WorldWideScience

Sample records for surface wipe analysis

  1. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR EXTRACTING AND PREPARING DERMAL WIPE AND SURFACE WIPE SAMPLES FOR ANALYSIS OF POLAR ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-5.27)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The method for extracting and preparing a dermal or surface wipe sample for analysis of acidic persistent organic pollutants is summarized in this standard operating procedure. It covers the extraction and concentration of samples that are to be analyzed by gas chromatography/mas...

  2. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR EXTRACTING AND PREPARING SURFACE WIPE FOR ANALYSIS OF NEUTRAL PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-5.17)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This SOP summarizes the method for extracting and preparing a hard floor surface wipe or food preparation surface wipe sample for analysis of neutral persistent organic. It covers the extraction and concentration of samples that are to be analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spect...

  3. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR EXTRACTING AND PREPARING SURFACE WIPE FOR ANALYSIS OF NEUTRAL PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-5.17)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This SOP summarizes the method for extracting and preparing a hard floor surface wipe or food preparation surface wipe sample for analysis of neutral persistent organic. It covers the extraction and concentration of samples that are to be analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spect...

  4. Wipe selection for the analysis of surface materials containing chemical warfare agent nitrogen mustard degradation products by ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willison, Stuart A

    2012-12-28

    Degradation products arising from nitrogen mustard chemical warfare agent were deposited on common urban surfaces and determined via surface wiping, wipe extraction, and liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry detection. Wipes investigated included cotton gauze, glass fiber filter, non-woven polyester fiber and filter paper, and surfaces included several porous (vinyl tile, painted drywall, wood) and mostly non-porous (laminate, galvanized steel, glass) surfaces. Wipe extracts were analyzed by ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC–MS/MS) and compared with high performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC–MS/MS) results. An evaluation of both techniques suggests UPLC–MS/MS provides a quick and sensitive analysis of targeted degradation products in addition to being nearly four times faster than a single HPLC run, allowing for greater throughput during a wide-spread release concerning large-scale contamination and subsequent remediation events. Based on the overall performance of all tested wipes, filter paper wipes were selected over other wipes because they did not contain interferences or native species (TEA and DEA) associated with the target analytes, resulting in high percent recoveries and low background levels during sample analysis. Other wipes, including cotton gauze, would require a pre-cleaning step due to the presence of large quantities of native species or interferences of the targeted analytes. Percent recoveries obtained from a laminate surface were 47–99% for all nitrogen mustard degradation products. The resulting detection limits achieved from wipes were 0.2 ng/cm(2) for triethanolamine (TEA), 0.03 ng/cm(2) for N-ethyldiethanolamine (EDEA), 0.1 ng/cm(2) for N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA), and 0.1 ng/cm(2) for diethanolamine (DEA).

  5. Colling Wipe Samples for VX Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koester, C; Hoppes, W G

    2010-02-11

    This standard operating procedure (SOP) provides uniform procedures for the collection of wipe samples of VX residues from surfaces. Personnel may use this procedure to collect and handle wipe samples in the field. Various surfaces, including building materials (wood, metal, tile, vinyl, etc.) and equipment, may be sampled based on this procedure. The purpose of such sampling is to determine whether or not the relevant surfaces are contaminated, to determine the extent of their contamination, to evaluate the effectiveness of decontamination procedures, and to determine the amount of contaminant that might present as a contact hazard.

  6. Quantitative Analysis of Organophosphate and Pyrethroid Insecticides, PyrethroidTransformation Products, Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers and Bisphenol A in Residential Surface Wipe Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surface wipe sampling is a frequently used technique for measuring persistent pollutants in residential environments. One characteristic of this form of sampling is the need to extract the entire wipe sample to achieve adequate sensitivity and to ensure representativeness. Most s...

  7. Quantitative Analysis of Organophosphate and Pyrethroid Insecticides, PyrethroidTransformation Products, Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers and Bisphenol A in Residential Surface Wipe Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surface wipe sampling is a frequently used technique for measuring persistent pollutants in residential environments. One characteristic of this form of sampling is the need to extract the entire wipe sample to achieve adequate sensitivity and to ensure representativeness. Most s...

  8. Lessons learned from surface wipe sampling for lead in three workplaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaucham, Catherine; Ceballos, Diana; King, Bradley

    2017-08-01

    Surface wipe sampling in the occupational environment is a technique widely used by industrial hygienists. Although several organizations have promulgated standards for sampling lead and other metals, uncertainty still exists when trying to determine an appropriate wipe sampling strategy and how to interpret sampling results. Investigators from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Health Hazard Evaluation Program have used surface wipe sampling as part of their exposure assessment sampling strategies in a wide range of workplaces. This article discusses wipe sampling for measuring lead on surfaces in three facilities: (1) a battery recycling facility; (2) a firing range and gun store; and (3) an electronic scrap recycling facility. We summarize our findings from the facilities and what we learned by integrating wipe sampling into our sampling plan. Wiping sampling demonstrated lead in non-production surfaces in all three workplaces and that the potential that employees were taking lead home to their families existed. We also found that the presence of metals such as tin can interfere with the colorimetric results. We also discuss the advantages and disadvantages of colorimetric analysis of surface wipe samples and the challenges we faced when interpreting wipe sampling results.

  9. Sampling for Beryllium Surface Contamination using Wet, Dry and Alcohol Wipe Sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, Kent

    2004-12-17

    This research project was conducted at the National Nuclear Security Administration's Kansas City Plant, operated by Honeywell Federal Manufacturing and Technologies, in conjunction with the Safety Sciences Department of Central Missouri State University, to compare relative removal efficiencies of three wipe sampling techniques currently used at Department of Energy facilities. Efficiencies of removal of beryllium contamination from typical painted surfaces were tested by wipe sampling with dry Whatman 42 filter paper, with water-moistened (Ghost Wipe) materials, and by methanol-moistened wipes. Test plates were prepared using 100 mm X 15 mm Pyrex Petri dishes with interior surfaces spray painted with a bond coat primer. To achieve uniform deposition over the test plate surface, 10 ml aliquots of solution containing 1 beryllium and 0.1 ml of metal working fluid were transferred to the test plates and subsequently evaporated. Metal working fluid was added to simulate the slight oiliness common on surfaces in metal working shops where fugitive oil mist accumulates over time. Sixteen test plates for each wipe method (dry, water, and methanol) were processed and sampled using a modification of wiping patterns recommended by OSHA Method 125G. Laboratory and statistical analysis showed that methanol-moistened wipe sampling removed significantly more (about twice as much) beryllium/oil-film surface contamination as water-moistened wipes (p< 0.001), which removed significantly more (about twice as much) residue as dry wipes (p <0.001). Evidence for beryllium sensitization via skin exposure argues in favor of wipe sampling with wetting agents that provide enhanced residue removal efficiency.

  10. Sampling for Beryllium Surface Contamination using Wet, Dry and Alcohol Wipe Sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, Kent [Central Missouri State Univ., Warrensburg, MO (United States)

    2004-12-01

    This research project was conducted at the National Nuclear Security Administration's Kansas City Plant, operated by Honeywell Federal Manufacturing and Technologies, in conjunction with the Safety Sciences Department of Central Missouri State University, to compare relative removal efficiencies of three wipe sampling techniques currently used at Department of Energy facilities. Efficiencies of removal of beryllium contamination from typical painted surfaces were tested by wipe sampling with dry Whatman 42 filter paper, with water-moistened (Ghost Wipe) materials, and by methanol-moistened wipes. Test plates were prepared using 100 mm X 15 mm Pyrex Petri dishes with interior surfaces spray painted with a bond coat primer. To achieve uniform deposition over the test plate surface, 10 ml aliquots of solution containing 1 beryllium and 0.1 ml of metal working fluid were transferred to the test plates and subsequently evaporated. Metal working fluid was added to simulate the slight oiliness common on surfaces in metal working shops where fugitive oil mist accumulates over time. Sixteen test plates for each wipe method (dry, water, and methanol) were processed and sampled using a modification of wiping patterns recommended by OSHA Method 125G. Laboratory and statistical analysis showed that methanol-moistened wipe sampling removed significantly more (about twice as much) beryllium/oil-film surface contamination as water-moistened wipes (p< 0.001), which removed significantly more (about twice as much) residue as dry wipes (p <0.001). Evidence for beryllium sensitization via skin exposure argues in favor of wipe sampling with wetting agents that provide enhanced residue removal efficiency.

  11. Associations between PBDEs in Office Air, Dust, and Surface Wipes

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Increased use of flame-retardants in office furniture may increase exposure to PBDEs in the office environment. However, partitioning of PBDEs within the office environment is not well understood. Our objectives were to examine relationships between concurrent measures of PBDEs in office air, floor dust, and surface wipes.

  12. Determination of Metal Impurities in Carbon Nanotubes Sampled Using Surface Wipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary-Luyza Avramescu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Residual metal impurities in carbon nanotubes (CNTs provide a means to distinguish CNT from non-CNT sources of elemental carbon in environmental samples. A practical and cost-effective analytical approach is needed to support routine surface monitoring of CNT metal tracers using wipe sampling. Wipe sampling for CNT metal tracers is considered a qualitative indicator of the presence of CNTs, not a quantitative exposure metric. In this study, two digestion approaches (microwave-assisted nitric acid/H2O2 digestion and ultrasonic nitric/HF acid digestion in conjunction with Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS determination were evaluated for their ability to extract metal impurities from CNT particles captured on wipe substrates. Aliquots of different carbon nanotubes (including NIST 2483 single-wall CNT with and without GhostWipes™ (ASTM E-1792 compliant were used to compare the performance of the digestion methods. The microwave digestion method accommodated the bulky wipe sample and also eliminated potential ICP-MS signal interferences related to incomplete digestion. Although quantitative recoveries requiring lengthy multistep digestion protocols may be necessary in other applications, the near-total recoveries achieved in the present study for CNT catalyst elements were adequate for identifying surface contamination of CNTs in the workplace using wipe sampling.

  13. Surface wipe sampling for antineoplastic (chemotherapy) and other hazardous drug residue in healthcare settings: Methodology and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Thomas H; Zock, Matthew D; Snow, Amy H

    2016-09-01

    Surface wipe sampling for various hazardous agents has been employed in many occupational settings over the years for various reasons such as evaluation of potential dermal exposure and health risk, source determination, quality or cleanliness, compliance, and others. Wipe sampling for surface residue of antineoplastic and other hazardous drugs in healthcare settings is currently the method of choice to determine surface contamination of the workplace with these drugs. The purpose of this article is to review published studies of wipe sampling for antineoplastic and other hazardous drugs, to summarize the methods in use by various organizations and researchers, and to provide some basic guidance for conducting surface wipe sampling for these drugs in healthcare settings.  Recommendations on wipe sampling methodology from several government agencies and organizations were reviewed. Published reports on wipe sampling for hazardous drugs in numerous studies were also examined. The critical elements of a wipe sampling program and related limitations were reviewed and summarized.  Recommendations and guidance are presented concerning the purposes of wipe sampling for antineoplastic and other hazardous drugs in the healthcare setting, technical factors and variables, sampling strategy, materials required, and limitations. The reporting and interpretation of wipe sample results is also discussed.  It is recommended that all healthcare settings where antineoplastic and other hazardous drugs are handled consider wipe sampling as part of a comprehensive hazardous drug "safe handling" program. Although no standards exist for acceptable or allowable surface concentrations for these drugs in the healthcare setting, wipe sampling may be used as a method to characterize potential occupational dermal exposure risk and to evaluate the effectiveness of implemented controls and the overall safety program. A comprehensive safe-handling program for antineoplastic drugs may

  14. Macroscopic analysis of gas-jet wiping: Numerical simulation and experimental approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacanette, Delphine; Gosset, Anne; Vincent, Stéphane; Buchlin, Jean-Marie; Arquis, Éric

    2006-04-01

    Coating techniques are frequently used in industrial processes such as paper manufacturing, wire sleeving, and in the iron and steel industry. Depending on the application considered, the thickness of the resulting substrate is controlled by mechanical (scraper), electromagnetic (if the entrained fluid is appropriated), or hydrodynamic (gas-jet wiping) operations. This paper deals with the latter process, referred to as gas-jet wiping, in which a turbulent slot jet is used to wipe the coating film dragged by a moving substrate. This mechanism relies on the gas-jet-liquid film interaction taking place on the moving surface. The aim of this study is to compare the results obtained by a lubrication one-dimensional model, numerical volume of fluid-large eddy simulation (VOF-LES) modeling and an experimental approach. The investigation emphasizes the effect of the controlling wiping parameters, i.e., the pressure gradient and shear stress distributions induced by the jet, on the shape of the liquid film. Those profiles obtained experimentally and numerically for a jet impinging on a dry fixed surface are compared. The effect of the substrate motion and the presence of the dragged liquid film on these actuators are analyzed through numerical simulations. Good agreement is found between the film thickness profile in the wiping zone obtained from the VOF-LES simulations and with the analytical model, provided that a good model for the wiping actuators is used. The effect of the gas-jet nozzle to substrate standoff distance on the final coating thickness is analyzed; the experimental and predicted values are compared for a wide set of conditions. Finally, the occurrence of the splashing phenomenon, which is characterized by the ejection of droplets from the runback film flow at jet impingement, thus limiting the wiping process, is investigated through experiments and numerical simulations.

  15. Wipe sampling of amphetamine-type stimulants and recreational drugs on selected household surfaces with analysis by ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madireddy, Sri Bharat; Bodeddula, Vanaja Reddy; Mansani, Sravan Kumar; Wells, Martha J.M.; Boles, Jeffrey O., E-mail: jboles@tntech.edu

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: • Degree of sorption of eight drugs on eleven countertop surfaces was investigated. • Surface composition, volatility and solvent composition played a role in sorption. • Solvent-dependent migration was a key factor of consideration during remediation. • SPME-assisted volatility studies provided evidence for varying degrees of recovery. • Rapid three minute UPLC-QTOF method was developed to quantify the eight compounds. -- Abstract: Sorption characteristics of eight drugs related to recreational and clandestine activity—amphetamine, cocaine, heroin, N-formyl amphetamine, N-formyl methamphetamine, methamphetamine, 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), and pseudoephedrine—were evaluated on selected kitchen countertop surfaces. Methanol-dampened Whatman™ 40 filter paper wipes were used to collect samples from eleven surfaces including alkyd resin, ceramic tiles, glass, granite, laminate, limestone, marble, quartz compac, quartz real, soap stone, and stainless steel. The filter paper wipes were analyzed by a rapid three-minute UPLC-QTOF method, following ammonium acetate buffer (pH 5.8–6.2) extraction. The average percentage recoveries after 15 h of exposure to the surface materials tested, was found to be highest for cocaine and MDMA and lowest for amphetamine and methamphetamine. Among the eleven countertop surfaces, overall recoveries for marble were observed to be the least, whereas soapstone, quartz compac and stainless steel were among the highest. Scanning electron microscopic images of the surfaces provided a unique view of surface irregularities that potentially influenced drug recovery. Aging, migration, solvent composition, and volatility were examined. The variation in recovery of drugs was attributed to four key factors: compound volatility, surface composition, surface—compound interaction, and solvent composition.

  16. Role of surface energy and nano-roughness in the removal efficiency of bacterial contamination by nonwoven wipes from frequently touched surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Nicholas W M; Best, Emma L; Connell, Simon D; Goswami, Parikshit; Carr, Chris M; Wilcox, Mark H; Russell, Stephen J

    2017-01-01

    Healthcare associated infections (HCAIs) are responsible for substantial patient morbidity, mortality and economic cost. Infection control strategies for reducing rates of transmission include the use of nonwoven wipes to remove pathogenic bacteria from frequently touched surfaces. Wiping is a dynamic process that involves physicochemical mechanisms to detach and transfer bacteria to fibre surfaces within the wipe. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which systematic changes in fibre surface energy and nano-roughness influence removal of bacteria from an abiotic polymer surface in dry wiping conditions, without liquid detergents or disinfectants. Nonwoven wipe substrates composed of two commonly used fibre types, lyocell (cellulosic) and polypropylene, with different surface energies and nano-roughnesses, were manufactured using pilot-scale nonwoven facilities to produce samples of comparable structure and dimensional properties. The surface energy and nano-roughness of some lyocell substrates were further adjusted by either oxygen (O2) or hexafluoroethane (C2F6) gas plasma treatment. Static adpression wiping of an inoculated surface under dry conditions produced removal efficiencies of between 9.4% and 15.7%, with no significant difference (p nonwoven wipe substrates with a surface energy closest to that of the contaminated surface produced the highest E. coli removal efficiency, while the associated increase in fibre nano-roughness abrogated this trend with S. aureus and E. faecalis.

  17. Air, Hand Wipe, and Surface Wipe Sampling for Bisphenol A (BPA) among Workers in Industries that Manufacture and Use BPA in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Cynthia J; Jackson, Matthew V; Christianson, Annette L; Clark, John C; Arnold, James E; Pretty, Jack R; Deddens, James A

    2017-06-26

    For decades, bisphenol A (BPA) has been used in making polycarbonate, epoxy, and phenolic resins and certain investment casting waxes, yet published exposure data are lacking for U.S. manufacturing workers. In 2013-2014, BPA air and hand exposures were quantified for 78 workers at six U.S. companies making BPA or BPA-based products. Exposure measures included an inhalable-fraction personal air sample on each of two consecutive work days (n = 146), pre- and end-shift hand wipe samples on the second day (n = 74 each), and surface wipe samples (n = 88). Potential determinants of BPA air and end-shift hand exposures (after natural log transformation) were assessed in univariate and multiple regression mixed models. The geometric mean (GM) BPA air concentration was 4.0 µg/m(3) (maximum 920 µg/m(3)). The end-shift GM BPA hand level (26 µg/sample) was 10-times higher than the pre-shift level (2.6 µg/sample). BPA air and hand exposures differed significantly by industry and job. BPA air concentrations and end-shift hand levels were highest in the BPA-filled wax manufacturing/reclaim industry (GMAir = 48 µg/m(3), GMHand-End = 130 µg/sample) and in the job of working with molten BPA-filled wax (GMAir = 43 µg/m(3), GMHand-End = 180 µg/sample), and lowest in the phenolic resins industry (GMAir = 0.85 µg/m(3), GMHand-End = 0.43 µg/sample) and in the job of flaking phenolic resins (GMAIR = 0.62 µg/m(3), GMHand-End = 0.38 µg/sample). Determinants of increased BPA air concentration were industry, handling BPA containers, spilling BPA, and spending ≥50% of the shift in production areas; increasing age was associated with lower air concentrations. BPA hand exposure determinants were influenced by high values for two workers; for all other workers, tasks involving contact with BPA-containing materials and spending ≥50% of the shift in production areas were associated with increased BPA hand levels. Surface wipe BPA levels were significantly lower in eating

  18. A NEAR REAL-TIME BERYLLIUM MONITOR WITH CAM AND WIPE ANALYSIS CAPABILITIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.T. Kendrick; Steven Saggese

    2002-12-01

    Science & Engineering Associates, Inc. (SEA), under contract No. DE-AC26-00NT40768, was tasked by the US Department of Energy--National Energy Technology Laboratory to develop and test a near real-time beryllium monitor for airborne and surface measurements. Recent public awareness of the health risks associated with exposure to beryllium has underscored the need for better, faster beryllium monitoring capabilities within the DOE. A near real-time beryllium monitor will offer significant improvements over the baseline monitoring technology currently in use. Whereas the baseline technology relies upon collecting an air sample on a filter and the subsequent analysis of the filter by an analytical laboratory, this effort developed a monitor that offers near real-time measurement results while work is in progress. Since the baseline typically only offers after-the-fact documentation of exposure levels, the near real-time capability provides a significant increase in worker protection. The beryllium monitor developed utilizes laser induced breakdown spectroscopy, or LIBS as the fundamental measurement technology. LIBS has been used in a variety of laboratory and field based instrumentation to provide real-time, and near-real-time elemental analysis capabilities. LIBS is an analytical technique where a pulsed high energy laser beam is focused to a point on the sample to be interrogated. The high energy density produces a small high temperature plasma plume, sometimes called a spark. The conditions within this plasma plume result in the constituent atoms becoming excited and emitting their characteristic optical emissions. The emission light is collected and routed to an optical spectrometer for quantitative spectral analysis. Each element has optical emissions, or lines, of a specific wavelength that can be used to uniquely identify that element. In this application, the intensity of the beryllium emission is used to provide a quantitative measure of the abundance of the

  19. Surface dust wipes are the best predictors of blood leads in young children with elevated blood lead levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulson, Brian, E-mail: brian.gulson@mq.edu.au [Graduate School of the Environment, Macquarie University, North Ryde NSW 2109 (Australia); CSIRO Earth Science and Resource Engineering, North Ryde NSW 2113 (Australia); Anderson, Phil [Information and Statistics Group, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Canberra ACT 2601 (Australia); Faculty of Health, University of Canberra, Canberra ACT 2601 (Australia); Taylor, Alan [Department of Psychology, Macquarie University, Sydney NSW 2109 (Australia)

    2013-10-15

    Background: As part of the only national survey of lead in Australian children, which was undertaken in 1996, lead isotopic and lead concentration measurements were obtained from children from 24 dwellings whose blood lead levels were ≥15 µg/dL in an attempt to determine the source(s) of their elevated blood lead. Comparisons were made with data for six children with lower blood lead levels (<10 µg/dL). Methods: Thermal ionisation and isotope dilution mass spectrometry were used to determine high precision lead isotopic ratios ({sup 208}Pb/{sup 206}Pb, {sup 207}Pb/{sup 206}Pb and {sup 206}Pb/{sup 204}Pb) and lead concentrations in blood, dust from floor wipes, soil, drinking water and paint (where available). Evaluation of associations between blood and the environmental samples was based on the analysis of individual cases, and Pearson correlations and multiple regression analyses based on the whole dataset. Results and discussion: The correlations showed an association for isotopic ratios in blood and wipes (r=0.52, 95% CI 0.19–0.74), blood and soil (r=0.33, 95% CI −0.05–0.62), and blood and paint (r=0.56, 95% CI 0.09–0.83). The regression analyses indicated that the only statistically significant relationship for blood isotopic ratios was with dust wipes (B=0.65, 95% CI 0.35–0.95); there were no significant associations for lead concentrations in blood and environmental samples. There is a strong isotopic correlation of soils and house dust (r=0.53, 95% CI 0.20–0.75) indicative of a common source(s) for lead in soil and house dust. In contrast, as with the regression analyses, no such association is present for bulk lead concentrations (r=−0.003, 95% CI −0.37–0.36), the most common approach employed in source investigations. In evaluation of the isotopic results on a case by case basis, the strongest associations were for dust wipes and blood. -- Highlights: • Children with elevated blood lead ≥15 µg/dL compared with a group with <10

  20. Reconsideration of methods and standards: Digestion of diaper wipes and use of matrix-matched calibration standards for dust lead analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orlova, A.O.; Losh, L.N.; Bannon, D.I.; Lees, P.S.J.; Chisolm, J.J. Jr.; Farfel, M.R.

    1999-12-15

    Diaper wipes are widely used for sampling residential dust for lead analysis. A thicker type of diaper wipe was incompletely digested and had low recoveries of lead on stock solution spikes using existing protocols. A modified protocol was applied to various quality control samples prepared with thicker diaper wipes in 134 batches of field samples. Modifications included a larger reagent volume, more concentrated acid, 3 h on the hot plate, and squeezing wipe residues during filtration. Seventeen batches were reanalyzed using matrix-matched standards. Acceptable lead recoveries were obtained for stock solution spikes (88%) and spikes prepared with leaded dust-SRM 2582 (88%), SRM 2589 (96%), and CRMO 14-050 (99%). Matrix-matched calibration standards increased mean lead recoveries by an additional 8%. Their protocol may provide a basis for a standard operational procedure for wipe digestion and analysis. Differences in estimates of dust lead loadings attributable to the type of wipe and to sample preparation and calibration procedures have implications for risk assessment, clearance testing, and comparability of laboratory data. Reconsideration of current protocols for wipe materials, wipe digestion, and judging laboratory performance is warranted.

  1. False negative rate and other performance measures of a sponge-wipe surface sampling method for low contaminant concentrations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Einfeld, Wayne; Krauter, Paula A.; Boucher, Raymond M.; Tezak, Mathew; Amidan, Brett G. (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA); Piepel, Greg F. (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA)

    2011-05-01

    Recovery of spores from environmental surfaces is known to vary due to sampling methodology, techniques, spore size and characteristics, surface materials, and environmental conditions. A series of tests were performed to evaluate a new, validated sponge-wipe method. Specific factors evaluated were the effects of contaminant concentrations and surface materials on recovery efficiency (RE), false negative rate (FNR), limit of detection (LOD) - and the uncertainties of these quantities. Ceramic tile and stainless steel had the highest mean RE values (48.9 and 48.1%, respectively). Faux leather, vinyl tile, and painted wood had mean RE values of 30.3, 25.6, and 25.5, respectively, while plastic had the lowest mean RE (9.8%). Results show a roughly linear dependence of surface roughness on RE, where the smoothest surfaces have the highest mean RE values. REs were not influenced by the low spore concentrations tested (3 x 10{sup -3} to 1.86 CFU/cm{sup 2}). The FNR data were consistent with RE data, showing a trend of smoother surfaces resulting in higher REs and lower FNRs. Stainless steel generally had the lowest mean FNR (0.123) and plastic had the highest mean FNR (0.479). The LOD{sub 90} varied with surface material, from 0.015 CFU/cm{sup 2} on stainless steel up to 0.039 on plastic. Selecting sampling locations on the basis of surface roughness and using roughness to interpret spore recovery data can improve sampling. Further, FNR values, calculated as a function of concentration and surface material, can be used pre-sampling to calculate the numbers of samples for statistical sampling plans with desired performance, and post-sampling to calculate the confidence in characterization and clearance decisions.

  2. New approaches to wipe sampling methods for antineoplastic and other hazardous drugs in healthcare settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Thomas H; Smith, Jerome P

    2016-09-01

    At the present time, the method of choice to determine surface contamination of the workplace with antineoplastic and other hazardous drugs is surface wipe sampling and subsequent sample analysis with a variety of analytical techniques. The purpose of this article is to review current methodology for determining the level of surface contamination with hazardous drugs in healthcare settings and to discuss recent advances in this area. In addition it will provide some guidance for conducting surface wipe sampling and sample analysis for these drugs in healthcare settings. Published studies on the use of wipe sampling to measure hazardous drugs on surfaces in healthcare settings drugs were reviewed. These studies include the use of well-documented chromatographic techniques for sample analysis in addition to newly evolving technology that provides rapid analysis of specific antineoplastic. Methodology for the analysis of surface wipe samples for hazardous drugs are reviewed, including the purposes, technical factors, sampling strategy, materials required, and limitations. The use of lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) and fluorescence covalent microbead immunosorbent assay (FCMIA) for surface wipe sample evaluation is also discussed. Current recommendations are that all healthcare settings where antineoplastic and other hazardous drugs are handled include surface wipe sampling as part of a comprehensive hazardous drug-safe handling program. Surface wipe sampling may be used as a method to characterize potential occupational dermal exposure risk and to evaluate the effectiveness of implemented controls and the overall safety program. New technology, although currently limited in scope, may make wipe sampling for hazardous drugs more routine, less costly, and provide a shorter response time than classical analytical techniques now in use.

  3. Wiping Metal Transfer in Friction Stir Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Arthur C., Jr.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Much evidence suggests that as the friction stir pin-tool moves along a weld seam the displacement of metal takes place by a wiping action at the surface of a plug of metal that rotates with the tool. The wiping model is explained and some consequences for the friction stir welding process are drawn.

  4. A surface wipe sampling and LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous detection of six antineoplastic drugs commonly handled by healthcare workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeronimo, Matthew; Colombo, Manuel; Astrakianakis, George; Hon, Chun-Yip

    2015-09-01

    An effective wipe sampling and LC-MS/MS method was developed to simultaneously analyze six commonly administered antineoplastic drugs in stainless steel surface. The analyzed drugs were methotrexate, paclitaxel, cyclophosphamide, 5-fluorouracil, vincristine, and oxaliplatin, a frequently prepared antineoplastic drug that has not been included among any of the published simultaneous detection methods. The established method was used to evaluate the recoveries of antineoplastic drugs on brand new and worn stainless steel surfaces by wiping the plates with a Whatman filter paper wetted with 0.5 mL of water/methanol (20:80) with 0.1% formic acid followed by LC-MS/MS before desorbing the filter with a water/methanol (50:50) solution. A significant decrease in the recovery of all evaluated drugs was found when worn plates were used. Additionally, the inter-personnel variability on drug recoveries during wiping procedures was evaluated. Significantly higher recoveries were achieved by the personnel with more training and experience versus personnel without prior experience. Finally, a laboratory stability test was developed to assess the degradation of the antineoplastic drugs during replicated shipping conditions. With the exception of vincristine sulfate which exhibited a significant (p drugs were stable during the first 24-48 h. However, after 144 h, an increase in the degradation of all evaluated drugs was observed, with oxaliplatin and 5-fluorouracil exhibiting the most degradation.

  5. Comparison of latex body paint with wetted gauze wipes for sampling the chemical warfare agents VX and sulfur mustard from common indoor surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernon-Kenny, Laura A; Behringer, Deborah L; Crenshaw, Michael D

    2016-05-01

    Comparison of solvent-wetted gauze with body paint, a peelable surface sampling media, for the sampling of the chemical warfare agents VX and sulfur mustard from nine surfaces was performed. The nine surfaces sampled are those typical of interior public venues and include smooth, rough, porous, and non-porous surfaces. Overall, solvent-wetted gauze (wipes) performed better for the recovery of VX from non-porous surfaces while body paint (BP) performed better for the porous surfaces. The average percent VX recoveries using wipes and BP, respectively, are: finished wood flooring, 86.2%, 71.4%; escalator handrail, 47.3%, 26.7%; stainless steel, 80.5%, 56.1%; glazed ceramic tile, 81.8%, 44.9%; ceiling tile, 1.77%, 13.1%; painted drywall 7.83%, 21.1%; smooth cement, 0.64%, 10.3%; upholstery fabric, 24.6%, 23.1%; unfinished wood flooring, 9.37%, 13.1%. Solvent-wetted gauze performed better for the recovery of sulfur mustard from three of the relatively non-porous surfaces while body paint performed better for the more porous surfaces. The average percent sulfur mustard recoveries using wipes and BP, respectively, are: finished wood flooring, 30.2%, 2.97%; escalator handrail, 4.40%, 4.09%; stainless steel, 21.2%, 3.30%; glazed ceramic tile, 49.7%, 16.7%; ceiling tile, 0.33%, 11.1%; painted drywall 2.05%, 10.6%; smooth cement, 1.20%, 35.2%; upholstery fabric, 7.63%, 6.03%; unfinished wood flooring, 0.90%, 1.74%.

  6. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR EXTRACTING AND PREPARING DERMAL WIPE SAMPLES FOR ANALYSIS OF NEUTRAL PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-5.16)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The method for extracting and preparing a dermal (hand) wipe sample for analysis of neutral persistent organic pollutants is summarized in this SOP. It covers the extraction and concentration of samples that are to be analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

  7. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR EXTRACTING AND PREPARING DERMAL WIPE SAMPLES FOR ANALYSIS OF NEUTRAL PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-5.16)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The method for extracting and preparing a dermal (hand) wipe sample for analysis of neutral persistent organic pollutants is summarized in this SOP. It covers the extraction and concentration of samples that are to be analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

  8. Pressurized liquid extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of fragrance allergens, musks, phthalates and preservatives in baby wipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celeiro, Maria; Lamas, J Pablo; Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Llompart, Maria

    2015-03-01

    Baby wipes and wet toilet paper are specific hygiene care daily products used on newborn and children skin. These products may contain complexes mixtures of harmful chemicals. A method based on pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) has been developed for the simultaneous determination of sixty-five chemical compounds (fragrance allergens, preservatives, musks, and phthalates) in wipes and wet toilet paper for children. These compounds are legislated in Europe according Regulation EC No 1223/2009, being twelve of them banned for their use in cosmetics, and one of them, 3-iodo-2-propynyl butylcarbamate (IPBC), is banned in products intended for children under 3 years. Also, propyl-, and butylparaben will be prohibited in leave-on cosmetic products designed for application on the nappy area of children under 3 years from April 2015. PLE is a fast, simple, easily automated technique, which permits to integrate a clean-up step during the extraction process reducing analysis time and stages. The proposed PLE-based procedure was optimized on real non-spiked baby wipe samples by means of experimental design to study the influence on extraction of parameters such as extraction solvent, temperature, extraction time, and sorbent type. Under the selected conditions, the method was validated showing satisfactory linearity, and intra-day, and inter-day precision. Recoveries were between 80-115% for most of the compounds with relative standard deviations (RSD) lower than 15%. Finally, twenty real samples were analyzed. Thirty-six of the target analytes were detected, highlighting the presence of phenoxyethanol in all analyzed samples at high concentration levels (up to 0.8%, 800μgg(-1)). Methyl paraben (MeP), and ethyl paraben (EtP) were found in 40-50% of the samples, and the recently banned isobutyl paraben (iBuP) and isopropyl paraben (iPrP), were detected in one and seven samples, respectively, at concentrations between

  9. Experimental Design for a Sponge-Wipe Study to Relate the Recovery Efficiency and False Negative Rate to the Concentration of a Bacillus anthracis Surrogate for Six Surface Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepel, Gregory F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Amidan, Brett G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Krauter, Paula [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Einfeld, Wayne [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2010-12-16

    Two concerns were raised by the Government Accountability Office following the 2001 building contaminations via letters containing Bacillus anthracis (BA). These included the: 1) lack of validated sampling methods, and 2) need to use statistical sampling to quantify the confidence of no contamination when all samples have negative results. Critical to addressing these concerns is quantifying the probability of correct detection (PCD) (or equivalently the false negative rate FNR = 1 - PCD). The PCD/FNR may depend on the 1) method of contaminant deposition, 2) surface concentration of the contaminant, 3) surface material being sampled, 4) sample collection method, 5) sample storage/transportation conditions, 6) sample processing method, and 7) sample analytical method. A review of the literature found 17 laboratory studies that focused on swab, wipe, or vacuum samples collected from a variety of surface materials contaminated by BA or a surrogate, and used culture methods to determine the surface contaminant concentration. These studies quantified performance of the sampling and analysis methods in terms of recovery efficiency (RE) and not PCD/FNR (which left a major gap in available information). Quantifying the PCD/FNR under a variety of conditions is a key aspect of validating sample and analysis methods, and also for calculating the confidence in characterization or clearance decisions based on a statistical sampling plan. A laboratory study was planned to partially fill the gap in PCD/FNR results. This report documents the experimental design developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for a sponge-wipe method. The study will investigate the effects on key response variables from six surface materials contaminated with eight surface concentrations of a BA surrogate (Bacillus atrophaeus). The key response variables include measures of the contamination on test coupons of surface materials tested, contamination

  10. Experimental Design for a Sponge-Wipe Study to Relate the Recovery Efficiency and False Negative Rate to the Concentration of a Bacillus anthracis Surrogate for Six Surface Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Amidan, Brett G.; Krauter, Paula; Einfeld, Wayne

    2011-05-01

    Two concerns were raised by the Government Accountability Office following the 2001 building contaminations via letters containing Bacillus anthracis (BA). These included the: 1) lack of validated sampling methods, and 2) need to use statistical sampling to quantify the confidence of no contamination when all samples have negative results. Critical to addressing these concerns is quantifying the false negative rate (FNR). The FNR may depend on the 1) method of contaminant deposition, 2) surface concentration of the contaminant, 3) surface material being sampled, 4) sample collection method, 5) sample storage/transportation conditions, 6) sample processing method, and 7) sample analytical method. A review of the literature found 17 laboratory studies that focused on swab, wipe, or vacuum samples collected from a variety of surface materials contaminated by BA or a surrogate, and used culture methods to determine the surface contaminant concentration. These studies quantified performance of the sampling and analysis methods in terms of recovery efficiency (RE) and not FNR (which left a major gap in available information). Quantifying the FNR under a variety of conditions is a key aspect of validating sample and analysis methods, and also for calculating the confidence in characterization or clearance decisions based on a statistical sampling plan. A laboratory study was planned to partially fill the gap in FNR results. This report documents the experimental design developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for a sponge-wipe method. The testing was performed by SNL and is now completed. The study investigated the effects on key response variables from six surface materials contaminated with eight surface concentrations of a BA surrogate (Bacillus atrophaeus). The key response variables include measures of the contamination on test coupons of surface materials tested, contamination recovered from coupons by sponge-wipe

  11. Pollution Prevention Wipe Application Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, E.P.; Modderman, W.E.; Montoya, M.G.

    1999-02-10

    As part of a pollution prevention program, a study was conducted at Sandia National Laboratories and at the Amarillo, ''Pantex Plant'' to identify a suitable replacement solvent(s) for cleaning hardware during routine maintenance operations. Current cleaning is performed using solvents (e.g. acetone, toluene, MEK, alcohols) that are classified as Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCW) materials. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has assigned four characteristics as the criteria for determining whether a material is identified as hazardous under RCRA: Ignitability, Corrosivity, Reactivity and Toxicity. Within the DOE and DoD sector, these solvents are used with hand wipes to clean surfaces prior to O-ring replacement, to remove decals for new labeling, to clean painted surfaces prior to reconditioning, and for other general maintenance purposes. In some cases, low level radioactive contamination during cleaning necessitates that the RCIL4 solvent-containing wipes be classified as mixed waste. To avoid using RCRA materials, cleaning candidates were sought that had a flashpoint greater than 140 F, a pH between 2.5 and 12.5, and did not fail the reactivity and toxicity criteria. Three brominated cleaners, two hydrofluoroether azeotropes and two aliphatic hydrocarbon cleaner formulations were studied as potential replacements. Cleaning efficacy, materials compatibility, corrosion and accelerated aging studies were conducted and used to screen potential candidates. Hypersolve NPB (an n-propyl bromide based formulation) consistently ranked high in removing typical contaminants for weapons applications.

  12. BERYLLIUM MEASUREMENT IN COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE WET WIPES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youmans-Mcdonald, L.

    2011-02-18

    Analysis for beryllium by fluorescence is now an established method which is used in many government-run laboratories and commercial facilities. This study investigates the use of this technique using commercially available wet wipes. The fluorescence method is widely documented and has been approved as a standard test method by ASTM International and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). The procedure involves dissolution of samples in aqueous ammonium bifluoride solution and then adding a small aliquot to a basic hydroxybenzoquinoline sulfonate fluorescent dye (Berylliant{trademark} Inc. Detection Solution Part No. CH-2) , and measuring the fluorescence. This method is specific to beryllium. This work explores the use of three different commercial wipes spiked with beryllium, as beryllium acetate or as beryllium oxide and subsequent analysis by optical fluorescence. The effect of possible interfering metals such as Fe, Ti and Pu in the wipe medium is also examined.

  13. Do new wipe materials outperform traditional lead dust cleaning methods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Roger D; Ong, Kee Hean; Emo, Brett; Kennedy, Jason; Brown, Christopher A; Condoor, Sridhar; Thummalakunta, Laxmi

    2012-01-01

    Government guidelines have traditionally recommended the use of wet mopping, sponging, or vacuuming for removal of lead-contaminated dust from hard surfaces in homes. The emergence of new technologies, such as the electrostatic dry cloth and wet disposable clothes used on mopheads, for removal of dust provides an opportunity to evaluate their ability to remove lead compared with more established methods. The purpose of this study was to determine if relative differences exist between two new and two older methods for removal of lead-contaminated dust (LCD) from three wood surfaces that were characterized by different roughness or texture. Standard leaded dust, cleaned using an automated device. Electrostatic dry cloths (dry Swiffer), wet Swiffer cloths, paper shop towels with non-ionic detergent, and vacuuming were used for cleaning LCD from the specimens. Lead analysis was by anodic stripping voltammetry. After the cleaning study was conducted, a study of the coefficient of friction was performed for each wipe material. Analysis of variance was used to evaluate the surface and cleaning methods. There were significant interactions between cleaning method and surface types, p = 0.007. Cleaning method was found be a significant factor in removal of lead, p cleaning methods is different. However, cleaning was not affected by types of surfaces. The coefficient of friction, significantly different among the three wipes, is likely to influence the cleaning action. Cleaning method appears to be more important than texture in LCD removal from hard surfaces. There are some small but important factors in cleaning LCD from hard surfaces, including the limits of a Swiffer mop to conform to curved surfaces and the efficiency of the wetted shop towel and vacuuming for cleaning all surface textures. The mean percentage reduction in lead dust achieved by the traditional methods (vacuuming and wet wiping) was greater and more consistent compared to the new methods (electrostatic

  14. False-Negative Rate and Recovery Efficiency Performance of a Validated Sponge Wipe Sampling Method

    OpenAIRE

    Krauter, Paula A.; Piepel, Greg F.; Boucher, Raymond; Tezak, Matt; Amidan, Brett G.; Einfeld, Wayne

    2012-01-01

    Recovery of spores from environmental surfaces varies due to sampling and analysis methods, spore size and characteristics, surface materials, and environmental conditions. Tests were performed to evaluate a new, validated sponge wipe method using Bacillus atrophaeus spores. Testing evaluated the effects of spore concentration and surface material on recovery efficiency (RE), false-negative rate (FNR), limit of detection (LOD), and their uncertainties. Ceramic tile and stainless steel had the...

  15. Influence of Air-Knife Wiping on Coating Thickness in Hot-Dip Galvanizing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yan; CUI Qi-peng; SHAO Fu-qun; WANG Jun-sheng; ZHAO Hong-yang

    2012-01-01

    In hot-dip galvanizing process, air jet wiping control is so crucial to decide the coating thickness and uni- formity of the zinc layer on the steel strip. The mathematical models developed predict the zinc coating thickness as a function of pressure and shear stress. The required pressure and shear stress profile on the strip surface were calcu- lated using regression analysis, and carried out using numerical simulation as FLUENT, a finite element analysis software. The influences of the outlet pressure, the nozzle to strip distance, the slot opening, the edge baffle plate, as well as the tilting angle of air knife were discussed. Combining with these results and regression analysis on the practical data, four first-order polynomial multi-parameter models were established for different targeted coating thicknesses with better regression coefficients. The validated model was used to carry out sensitivity analysis to de- termine the favorable controlling regime for the air jet wiping process.

  16. Wiped-Film Molecular Distillation Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Guobing; ZHANG Xubin; XU Chunjian; ZHOU Ming

    2005-01-01

    Based on the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook equation, a new scheme of wiped-film molecular distillation for two components in the presenceof inert gas is developed. The equations in the scheme are solved numerically by the method of finite difference and iteration. The new scheme is used to simulate the molecular distillation of dibutyl phthalate and dibutyl sebacate (DBP-DBS) mixture. The effects of the inert gas pressure, the distance between the evaporation surface and condensation surface, the rotation rate of blade, and the number of blades on the distillation rate and separation factor are discussed.

  17. Surface analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsella, T

    2006-10-01

    Surface analysis techniques are important tools to use in the verification of surface cleanliness and medical device functionality. How these techniques can be employed and some example applications are described.

  18. Effect on skin hydration of using baby wipes to clean the napkin area of newborn babies: assessor-blinded randomised controlled equivalence trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavender Tina

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some national guidelines recommend the use of water alone for napkin cleansing. Yet, there is a readiness, amongst many parents, to use baby wipes. Evidence from randomised controlled trials, of the effect of baby wipes on newborn skin integrity is lacking. We conducted a study to examine the hypothesis that the use of a specifically formulated cleansing wipe on the napkin area of newborn infants ( Methods A prospective, assessor-blinded, randomised controlled equivalence trial was conducted during 2010. Healthy, term babies (n = 280, recruited within 48 hours of birth, were randomly assigned to have their napkin area cleansed with an alcohol-free baby wipe (140 babies or cotton wool and water (140 babies. Primary outcome was change in hydration from within 48 hours of birth to 4 weeks post-birth. Secondary outcomes comprised changes in trans-epidermal water loss, skin surface pH and erythema, presence of microbial skin contaminants/irritants at 4 weeks and napkin dermatitis reported by midwife at 4 weeks and mother during the 4 weeks. Results Complete hydration data were obtained for 254 (90.7 % babies. Wipes were shown to be equivalent to water and cotton wool in terms of skin hydration (intention-to-treat analysis: wipes 65.4 (SD 12.4 vs. water 63.5 (14.2, p = 0.47, 95 % CI -2.5 to 4.2; per protocol analysis: wipes 64.6 (12.4 vs. water 63.6 (14.3, p = 0.53, 95 % CI -2.4 to 4.2. No significant differences were found in the secondary outcomes, except for maternal-reported napkin dermatitis, which was higher in the water group (p = 0.025 for complete responses. Conclusions Baby wipes had an equivalent effect on skin hydration when compared with cotton wool and water. We found no evidence of any adverse effects of using these wipes. These findings offer reassurance to parents who choose to use baby wipes and to health professionals who support their use. Trial registration Current Controlled

  19. Quat co-formulations optimized for use with cotton nonwoven disposable wipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaternary ammonium compounds, commonly referred to as quats, are cationic surfactants widely used as the active biocidal ingredient for disposable disinfecting wipes. The cationic nature of quats results in a strong ionic interaction and adsorption onto wipes materials that have an anionic surface...

  20. Mathematical modeling of wiped-film evaporators. [MAIN codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommerfeld, J.T.

    1976-05-01

    A mathematical model and associated computer program were developed to simulate the steady-state operation of wiped-film evaporators for the concentration of typical waste solutions produced at the Savannah River Plant. In this model, which treats either a horizontal or a vertical wiped-film evaporator as a plug-flow device with no backmixing, three fundamental phenomena are described: sensible heating of the waste solution, vaporization of water, and crystallization of solids from solution. Physical property data were coded into the computer program, which performs the calculations of this model. Physical properties of typical waste solutions and of the heating steam, generally as analytical functions of temperature, were obtained from published data or derived by regression analysis of tabulated or graphical data. Preliminary results from tests of the Savannah River Laboratory semiworks wiped-film evaporators were used to select a correlation for the inside film heat transfer coefficient. This model should be a useful aid in the specification, operation, and control of the full-scale wiped-film evaporators proposed for application under plant conditions. In particular, it should be of value in the development and analysis of feed-forward control schemes for the plant units. Also, this model can be readily adapted, with only minor changes, to simulate the operation of wiped-film evaporators for other conceivable applications, such as the concentration of acid wastes.

  1. Wipes coated with a singlet-oxygen-producing photosensitizer are effective against human influenza virus but not against norovirus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaelen, Katharina; Bouwknegt, Martijn; Rutjes, Saskia; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria; Duizer, Erwin

    2014-01-01

    Transmission of enteric and respiratory viruses, including human norovirus (hNoV) and human influenza virus, may involve surfaces. In food preparation and health care settings, surfaces are cleaned with wipes; however, wiping may not efficiently reduce contamination or may even spread viruses,

  2. The Case for Cotton Wipes and Nonwovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    The significant growth in the volume and number of wipe-based products for a wide variety of applications is consuming ever increasing amounts of fiber as raw material in wipes and other nonwoven products. The United States Department of Agriculture and Cotton Incorporated recognize both the economi...

  3. Standardized Method for Measuring Collection Efficiency from Wipe-sampling of Trace Explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkouteren, Jennifer R; Lawrence, Jeffrey A; Staymates, Matthew E; Sisco, Edward

    2017-04-10

    One of the limiting steps to detecting traces of explosives at screening venues is effective collection of the sample. Wipe-sampling is the most common procedure for collecting traces of explosives, and standardized measurements of collection efficiency are needed to evaluate and optimize sampling protocols. The approach described here is designed to provide this measurement infrastructure, and controls most of the factors known to be relevant to wipe-sampling. Three critical factors (the applied force, travel distance, and travel speed) are controlled using an automated device. Test surfaces are chosen based on similarity to the screening environment, and the wipes can be made from any material considered for use in wipe-sampling. Particle samples of the explosive 1,3,5-trinitroperhydro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) are applied in a fixed location on the surface using a dry-transfer technique. The particle samples, recently developed to simulate residues made after handling explosives, are produced by inkjet printing of RDX solutions onto polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) substrates. Collection efficiency is measured by extracting collected explosive from the wipe, and then related to critical sampling factors and the selection of wipe material and test surface. These measurements are meant to guide the development of sampling protocols at screening venues, where speed and throughput are primary considerations.

  4. Remote Wiping and Secure Deletion on Mobile Devices: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leom, Ming Di; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Hunt, Ray

    2016-11-01

    Mobile devices have become ubiquitous in almost every sector of both private and commercial endeavors. As a result of such widespread use in everyday life, many users knowingly and unknowingly save significant amounts of personal and/or commercial data on these mobile devices. Thus, loss of mobile devices through accident or theft can expose users-and their businesses-to significant personal and corporate cost. To mitigate this data leakage issue, remote wiping features have been introduced to modern mobile devices. Given the destructive nature of such a feature, however, it may be subject to criminal exploitation (e.g., a criminal exploiting one or more vulnerabilities to issue a remote wiping command to the victim's device). To obtain a better understanding of remote wiping, we survey the literature, focusing on existing approaches to secure flash storage deletion and provide a critical analysis and comparison of a variety of published research in this area. In support of our analysis, we further provide prototype experimental results for three Android devices, thus providing both a theoretical and applied focus to this article as well as providing directions for further research.

  5. Sampling and analytical method development and hand wipe measurements of dermal exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeniger, Mark; Neumeister, Charles; Booth-Jones, Angela

    2008-07-01

    This article describes the laboratory assessment of a hand and surface wipe sampling method for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The analytical method employed extraction of the wipe samples into dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) flourometric detection of pyrene, a predominant PAH in used gasoline engine oils (UGEO). Recovery of pyrene was evaluated for two different sampling media by first contaminating the hands of a small number of volunteers with UGEO, followed by applying a small amount of corn oil to the palms, and by wiping the skin with a Whatman cellulostic filter paper or a polyester fabric wipe (i.e., Alpha wipes). In summary, using either Whatman or Alpha wipes, the mean recovery of pyrene from the UGEO that was applied to the hands and contained within three consecutive wipes was 69% and 54%, respectively. However, the relative recovery of the first to second wipe was on average 47% and 75% for the two media, respectively. These results indicate that the Alpha wipes were more efficient at recovering pyrene in the first wipe but less efficient overall when all three consecutive samples were included. Even though this sampling was performed in a controlled laboratory environment, the minimum and maximum amount of pyrene recovered in the individual composite samples using either method spanned a range of twofold. Overall, intra-and interpersonal variability, as measured by coefficient of variation, were 22% and 19%, respectively, and were not statistically different by type of media used. This method was used in a pilot field survey to sample the hands of 18 automotive repair technicians and 18 office workers. Detectable amounts of pyrene (>0.2 microg/sample) were found on the hands of 61% and 0% of these two groups, respectively, with the highest measured quantity equal to 1.06 microg. Samples from the upper surfaces of automobile motors were generally low to nondetectable (<0.027 microg/sample), while

  6. MESERAN Test Results for Elimination of Flammable Solvents in Wipe Applications at Pantex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. G. Benkovich

    2005-03-30

    In recent years, efforts have been made within the nuclear weapons complex (National Nuclear Security Administration) of the Department of Energy (DOE) to replace Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulated solvents (i.e., flammable, toxic, corrosive, and reactive) and ozone-depleting chemicals (ODC) with more benign alternatives. Within the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and the Department of Defense (DoD) sectors, these solvents are used for cleaning hardware during routine maintenance operations. A primary goal of this study is to replace flammable solvents for wiping applications. Two cleaners, including a hydrofluoroether (HFE) and an azeotrope of the HFE and isopropyl alcohol (IPA), have been studied as potential replacements for flammable solvents. Cleaning efficacy, short-term and longterm materials compatibility, corrosion, drying times, flammability, environment, safety and health (ES&H) issues and accelerated aging studies are among the tests that are being conducted and that are used to screen candidate solvents by the interagency team performing this work. The results are compared to the traditionally used isopropyl alcohol, which serves as the baseline cleaner. This report details the results of MESERAN (Measurement and Evaluation of Surfaces by Evaporative Rate ANalysis) testing performed at the Kansas City Plant (KCP) to quantify the cleaning efficacy on samples contaminated with the various contaminants and cleaned by wiping with the various solvents being evaluated.

  7. 微酸性电解水对物体表面擦拭消毒的效果评价%Evaluation of the disinfection efficacy of slightly acidic electrolyzed water in surface wiping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王燕; 钱培芬; 孙芳艳

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨微酸性电解水在医院儿科物体表面擦拭消毒中的效果.方法 于2012年1月应用微酸性电解水和500 mg/L有效氯溶液对医院儿科床旁桌台面进行擦拭消毒,分别在消毒前,消毒后5min、4h和8h进行微生物采样,比较两种消毒液的细菌杀菌率和消毒的持久性.结果 微酸性电解水对物体表面擦拭消毒后5 min的细菌杀菌率为99.32%,优于500 mg/L有效氯溶液的97.74%,两者比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).两组台面擦拭消毒后不同时段的细菌总数均有上升,且消毒8h后两组的细菌总数均> 10 CFU/cm2的国家标准,两者比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 微酸性电解水的即时杀菌效果优于含氯消毒剂,且安全、环保,但物体表面消毒后易再次污染,可增加消毒的频率.%Objective To evaluate the disinfection efficacy of a novel disinfectant, slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SLAEW) in surface wiping. Methods In January 2012 the countertops of bedside tables in a hospital were disinfected with SLAEW and 500 mg/L chlorine solution respectively. Microbial samples were collected before disinfection, and 5 min ,4 h and 8 h after disinfection. The bacterial killing rate and the disinfection persistence were compared between the two groups. Results The average bacterial killing rate at 5 min after SLAEW disinfection was 99. 32% ,better than 97. 74% of 500 mg/L chlorine solution(P 0. 05 ) . Conclusion The immediate bactericidal effect of SLAEW is superior to chlorine disinfectant in addition to more safety and environmental protection. It is recommended for use in clinic. Because the surface chould be easily recontaminated after disinfection, the disinfection frequency should be increased.

  8. CFD simulation of gas-jet wiping process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrillas, K.; Gosset, A.; Rambaud, P.; Buchlin, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the gas-jet wiping process, which is used in coating techniques to control the final coating thickness applied on a substrate. Numerical simulations are performed using the FLUENT commercial software, with the Volume of Fluid (VOF) model coupled with Large Eddy Simulation (LES). The comparison with results from an analytical model, (with and without surface tension), and from dedicated experiments shows good agreement. The realizable k-epsilon turbulence model is used to reduce the computation time, but with no satisfactory agreement compared with LES and experiments.

  9. Hand wash and manual skin wipes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, D.H.; Boeniger, M.F.; Hemmen, J. van

    2000-01-01

    Hand wash and skin wipes are major techniques that have been used for dermal exposure sampling. Both techniques remove chemicals either deposited on or transferred to the skin contaminant layer by a combination of chemical and mechanical actions. The paper overviews identified methods and

  10. Hand wash and manual skin wipes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, D.H.; Boeniger, M.F.; Hemmen, J. van

    2000-01-01

    Hand wash and skin wipes are major techniques that have been used for dermal exposure sampling. Both techniques remove chemicals either deposited on or transferred to the skin contaminant layer by a combination of chemical and mechanical actions. The paper overviews identified methods and techniques

  11. Hand wash and manual skin wipes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, D.H.; Boeniger, M.F.; Hemmen, J. van

    2000-01-01

    Hand wash and skin wipes are major techniques that have been used for dermal exposure sampling. Both techniques remove chemicals either deposited on or transferred to the skin contaminant layer by a combination of chemical and mechanical actions. The paper overviews identified methods and techniques

  12. Detection of illicit drugs on surfaces using direct analysis in real time (DART) time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grange, Andrew H; Sovocool, G Wayne

    2011-05-15

    Methamphetamine (meth) from meth syntheses or habitual meth smoking deposited on household surfaces poses human health hazards. The U.S. State Departments of Health require decontamination of sites where meth was synthesized (meth labs) before they are sold. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) methods for meth analysis require wipe sampling, extraction, clean-up, solvent exchange, derivatization, and/or mass spectral analysis using selected ion monitoring. Rapid and inexpensive analyses could screen for drug-contamination within structures with greater spatial resolution, provide real-time analyses during decontamination, and provide thorough documentation of successful clean ups. Herein an autosampler/open-air ion source time-of-flight mass spectrometric technique is described that required only direct sampling using cotton-swab wipes. Each wipe sample collection required 2 min and data acquisition required only 13 s per sample. Optimum collision-induced dissociation voltages, desorption gas temperatures, and wipe sample solvents were determined for 11 drugs. Peaks were observed in analyte-ion traces for 0.025 µg/100 cm(2) of meth and seven other drugs. This level is half the detection limit of NIOSH methods and one-fourth of the lowest U.S. state decontamination limit for meth. Dynamic ranges of 100 in concentration were demonstrated for eight drugs, which is sufficient for a screening technique. The volatilities of 11 drugs deposited on glass were determined. The pick up of the drugs by solvent-soaked cotton-swab wipes from glass relative to acrylic latex paint was also compared.

  13. Validation of an HPLC-MS/MS and wipe procedure for mitomycin C contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    B'Hymer, Clayton; Connor, Thomas; Stinson, Derek; Pretty, Jack

    2015-04-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (HPLC-MS/MS) method was developed for the determination of mitomycin C, an anticancer drug, from contamination on various surfaces. Mitomycin C is often used in various forms of intraperitoneal chemotherapy, and operating room healthcare worker exposure to this drug is possible. The surface testing method consisted of a wiping procedure utilizing a solution of 20/45/35 (v/v/v) of acetonitrile-isopropanol-water made 0.01 M in ammonium citrate (apparent pH 7.0). The wipe solutions were analyzed by means of HPLC-MS/MS using a reversed-phase gradient system and electrospray ionization in positive ion mode with a triple-quadrupole MS detector. Accuracy and precision of this method were demonstrated by a series of recovery studies of both spiked solutions and extracted wipes from various surfaces (stainless steel, vinyl and Formica(®)) spiked with known levels of mitomycin C. Recoveries of spiked solutions containing the analyte demonstrate mean recoveries (accuracy) ranged from 93 to 105%. Precision as measured by the relative standard deviation (% RSD) of multiple samples (n= 10) at each concentration level demonstrated values of 7.5% or less. The recoveries from spiked surfaces varied from 30 to 99%. The limit of detection for this methodology is ∼2 ng/100 cm(2) equivalent surface area, and the limit of quantitation is ∼6 ng/100 cm(2).

  14. Wipe and flexion reflexes of the frog. II. Response to perturbations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schotland, J L; Rymer, W Z

    1993-05-01

    1. To evaluate the hypothesis that the neural control of sensorimotor transformations may be simplified by using a single control variable, we compared the movement kinematics and muscle activity patterns [electromyograms (EMGs)] of the frog during flexion withdrawal and the hind limb-hind limb wipe reflex before and after adding an external load. In addition, the flexibility of spinal cord circuitry underlying the hind limb-hind limb wipe reflex was evaluated by comparing wipes before and after removal of one of the contributing muscles by cutting a muscle nerve. 2. The kinematics of the movements were recorded using a WATSMART infrared emitter-detector system and quantified using principal-components analysis to provide a measure of the shape (eigenvalues) and orientation (eigenvector coefficients) of the movement trajectories. The neural pattern coordinating the movements was characterized by the latencies and magnitudes of EMGs of seven muscles acting at the hip, knee, and ankle. These variables were compared 1) during flexion withdrawal and the initial movement segment of the limb during the hind limb-hind limb wipe reflex in both unrestrained movements and in movements executed when a load equal to approximately 10% of the animal's body weight was attached to a distal limb segment and 2) during the initial movement segment of the wipe reflex before and after cutting the nerve to the knee flexor-hip extensor, iliofibularis. 3. Addition of the load had no discernible effect on the end-point position of the foot during either reflex. However, during the loaded flexion reflex, the ankle joint did not move until after the hip and knee joints had moved to their normal positions. This delayed flexion of the ankle was accompanied by large increases in the magnitude of EMG activity in two ankle muscles that exceeded the levels found during unrestrained movements. Significant changes in the temporal organization of the EMG pattern accompanied the change in joint angle

  15. False-Negative Rate and Recovery Efficiency Performance of a Validated Sponge Wipe Sampling Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauter, Paula; Piepel, Gregory F.; Boucher, Raymond; Tezak, Matthew S.; Amidan, Brett G.; Einfeld, Wayne

    2012-02-01

    Recovery of spores from environmental surfaces varies due to sampling and analysis methods, spore size and characteristics, surface materials, and environmental conditions. Tests were performed to evaluate a new, validated sponge wipe method using Bacillus atrophaeus spores. Testing evaluated the effects of spore concentration and surface material on recovery efficiency (RE), false-negative rate (FNR), limit of detection (LOD), and their uncertainties. Ceramic tile and stainless steel had the highest mean RE values (48.9 and 48.1%, respectively). Faux leather, vinyl tile, and painted wood had mean RE values of 30.3, 25.6, and 25.5, respectively, while plastic had the lowest mean RE (9.8%). Results show roughly linear dependences of RE and FNR on surface roughness, with smoother surfaces resulting in higher mean REs and lower FNRs. REs were not influenced by the low spore concentrations tested (3.10x10^-3 to 1.86 CFU/cm^2). Stainless steel had the lowest mean FNR (0.123), and plastic had the highest mean FNR (0.479). The LOD90 (>1 CFU detected 90% of the time) varied with surface material, from 0.015 CFU/cm^2 on stainless steel up to 0.039 on plastic. It may be possible to improve sampling results by considering surface roughness in selecting sampling locations and interpreting spore recovery data. Further, FNR values (calculated as a function of concentration and surface material) can be used presampling to calculate the numbers of samples for statistical sampling plans with desired performance and postsampling to calculate the confidence in characterization and clearance decisions.

  16. False-negative rate and recovery efficiency performance of a validated sponge wipe sampling method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauter, Paula A; Piepel, Greg F; Boucher, Raymond; Tezak, Matt; Amidan, Brett G; Einfeld, Wayne

    2012-02-01

    Recovery of spores from environmental surfaces varies due to sampling and analysis methods, spore size and characteristics, surface materials, and environmental conditions. Tests were performed to evaluate a new, validated sponge wipe method using Bacillus atrophaeus spores. Testing evaluated the effects of spore concentration and surface material on recovery efficiency (RE), false-negative rate (FNR), limit of detection (LOD), and their uncertainties. Ceramic tile and stainless steel had the highest mean RE values (48.9 and 48.1%, respectively). Faux leather, vinyl tile, and painted wood had mean RE values of 30.3, 25.6, and 25.5, respectively, while plastic had the lowest mean RE (9.8%). Results show roughly linear dependences of RE and FNR on surface roughness, with smoother surfaces resulting in higher mean REs and lower FNRs. REs were not influenced by the low spore concentrations tested (3.10 × 10(-3) to 1.86 CFU/cm(2)). Stainless steel had the lowest mean FNR (0.123), and plastic had the highest mean FNR (0.479). The LOD(90) (≥1 CFU detected 90% of the time) varied with surface material, from 0.015 CFU/cm(2) on stainless steel up to 0.039 on plastic. It may be possible to improve sampling results by considering surface roughness in selecting sampling locations and interpreting spore recovery data. Further, FNR values (calculated as a function of concentration and surface material) can be used presampling to calculate the numbers of samples for statistical sampling plans with desired performance and postsampling to calculate the confidence in characterization and clearance decisions.

  17. Deposition of nickel, chromium, and cobalt on the skin in some occupations - assessment by acid wipe sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidén, Carola; Skare, Lizbet; Nise, Gun; Vahter, Marie

    2008-06-01

    Nickel, chromium, and cobalt are important skin sensitizers. Better knowledge about skin exposure is needed for more efficient prevention. We have previously developed acid wipe sampling for assessment of skin exposure to metals. To apply the acid wipe sampling technique in some occupations where intense contact with metallic items occurs and to gather experience for the design of future workplace studies. 18 volunteers (carpenters, locksmiths, cashiers, and secretaries as controls) participated. They performed their normal tasks during a job session for exposure. Samples were taken from fingers and palms by acid wipe sampling, and analysis of metals was performed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. The metals were detected in all samples, and the amount of nickel was larger than that of chromium and cobalt. Fingers were more exposed than palms. 8-h exposure to nickel was calculated and was highest in locksmiths (mean 3.784 mug/cm(2), range 1.846-5.028 mug/cm(2)) followed by carpenters, cashiers, and secretaries. The acid wipe sampling technique is suitable for studies of skin exposure to nickel, chromium, and cobalt in the workplace. The sampling efficiency of acid wipe sampling is high. The amounts of nickel deposited on skin in carpenters, locksmiths, and cashiers are judged capable of eliciting allergic contact dermatitis.

  18. Broad Spectrum Sanitizing Wipes with Food Additives Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Microcide proposes to develop novel multipurpose non-toxic sanitizing wipes that are aqueous based, have shelf life of 3-5 years, have broad spectrum microbicidal...

  19. A Wipe Transition Detection Approach Using Macroblock Type Information for MPEG Videos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jian; ZHOU Yuan-hua; ZHOU Lei

    2006-01-01

    A new wipe transition detection approach was proposed. By analyzing the spatial-temporal characteristics of an ideal wipe production model, the concept of wipe transition strip (TS) was introduced. The macroblock type information of P-frames is used to extract TS regions. An improved TS region accumulation technique is performed for detecting and verifying wipe transitions. The experimental results indicate that the proposed approach is capable of detecting various wipe transitions quickly and accurately.

  20. Comparison of two turbulent models in simulating evaporating liquid film in a wiped molecular distillator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANG Aishuang; XU Songlin

    2005-01-01

    Velocity field of evaporating liquid film in a wiped molecular distillator was simulated with a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software, and two turbulent models treating near-wall flow were compared. Differences between wiped and other molecular distillations were introduced to explain why turbulent model should be used in this simulation. Three assumptions were made in order to simplify simulating processes. In rotating coordinate system, fixed other settings, the above two turbulent models were used, and the volume of fluid (VOF) multiphase model was also applied to tracking the liquid-gas surface. Both of the simulating results are basically identical with real situation and were compared in several aspects. It was concluded that both of the turbulent models are suitable in this simulation.

  1. Alcohol-impregnated wipes as an alternative in hand hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butz, A M; Laughon, B E; Gullette, D L; Larson, E L

    1990-04-01

    The antimicrobial effectiveness of four hand-wash products for health care personnel included three liquid soaps that contained 4% chlorhexidine gluconate, 1% triclosan, or no antiseptic ingredient, respectively, and a 30% w/w ethyl alcohol-impregnated hand wipe. These products were evaluated for reduction in bacterial counts on hands after extended use of 15 handwashes per day for 5 consecutive days. The order of greatest to least log reduction among products at the end of the 5-day test period was chlorhexidine gluconate (2.01), triclosan (1.52), alcohol wipe (0.04), and control soap (0.03). Skin condition before and after handwash was assessed for each treatment group. Subjects reported less skin irritation with alcohol wipes than with the two antiseptic products. Repeated washing with alcohol wipes results in reductions in bacterial colony counts comparable with nonmedicated soap, sufficient to prevent transmission of pathogens by the hands in most situations that arise in nonacute health care settings. This evidence, in addition to increased user acceptability reported by the subjects who used alcohol wipes, suggests that alcohol wipes are an acceptable alternative to soap-and-water handwashing in nonacute health care settings.

  2. Data Wiping and Anti Forensic Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. AJEET SINGH POONIA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the era of information technologies every one using the smart phone, laptop, and many other electronic gadgets. These all have high storage capacity, so people use these devices to store photos, videos, music files, contacts details, calendar and even personal information also. People when see the new brands or new technologies in the market they just sell their old phones or electronic gadgets. While selling their gadgets, people behave like smart person and delete all information containing in it and in the memory card, hard disk etc. and they feel secure after deleting or formatting the data contained in that devices. Now as we know that deleting the information which is stored in smart electronic gadgets is not so easy. When we format or delete the information from the media storage it actually deletes the links of data blocks not the actual data residing in it. So it can be easily recovered your data by the help of some data recovery tools. When we sell our electronic gadgets to the shopkeeper, he can recover your personal photos, videos, important information, contact details etc. using the tools available in the market. So beware while selling your smart phone, laptops and other electronic gadgets those have storage capacity as other person can miss use it. In this paper we will cover how to efficiently wipe the memory, so that another person can’t recover the required data/information.

  3. DATA WIPING AND ANTI FORENSIC TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajeet Singh Poonia

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the era of information technologies every one using the smart phone, laptop, and many other electronic gadgets. These all have high storage capacity, so people use these devices to store photos, videos, music files, contacts details, calendar and even personal information also. People when see the new brands or new technologies in the market they just sell their old phones or electronic gadgets. While selling their gadgets, people behave like smart person and delete all information containing in it and in the memory card, hard disk etc. and they feel secure after deleting or formatting the data contained in that devices. Now as we know that deleting the information which is stored in smart electronic gadgets is not so easy. When we format or delete the information from the media storage it actually deletes the links of data blocks not the actual data residing in it. So it can be easily recovered your data by the help of some data recovery tools. When we sell our electronic gadgets to the shopkeeper, he can recover your personal photos, videos, important information, contact details etc. using the tools available in the market. So beware while selling your smart phone, laptops and other electronic gadgets those have storage capacity as other person can miss use it. In this paper we will cover how to efficiently wipe the memory, so that another person can’t recover the required data/information.

  4. Hygienic guidance values for wipe sampling of antineoplastic drugs in Swedish hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedmer, Maria; Wohlfart, Gertrud

    2012-07-01

    The use of antineoplastic drugs in health care steadily increases. Health care workers can be occupationally exposed to antineoplastic drugs classified as carcinogenic or teratogenic. Monitoring of surface contamination is a common way to assess occupational exposure to antineoplastic drugs, since wipe sampling is used as a surrogate measure of dermal exposure. Since no occupational limits for antineoplastic drugs in work environments exist, 'hygienic guidance values' (HGVs) should be used instead. HGVs are practicable, achievable levels, not health based, and can be calculated from exposure data from representative workplaces with good occupational hygiene practices. So far, guidance values for surface monitoring of antineoplastic drugs only exist for pharmacies where antineoplastic drugs are prepared. The objective was to propose HGVs for surface monitoring of cyclophosphamide (CP) and ifosfamide (IF) in Swedish hospitals where antineoplastic drugs are administered to patients. In total, 17 workplaces located at six hospitals in Sweden were surveyed by wipe sampling. Wipe samples were collected, worked up and then analyzed with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Surface contamination of CP and IF was found on 80% and 73% of the sampled surfaces, thus indicating that there is potential for health care workers to be exposed to CP and IF via the skin. The median surface load of CP was 3.3 pg cm(-2) (range <0.05-10,800 pg cm(-2)). The corresponding value for IF was 4.2 pg cm(-2) (range <0.13-95,000 pg cm(-2)). The highest surface loads were found on the floors. The proposed HGVs were set at 90th percentile values, and can be applicable to hospital workplaces where patients are treated with CP or IF. Surface monitoring combined with HGVs is a useful tool for health care workers to regularly benchmark their own surface loads which could control and reduce the occupational exposure to CP and IF in hospital workplaces. Thus, the occupational safety of the

  5. Quantitative Hydrocarbon Surface Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Vonnie M.

    2000-01-01

    The elimination of ozone depleting substances, such as carbon tetrachloride, has resulted in the use of new analytical techniques for cleanliness verification and contamination sampling. The last remaining application at Rocketdyne which required a replacement technique was the quantitative analysis of hydrocarbons by infrared spectrometry. This application, which previously utilized carbon tetrachloride, was successfully modified using the SOC-400, a compact portable FTIR manufactured by Surface Optics Corporation. This instrument can quantitatively measure and identify hydrocarbons from solvent flush of hardware as well as directly analyze the surface of metallic components without the use of ozone depleting chemicals. Several sampling accessories are utilized to perform analysis for various applications.

  6. Facial wiping in the rat fetus: variation of chemosensory stimulus parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumley, Michele R; Robinson, Scott R

    2004-05-01

    Fetal rats reliably express a facial wiping response to novel chemosensory stimuli. Previous research has examined facial wiping as an early form of motor coordination and as a behavioral indicator of sensory responsiveness. The present study examined how variation in stimulus parameters of lemon odor infusion (concentration, volume, and infusion time) affected the wiping response of E20 rat fetuses. Infusions of higher concentration or greater volume generally elicited wiping responses of greater duration and more strokes. Most facial wipes involved strokes by single forelimbs; however, bilaterally synchronous wiping was expressed only in bouts of at least seven wipes, and was facilitated by stimuli of moderate intensity. These findings suggest that the total number of wiping strokes or bout duration are well suited as measures of overall sensory responsiveness in the fetus and that chemosensory stimulus parameters exert a permissive influence on interlimb coordination during a bout of facial wiping.

  7. Surface Aesthetics and Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakır, Barış; Öreroğlu, Ali Rıza; Daniel, Rollin K

    2016-01-01

    Surface aesthetics of an attractive nose result from certain lines, shadows, and highlights with specific proportions and breakpoints. Analysis emphasizes geometric polygons as aesthetic subunits. Evaluation of the complete nasal surface aesthetics is achieved using geometric polygons to define the existing deformity and aesthetic goals. The relationship between the dome triangles, interdomal triangle, facet polygons, and infralobular polygon are integrated to form the "diamond shape" light reflection on the nasal tip. The principles of geometric polygons allow the surgeon to analyze the deformities of the nose, define an operative plan to achieve specific goals, and select the appropriate operative technique.

  8. Validation of an HPLC-MS/MS and Wipe Procedure for Mitomycin C Contamination

    OpenAIRE

    B’Hymer, C.; Connor, T.H.; Stinson, D.; Pretty, J.R.

    2014-01-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (HPLC-MS/MS) method was developed for the determination of mitomycin C, an anticancer drug, from contamination on various surfaces. Mitomycin C is often used in various forms of intraperitoneal chemotherapy, and operating room healthcare worker exposure to this drug is possible. The surface testing method consisted of a wiping procedure utilizing a solution of 20/45/35 (v/v/v) of acetonitrile-isopropanol-water made 0.01 M in a...

  9. Surface analysis in microelectronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignataro, S

    1995-10-01

    The contribution given by surface analysis to solve some problems encountered in the production of electronic power devices have been discussed. Mainly two types of problems have been faced. One of these deal with interfacial chemistry. Three examples have been investigated. The first applies to the improvement of the quality and the reliability of plastic packages through the optimization of the resin/metal and resin/die adhesion. The second relies to the adhesion between polyimide and silicon nitride used in the multilevel technology. The third example refers to the so called die-attach process and related problems. Another area of interest in microelectronics is that of the erosion of various types of surfaces and the possibility of wrong etching. A few examples of the application of surface analytical techniques for these problems will be presented. XPS and SIMS working in imaging and multipoint analysis mode, scanning acoustic microscopy, contact angle measurements as well as peeling and tensile strength measurements are the main tools used to obtain useful data.

  10. Development of a Portable Sensitive Equipment Decontamination System. Volume 2: Activated Carbon Fiber Wipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    Wipe) and the measurements taken to determine its performance. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Wipes CARC ACAMS Decontaminant GD DAAMS Antibacterial HFE VX...30 4.4.8.3 Extraction Procedure for Wiper Layers 30 4.4.9 Validation Baseline Wiping Efficacy Tests 31 4.4.9.1 Effect of Multiple Wipe Cycles 32...and Wipe Testing 38 4.4.13 Contaminant Off-Gassing from Activated Carbon Fabrics 40 4.4.14 Off-Gassing of CEES 41 4.4.15 Off-Gassing of Bonide Fruit

  11. Purification of 3-hydroxypropionitrile by wiped molecular distillation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU; Songlin; XIANG; Aishuang; YING; Anguo

    2004-01-01

    A new separation method, wiped molecular distillation (WMD), was applied and experimental work was carried out to study the effect of operation parameters such as distillation temperature, pressure, feed flow rate, wiped speed and the separation stages on purifying the raw material containing 95% 3-hydroxypropionitrile (HPN). It was an excellent result that the mass concentration of HPN in the final product can be more than 99.5% under the optimistic operation conditions. The high purity cannot be achieved with normal separating method including rectification and extraction in practice. As for the raw material, a function of HPN purity in distillate was plotted with distillation temperature and pressure in experiment ranges. According to the experiment data obtained and the theory in molecular distillation, the distillation speed of HPN and separation efficiency were computed. It was concluded that the distillation speed of HPN and the separation efficiency were satisfying for industrial production.

  12. Genital region cleansing wipes: Effects on urine culture contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selek, Mehmet Burak; Bektöre, Bayhan; Sezer, Ogün; Kula Atik, Tuğba; Baylan, Orhan; Özyurt, Mustafa

    2017-01-30

    Urine culture is the gold standard test for revealing the microbial agent causing urinary tract infection (UTI). Culture results are affected by sampling techniques; improper sampling leads to contamination of urine and thus contamination of the culture with urogenital flora. We aimed to evaluate the effect of urogenital cleansing, performed with chlorhexidine-containing genital region cleansing wipes (GRCW) on contamination rates. A total of 2,665 patients with UTI-related complaints and with urine culture requests from various outpatient clinics were enrolled in the study. Of the patients, 1,609 in the experimental group used GRCW before sampling, while 1,046 in the control group did not use any wipes. The contamination rate in the experimental group patients was 7.7%, while it was 15.8% in the control group. Contamination rates were significantly higher in the control group than in the experimental group for both women and men. Contamination rates for children and adults were also significantly lower in the experimental group than in the control group. Our study, conducted in a large population, showed that the use of chlorhexidine-containing cleansing wipes significantly reduced urine culture contamination rates in both genders, in both child and adult age groups. Using GRCW, collection of urine after urogenital area cleansing will decrease the contamination problem.

  13. Surface analysis the principal techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Vickerman, John C

    2009-01-01

    This completely updated and revised second edition of Surface Analysis: The Principal Techniques, deals with the characterisation and understanding of the outer layers of substrates, how they react, look and function which are all of interest to surface scientists. Within this comprehensive text, experts in each analysis area introduce the theory and practice of the principal techniques that have shown themselves to be effective in both basic research and in applied surface analysis. Examples of analysis are provided to facilitate the understanding of this topic and to show readers how they c

  14. From analysis to surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bemman, Brian; Meredith, David

    2014-01-01

    of Sheer Pluck (1984), a twelve-tone composition for guitar by Milton Babbitt (1916–2011). This analysis focuses on the all-partition array structure on which the piece is based. Having pre- sented this analysis, we formalize some constraints on the structure of the piece and explore some computational...

  15. Surface Temperature Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, James; Ruedy, Reto

    2012-01-01

    Small global mean temperature changes may have significant to disastrous consequences for the Earth's climate if they persist for an extended period. Obtaining global means from local weather reports is hampered by the uneven spatial distribution of the reliably reporting weather stations. Methods had to be developed that minimize as far as possible the impact of that situation. This software is a method of combining temperature data of individual stations to obtain a global mean trend, overcoming/estimating the uncertainty introduced by the spatial and temporal gaps in the available data. Useful estimates were obtained by the introduction of a special grid, subdividing the Earth's surface into 8,000 equal-area boxes, using the existing data to create virtual stations at the center of each of these boxes, and combining temperature anomalies (after assessing the radius of high correlation) rather than temperatures.

  16. Identifying trace evidence in data wiping application software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory H. Carlton

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available One area of particular concern for computer forensics examiners involves situations in which someone utilized software applications to destroy evidence. There are products available in the marketplace that are relatively inexpensive and advertised as being able to destroy targeted portions of data stored within a computer system. This study was undertaken to identify these tools and analyze them to determine the extent to which each of the evaluated data wiping applications perform their tasks and to identify trace evidence, if any, left behind on disk media after executing these applications. We evaluated five Windows 7 compatible software products whose advertised features include the ability for users to wipe targeted files, folders, or evidence of selected activities. We conducted a series of experiments that involved executing each application on systems with identical data, and we then analyzed the results and compared the before and after images for each application. We identified information for each application that is beneficial to forensics examiners when faced with similar situations. This paper describes our application selection process, our application evaluation methodology, and our findings. Following this, we describe limitations of this study and suggest areas of additional research that will benefit the study of digital forensics.

  17. Buff/wipe effects on the physicochemical properties of perfluoropolyether nanoscale thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haigang; Seung Chung, Pil; Jhon, Myung S.

    2014-05-01

    Buff/Wipe (B/W) process is commonly used in disk drive manufacturing to remove the particles and asperities on the lubricated disk surface. In this paper, we investigated how B/W process impacts the physicochemical properties of perfluoropolyethers (PFPE) nano-films through the study of surface energy and bonded ratio. Two-liquid geometric method was used to analyze the surface energy of nonfunctional PFPE, i.e., Z03, and functional PFPE, i.e., Zdol, lubricated media before and after B/W process. It was found that the dispersive surface energy of Z03 films greatly decreased after B/W, which was more significant in the submonolayer regime. In addition, the bonded ratio slightly increased. However, B/W effect on the surface energy and bonded ratio was not detected for Zdol films. It is hypothesized that nonfunctional PFPE behaves liquid-like on the carbon overcoat due to the weak interaction between lubricant and overcoat. External mechanical stress as applied with B/W can change the conformation and increase the surface coverage for nonfunctional PFPE. On the other hand, functional PFPEs behave solid-like due to the strong attraction between lubricant and overcoat; therefore, it is difficult to change the conformation by external stress from B/W process.

  18. Assessment of arsenic surface contamination in a museum anthropology department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribovich, Andrey; Lacey, Steven; Franke, John; Hinkamp, David

    2013-02-01

    To assess potential arsenic (As) contamination of work surfaces to improve upon the control strategy at an anthropology department in a large natural history museum. Work practices were observed and control strategy reviewed to inform an occupational hygiene assessment strategy utilizing surface wipe sampling. A total of 35 sampling targets were identified, focusing on surfaces that receive high touch traffic, including workstations, artifact transport carts, and elevator buttons. Arsenic sampling and analysis were performed using reference method Occupational Safety and Health Administration ID-125G. Four of the sampling areas returned detectable levels of As, ranging from 0.052 to 0.350 μg/100 cm. Workplace observations and wipe sampling data enabled the development of recommendations to help to further reduce potential occupational exposure to As. Continuous reduction of surface contamination is prudent for known human carcinogens.

  19. Experimental estimation of migration and transfer of organic substances from consumer articles to cotton wipes: Evaluation of underlying mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, Per Axel; Spaan, Suzanne; Brouwer, Derk H; Marquart, Hans; le Feber, Maaike; Engel, Roel; Geerts, Lieve; Jensen, Keld Alstrup; Kofoed-Sørensen, Vivi; Hansen, Brian; De Brouwere, Katleen

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to identify the key mechanisms governing transport of organic chemical substances from consumer articles to cotton wipes. The results were used to establish a mechanistic model to improve assessment of dermal contact exposure. Four types of PVC flooring, 10 types of textiles and one type of inkjet printed paper were used to establish the mechanisms and model. Kinetic extraction studies in methanol demonstrated existence of matrix diffusion and indicated the presence of a substance surface layer on some articles. Consequently, the proposed substance transfer model considers mechanical transport from a surface film and matrix diffusion in an article with a known initial total substance concentration. The estimated chemical substance transfer values to cotton wipes were comparable to the literature data (relative transfer ∼ 2%), whereas relative transfer efficiencies from spiked substrates were high (∼ 50%). For consumer articles, high correlation (r(2)=0.92) was observed between predicted and measured transfer efficiencies, but concentrations were overpredicted by a factor of 10. Adjusting the relative transfer from about 50% used in the model to about 2.5% removed overprediction. Further studies are required to confirm the model for generic use.

  20. Open Loop Heat Pipe Radiator Having a Free-Piston for Wiping Condensed Working Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Leonard M. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An open loop heat pipe radiator comprises a radiator tube and a free-piston. The radiator tube has a first end, a second end, and a tube wall, and the tube wall has an inner surface and an outer surface. The free-piston is enclosed within the radiator tube and is capable of movement within the radiator tube between the first and second ends. The free-piston defines a first space between the free-piston, the first end, and the tube wall, and further defines a second space between the free-piston, the second end, and the tube wall. A gaseous-state working fluid, which was evaporated to remove waste heat, alternately enters the first and second spaces, and the free-piston wipes condensed working fluid from the inner surface of the tube wall as the free-piston alternately moves between the first and second ends. The condensed working fluid is then pumped back to the heat source.

  1. Simultaneous Determination of Alkoxyalcohols in Wet Wipes Using Static Headspace Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, So Jin; Pyo, Hee Soo; Chung, Bong Chul; Lee, Jeon Gae [KIST, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hai Dong [Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    Alkoxyalcohols are used as solvents or preservatives in various consumer products such as wet wipes. The metabolites of alkoxyalcohols are known to be chronically toxic and carcinogenic to animals. Thus, an analytical method is needed to monitor alkoxyalcohols in wet wipes. The aim of this study was to develop a simultaneous analytical method for 14 alkoxyalcohols using headspace gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry to analyze the wet wipes. This method was developed by comparing with various headspace extraction parameters. The linear calibration curves were obtained for the method (r2 > 0.995). The limit of detection of alkoxyalcohols ranged from 2 to 200 ng mL-1. The precision of the determinative method was less than 18.20% coefficient of variation both intra and inter days. The accuracy of the method ranged from 82.86% to 119.83%. (2-Methoxymethylethoxy)propanol, 2-phenoxyethanol, and 1-phenoxy-2-propanol were mainly detected in wet wipes.

  2. Multichannel analysis of surface waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, C.B.; Miller, R.D.; Xia, J.

    1999-01-01

    The frequency-dependent properties of Rayleigh-type surface waves can be utilized for imaging and characterizing the shallow subsurface. Most surface-wave analysis relies on the accurate calculation of phase velocities for the horizontally traveling fundamental-mode Rayleigh wave acquired by stepping out a pair of receivers at intervals based on calculated ground roll wavelengths. Interference by coherent source-generated noise inhibits the reliability of shear-wave velocities determined through inversion of the whole wave field. Among these nonplanar, nonfundamental-mode Rayleigh waves (noise) are body waves, scattered and nonsource-generated surface waves, and higher-mode surface waves. The degree to which each of these types of noise contaminates the dispersion curve and, ultimately, the inverted shear-wave velocity profile is dependent on frequency as well as distance from the source. Multichannel recording permits effective identification and isolation of noise according to distinctive trace-to-trace coherency in arrival time and amplitude. An added advantage is the speed and redundancy of the measurement process. Decomposition of a multichannel record into a time variable-frequency format, similar to an uncorrelated Vibroseis record, permits analysis and display of each frequency component in a unique and continuous format. Coherent noise contamination can then be examined and its effects appraised in both frequency and offset space. Separation of frequency components permits real-time maximization of the S/N ratio during acquisition and subsequent processing steps. Linear separation of each ground roll frequency component allows calculation of phase velocities by simply measuring the linear slope of each frequency component. Breaks in coherent surface-wave arrivals, observable on the decomposed record, can be compensated for during acquisition and processing. Multichannel recording permits single-measurement surveying of a broad depth range, high levels of

  3. Effectiveness of body wipes as an adjunct to reducing skin infections in high school wrestlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, B J

    2012-09-01

    To compare soap-and-water body wipes and 70% isopropyl alcohol (IPA) body wipes to a CONTROL (no treatment) in reducing skin infections in high school wrestlers competing in weekend tournaments. Repeated measures study evaluating a soap-and-water body wipe, a 70% IPA body wipe, and no-treatment CONTROL during 2 weekend tournaments. High school wrestling tournaments in Minneapolis-St Paul and surrounding communities of Minnesota. Each team was randomly assigned to use either wipe or serve as CONTROL during each tournament. Presence of skin infections that developed the following week after a weekend tournament. A total of 151 athletes competed in a total of 474 individual matches. Thirteen athletes tested positive afterward for skin infections. The odds of infection for the tested group compared with the CONTROL group were 0.089 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.01-0.75; P = 0.026] for the soap-and-water group and 0.44 (95% CI, 0.11-1.69; P = 0.23) for 70% IPA group. Soap-and-water wipes seem to be more effective in reducing skin infections compared with the no-treatment group.

  4. Prepsolv (TM): The optimum alternative to 1,1,1-trichloroethane and methyl ethyl ketone for hand-wipe cleaning of aerospace materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, R. Scott; Purvis, John A.; Moran, Wade W.

    1995-01-01

    Engineers at Hercules Aerospace, a rocket motor manufacturer in Utah, have worked closely with chemists at Glidco Organics to study the feasibility of using terpenes for zero-residue wipe cleaning. The result of this work is a technological breakthrough, in which the barrier to ultra-low non-volatile residue formation has been broken. After 2 years of development and testing, SCM Glidco Organics has announced the availability of Glidsafe(registered trademark) Prepsolv(TM): a state-of-the-art ultra-low residue terpene wipe cleaning agent that does not require rinsing. Prepsolv(TM) can successfully be used in simple hand-wipe cleaning processes without fear of leaving surface residues. Industry testing has confirmed that Prepsolv(TM) is not only highly effective, but can even be less expensive to use than traditional cleaning solvents like methyl chloroform. This paper addresses the features and benefits of Prepsolv(TM), and presents performance and material compatibility data that characterizes this unique cleaning agent. Since its commercialization, Hercules Aerospace has chosen Prepsolv(TM) as the optimum cleaning agent to replace ozone-depleting solvents in their weapons factory in Magna, UT. Likewise, Boeing has approved Prepsolv(TM) for cleaning components in the manufacture of commercial aircraft at their facilities in Seattle, WA and Wichita, KS. Additional approvals are forthcoming for this uniquely safe and effective solvent.

  5. Liquid Flow Field on Evaporator of Wiped Short Path Distillation--Experimental Results and Computer Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Songlin; WANG Junwu; XIANG Aishuang; XU Shimin

    2005-01-01

    Short path distillation (SPD) is a kind of high vacuum distillation method, which is suitable for the separation of high boiling, heat sensitivity and viscidity products.In this paper,through measuring the phase-averaged velocity distributions with a conditional sampling method of the particle imaging velocimetry (PIV), the liquid flow field that affects the heat and mass transfer of evaporating thin-film in an SPD evaporator is investigated.Measured results show that the flow velocities decrease rapidly apart from the wiper at different wiper velocities, the maximum velocity appears before wipers, and the quicker the wiping, the larger the flow velocity. Meanwhile, the evaluation of numerical calculations is carried out.The measured velocity distributions indicate clearly the effect of the wiper both on the flow field along its moving direction and on the vortices behind the wiper.Simulation data show that the performance of liquid flow field on the heating surface not only agrees with the experimental results well,but also can give further more information, such as the distribution of turbulent kinetic energy.In this study,turbulent kinetic energy mainly distributes before wipers and laminar flow appears far away from the wipers.

  6. Control of smearing during wiping stage of gravure printing of electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceyhan, Umut; Morris, S. J. S.

    2016-11-01

    During gravure printing, a blade wipes the excess liquid from the engraved gravure roll, the objective is leaving liquid filled cells defining the image to be printed. Capillarity, however, draws some liquid from cell into a meniscus connecting to the blade; and the continuing motion of gravure roll smears that meniscus over its surface. Smearing delivers features lacking in sharpness at the micron scale. Ceyhan and Morris (BAPS.2015.DFD.M8.10) analyze smear formation for the blade-liquid contact angles covering the range 0 <= θ < π / 2 and show that the problem can be treated in plane. Using numerical solutions of the corresponding free boundary problem for the Stokes equations of motion, we show that hydrostatic theory provides an upper bound for the smear volume for finite Ca . The approach of trailing edge of the cell to the meniscus isolates a certain volume of liquid from the cell, the isolated liquid is deformed with the continuing motion of gravure roll. The problem of controlling smear formation now reduces to the simpler problem of reducing the quantity of liquid drawn into the meniscus. The theory explains why polishing to reduce the tip radius of the blade is an effective way to control smearing.

  7. Benzodiazepine whole blood concentrations in cases with positive oral fluid on-site screening test results using the DrugWipe(®) single for benzodiazepines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blencowe, Tom; Vimpari, Kari; Lillsunde, Pirjo

    2011-07-01

    Reliable on-site oral fluid screening devices are a useful and convenient means of policing traffic. In Finland, benzodiazepines represent a particular challenge to traffic safety. This study presents a retrospective examination of toxicological analysis results from whole blood in cases which gave a positive screening result for benzodiazepines in oral fluid using the DrugWipe Single device (Securetec). Use of oral fluid on-site screening tests and blood confirmation analyses reflects the real situation in many countries. The data were compiled from the databases of Alcohol and Drug Analytics Unit at the National Institute for Health and Welfare. Confirmation analysis results in whole blood were obtained using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Data were from 224 real cases in which the Finnish police had conducted a DrugWipe Single benzodiazepines test on drivers suspected of driving under the influence of drugs (DUID). The benzodiazepine concentrations encountered in positive oral fluid screening cases in this study indicate that the device is able to detect these substances even at relatively low levels. However, the DrugWipe device does not enable any distinction between therapeutic use and harmful use of benzodiazepines at higher doses.

  8. Comparison of Two Surface Contamination Sampling Techniques Conducted for the Characterization of Two Pajarito Site Manhattan Project National Historic Park Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Tammy Ann [Montana Tech of the Univ. of Montana, Butte, MT (United States); Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-07-29

    Technical Area-18 (TA-18), also known as Pajarito Site, is located on Los Alamos National Laboratory property and has historic buildings that will be included in the Manhattan Project National Historic Park. Characterization studies of metal contamination were needed in two of the four buildings that are on the historic registry in this area, a “battleship” bunker building (TA-18-0002) and the Pond cabin (TA-18-0029). However, these two buildings have been exposed to the elements, are decades old, and have porous and rough surfaces (wood and concrete). Due to these conditions, it was questioned whether standard wipe sampling would be adequate to detect surface dust metal contamination in these buildings. Thus, micro-vacuum and surface wet wipe sampling techniques were performed side-by-side at both buildings and results were compared statistically. A two-tail paired t-test revealed that the micro-vacuum and wet wipe techniques were statistically different for both buildings. Further mathematical analysis revealed that the wet wipe technique picked up more metals from the surface than the microvacuum technique. Wet wipes revealed concentrations of beryllium and lead above internal housekeeping limits; however, using an yttrium normalization method with linear regression analysis between beryllium and yttrium revealed a correlation indicating that the beryllium levels were likely due to background and not operational contamination. PPE and administrative controls were implemented for National Park Service (NPS) and Department of Energy (DOE) tours as a result of this study. Overall, this study indicates that the micro-vacuum technique may not be an efficient technique to sample for metal dust contamination.

  9. Global Analysis of Minimal Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Dierkes, Ulrich; Tromba, Anthony J

    2010-01-01

    Many properties of minimal surfaces are of a global nature, and this is already true for the results treated in the first two volumes of the treatise. Part I of the present book can be viewed as an extension of these results. For instance, the first two chapters deal with existence, regularity and uniqueness theorems for minimal surfaces with partially free boundaries. Here one of the main features is the possibility of 'edge-crawling' along free parts of the boundary. The third chapter deals with a priori estimates for minimal surfaces in higher dimensions and for minimizers of singular integ

  10. Thin film surface reconstruction analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imperatori, P. [CNR, Monterotondo Stazione, Rome (Italy). Istituto di Chimica dei materiali

    1996-09-01

    The study of the atomic structure of surfaces and interfaces is a fundamental step in the knowledge and the development of new materials. Among the several surface-sensitive techniques employed to characterise the atomic arrangements, grazing incidence x-ray diffraction (GIXD) is one of the most powerful. With a simple data treatment, based on the kinematical theory, and using the classical methods of x-ray bulk structure determination, it gives the atomic positions of atoms at a surface or an interface and the atomic displacements of subsurface layers for a complete determination of the structure. In this paper the main features of the technique will be briefly reviewed and selected of application to semiconductor and metal surfaces will be discussed.

  11. Gap Surface Plasmon Waveguide Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Michael Grøndahl; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2014-01-01

    Plasmonic waveguides supporting gap surface plasmons (GSPs) localized in a dielectric spacer between metal films are investigated numerically and the waveguiding properties at telecommunication wavelengths are presented. Especially, we emphasize that the mode confinement can advantageously...

  12. SECTION 6.2 SURFACE TOPOGRAPHY ANALYSIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seah, M. P.; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2005-01-01

    Surface physical analysis, i.e. topography characterisation, encompasses measurement, visualisation, and quantification. This is critical for both component form and for surface finish at macro-, micro- and nano-scales. The principal methods of surface topography measurement are stylus profilomet...

  13. Analysis of laser alloyed surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, D.C.; Augustyniak, W.M.; Buene, L.; Draper, C.W.; Poate, J.M.

    1981-04-01

    Surface alloys of precious metals have many advantages over bulk alloys, the most obvious of which is cost reduction due to the reduced consumption of precious metal. There are several techniques for producing surface alloys. In this paper the laser irradiation technique is presented. The following lasers: CW CO/sub 2/, Q-switched Nd-YAG, frequency double Q-switched Nd-YAG, and pulsed ruby were used to irradiate and melt thin solid films of precious metals on metal substrates. This causes the surfaces to melt to a depth of approximately 10,000A. Alloying then takes place in the liquid phase where most metals are miscible. The high quench rates obtainable by this method of melting can result in the forming of metastable alloys. This melting and regrowth process is well understood and has been discussed in the literature over the last few years. This paper deals with two binary alloy systems, Au-Ni and Pd-Ti. Surface alloys of Au-Ni with a wide range of concentrations have been produced by laser irradiation of thin Au films on Ni. These films have been analyzed using Rutherford backscattering (RBS) and channeling. Many thin film metals other than Au have also been successfully alloyed using these methods. An example of a potential application is the laser surface alloying of Pd to Ti for corrosion passivation.

  14. SECTION 6.2 SURFACE TOPOGRAPHY ANALYSIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seah, M. P.; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2005-01-01

    Surface physical analysis, i.e. topography characterisation, encompasses measurement, visualisation, and quantification. This is critical for both component form and for surface finish at macro-, micro- and nano-scales. The principal methods of surface topography measurement are stylus profilometry...... representing some average property of the surface under examination. Measurement methods, as well as their application and limitations, are briefly reviewed, including standardisation and traceability issues....

  15. Forced Suffocation of Infants with Baby Wipes: A Previously Undescribed Form of Child Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krugman, Scott D.; Lantz, Patrick E.; Sinal, Sara; De Jong, Allan R.; Coffman, Kathryn

    2007-01-01

    Background: Foreign body aspiration in children is commonly seen in emergency departments and carries a significant mortality. Abusive foreign body suffocation is not well described. Methods: We present a case-series of four infants who presented with aspiration of a baby wipe. Results: Each child was found to be a victim of child physical abuse…

  16. Wiping Out Disadvantages: The Programs and Services Needed To Supplement Regular Education for Poor School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Law Center, Inc., Newark, NJ.

    In "Abbott v. Burke" the New Jersey Supreme Court determined that the state constitutional guarantee to a thorough and efficient education must include a supplemental program designed to wipe out the deficits poor children bring with them to school. In this report, the Education Law Center draws on educational research to identify the…

  17. Surface computing and collaborative analysis work

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Judith; Gossage, Stevenson; Hack, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Large surface computing devices (wall-mounted or tabletop) with touch interfaces and their application to collaborative data analysis, an increasingly important and prevalent activity, is the primary topic of this book. Our goals are to outline the fundamentals of surface computing (a still maturing technology), review relevant work on collaborative data analysis, describe frameworks for understanding collaborative processes, and provide a better understanding of the opportunities for research and development. We describe surfaces as display technologies with which people can interact directly, and emphasize how interaction design changes when designing for large surfaces. We review efforts to use large displays, surfaces or mixed display environments to enable collaborative analytic activity. Collaborative analysis is important in many domains, but to provide concrete examples and a specific focus, we frequently consider analysis work in the security domain, and in particular the challenges security personne...

  18. Applications of surface analysis and surface theory in tribology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrante, John

    1989-01-01

    Tribology, the study of adhesion, friction and wear of materials, is a complex field which requires a knowledge of solid state physics, surface physics, chemistry, material science, and mechanical engineering. It has been dominated, however, by the more practical need to make equipment work. With the advent of surface analysis and advances in surface and solid-state theory, a new dimension has been added to the analysis of interactions at tribological interfaces. In this paper the applications of tribological studies and their limitations are presented. Examples from research at the NASA Lewis Research Center are given. Emphasis is on fundamental studies involving the effects of monolayer coverage and thick films on friction and wear. A summary of the current status of theoretical calculations of defect energetics is presented. In addition, some new theoretical techniques which enable simplified quantitative calculations of adhesion, fracture, and friction are discussed.

  19. Afferent roles in hindlimb wipe-reflex trajectories: free-limb kinematics and motor patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargo, W J; Giszter, S F

    2000-03-01

    The hindlimb wiping reflex of the frog is an example of a targeted trajectory that is organized at the spinal level. In this paper, we examine this reflex in 45 spinal frogs to test the importance of proprioceptive afferents in trajectory formation at the spinal level. We tested hindlimb to hindlimb wiping, in which the wiping or effector limb and the target limb move together. Loss of afferent feedback from the wiping limb was produced by cutting dorsal roots 7-9. This caused altered initial trajectory direction, increased ankle path curvature, knee-joint velocity reversals, and overshooting misses of the target limb. We established that these kinematic and motor-pattern changes were due mainly to the loss of ipsilateral muscular and joint afferents. Loss of cutaneous afferents alone did not alter the initial trajectory up to target limb contact. However, there were cutaneous effects in later motor-pattern phases after the wiping and target limb had made contact: The knee extension or whisk phase of wiping was often lost. Finally, there was a minor and nonspecific excitatory effect of phasic contralateral feedback in the motor-pattern changes after deafferentation. Specific muscle groups were altered as a result of proprioceptive loss. These muscles also showed configuration-based regulation during wiping. Biceps, semitendinosus, and sartorius (all contributing knee flexor torques) all were regulated in amplitude based on the initial position of the limb. These muscles contributed to an initial electromyographic (EMG) burst in the motor pattern. Rectus internus and semimembranosus (contributing hip extensor torques) were regulated in onset but not in the time of peak EMG or in termination of EMG based on initial position. These two muscles contributed to a second EMG burst in the motor pattern. After deafferentation the initial burst was reduced and more synchronous with the second burst, and the second burst often was broadened in duration. Ankle path curvature

  20. Contact Analysis of Nominally Flat Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    specifically surface topography. Starting with the Weierstrass- Mandelbrot Equation (fractal equation), the engineers approximated the power spectrum, and...Komvopoulos, the Weierstrass- Mandelbrot function was used to model the surface topography. A finite element analysis was performed using the commercial... Mandelbrot of Poland. Mandelbrot was the first to point out the feasibility of modeling natural, physical objects with the concept. The property

  1. Wavelet Denoising and Surface Electromyography Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain, M.S.; Md. Mamun

    2012-01-01

    In this research, Surface Electromyography (SEMG) signal analysis from the right rectus femoris muscle is performed during walk. Wavelet Transform (WT) has been applied for removing noise from the surface SEMG. Gaussianity tests are conducted to understand changes in muscle contraction and to quantify the effectiveness of the noise removal process. Results show that the proposed method can effectively remove noise from the raw SEMG signals for further analysis.

  2. Finite element contact analysis of fractal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahoo, Prasanta; Ghosh, Niloy [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032 (India)

    2007-07-21

    The present study considers finite element analysis of non-adhesive, frictionless elastic/elastic-plastic contact between a rigid flat plane and a self-affine fractal rough surface using the commercial finite element package ANSYS. Three-dimensional rough surfaces are generated using a modified two-variable Weierstrass-Mandelbrot function with given fractal parameters. Parametric studies are done to consider the general relations between contact properties and key material and surface parameters. The present analysis is validated with available experimental results in the literature. Non-dimensional contact area and displacement are obtained as functions of non-dimensional load for varying fractal surface parameters in the case of elastic contact and for varying rates of strain hardening in the case of elastic-plastic contact of fractal surfaces.

  3. HAND WIPE SUBSAMPLING METHOD FOR USE WITH BIOMARKER MEASUREMENTS IN THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY/PESTICIDE EXPOSURE STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermal exposure studies incorporating urinary biomarker measurements are complicated because dermal sampling may intercept or remove the target chemical before it is absorbed. A hand wipe subsampling method has been developed using polyurethane foam-tipped (PUF) swabs to minim...

  4. PHOTOGRAMMETRIC TECHNIQUES FOR ROAD SURFACE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Knyaz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The quality and condition of a road surface is of great importance for convenience and safety of driving. So the investigations of the behaviour of road materials in laboratory conditions and monitoring of existing roads are widely fulfilled for controlling a geometric parameters and detecting defects in the road surface. Photogrammetry as accurate non-contact measuring method provides powerful means for solving different tasks in road surface reconstruction and analysis. The range of dimensions concerned in road surface analysis can have great variation from tenths of millimetre to hundreds meters and more. So a set of techniques is needed to meet all requirements of road parameters estimation. Two photogrammetric techniques for road surface analysis are presented: for accurate measuring of road pavement and for road surface reconstruction based on imagery obtained from unmanned aerial vehicle. The first technique uses photogrammetric system based on structured light for fast and accurate surface 3D reconstruction and it allows analysing the characteristics of road texture and monitoring the pavement behaviour. The second technique provides dense 3D model road suitable for road macro parameters estimation.

  5. Photogrammetric Techniques for Road Surface Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knyaz, V. A.; Chibunichev, A. G.

    2016-06-01

    The quality and condition of a road surface is of great importance for convenience and safety of driving. So the investigations of the behaviour of road materials in laboratory conditions and monitoring of existing roads are widely fulfilled for controlling a geometric parameters and detecting defects in the road surface. Photogrammetry as accurate non-contact measuring method provides powerful means for solving different tasks in road surface reconstruction and analysis. The range of dimensions concerned in road surface analysis can have great variation from tenths of millimetre to hundreds meters and more. So a set of techniques is needed to meet all requirements of road parameters estimation. Two photogrammetric techniques for road surface analysis are presented: for accurate measuring of road pavement and for road surface reconstruction based on imagery obtained from unmanned aerial vehicle. The first technique uses photogrammetric system based on structured light for fast and accurate surface 3D reconstruction and it allows analysing the characteristics of road texture and monitoring the pavement behaviour. The second technique provides dense 3D model road suitable for road macro parameters estimation.

  6. SURFACE ENERGY BALANCE OVER ORANGE ORCHARD USING SURFACE RENEWAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Barbagallo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Reliable estimation of surface sensible and latent heat flux is the most important process to appraise energy and mass exchange among atmosphere and biosphere. In this study the surface energy fluxes were measured over an irrigated orange orchard during 2005-2008 monitoring periods using a Surface Renewal- Energy Balance approach. The experimental area is located in a representative orchard growing area of eastern Sicily (Italy. The performance of Surface Renewal (SR analysis for estimating sensible heat flux (H was analysed and evaluated in terms of correlation with H fluxes from the eddy covariance (EC method. Study revealed that the mean available energy (RN- G and latent heat flux (LE were of about 300 W m-2 and 237 W m-2, respectively, during dry periods and unstable-case atmospheric conditions. The estimated crop coefficient Kc values for the orchard crop averaged close to 0.80, which is considerably higher than previous FAO studies that found the value to be 0.65 for citrus with 70% of ground cover. The intercepted photosynthetically active radiation (LI PAR by the crop was measured and relationships between LAI and crop coefficient (Kc were established.

  7. Tolerance of Salmonella Enteritidis and Staphylococcus aureus to surface cleaning and household bleach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kusumaningrum, H.D.; Paltinaite, R.; Koomen, A.J.; Hazeleger, W.C.; Rombouts, F.M.; Beumer, R.R.

    2003-01-01

    Effective cleaning and sanitizing of food preparation sites is important because pathogens are readily spread to food contact surfaces after preparation of contaminated raw products. Tolerance of Salmonella Enteritidis and Staphylococcus aureus to surface cleaning by wiping with regular, microfiber,

  8. Tolerance of Salmonella Enteritidis and Staphylococcus aureus to surface cleaning and household bleach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kusumaningrum, H.D.; Paltinaite, R.; Koomen, A.J.; Hazeleger, W.C.; Rombouts, F.M.; Beumer, R.R.

    2003-01-01

    Effective cleaning and sanitizing of food preparation sites is important because pathogens are readily spread to food contact surfaces after preparation of contaminated raw products. Tolerance of Salmonella Enteritidis and Staphylococcus aureus to surface cleaning by wiping with regular, microfiber,

  9. Standardization of surface contamination analysis systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boothe, Richard E.

    1995-01-01

    Corrosion products, oils and greases can potentially degrade material bonding properties. The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Surface Contamination Analysis Team (SCAT) utilizes a variety of analytical equipment to detect identify and quantify contamination on metallic and non-metallic substrates. Analysis techniques include FT-IR Microscopy (FT-IR), Near Infrared Optical Fiber Spectrometry (NIR), Optically Stimulated Electron Emission (OSEE), Ultraviolet Fluorescence (UVF) and Ellipsometry. To insure that consistent qualitative and quantitative information are obtained, standards are required to develop analysis techniques, to establish instrument sensitivity to potential contaminants, and to develop calibration curves. This paper describes techniques for preparing and preserving contamination standards. Calibration of surface contamination analysis systems is discussed, and methods are presented for evaluating the effects of potential contaminants on bonding properties.

  10. Assessment of Progressive Product Innovation on Key Environmental Indicators: Pampers® Baby Wipes from 2007–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert Van Hoof

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Companies are increasingly conducting life cycle assessments (LCA of their products to understand potential product impacts on the environment, prioritize areas of innovation to create more sustainable products, and determine valid claims. This case study shows the results of product innovation by comparing an older (2007 and new (2013 version of a common hygiene product in Europe and the U.S. The standard methodology follows the ISO 14040/44 Guidelines for LCA. Results are reported for the impact indicators with high relevance for the product category: primary energy, global warming, particulates, agricultural land occupation, fossil fuel depletion, and solid waste generation. Generally, raw material supply chains for product and packaging contribute most (up to 82% to the calculated environmental impact indicators. Improvements vs. the 2007 baby wipe range between 4% and 14% in Europe and between 15% and 36% in the U.S. The improvement is driven by a new substrate technology that provides more surface area for cleaning, which results in lower use of resources. This case study illustrates three key environmental drivers behind this innovation: the corporate focus on R&D capability to design for environmentally improved products, the increased interest from retailers and consumers requiring accurate and relevant information on the performance and sustainability of products, and the company’s interest in deeper technical understanding of contributions from upstream material and process innovations on a product’s environmental profile.

  11. Repository surface design site layout analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montalvo, H.R.

    1998-02-27

    The purpose of this analysis is to establish the arrangement of the Yucca Mountain Repository surface facilities and features near the North Portal. The analysis updates and expands the North Portal area site layout concept presented in the ACD, including changes to reflect the resizing of the Waste Handling Building (WHB), Waste Treatment Building (WTB), Carrier Preparation Building (CPB), and site parking areas; the addition of the Carrier Washdown Buildings (CWBs); the elimination of the Cask Maintenance Facility (CMF); and the development of a concept for site grading and flood control. The analysis also establishes the layout of the surface features (e.g., roads and utilities) that connect all the repository surface areas (North Portal Operations Area, South Portal Development Operations Area, Emplacement Shaft Surface Operations Area, and Development Shaft Surface Operations Area) and locates an area for a potential lag storage facility. Details of South Portal and shaft layouts will be covered in separate design analyses. The objective of this analysis is to provide a suitable level of design for the Viability Assessment (VA). The analysis was revised to incorporate additional material developed since the issuance of Revision 01. This material includes safeguards and security input, utility system input (size and location of fire water tanks and pump houses, potable water and sanitary sewage rates, size of wastewater evaporation pond, size and location of the utility building, size of the bulk fuel storage tank, and size and location of other exterior process equipment), main electrical substation information, redundancy of water supply and storage for the fire support system, and additional information on the storm water retention pond.

  12. Applied surface analysis in magnetic storage technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windeln, Johannes; Bram, Christian; Eckes, Heinz-Ludwig; Hammel, Dirk; Huth, Johanna; Marien, Jan; Röhl, Holger; Schug, Christoph; Wahl, Michael; Wienss, Andreas

    2001-07-01

    This paper gives a synopsis of today's challenges and requirements for a surface analysis and materials science laboratory with a special focus on magnetic recording technology. The critical magnetic recording components, i.e. the protective carbon overcoat (COC), the disk layer structure, the read/write head including the giant-magnetoresistive (GMR) sensor, are described and options for their characterization with specific surface and structure analysis techniques are given. For COC investigations, applications of Raman spectroscopy to the structural analysis and determination of thickness, hydrogen and nitrogen content are discussed. Hardness measurements by atomic force microscopy (AFM) scratching techniques are presented. Surface adsorption phenomena on disk substrates or finished disks are characterized by contact angle analysis or so-called piezo-electric mass adsorption systems (PEMAS), also known as quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). A quickly growing field of applications is listed for various X-ray analysis techniques, such as disk magnetic layer texture analysis for X-ray diffraction, compositional characterization via X-ray fluorescence, compositional analysis with high lateral resolution via electron microprobe analysis. X-ray reflectometry (XRR) has become a standard method for the absolute measurement of individual layer thicknesses contained in multi-layer stacks and thus, is the successor of ellipsometry for this application. Due to the ongoing reduction of critical feature sizes, the analytical challenges in terms of lateral resolution, sensitivity limits and dedicated nano-preparation have been consistently growing and can only be met by state-of-the-art Auger electron spectrometers (AES), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis, time-of-flight-secondary ion mass spectroscopy (ToF-SIMS) characterization, focused ion beam (FIB) sectioning and TEM lamella preparation via FIB. The depth profiling of GMR sensor full stacks was significantly

  13. SURFACE TEXTURE ANALYSIS FOR FUNCTIONALITY CONTROL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Andreasen, Jan Lasson; Tosello, Guido

    This document is used in connection with three exercises of 3 hours duration as a part of the course VISION ONLINE – One week course on Precision & Nanometrology. The exercises concern surface texture analysis for functionality control, in connection with three different case stories. This docume...... contains a short description of each case story, 3-D roughness parameters analysis and relation with the product’s functionality.......This document is used in connection with three exercises of 3 hours duration as a part of the course VISION ONLINE – One week course on Precision & Nanometrology. The exercises concern surface texture analysis for functionality control, in connection with three different case stories. This document...

  14. Surface analysis with STM and AFM

    CERN Document Server

    Magonov, Sergi N

    1996-01-01

    Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) are powerful tools for surface examination. In the past, many STM and AFM studies led to erroneous conclusions due to lack of proper theoretical considerations and of an understanding of how image patterns are affected by measurement conditions. For this book, two world experts, one on theoretical analysis and the other on experimental characterization, have joined forces to bring together essential components of STM and AFM studies: The practical aspects of STM, the image simulation by surface electron density plot calculat

  15. Surface analysis of nanostructured carbonaceous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wepasnick, Kevin Andrew

    microscopy (STM), auger electron spectroscopy (AES), and XPS. Chemical and structural analysis of the clusters reveal that the oxidation state of the metal is tunable based on preparation conditions and that the oxidation state affects the mobility and structure of the clusters upon the graphite surfaces. Collectively, the results of these studies have shown the value of understanding the surface chemistry of a material in understanding their behavior even at the nanoscopic level.

  16. Concentrations and composition profiles of parabens in currency bills and paper products including sanitary wipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chunyang; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2014-03-15

    Parabens (alkyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid) are widely used as antimicrobial preservatives in personal care products, pharmaceuticals, and foodstuffs. Although parabens have been reported to be used as antimicrobials in certain types of papers (e.g., wet sanitary or hygiene wipes), little is known about the occurrence of these compounds in paper products. In this study, we determined the concentrations of six paraben analogs, methyl (MeP), ethyl (EtP), propyl (PrP), butyl (BuP), benzyl (BzP), and heptyl parabens (HepP), in 253 paper products divided into 18 categories, using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). At least one of the six parabens was detected in almost all (detection rate: 98%) paper samples, and the total concentrations (∑PBs; sum of six parabens) ranged from 1.85 to 3,220,000 ng/g (geometric mean (GM): 103; median: 55.1 ng/g). Sanitary wipes contained very high concentrations of ∑PBs (GM: 8300 ng/g). Paper currencies, tickets, business cards, food cartons, flyers, and newspapers contained notable concentrations of ∑PBs, and the GM concentrations in these paper categories were on the order of a few tens to thousands of nanograms per gram. One source of parabens in paper products is the use of these chemicals as antifungal agents. MeP and PrP were the predominant analogs, accounting for approximately 62% and 16% of the total concentrations of parabens, respectively. On the basis of measured concentrations and frequency of handling of paper products, we estimated the daily intake (EDI) of parabens through dermal absorption. The GM and 95th percentile EDI values were 6.31 and 2050 ng/day, respectively, for the general population. Among the paper categories analyzed, sanitary wipes contributed to the majority (>90%) of the exposures.

  17. Surface analysis methods in materials science

    CERN Document Server

    Sexton, Brett; Smart, Roger

    1992-01-01

    The idea for this book stemmed from a remark by Philip Jennings of Murdoch University in a discussion session following a regular meeting of the Australian Surface Science group. He observed that a text on surface analysis and applica­ tions to materials suitable for final year undergraduate and postgraduate science students was not currently available. Furthermore, the members of the Australian Surface Science group had the research experience and range of coverage of sur­ face analytical techniques and applications to provide a text for this purpose. A of techniques and applications to be included was agreed at that meeting. The list intended readership of the book has been broadened since the early discussions, particularly to encompass industrial users, but there has been no significant alter­ ation in content. The editors, in consultation with the contributors, have agreed that the book should be prepared for four major groups of readers: - senior undergraduate students in chemistry, physics, metallur...

  18. Contributions of Paint and Soil to Pb in Household Dust Wipes: An XAS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingitore, N. E.; Clague, J. W.; Amaya, M. A.

    2010-12-01

    Speciation of Pb by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) indicated that Pb compounds associated with lead-based paint accounted for perhaps half of the Pb in 24 household dust wipes collected in El Paso, Texas. Soil-derived, sorbed Pb, likely Pb-humate, was also a major Pb species in many of the dust wipes. Household dust wipes are a standard technique for evaluating health risks of Pb to children, particularly toddlers, in public and private housing. The level of Pb in the wipes does not, however, indicate whether the source of the Pb is the house itself (peeling or powdering interior or exterior paint) or external, from contaminated soil or airborne particulate matter brought into the house by wind or foot traction. Understanding the origin of Pb in household dust is important in remediation: cover the old paint or remove the yard soil. XAS speciation can assist in understanding the source of Pb in household dust. The presence of significant Pb-humate requires a soil source, and suggests the need for soil remediation. Such species of Pb as hydrocerussite, lead sulfate, lead silicate, and lead chromate can be presumed to be components of lead-based paint. These may represent interior and/or exterior paint and thus do not uniquely identify the locus of the Pb source(s). Pb L-III edge XAFS data were collected on beam lines 7-3, 10-2, and 11-2 at SSRL at typical conditions of 3 GeV field and 80-200 mA current, using Si(220) water- or liquid-nitrogen-cooled monochromator crystals. Data were collected at ambient temperature in fluorescence mode using a 13- or 30-element Ge detector with a Se 3 or 6 filter and Soller slits to reduce scattered radiation. This publication was made possible by grant numbers 1RO1-ES11367 and 1 S11 ES013339-01A1 from the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), NIH. Its contents are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official views of the NIEHS, NIH. Portions of this research were

  19. Assessment of Personal Airborne Exposures and Surface Contamination from X-ray Vaporization of Beryllium Targets at the National Ignition Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paik, Samuel Y; Epperson, Patrick M; Kasper, Kenneth M

    2017-02-28

    This study presents air and surface sampling data collected over the first two years since beryllium was introduced as a target material at the National Ignition Facility. Over this time, 101 experiments with beryllium-containing targets were executed. The data provides an assessment of current conditions in the facility and a baseline for future impacts as new, reduced regulatory limits for beryllium are being proposed by both the Occupational Safety and Health Administration and Department of Energy. This study also investigates how beryllium deposits onto exposed surfaces as a result of x-ray vaporization and the effectiveness of simple decontamination measures in reducing the amount of removable beryllium from a surface. Based on 1,961 surface wipe samples collected from entrant components (equipment directly exposed to target debris) and their surrounding work areas during routine reconfiguration activities, only one result was above the beryllium release limit of 0.2 μg/100 cm(2) and 27 results were above the analytical reporting limit of 0.01 μg/100 cm(2), for a beryllium detection rate of 1.4%. Surface wipe samples collected from the internal walls of the NIF target chamber, however, showed higher levels of beryllium, with beryllium detected on 73% and 87% of the samples during the first and second target chamber entries (performed annually), respectively, with 23% of the samples above the beryllium release limit during the second target chamber entry. The analysis of a target chamber wall panel exposed during the first 30 beryllium-containing experiments (cumulatively) indicated that 87% of the beryllium contamination remains fixed onto the surface after wet wiping the surface and 92% of the non-fixed contamination was removed by decontaminating the surface using a dry wipe followed by a wet wipe. Personal airborne exposures assessed during access to entrant components and during target chamber entry indicated that airborne beryllium was not present

  20. Surface analysis of stone and bone tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stemp, W. James; Watson, Adam S.; Evans, Adrian A.

