Application of Rudoe’s Formula in Long Seismic Surface Wave Paths Determination
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jorge L. de Souza
2005-12-01
Full Text Available An algorithm to compute accurate distances over grid cells crossed by seismic surface wave paths by Rudoe’s formula is proposed. The intersection coordinates between paths and the geodetic grid are also computed, which data are exhibited in an azimuthal equidistant projection to check the results. GRS-80 is the adopted ellipsoidal Earth model. The algorithm computes the intermediate intersections, from both forward and reciprocal normal sections given by Rudoe’s method, which separation may be greater than the cell size. It was tested on a data set including 3,269 source-station paths, which seismic events were recorded at 23 IRIS stations. The epicentral distances range from 1,634 km to 16,400 km, which the grid spreads over 149°E x 21°W, and 50°N x 90°S. The results show that the estimated intersections accuracy depends on the path azimuth and latitude, which influence may be significative for very long distances as in teleseismic applications, which argues for the algorithm application.
Sakurai, Takashi; Goossens, Marcel; Hollweg, Joseph V.
1991-01-01
The present method of addressing the resonance problems that emerge in such MHD phenomena as the resonant absorption of waves at the Alfven resonance point avoids solving the fourth-order differential equation of dissipative MHD by recourse to connection formulae across the dissipation layer. In the second part of this investigation, the absorption of solar 5-min oscillations by sunspots is interpreted as the resonant absorption of sounds by a magnetic cylinder. The absorption coefficient is interpreted (1) analytically, under certain simplifying assumptions, and numerically, under more general conditions. The observed absorption coefficient magnitude is explained over suitable parameter ranges.
Fundamental formulae for wave-energy conversion.
Falnes, Johannes; Kurniawan, Adi
2015-03-01
The time-average wave power that is absorbed from an incident wave by means of a wave-energy conversion (WEC) unit, or by an array of WEC units-i.e. oscillating immersed bodies and/or oscillating water columns (OWCs)-may be mathematically expressed in terms of the WEC units' complex oscillation amplitudes, or in terms of the generated outgoing (diffracted plus radiated) waves, or alternatively, in terms of the radiated waves alone. Following recent controversy, the corresponding three optional expressions are derived, compared and discussed in this paper. They all provide the correct time-average absorbed power. However, only the first-mentioned expression is applicable to quantify the instantaneous absorbed wave power and the associated reactive power. In this connection, new formulae are derived that relate the 'added-mass' matrix, as well as a couple of additional reactive radiation-parameter matrices, to the difference between kinetic energy and potential energy in the water surrounding the immersed oscillating WEC array. Further, a complex collective oscillation amplitude is introduced, which makes it possible to derive, by a very simple algebraic method, various simple expressions for the maximum time-average wave power that may be absorbed by the WEC array. The real-valued time-average absorbed power is illustrated as an axisymmetric paraboloid defined on the complex collective-amplitude plane. This is a simple illustration of the so-called 'fundamental theorem for wave power'. Finally, the paper also presents a new derivation that extends a recently published result on the direction-average maximum absorbed wave power to cases where the WEC array's radiation damping matrix may be singular and where the WEC array may contain OWCs in addition to oscillating bodies.
A simple formula for the net long-wave radiation flux in the southern Baltic Sea
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tomasz Zapadka
2001-09-01
Full Text Available This paper discusses problems of estimating the net long-wave radiation flux at the sea surface on the basis of easily measurable meteorological quantities (air and sea surface temperatures, near-surface water vapour pressure, cloudiness. Empirical data and existing formulae are compared. Additionally, an improved formula for the southern Baltic region is introduced, with a systematic error of less than 1 W -2 and a statistical error of less than 20 W -2.
Superresolution Near-field Imaging with Surface Waves
Fu, Lei; Liu, Zhaolun; Schuster, Gerard T.
2017-01-01
We present the theory for near-field superresolution imaging with surface waves and time reverse mirrors (TRMs). Theoretical formulas and numerical results show that applying the TRM operation to surface waves in an elastic half-space can achieve
Tapping of Love waves in an isotropic surface waveguide by surface-to-bulk wave transduction.
Tuan, H.-S.; Chang, C.-P.
1972-01-01
A theoretical study of tapping a Love wave in an isotropic microacoustic surface waveguide is given. The surface Love wave is tapped by partial transduction into a bulk wave at a discontinuity. It is shown that, by careful design of the discontinuity, the converted bulk wave power and the radiation pattern may be controlled. General formulas are derived for the calculation of these important characteristics from a relatively general surface contour deformation.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Takayama, Osamu; Crasovan, Lucian Cornel; Johansen, Steffen Kjær
2008-01-01
The interface of two semi-infinite media, where at least one of them is a birefringent crystal, supports a special type of surface wave that was predicted theoretically by D'yakonov in 1988. Since then, the properties of such waves, which exist in transparent media only under very special......, the existence of these surface waves in specific material examples is analyzed, discussing the challenge posed by their experimental observation....
Pizzo, Nick
2017-11-01
A simple criterion for water particles to surf an underlying surface gravity wave is presented. It is found that particles travelling near the phase speed of the wave, in a geometrically confined region on the forward face of the crest, increase in speed. The criterion is derived using the equation of John (Commun. Pure Appl. Maths, vol. 6, 1953, pp. 497-503) for the motion of a zero-stress free surface under the action of gravity. As an example, a breaking water wave is theoretically and numerically examined. Implications for upper-ocean processes, for both shallow- and deep-water waves, are discussed.
On the maximum of wave surface of sea waves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, B
1980-01-01
This article considers wave surface as a normal stationary random process to solve the estimation of the maximum of wave surface in a given time interval by means of the theoretical results of probability theory. The results are represented by formulas (13) to (19) in this article. It was proved in this article that when time interval approaches infinite, the formulas (3), (6) of E )eta max) that were derived from the references (Cartwright, Longuet-Higgins) can also be derived by asymptotic distribution of the maximum of wave surface provided by the article. The advantage of the results obtained from this point of view as compared with the results obtained from the references was discussed.
Borcherdt, R. D.
2007-12-01
General theoretical solutions for Rayleigh- and Love-Type surface waves in viscoelastic media describe physical characteristics of the surface waves in elastic as well as anelastic media with arbitrary amounts of intrinsic absorption. In contrast to corresponding physical characteristics for Rayleigh waves in elastic media, Rayleigh- Type surface waves in anelastic media demonstrate; 1) tilt of the particle motion orbit that varies with depth, and 2) amplitude and volumetric strain distributions with superimposed sinusoidal variations that decay exponentially with depth. Each characteristic is dependent on the amount of intrinsic absorption and the chosen model of viscoelasticity. Distinguishing characteristics of anelastic Love-Type surface waves include: 1) dependencies of the wave speed and absorption coefficient on the chosen model and amount of intrinsic absorption and frequency, and 2) superimposed sinusoidal amplitude variations with an exponential decay with depth. Numerical results valid for a variety of viscoelastic models provide quantitative estimates of the physical characteristics of both types of viscoelastic surface waves appropriate for interpretations pertinent to models of earth materials ranging from low-loss in the crust to moderate- and high-loss in water-saturated soils.
Parsimonious Surface Wave Interferometry
Li, Jing
2017-10-24
To decrease the recording time of a 2D seismic survey from a few days to one hour or less, we present a parsimonious surface-wave interferometry method. Interferometry allows for the creation of a large number of virtual shot gathers from just two reciprocal shot gathers by crosscoherence of trace pairs, where the virtual surface waves can be inverted for the S-wave velocity model by wave-equation dispersion inversion (WD). Synthetic and field data tests suggest that parsimonious wave-equation dispersion inversion (PWD) gives S-velocity tomograms that are comparable to those obtained from a full survey with a shot at each receiver. The limitation of PWD is that the virtual data lose some information so that the resolution of the S-velocity tomogram can be modestly lower than that of the S-velocity tomogram inverted from a conventional survey.
Parsimonious Surface Wave Interferometry
Li, Jing; Hanafy, Sherif; Schuster, Gerard T.
2017-01-01
To decrease the recording time of a 2D seismic survey from a few days to one hour or less, we present a parsimonious surface-wave interferometry method. Interferometry allows for the creation of a large number of virtual shot gathers from just two reciprocal shot gathers by crosscoherence of trace pairs, where the virtual surface waves can be inverted for the S-wave velocity model by wave-equation dispersion inversion (WD). Synthetic and field data tests suggest that parsimonious wave-equation dispersion inversion (PWD) gives S-velocity tomograms that are comparable to those obtained from a full survey with a shot at each receiver. The limitation of PWD is that the virtual data lose some information so that the resolution of the S-velocity tomogram can be modestly lower than that of the S-velocity tomogram inverted from a conventional survey.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dühring, Maria Bayard
The work of this project is concerned with the simulation of surface acoustic waves (SAW) and topology optimization of SAW devices. SAWs are elastic vibrations that propagate along a material surface and are extensively used in electromechanical filters and resonators in telecommunication. A new...
A Simple Proof of Cauchy's Surface Area Formula
Tsukerman, Emmanuel; Veomett, Ellen
2016-01-01
We give a short and simple proof of Cauchy's surface area formula, which states that the average area of a projection of a convex body is equal to its surface area up to a multiplicative constant in the dimension.
Nonlinear surface Alfven waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cramer, N.F.
1991-01-01
The problem of nonlinear surface Alfven waves propagating on an interface between a plasma and a vacuum is discussed, with dispersion provided by the finite-frequency effect, i.e. the finite ratio of the frequency to the ion-cyclotron frequency. A set of simplified nonlinear wave equations is derived using the method of stretched co-ordinates, and another approach uses the generation of a second-harmonic wave and its interaction with the first harmonic to obtain a nonlinear dispersion relation. A nonlinear Schroedinger equation is then derived, and soliton solutions found that propagate as solitary pulses in directions close to parallel and antiparallel to the background magnetic field. (author)
Spectral Approach to Derive the Representation Formulae for Solutions of the Wave Equation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gusein Sh. Guseinov
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Using spectral properties of the Laplace operator and some structural formula for rapidly decreasing functions of the Laplace operator, we offer a novel method to derive explicit formulae for solutions to the Cauchy problem for classical wave equation in arbitrary dimensions. Among them are the well-known d'Alembert, Poisson, and Kirchhoff representation formulae in low space dimensions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhao, D.; Suzuki, Y.; Komori, S.
2003-01-01
A new formula for gas transfer velocity as a function of the breaking-wave parameter is proposed based on correlating gas transfer with whitecap coverage. The new formula for gas transfer across an air-sea interface depends not only on wind speed but also on wind-wave state. At the same wind speed, a higher gas transfer velocity will be obtained for a more developed wind-sea, which is represented by a smaller spectral peak frequency of wind waves. We suggest that the large uncertainties in the traditional relationship of gas transfer velocity with wind speed be ascribed to the neglect of the effect of wind waves. The breaking-wave parameter can be regarded as a Reynolds number that characterizes the intensity of turbulence associated with wind waves in the downward-bursting boundary layer (DBBL). DBBL provides an effective way to exchange gas across the air-sea interface, which might be related to the surface renewal
Surface Waves on Metamaterials Interfaces
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Takayama, Osamu; Shkondin, Evgeniy; Panah, Mohammad Esmail Aryaee
2016-01-01
We analyze surface electromagnetic waves supported at the interface between isotropic medium and effective anisotropic material that can be realized by alternating conductive and dielectrics layers. This configuration can host various types of surface waves and therefore can serve as a rich...... platform for applications of surface photonics. Most of these surface waves are directional and as such their propagation can be effectively controlled by changing wavelength or material parameters tuning....
Improved analytical formulas for x-ray and neutron reflection from surface films
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhou, X.; Chen, S.; Felcher, G.P.
1992-01-01
A general and exact expression for x-ray and neutron reflectance and transmittance is given in terms of an integral of the real-space scattering-length-density profile fluctuation of the film, with respect to an arbitrary constant reference density level, over the wave function inside the film. Various special cases and approximations are then derived from this exact form by suitable approximations of the wave function. In particular, two practical approximate formulas are derived which are improvement over the corresponding distorted-wave Born approximations. One is for an arbitrary film deposited on a known substrate and the other for a free liquid surface. Numerical results are used to illustrate the accuracy of these formulas
Wave Equation Inversion of Skeletonized SurfaceWaves
Zhang, Zhendong; Liu, Yike; Schuster, Gerard T.
2015-01-01
We present a surface-wave inversion method that inverts for the S-wave velocity from the Rayleigh dispersion curve for the fundamental-mode. We call this wave equation inversion of skeletonized surface waves because the dispersion curve
Hand surface area estimation formula using 3D anthropometry.
Hsu, Yao-Wen; Yu, Chi-Yuang
2010-11-01
Hand surface area is an important reference in occupational hygiene and many other applications. This study derives a formula for the palm surface area (PSA) and hand surface area (HSA) based on three-dimensional (3D) scan data. Two-hundred and seventy subjects, 135 males and 135 females, were recruited for this study. The hand was measured using a high-resolution 3D hand scanner. Precision and accuracy of the scanner is within 0.67%. Both the PSA and HSA were computed using the triangular mesh summation method. A comparison between this study and previous textbook values (such as in the U.K. teaching text and Lund and Browder chart discussed in the article) was performed first to show that previous textbooks overestimated the PSA by 12.0% and HSA by 8.7% (for the male, PSA 8.5% and HSA 4.7%, and for the female, PSA 16.2% and HSA 13.4%). Six 1D measurements were then extracted semiautomatically for use as candidate estimators for the PSA and HSA estimation formula. Stepwise regressions on these six 1D measurements and variable dependency test were performed. Results show that a pair of measurements (hand length and hand breadth) were able to account for 96% of the HSA variance and up to 98% of the PSA variance. A test of the gender-specific formula indicated that gender is not a significant factor in either the PSA or HSA estimation.
A Critical Analysis and Validation of the Accuracy of Wave Overtopping Prediction Formulae for OWECs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
David Gallach-Sánchez
2018-01-01
Full Text Available The development of wave energy devices is growing in recent years. One type of device is the overtopping wave energy converter (OWEC, for which the knowledge of the wave overtopping rates is a basic and crucial aspect in their design. In particular, the most interesting range to study is for OWECs with steep slopes to vertical walls, and with very small freeboards and zero freeboards where the overtopping rate is maximized, and which can be generalized as steep low-crested structures. Recently, wave overtopping prediction formulae have been published for this type of structures, although their accuracy has not been fully assessed, as the overtopping data available in this range is scarce. We performed a critical analysis of the overtopping prediction formulae for steep low-crested structures and the validation of the accuracy of these formulae, based on new overtopping data for steep low-crested structures obtained at Ghent University. This paper summarizes the existing knowledge about average wave overtopping, describes the physical model tests performed, analyses the results and compares them to existing prediction formulae. The new dataset extends the wave overtopping data towards vertical walls and zero freeboard structures. In general, the new dataset validated the more recent overtopping formulae focused on steep slopes with small freeboards, although the formulae are underpredicting the average overtopping rates for very small and zero relative crest freeboards.
Dispersion formulae for waves in a magneto-active relativistic plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Misra, P.; Mohanty, J.N.
1980-01-01
Dispersion formulae are derived for the transverse waves propagating through a collisionless magneto-active plasma in the direction of the magnetic field valid for relativistic as well as non-relativistic temperatures. Wave propagation under various limiting conditions of temperatures and magnetic field are discussed. (author)
Dispersion formulae for waves in a magneto-active relativistic plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Misra, P. (Ravenshaw Coll., Cuttack (India)); Mohanty, J.N. (F.M. College, Balasore (India). Dept. of Physics)
1980-12-01
Dispersion formulae are derived for the transverse waves propagating through a collisionless magneto-active plasma in the direction of the magnetic field valid for relativistic as well as non-relativistic temperatures. Wave propagation under various limiting conditions of temperatures and magnetic field are discussed.
Capillary waves with surface viscosity
Shen, Li; Denner, Fabian; Morgan, Neal; van Wachem, Berend; Dini, Daniele
2017-11-01
Experiments over the last 50 years have suggested a correlation between the surface (shear) viscosity and the stability of a foam or emulsion. With recent techniques allowing more accurate measurements of the elusive surface viscosity, we examine this link theoretically using small-amplitude capillary waves in the presence of the Marangoni effect and surface viscosity modelled via the Boussinesq-Scriven model. The surface viscosity effect is found to contribute a damping effect on the amplitude of the capillary wave with subtle differences to the effect of the convective-diffusive Marangoni transport. The general wave dispersion is augmented to take into account the Marangoni and surface viscosity effects, and a first-order correction to the critical damping wavelength is derived. The authors acknowledge the financial support of the Shell University Technology Centre for fuels and lubricants.
Breaking of ocean surface waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Babanin, A.V.
2009-01-01
Wind-generated waves are the most prominent feature of the ocean surface, and so are breaking waves manifested by the appearance of sporadic whitecaps. Such breaking represents one of the most interesting and most challenging problems for both fluid mechanics and physical oceanography. It is an intermittent random process, very fast by comparison with other processes in the wave breaking on the water surface is not continuous, but its role in maintaining the energy balance within the continuous wind-wave field is critical. Ocean wave breaking also plays the primary role in the air-sea exchange of momentum, mass and heat, and it is of significant importance for ocean remote sensing, coastal and maritime engineering, navigation and other practical applications. Understanding the wave breaking its occurrence, the breaking rates and even ability to describe its onset has been hindered for decades by the strong non-linearity of the process, together with its irregular and ferocious nature. Recently, this knowledge has significantly advanced, and the review paper is an attempt to summarise the facts into a consistent, albeit still incomplete picture of the phenomenon. In the paper, variety of definitions related to the were breaking are discussed and formulated and methods for breaking detection and measurements are examined. Most of attention is dedicated to the research of wave breaking probability and severity. Experimental, observational, numerical and statistical approaches and their outcomes are reviewed. Present state of the wave-breaking research and knowledge is analysed and main outstanding problems are outlined (Authors)
Surface phonons and elastic surface waves
Büscher, H.; Klein-Heßling, W.; Ludwig, W.
Theoretical investigations on the dynamics of the (001), (110) and (111) surfaces of some cubic metals (Ag, Cu, Ni) will be reviewed. Both, lattice dynamical and continuum theoretical results are obtained via a Green's function formalism. The main attitude of this paper is the comparison of our results with experiments and with results obtained via slab-calculations. The calculation of elastic surface waves has been performed using a modified surface-green-function-matching method. We have used two different approaches of calculation the bulk Green's function (a) using the spectral representation and (b) a method, what works on residues. The investigations are carried out using shortrange phenomenological potentials. The atomic force constants in the first surface layers are modified to describe surface phonon anomalies, observed by experiments. In the case of Ag (100) and Ag(110) we conclude that the detection of odd symmetry shear modes by Erskine et al. [1 a, b] was not very accurate.
Surface phonons and elastic surface waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buescher, H.; Klein-Hessling, W.; Ludwig, W.
1993-01-01
Theoretical investigations on the dynamics of the (001), (110) and (111) surfaces of some cubic metals (Ag, Cu, Ni) will be reviewed. Both, lattice dynamical and continuum theoretical results are obtained via a Green's function formalism. The main attitude of this paper is the comparison of our results with experiments and with results obtained via slab-calculations. The calculation of elastic surface waves has been performed using a modified surface-green-function-matching method. We have used two different approaches of calculation the bulk Green's function (a) using the spectral representation and (b) a method, what works on residues. The investigations are carried out using shortrange phenomenological potentials. The atomic force constants in the first surface layers are modified to describe surface phonon anomalies, observed by experiments. In the case of Ag(100) and Ag(110) we conclude that the detection of odd symmetry shear modes by Erskine et al. was not very accurate. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shabaev, V.M.
1984-01-01
Some exact relations are derived for radial integrals with Dirac wave functions. These relations are used for calculating radial integrals in the case of the Coulomb field. The threedimensional harmonic oscillator is also considered and exact formulae for the dipole transition probabilities are obtained using general relations between matrix elements
Wave Equation Inversion of Skeletonized SurfaceWaves
Zhang, Zhendong
2015-08-19
We present a surface-wave inversion method that inverts for the S-wave velocity from the Rayleigh dispersion curve for the fundamental-mode. We call this wave equation inversion of skeletonized surface waves because the dispersion curve for the fundamental-mode Rayleigh wave is inverted using finite-difference solutions to the wave equation. The best match between the predicted and observed dispersion curves provides the optimal S-wave velocity model. Results with synthetic and field data illustrate the benefits and limitations of this method.
Skeletonized wave-equation Qs tomography using surface waves
Li, Jing; Dutta, Gaurav; Schuster, Gerard T.
2017-01-01
We present a skeletonized inversion method that inverts surface-wave data for the Qs quality factor. Similar to the inversion of dispersion curves for the S-wave velocity model, the complicated surface-wave arrivals are skeletonized as simpler data
Databases of surface wave dispersion
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L. Boschi
2005-06-01
Full Text Available Observations of seismic surface waves provide the most important constraint on the elastic properties of the Earths lithosphere and upper mantle. Two databases of fundamental mode surface wave dispersion were recently compiled and published by groups at Harvard (Ekström et al., 1997 and Utrecht/Oxford (Trampert and Woodhouse, 1995, 2001, and later employed in 3-d global tomographic studies. Although based on similar sets of seismic records, the two databases show some significant discrepancies. We derive phase velocity maps from both, and compare them to quantify the discrepancies and assess the relative quality of the data; in this endeavour, we take careful account of the effects of regularization and parametrization. At short periods, where Love waves are mostly sensitive to crustal structure and thickness, we refer our comparison to a map of the Earths crust derived from independent data. On the assumption that second-order effects like seismic anisotropy and scattering can be neglected, we find the measurements of Ekström et al. (1997 of better quality; those of Trampert and Woodhouse (2001 result in phase velocity maps of much higher spatial frequency and, accordingly, more difficult to explain and justify geophysically. The discrepancy is partly explained by the more conservative a priori selection of data implemented by Ekström et al. (1997. Nevertheless, it becomes more significant with decreasing period, which indicates that it could also be traced to the different measurement techniques employed by the authors.
Dispersion and energy conservation relations of surface waves in semi-infinite plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Atanassov, V.
1981-01-01
The hydrodynamic theory of surface wave propagation in semi-infinite homogeneous isotropic plasma is considered. Explicit linear surface wave solutions are given for the electric and magnetic fields, charge and current densities. These solutions are used to obtain the well-known dispersion relations and, together with the general energy conservation equation, to find appropriate definitions for the energy and the energy flow densities of surface waves. These densities are associated with the dispersion relation and the group velocity by formulae similar to those for bulk waves in infinite plasmas. Both cases of high-frequency (HF) and low-frequency (LF) surface waves are considered. (author)
Imaging near-surface heterogeneities by natural migration of backscattered surface waves
AlTheyab, Abdullah
2016-02-01
We present a migration method that does not require a velocity model to migrate backscattered surface waves to their projected locations on the surface. This migration method, denoted as natural migration, uses recorded Green\\'s functions along the surface instead of simulated Green\\'s functions. The key assumptions are that the scattering bodies are within the depth interrogated by the surface waves, and the Green\\'s functions are recorded with dense receiver sampling along the free surface. This natural migration takes into account all orders of multiples, mode conversions and non-linear effects of surface waves in the data. The natural imaging formulae are derived for both active source and ambient-noise data, and computer simulations show that natural migration can effectively image near-surface heterogeneities with typical ambient-noise sources and geophone distributions.
Adamson, T. C., Jr.; Liou, M. S.; Messiter, A. F.
1980-01-01
An asymptotic description is derived for the interaction between a shock wave and a turbulent boundary layer in transonic flow, for a particular limiting case. The dimensionless difference between the external flow velocity and critical sound speed is taken to be much smaller than one, but large in comparison with the dimensionless friction velocity. The basic results are derived for a flat plate, and corrections for longitudinal wall curvature and for flow in a circular pipe are also shown. Solutions are given for the wall pressure distribution and the shape of the shock wave. Solutions for the wall shear stress are obtained, and a criterion for incipient separation is derived. Simplified solutions for both the wall pressure and skin friction distributions in the interaction region are given. These results are presented in a form suitable for use in computer programs.
Dyakonov surface waves in lossy metamaterials
Sorní Laserna, Josep; Naserpour, Mahin; Zapata Rodríguez, Carlos Javier; Miret Marí, Juan José
2015-01-01
We analyze the existence of localized waves in the vicinities of the interface between two dielectrics, provided one of them is uniaxial and lossy. We found two families of surface waves, one of them approaching the well-known Dyakonov surface waves (DSWs). In addition, a new family of wave fields exists which are tightly bound to the interface. Although its appearance is clearly associated with the dissipative character of the anisotropic material, the characteristic propagation length of su...
Evaluation of Five Formulae for Estimating Body Surface Area of ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
for making decision on many critical treatments plans. For ... index[5,6] and oxygen consumption[7] is required. ... of weight and height of only nine patients including just ... Aim: To explore the suitability of existing formulae for estimating the BSA of ..... critically ill. .... Schmidt‑Nielsen K. Energy metabolism, body size, and.
SURFACE ALFVEN WAVES IN SOLAR FLUX TUBES
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Goossens, M.; Andries, J.; Soler, R.; Van Doorsselaere, T. [Centre for Plasma Astrophysics, Department of Mathematics, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200B, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Arregui, I.; Terradas, J., E-mail: marcel.goossens@wis.kuleuven.be [Solar Physics Group, Departament de Fisica, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain)
2012-07-10
Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves are ubiquitous in the solar atmosphere. Alfven waves and magneto-sonic waves are particular classes of MHD waves. These wave modes are clearly different and have pure properties in uniform plasmas of infinite extent only. Due to plasma non-uniformity, MHD waves have mixed properties and cannot be classified as pure Alfven or magneto-sonic waves. However, vorticity is a quantity unequivocally related to Alfven waves as compression is for magneto-sonic waves. Here, we investigate MHD waves superimposed on a one-dimensional non-uniform straight cylinder with constant magnetic field. For a piecewise constant density profile, we find that the fundamental radial modes of the non-axisymmetric waves have the same properties as surface Alfven waves at a true discontinuity in density. Contrary to the classic Alfven waves in a uniform plasma of infinite extent, vorticity is zero everywhere except at the cylinder boundary. If the discontinuity in density is replaced with a continuous variation of density, vorticity is spread out over the whole interval with non-uniform density. The fundamental radial modes of the non-axisymmetric waves do not need compression to exist unlike the radial overtones. In thin magnetic cylinders, the fundamental radial modes of the non-axisymmetric waves with phase velocities between the internal and the external Alfven velocities can be considered as surface Alfven waves. On the contrary, the radial overtones can be related to fast-like magneto-sonic modes.
A formula for efficiency of fast wave current drive in fusion devices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chiu, S.C.; Harvey, R.W.; Karney, C.F.F.; Mau, T.K.
1992-06-01
Fast wave current drive (FWCD) is a principal candidate for non- inductive current drive schemes in reactors. Major experiments are in progress or planned on DIII-D, JET, and Tore-Supra. A theory for FWCD was presented by two of the authors and collaborators. To minimize computations required in transport simulations, and for analytical understanding, it is very useful to have a concise analytical efficiency formula. Fisch and Karney, and Ehst and Karney have obtained empirical formulae that fits numerical results for the Landau limit and Alfven limit; the latter fits results at 1 i ≤ 2. This paper extends a previous numerical study on FWCD at arbitrary frequencies and Z i . Analytical formulae for FWCD efficiency, valid for all frequencies and Z i , are derived using the adjoint technique in high and low phase velocity regions. A smooth patching between the two regions produces an analytical formula which is accurate for all frequencies, Z i , and phase velocities. Comparison with existing results will be discussed. A corollary of the present calculation is that a low phase velocities and in the Landau limit, the efficiency is the same as that calculated from the Lorentz model collision operator
Wave scattering from statistically rough surfaces
Bass, F G; ter Haar, D
2013-01-01
Wave Scattering from Statistically Rough Surfaces discusses the complications in radio physics and hydro-acoustics in relation to wave transmission under settings seen in nature. Some of the topics that are covered include radar and sonar, the effect of variations in topographic relief or ocean waves on the transmission of radio and sound waves, the reproduction of radio waves from the lower layers of the ionosphere, and the oscillations of signals within the earth-ionosphere waveguide. The book begins with some fundamental idea of wave transmission theory and the theory of random processes a
Explicit formulas for Neumann coefficients in the plane-wave geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
He Yanghui; Schwarz, John H.; Spradlin, Marcus; Volovich, Anastasia
2003-01-01
We obtain explicit formulas for the Neumann coefficients and associated quantities that appear in the three-string vertex for type IIB string theory in a plane-wave background, for any value of the mass parameter μ. The derivation involves constructing the inverse of a certain infinite-dimensional matrix, in terms of which the Neumann coefficients previously had been written only implicitly. We derive asymptotic expansions for large μ and find unexpectedly simple results, which are valid to all orders in 1/μ. Using BMN duality, these give predictions for certain gauge theory quantities to all orders in the modified 't Hooft coupling λ ' . A specific example is presented
On solitary surface waves in cold plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vladimirov, S.V.; Yu, M.Y.; Stenflo, L.
1993-01-01
A new type of nonlinear electromagnetic solitary surface waves propagating along the boundary of a cold plasma is discussed. These waves are described by a novel nonlinear evolution equation, obtained when the nonlinear surface currents at the boundary are taken into consideration. (Author)
Photonics surface waves on metamaterials interfaces
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Takayama, Osamu; Bogdanov, Andrey; Lavrinenko, Andrei V
2017-01-01
A surface wave (SW) in optics is a light wave, which is supported at an interface of two dissimilar media and propagates along the interface with its field amplitude exponentially decaying away from the boundary. The research on surface waves has been flourishing in last few decades thanks...... to their unique properties of surface sensitivity and field localization. These features have resulted in applications in nano-guiding, sensing, light-trapping and imaging based on the near-field techniques, contributing to the establishment of the nanophotonics as a field of research. Up to present, a wide...... variety of surface waves has been investigated in numerous material and structure settings. This paper reviews the recent progress and development in the physics of SWs localized at metamaterial interfaces, as well as bulk media in order to provide broader perspectives on optical surface waves in general...
Harmonic surface wave propagation in plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shivarova, A.; Stoychev, T.
1980-01-01
Second order harmonic surface waves generated by one fundamental high-frequency surface wave are investigated experimentally in gas discharge plasma. Two types of harmonic waves of equal frequency, associated with the linear dispersion relation and the synchronism conditions relatively propagate. The experimental conditions and the different space damping rates of the waves ensure the existence of different spatial regions (consecutively arranged along the plasma column) of a dominant propagation of each one of these two waves. Experimental data are obtained both for the wavenumbers and the space damping rates by relatively precise methods for wave investigations such as the methods of time-space diagrams and of phase shift measurements. The results are explained by the theoretical model for nonlinear mixing of dispersive waves. (author)
Wave-equation Qs Inversion of Skeletonized Surface Waves
Li, Jing
2017-02-08
We present a skeletonized inversion method that inverts surface-wave data for the Qs quality factor. Similar to the inversion of dispersion curves for the S-wave velocity model, the complicated surface-wave arrivals are skeletonized as simpler data, namely the amplitude spectra of the windowed Rayleigh-wave arrivals. The optimal Qs model is the one that minimizes the difference in the peak frequencies of the predicted and observed Rayleigh wave arrivals using a gradient-based wave-equation optimization method. Solutions to the viscoelastic wave-equation are used to compute the predicted Rayleigh-wave arrivals and the misfit gradient at every iteration. This procedure, denoted as wave-equation Qs inversion (WQs), does not require the assumption of a layered model and tends to have fast and robust convergence compared to full waveform inversion (FWI). Numerical examples with synthetic and field data demonstrate that the WQs method can accurately invert for a smoothed approximation to the subsurface Qs distribution as long as the Vs model is known with sufficient accuracy.
Skeletonized wave-equation Qs tomography using surface waves
Li, Jing
2017-08-17
We present a skeletonized inversion method that inverts surface-wave data for the Qs quality factor. Similar to the inversion of dispersion curves for the S-wave velocity model, the complicated surface-wave arrivals are skeletonized as simpler data, namely the amplitude spectra of the windowed Rayleigh-wave arrivals. The optimal Qs model is then found that minimizes the difference in the peak frequencies of the predicted and observed Rayleigh wave arrivals using a gradient-based wave-equation optimization method. Solutions to the viscoelastic wave-equation are used to compute the predicted Rayleigh-wave arrivals and the misfit gradient at every iteration. This procedure, denoted as wave-equation Qs tomography (WQs), does not require the assumption of a layered model and tends to have fast and robust convergence compared to Q full waveform inversion (Q-FWI). Numerical examples with synthetic and field data demonstrate that the WQs method can accurately invert for a smoothed approximation to the subsur-face Qs distribution as long as the Vs model is known with sufficient accuracy.
Wave-equation Qs Inversion of Skeletonized Surface Waves
Li, Jing; Dutta, Gaurav; Schuster, Gerard T.
2017-01-01
We present a skeletonized inversion method that inverts surface-wave data for the Qs quality factor. Similar to the inversion of dispersion curves for the S-wave velocity model, the complicated surface-wave arrivals are skeletonized as simpler data, namely the amplitude spectra of the windowed Rayleigh-wave arrivals. The optimal Qs model is the one that minimizes the difference in the peak frequencies of the predicted and observed Rayleigh wave arrivals using a gradient-based wave-equation optimization method. Solutions to the viscoelastic wave-equation are used to compute the predicted Rayleigh-wave arrivals and the misfit gradient at every iteration. This procedure, denoted as wave-equation Qs inversion (WQs), does not require the assumption of a layered model and tends to have fast and robust convergence compared to full waveform inversion (FWI). Numerical examples with synthetic and field data demonstrate that the WQs method can accurately invert for a smoothed approximation to the subsurface Qs distribution as long as the Vs model is known with sufficient accuracy.
Skeletonized wave equation of surface wave dispersion inversion
Li, Jing
2016-09-06
We present the theory for wave equation inversion of dispersion curves, where the misfit function is the sum of the squared differences between the wavenumbers along the predicted and observed dispersion curves. Similar to wave-equation travel-time inversion, the complicated surface-wave arrivals in traces are skeletonized as simpler data, namely the picked dispersion curves in the (kx,ω) domain. Solutions to the elastic wave equation and an iterative optimization method are then used to invert these curves for 2D or 3D velocity models. This procedure, denoted as wave equation dispersion inversion (WD), does not require the assumption of a layered model and is less prone to the cycle skipping problems of full waveform inversion (FWI). The synthetic and field data examples demonstrate that WD can accurately reconstruct the S-wave velocity distribution in laterally heterogeneous media.
Isotropic and anisotropic surface wave cloaking techniques
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McManus, T M; Spada, L La; Hao, Y
2016-01-01
In this paper we compare two different approaches for surface waves cloaking. The first technique is a unique application of Fermat’s principle and requires isotropic material properties, but owing to its derivation is limited in its applicability. The second technique utilises a geometrical optics approximation for dealing with rays bound to a two dimensional surface and requires anisotropic material properties, though it can be used to cloak any smooth surface. We analytically derive the surface wave scattering behaviour for both cloak techniques when applied to a rotationally symmetric surface deformation. Furthermore, we simulate both using a commercially available full-wave electromagnetic solver and demonstrate a good level of agreement with their analytically derived solutions. Our analytical solutions and simulations provide a complete and concise overview of two different surface wave cloaking techniques. (paper)
Isotropic and anisotropic surface wave cloaking techniques
McManus, T. M.; La Spada, L.; Hao, Y.
2016-04-01
In this paper we compare two different approaches for surface waves cloaking. The first technique is a unique application of Fermat’s principle and requires isotropic material properties, but owing to its derivation is limited in its applicability. The second technique utilises a geometrical optics approximation for dealing with rays bound to a two dimensional surface and requires anisotropic material properties, though it can be used to cloak any smooth surface. We analytically derive the surface wave scattering behaviour for both cloak techniques when applied to a rotationally symmetric surface deformation. Furthermore, we simulate both using a commercially available full-wave electromagnetic solver and demonstrate a good level of agreement with their analytically derived solutions. Our analytical solutions and simulations provide a complete and concise overview of two different surface wave cloaking techniques.
Future heat waves and surface ozone
Meehl, Gerald A.; Tebaldi, Claudia; Tilmes, Simone; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Bates, Susan; Pendergrass, Angeline; Lombardozzi, Danica
2018-06-01
A global Earth system model is used to study the relationship between heat waves and surface ozone levels over land areas around the world that could experience either large decreases or little change in future ozone precursor emissions. The model is driven by emissions of greenhouse gases and ozone precursors from a medium-high emission scenario (Representative Concentration Pathway 6.0–RCP6.0) and is compared to an experiment with anthropogenic ozone precursor emissions fixed at 2005 levels. With ongoing increases in greenhouse gases and corresponding increases in average temperature in both experiments, heat waves are projected to become more intense over most global land areas (greater maximum temperatures during heat waves). However, surface ozone concentrations on future heat wave days decrease proportionately more than on non-heat wave days in areas where ozone precursors are prescribed to decrease in RCP6.0 (e.g. most of North America and Europe), while surface ozone concentrations in heat waves increase in areas where ozone precursors either increase or have little change (e.g. central Asia, the Mideast, northern Africa). In the stabilized ozone precursor experiment, surface ozone concentrations increase on future heat wave days compared to non-heat wave days in most regions except in areas where there is ozone suppression that contributes to decreases in ozone in future heat waves. This is likely associated with effects of changes in isoprene emissions at high temperatures (e.g. west coast and southeastern North America, eastern Europe).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guezel, J.Ch.
2006-01-01
The wave- or thalasso-energy, potentially as promising as wind energy, have started to develop in Europe. Great Britain has already a good experience in this domain but France shows also ambitions in this beginning industry with several projects in progress. This article makes an overview of the existing tide-, current- and wave-powered generators: tide mills, underwater hydro-turbines, immersed linear generators, air-compression systems, buoy systems, etc. (J.S.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saito, Yukimasa
1977-01-01
The transient reflection and transmission waves of E polarized electromagnetic waves coming into the boundary surface between air and moving isotropic plasma were theoretically investigated. By using the Laplace transformation in the moving system, the formulae of Lorentz and inverse Lorentz transformations concerning electromagnetic field were transformed, thus the transient reflection and transmission waves were obtained. These waves were normalized with the angular frequency of the incident waves, and the variation of the wave form was obtained. Examples of the numerical calculation of reflected waves are shown for the plasma moving in parallel to the boundary surface. (Kato, T.)
Frequency tunable surface magneto elastic waves
Janusonis, J.; Chang, C. L.; van Loosdrecht, P. H. M.; Tobey, R. I.
2015-01-01
We use the transient grating technique to generate narrow-band, widely tunable, in-plane surface magnetoelastic waves in a nickel film. We monitor both the structural deformation of the acoustic wave and the accompanying magnetic precession and witness their intimate coupling in the time domain.
Superresolution Near-field Imaging with Surface Waves
Fu, Lei
2017-10-21
We present the theory for near-field superresolution imaging with surface waves and time reverse mirrors (TRMs). Theoretical formulas and numerical results show that applying the TRM operation to surface waves in an elastic half-space can achieve superresolution imaging of subwavelength scatterers if they are located less than about 1/2 of the shear wavelength from the source line. We also show that the TRM operation for a single frequency is equivalent to natural migration, which uses the recorded data to approximate the Green’s functions for migration, and only costs O(N4) algebraic operations for poststack migration compared to O(N6) operations for natural prestack migration. Here, we assume the sources and receivers are on an N × N grid and there are N2 trial image points on the free surface. Our theoretical predictions of superresolution are validated with tests on synthetic data. The field-data tests suggest that hidden faults at the near surface can be detected with subwavelength imaging of surface waves by using the TRM operation if they are no deeper than about 1/2 the dominant shear wavelength.
Resonances and surface waves in bounded plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bowers, K.J.; Qui, D.W.; Smith, H.B.; Birdsall, C.K.
1999-01-01
Surface waves provide a promising means of creating large, area plasmas. These waves can uniformly distribute the excitation energy and while presenting a small resistance and zero reactance to the driving source. Experimentally and in the simulations, the electron temperature is low (like 1--3 eV) as is the plasma potential (like 10 Te). The use of surface waves experimentally, and now industrially, to sustain large area plasma sources with device size is comparable to free space wavelength have motivated the authors to refine the theories of [1] and [2] to be fully electromagnetic. The wave dispersion predicted by the electromagnetic theory differs from the predictions of the prior theories and the results illuminate limitations of the electrostatic model. The use of surface waves have also motivated them to explore the mechanisms by which surface waves heat the plasma. In the 1d electrostatic simulations high velocity electron bunches are formed in the sheaths and are alternatively accelerated from each sheath into the bulk plasma each RF cycle. They speculate similar mechanisms provide the ionization in surface wave discharges. They also see in these simulations the plasma makes an abrupt transition from capacitively coupled to resistively coupled and the series resonance locks onto the drive frequency; these abrupt transitions resemble mode-jumping seen experimentally in large area sources. Furthermore, the density profile of the plasma tracks the drive frequency while in the resonant mode giving a new mechanism by which the plasma parameters can be controlled. They are currently investigating the effect of the driving electrode shape has on these resonances and conducting 2d simulations of a large area surface wave source to explore the ignition of surface wave devices and how the plasma fills in the device
Reversed phase propagation for hyperbolic surface waves
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Repän, Taavi; Novitsky, Andrey; Willatzen, Morten
2018-01-01
Magnetic properties can be used to control phase propagation in hyperbolic metamaterials. However, in the visible spectrum magnetic properties are difficult to obtain. We discuss hyperbolic surface waves allowing for a similar control over phase, achieved without magnetic properties....
Surface Acoustic Waves in ferroelectrics
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Tarasenko A., Nataliya; Jastrabík, Lubomír; Tarasenko, Alexander
2004-01-01
Roč. 298, - (2004), s. 325-333 ISSN 0015-0193 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS1010203 Keywords : Rayleigh waves * ferroelectric films * phase transition Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.517, year: 2004
Photonics surface waves on metamaterials interfaces.
Takayama, Osamu; Bogdanov, Andrey; Lavrinenko, Andrei V
2017-09-12
A surface wave (SW) in optics is a light wave, which is supported at an interface of two dissimilar media and propagates along the interface with its field amplitude exponentially decaying away from the boundary. The research on surface waves has been flourishing in last few decades thanks to their unique properties of surface sensitivity and field localization. These features have resulted in applications in nano-guiding, sensing, light-trapping and imaging based on the near-field techniques, contributing to the establishment of the nanophotonics as a field of research. Up to present, a wide variety of surface waves has been investigated in numerous material and structure settings. This paper reviews the recent progress and development in the physics of SWs localized at metamaterial interfaces, as well as bulk media in order to provide broader perspectives on optical surface waves in general. For each type of the surface waves, we discuss material and structural platforms. We mainly focus on experimental realizations in the visible and near-infrared wavelength ranges. We also address existing and potential application of SWs in chemical and biological sensing, and experimental excitation and characterization methods. © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.
Surface acoustic wave dust deposition monitor
Fasching, G.E.; Smith, N.S. Jr.
1988-02-12
A system is disclosed for using the attenuation of surface acoustic waves to monitor real time dust deposition rates on surfaces. The system includes a signal generator, a tone-burst generator/amplifier connected to a transmitting transducer for converting electrical signals into acoustic waves. These waves are transmitted through a path defining means adjacent to a layer of dust and then, in turn, transmitted to a receiving transducer for changing the attenuated acoustic wave to electrical signals. The signals representing the attenuated acoustic waves may be amplified and used in a means for analyzing the output signals to produce an output indicative of the dust deposition rates and/or values of dust in the layer. 8 figs.
Propagation of an ionizing surface electromagnetic wave
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Boev, A.G.; Prokopov, A.V.
1976-11-01
The propagation of an rf surface wave in a plasma which is ionized by the wave itself is analyzed. The exact solution of the nonlinear Maxwell equations is discussed for the case in which the density of plasma electrons is an exponential function of the square of the electric field. The range over which the surface wave exists and the frequency dependence of the phase velocity are found. A detailed analysis is given for the case of a plasma whose initial density exceeds the critical density at the wave frequency. An increase in the wave amplitude is shown to expand the frequency range over which the plasma is transparent; The energy flux in the plasma tends toward a certain finite value which is governed by the effective ionization field.
Array processing for seismic surface waves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Marano, S.
2013-07-01
This dissertation submitted to the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETH in Zurich takes a look at the analysis of surface wave properties which allows geophysicists to gain insight into the structure of the subsoil, thus avoiding more expensive invasive techniques such as borehole drilling. This thesis aims at improving signal processing techniques for the analysis of surface waves in various directions. One main contribution of this work is the development of a method for the analysis of seismic surface waves. The method also deals with the simultaneous presence of multiple waves. Several computational approaches to minimize costs are presented and compared. Finally, numerical experiments that verify the effectiveness of the proposed cost function and resulting array geometry designs are presented. These lead to greatly improved estimation performance in comparison to arbitrary array geometries.
Array processing for seismic surface waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marano, S.
2013-01-01
This dissertation submitted to the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETH in Zurich takes a look at the analysis of surface wave properties which allows geophysicists to gain insight into the structure of the subsoil, thus avoiding more expensive invasive techniques such as borehole drilling. This thesis aims at improving signal processing techniques for the analysis of surface waves in various directions. One main contribution of this work is the development of a method for the analysis of seismic surface waves. The method also deals with the simultaneous presence of multiple waves. Several computational approaches to minimize costs are presented and compared. Finally, numerical experiments that verify the effectiveness of the proposed cost function and resulting array geometry designs are presented. These lead to greatly improved estimation performance in comparison to arbitrary array geometries
Demultiplexing Surface Waves With Silicon Nanoantennas
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sinev, I.; Bogdanov, A.; Komissarenko, F.
2017-01-01
We demonstrate directional launching of surface plasmon polaritons on thin gold film with a single silicon nanosphere. The directivity pattern of the excited surface waves exhibits rapid switching from forward to backward excitation within extremely narrow spectral hand (! 50 nm), which is driven...... by the mutual interference of magnetic and electric dipole moments supported by the dielectric nanoantenna....
Surface wave velocity tracking by bisection method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maeda, T.
2005-01-01
Calculation of surface wave velocity is a classic problem dating back to the well-known Haskell's transfer matrix method, which contributes to solutions of elastic wave propagation, global subsurface structure evaluation by simulating observed earthquake group velocities, and on-site evaluation of subsurface structure by simulating phase velocity dispersion curves and/or H/V spectra obtained by micro-tremor observation. Recently inversion analysis on micro-tremor observation requires efficient method of generating many model candidates and also stable, accurate, and fast computation of dispersion curves and Raleigh wave trajectory. The original Haskell's transfer matrix method has been improved in terms of its divergence tendency mainly by the generalized transmission and reflection matrix method with formulation available for surface wave velocity; however, root finding algorithm has not been fully discussed except for the one by setting threshold to the absolute value of complex characteristic functions. Since surface wave number (reciprocal to the surface wave velocity multiplied by frequency) is a root of complex valued characteristic function, it is intractable to use general root finding algorithm. We will examine characteristic function in phase plane to construct two dimensional bisection algorithm with consideration on a layer to be evaluated and algorithm for tracking roots down along frequency axis. (author)
Automated detection and association of surface waves
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. R. D. Woodgold
1994-06-01
Full Text Available An algorithm for the automatic detection and association of surface waves has been developed and tested over an 18 month interval on broad band data from the Yellowknife array (YKA. The detection algorithm uses a conventional STA/LTA scheme on data that have been narrow band filtered at 20 s periods and a test is then applied to identify dispersion. An average of 9 surface waves are detected daily using this technique. Beamforming is applied to determine the arrival azimuth; at a nonarray station this could be provided by poIarization analysis. The detected surface waves are associated daily with the events located by the short period array at Yellowknife, and later with the events listed in the USGS NEIC Monthly Summaries. Association requires matching both arrival time and azimuth of the Rayleigh waves. Regional calibration of group velocity and azimuth is required. . Large variations in both group velocity and azimuth corrections were found, as an example, signals from events in Fiji Tonga arrive with apparent group velocities of 2.9 3.5 krn/s and azimuths from 5 to + 40 degrees clockwise from true (great circle azimuth, whereas signals from Kuriles Kamchatka have velocities of 2.4 2.9 km/s and azimuths off by 35 to 0 degrees. After applying the regional corrections, surface waves are considered associated if the arrival time matches to within 0.25 km/s in apparent group velocity and the azimuth is within 30 degrees of the median expected. Over the 18 month period studied, 32% of the automatically detected surface waves were associated with events located by the Yellowknife short period array, and 34% (1591 with NEIC events; there is about 70% overlap between the two sets of events. Had the automatic detections been reported to the USGS, YKA would have ranked second (after LZH in terms of numbers of associated surface waves for the study period of April 1991 to September 1992.
Recursion Formulae for Obtaining Surfaces with Constant Mean Curvature in R2,1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tian Yongbo; Nan Zhijie; Tian Chou
2007-01-01
Though the Baecklund transformation on time-like surfaces with constant mean curvature surfaces in R 2,1 has been obtained, it is not easy to obtain corresponding surfaces because the procedure of solving the related integrable system cannot be avoided when the Baecklund transformation is used. For sake of this, in this article, some special work is done to reform the Baecklund transformation to a recursion formula, by which we can construct time-like surfaces with constant mean curvature form known ones just by quadrature procedure.
Response mechanism for surface acoustic wave gas sensors based on surface-adsorption.
Liu, Jiansheng; Lu, Yanyan
2014-04-16
A theoretical model is established to describe the response mechanism of surface acoustic wave (SAW) gas sensors based on physical adsorption on the detector surface. Wohljent's method is utilized to describe the relationship of sensor output (frequency shift of SAW oscillator) and the mass loaded on the detector surface. The Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) formula and its improved form are introduced to depict the adsorption behavior of gas on the detector surface. By combining the two methods, we obtain a theoretical model for the response mechanism of SAW gas sensors. By using a commercial SAW gas chromatography (GC) analyzer, an experiment is performed to measure the frequency shifts caused by different concentration of dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP). The parameters in the model are given by fitting the experimental results and the theoretical curve agrees well with the experimental data.
Viscoelastic love-type surface waves
Borcherdt, Roger D.
2008-01-01
The general theoretical solution for Love-Type surface waves in viscoelastic media provides theoreticalexpressions for the physical characteristics of the waves in elastic as well as anelastic media with arbitraryamounts of intrinsic damping. The general solution yields dispersion and absorption-coefficient curves for the waves as a function of frequency and theamount of intrinsic damping for any chosen viscoelastic model.Numerical results valid for a variety of viscoelastic models provide quantitative estimates of the physicalcharacteristics of the waves pertinent to models of Earth materials ranging from small amounts of damping in the Earth’s crust to moderate and large amounts of damping in soft soils and water-saturated sediments. Numerical results, presented herein, are valid for a wide range of solids and applications.
Chiral surface waves for enhanced circular dichroism
Pellegrini, Giovanni; Finazzi, Marco; Celebrano, Michele; Duò, Lamberto; Biagioni, Paolo
2017-06-01
We present a novel chiral sensing platform that combines a one-dimensional photonic crystal design with a birefringent surface defect. The platform sustains simultaneous transverse electric and transverse magnetic surface modes, which are exploited to generate chiral surface waves. The present design provides homogeneous and superchiral fields of both handednesses over arbitrarily large areas in a wide spectral range, resulting in the enhancement of the circular dichroism signal by more than two orders of magnitude, thus paving the road toward the successful combination of surface-enhanced spectroscopies and electromagnetic superchirality.
Surface acoustic wave propagation in graphene film
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roshchupkin, Dmitry; Plotitcyna, Olga; Matveev, Viktor; Kononenko, Oleg; Emelin, Evgenii; Irzhak, Dmitry; Ortega, Luc; Zizak, Ivo; Erko, Alexei; Tynyshtykbayev, Kurbangali; Insepov, Zinetula
2015-01-01
Surface acoustic wave (SAW) propagation in a graphene film on the surface of piezoelectric crystals was studied at the BESSY II synchrotron radiation source. Talbot effect enabled the visualization of the SAW propagation on the crystal surface with the graphene film in a real time mode, and high-resolution x-ray diffraction permitted the determination of the SAW amplitude in the graphene/piezoelectric crystal system. The influence of the SAW on the electrical properties of the graphene film was examined. It was shown that the changing of the SAW amplitude enables controlling the magnitude and direction of current in graphene film on the surface of piezoelectric crystals
Active micromixer using surface acoustic wave streaming
Branch,; Darren W. , Meyer; Grant D. , Craighead; Harold, G [Ithaca, NY
2011-05-17
An active micromixer uses a surface acoustic wave, preferably a Rayleigh wave, propagating on a piezoelectric substrate to induce acoustic streaming in a fluid in a microfluidic channel. The surface acoustic wave can be generated by applying an RF excitation signal to at least one interdigital transducer on the piezoelectric substrate. The active micromixer can rapidly mix quiescent fluids or laminar streams in low Reynolds number flows. The active micromixer has no moving parts (other than the SAW transducer) and is, therefore, more reliable, less damaging to sensitive fluids, and less susceptible to fouling and channel clogging than other types of active and passive micromixers. The active micromixer is adaptable to a wide range of geometries, can be easily fabricated, and can be integrated in a microfluidic system, reducing dead volume. Finally, the active micromixer has on-demand on/off mixing capability and can be operated at low power.
Surface waves on metal-dielectric metamaterials
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Takayama, Osamu; Shkondin, Evgeniy; Panah, Mohammad Esmail Aryaee
2016-01-01
In this paper we analyze surface electromagnetic waves supported at an interface between an isotropic medium and an effective anisotropic material that can be realized by alternating conductive and dielectric layers with deep subwavelength thicknesses. This configuration can host various types...
Non-perturbational surface-wave inversion: A Dix-type relation for surface waves
Haney, Matt; Tsai, Victor C.
2015-01-01
We extend the approach underlying the well-known Dix equation in reflection seismology to surface waves. Within the context of surface wave inversion, the Dix-type relation we derive for surface waves allows accurate depth profiles of shear-wave velocity to be constructed directly from phase velocity data, in contrast to perturbational methods. The depth profiles can subsequently be used as an initial model for nonlinear inversion. We provide examples of the Dix-type relation for under-parameterized and over-parameterized cases. In the under-parameterized case, we use the theory to estimate crustal thickness, crustal shear-wave velocity, and mantle shear-wave velocity across the Western U.S. from phase velocity maps measured at 8-, 20-, and 40-s periods. By adopting a thin-layer formalism and an over-parameterized model, we show how a regularized inversion based on the Dix-type relation yields smooth depth profiles of shear-wave velocity. In the process, we quantitatively demonstrate the depth sensitivity of surface-wave phase velocity as a function of frequency and the accuracy of the Dix-type relation. We apply the over-parameterized approach to a near-surface data set within the frequency band from 5 to 40 Hz and find overall agreement between the inverted model and the result of full nonlinear inversion.
Modeling sheet-flow sand transport under progressive surface waves
Kranenburg, Wouter
2013-01-01
In the near-shore zone, energetic sea waves generate sheet-flow sand transport. In present day coastal models, wave-induced sheet-flow sand transport rates are usually predicted with semi-empirical transport formulas, based on extensive research on this phenomenon in oscillatory flow tunnels.
Surface and body waves from surface and underground explosions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kusubov, A.S.
1976-06-01
The characteristics of surface and ground waves were recorded for surface and underground explosions up to 100 tons and 40 kt in magnitude, respectively, and a preliminary analysis of these results is presented. The experiments were conducted at NTS in the Yucca Flats, Nevada. Ground motions were detected with triaxial geophones along seismic lines extending up to 16 miles from the point of explosions. A comparison of Rayleigh waves generated by surface and underground explosions in the same lake bed is presented indicating a very different behavior of surface and ground waves from the two types of explosions. The magnitude of the transverse wave for surface shots was smaller by a factor of two than its longitudinal counterpart. The dependence of apparent periods on the blast energy was not apparent at a fixed distance from the explosions. Changes in the apparent period with distance for both types of explosion are compared indicating a strong layering effect of the lake bed. The ground motion study was complimented by excavation of cavities generated by the explosions
Writing magnetic patterns with surface acoustic waves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Weiyang; Buford, Benjamin; Jander, Albrecht; Dhagat, Pallavi, E-mail: dhagat@eecs.oregonstate.edu [School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331 (United States)
2014-05-07
A novel patterning technique that creates magnetization patterns in a continuous magnetostrictive film with surface acoustic waves is demonstrated. Patterns of 10 μm wide stripes of alternating magnetization and a 3 μm dot of reversed magnetization are written using standing and focusing acoustic waves, respectively. The magnetization pattern is size-tunable, erasable, and rewritable by changing the magnetic field and acoustic power. This versatility, along with its solid-state implementation (no moving parts) and electronic control, renders it as a promising technique for application in magnetic recording, magnonic signal processing, magnetic particle manipulation, and spatial magneto-optical modulation.
Blackfolds, plane waves and minimal surfaces
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Armas, Jay [Physique Théorique et Mathématique, Université Libre de Bruxelles and International Solvay Institutes, ULB-Campus Plaine CP231, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, University of Bern,Sidlerstrasse 5, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Blau, Matthias [Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, University of Bern,Sidlerstrasse 5, 3012 Bern (Switzerland)
2015-07-29
Minimal surfaces in Euclidean space provide examples of possible non-compact horizon geometries and topologies in asymptotically flat space-time. On the other hand, the existence of limiting surfaces in the space-time provides a simple mechanism for making these configurations compact. Limiting surfaces appear naturally in a given space-time by making minimal surfaces rotate but they are also inherent to plane wave or de Sitter space-times in which case minimal surfaces can be static and compact. We use the blackfold approach in order to scan for possible black hole horizon geometries and topologies in asymptotically flat, plane wave and de Sitter space-times. In the process we uncover several new configurations, such as black helicoids and catenoids, some of which have an asymptotically flat counterpart. In particular, we find that the ultraspinning regime of singly-spinning Myers-Perry black holes, described in terms of the simplest minimal surface (the plane), can be obtained as a limit of a black helicoid, suggesting that these two families of black holes are connected. We also show that minimal surfaces embedded in spheres rather than Euclidean space can be used to construct static compact horizons in asymptotically de Sitter space-times.
Blackfolds, plane waves and minimal surfaces
Armas, Jay; Blau, Matthias
2015-07-01
Minimal surfaces in Euclidean space provide examples of possible non-compact horizon geometries and topologies in asymptotically flat space-time. On the other hand, the existence of limiting surfaces in the space-time provides a simple mechanism for making these configurations compact. Limiting surfaces appear naturally in a given space-time by making minimal surfaces rotate but they are also inherent to plane wave or de Sitter space-times in which case minimal surfaces can be static and compact. We use the blackfold approach in order to scan for possible black hole horizon geometries and topologies in asymptotically flat, plane wave and de Sitter space-times. In the process we uncover several new configurations, such as black helicoids and catenoids, some of which have an asymptotically flat counterpart. In particular, we find that the ultraspinning regime of singly-spinning Myers-Perry black holes, described in terms of the simplest minimal surface (the plane), can be obtained as a limit of a black helicoid, suggesting that these two families of black holes are connected. We also show that minimal surfaces embedded in spheres rather than Euclidean space can be used to construct static compact horizons in asymptotically de Sitter space-times.
Komatsu, Kosei
Wind-generated waves have been recognized as one of the most important factors of the sea surface roughness which plays crucial roles in various air-sea interactions such as energy, mo-mentum, heat and gas exchanges. At the same time, wind waves with extreme wave heights representatively called as freak or rogue waves have been a matter of great concern for many people involved in shipping, fishing, constracting, surfing and other marine activities, because such extreme waves frequently affect on the marine activities and sometimes cause serious dis-asters. Nevertheless, investigations of actual conditions for the evolution of wind waves in the offshore region are less and sparse in contrast to dense monitoring networks in the coastal re-gions because of difficulty of offshore observation with high accuracy. Recently accurate in situ observation of offshore wind waves is getting possible at low cost owing to a wave height and di-rection sensor developed by Harigae et al. (2004) by installing a point-positioning GPS receiver on a surface drifting buoy. The point-positioning GPS sensor can extract three dimensional movements of the buoy excited by ocean waves with minimizing effects of GPS point-positioning errors through the use of a high-pass filter. Two drifting buoys equipped with the GPS-based wave sensor charged by solar cells were drifted in the western North Pacific and one of them continued to observe wind waves during 16 months from Sep. 2007. The RMSE of the GPS-based wave sensor was less than 10cm in significant wave height and about 1s in significant wave period in comparison with other sensors, i.e. accelerometers installed on drifting buoys of Japan Meteorological Agency, ultrasonic sensors placed at the Hiratsuka observation station of the University of Tokyo and altimeter of the JASON-1. The GPS-based wave buoys enabled us to detect freak waves defined as waves whose height is more than twice the significant wave height. The observation conducted by
Mathematical aspects of surface water waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Craig, Walter; Wayne, Clarence E
2007-01-01
The theory of the motion of a free surface over a body of water is a fascinating subject, with a long history in both applied and pure mathematical research, and with a continuing relevance to the enterprises of mankind having to do with the sea. Despite the recent advances in the field (some of which we will hear about during this Workshop on Mathematical Hydrodynamics at the Steklov Institute), and the current focus of the mathematical community on the topic, many fundamental mathematical questions remain. These have to do with the evolution of surface water waves, their approximation by model equations and by computer simulations, the detailed dynamics of wave interactions, such as would produce rogue waves in an open ocean, and the theory (partially probabilistic) of approximating wave fields over large regions by averaged 'macroscopic' quantities which satisfy essentially kinetic equations of motion. In this note we would like to point out open problems and some of the directions of current research in the field. We believe that the introduction of new analytical techniques and novel points of view will play an important role in the future development of the area.
Breaking Waves on the Ocean Surface
Schwendeman, Michael S.
equilibrium range waves and normalizing by the wave directional spread. Meanwhile, correlation of W with turbulent dissipation measurements is significantly worse, which may be due to uncertainty in the measurements or bias related to micro-breaking waves. Finally, phase-resolved, three-dimensional, measurements of the whitecaps were made from a new ship-based stereo video system. Comparison with concurrent buoy measurements indicate that the stereo data accurately reproduces the wave statistics, including the frequency spectra. The whitecaps are characterized by transient and spatially localized regions of extreme surface gradients, rather than large crest-to-trough steepnesses. It was found that whitecaps were around 10 times more likely to have extreme slopes, and 50% of the observed extreme surface slopes were in the vicinity of the breaking waves. The maximum whitecap slopes show good agreement with the Stokes 120 degree limiting crest geometry, and the whitecap crest loses much of its maximum steepness shortly after the onset of breaking. The whitecap phase speeds are consistently less than the linear or weakly nonlinear predicted phase speed, which indicate the effect of narrow-band wave groups, despite the broad-band wave spectra.
Wireless Multiplexed Surface Acoustic Wave Sensors Project
Youngquist, Robert C.
2014-01-01
Wireless Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) Sensor is a new technology for obtaining multiple, real-time measurements under extreme environmental conditions. This project plans to develop a wireless multiplexed sensor system that uses SAW sensors, with no batteries or semiconductors, that are passive and rugged, can operate down to cryogenic temperatures and up to hundreds of degrees C, and can be used to sense a wide variety of parameters over reasonable distances (meters).
Aymard, François; Gulminelli, Francesca; Margueron, Jérôme
2016-08-01
The problem of determination of nuclear surface energy is addressed within the framework of the extended Thomas Fermi (ETF) approximation using Skyrme functionals. We propose an analytical model for the density profiles with variationally determined diffuseness parameters. In this first paper, we consider the case of symmetric nuclei. In this situation, the ETF functional can be exactly integrated, leading to an analytical formula expressing the surface energy as a function of the couplings of the energy functional. The importance of non-local terms is stressed and it is shown that they cannot be deduced simply from the local part of the functional, as it was suggested in previous works.
Circuit quantum acoustodynamics with surface acoustic waves.
Manenti, Riccardo; Kockum, Anton F; Patterson, Andrew; Behrle, Tanja; Rahamim, Joseph; Tancredi, Giovanna; Nori, Franco; Leek, Peter J
2017-10-17
The experimental investigation of quantum devices incorporating mechanical resonators has opened up new frontiers in the study of quantum mechanics at a macroscopic level. It has recently been shown that surface acoustic waves (SAWs) can be piezoelectrically coupled to superconducting qubits, and confined in high-quality Fabry-Perot cavities in the quantum regime. Here we present measurements of a device in which a superconducting qubit is coupled to a SAW cavity, realising a surface acoustic version of cavity quantum electrodynamics. We use measurements of the AC Stark shift between the two systems to determine the coupling strength, which is in agreement with a theoretical model. This quantum acoustodynamics architecture may be used to develop new quantum acoustic devices in which quantum information is stored in trapped on-chip acoustic wavepackets, and manipulated in ways that are impossible with purely electromagnetic signals, due to the 10 5 times slower mechanical waves.In this work, Manenti et al. present measurements of a device in which a tuneable transmon qubit is piezoelectrically coupled to a surface acoustic wave cavity, realising circuit quantum acoustodynamic architecture. This may be used to develop new quantum acoustic devices.
Direct detection of near-surface faults by migration of back-scattered surface waves
Yu, Han; Guo, Bowen; Hanafy, Sherif; Lin, Fan-Chi; Schuster, Gerard T.
2014-01-01
We show that diffraction stack migration can be used to estimate the distribution of near-surface faults. The assumption is that near-surface faults generate detectable back-scattered surface waves from impinging surface waves. The processing steps
Surface-enhanced chiroptical spectroscopy with superchiral surface waves.
Pellegrini, Giovanni; Finazzi, Marco; Celebrano, Michele; Duò, Lamberto; Biagioni, Paolo
2018-07-01
We study the chiroptical properties of one-dimensional photonic crystals supporting superchiral surface waves by introducing a simple formalism based on the Fresnel reflection matrix. We show that the proposed framework provides useful insights on the behavior of all the relevant chiroptical quantities, allowing for a deeper understanding of surface-enhanced chiral sensing platforms based on one-dimensional photonic crystals. Finally, we analyze and discuss the limitations of such platforms as the surface concentration of the target chiral analytes is gradually increased. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Illusions and Cloaks for Surface Waves
McManus, T. M.; Valiente-Kroon, J. A.; Horsley, S. A. R.; Hao, Y.
2014-08-01
Ever since the inception of Transformation Optics (TO), new and exciting ideas have been proposed in the field of electromagnetics and the theory has been modified to work in such fields as acoustics and thermodynamics. The most well-known application of this theory is to cloaking, but another equally intriguing application of TO is the idea of an illusion device. Here, we propose a general method to transform electromagnetic waves between two arbitrary surfaces. This allows a flat surface to reproduce the scattering behaviour of a curved surface and vice versa, thereby giving rise to perfect optical illusion and cloaking devices, respectively. The performance of the proposed devices is simulated using thin effective media with engineered material properties. The scattering of the curved surface is shown to be reproduced by its flat analogue (for illusions) and vice versa for cloaks.
Megaquakes, prograde surface waves and urban evolution
Lomnitz, C.; Castaños, H.
2013-05-01
Cities grow according to evolutionary principles. They move away from soft-ground conditions and avoid vulnerable types of structures. A megaquake generates prograde surface waves that produce unexpected damage in modern buildings. The examples (Figs. 1 and 2) were taken from the 1985 Mexico City and the 2010 Concepción, Chile megaquakes. About 400 structures built under supervision according to modern building codes were destroyed in the Mexican earthquake. All were sited on soft ground. A Rayleigh wave will cause surface particles to move as ellipses in a vertical plane. Building codes assume that this motion will be retrograde as on a homogeneous elastic halfspace, but soft soils are intermediate materials between a solid and a liquid. When Poisson's ratio tends to ν→0.5 the particle motion turns prograde as it would on a homogeneous fluid halfspace. Building codes assume that the tilt of the ground is not in phase with the acceleration but we show that structures on soft ground tilt into the direction of the horizontal ground acceleration. The combined effect of gravity and acceleration may destabilize a structure when it is in resonance with its eigenfrequency. Castaños, H. and C. Lomnitz, 2013. Charles Darwin and the 1835 Chile earthquake. Seismol. Res. Lett., 84, 19-23. Lomnitz, C., 1990. Mexico 1985: the case for gravity waves. Geophys. J. Int., 102, 569-572. Malischewsky, P.G. et al., 2008. The domain of existence of prograde Rayleigh-wave particle motion. Wave Motion 45, 556-564.; Figure 1 1985 Mexico megaquake--overturned 15-story apartment building in Mexico City ; Figure 2 2010 Chile megaquake Overturned 15-story R-C apartment building in Concepción
Parametric analysis of change in wave number of surface waves
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tadić Ljiljana
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The paper analyzes the dependence of the change wave number of materials soil constants, ie the frequency of the waves. The starting point in this analysis cosists of wave equation and dynamic stiffness matrix of soil.
A simple distorted-wave formula for two-state collision problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Makowski, A.J.
1980-01-01
A simple expression for transition probabilities is derived using the modified method of Mehrotra and Boggs. It is shown that this new formula is applied in a wider energy range than the first order Born approximation. (author)
Blast wave interaction with a rigid surface
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Josey, T.; Whitehouse, D.R.; Ripley, R.C.; Dionne, J.P.
2004-01-01
A simple model used to investigate blast wave interactions with a rigid surface is presented. The model uses a constant volume energy source analogue to predict pressure histories at gauges located directly above the charge. A series of two-dimensional axi-symmetric CFD calculations were performed, varying the height of the charge relative to the ground. Pressure histories, along with isopycnic plots are presented to evaluate the effects of placing a charge in close proximity to a rigid surface. When a charge is placed near a solid surface the pressure histories experienced at gauges above the charge indicate the presence of two distinct pressure peaks. The first peak is caused by the primary shock and the second peak is a result of the wave reflections from the rigid surface. As the distance from the charge to the wall is increased the magnitude of the second pressure peak is reduced, provided that the distance between the charge and the gauge is maintained constant. The simple model presented is able to capture significant, predictable flow features. (author)
Distribution of energy levels of quantum free particle on the Liouville surface and trace formulae
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bleher, P.M.; Kosygin, D.V.; Sinai, Y.G.
1995-01-01
We consider the Weyl asymptotic formula [{E n ≤R 2 }=Area Q.R 2 /(4π)+n(R), for eigenvalues of the Laplace-Beltrami operator on a two-dimensional torus Q with a Liouville metric which is in a sense the most general case of an integrable metric. We prove that if the surface Q is non-degenerate then the remainder term n(R) has the form n(R)=R 1/2 θ(R), where θ(R) is an almost periodic function of the Besicovitch class B 1 , and the Fourier amplitudes and the Fourier frequencies of θ(R) can be expressed via lengths of closed geodesics on Q and other simple geometric characteristics of these geodesics. We prove then that if the surface Q is generic then the limit distribution of θ(R) has a density p(t), which is an entire function of t possessing an asymptotics on a real line, logp(t)∝-C ± t 4 as t→±∞. An explicit expression for the Fourier transform of p(t) via Fourier amplitudes of θ(R) is also given. We obtain the analogue of the Guillemin-Duistermaat trace formula for the Liouville surfaces and discuss its accuracy. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bolte, J.
1992-08-01
The Selberg trace formula for automorphic forms of weight m ε- Z, on bordered Riemann surfaces is developed. The trace formula is formulated for arbitrary Fuchsian groups of the first kind which include hyperbolic, elliptic and parabolic conjugacy classes. In the case of compact bordered Riemann surfaces we can explicitly evaluate determinants of Maass-Laplacians for both Dirichlet and Neumann boundary-conditions, respectively. Some implications for the open bosonic string theory are mentioned. (orig.)
Properties of surface waves in granular media under gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zheng He-Peng
2014-01-01
Acoustical waves propagating along the free surface of granular media under gravity are investigated in the framework of elasticity theory. The influence of stress on a surface wave is analyzed. The results have shown that two types of surface waves, namely sagittal and transverse modes exist depending on initial stress states, which may have some influence on the dispersion relations of surface waves, but the influence is not great. Considering that the present experimental accuracy is far from distinguishing this detail, the validity of elasticity theory on the surface waves propagating in granular media can still be maintained. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)
Surface acoustic wave oxygen pressure sensor
Oglesby, Donald M. (Inventor); Upchurch, Billy T. (Inventor); Leighty, Bradley D. (Inventor)
1994-01-01
A transducer for the measurement of absolute gas-state oxygen pressure from pressures of less than 100 Pa to atmospheric pressure (1.01 x 10(exp 5) Pa) is based on a standard surface acoustic wave (SAW) device. The piezoelectric material of the SAW device is coated with a compound which will selectively and reversibly bind oxygen. When oxygen is bound by the coating, the mass of the coating increases by an amount equal to the mass of the bound oxygen. Such an increase in the mass of the coating causes a corresponding decrease in the resonant frequency of the SAW device.
Distributed feedback guided surface acoustic wave microresonator
Golan, G.; Griffel, G.; Seidman, A.; Croitoru, N.
1989-08-01
Surface acoustic wave resonators have been used in a number of applications: high-Q frequency filtering, very accurate frequency sources, etc. A major disadvantage of conventional resonators is their large dimensions, which makes them inadequate for integrated acoustics applications. In order to overcome these size limitations a new type of microresonator was designed, developed, and tested. In this paper, theoretical calculations and measurements on two kinds of such devices (a corrugated waveguide filter and a microresonator structure) are presented and their possible applications are discussed.
Skeletonized wave equation of surface wave dispersion inversion
Li, Jing; Schuster, Gerard T.
2016-01-01
We present the theory for wave equation inversion of dispersion curves, where the misfit function is the sum of the squared differences between the wavenumbers along the predicted and observed dispersion curves. Similar to wave-equation travel
Resonant surface acoustic wave chemical detector
Brocato, Robert W.; Brocato, Terisse; Stotts, Larry G.
2017-08-08
Apparatus for chemical detection includes a pair of interdigitated transducers (IDTs) formed on a piezoelectric substrate. The apparatus includes a layer of adsorptive material deposited on a surface of the piezoelectric substrate between the IDTs, where each IDT is conformed, and is dimensioned in relation to an operating frequency and an acoustic velocity of the piezoelectric substrate, so as to function as a single-phase uni-directional transducer (SPUDT) at the operating frequency. Additionally, the apparatus includes the pair of IDTs is spaced apart along a propagation axis and mutually aligned relative to said propagation axis so as to define an acoustic cavity that is resonant to surface acoustic waves (SAWs) at the operating frequency, where a distance between each IDT of the pair of IDTs ranges from 100 wavelength of the operating frequency to 400 wavelength of the operating frequency.
Seasonal changing sand waves and the effect of surface waves
Sterlini, Fenneke; van Dijk, Thaiënne A.G.P.; IJzer, Steven; Hulscher, Suzanne; Schüttrumpf, Holger; Tomasicchio, Guiseppe Roberto
2012-01-01
Sand waves are wavelike subaqueous sediment structures that exist in large areas in shelf seas. Due to their characteristics sand waves can severely affect human offshore activities, such as navigation. This makes it important to understand the physical processes that shape and change sand waves. In
Surface acoustic wave actuated cell sorting (SAWACS).
Franke, T; Braunmüller, S; Schmid, L; Wixforth, A; Weitz, D A
2010-03-21
We describe a novel microfluidic cell sorter which operates in continuous flow at high sorting rates. The device is based on a surface acoustic wave cell-sorting scheme and combines many advantages of fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) and fluorescence activated droplet sorting (FADS) in microfluidic channels. It is fully integrated on a PDMS device, and allows fast electronic control of cell diversion. We direct cells by acoustic streaming excited by a surface acoustic wave which deflects the fluid independently of the contrast in material properties of deflected objects and the continuous phase; thus the device underlying principle works without additional enhancement of the sorting by prior labelling of the cells with responsive markers such as magnetic or polarizable beads. Single cells are sorted directly from bulk media at rates as fast as several kHz without prior encapsulation into liquid droplet compartments as in traditional FACS. We have successfully directed HaCaT cells (human keratinocytes), fibroblasts from mice and MV3 melanoma cells. The low shear forces of this sorting method ensure that cells survive after sorting.
Small surface wave discharge at atmospheric pressure
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kiss' ovski, Zh; Kolev, M; Ivanov, A; Lishev, St; Koleva, I, E-mail: kissov@phys.uni-sofia.b [Faculty of Physics, Sofia University, BG-1164 Sofia (Bulgaria)
2009-09-21
A small surface wave driven source produces plasma at atmospheric pressure. Microwave power at frequency 2.45 GHz is coupled with the source and a discharge is ignited at power levels below 10 W. The coaxial exciter of the surface waves has a length of 10 mm because its dielectric is a high permittivity discharge tube. The plasma source operates as a plasma jet in the case of plasma columns longer than the tube length. The source maintains stable plasma columns over a wide range of neutral gas flow and applied power in continuous and pulse regimes. An additional advantage of this source is the discharge self-ignition. An electron temperature of T{sub e} {approx} 1.9 eV and a density of n{sub e} {approx} 3.9 x 10{sup 14} cm{sup -3} are estimated by the probe diagnostics method. The emission spectra in the wavelength range 200-1000 nm under different experimental conditions are analysed and they prove the applicability of the source for analytical spectroscopy. The dependences of column length, reflected power and plasma parameters on the gas flow and the input power are discussed. (fast track communication)
Grain size measurements by ultrasonic Rayleigh surface waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Palanichamy, P.; Jayakumar, T.
1996-01-01
The use of Rayleigh surface waves to determine average grain size nondestructively in an austenitic stainless steel AISI type 316 stainless is discussed. Two commercial type 4MHz frequency surface wave transducers, one as transmitter and the other as receiver were employed for the measurement of surface wave amplitudes. Relative amplitudes of the Rayleigh surface waves were correlated with the metallographically obtained grain sizes. Results indicate that surface/sub-surface average grain sizes of AISI type 316 austenitic stainless steel can be estimated with a confidence level of more than 80% in the grain size range 30-170 μm. (author)
Assessing ground compaction via time lapse surface wave analysis
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Dal Moro, Giancarlo; Al-Arifi, N.; Moustafa, S.S.R.
2016-01-01
Roč. 13, č. 3 (2016), s. 249-256 ISSN 1214-9705 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : Full velocity spectrum (FVS) analysis * ground compaction * ground compaction * phase velocities * Rayleigh waves * seismic data inversion * surface wave dispersion * surface waves Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 0.699, year: 2016
Surface waves in fibre-reinforced anisotropic elastic media
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Springer Verlag Heidelberg #4 2048 1996 Dec 15 10:16:45
Rayleigh, Love and Stoneley types. The wave velocity equations are found to be in agreement with the corresponding classical result when the ... (1924) and Jeffreys (1959), regarding surface waves in classical elasticity. Sengupta and his research collaborators have also studied surface waves (Acharya & Sengupta 1978;.
Evolution of offshore wind waves tracked by surface drifters with a point-positioning GPS sensor
Komatsu, K.
2009-12-01
Wind-generated waves have been recognized as one of the most important factors of the sea surface roughness which plays crucial roles in various air-sea interactions such as energy, momentum, heat and gas exchanges. At the same time, wind waves with extreme wave heights representatively called as freak or rogue waves have been a matter of great concern for many people involved in shipping, fishing, constracting, surfing and other marine activities, because such extreme waves frequently affect on the marine activities and sometimes cause serious disasters. Nevertheless, investigations of actual conditions for the evolution of wind waves in the offshore region are less and sparse in contrast to dense monitoring networks in the coastal regions because of difficulty of offshore observation with high accuracy. Recently accurate in situ observation of offshore wind waves is getting possible at low cost owing to a wave height and direction sensor developed by Harigae et al. (2004) by installing a point-positioning GPS receiver on a surface drifting buoy. The point-positioning GPS sensor can extract three dimensional movements of the buoy excited by ocean waves with minimizing effects of GPS point-positioning errors through the use of a high-pass filter. Two drifting buoys equipped with the GPS-based wave sensor charged by solar cells were drifted in the western North Pacific and one of them continued to observe wind waves during 16 months from Sep. 2007. The RMSE of the GPS-based wave sensor was less than 10cm in significant wave height and about 1s in significant wave period in comparison with other sensors, i.e. accelerometers installed on drifting buoys of Japan Meteorological Agency, ultrasonic sensors placed at the Hiratsuka observation station of the University of Tokyo and altimeter of the JASON-1. The GPS-based wave buoys enabled us to detect freak waves defined as waves whose height is more than twice the significant wave height. The observation conducted by the
Body surface area determined by whole-body CT scanning: need for new formulae?
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Villa, Chiara; Primeau, Charlotte; Hesse, Ulrik
2017-01-01
Calculation of the estimated body surface area (BSA) by body height and weight has been a challenge in the past centuries due to lack of a well-documented gold standard. More recently, available techniques such as 3D laser surface scanning and CT scanning may be expected to quantify the BSA...... Mimics software, and BSA values were automatically extracted from the program. They were compared with nine predictive equations from the literature. Remarkably, close correlations (r > 0·90) were found between BSA values from CT scans and those from the predictive formulae. A mean BSA of the 54 cadavers...... equations, with the CT scan determination as gold standard. It is concluded that DuBois and DuBois' equation can be safely used in normal-weight male subjects with high accuracy, but it seems likely that BSA is underestimated in underweight subjects and overestimated in overweight individuals. Creation...
Surface Plasmon Wave Adapter Designed with Transformation Optics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhang, Jingjing; Xiao, Sanshui; Wubs, Martijn
2011-01-01
On the basis of transformation optics, we propose the design of a surface plasmon wave adapter which confines surface plasmon waves on non-uniform metal surfaces and enables adiabatic mode transformation of surface plasmon polaritons with very short tapers. This adapter can be simply achieved...... with homogeneous anisotropic naturally occurring materials or subwavelength grating-structured dielectric materials. Full wave simulations based on a finite-element method have been performed to validate our proposal....
Surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) flow sensor
Joshi, Shrinivas G.
1991-03-01
The use of a surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) device to measure the rate of gas flow is described. A SAW oscillator heated to a suitable temperature above ambient is placed in the path of a flowing gas. Convective cooling caused by the gas flow results in a change in the oscillator frequency. A 73-MHz oscillator fabricated on 128 deg rotated Y-cut lithium niobate substrate and heated to 55 C above ambient shows a frequency variation greater than 142 kHz for flow-rate variation from 0 to 1000 cu cm/min. The output of the sensor can be calibrated to provide a measurement of volume flow rate, pressure differential across channel ports, or mass flow rate. High sensitivity, wide dynamic range, and direct digital output are among the attractive features of this sensor. Theoretical expressions for the sensitivity and response time of the sensor are derived. It is shown that by using ultrasonic Lamb waves propagating in thin membranes, a flow sensor with faster response than a SAW sensor can be realized.
Surface acoustic waves voltage controlled directional coupler
Golan, G.; Griffel, G.; Yanilov, E.; Ruschin, S.; Seidman, A.; Croitoru, N.
1988-10-01
An important condition for the development of surface wave integrated-acoustic devices is the ability to guide and control the propagation of the acoustic energy. This can be implemented by deposition of metallic "loading" channels on an anisotropic piezoelectric substrate. Deposition of such two parallel channels causes an effective coupling of acoustic energy from one channel to the other. A basic requirement for this coupling effect is the existence of the two basic modes: a symmetrical and a nonsymmetrical one. A mode map that shows the number of sustained modes as a function of the device parameters (i.e., channel width; distance between channels; material velocity; and acoustical exciting frequency) is presented. This kind of map can help significantly in the design process of such a device. In this paper we devise an advanced acoustical "Y" coupler with the ability to control its effective coupling by an externally applied voltage, thereby causing modulation of the output intensities of the signals.
THz detectors using surface Josephson plasma waves in layered superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Savel'ev, Sergey; Yampol'skii, Valery; Nori, Franco
2006-01-01
We describe a proposal for THz detectors based on the excitation of surface waves, in layered superconductors, at frequencies lower than the Josephson plasma frequency ω J . These waves propagate along the vacuum-superconductor interface and are attenuated in both transverse directions out of the surface (i.e., towards the superconductor and towards the vacuum). The surface Josephson plasma waves are also important for the complete suppression of the specular reflection from a sample (Wood's anomalies, used for gratings) and produce a huge enhancement of the wave absorption, which can be used for the detection of THz waves
Surface-Wave Pulse Routing around Sharp Right Angles
Gao, Z.; Xu, H.; Gao, F.; Zhang, Y.; Luo, Y.; Zhang, B.
2018-04-01
Surface-plasmon polaritons (SPPs), or localized electromagnetic surface waves propagating on a metal-dielectric interface, are deemed promising information carriers for future subwavelength terahertz and optical photonic circuitry. However, surface waves fundamentally suffer from scattering loss when encountering sharp corners in routing and interconnection of photonic signals. Previous approaches enabling scattering-free surface-wave guidance around sharp corners are limited to either volumetric waveguide environments or extremely narrow bandwidth, being unable to guide a surface-wave pulse (SPP wave packet) on an on-chip platform. Here, in a surface-wave band-gap crystal implemented on a single metal surface, we demonstrate in time-domain routing a surface-wave pulse around multiple sharp right angles without perceptible scattering. Our work not only offers a solution to on-chip surface-wave pulse routing along an arbitrary path, but it also provides spatiotemporal information on the interplay between surface-wave pulses and sharp corners, both of which are desirable in developing high-performance large-scale integrated photonic circuits.
Li, Jing; Schuster, Gerard T.; Zeng, Zhaofa
2017-01-01
A robust imaging technology is reviewed that provide subsurface information in challenging environments: wave-equation dispersion inversion (WD) of surface waves for the shear velocity model. We demonstrate the benefits and liabilities of the method
ERROR BOUNDS FOR SURFACE AREA ESTIMATORS BASED ON CROFTON’S FORMULA
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Markus Kiderlen
2011-05-01
Full Text Available According to Crofton's formula, the surface area S(A of a sufficiently regular compact set A in Rd is proportional to the mean of all total projections pA (u on a linear hyperplane with normal u, uniformly averaged over all unit vectors u. In applications, pA (u is only measured in k directions and the mean is approximated by a finite weighted sum bS(A of the total projections in these directions. The choice of the weights depends on the selected quadrature rule. We define an associated zonotope Z (depending only on the projection directions and the quadrature rule, and show that the relative error bS (A/S (A is bounded from below by the inradius of Z and from above by the circumradius of Z. Applying a strengthened isoperimetric inequality due to Bonnesen, we show that the rectangular quadrature rule does not give the best possible error bounds for d =2. In addition, we derive asymptotic behavior of the error (with increasing k in the planar case. The paper concludes with applications to surface area estimation in design-based digital stereology where we show that the weights due to Bonnesen's inequality are better than the usual weights based on the rectangular rule and almost optimal in the sense that the relative error of the surface area estimator is very close to the minimal error.
Temperature-mediated transition from Dyakonov-Tamm surface waves to surface-plasmon-polariton waves
Chiadini, Francesco; Fiumara, Vincenzo; Mackay, Tom G.; Scaglione, Antonio; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh
2017-08-01
The effect of changing the temperature on the propagation of electromagnetic surface waves (ESWs), guided by the planar interface of a homogeneous isotropic temperature-sensitive material (namely, InSb) and a temperature-insensitive structurally chiral material (SCM) was numerically investigated in the terahertz frequency regime. As the temperature rises, InSb transforms from a dissipative dielectric material to a dissipative plasmonic material. Correspondingly, the ESWs transmute from Dyakonov-Tamm surface waves into surface-plasmon-polariton waves. The effects of the temperature change are clearly observed in the phase speeds, propagation distances, angular existence domains, multiplicity, and spatial profiles of energy flow of the ESWs. Remarkably large propagation distances can be achieved; in such instances the energy of an ESW is confined almost entirely within the SCM. For certain propagation directions, simultaneous excitation of two ESWs with (i) the same phase speeds but different propagation distances or (ii) the same propagation distances but different phase speeds are also indicated by our results.
Nonlinear interaction of the surface waves at a plasma boundary
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dolgopolov, V.V.; El-Naggar, I.A.; Hussein, A.M.; Khalil, Sh.M.
1976-01-01
Amplitudes of electromagnetic waves with combination frequencies, radiating from the plasma boundary due to nonlinear interaction of the surface waves, have been found. Previous papers on this subject did not take into account that the tangential components of the electric field of waves with combination frequencies were discontinuous at the plasma boundary. (Auth.)
Transformation of second sound into surface waves in superfluid helium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khalatnikov, I.M.; Kolmakov, G.V.; Pokrovsky, V.L.
1995-01-01
The Hamiltonian theory of superfluid liquid with a free boundary is developed. Nonlinear amplitudes of parametric Cherenkov radiation of a surface wave by second sound and the inner decay of second sound waves are found. Threshold amplitudes of second sound waves for these two processes are determined. 4 refs
Phase spectral composition of wind generated ocean surface waves
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Varkey, M.J.
A study of the composition of the phase spectra of wind generated ocean surface waves is carried out using wave records collected employing a ship borne wave recorder. It is found that the raw phase spectral estimates could be fitted by the Uniform...
Universal formula for quasi-static density perturbation by a magnetoplasma wave
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaufman, A.N.; Cary, J.R.; Pereira, N.R.
1979-01-01
The general expression for the ponderomotive Hamiltonian is used to obtain the quasi-static quasi-neutral density change caused by the ponderomotive force of a cold magnetoplasma wave of arbitrary frequency and polarization: deltan (x) =-[vertical-barE(x) vertical-bar 2 -vertical-barB(x) vertical-bar 2 ] /4π
Magnethohydrodynamic surface and body waves in rectangular and cylindrical geometries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Donnelly, I.J.
1982-03-01
Low frequency magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves are studied in both rectangular slab and cylindrical geometry cavities containing low β plasmas. The plasma density distribution is modelled by an inner region of constant density surrounded by an outer region of lower density and a conducting boundary. The wave frequencies and fields are obtained as functions of the density distribution and the wavenumber components k(parall) and k(perp). The lowest frequency wave mode is a surface wave in which the wave fields decrease in magnitude with distance from the interface between the two plasma densities. It has the properties of a shear wave when k(perp)/k(parall) is either small or large but is compressive when k(perp) is approximately equal to k(parall). The surface wave does not exist when k(perp) = 0. Higher frequency modes have the properties of fast magnetosonic waves, at least in the inner density region
Optical bulk and surface waves with negative refraction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Agranovich, V.M.; Shen, Y.R.; Baughman, R.H.; Zakhidov, A.A.
2004-01-01
In materials with negative refraction, the direction of wave propagation is opposite to the direction of the wave vector. Using an approach that characterizes the optical response of a medium totally by a generalized dielectric permittivity, ε-bar (ω,k-bar), we discuss the possibility of seeing negative refraction for optical waves in a number of nonmagnetic media. These include bulk waves in organic materials and in gyrotropic materials where additional exciton-polariton waves can have a negative group velocity. It is known that dispersion of surface waves can be engineered by tailoring a surface transition layer. We show how this effect can be used to obtain surface waves with negative refraction
Opportunities and pitfalls in surface-wave interpretation
Schuster, Gerard T.; Li, Jing; Lu, Kai; Metwally, Ahmed Mohsen Hassan; AlTheyab, Abdullah; Hanafy, Sherif
2017-01-01
Many explorationists think of surface waves as the most damaging noise in land seismic data. Thus, much effort is spent in designing geophone arrays and filtering methods that attenuate these noisy events. It is now becoming apparent that surface waves can be a valuable ally in characterizing the near-surface geology. This review aims to find out how the interpreter can exploit some of the many opportunities available in surface waves recorded in land seismic data. For example, the dispersion curves associated with surface waves can be inverted to give the S-wave velocity tomogram, the common-offset gathers can reveal the presence of near-surface faults or velocity anomalies, and back-scattered surface waves can be migrated to detect the location of near-surface faults. However, the main limitation of surface waves is that they are typically sensitive to S-wave velocity variations no deeper than approximately half to one-third the dominant wavelength. For many exploration surveys, this limits the depth of investigation to be no deeper than approximately 0.5-1.0 km.
Opportunities and pitfalls in surface-wave interpretation
Schuster, Gerard T.
2017-01-21
Many explorationists think of surface waves as the most damaging noise in land seismic data. Thus, much effort is spent in designing geophone arrays and filtering methods that attenuate these noisy events. It is now becoming apparent that surface waves can be a valuable ally in characterizing the near-surface geology. This review aims to find out how the interpreter can exploit some of the many opportunities available in surface waves recorded in land seismic data. For example, the dispersion curves associated with surface waves can be inverted to give the S-wave velocity tomogram, the common-offset gathers can reveal the presence of near-surface faults or velocity anomalies, and back-scattered surface waves can be migrated to detect the location of near-surface faults. However, the main limitation of surface waves is that they are typically sensitive to S-wave velocity variations no deeper than approximately half to one-third the dominant wavelength. For many exploration surveys, this limits the depth of investigation to be no deeper than approximately 0.5-1.0 km.
HF Surface Wave Radar Operation in Adverse Conditions
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Ponsford, Anthony M; Dizaji, Reza M; McKerracher, Richard
2005-01-01
...) system based on HF Surface Wave Radar (HFSWR). the primary objective behind the programme was to demonstrate the capability of HFSWR to continuously detect and track surface targets (ships and icebergs...
Pulsed discharges produced by high-power surface waves
Böhle, A.; Ivanov, O.; Kolisko, A.; Kortshagen, U.; Schlüter, H.; Vikharev, A.
1996-02-01
The mechanisms of the ionization front advance in surface-wave-produced discharges are investigated using two experimental set-ups. The high-power surface waves are excited in a 3 cm wavelength band by a surfaguide and a novel type of launcher (an E-plane junction). The ionization front velocity of the surface wave is measured for a wide range of gas pressures, incident microwave power and initial pre-ionization. The experimental results are compared with theoretical ones based on three different models. The comparison between theory and experiment allows one to suggest a new interpretation of the ionization front's advance. The ionization front velocity is determined by a breakdown wave or an ionization wave in the electric field of a high-power surface wave in the zone near the ionization front.
Midinfrared Surface Waves on a High Aspect Ratio Nanotrench Platform
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Takayama, Osamu; Shkondin, Evgeniy; Bodganov, