. Level. Wean wt wean ro ll0 kg ll0- 130 kg. Wean ro 130 kg. Supplements.

  11. Assessing carbon footprints of dairy production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    The farm-gate carbon footprint of milk quantifies the net greenhouse gas emissions of a dairy production system. Published values vary widely depending upon farm management practices and the calculation method used. Standard procedures for calculating the carbon footprint of milk are now established...

  12. Carbon footprint of dairy production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and their potential impact on global warming has become an important national and international concern. Dairy production systems along with all other types of animal agriculture are recognized as a source of GHG. Although little information exists on the net GHG emiss...

  13. BIOSURFACTANT PRODUCTION BY THERMOPHILIC DAIRY STREPTOCOCCI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BUSSCHER, HJ; NEU, TR; VANDERMEI, HC

    Biosurfactant production of eight Streptococcus thermophilus strains, isolated from heat exchanger plates in the downstream side of the regenerator section of pasteurizers in the dairy industry has been measured using axisymmetric drop shape analysis by profile (ADSA-P). Strains were grown in M17

  14. Aspects of rumen adaptation in dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieho, Kasper

    2017-01-01

    In dairy cattle the nutrient requirements change rapidly around calving. During the dry period nutrients are required for maintenance, recovery from the previous lactation, and fetal growth. After calving, milk production commences and the energy requirements can increase by a factor 3 to ~184 MJ

  15. Labour organisation on robotic milking dairy farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonck, B.R.

    1996-01-01

    1. Research issues

    The research described in this dissertation is focused on the effects of the integration of the milking robot in a dairy farm on the labour organisation at operational and tactical level. Attention was paid

  16. Technical Efficiency of the Spanish Dairy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kapelko, M.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter uses DEA to measure the technical efficiency of a sample of Spanish dairy processing firms over the period 2001–2009. Differences in technical efficiency between firms of different sizes and between firms that operated in international markets versus those that were not are tested. The

  17. Dutch dairy farms after milk quota abolition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klootwijk, C.W.; Middelaar, van C.E.; Berentsen, P.B.M.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    The abolition of the Dutch milk quota system has been accompanied by the introduction of a new manure policy to limit phosphate production (i.e., excretion via manure) on expanding dairy farms. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of these recent policy changes on the farm

  18. Modeling greenhouse gas emissions from dairy farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dairy farms have been identified as an important source of greenhouse gas emissions. Within the farm, important emissions include enteric methane (CH4) from the animals, CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O) from manure in housing facilities, during long-term storage and during field application, and N2O from...

  19. Characteristics of a Dairy Process under Uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Hongyuan; Friis, Alan

    2007-01-01

    In this work, the characteristics of a dairy production process under diverse product uncertainties are investigated through a process simulation. The flexibility analysis method of Grossmann and his co-workers (Swaney and Grossmann, 1985) is applied through a process simulation tool, PRO/II. A new...

  20. FIRM HOUSEHOLD INTERRELATIONSHIPS ON DUTCH DAIRY FARMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ELHORST, JP

    1994-01-01

    In this article an agricultural household model is developed in which production and consumption decisions are non-separable. On the basis of this model the importance of coupling production and consumption decisions is investigated for the Dutch dairy sector both before and after the introduction

  1. Comparison of the Effects of Goat Dairy and Cow Dairy Based Breakfasts on Satiety, Appetite Hormones, and Metabolic Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Martín, Elehazara; García-Escobar, Eva; Ruiz de Adana, Maria-Soledad; Lima-Rubio, Fuensanta; Peláez, Laura; Caracuel, Angel-María; Bermúdez-Silva, Francisco-Javier; Soriguer, Federico; Rojo-Martínez, Gemma; Olveira, Gabriel

    2017-08-15

    The satiating effects of cow dairy have been thoroughly investigated; however, the effects of goat dairy on appetite have not been reported so far. Our study investigates the satiating effect of two breakfasts based on goat or cow dairy and their association with appetite related hormones and metabolic profile. Healthy adults consumed two breakfasts based on goat (G-Breakfast) or cow (C-Breakfast) dairy products. Blood samples were taken and VAS tests were performed at different time points. Blood metabolites were measured and Combined Satiety Index (CSI) and areas under the curves (AUC) were calculated. Desire to eat rating was significantly lower (breakfast & time interaction p dairy when compared to cow dairy products, and pointed to a potential association of GLP-1 and triglyceride levels with the mechanisms by which dairy products might affect satiety after the G-Breakfast and C-Breakfast, respectively.

  2. Beneficial health effects of milk and fermented dairy products--review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebringer, L; Ferencík, M; Krajcovic, J

    2008-01-01

    Milk is a complex physiological liquid that simultaneously provides nutrients and bioactive components that facilitate the successful postnatal adaptation of the newborn infant by stimulating cellular growth and digestive maturation, the establishment of symbiotic microflora, and the development of gut-associated lymphoid tissues. The number, the potency, and the importance of bioactive compounds in milk and especially in fermented milk products are probably greater than previously thought. They include certain vitamins, specific proteins, bioactive peptides, oligosaccharides, organic (including fatty) acids. Some of them are normal milk components, others emerge during digestive or fermentation processes. Fermented dairy products and probiotic bacteria decrease the absorption of cholesterol. Whey proteins, medium-chain fatty acids and in particular calcium and other minerals may contribute to the beneficial effect of dairy food on body fat and body mass. There has been growing evidence of the role that dairy proteins play in the regulation of satiety, food intake and obesity-related metabolic disorders. Milk proteins, peptides, probiotic lactic acid bacteria, calcium and other minerals can significantly reduce blood pressure. Milk fat contains a number of components having functional properties. Sphingolipids and their active metabolites may exert antimicrobial effects either directly or upon digestion.

  3. Plasma metabolic profiling of dairy cows affected with clinical ketosis using LC/MS technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y; Xu, C; Xia, C; Zhang, Hy; Sun, Lw; Gao, Y

    2014-01-01

    Ketosis in dairy cattle is an important metabolic disorder. Currently, the plasma metabolic profile of ketosis as determined using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS) has not been reported. To investigate plasma metabolic profiles from cows with clinical ketosis in comparison to control cows. Twenty Holstein dairy cows were divided into two groups based on clinical signs and plasma β-hydroxybutyric acid and glucose concentrations 7-21 days postpartum: clinical ketosis and control cows. Plasma metabolic profiles were analyzed using LC/MS. Data were processed using principal component analysis and orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis. Compared to control cows, the levels of valine, glycine, glycocholic, tetradecenoic acid, and palmitoleic acid increased significantly in clinical ketosis. On the other hand, the levels of arginine, aminobutyric acid, leucine/isoleucine, tryptophan, creatinine, lysine, norcotinine, and undecanoic acid decreased markedly. Our results showed that the metabolic changes in cows with clinical ketosis involve complex metabolic networks and signal transduction. These results are important for future studies elucidating the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and prevention of clinical ketosis in dairy cows.

  4. 16S rRNA analysis of diversity of manure microbial community in dairy farm environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramod Pandey

    Full Text Available Dairy farms generate a considerable amount of manure, which is applied in cropland as fertilizer. While the use of manure as fertilizer reduces the application of chemical fertilizers, the main concern with regards to manure application is microbial pollution. Manure is a reservoir of a broad range of microbial populations, including pathogens, which have potential to cause contamination and pose risks to public and animal health. Despite the widespread use of manure fertilizer, the change in microbial diversity of manure under various treatment processes is still not well-understood. We hypothesize that the microbial population of animal waste changes with manure handling used in a farm environment. Consequential microbial risk caused by animal manure may depend on manure handling. In this study, a reconnaissance effort for sampling dairy manure in California Central Valley followed by 16S rRNA analysis of content and diversity was undertaken to understand the microbiome of manure after various handling processes. The microbial community analysis of manure revealed that the population in liquid manure differs from that in solid manure. For instance, the bacteria of genus Sulfuriomonas were unique in liquid samples, while the bacteria of genus Thermos were observed only in solid samples. Bacteria of genus Clostridium were present in both solid and liquid samples. The population among liquid samples was comparable, as was the population among solid samples. These findings suggest that the mode of manure application (i.e., liquid versus solid could have a potential impact on the microbiome of cropland receiving manure as fertilizers.

  5. 16S rRNA analysis of diversity of manure microbial community in dairy farm environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Max; Wang, Yi; Settles, Matthew; del Rio, Noelia Silva; Castillo, Alejandro; Souza, Alex; Pereira, Richard

    2018-01-01

    Dairy farms generate a considerable amount of manure, which is applied in cropland as fertilizer. While the use of manure as fertilizer reduces the application of chemical fertilizers, the main concern with regards to manure application is microbial pollution. Manure is a reservoir of a broad range of microbial populations, including pathogens, which have potential to cause contamination and pose risks to public and animal health. Despite the widespread use of manure fertilizer, the change in microbial diversity of manure under various treatment processes is still not well-understood. We hypothesize that the microbial population of animal waste changes with manure handling used in a farm environment. Consequential microbial risk caused by animal manure may depend on manure handling. In this study, a reconnaissance effort for sampling dairy manure in California Central Valley followed by 16S rRNA analysis of content and diversity was undertaken to understand the microbiome of manure after various handling processes. The microbial community analysis of manure revealed that the population in liquid manure differs from that in solid manure. For instance, the bacteria of genus Sulfuriomonas were unique in liquid samples, while the bacteria of genus Thermos were observed only in solid samples. Bacteria of genus Clostridium were present in both solid and liquid samples. The population among liquid samples was comparable, as was the population among solid samples. These findings suggest that the mode of manure application (i.e., liquid versus solid) could have a potential impact on the microbiome of cropland receiving manure as fertilizers. PMID:29304047

  6. Optimization of dairy sludge for growth of Rhizobium cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ashok Kumar; Singh, Gauri; Gautam, Digvijay; Bedi, Manjinder Kaur

    2013-01-01

    In this study dairy sludge was evaluated as an alternative cultivation medium for Rhizobium. Growth of bacterial strains at different concentrations of Dairy sludge was monitored. Maximum growth of all strains was observed at 60% Dairy sludge concentration. At 60% optical density (OD) values are 0.804 for Rhizobium trifolii (MTCC905), 0.825 for Rhizobium trifolii (MTCC906), and 0.793 for Rhizobium meliloti (MTCC100). Growth pattern of strains was observed at 60% Dairy sludge along with different synthetic media (tryptone yeast, Rhizobium minimal medium and yeast extract mannitol). Growth in 60% Dairy sludge was found to be superior to standard media used for Rhizobium. Media were optimized using 60% dairy sludge along with different concentrations of yeast extract (1-7 g/L) and mannitol (7-13 g/L) in terms of optical density at different time intervals, that is, 24, 48 and 72 hours. Maximum growth was observed in 6 g/L of yeast extract and 12 g/L of mannitol at 48-hour incubation period in all strains. The important environmental parameters such as pH were optimized using 60% dairy sludge, 60% dairy sludge +6 g/L yeast extract, and 60% dairy sludge +12 g/L mannitol. The maximum growth of all strains was found at pH 7.0. The present study recommends the use of 60% dairy sludge as a suitable growth medum for inoculant production.

  7. Optimization of Dairy Sludge for Growth of Rhizobium Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study dairy sludge was evaluated as an alternative cultivation medium for Rhizobium. Growth of bacterial strains at different concentrations of Dairy sludge was monitored. Maximum growth of all strains was observed at 60% Dairy sludge concentration. At 60% optical density (OD values are 0.804 for Rhizobium trifolii (MTCC905, 0.825 for Rhizobium trifolii (MTCC906, and 0.793 for Rhizobium meliloti (MTCC100. Growth pattern of strains was observed at 60% Dairy sludge along with different synthetic media (tryptone yeast, Rhizobium minimal medium and yeast extract mannitol. Growth in 60% Dairy sludge was found to be superior to standard media used for Rhizobium. Media were optimized using 60% dairy sludge along with different concentrations of yeast extract (1–7 g/L and mannitol (7–13 g/L in terms of optical density at different time intervals, that is, 24, 48 and 72 hours. Maximum growth was observed in 6 g/L of yeast extract and 12 g/L of mannitol at 48-hour incubation period in all strains. The important environmental parameters such as pH were optimized using 60% dairy sludge, 60% dairy sludge +6 g/L yeast extract, and 60% dairy sludge +12 g/L mannitol. The maximum growth of all strains was found at pH 7.0. The present study recommends the use of 60% dairy sludge as a suitable growth medum for inoculant production.

  8. Liquid Marbles

    KAUST Repository

    Khalil, Kareem

    2012-12-01

    Granulation, the process of formation of granules from a combination of base powders and binder liquids, has been a subject of research for almost 50 years, studied extensively for its vast applications, primarily to the pharmaceutical industry sector. The principal aim of granulation is to form granules comprised of the active pharmaceutical ingredients (API’s), which have more desirable handling and flowability properties than raw powders. It is also essential to ensure an even distribution of active ingredients within a tablet with the goal of achieving time‐controlled release of drugs. Due to the product‐specific nature of the industry, however, data is largely empirical [1]. For example, the raw powders used can vary in size by two orders of magnitude with narrow or broad size distributions. The physical properties of the binder liquids can also vary significantly depending on the powder properties and required granule size. Some significant progress has been made to better our understanding of the overall granulation process [1] and it is widely accepted that the initial nucleation / wetting stage, when the binder liquid first wets the powders, is key to the whole process. As such, many experimental studies have been conducted in attempt to elucidate the physics of this first stage [1], with two main mechanisms being observed – classified by Ivenson [1] as the “Traditional description” and the “Modern Approach”. See Figure 1 for a graphical definition of these two mechanisms. Recent studies have focused on the latter approach [1] and a new, exciting development in this field is the Liquid Marble. This interesting formation occurs when a liquid droplet interacts with a hydrophobic (or superhydrophobic) powder. The droplet can become encased in the powder, which essentially provides a protective “shell” or “jacket” for the liquid inside [2]. The liquid inside is then isolated from contact with other solids or liquids and has some

  9. A survey of Italian compost dairy barns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Leso

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Compost-bedded pack barns (CBPB, generally known as compost dairy barns, are alternative housing systems for dairy cows. In these barns, the whole surface of the resting area is covered with a deepbedded pack that is frequently stirred in order to incorporate fresh manure into the pack and to enhance the evaporation of water. Experiences with CBPB for dairy cows are reported in literature from the US, Israel, the Netherlands and Austria. Potential advantages of these housing systems regard animal welfare and manure management. Since 2006, this housing system has been widely applied in Italy. However, there is still little scientific knowledge available about Italian CBPB. This study aims to describe the housing system, assess producers’ satisfaction and measure performance of dairy cows housed in CBPB. Ten commercial dairy farms in northern Italy were involved in the study. All pens in each farm were surveyed to determine the total available surface area, bedded area and pack depth. A questionnaire was submitted to each farm manager in order to investigate management practices, labour requirement, amount of bedding materials used and producers’ satisfaction. The temperature of the bedded pack was measured in summer and in winter. Data from the Italian Dairy Association were collected for each herd over a period of one year (from September 2011 to September 2012. In the barns involved in the study, the average total available area was 10.9 m2/cow and the average pack area was 6.7 m2/cow. The bedded pack was aerated 1.4 times per day.The most commonly used bedding material in these farms was dry sawdust. The consumption of bedding materials was 8.1 m3/cow per year. A tendency towards inverse correlation was found between the space per cow and the amount of bedding needed per cow (R2=0.395; P=0.051. Operations related to pack management required 4.1 hours of labour per cow per year. A direct relationship was found between the bedded area space

  10. Radioactivity monitoring of Irish dairy produce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelleher, K.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: The RPII has been carrying out monitoring of milk and dairy produce since 1986. Milk samples are routinely analysed for radiocaesium and strontium-90 as part of the RPII's environmental monitoring programme to determine the doses received to the Irish population from milk consumption. The method the RPII utilises for determining the Sr-90 activity in milk is by measuring the Cerenkov radiation produced by its daughter 90 Y isolated from interfering nuclides such as uranium, thorium, radium and their decay products as well as isotopes of caesium, potassium and strontium by extraction with 10% di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphate (HDEHP) in toluene. The chemical yield of 90 Y is determined by the acidmetric titration of yttrium nitrate carrier with titriplex III. The levels of Sr-90 and dose to the Irish population from milk consumption have been negligible when compared to other radioactive sources in the Irish environment. Other dairy products are analysed for radiocaesium on a routine basis for commercial customers to ensure the levels of radioactivity in the dairy products fall within EC regulations governing the export/import of dairy produce. The export of milk and milk produce from Ireland is a very important industry, 80% of dairy products produced in Ireland are exported and these exports are worth Euro 2.2 billion annually to the Irish economy. The dairy products are analysed by gamma spectroscopy and include full and skim milk powders, butter, casein, cheese, cream, whey and lactose. The levels of radiocaesium in these products are typically below 5 Bk/kg and fall well within the limit of 370 Bq/kg laid down by the European Community in Council Regulation 737/90. Although the levels of these radionuclides are relatively low the RPII recognises the importance of analysing these samples for radioactivity to inform the public, ensure consumer confidence and, more importantly, to maintain a level of expertise in the RPII in these analytical techniques so that

  11. Biodiversity of dairy Propionibacterium isolated from dairy farms in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, Rosangela; Chuat, Victoria; Madec, Marie-Noelle; Nero, Luis Augusto; Thierry, Anne; Valence, Florence; de Carvalho, Antonio Fernandes

    2015-06-16

    Dairy propionibacteria are used as ripening cultures for the production of Swiss-type cheeses, and some strains have potential for use as probiotics. This study investigated the biodiversity of wild dairy Propionibacteria isolates in dairy farms that produce Swiss-type cheeses in Minas Gerais State, Brazil. RAPD and PFGE were used for molecular typing of strains and MLST was applied for phylogenetic analysis of strains of Propionibacterium freudenreichii. The results showed considerable genetic diversity of the wild dairy propionibacteria, since three of the main species were observed to be randomly distributed among the samples collected from different farms in different biotopes (raw milk, sillage, soil and pasture). Isolates from different farms showed distinct genetic profiles, suggesting that each location represented a specific niche. Furthermore, the STs identified for the strains of P. freudenreichii by MLST were not related to any specific origin. The environment of dairy farms and milk production proved to be a reservoir for Propionibacterium strains, which are important for future use as possible starter cultures or probiotics, as well as in the study of prevention of cheese defects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Competitive Dairy Value Chains in Southeast Asia – Part II : Dairy Expert Roundtable Meeting, December 8 & 9, 2010, Muak Lek, Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haartsen, L.; Lee, van der J.; Wouters, A.P.

    2011-01-01

    The regional Dairy Expert Roundtable Meeting on “Competitive Dairy Value Chains in Southeast Asia” provided a forum for participants from six Southeast Asian countries to discuss how dairy value chains in this region can become more competitive and sustainable. The demand for dairy products in these

  13. Accounting for biodiversity in the dairy industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizemore, Grant C

    2015-05-15

    Biodiversity is an essential part of properly functioning ecosystems, yet the loss of biodiversity currently occurs at rates unparalleled in the modern era. One of the major causes of this phenomenon is habitat loss and modification as a result of intensified agricultural practices. This paper provides a starting point for considering biodiversity within dairy production, and, although focusing primarily on the United States, findings are applicable broadly. Biodiversity definitions and assessments (e.g., indicators, tools) are proposed and reviewed. Although no single indicator or tool currently meets all the needs of comprehensive assessment, many sustainable practices are readily adoptable as ways to conserve and promote biodiversity. These practices, as well as potential funding opportunities are identified. Given the state of uncertainty in addressing the complex nature of biodiversity assessments, the adoption of generally sustainable environmental practices may be the best currently available option for protecting biodiversity on dairy lands. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Carbon footprint from dairy farming system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Della Riva, A.; Kristensen, Troels; De Marchi1, M.

    2014-01-01

    . The results show 0.80 kg CO2eq/kg ECM in JE herd, while 0.96 kg CO2eq/kg ECM in HF herd. The main differences were due to the level of dry matter intake, milk yield and fertility traits. Indeed, JE herd showed a lower milk yield than HF herd, a lower DMI and better fertility, determining less production......Aim of the present study was to estimate the carbon footprint (CF) of milk production at farm gate considering two dairy cattle breeds, Holstein Friesian (HF) and Jersey (JE). Using Italian inventory data the emissions of CO2eq per kg ECM for dairy herds of HF and JE breed were estimated...... and consumption of feed and less replacement animals in the herd....

  15. [Milk and dairy products for human nutrition: contribution of technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maubois, Jean-Louis

    2008-04-01

    The complex composition of milk has led to the development of innovative technological processes such as membrane separation. The dairy industry is now able to offer consumers safe classical products (liquid milk, raw-milk cheeses) with little or no heat treatment. Indeed, heat treatment undermines the organoleptic qualities and bioactivity of many molecules found in milk. New technologies, and especially membrane microfiltration, have allowed researchers to identify two groups of milk proteins in terms of their human absorption kinetics: slow micellar casein and fast whey proteins. The highly purified products thus obtained are used for infant foods and slimming aids, and as functional ingredients. The same technologies have been applied to colostrum, yielding a sterile "serocolostrum" containing biologically active immunoglobulins, growth factors, and polypeptides. Combined with other separation techniques, membrane technologies should soon allow the separation and purification of minor milk proteins described as having essential roles in bone calcium uptake and vitamin transport, for example. The use of enzymatic membrane reactors has led to the identification of several bioactive peptides, such as--kappa-caseinomacropeptide, which induces CCK (cholecystokinin) secretion and thus regulates food intake and lipid assimilation,--alpha(S1) CN (91-100), a compound with benzodiazepine activity,-- kappaCN (106-116), which has anti-thrombotic activity by inhibiting blood platelet binding to fibrinogen, and--alpha(S) and beta casein phosphopeptides, which are thought to increase iron and calcium absorption.

  16. Evaluation of food safety management systems in Serbian dairy industry

    OpenAIRE

    Tomašević, Igor; Šmigić, Nada; Đekić, Ilija; Zarić, Vlade; Tomić, Nikola; Miocinovic, Jelena; Rajkovic, Andreja

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports incentives, costs, difficulties and benefits of food safety management systems implementation in the Serbian dairy industry. The survey involved 27 food business operators with the national milk and dairy market share of 65 %. Almost two thirds of the assessed dairy producers (70.4 %) claimed that they had a fully operational and certified HACCP system in place, while 29.6 % implemented HACCP, but had no third party certification. ISO 22000 was implemented and certified in ...

  17. Competitiveness regulation of dairy products production in the Crimea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domozhilkina Zh. V.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available the article outlines the results of studying the major problems concerning supporting competitiveness and quality of dairy products in the Crimea. The researchers compared the level of competitiveness of the dairy enterprise ltd. «Бег» with other brands of milk and suggested measures to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of competitiveness management of dairy products in this region.

  18. Enhancing the role of the dairy vet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-03

    More than 3000 veterinarians, researchers and industry representatives gathered in Dublin in July for the 29th congress of the World Association for Buiatrics. With the theme of 'Cattle health - tomorrow's thinking today', the programme for the five-day meeting was wide-ranging, exploring issues such as animal health systems, animal welfare initiatives, zoonoses, mastitis control and infectious disease control. Here, Kristy Ebanks focuses on two keynote addresses which considered the evolving role of the dairy vet. British Veterinary Association.

  19. Dee Harley: Harley Farms Goat Dairy

    OpenAIRE

    Rabkin, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    In the village of Pescadero, forty-five minutes’ drive north of Santa Cruz, Dee Harley runs San Mateo County’s only active dairy. Harley and her staff care for a herd of more than 200 American Alpine goats, crafting the animals’ milk into sought-after cheeses (chevre, feta, ricotta, and fromage blanc) that have consistently garnered awards at national and international competitions. An increasingly popular agritourism destination for denizens of the San Francisco and Monterey Bay Areas, Harle...

  20. Modeling greenhouse gas emissions from dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotz, C Alan

    2017-11-15

    Dairy farms have been identified as an important source of greenhouse gas emissions. Within the farm, important emissions include enteric CH 4 from the animals, CH 4 and N 2 O from manure in housing facilities during long-term storage and during field application, and N 2 O from nitrification and denitrification processes in the soil used to produce feed crops and pasture. Models using a wide range in level of detail have been developed to represent or predict these emissions. They include constant emission factors, variable process-related emission factors, empirical or statistical models, mechanistic process simulations, and life cycle assessment. To fully represent farm emissions, models representing the various emission sources must be integrated to capture the combined effects and interactions of all important components. Farm models have been developed using relationships across the full scale of detail, from constant emission factors to detailed mechanistic simulations. Simpler models, based upon emission factors and empirical relationships, tend to provide better tools for decision support, whereas more complex farm simulations provide better tools for research and education. To look beyond the farm boundaries, life cycle assessment provides an environmental accounting tool for quantifying and evaluating emissions over the full cycle, from producing the resources used on the farm through processing, distribution, consumption, and waste handling of the milk and dairy products produced. Models are useful for improving our understanding of farm processes and their interacting effects on greenhouse gas emissions. Through better understanding, they assist in the development and evaluation of mitigation strategies for reducing emissions and improving overall sustainability of dairy farms. The Authors. Published by the Federation of Animal Science Societies and Elsevier Inc. on behalf of the American Dairy Science Association®. This is an open access article

  1. Danish dairy farmers' perception of biosecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Erling; Jakobsen, Esben B

    2011-05-01

    To implement biosecurity measures at farm-level is a motivational challenge to dairy farmers as emerging diseases and their consequences largely are unpredictable. One of the reasons for this challenge is that outcomes are more likely to benefit society than the individual farmer. From the individual farmer's point of view the impacts of zoonotic risk, international trade and welfare concerns appear less obvious than the direct costs at farm-level. Consequently, a social dilemma may arise where collective interests are at odds with private interests. To improve biosecurity at farm-level farmers must be motivated to change behavior in the 'right' direction which could provide selfish farmers with unintended possibilities to exploit the level of biosecurity provided by other dairy farmers' collective actions. Farmers' perception of risk of disease introduction into a dairy herd was explored by means of Q-methodology. Participating farmers owned very large dairy herds and were selected for this study because Danish legislation since 2008 has required that larger farms develop and implement a farm specific biosecurity plan. However, a year from introduction of this requirement, none of the participating farmers had developed a biosecurity plan. Farmers' perception of biosecurity could meaningfully be described by four families of perspectives, labeled: cooperatives; confused; defectors, and introvert. Interestingly, all families of perspectives agreed that sourcing of animals from established dealers represented the highest risk to biosecurity at farm-level. Farmers and policy-makers are faced with important questions about biosecurity at farm-level related to the sanctioning system within the contextual framework of social dilemmas. To solve these challenges we propose the development of a market-mediated system to (1) reduce the risk of free-riders, and (2) provide farmers with incentives to improve biosecurity at farm-level. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All

  2. Lactobacillus Reuteri: A Newcomer in Dairy Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Klantschitsch, T.; Spillmann, H.; Puhan, Z.

    1996-01-01

    Lactobacillus reuteri is an inhabitant of the gastrointestinal of humans and animals and has been isolated also from food (sausages, cheese, sour dough). It is suggested that L. reuteri, a dominant heterofermentative Lactobacillus species with unique taits, may interact beneficially in stabilizing the intestinal microflora, thus, having a protective function against pathogenic microorganisms. L. reuteri as a newcomer in dairy technology and products are appearing on the market which are suppl...

  3. Nutrition and fertility in dairy cow

    OpenAIRE

    Rossi, Federico

    2012-01-01

    Nutrition has an important impact on the reproductive performance of dairy cattle. Energy is the major nutrient required by adult cattle and inadequate energy intake has a detrimental impact on reproductive activity of bovine. Cows under negative energy balance have extended periods of anovulation. Postpartum anestrus, as well as infertility, is magnified by losses of body condition during the early postpartum period. Resumption of ovulatory cycles is associated with energy balance, but s...

  4. Liquid helium

    CERN Document Server

    Atkins, K R

    1959-01-01

    Originally published in 1959 as part of the Cambridge Monographs on Physics series, this book addresses liquid helium from the dual perspectives of statistical mechanics and hydrodynamics. Atkins looks at both Helium Three and Helium Four, as well as the properties of a combination of the two isotopes. This book will be of value to anyone with an interest in the history of science and the study of one of the universe's most fundamental elements.

  5. Metabolic and immunological changes in transition dairy cows: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wankhade, Pratik Ramesh; Manimaran, A.; Kumaresan, A.; Jeyakumar, S.; Ramesha, K. P.; Sejian, V.; Rajendran, D.; Varghese, Minu Rachel

    2017-01-01

    Smooth transition from pregnancy to lactation is important for high productive and reproductive performance during later postpartum period in dairy animals. On the other hand, the poor transition often leads to huge economic loss to dairy farmers due to compromised production and reproduction. Therefore, understanding the causes and consequence of metabolic changes during the transition period is very important for postpartum health management. In this review, metabolic changes with reference to negative energy balance in transition cow and its effect on health and reproduction during the later postpartum period in dairy animals are discussed besides the role of metabolic inflammation in postpartum performance in dairy animals. PMID:29263601

  6. Important Features of Probiotic Microorganisms in Pharmaceutical and Dairy Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahboobeh Mehrabani

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Probiotic products are matrices for delivery of beneficial live bacteria to the host. The viable bacteria are being incorporated into dairy products as well as supplements. Objectives: The aim of the present study was evaluation and validation of probiotic contents in commercial products to select the optimum matrix for protection of viability and functionality of probiotic bacteria. Materials and Methods: A total of forty six lactic acid bacteria were isolated from ten pharmaceutical and ten dairy products. Their probiotic properties such as acid, salt and bile tolerance, antibiotic susceptibility tests, adherence to cell line, stability under refrigeration conditions and antagonistic activity against nine bacterial strains were assayed. Results: Results showed that the viable bacterial count of solid products were lower than stated number on their package. No difference was noticed between strains isolated from dairy and non-dairy products regarding antibiotic susceptibility and adherence properties. Pharmaceutical isolates were more potent against pathogens than dairy isolates. Conclusions: In conclusion, dairy products are better matrices for delivering bifidobacteria than non-dairy products. But, probiotic isolates from non-dairy products, showed better properties such as pathogen exclusion than dairy isolates.

  7. Smart Dairy Farming through Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonsri Vate-U-LanAssumption University, Bangkok, Thailand

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to report a smart dairy farming in Ontario, Canada, which is a case study for future of food production, and ways that advancements related to the Internet of Things (IoT. It is impacting upon agricultural practice in the form of smart farming. Smart farming is the practice of intelligent agricultural management based upon technological data gathering farm practice for the purpose of increased levels of quality, production, and environmental protection. This paper will illustrate one example whereby partnerships among the academic world, government agencies and local food producing communities in Canada are adapting innovative thinking and smart technologies to address the need to implement the more effective agricultural practice. Food from Thought is a Canadian research project, based upon high-tech information systems to produce enough food for a growing human population while sustaining the Earth’s ecosystems. The paper will outline how one dairy farmer in Ontario has been able to apply smart farming technologies to increase milk production while maintaining the health of his cattle and preserving the environment. The review of applications of smart farming in Ontario such as digital tracking for a cow, genomic testing, digitally signaled birth, sensor driven crop management and data driven dairy production also details in this article.

  8. Effect of application of dairy manure, effluent and inorganic fertilizer on nitrogen leaching in clayey fluvo-aquic soil: A lysimeter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jianling; Xiao, Jiao; Liu, Deyan; Ye, Guiping; Luo, Jiafa; Houlbrooke, David; Laurenson, Seth; Yan, Jing; Chen, Lvjun; Tian, Jinping; Ding, Weixin

    2017-08-15

    Dairy farm manure and effluent are applied to cropland in China to provide a source of plant nutrients, but there are concerns over its effect on nitrogen (N) leaching loss and groundwater quality. To investigate the effects of land application of dairy manure and effluent on potential N leaching loss, two lysimeter trials were set up in clayey fluvo-aquic soil in a winter wheat-summer maize rotation cropping system on the North China Plain. The solid dairy manure trial included control without N fertilization (CK), inorganic N fertilizer (SNPK), and fresh (RAW) and composted (COM) dairy manure. The liquid dairy effluent trial consisted of control without N fertilization (CF), inorganic N fertilizer (ENPK), and fresh (FDE) and stored (SDE) dairy effluent. The N application rate was 225kgNha -1 for inorganic N fertilizer, dairy manure, and effluent treatments in both seasons. Annual N leaching loss (ANLL) was highest in SNPK (53.02 and 16.21kgNha -1 in 2013/2014 and 2014/2015, respectively), which were 1.65- and 2.04-fold that of COM, and 1.59- and 1.26-fold that of RAW. In the effluent trial (2014/2015), ANLL for ENPK and SDE (16.22 and 16.86kgNha -1 , respectively) were significantly higher than CF and FDE (6.3 and 13.21kgNha -1 , respectively). NO 3 - contributed the most (34-92%) to total N leaching loss among all treatments, followed by dissolved organic N (14-57%). COM showed the lowest N leaching loss due to a reduction in NO 3 - loss. Yield-scaled N leaching in COM (0.35kgNMg -1 silage) was significantly (Pleaching loss while ensuring high crop yield in the North China Plain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Dairy Tool Box Talks: a comprehensive worker training in dairy farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maristela Rovai

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Today’s dairies are growing rapidly, with increasing dependence on Latino immigrant workers. This requires new educational strategies for improving milk quality and introduction to state-of-the-art dairy farming practices. It also creates knowledge gaps pertaining to the health of animals and workers, mainly due to lack of time and language barriers. Owners, managers and herdsmen assign training duties to more experienced employees, which may not promote ‘best practices’ and may perpetuate bad habits. A comprehensive and periodic training program administered by qualified personnel is currently needed and will enhance the sustainability of the dairy industry. Strategic management and employee satisfaction will be achieved through proper training in the employee’s language, typically Spanish. The training needs to address not only current industry standards but also social and cultural differences. An innovative training course was developed following the same structure used by the engineering and construction industries, giving farm workers basic understanding of animal care and handling, cow comfort and personal safety. The Dairy Tool Box Talks program was conducted over a ten week period with nine 30-minute sessions according to farm’s various employee work shifts. Bulk milk bacterial counts and somatic cell count were used to evaluate milk quality on the three dairy farms participating in the program.Dairy Tool Box Talks resulted in a general sense of employee satisfaction, significant learning outcomes, and enthusiasm about the topics covered. We conclude this article by highlighting the importance of educational programs aimed at improving overall cross-cultural training.

  10. Replacing cows' with sheep's dairy fat lowers plasma cholesterol concentration in participants consuming dairy fat-rich diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeaff, C M; Williscroft, K; Mann, J; Chisholm, A

    2004-02-01

    To determine the effects on plasma cholesterol concentration of replacing cows' dairy fat with sheep's dairy fat. Randomised crossover dietary intervention. General community, Dunedin, New Zealand. Volunteer sample of 41 healthy adults with initial plasma cholesterol concentration between 4.8 and 7.8 mmol/l. Participants were asked to follow a self-selected low-fat background diet throughout the study to which, during each of the 2, 3-week dairy diets, they were asked to add sheep's or cows' dairy products. Energy and nutrient intakes, plasma triacylglycerol fatty acids, and plasma cholesterol. Energy and nutrient intakes on the sheep-dairy and cow-dairy diets were very similar, with total, saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fat contributing 34, 18-19, 9, and 3% of total energy intake, respectively. Participants consumed approximately 50 g/day of dairy fat on each diet. Replacing cows' with sheep's dairy fat led to a 0.33 (0.11-0.56, 95% CI) mmol/l decrease (6%) in plasma total cholesterol concentration, from 5.53 (0.90, s.d.) to 5.20 (0.90) mmol/l. Plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol was 0.18 (0.02-0.33) mmol/l lower on the sheep-dairy diet as was the concentration of plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, 0.11 (0.02-0.20) mmol/l. The LDL to HDL cholesterol ratio at the end of the sheep-dairy diet, 2.91 (1.10), was not significantly different (P>0.05) from the cow-dairy diet, 2.73 (0.83). Within the context of a diet high in dairy fat (50 g/day), replacing cows' milk fat with sheep's milk fat leads to a small reduction in plasma cholesterol concentration, but no change in the ratio of LDL to HDL cholesterol.

  11. Dairy intensification, mothers and children: an exploration of infant and young child feeding practices among rural dairy farmers in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Amanda J; Yount, Kathryn M; Null, Clair; Ramakrishnan, Usha; Webb Girard, Aimee

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural strategies such as dairy intensification have potential to improve human nutrition through increased household food security. Increasing dairy productivity could also adversely affect infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices because of increased maternal stress, demands on maternal time, and beliefs about the timing and appropriate types of complementary foods. Yet, few studies have looked rigorously at how interventions can affect young children (0-60 months). The study explores, within the context of rural dairy farming in Kenya, the relationship between level of household dairy production and selected IYCF practices using a mixed-methods approach. Six focus group discussions with women involved in dairy farming investigated their attitudes towards breastfeeding, introduction of complementary foods and child diets. Ninety-two households involved in three levels of dairy production with at least one child 0-60 months participated in a household survey. Quantitative results indicated that women from higher dairy producing households were more likely to introduce cow's milk to infants before they reached 6 months than women from households not producing any dairy. Themes from the focus group discussions demonstrated that women were familiar with exclusive breastfeeding recommendations, but indicated a preference for mixed feeding of infants. Evidence from this study can inform nutrition education programmes targeted to farmers participating in dairy interventions in rural, low-income settings to minimise potential harm to the nutritional status of children. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Dairy Food at the First Occasion of Eating Is Important for Total Dairy Food Intake for Australian Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm D. Riley

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The cross-sectional 2007 Australian National Children’s Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey collected detailed dietary information from a representative sample of more than 4400 children by 24-h dietary recall. Dairy food intake by Australian children is substantially lower than recommendations, and decreases as a percentage of energy intake as children grow older. Children aged 2 to 16 years are, on average, 2.3 times more likely to have a dairy food at the first daily occasion of eating, than at the second occasion. For children who consumed any dairy food at the first occasion of eating, the total daily intake of dairy foods was 129% (95% CI 120%–138% greater than for children who did not consume a dairy food at the first occasion of eating. Their dairy food intake for the rest of the day following the first occasion of eating was also greater by 29% (95% CI 21%–37%. Younger age group, male sex, location of eating being at home or in a residence and starting the first occasion of eating from 6 a.m. to 9 a.m. are all jointly associated with having a dairy food at the first occasion of eating. A simple strategy to increase Australian children’s intake from the dairy and alternatives food group may be to make sure that the first occasion of eating each day includes a dairy food or a nutritional equivalent.

  13. Multiresidue screening of milk withheld for sale at dairy farms in central New York State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, R V; Siler, J D; Bicalho, R C; Warnick, L D

    2014-03-01

    Many of the drugs commonly used in lactating dairy cows result in residues in the milk, prohibiting its sale for human consumption. Milk withheld for sale because of drug treatment or from cows with high somatic cell counts is commonly called "waste milk." One-third of dairy farms in the United States use waste milk to feed preweaned dairy calves. Limited information is currently available on the effect of this practice on the selection and dissemination of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Pooled waste milk samples were collected from 34 dairy farms in central New York State with the objective of detecting the presence and quantity of drug residues in these samples. Samples were collected and refrigerated using ice packs and then stored at 4°C upon arrival at the Cornell laboratory (Ithaca, NY). Screening for β-lactam, tetracycline, and sulfonamide residues in the milk was performed using commercial enzyme-linked receptor-binding assay (SNAP) tests (Idexx Laboratories Inc., Westbrook, ME). Samples with a positive SNAP test were selected for screening using a multiresidue liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method. The SNAP tests revealed that 75, 14.3, and 7.1% of waste milk samples (n=34) contained β-lactam, tetracycline, and sulfamethazine residues, respectively. Of the samples sent for LC-MS/MS (n=28), half had detectable quantities of drug residues. The most prevalent drugs detected by LC-MS/MS were ceftiofur (39.2%; mean ± SE concentration=0.151 ± 0.042 μg/mL), penicillin G (14.2%; mean ± SE concentration=0.008 ± 0.001 µg/mL), and ampicillin (7.1%; mean ± SE concentration=0.472 ± 0.43 µg/mL). In addition, one sample had detectable concentrations of oxytetracycline and one sample had detectable concentrations of sulfadimethoxine. These results provide insight on drug residues present in waste milk from select farm in upstate New York, and additionally indicate the need for additional studies targeting on-farm treatments that

  14. Prevalence of paratuberculosis in the dairy goat and dairy sheep industries in Ontario, Canada

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauman, Cathy A.; Jones-Bitton, Andria; Menzies, Paula

    2016-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was undertaken (October 2010 to August 2011) to estimate the prevalence of paratuberculosis in the small ruminant dairy industries in Ontario, Canada. Blood and feces were sampled from 580 goats and 397 sheep (lactating and 2 y of age or older) that were randomly selected...

  15. Current status of practical applications: Probiotics in dairy cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The gastrointestinal microbial population of dairy cattle is dense and diverse, and can be utilized to reduce pathogenic bacterial populations as well as improve animal productivity and environmental impacts. Because of the nature of the dairy industry, probiotic products have been widely used to e...

  16. Assessment on Peri-Urban Dairy Production System and Evaluation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional survey and raw milk laboratory analysis were conducted with the objectives of determining peri-urban dairy production system and quality of cow's raw milk of Shambu, Fincha and Kombolcha towns of Horro Guduru Wollega zone. Ninty peri-urban householder dairy producers were selected randomly with ...

  17. Modelling of ammonia emissions from dairy cow houses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monteny, G.J.

    2000-01-01

    Dairy cow husbandry contributes to environmental acidification through the emission of ammonia. In-depth knowledge on the processes and variable factors that play a role in the emission of ammonia from dairy cow houses benefits the production of emission data, the development of low

  18. Sprouted barley for dairy cows: Is it worth it

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprouted grains have gained renewed interest among grazing dairy farmers in response to high grain prices, grain scarcity (in the organic dairy sector) and challenges in producing high-quality forages. This interest has been spurred by high-profile advertising by companies selling the systems, as we...

  19. Investment Analysis of Alternative Dairy Systems under MILC

    OpenAIRE

    Eberle, Phillip R.; Moody, Darren E.; Rendleman, C. Matthew; Peterson, William C.

    2005-01-01

    Three dairy systems, 120-cow grazing, 120-cow conventional, and 600-cow concentrated, were evaluated by internal rate of return (IRR) accounting for the Milk Income Loss Contract (MILC). With MILC, the grazing and conventional systems had higher IRRs. Without MILC, the 600-cow dairy had the highest IRR. Results were sensitive to assumptions.

  20. Coagulase-negative staphylococci mastitis in Dutch dairy herds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sampimon, O.C.

    2009-01-01

    Mastitis is one of the most important diseases in dairy cattle. Recently, the so-called minor pathogens, of which coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are the most important group of bacteria, has received more attention. This thesis focuses on the role of CNS in udder health of dairy cows. The

  1. Bridging gender gaps with dairy goats and root crops | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    4 mars 2014 ... dairy goats and root crops. Introducing dairy goats in semi-arid regions of Tanzania has led to farmers earning US$160 from milk sales during the first lactation, as well as an increase in household milk consumption. In these trials led by Canadian and Tanzanian researchers, cassava and sweet potato ...

  2. Productivity gains and greenhouse gas emissions intensity in dairy systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerber, P.; Vellinga, Th.V.; Opio, C.; Steinfeld, H.

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between productivity of dairy production and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions on a global scale. A Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology was used to assess GHG emissions from dairy production and processing chains. Milk yield expressed as kg fat and protein

  3. Strategies to reduce energy use in dairy milking facilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Upton, J.R.; Murphy, M.; Shalloo, L.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to assess how, and to what extent do managerial and technology changes affect electricity consumption, associated costs and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of dairy farms. The impact of future electricity price tariffs on dairy farm energy costs was quantified and the

  4. Factors influencing energy demand in dairy farming | Kraatz | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The efficiency of energy utilization is one of the key indicators for developing more sustainable agricultural practices. Factors influencing the energy demand in dairy farming are the cumulative energy demand for feed-supply, milk yield as well as the replacement rate of cows. The energy demand of dairy farming is ...

  5. Factors affecting reproductive performance of dairy cow in Algeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuoyo Aghomotsegin

    2017-01-11

    Jan 11, 2017 ... first artificial insemination (MG1; n = 62 dairy cows), cows presenting clinical mastitis between the first artificial insemination ... study clearly indicate that, clinical mastitis decreases reproductive performance of dairy cows. Key words: ... shift towards higher production per animal, inadequate nutrition, poor ...

  6. Dairy production in some selected integrated farms in Sokoto State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey of eight integrated farms in four local government areas of Sokoto state in north-western Nigeria revealed the following about dairy production on such farms:breed of cattle kept, Sokoto Gudali, Friesian, and Sahiwal; average dairy herd size,69.4 head; husbandry system was largely semi-intensive; milking was ...

  7. International Genetic Evaluations for Feed intake in Dairy Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berry, Dognah; Coffey, Mike; Pryce, Jennie E

    2013-01-01

    Feed represents a large proportion of the variable costs in dairy production systems. The omission of feed intake measures explicitly from national dairy cow breeding objectives is predominantly due to a lack of information on which to make selection decisions. Individual cow feed intake data...

  8. Therapeutic potential of dairy bioactive peptides: A contemporary perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Saira; Huma, Nuzhat; Butt, Masood Sadiq; Aleem, Muhammad; Abbas, Munawar

    2018-01-02

    Dairy products are associated with numerous health benefits. These are a good source of nutrients such as carbohydrates, protein (bioactive peptides), lipids, minerals, and vitamins, which are essential for growth, development, and maintenance of the human body. Accordingly, dairy bioactive peptides are one of the targeted compounds present in different dairy products. Dairy bioactive compounds can be classified as antihypertensive, anti-oxidative, immmunomodulant, anti-mutagenic, antimicrobial, opoid, anti-thrombotic, anti-obesity, and mineral-binding agents, depending upon biological functions. These bioactive peptides can easily be produced by enzymatic hydrolysis, and during fermentation and gastrointestinal digestion. For this reason, fermented dairy products, such as yogurt, cheese, and sour milk, are gaining popularity worldwide, and are considered excellent source of dairy peptides. Furthermore, fermented and non-fermented dairy products are associated with lower risks of hypertension, coagulopathy, stroke, and cancer insurgences. The current review article is an attempt to disseminate general information about dairy peptides and their health claims to scientists, allied stakeholders, and, certainly, readers.

  9. Micro-economic panel data models for Dutch dairy farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ooms, D.L.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords:micro-economic models, panel data, GMM, CAP reform, dairy farmingIn The Netherlands, thedairy sector is the largest agricultural sub-sector based on both gross production value and number of

  10. Effect of nutrition education and dairy group membership on nutrition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of nutrition education and dairy group membership on nutrition knowledge, practices and diet quality for rural Kenyan farm women. ... dairy development group were more food secure and had higher intake of certain micronutrients ... to improve intake of vitamin A, iron and zinc and was developed and delivered in

  11. Policies and Strategies for Eco-Friendly Dairy Product

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ziggers, G.W.; Conte, F.; Del Nobile, M.A.; Faccia, M.; Zambrini, A.V.; Conte, A.

    2017-01-01

    Despite the growing interest in, and market for, eco-friendly dairy production, a large-scale transition is not taking place. This is partly explained by the institutional context, since dairy production is organized in supply chains that generate interdependencies and, in turn, are subject to

  12. Bovine Mastitis in Dairy Cows in Mekele, Northern Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study was conducted from October 2007 to April 2008 on Holstein and Holstein-Zebu cross breds lactating dairy cows in and around Mekele to determine the prevalence, major risk factors and major bacterial pathogens of bovine mastitis in the study area. Simple random sampling of dairy herds, clinical ...

  13. European Union dairy policy reform: impact and challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongeneel, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    Recent Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) reforms have affected dairy policy, including the milk quota system, and increased the market orientation of the sector. A modelling exercise, using the European Dairy Industry Model (EDIM), simulates an initial sharp decline in the EU milk price in response

  14. Processing Challenges and Opportunities of Camel Dairy Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berhe, Tesfemariam; Seifu, Eyassu; Ipsen, Richard

    2017-01-01

    to bovine milk. Nonetheless, the relative composition, distribution, and the molecular structure of the milk components are reported to be different. Consequently, manufacturing of camel dairy products such as cheese, yoghurt, or butter using the same technology as for dairy products from bovine milk can...

  15. Stochastic Simulation Using @ Risk for Dairy Business Investment Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    A dynamic, stochastic, mechanistic simulation model of a dairy business was developed to evaluate the cost and benefit streams coinciding with technology investments. The model was constructed to embody the biological and economical complexities of a dairy farm system within a partial budgeting fram...

  16. Performance of Crossbred Dairy Cows Suitable for Smallholder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    of F1 crossbred cows to produce and develop improved dairy cattle breed at on station and back up the on farm ... Adequate information was generated through selection to maintain superior genotype for further ... The crossbred dairy technology was verified and demonstrated in the central highlands and was found to be.

  17. Tracking antibiotic resistance genes in soil irrigated with dairy wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    In southern Idaho, the application of dairy wastewater to agricultural soils is a widely used practice to irrigate crops and recycle nutrients. In this study, small-scale field plots were irrigated monthly (6 times) with dairy wastewater (100%), wastewater diluted to 50% with irrigation (canal) wate...

  18. Stochastic simulation using @Risk for dairy business investment decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bewley, J.D.; Boehlje, M.D.; Gray, A.W.; Hogeveen, H.; Kenyon, S.J.; Eicher, S.D.; Schutz, M.M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop a dynamic, stochastic, mechanistic simulation model of a dairy business to evaluate the cost and benefit streams coinciding with technology investments. The model was constructed to embody the biological and economical complexities of a dairy farm

  19. Biomarkers and mechanisms of natural disease resistance in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altena, van S.E.C.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to define and test biomarkers for disease resistance in dairy cows and to determine the underlying mechanism in natural disease resistance. The health status of the cows is an important issue in dairy farming. Due to the mandatory reduction in the use of antibiotics,

  20. Greenhouse gas emissions in milk and dairy product chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flysjö, Anna Maria

    Reducing greenhouse gas emissions from dairy products is one important step towards a more sustainable dairy sector. To ensure effective mitigation, reliable assessment methods are required. The present PhD thesis focuses on some of the most critical methodological aspects influencing the carbon...

  1. Energy metabolism of dairy cows fed on grass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinenberg, M.H.; Honing, Y. van der; Agnew, R.E.; Yan, T.; Vuuren, A.M. van; Valk, H.

    2002-01-01

    Production performance of grass-fed dairy cows is often lower than expected from the estimated energy supply. To explain the overestimation of the energy content of grass for dairy cows, data from energy balance trials from three different laboratories (Wageningen, Lelystad and Hillsborough) were

  2. Contribution of Dairy to Nutrient Intake in the Western Diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hettinga, Kasper; Valenberg, van Hein

    2017-01-01

    Milk and dairy products play an important role in providing nutrients in both Western and developing countries. Most research in this area focuses on the intake of individual nutrients from food products, like dairy products. However, nutrients are not consumed, and do not function, in isolation.

  3. Seroprevalence of Mycoplasma bovis infection in dairy cows in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seroprevalence of Mycoplasma bovis infection in dairy cows in subtropical southern China. ... Dairy cows with the history of 5 pregnancies had the highest seroprevalence (33.3%). However, no statistically significant association was found between M. bovis infection and age or number of pregnancies (p > 0.05). All the ...

  4. Prevalence of Mastitis and Effectiveness of Mastitis Control in Dairy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed prevalence of mastitis and effectiveness of mastitis control in dairy cattle in Mathira constituency. Data regarding occurrence of mastitis, farmers' current practices in mastitis control, and administering a questionnaire to 76 smallholder farmers collected their knowledge about dairy cow mastitis. Quarter ...

  5. Effect of Feeding Method on the Performance of Growing Dairy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Providing the ration as a Total Mixed Ration (TMR) is now common practice on most commercial dairy farms in the world for nearly all classes of animals. This practice decreases sorting of the individual ration components by dairy cattle. The objective of the experiment was to evaluate the effect of two feeding methods on ...

  6. Prevalence of mastitis in smallholder dairy cattle in Pemba island ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study was conducted from July to September 2010 to establish the prevalence of mastitis in smallholder dairy cattle in Pemba Island. The study also assessed factors contributing towards the increased occurrence of bovine mastitis in those dairy farms. Simple structured questionnaire survey, California ...

  7. Antagonism in the carbon footprint between beef and dairy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The higher increase in production (milk) of intensive dairy cows, compared to the increase in production (calf weight) of intensive beef cows, explains the antagonism in the carbon footprint between different beef and dairy production systems. Unfortunately, carbon sequestration estimates have been neglected and thus the ...

  8. degradable protein sources on performance of high-producing dairy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of protein nutrition by metabolizable protein and urea fermentation potential. J. Dairy Sci. 58, 611. CASPER, D.P. & SCHINGOETE, D.J., 1984. Evaluation of urea and dried whey in diets of cows during early lactation. J. Dairy Sci. 67 (Suppl. I) 120, (Abstr.). CASTLE, M.E. & WATSON, J.N., 1984. Silage and milk.

  9. Seroprevalence and associated risk factors of Brucellosis in dairy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bovine brucellosis is a contagious disease of cattle causing reproductive failure, loss of milk production and zoonosis worldwide. A cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted on 816 dairy cattle (449 were cows) from 60 dairy farms to determine the seroprevalence and associated risk factors of bovine brucellosis ...

  10. A necropsy-based descriptive study of dairy cow deaths on a Colorado dairy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnel, C S; Garry, F B; Lombard, J E; Kidd, J A; Hill, A E; Gould, D H

    2009-05-01

    Increasing levels of dairy cow mortality pose a challenge to the US dairy industry. The industry's current understanding of dairy cow mortality is reliant upon descriptions largely based on producer or veterinary assumptions regarding cause of death without the benefit of detailed postmortem evaluations. A thorough necropsy is a superior tool for establishing a cause of death, except for cases involving euthanasia for traumatic accidents or severe locomotor disorders. Information provided from a necropsy examination would be most valuable if it were categorized and combined with cow health information in a complete postmortem evaluation designed to guide future management decisions. The objective of this study was to describe dairy cow deaths on a Colorado dairy over a 1-yr period and explore classification systems for necropsy findings that might inform management actions aimed at reducing dairy cow mortality. Throughout the study period a thorough necropsy examination was performed on every cow that died. Based upon this examination each death was characterized by a proximate cause (i.e., the most likely immediate cause of the death). Each proximate cause of death was then categorized using 3 alternate schemes founded on generalized etiologic principles and influenced by previous clinical history and treatments. These schemes included the broad categories commonly used for classifying findings within a review of literature related to dairy cow mortality, a diagnostic scheme used within the problem-oriented veterinary medical record, and an analysis focusing on the primary physiologic system derangement for each death. A total of 2,067 cows were enrolled during the study period of which 1,468 cows freshened, 507 cows were sold, and 94 cows died, resulting in a mortality risk of 6.4 deaths per 100 lactations at risk. The distribution of deaths by parity was significantly different from the herd distribution at the end of study with the largest percentage of death

  11. Retrospective evaluation of health event data recording on 50 dairies using Dairy Comp 305.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenz, J R; Giebel, S K

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize health data recording in herds using Dairy Comp 305 (Valley Agricultural Software, Tulare, CA), focused on the most common diseases of dairy cattle: mastitis, uterine infection (metritis), and diseases causing lameness. Herds using Dairy Comp 305 were chosen for the study because it was the most commonly used program in the United States (35% of operations using computer records/60% of cows on operations using computer records), the authors were familiar with the program, and there was convenient access to herds using the program. Specific objectives were to (1) determine the percentage of herds recording mastitis, metritis, and diseases causing lameness and the number of user-defined events used to record those diseases, (2) identify the information recorded in the remarks about the event used for each disease, and (3) evaluate the consistency of health event remarks recorded. A convenience sample of 50 Dairy Comp 305 compressed cow files was obtained directly from dairies that the authors had contact with or files obtained from industry consultants. The 50 herds included in the study were from 9 different states: California (n=3), Colorado (n=2), Iowa (n=2), Idaho (n=8), Minnesota (n=2), New Mexico (n=9), Oregon (n=2), Texas (n=2), Utah (n=1), and Washington (n=19). The average number of milking cows of the herds was 3,053 (median=2,217), ranging from 310 to 12,490 cows. The majority of dairies in this study were recording health events associated with mastitis, metritis, and diseases causing lameness. However, as reported previously, most health records observed in the current study lacked the accuracy and consistency needed to be useful for evaluating and informing herd-level health management decisions. This situation likely reflects the intended use of those records by farm personnel and the user-defined nature of health records in the absence of accepted industry standards or recommendations for health data

  12. Factors Affecting SSR in Holstein Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Heravi Mosavi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Secondary sex ratio (SSR is the proportion of males to females at birth. It has been shown in many different mammalian species, many factors are associated with SSR. Changes in secondary sex ratio in dairy cows is considered economically important and the ability to change it could affect the revenues and profitability of a dairy farm. Thus, sperm or embryo sexing techniques in recent years has attracted more attention. Most breed of dairy cattle are more likely to have female calf is born to use them as replacement heifers and in order to maintain their productive herd number. On the contrary, when the goal is the production of meat, bull calves due to higher growth rates and production efficiency, are more convenient and more economically efficient. The aim of present study was to investigate some key factors affecting SSR in Iranian Holstein cows. According to Fisher, the sex ratio in the population under the control of natural selection is not always the same. There is overwhelming evidence to support the theory that shows Fisher Primary and secondary sex ratio sex ratio can deviate from this balance and natural selection caused a change in this ratio can be in certain circumstances. For example, the secondary sex ratio of 52:48 has been reported in dairy cows. Studies on mammalian species suggest that several factors, including latitude of the location, the dominant regional climate model, time and frequency of mating to ovulation, diet, age of parents, physical score, breed and produced eggs from ovarian left or right can have a significant effect on the secondary sex ratio. Weather conditions may modify the internal environment and the effect on physiological mechanisms or through the impact on the frequency and type of foods available to parents, the secondary sex ratio is impressive. The impact on the quantity and quality of parent's access to food sources in many species of mammals, the sex ratio has been fixed. Previous

  13. Evaluation of dairy effluent management options using multiple criteria analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajkowicz, Stefan A; Wheeler, Sarah A

    2008-04-01

    This article describes how options for managing dairy effluent on the Lower Murray River in South Australia were evaluated using multiple criteria analysis (MCA). Multiple criteria analysis is a framework for combining multiple environmental, social, and economic objectives in policy decisions. At the time of the study, dairy irrigation in the region was based on flood irrigation which involved returning effluent to the river. The returned water contained nutrients, salts, and microbial contaminants leading to environmental, human health, and tourism impacts. In this study MCA was used to evaluate 11 options against 6 criteria for managing dairy effluent problems. Of the 11 options, the MCA model selected partial rehabilitation of dairy paddocks with the conversion of remaining land to other agriculture. Soon after, the South Australian Government adopted this course of action and is now providing incentives for dairy farmers in the region to upgrade irrigation infrastructure and/or enter alternative industries.

  14. Ratio analysis specifics of the family dairies' financial statements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrović Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this paper is the evaluation of the financial analysis specifics of the dairy enterprises with a focus on the implementation of the ratio analysis of financial statements. The ratio analysis is a central part of financial analysis, since it is based on investigating the relationship between logically related items in the financial statements to assess the financial position of the observed enterprise and its earning capacity. Speaking about the reporting of financial performance in family dairies, the basis is created for displaying techniques of financial analysis, with a special indication on the specifics of their application in agricultural enterprises focusing on companies engaged in dairying. Applied in the paper is ratio analysis on the example of a dairy enterprise, i.e. a family dairy operating in Serbia. The ratio indicators are the basis for identifying relationships based on which by comparing the actual performance and certain business standards differences or variations are identified.

  15. How can veterinarians be interesting partners for organic dairy farmers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duval, J E; Bareille, N; Fourichon, C

    2017-01-01

    Organic dairy farmers must live up to the organic goal of 'good health' in respect the organic principles and regulation. Veterinarians could be the organic dairy farmers' expected sparring partners in reaching this goal but have found difficulties to establish advisory relationships with them....... The objectives of this study are -from organic dairy farmers' points of view- (i) to describe farmers' objectives and strategies regarding herd health, (ii) to describe private veterinarians' roles in farmers' animal health promotion strategies and (iii) to identify farmers' reasons for accepting veterinarians...... in an advisory role. Fourteen organic dairy farmers were interviewed using qualitative research interviews. Data collection and analysis was performed using a modified approach to Grounded Theory. Organic dairy farmers had animal health management strategies focusing on animal health promotion. Veterinarians had...

  16. Measures to improve dairy cow foot health: consequences for farmer income and dairy cow welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruijnis, M R N; Hogeveen, H; Stassen, E N

    2013-01-01

    Dairy farming in western countries with cubicle housing is an efficient way of dairy farming. Though, a disadvantage is the high prevalence and incidence of foot disorders (clinical and subclinical), which cause high economic losses and also seriously impair the welfare of dairy cattle. To point out the importance of reducing the amount and severity of foot disorders, advice to farmers should include information about the scale of the problem and the consequences in terms of economics and animal welfare. To provide support in making decisions on implementing intervention measures, insight into costs and benefits of different measures should be available. The objective of this study, therefore, is to provide more insight into the costs and benefits, for farmer and cow, of different intervention measures to improve dairy cow foot health. Intervention measures were modeled when they were applicable on a dairy farm with cubicle housing and when sufficient information was available in literature. Net costs were calculated as the difference between the costs of the measure and the economic benefits resulting from the measure. Welfare benefits were calculated as well. Cost-effective measures are: improving lying surface (mattress and bedding, €7 and €1/cow per year, respectively), reducing stocking density (break even) and performing additional foot trimming (€1/cow per year). Simultaneously, these measures have a relative high welfare benefit. Labor costs play an important role in the cost-effectiveness of labor-intensive measures. More insight into cost-effectiveness and welfare benefits of intervention measures can help to prioritize when choosing between intervention measures.

  17. Major advances in fundamental dairy cattle nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drackley, J K; Donkin, S S; Reynolds, C K

    2006-04-01

    Fundamental nutrition seeks to describe the complex biochemical reactions involved in assimilation and processing of nutrients by various tissues and organs, and to quantify nutrient movement (flux) through those processes. Over the last 25 yr, considerable progress has been made in increasing our understanding of metabolism in dairy cattle. Major advances have been made at all levels of biological organization, including the whole animal, organ systems, tissues, cells, and molecules. At the whole-animal level, progress has been made in delineating metabolism during late pregnancy and the transition to lactation, as well as in whole-body use of energy-yielding substrates and amino acids for growth in young calves. An explosion of research using multicatheterization techniques has led to better quantitative descriptions of nutrient use by tissues of the portal-drained viscera (digestive tract, pancreas, and associated adipose tissues) and liver. Isolated tissue preparations have provided important information on the interrelationships among glucose, fatty acid, and amino acid metabolism in liver, adipose tissue, and mammary gland, as well as the regulation of these pathways during different physiological states. Finally, the last 25 yr has witnessed the birth of "molecular biology" approaches to understanding fundamental nutrition. Although measurements of mRNA abundance for proteins of interest already have provided new insights into regulation of metabolism, the next 25 yr will likely see remarkable advances as these techniques continue to be applied to problems of dairy cattle biology. Integration of the "omics" technologies (functional genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics) with measurements of tissue metabolism obtained by other methods is a particularly exciting prospect for the future. The result should be improved animal health and well being, more efficient dairy production, and better models to predict nutritional requirements and provide rations to meet

  18. Feeding toasted field beans to dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Jørgensen, K.F.; Kjeldsen, A.M.; Askegaard, M.

    2013-01-01

    Toasting field beans can improve the protein quality of field beans markedly. In the feed demonstrations carried out in Project EcoProtein testing a new method of toasting with a drum dryer, showed, however, only reduced effect on the protein quality due to a lower than optimal temperature. The toasted field beans were fed in two organic dairy herds, replacing a part of the concentrates in the ration in a cross-over design. Preliminary results showed no milk yield difference in herd 1, but a ...

  19. Major advances in applied dairy cattle nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastridge, M L

    2006-04-01

    Milk yield per cow continues to increase with a slower rate of increase in dry matter intake; thus, efficiency of ruminal fermentation and digestibility of the dietary components are key factors in improving the efficiency of feed use. Over the past 25 yr, at least 2,567 articles relating to ruminant or dairy nutrition have been published in the Journal of Dairy Science. These studies have provided important advancements in improving feed efficiency and animal health by improving quality of feeds, increasing feedstuff and overall diet digestibility, better defining interactions among feedstuffs in diets, identifying alternative feed ingredients, better defining nutrient requirements, and improving efficiency of ruminal fermentation. The publications are vital in continuing to make advancements in providing adequate nutrition to dairy cattle and for facilitating exchange of knowledge among scientists. Forages have been studied more extensively than any other type of feed. Cereal grains continue to be the primary contributors of starch to diets, and thus are very important in meeting the energy needs of dairy cattle. Processing of cereal grains has improved their use. Feeding by-products contributes valuable nutrients to diets and allows feedstuffs to be used that would otherwise be handled as wastes in landfills. Many of these by-products provide a considerable amount of protein, nonforage fiber, fat, and minerals (sometimes a detriment as in the case of P) to diets. The primary feeding system today is the total mixed ration, with still considerable use of the pasture system. Major improvements have occurred in the use of protein, carbohydrates, and fats in diets. Although advancements have been made in feeding practices to minimize the risk of metabolic diseases, the periparturient period continues to present some of the greatest challenges in animal health. Computers are a must today for diet formulation and evaluation, but fewer software programs are developed by

  20. A 100-Year Review: Metabolic modifiers in dairy cattle nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuffey, R K

    2017-12-01

    The first issue of the Journal of Dairy Science in 1917 opened with the text of the speech by Raymond A. Pearson, president of the Iowa State College of Agriculture, at the dedication of the new dairy building at the University of Nebraska (J. Dairy Sci. 1:4-18, 1917). Fittingly, this was the birth of a new research facility and more importantly, the beginning of a new journal devoted to the sciences of milk production and manufacture of products from milk. Metabolic modifiers of dairy cow metabolism enhance, change, or interfere with normal metabolic processes in the ruminant digestive tract or alter postabsorption partitioning of nutrients among body tissues. Papers on metabolic modifiers became more frequent in the journal around 1950. Dairy farming changed radically between 1955 and 1965. Changes in housing and feeding moved more cows outside, and cows and heifers in all stages of lactation, including the dry period, were fed as a single group. Rations became wetter with the shift to corn silage as the major forage in many rations. Liberal grain feeding met the requirements of high-producing cows and increased production per cow but introduced new challenges; for example, managing and feeding cows as a group. These changes led to the introduction of new strategies that identified and expanded the use of metabolic modifiers. Research was directed at characterizing the new problems for the dairy cow created by group feeding. Metabolic modifiers went beyond feeding the cow and included environmental and housing factors and additives to reduce the incidence and severity of many new conditions and pathologies. New collaborations began among dairy cattle specialties that broadened our understanding of the workings of the cow. The Journal of Dairy Science then and now plays an enormously important role in dissemination of the findings of dairy scientists worldwide that address existing and new technologies. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association

  1. 76 FR 26930 - Dairy Promotion and Research Program; Importer Nominations to the Dairy Promotion and Research Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1150 [Document No. DA-11-03: AMS-DA-08-0050] Dairy Promotion and Research Program; Importer Nominations to the Dairy Promotion and Research Board AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Rule. SUMMARY: This action is pursuant...

  2. Liquid Workplaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofma, Christian Casper; Avital, Michel; Jensen, Tina Blegind

    2017-01-01

    Recently, virtual realities or immersive virtual environments (IVEs) has gained increasing attention. Yet, IS-researchers have paid little attention to the implications of IVEs in a work context. The objective of this paper is thus to understand how the use of IVEs may impact our workplace, and how...... we feel present in them. Theoretically, we build on Bauman’s concept of liquid modernity and the concepts of point-of-view and presence. We substantiate our literature review by analysing newspaper articles. Based on these insights, we argue that because work is performed in more fragmented...... workplaces we are going from a more collective to individual feeling of presence in the workplace. The first contribution is to close the knowledge gap that exists in the academic literature on IVEs in a work context. Second, practitioners will have a better understanding of the changes IVEs have...

  3. Dairy product intake in relation to glucose regulation indices and risk of type 2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struijk, E.A.; Heraclides, A.; Witte, D.R.; Soedamah-Muthu, S.S.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Toft, U.; Lau, C.J.

    2013-01-01

    Background and aim A high intake of dairy has been linked to lower risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). The relationship between dairy intake and glucose metabolism is still not well understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between the intake of total dairy and dairy subgroups and

  4. 76 FR 80214 - National Dairy Promotion and Research Program; Amendments to the Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ... National Dairy Promotion and Research Board (Dairy Board) members in eight regions, merges Region 8 and Region 10, merges Region 12 and Region 13, and apportions Idaho as a separate region. The total number of... National Dairy Promotion and Research Board (Dairy Board) members in eight regions, merges Region 8 and...

  5. The Liquid State

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    description of the structure and the dynamics of liquids, the arrangement and motion of the atoms. Structure of Liquids from X-ray Diffraction. By 1912, X-ray diffraction ... consider a monatomic liquid, say liquid xenon. Around any given atom in the liquid, we may draw a spherical shell of radius rand width dr. The number of ...

  6. Greenhouse gas emissions in milk and dairy product chains: Improving the carbon footprint of dairy products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flysjoe, A.M.

    2012-11-01

    The present PhD project has focused on some of the most critical methodological aspects influencing GHG emission estimates of milk and dairy products and how the methodology can be improved. In addition, the Carbon Footprint (CF) for different types of dairy products has been analysed. Based on these results, mitigation options have been identified along the entire dairy value chain. The key methodological challenges analysed in the present study are: estimation of CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emissions, assessment of CO{sub 2} emissions from land use change (LUC), co-product handling, and definition of the functional unit. Estimates of the biogenic emissions CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O are associated with large uncertainties due to the complexity and natural variation in biological processes. Accounting for these variations resulted in a {+-}30-50% variation in the CF for milk in Sweden and New Zealand (excluding emissions from LUC). The inclusion of emissions from LUC can drastically affect the CF of dairy products, and different models can even provide contradictory results. Thus, it is suggested that emissions associated with LUC are reported separately and that underlying assumptions are clearly explained. Accounting for the by-product beef is decisive for the CF of milk, and when designing future strategies for the dairy sector, milk and meat production needs to be addressed in an integrated approach. It is shown that an increase in milk yield per cow does not necessarily result in a lower CF of milk, when taking into account the alternative production of the by-product beef. This demonstrates that it is important to investigate interactions between different product chains, i.e. to apply system thinking. The CF of dairy products from Arla Foods analysed in the present study range from: 1.2-5.5 kg CO{sub 2}e per kg fresh dairy products, 7.3-10.9 kg CO{sub 2}e per kg butter and butter blends, 4.5-9.9 kg CO{sub 2}e per kg cheese, and 1.0-17.4 kg CO{sub 2}e per kg milk

  7. Impacts of the Doha Round framework agreements on dairy policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, N; Kaiser, H M

    2005-05-01

    Dairy is highly regulated in many countries for several reasons. Perishability, seasonal imbalances, and inelastic supply and demand for milk can cause inherent market instability. Milk buyers typically have had more market power than dairy farmers. Comparative production advantages in some countries have led to regulations and policies to protect local dairy farmers by maintaining domestic prices higher than world prices. A worldwide consensus on reduction of border measures for protecting dairy products is unlikely, and dairy will probably be an exception in ongoing World Trade Organization (WTO) negotiations. Under the Doha Round framework agreements, countries may name some products such as dairy as "sensitive," thereby excluding them from further reforms. However, new Doha Round framework agreements depart from the current WTO rule and call for product-specific spending caps. Such caps will greatly affect the dairy sector because dairy accounts for much of the aggregate measure of support (AMS) in several countries, including the United States and Canada. Also, the amounts of dairy AMS in several countries may be recalculated relative to an international reference price. In addition, all export subsidies are targeted for elimination in the Doha Round, including export credit programs and state trading enterprises, which will limit options for disposing of surplus dairy products in foreign markets. Currently, with higher domestic prices, measures for cutting or disposing of surpluses have been used in many countries. Supply control, which is not regulated by WTO rules, remains as an option. Although explicit export subsidies are restricted by WTO rules, many countries use esoteric measures to promote dairy exports. If countries agree to eliminate "consumer financed" export subsidies using a theoretical definition and measurements proposed herein as Export Subsidy Equivalents (ESE), dairy exports in many countries may be affected. Although domestic supports and

  8. Development of smallholder dairy units in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan Hassan, W E; Phipps, R H; Owen, E

    1989-08-01

    In experiments conducted over a four-year period the effect of pasture type (Setaria sphacelata and a Brachiaria decumbens/Leucaena leucocephala mixture), management system (rotational grazing and cut and carry) and level of concentrate supplement (0, 4 and 6 kg fresh weight/cow per day) on milk production in smallholder dairy units was examined. All units were 1 ha in size and stocked with five Sahiwal X Friesian cows. Milk yields/ha were higher from rotational grazing and the brachiaria/leucaena pasture when compared with the cut and carry system and the setaria pasture respectively. In subsequent experiments smallholder units were based on brachiaria/leucaena and rotational grazing. A supplement of 4 kg fresh weight of concentrate (11 MJ/kg DM and 150 g/kg DM CP) increased milk yield/ha from 7,760 to 13,045 kg while in a third trial milk yield/ha was further increased from 14,148 to 16,760 kg when concentrate level was raised from 4 to 6 kg fresh weight/day. The results indicate that smallholder dairy units in Malaysia could be economically viable and competitive with other agricultural enterprises such as rubber and oil palm.

  9. Dairy Chains: Consumer Foodways and Agricultural Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adele Wessell

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Food is significant as an agent of social change as well as being the subject of activism. The focus of this paper is on nature’s “perfect food”, milk, in the 1950s, a period of social transition that offers fertile space for reconstructing food activism and giving it a history. Australia’s dairy industry is the country’s largest processed food industry and the fourth largest of the nation’s rural industries. Milk is a fruitful site to consider the relationship between people and their food, production and consumption, the intimate way we bring our food into our bodies and the experience of farmers with personal connections to the ecosystems in which they live. Dense networks connect farm producers and consumers. The dairy industry will be considered as a site of production and consumption where considerable political activity was concentrated in the 1950s. These themes are illuminated in the paper by briefly considering two groups of women caught up in very different family labour systems defined by their relationship to milk – housewives active in the state associations campaigning around milk prices and quality and farm women. The transformation of rural life, home and food culture during this period impacted on both groups of women, it was from their work that they expressed a position and identified, and both engaged in complex processes of negotiation that, I argue, have generated and sustained other movements.

  10. [Dairy products as source of folates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalska, Marika; Cichosz, Grazyna

    2014-04-01

    Dairy products, especially yoghurts and blue cheeses, are underestimated source of folates in human diet. Though foliates content in dairy products is lower than in vegetables and cereals, nevertheless their bioavailability and stability is much better. High folate stability results from presence of hydro- and lipophylic antioxidants efficiently protecting folates and other bioactive compounds against oxidation processes on synergic way. On the other hand, high bioavailability is a consequence of folic appearing in milk mainly in form of mono glutamates and also of a presence of a protein ready to bind folates (FBP--folic binding protein). FBP makes easier folates transport through cell membranes. Moreover, present in milk sphingolipids and cholesterol stimulate activity of FBP. Mould cheeses and milk fermented beverages contain the highest amount of folates. However, cottage cheese contain considerable amount of folic binding protein. Regular consumption of milk fermented beverages and eating them together with vegetables and fruits rich in folates is a chance to increase covering of folic demand.

  11. Metabolism of americium-241 in dairy animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton, W.W.; Patzer, R.G.; Mullen, A.A.; Hahn, P.B.; Potter, G.D.

    1978-10-01

    Groups of lactating cows and goats were used to examine americium-241 metabolism in dairy animals. Following either single oral or intravenous nuclide doses, samples of milk, urine, blood, and feces were taken over a 168-hr collection period and the americium concentrations were determined by gamma counting. Gastrointestinal uptake of americium by both cows and goats was estimated to be 0.014% of the respective oral doses. The cumulative percentage of oral dose transported to milk and urine was 4.4 x 10 -4 and 1.1 x 10 -3 respectively for cows and 4.4 x 10 -3 and 1.2 x 10 -3 respectively for goats. The relatively high americium concentrations noted in caprine milk following the oral doses are discussed. Plasma concentrations of americium decreased rapidly following all intravenous injections. The average percentage of injected americium transferred to milk, urine, and feces was 3, 6, and 2% respectively for cows and 2, 4, and 2% respectively for goats. In both intravenously dosed groups, approximately 30% of all americium released from the body was found in the urine during the first 24 hrs after injection. All animals were sacrificed 8 to 9 days after dosing. Bovine bone retained the greatest fraction of the administered dose followed by the liver. However, liver retained the greatest amount of americium in the goats following both oral and intravenous doses. Comparisons are presented between americium-241 and plutonium-238 transport in dairy cows

  12. Liquid chromatographic determination of aflatoxin M1 in milk powder using immunoaffinity columns for cleanup : interlaboratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuinstra, L G; Roos, A H; van Trijp, J M

    1993-01-01

    A liquid chromatographic method for determining low aflatoxin M1 concentrations in milk was evaluated in an International Dairy Federation (IDF) interlaboratory study. The study involved 16 participants from 11 countries. The method, chosen after a comparison of several methods by a preparatory

  13. Characterisation of dairy soiled water in a survey of 60 Irish dairy farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minogue D.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dairy farming in Ireland generates an effluent known as dairy soiled water (DSW, which consists of a relatively dilute mixture of cow faeces, urine, spilt milk and detergents that is typically applied to grassland. However, relatively little is known about the volumes generated, nutrient content and management factors that influence volume and concentration. Sixty dairy farms that had a separate storage tank for storing DSW were selected for this study. The spatial distribution of the farms reflected the spatial distribution of dairy cows across the 26 counties of the Republic of Ireland, with each farm representing between 10,000 and 20,000 dairy cows. Samples were analysed for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD, ammonium N (NH4-N, total nitrogen (TN, potassium (K, phosphorus (molybdate-reactive and total (MRP and TP and dry matter (DM content. Management characteristics and parlour properties were quantified. Factors influencing volume and concentration of DSW were determined using mixed model multiple regression analysis. On average, 9784 l (standard error 209 l of DSW, including rainfall, was produced cow−1 year−1 and this contained significant quantities of total N, P and K (587, 80 and 568 mg l−1, respectively. A typical Irish dairy farm stocked at 1.9 cows ha−1 could therefore supply approximately 13, 2 and 12 kg ha−1 of total N, P and K, respectively, across the farm, annually to meet some of the nutrient requirements for herbage production and potentially replace some of the synthetic fertilizer use. Seventy one percent of samples were within the regulated concentration limits of soiled water for BOD (<2500 mg l−1, rising to 87% during the closed period for slurry spreading (mid October to mid-late January, while 81% were within the concentration limits for DM (<1% DM, rising to 94% during the closed period. The efficiency of a milking parlour (cows per unit, time taken plays a key role in determining the volume of DSW generated

  14. Measurement and modeling of atmospheric flux of ammonia from dairy milking cow housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumburg, Brian; Mount, George H.; Filipy, Jenny; Lamb, Brian; Westberg, Hal; Yonge, David; Kincaid, Ron; Johnson, Kristen

    Atmospheric ammonia (NH3) measurements are needed to better understand the impacts of NH3 emissions on aerosol formation and concentrations and anthropogenic changes to the N cycle. This paper describes concentration measurements of NH3 using differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS), tracer ratio flux experiments, and development of a NH3 emissions model from a dairy milking cow free stall house with concrete floors. An area source tracer gas ratio method was used to determine NH3 fluxes which involved releasing SF6 as the tracer gas from the upwind edge of the stalls and measuring the tracer concentration downwind along with the DOAS NH3 measurements. The flux is calculated from the ratio of the NH3 and SF6 concentrations and the SF6 release rate and taking into account the differences in area and dispersion. The measured stall flux for the summers averaged 29±19gNH3cow-1h-1 at an average temperature of 18±5C. The emissions model calculated liquid NH3 concentrations in urine puddles, NH3 volatilization, theoretical and empirical mass transfer to the bulk atmosphere, and NH3 transport. The predicted concentrations were within ±30% using an empirical mass transfer coefficient and within ±41% using a theoretical mass transfer coefficient. Total annual NH3 emissions for the dairy of 185 milking cows was 7400 kg or 40kgNH3cow-1year-1, estimated total N excretions are 180kgcow-1year-1. This agrees with a N mass balance of the dairy. The model was very sensitive to urine puddle pH and also showed that emissions are temperature dependent.

  15. Recovery of Mollicutes from the reproductive tract of dairy cattle in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra B. Santos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The aim of the present study was to report the occurrence of members of the Mollicutesclass in the reproductive system of dairy cattle in Brazil. Five farms containing dairy cattle were visited in January of 2012. In total, 100 cows of different ages, breeds and stages of lactation were examined in the present study. The cows were part of intensive or semi-intensive management systems and were submitted to mechanical milking or hand milking. The samples were collected after washing the vulvar region with water and soap, and then drying it with paper towels and disinfecting the area with alcohol (70°GL. Vaginal mucous was collected using a sterile alginate cotton swab, which was rubbed on the vagina, as well as the lateral and internal walls. Vulvovaginal mucous samples were cultured in both liquid and solid modified Hayflick´s medium, for mycoplasmas, and UB medium, for ureaplasmas. The PCR assays for Mollicutesand Ureaplasmaspp. were performed according to the standard protocols described in the current literature. During isolation, the frequency of Mycoplasmaspp. was of 13.0% (13/100 and for Ureaplasmaspp. was of 6.0% (6/100. In the PCR assays the frequency of Mollicuteswas of 26.0% (26/100 and for Ureaplasmaspp. was of 13.0% (13/100 in the dairy cattle studied. This is the first report of these agents in reproductive system of bovine of the Pernambuco state. Further studies are necessary to determine the pathogenic potential and species of these field isolates.

  16. Liquid Crystal Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Madeline J.

    1983-01-01

    The nature of liquid crystals and several important liquid crystal devices are described. Ideas for practical experiments to illustrate the properties of liquid crystals and their operation in devices are also described. (Author/JN)

  17. Liquid Crystal Inquiries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marroum, Renata-Maria

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the properties and classification of liquid crystals. Presents a simple experiment that illustrates the structure of liquid crystals and the differences between the various phases liquid crystals can assume. (JRH)

  18. The Dairy Sectors of New Zealand and Australia: A Regional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Armentano, Louis E.; Dobson, William D.; Jesse, Edward V.; Olson, Norman F.

    2004-01-01

    New Zealand and Australia comprise the largest dairy exporting block in world markets and the dairy industries of both countries have geared up in recent years to expand production of dairy products. The report synthesizes observations and insights from a site visit by the authors in February 2004 that involved extensive interviews with dairy industry leaders, academics and government officials in New Zealand and Australia. The focus is on the nature of competitive challenges to U.S. dairy fa...

  19. Dairy farmer use of price risk management tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, C A

    2012-07-01

    Volatility in milk and feed prices can adversely affect dairy farm profitability. Many risk management tools are available for use by US dairy farmers. This research uses surveys of Michigan dairy farmers to examine the extent to which price risk management tools have been used, the farm and operator characteristics that explain the use of these tools, and reasons farmers have not used these tools. A 1999 survey was used to benchmark the degree to which dairy producers had used milk and feed price risk management instruments to compare with 2011 use rates. The surveys collected information about the farm characteristics such as herd size, farmland operated, business organization, and solvency position. Farm operator characteristics collected include age, education, and experience. Dairy farmer use of both milk and feed price risk management tools increased between 1999 and 2011. In 2011, herd size was positively related to the use of milk price risk management tools, whereas farms organized as a sole proprietorship were less likely to use them. Also in 2011, herd size and land operated were positively related to feed price risk management tools, whereas operator age was negatively related. Reasons why farmers had not used price risk management tools included basis risk, cost, lack of management time, cooperative membership, and lack of understanding. Conclusions include the need for educational programming on price risk management tools and a broader exploration of dairy farm risk management programs. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. REDISTRIBUTOR FOR LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION COLUMNS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, J.G.

    1957-10-29

    An improved baffle plate construction to intimately mix immiscible liquid solvents for solvent extraction processes in a liquid-liquid pulse column is described. To prevent the light and heavy liquids from forming separate continuous homogeneous vertical channels through sections of the column, a baffle having radially placed rectangular louvers with deflection plates opening upon alternate sides of the baffle is placed in the column, normal to the axis. This improvement substantially completely reduces strippiig losses due to poor mixing.

  1. Exploring the Temporality of Food Organizations in Liquid Modernity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernes, Tor; Schmidt, Jonathan; Schultz, Majken

    The contribution of our paper is to show how food organizations strive to enact coherent temporalities in the face of what Bauman describes as “liquid modernity”. Liquid modernity offers the possibility to explore temporal spans that range from the instantaneous to the distant past and future....... Because food organizations are challenged to enact their time between natural time and human time while abiding by the constraints of industry, liquid modernity challenges their ability to enact multiple and sometimes contrasting temporalities. Drawing on data from a brewery and a dairy corporation, our...... study illustrates how their time enactment takes place along three dimensions. First, through what we call “malleable time”, including the contraction and dilation of time horizons. Second, through what we call “projective time”, signifying the outward enactment of time onto others. Third, through what...

  2. Euthanasia of Danish dairy cows evaluated in two questionnaire surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Peter; Sørensen, Jan Tind

    2008-01-01

    a random sample of 196 Danish dairy farmers that had reported a dead cow to the Danish Cattle Database in 2002 and 196 dairy farmers that had reported a dead cow in 2006. Our objectives were to evaluate the proportion of euthanized cows, changes in the behaviour of farmers regarding euthanasia of cows over...... the years and possible reasons for these changes. Results It seems that the threshold for euthanasia of cows among farmers has changed. Farmers generally reported a lower threshold for euthanasia compared to 5-10 years ago. Conclusions The threshold for euthanasia of cows has, according to the dairy farmers...

  3. Ensuring Resiliency of the Milk and Dairy Industry in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Fresno County at creamery1. The overall shortage with five attacks is 1,800,000,000 lbs and the shortage specifically felt in California is 92,000,000...County at the dairy farm . The overall shortage with ten counties is 2,772,000,000 lbs and the shortage felts in California is 992,000,000 lbs. The...hauling capacity node for level two milk, Del Norte County at the dairy farm , Fresno County at creamery1, Glenn County at the dairy farm , Humboldt

  4. Propanol in maize silage at Danish dairy farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raun, Birgitte Marie Løvendahl; Kristensen, Niels Bastian

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the prevalence maize silage containing propanol, the seasonal variation in propanol content of maize silage, and correlations between propanol and other fermentation products in maize silage collected from 20 randomly selected Danish dairy farms...... farms, the maize silage had ≥5 g propanol/kg DM. The present study indicates that dairy cows in Denmark are commonly exposed to propanol and that approximately 20% of the dairy cows will have an intake in the range of 75-100 g propanol/d under common feeding conditions....

  5. Microparticulated whey proteins for improving dairy product texture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ipsen, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Use of microparticulated whey protein (MWP) was patented in 1988; since then much research has been conducted on use of MWP. This review provides an overview of the use and functionality of MWP in dairy applications and discusses how MWP interacts with other components in dairy matrices...... weakening. Future research should focus on how raw material composition and processing affect the properties of MWP, on the role of particle characteristics on interactions with other dairy product components, and on how to develop particulated ingredients suitable for high protein products and further...

  6. Dairy Intake, Dietary Adequacy, and Lactose Intolerance12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaney, Robert P.

    2013-01-01

    Despite repeated emphasis in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans on the importance of calcium in the adult American diet and the recommendation to consume 3 dairy servings a day, dairy intake remains well below recommendations. Insufficient health professional awareness of the benefits of calcium and concern for lactose intolerance are among several possible reasons, This mini-review highlights both the role of calcium (and of dairy, its principal source in modern diets) in health maintenance and reviews the means for overcoming lactose intolerance (real or perceived). PMID:23493531

  7. Epidemiology and impact of Fasciola hepatica exposure in high-yielding dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Alison; Baylis, Matthew; Smith, Rob; Pinchbeck, Gina; Williams, Diana

    2015-09-01

    The liver fluke Fasciola hepatica is a trematode parasite with a worldwide distribution and is the cause of important production losses in the dairy industry. The aim of this observational study was to assess the prevalence of exposure to F. hepatica in a group of high yielding dairy herds, to determine the risk factors and investigate their associations with production and fertility parameters. Bulk milk tank samples from 606 herds that supply a single retailer with liquid milk were tested with an antibody ELISA for F. hepatica. Multivariable linear regression was used to investigate the effect of farm management and environmental risk factors on F. hepatica exposure. Higher rainfall, grazing boggy pasture, presence of beef cattle on farm, access to a stream or pond and smaller herd size were associated with an increased risk of exposure. Univariable regression was used to look for associations between fluke exposure and production-related variables including milk yield, composition, somatic cell count and calving index. Although causation cannot be assumed, a significant (phepatica exposure and estimated milk yield at the herd level, representing a 15% decrease in yield for an increase in F. hepatica exposure from the 25th to the 75th percentile. This remained significant when fertility, farm management and environmental factors were controlled for. No associations were found between F. hepatica exposure and any of the other production, disease or fertility variables. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Evolution of composition of dairy manure supernatant in a controlled dung pit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, C; García, H; Rico, J L; Fernández, J; Renedo, J

    2009-12-01

    Anaerobic conversion of dairy manure into biogas is an attractive way of managing this waste. It is well known that the hydrolysis of large molecules into small, directly biodegradable ones is the rate limiting step of the overall anaerobic process. The present work studies the development of the hydrolytic and acidogenic stages of dairy manure with different solid concentrations (40, 60 and 80 g VS/L) at ambient temperature (20 degrees C). The purpose was to determine the operational conditions that provide a liquid fraction with a high soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD) and a high volatile fatty acids (VFA) content in manure before the methanogenic stage starts up. At 20 degrees C, the evolution of the studied parameters showed that, in a controlled plug-flow dung pit, the hydrolytic and acidogenic stages progressed moderately in a continuous way during the 25 days that the experimentation lasted, whereas no methanization was observed. Supernatant COD and VFA concentrations increased 30% and 107%, respectively, for the 60 g VS/L samples. Manure was also operated at 35 degrees C with a similar increase in supernatant COD but a higher increase in VFA, 154%. For both operational temperatures, the predominant VFAs were, in this order, acetic, propionic and butyric acids. During the operation at 35 degrees C, the methanogenic stage started between days 20 and 25 for the samples with lower solids content, i.e. 40 and 60 g VS/L.

  9. Alterations in milk metabolome and coagulation ability during the lactation of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harzia, H; Ilves, A; Ots, M; Henno, M; Jõudu, I; Kaart, T; Ling, K; Kärt, O; Kilk, K; Soomets, U

    2013-10-01

    Milk composition has been known to change during lactation. To help understand the changes in metabolic profile throughout the whole lactation, liquid chromatography mass-spectrometry was used to analyze 306 milk samples from 82 primi- and multiparous dairy cows. Changes in metabolic profile common to all cows throughout lactation were ascertained based on principal component and general linear model analysis. Sets of specific markers; for instance, 225, 397, and 641-642 m/z (positive mode), and 186, 241, and 601-604 (negative mode), with at least a 1.5-fold higher intensity during the first 60 d compared with the last 60 d of lactation were observed. The metabolome was affected by parity and milking time. Markers, identified as peptides differentiating parity, were observed. A significant increase for citrate was observed in evening milk. Milk coagulation traits were strongly animal specific. The curd firmness values were influenced by milking time. Sets of markers were associated with curd firmness in positive (197 m/z) and negative (612, 737, 835, 836, 902, 1000, 1038, and 1079 m/z) ion mode. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Preliminary study of acrylamide monomer decomposition during methane fermentation of dairy waste sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mroczek, Ewelina; Konieczny, Piotr; Lewicki, Andrzej; Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka; Dach, Jacek

    2016-07-01

    Polyacrylamide (PAM) used in sludge dewatering exists widely in high-solid anaerobic digestion. Acrylamide is registered in the list of chemicals demonstrating toxic, carcinogenic and mutagenic properties. Therefore, it is reasonable to ask about the mobility of such residual substances in the environment. The study was carried out to assess the impact of the mesophilic (39±1°C) and thermophilic (54±1°C) fermentation process on the level of acrylamide monomer (AMD) content in the dairy sludge. The material was analysed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for quantification of AMD. The results indicate that the process of methane fermentation continues regardless of the temperature effects on the degradation of AMD in dairy sludge. The degree of reduction of acrylamide monomer for thermophilic fermentation is 100%, while for mesophilic fermentation it is 91%. In practice, this means that biogas technology eliminates the risk of AMD migration to plant tissue. Moreover, it should be stressed that 90% of cumulative biogas and methane production was reached one week earlier under thermophilic conditions - the dynamics of the methanisation process were over 20% faster. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Prevalence of brucellosis in dairy cattle from the main dairy farming regions of Eritrea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Scacchia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to get a reliable estimate of brucellosis prevalence in Eritrean dairy cattle, a cross-sectional study was carried out in 2009. The survey considered the sub-population of dairy cattle reared in modern small- and medium-sized farms. Samples were screened with the Rose Bengal test (RBT and positive cases were confirmed with the complement fixation test (CFT. A total of 2.77%(417/15 049; Credibility Interval CI: 2.52% – 3.05% of the animals tested in this study were positive for antibodies to Brucellaspecies, with a variable and generally low distribution of positive animals at regional level. The highest seroprevalence was found in the Maekel region (5.15%; CI: 4.58% – 5.80%, followed by the Debub (1.99%; CI: 1.59% – 2.50% and Gash-Barka (1.71%; CI: 1.34% – 2.20% regions. Seroprevalence at sub-regional levels was also generally low, except for two sub-regions of Debub and the sub-region Haicota from the Gash-Barka region. Seroprevalence was high and more uniformly distributed in the Maekel region, namely in the Asmara, Berik and Serejeka sub-regions. Considering the overall low brucellosis prevalence in the country, as identified by the present study, a brucellosis eradication programme for dairy farms using a test-and-slaughter policy would be possible. However, to encourage the voluntary participation of farmers to the programme and to raise their awareness of the risks related to the disease for animals and humans, an extensive public awareness campaign should be carefully considered, as well as strict and mandatory dairy movement control.

  12. Prevalence of brucellosis in dairy cattle from the main dairy farming regions of Eritrea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Scacchia

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to get a reliable estimate of brucellosis prevalence in Eritrean dairy cattle, a cross-sectional study was carried out in 2009. The survey considered the sub-population of dairy cattle reared in modern small- and medium-sized farms. Samples were screened with the Rose Bengal test (RBT and positive cases were confirmed with the complement fixation test (CFT. A total of 2.77%(417/15 049; Credibility Interval CI: 2.52% – 3.05% of the animals tested in this study were positive for antibodies to Brucellaspecies, with a variable and generally low distribution of positive animals at regional level. The highest seroprevalence was found in the Maekel region (5.15%; CI: 4.58% – 5.80%, followed by the Debub (1.99%; CI: 1.59% – 2.50% and Gash-Barka (1.71%; CI: 1.34% – 2.20% regions. Seroprevalence at sub-regional levels was also generally low, except for two sub-regions of Debub and the sub-region Haicota from the Gash-Barka region. Seroprevalence was high and more uniformly distributed in the Maekel region, namely in the Asmara, Berik and Serejeka sub-regions. Considering the overall low brucellosis prevalence in the country, as identified by the present study, a brucellosis eradication programme for dairy farms using a test-and-slaughter policy would be possible. However, to encourage the voluntary participation of farmers to the programme and to raise their awareness of the risks related to the disease for animals and humans, an extensive public awareness campaign should be carefully considered, as well as strict and mandatory dairy movement control.

  13. Dairy Cows Productivity and Socio-Economic Profile of Dairy Smallholder’s Communities in Yogyakarta, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widyobroto, B. P.; Rochijan; Noviandi, C. T.; Astuti, A.

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this field questionnaire survey was to describe the dairy cow productivity and socio-economic profile of dairy cattle farmers in Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta smallholder farming communities which have been targeted dairy development policy. The study was conducted on 190 Friesian Holstein (FH) cows maintained under smallholder’s management system in Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta, Indonesia. A total of 83 farmers were randomly selected and interviewed with structured questionnaire to assess the socio-economic dairy farmer and productivity performance of dairy cows. The number of dairy productivity performance within the normal. Shortages as well as high cost of feed, occurrence of disease, scarce information about feeding and high medicament cost were the main constraints which might have contributed considerably to delayed age at first service, late age at first calving, long calving interval, short lactation length and low milk production. Therefore, strategies designed to solve the existing problem should be important by involving all stakeholders in the formulation and implementation of improvement strategiesor dairy development policy was being implemented and necessary respect to environmental factors affecting agricultural activities such as a constraint on land use and access to water resources.

  14. Dairy Intake and Coronary Heart Disease or Stroke – a population-based cohort study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalmeijer, G.W.; Struijk, E.A.; Schouw, van der Y.T.; Soedamah-Muthu, S.S.; Verschuren, W.M.M.; Geleijnse, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    AIM: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between total dairy intake and dairy subtypes (high-fat dairy, low-fat dairy, milk and milk products, cheese and fermented dairy) with incident coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke. METHODS: EPIC-NL is a prospective cohort study among 33,625

  15. Energy demand on dairy farms in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upton, J; Humphreys, J; Groot Koerkamp, P W G; French, P; Dillon, P; De Boer, I J M

    2013-10-01

    Reducing electricity consumption in Irish milk production is a topical issue for 2 reasons. First, the introduction of a dynamic electricity pricing system, with peak and off-peak prices, will be a reality for 80% of electricity consumers by 2020. The proposed pricing schedule intends to discourage energy consumption during peak periods (i.e., when electricity demand on the national grid is high) and to incentivize energy consumption during off-peak periods. If farmers, for example, carry out their evening milking during the peak period, energy costs may increase, which would affect farm profitability. Second, electricity consumption is identified in contributing to about 25% of energy use along the life cycle of pasture-based milk. The objectives of this study, therefore, were to document electricity use per kilogram of milk sold and to identify strategies that reduce its overall use while maximizing its use in off-peak periods (currently from 0000 to 0900 h). We assessed, therefore, average daily and seasonal trends in electricity consumption on 22 Irish dairy farms, through detailed auditing of electricity-consuming processes. To determine the potential of identified strategies to save energy, we also assessed total energy use of Irish milk, which is the sum of the direct (i.e., energy use on farm) and indirect energy use (i.e., energy needed to produce farm inputs). On average, a total of 31.73 MJ was required to produce 1 kg of milk solids, of which 20% was direct and 80% was indirect energy use. Electricity accounted for 60% of the direct energy use, and mainly resulted from milk cooling (31%), water heating (23%), and milking (20%). Analysis of trends in electricity consumption revealed that 62% of daily electricity was used at peak periods. Electricity use on Irish dairy farms, therefore, is substantial and centered around milk harvesting. To improve the competitiveness of milk production in a dynamic electricity pricing environment, therefore, management

  16. Food safety of milk and dairy product of dairy cattle from heavy metal contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlia, E.; Rahmah, KN; Suryanto, D.

    2018-01-01

    Food safety of milk and dairy products is a prerequisite for consumption, which must be free from physical, biological and chemical contamination. Chemical contamination of heavy metals Pb (Plumbum/Lead) and Cd (Cadmium) is generally derived from the environment such as from water, grass, feed additives, medicines and farm equipment. The contamination of milk and dairy products can affect quality and food safety for human consumption. The aim of this research is to investigate contamination of heavy metals Pb and Cd on fresh milk, pasteurized milk, and dodol milk compared with the Maximum Residue Limits (MRL). The methods of this researched was through case study and data obtained analyzed descriptively. Milk samples were obtained from Bandung and surrounding areas. The number of samples used was 30 samples for each product: 30 samples of fresh milk directly obtained from dairy farm, 30 samples of pasteurized milk obtained from street vendors and 30 samples of dodol milk obtained from home industry. Parameters observed were heavy metal residues of Pb and Cd. The results showed that: 1) approximately 83% of fresh milk samples were contaminated by Pb which 57% samples were above MRL and 90% samples were contaminated by Cd above MRL; 2) 67% of pasteurized milk samples were contaminated by Pb below MRL; 3) 60% of dodol milk samples were contaminated by Pb and Cd above MRL.

  17. Short communication: Sensitive detection of norbixin in dried dairy ingredients at concentrations of less than 1 part per billion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, B G; Park, C W; Drake, M A

    2017-11-01

    Norbixin is the water-soluble carotenoid in annatto extracts used in the cheese industry to color Cheddar cheese. The purpose of norbixin is to provide cheese color, but norbixin is also present in the whey stream and contaminates dried dairy ingredients. Regulatory restrictions dictate that norbixin cannot be present in dairy ingredients destined for infant formula or ingredients entering different international markets. Thus, there is a need for the detection and quantification of norbixin at very low levels in dried dairy ingredients to confirm its absence. A rapid method for norbixin evaluation exists, but it does not have the sensitivity required to confirm norbixin absence at very low levels in compliance with existing regulations. The current method has a limit of detection of 2.7 μg/kg and a limit of quantification of 3.5 μg/kg. The purpose of this study was to develop a method to extract and concentrate norbixin for quantification in dried dairy ingredients below 1 μg/kg (1 ppb). A reverse-phase solid-phase extraction column step was applied in the new method to concentrate and quantify norbixin from liquid and dried WPC80 (whey protein concentrate with 80% protein), WPC34 (WPC, 34% protein), permeate, and lactose. Samples were evaluated by both methods for comparison. The established method was able to quantify norbixin in whey proteins and permeates (9.39 μg/kg to 2.35 mg/kg) but was unable to detect norbixin in suspect powdered lactose samples. The newly developed method had similar performance to the established method for whey proteins and permeates but was also able to detect norbixin in powdered lactose samples. The proposed method had a >90% recovery in lactose samples and a limit of detection of 28 ppt (ng/kg) and a limit of quantification of 94 ppt (ng/kg). The developed method provides detection and quantification of norbixin for dairy ingredients that have a concentration of <1 ppb. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association

  18. Marketing Efficiency of Dairy Products for Co-operative and Private Dairy Plants in Tamil Nadu - A Comparative Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Rangasamy, N.; Dhaka, J.P.

    2008-01-01

    The marketing of milk and milk products by dairy plants of co-operative and private sectors in Tamil Nadu has been compared. The study is based on the data collected for toned milk, standardized milk, full cream milk, flavoured milk, butter and ghee from the selected co-operative and private dairy plants of the Coimbatore district for the financial year 2001-2002. It has been found that the marketing cost for toned milk is same in both the dairy plants , whereas it is higher for standardized ...

  19. Eliminative behaviour of dairy cows at pasture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whistance, Lindsay Kay; Sinclair, Liam A.; Arney, David Richard

    2011-01-01

    Despite a strong avoidance of grazing near dung patches, cattle have traditionally been considered not to avoid bodily contact with faeces, regardless of any risk of disease. Little is understood of the behaviour of pasture-kept dairy cows at the time of defaecation and therefore, the eliminative...... behaviour of 40 Holstein-Friesian cows was observed at pasture for6 heach day between morning and afternoon milking for a total of24 h. Lying (l), standing (s) and walking (w) behaviours were recorded pre, during and post-elimination. Sequences of 3–6 changes in these behaviours were recorded if expressed...... observed events (uppercase letters denote behaviour during defaecation). In all recorded events, 383 stood and 54 walked whilst defaecating (P

  20. Mineral supplementation in Tunisian smallholder dairy farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rekhis, J.; Kouki-Chebbi, K.; Dhaouadi, B.; Khlif, K.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the experiment was to determine the effects of supplementation of di-calcium-phosphate in the form of blocks in late pregnancy (2 months before calving), on production and reproduction parameters of dairy cattle in smallholder farms. The experiment covered 63 animals in 20 smallholder farms, divided into control and supplemented groups. Results showed that mineral supplementation had a significant effect on calf weight, milk fat content and reproduction parameters. Calves born to cattle supplemented with di-calcium-phosphate were heavier by 1.67 kg than those in the control group. Similarly, the average milk fat content in the supplemented group was 5.6 g/L (P 0.05). (author)

  1. Issues and perspectives in dairy sheep breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierlorenzo Secchiari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present review consists of two parts. In the first part, the authors briefly describe the state of the art of breedingprogrammes for Italian dairy sheep; then they report new models for genetic evaluation and consider the problem ofgenotype x environment interaction and the impact of farming systems on the genetic merit of animals. In the secondpart new breeding goals regarding the evolution of milk quality concept and the increasing importance of functional traitsare reported. Regarding milk quality, the authors especially focus on the traits related to cheese-making ability and onthe nutraceutical aspects of milk. Among functional traits, resistance to diseases (mastitis and Scrapie has been highlightedfor its great importance in livestock species. Finally, the perspectives of marker-assisted selection have also beenreported.

  2. Potential airborne microbial hazards for workers on dairy and beef cattle farms in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr M.M. Abd-Elall

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the concentration and frequency distribution of certain airborne micro-organisms on cattle farms and their potential health hazards to farm workers. The samples (60 air samples and 240 hand and nasal swabs from cattle farm workers were collected from ten cattle farms (five dairy barns and five beef sheds located in the Sharkia Governorate of Egypt. Air samples were collected for microbiological examination in liquid media using an all-glass impinger whereas those for fungal examination were placed on agar plates using slit air samplers (aeroscopes. The results showed that the overall means of total culturable bacterial and fungal counts were lower in the air of dairy cattle barns than in beef cattle sheds. Identification of the isolated bacteria revealed the recovery of the following species (from dairy cattle barns versus beef cattle sheds: Staphylococcus epidermidis (26.7% vs 36.7%, S. saprophyticus (20% vs 33.3%, S. aureus (10% vs 16.7%, Enterococcus faecalis (23.3% vs 26.7%, Enterobacter agglomerans (23.3 vs 13.3%, Escherichia coli, (16.7% vs 26.7%, Klebsiella oxytoca, (10% vs 16.7%, K. pneumoniae (3.3% vs 0%, Proteus rettegri (6.7% vs 13.3%, P. mirabilis (10% vs 10%, P. vulgaris (3.3% vs 6.7%, Pseudomonas species (6.7% vs 16.7%, respectively. Mycological examination of air samples revealed the presence of Aspergillus fumigatus (46.7% vs 63.3%, A. niger (20% vs 36.7%, A. flavus (13.3% vs 26.7%, Penicillium citrinum (16.7% vs 23.3%, P. viridicatum (13.3% vs 6.7%, P. capsulatum (3.3% vs 0%, Cladosporium spp. (30% vs 56.7%, Alternaria spp. (13.3 vs 23.3%, Mucor spp. (6.7% vs 16.7%, Fusarium spp. (3.3% vs 10%, Absidia spp. (6.7% vs 10%, Curvilaria spp. (10% vs 3.3%, Rhizopus spp. (6.7% vs 13.3%, Scopulariopsis (3.3% vs 6.7%, Epicoccum spp. (0% vs 3.4% and yeast (13.3% vs 20%, respectively. In addition, microbiological examinations of farm workers revealed heavy contamination of their hands and noses with

  3. Energy consumption modeling during dairy sewage pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dąbrowski, Wojciech; Żyłka, Radosław; Malinowski, Paweł; Boruszko, Dariusz

    2017-11-01

    The research was conducted in a dairy WWTP located in north-eastern Poland with the average flow of 546 m3d-1 and PE 11500 in 2016. Energy consumption was measured with the help of Lumel 3-phase network parameter transducers installed within the plant. The modeling was conducted based on the quantity and quality of raw sewage, after its screening, averaging and dissolved air flotation. The following parameters were determined: BOD5, COD. N-total and P-total. During the research period. 15 measurement series were carried out. Pollution loads removed in primary treatment varied from 167.0 to 803.5 kgO2d-1 and 1205.9 to 10032 kgO2d-1 for BOD5 and COD respectively. The energy consumption share during dairy pretreatment in relation to the total energy consumption was in the range from 13.8 to 28.5% with the mean value of 18.7% during the research period. Energy consumption indicators relating to removed pollution loads for primary treatment were established with the mean values of 0.74 and 0.83 kWhkg-1d-1 for BOD5 and COD respectively. An attempt was made to determine the influence of raw sewage characteristics and pretreatment efficiency on energy consumption of the object. A model of energy consumption during pretreatment was estimated according to the experimental data obtained in the research period. It was modeled using the linear regression model and principal component analysis.

  4. Energy consumption modeling during dairy sewage pretreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dąbrowski Wojciech

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted in a dairy WWTP located in north-eastern Poland with the average flow of 546 m3d-1 and PE 11500 in 2016. Energy consumption was measured with the help of Lumel 3-phase network parameter transducers installed within the plant. The modeling was conducted based on the quantity and quality of raw sewage, after its screening, averaging and dissolved air flotation. The following parameters were determined: BOD5, COD. N-total and P-total. During the research period. 15 measurement series were carried out. Pollution loads removed in primary treatment varied from 167.0 to 803.5 kgO2d-1 and 1205.9 to 10032 kgO2d-1 for BOD5 and COD respectively. The energy consumption share during dairy pretreatment in relation to the total energy consumption was in the range from 13.8 to 28.5% with the mean value of 18.7% during the research period. Energy consumption indicators relating to removed pollution loads for primary treatment were established with the mean values of 0.74 and 0.83 kWhkg-1d-1 for BOD5 and COD respectively. An attempt was made to determine the influence of raw sewage characteristics and pretreatment efficiency on energy consumption of the object. A model of energy consumption during pretreatment was estimated according to the experimental data obtained in the research period. It was modeled using the linear regression model and principal component analysis.

  5. Safety assessment of dairy microorganisms: Geotrichum candidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottier, Ivannah; Gente, Stéphanie; Vernoux, Jean-Paul; Guéguen, Micheline

    2008-09-01

    Geotrichum candidum is a ubiquitous filamentous yeast-like fungus commonly isolated from soil, air, water, milk, silage, plant tissues, digestive tract in humans and other mammals. This species is widely used as adjunct culture in the maturation of cheese. The genus Geotrichum is composed of 18 species. A recent taxonomic revision concluded that the old Galactomyces geotrichum/G. candidum complex contained four separate species of which Galactomyces candidus sp. nov./G. candidum. M13 primer can be used for identifying species of the Geotrichum genus. Used in combination, RAPD-PCR and RAM-PCR permit strains to be differentiated. The species can be unambiguous differentiated from the two species most frequently described in human pathology: Geotrichum clavatum (reclassified Saprochaete clavata) and Geotrichum capitatum (reclassified Magnusiomyces capitatus/Saprochaete capitata). Sources of exposure are food ingestion--cheese consumption playing a major role--inhalation and contact. A bibliographic survey was conducted to assess corresponding hazards and risks. G. candidum infections (mainly pulmonary or bronchopulmonary, but also cutaneous, oral, disseminates) are very rare: fewer than 100 cases reported between 1842 and 2006. Moreover, cases were not all confirmed by repeated isolations and demonstration of the fungus' presence in tissues, a prerequisite to establish a true diagnosis of geotrichosis. Immunocompromised population was recently shown as a target for opportunistic infection. The most effective treatments include either azole drogs as ketonazole, iconazole and clotrimazole, or polyene antibiotics as amphotericin B, nystatin and pimaricin, or voriconazole-amphotericin B association. Less than 1 case/year of disease was possibly caused by G. candidum and it never included dairy products or foodborne infection. The risk of developing an infection due to G. candidum in connection with its technological use and consumption of dairy products is virtually nil

  6. Polysynovitis after oligofructose overload in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danscher, A M; Enemark, H L; Andersen, P H; Aalbaek, B; Nielsen, O L

    2010-01-01

    Acute bovine laminitis is a systemic disease with local manifestations primarily affecting the claws. However, distension of the tarsocrural joints has been observed after experimental oligofructose overload in dairy heifers as a part of the complex interpreted as acute, clinical laminitis. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to study bovine synovial joints and tendon sheaths after oligofructose overload. Ten dairy heifers received oral oligofructose overload (17 g/kg body weight); four were killed 24h after overload and six after 72 h. Six control heifers received tap water and were killed after 72 or 96 h. Clinical examination included locomotion scoring and palpation of the tarsocrural joints. Ruminal fluid and blood was collected for measurements of pH and hydration status. Total protein concentrations and white blood cell (WBC) counts were determined in synovial fluid collected from tarsocrural joints after death. Synovial joints and tendon sheaths were examined and synovial membranes were studied microscopically. Swabs taken from the synovial cavities were subject to bacteriological culture. Heifers with oligofructose overload developed signs of ruminal and systemic acidosis. Lameness was observed in three of ten heifers 24h after overload and in all remaining heifers after 72 h. Distension of tarsocrural joints was observed from 18 h after overload and peaked at 30 h when all examined joints were moderately or severely distended. The synovial fluid was turbid and protein content and WBC counts were increased at both 24 and 72 h compared with controls. Bacterial culture was negative. Synovial membranes 24 and 72 h after overload had a fibrinous and neutrophil inflammatory reaction that regressed in severity between 24 and 72 h after overload. Heifers subjected to oligofructose overload therefore developed generalized sterile neutrophilic polysynovitis. Focus on this aspect of bovine laminitis may shed new light on the pathogenesis of this complex

  7. Development of a Computer-based Benchmarking and Analytical Tool. Benchmarking and Energy & Water Savings Tool in Dairy Plants (BEST-Dairy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Tengfang [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Flapper, Joris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ke, Jing [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kramer, Klaas [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sathaye, Jayant [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-02-01

    The overall goal of the project is to develop a computer-based benchmarking and energy and water savings tool (BEST-Dairy) for use in the California dairy industry – including four dairy processes – cheese, fluid milk, butter, and milk powder.

  8. Surveillance of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in dairy herds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, M.F.

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis, the potential for improvements in surveillance of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) infection and paratuberculosis in dairy herds was investigated, leading to a reduction in surveillance costs whilst continuing to meet specific quality targets. In particular,

  9. Isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) from dairy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) from dairy cows in China. Yingyu Chen, Siguo Liu, Yujiong Wang, Yanfen Du, Min Li, Shi Cheng, Huanan Wang, Qin Xie, Huanchun Chen, Aizhen Guo ...

  10. Farm application of radioimmunoassay technology in dairy cattle management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alejandrino, A.L.; Asaad, C.O.; De Vera, A.C.; Deocaris, C.C.; Ignacio, L.M.; Herrera, M.S.; Mateo, A.B.

    1996-01-01

    Monitoring of progesterone concentrations in milk or blood plasma of farm animals, using radioimmunoassay technology is presented in this report. This was instituted among 103 dairy cows managed by dairy cooperatives under smallholder level in Sta. Cruz-Pagsanjan, Laguna and Sariaya, Quezon (n=103), and under communal level Pontevedra, Capiz (n=48). The authors observed that the measurement of progesterone in milk/plasma was proven useful as a diagnotic aid in dairy cattle production studies such as: (a) early pregnancy diagnosis; (b) identification of fertile and abnormally cycling/subestrus or anestrous cows, and (c) appropriate timing for breeding services especially at post-partum stage. This information is relevant where appropriate management intervention measures are indicated to improve dairy cattle production in the country. (author)

  11. DAIRY FARMS IN MICHIGAN'S U.P., 1998

    OpenAIRE

    Nott, Sherrill B.

    1999-01-01

    This report has two purposes: 1)to provide statistical information about the financial results on U.P. dairy farms during 1998; and 2)to provide production costs for comparative analysis and forward planning.

  12. Rapla Dairy päästeaktsioon / Kristina Traks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Traks, Kristina, 1976-

    2002-01-01

    Maaelu Edendamise Sihtasutuse nõukogu liikmete toetusest makseraskustes Rapla Dairy päästmiseks. Tallinna Äripangale antavast laenust, mille eest pank ostab AS-ilt Lacto Agro kümne piimatootmisettevõtte osad

  13. Sickness behavior in dairy cows during Escherichia coli mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogsgaard, Katrine Kop; Røntved, Christine Maria; Sørensen, Peter

    2012-01-01

    -recorded on 5 consecutive days, d −2 to +2 after challenge when the cows were not disturbed by humans. The behavior of the animals was compared among all days. Infection with E. coli altered the behavior of the dairy cows. Time spent feeding was lower in the initial 24 h after infection compared......The consequences of mastitis in terms of dairy cow behavior are relatively unknown. Future assessment of dairy cow welfare during mastitis will be facilitated by knowledge about the potential of mastitis to induce sickness behavior. Our aim was to examine behavior of dairy cows in the period from 2...... d before (d −2 and −1) to 3 d (d 0, 1, and 2) after experimental intramammary challenge with Escherichia coli. Effects of experimentally induced mastitis on behavior were examined in 20 primiparous Danish Holstein-Friesian cows, all 3 to 6 wk after calving and kept in tie stalls. After evening...

  14. Enhancing Dairy Manufacturing through customer feedback: A statistical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vineesh, D.; Anbuudayasankar, S. P.; Narassima, M. S.

    2018-02-01

    Dairy products have become inevitable of habitual diet. This study aims to investigate the consumers’ satisfaction towards dairy products so as to provide useful information for the manufacturers which would serve as useful inputs for enriching the quality of products delivered. The study involved consumers of dairy products from various demographical backgrounds across South India. The questionnaire focussed on quality aspects of dairy products and also the service provided. A customer satisfaction model was developed based on various factors identified, with robust hypotheses that govern the use of the product. The developed model proved to be statistically significant as it passed the required statistical tests for reliability, construct validity and interdependency between the constructs. Some major concerns detected were regarding the fat content, taste and odour of packaged milk. A minor proportion of people (15.64%) were unsatisfied with the quality of service provided, which is another issue to be addressed to eliminate the sense of dissatisfaction in the minds of consumers.

  15. Dairy farmers’ values and how their values affect their decision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjørn Gunnar Hansen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Values affect humans’ perception of situations and problems and guide our actions. The objective of this study was to explore the values of dairy farmers, and whether their values influenced their decisions to maintain dairy farming or to buy consultancy services. During late fall 2007 we visited and interviewed 90 farmers. First we did a qualitative analysis of the data and then we merged the interview data with the existing database of financial data from the year 2007 to do statistical analyses. We also checked whether the farmers still produced milk in 2013, six years after the interviews.  Most farmers had terminal values like keeping up the tradition and to have an interesting work. Value combinations with instrumental values such as to earn money and to produce milk were common. Realizing that many farmers prioritize terminal values over instrumental values has important consequences for dairy companies, dairy consultants and politicians.

  16. Non-dairy Based Probiotics: A Healthy Treat for Intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Sangita; Mangal, Manisha; Sharma, Satish K; Gupta, Ram K

    2016-08-17

    Dairy-based fermented products and yoghurts have been utilized as potential probiotic products since ancient times. However, recent upsurge in interest of consumers towards dairy alternatives has opened up new vistas for non-dairy probiotic research and development. Various matrices and substrates such as cereals, fruit juices, or mixture thereof are being utilized for delivering these beneficial microorganisms. Each matrix offers some advantages over the other. Vast knowledge available on a number of conventional fermented foods can also be utilized for future research in this area. The present review provides an insight on the recent research/developments in the field of non-dairy probiotic foods with particular reference to the foods consumed conventionally, in addition to their commercial availability and a way forward.

  17. Nutrient management strategies on Dutch dairy farms: an empirical analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ondersteijn, C.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    Key Words: MINAS; nitrogen surplus; phosphate surplus; nutrient efficiency; nutrient productivity; financial consequences; strategic management; perceived environmental uncertainty; nutrient management planning; dairy farming; The Netherlands.

    Agricultural nutrients are a

  18. Evaluating expansion strategies for startup European Union dairy farm businesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, R; Shalloo, L; Pierce, K M; Horan, B

    2013-06-01

    A stochastic whole-farm simulation model was used to examine alternative strategies for new entrant dairy farmers to grow and develop dairy farm businesses in the context of European Union (EU) milk quota abolition in 2015. Six alternative strategies were compared: remain static, natural growth expansion, waiting until after EU milk quota abolition to expand, a full-scale expansion strategy without milk quotas and not incurring super levy penalties, a full-scale expansion strategy with milk quotas and incurring super levy penalties, and once-a-day milking until EU milk quota abolition, followed by full-scale expansion. Each discrete whole farm investment strategy was evaluated over a 15-yr period (2013-2027) using multiple financial stability and risk indicators, including overall discounted farm business profitability, net worth change, return on investment, and financial risk. The results of this study indicate that, although associated with increased risk, dairy farm expansion will ensure the future profitability of the farm business. Within the context of EU milk quotas until 2015, the most attractive expansion strategy is to increase cow numbers while avoiding super levy fines using once-a-day milking techniques, increasing to the full capacity of the dairy farm once milk quotas are removed. In contrast, the results also indicate that dairy farms that remain static will experience a significant reduction in farm profitability in the coming year due to production cost inflation. Cash flow deficits were observed during the initial year of expansion and, therefore, rapidly expanding dairy farm businesses require a significant cash reserve to alleviate business risk during the initial year of expansion. The results of this analysis also indicate that dairy farm businesses that expand using lower cost capital investments and avoid milk quota super levy fines significantly reduce the financial risks associated with expansion. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science

  19. Protein efficiency in intensive dairy production: a Swedish example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swensson, Christian; Lindmark-Månsson, Helena; Smedman, Annika; Henriksson, Maria; Modin Edman, Anna-Karin

    2017-11-01

    Animal agriculture has been criticised in terms of its sustainability from several perspectives. Ruminants such as dairy cows can transform inedible, low-quality protein in roughage and by-products from the food industry into the high-quality protein found in milk and meat. Evaluation of the protein conversion efficiency of dairy production from a sustainability and resource perspective must be based on the proportion of the animal feed edible to humans. A relevant metric is thus edible feed protein conversion ratio (eFPCR), i.e. human-edible protein output in cow's milk per unit human-edible protein input in feed. In this study, eFPCR was calculated for five regionally adapted and realistic feed rations fed to Swedish dairy cows producing different annual milk yields typical for high-yielding, intensive dairy production. All scenarios except one showed a protein efficiency ratio of >1 for human-edible protein. Thus, depending on the composition of their diet, most Swedish dairy cows can convert human-inedible protein into edible, high-value protein. However, higher milk yield led to a decrease in eFPCR, regardless of diet. Dairy cows in high-yielding, intensive production systems such as those used in Sweden have the capacity to convert low-value inedible protein into high-value edible protein. However, a minor part of the dairy cow diet is edible for humans and this fraction must be minimised to justify dairy production. These results are in line with previous findings on protein conversion efficiency and add scientific input to the debate on sustainable food systems and sustainable diets. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Potential health benefits of sphingolipids in milk and dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavica Potočki

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Sphingolipids are found in all eukaryotic and some prokaryotic cells. Milk and dairy products are one of the most important sources of sphingolipids. This compounds participate in a variety of indispensable metabolic, neurological, and intracellular signaling processes. Sphingolipids and their derivatives are highly bioactive compounds with anti-cancer, bacteriostatic and cholesterol-lowering properties. Therefore, this review focuses on the potential health benefits of the milk and dairy sphingolipids.

  1. Subclinical Laminitis in Dairy Cattle: 205 Selected Cases

    OpenAIRE

    BAKIR, Ali BELGE Bahtiyar

    2005-01-01

    The economic importance of lameness in dairy cattle has newly been recognized in Turkey. Lameness incidence in Turkey has been reported to be between 13% and 58%, which is similar to that of other countries where 4% and 55% incidence rates have been reported. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of sole lesions associated with subclinical laminitis in the hooves of dairy cattle in Van, Turkey. The risk factors for subclinical laminitis are proposed and discussed. The so...

  2. Freeze concentration of dairy products Phase 2. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Best, D.E.; Vasavada, K.C.

    1993-09-01

    An efficient, electrically driven freeze concentration system offers potential for substantially increasing electricity demand while providing the mature dairy industry with new products for domestic and export markets together with enhanced production efficiencies. Consumer tests indicate that dairy products manufactured from freeze-concentrated ingredients are either preferred or considered equivalent in quality to fresh milk-based products. Economic analyses indicate that this technology should be competitive with thermal evaporation processes on a commercial basis.

  3. AN EVALUATION OF RISK MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES FOR DAIRY FARMS

    OpenAIRE

    Bosch, Darrell J.; Johnson, Christian J.

    1992-01-01

    Variability in feed prices and crop yields are important sources of risk to dairy farmers. A simulation model of a representative dairy farm was used to evaluate crop insurance and hedging as risk management strategies. These strategies lowered expected net returns but also reduced risk. The preferred set of strategies at lower levels of risk aversion included hedging and crop insurance, although a base scenario in which no risk management strategies were employed was also efficient. The pref...

  4. Effects of Fermented Dairy Products on Skin: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Alexandra R; Sivamani, Raja K

    2015-07-01

    Fermented dairy products, such as yogurt, have been proposed as a natural source of probiotics to promote intestinal health. Growing evidence shows that modulation of the gastrointestinal tract microbiota can modulate skin disease as well. This systematic review was conducted to examine the evidence for the use of ingested fermented dairy products to modulate skin health and function. We also sought to review the effects of the topical application of dairy products. The PubMed and Embase databases were systematically searched for clinical studies involving humans only that examined the relationship between fermented dairy products and skin health. A total of 312 articles were found and a total of 4 studies met inclusion criteria. Three studies evaluated the effects of ingestion, while one evaluated the effects of topical application. All studies noted improvement with the use of fermented dairy. Overall, there is early and limited evidence that fermented dairy products, used both topically and orally, may provide benefits for skin health. However, existing studies are limited and further studies will be important to better assess efficacy and the mechanisms involved.

  5. Changes in Dairy Food and Nutrient Intakes in Australian Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therese A. O'Sullivan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Dairy nutrients, such as calcium, are particularly important in adolescence, a critical time for growth and development. There are limited Australian data following individuals through adolescence, evaluating changes in dairy nutrient and dairy product consumption. We used a validated food frequency questionnaire to investigate consumption in adolescents participating in both the 14 and 17 year follow-ups of the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine Study. Most adolescents did not reach age and gender specific recommended daily intakes for calcium or magnesium at 14 years, and this decreased as they aged to 17 years (from 33.0% to 29.2% meeting for calcium, P < 0.05, and from 33.6% to 20.5% meeting for magnesium, P < 0.01. Mean intakes of calcium, potassium, riboflavin and vitamin A also decreased with age (P < 0.01. Mean dairy intake decreased from 536 ± 343 g/day to 464 ± 339 g/day (P < 0.01, due mostly to a decrease in regular milk, although flavoured milk consumption increased in boys. Cheese and butter were the only products to show a significantly increased consumption over the period. Girls decreased from 2.2 to 1.9 serves/day of dairy, while boys remained relatively steady at 2.9 to 2.8 serves/day. Our findings suggest that dairy product consumption decreases over adolescence. This may have implications for bone mass, development and later health.

  6. A partnership of universities and agri-business for an effective dairy herd management learning experience for undergraduates: the Dairy Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber Nielsen, M S; Domecq, J J; Davis, L E; Beede, D K; Budine, M; Martsolf, F

    2003-03-01

    The Dairy Challenge contest allows undergraduate students to apply knowledge gained in the classroom in an evaluation of the management practices of commercial dairy farms. University faculty partnered with industry representatives to develop the competition. Participants in the Dairy Challenge do the following: 1) critically evaluate dairy herd management practices and make recommendations for improvements; 2) visit local dairy farms and gain knowledge of different farms' management practices; 3) meet and interact with potential employers from the dairy industry during the contest; 4) evaluate herd records and utilize knowledge of dairy herd management software and computer presentation tools; 5) test their speaking, presentation, and problem-solving skills; and 6) work as a team to build consensus and tag-team speaking formats. Teams of four undergraduate students critically evaluate a commercial dairy farm using herd records, a description of farm operations, and tour of the farm facilities. The farmer answers questions pertaining to management of the farm in a group interview with all teams and in a separate interview with each individual team. Teams give a 20-min presentation that is scored on the description and assessment of the management practices and recommendations for improvements in management and facilities. Additionally, scoring is based on apparent level of preparation, speaking, presentation skills, and responses to judges' questions. The judges are university specialists and dairy industry professionals. This capstone experience allows students to interact with dairy farmers and representatives from the dairy industry and expands their knowledge and skills gained during their academic career.

  7. Hydrogeologic controls on water quality at a university dairy farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, L. D.; Hunter, R. W.; Lee, J.

    2010-12-01

    Dairy farms typically produce large quantities of manure and other waste products which are often stored or treated in lagoons and then applied to local fields as fertilizer. Contamination of nearby streams by dairy farm wastes through surface runnoff, drainage tile discharge, direct release of wastes or inundation of waste storage facilities during seasonal flooding have long been recognized as major environmental concerns. However, much less attention has been paid to fate and transport of dairy wastes in the subsurface and their potential impact on water quality in aquifers or in groundwater discharge to streams. One of the challenges in evaluating the environmental impact of dairy operations is that there are relatively few field research sites where all of the potential pathways for waterborne transport of dairy wastes are monitored and quantititatively evaluated. There are even fewer sites where extensive baseline water quality monitoring programs were established prior to operation of the dairy. This is essential to distinguish between environmental impacts from dairy operations and other nearby sources, such as beef production and human sewage from septic fields. This talk describes the development of a an integrated hydrogeologic/hydrologic site assessment and groundwater/surface water quality monitoring program at the University of Tennessee - Little River Dairy Farm, located near Townsend, TN. The dairy is currently under construction and the first cows are expected to arrive in late 2010. Hydrologic/hydrogeologic investigations of streams and groundwater at the site have been underway for more than 3 years, and these are expected to provide background data for assessing impacts of dairy wastes and for testing the effectiveness of different management practises. The lower half of the ~180 ha site consists of low-relief fields used for row crops, which are underlain by 4 - 8 m of alluvial deposits (mainly interbedded silt and fine-grained sands) on top of

  8. Emergy evaluation of contrasting dairy systems at multiple levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigne, Mathieu; Peyraud, Jean-Louis; Lecomte, Philippe; Corson, Michael S; Wilfart, Aurélie

    2013-11-15

    Emergy accounting (EmA) was applied to a range of dairy systems, from low-input smallholder systems in South Mali (SM), to intermediate-input systems in two regions of France, Poitou-Charentes (PC) and Bretagne (BR), to high-input systems on Reunion Island (RI). These systems were studied at three different levels: whole-farm (dairy system and cropping system), dairy-system (dairy herd and forage land), and herd (animals only). Dairy farms in SM used the lowest total emergy at all levels and was the highest user of renewable resources. Despite the low quality of resources consumed (crop residues and natural pasture), efficiency of their use was similar to that of industrialised inputs by intensive systems in RI, PC and BR. In addition, among the systems studied, SM dairy farms lay closest to environmental sustainability, contradicting the usual image of high environmental impact of cattle production in developing countries. EmA also revealed characteristics of the three intensive systems. Systems from RI and PC had lower resource transformation efficiency and higher environmental impacts than those from BR, due mainly to feeding strategies that differed due to differing socio-climatic constraints. Application of EmA at multiple levels revealed the importance of a multi-level analysis. While the whole-farm level assesses the overall contribution of the system to its environment, the dairy-system level is suitable for comparison of multi-product systems. In contrast, the herd level focuses on herd management and bypasses debates about definition of system boundaries by excluding land management. Combining all levels highlights the contribution of livestock to the global agricultural system and identifies inefficiencies and influences of system components on the environment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Monitoring feeding behaviour of dairy cows using accelerometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Mattachini

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring cow behaviour has become increasingly important in understanding the nutrition, production, management of the well being, and overall health of dairy cows. Methods of assessing behavioural activity have changed in recent years, favouring automatic recording techniques. Traditional methods to measure behaviour, such as direct observation or time-lapse video, are labour-intensive and time-consuming. Automated recording devices have become increasingly common to measure behaviour accurately. Thus, the development of automated monitoring systems that can continuously and accurately quantify feeding behaviour are required for efficient monitoring and control of modern and automated dairy farms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible use of a 3D accelerometer to record feeding behaviour of dairy cows. Feeding behaviour (feeding time and number of visits to the manger of 12 lactating dairy cows was recorded for approximately 3 h with 3D-accelerometer data loggers (HOBO Pendant G logger. The sensors were positioned in the high part of the neck to monitor head movements. Behaviour was simultaneously recorded using visual observation as a reference. Linear regression analysis between the measurement methods showed that the recorded feeding time (R2=0.90, n=12, P<0.001 was closely related to visual observations. In contrast, the number of visits was inadequately recorded by the 3D-accelerometer, showing a poor relationship with visual observations (R2=0.31, n=12, P<0.06. Results suggest that the use of accelerometer sensors can be a reliable and suitable technology for monitoring feeding behaviour of individual dairy cows in free stall housing. However, further research is necessary to develop an appropriate device able to detect and recognise the movements connected with the head movement during feeding. Such a device could be part of an automatic livestock management tool for the efficient monitoring and control of comfort and

  10. Characterization of Kentucky dairy producer decision-making behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, R A; Bewley, J M

    2013-07-01

    To address dairy clientele needs, industry professionals need to understand how dairy producers make decisions. A survey was distributed to all licensed Kentucky milk producers (n=1,074) to better understand factors that influence dairy producer decisions. A total of 236 surveys were returned; 7 were omitted because they were incomplete, leaving 229 for subsequent analyses (21% response rate). The survey consisted of questions about dairy operational success criteria, decision evaluation criteria, information sources, and technology adoption. The mean response to each survey question was calculated after assigning the following numeric values to producer response categories: 1 = not important, 3 = important, 5 = very important. The most important source of influence or information in decision making was advice from consultants, nutritionists, and veterinarians (3.70±1.23), followed by consultation with business partners and family members (3.68±1.29), and intuition and gut feeling (3.10±1.45). Producers with large herds (≥200 cows) relied more heavily on information from consultants, nutritionists, and veterinarians and on employee input than did producers with small herds (1 to 49 cows). Producers with small herds did not use effect on employee morale as a criterion to evaluate decisions as much as those with larger herds did. In regard to adoption of automated monitoring technologies, producers indicated that modest adoption rates were a result of (1) not being familiar with technologies that are available (55%), (2) undesirable cost to benefit ratios (42%), and (3) too much information provided without knowing what to do with it (36%). As herd size increased, the percentage of producers selecting poor technical support and training and compatibility issues as reasons for slow adoption of automated technologies increased. This insight into dairy producer decision making should help industry professionals address dairy producer issues and concerns. Copyright

  11. Psychosocial work environment among employed Swedish dairy and pig farmworkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolstrup, Christina; Lundqvist, Peter; Pinzke, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the psychosocial work environment for employed dairy and pig farmworkers in southern Sweden and to identify potential risk factors related to the psychosocial work environment for the development of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). Thirty-seven workers on 10 dairy farms and 30 workers on 10 pig farms participated in the study. The study was based on a Swedish translation of the short version of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ) for analyses of self-perceived psychosocial work environment and the general Nordic questionnaire for analyses of self-perceived MSDs. In general, the psychosocial work environment was assessed as "good" by both the dairy and pig farmworkers. However, the dairy and pig farmworkers experienced lower work demands, poorer general and mental health, and poorer vitality (physical and mental strength, vigor, and energy) compared to other occupations. Furthermore, the results indicated that the quality of leadership, feedback, and social support at work were poorer at the dairy farms than at the pig farms. No significant risk factors related to the psychosocial work environment were identified for MSDs in "the back" and in the "upper extremities." This study indicates that the psychosocial work environment for the dairy and pig farmworkers may well be improved in order to promote these workplaces as attractive and healthful. This especially seems to be the case concerning the quality of leadership, feedback, and social support at work for the dairy farmworkers. Furthermore, the present study suggests the probability that physical factors are more likely to lead to MSDs among employed livestock workers than factors related to the psychosocial work environment.

  12. Use of Onion Extract as a Dairy Cattle Feed Supplement: Monitoring Propyl Propane Thiosulfonate as a Marker of Its Effect on Milk Attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, Paloma; Arroyo-Manzanares, Natalia; Gil, Lidia; García-Campaña, Ana M

    2017-02-01

    Onion extract is used as a feed supplement for the diet of dairy cows, acting as inhibitor of methane production; however, its properties could alter sensory attributes of milk. In this work, we propose a method to evaluate the influence of this extract on milk properties, using propyl propane thiosulfonate (PTSO) as a marker. PTSO is extracted using a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe procedure and monitored by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. The method was applied to milk samples obtained from 100 dairy cows fed during 2 months with enriched feed. In addition, a milk tasting panel was established to evaluate the PTSO residue that should not be exceeded to guarantee milk sensory attributes. It was established that a value of PTSO lower than 2 mg kg -1 does not alter milk organoleptic properties. This fact makes onion extract an interesting alternative as a feed supplement to control the methane emissions without any influence on milk attributes.

  13. Economic considerations of breeding for polled dairy cows versus dehorning in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dairy producers today face labor, equipment, and medical costs associated with dehorning heifers. Further, complications requiring veterinary intervention occur with some probability. The objective of this work is to develop preliminary cost estimates of selecting for polled dairy heifers. Stochasti...

  14. The effect of dairy farm management regime on swallow (Hirundo rustica) abundance in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubbe, S.K.; Snoo, de G.R.

    2007-01-01

    Aim To identify differences in Swallow abundance between organically and conventionally managed dairy farms, by examining three factors: farm buildings, food availability and farmer attitudes to Swallows. Methods Organic and conventional dairy farm holdings were compared in pairwise fashion. On

  15. Dairy products and ovarian cancer: A pooled analysis of 12 cohort studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Genkinger, J.M.; Hunter, D.J.; Spiegelman, D.; Anderson, K.E.; Arslan, A.; Beeson, W.L.; Buring, J.E.; Fraser, G.E.; Freudenheim, J.L.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Hankinson, S.E.; Jacobs Jr., D.R.; Koushik, A.; Lacey Jr., J.V.; Larsson, S.C.; Leitzmann, M.; McCullough, M.L.; Miller, A.B.; Rodriguez, C.; Rohan, T.E.; Scheuten, L.J.; Shore, R.; Smit, E.; Wolk, A.; Zhang, S.M.; Smith-Warner, S.A.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Dairy foods and their constituents (lactose and calcium) have been hypothesized to promote ovarian carcinogenesis. Although case-control studies have reported conflicting results for dairy foods and lactose, several cohort studies have shown positive associations between skim milk,

  16. Association between liver failure and hepatic UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activity in dairy cows with follicular cysts

    OpenAIRE

    TANEMURA, Kouichi; OHTAKI, Tadatoshi; KUWAHARA, Yasushi; TSUMAGARI, Shigehisa

    2016-01-01

    Uridine 5?-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) liver activity was measured using estradiol-17? as a substrate in dairy cows with follicular cysts. The activity was significantly lower than that in dairy cows with normal estrous cycles (P

  17. Therapeutic management of botulism in dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Jegaveera Pandian

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To report the successful recovery of few dairy cattle from botulism in response to a modified therapeutic strategy. Materials and Methods: Seventy four naturally-occurring clinical cases of bovine botulism encountered during the period of 2012-2014 which were confirmed by mouse lethality test became material for this study. Affected animals were made into three groups based on the treatment modifications made during the course of study. Results and Discussion: With the modified therapeutic regimen, 17 animals recovered after 7-10 days of treatment. Clinical recovery took 2-30 days. Animals which were not given intravenous fluid and calcium recovered uneventfully. Cattle which were already treated with intravenous fluids, calcium borogluconate, and antibiotics did not recover. They were either died or slaughtered for salvage. Conclusion: In cattle with botulism, administration of Vitamin AD3E and activated charcoal aid the clinical recovery. Besides, strictly avoiding anti-clostridial antibiotics, fluid therapy, and calcium therapy may facilitate the clinical recovery. Upon fluid administration, the pulmonary congestion existed in the ailing cattle might have worsened the anoxia. Administration of antibiotics like penicillin, aminoglycosides, and tetracyclines further worsen the neuronal paralysis by increasing the availability of botulinum neurotoxin. Cattle in early botulism have fair chances of recovery with the modified therapy.

  18. Kefir: a multifaceted fermented dairy product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Barbara; Gürakan, G Candan; Unlü, Gülhan

    2014-12-01

    Kefir is a fermented dairy beverage produced by the actions of the microflora encased in the "kefir grain" on the carbohydrates in the milk. Containing many bacterial species already known for their probiotic properties, it has long been popular in Eastern Europe for its purported health benefits, where it is routinely administered to patients in hospitals and recommended for infants and the infirm. It is beginning to gain a foothold in the USA as a healthy probiotic beverage, mostly as an artisanal beverage, home fermented from shared grains, but also recently as a commercial product commanding shelf space in retail establishments. This is similar to the status of yogurts in the 1970s when yogurt was the new healthy product. Scientific studies into these reported benefits are being conducted into these health benefits, many with promising results, though not all of the studies have been conclusive. Our review provides an overview of kefir's structure, microbial profile, production, and probiotic properties. Our review also discusses alternative uses of kefir, kefir grains, and kefiran (the soluble polysaccharide produced by the organisms in kefir grains). Their utility in wound therapy, food additives, leavening agents, and other non-beverage uses is being studied with promising results.

  19. Milk and Dairy Products Labeling in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgescu Cecilia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present communication contains research and experimental investigations regarding the labelling process of dairy products in tight relation with the national and European legislative requirements. Two methods have been used during the marketing research regarding the information present on the labels of alimentary products: the method based on documentation-observation and comparative analysis of data and information collected from the consume market in Sibiu. The method based on documentation and observation has been carried out using the observation sheet and contained the following analysis criteria: The name of the product, Country origin of the product (location of the producer. Synthesizing the results and the conclusions emerged as a result of the marketing research carried out with the purpose of contouring a labelling model of alimentary products, it can be stated that the dynamics of the alimentary products market in Romania is moderate and restrained by the economical and social factors and even by the still reduces promotion of a healthy alimentary education, with the complementary protection of human health and environment.

  20. Cubicle Refusal in Norwegian Dairy Herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myren HJ

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to survey the behaviour of choosing the alley area instead of a cubicle as a lying place (cubicle refusal, a questionnaire was sent to the 273 dairy farms in Norway known to keep cows in cubicle housing systems. Sixty-six percent of the farmers contacted were included in the study. The median herd size was 18 cows (range 7–118. More than 85% of the herds had sheds providing one or more cubicles per cow. The mean herd occurrence of cubicle refusal was 6%, but showed great variation (range 0–55%. Regression analysis showed a significant association between rearing heifers in slatted floor pens and an increased cubicle refusal occurrence (p = 0.02, R2 = 0.05, while herd size, use of litter, or cubicle-to-animal ratio were not found to be associated with cubicle refusal. The practice of rearing heifers in slatted floor pens accounted for about one half of the observed cubicle refusal (etiologic fraction = 0.51.

  1. Biosecurity and mastitis in intensive dairy production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boboš Stanko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Newly purchased animals that enter a herd with high milk production can be infected with pathogens of the mammary gland and are a potential risk of infection to the cows on the farm. This risk cannot be avoided entirely, but it can be minimized by taking biosecurity measures that should be written as a policy developed for biosecurity oversight of veterinary service: when older cows are purchased, they should be bought with complete lactations and SCC records, and bacterial examination of milk from the udder quarters must be negative for pathogens of the udder; newly purchased cows should come from herds in which the geometric mean somatic cell count is less than 200,000. The herd must have individual cow SCC recorded at least bimonthly for the previous 6 months; the herd must not have had any history of Strep. agalactiae infection in the last 2 years, the herd should be BVDV-free or vaccinated, and the herd owner must be honest and willing to provide all this information. Our country has accepted the standards for milk quality and hygienic properties that comply with EU standards. The proposed biosafety measures presented in this paper enable the determination of the health status of the herd and the biosecurity level of mastitis in commercial farming in intensive dairy production. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31034

  2. Volatile compounds of functional dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iličić Mirela D.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Volatile compounds, affecting flavour of traditional and probiotic fresh cheese, were determined. Functional dairy product-fresh cheese was produced from milk of 2.5% fat content and milk of 4.2% fat content, under the semi-industrial conditions. The traditional starter culture Flora Danica (FD and a combination of probiotic starter ABT-1 and FD (ABT-1:FD=1:1 were applied as starters. The volatile fractions were isolated by employing the combined simultaneous distillation-extraction technique (SDE. The compounds were identified by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS and quantified by using standard procedure. Following 19 compounds have been identified: 8 hydrocarbons (decane, undecane, tridecane, tetradecane, pentadecane, hexadecane, octadecane and 2, 6, 10, 14-tetramethyl hexadecane; 6 ketones (2-heptanone, 2-nonanone, 2- undecanone, 2-pentadecanone, 2-heptadecanone and 2-tridecanone; 3 aldehydes (nonanal, tetradecanal and hexadecanal; 1 fatty acid (decanoic acid and disulfide, bis (1-methylethyl. The highest levels were associated with hexadecanal, 2-pentadecanone, 2-tridecanone, and 2-undecanone in all examined samples, regardless to the starter culture and type of milk used. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 46009

  3. Simultaneous quantification of purine and pyrimidine bases, nucleosides and their degradation products in bovine blood plasma by high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Charlotte Stentoft; Vestergaard, Mogens; Løvendahl, Peter

    2014-01-01

    ), and their degradation products (uric acid, allantoin, β-alanine, β-ureidopropionic acid, β-aminoisobutyric acid) in blood plasma of dairy cows. The high performance liquid chromatography-based technique coupled to electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) was combined with individual matrix...

  4. Coxiella burnetii in bulk tank milk samples from dairy goat and dairy sheep farms in The Netherlands in 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Brom, R; van Engelen, E; Luttikholt, S; Moll, L; van Maanen, K; Vellema, P

    2012-03-24

    In 2007, a human Q fever epidemic started, mainly in the south eastern part of The Netherlands with a suspected indirect relation to dairy goats, and, to a lesser degree, to dairy sheep. This article describes the Q fever prevalences in Dutch dairy goat and dairy sheep bulk tank milk (BTM) samples, using a real-time (RT) PCR and ELISA. Results of BTM PCR and ELISA were compared with the serological status of individual animals, and correlations with a history of Q fever abortion were determined. When compared with ELISA results, the optimal cut-off value for the RT-PCR was 100 bacteria/ml. In 2008, there were 392 farms with more than 200 dairy goats, of which 292 submitted a BTM sample. Of these samples, 96 (32.9 per cent) were PCR positive and 87 (29.8 per cent) were ELISA positive. All farms with a history of Q fever abortion (n=17) were ELISA positive, 16 out of 17 were also PCR positive. BTM PCR or ELISA positive farms had significantly higher within-herd seroprevalences than BTM negative farms. In the south eastern provinces, the area where the human Q fever outbreak started in 2007, a significantly larger proportion of the BTM samples was PCR and ELISA positive compared to the rest of The Netherlands. None of the BTM samples from dairy sheep farms (n=16) were PCR positive but three of these farms were ELISA positive. The higher percentage of BTM positive farms in the area where the human Q fever outbreak started, supports the suspected relation between human cases and infected dairy goat farms.

  5. Evaluation of food safety management systems in Serbian dairy industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Tomašević

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports incentives, costs, difficulties and benefits of food safety management systems implementation in the Serbian dairy industry. The survey involved 27 food business operators with the national milk and dairy market share of 65 %. Almost two thirds of the assessed dairy producers (70.4 % claimed that they had a fully operational and certified HACCP system in place, while 29.6 % implemented HACCP, but had no third party certification. ISO 22000 was implemented and certified in 29.6 % of the companies, while only 11.1 % had implemented and certified IFS standard. The most important incentive for implementing food safety management systems for Serbian dairy producers was to increase and improve safety and quality of dairy products. The cost of product investigation/analysis and hiring external consultants were related to the initial set-up of food safety management system with the greatest importance. Serbian dairy industry was not greatly concerned by the financial side of implementing food safety management systems due to the fact that majority of prerequisite programmes were in place and regularly used by almost 100 % of the producers surveyed. The presence of competency gap between the generic knowledge for manufacturing food products and the knowledge necessary to develop and implement food safety management systems was confirmed, despite the fact that 58.8 % of Serbian dairy managers had university level of education. Our study brings about the innovation emphasizing the attitudes and the motivation of the food production staff as the most important barrier for the development and implementation of HACCP. The most important identified benefit was increased safety of dairy products with the mean rank scores of 6.85. The increased customer confidence and working discipline of staff employed in food processing were also found as important benefits of implementing/operating HACCP. The study shows that the level of HACCP

  6. Milk and dairy products: a unique micronutrient combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaucheron, Frédéric

    2011-10-01

    Milk and dairy products contain micronutrients such as minerals and vitamins, which contribute to multiple and different vital functions in the organism. The mineral fraction is composed of macroelements (Ca, Mg, Na, K, P, and Cl) and oligoelements (Fe, Cu, Zn, and Se). From a physicochemical point of view, the chemical forms, the associations with other ions or organic molecules, and the location of macroelements such as Ca, Mg, Na, K, P, and Cl in milk are relatively well described and understood. Thus, it is admitted that these macroelements are differently distributed into aqueous and micellar phases of milk, depending on their nature. K, Na, and Cl ions are essentially in the aqueous phase, whereas Ca, P, and Mg are partly bound to the casein micelles. About one third of the Ca, half of the P, and two thirds of the Mg are located in the aqueous phase of milk. Dairy products are more or less rich in these different minerals. In cheeses, mineral content depends mainly on their processing. The Ca content is strongly related to the acidification step. Moreover, if acidification is associated with the draining step, the Ca content in the cheese will be reduced. Thus, the Ca content varies in the following increasing order: milks/fermented milks/fresh cheeses butter). The hydrophilic vitamins are in the aqueous phase of milk. For one part of these vitamins, the concentrations described in the literature are not always homogenous and sometimes not in accordance between them; these discrepancies are due to the difficulty of the sample preparation and the use of appropriate methods for their quantification. However, there is no doubt of the significant contribution of milk and dairy products to the intake of vitamins. Milk and dairy are considered essential sources for vitamins. Key teaching points: Milk and dairy products are unique micronutrient combinations with recognized health benefits. The concentration, chemical forms, and location of different minerals are

  7. Buckling of liquid columns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habibi, M.; Rahmani, Y.; Bonn, D.; Ribe, N.M.

    2010-01-01

    Under appropriate conditions, a column of viscous liquid falling onto a rigid surface undergoes a buckling instability. Here we show experimentally and theoretically that liquid buckling exhibits a hitherto unsuspected complexity involving three different modes—viscous, gravitational, and

  8. Liquid medication administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... easily. Oral syringes have some advantages for giving liquid medicines. They are accurate. They are easy to ... cups are also a handy way to give liquid medicines. However, dosing errors have occurred with them. ...

  9. Liquid Effluent Retention Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) is located in the central part of the Hanford Site. LERF is permitted by the State of Washington and has three liquid...

  10. Investigation of gastrointestinal parasites of dairy cattle around Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chiu-Chen; Wang, Lian-Chen; Pan, Chien-Hung; Yang, Cheng-Hsiung; Lai, Cheng-Hung

    2014-02-01

    Parasitic nematodes are one of the most important causes of production losses in most cattle-producing countries of the world. The aim of the present study is to make a through estimate of helminth and protozoan infection prevalence in dairy cattle around Taiwan. Coprological techniques, including direct fecal smear, simple flotation, and simple sedimentation, were used to detect gastrointestinal helminths and protozoan in dairy cattle. A total of 1259 rectal fecal samples were collected from Holstein dairy cattle at 94 farms in 13 counties in Taiwan. The overall prevalence of gastrointestinal parasitic infection was 86.9%. The infection rates of protozoa, nematodes, trematodes, and cestodes were 81.3%, 7.9%, 1.6%, and 0.6%, respectively. Among all parasites, Buxtonella sulcata (61.7%) was the most predominant one, followed with Cryptosporidium spp. (32.6%) and Eimeria spp. (11.8%). There were significant differences in the prevalence of protozoa and nematodes between different age groups and distributional area groups. The present study demonstrated that gastrointestinal parasitic infections occur frequently in dairy cattle around Taiwan, especially protozoan infections. The results indicated that a superior management system and regular anthelmintic treatment should be used for the control of parasitic infections in dairy cattle farms. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Factors for consumer choice of dairy products in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahnama, Hassan; Rajabpour, Shayan

    2017-04-01

    Little is known about consumers' behavior especially their choice behavior toward purchasing and consuming dairy products in developing countries. Hence, the aim of the present work is understanding the factors that affect on consumers' choice behavior toward dairy products in Iran. The study applies the theory of consumption values, which includes the functional values (taste, price, health, and body weight), social value, emotional value, conditional value and epistemic value. The sample were 1420 people (men and women). The data was collected using face to face survey in summer and fall 2015. Chi-square, confirmatory factor analysis, and structural equation modelling is used to assess data collected. The results indicate that functional values, social value, emotional value and epistemic value have a positive impact on choosing dairy products and conditional value didn't have a positive impact. It was concluded that the main influential factors for consumers' choice behavior toward dairy products included consumers experience positive emotion (e.g. enjoyment, pleasure, comfort and feeling relaxed) and functional value-health. This study emphasized the proper pricing of dairy products by producers and sellers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Relationship between the stockperson's attitudes and dairy productivity in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukasawa, Michiru; Kawahata, Masatoshi; Higashiyama, Yumi; Komatsu, Tokushi

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study is to identify the factors that comprise farmer attitudes toward dairy cows and jobs in Japan, and examine the relationship between these attitudes and dairy productivity. At first, we executed a questionnaire survey to determine factors that comprise attitudes of farmers toward their jobs and dairy cows, and three factors were extracted. These were named as 'Positive beliefs to cows', 'Negative beliefs to cows' and 'Job satisfaction', respectively. Second, we examined the relationships between attitude and dairy productivity in 35 dairy farms. The positive beliefs scores correlated positively both with milk yield and milk urea nitrogen concentration. We found there to be three farm groups by cluster analysis using three attitude score. The group B farms showed significantly higher positive beliefs scores and job satisfaction scores; on the other hand, the group C farms showed significantly lower positive beliefs scores and higher negative belief scores. The milk yield in group B was significantly higher than that in group C. This study showed that Japanese farmers' attitudes toward cows considerably resemble those seen in previous studies in Western cultures. Positive attitudes toward cows could enhance stockmanship, and could improving animal welfare and productivity. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  13. Direct uses of hot water (geothermal) in dairying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barmettler, E.R.; Rose, W.R. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Digital computer simulation was used to investigate the peak, steady energy utilization of a geothermal energy-supported dairy. A digital computer program was also written to assess the lifetime economics of the dairy operation. A dynamic simulation program was written to design water storage tanks under diurnal transient loading. The geothermal site specified is the artesian spring named Hobo Wells near Susanville, California. The dairy configuration studies are unique, but consist of conventional processing equipment. In the dairy, cattle waste would be used to generate methane and carbon dioxide by anaerobic digestion. Some carbon dioxide would be removed from the gas stream with a pressurized water scrubber to raise the heating value. The product gas would be combusted in a spark ignition engine connected to an electric generator. The electrical power produced would be used for operation of fans, pumps, lights and other equipment in the dairy. An absorption chiller using a geothermal water driven generator would provide milk chilling. Space heating would be done with forced air hot water unit heaters.

  14. Sustainability of dairy farming location in the auckland region, new zealand

    OpenAIRE

    Kikuchi, Toshio

    1996-01-01

    In this paper the author discussed about distribution and locational changes of factory and town milk supply dairy farms in the Auckland region and tried to make clear sustainability of dairy farming location. The location of factory milk supply dairy farms expanded outward and moved out to peripheral areas of this region, because dairying environments were deteriorating with the development of subdivision, the increase of property tax and the expansion of residential areas. Although the prop...

  15. Development of small Enterprises through Networking : A case study from the Danish Dairy Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard

    2003-01-01

    The article analyses how a small organic dairy uses networking to knowledge creation, getting new subcontractors and customers. In addition the realtions between vision, strategy and practice are analysed as well as the small dairies possibilities to survive in niche markets.......The article analyses how a small organic dairy uses networking to knowledge creation, getting new subcontractors and customers. In addition the realtions between vision, strategy and practice are analysed as well as the small dairies possibilities to survive in niche markets....

  16. Coalition-driven initiatives in the Ugandan dairy sector: Elites, conflict, and bargaining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Anne Mette; Muhumuza, Fred; Mwebaze, Tom

    elite wanted to regulate the sector as this would help the big processor, the state owned and later privatized Dairy Corporation. Regulation was relatively successful and a pocket of bureaucratic efficiency was established in an agency called the Dairy Development Authority. The reason why regulation...... was enforced to a considerable extent was the organization of dairy farmers and traders and the bargaining and compromise with the Dairy Development Authority this organization of industry actors enabled...

  17. Cost implications of improving food safety in the Dutch dairy chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valeeva, N.I.; Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines control measures for improving food safety in the dairy chain, using an integer linear programming model. The chain includes feed (compound feed production and delivery), farm (dairy farm) and dairy processing (transport and processing of raw milk, delivery of pasteurised milk)

  18. Utilization of Tephrosia vogelii in controlling ticks in dairy cows by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study sought to evaluate the effectiveness of Tephrosia vogelii in controlling ticks on dairy cows among small-scale dairy farmers in Mashonaland Central Province of Zimbabwe. T. vogelii treatment concentrations and Triatix D acaricide dip were randomly administered to 40 dairy cows. The experiment was carried out ...

  19. A survey of dairy production practices in the derived Savannah of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study revealed that the main dairying activities are milking of cattle, processing and marketing of dairy products. The most preferred dairy products are wara (local cheese), ghee and butter. Marketing was done exclusively by self or in combination with intermediaries ("middlemen"). Main reasons for engagement in ...

  20. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus sp. FMQ74, a Dairy-contaminating Isolate from Raw Milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okshevsky, Mira Ursula; Regina, Viduthalai R.; Marshall, Ian

    2017-01-01

    Representatives of the genus Bacillus are common milk contaminants that cause spoilage and flavor alterations of dairy products. Bacillus sp. FMQ74 was isolated from raw milk on a Danish dairy farm. To elucidate the genomic basis of this strain’s survival in the dairy industry, a high-quality draft...

  1. Prevalence and risk factors of bovine tuberculosis in dairy cattle in Eritrea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghebremariam, Michael K; Rutten, V P M G; Vernooij, J C M; Uqbazghi, K; Tesfaalem, T; Butsuamlak, T; Idris, A M; Nielen, M; Michel, A L

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in dairy cattle in the three major milk producing regions of Eritrea was assessed by subjecting 15,354 dairy cattle, 50 % of Eritrea's dairy cattle population, to the single intradermal comparative tuberculin test (SICTT). Skin test results

  2. Recording and analysis of locomotion in dairy cows with 3D accelerometers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, de R.M.; Lammers, R.J.H.; Pompe, J.C.A.M.; Ipema, A.H.; Hogewerf, P.H.

    2009-01-01

    An automated method for lameness detection can be an alternative for detection by regular observations. Accelerometers attached to a leg of the dairy cow can be used to record the locomotion of a dairy cow. In an experiment the 3D acceleration of the right hind leg during walking of three dairy cows

  3. Bovine tuberculosis and its risk factors among dairy cattle herds in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    associated risk factors of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) among dairy cattle herds was ... Keywords: Bovine tuberculosis, Dairy cattle herd, Prevalence, Risk factor ..... Comparative Intradermal Tuberculin Test in Dairy Cattle in the North of Ecuador and Risk Factors Associated with Bovine. Tuberculosis. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg ...

  4. Impact of a gradual increase in milk quotas on the EU dairy sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouamra-Mechemache, Z.; Jongeneel, R.; Requillart, V.

    2008-01-01

    The European Union (EU) dairy sector is facing significant changes due to EU enlargement, the Luxembourg reform and ongoing World Trade Organisation (WTO) negotiations. This paper explores the impact of alternative dairy policies in the context of a WTO agreement and further dairy policy

  5. Overview of Food Safety Hazards in the European Dairy Supply Chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asselt, Van E.D.; Fels, van der Ine; Marvin, H.J.P.; Bokhorst-van De Veen, Van H.; Nierop Groot, M.

    2017-01-01

    Monitoring of dairy products should preferably focus on the most relevant food safety hazards in the dairy supply chain. For this purpose, the possible presence of microbiological, chemical, and physical hazards as well as trends in the dairy supply chain that may affect their presence were

  6. The Sugarcane-Biofuel Expansion and Dairy Farmers' Responses in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novo, Andre; Jansen, Kees; Slingerland, Maja

    2012-01-01

    The expansion of sugarcane for biofuels is a highly contentious issue. The growth of sugarcane area has occurred simultaneously with a reduction of dairy production in Sao Paulo state, the primary production region for sugar and ethanol in Brazil. This paper analyses different dairy farm rationales to continue dairy production in the context of a…

  7. Dairy intake in relation to cardiovascular disease mortality and all-cause mortality: the Hoorn Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Aerde, M.A.; Soedamah-Muthu, S.S.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Snijder, M.B.; Nijpels, G.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.; Dekker, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Existing data from prospective cohort studies on dairy consumption and cardiovascular diseases are inconsistent. Even though the association between total dairy and cardiovascular diseases has been studied before, little is known about the effect of different types of dairy products on

  8. Dairy intake in relation to cardiovascular disease mortality and all-cause mortality: the Hoorn study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aerde, van M.A.; Soedamah-Muthu, S.S.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Snijder, M.B.; Nijpels, G.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.; Dekker, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Existing data from prospective cohort studies on dairy consumption and cardiovascular diseases are inconsistent. Even though the association between total dairy and cardiovascular diseases has been studied before, little is known about the effect of different types of dairy products on

  9. Detection of pencillin residue in cow milk at Kombolcha dairy farms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of antibiotics in dairy cattle for the treatment of diseases such as mastitis has contributed to the presence of residues in dairy products. Penicillin is commonly used veterinary drug to treat mastitis in dairy cattle. However, abundant use of it may be associated with the presence of its residues in milk at unsafe ...

  10. 78 FR 8434 - Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 6 RIN 0551-AA82 Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Program AGENCY: Foreign... on the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Program. DATES: We will consider comments that we..., administers the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing regulation codified at 7 CFR 6.20- 6.37 that provides...

  11. Characteristics of peri-urban dairy herds of Bobo-Dioulasso (Burkina Faso)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sidibe, M.; Boly, H.; Lakouetené, T.; Leroy, P.; Bosma, R.H.

    2004-01-01

    Peri-urban dairy cattle farms within 50 km of Bobo-Dioulasso were studied to assess herd type, disease incidence, management, feeding and breeding strategy. Out of 417 cattle farmers, 42% had dairy objectives and were studied. Among these peri-urban dairy farmers, 60% were settled, 36% semi-settled,

  12. Liquid--liquid contact in vapor explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segev, A.

    1978-08-01

    The contact of two liquid materials, one of which is at a temperature substantially above the boiling point of the other, can lead to fast energy conversion and a subsequent shock wave. This well-known phenomenon is called a ''vapor explosion.'' One method of producing intimate, liquid--liquid contact (which is known to be a necessary condition for vapor explosion) is a shock tube configuration. Such experiments in which water was impacted upon molten aluminum showed that very high pressures, even larger than the thermodynamic critical pressure, could occur. The mechanism by which such sharp pressure pulses are generated is not yet clear. In this experiment cold liquids (Freon-11, Freon-22, water, or butanol) were impacted upon various hot materials (mineral oil, silicone oil, water, mercury, molten Wood's metal or molten salt mixture). The main conclusion from the experimental study is that hydrodynamic effects may be very significant in any shock tube analyses, especially when multiple interactions are observed. A theoretical study was performed to check the possibility of vapor film squeezing (between a drop in film boiling and a surface) as a controlling mechanism for making liquid--liquid contact. Using experimental data, the film thickness was calculated and it was found to be too thick for any conceivable film rupture mechanism. It was suggested that the coalescence is a two-stage process, in which the controlling stage depends mainly on temperature and surface properties and can be described as the ability of cold liquid to spread on a hot surface

  13. Effects of dairy factory, milk casein content and titratable acidity on coagulation properties in Trentingrana dairy industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penasa, Mauro; Toffanin, Valentina; Cologna, Nicola; Cassandro, Martino; De Marchi, Massimo

    2016-05-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of environmental factors, milk casein content and titratable acidity on milk coagulation properties (MCP) of samples routinely collected in the Trento province (northeast Italy) under field conditions. Rennet coagulation time (RCT, min), curd-firming time (k20, min) and curd firmness (a30, mm) were determined by Formagraph on 14 971 samples from 635 herds associated to 17 dairy factories. Besides MCP, fat, protein, and casein percentages, titratable acidity (TA), and somatic cell and bacterial counts were available. A standardised index of milk aptitude to coagulate (IAC) was derived using information of RCT and a30. An analysis of variance was conducted on MCP and IAC using a fixed effects linear model. Approximately 3% of milk samples did not form a curd within the testing time (30 min) and k20 was missing for 26% of milks. The percentage of samples without information on k20 largely differed among dairy factories (1·7-20·9%). Significant differences were estimated between the best and the worst dairy factory for RCT (-2 min), k20 (-1·2 min), a30 (+3·4 mm) and IAC (+2·6 points). Milk casein content and TA were important factors in explaining the variation of MCP and IAC, supporting the central role of these two traits on technological properties. The Trento province is heterogeneous in terms of dairy systems and this could explain the differences among dairy factories.

  14. Dairy foods and dairy proteins in the management of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review of the clinical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasin, Gonca; Comerford, Kevin B

    2015-05-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a growing public health concern affecting hundreds of millions of people worldwide and costing the global economy hundreds of billions of dollars annually. This chronic disease damages the blood vessels and increases the risk of other cardiometabolic ailments such as cardiovascular disease and stroke. If left unmanaged it can also lead to nerve damage, kidney damage, blindness, and amputation. For the most part, many of these symptoms can be prevented or reduced through simple dietary modifications and proper nutrition. Therefore, identifying relatively inexpensive and easily implementable dietary modifications for the prevention and management of T2DM is of considerable value to human health and healthcare modalities around the globe. Protein-rich dairy products have consistently been shown in epidemiologic studies to be beneficial for reducing the risk of developing T2DM. The clinical evidence regarding both dairy foods and dairy proteins (i.e., casein and whey protein) have shown promise for improving insulin secretion in individuals with T2DM. However, the clinical research on dairy protein supplementation in subjects with T2DM has been limited to acute studies. These studies have been mostly descriptive and have not been focused on important T2DM endpoints such as prevention, management, or treatment. Long-term studies are clearly needed to help researchers and medical professionals better understand the effects of consistent dairy protein intake on the metabolic health of humans with T2DM. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. What is the benefit of organically-reared dairy cattle? Societal perception towards conventional and organic dairy farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inken Christoph-Schulz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available During the last years, current systems in agriculture and food production have been topic in public discussions. Especially modern animal husbandry seems not to match consumers’ or societal needs any longer. This paper concentrates on the society’s perspective regarding dairy farming in general and diverting perceptions and expectations with respect to dairy cattle either reared organically or reared conventionally. It aims to give orientation to farmers as well as policymakers about the societal point of view of dairy farming.Six focus groups were carried out in three German cities to capture the scope of opinions and expectations among the population. Three of those groups consisted of participants buying mainly organic food while the other three comprised citizens buying mainly conventional food.With respect to society’s perception of today’s dairy farming results showed that participants put emphasis on the following topics: the space for each cow was considered as insufficient and not species-appropriate, assumed application of medications as too high, and in particular the prophylactic use of antibiotics as problematic.Asked about perceived differences between organic versus conventional farming it became obvious that organic in contrast to the conventional farming was perceived as more species-appropriate. More or less, all previously criticized aspects seem to be regarded as irrelevant in organic farming. Some participants showed a very romantic view of organic dairy farming. The most critical point was an assumed high rate of rogue traders among organic farmers.

  16. Some non-thermal microbial inactivation methods in dairy products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yangilar, F.; Kabil, E.

    2013-01-01

    During the production of dairy products, some thermal processes such as pasteurization and sterilization are used commonly to inactive microorganisms. But as a result of thermal processes, loss of nutrient and aroma, non-enzymatic browning and organoleptic differentiation especially in dairy products are seen. Because of this, alternative methods are needed to provide microbial inactivation and as major problems are caused by high temperatures, non-thermal processes are focused on. For this purpose, some methods such as high pressure (HP), pulsed light (PL), ultraviolet radiation (UV), supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) or pulsed electric field (PEF) are used in food. These methods products are processed in ambient temperature and so not only mentioned losses are minimized but also freshness and naturality of products can be preserved. In this work, we will try to be given information about methods of non-thermal microbial inactivation of dairy products. (author) [tr

  17. Processing Challenges and Opportunities of Camel Dairy Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berhe, Tesfemariam; Seifu, Eyassu; Ipsen, Richard

    2017-01-01

    A review on the challenges and opportunities of processing camel milk into dairy products is provided with an objective of exploring the challenges of processing and assessing the opportunities for developing functional products from camel milk. The gross composition of camel milk is similar...... to bovine milk. Nonetheless, the relative composition, distribution, and the molecular structure of the milk components are reported to be different. Consequently, manufacturing of camel dairy products such as cheese, yoghurt, or butter using the same technology as for dairy products from bovine milk can...... result in processing difficulties and products of inferior quality. However, scientific evidence points to the possibility of transforming camel milk into products by optimization of the processing parameters. Additionally, camel milk has traditionally been used for its medicinal values and recent...

  18. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE LABOUR PRODUCTIVITY IN DAIRY SECTOR IN EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radek ZDENĚK

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The most important for the stability of Europe and Czech milk market is to remain competitive in world markets, as the main way for balance on the internal market is based on successful export of dairy products to third countries. Price volatility and environmental sustainability are seen as the most serious current problems in the dairy industry and dairy farming. The aim of this paper is to assess the development of the production and milk prices in the EU and assess the main factors that affect labour productivity. The number of cows per worker is one of the most important factors affecting labour productivity. Effect of prices on labour productivity in monetary expression is not as significant as is usually assumed. The technical equipment of labour should be an important factor influencing the number of cows per worker. The hypothesis that higher technical equipment of labour should create better conditions for higher productivity could be assumed.

  19. Reproductive performance of dairy cattle in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, R.T.; Barnabe, R.C.; Morales, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    The review describes the commonly practised systems of milk production in sample countries within the five major topographical/climatological subregions of Latin America, viz. Central America, the Caribbean, the South American subtropics, the Andes and the Temperate Zone. The state of development and importance of the dairy industry to the economy of each country are discussed. Production and reproduction indices are quoted, as are the genetic make-up of the dairy herds, husbandry practices and the quality of livestock management. It is clear that there is an enormous capacity for improvement in the efficiency of milk production systems in the Latin American region as a whole; to achieve this improvement, there is an urgent need to pursue on-farm based research aimed at identifying constraints to the performance of dairy cattle and the implementation of low cost management/nutritional/health control measures. (author)

  20. Energy conservation and cost benefits in the dairy processing industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    Guidance is given on measuring energy consumption in the plant and pinpointing areas where energy-conservation activities can return the most favorable economics. General energy-conservation techniques applicable to most or all segments of the dairy processing industry, including the fluid milk segment, are emphasized. These general techniques include waste heat recovery, improvements in electric motor efficiency, added insulation, refrigeration improvements, upgrading of evaporators, and increases in boiler efficiency. Specific examples are given in which these techniques are applied to dairy processing plants. The potential for energy savings by cogeneration of process steam and electricity in the dairy industry is also discussed. Process changes primarily applicable to specific milk products which have resulted in significant energy cost savings at some facilities or which promise significant contributions in the future are examined. A summary checklist of plant housekeeping measures for energy conservation and guidelines for economic evaluation of conservation alternatives are provided. (MHR)

  1. Incidence of Cronobacter sakazakii in Dairy-based Desserts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagah M. Saad

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Cronobacter sakazakii is one of emerging foodborne pathogens around the world. A total of 90 dairy-based desserts samples (ice cream, Muhallabia and rice pudding were examined for detecting C. sakazakii. All samples were submitted for bacteriological examination and confirmed by molecular identification using 16S rRNA gene for C. sakazakii. The bacteriological and molecular examination revealed that the incidence of occurrence of C. sakazakii was 5.55% from the total dairy-based desserts samples, the highest percentage occurred in rice pudding samples (10%, while the incidence of C. sakazakii in ice cream and Muhallabia were 3.33% for each type. The results pointed out that high risk for human may occur by contaminated dairy-based desserts. The hygienic precautions must be taken during the processing of these types of products.

  2. GEOSPATIAL TECHNOLOGY: A MODERN APPROACH TO SUSTAINABLE DAIRY PRODUCTION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. DUNEA

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper briefly presents several applications of the geospatial technology as a method to maximize the efficiency of the dairy farm management. The experiment was carried out at Negraşi dairy farm in Târgovişte Plain. A functional farm production and mapping program for detailed farm management information system with several modules: mapping, forage stock, feed forecaster, individual cattle database, fuel consume for field operations and farm inputs database was developed for handheld computers with GPS navigation. Such portable information tools might help the decision making process, the development of ideo-types or in the exploration of land use options to support the policy makers at eco-regional level, the management staff at farm level and various other applications in dairy farms.

  3. Contemporary aspects in assessment of protein needs in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grubić Goran

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of meeting protein needs in dairy cows is to provide sufficient degradable proteins, which are optimally used in the rumen, to provide the required level of productivity with a minimal amount of crude protein in the diet. The new concept, shown in this paper, which expresses protein value as metabolic, enables better protein balancing in dairy cows than before. The nutritive value of metabolic protein in dairy cows depends on essential amino acid composition of protein and their contribution to total essential amino acids. The improvement of protein utilization efficiency has practical implications. The reason for this is to decrease feeding costs per kilogram of milk or milk protein, the need for more efficient production, higher milk protein yield and to allow other nutrients in the diet to prove their influence on the increase of production.

  4. Evolution of microbiological analytical methods for dairy industry needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele eSohier

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, culture-based methods have been used to enumerate microbial populations in dairy products. Recent developments in molecular methods now enable faster and more sensitive analyses than classical microbiology procedures. These molecular tools allow a detailed characterization of cell physiological states and bacterial fitness and thus, offer new perspectives to integration of microbial physiology monitoring to improve industrial processes. This review summarizes the methods described to enumerate and characterize physiological states of technological microbiota in dairy products, and discusses the current deficiencies in relation to the industry’s needs. Recent studies show that PCR-based methods can successfully be applied to quantify fermenting microbes and probiotics in dairy products. Flow cytometry and omics technologies also show interesting analytical potentialities. However, they still suffer from a lack of validation and standardization for quality control analyses, as reflected by the absence of performance studies and official international standards.

  5. Method development for the analysis of ionophore antimicrobials in dairy manure to assess removal within a membrane-based treatment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Jerod J; Wallace, Josh S; Aga, Diana S

    2018-04-01

    Ionophore antimicrobials are heavily used in the livestock industries, both for preventing animal infection by coccidia protozoa and for increasing feed efficiency. Ionophores are excreted mostly unmetabolized and are released into the environment when manure is land-applied to fertilize croplands. Here, an analytical method was optimized to study the occurrences of five ionophore residues (monensin, lasalocid, maduramycin, salinomycin, and narasin) in dairy manure after solid-liquid separation and further treatment of the liquid manure by a membrane-based treatment system. Ionophore residues from the separated solid manure (dewatered manure) and suspended solids of manure slurry samples were extracted using ultrasonication with methanol, followed by sample clean-up using solid phase extraction (SPE) and subsequent analysis via liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The use of an ethyl acetate and methanol (1:1 v:v) mixture as an SPE eluent resulted in higher recoveries and lower method quantitation limits (MQL), when compared to using methanol. Overall recoveries from separated solid manure ranged from 73 to 134%. Liquid manure fractions were diluted with Nanopure™ water and cleaned up using SPE, where recoveries ranged from 51 to 100%. The developed extraction and LC-MS/MS methods were applied to analyze dairy manure samples subjected to an advanced manure treatment process involving a membrane-based filtration step (reverse osmosis). Monensin and lasalocid were detected at higher concentrations in the suspended solid fractions (4.40-420 ng/g for lasalocid and 85-1950 ng/g for monensin) compared to the liquid fractions (liquid manure treated with reverse osmosis where residual concentrations were reduced to near 8 ng/mL. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Applying nutrition and physiology to improve reproduction in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, J E P; Bisinotto, R S; Ribeiro, E S; Lima, F S; Greco, L F; Staples, C R; Thatcher, W W

    2010-01-01

    The establishment and maintenance of pregnancy in lactating dairy cows is a complex biological event that is influenced by a multitude of factors, from the reproductive biology of the cow to managerial aspects of the dairy farm. It is often mentioned in the scientific literature that fertility in dairy cows has declined concurrent with major advances in milk production. Some of this decline is attributed to the negative genetic correlation between milk production and reproduction. In the United States, yearly production per cow has increased steadily at a rate of 1.3% in the last decade and it is likely that this trend will continue in the years to come. At this rate, the average cow in the United States will be producing over 14 tons of milk per year in 2050 and technologies will have to be developed to allow these cows to reproduce to maintain the sustainability of dairy production. Despite high production, it is not uncommon for dairy herds with rolling herd averages for milk yield above 11,000 kg to overcome the challenges of reproduction and obtain satisfactory reproductive performance. Among other things, those herds have been able to mitigate some of the mechanisms that suppress reproduction in dairy cows such as extended postpartum anovulatory period, poor estrous detection, low pregnancy per insemination and, to a lesser extent, the high pregnancy loss. The success of those farms comes from an integrated approach to fertility that includes adequate cow comfort, elaborated transition cow management and nutrition, aggressive postpartum health monitoring program with preventative and curative measures to mitigate the negative effects of diseases on reproduction, and a sound reproductive program that includes manipulation of the ovarian cycle to allow for increased insemination rate. More recently, introduction of fertility traits in selection programs have created new opportunities for improved reproduction without neglecting economically important production

  7. Application of Bacteriocins and Protective Cultures in Dairy Food Preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia C. G. Silva

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, consumers are becoming increasingly aware of the human health risk posed by the use of chemical preservatives in foods. In contrast, the increasing demand by the dairy industry to extend shelf-life and prevent spoilage of dairy products has appeal for new preservatives and new methods of conservation. Bacteriocins are antimicrobial peptides, which can be considered as safe since they can be easily degraded by proteolytic enzymes of the mammalian gastrointestinal tract. Also, most bacteriocin producers belong to lactic acid bacteria (LAB, a group that occurs naturally in foods and have a long history of safe use in dairy industry. Since they pose no health risk concerns, bacteriocins, either purified or excreted by bacteriocin producing strains, are a great alternative to the use of chemical preservatives in dairy products. Bacteriocins can be applied to dairy foods on a purified/crude form or as a bacteriocin-producing LAB as a part of fermentation process or as adjuvant culture. A number of applications of bacteriocins and bacteriocin-producing LAB have been reported to successful control pathogens in milk, yogurt, and cheeses. One of the more recent trends consists in the incorporation of bacteriocins, directly as purified or semi-purified form or in incorporation of bacteriocin-producing LAB into bioactive films and coatings, applied directly onto the food surfaces and packaging. This review is focused on recent developments and applications of bacteriocins and bacteriocin-producing LAB for reducing the microbiological spoilage and improve safety of dairy products.

  8. Costs of Producing Biogas at Dairy Farms in The Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomie A. Gebrezgabher

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available By 2020, Dutch dairy chains envisage to be self-sufficient with regard to energy used by dairy farms and dairy processors. This would require dairy farms to produce 25 PJ per year, possibly by a combination of wind, solar and biogas. This paper focuses on biogas. To evaluate the project’s viability we estimated the expected technical and financial performance of 4 types of business models, i.e. “CHP-farm”, “CHP-large”, “green gas” and “central upgrading of green gas”. Data stem from among others 23 biogas plants in the Netherlands. Anticipating that CHP-models and green gas models occur with a likelihood of 40% and 60% respectively, the total number of biogas plants would amount to 232 (1% of dairy farms, including a total of 5 million tons of manure per year (14% of all cattle manure in the Netherlands and annual government subsidies of Euro 295 million. Aggregated annual profits are expected to be positive, but over the project’s total life time there is an expected deficit of Euro 262. For this to change costs of feedstocks or digestate disposal costs would for instance have to go down. Also fully switching to green gas models dampens the deficit. Results are used in current stakeholders debates on the organization of an “energy neutral dairy chain” in the Netherlands. Further analyses incorporating uncertainty around key technical and economic parameters including financial impacts of CO2-reductions are underway.

  9. Short communication: Cinnamaldehyde taste preferences of weaned dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, C E; Cabral, R G; Aragona, K M; Erickson, P S

    2016-05-01

    Within a dairy enterprise, one major cost is raising young calves. Optimizing the feeding programs of dairy calves is imperative for the sustainability and profitability of dairy operations. Essential oils appear to be natural alternatives to antibiotics and function similarly to ionophores. Supplemental antibiotic ionophores have been very successful in improving feed efficiency and rate of gain in calves, as well as decreasing disease incidences; however, calves may be developing resistance to ionophores and the use of antibiotics in animal feeds has been a major concern for consumers. No current research has examined the value or palatability of supplementing essential oils to dairy heifers. The purpose of this sequential elimination experiment was to evaluate the taste preferences of 6 weaned dairy heifers [approximately 3mo old; 95±10.8kg of body weight (BW)] provided with 0 (control), 1, 2, 3, or 4mg/kg of BW of cinnamaldehyde daily. Heifers had 2 d of adaptation to the new feeding regimen before the experiment started and were then offered the 5 experimental diets for 5 d. The most preferred diet was removed and the study continued with the 4 remaining diets. The most preferred diets were again eliminated sequentially, so that only 2 diets remained on d 13 and 14. Each diet was ranked based on the weight of feed refused at the end of each feeding segment. Overall ranking of the 5 treatments were control, 2, 1, 3, and 4mg/kg of BW of cinnamaldehyde. Results indicated that heifers preferred diets without cinnamaldehyde; however, when only cinnamaldehyde diets remained, dry matter intake was not negatively affected regardless of the concentration of cinnamaldehyde provided. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Robotic milking of dairy cows: a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Maculan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available An innovative technology that currently tries to gain market share are milking robots. Despite the high costs, robotic milking may produce benefits for the farmer and for animals submitted to this system. The objective of this study was to perform a literature review on the use of robotic milking of dairy cows, addressing aspects such as implementation and functioning of the system and effect on milking frequency, milk production and composition, somatic cell count, mastitis, reproduction, and animal welfare. The results showed that the programming of the robot depends on the number of animals to be milked daily and on the milking frequency adopted in each batch. The implementation of the system mainly depends on the site where the facilities will be built and already existing structures on the farm. The milking frequency is higher for high-producing cows and at the beginning of lactation and is influenced by the palatability of the concentrate offered at the time of milking. Frequencies higher than three times per day reduce total milk fat production and increase the concentration of free fatty acids. The incidence of mastitis and somatic cell count tend to increase in the first three months after implementation of the system. After the second year, udder health tends to improve, normalizing mastitis incidence and somatic cell count. Reproduction of the cows is not affected if dry matter intake compensates the higher energy expenditure required for higher milk productions. Robotic milking improves cow welfare since the animals voluntarily turn to the robot when they feel discomfort.

  11. Use of metabolic profiles in dairy cattle in tropical and subtropical countries on smallholder dairy farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitaker, D.A.; Goodger, W.J.; Garcia, M.; Perera, B.M.A.O.; Wittwer, F.

    1999-01-01

    Metabolic profile testing has generally been used as part of a multi-disciplinary approach for dairy herds in temperate climates. Our goal was to evaluate the effectiveness of the technique for identifying constraints on productivity in small herds in environments less favourable for milk production. Metabolites tested were chosen for stability in the sample after collection of blood, ease of analysis and practical knowledge of the meaning of the results. Blood levels of five different metabolites in low producing dairy cows belonging to smallholders in tropical and subtropical environments were measured. The study involved 13 projects with 80 cows in each, carried out in six Latin American, six Asian and one southern European country. Data was also collected on feeding, body condition (BCS) and weight change, parasitism and reproduction. In Chile, Mexico, Paraguay, Philippines, Uruguay and Venezuela globulin levels were high in more than 17% of cows sampled on each occasion. Globulin levels were also high in Turkey and Viet Nam on one or more occasions. In Paraguay 49% of cows had high globulin levels at 2-3 months after calving. These results suggest that inflammatory disease was present to a potentially important degree, although this was not always investigated and not always taken into account. In all countries except Mexico and Venezuela high β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) levels before calving in many cows highlighted the presence of condition loss in late pregnancy, an important potential constraint on productivity and fertility. Fewer cows showed high BHB levels in lactation where change in BCS and weight was more sensitive for measuring negative energy balance. Urea concentrations were only found to be low in small numbers of cows suggesting that dietary protein shortages were not common. Albumin values were low mainly in cows where globulin values were high and so did not generally provide additional information. The exception was in China where pregnant yaks

  12. Risk factors for neonatal calf diarrhoea and enteropathogen shedding in New Zealand dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Mawly, J; Grinberg, A; Prattley, D; Moffat, J; Marshall, J; French, N

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the risk factors for neonatal calf diarrhoea, a cross-sectional study was conducted on 97 New Zealand dairy farms. Faecal specimens from 1283 calves were scored as liquid, semi-solid or solid, and analysed for bovine rotavirus (BRV) and coronavirus (BCV), enterotoxigenic K99(+)Escherichia coli (K99), Salmonella spp. and Cryptosporidium parvum. Calf- and farm-level data were collected by means of a questionnaire and the odds of liquid faeces calculated using mixed effects logistic regression models. Among the infectious agents, only C. parvum (odds ratio [OR] = 2.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-5.6; P = 0.02), BRV (OR = 2.7; 95% CI, 1.3-5.9; P = 0.01) and co-infection with more than one agent (compared with mono-infection: OR = 2.5; 95% CI, 1.3-4.8; P = 0.01) were associated with increased odds of liquid faeces in calves which were 9 to 21 days old. Housing of calves in open barns so exposing them to the weather was also associated with increased odds of liquid faeces compared with closed barns (OR = 2.1; 95% CI, 1.1-12.2; P = 0.03). Vaccinating cows against calf enteropathogens (OR = 0.2; 95% CI, 0.1-0.9; P = 0.03), administering waste milk (from mastitis and/or containing antibiotics; OR = 0.4; 95% CI, 0.1-0.8; P = 0.01), the sex of calves (females compared to males OR = 0.2, 95% CI, 0.07-0.7; P associated with liquid faeces (OR = 4.6; 95% CI, 1.2-16.1; P = 0.02). In this age group, the odds of liquid faeces were smaller on farms where females took care of the calves, compared with males (OR = 0.4; 95% CI, 0.01-0.9; P = 0.04). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Liquid Wall Chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, W R

    2011-02-24

    The key feature of liquid wall chambers is the use of a renewable liquid layer to protect chamber structures from target emissions. Two primary options have been proposed and studied: wetted wall chambers and thick liquid wall (TLW) chambers. With wetted wall designs, a thin layer of liquid shields the structural first wall from short ranged target emissions (x-rays, ions and debris) but not neutrons. Various schemes have been proposed to establish and renew the liquid layer between shots including flow-guiding porous fabrics (e.g., Osiris, HIBALL), porous rigid structures (Prometheus) and thin film flows (KOYO). The thin liquid layer can be the tritium breeding material (e.g., flibe, PbLi, or Li) or another liquid metal such as Pb. TLWs use liquid jets injected by stationary or oscillating nozzles to form a neutronically thick layer (typically with an effective thickness of {approx}50 cm) of liquid between the target and first structural wall. In addition to absorbing short ranged emissions, the thick liquid layer degrades the neutron flux and energy reaching the first wall, typically by {approx}10 x x, so that steel walls can survive for the life of the plant ({approx}30-60 yrs). The thick liquid serves as the primary coolant and tritium breeding material (most recent designs use flibe, but the earliest concepts used Li). In essence, the TLW places the fusion blanket inside the first wall instead of behind the first wall.

  14. An Assessment of Ammonia Emissions from Dairy Facilities in Pennsylvania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D. Ferguson

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A survey of 715 Holstein dairy farms in Pennsylvania was used to construct demographics for the average Holstein dairy farm. The average Holstein dairy farm was composed of 69 lactating cows; 11 nonlactating, pregnant cows; 44 heifers; and 18 calves. Milk production averaged 27.3 kg (60.0 lb. Crop area averaged 73.6 ha. Milk production, crop area and type, average county yields, and herd animal groups were used to construct a typical feeding program for these farms. Typical rations were constructed for six feeding groups (three milk production groups, one nonlactating group, two heifer groups to meet milk production, pregnancy, and growth requirements. Rations were constructed based on three forage qualities (excellent, average, and poor typically observed on Pennsylvania dairy farms. Data for animal description (milk production, body weight, growth, and pregnancy status and ration components and amounts consumed for each animal group were input into the excretion model of the Dairy Nutrient Planner computer program (DNP. Excretion of fecal N and dry matter (DM, urinary N, and total P and K were produced for each animal group and used to assess potential volatile losses of N. Work at the Marshak Dairy, New Bolton Center, indicates the majority of urinary N is rapidly lost as ammonia from dairy facilities. Based on this observation, the losses of N as ammonia were estimated to be 4.63, 4.62, and 4.28�tonne/year for the farm with excellent, average, and poor quality forages, respectively. Volatile losses of N may be reduced most by controlling levels of urea in urine. Urinary N may be reduced through dietary manipulation of protein and carbohydrate sources. Conversion of urea to ammonia may be reduced by altering the pH of barn floors and gutters. Entrapment of ammonia may be accomplished by acidification of manure slurry. Atmospheric ammonia contributes to acid rain, eutrophication of estuaries and lakes, and particulate air pollution

  15. Novel insights into the microbiology of fermented dairy foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macori, Guerrino; Cotter, Paul D

    2018-02-01

    Fermentation is a traditional approach to food preservation that, in addition to improving food safety, also confers enhanced organoleptic, nutritional, and health-promoting attributes upon those foods. Dairy products can be fermented by a diverse microbiota. The accompanying microbes can be studied using a variety of different, including 'omics'-based, approaches that can reveal their composition and functionality. These methods have increasingly been recently applied to study fermented dairy foods from the perspective of genetic diversity, functionality and succession. The insights provided by these studies are summarised in this review. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Dairy consumption, systolic blood pressure, and risk of hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming; Huang, Tao; Bergholdt, Helle Km

    2017-01-01

    Objective To examine whether previous observed inverse associations of dairy intake with systolic blood pressure and risk of hypertension were causal.Design Mendelian randomization study using the single nucleotide polymorphism rs4988235 related to lactase persistence as an instrumental variable...... blood pressure but not risk of hypertension (odds ratio 0.98, 0.97 to 1.00; P=0.11).Conclusion The weak inverse association between dairy intake and systolic blood pressure in observational studies was not supported by a comprehensive instrumental variable analysis and systematic review of existing...

  17. MICROALGAE BIOMASS PRODUCTION BASED ON WASTEWATER FROM DAIRY INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Dębowski

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to determine the feasibility of culturing high-oil algae biomass based on wastewater from dairy processing plants. The experiments were conducted in laboratory scale with tubular photobioreactor using. The best technological properties were demonstrated for eluates from an anaerobic reactor treating dairy wastewater. The use of a substrate of this type yielded algae biomass concentration at a level of 3490 mg d.m./dm3, with the mean rate of algae biomass growth at 176 mg d.m./dm3∙d. The mean content of oil in the proliferated biomass of algae approximated 20%.

  18. Yogurt and dairy product consumption to prevent cardiometabolic diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Arne

    2014-01-01

    , such as cheese, do not exert the negative effects on blood lipids as predicted solely by the content of saturated fat. Calcium and other bioactive components may modify the effects on LDL cholesterol and triglycerides. Apart from supplying valuable dairy nutrients, yogurt may also exert beneficial probiotic...... effects. The consumption of yogurt, and other dairy products, in observational studies is associated with a reduced risk of weight gain and obesity as well as of CVD, and these findings are, in part, supported by randomized trials....

  19. Spread of tetracycline resistance genes at a conventional dairy farm

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kyselková, Martina; Jirout, Jiří; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Schmitt, H.; Elhottová, Dana

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 6, may (2015), s. 536 ISSN 1664-302X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP504/10/2077; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 ; RVO:60077344 Keywords : antibiotic resistance spread * animal manure * cattle intestinal microflora * chlortetracycline * dairy cattle * dairy farm * heavy metals * tetracycline resistance genes Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics; EE - Microbiology, Virology (BC-A) Impact factor: 4.165, year: 2015

  20. Stochastic models to simulate paratuberculosis in dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Weber, M.F.; Kudahl, Anne Margrethe Braad

    2011-01-01

    Stochastic simulation models are widely accepted as a means of assessing the impact of changes in daily management and the control of different diseases, such as paratuberculosis, in dairy herds. This paper summarises and discusses the assumptions of four stochastic simulation models and their use...... the models are somewhat different in their underlying principles and do put slightly different values on the different strategies, their overall findings are similar. Therefore, simulation models may be useful in planning paratuberculosis strategies in dairy herds, although as with all models caution...

  1. Adoption of Indigenous Dairy Management Practices among Tribal Farm Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chigasil M. Sangma

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted among the tribal farm women of West Garo Hills District of Meghalaya, India with the objective to determine the extent of adoption of indigenous dairy management practices. Proportionate random sampling was used in selection of 120 respondents. Practices having rationality for adoption of indigenous dairy management practices were collected and the data were analyzed using percentage analysis. The findings revealed that majority of the respondents adopted care and management of dry and pregnant cows. This was followed by adoption of other practices viz.., selection of breed and feeding, care during and after calving and milking technique

  2. Feeding Dairy Cows to Increase Performance on Rhodes Grass Ley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irungu, K.R.G.; Mbugua, P.N.

    1999-01-01

    Majority of dairy farmers in Kenya produce milk from cows fed on roughage. The cow performance follows seasonal variability in quality and quantity of roughage. The objective of the current study was to increase cow performance and maintain productivity of a rhodes grass (chloris gayana) ley. Twenty-four Freisian cows in their second to third lactation were strip grazed on fertilized irrigated Rhodes grass at a stocking rate of 0.034 ha per cow. Four dietary groups of six cows were allocated to one of our diets. one group got no dairy meal while the other three groups were supplemented at a 1kg of dairy meal per 10, 5 and 2.5 kg of 4% fat corrected milk dairy. this amount to 0, 386, 750 and 1542 kg dairy meal (89.4%, DM, 93.7 OM, 16.8, CP and CF) during the lactation. during the 43 - week lactation, records on pasture nutrient yield, nutrient intake, milk yield, liveweight, reproduction and subsequent calf birth weight were collected. The Rhodes grass ley produced 20.7 (ranging from 16.7 to 28.7) t of dry matter (DM) per hectare and cows harvested 16.0 (12.0 to 24.0) t during the 43 weeks.The Rhodes grass contained 32.1, 87.7, 10.8, and 32.3% DM, organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP) and crude fiber (CF) respectively. Mean stubble of 4.7 (3.9 to 6.0) t DM per hectare was left at pasture. Feeding dairy meals significantly increased (P 0.05) affect batter fat content (3.78 to 3.96%). It maintained (P > 0.05) cow liveweight and increased (P < 0.05) calf birth weight from 32.7 to 37.2 kg. Feeding dairy meal did not affect oestrus cycling. Extreme supplementation, 1542 kg dairy meal, decreased (P < 0.05) fertility. Insemination per conception and calving interval increased (P < 0.05) from 1.5 to 3.5 and 522 days. The findings in the current study show that pasture yield can be increased by over 590% dry matter from 3.5 t obtained from natural pasture containing Kikuyu and Star grasses. The Rhodes grass yield can be increased to 232% of national average yield of 1300

  3. [Relationship between primary lactose malabsorption and consumption of dairy products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escribano Subias, J; Sanz Manrique, N; Villa Elizaga, I; Tormo Carnicé, R

    1993-02-01

    This study was designed to determine the influence of lactose malabsorption on the consumption of dairy products. We studied 157 children and 43 adults. The Breath-hydrogen test was used to define their level of lactose digestion. The prevalence of lactose maldigesters was 12%. We found a large relationship between the consumption of milk and milk products and age. Malabsorbers consumed more fermented dairy products (ripened cheese and yogurt) than did absorbers (p butter, cream cheese and global lactose than the maldigesters (p < 0.05). Lactose intolerance, familiar consumption and geographic origins had little influence on an individual's consumption habits.

  4. Dairy consumption, systolic blood pressure, and risk of hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming; Huang, Tao; Bergholdt, Helle K M

    2017-01-01

    Objective To examine whether previous observed inverse associations of dairy intake with systolic blood pressure and risk of hypertension were causal.Design Mendelian randomization study using the single nucleotide polymorphism rs4988235 related to lactase persistence as an instrumental variable.......001) and was not associated with systolic blood pressure (0.31, 95% confidence interval -0.05 to 0.68 mm Hg; P=0.09) or risk of hypertension (odds ratio 1.01, 95% confidence interval 0.97 to 1.05; P=0.27). Using LCT-13910 rs4988235 as the instrumental variable, genetically determined dairy consumption was not associated...

  5. The effects of Sepiolite-SPLF on heavy pigs fed liquid diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Parisini

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Liquid feed delivery systems for pigs have tended to be more common in areas where liquid by-products (i.e. dairy whey are readily available and where the size of the production unit can justify the capital expenditure involved. The potential advantages of liquid feeding include: a reduction of feed loss during handling and feeding; b improvement in the pig's environment due to the reduction of dust in the atmosphere; c improved pig performance and feed conversion rate (Jensen and Mikkelsen, 1998; Dell’Orto et al., 1992; d flexibility in raw material use (opportunity to utilise more economic food source, i.e. silages; e improved dry matter intake in lactating sows. However, very few studies have been done concerning technical quality of the liquid feed with respect to homogeneity, fluidity and sedimentation (Hoppenbrock et al., 1998...

  6. Liquid-liquid contact in vapor explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segev, A.

    1978-08-01

    The contact of two liquid materials, one of which is at a temperature substantially above the boiling point of the other, can lead to fast energy conversion and a subsequent shock wave. This phenomenon is called a vapor explosion. One method of producing intimate, liquid-liquid contact (which is known to be a necessary condition for vapor explosion) is a shock tube configuration. Such experiments in which water was impacted upon molten aluminum showed that very high pressures, even larger than the thermodynamic critical pressure, could occur. The mechanism by which such sharp pressure pulses are generated is not yet clear. The report describes experiments in which cold liquids (Freon-11, Freon-22, water, or butanol) were impacted upon various hot materials

  7. Greenhouse gas emissions from dairy manure management: a review of field-based studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Justine J; Silver, Whendee L

    2015-02-01

    Livestock manure management accounts for almost 10% of greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture globally, and contributes an equal proportion to the US methane emission inventory. Current emissions inventories use emissions factors determined from small-scale laboratory experiments that have not been compared to field-scale measurements. We compiled published data on field-scale measurements of greenhouse gas emissions from working and research dairies and compared these to rates predicted by the IPCC Tier 2 modeling approach. Anaerobic lagoons were the largest source of methane (368 ± 193 kg CH4 hd(-1) yr(-1)), more than three times that from enteric fermentation (~120 kg CH4 hd(-1) yr(-1)). Corrals and solid manure piles were large sources of nitrous oxide (1.5 ± 0.8 and 1.1 ± 0.7 kg N2O hd(-1) yr(-1), respectively). Nitrous oxide emissions from anaerobic lagoons (0.9 ± 0.5 kg N2O hd(-1) yr(-1)) and barns (10 ± 6 kg N2O hd(-1) yr(-1)) were unexpectedly large. Modeled methane emissions underestimated field measurement means for most manure management practices. Modeled nitrous oxide emissions underestimated field measurement means for anaerobic lagoons and manure piles, but overestimated emissions from slurry storage. Revised emissions factors nearly doubled slurry CH4 emissions for Europe and increased N2O emissions from solid piles and lagoons in the United States by an order of magnitude. Our results suggest that current greenhouse gas emission factors generally underestimate emissions from dairy manure and highlight liquid manure systems as promising target areas for greenhouse gas mitigation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Concentrations of danofloxacin 18% solution in plasma, milk and tissues after subcutaneous injection in dairy cows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mestorino, N. [Pharmacology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, CC 296, 1900 La Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina)], E-mail: nmestorino@yahoo.com; Marchetti, M.L.; Turic, E.; Pesoa, J.; Errecalde, J. [Pharmacology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, CC 296, 1900 La Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2009-04-01

    Danofloxacin is a fluoroquinolone developed for use in veterinary medicine. Its concentrations and pharmacokinetic profile in plasma, milk and tissues of lactating dairy cows were determined, and its milk withdrawal time (WT) calculated. Twenty-one dairy cows received a single subcutaneous administration of 18% mesylate danofloxacin salt (6 mg kg{sup -1}). Plasma and milk samples were obtained at different times until 48 h. Groups of three animals were sacrificed at different post-administration times and tissue samples (mammary gland, uterus, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, colon and mesenteric lymph nodes) obtained. Danofloxacin concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The milk WT was calculated by the Time to Safe Concentration method (Software WTM 1.4, EMEA). Danofloxacin was rapidly absorbed and its distribution from plasma to all sampled tissues and milk was extensive. Milk and tissues concentrations were several times above those found in plasma. Plasma area under the curve (AUCp) was 9.69 {mu}g h mL{sup -1} and its elimination half life (T{sub {beta}}{sup 1/2}) was 12.53 h. AUC values for the various tissues and milk greatly exceeded AUCp. T{sub {beta}}{sup 1/2} from milk and tissues ranged between 4.57 and 21.91 h and the milk withdrawal time was 73.48 h. The reported results support the potential use of danofloxacin in the treatment of mastitis and other infections in milk cows with 3 days of withdrawal.

  9. Choline and Choline Metabolite Patterns and Associations in Blood and Milk during Lactation in Dairy Cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artegoitia, Virginia M.; Middleton, Jesse L.; Harte, Federico M.; Campagna, Shawn R.; de Veth, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Milk and dairy products are an important source of choline, a nutrient essential for human health. Infant formula derived from bovine milk contains a number of metabolic forms of choline, all contribute to the growth and development of the newborn. At present, little is known about the factors that influence the concentrations of choline metabolites in milk. The objectives of this study were to characterize and then evaluate associations for choline and its metabolites in blood and milk through the first 37 weeks of lactation in the dairy cow. Milk and blood samples from twelve Holstein cows were collected in early, mid and late lactation and analyzed for acetylcholine, free choline, betaine, glycerophosphocholine, lysophosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphocholine and sphingomyelin using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and quantified using stable isotope-labeled internal standards. Total choline concentration in plasma, which was almost entirely phosphatidylcholine, increased 10-times from early to late lactation (1305 to 13,535 µmol/L). In milk, phosphocholine was the main metabolite in early lactation (492 µmol/L), which is a similar concentration to that found in human milk, however, phosphocholine concentration decreased exponentially through lactation to 43 µmol/L in late lactation. In contrast, phosphatidylcholine was the main metabolite in mid and late lactation (188 µmol/L and 659 µmol/L, respectively), with the increase through lactation positively correlated with phosphatidylcholine in plasma (R 2 = 0.78). Unlike previously reported with human milk we found no correlation between plasma free choline concentration and milk choline metabolites. The changes in pattern of phosphocholine and phosphatidylcholine in milk through lactation observed in the bovine suggests that it is possible to manufacture infant formula that more closely matches these metabolites profile in human milk. PMID:25157578

  10. Determination of Beet Root Betanin in Dairy Products by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandia-Herrero, Fernando; Simon-Carrillo, Ana; Escribano, Josefa; Garcia-Carmona, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    The food industry uses different additives to give foods and beverages the appearance expected by the consumer. Among them, pigments of natural origin are receiving increasing attention due to safety concerns about traditional colorants and the relevance of a healthy diet. This experiment describes the quantitative determination of the…

  11. Status report of Area 15 experimental dairy farm: dairy husbandry January 1977-June 1979, agronomic practices January 1978-June 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.D.

    1980-01-01

    This is the final status report on the operation of the experimental dairy herd and farm in Area 15 of the Nevada Test Site. Operation of the farm was transferred from the Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory - Las Vegas to a contractor in September of 1979. The dairy herd portion of the report covers the period from January 1977 to June 1979. Improvement and addition to the facilities, production and reproduction statistics for individual cows and the herd, the veterinary medicine practices employed, and summaries of the metabolism studies that involved the dairy herd are discussed. The agronomic portion of the report covers the period January 1978 to June 1979. Topics include irrigation, fertilization, weed and insect control, and forage production

  12. Growth and Performance of the Ugandan Dairy Sector: Elites, Conflict and Bargaining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Anne Mette; Mwebaze, Tom

    2013-01-01

    elites who wanted to build a support base in their home area. In addition, the elites had special interest in dairy farming, since key elite members owned dairy cattle themselves hence have played key role in promoting the dairy sector. Liberalisation enhanced the competitiveness of the dairy sector......) established to promote efficiency in marketing of milk. With the existence of DDA, to a considerable extent there has been an improved organization of dairy farmers and traders and also the quality and safety of milk enhanced amidst conflicts....

  13. Importance in dairy technology of bacteriocins produced by dairy starter cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedia Şimşek

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriocins produced by Lactic acid bacteria (LAB and propionic acid bacteria (PAB are heterogeneous group of peptide inhibitors which include lantibiotics (class I, e. g. nisin, small heat-stable peptides (class II, e. g. pediocin PA-1 and large heat-labile proteins (class III, e. g. helveticin J. Many bacteriocins belonging to the first two groups can be successfully used to inhibit undesirable microorganisms in foods, but only nisin is produced industrially and is used as a food preservative. LAB and PAB develops easily in milk and milk products. LAB and PAB growth in dairy products can cause microbial interference to spoilage and pathogenic bacteria through several metabolits, specially bacteriocins. The review deals with the description of milk-borne bacteriocins and their application in milk and milk products either to extend the shelf life or to inhibit milk pathogens.

  14. Veterinary dairy herd fertility service provision in seasonal and non-seasonal dairy industries - a comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mee JF

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The decline in dairy herd fertility internationally has highlighted the limited impact of traditional veterinary approaches to bovine fertility management. Three questionnaire surveys were conducted at buiatrics conferences attended by veterinary practitioners on veterinary dairy herd fertility services (HFS in countries with a seasonal (Ireland, 47 respondents and non-seasonal breeding model (The Netherlands, 44 respondents and Portugal, 31 respondents. Of the 122 respondents, 73 (60% provided a HFS and 49 (40% did not. The majority (76% of all practitioners who responded stated that bovine fertility had declined in their practice clients' herds with inadequate cow management, inadequate nutrition and increased milk yield as the most important putative causes. The type of clients who adopted a herd fertility service were deemed more educated than average (70% of respondents, and/or had fertility problems (58% and/or large herds (53%. The main components of this service were routine postpartum examinations (95% of respondents, fertility records analysis (75% and ultrasound pregnancy examinations (69%. The number of planned visits per annum varied between an average of four in Ireland, where breeding is seasonal, and 23 in Portugal, where breeding is year-round. The benefits to both the practitioner and their clients from running a HFS were cited as better fertility, financial rewards and job satisfaction. For practitioners who did not run a HFS the main reasons given were no client demand (55% and lack of fertility records (33%. Better economic evidence to convince clients of the cost-benefit of such a service was seen as a major constraint to adoption of this service by 67% of practitioners.

  15. The reversibility and first-order nature of liquid?liquid transition in a molecular liquid

    OpenAIRE

    Kobayashi, Mika; Tanaka, Hajime

    2016-01-01

    Liquid?liquid transition is an intriguing phenomenon in which a liquid transforms into another liquid via the first-order transition. For molecular liquids, however, it always takes place in a supercooled liquid state metastable against crystallization, which has led to a number of serious debates concerning its origin: liquid?liquid transition versus unusual nano-crystal formation. Thus, there have so far been no single example free from such debates, to the best of our knowledge. Here we sh...

  16. Characterisation of adopters and non-adopters of dairy technologies in Ethiopia and Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebebe, E G; Oosting, S J; Baltenweck, I; Duncan, A J

    2017-04-01

    While there is a general consensus that using dairy technologies, such as improved breeds of dairy cows, can substantially increase farm productivity and income, adoption of such technologies has been generally low in developing countries. The underlying reasons for non-adoption of beneficial technologies in the dairy sector are not fully understood. In this study, we characterised adopters and non-adopters of dairy technologies in Ethiopia and Kenya based on farmers' resources ownership in order to identify why many farmers in Ethiopia and Kenya have not adopted improved dairy technologies. As compared to non-adopters, farmers who adopt dairy technology own relatively more farm resources. The result signals that differences in resource endowments could lead to divergent technology adoption scenarios. Results show that a higher proportion of sample smallholders in Kenya have adopted dairy technologies than those in Ethiopia. Except for the use of veterinary services, fewer than 10% of sample farmers in Ethiopia have adopted dairy technologies-less than half the number of adopters in Kenya. The higher level of dairy technology adoption in Kenya can be ascribed partly to the long history of dairy development, including improvements in the value chain for the delivery of inputs, services and fluid milk marketing. Interventions that deal with the constraints related to access to farm resources and input and output markets could facilitate uptake of dairy technology in developing countries.

  17. Intake of dairy products in relation to periodontitis in older danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adegboye, Amanda R A; Christensen, Lisa B; Holm-Pedersen, Poul

    2012-01-01

    This cross-sectional study investigates whether calcium intakes from dairy and non-dairy sources, and absolute intakes of various dairy products, are associated with periodontitis. The calcium intake (mg/day) of 135 older Danish adults was estimated by a diet history interview and divided...... into dairy and non-dairy calcium. Dairy food intake (g/day) was classified into four groups: milk, cheese, fermented foods and other foods. Periodontitis was defined as the number of teeth with attachment loss =3 mm. Intakes of total dairy calcium (Incidence-rate ratio (IRR) = 0.97; p = 0.021), calcium from...... milk (IRR = 0.97; p = 0.025) and fermented foods (IRR = 0.96; p = 0.03) were inversely and significantly associated with periodontitis after adjustment for age, gender, education, sucrose intake, alcohol consumption, smoking, physical activity, vitamin D intake, heart disease, visits to the dentist...

  18. The effects of increasing amounts of milk replacer powder added to whole milk on feed intake and performance in dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, R A; Machado, F S; Campos, M M; Furini, P M; Rufino, S R A; Pereira, L G R; Tomich, T R; Coelho, S G

    2016-10-01

    also increased linearly with concentration of TS in liquid feed. Increasing the concentration of TS in liquid feed up to 20.4% increased performance and body frame development in dairy heifers during the pre- and postweaning periods and had no effects on solid feed intake or health. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Prevalence and risk factors for shedding of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in dairy calves of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos J. Garro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the prevalence and risk factors for shedding of Cryptosporidium spp. in dairy calves, a cross-sectional study was carried out in the northeastern region of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. Fecal samples from a total of 552 calves from 27 dairy herds were collected, along with a questionnaire about management factors. Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were detected by light microscopy using Kinyoun staining. Putative risk factors were tested for association using generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs. Oocyst shedding calves were found in 67% (CI95% = 49–84 of herds (corresponding to a true herd prevalence of 98% and 16% (CI95% = 13–19 of calves (corresponding to a true calve prevalence of 8%. Within-herd prevalence ranged from 0 to 60%, with a median of 8%. Cryptosporidium spp. excretion was not associated with the type of liquid diet, gender, time the calf stayed with the dam after birth, use of antibiotics, blood presence in feces, and calving season. However, important highly significant risk factors of oocyst shedding of calves was an age of less or equal than 20 days (OR = 7.4; 95% CI95% = 3–16; P < 0.0001 and occurrence of diarrhea (OR = 5.5; 95% CI95% = 2–11; P < 0.0001. The observed association with young age strongly suggests an early exposure of neonatal calves to Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in maternity pens and/or an age-related susceptibility. Association with diarrhea suggests that Cryptosporidium spp. is an important enteropathogen primarily responsible for the cause of the observed diarrheal syndrome. Results demonstrate that Cryptosporidium spp. infection is widespread in the study region. Monitoring and control of this parasitic protozoan infection in dairy herds is recommended.

  20. Finances and returns for robotic dairies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salfer, J A; Minegishi, K; Lazarus, W; Berning, E; Endres, M I

    2017-09-01

    Automatic milking systems (AMS) became commercially available in the early 1990s. These systems provide flexibility and improve the lifestyle of farmers installing them. Because of the larger capital cost per kilogram of milk produced, observational studies in Europe and simulation studies have shown AMS to be less profitable than milking parlor systems, although previous findings are somewhat mixed. Improved performance of newer generations of AMS, better facility design to accommodate cow behavior, and better management of these facilities have the potential to make AMS more profitable. Wage rates are also increasing and sourcing high-quality milking labor is challenging. We developed partial budget simulations to model profitability of AMS compared with parlor systems for 120-, 240-, and 1,500-cow farms. Both the 120-cow and 240-cow AMS were more profitable than the parlor systems. However, the 1,500-cow parlor system was more profitable than the AMS. Breakeven labor analysis of the 1,500-cow system showed that at a wage inflation rate of 1% and a 0.91 kg/d lower milk production with the AMS system, the breakeven labor rate was $27.02/h. If the farm is able to achieve similar milk production between the 2 systems and wage inflation averages 3% over the 30-yr time horizon, the breakeven wage rate drops to $17.11/h. The major management factors that influenced the net annual impact were changes in milking labor cost and milk production. Another significant factor affecting net annual impact was the economic life of the AMS. An economic life of 13 yr or longer was required for an AMS to have a consistently positive net annual impact (depending on milk production per cow and labor cost). For every 227-kg increase in daily milk production per AMS, net annual income increased approximately $4,100. Cost-effective ways to optimize milk per AMS are to minimize attaching and milking times and to optimize milking settings. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science

  1. Neosporosis in naturally infected pregnant dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazuz, Monica L; Fish, Leah; Reznikov, Dror; Wolkomirsky, Ricardo; Leibovitz, Benjamin; Savitzky, Igor; Golenser, Jacob; Shkap, Varda

    2014-09-15

    Neosporosis caused by caused by the apicomplexan parasite Neospora caninum is one of the major causes of infectious abortion in bovines worldwide. A long-term prospective study was performed in a dairy herd endemic for N. caninum in order to analyze the impact of neosporosis on the proportion of aborting cows. A total of 1078 pregnant cows were tested for presence of antibodies and the proportion of abortions was calculated. The overall seroprevalence of N. caninum found in the herd was 35.5%. The percentage of abortions in seropositive cows was 3 times higher than in their seronegative counterparts (21.6 and 7.3%, respectively). No statistically significant association was found between the antibody level of positive during pregnancy and the proportion of aborting cows. However, 41.2% of the dams with antibody titers of 1:12,800 aborted. The risk of abortion for such dams was 2.7 times higher than for other seropositive cows which had lower titers of antibodies (p=0.0072). In the follow-up examinations of the seropositive cows during several pregnancies, the overall percent of abortions observed was significantly higher than in seronegative individuals (49.3 and 16.9%, respectively; p<0.0001). Moreover, the proportion of repetitive abortion observed was 5 to 1 (17.4 and 3.5%) in seropositive and seronegative dams, respectively (p<0.001). The rate of vertical transmission in positive dams was 61.0% and it appeared to be directly associated with antibody levels: the higher the titer in the dams during pregnancy, the higher the percentage of sero-positivity in their calves. Increased proportion of abortions was observed in seropositive cows both in summer and winter in comparison with spring and autumn. It was found that in seropositive cows, an increased number of pregnancies, which was directly related to the age of the dam, has been associated with an increased number of abortions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Dairy product intake in relation to glucose regulation indices and risk of type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struijk, E A; Heraclides, A; Witte, D R; Soedamah-Muthu, S S; Geleijnse, J M; Toft, U; Lau, C J

    2013-09-01

    A high intake of dairy has been linked to lower risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). The relationship between dairy intake and glucose metabolism is still not well understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between the intake of total dairy and dairy subgroups and T2D and measures of glucose metabolism. A total of 5953 Danish men and women aged 30-60 years without baseline diabetes or cardiovascular diseases were included in this prospective analysis. The dairy intake at baseline was categorised into low-fat dairy, full-fat dairy, milk and milk products, cheese and fermented dairy. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-h plasma glucose (2hPG), HbA1c, insulin resistance (HOMA2-IR) and beta-cell function (HOMA2-B) were considered at 5-year follow-up. In the maximally-adjusted model (demographics, lifestyle factors, dietary factors and waist), cheese intake was inversely associated with 2hPG (β = -0.048, 95% CI -0.095; -0.001). Fermented dairy intake was inversely associated with FPG (β = -0.028, 95% CI -0.048; -0.008) and HbA1c (β = -0.016, 95% CI -0.030; -0.001). Total dairy intake and the dairy subgroups were not related to HOMA-IR and HOMA-B in the maximally-adjusted model. Furthermore, there was no significant association between intake of total dairy or any of the dairy subgroups and incidence of T2D. Our data suggest a modest beneficial effect of cheese and fermented dairy on glucose regulation measures; however, this did not translate into a significant association with incident T2D. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Use of Lactococci isolated from Moroccan traditional dairy product ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sensory analysis showed that the so fermented milk has been more appreciated than the Lben. These results show the potential of the two strains as possible culture starter for fermented dairy product. Keywords: Lactococci, acidifying activity, fermented milk, Lben. African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 12(38), pp. 5662- ...

  4. Biological phosphorus removal from dairy wastewater by alternating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cl

    2012-06-07

    Jun 7, 2012 ... In this study, the possibility of applying the enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) process for Algiers dairy wastewater ... precipitation with lime and with metal salts such as iron. *Corresponding author. .... sludge from a wastewater treatment plant in Algiers and operated under aerobic-anaerobic ...

  5. Biological phosphorus removal from dairy wastewater by alternating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the possibility of applying the enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) process for Algiers dairy wastewater which can have phosphorus contents up to 130 mg/L was examined. EBPR is conventionally performed by an anaerobic-aerobic process. The objectives of this work were to determine an ...

  6. Factors affecting reproductive performance of dairy cow in Algeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of clinical mastitis at the beginning of lactation on reproductive performance of dairy cows in Algeria. Calving to first insemination and calving to conception intervals, number of insemination per conception and conception rate at the first artificial insemination were ...

  7. Factors affecting profit in dairying: conclusions from Natal study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors affecting profit in dairying: conclusions from Natal study group results. P.G. Stewart. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

  8. Purchase of Catastrophe Insurance by Dutch Dairy and Arable Farmers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ogurtsov, V.; Asseldonk, van M.A.P.M.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2009-01-01

    This article analyzed the impact of risk perception, risk attitude, and other farmer personal and farm characteristics on the actual purchase of catastrophe insurance by Dutch dairy and arable farmers. The specific catastrophe insurance types considered were hail–fire–storm insurance for buildings,

  9. Assessment of dairy wastewater treatment and its potential for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The extent of pollution of dairy wastewater treated in a septic tank and its potential for biogas production was investigated. Performance of the existing treatment system was assessed through characterization of both raw and treated effluents. From the analysis parameters likeChemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Biochemical ...

  10. A systems approach to the South African dairy industry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elsabe Gagiano

    The South African food cost review: 2007. Markets and Economic Research Centre, NAMC and Department of Agriculture, Pretoria, South Africa. Scholtz, M.M., 2007. South African dairy industry needs a systems approach. Nat. Milk Rec. Impr. Scheme. Newsletter, 12, 24. Sidwell, B., 2008. The boom beyond commodities: A ...

  11. Treatment of dairy wastewater in UASB reactors inoculated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work assesses the possibility of using flocculent sludge in UASB reactors applied to the treatment of dairy wastewater and studies the effect of hydraulic retention time (6, 8, 12 and 16 h) on the performance of the reactors. The results show that the performance of flocculent sludge is similar to what has been reported in ...

  12. Bridging gender gaps with dairy goats and root crops | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-05-05

    May 5, 2016 ... Introducing dairy goats in semi-arid regions of Tanzania has led to farmers earning US$160 from milk sales during the first lactation, as well as an increase in household milk consumption. In these trials led by Canadian and Tanzanian researchers, cassava and sweet potato leaves are a significant feed ...

  13. Performance of Improved Dairy Cattle Technologies Among Farmers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Performance of Improved Dairy Cattle Technologies Among Farmers in. Northern Nigeria. Http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jae.v20i1.1. Saleh, M.K.. Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Sociology,. Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. Email: quagyangsaleh@gmail.com or salequa@yahoo.com. Phone: 08123431446 / ...

  14. Euthanasia of Danish dairy cows evaluated in two questionnaire surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sørensen Jan

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mortality risk in Danish dairy cows has more than doubled since 1990 (from 2% in 1990 to 5% in 2005. Until now, registrations about dead cows in the Danish Cattle Database have not included information about whether the cow died unassisted or was euthanized. Methods We interviewed a random sample of 196 Danish dairy farmers that had reported a dead cow to the Danish Cattle Database in 2002 and 196 dairy farmers that had reported a dead cow in 2006. Our objectives were to evaluate the proportion of euthanized cows, changes in the behaviour of farmers regarding euthanasia of cows over the years and possible reasons for these changes. Results It seems that the threshold for euthanasia of cows among farmers has changed. Farmers generally reported a lower threshold for euthanasia compared to 5–10 years ago. Conclusion The threshold for euthanasia of cows has, according to the dairy farmers, become lower. This might have positive impacts on animal welfare as more seriously ill cows are euthanized in the herds and not put through a period of suffering associated with disease and treatment or transported to a slaughterhouse in poor condition.

  15. Radiographic features of laminitic claws of dairy cows around Nairobi.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the study was to determine the common radiographic features in laminitic claws from dairy cows using abattoir samples. A total of 192 claws were collected from Wangige slaughter slab and 126 claws from Kiserian abattoir. The claws were examined for gross lesions. Dorso-palmar/dorso-plantar and lateral ...

  16. Herd health and production management in dairy practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, A.; Noordhuizen, J.P.T.M.; Schukken, Y.H.

    1996-01-01

    This text aims to teach students, practitioners and farm advisors how to give management support to the dairy farmer in order to optimize the health, productivity and welfare of his herd. The book covers management practices and farm conditions which have both positive and negative influences on

  17. Progesterone profiles of postpartum dairy cows as an aid to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Milk progesterone levels were measured on a daily basis for 44 dairy cows from calving to conception in order to use the progesterone profiles in diagnosing and treating reproductive disorders related to the oestrous cycle. Some of the profiles could be used to identify reproductive abnormalities, for example, silent heats ...

  18. Genomic selection for feed efficiency in dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pryce, J.E.; Wales, W.J.; Haas, de Y.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Hayes, B.J.

    2014-01-01

    Feed is a major component of variable costs associated with dairy systems and is therefore an important consideration for breeding objectives. As a result, measures of feed efficiency are becoming popular traits for genetic analyses. Already, several countries account for feed efficiency in their

  19. Antagonism in the carbon footprint between beef and dairy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GScholtz

    2014-08-22

    Aug 22, 2014 ... In addition, when differences in productivity are accounted for, pasture systems require more resources (land, feed, water, etc.) per unit of milk produced and the carbon footprint is greater than that of intensive systems. This raises the question as to why the carbon footprint of intensive dairy cow production ...

  20. Consumption of milk and dairy products: Facts and figures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zingone, Fabiana; Bucci, Cristina; Iovino, Paola; Ciacci, Carolina

    2017-01-01

    Consumption of milk has been declining sharply in recent decades, particularly in developed countries. One of the reasons for this decline is the diagnosis or perception of lactose intolerance. The aim of this study was to investigate average consumption of milk and dairy products in the Campania region of Italy, one of the main producers of dairy products in the country. Individuals aged 18 to 75 y and living in Campania were invited to answer an online questionnaire regarding their average consumption of milk and dairy products. The questionnaire was posted on the public access hospital site, as well as on several Facebook pages of friends and hospital personnel. The study found that 22.2% (260 of 1173) of responders from Campania do not drink milk, and 18.1% (213 of 1173) drink lactose-free milk, mainly because of gastrointestinal symptoms. The vast majority of the sample population chose to avoid consuming milk without undergoing the breath test for lactose intolerance or consulting a doctor. Women and underweight people drink more lactose-free milk than milk containing lactose. The population sample does not avoid dairy products; rather, they seem to be consumed quite frequently. The data support the need for mandatory implementation of a nutritional campaign to increase understanding regarding, for example, unnecessary avoidance of milk and excessive consumption of cheese. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Calving interval genetic parameters and trends for dairy breeds in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Calving interval (CI) is a fertility trait that can be used in selection programmes to minimize the negative effects that selection for production have on fertility. CI can be derived from milk recording data, therefore this fertility trait can easily be implemented in the National Dairy Genetic Evaluations of South Africa. The aim of this ...

  2. Evaluation of fertility traits of Friesian X Bunaji dairy cows ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data from 13 primaparous and 47 multiparous Friesian-Bunaji (F1) crossbred cows were used to evaluate the reproductive performance of Friesian x Bunaji dairy cows. Four fertility traits; days to first insemination (DFI), days open (DO), Non-return rate 56 days after first insemination (NRR56) and numbers of insemination ...

  3. Systems physiology in dairy cattle: nutritional genomics and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loor, Juan J; Bionaz, Massimo; Drackley, James K

    2013-01-01

    Microarray development changed the way biologists approach the holistic study of cells and tissues. In dairy cattle biosciences, the application of omics technology, from spotted microarrays to next-generation sequencing and proteomics, has grown steadily during the past 10 years. Omics has found application in fields such as dairy cattle nutritional physiology, reproduction, and immunology. Generating biologically meaningful data from omics studies relies on bioinformatics tools. Both are key components of the systems physiology toolbox, which allows study of the interactions between a condition (e.g., nutrition, physiological state) with tissue gene/protein expression and the associated changes in biological functions. The nature of physiologic and metabolic adaptations in dairy cattle at any stage of the life cycle is multifaceted, involves multiple tissues, and is dynamic, e.g., the transition from late-pregnancy to lactation. Application of integrative systems physiology in periparturient dairy cattle has already advanced knowledge of the simultaneous functional adaptations in liver, adipose, and mammary tissue.

  4. The high-producing dairy cow and its reproductive performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobson, H; Smith, Rf; Royal, Md

    2007-01-01

    There is evidence that the reproductive performance of dairy cows has declined as milk yields have increased over the last 40 years. Identifying the precise cause(s) of this problem may provide focused solutions. Intensive genetic selection for very high yields has reduced fertility, due mainly...

  5. Major reproductive disorders on Jersey breed dairy cattle at Adea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reproductive efficiency of dairy cows is influenced by different factors including gene, season, age, production system, nutrition, management, environment and disease. This study was conducted with the objectives of determining the prevalence of reproductive disorders and evaluates reproductive performances of Jersey ...

  6. [Occurrence of Prototheca mastitis in dairy farms in Hesse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenstedt, R; Zschöck, M; Kloppert, B; Wolter, W

    1997-08-01

    During January 1994 and August 1996 from dairy farms in Hessia a total of 305,609 milk samples were investigated. Prototheca sp. as etiological agent of a mastitis was isolated from milk samples of seven dairy herds. According to our experiences and to several reports from various countries dealing with Prototheca infections in dairy herds, mastitis control programs should include Prototheca algae as potential pathogens. Mastitis due to this organism usually occurs in different semeiologies, one with clinical symptoms, and the other, more common type, as subclinical mastitis. In both cases, Prototheca organisms use to persist in the tissue of the mammary gland also during the dry period and antimicrobial treatment proves to be ineffective. Considering the wide distribution of these algae as saprophytes in the environment and in feces of several domestic animals, predisposing factors like a humid aerobic milieu and unsanitary milking conditions are necessary for Prototheca infections becoming manifest in the udder of dairy cows. Control measures should preferably stress the identification and removal of infected animals, in particular when the disease is sporadic in the herd. Due to the more questionable occurrence of spontaneous healing and the lack of an efficient drug, slaughtering of infected cows appears as a suitable method to eliminate the disease from the herd. Additionally, improvement of the hygiene status concerning feeding and milking management within a herd is as essential as in the control of other opportunistic udder pathogens.

  7. One and Two Way Packaging in the Dairy Sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Bloemhof-Ruwaard (Jacqueline); J.A.E.E. van Nunen (Jo); J. Vroom; A. van der Linden (Ad)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractChoosing packaging material for dairy products and soft drinks is an interesting issue at the moment. Discussions arise on the costs impacts and environmental impacts of both one way packaging and reusable packaging. The aim of this article is to develop an evaluation tool providing

  8. Recording of dairy cows behaviour with wireless accelerometers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, de R.M.; Bleumer, E.J.B.; Hogewerf, P.H.; Ipema, A.H.

    2009-01-01

    The daily behaviour of dairy cows reflects the health and well-being status. The behaviour can be monitored with accelerometers (used as a tilt sensor to measure the angle) in a wireless sensor network. The angle of a leg reflects the lying or standing behaviour, the angle of the head might reflect

  9. [Biotechnological optimization of nutrient composition of fermented dairy drink].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donskaya, G A

    2014-01-01

    The receipt based on the results of carried out studies is substantiated and technology of the new fermented dairy drink containing whole milk and whey with inulin (Jerusalem artichoke extract) and optimizing initial mineral composition of raw material has been developed. The starters ascertaining optimal organoleptic properties of the drink have been selected. It has been established that Jerusalem artichoke and its derivatives in the form of syrups and extracts stimulate fermentative processes of technological microflora, with maximum activity observed with Jerusalem artichoke extract. Physical-chemical and microbiological characteristics of the drink have been defined during storage. The possibility to optimize the nutrient composition of fermented dairy product by means of introducing of Jerusalem artichoke extract into milk-protein base has been demonstrated. It has been calculated that consumption of 100 g of fermented dairy drink enriched with Jerusalem artichoke extract makes it possible to satisfy the physiological needs (recommended daily allowance--RDA) for babies from 0 to 3 months in vitamins B1, B2 and B6 by 25-35% and in minerals P, K, and Ca by 20, 68, 34, 26%. For adults receiving 250 g of fermented beverage meets RDA for vitamins B1, B2 and B6 by 10-19% and in the macronutrients P, K, Ca-by 25-35%. Designed fermented dairy drink supplemented with natural plant ingredient possesses increased antioxidant activity and may be recommended for mass consumption without any limitations.

  10. Reducing non-allocative costs on Danish dairy farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Mogens; Jacobsen, Brian H.; Hansen, Lars C.E.

    1993-01-01

    inefficiencies are far more important for dairy farms than inefficiencies due to sub-optimal farm size. Non-proportional reductions are shown to be as important as reductions due to scale economies. The paper closes with a discussion of the implications for farm policy and management practice....

  11. Interactions between soil texture and placement of dairy slurry application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glæsner, Nadia Andersen; Kjærgaard, Charlotte; Rubæk, Gitte Holton

    2011-01-01

    Land application of manure can exacerbate nutrient and contaminant transfers to the aquatic environment. This study examined the effect of injecting a dairy cattle (Bos taurus L.) manure slurry on mobilization and leaching of dissolved, nonreactive slurry components across a range of agricultural...

  12. Dairy intake-related intentions, attitudes, subjective norms and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutrition professionals perceived themselves to be in control of the target behaviour, yet their clients significantly less so (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: Nutrition professionals' attitudes, subjective norms and behavioural control can aid responsive empowerment to support dairy-related nutrition education of South Africans.

  13. Body Temperature Versus Microclimate Selection in Heat Stressed Dairy Cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study is to characterize the thermoregulatory responses of unrestrained heat-stressed dairy cows within a freestall environment using fan and spray configurations for cooling cows while lying or standing. An experimental treatment sprayed individual cows lying in freestalls from ...

  14. Lactation performance and serum biochemistry of dairy cows fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2011-09-05

    Sep 5, 2011 ... ISSN 1684–5315 © 2011 Academic Journals. Full Length ... This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of supplemental chromium on performance and blood serum biochemistry of dairy ... Serum biochemistry concentrations (serum glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, total protein, and cortisol and insulin ...

  15. An approach to defining the energy requirements of dairy sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susmel, P.; Cuzzit, R.

    1988-01-01

    Evaluation of the interaction between nutrition and reproduction in Mediterranean sheep requires knowledge of the energy requirements of animals in different productive and reproductive stages. The available energy systems developed for temperate climates and genotypes are not directly applicable to Mediterranean breeds of dairy sheep. Using already available data, metabolizable energy requirements for these types of animals are proposed. (author). 59 refs, 9 tabs

  16. Ketosis in dairy cows: etiologic factors, monitoring, treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Drift, S.G.A.

    2013-01-01

    Ketosis is a metabolic disorder that mainly occurs during the negative energy balance in early-lactation dairy cows. It is characterized by elevated concentrations of ketone bodies in blood (hyperketonemia), urine, and milk. The thesis of Saskia van der Drift covers investigations on etiologic

  17. Skin injuries on the body and thigh of dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, Carsten; Gröhn, Y.T.; Thysen, Iver

    1994-01-01

    An epidemiological study was conducted in 18 dairy herds with the objective to characterize those groups of cows where skin injuries to the body and thighs occurred most frequently. Data were analyzed with multivariable logistic regression. The epidemiologic patterns were different in first and l...

  18. Health status and needs of Latino dairy farmworkers in Vermont.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Daniel; Chappelle, David

    2012-01-01

    Vermont is a new Latino destination where many Spanish-speaking migrants have found work on dairy farms. One hundred twenty Latino workers were surveyed on 59 Vermont dairy farms to develop a demographic profile and evaluate their self-assessed health status and barriers to care. The study found, similar to other studies, the majority of workers were young, male Mexicans. However, the workers in this study, as compared to others, originated farther south in Mexico and there were significant regional differences in educational attainment. Workers defined health in terms of their ability to work and the majority believed themselves to be in good health. The majority felt that moving to the United States has not changed their health status. The most common health issue reported was back/neck pain, followed by dental and mental health issues. Workers are both physically and linguistically isolated and reported isolation as the most challenging aspect of dairy farm work. Fear of immigration law enforcement was the primary barrier to care. Community-based initiatives, including partnerships with colleges and universities, outreach to farm employers and the adoption of "bias-free policing" are strategies that can increase access to health care for Latino dairy farmworkers in the United States.

  19. The Spatial Patterns of Dairy Farming In Molise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ievoli Corrado

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The greater market orientation of European dairy production, caused by the end of quota regime, is likely to have consequences on less favoured areas, where breeding of dairy cattle plays both a crucial socio-economic and environmental role. Within this new framework, endogenous factors determining spatial reorganisation of the sector are becoming of increasing relevance. Based on these considerations, this study analyses the impact of the three broader classes of location determinants suggested by economic theory - factor endowment, market potential, and spatial agglomeration externalities - on the spatial pattern of milk production in Molise, a rural region in the south of Italy. Milk production is measured in term of dairy cows per hectare. The truncated distribution of this variable and its high degree of spatial autocorrelation prompted us to apply a Spatial Autoregressive Tobit model. Estimation results reveal that all three categories have a positive effect on the location of milk production, even if the influence of factor endowment (intended as forage area, and market potential (measured in term of proximity of dairy companies is quite limited. On the contrary, the impact of spatial externalities (related variety on the regional localisation of milk production is strongly significant. These results cast some doubts on the current measures of intervention and might suggest a new policy framework both at firm and spatial level

  20. Performance of Crossbred Dairy Cows Suitable for Smallholder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Kaliti National Artificial Insemination Center (NAIC) and imported WWS bulls to produce improved dairy cattle breed at on station and to back up the on farm crossbreeding for synthetic breed generation and development. Materials and Methods. Study area. The study was carried out at Holetta Agricultural Research Center ...