    2016-03-01

    Microwear (use-wear) analysis is a powerful method for identifying tool use that archaeologists and anthropologists employ to determine the activities undertaken by both humans and their hominin ancestors. Knowledge of tool use allows for more accurate and detailed reconstructions of past behavior, particularly in relation to subsistence practices, economic activities, conflict and ritual. It can also be used to document changes in these activities over time, in different locations, and by different members of society, in terms of gender and status, for example. Both stone and bone tools have been analyzed using a variety of techniques that focus on the observation, documentation and interpretation of wear traces. Traditionally, microwear analysis relied on the qualitative assessment of wear features using microscopes and often included comparisons between replicated tools used experimentally and the recovered artifacts, as well as functional analogies dependent upon modern implements and those used by indigenous peoples from various places around the world. Determination of tool use has also relied on the recovery and analysis of both organic and inorganic residues of past worked materials that survived in and on artifact surfaces. To determine tool use and better understand the mechanics of wear formation, particularly on stone and bone, archaeologists and anthropologists have increasingly turned to surface metrology and tribology to assist them in their research. This paper provides a history of the development of traditional microwear analysis in archaeology and anthropology and also explores the introduction and adoption of more modern methods and technologies for documenting and identifying wear on stone and bone tools, specifically those developed for the engineering sciences to study surface structures on micro- and nanoscales. The current state of microwear analysis is discussed as are the future directions in the study of microwear on stone and bone tools.

  1. Scrubbing the hub of intravenous catheters with an alcohol wipe for 15 sec reduced neonatal sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkman, Louise; Ohlin, Andreas

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether scrubbing the hub of intravenous catheters with an alcohol wipe for 15 sec could reduce the incidence of neonatal sepsis in a level-three neonatal intensive care unit. We studied the incidence of neonatal sepsis caused by coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) for 16.5 months before the initiative was launched on May 15, 2012 and then for a further 8.5 months after it was introduced. The hub routine was applied to all intravenous catheters. During the control period before the initiative was launched, there were nine cases of CoNS sepsis compared with no cases after it was introduced, resulting in a decrease in sepsis incidence from 1.5% to 0% with a risk reduction of 1.5% (0.53-2.58%) (p = 0.06). In the preterm infant population, the incidence of sepsis decreased from 3.6% to 0% (1.1-6.0%) (p = 0.11). Scrubbing the hub of intravenous catheters with an alcohol wipe for 15 sec seemed to be an efficient way of preventing sepsis caused by CoNS in newborn infants. However, the evidence for the benefits will remain weak until a large randomised trial has been completed. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Results of Testing the Relative Oxidizing Hazard of Wipes and KMI Zeolite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ams, Bridget Elaine [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2017-05-09

    This report includes the results from testing performed on the relative oxidizing hazard of a number of organic sorbing wipe materials, as well as KMI zeolite. These studies were undertaken to address a need by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Hazardous Materials Management group, which requires a material that can sorb small spills in a glovebox without creating a disposal hazard due to the potential for oxidation reactions, as requested in Request for Testing of Wipes and Zeolite for Los Alamos National Laboratory Hazardous Materials Group (NPl-7) (NPl-7-17-002) and Request for Testing of Chamois Material for Los Alamos National Laboratory Hazardous Materials Group (NPl-7) (NPl-7-17-005). This set oftests is a continuation of previous testing described in Results from Preparation and Testing of Sorbents Mixed with (DWT-RPT-003), which provided data for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Basis of Knowledge. The Basis of Knowledge establishes criteria for evaluating transuranic (TRU) waste that contains oxidizing chemicals.

  3. A pilot study to assess the effectiveness and cost of routine universal use of peracetic acid sporicidal wipes in a real clinical environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Avinandan; Botha, Stefan Louis; Weaving, Paul; Satta, Giovanni

    2016-11-01

    Peracetic acid sporicidal wipes have been shown to be an effective disinfectant, but in controlled test environments. Their high cost may restrict use. This pilot study investigated the efficacy and compared the costs of routine universal use of peracetic acid sporicidal wipes versus sporicidal quaternary ammonium compound and alcohol wipes in the disinfection of a hospital environment. The routine universal use of peracetic acid wipes (Clinell Sporicidal; GAMA Healthcare Ltd, London, UK) was allocated to a study ward, whereas the control ward continued with the use of quaternary ammonium compound wipes (Tuffie 5; Vernacare, Bolton, UK) and alcohol wipes (PDI Sani-Cloth 70; PDI, Flint, UK). Twenty high-touch areas in the 2 wards were sampled for the presence of indicator organisms. The weekly detection rates of indicator organisms and weekly healthcare associated infection (HCAI) rates in the 2 wards were compared and examined for decreasing trends over the trial period. The detection rates of indicator organisms and HCAI rates were not significantly different in the 2 wards, and did not decrease significantly over the trial period. However, the peracetic acid wipes seem to be more effective against gram-negative organisms but at a significantly higher cost. Further prospective studies are needed to assess the cost-effectiveness of peracetic acid wipes. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Analysis of cell surface antigens by Surface Plasmon Resonance imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stojanovic, I.; Schasfoort, R.B.M.; Terstappen, L.W.M.M.

    2013-01-01

    Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) is most commonly used to measure bio-molecular interactions. SPR is used significantly less frequent for measuring whole cell interactions. Here we introduce a method to measure whole cells label free using the specific binding of cell surface antigens expressed on th

  5. Analysis of cell surface antigens by Surface Plasmon Resonance imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stojanovic, Ivan; Schasfoort, Richardus B.M.; Terstappen, Leonardus Wendelinus Mathias Marie

    2013-01-01

    Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) is most commonly used to measure bio-molecular interactions. SPR is used significantly less frequent for measuring whole cell interactions. Here we introduce a method to measure whole cells label free using the specific binding of cell surface antigens expressed on th

  6. Mechanics of the Removal of Thickened Chemical Agents from Contaminated Surfaces by Wiping

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-20

    viscosity has on the results. Figure 27 shows viscometric data, taken with a Rheometrics Fluids Rheometer, for a shear thinning carboxymethylcellulose ...thin wipers and large wiper angle geometries. With the newtonian problem well understood, experimental data for well characterized visco- elastic

  7. 40 CFR 761.372 - Specific requirements for relatively clean surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... grimy before a spill, such as glass, automobile surfaces, newly-poured concrete, and desk tops, use the... with a solvent-soaked, disposable absorbent pad such that each 900 cm2 (1 square foot) is wiped for...

  8. Colorado Front Range Surface Ozone Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure-Begley, A.; Petropavlovskikh, I. V.; Oltmans, S. J.; Kofler, J.; Petron, G.; Cothrel, H.

    2014-12-01

    The Colorado Front Range is a unique geographical region for air quality studies, including research of surface level ozone. Not only does surface ozone play a critical role in regulating the oxidation capacity of the atmosphere, but is a primary contributor to local smog and leads to public health complications and altered ecosystem functioning. The high frequency of sunny days, increasing population and pollution, and Mountain/Valley air dynamics of this region provide atmospheric conditions suitable for production and accumulation of ozone at the surface. This region of Colorado is currently in an ozone non-attainment status due to an assortment of contributing factors. Precursor emissions from pollution, wild-fires, and gas and oil production; along with stratosphere-troposphere exchange, can all result in high ozone episodes over the Colorado Front Range. To understand the dynamics of ozone accumulation in this region, Thermo-Scientific ozone monitors have been continuously sampling ozone from 4 different altitudes since the early 2000s. Analysis of ozone data in relation to Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Methane (CH4), Carbon Monoxide (CO), wind-conditions and back-trajectory air mass origins help to address local ozone precursor emissions and resulting high ozone episodes. Increased ozone episodes are scrutinized with regards to dominant wind direction to determine main precursor emission sources. Analysis of this data reveals a strong influence of precursor emissions from the North-East wind sector, with roughly 50% of ozone exceedances originating from winds prevailing from this direction. Further, correlation with methane is enhanced when prevailing winds are from the North-East; indicative of influence from natural gas processes and feedlot activity. Similar analysis is completed for the North-West wind sector exceedances, with strong correlation to carbon monoxide; likely related to emissions from biomass burning events and forest fires. In depth analysis of

  9. Cyclophosphamide identification in wipe test by GC-MS and solid phase extraction Identificação de ciclofosfamida em wipe teste por CG-EM com prévia extração em fase sólida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isarita Martins

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study cyclophosphamide was quantified after adapting a prior analytical method using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after solid phase purification and derivatization with trifluoroacetic anhydride. The analyte was measured by analysis in wipe test from infusion bags, which may be contaminated by contact with the gloves used during preparation of the drugs. Surface of bag contaminated may be an important source of contamination for workers in the others chemoterapy handling areas, such as administration rooms. This drug, in fact, is one of the most frequently used alkylating antineoplastic agents for different types of tumors and it is furthermore classified as a human carcinogen by IARC. Ifosfamide was used as internal standard and the quantification was carried out by reference to calibration curves within a range from 1 to 100 ng/mL. The limit of detection was 0.4 ng/mL. The values of the variation coefficient varied from 0.5 to 10% (intra-assay and from 0 to 19% (interassay. Frozen reference wipe samples containing cyclophosphamide were analysed over one month and no significant loss was observed. The range obtained for bias assay was 83-116% and the recovery was 98.9%. Cyclophosphamide was measured in 36 of 42 infusion bags collected from different hospitals with values ranging from 90 to 41874 ng (median= 607.5 ng. The results, well related to those reported in the literature, suggest that this method can be used to identify cyclophosphamide from wipe samples and can be considered useful in exposure assessment to this drug.A ciclofosfamida é uma agente alquilante freqüentemente utilizado na prática clínica para diferentes tipos de tumores e, é classificado como carcinógeno para humanos pelo IARC. Neste estudo, o fármaco foi quantificado, após adaptação de um método analítico, utilizando a cromatografia gasosa acoplada à espectrometria de massa com prévia extração em fase sólida e derivação com anidrido

  10. THE SELF-WIPING CO-ROTATING TWIN-SCREW EXTRUDER AS A POLYMERIZATION REACTOR FOR METHACRYLATES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongbloed, H.A.; Kiewiet, J.A.; van Dijk, J.H.; Janssen, L.P.B.M.

    1995-01-01

    The self-wiping co-rotating twin-screw extruder was studied as a reactor for two polymerizations in bulk: the homopolymerization of n-butylmethacrylate and the copolymerization of n-butylmethacrylate with 2-hydroxypropylmethacrylate. The influence of the extrusion parameters on the product was analy

  11. Surface and interface analysis an electrochemists toolbox

    CERN Document Server

    Holze, Rudolf

    2009-01-01

    A broad, almost encyclopedic overview of spectroscopic and other analytical techniques useful for investigations of phase boundaries in electrochemistry is presented. The analysis of electrochemical interfaces and interphases on a microscopic, even molecular level, is of central importance for an improved understanding of the structure and dynamics of these phase boundaries. The gained knowledge will be needed for improvements of methods and applications reaching from electrocatalysis, electrochemical energy conversion, biocompatibility of metals, corrosion protection to galvanic surface treatment and finishing. The book provides an overview as complete as possible and enables the reader to choose methods most suitable for tackling his particular task. It is nevertheless compact and does not flood the reader with the details of review papers.

  12. Surface Management System Departure Event Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Gilena A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a data analysis of the Surface Management System (SMS) performance of departure events, including push-back and runway departure events.The paper focuses on the detection performance, or the ability to detect departure events, as well as the prediction performance of SMS. The results detail a modest overall detection performance of push-back events and a significantly high overall detection performance of runway departure events. The overall detection performance of SMS for push-back events is approximately 55%.The overall detection performance of SMS for runway departure events nears 100%. This paper also presents the overall SMS prediction performance for runway departure events as well as the timeliness of the Aircraft Situation Display for Industry data source for SMS predictions.

  13. Arsenic levels in wipe samples collected from play structures constructed with CCA-treated wood: Impact on exposure estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barraj, Leila M. [Chemical Regulation and Food Safety, Exponent, Inc., Suite 1100, 1150 Connecticut Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20036 (United States)], E-mail: lbarraj@exponent.com; Scrafford, Carolyn G. [Chemical Regulation and Food Safety, Exponent, Inc., Suite 1100, 1150 Connecticut Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20036 (United States); Eaton, W. Cary [RTI International, 3040 Cornwallis Road, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Rogers, Robert E.; Jeng, Chwen-Jyh [Toxcon Health Sciences Research Centre Inc., 9607 - 41 Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta, T6E 5X7 (Canada)

    2009-04-01

    Lumber treated with chromated copper arsenate (CCA) has been used in residential outdoor wood structures and playgrounds. The U.S. EPA has conducted a probabilistic assessment of children's exposure to arsenic from CCA-treated structures using the Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation model for the wood preservative scenario (SHEDS-Wood). The EPA assessment relied on data from an experimental study using adult volunteers and designed to measure arsenic in maximum hand and wipe loadings. Analyses using arsenic handloading data from a study of children playing on CCA-treated play structures in Edmonton, Canada, indicate that the maximum handloading values significantly overestimate the exposure that occurs during actual play. The objective of our paper is to assess whether the dislodgeable arsenic residues from structures in the Edmonton study are comparable to those observed in other studies and whether they support the conclusion that the values derived by EPA using modeled maximum loading values overestimate hand exposures. We compared dislodgeable arsenic residue data from structures in the playgrounds in the Edmonton study to levels observed in studies used in EPA's assessment. Our analysis showed that the dislodgeable arsenic levels in the Edmonton playground structures are similar to those in the studies used by EPA. Hence, the exposure estimates derived using the handloading data from children playing on CCA-treated structures are more representative of children's actual exposures than the overestimates derived by EPA using modeled maximum values. Handloading data from children playing on CCA-treated structures should be used to reduce the uncertainty of modeled estimates derived using the SHEDS-Wood model.

  14. Nondestructive Analysis of Telescope Surfaces and Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Julie; Kintzel, Edward; Strolger, Louis; Wolff, Schuyler

    2010-10-01

    The Department of Physics and Astronomy at Western Kentucky University has a Large Chamber Scanning Electron Microscope (LCSEM) available for materials analysis. As one of 10 in the world, the capability exists for nondestructive analysis of large samples. Currently we are investigating using the LCSEM to quantify reflectivity and long-term integrity for large segments of optical elements and detectors for ground and space-based environments. Comparisons of reflectance ratios as a function of surface roughness for Al-Coated optical mirrors may be confirmed with the LCSEM. Long-term structural integrity of Al-coated thinned mirror segments at ground-based facilities due to weather (oxidation) and spaced-based high-radiation environments can be investigated. Fatigue behavior of these metallic films from active/adaptive actuation will be simulated using the LCSEM. New research possibilities across a broad multidisciplinary spectrum will be key to the success of the LCSEM facility. These partnerships will lead to the development of new and existing technologies.

  15. APPLICATIONS OF SURFACE SPLINEFUNCTIONS TO STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS IN COAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HanJinyan; YuZhiwei

    1996-01-01

    A surface spline function is used to fit a coal seam surface in structural analysis in coal geology. From the surface spline function, the first and second partial derivatives can also be derived and used to structural analysis, especially for recognition of the concealed structures. The detection of structures related to faulting is emphasized.

  16. Surface analysis of selected hydrophobic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisniewska, Sylwia Katarzyna

    This dissertation contains a series of studies on hydrophobic surfaces by various surface sensitive techniques such as contact angle measurements, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Hydrophobic surfaces have been classified as mineral surfaces, organic synthetic surfaces, or natural biological surfaces. As a model hydrophobic mineral surface, elemental sulfur has been selected. The sulfur surface has been characterized for selected allotropic forms of sulfur such as rhombic, monoclinic, plastic, and cyclohexasulfur. Additionally, dextrin adsorption at the sulfur surface was measured. The structure of a dextrin molecule showing hydrophobic sites has been presented to support the proposed hydrophobic bonding nature of dextrin adsorption at the sulfur surface. As a model organic hydrophobic surface, primary fatty amines such as dodecylamine, hexadecylamine, and octadecylamine were chosen. An increase of hydrophobicity, significant changes of infrared bands, and surface topographical changes with time were observed for each amine. Based on the results it was concluded that hydrocarbon chain rearrangement associated with recrystallization took place at the surface during contact with air. A barley straw surface was selected as a model of biological hydrophobic surfaces. The differences in the contact angles for various straw surfaces were explained by the presence of a wax layer. SEM images confirmed the heterogeneity and complexity of the wax crystal structure. AFM measurements provided additional structural details including a measure of surface roughness. Additionally, straw degradation as a result of conditioning in an aqueous environment was studied. Significant contact angle changes were observed as soon as one day after conditioning. FTIR studies showed a gradual wax layer removal due to straw surface decomposition. SEM and AFM images revealed topographical changes and biological

  17. Malicious Attacks Based on Intersection Wipe Traces of Network Forensics%基于擦除痕迹追踪技术的网络恶意攻击取证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴育宝; 李星亮

    2013-01-01

    提出了一种基于擦除痕迹追踪的网络恶意攻击取证技术,分析攻击擦除痕迹的相交性作为取证方案,依据网络恶意攻击的相交擦除痕迹构建贝叶斯报警网络,对恶意攻击进一步取证,并通过网络恶意攻击检测模型分析网络受到的恶意攻击状态,实现大规模网络恶意攻击擦除后的取证。实验结果表明,该方案具有良好的实践性,能够对网络恶意攻击进行准确地取证,具有较高的报警率和较低的误报率,取得了令人满意的结果。%proposes a malicious attacks based on intersection wipe traces of network forensics technology, analysis of pre-liminary evidence collection scheme based on intersection wipe traces, malicious attack based on network intersection wipe traces constructing bayesian alerting network, further evidence to malicious attack, and through the cloud computing network malicious network attack detection model analysis of malicious attacks, realize the cloud computing network ma-licious attack detection. The experimental results show that the scheme has good practicality, can carry on the accurate evidence to the network of malicious attacks, has the high alarm rate and lower false alarm rate, and achieved satisfactory results.

  18. 40 CFR 761.369 - Pre-cleaning the surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pre-cleaning the surface. 761.369... PROHIBITIONS Double Wash/Rinse Method for Decontaminating Non-Porous Surfaces § 761.369 Pre-cleaning the surface. If visible PCB-containing liquid is present on the surface to be cleaned, thoroughly wipe or...

  19. Autonomous Aerobraking Using Thermal Response Surface Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Jill L.; Dec, John A.; Tolson, Robert H.

    2007-01-01

    Aerobraking is a proven method of significantly increasing the science payload that can be placed into low Mars orbits when compared to an all propulsive capture. However, the aerobraking phase is long and has mission cost and risk implications. The main cost benefit is that aerobraking permits the use of a smaller and cheaper launch vehicle, but additional operational costs are incurred during the long aerobraking phase. Risk is increased due to the repeated thermal loading of spacecraft components and the multiple attitude and propulsive maneuvers required for successful aerobraking. Both the cost and risk burdens can be significantly reduced by automating the aerobraking operations phase. All of the previous Mars orbiter missions that have utilized aerobraking have increasingly relied on onboard calculations during aerobraking. Even though the temperature of spacecraft components has been the limiting factor, operational methods have relied on using a surrogate variable for mission control. This paper describes several methods, based directly on spacecraft component maximum temperature, for autonomously predicting the subsequent aerobraking orbits and prescribing apoapsis propulsive maneuvers to maintain the spacecraft within specified temperature limits. Specifically, this paper describes the use of thermal response surface analysis in predicting the temperature of the spacecraft components and the corresponding uncertainty in this temperature prediction.

  20. Surface Operations Data Analysis and Adaptation Tool Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This effort undertook the creation of a Surface Operations Data Analysis and Adaptation (SODAA) tool to store data relevant to airport surface research and...

  1. Mathematical analysis and calculation of molecular surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Chaoyu; Stamm, Benjamin

    2016-10-01

    In this article we derive a complete characterization of the Solvent Excluded Surface (SES) for molecular systems including a complete characterization of singularities of the surface. The theory is based on an implicit representation of the SES, which, in turn, is based on the signed distance function to the Solvent Accessible Surface (SAS). All proofs are constructive so that the theory allows for efficient algorithms in order to compute the area of the SES and the volume of the SES-cavity, or to visualize the surface. Further, we propose to refine the notion of SAS and SES in order to take inner holes in a solute molecule into account or not.

  2. Atomic force microscopy analysis of different surface treatments of Ti dental implant surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathomarco, Ti R. V.; Solorzano, G.; Elias, C. N.; Prioli, R.

    2004-06-01

    The surface of commercial unalloyed titanium, used in dental implants, was analyzed by atomic force microscopy. The morphology, roughness, and surface area of the samples, submitted to mechanically-induced erosion, chemical etching and a combination of both, were compared. The results show that surface treatments strongly influence the dental implant physical and chemical properties. An analysis of the length dependence of the implant surface roughness shows that, for scan sizes larger than 50 μm, the average surface roughness is independent of the scanning length and that the surface treatments lead to average surface roughness in the range of 0.37 up to 0.48 μm. It is shown that the implant surface energy is sensitive to the titanium surface area. As the area increases there is a decrease in the surface contact angle.

  3. Atomic force microscopy analysis of different surface treatments of Ti dental implant surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bathomarco, R.V.; Solorzano, G.; Elias, C.N.; Prioli, R

    2004-06-30

    The surface of commercial unalloyed titanium, used in dental implants, was analyzed by atomic force microscopy. The morphology, roughness, and surface area of the samples, submitted to mechanically-induced erosion, chemical etching and a combination of both, were compared. The results show that surface treatments strongly influence the dental implant physical and chemical properties. An analysis of the length dependence of the implant surface roughness shows that, for scan sizes larger than 50 {mu}m, the average surface roughness is independent of the scanning length and that the surface treatments lead to average surface roughness in the range of 0.37 up to 0.48 {mu}m. It is shown that the implant surface energy is sensitive to the titanium surface area. As the area increases there is a decrease in the surface contact angle.

  4. DESI-MS2: a rapid and innovative method for trace analysis of six cytostatic drugs in health care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrizi, Giovanni; Fioretti, Marzia; Rocca, Lucia Mainero; Curini, Roberta

    2012-05-01

    With the aim of establishing exposure levels for hospital personnel preparing and administering cytostatic drugs (CDs), here, we present an innovative screening method based on the use of the desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) interface coupled with a hybrid quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometer. A rapid, simple, and sensitive procedure was developed for the simultaneous surface monitoring of cyclophosphamide, dacarbazine, methotrexate, vincristine, gemcitabine, and cytarabine. Since analytes were in the solid state, a novel approach based on the use of passive samplers was combined with the direct analysis of wipes. A PTFE-printed glass slide was used as a passive sampler, while hydrophobic centers of Swiffer® cloths were judged extremely efficient as wipe samplers. After the sampling period, the CD collectors were directly processed with the DESI-MS system without any further treatment. MS/MS confirmatory analysis was conducted using selected reaction monitoring in the positive ion mode and detection limits were evaluated. Values were at the picograms per square millimeter levels on the passive collector and at the picograms per square centimeter levels for the wipe ones. Direct determination on solid-state samples combined with mass spectrometry selectivity provided a powerful tool so far unapplied to occupational hygiene.

  5. Salmonella and Shigella in freshly squeezed orange juice, fresh oranges, and wiping cloths collected from public markets and street booths in Guadalajara, Mexico: incidence and comparison of analytical routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, A; Villarruel-López, A; Navarro-Hidalgo, V; Martínez-González, N E; Torres-Vitela, M R

    2006-11-01

    A survey of the presence of Salmonella and Shigella in freshly squeezed orange juice and related samples was conducted in Guadalajara, Mexico. One hundred samples of freshly squeezed orange juice were collected from 49 street booths and 51 small food service establishments. In addition, 75 fresh orange samples, each consisting of five orange units, and 75 wiping cloths were collected from the same establishments from which juice had been collected. Salmonella was isolated from 14, 20, and 23% of samples of orange juice, orange surfaces, and wiping cloths collected from street vendors, while Shigella was isolated from 6, 17, and 5% of these samples. In general, the frequency of isolation of these pathogens in samples from juice serving establishments at public markets was significantly lower than that found among street vendors (P or = 5.0 log CFU/ml and Escherichia coli counts of > 3.0 log CFU/ml, respectively. These high counts may indicate poor sanitation and potential exposure to fecal contamination either in the raw materials or during the orange-crushing and juice-serving process. These data may be useful for a further risk assessment of Salmonella or Shigella in unpasteurized, freshly squeezed juice.

  6. Modeling And Analysis Of The Surface Roughness And Geometrical Error Using Taguchi And Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DR.S.C.JAYSWAL

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This experimental work presents a technique to determine the better surface quality by controlling the surface roughness and geometrical error. In machining operations, achieving desired surface quality features of the machined product is really a challenging job. Because, these quality features are highly correlated and areexpected to be influenced directly or indirectly by the direct effect of process parameters or their interactive effects. Thus The four input process parameters such as spindle speed, depth of cut, feed rate, and stepover have been selected to minimize the surface roughness and geometrical error simultaneously by using the robustdesign concept of Taguchi L9(34 method coupled with Response surface concept. Mathematical models for surface roughness and geometrical error were obtained from response surface analysis to predict values of surface roughness and geometrical error. S/N ratio and ANOVA analyses were also performed to obtain for significant parameters influencing surface roughness and geometrical error.

  7. Laser pulse heating of surfaces and thermal stress analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Yilbas, Bekir S; Al-Aqeeli, Nasser; Al-Qahtani, Hussain M

    2013-01-01

    This book introduces laser pulse heating and thermal stress analysis in materials surface. Analytical temperature treatments and stress developed in the surface region are also explored. The book will help the reader analyze the laser induced stress in the irradiated region and presents solutions for the stress field. Detailed thermal stress analysis in different laser pulse heating situations and different boundary conditions are also presented. Written for surface engineers.

  8. Magellan: initial analysis of venus surface modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvidson, R E; Baker, V R; Elachi, C; Saunders, R S; Wood, J A

    1991-04-12

    Initial Magellan observations reveal a planet with high dielectric constant materials exposed preferentially in elevated regions with high slopes, ejecta deposits extending up to 1000 kilometers to the west of several impact craters, windblown deposits and features in areas where there are both obstacles and a source of particulate material, and evidence for slow, steady degradation by atmosphere-surface interactions and mass movements.

  9. Cleaning and materials compatibility test results for elimination of flammable solvents in wipe applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Edwin Paul

    2005-06-01

    In recent years, efforts have been made within the nuclear weapons complex (National Nuclear Security Administration) of the Department of Energy (DOE) to replace Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulated solvents (i.e., flammable, toxic, corrosive, and reactive) and ozone-depleting chemicals (ODC) with more benign alternatives. Within the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and the Department of Defense (DoD) sectors, these solvents are used for cleaning hardware during routine maintenance operations. A primary goal of this study is to replace flammable solvents used in wiping applications. Two cleaners, including a hydrofluoroether (HFE) and an azeotrope of the HFE and isopropyl alcohol (IPA), have been studied as potential replacements for flammable solvents. Cleaning efficacy, short-term and long-term materials compatibility, corrosion, drying times, flammability, environment, safety and health (ES&H) and accelerated aging issues were among the experiments used to screen candidate solvents by the interagency team performing this work. This report presents cleaning efficacy results as determined by the contact angle Goniometer as well as materials compatibility results of various metal alloys and polymers. The results indicate that IPA (baseline cleaner) and the HFE/IPA azeotrope are roughly equivalent in their ability to remove fluorinated grease, silicone grease, and a simulated finger print contaminant from various metal alloys. All of the ASTM sandwich and immersion corrosion tests with IPA, HFE or the HFE/IPA azeotrope on metal alloys showed no signs of corrosion. Furthermore, no deleterious effects were noted for polymeric materials immersed in IPA, HFE, or the HFE/IPA azeotrope.

  10. Surface contamination analysis technology team overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, H. Dewitt

    1995-01-01

    A team was established which consisted of representatives from NASA (Marshall Space Flight Center and Langley Research Center), Thiokol Corporation, the University of Alabama in Huntsville, AC Engineering, SAIC, Martin Marietta, and Aerojet. The team's purpose was to bring together the appropriate personnel to determine what surface inspection techniques were applicable to multiprogram bonding surface cleanliness inspection. In order to identify appropriate techniques and their sensitivity to various contaminant families, calibration standards were developed. Producing standards included development of consistent low level contamination application techniques. Oxidation was also considered for effect on inspection equipment response. Ellipsometry was used for oxidation characterization. Verification testing was then accomplished to show that selected inspection techniques could detect subject contaminants at levels found to be detrimental to critical bond systems of interest. Once feasibility of identified techniques was shown, selected techniques and instrumentation could then be incorporated into a multipurpose inspection head and integrated with a robot for critical surface inspection. Inspection techniques currently being evaluated include optically stimulated electron emission (OSEE); near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy utilizing fiber optics; Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy; and ultraviolet (UV) fluorescence. Current plans are to demonstrate an integrated system in MSFC's Productivity Enhancement Complex within five years from initiation of this effort in 1992 assuming appropriate funding levels are maintained. This paper gives an overview of work accomplished by the team and future plans.

  11. Process analysis and optimization models defining recultivation surface mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrijević Bojan V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface mines are generally open and very dynamic systems influenced by a large number of technical, economic, environmental and safety factors and limitations in all stages of the life cycle. In this paper the dynamic compliance period surface mining phases and of the reclamation. Also, an analysis of the reclamation of surface mines, and process flow management project recultivation is determined by the principled management model reclamation. The analysis of the planning process is defined by the model optimization recultivation surface mine.

  12. Use of a foam spatula for sampling surfaces after bioaerosol deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, Rafal; Kozlowska, Krystyna; Szpakowska, Malgorzata; Stepinska, Malgorzata; Trafny, Elzbieta A

    2010-02-01

    The present study had three goals: (i) to evaluate the relative quantities of aerosolized Bacillus atrophaeus spores deposited on the vertical, horizontal top, and horizontal bottom surfaces in a chamber; (ii) to assess the relative recoveries of the aerosolized spores from glass and stainless steel surfaces with a polyester swab and a macrofoam sponge wipe; and (iii) to estimate the relative recovery efficiencies of aerosolized B. atrophaeus spores and Pantoea agglomerans using a foam spatula at several different bacterial loads by aerosol distribution on glass surfaces. The majority of spores were collected from the bottom horizontal surface regardless of which swab type and extraction protocol were used. Swabbing with a macrofoam sponge wipe was more efficient in recovering spores from surfaces contaminated with high bioaerosol concentrations than swabbing with a polyester swab. B. atrophaeus spores and P. agglomerans culturable cells were detected on glass surfaces using foam spatulas when the theoretical surface bacterial loads were 2.88 x 10(4) CFU and 8.09 x 10(6) CFU per 100-cm(2) area, respectively. The median recovery efficiency from the surfaces using foam spatulas was equal to 9.9% for B. atrophaeus spores when the recovery was calculated relative to the theoretical surface spore load. Using a foam spatula permits reliable sampling of spores on the bioaerosol-exposed surfaces in a wide measuring range. The culturable P. agglomerans cells were recovered with a median efficiency of 0.001%, but staining the swab extracts with fluorescent dyes allowed us to observe that the viable cell numbers were higher by 1.83 log units than culturable organisms. However, additional work is needed to improve the analysis of the foam extracts in order to decrease the limit of detection of Bacillus spores and Gram-negative bacteria on contaminated surfaces.

  13. A pilot study of the efficacy of wipes containing chlorhexidine 0.3%, climbazole 0.5% and Tris-EDTA to reduce Malassezia pachydermatis populations on canine skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavana, Paola; Peano, Andrea; Petit, Jean-Yanique; Tizzani, Paolo; Perrot, Sébastien; Bensignor, Emmanuel; Guillot, Jacques

    2015-08-01

    Wipes containing chlorhexidine and azole derivates have been recommended for veterinary use. No study has been published about their activity against Malassezia pachydermatis. To evaluate the in vivo and in vitro activity of wipes soaked in a chlorhexidine, climbazole and Tris-EDTA solution against Malassezia pachydermatis. Five research colony shar-pei dogs. Wipes were applied once daily onto the left axilla, left groin and perianal area (protocol A), and twice daily on the right axilla, right groin and umbilical region (protocol B) for 3 days. In vivo activity was evaluated by quantifying Malassezia colonies through contact plates on the selected body areas before and after wipe application. The activity of the solution in which the wipes were soaked was assessed in vitro by contact tests following the European Standard UNI EN 1275 guidelines. Samples collected after wipe application showed a significant and rapid reduction of Malassezia yeast CFU. No significant difference in the Malassezia reduction was found between protocols A and B. In vitro assay showed 100% activity against Malassezia yeasts after a 15 min contact time with the wipe solution. Wipes containing chlorhexidine, climbazole and Tris-EDTA substantially reduced the M. pachydermatis population on the skin of dogs. The results, although this was an uncontrolled study performed on a small number of dogs, suggest that these wipes may be useful for topical therapy of Malassezia dermatitis involving the lips, paws, perianal area and skin folds. © 2015 ESVD and ACVD.

  14. Plasma diagnostics surface analysis and interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Auciello, Orlando

    2013-01-01

    Plasmas and their interaction with materials have become subjects of major interest because of their importance in modern forefront technologies such as microelectronics, fusion energy, and space. Plasmas are used in microelectronics to process semiconductors (etching of patterns for microcircuits, plasma-induced deposition of thin films, etc.); plasmas produce deleterious erosion effects on surfaces of materials used for fusion devices and spaceships exposed to the low earth environment.Diagnostics of plasmas and materials exposed to them are fundamental to the understanding of the physical a

  15. XRF Experiment for Elementary Surface Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, E.; Dreißigacker, A.; Fabel, O.; van Gasselt, S.; Meyer, M.

    2014-04-01

    The proposed X-Ray Fluorescence Instrument Package (XRF-X and XRF-E) is being designed to quantitatively measure the composition and map the distribution of rock-surface materials in order to support the target area selection process for exploration, sampling, and mining. While energydispersive X-Ray fluorescence (EDX) makes use of Solar X-Rays for excitation to probe materials over arbitrary distances (by XRF-X), electron-beam excitation can be used for proximity measurements (by XRF-E) over short-distance of up to about 10 - 20m. This design is targeted at observing and analyzing surface compositions from orbital platforms and it is in particular applicable to all atmosphereless solidsurface bodies. While the instrument design for observing objects in the outer solar system is challenging due to low count rates, the Moon and objects of the asteroid belt usually receive solar X-ray radiation that allows to integrate a statistically reliable data basis. Asteroids are attractive targets and have been visited using X-ray fluorescence instruments by orbiting spacecraft in the past (Itokawa, Eros). They are wellaccessible objects for determining elemental compositions and assessing potential mineral resources.

  16. Surface analysis of titanium dental implants with different topographies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva M.H. Prado da

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Cylindrical dental implants made of commercially pure titanium were analysed in four different surface finishes: as-machined, Al2O3 blasted with Al2O3 particles, plasma-sprayed with titanium beads and electrolytically coated with hydroxyapatite. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM with Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDX revealed the topography of the surfaces and provided qualitative results of the chemical composition of the different implants. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS was used to perform chemical analysis on the surface of the implants while Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy (LSM produced topographic maps of the analysed surfaces. Optical Profilometry was used to quantitatively characterise the level of roughness of the surfaces. The implant that was plasma-sprayed and the hydroxyapatite coated implant showed the roughest surface, followed by the implant blasted with alumina and the as-machined implant. Some remnant contamination from the processes of blasting, coating and cleaning was detected by XPS.

  17. Error analysis of aspheric surface with reference datum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yanglin; Dai, Yifan; Chen, Shanyong; Song, Ci; Shi, Feng

    2015-07-20

    Severe requirements of location tolerance provide new challenges for optical component measurement, evaluation, and manufacture. Form error, location error, and the relationship between form error and location error need to be analyzed together during error analysis of aspheric surface with reference datum. Based on the least-squares optimization method, we develop a least-squares local optimization method to evaluate form error of aspheric surface with reference datum, and then calculate the location error. According to the error analysis of a machined aspheric surface, the relationship between form error and location error is revealed, and the influence on the machining process is stated. In different radius and aperture of aspheric surface, the change laws are simulated by superimposing normally distributed random noise on an ideal surface. It establishes linkages between machining and error analysis, and provides an effective guideline for error correcting.

  18. Analysis of Circular Arrays on Cylindrical Surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerini, G.; Guglielmi, M.; Rozzi, T.; Zappelli, L.

    2000-01-01

    The analysis of conformal arrays has been deeply developed and many authors have proposed either simplified models, based on single mode theory [1]-[4] or more accurate models but at the cost of a long computation time[5]. In this contribution we use the Multimode Equivalent Network (MEN) formulatio

  19. Analysis of Circular Arrays on Cylindrical Surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerini, G.; Guglielmi, M.; Rozzi, T.; Zappelli, L.

    2000-01-01

    The analysis of conformal arrays has been deeply developed and many authors have proposed either simplified models, based on single mode theory [1]-[4] or more accurate models but at the cost of a long computation time[5]. In this contribution we use the Multimode Equivalent Network (MEN)

  20. Analysis of Circular Arrays on Cylindrical Surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerini, G.; Guglielmi, M.; Rozzi, T.; Zappelli, L.

    2000-01-01

    The analysis of conformal arrays has been deeply developed and many authors have proposed either simplified models, based on single mode theory [1]-[4] or more accurate models but at the cost of a long computation time[5]. In this contribution we use the Multimode Equivalent Network (MEN) formulatio

  1. Spectroscopy Surface Analysis of Paracetamol and Paracetamol and Excipient Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Zaki, Hamizah

    2011-01-01

    A detailed, fundamental understanding of the surface properties of molecular crystals and their interaction with adsorbing molecules (e.g. excipients) is important for tailoring the stability of formulations and the bioavailability of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (APIs). Few fundamental experimental studies with surface sensitive probes have been carried out for organic molecular crystals. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is an established surface analysis method in the fields of ad...

  2. Broad spectrum infrared thermal desorption of wipe-based explosive and narcotic samples for trace mass spectrometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Thomas P; Staymates, Matthew; Sisco, Edward

    2017-08-07

    Wipe collected analytes were thermally desorbed using broad spectrum near infrared heating for mass spectrometric detection. Employing a twin tube filament-based infrared emitter, rapid and efficiently powered thermal desorption and detection of nanogram levels of explosives and narcotics was demonstrated. The infrared thermal desorption (IRTD) platform developed here used multi-mode heating (direct radiation and secondary conduction from substrate and subsequent convection from air) and a temperature ramp to efficiently desorb analytes with vapor pressures across eight orders of magnitude. The wipe substrate experienced heating rates up to (85 ± 2) °C s(-1) with a time constant of (3.9 ± 0.2) s for 100% power emission. The detection of trace analytes was also demonstrated from complex mixtures, including plastic-bonded explosives and exogenous narcotics, explosives, and metabolites from collected artificial latent fingerprints. Manipulation of the emission power and duration directly controlled the heating rate and maximum temperature, enabling differential thermal desorption and a level of upstream separation for enhanced specificity. Transitioning from 100% power and 5 s emission duration to 25% power and 30 s emission enabled an order of magnitude increase in the temporal separation (single seconds to tens of seconds) of the desorption of volatile and semi-volatile species within a collected fingerprint. This mode of operation reduced local gas-phase concentrations, reducing matrix effects experienced with high concentration mixtures. IRTD provides a unique platform for the desorption of trace analytes from wipe collections, an area of importance to the security sector, transportation agencies, and customs and border protection.

  3. Applications of surface analysis in the wire industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, David A.

    The quality of wire is judged not only by its physical properties such as tensile strength and fatigue resistance, but also by its surface finish. The surface roughness, oxide formation, cleanliness, and plating homogeneity and porosity are just a few of the surface properties than can influence the performance of a wire product. Coupled to this is the large amount of surface area generated in drawing wire. For example, a ten pound spool holds nine miles of 0.006″ diameter stainless steel wire. For these reasons surface analysis has become important both to the manufacturer and consumer of wire products. When surface analysis equipment such as AES, ESCA, and SIMS was first becoming commercially available in the late sixties and early seventies, the wire industry was beginning to enter a phase of technological development for many of its products. Wire manufacturers and users began using surface analysis to investigate such topics as adhesion of brass plated automobile tire cord to rubber and diffusion of layered deposits. Examples of surface analysis used for process control, problem solving, and project development include discoloration problems on stainless steel wire, welding problems with composite wires, diffusion formed brass coatings, and diffusion problems with solder coated and Cu plated steel wire.

  4. Biomedical surface analysis: Evolution and future directions (Review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castner, David G.

    2017-01-01

    This review describes some of the major advances made in biomedical surface analysis over the past 30–40 years. Starting from a single technique analysis of homogeneous surfaces, it has been developed into a complementary, multitechnique approach for obtaining detailed, comprehensive information about a wide range of surfaces and interfaces of interest to the biomedical community. Significant advances have been made in each surface analysis technique, as well as how the techniques are combined to provide detailed information about biological surfaces and interfaces. The driving force for these advances has been that the surface of a biomaterial is the interface between the biological environment and the biomaterial, and so, the state-of-the-art in instrumentation, experimental protocols, and data analysis methods need to be developed so that the detailed surface structure and composition of biomedical devices can be determined and related to their biological performance. Examples of these advances, as well as areas for future developments, are described for immobilized proteins, complex biomedical surfaces, nanoparticles, and 2D/3D imaging of biological materials. PMID:28438024

  5. Microscopic Analysis and Modeling of Airport Surface Sequencing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The complexity and interdependence of operations on the airport surface motivate the need for a comprehensive and detailed, yet flexible and validated analysis and...

  6. Microscopic Analysis and Modeling of Airport Surface Sequencing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Although a number of airportal surface models exist and have been successfully used for analysis of airportal operations, only recently has it become possible to...

  7. NOAA High-Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (SST) Analysis Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archive covers two high resolution sea surface temperature (SST) analysis products developed using an optimum interpolation (OI) technique. The analyses have a...

  8. Scratch and dig analysis for Metis mirrors surfaces defects evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Špína, M.; Procháska, F.; Melich, R.

    2016-11-01

    The presented paper aims to theoretically analyze the possibilities, advantages and drawbacks of standard methods used for the assessment of optical surface defects (the so-called Scratch and Dig analysis). Based on the acquired knowledge, we design and apply a process of SaD analysis suitable for the evaluation of optical surfaces of mirrors of the space coronagraph Metis, whose manufacturing was successfully implemented within the Centre Toptec in the past period.

  9. Surface roughness monitoring by singular spectrum analysis of vibration signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Plaza, E.; Núñez López, P. J.

    2017-02-01

    This study assessed two methods for enhanced surface roughness (Ra) monitoring based on the application of singular spectrum analysis (SSA) to vibrations signals generated in workpiece-cutting tool interaction in CNC finish turning operations i.e., the individual analysis of principal components (I-SSA), and the grouping analysis of correlated principal components (G-SSA). Singular spectrum analysis is a non-parametric technique of time series analysis that decomposes a signal into a set of independent additive time series referred to as principal components. A number of experiments with different cutting conditions were performed to assess surface roughness monitoring using both of these methods. The results show that singular spectrum analysis of vibration signal processing discriminated the frequency ranges effective for predicting surface roughness. Grouping analysis of correlated principal components (G-SSA) proved to be the most efficient method for monitoring surface roughness, with optimum prediction and reliability results at a lower analytical-computational cost. Finally, the results show that singular spectrum analysis is an ideal method for analyzing vibration signals applied to the on-line monitoring of surface roughness.

  10. Analysis of surface cleanliness of three commercial dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, B N; Gold, B R

    1992-01-01

    Six routinely packaged commercially pure titanium dental implants (three commercial brands) were analysed using secondary ion mass spectrometry to examine the outermost surface layer. The aim of the analysis was to compare the surface purity (99.95%) of the implants with the substrate metal, common to all three brands. The use of a low primary ion current density provided a nominal protection limit of 0.01% or 100 p.p.m. All the implants examined had extremely pure surfaces. However, only one brand of implant had an ultraclean oxide surface in relation to the substrate.

  11. High-resolution analysis of protons scattered from solid surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsunami, Noriaki; Kitoh, Kenshin (Dept. of Crystalline Materials Science, Engineering, Nagoya Univ. (Japan)); Kanasaki, Jun-ichi; Itoh, Noriaki (Physics Dept., Nagoya Univ. (Japan))

    1990-01-01

    A survey is given for new information that can be obtained by high energy-resolution analysis of protons backscattered from solid surfaces: layer-by-layer analysis of composition, atomic and electronic structures of surfaces. Optimization of the scattering yield leads to the result that scattering geometries of both glancing angle (PELS-I) and 180deg (PELS-II) are feasible. Results obtained by PELS-I are mainly described: Au atom location for Au/Si(111) and surface contraction of W(111). The impact parameter-dependent inelastic energy loss function is mentioned. (orig.).

  12. Tribological performance analysis of textured steel surfaces under lubricating conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R. C.; Pandey, R. K.; Rooplal; Ranganath, M. S.; Maji, S.

    2016-09-01

    The tribological analysis of the lubricated conformal contacts formed between the smooth/textured surfaces of steel discs and smooth surface of steel pins under sliding conditions have been considered. Roles of dimples’ pitch of textured surfaces have been investigated experimentally to understand the variations of coefficient of friction and wear at the tribo-contacts under fully flooded lubricated conditions. Substantial reductions in coefficient of friction and wear at the tribo-interfaces have been observed in presence of textures on the rotating discs for both fully flooded and starved conditions in comparison to the corresponding lubricating conditions of the interfaces formed between the smooth surfaces of disc and pin. In presence of surface texture, the coefficient of friction reduces considerable at elevated sliding speeds (>2 m/s) and unit loads (>0.5 MPa) for the set of operating parameters considered in the analysis.

  13. Safety analysis of surface haulage accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randolph, R.F.; Boldt, C.M.K.

    1996-12-31

    Research on improving haulage truck safety, started by the U.S. Bureau of Mines, is being continued by its successors. This paper reports the orientation of the renewed research efforts, beginning with an update on accident data analysis, the role of multiple causes in these accidents, and the search for practical methods for addressing the most important causes. Fatal haulage accidents most often involve loss of control or collisions caused by a variety of factors. Lost-time injuries most often involve sprains or strains to the back or multiple body areas, which can often be attributed to rough roads and the shocks of loading and unloading. Research to reduce these accidents includes improved warning systems, shock isolation for drivers, encouraging seatbelt usage, and general improvements to system and task design.

  14. Concentration of Unsaturated Fatty Acids by Wiped Film Short Path Distillation%用分子蒸馏器浓缩不饱和脂肪酸

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王军武; 许松林; 徐世民

    2002-01-01

    Pharmaceutical oil is obtained from peanut oil by wiped film short path distiller(SPD).The concentration ofeffective unsaturated fatty acids in the pharmaceutical oil is more than five percentages,the evaporation rate is more than25%.The experiment results indicate that the optimum technology parameters for wiped film SPD are that feed flow rateis 131 mL/h,operation pressure is 0.1 Pa,agitation speed is 140 rmp,temperature of feed is 190℃and the best evapo-ration is 260℃.

  15. Hypocentral trend surface analysis: Probing the geometry of Benioff Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevis, Michael; Isacks, Bryan L.

    1984-07-01

    A hypocentral trend surface is a continuous function of latitude and longtitude fitted by least squares to a set of hypocenters so that it predicts depth to the "middle" of a Benioff Zone. In this paper we take a relatively simple approach to hypocentral trend surface analysis. The hypocentral trend surface is constructed from a spherical surface harmonic expansion whose coefficients are selected so as to minimize the standard vertical deviation between hypocenters and trend surface. The vertical deviation of a hypocenter from the hypocentral trend surface is called its residual. Consideration of a hypocentral trend surface cannot be divorced from consideration of the associated residuals and their spatial distribution. Any analysis of Benioff Zone geometry trades-off presumed thickness of the zone with its presumed shape. This trade-off can be investigated by examining suites of candidate hypocentral trend surfaces (together with their associated residual distributions) generated by varying the number of degrees of freedom available to the trend surface. Hypocentral trend surfaces are generated for three high quality sets of hypocenters obtained by local seismic networks in Honshu (Japan), Cook Inlet (Alaska) and South Peru. Hypocenters beneath Honshu generate a bimodal distribution of residuals about their trend surface. The vertical separation of the upper and lower sheets of this Double Benioff Zone averages about 33 km. No Double Benioff Zone configuration is discovered below Cook Inlet or South Peru. Regional trend surfaces are established for intermediate-depth teleseismic data from South and Middle America. In South America (0°-40°S) teleseismic data suggest that along-strike transitions between "flat" and moderately steeply dipping sections of the Benioff Zone are achieved by flexure of a coherent slab rather than by fragmentation of the slab into tear-bound flaps or separate tongues of lithosphere. Hypocentral trend surface analysis of teleseismic data

  16. Analysis of Anomaly in Land Surface Temperature Using MODIS Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorozu, K.; Kodama, T.; Kim, S.; Tachikawa, Y.; Shiiba, M.

    2011-12-01

    Atmosphere-land surface interaction plays a dominant role on the hydrologic cycle. Atmospheric phenomena cause variation of land surface state and land surface state can affect on atmosphereic conditions. Widely-known article related in atmospheric-land interaction was published by Koster et al. in 2004. The context of this article is that seasonal anomaly in soil moisture or soil surface temperature can affect summer precipitation generation and other atmospheric processes especially in middle North America, Sahel and south Asia. From not only above example but other previous research works, it is assumed that anomaly of surface state has a key factor. To investigate atmospheric-land surface interaction, it is necessary to analyze anomaly field in land surface state. In this study, soil surface temperature should be focused because it can be globally and continuously observed by satellite launched sensor. To land surface temperature product, MOD11C1 and MYD11C1 products which are kinds of MODIS products are applied. Both of them have 0.05 degree spatial resolution and daily temporal resolution. The difference of them is launched satellite, MOD11C1 is Terra and MYD11C1 is Aqua. MOD11C1 covers the latter of 2000 to present and MYD11C1 covers the early 2002 to present. There are unrealistic values on provided products even if daily product was already calibrated or corrected. For pre-analyzing, daily data is aggregated into 8-days data to remove irregular values for stable analysis. It was found that there are spatial and temporal distribution of 10-years average and standard deviation for each 8-days term. In order to point out extreme anomaly in land surface temperature, standard score for each 8-days term is applied. From the analysis of standard score, it is found there are large anomaly in land surface temperature around north China plain in early April 2005 and around Bangladesh in early May 2009.

  17. Fractal analysis of the hierarchic structure of fossil coal surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekseev, A.D.; Vasilenko, T.A.; Kirillov, A.K. [National Academy of Sciences, Donetsk (Ukraine)

    2008-05-15

    The fractal analysis is described as method of studying images of surface of fossil coal, one of the natural sorbent, with the aim of determining its structural surface heterogeneity. The deformation effect as a reduction in the dimensions of heterogeneity boundaries is considered. It is shown that the theory of nonequilibrium dynamic systems permits to assess a formation level of heterogeneities involved into a sorbent composition by means of the Hurst factor.

  18. Roughness analysis for textured surfaces over several orders of magnitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vepsäläinen, Laura, E-mail: laura.vepsalainen@uef.fi [Department of Chemistry, University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu Campus, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu (Finland); Stenberg, Petri, E-mail: petri.stenberg@uef.fi [Department of Physics and Mathematics, University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu Campus, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu (Finland); Pääkkönen, Pertti, E-mail: pertti.paakkonen@uef.fi [Department of Physics and Mathematics, University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu Campus, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu (Finland); Kuittinen, Markku, E-mail: markku.kuittinen@uef.fi [Department of Physics and Mathematics, University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu Campus, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu (Finland); Suvanto, Mika, E-mail: mika.suvanto@uef.fi [Department of Chemistry, University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu Campus, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu (Finland); Pakkanen, Tapani A., E-mail: tapani.pakkanen@uef.fi [Department of Chemistry, University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu Campus, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu (Finland)

    2013-11-01

    Multiscale structured surfaces have roughness distributions at various spatial frequencies that affect surface properties of materials. A recently developed filtered power spectral density (FPSD) method for surface roughness characterization was generalized to comprise structures from micro- to nanoscale. Furthermore, a uniform analysis method for micro- and nanoscale characterization over five orders of magnitudes was found by combining optical profilometry data, at the microscale level and atomic force microscopy data, at the nanoscale level. The FPSD method was also combined with structure simulation for multiscales, thus the roughness distributions can be designed and studied without the fabrication of structures. Furthermore, the FPSD simulation offers a design tool for structure–property correlations.

  19. Autonomous Aerobraking: Thermal Analysis and Response Surface Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dec, John A.; Thornblom, Mark N.

    2011-01-01

    A high-fidelity thermal model of the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter was developed for use in an autonomous aerobraking simulation study. Response surface equations were derived from the high-fidelity thermal model and integrated into the autonomous aerobraking simulation software. The high-fidelity thermal model was developed using the Thermal Desktop software and used in all phases of the analysis. The use of Thermal Desktop exclusively, represented a change from previously developed aerobraking thermal analysis methodologies. Comparisons were made between the Thermal Desktop solutions and those developed for the previous aerobraking thermal analyses performed on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter during aerobraking operations. A variable sensitivity screening study was performed to reduce the number of variables carried in the response surface equations. Thermal analysis and response surface equation development were performed for autonomous aerobraking missions at Mars and Venus.

  20. Ion beam analysis of metal ion implanted surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, P.J.; Chu, J.W.; Johnson, E.P.; Noorman, J.T. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia); Sood, D.K. [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., VIC (Australia)

    1993-12-31

    Ion implantation is an established method for altering the surface properties of many materials. While a variety of analytical techniques are available for the characterisation of implanted surfaces, those based on particle accelerators such as Rutherford backscattering (RBS) and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) provide some of the most useful and powerful for this purpose. Application of the latter techniques to metal ion implantation research at ANSTO will be described with particular reference to specific examples from recent studies. Where possible, the information obtained from ion beam analysis will be compared with that derived from other techniques such as Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) and Auger spectroscopies. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  1. Glass fibres reinforced polyester composites degradation monitoring by surface analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croitoru, Catalin [“Transilvania” University of Brasov, Materials Engineering and Welding Department, Eroilor 29 Str., 500036 Brasov (Romania); Patachia, Silvia, E-mail: st.patachia@unitbv.ro [“Transilvania” University of Brasov, Product Design Environment and Mechatronics Department, Eroilor 29 Str., 500036 Brasov (Romania); Papancea, Adina [“Transilvania” University of Brasov, Product Design Environment and Mechatronics Department, Eroilor 29 Str., 500036 Brasov (Romania); Baltes, Liana; Tierean, Mircea [“Transilvania” University of Brasov, Materials Engineering and Welding Department, Eroilor 29 Str., 500036 Brasov (Romania)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Glass fibre-reinforced polyester composites surface analysis by photographic method. • The composites are submitted to accelerated ageing by UV irradiation at 254 nm. • The UV irradiation promotes differences in the surface chemistry of the composites. • MB dye is differently adsorbed on surfaces with different degradation degrees. • Good correlation between the colouring degree and surface chemistry. - Abstract: The paper presents a novel method for quantification of the modifications that occur on the surface of different types of gel-coated glass fibre-reinforced polyester composites under artificial UV-ageing at 254 nm. The method implies the adsorption of an ionic dye, namely methylene blue, on the UV-aged composite, and computing the CIELab colour space parameters from the photographic image of the coloured composite's surface. The method significantly enhances the colour differences between the irradiated composites and the reference, in contrast with the non-coloured ones. The colour modifications that occur represent a good indicative of the surface degradation, alteration of surface hydrophily and roughness of the composite and are in good correlation with the ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and optical microscopy results. The proposed method is easier, faster and cheaper than the traditional ones.

  2. Tensile reliability analysis for gravity dam foundation surface based on FEM and response surface method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tong-chun LI; Dan-dan LI; Zhi-qiang WANG

    2010-01-01

    In this study,the limit state equation for tensile reliability analysis of the foundation surface of a gravity dam was established.The possible crack length was set as the action effect and allowable crack length was set as the resistance in the limit state.The nonlinear FEM was used to obtain the crack length of the foundation surface of the gravity dam,and the linear response surface method based on the orthogonal test design method was used to calculate the reliability,providing a reasonable and simple method for calculating the reliability of the serviceability limit state.The Longtan RCC gravity dam was chosen as an example.An orthogonal test,including eleven factors and two levels,was conducted,and the tensile reliability was calculated.The analysis shows that this method is reasonable.

  3. An Analysis of Surface Relaxation in the Surface Cauchy--Born Model

    CERN Document Server

    Jayawardana, K; Ortner, C; Park, H S

    2011-01-01

    The Surface Cauchy-Born (SCB) method is a computational multi-scale method for the simulation of surface-dominated crystalline materials. We present an error analysis of the SCB method, focused on the role of surface relaxation. In a linearized 1D model we show that the error committed by the SCB method is O(1) in the mesh size; however, we are able to identify an alternative "approximation parameter" - the stiffness of the interaction potential - with respect to which the error in the mean strain is exponentially small. Our analysis naturally suggests an improvement of the SCB model by enforcing atomistic mesh spacing in the normal direction at the free boundary.

  4. Generalized surface momentum balances for the analysis of surface dilatational data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sagis, L.M.C.

    2013-01-01

    Dilatational rheological properties of interfaces are often determined using drop tensiometers, in which the interface of the droplet is subjected to oscillatory area changes. A dynamic surface tension is determined either by image analysis of the droplet profile or by measuring the capillary pressu

  5. Surface shape analysis with an application to brain surface asymmetry in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brignell, Christopher J; Dryden, Ian L; Gattone, S Antonio; Park, Bert; Leask, Stuart; Browne, William J; Flynn, Sean

    2010-10-01

    Some methods for the statistical analysis of surface shapes and asymmetry are introduced. We focus on a case study where magnetic resonance images of the brain are available from groups of 30 schizophrenia patients and 38 controls, and we investigate large-scale brain surface shape differences. Key aspects of shape analysis are to remove nuisance transformations by registration and to identify which parts of one object correspond with the parts of another object. We introduce maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods for registering brain images and providing large-scale correspondences of the brain surfaces. Brain surface size-and-shape analysis is considered using random field theory, and also dimension reduction is carried out using principal and independent components analysis. Some small but significant differences are observed between the the patient and control groups. We then investigate a particular type of asymmetry called torque. Differences in asymmetry are observed between the control and patient groups, which add strength to other observations in the literature. Further investigations of the midline plane location in the 2 groups and the fitting of nonplanar curved midlines are also considered.

  6. Characterization of treated porcelain surfaces via dynamic contact angle analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoenix, R D; Shen, C

    1995-01-01

    Successful porcelain repair requires conditioning of porcelain surfaces. Conditioning is intended to facilitate wetting by repair materials and improve interfacial bonding. The objective of this investigation was to determine the effects of selected surface treatments upon the wettability of a representative feldspathic porcelain. Dynamic contact angle analysis and scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize the effects of such treatments. Standardized porcelain specimens were subjected to the following five treatment regimens: (1) control (no treatment); (2) airborne particle abrasion using 50 microns aluminum oxide; (3) etching with ammonium bifluoride gel; (4) etching with acidulated phosphate fluoride gel; and (5) etching with hydrofluoric acid gel. Following treatment, specimens were cleansed and dried. Advancing contact angles were quantified using dynamic contact angle analysis. Mean values and 95% confidence intervals were (in degrees): control, 63.8 +/- 2.7; ammonium bifluoride, 39.4 +/- 2.0; airborne particle abrading, 29.1 +/- 2.9; acidulated phosphate fluoride, 24.9 +/- 1.7; and hydrofluoric acid, 16.5 +/- 1.2. Significant differences were found between all treatment groups (P = .05). Subsequent scanning electron microscopy examination of treated surfaces indicated lesser contact angles were associated with surfaces displaying deeper and wider grooves. Apparently, the resultant increase in surface area produces increased wettability. It is inferred that an increase in surface area may correspond to enhanced resin-porcelain bonding.

  7. Deformation Analysis of Surface Crack in Rolling and Wire Drawing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, Tetsuo; Yoshida, Kazunari

    The surface flaw of a drawn wire has a significant influence on the quality of a product. High-surface-quality drawn wires and rods have been required for the manufacture of automobiles and machines. Wire breaks due to large surface defects are common problems in wire drawing. The authors carried out rolling and multi-pass drawing of a stainless-steel wire with an artificial scratch, and investigated the growth and disappearance of a scratch from both sides by experiments and Finite Element Analysis (FEA). When the scratch angle is small, the scratch side surfaces are pushed toward each other and the scratch becomes an overlap defect. In contrast, when the scratch angle is large, the bottom of the scratch rises, and the scratch is recovered satisfactorily. Furthermore, the scratch shape and the drawing conditions were varied, and the deformation state of a scratch was clarified.

  8. Near surface stress analysis strategies for axisymmetric fretting

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Ramesh; Satish V Kailas; K R Y Simha

    2008-06-01

    Fretting is essentially a surface phenomenon, but bulk stresses and material properties contribute to subsequent failure. This feature of fretting demands a thorough understanding of near surface stresses under the joint action of normal, shear and thermal loading. Axisymmetric fretting is of great concern in piping and coupling design. In this paper, we develop design tools for Near Surface Analysis (NSA) for understanding axisymmetric fretting. Axisymmetric Fretting Analysis (AFA) becomes formidable owing to localised tractions that call for Fourier transform techniques. We develop two different NSA strategies based on two-dimensional plane strain models: 2D strip model (2DS) and half-plane Flamant model (2DF). We compare the results of 2DS and 2DF with the exact results for AFA obtained using Love’s stress function in conjunction with Fourier transform. There is a good correspondence between stress components obtained from 2D-models.

  9. Determination of temperature of moving surface by sensitivity analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Farhanieh, B

    2002-01-01

    In this paper sensitivity analysis in inverse problem solutions is employed to estimate the temperature of a moving surface. Moving finite element method is used for spatial discretization. Time derivatives are approximated using Crank-Nicklson method. The accuracy of the solution is assessed by simulation method. The convergence domain is investigated for the determination of the temperature of a solid fuel.

  10. Evaluation of vacuum and wet-wipe methods for removal of World Trade Center dust from indoor environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Kai M; Nace, Charles G; Maddaloni, Mark A; Harkay, James D; Graham, Donald R; Koustas, Richard N; Rotola, Joseph D; LaPosta, Dore; Callahan, Kathleen C

    2004-10-01

    The destruction of the buildings at the World Trade Center (WTC) complex dispersed dust and debris into the surrounding area. Pulverized building material made up most of the fallout and was intermixed with combustion byproducts of the aircraft and building contents. A study was conducted to confirm the effectiveness of several cleaning procedures in removing WTC-related contamination from lower Manhattan residences. The contaminants included asbestos, lead, dioxin/furans, synthetic vitreous fibers (fibrous glass), and crystalline silica. All cleaning procedures included the common elements of vacuuming and wet wiping with soap and water. This cleaning procedure combination is effective in reducing WTC-related contamination to below health-based benchmarks. Post-cleaning environmental test results suggested that airborne asbestos measurements can be used as a surrogate parameter in clearance determinations.

  11. Importance of Lid Hygiene Before Ocular Surgery: Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Eyelid and Conjunctiva Microbiota

    OpenAIRE

    Peral Cerdá, Assumpta; Alonso Fernández, José; García García, Concepción; Niño Rueda, Cristina; Calvo del Bosque, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of a cleansing eyelid wipe in reducing the microbiota present on the ocular surface before cataract surgery. Methods: A single-center, prospective, single-blind phase IV study was conducted at the University Complutense of Madrid. Forty-five adult patients who were scheduled for ocular surgery after treatment with commercially available eyelid wipes were consecutively enrolled. The study lasted 5 days and the patients were examined at day 0 (D0), day 3 (...

  12. Shape Error Analysis of Functional Surface Based on Isogeometrical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    YUAN, Pei; LIU, Zhenyu; TAN, Jianrong

    2017-05-01

    The construction of traditional finite element geometry (i.e., the meshing procedure) is time consuming and creates geometric errors. The drawbacks can be overcame by the Isogeometric Analysis (IGA), which integrates the computer aided design and structural analysis in a unified way. A new IGA beam element is developed by integrating the displacement field of the element, which is approximated by the NURBS basis, with the internal work formula of Euler-Bernoulli beam theory with the small deformation and elastic assumptions. Two cases of the strong coupling of IGA elements, "beam to beam" and "beam to shell", are also discussed. The maximum relative errors of the deformation in the three directions of cantilever beam benchmark problem between analytical solutions and IGA solutions are less than 0.1%, which illustrate the good performance of the developed IGA beam element. In addition, the application of the developed IGA beam element in the Root Mean Square (RMS) error analysis of reflector antenna surface, which is a kind of typical functional surface whose precision is closely related to the product's performance, indicates that no matter how coarse the discretization is, the IGA method is able to achieve the accurate solution with less degrees of freedom than standard Finite Element Analysis (FEA). The proposed research provides an effective alternative to standard FEA for shape error analysis of functional surface.

  13. FIBER ORIENTATION DISTRIBUTION OF PAPER SURFACE CALCULATED BY IMAGE ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Toshiharu Enomae; Yoon-Hee Han; Akira Isogai

    2004-01-01

    Anisotropy of paper is an important parameter of paper structure. Image analysis technique was improved for accurate fiber orientation in paper surfaces. Image analysis using Fast Fourier Transform was demonstrated to be an effective means to determine fiber orientation angle and its intensity. Binarization process of micrograph images of paper surface and precise calculation for average Fourier coefficients as an angular distribution by interpolation developed were found to improve the accuracy. This analysis method was applied to digital optical micrographs and scanning electron micrographs of paper. A laboratory handsheet showed a large deviation in the average value of fiber orientation angle, but some kinds of machine-made paper showed about 90 degrees in the orientation angle with very small deviations as expected. Korea and Japanese paper made in the traditional ways showed its own characteristic depending on its hand making processes.

  14. Bifurcation Analysis of Reaction Diffusion Systems on Arbitrary Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhillon, Daljit Singh J; Milinkovitch, Michel C; Zwicker, Matthias

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we present computational techniques to investigate the effect of surface geometry on biological pattern formation. In particular, we study two-component, nonlinear reaction-diffusion (RD) systems on arbitrary surfaces. We build on standard techniques for linear and nonlinear analysis of RD systems and extend them to operate on large-scale meshes for arbitrary surfaces. In particular, we use spectral techniques for a linear stability analysis to characterise and directly compose patterns emerging from homogeneities. We develop an implementation using surface finite element methods and a numerical eigenanalysis of the Laplace-Beltrami operator on surface meshes. In addition, we describe a technique to explore solutions of the nonlinear RD equations using numerical continuation. Here, we present a multiresolution approach that allows us to trace solution branches of the nonlinear equations efficiently even for large-scale meshes. Finally, we demonstrate the working of our framework for two RD systems with applications in biological pattern formation: a Brusselator model that has been used to model pattern development on growing plant tips, and a chemotactic model for the formation of skin pigmentation patterns. While these models have been used previously on simple geometries, our framework allows us to study the impact of arbitrary geometries on emerging patterns.

  15. New indexing and surface temperature analysis of exoplanets

    CERN Document Server

    Kashyap, J M; Safonova, M

    2016-01-01

    Study of exoplanets is the holy grail of present research in planetary sciences and astrobiology. Analysis of huge planetary data from space missions such as CoRoT and Kepler is directed ultimately at finding a planet similar to Earth\\-the Earth's twin, and answering the question of potential exo-habitability. The Earth Similarity Index (ESI) is a first step in this quest, ranging from 1 (Earth) to 0 (totally dissimilar to Earth). It was defined for the four physical parameters of a planet: radius, density, escape velocity and surface temperature. The ESI is further sub-divided into interior ESI (geometrical mean of radius and density) and surface ESI (geometrical mean of escape velocity and surface temperature). The challenge here is to determine which exoplanet parameter(s) is important in finding this similarity; how exactly the individual parameters entering the interior ESI and surface ESI are contributing to the global ESI. Since the surface temperature entering surface ESI is a non-observable quantity,...

  16. Comparative Analysis of Uncertainties in Urban Surface Runoff Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren; Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld

    2007-01-01

    In the present paper a comparison between three different surface runoff models, in the numerical urban drainage tool MOUSE, is conducted. Analysing parameter uncertainty, it is shown that the models are very sensitive with regards to the choice of hydrological parameters, when combined overflow...... analysis, further research in improved parameter assessment for surface runoff models is needed....... volumes are compared - especially when the models are uncalibrated. The occurrences of flooding and surcharge are highly dependent on both hydrological and hydrodynamic parameters. Thus, the conclusion of the paper is that if the use of model simulations is to be a reliable tool for drainage system...

  17. Data Analysis Techniques for a Lunar Surface Navigation System Testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelmins, David; Sands, O. Scott; Swank, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    NASA is interested in finding new methods of surface navigation to allow astronauts to navigate on the lunar surface. In support of the Vision for Space Exploration, the NASA Glenn Research Center developed the Lunar Extra-Vehicular Activity Crewmember Location Determination System and performed testing at the Desert Research and Technology Studies event in 2009. A significant amount of sensor data was recorded during nine tests performed with six test subjects. This paper provides the procedure, formulas, and techniques for data analysis, as well as commentary on applications.

  18. PROSA-1: a probabilistic response-surface analysis code. [LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaurio, J. K.; Mueller, C.

    1978-06-01

    Techniques for probabilistic response-surface analysis have been developed to obtain the probability distributions of the consequences of postulated nuclear-reactor accidents. The uncertainties of the consequences are caused by the variability of the system and model input parameters used in the accident analysis. Probability distributions are assigned to the input parameters, and parameter values are systematically chosen from these distributions. These input parameters are then used in deterministic consequence analyses performed by mechanistic accident-analysis codes. The results of these deterministic consequence analyses are used to generate the coefficients for analytical functions that approximate the consequences in terms of the selected input parameters. These approximating functions are used to generate the probability distributions of the consequences with random sampling being used to obtain values for the accident parameters from their distributions. A computer code PROSA has been developed for implementing the probabilistic response-surface technique. Special features of the code generate or treat sensitivities, statistical moments of the input and output variables, regionwise response surfaces, correlated input parameters, and conditional distributions. The code can also be used for calculating important distributions of the input parameters. The use of the code is illustrated in conjunction with the fast-running accident-analysis code SACO to provide probability studies of LMFBR hypothetical core-disruptive accidents. However, the methods and the programming are general and not limited to such applications.

  19. Use of satellite land surface temperatures in the EUSTACE global surface air temperature analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghent, D.; Good, E.; Rayner, N. A.

    2015-12-01

    EUSTACE (EU Surface Temperatures for All Corners of Earth) is a Horizon2020 project that will produce a spatially complete, near-surface air temperature (NSAT) analysis for the globe for every day since 1850. The analysis will be based on both satellite and in situ surface temperature observations over land, sea, ice and lakes, which will be combined using state-of-the-art statistical methods. The use of satellite data will enable the EUSTACE analysis to offer improved estimates of NSAT in regions that are poorly observed in situ, compared with existing in-situ based analyses. This presentation illustrates how satellite land surface temperature (LST) data - sourced from the European Space Agency (ESA) Data User Element (DUE) GlobTemperature project - will be used in EUSTACE. Satellite LSTs represent the temperature of the Earth's skin, which can differ from the corresponding NSAT by several degrees or more, particularly during the hottest part of the day. Therefore the first challenge is to develop an approach to estimate global NSAT from satellite observations. Two methods will be trialled in EUSTACE, both of which are summarised here: an established empirical regression-based approach for predicting NSAT from satellite data, and a new method whereby NSAT is calculated from LST and other parameters using a physics-based model. The second challenge is in estimating the uncertainties for the satellite NSAT estimates, which will determine how these data are used in the final blended satellite-in situ analysis. This is also important as a key component of EUSTACE is in delivering accurate uncertainty information to users. An overview of the methods to estimate the satellite NSATs is also included in this presentation.

  20. Optimization and Validation of a Surface Wipe Method to Determine Cyanide and Cyanate: Application to the Emergency Destruction System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Chemical Weapons Convention. 1 In April 2005, a partially filled cylinder of hydrogen cyanide (AC or HCN, Chemical Abstract Service [CAS] no. 74-90-8...Proving Ground CAS Chemical Abstract Service CCV continuing calibration verification CE capillary electrophoresis CK cyanogen chloride

  1. Analysis of surface hardness of artificially aged resin composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Cremonezzi Tornavoi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of artificially accelerated aging (AAA on the surface hardness of eight composite resins: Filtek Z250, Filtek Supreme, 4 Seasons, Herculite, P60, Tetric Ceram, Charisma, and Filtek Z100. Sixteen specimens were made from the test piece of each material, using an 8.0 × 2.0 mm teflon matrix. After 24 hours, eight specimens from each material were submitted to three surface hardness readings using a Shimadzu Microhardness Tester for 5 seconds at a load of 50 gf. The other eight specimens remained in the artificially accelerated aging machine for 382 hours and were submitted to the same surface hardness analysis. The means of each test specimen were submitted to the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test (p > 0.05, ANOVA and Tukey test (p < 0.05. With regard to hardness (F = 86.74, p < 0.0001 the analysis showed significant differences among the resin composite brands. But aging did not influence the hardness of any of the resin composites (F = 0.39, p = 0.53. In this study, there was interaction between the resin composite brand and the aging factors (F = 4.51, p < 0.0002. It was concluded that notwithstanding the type of resin, AAA did not influence surface hardness. However, with regard to hardness there was a significant difference among the resin brands.

  2. Advanced response surface method for mechanical reliability analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L(U) Zhen-zhou; ZHAO Jie; YUE Zhu-feng

    2007-01-01

    Based on the classical response surface method (RSM), a novel RSM using improved experimental points (EPs) is presented for reliability analysis. Two novel points are included in the presented method. One is the use of linear interpolation, from which the total EPs for determining the RS are selected to be closer to the actual failure surface;the other is the application of sequential linear interpolation to control the distance between the surrounding EPs and the center EP, by which the presented method can ensure that the RS fits the actual failure surface in the region of maximum likelihood as the center EPs converge to the actual most probable point (MPP). Since the fitting precision of the RS to the actual failure surface in the vicinity of the MPP, which has significant contribution to the probability of the failure surface being exceeded, is increased by the presented method, the precision of the failure probability calculated by RS is increased as well. Numerical examples illustrate the accuracy and efficiency of the presented method.

  3. [Representation and mathematical analysis of human corneal surface].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tălu, Stefan; Tălu, Mihai; Giovanzana, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    In the description and analysis of human corneal surface are used various mathematical models based on parametric representations, used in biomechanical studies and 3D solid modeling of the cornea. Mathematical models are important into the biomechanics of the cornea to model the corneal behavior. Corneal biomechanics also has the potential to improve outcomes in refractive surgery. The objective of this paper is to present the most representative mathematical models currently used for modeling of human corneal in optics and biomechanics fields.

  4. THE INVESTMENT RELIABILITY ANALYSIS FOR A SURFACE MINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭世济; 卢明银; 张达贤

    1990-01-01

    It is stipulated in the China national document, named"The Economical Appraisal Methods for Construction Projects" that dynamic analysis should dominate the project economical appraisal methods.This paper has set up a dynamic investment forecast model for Yuanbaoshan Surface Coal Mine. Based on this model, the investment reliability using simulation and analytic methods has been analysed, anti the probability that the designed internal rate of return can reach 8.4%, from economic points of view, have been also studied.

  5. Recovery efficiency and limit of detection of aerosolized Bacillus anthracis Sterne from environmental surface samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estill, Cheryl Fairfield; Baron, Paul A; Beard, Jeremy K; Hein, Misty J; Larsen, Lloyd D; Rose, Laura; Schaefer, Frank W; Noble-Wang, Judith; Hodges, Lisa; Lindquist, H D Alan; Deye, Gregory J; Arduino, Matthew J

    2009-07-01

    After the 2001 anthrax incidents, surface sampling techniques for biological agents were found to be inadequately validated, especially at low surface loadings. We aerosolized Bacillus anthracis Sterne spores within a chamber to achieve very low surface loading (ca. 3, 30, and 200 CFU per 100 cm(2)). Steel and carpet coupons seeded in the chamber were sampled with swab (103 cm(2)) or wipe or vacuum (929 cm(2)) surface sampling methods and analyzed at three laboratories. Agar settle plates (60 cm(2)) were the reference for determining recovery efficiency (RE). The minimum estimated surface concentrations to achieve a 95% response rate based on probit regression were 190, 15, and 44 CFU/100 cm(2) for sampling steel surfaces and 40, 9.2, and 28 CFU/100 cm(2) for sampling carpet surfaces with swab, wipe, and vacuum methods, respectively; however, these results should be cautiously interpreted because of high observed variability. Mean REs at the highest surface loading were 5.0%, 18%, and 3.7% on steel and 12%, 23%, and 4.7% on carpet for the swab, wipe, and vacuum methods, respectively. Precision (coefficient of variation) was poor at the lower surface concentrations but improved with increasing surface concentration. The best precision was obtained with wipe samples on carpet, achieving 38% at the highest surface concentration. The wipe sampling method detected B. anthracis at lower estimated surface concentrations and had higher RE and better precision than the other methods. These results may guide investigators to more meaningfully conduct environmental sampling, quantify contamination levels, and conduct risk assessment for humans.

  6. Analysis of polymer surfaces and thin-film coatings with Raman and surface enhanced Raman scattering

    CERN Document Server

    McAnally, G D

    2001-01-01

    This thesis investigates the potential of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) for the analysis and characterisation of polymer surfaces. The Raman and SERS spectra from a PET film are presented. The SERS spectra from the related polyester PBT and from the monomer DMT are identical to PET, showing that only the aromatic signals are enhanced. Evidence from other compounds is presented to show that loss of the carbonyl stretch (1725 cm sup - sup 1) from the spectra is due to a chemical interaction between the silver and surface carbonyl groups. The interaction of other polymer functional groups with silver is discussed. A comparison of Raman and SERS spectra collected from three faces of a single crystal shows the SERS spectra are depolarised. AFM images of the silver films used to obtain SERS are presented. They consist of regular islands of silver, fused together to form a complete film. The stability and reproducibility and of these surfaces is assessed. Band assignments for the SERS spectrum of PET are ...

  7. Purification of liquid products of cotton wipes biotransformation with the aid of Trichoderma viridae in orbital flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viacheslav, Ilyin; Korshunov, Denis

    Recovery of various organic wastes in space flight is an actual problem of modern astronautics and future interplanetary missions. Currently, organic waste are incinerated in the dense layers of the Earth's atmosphere in cargo containers. However, this method of anthropogenic waste treatment is not environmentally compatible with future interplanetary missions, and is not suitable due to planetary quarantine requirements. Furthermore, the maintaining of a closed ecosystem in spaceship is considered as one of the main ways of ensuring the food and air crew in the long term fully autonomous space expedition. Such isolated ecosystem is not conceivable without biotransformation of organic waste. In this regard, currently new ways of recycling organic waste are currently developed. The most promising method is a method for processing organic waste using thermophilic anaerobic microbial communities.However, the products of anaerobic fermentation of solid organic materials contain significant amounts of organic impurities, which often give them sour pH. This presents a significant problem because it does not allow to use this fluid as process water without pretreatment. Fermentation products - alcohols, volatile fatty acids other carbonaceous substances must be withdrawn.One way to solve this problem may be the use of microorganisms biodestructors for recycling organic impurities in the products of anaerobic biodegradation Under the proposed approach, the metabolic products (having acidic pH) of primary biotransformation of solid organic materials are used as media for the cultivation of fungi. Thus, cellulosic wastes are recycled in two successive stages. The aim of this work was to test the effectiveness of post-treatment liquid products of biodegradation of hygienic cotton wipes (common type of waste on the ISS) by the fungus Trichoderma viridae under orbital flight. The study was conducted onboard biosatellite Bion -M1, where was placed a bioreactor, designed to carry

  8. Auto-correlation analysis of ocean surface wind vectors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abhijit Sarkar; Sujit Basu; A K Varma; Jignesh Kshatriya

    2002-09-01

    The nature of the inherent temporal variability of surface winds is analyzed by comparison of winds obtained through different measurement methods. In this work, an auto-correlation analysis of a time series data of surface winds measured in situ by a deep water buoy in the Indian Ocean has been carried out. Hourly time series data available for 240 hours in the month of May, 1999 were subjected to an auto-correlation analysis. The analysis indicates an exponential fall of the auto- correlation in the first few hours with a decorrelation time scale of about 6 hours. For a meaningful comparison between satellite derived products and in situ data, satellite data acquired at different time intervals should be used with appropriate `weights', rather than treating the data as concurrent in time. This paper presents a scheme for temporal weighting using the auto-correlation analysis. These temporal `weights' can potentially improve the root mean square (rms) deviation between satellite and in situ measurements. A case study using the TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) and Indian Ocean buoy wind speed data resulted in an improvement of about 10%.

  9. Multichannel analysis of surface wave method with the autojuggie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, G.; Steeples, D.W.; Xia, J.; Miller, R.D.; Spikes, K.T.; Ralston, M.D.

    2003-01-01

    The shear (S)-wave velocity of near-surface materials and its effect on seismic-wave propagation are of fundamental interest in many engineering, environmental, and groundwater studies. The multichannel analysis of surface wave (MASW) method provides a robust, efficient, and accurate tool to observe near-surface S-wave velocity. A recently developed device used to place large numbers of closely spaced geophones simultaneously and automatically (the 'autojuggie') is shown here to be applicable to the collection of MASW data. In order to demonstrate the use of the autojuggie in the MASW method, we compared high-frequency surface-wave data acquired from conventionally planted geophones (control line) to data collected in parallel with the automatically planted geophones attached to steel bars (test line). The results demonstrate that the autojuggie can be applied in the MASW method. Implementation of the autojuggie in very shallow MASW surveys could drastically reduce the time required and costs incurred in such surveys. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Climate Change Signal Analysis for Northeast Asian Surface Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jeong-Hyeong LEE; Byungsoo KIM; Keon-Tae SOHN; Won-Tae KOWN; Seung-Ki MIN

    2005-01-01

    Climate change detection, attribution, and prediction were studied for the surface temperature in the Northeast Asian region using NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data and three coupled-model simulations from ECHAM4/OPYC3, HadCM3, and CCCma GCMs (Canadian Centre for Climate Modeling and Analysis general circulation model). The Bayesian fingerprint approach was used to perform the detection and attribution test for the anthropogenic climate change signal associated with changes in anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) and sulfate aerosol (SO42-) concentrations for the Northeast Asian temperature. It was shown that there was a weak anthropogenic climate change signal in the Northeast Asian temperature change. The relative contribution of CO2 and SOl- effects to total temperature change in Northeast Asia was quantified from ECHAM4/OPYC3 and CCCma GCM simulations using analysis of variance. For the observed temperature change for the period of 1959-1998, the CO2 effect contributed 10%-21% of the total variance and the direct cooling effect of SO42- played a less important role (0% 7%) than the CO2effect. The prediction of surface temperature change was estimated from the second CO2+SO24- scenario run of ECHAM4/OPYC3 which has the least error in the simulation of the present-day temperature field near the Korean Peninsula. The result shows that the area-mean surface temperature near the Korean Peninsula will increase by about 1.1° by the 2040s relative to the 1990s.

  11. Tensile reliability analysis for gravity dam foundation surface based on FEM and response surface method

    OpenAIRE

    Tong-chun LI; Li, Dan-Dan; Wang, Zhi-Qiang

    2010-01-01

    In the paper, the limit state equation of tensile reliability of foundation base of gravity dam is established. The possible crack length is set as action effect and the allowance crack length is set as resistance in this limit state. The nonlinear FEM is applied to obtain the crack length of foundation base of gravity dam, and linear response surface method based on the orthogonal test design method is used to calculate the reliability,which offered an reasonable and simple analysis method t...

  12. Recoveries of trace pseudoephedrine and methamphetamine residues from impermeable household surfaces: implications for sampling methods used during remediation of clandestine methamphetamine laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, A F Lim; Miskelly, Gordon M

    2010-04-15

    Evaluation of the risk posed by contaminants present during and after decontamination of clandestine methamphetamine laboratories requires a connection between the levels of contaminants measured and those actually present at the scene. The recoveries of pseudoephedrine and methamphetamine from glass, stainless steel, and a range of impermeable surfaces likely to be found in a clandestine laboratory were examined, using GC-MS of derivatized samples as the analytical method. When surfaces had been cleaned prior to drug deposition, wiping with water-dampened filter paper can recover 60-80% of pseudoephedrine immediately after deposition, and at least 50% of the pseudoephedrine still present on a surface after 2 days when deposited at a surface concentration of 2.5 microg/100 cm(2). Wiping with methanol-dampened filter paper could recover 60-90% of the methamphetamine immediately after deposition, and could recover at least 50-60% of the methamphetamine still present after 2 days when 0.6 microg/100 cm(2) was initially deposited on the surface. Recoveries were lower for surfaces that had not been pre-cleaned. Methamphetamine and pseudoephedrine showed significant volatility in both the free base and hydrochloride forms, with experiments in an enclosed format showing up to half the recovered drug being present on a glass plate held about 4mm above a substrate contaminated with one of the drugs at the above surface concentrations after 2 days. It is therefore important to remove any visible bulk contaminants and remove obvious pseudoephedrine or methamphetamine-contaminated surfaces prior to heating, ventilation or sealing of a clandestine laboratory to avoid redistribution of material around the site. A revised method for pseudoephedrine analysis was developed that could also detect the pseudoephedrine-formaldehyde adduct that can form from trace pseudoephedrine present at clandestine laboratories. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Bio-inspired nanotechnology from surface analysis to applications

    CERN Document Server

    Walsh, Tiffany

    2014-01-01

    This book focuses on the use of bio-inspired and biomimetic methods for the fabrication and activation of nanomaterials. This includes studies concerning the binding of the biomolecules to the surface of inorganic structures, structure/function relationships of the final materials, and extensive discussions on the final applications of such biomimetic materials in unique applications including energy harvesting/storage, biomedical diagnostics, and materials assembly. This book also: ·          Covers the sustainable features of bio-inspired nanotechnology ·          Includes studies on the unique applications of biomimetic materials, such as energy harvesting and biomedical diagnostics Bio-Inspired Nanotechnology: From Surface Analysis to Applications is an ideal book for researchers, students, nanomaterials engineers, bioengineers, chemists, biologists, physicists, and medical researchers.

  14. Analysis of intraocular lens surface adhesiveness by atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Marco; Carbone, Giovanni; Lombardo, Giuseppe; De Santo, Maria P; Barberi, Riccardo

    2009-07-01

    To analyze intraocular lens (IOL) optic surface adhesiveness using atomic force microscopy (AFM). LiCryL Laboratory, University of Calabria, Rende, Italy. The surface adhesive properties of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), silicone, hydrophilic acrylic, and hydrophobic acrylic IOLs were evaluated by AFM. Analysis was performed at room temperature (21 degrees C) in a liquid environment using the force-versus-distance mode of a commercial instrument (NanoScope III). Measurements were acquired with rectangular silicon cantilevers of a nominal elastic constant of 10 Newton/m. The nominal value of the tip's radius of curvature was 1 mum, and the scanning speed during the acquisitions ranged from 10 to 400 nm/s. The adhesion force measurements showed different characteristics for the various types of IOLs (Pdevelopment and the interface interactions between the IOL and capsule, the results in this study may bolster the theory of manufacturing more-adhesive materials to prevent PCO.

  15. Deformation analysis of optical flat surface with finite element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Pengqiang; Ren, Boyuan; Wang, Yiwen; Zhang, Dewei; Zhang, Longjiang; Su, Xing

    2016-10-01

    Proposing a new method for testing the ultra-precision aerostatic spindle motion accuracy based on analyzing the online real-time dynamic interference image. Optical flat crystal as the testing standard will be installed at the end of the ultra precision aerostatic spindle and will motion along with the spindle. On the other end of the spindle, the tool will be installed for online processing. The image data of optical flat crystal collected by the high-precision dynamic interferometer will be processed for analyzing the spindle error. For collecting higher accuracy image data, the installation way of optical flat crystal is one of the key technologies. Base on this, the effects of the clamping means on the surface accuracy of optical flat crystal is studied. At first, the finite element model of the optical flat crystal`s clamping structure were established. Secondly, the influence of the material of the supporting annulus, preload lateral clamping and spindle speed on the surface accuracy of optical flat crystal had been analyzed. At last, the improved and optimized structure of the optical flat crystal has been presented. As the analysis results shown, the RMS value of reference surface is 9.47nm and the deformation values of the central region is 0.17nm which satisfies the requirement of surface accuracy and installation of optical flat crystal. It has a very important theoretical and practical significance to establish spindle online testing system and research rotary error generating mechanism of ultra-precision spindle to improve surface accuracy of ultra-precision machining.

  16. Surface proteome analysis and characterization of surface cell antigen (Sca or autotransporter family of Rickettsia typhi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khandra T Sears

    Full Text Available Surface proteins of the obligate intracellular bacterium Rickettsia typhi, the agent of murine or endemic typhus fever, comprise an important interface for host-pathogen interactions including adherence, invasion and survival in the host cytoplasm. In this report, we present analyses of the surface exposed proteins of R. typhi based on a suite of predictive algorithms complemented by experimental surface-labeling with thiol-cleavable sulfo-NHS-SS-biotin and identification of labeled peptides by LC MS/MS. Further, we focus on proteins belonging to the surface cell antigen (Sca autotransporter (AT family which are known to be involved in rickettsial infection of mammalian cells. Each species of Rickettsia has a different complement of sca genes in various states; R. typhi, has genes sca1 thru sca5. In silico analyses indicate divergence of the Sca paralogs across the four Rickettsia groups and concur with previous evidence of positive selection. Transcripts for each sca were detected during infection of L929 cells and four of the five Sca proteins were detected in the surface proteome analysis. We observed that each R. typhi Sca protein is expressed during in vitro infections and selected Sca proteins were expressed during in vivo infections. Using biotin-affinity pull down assays, negative staining electron microscopy, and flow cytometry, we demonstrate that the Sca proteins in R. typhi are localized to the surface of the bacteria. All Scas were detected during infection of L929 cells by immunogold electron microscopy. Immunofluorescence assays demonstrate that Scas 1-3 and 5 are expressed in the spleens of infected Sprague-Dawley rats and Scas 3, 4 and 5 are expressed in cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis. Sca proteins may be crucial in the recognition and invasion of different host cell types. In short, continuous expression of all Scas may ensure that rickettsiae are primed i to infect mammalian cells should the flea bite a host, ii to remain

  17. An experimental study of a new solar still - The wiping spherical still

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makki, A.

    Theoretical and experimental results of the functioning of a spherical solar water distiller which includes a curved, turning glass wiper are presented. A review of past and present solar still apparatus is presented, along with an analytical examination of insolation characteristics. Numerical models are constructed of the performance of solar stills, noting the enhanced gain with less materials available by using spherically shaped plexiglass for the transparent upper surface. Attachment of a curved glass wiper, which extends from the top center of the dome to the collector tray and is made to revolve around the dome's inner surface by either an electric motor, or a wind-powered shaft, or by means of a motor driven by solar cells, is shown to keep the transparency higher and thus augment the efficiency of the still to 14 percent better performance than with a flat plate solar still.

  18. Surface recombination analysis in silicon-heterojunction solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrio, R.; Gandia, J.J.; Carabe, J.; Gonzalez, N.; Torres, I. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Munoz, D.; Voz, C. [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-02-15

    The origin of this work is the understanding of the correlation observed between efficiency and emitter-deposition temperature in single silicon-heterojunction solar cells prepared by depositing an n-doped hydrogenated-amorphous-silicon thin film onto a p-type crystalline-silicon wafer. In order to interpret these results, surface-recombination velocities have been determined by two methods, i.e. by fitting the current-voltage characteristics to a theoretical model and by means of the Quasi-Steady-State Photoconductance Technique (QSSPC). In addition, effective diffusion lengths have been estimated from internal quantum efficiencies. The analysis of these data has led to conclude that the performance of the cells studied is limited by back-surface recombination rather than by front-heterojunction quality. A 12%-efficient cell has been prepared by combining optimum emitter-deposition conditions with back-surface-field (BSF) formation by vacuum annealing of the back aluminium contact. This result has been achieved without using any transparent conductive oxide. (author)

  19. Analysis and Design of Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, S. F.

    2003-08-01

    A practical, hands-on guidebook for the efficient modeling of VCSELs Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers (VCSELs) are a unique type of semiconductor laser whose optical output is vertically emitted from the surface as opposed to conventional edge-emitting semiconductor lasers. Complex in design and expensive to produce, VCSELs nevertheless represent an already widely used laser technology that promises to have even more significant applications in the future. Although the research has accelerated, there have been relatively few books written on this important topic. Analysis and Design of Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers seeks to encapsulate this growing body of knowledge into a single, comprehensive reference that will be of equal value for both professionals and academics in the field. The author, a recognized expert in the field of VCSELs, attempts to clarify often conflicting assumptions in order to help readers achieve the simplest and most efficient VCSEL models for any given problem. Highlights of the text include: * A clear and comprehensive theoretical treatment of VCSELs * Detailed derivations for understanding the operational principles of VCSELs * Mathematical models for the investigation of electrical, optical, and thermal properties of VCSELs * Case studies on the mathematical modeling of VCSELs and the implementation of simulation programs

  20. Multiresolution mesh segmentation based on surface roughness and wavelet analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roudet, Céline; Dupont, Florent; Baskurt, Atilla

    2007-01-01

    During the last decades, the three-dimensional objects have begun to compete with traditional multimedia (images, sounds and videos) and have been used by more and more applications. The common model used to represent them is a surfacic mesh due to its intrinsic simplicity and efficacity. In this paper, we present a new algorithm for the segmentation of semi-regular triangle meshes, via multiresolution analysis. Our method uses several measures which reflect the roughness of the surface for all meshes resulting from the decomposition of the initial model into different fine-to-coarse multiresolution meshes. The geometric data decomposition is based on the lifting scheme. Using that formulation, we have compared various interpolant prediction operators, associated or not with an update step. For each resolution level, the resulting approximation mesh is then partitioned into classes having almost constant roughness thanks to a clustering algorithm. Resulting classes gather regions having the same visual appearance in term of roughness. The last step consists in decomposing the mesh into connex groups of triangles using region growing ang merging algorithms. These connex surface patches are of particular interest for adaptive mesh compression, visualisation, indexation or watermarking.

  1. Surface Analysis of 4-Aminothiophenol Adsorption at Polycrystalline Platinum Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosario-Castro, Belinda I.; Fachini, Estevao R.; Contes, Enid J.; Perez-Davis, Marla E.; Cabrera, Carlos R.

    2008-01-01

    Formation of self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of 4-aminothiophenol (4-ATP) on polycrystalline platinum electrodes has been studied by surface analysis and electrochemistry techniques. The 4-ATP monolayer was characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV), Raman spectroscopy, reflection absorption infrared (RAIR) spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Cyclic voltammetry (CV) experiments give an idea about the packing quality of the monolayer. RAIR and Raman spectra for 4-ATP modified platinum electrodes showed the characteristic adsorption bands for neat 4-ATP indicating the adsorption of 4-ATP molecules on platinum surface. The adsorption on platinum was also evidenced by the presence of sulfur and nitrogen peaks by XPS survey spectra of the modified platinum electrodes. High resolution XPS studies and RAIR spectrum for platinum electrodes modified with 4-ATP indicate that molecules are sulfur-bonded to the platinum surface. The formation of S-Pt bond suggests that ATP adsorption gives up an amino terminated SAM. Thickness of the monolayer was evaluated via angle-resolved XPS (AR-XPS) analyses. Derivatization of 4-ATP SAM was performed using 16-Br hexadecanoic acid.

  2. Demonstration/Validation of Tertiary Butyl Acetate (TBAC) for Hand Wipe Cleaning Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    table salt and its inhalation LC50 for 6 hours of exposure is approximately 4,200 ppm. TBAC is not a skin sensitizer but is a mild eye and skin...Company Address: POC: Specimen Information: Solution Conditions: Alloy Type ALUM 7075- T6 BARE Concentration Surface Treatment...August 2005, 0930 ALLOY TYPE: ALUM 7075- T6 BARE Total SPECIMEN # ORIGINAL 24 Hrs +144 Hrs 24 Hrs +144 Hrs mg / cm2 Control 5.4860 5.4861

  3. Paired Expression Analysis of Tumor Cell Surface Antigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rimas J. Orentas

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Adoptive immunotherapy with antibody-based therapy or with T cells transduced to express chimeric antigen receptors (CARs is useful to the extent that the cell surface membrane protein being targeted is not expressed on normal tissues. The most successful CAR-based (anti-CD19 or antibody-based therapy (anti-CD20 in hematologic malignancies has the side effect of eliminating the normal B cell compartment. Targeting solid tumors may not provide a similar expendable marker. Beyond antibody to Her2/NEU and EGFR, very few antibody-based and no CAR-based therapies have seen broad clinical application for solid tumors. To expand the way in which the surfaceome of solid tumors can be analyzed, we created an algorithm that defines the pairwise relative overexpression of surface antigens. This enables the development of specific immunotherapies that require the expression of two discrete antigens on the surface of the tumor target. This dyad analysis was facilitated by employing the Hotelling’s T-squared test (Hotelling–Lawley multivariate analysis of variance for two independent variables in comparison to a third constant entity (i.e., gene expression levels in normal tissues. We also present a unique consensus scoring mechanism for identifying transcripts that encode cell surface proteins. The unique application of our bioinformatics processing pipeline and statistical tools allowed us to compare the expression of two membrane protein targets as a pair, and to propose a new strategy based on implementing immunotherapies that require both antigens to be expressed on the tumor cell surface to trigger therapeutic effector mechanisms. Specifically, we found that, for MYCN amplified neuroblastoma, pairwise expression of ACVR2B or anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK with GFRA3, GFRA2, Cadherin 24, or with one another provided the strongest hits. For MYCN, non-amplified stage 4 neuroblastoma, neurotrophic tyrosine kinase 1, or ALK paired with GFRA2, GFRA3, SSK

  4. Buckling analysis of partially corroded steel plates with irregular surfaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ahmad Rahbar-Ranji

    2014-04-01

    Corrosion is a long-term, inevitable process, lessens the thickness and load carrying capacity of structures. Old steel structures are more vulnerable to buckling, yielding and fracture due to corrosion. In lieu of a detailed analysis, average thickness assumption is employed for general type of corrosion. However, the estimation of load carrying capacity reduction of corroded structures typically need a much higher level of accuracy, since the actual corroded plates would have irregular surfaces. The objective of this article is to determine the effect of general corrosion on reduction of elastic buckling strength of both-sided partially corroded plates with irregular surfaces. Eigenvalue analysis using finite element method is employed for Euler stress calculation of corroded plates. The effects of different influential parameters are investigated and it is found that, aspect ratio of plate, location of corroded area, standard deviation of thickness diminution and concentration of corrosion have influence on reduction of elastic buckling strength. Reduction of elastic buckling strength is very sensitive to the amount of corrosion loss. The higher the amount of corrosion loss, the more reduction of elastic buckling strength.

  5. Comparisons of Limit Analysis Solutions and Random Search Solutions on Slope Critical Slip SUrface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JianfengWANG

    1998-01-01

    The object of this paper is twofold:to present a kinematics limit analysis for assessing the safety of slope or its critical slip surface,and to compare the searched slip surface with that by limit analysis.

  6. Residual Viral and Bacterial Contamination of Surfaces after Cleaning and Disinfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuladhar, Era; Hazeleger, Wilma C.; Koopmans, Marion; Zwietering, Marcel H.; Beumer, Rijkelt R.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental surfaces contaminated with pathogens can be sources of indirect transmission, and cleaning and disinfection are common interventions focused on reducing contamination levels. We determined the efficacy of cleaning and disinfection procedures for reducing contamination by noroviruses, rotavirus, poliovirus, parechovirus, adenovirus, influenza virus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella enterica from artificially contaminated stainless steel surfaces. After a single wipe with water, liquid soap, or 250-ppm free chlorine solution, the numbers of infective viruses and bacteria were reduced by 1 log10 for poliovirus and close to 4 log10 for influenza virus. There was no significant difference in residual contamination levels after wiping with water, liquid soap, or 250-ppm chlorine solution. When a single wipe with liquid soap was followed by a second wipe using 250- or 1,000-ppm chlorine, an extra 1- to 3-log10 reduction was achieved, and except for rotavirus and norovirus genogroup I, no significant additional effect of 1,000 ppm compared to 250 ppm was found. A reduced correlation between reduction in PCR units (PCRU) and reduction in infectious particles suggests that at least part of the reduction achieved in the second step is due to inactivation instead of removal alone. We used data on infectious doses and transfer efficiencies to estimate a target level to which the residual contamination should be reduced and found that a single wipe with liquid soap followed by a wipe with 250-ppm free chlorine solution was sufficient to reduce the residual contamination to below the target level for most of the pathogens tested. PMID:22941071

  7. Planetary SUrface Portal (PSUP): a tool for easy visualization and analysis of Martian surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulet, Francois; Quantin-Nataf, Cathy; Ballans, Hervé; Lozac'h, Loic; Audouard, Joachim; Carter, John; Dassas, karin; Malapert, Jean-Christophe; Marmo, Chiara; Poulleau, Gilles; Riu, Lucie; Séjourné, antoine

    2016-10-01

    PSUP is two software application platforms for working with raster, vector, DTM, and hyper-spectral data acquired by various space instruments analyzing the surface of Mars from orbit. The first platform of PSUP is MarsSI (Martian surface data processing Information System, http://emars.univ-lyon1.fr). It provides data analysis functionalities to select and download ready-to-use products or to process data though specific and validated pipelines. To date, MarsSI handles CTX, HiRISE and CRISM data of NASA/MRO mission, HRSC and OMEGA data of ESA/MEx mission and THEMIS data of NASA/ODY mission (Lozac'h et al., EPSC 2015). The second part of PSUP is also open to the scientific community and can be visited at http://psup.ias.u-psud.fr/. This web-based user interface provides access to many data products for Mars: image footprints and rasters from the MarsSI tool; compositional maps from OMEGA and TES; albedo and thermal inertia from OMEGA and TES; mosaics from THEMIS, Viking, and CTX; high level specific products (defined as catalogues) such as hydrated mineral sites derived from CRISM and OMEGA data, central peaks mineralogy,… In addition, OMEGA C channel data cubes corrected for atmospheric and aerosol contributions can be downloaded. The architecture of PSUP data management and visualization is based on SITools2 and MIZAR, two CNES generic tools developed by a joint effort between CNES and scientific laboratories. SITools2 provides a self-manageable data access layer deployed on the PSUP data, while MIZAR is 3D application in a browser for discovering and visualizing geospatial data. Further developments including the addition of high level products of Mars (regional geological maps, new global compositional maps,…) are foreseen. Ultimately, PSUP will be adapted to other planetary surfaces and space missions in which the French research institutes are involved.

  8. Modeling and Analysis of MRR, EWR and Surface Roughness in EDM Milling through Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K.M.S. Iqbal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM has grown over the last few decades from a novelty to a mainstream manufacturing process. Though, EDM process is very demanding but the mechanism of the process is complex and far from completely understood. It is difficult to establish a model that can accurately predict the performance by correlating the process parameters. The optimum processing parameters are essential to increase the production rate and decrease the machining time, since the materials, which are processed by EDM and even the process is very costly. This research establishes empirical relations regarding machining parameters and the responses in analyzing the machinability of the stainless steel. Approach: The machining factors used are voltage, rotational speed of electrode and feed rate over the responses MRR, EWR and Ra. Response surface methodology was used to investigate the relationships and parametric interactions between the three controllable variables on the MRR, EWR and Ra. Central composite experimental design was used to estimate the model coefficients of the three factors. The responses were modeled using a response surface model based on experimental results. The significant coefficients were obtained by performing Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA at 95% level of significance. Results: The variation in percentage errors for developed models was found within 5%. Conclusion: The developed models show that voltage and rotary motion of electrode are the most significant machining parameters influencing MRR, EWR and Ra. These models can be used to get the desired responses within the experimental range.

  9. Plasma, oral fluid and sweat wipe ecstasy concentrations in controlled and real life conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samyn, N; De Boeck, G; Wood, M; Lamers, CTJ; De Waard, D; Brookhuis, KA; Verstraete, AG; Riedel, WJ

    2002-01-01

    In a double-blind placebo controlled study on psychomotor skills important for car driving (Study 1), a 75 mg dose of 3,4methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) was administered orally to 12 healthy Volunteers who were known to be recreational MDMA-users. Toxicokinetic data were gathered by analysis of

  10. Analysis of surface atrial signals: time series with missing data?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassi, Roberto; Corino, Valentina D A; Mainardi, Luca T

    2009-10-01

    Uncovering of the atrial signal for patients undergoing episodes of atrial fibrillation is usually obtained from surface ECG by removing waves induced by ventricular activities. Once earned the atrial signal, the detection of the dominant fibrillation frequency is often the main (and only) goal. In this work we verified if subtraction of the ventricular activity might be avoided by performing spectral analysis on those ECG segments where ventricular activity is absent, (i.e. the T-Q intervals). While the approach might seem crude, in here the question was recast into a problem of missing data in a long time series and proper methods were applied: the Lomb periodogram and the iterative Singular Spectrum Analysis. The two methods were tested on both simulated signals and "realistic" atrial signals constructed using the ECG recordings provided by the 2004 Computers in Cardiology competition. The results obtained showed that both techniques were able to provide a reliable quantification of the dominant oscillation, with a slightly superior performance of the iterative Singular Spectrum Analysis. Absolute errors larger than 1.0 Hz were unlikely (p < 0.05) up to 130-140 bpm. Such level of agreement is consistent with similar comparative works where techniques for separating the atrial signal from ventricular waves were considered.

  11. Response surface analysis to improve dispersed crude oil biodegradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahed, Mohammad A.; Aziz, Hamidi A.; Mohajeri, Leila [School of Civil Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Isa, Mohamed H. [Civil Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2012-03-15

    In this research, the bioremediation of dispersed crude oil, based on the amount of nitrogen and phosphorus supplementation in the closed system, was optimized by the application of response surface methodology and central composite design. Correlation analysis of the mathematical-regression model demonstrated that a quadratic polynomial model could be used to optimize the hydrocarbon bioremediation (R{sup 2} = 0.9256). Statistical significance was checked by analysis of variance and residual analysis. Natural attenuation was removed by 22.1% of crude oil in 28 days. The highest removal on un-optimized condition of 68.1% were observed by using nitrogen of 20.00 mg/L and phosphorus of 2.00 mg/L in 28 days while optimization process exhibited a crude oil removal of 69.5% via nitrogen of 16.05 mg/L and phosphorus 1.34 mg/L in 27 days therefore optimization can improve biodegradation in shorter time with less nutrient consumption. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Lubrication mode analysis of articular cartilage using Stribeck surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleghorn, Jason P; Bonassar, Lawrence J

    2008-01-01

    Lubrication of articular cartilage occurs in distinct modes with various structural and biomolecular mechanisms contributing to the low-friction properties of natural joints. In order to elucidate relative contributions of these factors in normal and diseased tissues, determination and control of lubrication mode must occur. The objectives of these studies were (1) to develop an in vitro cartilage on glass test system to measure friction coefficient, mu; (2) to implement and extend a framework for the determination of cartilage lubrication modes; and (3) to determine the effects of synovial fluid on mu and lubrication mode transitions. Patellofemoral groove cartilage was linearly oscillated against glass under varying magnitudes of compressive strain utilizing phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and equine and bovine synovial fluid as lubricants. The time-dependent frictional properties were measured to determine the lubricant type and strain magnitude dependence for the initial friction coefficient (mu(0)=mu(t-->0)) and equilibrium friction coefficient (mu(eq)=mu(t-->infinity)). Parameters including tissue-glass co-planarity, normal strain, and surface speed were altered to determine the effect of the parameters on lubrication mode via a 'Stribeck surface'. Using this testing apparatus, cartilage exhibited biphasic lubrication with significant influence of strain magnitude on mu(0) and minimal influence on mu(eq), consistent with hydrostatic pressurization as reported by others. Lubrication analysis using 'Stribeck surfaces' demonstrated clear regions of boundary and mixed modes, but hydrodynamic or full film lubrication was not observed even at the highest speed (50mm/s) and lowest strain (5%).

  13. Surface analysis of chalcogenide semiconductors used in photovoltaics (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockett, Angus A.

    2017-04-01

    Both CdTe and Cu(In,Ga)Se2 have produced highly efficient thin film solar cells, exceeding 22% in champion devices. Both are also manufactured in large scales and show promise as future energy technologies. However, understanding the current collection mechanisms and mechanisms of instability in the devices remain a concern. To address these questions, we have used scanning probe and photoemission spectroscopies to study the response of chalcogenide materials to light and how charge is collected. Results of scanning microwave impedance microscopy and conductive atomic force microscopy show dramatic differences in the behavior of CdTe and Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS). The results include characterization of the effect of CdCl2 treatment on the properties CdTe grains and grain boundaries. This treatment dramatically increases the current collection in the grain boundaries. Thus we show that CdTe solar cells operate apparently by generation of electron hole pairs in the CdTe grains and collection of electrons to the grain boundaries. By contrast, CIGS grains show little or no contrast between the grains and grain boundaries and no obvious conduction pathway through the grain boundaries appears to exist. Our surface analysis results are supplemented with other measurements of both surface and bulk microchemistry and microstructure.

  14. Proteomic analysis of the shistosome tegument and its surface membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Braschi

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The tegument surface of the adult schistosome, bounded by a normal plasma membrane overlain by a secreted membranocalyx, holds the key to understanding how schistosomes evade host immune responses. Recent advances in mass spectrometry (MS, and the sequencing of the Schistosoma mansoni transcriptome/genome, have facilitated schistosome proteomics. We detached the tegument from the worm body and enriched its surface membranes by differential extraction, before subjecting the preparation to liquid chromatography-based proteomics to identify its constituents. The most exposed proteins on live worms were labelled with impearmeant biotinylation reagents, and we also developed methods to isolate the membranocalyx for analysis. We identified transporters for sugars, amino acids, inorganic ions and water, which confirm the importance of the tegument plasma membrane in nutrient acquisition and solute balance. Enzymes, including phosphohydrolases, esterases and carbonic anhydrase were located with their catalytic domains external to the plasma membrane, while five tetraspanins, annexin and dysferlin were implicated in membrane architecture. In contrast, few parasite proteins could be assigned to the membranocalyx but mouse immune response proteins, including three immunoglobulins and two complement factors, were detected, plus host membrane proteins such as CD44, integrin and a complement regulatory protein, testifying to the acquisitive properties of the secreted bilayer.

  15. Regionalized Lunar South Pole Surface Navigation System Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan W. Welch

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Apollo missions utilized Earth-based assets for navigation, since the landings took place at lunar locations in constant view from the Earth. The new exploration campaign to the lunar South Pole region will have limited Earth visibility, but the extent to which a navigation system comprised solely of Earth-based tracking stations will provide adequate navigation solutions in this region is unknown. This article presents a dilution-of-precision-(DoP- based stationary surface navigation analysis of the performance of multiple lunar satellite constellations, Earth-based deep space network assets, and combinations thereof. Results show that kinematic and integrated solutions cannot be provided by the Earth-based deep space network stations. Also, the surface stationary navigation system needs to be operated as a two-way navigation system, or as a one-way navigation system with local terrain information, while integrating the position solution over a short duration of time with navigation signals being provided by a lunar satellite constellation.

  16. Quantitative spatial analysis of the mouse brain lipidome by pressurized liquid extraction surface analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almeida, Reinaldo; Berzina, Zane; Christensen, Eva Arnspang

    2015-01-01

    of internal lipid standards in the extraction solvent. The analysis of lipid microextracts by nanoelectrospray ionization provides long-lasting ion spray which in conjunction with a hybrid ion trap-orbitrap mass spectrometer enables identification and quantification of molecular lipid species using a method......Here we describe a novel surface sampling technique termed pressurized liquid extraction surface analysis (PLESA), which in combination with a dedicated high-resolution shotgun lipidomics routine enables both quantification and in-depth structural characterization of molecular lipid species...... with successive polarity shifting, high-resolution Fourier transform mass spectrometry (FTMS), and fragmentation analysis. We benchmarked the performance of the PLESA approach for in-depth lipidome analysis by comparing it to conventional lipid extraction of excised tissue homogenates and by mapping the spatial...

  17. Evaluation of flyash surface phenomena and the application of surface analysis technology. Summary report: Phase I. [44 elements; 86 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.D.

    1981-06-01

    The factors governing the formation of flyash surfaces during and following coal combustion are reviewed. The competing chemical and physical processes during the evolution of inorganic material in coal during combustion into flyash are described with respect to various surface segregation processes. Two mechanisms leading to surface enrichment are volatilization-condensation processes and diffusion processes within individual flyash particles. The experimental evidence for each of these processes is reviewed. It is shown that the volatilization-condensation process is the major factor leading to trace element enrichment in smaller flyash particles. Evidence also exists from surface analyses of flyash and representative mineral matter that diffusion processes may lead to surface enrichment of elements not volatilized or cause transport of surface-condensed elements into the flyash matrix. The semiquantitative determination of the relative importance of these two processes can be determined by comparison of concentration versus particle size profiles with surface-depth profiles obtained using surface analysis techniques. A brief description of organic transformations on flyash surfaces is also presented. The various surface analytical techniques are reviewed and the relatively new technique of Static-Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy is suggested as having significant advantages in studies of surfaces and diffusion processes in model systems. Several recommendations are made for research relevant to flyash formation and processes occurring on flyash surfaces.

  18. Effect of diaper cream and wet wipes on skin barrier properties in infants: a prospective randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Bartels, Natalie; Lünnemann, Lena; Stroux, Andrea; Kottner, Jan; Serrano, José; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike

    2014-01-01

    The effect of different diaper care procedures on skin barrier function in infants has been minimally investigated and may be assessed using objective methods. In a single-center, prospective trial, 89 healthy 9-month-old infants (±8 wks) were randomly assigned to three diaper care regimens: group I used water-moistened washcloths at diaper changes (n = 30), group II additionally applied diaper cream twice daily (n = 28), and group III used wet wipes and diaper cream twice daily (n = 31). Transepidermal water loss (TEWL), skin hydration (SCH), skin pH, interleukin 1α (IL-1α) levels, and microbiologic colonization were measured in diapered skin (upper outer quadrant of the buttocks), nondiapered skin (upper leg), and if diaper dermatitis (DD) occurred, using the most affected skin area at day 1 and weeks 4 and 8. Skin condition was assessed utilizing a neonatal skin condition score and diaper rash grade. On diapered skin, SCH decreased in groups II and III, whereas TEWL values were reduced in group II only. Skin pH increased in groups II and III. In general, SCH, skin pH, and IL-1α levels were higher in healthy diapered skin than in nondiapered skin. The incidence and course of DD was comparable in all groups. Areas with DD had greater TEWL and skin pH than unaffected skin areas. Infants who received diaper cream had lower SCH and TEWL and higher pH levels in the diapered area than on nondiapered skin. No correlation with the occurrence of DD was found. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. GIS-BASED SURFACE ANALYSIS OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL FINDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kovács

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The international research project HiMAT (History of Mining Activities in the Tyrol and adjacent areas is dedicated to the study of mining history in the Eastern Alps by various scientific disciplines. The aim of this program is the analysis of the mining activities’ impacts on environment and human societies. Unfortunately, there is only a limited number of specific regions (e.g. Mitterberg to offer possibilities to investigate the former mining expansions. Within this multidisciplinary project, the archaeological sites and finds are analyzed by the Surveying and Geoinformation Unit at the University of Innsbruck. This paper shows data fusion of different surveying and post-processing methods to achieve a photo-realistic digital 3D model of one of these most important finds, the Bronze Age sluice box from the Mitterberg. The applied workflow consists of four steps: 1. Point cloud processing, 2. Meshing of the point clouds and editing of the models, 3. Image orientation, bundle and image adjustment, 4. Model texturing. In addition, a short range laser scanning survey was organized before the conservation process of this wooden find. More accurate research opportunities were offered after this detailed documentation of the sluice box, for example the reconstruction of the broken parts and the surface analysis of this archaeological object were implemented using these high-resolution datasets. In conclusion, various unperceived patterns of the wooden boards were visualized by the GIS-based tool marks investigation.

  20. Numerical analysis of surface subsidence in asymmetric parallel highway tunnels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratan Das

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Tunnelling related hazards are very common in the Himalayan terrain and a number of such instances have been reported. Several twin tunnels are being planned for transportation purposes which will require good understanding for prediction of tunnel deformation and surface settlement during the engineering life of the structure. The deformational behaviour, design of sequential excavation and support of any jointed rock mass are challenging during underground construction. We have raised several commonly assumed issues while performing stability analysis of underground opening at shallow depth. For this purpose, Kainchi-mod Nerchowck twin tunnels (Himachal Pradesh, India are taken for in-depth analysis of the stability of two asymmetric tunnels to address the influence of topography, twin tunnel dimension and geometry. The host rock encountered during excavation is composed mainly of moderately to highly jointed grey sandstone, maroon sandstone and siltstones. In contrast to equidimensional tunnels where the maximum subsidence is observed vertically above the centreline of the tunnel, the result from the present study shows shifting of the maximum subsidence away from the tunnel centreline. The maximum subsidence of 0.99 mm is observed at 4.54 m left to the escape tunnel centreline whereas the maximum subsidence of 3.14 mm is observed at 8.89 m right to the main tunnel centreline. This shifting clearly indicates the influence of undulating topography and in-equidimensional noncircular tunnel.

  1. Surface acoustic wave nebulization facilitating lipid mass spectrometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sung Hwan; Huang, Yue; Edgar, J Scott; Ting, Ying S; Heron, Scott R; Kao, Yuchieh; Li, Yanyan; Masselon, Christophe D; Ernst, Robert K; Goodlett, David R

    2012-08-07

    Surface acoustic wave nebulization (SAWN) is a novel method to transfer nonvolatile analytes directly from the aqueous phase to the gas phase for mass spectrometric analysis. The lower ion energetics of SAWN and its planar nature make it appealing for analytically challenging lipid samples. This challenge is a result of their amphipathic nature, labile nature, and tendency to form aggregates, which readily precipitate clogging capillaries used for electrospray ionization (ESI). Here, we report the use of SAWN to characterize the complex glycolipid, lipid A, which serves as the membrane anchor component of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and has a pronounced tendency to clog nano-ESI capillaries. We also show that unlike ESI SAWN is capable of ionizing labile phospholipids without fragmentation. Lastly, we compare the ease of use of SAWN to the more conventional infusion-based ESI methods and demonstrate the ability to generate higher order tandem mass spectral data of lipid A for automated structure assignment using our previously reported hierarchical tandem mass spectrometry (HiTMS) algorithm. The ease of generating SAWN-MS(n) data combined with HiTMS interpretation offers the potential for high throughput lipid A structure analysis.

  2. Three-dimensional surface model analysis in the gastrointestinal tract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Donghua Liao; Jens B Fr(φ)kj(ae)r; Jian Yang; Jingbo Zhao; Asbj(φ)rn M Drewes; Odd H Gilja; Hans Gregersen

    2006-01-01

    The biomechanical changes during functional loading and unloading of the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract are not fully understood. GI function is usually studied by introducing probes in the GI lumen. Computer modeling offers a promising alternative approach in this regard, with the additional ability to predict regional stresses and strains in inaccessible locations. The tension and stress distributions in the GI tract are related to distensibility (tension-strain relationship) and smooth muscle tone. More knowledge on the tension and stress on the GI tract are needed to improve diagnosis of patients with gastrointestinal disorders. A modeling framework that can be used to integrate the physiological,anatomical and medical knowledge of the GI system has recently been developed. The 3-D anatomical model was constructed from digital images using ultrasonography,computer tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Different mathematical algorithms were developed for surface analysis based on thin-walled structure and the finite element method was applied for the mucosa-folded three layered esophageal model analysis.The tools may be useful for studying the geometry and biomechanical properties of these organs in health and disease. These studies will serve to test the structurefunction hypothesis of geometrically complex organs.

  3. The fractal method of the lunar surface parameters analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nefedev, Yuri; Demina, Natalia; Petrova, Natalia; Demin, Sergey; Andreev, Alexey

    2016-10-01

    Analysis of complex selenographic systems is a complicated issue. This fully applies to the lunar topography. In this report a new method of the comparative reliable estimation of the lunar maps data is represented. The estimation was made by the comparison of high-altitude lines using the fractal analysis. The influence of the lunar macrofigure variances were determined by the method of fractal dimensions comparison.By now the highly accurate theories of the lunar movement have been obtained and stars coordinates have been determined on the basis of space measurements with the several mas accuracy but there are factors highly influencingon the accuracy of the results of these observations. They are: exactitude of the occultation moment recording, errors of the stars coordinates, accuracy of lunar ephemeris positions and unreliability of lunar marginal zone maps. Existing charts of the lunar marginal zone have some defects. To resolve this task thecomparison method in which the structure of the high-altitude lines of data appropriated with identical lunar coordinates can use. However, such comparison requires a lot of calculations.In order to find the variations of irregularities for the limb points above the mean level of lunar surface were computed the position angles of this points P and D by Hayn' coordinates. Thus the data of our studies was obtained by identical types.Then the first, segments of a lunar marginal zone for every 45" on P were considered. For each segment profile of the surface for a constant D were constructed with a step of 2". Thus 80 profiles were obtained. Secondly the fractal dimensions d for each considered structure was defined. Third the obtained values d were compared with the others maps considered in this work.The obtained results show some well agreement between the mean fractal dimensions for maps. Thus it can be concluded that the using of fractal method for lunar maps analysis to determine the accuracy of the presented to

  4. Coulomb frames in the normal bundle of surfaces in Euclidean spaces topics from differential geometry and geometric analysis of surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Fröhlich, Steffen

    2012-01-01

    This book is intended for advanced students and young researchers interested in the analysis of partial differential equations and differential geometry. It discusses elementary concepts of surface geometry in higher-dimensional Euclidean spaces, in particular the differential equations of Gauss-Weingarten together with various integrability conditions and corresponding surface curvatures. It includes a chapter on curvature estimates for such surfaces, and, using results from potential theory and harmonic analysis, it addresses geometric and analytic methods to establish the existence and regularity of Coulomb frames in their normal bundles, which arise as critical points for a functional of total torsion.

  5. 高效液相色谱法测定消毒湿巾中苯扎氯铵的含量%HPLC Determination of Benzalkonium Chloride in Disinfectant Wet Wipes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄银波; 李兴根; 乔勇升; 胡慧

    2012-01-01

    A method for determination of benzalkonium chloride in disinfectant wet wipes by HPLC was proposed. The sample was extracted ultrasonically with the mobile phase, and then separated on Eclipse XDB-C18 (150 min×4. 6 mm, 5 μm) column, using a mixture of acetonitrile and 70 mmol · L^-1 ammonium acetate solution (containing 1% by vol. of triethylamine, adjusted with acetic acid to pH 5.0) in the ratio of 70 to 30 as mobile phase. Photodiode array detections were made at 262 nm. Linear relationships between values of peak areas and mass concentration of benzalkonium chloride was obtained in the range of 100--500 mg· L^-1 ,with limit of detection (3S/N) of 10. 2 mg · L^-1. The proposed method was used in the analysis of sample of disinfectant wet wipes, values of recovery found by standard addition method were in range of 95.3%-97.8% with RSD's (n=5) in the range of 2.5 %- 4.0%.%提出了高效液相色谱法测定消毒湿巾中苯扎氯铵含量的方法。样品经流动相超声提取,以Eclipse XDB-C18色谱柱(150 mm×4.6 mm,5μm)为分离柱,以乙腈-70 mmol.L-1乙酸铵(含1%三乙胺,冰乙酸调pH至5.0)按体积比70比30混合液为流动相,用二极管阵列检测器于波长262 nm处测定。苯扎氯铵的质量浓度在100~500 mg.L-1范围内与其峰面积呈线性关系,检出限(3S/N)为10.2mg.L-1。应用此法测定消毒湿巾中苯扎氯铵,回收率在95.3%~97.8%之间,相对标准偏差(n=5)在2.5%~4.0%之间。

  6. The Planet Mercury Surface Spectroscopy and Analysis from the Kuiper Airborne Observatory and Analysis and Modeling to Determine Surface Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, Ann

    1997-01-01

    We had two successful flights to observe Mercury from the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO) using High-efficiency Infrared Faint-Object Grating Spectrograph (HIFOGS). Flights were May 8, 1995 (eastern elongation) and July 6, 1995 (western elongation) For the observations one half of the primary mirror was covered to prevent sunlight from entering the telescope. All equipment and the airplane and its crew performed well. These flights were historical firsts for the KAO and for spectroscopy of Mercury in that it was the first time any spectroscopic observations of Mercury from above the Earth's atmosphere had been made. It was the first time the KAO had been used to @bserve an object less than 30 degrees from the Sun. Upon completion of the basic data reduction it became obvious that extensive modeling and analysis would be required to understand the data. It took three years of a graduate student's time and part time the PI to do the thermal modeling and the spectroscopic analysis. This resulted in a lengthy publication. A copy of this publication is attached and has all the data obtained in both KAO flights and the results clearly presented. Notable results are: (1) The observations found an as yet unexplained 5 micron emission enhancement that we think may be a real characteristic of Mercury's surface but could have an instrumental cause; (2) Ground-based measurements or an emission maximum at 7.7 microns were corroborated. The chemical composition of Mercury's surface must be feldspathic in order to explain spectra features found in the data obtained during the KAO flights.

  7. The Planet Mercury Surface Spectroscopy and Analysis from the Kuiper Airborne Observatory and Analysis and Modeling to Determine Surface Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, Ann

    1997-01-01

    We had two successful flights to observe Mercury from the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO) using High-efficiency Infrared Faint-Object Grating Spectrograph (HIFOGS). Flights were May 8, 1995 (eastern elongation) and July 6, 1995 (western elongation) For the observations one half of the primary mirror was covered to prevent sunlight from entering the telescope. All equipment and the airplane and its crew performed well. These flights were historical firsts for the KAO and for spectroscopy of Mercury in that it was the first time any spectroscopic observations of Mercury from above the Earth's atmosphere had been made. It was the first time the KAO had been used to @bserve an object less than 30 degrees from the Sun. Upon completion of the basic data reduction it became obvious that extensive modeling and analysis would be required to understand the data. It took three years of a graduate student's time and part time the PI to do the thermal modeling and the spectroscopic analysis. This resulted in a lengthy publication. A copy of this publication is attached and has all the data obtained in both KAO flights and the results clearly presented. Notable results are: (1) The observations found an as yet unexplained 5 micron emission enhancement that we think may be a real characteristic of Mercury's surface but could have an instrumental cause; (2) Ground-based measurements or an emission maximum at 7.7 microns were corroborated. The chemical composition of Mercury's surface must be feldspathic in order to explain spectra features found in the data obtained during the KAO flights.

  8. Dynamical evolution of the surface microrelief under multiple-pulse-laser irradiation: An analysis based on surface-scattered waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barborica, A.; Mihailescu, I. N.; Teodorescu, V. S.

    1994-03-01

    We introduce a theoretical analysis of the temporal and spatial evolution of the surface topography of solids following interference between incident and scattered pulsed laser beams. The essential role played by the nonlinear delayed feedback in the laser-radiation-surface system is considered. We show that it finally determines the surface topography evolution from pulse to pulse. In order to complete the analysis, numerical calculations have been conducted under the hypothesis of strong attenuation of laser radiation into the sample and of a limited heat diffusion during the action of a laser pulse. We predict an evolution from very simple to complex (chaotic) structures under multiple-pulse-laser irradiation of solid surfaces. This evolution is determined by some key irradiation parameters; initial surface microrelief, incident laser intensity, and the number of applied laser pulses. Experiments were performed in order to check the main predictions of the theoretical analysis. The system of transversal excited atmospheric pressure-CO2 laser radiation (λ=10.6 μm)-interacting with fused silica was chosen as appropriate for performing test experiments. Optical microscopy studies of laser-treated zones evidenced special modifications of the surface topography in good accordance with the conclusions following from the theoretical analysis. The theoretical analysis is also in good agreement with some available data from the literature, at the same time providing a coherent interpretation of previously unexplained behaviors.

  9. Reliable Classification of Geologic Surfaces Using Texture Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foil, G.; Howarth, D.; Abbey, W. J.; Bekker, D. L.; Castano, R.; Thompson, D. R.; Wagstaff, K.

    2012-12-01

    Communication delays and bandwidth constraints are major obstacles for remote exploration spacecraft. Due to such restrictions, spacecraft could make use of onboard science data analysis to maximize scientific gain, through capabilities such as the generation of bandwidth-efficient representative maps of scenes, autonomous instrument targeting to exploit targets of opportunity between communications, and downlink prioritization to ensure fast delivery of tactically-important data. Of particular importance to remote exploration is the precision of such methods and their ability to reliably reproduce consistent results in novel environments. Spacecraft resources are highly oversubscribed, so any onboard data analysis must provide a high degree of confidence in its assessment. The TextureCam project is constructing a "smart camera" that can analyze surface images to autonomously identify scientifically interesting targets and direct narrow field-of-view instruments. The TextureCam instrument incorporates onboard scene interpretation and mapping to assist these autonomous science activities. Computer vision algorithms map scenes such as those encountered during rover traverses. The approach, based on a machine learning strategy, trains a statistical model to recognize different geologic surface types and then classifies every pixel in a new scene according to these categories. We describe three methods for increasing the precision of the TextureCam instrument. The first uses ancillary data to segment challenging scenes into smaller regions having homogeneous properties. These subproblems are individually easier to solve, preventing uncertainty in one region from contaminating those that can be confidently classified. The second involves a Bayesian approach that maximizes the likelihood of correct classifications by abstaining from ambiguous ones. We evaluate these two techniques on a set of images acquired during field expeditions in the Mojave Desert. Finally, the

  10. Surface analysis of transition metal oxalates: Damage aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chenakin, S.P., E-mail: chenakin@imp.kiev.ua [Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Chimie-Physique des Matériaux, B-1050 Bruxelles (Belgium); Institute of Metal Physics, Nat. Acad. Sci. of Ukraine, Akad. Vernadsky Blvd. 36, 03680 Kiev (Ukraine); Szukiewicz, R. [Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Chimie-Physique des Matériaux, B-1050 Bruxelles (Belgium); Barbosa, R.; Kruse, N. [Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Chimie-Physique des Matériaux, B-1050 Bruxelles (Belgium); Voiland School of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering, Washington State University, 155 Wegner Hall, Pullman, WA 99164-6515 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • Gas evolution from the Mn, Co, Ni and Cu oxalate hydrates in vacuum, during exposure to X-rays and after termination of X-ray irradiation is studied. • A comparative study of the damage caused by X-rays in NiC{sub 2}O{sub 4} and CuC{sub 2}O{sub 4} is carried out. • Effect of Ar{sup +} bombardment on the structure and composition of CoC{sub 2}O{sub 4} is studied. - Abstract: The behavior of transition metal oxalates in vacuum, under X-ray irradiation and low-energy Ar{sup +} ion bombardment was studied. A comparative mass-spectrometric analysis was carried out of gas evolution from the surface of Mn, Co, Ni and Cu oxalate hydrates in vacuum, during exposure to X-rays and after termination of X-ray irradiation. The rates of H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2} liberation from the oxalates were found to be in an inverse correlation with the temperatures of dehydration and decomposition, respectively. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was employed to study the X-ray induced damage in NiC{sub 2}O{sub 4} and CuC{sub 2}O{sub 4} by measuring the various XP spectral characteristics and surface composition of the oxalates as a function of time of exposure to X-rays. It was shown that Cu oxalate underwent a significantly faster degradation than Ni oxalate and demonstrated a high degree of X-ray induced reduction from the Cu{sup 2+} to the Cu{sup 1+} chemical state. 500 eV Ar{sup +} sputter cleaning of CoC{sub 2}O{sub 4} for 10 min was found to cause a strong transformation of the oxalate structure which manifested itself in an appreciable alteration of the XP core-level and valence band spectra. The analysis of changes in stoichiometry and comparison of XP spectra of bombarded oxalate with respective spectra of a reference carbonate CoCO{sub 3} implied that the bombardment-induced decomposition of CoC{sub 2}O{sub 4} gave rise to the formation of CoO-like and disordered CoCO{sub 3}-like phases.

  11. Preliminary assessment on exposure of four typical populations to potentially toxic metals by means of skin wipes under the influence of haze pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhiguo; Wang, Mengmeng; Chen, Qiaoying; Zhang, Yajie; Dong, Wenjing; Yang, Tianfang; Yan, Guangxuan; Zhang, Xin; Pi, Yunqing; Xi, Benye; Bu, Qingwei

    2017-09-21

    To investigate the exposure risk of human beings to nine potentially toxic metals (PTMs), namely, Cu, Cr, Zn, As, Cd, Pb, Ni, Mn, and Co, skin wipe samples were collected from four types of populations, namely, children, undergraduates, security guards, and professional drivers, under different haze pollution levels in Xinxiang, China by using Ghost wipes. The Ghost wipes were quantitatively analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) after microwave digestion. Generally, Zn (ND-1350μg/m(2) for undergraduates, ND-2660μg/m(2) for security guards, ND-2460μg/m(2) for children, and ND-2530μg/m(2) for professional drivers) showed the highest concentration among the four populations, followed by Cu (0.02-83.4μg/m(2) for undergraduates, ND-70.2μg/m(2) for security guards, 23.2-487μg/m(2) for children, and ND-116μg/m(2) for professional drivers). As (ND-5.7μg/m(2) for undergraduates, ND-2.3μg/m(2) for security guards, ND-21.1μg/m(2) for children, and ND-11.0μg/m(2) for professional drivers) and Co (ND-6.0μg/m(2) for undergraduates, ND-7.9μg/m(2) for security guards, ND-13.4μg/m(2) for children, and ND-2.1μg/m(2) for professional drivers) showed the lowest concentrations in all populations. Remarkable differences were found among the four populations and PTM levels decreased in the following order: children, professional drivers, security guards, and undergraduates. Gender variation was discovered for undergraduates and children. Generally, PTM contamination in skin wipes collected during a light haze pollution level was generally higher than that during a heavy haze pollution level, but PTM contamination was comparable between the two haze pollution levels for children. Non-carcinogenic exposure risks to As, Cd, and Pb for all populations were higher than those for the other six elements but all of them were within the acceptable safety threshold, indicating no apparent non-carcinogenic risk. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Modelling surface run-off and trends analysis over India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, P. K.; Chauhan, S.; Oza, M. P.

    2016-08-01

    The present study is mainly concerned with detecting the trend of run-off over the mainland of India, during a time period of 35 years, from 1971-2005 (May-October). Rainfall, soil texture, land cover types, slope, etc., were processed and run-off modelling was done using the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) model with modifications and cell size of 5×5 km. The slope and antecedent moisture corrections were incorporated in the existing model. Trend analysis of estimated run-off was done by taking into account different analysis windows such as cell, medium and major river basins, meteorological sub-divisions and elevation zones across India. It was estimated that out of the average 1012.5 mm of rainfall over India (considering the study period of 35 years), 33.8% got converted to surface run-off. An exponential model was developed between the rainfall and the run-off that predicted the run-off with an R 2 of 0.97 and RMSE of 8.31 mm. The run-off trend analysed using the Mann-Kendall test revealed that a significant pattern exists in 22 medium, two major river basins and three meteorological sub-divisions, while there was no evidence of a statistically significant trend in the elevation zones. Among the medium river basins, the highest positive rate of change in the run-off was observed in the Kameng basin (13.6 mm/yr), while the highest negative trend was observed in the Tista upstream basin (-21.4 mm/yr). Changes in run-off provide valuable information for understanding the region's sensitivity to climatic variability.

  13. Modelling surface run-off and trends analysis over India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P K Gupta; S Chauhan; M P Oza

    2016-08-01

    The present study is mainly concerned with detecting the trend of run-off over the mainland of India, during a time period of 35 years, from 1971–2005 May–October). Rainfall, soil texture, land cover types, slope, etc., were processed and run-off modelling was done using the Natural Resources ConservationService (NRCS) model with modifications and cell size of 5×5 km. The slope and antecedent moisture corrections were incorporated in the existing model. Trend analysis of estimated run-off was done by taking into account different analysis windows such as cell, medium and major river basins, meteorologicalsub-divisions and elevation zones across India. It was estimated that out of the average 1012.5 mm of rainfall over India (considering the study period of 35 years), 33.8% got converted to surface run-off. An exponential model was developed between the rainfall and the run-off that predicted the run-off with an $R^2$ of 0.97 and RMSE of 8.31 mm. The run-off trend analysed using the Mann–Kendall test revealed that a significant pattern exists in 22 medium, two major river basins and three meteorological subdivisions, while there was no evidence of a statistically significant trend in the elevation zones. Among the medium river basins, the highest positive rate of change in the run-off was observed in the Kameng basin (13.6 mm/yr), while the highest negative trend was observed in the Tista upstream basin (−21.4 mm/yr). Changes in run-off provide valuable information for understanding the region’s sensitivity to climatic variability.

  14. Surface analysis of carbon black waste materials from tire residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, W. H.; Kim, J. Y.; Ko, Y. K.; Reucroft, P. J.; Zondlo, J. W.

    1999-03-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has been used to obtain surface chemical state information on two carbon black waste materials in terms of the surface element distribution/concentration and chemical structure. Small amounts of sulfur in the form of CS 2 were detected on the surface (less than 1.7 mass %). C-H/C-C was the major carbon functional component on the surface of carbon black samples but other functional forms of carbon were also present such as CO and C-O. The surface of the carbon black obtained from a hydropyrolysis process was highly oxidized primarily in the form of carbon based oxygen groups. On the other hand, surface oxygen atoms on the surface of the carbon black obtained from a pyrolysis process in the absence of H 2 were in the form of both metal oxides and carbon based oxygen groups.

  15. Metagenomic Analysis of Bacterial Communities of Antarctic Surface Snow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopatina, Anna; Medvedeva, Sofia; Shmakov, Sergey; Logacheva, Maria D; Krylenkov, Vjacheslav; Severinov, Konstantin

    2016-01-01

    The diversity of bacteria present in surface snow around four Russian stations in Eastern Antarctica was studied by high throughput sequencing of amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments and shotgun metagenomic sequencing. Considerable class- and genus-level variation between the samples was revealed indicating a presence of inter-site diversity of bacteria in Antarctic snow. Flavobacterium was a major genus in one sampling site and was also detected in other sites. The diversity of flavobacterial type II-C CRISPR spacers in the samples was investigated by metagenome sequencing. Thousands of unique spacers were revealed with less than 35% overlap between the sampling sites, indicating an enormous natural variety of flavobacterial CRISPR spacers and, by extension, high level of adaptive activity of the corresponding CRISPR-Cas system. None of the spacers matched known spacers of flavobacterial isolates from the Northern hemisphere. Moreover, the percentage of spacers with matches with Antarctic metagenomic sequences obtained in this work was significantly higher than with sequences from much larger publically available environmental metagenomic database. The results indicate that despite the overall very high level of diversity, Antarctic Flavobacteria comprise a separate pool that experiences pressures from mobile genetic elements different from those present in other parts of the world. The results also establish analysis of metagenomic CRISPR spacer content as a powerful tool to study bacterial populations diversity.

  16. Structural characterization and Hirshfeld surface analysis of racemic baclofen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniukiewicz, Waldemar; Oracz, Monika; Sieroń, Lesław

    2016-11-01

    The crystal structure of baclofen, (R,S) [4-amino-3-(4-chlorophenyl)butanoic acid], (C10H12ClNO2, Mr = 213.66) has been determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The title compound crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Pbca (No. 61) with a = 9.2704(5), b = 7.0397(4), c = 30.4015(15) Å, V = 1984.0(2) Å3 and Z = 8. The molecules exist as zwitterions, adopting a gauche conformation with respect to the Cαsbnd Cβ bond, and held in a cross-linked chain arrangement by strong Nsbnd H⋯O hydrogen bonds and Csbnd Cl⋯π interactions. The electrostatic molecular potential as well as the intermolecular interactions of the title compound were analyzed by the Hirshfeld surfaces. The FT-IR spectrum is also reported. The DTA, TG and DTG results indicate that baclofen is stable up to 205 °C.

  17. RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY ANALYSIS OF POLYPHENOL RECOVERY FROM ARTICHOKE WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Zuorro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Large amounts of a solid waste consisting mainly of outer bracts and stems are produced from the industrial processing of artichokes. In this study, the recovery of polyphenols from the two waste components was investigated. Extraction experiments were carried outby an environmentally friendly procedure using aqueous ethanol as solvent. The total polyphenol content, expressed as mg of GAE per g of dry weight, was 10.23±0.68 mg/g for bracts and 16.36±0.85 mg/g for stems. To evaluate the effect of Temperature (T, Extraction time (E and liquid-to-solid Ratio (R on the extraction yields, a central composite design coupled with response surface methodology was used. Under the best conditions (T = 50°C, E = 110.4 min and R = 20 mL g-1, extraction yields between 90 and 93% were obtained. Statistical analysis of the data showed that E was the most influential factor, followed by T and R. Simplified polynomial models were developed to describe the effect of individual factors and their interactions on the extraction yield of polyphenols. Overall, the results of this study support the potential of using artichoke waste as a source of natural phenolic antioxidants and give useful directions on how to improve recovery by proper selection of extraction conditions.

  18. Response Predicting LTCC Firing Shrinkage: A Response Surface Analysis Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girardi, Michael; Barner, Gregg; Lopez, Cristie; Duncan, Brent; Zawicki, Larry

    2009-02-25

    The Low Temperature Cofired Ceramic (LTCC) technology is used in a variety of applications including military/space electronics, wireless communication, MEMS, medical and automotive electronics. The use of LTCC is growing due to the low cost of investment, short development time, good electrical and mechanical properties, high reliability, and flexibility in design integration (3 dimensional (3D) microstructures with cavities are possible)). The dimensional accuracy of the resulting x/y shrinkage of LTCC substrates is responsible for component assembly problems with the tolerance effect that increases in relation to the substrate size. Response Surface Analysis was used to predict product shrinkage based on specific process inputs (metal loading, layer count, lamination pressure, and tape thickness) with the ultimate goal to optimize manufacturing outputs (NC files, stencils, and screens) in achieving the final product design the first time. Three (3) regression models were developed for the DuPont 951 tape system with DuPont 5734 gold metallization based on green tape thickness.

  19. Metagenomic Analysis of Bacterial Communities of Antarctic Surface Snow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eLopatina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of bacteria present in surface snow around four Russian stations in Eastern Antarctica was studied by high throughput sequencing of amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments and shotgun metagenomic sequencing. Considerable class- and genus-level variation between the samples was revealed indicating a presence of inter-site diversity of bacteria in Antarctic snow. Flavobacterium was a major genus in one sampling site and was also detected in other sites. The diversity of flavobacterial type II-C CRISPR spacers in the samples was investigated by metagenome sequencing. Thousands of unique spacers were revealed with less than 35% overlap between the sampling sites, indicating an enormous natural variety of flavobacterial CRISPR spacers and, by extension, high level of adaptive activity of the corresponding CRISPR-Cas system. None of the spacers matched known spacers of flavobacterial isolates from the Northern hemisphere. Moreover, the percentage of spacers with matches with Antarctic metagenomic sequences obtained in this work was significantly higher than with sequences from much larger publically available environmental metagenomic database. The results indicate that despite the overall very high level of diversity, Antarctic Flavobacteria comprise a separate pool that experiences pressures from mobile genetic elements different from those present in other parts of the world. The results also establish analysis of metagenomic CRISPR spacer content as a powerful tool to study bacterial populations diversity.

  20. GHRSST Level 4 ODYSSEA Mediterranean Sea Regional Foundation Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily on an operational basis at Ifremer/CERSAT...

  1. GHRSST Level 4 GAMSSA Global Foundation Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily on an operational basis at the Australian Bureau...

  2. GHRSST Level 4 RAMSSA Australian Regional Foundation Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily on an operational basis at the Australian Bureau...

  3. GHRSST Level 4 EUR Mediterranean Sea Regional Foundation Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS version 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily by Ifremer/CERSAT (France) using optimal...

  4. GHRSST Level 4 ODYSSEA Global Foundation Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily on an operational basis at Ifremer/CERSAT...

  5. GHRSST Level 4 ODYSSEA Eastern Central Pacific Regional Foundation Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily on an operational basis at Ifremer/CERSAT...

  6. GHRSST Level 4 G1SST Global Foundation Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily on an operational basis by the JPL OurOcean...

  7. GHRSST Level 4 DMI_OI Global Foundation Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS version 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily on an operational basis by the Danish...

  8. GHRSST Level 4 OSTIA Global Foundation Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS versions 1 and 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily on an operational basis at the UK Met Office...

  9. GHRSST Level 4 MW_OI Global Foundation Sea Surface Temperature analysis (GDS version 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) global Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily on a 0.25 degree grid at Remote Sensing...

  10. GHRSST Level 4 MUR North America Regional Foundation Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced as a retrospective dataset at the JPL Physical...

  11. GHRSST Level 4 OSPO Global Nighttime Foundation Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS version 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily on an operational basis at the Office of...

  12. GHRSST Level 4 OSPO Global Foundation Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS version 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily on an operational basis at the Office of...

  13. GHRSST Level 4 AVHRR_AMSR_OI Global Blended Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) global Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily on a 0.25 degree grid at the NOAA...

  14. GHRSST Level 4 K10_SST Global 1 meter Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily on an operational basis at the Naval...

  15. Analysis of Fractal Parameters of the Lunar Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nefedyev, Yuri; Petrova, Natalia; Andreev, Alexey; Demina, Natalya; Demin, Sergey

    2016-07-01

    very complex structure and traditional research methods are unacceptable. After considering this, it was decided to use the method of fractal dimensionsd comparisons. For this purpose lunar marginal zone maps made in the celestial coordinate system (maps N1) and oneconstructed on the basis of data obtained from heliometric observations with taking into account thefirst model of the figure of the Moon given by Jakovkin (maps N2) were taken. The charts contain isohypses of the lunar marginal zone extending over 10" on both sides of the mean position of the limb line. In order to find thevariations of irregularities for thelimb points above the mean level of lunar surface werecomputed the position angles of this pointsP (reckoned from the centre of the Moon's disc) and D coordinates. This coordinates introduced by Hayn: P is the selenocentric longitude reckoned along the mean limb from the north pole of the Moon, like the position angles, and D is the latitude counted positively for that part of the disc that is nearer to the observer. Thus the data of our studies was obtained by identical types. Then the first, segments of a lunar marginal zone for every 45" on P were considered. For each segment profile of the surface for a constant D were constructed with a step of 2". Thus 80 profiles were obtained. Secondly the fractal dimensions d for each considered structure was defined. Third the obtained values d werecompared with the othersmaps considered in this work. The obtained results show some well agreement between the mean fractal dimensions for maps N1 and N2. Thus it can be concluded that the using of fractal method for lunar maps analysis to determine the accuracy of the presented to themdata give good results. The work was supported by grants RFBR 15-02-01638-a, 16-32-60071-mol-dk-a and 16-02-00496-a.

  16. Analysis of surface asperity flattening based on two different methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hejie; Öchsner, Andreas; Ni, Guowei; Wei, Dongbin; Jiang, Zhengyi

    2016-11-01

    The stress state is an important parameter in metal forming processes, which significantly influences the strain state and microstructure of products, affecting their surface qualities. In order to make the metal products have a good surface quality, the surface stress state must be optimised. In this study, two classical methods, the upper bound method and the crystal plasticity finite element method, were investigated. The differences between the two methods were discussed in regard to the model, the velocity field, and the strain field. Then the related surface roughness is deduced.

  17. Personal Hygiene Body Wipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-11-01

    PEG-75 lanolin, aloe vera gel Cleansing agent Cocoamphodiacetate Preservatives All, or any suitable and effective combination of potysorbate 20...Ingredients include cocoamphodi- acetate, aloe gel, lanolin, water, propylene glycol, preservatives and an adult fragrance. Toxicity clearance was granted...ingredients shall include the following: Moisturizers Water and propylene glycol Soothing agent and skin softeners Peg-75 lanolin, aloe vera gel

  18. 40 CFR 761.253 - Chemical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chemical analysis. 761.253 Section 761.253 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT... analysis. (a) Extract PCBs from the standard wipe sample collection medium and clean-up the extracted...

  19. Experimental and modelling investigation of surface EMG spike analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, David A; Christie, Anita; Inglis, J Greig; Kamen, Gary

    2011-05-01

    A pattern classification method based on five measures extracted from the surface electromyographic (sEMG) signal is used to provide a unique characterization of the interference pattern for different motor unit behaviours. This study investigated the sensitivity of the five sEMG measures during the force gradation process. Tissue and electrode filtering effects were further evaluated using a sEMG model. Subjects (N=8) performed isometric elbow flexion contractions from 0 to 100% MVC. The sEMG signals from the biceps brachii were recorded simultaneously with force. The basic building block of the sEMG model was the detection of single fibre action potentials (SFAPs) through a homogeneous, equivalent isotropic, infinite volume conduction medium. The SFAPs were summed to generate single motor unit action potentials. The physiologic properties from a well-known muscle model and motor unit recruitment and firing rate schemes were combined to generate synthetic sEMG signals. The following pattern classification measures were calculated: mean spike amplitude, mean spike frequency, mean spike slope, mean spike duration, and the mean number of peaks per spike. Root-mean-square amplitude and mean power frequency were also calculated. Taken together, the experimental data and modelling analysis showed that below 50% MVC, the pattern classification measures were more sensitive to changes in force than traditional time and frequency measures. However, there are additional limitations associated with electrode distance from the source that must be explored further. Future experimental work should ensure that the inter-electrode distance is no greater than 1cm to mitigate the effects of tissue filtering.

  20. Ring formation on an inclined surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, Robert; Du, Xiyu

    2015-11-01

    A drop dried on a solid surface will typically leave a narrow band of solute deposited along the contact line. We examined variations of this deposit due to the inclination of the substrate using numerical simulations of a two-dimensional drop, equivalent to a strip-like drop. An asymptotic analysis of the contact line region predicts that the upslope deposit will grow faster at early times, but the growth of this deposit ends sooner because the upper contact line depins first. From our simulations we find that the deposit can be larger at either the upper or lower contact line depending on the initial drop volume and substrate inclination. For larger drops and steeper inclinations, the early lead in deposited mass at the upper contact line is wiped out by the earlier depinning of the upper contact line and subsequent continued growth at the lower contact line. Conversely, for smaller drops and shallower inclinations, the early lead of the upper contact line is insurmountable despite its earlier termination in growth. Our results show that it is difficult to reconstruct a postiorithe inclination of the substrate based solely on the shape of the deposit. The authors thank the James S. McDonnell Foundation for support through a 21st Century Science Initiative in Studying Complex Systems Research Award, and the National Science Foundation for support under Grant No. 0932600.

  1. Land Surface Microwave Emissivity Dynamics: Observations, Analysis and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yudong; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Harrison, Kenneth W.; Kumar, Sujay; Ringerud, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Land surface microwave emissivity affects remote sensing of both the atmosphere and the land surface. The dynamical behavior of microwave emissivity over a very diverse sample of land surface types is studied. With seven years of satellite measurements from AMSR-E, we identified various dynamical regimes of the land surface emission. In addition, we used two radiative transfer models (RTMs), the Community Radiative Transfer Model (CRTM) and the Community Microwave Emission Modeling Platform (CMEM), to simulate land surface emissivity dynamics. With both CRTM and CMEM coupled to NASA's Land Information System, global-scale land surface microwave emissivities were simulated for five years, and evaluated against AMSR-E observations. It is found that both models have successes and failures over various types of land surfaces. Among them, the desert shows the most consistent underestimates (by approx. 70-80%), due to limitations of the physical models used, and requires a revision in both systems. Other snow-free surface types exhibit various degrees of success and it is expected that parameter tuning can improve their performances.

  2. Deformation Analysis of Surface Defects in Wire Drawing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, Tetsuo; Yoshida, Kazunari

    2004-06-01

    Recently, the high surface quality of drawn wires and rods have been required from the field of automobile and machine. The surface flaw of a drawn wire has big influence on the quality of a product. Using three-dimensional FEA, this study investigates growth of surface defects due to wire drawing when these on wire, wire breaks due to surface defects are common problems in wire drawing. As a cause of a surface flaw, rolling up of a wire rod and the poor handling at the time of conveyance are cited. The authors artificially produced transversal cracks and scratches on the surface of wires, and investigated the growth and disappearance of these cracks during drawing, by three-dimensional FEA and experiments. If drawing out of the wire rod which has a flaw in the wire rod surface is repeated, it will become the check mark which the width of a flaw spreads and is known well in the production site. Furthermore, if drawing out is repeated, the compression stress of the direction of an axis by stress, and will become quite small. However, the crack of the direction of an axis remained and it was shown clearly that quality is affected. Moreover, the influence which the surface treatment of peeling has on a wire rod was also considered.

  3. Surface analysis of polydimethylsiloxane fouled with bovine serum albumin

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Windvoel, T

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available -specific adsorption of proteins. The non specific adsorption becomes a limitation in applications that require clean hydrophobic surfaces and the use of proteins. This paper investigates the changes in the surface of PDMS after being in contact with bovine serum...

  4. Sub-surface and surface analysis of high speed machined Ti-6Al-4V alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velasquez, J.D. Puerta [Laboratoire d' Etude des Textures et Applications aux Materiaux (LETAM), CNRS FRE 3143, Ecole Nationale d' Ingenieurs de Metz (ENIM), F-57012 Metz Cedex 01 (France); Tidu, A., E-mail: tidu@enim.fr [Laboratoire d' Etude des Textures et Applications aux Materiaux (LETAM), CNRS FRE 3143, Ecole Nationale d' Ingenieurs de Metz (ENIM), F-57012 Metz Cedex 01 (France); Bolle, B. [Laboratoire d' Etude des Textures et Applications aux Materiaux (LETAM), CNRS FRE 3143, Ecole Nationale d' Ingenieurs de Metz (ENIM), F-57012 Metz Cedex 01 (France); Chevrier, P. [Laboratoire de Mecanique Biomecanique, Polymere Structures (LaBPS), EA 4632 Ecole Nationale d' Ingenieurs de Metz (ENIM), F-57012 Metz Cedex 01 (France); Fundenberger, J.-J. [Laboratoire d' Etude des Textures et Applications aux Materiaux (LETAM), CNRS FRE 3143, Universite Paul Verlaine de Metz (UPVM), F-57012 Metz Cedex 01 (France)

    2010-04-25

    To understand the effects of cutting the surface integrity is an important goal to control the quality of a work piece. The current paper summarizes an extensive experimental study of the surface integrity and the sub-surface microstructure during high speed machining in orthogonal cutting condition. This study includes measurements of residual stresses and crystallographic texture in addition to electron microscopy observations. Our observations and conclusions are primarily focused on the effect of cutting speed considering a set of constant machining parameters on the microstructure evolution of the sub-surface of the material. The results allow a better understanding of the cutting process in high speed machining of titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V.

  5. Decontamination of Surfaces Exposed to Carbon-Based Nanotubes and Nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Su

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Contamination of surfaces by nanomaterials can happen due to accidental spillage and release or gradual accumulation during processing or handling. Considering the increasingly wide use of nanomaterials in industry and research labs and also taking into account the diversity of physical and chemical properties of different nanomaterials (such as solubility, aggregation/agglomeration, and surface reactivity, there is a pressing need to define reliable nanomaterial-specific decontamination guidelines. In this paper, we propose and investigate a potential method for surface decontamination of carbon-based nanomaterials using solvent cleaning and wipes. The results show that the removal efficiency for single- and multiwalled carbon nanotubes from silicon wafers sprayed with water-surfactant solutions prior to mechanical wiping is greater than 90% and 95%, respectively. The need for further studies to understand the mechanisms of nanomaterial removal from surfaces and development of standard techniques for surface decontamination of nanomaterials is highlighted.

  6. Roughness analysis of graphite surfaces of casting elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wieczorowski

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper profilometric measurements of graphite casting elements were described. Basic topics necessary to assess roughness of their surfaces and influence of asperities on various properties related to manufacturing and use were discussed. Stylus profilometer technique of surface irregularities measurements including its limits resulting from pickup geometry and its contact with measured object were ana-lyzed. Working principle of tactile profilometer and phenomena taking place during movement of a probe on a measured surface were shown. One of the important aspects is a flight phenomenon, which means movement of a pickup without contact with a surface during inspection resulting from too high scanning speed. results of comparison research for graphite elements of new and used mould and pin composing a set were presented. Using some surface roughness, waviness and primary profile parameters (arithmetical mean of roughness profile heights Ra, biggest roughness profile height Rz, maximum primary profile height Pt as well as maximum waviness profile height Wt a possibility of using surface asperities parameters as a measure of wear of chill graphite elements was proved. The most often applied parameter is Ra, but with a help of parameters from W and P family it was shown, that big changes occur not only for roughness but also for other components of surface irregularities.

  7. A model of the ground surface temperature for micrometeorological analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf, Julian S.; Erell, Evyatar

    2017-07-01

    Micrometeorological models at various scales require ground surface temperature, which may not always be measured in sufficient spatial or temporal detail. There is thus a need for a model that can calculate the surface temperature using only widely available weather data, thermal properties of the ground, and surface properties. The vegetated/permeable surface energy balance (VP-SEB) model introduced here requires no a priori knowledge of soil temperature or moisture at any depth. It combines a two-layer characterization of the soil column following the heat conservation law with a sinusoidal function to estimate deep soil temperature, and a simplified procedure for calculating moisture content. A physically based solution is used for each of the energy balance components allowing VP-SEB to be highly portable. VP-SEB was tested using field data measuring bare loess desert soil in dry weather and following rain events. Modeled hourly surface temperature correlated well with the measured data (r 2 = 0.95 for a whole year), with a root-mean-square error of 2.77 K. The model was used to generate input for a pedestrian thermal comfort study using the Index of Thermal Stress (ITS). The simulation shows that the thermal stress on a pedestrian standing in the sun on a fully paved surface, which may be over 500 W on a warm summer day, may be as much as 100 W lower on a grass surface exposed to the same meteorological conditions.

  8. Augmented dry cooling surface test program: analysis and experimental results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parry, H.L.; MacGowan, L.J.; Kreid, D.K.; Wiles, L.E.; Faletti, D.W.; Johnson, B.M.

    1979-09-01

    Experiments were performed to assess the operating characteristics and potential performance of water-augmented dry cooling systems. The work was aimed at evaluating a deluged air-cooled HOETERV plate fin heat exchanger surface proposed for integrated dry/wet cooling systems and using test results to guide the development of a predictive analytical model. In the process, all-dry performance data were obtained for the HOETERV surface as well as for two Curtiss-Wright chipped fin surfaces. The dry heat transfer data indicate that a slotted Curtiss-Wright surface slightly outperforms the HOETERV and nonslotted Curtiss-Wright surfaces based on heat rejection rate per unit of fan power. However, all three surfaces are so close in performance that other factors, such as surface cost and piping and mounting costs, will probably determine which surface is preferred at a given installation. Comparisons of deluged HOETERV performance with dry HOETERV and Curtiss-Wright performance under prototypic conditions have established that deluging can provide considerable heat rejection enhancement, particularly at low ITD and low air humidity. A deluged HOETERV core operating at a 115/sup 0/F primary fluid temperature in 105/sup 0/F air at 10% relative humidity can reject over 7 times as much heat as a dry HOETERV core operating under the same conditions at the same air-side pressure drop. Deluged tests were performed to evaluate the effect of airflow rate, deluge flow rate and core tilt angle on performance. Both increased airflow and increased deluge flow increase both heat rejection rate and required fan power. Optimal airflow rate will thus be determined for a given location by the competing costs of heat exchanger surface area versus fan operation. Changes in core tilt angle from vertical to 16/sup 0/ from vertical have a negligible effect on performance.

  9. Profilometric analysis of root surfaces after using various polishing agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjan Jana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polishing is an important step in oral prophylaxis procedure which retards further accumulation of plaque on the root surfaces. Though polishing was done with various abrasive particles with different sizes over a long period of time, it was never been highlighted to evaluate the ideal polishing material and the particle size that would produce the ideal surface smoothness (Ra 5 μm are not able to produce the surface smoothness <0.2 μm. Only, submicron sized particles are able to produce the desired smoothness.

  10. Surface Plasmon Resonance Analysis of Histidine-Tagged F1-ATPase Surface Adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Jenifer K.; Richter, Mark L.; Berrie, Cindy L.

    2015-11-01

    Studies of the rotational activity of the enzymatic core (α3β3γ) of the F1-ATPase motor protein have relied on binding the enzyme to NTA-coated glass surfaces via polyhistidine tags engineered into the C-termini of each of the three α or β subunits. Those studies revealed the rotational motion of the central γ subunit by monitoring the motion of attached micron-long actin filaments or spherical nanoparticles. However, only a small percentage of the attached filaments or particles were observed to rotate, likely due, at least in part, to non-uniform surface attachment of the motor proteins. In this study, we have applied surface plasmon resonance to monitor the kinetics and affinity of binding of the His-tagged motor protein to NTA-coated gold sensor surfaces. The binding data, when fit to a heterogeneous binding model, exhibit two sets of adsorption-desorption rate constants with two dissociation constants of 4.0 × 10-9 M and 8.6 × 10-11 M for 6His-α3β3γ binding to the nickel ion-activated NTA surface. The data are consistent with mixed attachment of the protein via two (bimodal) and three (trimodal) NTA/Ni2+-His-tag interactions, respectively, with the less stable bimodal interaction dominating. The results provide a partial explanation for the low number of surface-attached F1 motors previously observed in rotation studies and suggest alternative approaches to uniform F1 motor surface attachment for future fabrication of motor-based nanobiodevices and materials.

  11. Glass fibres reinforced polyester composites degradation monitoring by surface analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croitoru, Catalin; Patachia, Silvia; Papancea, Adina; Baltes, Liana; Tierean, Mircea

    2015-12-01

    The paper presents a novel method for quantification of the modifications that occur on the surface of different types of gel-coated glass fibre-reinforced polyester composites under artificial UV-ageing at 254 nm. The method implies the adsorption of an ionic dye, namely methylene blue, on the UV-aged composite, and computing the CIELab colour space parameters from the photographic image of the coloured composite's surface. The method significantly enhances the colour differences between the irradiated composites and the reference, in contrast with the non-coloured ones. The colour modifications that occur represent a good indicative of the surface degradation, alteration of surface hydrophily and roughness of the composite and are in good correlation with the ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and optical microscopy results. The proposed method is easier, faster and cheaper than the traditional ones.

  12. Design of a robust superhydrophobic surface: thermodynamic and kinetic analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Sarkar, Anjishnu

    2014-01-01

    The design of a robust superhydrophobic surface is a widely pursued topic.While many investigations are limited to applications with high impact velocities (for raindrops of the order of a few m/s), the essence of robustness is yet to be analyzed for applications involving quasi-static liquid transfer.To achieve robustness with high impact velocities, the surface parameters (geometrical details, chemistry) have to be selected from a narrow range of permissible values, which often entail additional manufacturing costs.From the dual perspectives of thermodynamics and mechanics, we analyze the significance of robustness for quasi-static drop impact, and present the range of permissible surface characteristics.For surfaces with a Youngs contact angle greater than 90{\\deg} and square micropillar geometry, we show that robustness can be enforced when an intermediate wetting state (sagged state) impedes transition to a wetted state (Wenzel state).From the standpoint of mechanics, we use available scientific data to ...

  13. Surface Ship Shock Modeling and Simulation: Two-Dimensional Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young S. Shin

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The modeling and simulation of the response of a surface ship system to underwater explosion requires an understanding of many different subject areas. These include the process of underwater explosion events, shock wave propagation, explosion gas bubble behavior and bubble-pulse loading, bulk and local cavitation, free surface effect, fluid-structure interaction, and structural dynamics. This paper investigates the effects of fluid-structure interaction and cavitation on the response of a surface ship using USA-NASTRAN-CFA code. First, the one-dimensional Bleich-Sandler model is used to validate the approach, and second, the underwater shock response of a two-dimensional mid-section model of a surface ship is predicted with a surrounding fluid model using a constitutive equation of a bilinear fluid which does not allow transmission of negative pressures.

  14. Surface Operations Data Analysis and Adaptation Tool Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Surface Management System (SMS), developed by NASA Ames Research Center in cooperation with the FAA, has received wide and significant acceptance by the air...

  15. NOAA Optimum Interpolation 1/4 Degree Daily Sea Surface Temperature (OISST) Analysis, Version 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This high-resolution sea surface temperature (SST) analysis product was developed using an optimum interpolation (OI) technique. The SST analysis has a spatial grid...

  16. Surface free energy analysis of adsorbents used for radioiodine adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González-García, C.M. [Departamento de Física Aplicada, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. Elvas s/n, 06006 Badajoz (Spain); Román, S., E-mail: sroman@unex.es [Departamento de Física Aplicada, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. Elvas s/n, 06006 Badajoz (Spain); González, J.F.; Sabio, E. [Departamento de Física Aplicada, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. Elvas s/n, 06006 Badajoz (Spain); Ledesma, B. [Departamento de Ingeniería Mecánica, Energética y de los Materiales, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. Elvas s/n, 06006 Badajoz (Spain)

    2013-10-01

    In this work, the surface free energy of biomass-based activated carbons, both fresh and impregnated with triethylenediamine, has been evaluated. The contribution of Lifshitz van der Waals components was determined by the model proposed by van Oss et al. The results obtained allowed predicting the most probable configurations of the impregnant onto the carbon surface and its influence on the subsequent adsorption of radioactive methyl iodide.

  17. Quantitative characterization of surface topography using spectral analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Tevis D. B.; Junge, Till; Pastewka, Lars

    2017-03-01

    Roughness determines many functional properties of surfaces, such as adhesion, friction, and (thermal and electrical) contact conductance. Recent analytical models and simulations enable quantitative prediction of these properties from knowledge of the power spectral density (PSD) of the surface topography. The utility of the PSD is that it contains statistical information that is unbiased by the particular scan size and pixel resolution chosen by the researcher. In this article, we first review the mathematical definition of the PSD, including the one- and two-dimensional cases, and common variations of each. We then discuss strategies for reconstructing an accurate PSD of a surface using topography measurements at different size scales. Finally, we discuss detecting and mitigating artifacts at the smallest scales, and computing upper/lower bounds on functional properties obtained from models. We accompany our discussion with virtual measurements on computer-generated surfaces. This discussion summarizes how to analyze topography measurements to reconstruct a reliable PSD. Analytical models demonstrate the potential for tuning functional properties by rationally tailoring surface topography—however, this potential can only be achieved through the accurate, quantitative reconstruction of the PSDs of real-world surfaces.

  18. Heat Flux Apportionment to Heterogeneous Surfaces Using Flux Footprint Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Heat flux data collected from the Baiyangdian Heterogeneous Field Experiment were analyzed using the footprint method. High resolution (25 m) Landsat-5 satellite imaging was used to determine the land cover as one of four surface types: farmland, lake, wetland, or village. Data from two observation sites in September 2005 were used. One site (Wangjiazhai) was characterized by highly heterogeneous surfaces in the central area of the Baiyangdian: lake/wetland. The other site (Xiongxian) was on land with more uniform surface cover. An improved Eulerian analytical flux footprint model was used to determine "source areas" of the heat fluxes measured at towers located at each site from surrounding landscapes of mixed surface types.In relative terms results show that wetland and lake areas generally contributed most to the observed heat flux at Wangjiazhai, while farmland contributed most at Xiongxian. Given the areal distribution of surface type contributions, calculations were made to obtain the magnitudes of the heat flux from lake, wetland and farmland to the total observed flux and apportioned contributions of each surface type to the sensible and latent heat fluxes. Results show that on average the sensible heat flux from wetland and farmland were comparable over the diurnal cycle, while the latent heat flux from farmland was somewhat larger by about 30-50 W m-2 during daytime. The latent and sensible fluxes from the lake source in daytime were about 50 W m-2 and 100 W m-2 less, respectively, than from wetland and farmland. The results are judged reasonable and serve to demonstrate the potential for flux apportionment over heterogeneous surfaces.

  19. Study of surface modification of uranium and UFe{sub 2} by various surface analysis techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonino, O.; Dugne, O.; Merlet, C. E-mail: merlet@dstu.univ-montp2.fr; Gat, E.; Holliger, Ph.; Lahaye, M

    2001-04-01

    The surface modification of U, UFe{sub 2} by exposition in air at room temperature and at 63 deg. C was studied by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS), time of flight-secondary ion mass spectroscopy (ToF-SIMS), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) with variable detection angle. For the two systems, a first layer of carbon contamination, followed by complex oxide layer constitutes the surface. For U, the oxide layer is composed of a mixture of UO{sub 2} and UO{sub 2+x} with x maximal at the surface. In UFe{sub 2}, the oxide layer is composed of a mixture of UO{sub 2} and UO{sub 2+x}, oxidised iron in Fe2+ and Fe3+ chemical states (more probably FeO), a few percent of a ternary oxide UFeO{sub 4}, and less than 1% of uranium carbide. A surface segregation of uranium is shown in UFe{sub 2}.

  20. Database for Simulation of Electron Spectra for Surface Analysis (SESSA)Database for Simulation of Electron Spectra for Surface Analysis (SESSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 100 Database for Simulation of Electron Spectra for Surface Analysis (SESSA)Database for Simulation of Electron Spectra for Surface Analysis (SESSA) (PC database for purchase)   This database has been designed to facilitate quantitative interpretation of Auger-electron and X-ray photoelectron spectra and to improve the accuracy of quantitation in routine analysis. The database contains all physical data needed to perform quantitative interpretation of an electron spectrum for a thin-film specimen of given composition. A simulation module provides an estimate of peak intensities as well as the energy and angular distributions of the emitted electron flux.

  1. Observational & modeling analysis of surface heat and moisture fluxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, E. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States)

    1995-09-01

    An observational and modeling study was conducted to help assess how well current GCMs are predicting surface fluxes under the highly variable cloudiness and flow conditions characteristic of the real atmosphere. The observational data base for the study was obtained from a network of surface flux stations operated during the First ISLSCP Field Experiment (FIFE). The study included examination of a surface-driven secondary circulation in the boundary layer resulting from a persistent cross-site gradient in soil moisture, to demonstrate the sensitivity of boundary layer dynamics to heterogeneous surface fluxes, The performance of a biosphere model in reproducing the measured surface fluxes was evaluated with and without the use of satellite retrieval of three key canopy variables with RMS uncertainties commensurate with those of the measurements themselves. Four sensible heat flux closure schemes currently being used in GCMs were then evaluated against the FIFE observations. Results indicate that the methods by which closure models are calibrated lead to exceedingly large errors when the schemes are applied to variable boundary layer conditions. 4 refs., 2 figs.

  2. PROFFIT: Analysis of X-ray surface-brightness profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, Dominique

    2016-08-01

    PROFFIT analyzes X-ray surface-brightness profiles for data from any X-ray instrument. It can extract surface-brightness profiles in circular or elliptical annuli, using constant or logarithmic bin size, from the image centroid, the surface-brightness peak, or any user-given center, and provides surface-brightness profiles in any circular or elliptical sectors. It offers background map support to extract background profiles, can excise areas using SAO DS9-compatible (ascl:0003.002) region files to exclude point sources, provides fitting with a number of built-in models, including the popular beta model, double beta, cusp beta, power law, and projected broken power law, uses chi-squared or C statistic, and can fit on the surface-brightness or counts data. It has a command-line interface similar to HEASOFT’s XSPEC (ascl:9910.005) package, provides interactive help with a description of all the commands, and results can be saved in FITS, ROOT or TXT format.

  3. Droplet Impact on Inclined Surfaces for Forensic Bloodstain Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Marc; Lockard, Michael; Neitzel, G. Paul

    2015-11-01

    During a crime scene investigation, bloodstains are used to infer the size, impact angle, and velocity of the blood droplet that produced the stain. This droplet impact process was explored using experiments and numerical simulations of droplets impacting planar, inclined surfaces with different roughness and wetting properties over a range of Reynolds numbers (1,000 - 5,500) and Weber numbers (200 - 2,000) typical of some forensics applications. Results will be presented showing how the size and shape of the final elliptical bloodstain varies with impact angle and surface roughness. The common forensics practice to predict the impact angle is fairly accurate for near-normal impacts, but it under-predicts the angle for oblique impacts less than about 40° and this effect worsens for rougher surfaces. The spreading of the droplet normal to the impact plane is shown to follow that of a droplet under normal impact as the impact velocity increases. This effect is also lessened by increased surface roughness. The reasons for these effects will be explored using a new GPU-based wavelet-adaptive flow simulation, which can resolve the flows near the solid surface and near the moving contact line of these droplets for the large Reynolds and Weber numbers of these experiments. Supported by the National Institute of Justice.

  4. A fundamental approach to adhesion: Synthesis, surface analysis, thermodynamics and mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, B.; Siriwardane, R.; Wightman, J. P.

    1981-01-01

    Pretreated and primed Ti 6-4 surfaces were characterized by scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (SEM/EDAX) and electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA). Fractured lap shear bonded Ti 6-4 specimens were also characterized by SEM/EDAX and ESCA. A number of surface techniques were used to characterize Ti02 powders.

  5. Diagnostics for the Analysis of Surface Chemistry Effects on Composite Energetic Material Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-30

    Distribution Unlimited Final Report: Diagnostics for the Analysis of Surface Chemistry Effects on Composite Energetic Material Reactions The views...peer-reviewed journals: Final Report: Diagnostics for the Analysis of Surface Chemistry Effects on Composite Energetic Material Reactions Report...2.00 4.00 Evan Vargas, Michelle L. Pantoya, Mohammed A Saed, Brandon L Weeks. Advanced Susceptors for Microwave Heating of Energetic Materials

  6. Surface Analysis of Metal Materials After Water Jet Abrasive Machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Polák

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we deal with a progressive production technology using the water jet cutting technology with the addition of abrasives for material removal. This technology is widely used in cutting various shapes, but also for the technology of machining such as turning, milling, drilling and cutting of threads. The aim of this article was to analyse the surface of selected types of metallic materials after abrasive machining, i.e. by assessing the impact of selected machining parameters on the surface roughness of metallic materials.

  7. Geometric modeling and analysis of large latticed surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayfeh, A. H.; Hefzy, M. S.

    1980-01-01

    The application of geometrical schemes, similar to geodesic domes, to large spherical antenna reflectors was investigated. The shape and size of flat segmented latticed surfaces which approximate general shells of revolution, and in particular spherical and paraboloidal reflective surfaces, were determined. The extensive mathematical and computational geometric analyses of the reflector resulted in the development of a general purpose computer program capable of generating the complete design parameters of the dish. The program also includes a graphical self contained subroutine for graphic display of the required design.

  8. ANALYSIS OF COMBINED POLYSURFACES TO MESH SURFACES MATCHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek WYLEŻOŁ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article applies to an example of the process of quantitatively evaluate the fit of combined polysurface (NURBS class to a surface mesh. The fitting process of the polysurface and the evaluation of obtained results have been realized in the environment of the CATIA v5 system. Obtained quantitative evaluation are shown graphically in the form of three-dimensional graphs and histograms. As the base surface mesh was used a pelvic bone stl model (the model was created by digitizing didactic physical model.

  9. Analysis of surface powered haulage accidents, January 1990--July 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fesak, G.M.; Breland, R.M.; Spadaro, J. [Dept. of Labor, Arlington, VA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This report addresses surface haulage accidents that occurred between January 1990 and July 1996 involving haulage trucks (including over-the-road trucks), front-end-loaders, scrapers, utility trucks, water trucks, and other mobile haulage equipment. The study includes quarries, open pits and surface coal mines utilizing self-propelled mobile equipment to transport personnel, supplies, rock, overburden material, ore, mine waste, or coal for processing. A total of 4,397 accidents were considered. This report summarizes the major factors that led to the accidents and recommends accident prevention methods to reduce the frequency of these accidents.

  10. Fluorescent eco-particles for surface flow physics analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauro, F.; Porfiri, M.; Grimaldi, S.

    2013-03-01

    In this letter, we describe a novel methodology for fabricating inexpensive environmentally-friendly fluorescent microparticles for quantitative surface flow visualization. Particles are synthesized from natural white beeswax and a highly diluted solution of a nontoxic fluorescent red dye. Bead fluorescence exhibits a long lifetime in adverse conditions, such as exposure to weathering agents, and is enhanced by Ultra Violet radiation. The fluorescent eco-particles are integrated in a particle image velocimetry study of circular hydraulic jump to demonstrate their feasibility in tracing complex surface flows.

  11. Fluorescent eco-particles for surface flow physics analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Tauro

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this letter, we describe a novel methodology for fabricating inexpensive environmentally-friendly fluorescent microparticles for quantitative surface flow visualization. Particles are synthesized from natural white beeswax and a highly diluted solution of a nontoxic fluorescent red dye. Bead fluorescence exhibits a long lifetime in adverse conditions, such as exposure to weathering agents, and is enhanced by Ultra Violet radiation. The fluorescent eco-particles are integrated in a particle image velocimetry study of circular hydraulic jump to demonstrate their feasibility in tracing complex surface flows.

  12. Dual analyzer system for surface analysis dedicated for angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy at liquid surfaces and interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niedermaier, Inga; Kolbeck, Claudia; Steinrück, Hans-Peter; Maier, Florian, E-mail: florian.maier@fau.de [Lehrstuhl für Physikalische Chemie II, FAU Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Egerlandstraße 3, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2016-04-15

    The investigation of liquid surfaces and interfaces with the powerful toolbox of ultra-high vacuum (UHV)-based surface science techniques generally has to overcome the issue of liquid evaporation within the vacuum system. In the last decade, however, new classes of liquids with negligible vapor pressure at room temperature—in particular, ionic liquids (ILs)—have emerged for surface science studies. It has been demonstrated that particularly angle-resolved X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (ARXPS) allows for investigating phenomena that occur at gas-liquid and liquid-solid interfaces on the molecular level. The results are not only relevant for IL systems but also for liquids in general. In all of these previous ARXPS studies, the sample holder had to be tilted in order to change the polar detection angle of emitted photoelectrons, which restricted the liquid systems to very thin viscous IL films coating a flat solid support. We now report on the concept and realization of a new and unique laboratory “Dual Analyzer System for Surface Analysis (DASSA)” which enables fast ARXPS, UV photoelectron spectroscopy, imaging XPS, and low-energy ion scattering at the horizontal surface plane of macroscopically thick non-volatile liquid samples. It comprises a UHV chamber equipped with two electron analyzers mounted for simultaneous measurements in 0° and 80° emission relative to the surface normal. The performance of DASSA on a first macroscopic liquid system will be demonstrated.

  13. Climate Prediction Center (CPC) Global Land Surface Air Temperature Analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A station observation-based global land monthly mean surface air temperature dataset at 0.5 x 0.5 latitude-longitude resolution for the period from 1948 to the...

  14. Multilayered elastic analysis formulation for surface moment loading

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maina, JW

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available to the action of non-uniform circular loading is presented in this paper. Results show that maximum compressive stress at the pavement surface due to triangular load was greater by 20% and 70% than results from uniformly distributed vertical load and horizontal...

  15. Climate Prediction Center (CPC) Global Land Surface Air Temperature Analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A station observation-based global land monthly mean surface air temperature dataset at 0.5 0.5 latitude-longitude resolution for the period from 1948 to the present...

  16. Sensitivity Analysis and Optimization of Aerodynamic Configurations with Blend Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, A. M.; Tiwari, S. N.

    1997-01-01

    A novel (geometrical) parametrization procedure using solutions to a suitably chosen fourth order partial differential equation is used to define a class of airplane configurations. Inclusive in this definition are surface grids, volume grids, and grid sensitivity. The general airplane configuration has wing, fuselage, vertical tail and horizontal tail. The design variables are incorporated into the boundary conditions, and the solution is expressed as a Fourier series. The fuselage has circular cross section, and the radius is an algebraic function of four design parameters and an independent computational variable. Volume grids are obtained through an application of the Control Point Form method. A graphic interface software is developed which dynamically changes the surface of the airplane configuration with the change in input design variable. The software is made user friendly and is targeted towards the initial conceptual development of any aerodynamic configurations. Grid sensitivity with respect to surface design parameters and aerodynamic sensitivity coefficients based on potential flow is obtained using an Automatic Differentiation precompiler software tool ADIFOR. Aerodynamic shape optimization of the complete aircraft with twenty four design variables is performed. Unstructured and structured volume grids and Euler solutions are obtained with standard software to demonstrate the feasibility of the new surface definition.

  17. An analysis of dislocation nucleation near a free surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Yufu; Van der Giessen, Erik; Needleman, Alan

    2007-01-01

    Molecular dynamics analyses of defect-free aluminum single crystals subject to bending are carried out to investigate dislocation nucleation from free surfaces. A principal aim of the analyses is to provide background for the development of dislocation nucleation criteria for use in discrete

  18. Bayesian inversion analysis of nonlinear dynamics in surface heterogeneous reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omori, Toshiaki; Kuwatani, Tatsu; Okamoto, Atsushi; Hukushima, Koji

    2016-09-01

    It is essential to extract nonlinear dynamics from time-series data as an inverse problem in natural sciences. We propose a Bayesian statistical framework for extracting nonlinear dynamics of surface heterogeneous reactions from sparse and noisy observable data. Surface heterogeneous reactions are chemical reactions with conjugation of multiple phases, and they have the intrinsic nonlinearity of their dynamics caused by the effect of surface-area between different phases. We adapt a belief propagation method and an expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm to partial observation problem, in order to simultaneously estimate the time course of hidden variables and the kinetic parameters underlying dynamics. The proposed belief propagation method is performed by using sequential Monte Carlo algorithm in order to estimate nonlinear dynamical system. Using our proposed method, we show that the rate constants of dissolution and precipitation reactions, which are typical examples of surface heterogeneous reactions, as well as the temporal changes of solid reactants and products, were successfully estimated only from the observable temporal changes in the concentration of the dissolved intermediate product.

  19. Photogrammetric analysis of the articular surface of the distal radius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ege, A; Seker, D Z; Tuncay, I; Duran, Z

    2004-01-01

    Three-dimensional measurements made using photogrammetry have recently gained popularity with the development of real-time detection facilities and up-to-date equipment. The modelling of human bones presents a particular challenge as the measurements required are difficult to obtain, especially from uneven surfaces. In this study, the articular surfaces of 12 radius bones were evaluated using photogrammetry to obtain three-dimensional coordinates of certain points. Morphometric characteristics of the digital topography of the articular surface were analysed using three-dimensional data from more than 200 points for each specimen. The coronal plane curve, from the tip of the styloid process to the centre of the distal radioulnar articular notch, was found to be similar to the fourth degree polynomial function. A mathematical expression representing the sagittal curve passing through scapholunate border could not be found. Close-range photogrammetry is a safe and precise technique that can provide reliable, reproducible and accurate data for evaluating complex morphological surfaces.

  20. Waveguide-coupled directional Raman radiation for surface analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Li, Jin-Yang; Wang, Li; Lu, Dan-Feng; Qi, Zhi-Mei

    2015-09-01

    Kretschmann-type waveguide structures, including Plasmon Waveguide (PW) and Resonant Mirror (RM), have been applied in interfacial Raman spectroscopy due to the following unique features: (1) unlike the classic surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates made of either gold or silver, both PW and RM can be prepared using a large variety of inexpensive materials; (2) the field enhancement factors using these structures can be theoretically predicted and experimentally controlled, which enables us to manipulate the surface Raman sensitivity with high repeatability; (3) the use of transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) modes for Raman excitation allows us to evaluate the orientation of target molecules immobilized on the waveguide surface; (4) the unwanted impact of noble metals on the Raman fingerprints of target molecules, which is often observed for conventional SERS substrates, can be avoided upon the use of dielectric waveguides. In this paper, guided-mode-coupled directional Raman emission, which is an additional important feature of the waveguide Raman technique, was theoretically investigated based on the optical reciprocity theorem combined with the Fresnel equations. The simulation results indicate that the directional Raman emission from a dipole located within the field confinement and penetration depth of a guided mode depends on both the orientation of the dipole and its distance from the waveguide surface. Raman light from the TE-oriented dipoles is launched into the prism coupler at the TE-mode resonance angle and that from the non-TE-oriented dipoles propagates at the TM-mode resonance angle. The intensity of the guided-mode-excited Raman signal propagating at the mode resonance angle is proportional to the fourth power of the mode field (E(4)) at the depth of the dipole from the waveguide surface. This means that the guided-mode-excited and guided-mode-coupled directional Raman spectroscopy has a detection depth that is as

  1. [XPS analysis of tea plant leaf and root surface].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jiang-yu; Wan, Xiao-chun

    2008-09-01

    XPS was applied to analyze the surface chemical composition and structure of the tea plant leaf and root. It was detected that the surface is made up of mainly 4 elements: C, O, N and Al, with little P and F in abaxial leaf. Based on the botanic epidermis structure and the chemical composition, with the help of the standard spectrum data bank on line and the wood XPS study results, and through line Gaussian and Lorentizian the mixed, the binding energy of C(1s) of the leaf surface was classified as 3 types: the first was C1, with the electron binding energy of 285 eV, from C-C or C-H group, representing lipid compound like cutin and wax. C2 with the binding energy of 286.35 eV in the adaxial and 286.61 eV in the abaxial, came from the single bond of carbon and oxygen C-O, mainly standing for cellulose. C3 with the binding energy of approximately 288 eV (288.04 eV in adaxial and 288.09 eV in abaxial) was the sign of C=O group, which is acyl in protein with the confirmation of N(1s) (399-401 eV)and O(1s) analyses. In the root surface, besides the same compounds of cutin and wax (C1, binding energy 285 eV), cellulose (C2, binding energy 286.49 eV) and protein (C3, binding energy 288.78 eV)as in the leaf, there appeared C5 type with the binding energy of 283.32 eV. Because it was lower than C1, it was estimated as carbon linking to metal. Both the leaf and the root surfaces didn't have C4, a type of O-C=O, which is common in wood surface with the highest oxidated carbon of 289-289.5 eV binding energy, indicating that organic acid secreted by the root existed freely on the root surface, without any chemical association with the surface compounds. The results of the separated spectrum of O(1s) supported the above C(1s) results. By the ratio of each type of C, there were more oxygen groups in the abaxial than in the adaxial, implicating more active chemical properties on the abaxial. Compared with the leaf, cutin and wax was little in the root and oxygen groups were many

  2. Occurrence of Bacteria and Viruses on Elementary Classroom Surfaces and the Potential Role of Classroom Hygiene in the Spread of Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Kelly R.; Boone, Stephanie A.; Gerba, Charles P.

    2010-01-01

    The presence of microorganisms on common classroom contact surfaces (fomites) was determined to identify the areas most likely to become contaminated. Six elementary classrooms were divided into control and intervention groups (cleaned daily with a quaternary ammonium wipe) and tested for heterotrophic bacteria. Three classrooms were also tested…

  3. Occurrence of Bacteria and Viruses on Elementary Classroom Surfaces and the Potential Role of Classroom Hygiene in the Spread of Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Kelly R.; Boone, Stephanie A.; Gerba, Charles P.

    2010-01-01

    The presence of microorganisms on common classroom contact surfaces (fomites) was determined to identify the areas most likely to become contaminated. Six elementary classrooms were divided into control and intervention groups (cleaned daily with a quaternary ammonium wipe) and tested for heterotrophic bacteria. Three classrooms were also tested…

  4. Trace-level beryllium analysis in the laboratory and in the field: State of the art, challenges, and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BRISSON, MICHAEL

    2006-03-30

    Control of workplace exposure to beryllium is a growing issue in the United States and other nations. As the health risks associated with low-level exposure to beryllium are better understood, the need increases for improved analytical techniques both in the laboratory and in the field. These techniques also require a greater degree of standardization to permit reliable comparison of data obtained from different locations and at different times. Analysis of low-level beryllium samples, in the form of air filters or surface wipes, is frequently required for workplace monitoring or to provide data to support decision-making on implementation of exposure controls. In the United States and the United Kingdom, the current permissible exposure level is 2 {micro}g/m{sup 3} (air), and the United States Department of Energy has implemented an action level of 0.2 {micro}g/m{sup 3} (air) and 0.2 {micro}g/100 cm{sup 2} (surface). These low-level samples present a number of analytical challenges, including (1) a lack of suitable standard reference materials, (2) unknown robustness of sample preparation techniques, (3) interferences during analysis, (4) sensitivity (sufficiently low detection limits), (5) specificity (beryllium speciation), and (6) data comparability among laboratories. Additionally, there is a need for portable, real-time (or near real-time) equipment for beryllium air monitoring and surface wipe analysis that is both laboratory-validated and field-validated in a manner that would be accepted by national and/or international standards organizations. This paper provides a review of the current analytical requirements for trace-level beryllium analysis for worker protection, and also addresses issues that may change those requirements. The current analytical state of the art and relevant challenges facing the analytical community will be presented, followed by suggested criteria for real-time monitoring equipment. Recognizing and addressing these challenges will

  5. Laboratory laser reflectance measurement and applications to asteroid surface analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, A.; Daly, M. G.; Cloutis, E. A.; Tait, K. T.; Izawa, M. R. M.; Barnouin, O. S.; Hyde, B. C.; Nicklin, I.

    2014-07-01

    Introduction Laboratory reflectance measurement of asteroid analogs is an important tool for interpreting the reflectance of asteroids. One dominant factor affecting how measured reflectance changes as a function of phase angle (180° minus the scattering angle) is surface roughness [1], which is related to grain size. A major goal of this study is to be able to use the angular distributions (phase functions) of scattered light from various regions on an asteroid surface to determine the relative grain size between those regions. Grain size affects the spectral albedo and continuum slopes of surface materials, has implications in terms of understanding geologic processes on asteroids and is also valuable for the planning and operations of upcoming missions to asteroids, such as the New Frontiers OSIRIS-REx sample return mission to the asteroid (101955) Bennu [2]. Information on surface roughness is particularly powerful when combined with other datasets, such as thermal inertia maps (e.g., a smooth, low-backscatter surface of low thermal inertia likely contains fine grains). Approach To better constrain the composition and surface texture of Bennu, we are conducting experiments to investigate the laser return signature of terrestrial and meteorite analogs to Bennu. The objective is to understand the nature of laser returns given possible compositional, grain size and slope distributions on the surface of Bennu to allow surface characterization, particularly surface grain size, which would significantly aid efforts to identify suitable sites for sampling by the OSIRIS-REx mission. Setup A 1064-nm laser is used to determine the reflectance of Bennu analogs and their constituents (1064 nm is the wavelength of many laser altimeters including the one planned to fly on OSIRIS-REx). Samples of interest include serpentinites (greenalite, etc.), magnetite, and shungite. To perform the experiments, a goniometer has been built. This instrument allows reflectance measurements

  6. Numerical descriptors for the analysis of wear surfaces using laser scanning confocal microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anamalay, R.V. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Monash Univ., Clayton, VIC (Australia); Kirk, T.B. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Monash Univ., Clayton, VIC (Australia); Panzera, D. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Monash Univ., Clayton, VIC (Australia)

    1995-03-01

    Machinery wear is a major cost to industry and its minimisation would result in significant savings. In order to do this, it is important to understand the mechanisms of wear. Techniques have to be developed to enable the detailed measurement and analysis of wear surfaces. Conventional methods of surface measurement have involved profilometers. Profilometers, however, have severe limitations in terms of the surface features detectable and difficulties arise when 3D data sets of surfaces are required. Alternative methods that have been explored are stereo microscopy, reflected light interference microscopy (RLIM) and scanning electron microscopy. But these methods have proven to be severely limited either by the depth of field that can be obtained, difficulties associated with obtaining and interpreting images or the prohibitive costs involved. Laser scanning confocal microscopes (LSCM), however, have the capabilities to record surface features quickly and conveniently. LSCM techniques allow the determination and analysis of the true surface topography of a sample surface. LSCM has no depth of field limitations, is significantly cheaper than scanning electron microscopy, requires minimal sample preparation and provides images of sufficient quality for engineering purposes. Better measurement techniques facilitate the use of new surface parameters, in addition to the traditional parameters (all of which can be measured using LSCM techniques). In this paper, parameters developed for the measurement and analysis of surfaces using LSCM techniques are discussed. A comparison is made between surface analysis using LSCM techniques and conventional profilometer methods. (orig.)

  7. Hyperbolic Metamaterials and Coupled Surface Plasmon Polaritons: comparative analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Tengfei

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the optical properties of sub-wavelength layered metal/dielectric structures, also known as hyperbolic metamaterials (HMMs), using exact analytical Kronig Penney (KP) model. We show that hyperbolic isofrequency surfaces exist for all combinations of layer permittivities and thicknesses, and the largest Purcell enhancements (PE) of spontaneous radiation are achieved away from the nominally hyperbolic region. Detailed comparison of field distributions, dispersion curves, and Purcell factors (PF) between the HMMs and Surface Plasmon Polaritons (SPPs) guided modes in metal/dielectric waveguides demonstrates that HMMs are nothing but weakly coupled gap or slab SPPs modes. Broadband PE is not specific to the HMMs and can be easily attained in single thin metallic layers. Furthermore, large wavevectors and PE are always combined with high loss, short propagation distances and large impedances; hence PE in HMMs is essentially a direct coupling of the energy into the free electron motion in the metal, o...

  8. Automation of Morphometric Measurements for Planetary Surface Analysis and Cartography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokhanov, A. A.; Bystrov, A. Y.; Kreslavsky, M. A.; Matveev, E. V.; Karachevtseva, I. P.

    2016-06-01

    For automation of measurements of morphometric parameters of surface relief various tools were developed and integrated into GIS. We have created a tool, which calculates statistical characteristics of the surface: interquartile range of heights, and slopes, as well as second derivatives of height fields as measures of topographic roughness. Other tools were created for morphological studies of craters. One of them allows automatic placing of topographic profiles through the geometric center of a crater. Another tool was developed for calculation of small crater depths and shape estimation, using C++ programming language. Additionally, we have prepared tool for calculating volumes of relief features from DTM rasters. The created software modules and models will be available in a new developed web-GIS system, operating in distributed cloud environment.

  9. AUTOMATION OF MORPHOMETRIC MEASUREMENTS FOR PLANETARY SURFACE ANALYSIS AND CARTOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kokhanov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available For automation of measurements of morphometric parameters of surface relief various tools were developed and integrated into GIS. We have created a tool, which calculates statistical characteristics of the surface: interquartile range of heights, and slopes, as well as second derivatives of height fields as measures of topographic roughness. Other tools were created for morphological studies of craters. One of them allows automatic placing of topographic profiles through the geometric center of a crater. Another tool was developed for calculation of small crater depths and shape estimation, using C++ programming language. Additionally, we have prepared tool for calculating volumes of relief features from DTM rasters. The created software modules and models will be available in a new developed web-GIS system, operating in distributed cloud environment.

  10. Academic Achievement, Intelligence, and Creativity: A Regression Surface Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjoribanks, K

    1976-01-01

    Data collected on 400 12-year-old English school children were used to examine relations between measures of intelligence, creativity and academic achievement. Complex multiple regression models, which included terms to account for the possible interaction and curvilinear relations between intelligence, creativity and academic achievement were used to construct regression surfaces. The surfaces showed that the traditional threshold hypothesis, which suggests that beyond a certain level of intelligence academic achievement is related increasingly to creativity and ceases to be related strongly to intelligence, was not supported. For some areas of academic performance the results suggest an alternate proposition, that creativity ceases to be related to achievement after a threshold level of intelligence has been reached. It was also found that at high levels of verbal ability, non-verbal ability and creativity appeared to have differential relations with academic achievement.

  11. Optofluidic cellular immunofunctional analysis by localized surface plasmon resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurabayashi, Katsuo; Oh, Bo-Ram

    2014-08-01

    Cytokine secretion assays provide the means to quantify intercellular-signaling proteins secreted by blood immune cells. These assays allow researchers and clinicians to obtain valuable information on the immune status of the donor. Previous studies have demonstrated that localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) effects enable label-free, real-time biosensing on a nanostructured metallic surface with simple optics and sensing tunability. However, limited sensitivity coupled with a lack of sample handling capability makes it challenging to implement LSPR biosensing in cellular functional immunoanalysis based on cytokine secretion assay. This paper describes our recent progress towards full development of a label-free LSPR biosensing technique to detect cell-secreted tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α cytokines in clinical blood samples. We integrate LSPR bionanosensors in an optofluidic platform capable of handling target immune cells in a microfluidic chamber while readily permitting optical access for cytokine detection.

  12. Polarization of neutron star surface emission: a systematic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taverna, Roberto

    2016-07-01

    New-generation X-ray polarimeters currently under development promise to open a new window in the study of high-energy astrophysical sources. Among them, neutron stars (NSs) appear particularly suited for polarization measurements. Radiation from the (cooling) surface of an NS is expected to exhibit a large intrinsic polarization degree due to the star strong magnetic field (≈ 10 ^{12}-10 ^{15} G). We present an efficient method for computing the observed polarization fraction and polarization angle in the case of radiation coming from the entire surface of an NS, accounting for both vacuum polarization and geometrical effects due to the extended emitting region. Our approach is fairly general and is illustrated in the case of blackbody emission from an NS with either a dipolar or a (globally) twisted magnetic field.

  13. Chemical and topographical analysis of the surface of dental implants

    OpenAIRE

    Muñante Cárdenas, Jose Luis; Cirujano-Dentista. Máster en Cirugía y Traumatología Buco-maxilofacial. Doctorando en Cirugía. Universidad Estatal de Campinas-UNICAMP, Sao Paulo, Brasil.; Landers, Richard; Profesor Asociado. Instituto de Física Gleb Wataghin, Departamento de Física Aplicada-Universidad Estatal de Campinas-UNICAMP. Sao Paulo, Brasil.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the chemical composition and surface topography of commercially pure titanium implants, obtained from three trademarks frequently used in dentistry. There were nine titanium implants of the following systems: As Technology, Neodent and Sistema Nacional de Implantes. These materials were divided into three groups, with three implants in each group. Photoelectron Spectroscopy Excited by X-ray (XPS) was used to determine the chemical composition, while to cha...

  14. Accidental surface contamination - The effect on trace element analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franklyn, C.B. E-mail: franklyn@aec.co.za; Ueckermann, H.; Merkle, R.K.W

    2001-07-01

    We discuss the accidental contamination of samples during a micro-PIXE study of Rh, Pd and Pt partition coefficients in the Fe-S and Ni-S systems. Trace amounts of Ni and Cu, mounted separately in epoxy as markers, were found to be present in various phases in the sections, sometimes selectively in specific mineral phases. This contamination is believed to result from polishing during preparation. Further surface contamination from conductive Ag paste was also observed.

  15. Fuzzy surfaces in GIS and geographical analysis theory, analytical methods, algorithms and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lodwick, Weldon

    2007-01-01

    Surfaces are a central to geographical analysis. Their generation and manipulation are a key component of geographical information systems (GISs). However, geographical surface data is often not precise. When surfaces are used to model geographical entities, the data inherently contains uncertainty in terms of both position and attribute. Fuzzy Surface in GIS and Geographical Analysis sets out a process to identify the uncertainty in geographic entities. It describes how to successfully obtain, model, analyze, and display data, as well as interpret results within the context of GIS. Focusing on uncertainty that arises from transitional boundaries, the book limits its study to three types of uncertainties: intervals, fuzzy sets, and possibility distributions. The book explains that uncertainty in geographical data typically stems from these three and it is only natural to incorporate them into the analysis and display of surface data. The book defines the mathematics associated with each method for analysis,...

  16. Surface morphologic and structural analysis of IR irradiated silver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latif, Anwar, E-mail: anwarlatif@uet.edu.p [Department of Physics, University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore 54890 (Pakistan); Khaleeq-ur-Rahman, M.; Rafique, M.S.; Bhatti, K.A. [Department of Physics, University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore 54890 (Pakistan)

    2011-04-15

    The microstructural morphological changes in laser irradiated targets are investigated. Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm, {approx}12 ns nominal, 1.1 MW) is used to irradiate 4 N pure (99.99%) fine polished and annealed silver samples in ambient air and under vacuum {approx}10{sup -6} Torr. The laser spot size and power density at tight focus are 12 {mu}m and 3x10{sup 11} W/cm{sup 2}, respectively. SEM micrographs and X-ray diffractograms of the exposed and unexposed targets reveal the surface texture and structural changes, respectively. Amongst the ablation mechanisms involved, exfoliation and hydrodynamic sputtering are found to be dominant. Surface modifications appear in the form of craters and ripples formation. Heat is conducted non-uniformly through narrow channels at the surface. Thermal stresses induced by the laser do not disturb inter planar distance of the target. On the other hand irradiation causes significant variations in grain size and diffracted X-rays intensities.

  17. Analysis of water microdroplet condensation on silicon surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Takuya; Fujimoto, Kenya; Yoshimoto, Yuta; Mogi, Katsuo; Kinefuchi, Ikuya; Sugii, Yasuhiko; Takagi, Shu; Univ. of Tokyo Team; Tokyo Inst. of Tech. Team

    2016-11-01

    We observed the condensation process of water microdroplets on flat silicon (100) surfaces by means of the sequential visualization of the droplets using an environmental scanning electron microscope. As previously reported for nanostructured surfaces, the condensation process of water microdroplets on the flat silicon surfaces also exhibits two modes: the constant base (CB) area mode and the constant contact angle (CCA) mode. In the CB mode, the contact angle increases with time while the base diameter is constant. Subsequently, in the CCA mode, the base diameter increases with time while the contact angle remains constant. The dropwise condensation model regulated by subcooling temperature does not reproduce the experimental results. Because the subcooling temperature is not constant in the case of a slow condensation rate, this model is not applicable to the condensation of the long time scale ( several tens of minutes). The contact angle of water microdroplets ( several μm) tended to be smaller than the macro contact angle. Two hypotheses are proposed as the cause of small contact angles: electrowetting and the coalescence of sub- μm water droplets.

  18. Surface analysis of Li-ion battery model anodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seemayer, Andreas; Bach, Philipp; Renner, Frank Uwe [Max Planck Institut fuer Eisenforschung GmbH, Max-Planck-Str. 1, 40237 Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Lithium ion batteries are the most promising power source for future electromobility applications. Research on the battery systems aims to achieve higher rate capability, cycle life, or better safety. To achieve necessary further improvements a better understanding of the basic processes is needed. Following a surface science approach we focus on the investigation of simple model systems (like single crystals or thin film electrodes) of relevant anode materials. We report investigations of the electrochemical insertion of lithium in Au, Ag, Al, Mg and Si model surfaces, i.e. alloying and dealloying of lithium alloys. As electrolyte we use the ionic liquid 1-Butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesolfonyl)imide (PYR14TFSI) with 0.3M LiTFSI. The electrochemical characterisation is performed by cyclic voltammetry (CV). The surface and film characterisation regarding its geometrical structure is investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The chemical composition is characterised ex-situ by photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS).

  19. Quantitative Analysis and Efficient Surface Modification of Silica Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hak-Sung Jung

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aminofunctional trialkoxysilanes such as aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS and (3-trimethoxysilylpropyldiethylenetriamine (DETAS were employed as a surface modification molecule for generating monolayer modification on the surface of silica (SiO2 nanoparticles. We were able to quantitatively analyze the number of amine functional groups on the modified SiO2 nanoparticles by acid-base back titration method and determine the effective number of amine functional groups for the successive chemical reaction by absorption measurements after treating with fluorescent rhodamine B isothiocyanate (RITC molecules. The numbers of amine sites measured by back titration were 2.7 and 7.7 ea/nm2 for SiO2-APTMS and SiO2-DETAS, respectively, while the numbers of effective amine sites measured by absorption calibration were about one fifth of the total amine sites, namely, 0.44 and 1.3 ea/nm2 for SiO2-APTMS(RITC and SiO2-DETAS(RITC, respectively. Furthermore, it was confirmed that the reactivity of amino groups on the surface-modified silica nanoparticles could be maintained in ethanol for more than 1.5 months without showing any significant differences in the reactivity.

  20. Elastic buckling analysis of corroded stiffened plates with irregular surfaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ahmad Rahbar-Ranji

    2015-02-01

    Numerical simulation is used to study the influence of corrosion damage in stiffened plates focusing on elastic buckling strength. Three-dimensional specta are used to simulate geometries of corroded surfaces and finite element method is employed for computing Euler stress of stiffened plates. The influence of corrosion patterns, amount of corrosion loss and roughness of surface are investigated. Ratio of Euler stress of corroded stiffened plate over Euler stress of un-corroded stiffened plate is used to characterize the effects of corrosion on reduction of buckling strength. Results show that reduction of buckling strength is very sensitive to the amount of corrosion loss and roughness of surface, but less sensitive to the location of corroded region. The potential for decrease in buckling strength as a consequence of corrosion is found to depend on the dominant buckling mode. Residual buckling strength is reduced by as much as 12% for the interaction of plate-web-torsional buckling mode, and by 2% for column buckling.

  1. Fractal analysis of AFM images of the surface of Bowman's membrane of the human cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ţălu, Ştefan; Stach, Sebastian; Sueiras, Vivian; Ziebarth, Noël Marysa

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study is to further investigate the ultrastructural details of the surface of Bowman's membrane of the human cornea, using atomic force microscopy (AFM) images. One representative image acquired of Bowman's membrane of a human cornea was investigated. The three-dimensional (3-D) surface of the sample was imaged using AFM in contact mode, while the sample was completely submerged in optisol solution. Height and deflection images were acquired at multiple scan lengths using the MFP-3D AFM system software (Asylum Research, Santa Barbara, CA), based in IGOR Pro (WaveMetrics, Lake Oswego, OR). A novel approach, based on computational algorithms for fractal analysis of surfaces applied for AFM data, was utilized to analyze the surface structure. The surfaces revealed a fractal structure at the nanometer scale. The fractal dimension, D, provided quantitative values that characterize the scale properties of surface geometry. Detailed characterization of the surface topography was obtained using statistical parameters, in accordance with ISO 25178-2: 2012. Results obtained by fractal analysis confirm the relationship between the value of the fractal dimension and the statistical surface roughness parameters. The surface structure of Bowman's membrane of the human cornea is complex. The analyzed AFM images confirm a fractal nature of the surface, which is not taken into account by classical surface statistical parameters. Surface fractal dimension could be useful in ophthalmology to quantify corneal architectural changes associated with different disease states to further our understanding of disease evolution.

  2. Surface analysis of anodized aluminum clamps from NASA-LDEF satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammer, H. L.; Wightman, J. P.; Young, Philip R.

    1992-01-01

    Surface analysis results of selected anodized aluminum clamps containing black (Z306) and white (A276) paints which received nearly six years of Low Earth Orbit (LEO) exposure on the Long Duration Exposure Facility are reported. Surface analytical techniques, including x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive analysis by x-ray (SEM/EDAX), showed significant differences in the surface composition of these materials depending upon the position on the LDEF. Differences in the surface composition are attributed to varying amounts of atomic oxygen and vacuum ultraviolet radiation (VUV). Silicon containing compounds were the primary contaminant detected on the materials.

  3. NOAA/NESDIS Satellite Derived Surface Oil Analysis Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NESDIS Experimental Marine Pollution Surveillance Report (EMPSR) and the Daily Composite product are new products of the NOAA Satellite Analysis Branch and...

  4. Modeling and analysis for surface roughness and material removal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    a GFRP machined composite is hard to control due to varying mechanical properties .... Taguchi design of experiment is a powerful analysis tool for modeling and ...... So, both single and multi-objective optimization genetic algorithms can be ...

  5. Evaluation of surface analysis methods for characterization of trace metal surface contaminants found in silicon IC manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diebold, A.C.; Maillot, P.; Gordon, M.; Baylis, J.; Chacon, J.; Witowski, R. (SEMATECH, Austin, TX (United States)); Arlinghaus, H. (Atom Sciences, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)); Knapp, J.A.; Doyle, B.L. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

    1991-01-01

    A major topic at recent silicon-based integrated circuit (IC) manufacturing symposia is the pursuit of decreased contamination levels. The aim is to remove contamination from both processes and materials. In conjunction with this effort, characterization methods are being pushed to lower and lower detection limits. In this paper, we evaluate surface analysis methods used to determine the concentration of inorganic contamination on unpatterned Si wafers. We compare sampling depths, detection limits, and applicability of each method for use in support of Si IC manufacturing. This comparison is further limited to Fe and Cu which are transition metal contaminants associated with manufacturing yield loss. The surface analysis methods included in this evaluation are: Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TXRF or TRXRF); Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS); two post-ionization'' methods Surface Analysis by Laser Ionization (SALI) and Sputter Initiated Resonant Ionization Spectroscopy (SIRIS); Heavy Ion Backscattering Spectroscopy (HIBS); and Vapor Phase Phase Decomposition (VPD) based methods Atomic Absorption (VPD-AA) along with VPD-TXRF. Sets of 6 in. Si wafers with concentration levels between 10{sup 9} atoms/cm{sup 2} and 10{sup 12} atoms/cm{sup 2} Fe and Cu were characterized by TXRF, SIMS, SIRIS, and HIBS. This data allows estimation of detection limits (DLs) and relative method accuracy. In Section 1 we describe each surface analysis method and the circumstance under which it would be used to support Si IC manufacturing. The equipment used for this comparison and the 150 mm Si wafer set are described in Section 2. Results from each method are contrasted in Section 3. Finally, a conclusion is presented in Section 4.

  6. Analysis of surface integrity of grinded gears using Barkhausen noise analysis and x-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vrkoslavová, Lucie; Louda, Petr [Institute for Nanomaterials, Advanced Technologies and Innovation, Technical University of Liberec (Czech Republic); Malec, Jiři [Department of Analytic Services, PCS s.r.o. (Czech Republic)

    2014-02-18

    The contribution is focused to present results of study grinded gears made of 18CrNiMo7-6 steel used in the wind power plant for support (service) purposes. These gears were case-hardened due to standard hard case and soft core formation. This heat treatment increases wear resistance and fatigue strength of machine parts. During serial production some troubles with surface integrity have occurred. When solving complex problems lots of samples were prepared. For grinding of gears were used different parameters of cutting speed, number of material removal and lots from different subsuppliers. Material characterization was carried out using Barkhausen noise analysis (BNA) device; X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement of surface residual stresses was done as well. Depth profile of measured characteristics, e.g. magnetoelastic parameter and residual stress was obtained by step by step layers' removing using electrolytic etching. BNA software Viewscan was used to measure magnetizing frequency sweep (MFS) and magnetizing voltage sweep (MVS). Scanning of Magnetoelastic parameter (MP) endwise individual teeth were also carried out with Viewscan. These measurements were done to find problematic surface areas after grinding such as thermal damaged locations. Plots of the hardness and thickness of case-hardened layer on cross sections were measurered as well. Evaluation of structure of subsurface case-hardened layer and core was made on etched metallographic patterns. The aim of performed measurements was to find correlation between conditions of grinding, residual stresses and structural and magnetoelastic parameters. Based on correlation of measured values and technological parameters optimizing the production of gears will be done.

  7. Analysis of surface integrity of grinded gears using Barkhausen noise analysis and x-ray diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrkoslavová, Lucie; Louda, Petr; Malec, Jiři

    2014-02-01

    The contribution is focused to present results of study grinded gears made of 18CrNiMo7-6 steel used in the wind power plant for support (service) purposes. These gears were case-hardened due to standard hard case and soft core formation. This heat treatment increases wear resistance and fatigue strength of machine parts. During serial production some troubles with surface integrity have occurred. When solving complex problems lots of samples were prepared. For grinding of gears were used different parameters of cutting speed, number of material removal and lots from different subsuppliers. Material characterization was carried out using Barkhausen noise analysis (BNA) device; X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement of surface residual stresses was done as well. Depth profile of measured characteristics, e.g. magnetoelastic parameter and residual stress was obtained by step by step layers' removing using electrolytic etching. BNA software Viewscan was used to measure magnetizing frequency sweep (MFS) and magnetizing voltage sweep (MVS). Scanning of Magnetoelastic parameter (MP) endwise individual teeth were also carried out with Viewscan. These measurements were done to find problematic surface areas after grinding such as thermal damaged locations. Plots of the hardness and thickness of case-hardened layer on cross sections were measurered as well. Evaluation of structure of subsurface case-hardened layer and core was made on etched metallographic patterns. The aim of performed measurements was to find correlation between conditions of grinding, residual stresses and structural and magnetoelastic parameters. Based on correlation of measured values and technological parameters optimizing the production of gears will be done.

  8. Thermodynamic analysis of shark skin texture surfaces for microchannel flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hai-Yan; Zhang, Hao-Chun; Guo, Yang-Yu; Tan, He-Ping; Li, Yao; Xie, Gong-Nan

    2016-09-01

    The studies of shark skin textured surfaces in flow drag reduction provide inspiration to researchers overcoming technical challenges from actual production application. In this paper, three kinds of infinite parallel plate flow models with microstructure inspired by shark skin were established, namely blade model, wedge model and the smooth model, according to cross-sectional shape of microstructure. Simulation was carried out by using FLUENT, which simplified the computation process associated with direct numeric simulations. To get the best performance from simulation results, shear-stress transport k-omega turbulence model was chosen during the simulation. Since drag reduction mechanism is generally discussed from kinetics point of view, which cannot interpret the cause of these losses directly, a drag reduction rate was established based on the second law of thermodynamics. Considering abrasion and fabrication precision in practical applications, three kinds of abraded geometry models were constructed and tested, and the ideal microstructure was found to achieve best performance suited to manufacturing production on the basis of drag reduction rate. It was also believed that bionic shark skin surfaces with mechanical abrasion may draw more attention from industrial designers and gain wide applications with drag-reducing characteristics.

  9. Analysis of surface stains on modern gold coins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corregidor, V.; Alves, L. C.; Cruz, J.

    2013-07-01

    It is a mandatory practice in the European Mint Houses to provide a certificate of guarantee of their products specially when issuing commemorative gold or silver coins. This practise should assure satisfaction and trust both for the mint house and for the demanding numismatic collector. For these reasons the Mint Houses follow a strict quality control in all the production steps in order to ensure a no-defect, fully supervised output. In spite of all the undertaken precautions, different surface stains with diverse origin on gold coins recently minted in Europe were observed. Those were compositionally studied by means of IBA techniques at the end-stage nuclear microprobe installed at IST/ITN. From this study it was possible to identify several possible sources for these stains. The presence of defects at the surface of these commemorative coins address the need of improving the quality control system and the results here presented point out where these improvements should occur, in order to reduce/eliminate them and give the customer a product that with time probably will be revalued.

  10. Analysis of the surface effects on adhesion in MEMS structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, F.; Pustan, M.; Bîrleanu, C.; Müller, R.; Voicu, R.; Baracu, A.

    2015-12-01

    One of the main failure causes in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) is stiction. Stiction is the adhesion of contacting surfaces due to surface forces. Adhesion force depends on the operating conditions and is influenced by the contact area. In this study, the adhesion force between MEMS materials and the AFM tips is analyzed using the spectroscopy in point mode of the AFM. The aim is to predict the stiction failure mode in MEMS. The investigated MEMS materials are silicon, polysilicon, platinum, aluminum, and gold. Three types of investigations were conducted. The first one aimed to determine the variation of the adhesion force with respect to the variation of the roughness. The roughness has a strong influence on the adhesion because the contact area between components increases if the roughness decreases. The second type of investigation aimed to determine the adhesion force in multiple points of each considered sample. The values obtained experimentally for the adhesion force were also validated using the JKR and DMT models. The third type of investigation was conducted with the purpose of determining the influence of the temperature on the adhesion force.

  11. Fracture surface analysis of clinically failed fixed partial dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taskonak, B; Mecholsky, J J; Anusavice, K J

    2006-03-01

    Ceramic systems have limited long-term fracture resistance, especially when they are used in posterior areas or for fixed partial dentures. The objective of this study was to determine the site of crack initiation and the causes of fracture of clinically failed ceramic fixed partial dentures. Six Empress 2 lithia-disilicate (Li(2)O x 2SiO(2))-based veneered bridges and 7 experimental lithia-disilicate-based non-veneered ceramic bridges were retrieved and analyzed. Fractography and fracture mechanics methods were used to estimate the stresses at failure in 6 bridges (50%) whose fracture initiated from the occlusal surface of the connectors. Fracture of 1 non-veneered bridge (8%) initiated within the gingival surface of the connector. Three veneered bridges fractured within the veneer layers. Failure stresses of the all-core fixed partial dentures ranged from 107 to 161 MPa. Failure stresses of the veneered fixed partial dentures ranged from 19 to 68 MPa. We conclude that fracture initiation sites are controlled primarily by contact damage.

  12. Grinding analysis of Indian coal using response surface methodology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Twinkle Singh; Aishwarya Awasthi; Pranjal Tripathi; Shina Gautam; Alok Gautam

    2016-01-01

    The present work discusses a systematic approach to model grinding parameters of coal in a ball mill.A three level Box-Behnken design combined with response surface methodology using second order model was applied to the experiments done according to the model requirement.Three parameters ball charge (numbers 10-20),coal content (100-200 g) and the grinding time (4-8 min) were chosen for the experiments as well as for the modeling work.Coal fineness is defined as the d80 (80 % passing size).A quadratic model was developed to show the effect of parameters and their interaction with fineness of the product.Three different sizes (4,1 and 0.65 mm) of Indian coal were used.The model equations for each fraction were developed and different sets of experiments were performed.The predicted values of the fineness of coal were in good agreement with the experimental results (R2 values of d80 varies between 0.97 and 0.99).Fine size of three different coal sizes were obtained with larger ball charge with less grinding time and less solid content.This work represents the efficient use of response surface methodology and the Box-Behnken design use for grinding of Indian coal.

  13. Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) fabrics for trace analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jun [National Engineering Laboratory for Advanced Yarn and Fabric Formation and Clean Production, Wuhan Textile University, Wuhan 430073 (China); Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials & Key Laboratory for the Synthesis and Application of Organic Functional Molecules, Ministry of Education & College of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China); Zhou, Ji [Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials & Key Laboratory for the Synthesis and Application of Organic Functional Molecules, Ministry of Education & College of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China); Tang, Bin, E-mail: bin.tang@deakin.edu.au [National Engineering Laboratory for Advanced Yarn and Fabric Formation and Clean Production, Wuhan Textile University, Wuhan 430073 (China); Institute for Frontier Materials, Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria 3216 (Australia); Zeng, Tian; Li, Yaling [Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials & Key Laboratory for the Synthesis and Application of Organic Functional Molecules, Ministry of Education & College of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China); Li, Jingliang [Institute for Frontier Materials, Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria 3216 (Australia); Ye, Yong, E-mail: yeyong@hubu.edu.cn [Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials & Key Laboratory for the Synthesis and Application of Organic Functional Molecules, Ministry of Education & College of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China); Wang, Xungai [National Engineering Laboratory for Advanced Yarn and Fabric Formation and Clean Production, Wuhan Textile University, Wuhan 430073 (China); Institute for Frontier Materials, Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria 3216 (Australia)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Gold nanoparticles are in-situ synthesized on silk fabrics by heating. • Flexible silk fabrics with gold nanoparticles are used for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). • SERS activities of silk fabrics with different gold contents are investigated. - Abstract: Flexible SERS active substrates were prepared by modification of silk fabrics with gold nanoparticles. Gold nanoparticles were in-situ synthesized after heating the silk fabrics immersed in gold ion solution. Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) properties of the treated silk fabrics varied as the concentration of gold ions changed, in relation to the morphologies of gold nanoparticles on silk. In addition, X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to observe the structure of the gold nanoparticle treated silk fabrics. The SERS enhancement effect of the silk fabrics treated with gold nanoparticles was evaluated by collecting Raman signals of different concentrations of p-aminothiophenol (PATP), 4-mercaptopyridine (4-MPy) and crystal violet (CV) solutions. The results demonstrate that the silk fabrics corresponding to 0.3 and 0.4 mM of gold ions possess high SERS activity compared to the other treated fabrics. It is suggested that both the gold content and morphologies of gold nanoparticles dominate the SERS effect of the treated silk fabrics.

  14. Individual IOL Surface Topography Analysis by the WaveMaster Reflex UV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Kannengießer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In order to establish inspection routines for individual intraocular lenses (IOLs, their surfaces have to be measured separately. Currently available measurement devices lack this functionality. The purpose of this study is to evaluate a new topography measurement device based on wavefront analysis for measuring individual regular and freeform IOL surfaces, the “WaveMaster Reflex UV” (Trioptics, Wedel, Germany. Methods. Measurements were performed on IOLs with increasingly complex surface geometries: spherical surfaces, surfaces modelled by higher-order Zernike terms, and freeform surfaces from biometrical patient data. Two independent parameters were measured: the sample’s radius of curvature (ROC and its residual (difference of sample topography and its best-fit sphere. We used a quantitative analysis method by calculating the residuals’ root-mean-square (RMS and peak-to-Valley (P2V values. Results. The sample’s best-fit ROC differences increased with the sample’s complexity. The sample’s differences of RMS values were 80 nm for spherical surfaces, 97 nm for higher-order samples, and 21 nm for freeform surfaces. Graphical representations of both measurement and design topographies were recorded and compared. Conclusion. The measurements of spherical surfaces expectedly resulted in better values than those of freeform surfaces. Overall, the wavefront analysing method proves to be an effective method for evaluating individual IOL surfaces.

  15. Global transcriptomic analysis of model human cell lines exposed to surface-modified gold nanoparticles: the effect of surface chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzincic, E. M.; Yang, J. A.; Drnevich, J.; Falagan-Lotsch, P.; Murphy, C. J.

    2015-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) are attractive for biomedical applications not only for their remarkable physical properties, but also for the ease of which their surface chemistry can be manipulated. Many applications involve functionalization of the Au NP surface in order to improve biocompatibility, attach targeting ligands or carry drugs. However, changes in cells exposed to Au NPs of different surface chemistries have been observed, and little is known about how Au NPs and their surface coatings may impact cellular gene expression. The gene expression of two model human cell lines, human dermal fibroblasts (HDF) and prostate cancer cells (PC3) was interrogated by microarray analysis of over 14 000 human genes. The cell lines were exposed to four differently functionalized Au NPs: citrate, poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH), and lipid coatings combined with alkanethiols or PAH. Gene functional annotation categories and weighted gene correlation network analysis were used in order to connect gene expression changes to common cellular functions and to elucidate expression patterns between Au NP samples. Coated Au NPs affect genes implicated in proliferation, angiogenesis, and metabolism in HDF cells, and inflammation, angiogenesis, proliferation apoptosis regulation, survival and invasion in PC3 cells. Subtle changes in surface chemistry, such as the initial net charge, lability of the ligand, and underlying layers greatly influence the degree of expression change and the type of cellular pathway affected.Gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) are attractive for biomedical applications not only for their remarkable physical properties, but also for the ease of which their surface chemistry can be manipulated. Many applications involve functionalization of the Au NP surface in order to improve biocompatibility, attach targeting ligands or carry drugs. However, changes in cells exposed to Au NPs of different surface chemistries have been observed, and little is known about how

  16. Quantitative analysis of surface characteristics and morphology in Death Valley, California using AIRSAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierein-Young, K. S.; Kruse, F. A.; Lefkoff, A. B.

    1992-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (JPL-AIRSAR) is used to collect full polarimetric measurements at P-, L-, and C-bands. These data are analyzed using the radar analysis and visualization environment (RAVEN). The AIRSAR data are calibrated using in-scene corner reflectors to allow for quantitative analysis of the radar backscatter. RAVEN is used to extract surface characteristics. Inversion models are used to calculate quantitative surface roughness values and fractal dimensions. These values are used to generate synthetic surface plots that represent the small-scale surface structure of areas in Death Valley. These procedures are applied to a playa, smooth salt-pan, and alluvial fan surfaces in Death Valley. Field measurements of surface roughness are used to verify the accuracy.

  17. Surface characterization and chemical analysis of bamboo substrates pretreated by alkali hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xueping; Jiang, Yan; Rong, Xianjian; Wei, Wei; Wang, Shuangfei; Nie, Shuangxi

    2016-09-01

    The surface characterization and chemical analysis of bamboo substrates by alkali hydrogen peroxide pretreatment (AHPP) were investigated in this study. The results tended to manifest that AHPP prior to enzymatic and chemical treatment was potential for improving accessibility and reactivity of bamboo substrates. The inorganic components, organic solvent extractives and acid-soluble lignin were effectively removed by AHPP. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis indicated that the surface of bamboo chips had less lignin but more carbohydrate after pre-treatment. Fiber surfaces became etched and collapsed, and more pores and debris on the substrate surface were observed with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Brenauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) results showed that both of pore volume and surface area were increased after AHPP. Although XRD analysis showed that AHPP led to relatively higher crystallinity, pre-extraction could overall enhance the accessibility of enzymes and chemicals into the bamboo structure.

  18. Analysis of EEG features of neuronal surface antibody associated encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu-hua WEI

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective To summarize the clinical manifestations, EEG and head MRI features of neuronal surface antibody associated encephalitis, and to investigate the role of EEG in determining the relapse or fluctuation of this disease, characteristics of EEG corresponding to head MRI, and EEG features in different clinical stages. Methods A total of 23 patients with neuronal surface antibody associated encephalitis were divided into ascent, climax, descent and recovery stage according to their clinical course. The relation between EEG background activity, distribution of slow wave, epileptiform discharge, extreme delta brush (EDB and relapse or fluctuation of the disease was analyzed. The relation between EEG features and head MRI abnormalities, and also EEG features in different stages were analyzed. Results There were 19 anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor encephalitis patients, 3 anti-leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1 antibody associated encephalitis and one anti-γ-aminobutyric acid B receptor (GABABR antibody associated encephalitis. The frequencies of clinical presentations were psychological or cognitive dysfunction, epileptic seizure, conscious disturbance, speech dysfunction and movement disorder in descending order. Within 30.50 d from onset, 6 patients demonstrated slow wave background, of whom 2 relapsed or fluctuated; 5 patients had α rhythm background and none of them relapsed or fluctuated. In patients with anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis, the difference in first hospital stay (Z = -0.785, P = 0.433 and relapse or fluctuation (Fisher's exact probability: P = 0.155 between EDB group and non-EDB group was not significant. There was no apparent correlation between EEG background activities and head MRI abnormalities in different stages. In ascent and climax stage, EEG background activities were predominantly slow wave, and the distribution of slow wave was relatively broader. EEG background changed to α rhythm from descent stage

  19. Surface topography analysis for dimensional quality control of replication at the micrometre scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balcon, M.; Marinello, F.; Tosello, Guido;

    2011-01-01

    Replication of geometrical features and surfaces are present at different production levels, from realization of moulds to final product. Geometrical features must be reproduced within specification limits, to ensure product functionality . In order to control the replication quality, mould...... and replica surfaces must be quantitatively analysed and compared. In the present work, reference simulated surfaces were considered and studied in order to evaluate the effectiveness and traceability of different analysis tools for replication quality control. Topographies were analysed simulating different...

  20. High-resolution proton energy-loss spectrometer for surface analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, Noriaki; Kanasaki, Junichi; Matsunami, Noriaki; Matsuda, Kouji; Aoki, Masahiko.

    1988-11-01

    We describe a new ion-beam surface analyzer, proton energy loss spectrometer. It analyzes ions incident at 100 keV and scattered by 180degC at solid surfaces with a resolution of 5eV. The results of computer simulation of the energy spectra of scattered ions and the informations on surface electronic and atomic structures possibly derived by the analysis are described. Application of the spectrometer in several areas of science and technology is briefly discussed.

  1. Reliablity analysis of gravity dams by response surface method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humar, Nina; Kryžanowski, Andrej; Brilly, Mitja; Schnabl, Simon

    2013-04-01

    A dam failure is one of the most important problems in dam industry. Since the mechanical behavior of dams is usually a complex phenomenon existing classical mathematical models are generally insufficient to adequately predict the dam failure and thus the safety of dams. Therefore, numerical reliability methods are often used to model such a complex mechanical phenomena. Thus, the main purpose of the present paper is to present the response surface method as a powerful mathematical tool used to study and foresee the dam safety considering a set of collected monitoring data. The derived mathematical model is applied to a case study, the Moste dam, which is the highest concrete gravity dam in Slovenia. Based on the derived model, the ambient/state variables are correlated with the dam deformation in order to gain a forecasting tool able to define the critical thresholds for dam management.

  2. Analysis III analytic and differential functions, manifolds and Riemann surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Godement, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Volume III sets out classical Cauchy theory. It is much more geared towards its innumerable applications than towards a more or less complete theory of analytic functions. Cauchy-type curvilinear integrals are then shown to generalize to any number of real variables (differential forms, Stokes-type formulas). The fundamentals of the theory of manifolds are then presented, mainly to provide the reader with a "canonical'' language and with some important theorems (change of variables in integration, differential equations). A final chapter shows how these theorems can be used to construct the compact Riemann surface of an algebraic function, a subject that is rarely addressed in the general literature though it only requires elementary techniques. Besides the Lebesgue integral, Volume IV will set out a piece of specialized mathematics towards which the entire content of the previous volumes will converge: Jacobi, Riemann, Dedekind series and infinite products, elliptic functions, classical theory of modular fun...

  3. Surface EMG based muscle activity analysis for aerobic cyclist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Venkatesh; Jayaraman, Srinivasan

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we determined the muscle activity of aerobic cyclist on biceps brachii medial, trapezius medial, latissimus dorsi medial, and erector spinae muscles bilaterally during 30 min of cycling. Thirteen male volunteers were chosen and placed in two groups (with and without low back pain (LBP)). Surface electromyography (sEMG) was recorded bilaterally from selected muscle groups for 30 min of cycling for each subject. Statistical tests were performed to determine the difference in fatigue, using mean power frequency difference. LBP group showed a significantly higher fatigue (p<0.05) in left biceps brachii medial when compared to the control group. High fatigue in the back muscles in the LBP group was not found; however, when linear regression was performed for these individuals, the data showed a possibility of worsening in their condition due to 30 min of cycling.

  4. Surface analysis of new chlorpromazinium plastic membrane electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shatti, L A; Marafie, H M; Shoukry, A F

    2008-01-22

    New chlorpromazinium (Cp) plastic membrane electrodes of the conventional type were constructed and characterized. They are based on incorporation of Cp-reineckate (CpRn) ion pair, Cp-phosphotungstate (Cp3PT), or Cp-phosphomolybdate (Cp3PM) ion associate into poly(vinyl chloride) membrane. The electrodes exhibited calibration graph slopes of 49.83, 52.87, and 61.30 mV/Cp concentration decade over life spans of 1, 5, and 3 days, respectively. All electrodes proved to be selective for Cp and have been applied to the assay of a pharmaceutical preparation. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), as well as scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the limitation of the lifetime of the electrodes is attributed to leaching of the ion exchanger from the membrane into the test solution in addition to deformation of the surface.

  5. Analysis of reaction rates of single molecules on metal surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueba, H.

    2017-10-01

    The experimental results of the action spectra i.e., reaction rate R(V) as a function of a bias voltage V are analyzed for rotation of a single CCH (D) molecule on a Cu (100) surface [5] and hopping of a single H(D)2O molecule on Pd(111) surface [6]. In the former system it is identified that rotation occurs if enough energy stored in the C-H (D) in-plane bending (IPB) mode excited by tunneling electron is transferred to the C-H (D) out of plane bending (OPB) mode (reaction coordinate mode) via the anharmonic mode coupling in a single electron process. The calculated R(V) shows an excellent agreement with the experimental results except at the low bias voltages below V ≃ 60 mV where no experimental data is available for the nonlinear current I dependence of R(I). A reproduction of the experimental R(V) at the higher voltage region allows us to determine the vibrational density of states of the C-H IPB mode and its coupling rate to the C-H (D) OPB mode as well as the inelastic tunneling current to excite IPB mode. A change of a conductance upon excitation of the C-H IPB mode enables us to evaluate the electron-vibration coupling strength inducing the rotation motion of CCH molecule. In the latter system investigated at a high temperature of about 40 K, the constant R(V) due to thermal hopping followed by the rapid increase is satisfactory explained by anharmonic inter-mode coupling between the scissor mode excited by tunneling electrons and the frustrated translation mode for H(D)2O molecule on Pd(111).

  6. Analysis of bacterial detachment from substratum surfaces by the passage of air-liquid interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomez-Suarez, C; Busscher, HJ; van der Mei, HC

    A theoretical analysis of the detachment of bacteria adhering to substratum surfaces upon the passage of an air-liquid interface is given, together with experimental results for bacterial detachment in the absence and presence of a conditioning film on different substratum surfaces. Bacteria

  7. Dispersion analysis of passive surface-wave noise generated during hydraulic-fracturing operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forghani-Arani, Farnoush; Willis, Mark; Snieder, Roel; Haines, Seth S.; Behura, Jyoti; Batzle, Mike; Davidson, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Surface-wave dispersion analysis is useful for estimating near-surface shear-wave velocity models, designing receiver arrays, and suppressing surface waves. Here, we analyze whether passive seismic noise generated during hydraulic-fracturing operations can be used to extract surface-wave dispersion characteristics. Applying seismic interferometry to noise measurements, we extract surface waves by cross-correlating several minutes of passive records; this approach is distinct from previous studies that used hours or days of passive records for cross-correlation. For comparison, we also perform dispersion analysis for an active-source array that has some receivers in common with the passive array. The active and passive data show good agreement in the dispersive character of the fundamental-mode surface-waves. For the higher mode surface waves, however, active and passive data resolve the dispersive properties at different frequency ranges. To demonstrate an application of dispersion analysis, we invert the observed surface-wave dispersion characteristics to determine the near-surface, one-dimensional shear-wave velocity.

  8. Analysis of the surface energy of pharmaceutical powders by inverse gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimsey, Ian M; Feeley, Jane C; York, Peter

    2002-02-01

    The behavior of pharmaceutical solids, during either processing or use, can be noticeably affected by the surface energetics of the constituent particles. Several techniques exist to measure the surface energy, for example, sessile drop, and dynamic contact angle measurements. Inverse gas chromatography (IGC) is an alternative technique where the powder surface is characterized by the retention behavior of minute quantities of well-characterized vapors that are injected into a column containing the material of interest. Recently published articles using IGC on pharmaceutical powders have ranged from linking surface energetic data with triboelectric charging to studying the effect of surface moisture on surface energetics. Molecular modelling has also recently been used to explore the links between IGC data and the structural and chemical factors that influence surface properties, thereby achieving predictive knowledge regarding powder behavior during processing. In this minireview, the reported applications of IGC in the analysis of pharmaceutical powders are summarized and the major findings highlighted.

  9. Surface roughness analysis after machining of direct laser deposited tungsten carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojciechowski, S.; Twardowski, P.; Chwalczuk, T.

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, an experimental surface roughness analysis in machining of tungsten carbide is presented. The tungsten carbide was received using direct laser deposition technology (DLD). Experiments carried out included milling of tungsten carbide samples using monolithic torus cubic boron nitride (CBN) tool and grinding with the diamond cup wheel. The effect of machining method on the generated surface topography was analysed. The 3D surface topographies were measured using optical surface profiler. The research revealed, that surface roughness generated after the machining of tungsten carbide is affected by feed per tooth (fz) value related to kinematic-geometric projection only in a minor extent. The main factor affecting machined surface roughness is the occurrence of micro grooves and protuberances on the machined surface, as well as other phenomena connected, inter alia, with the mechanism for material removal.

  10. Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature (ERSST) Monthly Analysis, Version 3b

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Version 3b (v3b) of the Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature (ERSST) dataset is a monthly SST analysis on a 2-degree global grid based on the International...

  11. Multispectral UV imaging for surface analysis of MUPS tablets with special focus on the pellet distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novikova, Anna; Carstensen, Jens Michael; Rades, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    In the present study the applicability of multispectral UV imaging in combination with multivariate image analysis for surface evaluation of MUPS tablets was investigated with respect to the differentiation of the API pellets from the excipients matrix, estimation of the drug content as well as p...... image analysis is a promising approach for the automatic quality control of MUPS tablets during the manufacturing process.......In the present study the applicability of multispectral UV imaging in combination with multivariate image analysis for surface evaluation of MUPS tablets was investigated with respect to the differentiation of the API pellets from the excipients matrix, estimation of the drug content as well...... on the tablet surface allowed an estimation of the true drug content in the respective MUPS tablet. In addition, the pellet distribution in the MUPS formulations could be estimated by UV image analysis of the tablet surface. In conclusion, this study revealed that UV imaging in combination with multivariate...

  12. Development of a surface scanning soil analysis instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falahat, S; Köble, T; Schumann, O; Waring, C; Watt, G

    2012-07-01

    ANSTO is developing a nuclear field instrument for measurement of soil composition; particularly carbon. The instrument utilises the neutron activation approach with clear advantages over existing soil sampling and laboratory analysis. A field portable compact pulsed neutron generator and γ-ray detector are used for PGNAA and INS techniques simultaneously. Many elements can be quantified from a homogenised soil volume equivalent to the top soil layers. Results from first test experiments and current developments are reported.

  13. Trypanosome Surface Antigen Genes: Analysis Using Recombinant DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-06-15

    different VATs. These cDNAs were used to screen the genomic libraries . The cloned probes were examined by nucleotide sequence analysis and used to...examination of the consequence of - antigenic variation on the structure of the 1.1, 1.D and 1.11 VSG -, gene sequences. In addition, all genomic libraries have...immunoprecipitated by heterologous VAt specific antisera (preprint 2, figure 3; preprint 3, figure 1). These data presented in preprints 2 and Genomic

  14. Hyperspectral Surface Analysis for Ripeness Estimation and Quick UV-C Surface Treatments for Preservation of Bananas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, W.; Yang, Zh.; Chen, Zh.; Liu, J.; Wang, W. Ch.; Zheng, W. Yu.

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to determine the ripeness of bananas using hyperspectral surface analysis and how a rapid UV-C (ultraviolet-C light) surface treatment could reduce decay. The surface of the banana fruit and its stages of maturity were studied using a hyperspectral imaging technique in the visible and near infrared (370-1000 nm) regions. The vselected color ratios from these spectral images were used for classifying the whole banana into immature, ripe, half-ripe and overripe stages. By using a BP neural network, models based on the wavelengths were developed to predict quality attributes. The mean discrimination rate was 98.17%. The surface of the fresh bananas was treated with UV-C at dosages from 15-55 μW/cm2. The visual qualities with or without UV-C treatment were compared using the image, the chromatic aberration test, the firmness test and the area of black spot on the banana skin. The results showed that high dosages of UV-C damaged the banana skin, while low dosages were more efficient at delaying changes in the relative brightness of the skin. The maximum UV-C treatment dose for satisfactory banana preservation was between 21 and 24 μW/cm2. These results could help to improve the visual quality of bananas and to classify their ripeness more easily.

  15. SAR Analysis of the ocean surface : aplication to the NW mediterranean marine pollution and dynamic features

    OpenAIRE

    Redondo Apraiz, José Manuel; Platonov, A.; Grau Barceló, Joan

    2009-01-01

    The interaction between multiple scales in nature and mainly in turbulent flows produces fractals or multifractal structures. We use multi-fractal analysis to investigate the scales and influence of stratification in different types of surface eddies in the ocean, and specially, near the coastline. We will also show and discuss the structure and residence time in oil spills and slicks in the ocean surface. This method, of multifractal analysis on the intensity SAR signals, as an example will ...

  16. Vibration analysis based on surface acoustic wave sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gnadinger Alfred P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is important to know, whether a civil engineering structure is safe or unsafe. One way to determine this is to measure vibrations at critical locations and feeding this data into an appropriate algorithm. Albido Corporation has developed wireless strain sensors based on surface acoustic wave (SAW principles that are mainly employed on rotating structures and in harsh environments. Albido's sensors could also be used to measure vibrations in civil engineering structures. They are small (~1 × 3 mm, passive and inexpensive (< 1$ in volume. They are powered by the electromagnetic field emanating from the antenna of a Reader System, similar to an RFID. The Reader System is essentially a computer with special software and has signal processing capability. One Reader System can service a multitude of sensors. The Reader antenna has to be within the reading range of the sensor. If large distances are required, a small electronic component acting as a Reader System can be placed within the reading range of the sensor that receives the sensor signal, generates a radio signal and encodes the sensor information on the radio signal. Then, the final data processing center can be placed anywhere.

  17. Wear analysis and finishing of bioceramic implant surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denkena, Berend; Reichstein, Martin; van der Meer, Marijke; Ostermeier, Sven; Hurschler, Christof

    2008-01-01

    A primary cause for revision operations of joint replacements is the implant loosening, due to immune reactions resulting from the agglomeration of polyethylene wear debris. Motivated by the successful application of bioceramic materials in hip joint prostheses, a trend towards the development of hard implant materials has occurred. Nonetheless in the area of total knee arthroplasty (TKA), modern efforts have still utilized polyethylene as the tibial-inlay joint component. The use of bioceramic hard-hard-pairings for total knee arthroplasty has been prevented by the complex kinematics and geometries required. Ceramics cannot cope with non-uniform loads, which suggests the need for new designs appropriate to the material. Furthermore, biomechanical requirements should be considered. A rolling-gliding wear simulator, which reproduces the movements and stresses of the knee joint on specimens of simplified geometry, has therefore been developed. High-precision machining processes for free formed bioceramic surfaces, with suitable grinding and polishing tools which adjust to constantly changing contact conditions, are essential. The goal is to put automated finishing in one clamping with five simultaneous controlled axes into practice. The developed manufacturing technologies will allow the advantageous bioceramic materials to be applied and accepted for more complex joint replacements such as knee prostheses.

  18. The use of frequency and wavelet analysis for monitoring surface quality of wood machining applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaster, Richard L

    2010-01-01

    The research described in this study is part of a project to provide the technology and theory to quantify surface quality for a variety of wood and wood-based products. The ultimate goal is to provide a means of monitoring trends in surface quality, which can be used to discriminate between "good" products and "bad" products (the methods described in this research are not intended to provide "grading" of individual workpieces) as well as to provide information to the machine operator as to the source of poor-quality machined surfaces. This research investigates the use of both frequency domain analysis as well as the more advanced joint time frequency analysis (JTFA). The disadvantages of traditional frequency analysis as well as the potential of the JTFA are illustrated. Sample surface profiles from actual machining defects were analyzed using traditional frequency analysis. A surface with multiple machining defects was analyzed with both traditional frequency analysis and JTFA (harmonic wavelet). Although the analysis was empirical in nature, the results show that the harmonic wavelet transform is able to detect both stationary and non-stationary surface irregularities as well as pulses (localized defects).

  19. Nitrogen recombination on high-temperature reusable surface insulation and the analysis of its effect on surface catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodziej, Paul; Stewart, David A.

    1987-01-01

    The energy transfer catalytic recombination coefficients for nitrogen and oxygen on a borosilicate glass are determined in nitrogen and air hypersonic arc jet streams. These data, obtained from a reacting boundary-layer analysis with first-order surface reaction kinetics, compare well with earlier results from a Goulard frozen boundary-layer model up to 1600 K. The apparent surface recombination rates increase up to 1600 K, then begin to decrease. To illustrate the effects of temperature and nitrogen dissociation on energy transfer to the glass, a diffusional heat-flux is calculated using the present results from 1450 K up to 1850 K. This diffusional heat-flux is the contribution to the total heating rate by atom recombination, and is used to compare the present results with coefficients from three previous studies.

  20. Surface reactivity and layer analysis of chemisorbed reaction films in the surface-chemical environment of alkyl octadecenoates

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R B Choudhary; O N Anand; O S Tyagi

    2009-05-01

    Studies on surface reactivity of substrate iron (Fe-particles) were made in the tribo-chemical environment of alkyl octadecenoates. Two alkyl octadecenoates namely ethyl octadecenoate and methyl 12-hydroxy octadecenoate, slightly different in their chemical nature, were taken for preparing the chemisorbed reaction films (CRF) at the temperature 100 ± 5°C. The reaction products collected in the composite (amorphous) phase were isolated into three different solvent-soluble fractions (sub-layer films) using polar solvents of increasing polar strength. The FTIR analysis of these films showed that these were primarily organic in nature and were composed of alkyl and/or aryl hydroxy ethers, unsaturated hydroxy ketones, and aromatic structures chemically linked with iron surface. These reaction films also contained large amount of iron (Fe). Further, these film fractions also showed varying thermal behaviour during thermal decomposition in the temperature range of 50-800°C when thermally evaluated in the nitrogen environment.

  1. Analysis of using porous asphalt on the surfaces of bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Chmielewski

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article concerns the analysis of the use of modern technology while paving the road bridges. It shall assess the possibility of using porous asphalt paving of road bridges. Based on the results of laboratory tests of selected porous asphalt, such as: determination of free space in the mixture of mineral-asphalt, runoff of the binder, sensitivity to water and frost, the loss of grains in the mixture, the design of porous asphalt mixture has been completed.[b]Keywords[/b]: construction of bridges, road bridges pavements, porous asphalt, dehydration of the bridges

  2. The use of response surface analysis in obtaining maximum profit in oil palm industry

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Tarmizi Mohammed; Khalid Haron; Zuhaimy Ismail; Azme Khamis

    2006-01-01

    This study was conducted to show how to use Response Surface Analysis in obtaining the optimum level of fertilizer needs by oil palm. The ridge analysis was proposed to overcome the saddle point problem. Data from Malaysian Palm Oil Board database was analyzed. The fertilizers considered are N, P, K and Mg. The results from ridge analysis provided several alternatives of the fertilizer combination. Profit analysis was then applied to determine the best combination of fertilizers needed by the...

  3. Laser-induced oxidation of titanium substrate: Analysis of the physicochemical structure of the surface and sub-surface layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antończak, Arkadiusz J., E-mail: arkadiusz.antonczak@pwr.edu.pl [Laser and Fiber Electronics Group, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Wroclaw University of Technology, Wyb. Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wroclaw (Poland); Skowroński, Łukasz; Trzcinski, Marek [Institute of Mathematics and Physics, University of Technology and Life Sciences, Kaliskiego 7, 85-789 Bydgoszcz (Poland); Kinzhybalo, Vasyl V. [Wroclaw Research Centre EIT+, Stabłowicka 147, 54-066 Wrocław (Poland); Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, Okólna 2, 50-422 Wrocław (Poland); Łazarek, Łukasz K.; Abramski, Krzysztof M. [Laser and Fiber Electronics Group, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Wroclaw University of Technology, Wyb. Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wroclaw (Poland)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Chemical structure of the films induced by laser on titanium surface was analyzed. • It was shown that outer layer of this films consist of oxides doped with nitrogen. • The optical properties of the laser-induced oxynitride films were characterized. • We found that the films demonstrated significant absorption in the band of 300–580 nm. • The morphology of the layers as a function of the laser fluence was investigated. - Abstract: This paper presents the results of the analysis of the complex chemical structure of the layers made on titanium in the process of the heating of its surfaces in an atmospheric environment, by irradiating samples with a nanosecond-pulsed laser. The study was carried out for electroplated, high purity, polycrystalline titanium substrates using a Yb:glass fiber laser. All measurements were made for samples irradiated in a broad range of accumulated fluence, below the ablation threshold. It has been determined how the complex index of refraction of both the oxynitride layers and the substrate vary as a function of accumulated laser fluence. It was also shown that the top layer of the film produced on titanium, which is transparent, is not a pure TiO{sub 2} as had been supposed before. The XPS and XRD analyses confirmed the presence of nitrogen compounds and the existence of nonstoichiometric compounds. By sputtering of the sample's surface using an Ar{sup +} ion gun, the changes in the concentration of individual elements as a function of the layer's cross-section were determined. Lastly, an analysis of the surface morphology has also been carried out, explaining why the layers crack and exfoliate from their substrate.

  4. Surface chemical composition analysis of heat-treated bamboo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Fan-dan, E-mail: fandan_meng@163.com [MOE Key Laboratory of Wooden Material Science and Application, Beijing Forestry University, 35 Qinghua East Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083 (China); Yu, Yang-lun, E-mail: yuyanglun@caf.ac.cn [Research Institute of Wood Industry, Chinese Academy of Forestry, No 1 Dongxiaofu, Haidian District, Beijing 100091 (China); Zhang, Ya-mei, E-mail: zhangyamei@caf.ac.cn [Research Institute of Wood Industry, Chinese Academy of Forestry, No 1 Dongxiaofu, Haidian District, Beijing 100091 (China); Yu, Wen-ji, E-mail: yuwenji@caf.ac.cn [Research Institute of Wood Industry, Chinese Academy of Forestry, No 1 Dongxiaofu, Haidian District, Beijing 100091 (China); Gao, Jian-min, E-mail: gaojm@bjfu.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of Wooden Material Science and Application, Beijing Forestry University, 35 Qinghua East Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • Investigate the detailed chemical components contents change of bamboo due to heating. • Chemical analysis of bamboo main components during heating. • Identify the connection between the oxygen to carbon atomic ratio changes and chemical degradation. - Abstract: In this study, the effect of heat treatment on the chemical composition of bamboo slivers was studied. The chemical properties of the samples were examined by chemical analysis. Results showed a decrease in the contents of holocellulose and α-cellulose, as well as an increase in the contents of lignin and extractives. Changes in the chemical structure of bamboo components were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). FTIR spectroscopy results indicated that hemicellulose contents decrease, whereas lignin contents increase after heat treatment. Ester formation linked to lignin decreased the hygroscopicity of the bamboo samples and consequently improved their dimensional stability and durability. XPS spectroscopy results showed that hemicelluloses and celluloses are relatively more sensitive to the heating process than lignin. As a consequence, hemicellulose and cellulose contents decreased, whereas lignin contents increased during heat treatment. The results obtained in this study provide useful information for the future utilization of heat-treated bamboo.

  5. Phase-shifting Real-time Holographic Microscopy applied in micro-structures surface analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brito, I V; Gesualdi, M R R [Universidade Federal do ABC, R. Santa Adelia 166, Bangu, Santo Andre, 09210-170, SP (Brazil); Muramatsu, M [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao, Travessa R 186, Cidade Universitaria, 05508-090, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ricardo, J, E-mail: isis.brito@ufabc.edu.br [Universidad de Oriente, Ave. Patricio Lumumba s/n, Santiago de Cuba (Cuba)

    2011-01-01

    The microscopic real-time analysis of micro structured materials is of great importance in various domains of science and technology. For other hand, the holographic interferometry comprises a group of powerful optical methods for non-destructive testing in surface analysis. The holographic microscopy uses the holographic interferometric techniques to obtain quantitative intensity and phase information of the optical waves by microscopic systems. With the development of CCD cameras, computers (hardware and software), and new materials for holographic recording, these techniques can be used to replace the classical form of registration and became promising tools in surface analysis. In this work, we developed a prototype of Photorefractive and Digital Holographic Microscope for real-time analysis of micro-structured systems based on the phase-shifting real-time holographic interferometry techniques. Using this apparatus, we are made analysis of shapes and surfaces to obtain the phase maps and the 3D profiles of some samples.

  6. Benefits of automated surface decontamination of a radioiodine ward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westcott, Eliza; Broadhurst, Alicia; Crossley, Steven; Lee, Lloyd; Phan, Xuyen; Scharli, Rainer; Xu, Yan

    2012-02-01

    A floor-washing robot has been acquired to assist physicists with decontamination of radioiodine therapy ward rooms after discharge of the patient at Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital. The effectiveness of the robot in decontaminating the ward has been evaluated. A controlled experiment was performed by deliberately contaminating a polyvinyl chloride flooring offcut with 131I followed by automated decontamination with the robot. The extent of fixed and removable contamination was assessed before and after decontamination by two methods: (1) direct Geiger-Mueller counting and (2) beta-counting wipe tests. Surface contamination was also assessed in situ on the ward by Geiger-Mueller counting and wipe testing. Contamination maps confirmed that contamination was removed rather than spread around by the robot. Wipe testing revealed that the robot was successful in clearing approximately 60-80% of removable contamination. The robotic floor-washing device was considered suitable to provide effective automated decontamination of the radioiodine ward. In addition, the robot affords other benefits: the time spent by the physicists decontaminating the room is greatly reduced offering financial and occupational safety and health benefits. The robot has also found utility in other decontamination applications in the healthcare environment.

  7. Spectral reflectance of surface soils - A statistical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouse, K. R.; Henninger, D. L.; Thompson, D. R.

    1983-01-01

    The relationship of the physical and chemical properties of soils to their spectral reflectance as measured at six wavebands of Thematic Mapper (TM) aboard NASA's Landsat-4 satellite was examined. The results of performing regressions of over 20 soil properties on the six TM bands indicated that organic matter, water, clay, cation exchange capacity, and calcium were the properties most readily predicted from TM data. The middle infrared bands, bands 5 and 7, were the best bands for predicting soil properties, and the near infrared band, band 4, was nearly as good. Clustering 234 soil samples on the TM bands and characterizing the clusters on the basis of soil properties revealed several clear relationships between properties and reflectance. Discriminant analysis found organic matter, fine sand, base saturation, sand, extractable acidity, and water to be significant in discriminating among clusters.

  8. Surface chemical composition analysis of heat-treated bamboo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fan-dan; Yu, Yang-lun; Zhang, Ya-mei; Yu, Wen-ji; Gao, Jian-min

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the effect of heat treatment on the chemical composition of bamboo slivers was studied. The chemical properties of the samples were examined by chemical analysis. Results showed a decrease in the contents of holocellulose and α-cellulose, as well as an increase in the contents of lignin and extractives. Changes in the chemical structure of bamboo components were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). FTIR spectroscopy results indicated that hemicellulose contents decrease, whereas lignin contents increase after heat treatment. Ester formation linked to lignin decreased the hygroscopicity of the bamboo samples and consequently improved their dimensional stability and durability. XPS spectroscopy results showed that hemicelluloses and celluloses are relatively more sensitive to the heating process than lignin. As a consequence, hemicellulose and cellulose contents decreased, whereas lignin contents increased during heat treatment. The results obtained in this study provide useful information for the future utilization of heat-treated bamboo.

  9. Surface analysis of 316 stainless steel treated with cold atmospheric plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David F.; Kellar, Ewen J. C.; Jesson, David A.; Watts, John F.

    2017-05-01

    The surface of 316 stainless steel has been modified using cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) to increase the surface free energy (by cleaning the and chemically activating the surface)IN preparation for subsequent processes such as painting, coating or adhesive bonding. The analyses carried out, on CAP treated 316 stainless steel surfaces, includes X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), imaging XPS (iXPS), and surface free energy (SFE) analysis using contact angle measurements. The CAP treatment is shown to increase the SFE of as-received 316 stainless steel from ∼39 mJ m-1 to >72 mJ m-1 after a short exposure to the plasma torch. This was found to correlate to a reduction in adventitious carbon, as determined by XPS analysis of the surface. The reduction from ∼90 at% to ∼30% and ∼39 at%, after being plasma treated for 5 min and 15 s respectively, shows that the process is relatively quick at changing the surface. It is suggested that the mechanism that causes the increase in surface free energy is chain scission of the hydrocarbon contamination triggered by free electrons in the plasma plume followed by chemical functionalisation of the metal oxide surface and some of the remaining carbon contamination layer.

  10. Skin Care in the NICU Patient: Effects of Wipes versus Cloth and Water on Stratum Corneum Integrity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Visscher, Marty; Odio, Mauricio; Taylor, Teresa; White, Tamina; Sargent, Shelly; Sluder, Linda; Smith, Louise; Flower, Teresa; Mason, Beth; Rider, Maureen; Huebner, Amy; Bondurant, Pattie

    2009-01-01

    ...., skin erythema, skin rash, transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and surface acidity (pH), within the diaper and at diaper and chest control sites were determined daily for 5-14 days using standardized methods...

  11. Surface Analysis of LaB6 Single Crystal Thermionic Emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Masatoshi; Futamoto, Masaaki; Hosoki, Shigeyuki; Usami, Katuhisa

    1980-07-01

    Surface analysis of heated LaB6 thermionic emitter is made by means of Auger electron spectroscopy. Changes in surface state with changing emitter temperature and ambient oxygen pressure are investigated. The emitter temperature is varied from room temperature to 1700°C, and the oxygen pressure from 1× 10-5 Pa to 7× 10-3 Pa. With the increase of temperature the emitter surface passes through four states depending on oxygen pressure, before it reaches a clean state. Among them a state is particularly noteworthy that the emitter surface is covered with a layer of lanthanum oxide just before assuming the clean surface state. A surface state diagram is shown. The optimum conditions of emitter temperature and oxygen gas pressure to exhibit high emission properties are described.

  12. Surface functionalization of SPR chip for specific molecular interaction analysis under flow condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Ma

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Surface functionalization of sensor chip for probe immobilization is crucial for the biosensing applications of surface plasmon resonance (SPR sensors. In this paper, we report a method circulating the dopamine aqueous solution to coat polydopamine film on sensing surface for surface functionalization of SPR chip. The polydopamine film with available thickness can be easily prepared by controlling the circulation time and the biorecognition elements can be immobilized on the polydopamine film for specific molecular interaction analysis. These operations are all performed under flow condition in the fluidic system, and have the advantages of easy implementation, less time consuming, and low cost, because the reagents and devices used in the operations are routinely applied in most laboratories. In this study, the specific absorption between the protein A probe immobilized on the sensing surface and human immunoglobulin G in the buffer is monitored based on this surface functionalization strategy to demonstrated its feasibility for SPR biosensing applications.

  13. Molecular Analysis of Bacterial Microbiota on Brazilian Currency Note Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira da Fonseca, Tairacan Augusto; Pessôa, Rodrigo; Sanabani, Sabri Saeed

    2015-10-22

    Currency notes have been implicated as a vehicle for transmitting community-acquired bacterial infections. However, the overall diversity of the bacterial population residing on banknotes is still unknown in Brazil. In this study, we aimed to investigate the overall bacterial population from 150 different Brazilian Rial (R$) notes in circulation using a culture-independent Illumina massively parallel sequencing approach of the 16S rRNA genes. Samples were randomly collected from three different street markets or "feiras" in the metropolitan region of São Paulo. Taxonomical composition revealed the abundance of Proteobacteria phyla, followed by Firmicutes and Streptophyta, with a total of 1193 bacterial families and 3310 bacterial genera. Most of these bacterial genera are of human, animal, and environmental origins. Also, our analysis revealed the presence of some potential pathogenic bacterial genera including Salmonella, Staphylococcus, and Klebsiella. The results demonstrate that there is a tremendous diversity of bacterial contamination on currency notes, including organisms known to be opportunistic pathogens. One of the factors that may contribute to the richness of bacterial diversity in currency notes is personal hygiene. Thus, our results underscore the need to increase public awareness of the importance of personal hygiene of money handlers who also handle food.

  14. Molecular Analysis of Bacterial Microbiota on Brazilian Currency Note Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tairacan Augusto Pereira da Fonseca

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Currency notes have been implicated as a vehicle for transmitting community-acquired bacterial infections. However, the overall diversity of the bacterial population residing on banknotes is still unknown in Brazil. In this study, we aimed to investigate the overall bacterial population from 150 different Brazilian Rial (R$ notes in circulation using a culture-independent Illumina massively parallel sequencing approach of the 16S rRNA genes. Samples were randomly collected from three different street markets or “feiras” in the metropolitan region of São Paulo. Taxonomical composition revealed the abundance of Proteobacteria phyla, followed by Firmicutes and Streptophyta, with a total of 1193 bacterial families and 3310 bacterial genera. Most of these bacterial genera are of human, animal, and environmental origins. Also, our analysis revealed the presence of some potential pathogenic bacterial genera including Salmonella, Staphylococcus, and Klebsiella. The results demonstrate that there is a tremendous diversity of bacterial contamination on currency notes, including organisms known to be opportunistic pathogens. One of the factors that may contribute to the richness of bacterial diversity in currency notes is personal hygiene. Thus, our results underscore the need to increase public awareness of the importance of personal hygiene of money handlers who also handle food.

  15. Sensitivity analysis of surface runoff generation in urban flood forecasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, N E; Leitão, J P; Maksimović, C; Sá Marques, A; Pina, R

    2010-01-01

    Reliable flood forecasting requires hydraulic models capable to estimate pluvial flooding fast enough in order to enable successful operational responses. Increased computational speed can be achieved by using a 1D/1D model, since 2D models are too computationally demanding. Further changes can be made by simplifying 1D network models, removing and by changing some secondary elements. The Urban Water Research Group (UWRG) of Imperial College London developed a tool that automatically analyses, quantifies and generates 1D overland flow network. The overland flow network features (ponds and flow pathways) generated by this methodology are dependent on the number of sewer network manholes and sewer inlets, as some of the overland flow pathways start at manholes (or sewer inlets) locations. Thus, if a simplified version of the sewer network has less manholes (or sewer inlets) than the original one, the overland flow network will be consequently different. This paper compares different overland flow networks generated with different levels of sewer network skeletonisation. Sensitivity analysis is carried out in one catchment area in Coimbra, Portugal, in order to evaluate overland flow network characteristics.

  16. Gridded Surface Subsurface Hydrologic Analysis Modeling for Analysis of Flood Design Features at the Picayune Strand Restoration Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    ER D C/ CH L TR -1 6 -1 4 Gridded Surface Subsurface Hydrologic Analysis Modeling for Analysis of Flood Design Features at the Picayune...impacting the level of flood protection of adjacent landowners. To ensure the current level of flood protection is maintained, a hydrologic model was...Subsurface Hydrologic Analysis (GSSHA) model was selected for this effort. The GSSHA model simulates fully coupled rainfall distribution, extraction

  17. ANALYSIS OF SURFACE DEFECTS OF ALUMINUM AND ITS ALLOYS WITH A SCANNING KELVIN PROBE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Tyavlovsky

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the use of probe electrometry in non-destructive testing is constrained by the complexity of measurement results interpretation. An output signal of electrometric probe depends on a number of physical and chemical parameters of surface including chemical composition variations, stresses, dislocations, crystallographic orientation of a surface, etc. The study aims to the use of probe electrometry methods for nondestructive testing and analysis of precision metal surfaces’ defects after different treatment or processing.Control of surface defects of aluminum and its alloys was performed with a scanning Kelvin probe technique. The results of scanning were plotted in a form of contact potential difference (CPD distribution map. Additionally, a histogram of CPD values distribution and statistical characteristics including the expectation of CPD mean value and histogram half-width were calculated either for the whole distribution or for each individual mode in a case of multimodal distribution.The spatial CPD distribution of A99 aluminum and AMG-2 alloy surfaces after electrochemical polishing and diamond finishing was studied. An additional study was held for AMG-2 surface after the formation of 30 microns thick specific nanostructured alumina oxide surface layer. Higher quality surfaces have characterized as more homogeneous distribution of the physical properties (at half-width distribution histogram. Surfaces with higher mechanical strength and overall better mechanical properties found to have lower CPD values that correspond to higher electron work function and surface energy. The presence of the second mode in the CPD distribution histogram indicates the significant proportion of defect areas on the sample surface.Analysis of visualized CPD distribution maps using defined criteria allows detecting and characterizing such defects as residual stress areas, areas with reduced microhardness, surface contamination spots, corrosion

  18. Analysis of coatings appearance and durability testing induced surface defects using image capture/processing/analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee, F.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available There are no established and accepted techniques available for accurate characterization appearance changes brought about by scratch and mar damage. Scratch and mar resistance is related to the ability of a coating in resisting deformation. The appearance change is brought about by surface roughening which in turn leads to a reduction in gloss and reflectivity. This paper focuses on the measurement of the appearance of coating by image analysis and gloss measurement.

    No hay técnicas establecidas o aceptadas para una caracterización precisa de los cambios de apariencia dados por los rayones profundos y daños superficiales en los recubrimientos. La resistencia a estos eventos está relacionada con la habilidad del recubrimiento a resistir la deformación. El cambio de apariencia se presenta en la superficie como una aspereza que va llevando a la reducción del brillo y de la reflectancia. Este trabajo se centra en las mediciones de apariencia de un recubrimiento por análisis de imágenes y medición de brillo.

  19. Efficient Use of Prior Information to Calibrate the Gridded Surface Subsurface Hydrologic Analysis (GSSHA) Hydrology Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Gridded Surface Subsurface Hydrologic Analysis (GSSHA) Hydrology Model by Brian E. Skahill and Charles W. Downer PURPOSE: The purpose of this... Hydrologic Analysis (GSSHA) model. These new capabilities enable the incorporation of soft data, or prior information (i.e., extra observations which...traditional hydrologic simulation models (viz., lumped and semidistributed model structures). Such models have the potential to predict with greater

  20. Characterization and analysis of surface notches on Ti-alloy plates fabricated by additive manufacturing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kwai S.

    2015-12-01

    Rectangular plates of Ti-6Al-4V with extra low interstitial (ELI) were fabricated by layer-by-layer deposition techniques that included electron beam melting (EBM) and laser beam melting (LBM). The surface conditions of these plates were characterized using x-ray micro-computed tomography. The depth and radius of surface notch-like features on the LBM and EBM plates were measured from sectional images of individual virtual slices of the rectangular plates. The stress concentration factors of individual surface notches were computed and analyzed statistically to determine the appropriate distributions for the notch depth, notch radius, and stress concentration factor. These results were correlated with the fatigue life of the Ti-6Al-4V ELI alloys from an earlier investigation. A surface notch analysis was performed to assess the debit in the fatigue strength due to the surface notches. The assessment revealed that the fatigue lives of the additively manufactured plates with rough surface topographies and notch-like features are dominated by the fatigue crack growth of large cracks for both the LBM and EBM materials. The fatigue strength reduction due to the surface notches can be as large as 60%-75%. It is concluded that for better fatigue performance, the surface notches on EBM and LBM materials need to be removed by machining and the surface roughness be improved to a surface finish of about 1 μm.

  1. Surface Acoustic Wave Monitor for Deposition and Analysis of Ultra-Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Jacqueline H. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A surface acoustic wave (SAW) based thin film deposition monitor device and system for monitoring the deposition of ultra-thin films and nanomaterials and the analysis thereof is characterized by acoustic wave device embodiments that include differential delay line device designs, and which can optionally have integral reference devices fabricated on the same substrate as the sensing device, or on a separate device in thermal contact with the film monitoring/analysis device, in order to provide inherently temperature compensated measurements. These deposition monitor and analysis devices can include inherent temperature compensation, higher sensitivity to surface interactions than quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) devices, and the ability to operate at extreme temperatures.

  2. Apparatus for Sampling Surface Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Mark

    2008-01-01

    An apparatus denoted a swab device has been developed as a convenient means of acquiring samples of contaminants from surfaces and suspending the samples in liquids. (Thereafter, the liquids can be dispensed, in controlled volumes, into scientific instruments for analysis of the contaminants.) The swab device is designed so as not to introduce additional contamination and to facilitate, simplify, and systematize the dispensing of controlled volumes of liquid into analytical instruments. The swab device is a single apparatus into which are combined all the equipment and materials needed for sampling surface contamination. The swab device contains disposable components stacked together on a nondisposable dispensing head. One of the disposable components is a supply cartridge holding a sufficient volume of liquid for one complete set of samples. (The liquid could be clean water or another suitable solvent, depending on the application.) This supply of liquid is sealed by Luer valves. At the beginning of a sampling process, the user tears open a sealed bag containing the supply cartridge. A tip on the nondisposable dispensing head is engaged with a Luer valve on one end of the supply cartridge and rotated, locking the supply cartridge on the dispensing head and opening the valve. The swab tip includes a fabric swab that is wiped across the surface of interest to acquire a sample. A sealed bag containing a disposable dispensing tip is then opened, and the swab tip is pushed into the dispensing tip until seated. The dispensing head contains a piston that passes through a spring-loaded lip seal. The air volume displaced by this piston forces the liquid out of the supply cartridge, over the swab, and into the dispensing tip. The piston is manually cycled to enforce oscillation of the air volume and thereby to cause water to flow to wash contaminants from the swab and cause the resulting liquid suspension of contaminants to flow into the dispensing tip. After several cycles

  3. Multivariate statistical analysis for the surface water quality of the Luan River, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-wei ZHAO; Fu-yi CUI

    2009-01-01

    In order to analyze the characteristics of surface water resource quality for the reconstruction of old water treatment plant, multivariate statistical techniques such as cluster analysis and factor analysis were applied to the data of Yuqiao Reservoir--surface water resource of the Luan River, China. The results of cluster analysis demonstrate that the months of one year were divided into 3 groups and the characteristic of clusters was agreed with the seasonal characteristics in North China. Three factors were derived from the complicated set using factor analysis. Factor 1 included turbidity and chlorophyll, which seemed to be related to the anthropogenic activities; factor 2 included alkaline and hardness, which were related to the natural characteristic of surface water; and factor 3 included Cl and NO-N affected by mineral and agricultural activities. The sinusoidal shape of the score plots of the three factors shows that the temporal variations caused by natural and human factors are linked to seasouality.

  4. 气相色谱法检测湿巾中丙二醇的含量%Determination of propylene glycol content in wet wipes by gas chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成霈; 杨悦; 靳尧

    2016-01-01

    称取一定量湿巾样品加乙醇超声提取后,离心过滤,采用气相色谱法检测湿巾中的丙二醇含量,外标法定量。结果表明:该法在2.50~200.00 mg/L质量浓度范围内线性关系良好,1,2-丙二醇的相关系数为0.9989,检测限为1.50 mg/L,RSDA =2.32%,加标回收率为92.10%~97.20%;1,3-丙二醇的相关系数为0.9994,检测限为2.00 mg/L, RSDA =3.15%,加标回收率为93.40%~97.25%。该方法前处理简便快捷,精密度、准确度、稳定性好,检测结果准确可靠。%A weighted sample of wet wipe was extracted by ethanol under assistance of ultrasonic wave,and the extract was filtered via centrifugation. Then the filtrate was detected by gas chromatography to determine the content of propylene glycol in wet wipes. The quantification was identified with external standard method. Results showed that the method exhibits good linearity in the mass concentration range of 2.50-200.00 mg/L. For 1,2-propylene glycol,the correlation coefficient is 0.998 9,detection limit is 1.50 mg/L,RSDA=2.32%, and spiked recovery is 92.10% -97.20%. For 1,3-propylene glycol,the correlation coefficient is 0.999 4, detection limit is 2.00 mg/L,RSDA=3.15%,and spiked recovery is 93.40% -97.25%.

  5. Decontamination of Surfaces Exposed to Carbonbased Nanotubes and Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Zahra

    Contamination of surfaces by nanomaterials can happen due to accidental spillage and release or gradual accumulation during processing or handling. Considering the increasingly wide use of nanomaterials in industry and research labs and also taking into account the diversity of physical and chemical properties of different nanomaterials (such as solubility, aggregation/agglomeration, and surface reactivity), there is a pressing need to define reliable nanomaterial-specific decontamination guidelines. In this project, we propose and investigate a potential method for surface decontamination of carbon-based nanomaterials using solvent cleaning and wipes. The results show that the surfactant-assisted removal efficiencies of multi-walled carbon nanotubes, single walled carbon nantubes and single walled carbon nano-horns from silicon wafers through wiping is greater than 95%, 90% and 78%, respectively. The need for further studies to understand the mechanisms of nanomaterial removal from surfaces and development of standard techniques for surface decontamination of nanomaterials is highlighted. Another phase of experiments were performed to examine the efficiency of surfactants to remove multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) from silicon substrates with nano and microscaled features. In the first set of experiments, nanoscale features were induced on silicon wafers using SF6 and O2 plasma. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to observe the surface topology and roughness. In the second set, well-defined microscale topological features were induced on silicon wafers using photo lithography and plasma etching. The etching time was varied to create semi-ellipsoidal pits with average diameter and height of ~ 7-9 microm, and ~ 1-3 microm, respectively. MWCNTs in the form of liquid solution were deposited on the surface of silicon wafers using the spin coating process. For the cleaning process, the contaminated surfaces were first sprayed with different types of surfactant

  6. Comparative study of binding constants from Love wave surface acoustic wave and surface plasmon resonance biosensors using kinetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangdae; Kim, Yong-Il; Kim, Ki-Bok

    2013-11-01

    Biosensors are used in a variety of fields for early diagnosis of diseases, measurement of toxic contaminants, quick detection of pathogens, and separation of specific proteins or DNA. In this study, we fabricated and evaluated the capability of a high sensitivity Love wave surface acoustic wave (SAW) biosensor. The experimental setup was composed of the fabricated 155-MHz Love wave SAW biosensor, a signal measurement system, a liquid flow system, and a temperature-control system. Subsequently, we measured the lower limit of detection (LOD) of the 155-MHz Love wave SAW biosensor, and calculated the association and dissociation constants between protein G and anti-mouse IgG using kinetic analysis. We compared these results with those obtained using a commercial surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor. We found that the LOD of the SAW biosensor for anti-mouse IgG and mouse IgG was 0.5 and 1 microg/ml, respectively, and the resultant equilibrium association and dissociation constants were similar to the corresponding values obtaining using the commercial SPR biosensor. Thus, we conclude that the fabricated 155-MHz Love wave SAW biosensor exhibited the high sensitivity of the commercial SPR biosensor and was able to analyze the binding properties of the ligand and receptor by kinetic analysis similarly to the commercial SPR biosensor.

  7. An Intelligent Method for Structural Reliability Analysis Based on Response Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桂劲松; 刘红; 康海贵

    2004-01-01

    As water depth increases, the structural safety and reliability of a system become more and more important and challenging. Therefore, the structural reliability method must be applied in ocean engineering design such as offshore platform design. If the performance function is known in structural reliability analysis, the first-order second-moment method is often used. If the performance function could not be definitely expressed, the response surface method is always used because it has a very clear train of thought and simple programming. However, the traditional response surface method fits the response surface of quadratic polynomials where the problem of accuracy could not be solved, because the true limit state surface can be fitted well only in the area near the checking point. In this paper, an intelligent computing method based on the whole response surface is proposed, which can be used for the situation where the performance function could not be definitely expressed in structural reliability analysis. In this method, a response surface of the fuzzy neural network for the whole area should be constructed first, and then the structural reliability can be calculated by the genetic algorithm. In the proposed method, all the sample points for the training network come from the whole area, so the true limit state surface in the whole area can be fitted. Through calculational examples and comparative analysis, it can be known that the proposed method is much better than the traditional response surface method of quadratic polynomials, because, the amount of calculation of finite element analysis is largely reduced, the accuracy of calculation is improved,and the true limit state surface can be fitted very well in the whole area. So, the method proposed in this paper is suitable for engineering application.

  8. Image Analysis Determination of the Influence of Surface Structure of Silicone Rubbers on Biofouling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevil Atarijabarzadeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on how the texture of the silicone rubber material affects the distribution of microbial growth on the surface of materials used for high voltage insulation. The analysis of surface wetting properties showed that the textured surfaces provide higher receding contact angles and therefore lower contact angle hysteresis. The textured surfaces decrease the risk for dry band formation and thus preserve the electrical properties of the material due to a more homogeneous distribution of water on the surface, which, however, promotes the formation of more extensive biofilms. The samples were inoculated with fungal suspension and incubated in a microenvironment chamber simulating authentic conditions in the field. The extent and distribution of microbial growth on the textured and plane surface samples representing the different parts of the insulator housing that is shank and shed were determined by visual inspection and image analysis methods. The results showed that the microbial growth was evenly distributed on the surface of the textured samples but restricted to limited areas on the plane samples. More intensive microbial growth was determined on the textured samples representing sheds. It would therefore be preferable to use the textured surface silicone rubber for the shank of the insulator.

  9. Preparation and characterization of reconstructed small intestinal brush border membranes for surface plasmon resonance analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sungpil; Park, Jae Hyung; Yu, Jaehoon; Lee, Yong-Kyu; Byun, Youngro; Chung, Hesson; Kwon, Ick Chan; Jeong, Seo Young

    2004-01-01

    To prepare the surface generated by small intestinal brush border membrane vesicles (BBMVs) for the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis, which allows the real-time measurement of binding events occurring on the intestinal membrane. BBMVs were isolated from Sprague-Dawley rats, suspended in HEPES-buffered saline, and flowed over the surface of a SPR sensor chip composed of dextran derivatives modified with lipophilic residues. The surface coverage was determined from binding of bovine serum albumin to BBMV-immobilized sensor chip. The performance of BBMVs immobilized was evaluated by their interaction with otilonium bromide and bile salts. The stable BBMV surface was achieved when BBMV suspension was flowed over the sensor chip for 8 h at a rate of 2 microl/min. The flow of otilonium bromide resulted in an increased SPR signal because of its binding to calcium channel, which is known to be distributed over the gastrointestinal tact. When bile salts were flowed over ileal and duodenal BBMV surfaces, respectively, a slightly higher SPR signal was observed in the ileal BBMV surface, indicating the specific interaction of bile salts with bile acid transporters. BBMV surfaces may be useful for the estimation of binding events on the intestinal membrane by SPR analysis, especially for the drugs that are orally administrated.

  10. Modification of three dimensional topography of the machined KDP crystal surface using wavelet analysis method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H. X.; Zong, W. J.; Sun, T.; Liu, Q.

    2010-06-01

    The wavelet analysis method has been extensively employed to analyze the surface structures and evaluate the surface roughness. In this work, however, the wavelet analysis method was introduced to decompose and reconstruct the sampled surface profile signals in the cutting direction that achieved by SPDT (single point diamond turning) operation, and the surface profile signals in tool feeding direction were reconstructed with the approximate harmonic functions directly. And moreover, the orthogonal design method, i.e. the combination design of general rotary method, was resorted to model the variations of the independent frequency and amplitude of different simulated harmonic signals in the cutting and tool feeding directions. As expected resultantly, a novel 3D surface topography modeling solution was established, which aims to predict and modify the finished KDP (potassium dihydrogen phosphate or KH 2PO 4) crystal surfaces. The validation tests were carried out finally under different cutting conditions, and the collected average surface roughness in any case was compared with the corresponding value as predicted. The results indicated the experimental data were well consistent with the predictions, and only an average relative error of 11.4% occurred in predicting the average surface roughness.

  11. Error determination of a successive correction type objective analysis scheme. [for surface meteorological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D. R.; Leslie, F. W.

    1984-01-01

    The Purdue Regional Objective Analysis of the Mesoscale (PROAM) is a successive correction type scheme for the analysis of surface meteorological data. The scheme is subjected to a series of experiments to evaluate its performance under a variety of analysis conditions. The tests include use of a known analytic temperature distribution to quantify error bounds for the scheme. Similar experiments were conducted using actual atmospheric data. Results indicate that the multiple pass technique increases the accuracy of the analysis. Furthermore, the tests suggest appropriate values for the analysis parameters in resolving disturbances for the data set used in this investigation.

  12. Analysis of self-repair films on friction surface lubricated with nano-Cu additive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Qian; XU Yi; SHI Pei-jing; YU He-long; XU Bin-shi

    2005-01-01

    The surface modified nanocopper particles were prepared with chemical reduction method. The wear test was carried out on a T-11 ball-on-plate friction and wear tester made in Poland. The material of the upper sample was GCr15 and the counterpart was AISI-1045 steel. The morphologies of the worn surfaces of the samples were observed by optical microscope and scanning electron microscope, while the element distributions on the worn surfaces were determined by means of electron microprobe analysis. As the results, a film mainly made of Cu is formed on the worn surface. The film on the surface of the still upper sample is thicker than that formed on the revolving coun terpart. At the edge of the groove of the worn surface made by the milling before test there is Cu element observed obviously, but there is not any Cu element in the bottom of the groove. A possible action mechanism of the film is suggested. The friction movement can induce reactivity of the metal and continuously produce activation surface. It benefits the film formed by nano-Cu in lubricant on the worn surface. Hardness and modulus of nano-Cu films were successfully measured and analyzed by the nanoindentation instrument. The results show that the hardness and modulus of the films are lower than those of the initial surface.

  13. Treatment by gliding arc of epoxy resin: preliminary analysis of surface modifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faubert, F.; Wartel, M.; Pellerin, N.; Pellerin, S.; Cochet, V.; Regnier, E.; Hnatiuc, B.

    2016-12-01

    Treatments with atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasma are easy to implement and inexpensive. Among them gliding arc (GlidArc) remains rarely used in surface treatment of polymers. However, it offers economic and flexible way to treat quickly large areas. In addition the choice of carrier gas makes it possible to bring the active species and other radicals allowing different types of grafting and functionalization of the treated surfaces, for example in order to apply for anti-biofouling prevention. This preliminary work includes analysis of the surface of epoxy resins by infrared spectroscopy: the different affected chemical bonds were studied depending on the duration of treatment. The degree of oxidation (the C/O ratio) is obtained by X-ray microanalysis and contact angle analysis have been performed to determinate the wettability properties of the treated surface. A spectroscopic study of the plasma allows to determine the possible active species in the different zones of the discharge.

  14. Surface Form Measurement and Analysis of a Cylindrical Workpiece with Microstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bin; Shimizu, Yuki; Takeishi, Toshiki; Ito, So; Gao, Wei

    A measurement system is presented for the surface form measurement of a cylindrical workpiece with periodic microstructures generated on the outer surface of the workpiece. The main components of the measurement system are a spindle to rotate the workpiece, and an air-bearing displacement sensor with a diamond micro stylus to detect the surface form of the workpiece. The surface form of the micro-structured workpiece was measured in different rotation speeds and the relationship between the measurement repeatability and the rotation speed was investigated. The Fourier transform analysis and the wavelet transform analysis were employed to analyze the measurement results in the time-frequency domain for the identification of the error sources with specific frequency characteristics.

  15. Vibration reliability analysis for aeroengine compressor blade based on support vector machine response surface method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Hai-feng; BAI Guang-chen

    2015-01-01

    To ameliorate reliability analysis efficiency for aeroengine components, such as compressor blade, support vector machine response surface method (SRSM) is proposed. SRSM integrates the advantages of support vector machine (SVM) and traditional response surface method (RSM), and utilizes experimental samples to construct a suitable response surface function (RSF) to replace the complicated and abstract finite element model. Moreover, the randomness of material parameters, structural dimension and operating condition are considered during extracting data so that the response surface function is more agreeable to the practical model. The results indicate that based on the same experimental data, SRSM has come closer than RSM reliability to approximating Monte Carlo method (MCM); while SRSM (17.296 s) needs far less running time than MCM (10958 s) and RSM (9840 s). Therefore, under the same simulation conditions, SRSM has the largest analysis efficiency, and can be considered a feasible and valid method to analyze structural reliability.

  16. Population analysis of the cingulum bundle using the tubular surface model for schizophrenia detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Vandana; Sundaramoorthi, Ganesh; Kubicki, Marek; Terry, Douglas; Tannenbaum, Allen

    2010-03-01

    We propose a novel framework for population analysis of DW-MRI data using the Tubular Surface Model. We focus on the Cingulum Bundle (CB) - a major tract for the Limbic System and the main connection of the Cingulate Gyrus, which has been associated with several aspects of Schizophrenia symptomatology. The Tubular Surface Model represents a tubular surface as a center-line with an associated radius function. It provides a natural way to sample statistics along the length of the fiber bundle and reduces the registration of fiber bundle surfaces to that of 4D curves. We apply our framework to a population of 20 subjects (10 normal, 10 schizophrenic) and obtain excellent results with neural network based classification (90% sensitivity, 95% specificity) as well as unsupervised clustering (k-means). Further, we apply statistical analysis to the feature data and characterize the discrimination ability of local regions of the CB, as a step towards localizing CB regions most relevant to Schizophrenia.

  17. Second law analysis of heat transfer surfaces in circulating fluidized beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gungor, Afsin [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Nigde University, 51100 Nigde (Turkey)

    2009-07-15

    The correct sizing of the heat transfer surfaces is important to ensure proper operation, load turndown, and optimization of circulating fluidized beds (CFBs). From this point of view, in this study, the thermodynamic second law analysis of heat transfer surfaces in CFBs is investigated theoretically in order to define the parameters that affect the system efficiency. Using a previously developed 2D CFB model which uses the particle-based approach and integrates and simultaneously predicts the hydrodynamics and combustion aspects, second law efficiency and entropy generation values are obtained at different height and volume ratios of the heat transfer surfaces for CFBs. Besides that, the influences of the water flow rates and heat exchanger tube diameters on the second law efficiency are investigated. Through this analysis, the dimensions, arrangement and type of the heat transfer surfaces which achieve maximum efficiency are obtained. (author)

  18. Sampling by sponge wipe or skin excision for recovery of inoculated Salmonella and Campylobacter from defeathered broiler carcasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broilers may carry Salmonella and Campylobacter on inner and outer surfaces upon arrival at the slaughter plant and carcasses can be further contaminated during commercial processing. A sensitive, non-destructive, repeatable sampling method would be useful to test carcasses for levels of bacteria b...

  19. Analysis of selected surface characteristics and latent heat storage for passive solar space heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fthenakis, V.; Leigh, R.

    1981-12-01

    Results are presented of an analysis of the value of various technical improvements in the solar collector and thermal storage subsystems of passive solar residential, agricultural, and industrial systems for two regions of the country. The evaluated improvements are: decreased emissivity and increased absorptivity of absorbing surfaces, decreased reflectivity, and decreased emissivity of glazing surface, and the substitution of sensible heat storage media with phase change materials. The value of each improvement is estimated by the additional energy savings resulting from the improvement.

  20. Finite Element Analysis and Experiment Research on Surface Residual Stress of Ceramics Grinding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The theoretical model of residual stress of ceramics grinding has been established applying thermal elastoplastic mechanics theory. While grinding at the course of grinding wheel moved along workpiece surface the distributing regulation of residual stress can be simplified into thermal elastioplastic mechanical issue, under the action of the both moving centralized force and heat source. Calculating and evaluating of surface residual stress using current procedure of finite element analysis which has been...

  1. Robust Feature Detection and Local Classification for Surfaces Based on Moment Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    The stable local classification of discrete surfaces with respect to features such as edges and corners or concave and convex regions, respectively, is as quite difficult as well as indispensable for many surface processing applications. Usually, the feature detection is done via a local curvature analysis. If concerned with large triangular and irregular grids, e.g., generated via a marching cube algorithm, the detectors are tedious to treat and a robust classification is hard to achieve. He...

  2. Critical-point analysis of the liquid-vapor interfacial surface tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvino, R. E.

    1990-01-01

    The interfacial surface tension of the liquid-vapor system is analyzed near the critical point in a manner similar to bulk thermodynamic critical-point analyses. This is accomplished by a critical-point analysis of the single-phase hard-wall surface tension. Both a Landau expansion and a scaling theory equation of state are investigated. Some general exponent relations are derived and, in addition, some thermodynamically defined correlation lengths are discussed.

  3. Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Surface Modified Cellulose Utilizing TGA-MS

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Loof; Matthias Hiller; Hartmut Oschkinat; Katharina Koschek

    2016-01-01

    With the aim to enhance interfacial adhesion of a hydrophobic polymer matrix and cellulosic fibers and fillers, chemical surface modifications with silane coupling agents are performed. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) could be used to determine the degree of surface functionalization. However, similar thermal properties of treated and untreated cellulose hamper a precise determination of silane loading. This contribution deals with quantitative determination of silane loading combining both ...

  4. Evaluation of working practices and surface contamination with antineoplastic drugs in outpatient oncology health care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Bettina; Schierl, Rudolf; Nowak, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    Many antineoplastic drugs are classified as carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic for humans. Therefore, minimization of exposure is required to reduce health risks to employees. The aim of this study was to evaluate working practices and safety measures during drug administration and to assess workplace contamination in outpatient oncology health care settings. Questionnaires about working procedures were sent to 137 day hospitals and private practices. Workplace contamination with 5-fluorouracil, platinum, gemcitabine, cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, methotrexate, docetaxel and paclitaxel was assessed using wipe samples. Forty institutions participated in the study, and in 28 departments, wipe samples were taken. Depending on the kind of activity, working procedures often (5-80%) were not confirmed with recommendations for safe handling of antineoplastic drugs. Altogether, 60.9% of the sampling results were above the limit of detection (LOD). Most frequent loads were detected with 5-FU (93.5%) and platinum (88.4%). Contamination was detected on all surfaces and the results ranged between drugs handled and the extent of surface contamination. However, specific working practices resulting in a lower number of positive wipe samples could be identified (e.g., use of closed infusion systems). Workplace contamination with antineoplastic drugs is still present. As patients have to be considered as a potential source of contamination, surface contamination is difficult to avoid. However, our study revealed that it is possible to administer a large number of preparations without causing high workplace contamination.

  5. Multi-Parameter Analysis of Surface Finish in Electro-Discharge Machining of Tool Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Victoria Anghel

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a multi- parameter analysis of surface finish imparted to tool-steel plates by electro-discharge machining (EDM is presented. The interrelationship between surface texture parameters and process parameters is emphasized. An increased number of parameters is studied including amplitude, spacing, hybrid and fractal parameters,, as well. The correlation of these parameters with the machining conditions is investigated. Observed characteristics become more pronounced, when intensifying machining conditions. Close correlation exists between certain surface finish parameters and EDM input variables and single and multiple statistical regression models are developed.

  6. The multilevel analysis of surface acting and mental health: A moderation of positive group affective tone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Meng-Shiu; Huang, Jui-Chan; Wu, Tzu-Jung

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship among surface acting, mental health, and positive group affective tone. According to the prior theory, this study attempts to establish a comprehensive research framework among these variables, and furthermore tests the moderating effect of positive group affective tone. Data were collected from 435 employees in 52 service industrial companies by questionnaire, and this study conducted multilevel analysis. The results showed that surface acting will negatively affect the mental health. In addition, the positive group affective tone have significant moderating effect on the relationship among surface acting and mental health. Finally, this study discusses managerial implications and highlights future research suggestions.

  7. Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) concentrations and resulting exposure in homes in California: relationships among passive air, surface wipe and dust concentrations, and temporal variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are used as flame retardants in furniture foam, electronics, and other home furnishings. A field study was conducted that enrolled 139 households from California, which has had more stringent flame retardant requirements than other countries...

  8. Three-dimensional facial surface analysis of patients with skeletal malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Patrícia Valéria Milanezi; Zhao, Linping; Patel, Pravin K; Bolognese, Ana M

    2009-03-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) laser surface scanning analysis has taken hold in orthodontics, as well as craniomaxillofacial and plastic surgery as a new tool that can navigate away from the limitations of conventional two-dimensional methods. Various techniques for 3D reconstruction of the face have been used in diagnosis, treatment planning and simulation, and outcomes follow-up. The aim of the current prospective study was to present some technical aspects for the assessment of facial changes after orthodontic and orthognathic surgery treatment using 3D laser surface scanning. The technique proposed for facial surface shape analysis represented three-dimensionally the expected surgical changes, and the reduction of the postoperative swelling was verified. This study provides technical information from the data collection to the 3D virtual soft-tissue analysis that can be useful for diagnostic information, treatment planning, future comparisons of treatment stability or facial postoperative swelling, and soft-tissue profile assessment.

  9. Analysis of Shift and Deformation of Planar Surfaces Using the Least Squares Plane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrvoje Matijević

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern methods of measurement developed on the basis of advanced reflectorless distance measurement have paved the way for easier detection and analysis of shift and deformation. A large quantity of collected data points will often require a mathematical model of the surface that fits best into these. Although this can be a complex task, in the case of planar surfaces it is easily done, enabling further processing and analysis of measurement results. The paper describes the fitting of a plane to a set of collected points using the least squares distance, with previously excluded outliers via the RANSAC algorithm. Based on that, a method for analysis of the deformation and shift of planar surfaces is also described.

  10. Analysis on surface nanostructures present in hindwing of dragon fly (Sympetrum vulgatum) using atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvakumar, Rajendran; Karuppanan, Karthikeyan K; Pezhinkattil, Radhakrishnan

    2012-12-01

    The present study involves the analysis of surface nanostructures and its variation present in the hind wing of dragon fly (Sympetrum vulgatum) using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The hindwing was dissected into 4 parts (D1-D4) and each dissected section was analyzed using AFM in tapping mode at different locations. The AFM analysis revealed the presence of irregular shaped nanostructures on the surface of the wing membrane with size varying between 83.25±1.79 nm to 195.08±10.25 nm. The size and shape of the nanostructure varied from tip (pterostigma) to the costa part. The membrane surface of the wing showed stacked arrangement leading to increase in size of the nanostructure. Such arrangement of the nanostructures has lead to the formation of nanometer sized valleys of different depth and length on the membrane surface giving them ripple wave morphology. The average roughness of the surface nanostructures varied from 18.58±3.12 nm to 24.25±8.33 nm. Surfaces of the wings had positive skewness in D1, D2 and D4 regions and negative skewness in D3 region. These surface nanostructures may contribute asymmetric resistance under mechanical loading during the flight by increasing the bending and torsional resistance of the wing.

  11. Surface Water & Surface Drainage

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set contains boundaries for all surface water and surface drainage for the state of New Mexico. It is in a vector digital data structure digitized from a...

  12. Bacillus spore classification via surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guicheteau, J; Argue, L; Emge, D; Hyre, A; Jacobson, M; Christesen, S

    2008-03-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) can provide rapid fingerprinting of biomaterial in a nondestructive manner. The adsorption of colloidal silver to biological material suppresses native biofluorescence while providing electromagnetic surface enhancement of the normal Raman signal. This work validates the applicability of qualitative SER spectroscopy for analysis of bacterial species by utilizing principal component analysis (PCA) to show discrimination of biological threat simulants, based upon multivariate statistical confidence limits bounding known data clusters. Gram-positive Bacillus spores (Bacillus atrophaeus, Bacillus anthracis, and Bacillus thuringiensis) are investigated along with the Gram-negative bacterium Pantoea agglomerans.

  13. QUARRY STABILITY ANALYSIS FOR COMPLEX SLIP SURFACES USING THE MATHSLOPE METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petar Hrženjak

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the specific characteristics of rock mass compared to other geological materials, the calculation of rock slope stability is very complex. One of the basic characteristics of rock masses is discontinuity, which, to the most degree, is formed by the geological structure and its elements. Because of discontinuities the slip surfaces of complex shapes are formed in rock slopes, mostly of straight and curved segments. The calculation of the stability factor of rock slopes for complex shapes of slip surfaces has been made possible by the development of the MathSlope method. The complex shape of slip surface has been achieved by introduction of planes of discontinuities in the slip surface. Thus, the setting up and searching procedure of critical slip surfaces of complex shapes is very different in the MathSlope method than in other ones. The example of back analysis for the quarry Vukov Dol shows the successfulness in determining the critical slip surface, as well as the calculation factor of stability for the complex shape of slip surface. Apart from calculating the factor of stability for the complex slip surface, the solution for the position of discontinuity on the slope is obtained, which matches with the real position on the quarry.

  14. Analysis of surfaces for characterization of fungal burden - Does it matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viegas, Carla; Faria, Tiago; Meneses, Márcia; Carolino, Elisabete; Viegas, Susana; Gomes, Anita Quintal; Sabino, Raquel

    2016-01-01

    Mycological contamination of occupational environments can be a result of fungal spores' dispersion in the air and on surfaces. Therefore, it is very important to assess it in both types of the samples. In the present study we assessed fungal contamination in the air and in the surface samples to show relevance of surfaces sampling in complementing the results obtained in the air samples. In total, 42 settings were assessed by the analysis of air and surfaces samples. The settings were divided into settings with a high fungal load (7 poultry farms and 7 pig farms, 3 cork industries, 3 waste management plants, 2 wastewater treatment plants and 1 horse stable) and a low fungal load (10 hospital canteens, 8 college canteens and 1 maternity hospital). In addition to culture-based methods, molecular tools were also applied to detect fungal burden in the settings with a higher fungal load. From the 218 sampling sites, 140 (64.2%) presented different species in the examined surfaces when compared with the species identified in the air. A positive association in the high fungal load settings was found between the presence of different species in the air and surfaces. Wastewater treatment plants constituted the setting with the highest number of different species between the air and surface. We observed that surfaces sampling and application of molecular tools showed the same efficacy of species detection in high fungal load settings, corroborating the fact that surface sampling is crucial for a correct and complete analysis of occupational scenarios. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  15. GHRSST Level 4 RTO Terra MODIS-AMSRE Day North America Regional Blended Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily on an operational basis at the JPL Physical...

  16. GHRSST Level 4 RTO Aqua MODIS-AMSRE Night North America Regional Blended Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily on an operational basis at the JPL Physical...

  17. GHRSST Level 4 RTO Terra MODIS-AMSRE Night North America Regional Blended Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily on an operational basis at the JPL Physical...

  18. GHRSST Level 4 RTO Aqua MODIS-AMSRE Day North America Regional Blended Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily on an operational basis at the JPL Physical...

  19. GHRSST Level 4 CMC0.2deg Global Foundation Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS version 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 4 sea surface temperature (SST) analysis produced daily on an operational basis at the Canadian...

  20. GHRSST Level 4 REMO_OI_SST_5km Regional Foundation Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS version 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 4 sea surface temperature (SST) analysis produced daily on an operational basis by the...

  1. GHRSST Level 4 ODYSSEA North-Western Europe Regional Foundation Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily on an operational basis at Ifremer/CERSAT...

  2. GHRSST Level 4 DMI_OI North Sea and Baltic Sea Regional Foundation Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily on an operational basis by the Danish...

  3. GHRSST Level 4 MW_IR_OI Global Foundation Sea Surface Temperature analysis (GDS versions 1 and 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) global Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily on a 0.81 degree grid at Remote Sensing...

  4. GHRSST Level 4 MUR Global Foundation Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (v4.1) (GDS versions 1 and 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced as a retrospective dataset (four day latency) and...

  5. Molecular cartography of proteins: surface relief analysis of the calf eye lens protein gamma-crystallin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirgadze, Y u; Kurochkina, N; Nikonov, S

    1989-11-01

    Methods of calculating the protein molecular surface and different map representations are described. The maps are obtained by projection of the space-filling molecular model on the surface of the ellipsoid of inertia. A new approach to surface analysis is proposed which is based on the use of three general maps: an identification map with all residues outlined, a surface relief map and a coloured map with a specific colour for each of the surface atoms. Superposition of these maps greatly simplifies molecular surface analysis. The usefulness of such an approach has been demonstrated by the study of the relief of the calf eye lens protein gamma-crystallin II. Protrusions of the relief have been shown to be occupied generally by charged residues, but in some cases by the hydrophobic ones. It is interesting to note that in crystal medium the protruding residues are involved, in the majority of cases, in intermolecular contacts. The protruding regions have been found to be pseudosymmetrical to each other in accordance with the two-fold rotation axis of the molecule. However, the colours of these regions, i.e. the atoms of the corresponding side chains, differ greatly.

  6. Concentration transient analysis of antimony surface segregation during Si(100) molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markert, L. C.; Greene, J. E.; Ni, W.-X.; Hansson, G. V.; Sundgren, J.-E.

    1991-01-01

    Antimony surface segregation during Si(100) molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) was investigated at temperatures T(sub s) = 515 - 800 C using concentration transient analysis (CTA). The dopant surface coverage Theta, bulk fraction gamma, and incorporation probability sigma during MBE were determined from secondary-ion mass spectrometry depth profiles of modulation-doped films. Programmed T(sub s) changes during growth were used to trap the surface-segregated dopant overlayer, producing concentration spikes whose integrated area corresponds to Theta. Thermal antimony doping by coevaporation was found to result in segregation strongly dependent on T(sub s) with Theta(sub Sb) values up to 0.9 monolayers (ML): in films doped with Sb(+) ions accelerated by 100 V, Theta(sub Sb) was less than or equal to 4 x 10(exp -3) ML. Surface segregation of coevaporated antimony was kinematically limited for the film growth conditions in these experiments.

  7. Symmetry Analysis of ZnSe(100) Surface in Air By Second Harmonic Generation

    CERN Document Server

    Song, X; Maripuu, R; Siegbahn, Kai; Song, Xiangyang; Neumann, Arnold; Maripuu, Rein; Siegbahn, Kai

    2002-01-01

    Polarized and azimuthal dependencies of optical second harmonics generation (SHG) at the surface of noncentrosymmetric semiconductor crystals have been measured on polished surfaces of ZnSe(100), using a fundamental wavelength of 1.06$\\mu m$. The SHG intensity patterns were analyzed for all four combination of p- and s-polarized incidence and output, considering both the bulk and surface optical nonlinearities in the electric dipole approximation. We found that the measurement using $S_{in}-S_{out}$ is particularly useful in determining the symmetry of the oxdized layer interface, which would lower the effective symmetry of the surface from $C_{4v}$ to $C_{2v}.$ We also have shown that the [011] and [0$\\bar{1}$1] directions can be distinguished through the analysis of p-incident and p-output confugration.

  8. Modeling, error analysis, and compensation in phase-shifting surface profilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qingying Jim

    2011-08-01

    Optical metrology techniques have been widely used in geometric dimension and shape measurements due to many features such as non-contact measurement, fast measurement speed, digital data format for computerized analysis and visualization, superior resolution, and high accuracy, etc. Among these techniques, phase-shifting based surface profilers have drawn more and more attention due to its full-field measurement and maturing wrapping/unwrapping analysis characteristics. This paper analyzes the error sources in phase-shifting surface profilers, including phaseshifting generation, non-linearity compensation, phase-shifting algorithms, surface contour extraction, modeling, and calibration, etc. Some methods to improve the measurement accuracy through coordinate error compensation are also proposed including transfer functions and look-up table (LUT) methods.

  9. [Surface analysis of intramuscular bioglass ceramic implants using pro ton-induced x-ray emission].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmar, A; Schwabe, F; Thieme, V; Hofmann, H; Berger, G

    1984-01-01

    The method of the proton induced x-ray emission ( PIXE ) was used for the investigation of ion exchange processes on the surface of intramuscularly implanted Bioglass-Ceramics. This method allows a simultaneous analysis free from destruction in concentrations ranges of ppm for several elements. The measurements were carried out with different proton energy, in that manner a relative quantity analysis was possible in different layers. A durable two-layered surface already originates in a short time after the implantation on the implant interface. This one consists of a layer rich in calcium and phosphorus as well as a second zone rich in silicon. The meaning of this two-layered surface for the bio-activity and the bio-stability of the material is discussed.

  10. An Analysis of Thermally-Related Surface Rainfall Budgets Associated with Convective and Stratiform Rainfall

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Yushu; Xiaofan LI

    2011-01-01

    Both water vapor and heat processes play key roles in producing surface rainfall.While the water vapor effects of sea surface temperature and cloud radiative and microphysical processes on surface rainfall have been investigated in previous studies,the thermal effects on rainfall are analyzed in this study using a series of two-dimensional equilibrium cloud-resolving model experiments forced by zonally-uniform,constant,large-scale zonal wind and zero large-scale vertical velocity.The analysis of thermally-related surface rainfall budget reveals that the model domain mean surface rain rate is primarily associated with the mean infrared cooling rate.Convective rainfall and transport of hydrometeor concentration from convective regions to raining stratiform regions corresponds to the heat divergence over convective regions,whereas stratiform rainfall corresponds to the transport of hydrometeor concentration from convective regions and heat divergence over raining stratiform regions.The heat divergence over convective regions is mainly balanced by the heat convergence over rainfall-free regions,which is,in turn,offset by the radiative cooling over rainfall-free regions.The sensitivity experiments of rainfall to the effects of sea surface temperature and cloud radiative and microphysical processes show that the sea surface temperature and cloud processes affect convective rainfall through the changes in infrared cooling rate over rainfall-free regions and transport rate of heat from convective regions to rainfall-free regions.

  11. Global surface temperature change analysis based on MODIS data in recent twelve years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, K. B.; Ma, Y.; Tan, X. L.; Shen, X. Y.; Liu, G.; Li, Z. L.; Chen, J. M.; Xia, L.

    2017-01-01

    Global surface temperature change is one of the most important aspects in global climate change research. In this study, in order to overcome shortcomings of traditional observation methods in meteorology, a new method is proposed to calculate global mean surface temperature based on remote sensing data. We found that (1) the global mean surface temperature was close to 14.35 °C from 2001 to 2012, and the warmest and coldest surface temperatures of the global in the recent twelve years occurred in 2005 and 2008, respectively; (2) the warmest and coldest surface temperatures on the global land surface occurred in 2005 and 2001, respectively, and on the global ocean surface in 2010 and 2008, respectively; and (3) in recent twelve years, although most regions (especially the Southern Hemisphere) are warming, global warming is yet controversial because it is cooling in the central and eastern regions of Pacific Ocean, northern regions of the Atlantic Ocean, northern regions of China, Mongolia, southern regions of Russia, western regions of Canada and America, the eastern and northern regions of Australia, and the southern tip of Africa. The analysis of daily and seasonal temperature change indicates that the temperature change is mainly caused by the variation of orbit of celestial body. A big data model based on orbit position and gravitational-magmatic change of celestial body with the solar or the galactic system should be built and taken into account for climate and ecosystems change at a large spatial-temporal scale.

  12. Profilometric analysis of two composite resins′ surface repolished after tooth brush abrasion with three polishing systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mudit Uppal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the effect of three polishing protocols that could be implemented at recall on the surface roughness of two direct esthetic restorative materials. Materials and Methods: Specimens (n = 40 measuring 8 mm (length × 5 mm (width × 4 mm (height were fabricated in an acrylic mold using two light-cured resin-based materials (microfilled composite and microhybrid composite. After photopolymerization, all specimens were finished and polished with one of three polishing protocols (Enhance, One Gloss, and Sof-Lex polishing systems. The average surface roughness of each treated specimen was determined using 3D optical profilometer. Next all specimens were brushed 60,000 times with nylon bristles at 7200 rpm using crosshead brushing device with equal parts of toothpaste and water used as abrasive medium. The surface roughness of each specimen was measured after brushing followed by repolishing with one of three polishing protocols, and then, the final surface roughness values were determined. Results: The data were analyzed using one-way and two-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA and Tukey′s honestly significant difference (HSD. Significant difference (P < 0.05 in surface roughness was observed. Simulated brushing following initial polishing procedure significantly roughened the surface of restorative material (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Polishing protocols can be used to restore a smooth surface on esthetic restorative materials following simulated tooth brushing.

  13. Evaluation of Implant Collar Surfaces for Marginal Bone Loss: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roodabeh Koodaryan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. It is important to understand the influence of different collar designs on peri-implant marginal bone loss, especially in the critical area. Objectives. The purpose of the present systematic review and meta-analysis was to compare dental implants with different collar surfaces, evaluating marginal bone loss and survival rates of implants. Methods. Eligibility criteria included clinical human studies, randomized controlled trials, and prospective and retrospective studies, which evaluated dental implants with different collar surface in the same study. Results. Twelve articles were included, with a total of 492 machined, 319 rough-surfaced, and 352 rough-surfaced microthreaded neck implants. There was less marginal bone loss at implants with rough-surfaced and rough-surfaced microthreaded neck than at machined-neck implants (difference in means: 0.321, 95% CI: 0.149 to 0.493; p<0.01. Conclusion. Rough and rough-surfaced microthreaded implants are considered a predictable treatment for preserving early marginal bone loss.

  14. Evaluation of Implant Collar Surfaces for Marginal Bone Loss: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background. It is important to understand the influence of different collar designs on peri-implant marginal bone loss, especially in the critical area. Objectives. The purpose of the present systematic review and meta-analysis was to compare dental implants with different collar surfaces, evaluating marginal bone loss and survival rates of implants. Methods. Eligibility criteria included clinical human studies, randomized controlled trials, and prospective and retrospective studies, which evaluated dental implants with different collar surface in the same study. Results. Twelve articles were included, with a total of 492 machined, 319 rough-surfaced, and 352 rough-surfaced microthreaded neck implants. There was less marginal bone loss at implants with rough-surfaced and rough-surfaced microthreaded neck than at machined-neck implants (difference in means: 0.321, 95% CI: 0.149 to 0.493; p < 0.01). Conclusion. Rough and rough-surfaced microthreaded implants are considered a predictable treatment for preserving early marginal bone loss. PMID:27493957

  15. A new surface electromyography analysis method to determine spread of muscle fiber conduction velocities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, F; Van Weerden, TW; Van der Hoeven, JH

    2002-01-01

    Muscle fiber conduction velocity (MFCV) estimation from surface signals is widely used to study muscle function, e. g., in neuromuscular disease and in fatigue studies. However, most analysis methods do not yield information about the velocity distribution of the various motor unit action potentials

  16. Quantitative Analysis on Carbon Migration in Double-Glow Discharge Plasma Surface Alloying Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhen-xia; WANG Cong-zeng; ZHANG Wen-quan; SU Xue-kuan

    2004-01-01

    Carbon migration is of great significance in double-glow discharge plasma surface alloying process, but literature of quantitative analysis about carbon migration is relatively scarce. In this paper differential equations of the carbon and metal concentration distribution were established. By means of differential equations carbon migration was described and a numerical solution was acquired. The computational results fit the experiment results quite well.

  17. Self-adaptive method for high frequency multi-channel analysis of surface wave method

    Science.gov (United States)

    When the high frequency multi-channel analysis of surface waves (MASW) method is conducted to explore soil properties in the vadose zone, existing rules for selecting the near offset and spread lengths cannot satisfy the requirements of planar dominant Rayleigh waves for all frequencies of interest ...

  18. Cortical surface-based analysis reduces bias and variance in kinetic modeling of brain PET data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Douglas N; Svarer, Claus; Fisher, Patrick M

    2014-01-01

    intersubject variance than when volume smoothing was used. This translates into more than 4 times fewer subjects needed in a group analysis to achieve similarly powered statistical tests. Surface-based smoothing has less bias and variance because it respects cortical geometry by smoothing the PET data only...

  19. Wear mechanism of heavy load friction contact pairs in tracked vehicle by combined ferrography and surface analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Li; ZHU You-li; HUANG Yuan-lin; XU Bin-shi; LI Xiao-yan

    2004-01-01

    Ferrography is deemed as one of the most effective methods for wear particle analysis and failure diagnosis. By analyzing the configuration, content and composition of wear particles in the lubricanting grease and the surface state of the worn surface with combined ferrography and surface analysis techniques, the wear mechanism of the ball groove of the master clutch's release device of a heavy load tracked vehicle was determined. Results show that the controlling wear mechanism is combined of abrasion, adhesion, contact fatigue and corrosion wear, which demonstrates the effectiveness of using combined ferrography and worn surface analysis for the study of wear mechanism of contact surface with friction.

  20. Importance of Lid Hygiene Before Ocular Surgery: Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Eyelid and Conjunctiva Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peral, Assumpta; Alonso, Jose; García-García, Concepción; Niño-Rueda, Cristina; Calvo Del Bosque, Patricia

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of a cleansing eyelid wipe in reducing the microbiota present on the ocular surface before cataract surgery. A single-center, prospective, single-blind phase IV study was conducted at the University Complutense of Madrid. Forty-five adult patients who were scheduled for ocular surgery after treatment with commercially available eyelid wipes were consecutively enrolled. The study lasted 5 days and the patients were examined at day 0 (D0), day 3 (D3), and day 5 (D5). They received instructions to apply the eyelid wipe only to the eye subject to surgery, using the other eye as a control with no treatment. Lid and conjunctival swabs were taken on each day and microbes identified. Ocular surface microbiota was estimated by measuring the area of the agar plate occupied by the grown colonies with respect to the total available area. Measurements at D3 and D5 showed a percent reduction of 58% and 63%, respectively, in the microbial load on the eyelid in the treated eyes (P=0.0011). There was also a reduction, although nonsignificant, in the microbiota of the conjunctiva of 72% and 69% on D3 and D5, respectively. The degree of microbiota reduction was comparable with that obtained after topical application of antibiotics in other studies. The results suggest the use of these eyelid wipes as a complementary prophylactic method before any ocular surgery.

  1. Surface Modification of Gold Nanoparticles with Small Molecules for Biochemical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yiping; Xianyu, Yunlei; Jiang, Xingyu

    2017-02-21

    As one of the major tools for and by chemical science, biochemical analysis is becoming increasingly important in fields like clinical diagnosis, food safety, environmental monitoring, and the development of chemistry and biochemistry. The advancement of nanotechnology boosts the development of analytical chemistry, particularly the nanoparticle (NP)-based approaches for biochemical assays. Functional NPs can greatly improve the performance of biochemical analysis because they can accelerate signal transduction, enhance the signal intensity, and enable convenient signal readout due to their unique physical and chemical properties. Surface chemistry is a widely used tool to functionalize NPs, and the strategy for surface modification is of great significance to the application of NP-mediated biochemical assays. Surface chemistry not only affects the quality of NPs (stability, monodispersity, and biocompatibility) but also provides functional groups (-COO(-), -NH3(+), -CHO, and so on) or charges that can be exploited for bioconjugation or ligand exchange. Surface chemistry also dictates the sensitivity and specificity of the NP-mediated biochemical assays, since it is vital to the orientation, accessibility, and bioactivity of the functionalized ligands on the NPs. In this Account, we will focus on surface chemistry for functionalization of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with small organic molecules for biochemical analysis. Compared to other NPs, AuNPs have many merits including controllable synthesis, easy surface modification and high molar absorption coefficient, making them ideal probes for biochemical assays. Small-molecule functionalized AuNPs are widely employed to develop sensors for biochemical analysis, considering that small molecules, such as amino acids and sulfhydryl compounds, are more easily and controllably bioconjugated to the surface of AuNPs than biomacromolecules due to their less complex structure and steric hindrance. The orientation and

  2. The transient response for different types of erodable surface thermocouples using finite element analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Hussein

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The transient response of erodable surface thermocouples has been numerically assessed by using a two dimensional finite element analysis. Four types of base metal erodable surface thermocouples have been examined in this study, included type-K (alumel-chromel, type-E (chromel-constantan, type-T (copper-constantan, and type-J (iron-constantan with 50 mm thick- ness for each. The practical importance of these types of thermocouples is to be used in internal combustion engine studies and aerodynamics experiments. The step heat flux was applied at the surface of the thermocouple model. The heat flux from the measurements of the surface temperature can be commonly identified by assuming that the heat transfer within these devices is one-dimensional. The surface temperature histories at different positions along the thermocouple are presented. The normalized surface temperature histories at the center of the thermocouple for different types at different response time are also depicted. The thermocouple response to different heat flux variations were considered by using a square heat flux with 2 ms width, a sinusoidal surface heat flux variation width 10 ms period and repeated heat flux variation with 2 ms width. The present results demonstrate that the two dimensional transient heat conduction effects have a significant influence on the surface temperature history measurements made with these devices. It was observed that the surface temperature history and the transient response for thermocouple type-E are higher than that for other types due to the thermal properties of this thermocouple. It was concluded that the thermal properties of the surrounding material do have an impact, but the properties of the thermocouple and the insulation materials also make an important contribution to the net response.

  3. Analysis of concentric and eccentric contractions in biceps brachii muscles using surface electromyography signals and multifractal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marri, Kiran; Swaminathan, Ramakrishnan

    2016-06-23

    Muscle contractions can be categorized into isometric, isotonic (concentric and eccentric) and isokinetic contractions. The eccentric contractions are very effective for promoting muscle hypertrophy and produce larger forces when compared to the concentric or isometric contractions. Surface electromyography signals are widely used for analyzing muscle activities. These signals are nonstationary, nonlinear and exhibit self-similar multifractal behavior. The research on surface electromyography signals using multifractal analysis is not well established for concentric and eccentric contractions. In this study, an attempt has been made to analyze the concentric and eccentric contractions associated with biceps brachii muscles using surface electromyography signals and multifractal detrended moving average algorithm. Surface electromyography signals were recorded from 20 healthy individuals while performing a single curl exercise. The preprocessed signals were divided into concentric and eccentric cycles and in turn divided into phases based on range of motion: lower (0°-90°) and upper (>90°). The segments of surface electromyography signal were subjected to multifractal detrended moving average algorithm, and multifractal features such as strength of multifractality, peak exponent value, maximum exponent and exponent index were extracted in addition to conventional linear features such as root mean square and median frequency. The results show that surface electromyography signals exhibit multifractal behavior in both concentric and eccentric cycles. The mean strength of multifractality increased by 15% in eccentric contraction compared to concentric contraction. The lowest and highest exponent index values are observed in the upper concentric and lower eccentric contractions, respectively. The multifractal features are observed to be helpful in differentiating surface electromyography signals along the range of motion as compared to root mean square and median

  4. Detection analysis of surface hydroxyl active sites and simulation calculation of the surface dissociation constants of aqueous diatomite suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shu-Cui; Wang, Zhi-Gang; Zhang, Ji-Lin; Sun, De-Hui; Liu, Gui-Xia

    2015-02-01

    The surface properties of the diatomite were investigated using nitrogen adsorption/deadsorption isotherms, TG-DSC, FTIR, and XPS, and surface protonation-deprotonation behavior was determined by continuous acid-base potentiometric titration technique. The diatomite sample with porous honeycomb structure has a BET specific surface area of 10.21 m2/g and large numbers of surface hydroxyl functional groups (i.e. tbnd Si-OH, tbnd Fe-OH, and tbnd Al-OH). These surface hydroxyls can be protonated or deprotonated depending on the pH of the suspension. The experimental potentiometric data in two different ionic strength solutions (0.1 and 0.05 mol/L NaCl) were fitted using ProtoFit GUI V2.1 program by applying diffuse double layer model (DLM) with three amphoteric sites and minimizing the sum of squares between a dataset derivative function and a model derivative function. The optimized surface parameters (i.e. surface dissociation constants (log K1, log K2) and surface site concentrations (log C)) of the sample were obtained. Based on the optimized surface parameters, the surface species distribution was calculated using Program-free PHREEQC 3.1.2. Thus, this work reveals considerable new information about surface protonation-deprotonation processes and surface adsorptive behaviors of the diatomite, which helps us to effectively use the cheap and cheerful diatomite clay adsorbent.

  5. Development of Response Surface Models for Rapid Analysis & Multidisciplinary Optimization of Launch Vehicle Design Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, Resit

    1999-01-01

    Multdisciplinary design optimization (MDO) is an important step in the design and evaluation of launch vehicles, since it has a significant impact on performance and lifecycle cost. The objective in MDO is to search the design space to determine the values of design parameters that optimize the performance characteristics subject to system constraints. Vehicle Analysis Branch (VAB) at NASA Langley Research Center has computerized analysis tools in many of the disciplines required for the design and analysis of launch vehicles. Vehicle performance characteristics can be determined by the use of these computerized analysis tools. The next step is to optimize the system performance characteristics subject to multidisciplinary constraints. However, most of the complex sizing and performance evaluation codes used for launch vehicle design are stand-alone tools, operated by disciplinary experts. They are, in general, difficult to integrate and use directly for MDO. An alternative has been to utilize response surface methodology (RSM) to obtain polynomial models that approximate the functional relationships between performance characteristics and design variables. These approximation models, called response surface models, are then used to integrate the disciplines using mathematical programming methods for efficient system level design analysis, MDO and fast sensitivity simulations. A second-order response surface model of the form given has been commonly used in RSM since in many cases it can provide an adequate approximation especially if the region of interest is sufficiently limited.

  6. Direct Sampling and Analysis from Solid Phase Extraction Cards using an Automated Liquid Extraction Surface Analysis Nanoelectrospray Mass Spectrometry System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walworth, Matthew J [ORNL; ElNaggar, Mariam S [ORNL; Stankovich, Joseph J [ORNL; WitkowskiII, Charles E. [Protein Discovery, Inc.; Norris, Jeremy L [ORNL; Van Berkel, Gary J [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Direct liquid extraction based surface sampling, a technique previously demonstrated with continuous flow and autonomous pipette liquid microjunction surface sampling probes, has recently been implemented as the Liquid Extraction Surface Analysis (LESA) mode on the commercially available Advion NanoMate chip-based infusion nanoelectrospray ionization system. In the present paper, the LESA mode was applied to the analysis of 96-well format custom solid phase extraction (SPE) cards, with each well consisting of either a 1 or 2 mm diameter monolithic hydrophobic stationary phase. These substrate wells were conditioned, loaded with either single or multi-component aqueous mixtures, and read out using the LESA mode of a TriVersa NanoMate or a Nanomate 100 coupled to an ABI/Sciex 4000QTRAPTM hybrid triple quadrupole/linear ion trap mass spectrometer and a Thermo LTQ XL linear ion trap mass spectrometer. Extraction conditions, including extraction/nanoESI solvent composition, volume, and dwell times, were optimized in the analysis of targeted compounds. Limit of detection and quantitation as well as analysis reproducibility figures of merit were measured. Calibration data was obtained for propranolol using a deuterated internal standard which demonstrated linearity and reproducibility. A 10x increase in signal and cleanup of micromolar Angiotensin II from a concentrated salt solution was demonstrated. Additionally, a multicomponent herbicide mixture at ppb concentration levels was analyzed using MS3 spectra for compound identification in the presence of isobaric interferences.

  7. Theory and Application of Shapelets to the Analysis of Surface Self-assembly Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Suderman, Robert; Abukhdeir, Nasser Mohieddin

    2014-01-01

    A method for quantitative analysis of local pattern strength and defects in surface self-assembly imaging is presented and applied to images of stripe and hexagonal ordered domains. The presented method uses "shapelet" functions which were originally developed for quantitative analysis of images of galaxies ($\\propto 10^{20}\\mathrm{m}$). In this work, they are used instead to quantify the presence of translational order in surface self-assembled films ($\\propto 10^{-9}\\mathrm{m}$) through reformulation into "steerable" filters. The resulting method is both computationally efficient (with respect to the number of filter evaluations), robust to variation in pattern feature shape, and, unlike previous approaches, is applicable to a wide variety of pattern types. An application of the method is presented which uses a nearest-neighbour analysis to distinguish between uniform (defect-free) and non-uniform (strained, defect-containing) regions within imaged self-assembled domains, both with striped and hexagonal pat...

  8. Risk Analysis of Breakwater Caisson Under Wave Attack Using Load Surface Approximation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Hyawn KIM

    2014-01-01

    A new load surface based approach to the reliability analysis of caisson-type breakwater is proposed. Uncertainties of the horizontal and vertical wave loads acting on breakwater are considered by using the so-called load surfaces, which can be estimated as functions of wave height, water level, and so on. Then, the first-order reliability method (FORM) can be applied to determine the probability of failure under the wave action. In this way, the reliability analysis of breakwaters with uncertainties both in wave height and in water level is possible. Moreover, the uncertainty in wave breaking can be taken into account by considering a random variable for wave height ratio which relates the significant wave height to the maximum wave height. The proposed approach is applied numerically to the reliability analysis of caisson breakwater under wave attack that may undergo partial or full wave breaking.

  9. Implementation of Bounding Surface Model into ABAQUS and Its Application to Wellbore Stability Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S.; Al-Muntasheri, G.; Abousleiman, Y. N.

    2014-12-01

    The critical state concept based bounding surface model is one of the most widely used elastoplastic constitutive models for geomaterials, attributed mainly to its essential feature of allowing plastic deformation to occur for stress points within the bounding surface and thus the capability to represent the realistic non-recoverable behaviour of soils and rocks observed under the cyclic loading. This paper develops an implicit integration algorithm for the bounding surface model, using the standard return mapping approach (elastic predictor-plastic corrector), to obtain the updated stresses for the given strain increments. The formulation of the constitutive integration requires the derivation of a supplementary differential equation to describe the evolution of a key variable, i.e., the ratio between the image stress and the current stress quantities. It is essentially an extension of the integration scheme presented in an earlier work used for the simple bounding surface version of modified Cam Clay associated with a substantially simplified hardening rule. The integration algorithm for the bounding surface model is implemented into the finite element analysis commercial program, ABAQUS, through the material interface of UMAT (user defined material subroutine), and then used for the analysis of wellbore stability problem. The predictions from the ABAQUS simulations are generally in excellent agreement with the available analytical solutions, thus demonstrating the accuracy and robustness of the proposed integration scheme.

  10. Spectrum analysis of seismic surface waves and its applications in seismic landmine detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Mubashir; McClellan, James H; Scott, Waymond R

    2007-03-01

    In geophysics, spectrum analysis of surface waves (SASW) refers to a noninvasive method for soil characterization. However, the term spectrum analysis can be used in a wider sense to mean a method for determining and identifying various modes of seismic surface waves and their properties such as velocity, polarization, etc. Surface waves travel along the free boundary of a medium and can be easily detected with a transducer placed on the free surface of the boundary. A new method based on vector processing of space-time data obtained from an array of triaxial sensors is proposed to produce high-resolution, multimodal spectra from surface waves. Then individual modes can be identified in the spectrum and reconstructed in the space-time domain; also, reflected waves can be separated easily from forward waves in the spectrum domain. This new SASW method can be used for detecting and locating landmines by analyzing the reflected waves for resonance. Processing examples are presented for numerically generated data, experimental data collected in a laboratory setting, and field data.

  11. Texture Analysis of Hydrophobic Polycarbonate and Polydimethylsiloxane Surfaces via Persistent Homology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Nabi Duman

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to recent climate change-triggered, regular dust storms in the Middle East, dust mitigation has become the critical issue for solar energy harvesting devices. One of the methods to minimize and prevent dust adhesion and create self-cleaning abilities is to generate hydrophobic characteristics on surfaces. The purpose of this study is to explore the topological features of hydrophobic surfaces. We use non-standard techniques from topological data analysis to extract morphological features from the AFM images. Our method recovers most of the previous qualitative observations in a robust and quantitative way. Persistence diagrams, which is a summary of topological structures, witness quantitatively that the crystallized polycarbonate (PC surface possesses spherulites, voids, and fibrils, and the texture height and spherulite concentration increases with the increased immersion period. The approach also shows that the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS exactly copied the structures at the PC surface but 80 to 90 percent of the nanofibrils were not copied at PDMS surface. We next extract a feature vector from each persistence diagram to show which experiments hold features with similar variance using principal component analysis (PCA. The K-means clustering algorithm is applied to the matrix of feature vectors to support the PCA result, grouping experiments with similar features.

  12. Sampling by sponge wipe or skin excision for recovery of inoculated Salmonella and Campylobacter from defeathered broiler carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrang, Mark E; Cox, Nelson A; Oakley, Brian B

    2014-05-01

    Broilers may carry Salmonella and Campylobacter on inner and outer surfaces upon arrival at the slaughter plant, and carcasses can be further contaminated during commercial processing. A sensitive, nondestructive, repeatable sampling method would be useful to test carcasses for levels of bacteria before and after specific processing steps to measure either contamination or efficacy of intervention techniques. Blending of excised skin is accepted as an effective sampling method but requires damage to the carcass; this makes repeated measurements on the same carcass difficult. Herein we compare sponge sampling to skin excision to recover inoculated Salmonella and Campylobacter from broiler carcasses. In each of three replications, broiler carcass breast skin was inoculated with approximately 6.0 log antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella and Campylobacter, allowed to dry for 60 s, and sampled by either sponge, skin excision, or sponge followed by skin excision. Antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella and Campylobacter were enumerated from all samples. Skin excision allowed recovery of 0.1 to 0.2 log more inoculated bacteria than did sponge sampling. When excision was used on the same skin previously sampled by sponging, the combination of both methods did not significantly improve recovery compared with sponging alone. Skin excision is slightly more sensitive than sponge sampling; however, for repeated nondestructive sampling of broiler carcasses during processing, sponge sampling may be preferable to recover Salmonella and Campylobacter within 60 s of a contamination event.

  13. Detection analysis of surface hydroxyl active sites and simulation calculation of the surface dissociation constants of aqueous diatomite suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Shu-Cui [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Key Laboratory of Applied Chemistry and Nanotechnology at Universities of Jilin Province, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun 130022 (China); Wang, Zhi-Gang [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Zhang, Ji-Lin, E-mail: zjl@ciac.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Sun, De-Hui [Changchun Institute Technology, Changchun 130012 (China); Liu, Gui-Xia, E-mail: liuguixia22@163.com [Key Laboratory of Applied Chemistry and Nanotechnology at Universities of Jilin Province, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun 130022 (China)

    2015-02-01

    Highlights: • To examine surface hydroxyl functional groups of the calcined diatomite by TGA-DSC, FTIR, and XPS. • To calculate the optimized log K{sub 1}, log K{sub 2} and log C values and the surface species distribution of each surface reactive site using ProtoFit and PHREEQC, respectively. - Abstract: The surface properties of the diatomite were investigated using nitrogen adsorption/deadsorption isotherms, TG-DSC, FTIR, and XPS, and surface protonation–deprotonation behavior was determined by continuous acid–base potentiometric titration technique. The diatomite sample with porous honeycomb structure has a BET specific surface area of 10.21 m{sup 2}/g and large numbers of surface hydroxyl functional groups (i.e. ≡Si-OH, ≡Fe-OH, and ≡Al-OH). These surface hydroxyls can be protonated or deprotonated depending on the pH of the suspension. The experimental potentiometric data in two different ionic strength solutions (0.1 and 0.05 mol/L NaCl) were fitted using ProtoFit GUI V2.1 program by applying diffuse double layer model (DLM) with three amphoteric sites and minimizing the sum of squares between a dataset derivative function and a model derivative function. The optimized surface parameters (i.e. surface dissociation constants (log K{sub 1}, log K{sub 2}) and surface site concentrations (log C)) of the sample were obtained. Based on the optimized surface parameters, the surface species distribution was calculated using Program-free PHREEQC 3.1.2. Thus, this work reveals considerable new information about surface protonation–deprotonation processes and surface adsorptive behaviors of the diatomite, which helps us to effectively use the cheap and cheerful diatomite clay adsorbent.

  14. Surface science analysis of GaAs photocathodes following sustained electron beam delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlos Hernandez-Garcia, Fay Hannon, Marcy Stutzman, V. Shutthanandan, Z. Zhu, M. Nandasri, S. V. Kuchibhatla, S. Thevuthasan, W. P. Hess

    2012-06-01

    Degradation of the photocathode materials employed in photoinjectors represents a challenge for sustained operation of nuclear physics accelerators and high power Free Electron Lasers (FEL). Photocathode quantum efficiency (QE) degradation is due to residual gasses in the electron source vacuum system being ionized and accelerated back to the photocathode. These investigations are a first attempt to characterize the nature of the photocathode degradation, and employ multiple surface and bulk analysis techniques to investigate damage mechanisms including sputtering of the Cs-oxidant surface monolayer, other surface chemistry effects, and ion implantation. Surface and bulk analysis studies were conducted on two GaAs photocathodes, which were removed from the JLab FEL DC photoemission gun after delivering electron beam, and two control samples. The analysis techniques include Helium Ion Microscopy (HIM), Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS). In addition, two high-polarization strained superlattice GaAs photocathode samples, one removed from the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) photoinjector and one unused, were also analyzed using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and SIMS. It was found that heat cleaning the FEL GaAs wafer introduces surface roughness, which seems to be reduced by prolonged use. The bulk GaAs samples retained a fairly well organized crystalline structure after delivering beam but shows evidence of Cs depletion on the surface. Within the precision of the SIMS and RBS measurements the data showed no indication of hydrogen implantation or lattice damage from ion back bombardment in the bulk GaAs wafers. In contrast, SIMS and TEM measurements of the strained superlattice photocathode show clear crystal damage in the wafer from ion back bombardment.

  15. Surface science analysis of GaAs photocathodes following sustained electron beam delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Shutthanandan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Degradation of the photocathode materials employed in photoinjectors represents a challenge for sustained operation of nuclear physics accelerators and high power free electron lasers (FEL. Photocathode quantum efficiency degradation is due to residual gases in the electron source vacuum system being ionized and accelerated back to the photocathode. These investigations are a first attempt to characterize the nature of the photocathode degradation, and employ multiple surface and bulk analysis techniques to investigate damage mechanisms including sputtering of the Cs-oxidant surface monolayer, other surface chemistry effects, and ion implantation. Surface and bulk analysis studies were conducted on two GaAs photocathodes, which were removed from the JLab FEL DC photoemission gun after delivering electron beam, and two control samples. The analysis techniques include helium ion microscopy, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS, atomic force microscopy, and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS. In addition, two high-polarization strained superlattice GaAs photocathode samples, one removed from the continuous electron beam accelerator facility (CEBAF photoinjector and one unused, were also analyzed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM and SIMS. It was found that heat cleaning the FEL GaAs wafer introduces surface roughness, which seems to be reduced by prolonged use. The bulk GaAs samples retained a fairly well organized crystalline structure after delivering beam but show evidence of Cs depletion on the surface. Within the precision of the SIMS and RBS measurements, the data showed no indication of hydrogen implantation or lattice damage from ion back bombardment in the bulk GaAs wafers. In contrast, SIMS and TEM measurements of the strained superlattice photocathode show clear crystal damage in the wafer from ion back bombardment.

  16. Surface science analysis of GaAs photocathodes following sustained electron beam delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlos Hernandez-Garcia, Fay Hannon, Marcy Stutzman, V. Shutthanandan, Z. Zhu, M. Nandasri, S. V. Kuchibhatla, S. Thevuthasan, W. P. Hess

    2012-06-01

    Degradation of the photocathode materials employed in photoinjectors represents a challenge for sustained operation of nuclear physics accelerators and high power Free Electron Lasers (FEL). Photocathode quantum efficiency (QE) degradation is due to residual gasses in the electron source vacuum system being ionized and accelerated back to the photocathode. These investigations are a first attempt to characterize the nature of the photocathode degradation, and employ multiple surface and bulk analysis techniques to investigate damage mechanisms including sputtering of the Cs-oxidant surface monolayer, other surface chemistry effects, and ion implantation. Surface and bulk analysis studies were conducted on two GaAs photocathodes, which were removed from the JLab FEL DC photoemission gun after delivering electron beam, and two control samples. The analysis techniques include Helium Ion Microscopy (HIM), Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS). In addition, two high-polarization strained superlattice GaAs photocathode samples, one removed from the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) photoinjector and one unused, were also analyzed using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and SIMS. It was found that heat cleaning the FEL GaAs wafer introduces surface roughness, which seems to be reduced by prolonged use. The bulk GaAs samples retained a fairly well organized crystalline structure after delivering beam but shows evidence of Cs depletion on the surface. Within the precision of the SIMS and RBS measurements the data showed no indication of hydrogen implantation or lattice damage from ion back bombardment in the bulk GaAs wafers. In contrast, SIMS and TEM measurements of the strained superlattice photocathode show clear crystal damage in the wafer from ion back bombardment.

  17. Stratified spectral mixture analysis of medium resolution imagery for impervious surface mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Genyun; Chen, Xiaolin; Ren, Jinchang; Zhang, Aizhu; Jia, Xiuping

    2017-08-01

    Linear spectral mixture analysis (LSMA) is widely employed in impervious surface estimation, especially for estimating impervious surface abundance in medium spatial resolution images. However, it suffers from a difficulty in endmember selection due to within-class spectral variability and the variation in the number and the type of endmember classes contained from pixel to pixel, which may lead to over or under estimation of impervious surface. Stratification is considered as a promising process to address the problem. This paper presents a stratified spectral mixture analysis in spectral domain (Sp_SSMA) for impervious surface mapping. It categorizes the entire data into three groups based on the Combinational Build-up Index (CBI), the intensity component in the color space and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) values. A suitable endmember model is developed for each group to accommodate the spectral variation from group to group. The unmixing into the associated subset (or full set) of endmembers in each group can make the unmixing adaptive to the types of endmember classes that each pixel actually contains. Results indicate that the Sp_SSMA method achieves a better performance than full-set-endmember SMA and prior-knowledge-based spectral mixture analysis (PKSMA) in terms of R, RMSE and SE.

  18. Enveloping Spectral Surfaces: Covariate Dependent Spectral Analysis of Categorical Time Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krafty, Robert T; Xiong, Shuangyan; Stoffer, David S; Buysse, Daniel J; Hall, Martica

    2012-09-01

    Motivated by problems in Sleep Medicine and Circadian Biology, we present a method for the analysis of cross-sectional categorical time series collected from multiple subjects where the effect of static continuous-valued covariates is of interest. Toward this goal, we extend the spectral envelope methodology for the frequency domain analysis of a single categorical process to cross-sectional categorical processes that are possibly covariate dependent. The analysis introduces an enveloping spectral surface for describing the association between the frequency domain properties of qualitative time series and covariates. The resulting surface offers an intuitively interpretable measure of association between covariates and a qualitative time series by finding the maximum possible conditional power at a given frequency from scalings of the qualitative time series conditional on the covariates. The optimal scalings that maximize the power provide scientific insight by identifying the aspects of the qualitative series which have the most pronounced periodic features at a given frequency conditional on the value of the covariates. To facilitate the assessment of the dependence of the enveloping spectral surface on the covariates, we include a theory for analyzing the partial derivatives of the surface. Our approach is entirely nonparametric, and we present estimation and asymptotics in the setting of local polynomial smoothing.

  19. 香蕉抹花、疏果、垫把及套袋技术在南宁市的应用研究%Applied research on flower-wiping, fruit-thinning, fruit-padding, and fruit-bagging techniques of banana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆丹; 刘厚铭; 欧桂兰; 莫凯琳; 粟继军

    2012-01-01

    [Objective]Influences on banana production from applying the flower-wiping, fruit-thinning, fruit -padding, and fruit-bagging techniques were studied in order to obtain a standardized banana production technology for enhancing quality and increasing economical benefits, to improve the market competitiveness of banana. [ Method ] By using the field experimental method, banana experimental bases were selected in Nanning City. Then, according to different growth periods, the tested banana subjects underwent the comprehensive treatment techniques of flower-wiping, fruit-thinning, fruit-padding, and fruit-bagging. The resulting production yield, commodity fruit rate, fruit surface scratch index, and fruit surface mechanical injury index were analyzed and comprehensively compared. [ Result ]The cultivated bananas after "flower-wiping, fruit-thinning, fruit-padding, and fruit-bagging" comprehensive treatment produced an average commodity fruit rate of 98.91%, which increased by 3.21% compared with the control group bananas cultivated from traditional cultivation methods. The fruit surface mechanical injury index of the treated banana averaged to be 2.45% , which was 49.69% lower than that measured from the control group. The spotting rate of the treated banana averaged to be 2.29%, which was 66.69% lower than that measured from the control group. The fruit malformation rate of the treated banana averaged to be 0.69%, which was significantly better than that of the control group banana, which averaged to be 3.18%. From the treated banana, the level 1 fruit rate averaged to be 23.04% and the level 2 fruit rate averaged to be 58.12%, in contrast to the control group banana, which, in the corresponding rates, averaged to be 18.02% and 5.44%. [Conclusion]Applying the "flower-wiping, fruit-thinning, fruit-padding, and fruit-bagging" comprehensive treatment in cultivating banana could slightly increase the fruit production rate, effectively control the occurrences of mechanical

  20. Texture- and deformability-based surface recognition by tactile image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasnobish, Anwesha; Pal, Monalisa; Tibarewala, D N; Konar, Amit; Pal, Kunal

    2016-08-01

    Deformability and texture are two unique object characteristics which are essential for appropriate surface recognition by tactile exploration. Tactile sensation is required to be incorporated in artificial arms for rehabilitative and other human-computer interface applications to achieve efficient and human-like manoeuvring. To accomplish the same, surface recognition by tactile data analysis is one of the prerequisites. The aim of this work is to develop effective technique for identification of various surfaces based on deformability and texture by analysing tactile images which are obtained during dynamic exploration of the item by artificial arms whose gripper is fitted with tactile sensors. Tactile data have been acquired, while human beings as well as a robot hand fitted with tactile sensors explored the objects. The tactile images are pre-processed, and relevant features are extracted from the tactile images. These features are provided as input to the variants of support vector machine (SVM), linear discriminant analysis and k-nearest neighbour (kNN) for classification. Based on deformability, six household surfaces are recognized from their corresponding tactile images. Moreover, based on texture five surfaces of daily use are classified. The method adopted in the former two cases has also been applied for deformability- and texture-based recognition of four biomembranes, i.e. membranes prepared from biomaterials which can be used for various applications such as drug delivery and implants. Linear SVM performed best for recognizing surface deformability with an accuracy of 83 % in 82.60 ms, whereas kNN classifier recognizes surfaces of daily use having different textures with an accuracy of 89 % in 54.25 ms and SVM with radial basis function kernel recognizes biomembranes with an accuracy of 78 % in 53.35 ms. The classifiers are observed to generalize well on the unseen test datasets with very high performance to achieve efficient material

  1. Reconstruction Accuracy Assessment of Surface and Underwater 3D Motion Analysis: A New Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly de Jesus

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed accuracy of surface and underwater 3D reconstruction of a calibration volume with and without homography. A calibration volume (6000 × 2000 × 2500 mm with 236 markers (64 above and 88 underwater control points—with 8 common points at water surface—and 92 validation points was positioned on a 25 m swimming pool and recorded with two surface and four underwater cameras. Planar homography estimation for each calibration plane was computed to perform image rectification. Direct linear transformation algorithm for 3D reconstruction was applied, using 1600000 different combinations of 32 and 44 points out of the 64 and 88 control points for surface and underwater markers (resp.. Root Mean Square (RMS error with homography of control and validations points was lower than without it for surface and underwater cameras (P≤0.03. With homography, RMS errors of control and validation points were similar between surface and underwater cameras (P≥0.47. Without homography, RMS error of control points was greater for underwater than surface cameras (P≤0.04 and the opposite was observed for validation points (P≤0.04. It is recommended that future studies using 3D reconstruction should include homography to improve swimming movement analysis accuracy.

  2. Multiscale analysis of replication technique efficiency for 3D roughness characterization of manufactured surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolivet, S.; Mezghani, S.; El Mansori, M.

    2016-09-01

    The replication of topography has been generally restricted to optimizing material processing technologies in terms of statistical and single-scale features such as roughness. By contrast, manufactured surface topography is highly complex, irregular, and multiscale. In this work, we have demonstrated the use of multiscale analysis on replicates of surface finish to assess the precise control of the finished replica. Five commercial resins used for surface replication were compared. The topography of five standard surfaces representative of common finishing processes were acquired both directly and by a replication technique. Then, they were characterized using the ISO 25178 standard and multiscale decomposition based on a continuous wavelet transform, to compare the roughness transfer quality at different scales. Additionally, atomic force microscope force modulation mode was used in order to compare the resins’ stiffness properties. The results showed that less stiff resins are able to replicate the surface finish along a larger wavelength band. The method was then tested for non-destructive quality control of automotive gear tooth surfaces.

  3. A factorial analysis of silanization conditions for the immobilization of oligonucleotides on glass surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliwell, C M; Cass, A E

    2001-06-01

    The modification of glass surfaces with (3-mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane and the application of this to DNA chip technology are described. A range of factors influencing the silanization method, and hence the number of surface-bound, chemically active thiol groups, were investigated using a design of experiment approach based on analysis of variance. The number of thiol groups introduced on glass substrates were measured directly using a specific radiolabel, [14C]cysteamine hydrochloride. For liquid-phase silanization, the number of surface-bound thiol groups was found to be dependent on both postsilanization thermal curing and silanization time and relatively independent of silane concentration, reaction temperature, and sample pretreatment. Depending on the conditions used in liquid-phase silanization, (1.3-9.0) x 10(12) thiol groups/cm2 on the glass samples were bound. The reliability and repeatability of liquid- and vacuum-phase silanization were also investigated. Eighteen-base oligonucleotide probes were covalently attached to the modified surfaces via a 3'-amino modification on the DNA and subsequent reaction with the cross-linking reagent N-(gamma-maleimidobutyryloxy) succinimide ester (GMBS). The resulting probe levels were determined and found to be stoichiometric with that of the introduced thiol groups. These results demonstrate that silanization of glass surfaces under specific conditions, prior to probe attachment, is of great importance in the development of DNA chips that use the simple concept of the covalent attachment of presynthesized oligonucleotides to silicon oxide surfaces.

  4. Analysis on MHD Stability of Free Surface Jet flow in a Gradient Magnetic Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许增裕; 康伟山; 潘传杰

    2004-01-01

    The simplified modeling for analysis on MHD stability of free surface jet flow in a gradient magnetic fields is based on the theoretical and experimental results on channel liquid metal MHD flow, especially, the results of MHD flow velocity distribution in cross-section of channels (rectangular duct and circular pipe), and the expected results from the modeling are well agreed with the recent experimental data obtained. It is the first modeling which can efficiently explain the experimental results of liquid-metal free surface jet flow.

  5. Surface and Thin Film Analysis A Compendium of Principles, Instrumentation, and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Friedbacher, Gernot

    2011-01-01

    Surveying and comparing all techniques relevant for practical applications in surface and thin film analysis, this second edition of a bestseller is a vital guide to this hot topic in nano- and surface technology. This new book has been revised and updated and is divided into four parts - electron, ion, and photon detection, as well as scanning probe microscopy. New chapters have been added to cover such techniques as SNOM, FIM, atom probe (AP),and sum frequency generation (SFG). Appendices with a summary and comparison of techniques and a list of equipment suppliers make this book a rapid ref

  6. Analysis of the Forming Process of Conical-Like Helical Surfaces with Roller Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kacalak W.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a methodology of an analysis and modeling of technological systems and the grinding process of conical-like helical surfaces with the use of modern CAD/CAE systems and calculations in the Matlab system. The methodology developed allows one to carry out simulation tests for the accuracy of the grinding process of helical surfaces taking into consideration the deviations of the location and shape of the system’s elements, axial and radial striking the spindle of the workpiece machined and the grinding wheel as well as the tool’s geometrical features.

  7. [A geometrical analysis of the shape of the response surface in ecologico-toxicologic experiments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksimov, V N; Kadomtsev, S V; Korsak, M N; Lifshits, A V

    1989-01-01

    A new method of working up results of factorial toxicological experiments is put forward and illustrated by a number of examples. It is based on the profound comparison of values of reactions as consequences of toxic influence and aimed at revealing the combinations of toxicant concentrations that break the monotonous character of a surface which graphically depicts the effect of pollutants. The geometrical analysis allows us to have a new vision of numerous results of factorial experiments, gives some complimentary possibilities for quantitative evaluation of impact of pollutants by mean of surface diagrams and for experimental assessment of environmental parameters of natural communities.

  8. Analytical modeling and thermodynamic analysis of robust superhydrophobic surfaces with inverse-trapezoidal microstructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Maesoon; Im, Hwon; Lee, Joo-Hyung; Yoon, Jun-Bo; Choi, Yang-Kyu

    2010-11-16

    A polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer surface with perfectly ordered microstructures having an inverse-trapezoidal cross-sectional profile (simply PDMS trapezoids) showed superhydrophobic and transparent characteristics under visible light as reported in our previous work. The addition of a fluoropolymer (Teflon) coating enhances both features and provides oleophobicity. This paper focuses on the analytical modeling of the fabricated PDMS trapezoids structure and thermodynamic analysis based on the Gibbs free energy analysis. Additionally, the wetting characteristics of the fabricated PDMS trapezoids surface before and after the application of the Teflon coating are analytically explained. The Gibbs free energy analysis reveals that, due to the Teflon coating, the Cassie-Baxter state becomes energetically more favorable than the Wenzel state and the contact angle difference between the Cassie-Baxter state and the Wenzel state decreases. These two findings support the robustness of the superhydrophobicity of the fabricated Teflon-coated PDMS trapezoids. This is then verified via the impinging test of a water droplet at a high speed. The dependencies of the design parameters in the PDMS trapezoids on the hydrophobicity are also comprehensively studied through a thermodynamic analysis. Geometrical dependency on the hydrophobicity shows that overhang microstructures do not have a significant influence on the hydrophobicity. In contrast, the intrinsic contact angle of the structural material is most important in determining the apparent contact angle. On the other hand, the experimental results showed that the side angles of the overhangs are critical not for the hydrophobic but for the oleophobic property with liquids of a low surface tension. Understanding of design parameters in the PDMS trapezoids surface gives more information for implementation of superhydrophobic surfaces.

  9. Saliva analysis combining membrane protein purification with surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for nasopharyngeal cancer detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shangyuan; Lin, Duo; Lin, Juqiang; Huang, Zufang; Chen, Guannan; Li, Yongzeng; Huang, Shaohua; Zhao, Jianhua; Chen, Rong; Zeng, Haishan

    2014-02-01

    A method for saliva analysis combining membrane protein purification with silver nanoparticle-based surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) for non-invasive nasopharyngeal cancer detection was present in this paper. In this method, cellulose acetate membrane was used to obtain purified whole proteins from human saliva while removing other native saliva constituents and exogenous substances. The purified proteins were mixed with silver nanoparticle for SERS analysis. A diagnostic accuracy of 90.2% can be achieved by principal components analysis combined with linear discriminate analysis, for saliva samples obtained from patients with nasopharyngeal cancer (n = 62) and healthy volunteers (n = 30). This exploratory study demonstrated the potential for developing non-invasive, rapid saliva SERS analysis for nasopharyngeal cancer detection.

  10. Allometric analysis of the induced flavonols on the leaf surface of wild tobacco (Nicotiana attenuata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roda, Amy L; Oldham, Neil J; Svatos, Ales; Baldwin, Ian T

    2003-02-01

    Trichomes excrete secondary metabolites that may alter the chemical composition of the leaf surface, reducing damage caused by herbivores, pathogens and abiotic stresses. We examined the surface exudates produced by Nicotiana attenuata Torr. Ex Wats., a plant known to contain and secrete a number of secondary metabolites that are toxic or a deterrent to herbivorous insects. Extractions specific to the leaf surface, the trichomes, and the laminar components demonstrated the localization of particular compounds. Diterpene glycosides occurred exclusively in leaf mesophyll, whereas nicotine was found in both the trichomes and mesophyll. Neither rutin nor nicotine was found on the leaf surface. Quercetin and 7 methylated derivatives were found in the glandular trichomes and appeared to be excreted onto the leaf surface. We examined the elicitation of these flavonols on the leaf surface with a surface-area allometric analysis, which measures changes in metabolites independent of the effects of leaf expansion. The flavonols responded differently to wounding, methyl jasmonate (MeJA), herbivore attack and UV-C radiation, and the response patterns corresponded to their compound-specific allometries. Finding greater amounts of quercetin on younger leaves and reduced amounts after herbivore feeding and MeJA treatment, we hypothesized that quercetin may function as an attractant, helping the insects locate a preferred feeding site. Consistent with this hypothesis, mirids (Tupiocoris notatus) were found more often on mature leaves sprayed with quercetin at a concentration typical of young leaves than on unsupplemented mature leaves. The composition of metabolites on the leaf surface of N. attenuata changes throughout leaf development and in response to herbivore attack or environmental stress, and these changes are mediated in part by responses of the glandular trichomes.

  11. Preliminary analysis of surface mining options for Naval Oil Shale Reserve 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-07-20

    The study was undertaken to determine the economic viability of surface mining to exploit the reserves. It is based on resource information already developed for NOSR 1 and conceptual designs of mining systems compatible with this resource. Environmental considerations as they relate to surface mining have been addressed qualitatively. The conclusions on economic viability were based primarily on mining costs projected from other industries using surface mining. An analysis of surface mining for the NOSR 1 resource was performed based on its particular overburden thickness, oil shale thickness, oil shale grade, and topography. This evaluation considered reclamation of the surface as part of its design and cost estimate. The capital costs for mining 25 GPT and 30 GPT shale and the operating costs for mining 25 GPT, 30 GPT, and 35 GPT shale are presented. The relationship between operating cost and stripping ratio, and the break-even stripping ratio (BESR) for surface mining to be competitive with room-and-pillar mining, are shown. Identification of potential environmental impacts shows that environmental control procedures for surface mining are more difficult to implement than those for underground mining. The following three areas are of prime concern: maintenance of air quality standards by disruption, movement, and placement of large quantities of overburden; disruption or cutting of aquifers during the mining process which affect area water supplies; and potential mineral leaching from spent shales into the aquifers. Although it is an operational benefit to place spent shale in the open pit, leaching of the spent shales and contamination of the water is detrimental. It is therefore concluded that surface mining on NOSR 1 currently is neither economically desirable nor environmentally safe. Stringent mitigation measures would have to be implemented to overcome some of the potential environmental hazards.

  12. Surface topography analysis and performance on post-CMP images (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jusang; Bello, Abner F.; Kakita, Shinichiro; Pieniazek, Nicholas; Johnson, Timothy A.

    2017-03-01

    again be calculated and used as yet another quantifiable parameter for SPC. In this work we measured the post Cu CMP of a die designed for 14nm technology. A region of interest (ROI) known to be indicative of the CMP processing is chosen for the topography analysis. The ROI, of size 1800 x 2500 pixels where each pixel represents 2um, was repeatably measured. We show the sensitivity based on measurements and the comparison between center and edge die measurements. The topography measurements and surface patch analysis were applied to hundreds of images representing the periodic process qualification runs required to control and verify CMP performance and tool matching. The analysis is shown to be sensitive to process conditions that vary in polishing time, type of slurry, CMP tool manufacturer, and CMP pad lifetime. Keywords: Keywords: CMP, Topography, Image Processing, Metrology, Interference microscopy, surface processing [1] De Lega, Xavier Colonna, and Peter De Groot. "Optical topography measurement of patterned wafers." Characterization and Metrology for ULSI Technology 2005 788 (2005): 432-436. [2] de Groot, Peter. "Coherence scanning interferometry." Optical Measurement of Surface Topography. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2011. 187-208. [3] Watson, Layne T., Thomas J. Laffey, and Robert M. Haralick. "Topographic classification of digital image intensity surfaces using generalized splines and the discrete cosine transformation." Computer Vision, Graphics, and Image Processing 29.2 (1985): 143-167. [4] Wang, Jun, et al. "3D facial expression recognition based on primitive surface feature distribution." Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, 2006 IEEE Computer Society Conference on. Vol. 2. IEEE, 2006.

  13. A Statistical Theory for Shape Analysis of Curves and Surfaces with Applications in Image Analysis, Biometrics, Bioinformatics and Medical Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-10

    targets in noisy/corrupted images (Bayesian active contours), finding shape models in point clouds derived from images, shape analysis of facial surfaces...Srivastava and I. H. Jermyn, Bayesian Classification of Shapes Hidden in Point Clouds , Proceedings of 13th Digital Signal Processing Workshop, Marco...CA, June 2010. 18. J. Su, Z. Zhu, F. Huffer, and A. Srivastava, Detecting Shapes in 2D Point Clouds Generated from Images, International Conference on

  14. Continuous wavelet transform and discrete multi-resolution analysis of surface fluxes and atmospheric stability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Variations of land surface fluxes of sensible heat (H), latent heat ( LE ), and CO2(F-CO2) obtained from the eddy-covariance measurements above a winter wheat field from March 30 to April 24, 2001 have been studied at scales ranging from 10 minutes to days. Wavelet transform is used in the analysis of land surface fluxes and atmospheric stability (ζ) calculated from the measurements to reveal the changes in land surface fluxes in hours to days scales. The main results are: (1) Concise and compact information about the fluxes, net radiation (Rn), temperature (T) and ζ in the scale-time domain are extracted from the data by continuous wavelet analysis,and 1 day, 0.5 day and short-period (shorter than 0.5 day) components are revealed. Continuous wavelet coefficients can be used to characterize periodic components of changes in fluxes and ζ. (2) Discrete-time multi-resolution analysis can be used to concentrate total energy variance of time series of the measurements to a small number of coefficients, plotting the relative energy distribution to get several meaningful characteristics of the data. (3) Under neutral atmospheric conditions, the relative energy distributions of the Haar multi-resolution analysis of the three non-dimensional coefficients (T/T* , q/q * and c/c * ) display clear similarities.

  15. Automated analysis of art object surfaces using time-averaged digital speckle pattern interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukomski, Michal; Krzemien, Leszek

    2013-05-01

    Technical development and practical evaluation of a laboratory built, out-of-plane digital speckle pattern interferometer (DSPI) are reported. The instrument was used for non-invasive, non-contact detection and characterization of early-stage damage, like fracturing and layer separation, of painted objects of art. A fully automated algorithm was developed for recording and analysis of vibrating objects utilizing continuous-wave laser light. The algorithm uses direct, numerical fitting or Hilbert transformation for an independent, quantitative evaluation of the Bessel function at every point of the investigated surface. The procedure does not require phase modulation and thus can be implemented within any, even the simplest, DSPI apparatus. The proposed deformation analysis is fast and computationally inexpensive. Diagnosis of physical state of the surface of a panel painting attributed to Nicolaus Haberschrack (a late-mediaeval painter active in Krakow) from the collection of the National Museum in Krakow is presented as an example of an in situ application of the developed methodology. It has allowed the effectiveness of the deformation analysis to be evaluated for the surface of a real painting (heterogeneous colour and texture) in a conservation studio where vibration level was considerably higher than in the laboratory. It has been established that the methodology, which offers automatic analysis of the interferometric fringe patterns, has a considerable potential to facilitate and render more precise the condition surveys of works of art.

  16. Analytical Round Robin for Elastic-Plastic Analysis of Surface Cracked Plates: Phase I Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, D. N.; Allen, P. A.

    2012-01-01

    An analytical round robin for the elastic-plastic analysis of surface cracks in flat plates was conducted with 15 participants. Experimental results from a surface crack tension test in 2219-T8 aluminum plate provided the basis for the inter-laboratory study (ILS). The study proceeded in a blind fashion given that the analysis methodology was not specified to the participants, and key experimental results were withheld. This approach allowed the ILS to serve as a current measure of the state of the art for elastic-plastic fracture mechanics analysis. The analytical results and the associated methodologies were collected for comparison, and sources of variability were studied and isolated. The results of the study revealed that the J-integral analysis methodology using the domain integral method is robust, providing reliable J-integral values without being overly sensitive to modeling details. General modeling choices such as analysis code, model size (mesh density), crack tip meshing, or boundary conditions, were not found to be sources of significant variability. For analyses controlled only by far-field boundary conditions, the greatest source of variability in the J-integral assessment is introduced through the constitutive model. This variability can be substantially reduced by using crack mouth opening displacements to anchor the assessment. Conclusions provide recommendations for analysis standardization.

  17. Surface analysis of CdTe after various pre-contact treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waters, D.M. [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Niles, D.; Gessert, T.A.; Albin, D.; Rose, D.H.; Sheldon, P. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1998-09-01

    The authors present surface analysis of close-spaced sublimated (CSS) CdTe after various pre-contact treatments. Methods include Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and grazing-incidence x-ray diffraction (GI-XRD). XPS and GI-XRD analyses of the surface residue left by the solution-based CdCl{sub 2} treatment do not indicate the presence of a significant amount of CdCl{sub 2}. In addition, the solubility properties and relatively high thermal stability of the residue suggest the presence of the oxychloride Cd{sub 3}Cl{sub 2}O{sub 2} rather than CdCl{sub 2} as the major chlorine-containing component. Of the methods tested for their effectiveness in removing the residue, only HNO{sub 3} etches removed all detectable traces of chlorine from the surface.

  18. [Application progress of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for surface analysis in materials science field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Jia, Yun-Hai; Chen, Ji-Wen; Liu, Ying; Shen, Xue-Jing; Zhao, Lei; Wang, Shu-Ming; Yu, Hong; Han, Peng-Cheng; Qu, Hua-Yang; Liu, Shao-Zun

    2012-06-01

    As a truly surface analytical tool, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was developed in recent ten years, and in this paper, fundamental theory, instrumentation and it's applications in material science are reviewed in detail. Application progress of elemental distribution and depth profile analysis are mainly discussed in the field of metallurgy, semiconductor and electronical materials at home and abroad. It is pointed out that the pulse energy, ambient gas and it's pressure, and energy distribution of laser beam strongly influence spatial and depth resolution, and meanwhile a approach to improving resolution considering analytical sensitivity is provided. Compared with traditional surface analytical methods, the advantage of LIBS is very large scanning area, high analytical speed, and that conducting materials or non-conducting materials both can be analyzed. It becomes a powerful complement of traditional surface analytical tool.

  19. SEM Analysis of Residual Dentin Surface in Primary Teeth Using Different Chemomechanical Caries Removal Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Rachna; Patil, Sandya Devi S; Kush, Anil; Madhu, K

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to analyze the residual dentinal surfaces following caries removal using two chemomechanical methods (Papacarie Duo and Carie Care), by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Twenty extracted primary molars with active occlusal carious lesions were randomly assigned two groups depending on the CMCR agent used for the caries excavation - Group 1 - with Papacarie Duo and Group - 2 with Carie Care. After the caries excavation, the specimens were subjected to SEM analysis. Though both the agents showed the minimal smear layer with the patent dentinal tubules, Carie care showed patent dentinal tubules with a clearly exposed peritubular and intertubular collagen network. Carie Care treated surface exhibited better surface morphology of residual dentin.

  20. Surface analysis of rubbers and plastics using secondary neutral mass spectrometry.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellin, M. J.; Savina, M. R.

    1999-08-23

    Rubber and plastics are complex mixtures of long-chain polymers, smaller organic additives used as plasticizers, mildicides, fungicides, colorants, etc., and inorganic additives such as carbon and silica. Surface analysis of such materials is at once difficult and important. The difficulty lies in the need to identify specific carbon molecules on a very similar organic surface. The importance arises from the dramatic effect that the distribution and concentration of additives have on the physical properties of polymeric materials. Recently we have had some success in applying laser desorption post-ionization mass spectrometry in measuring the surface concentration and distribution of both additives and the polymer molecules themselves. The key has been to use the photoionization properties of the analyte of interest to augment mass spectrometric information.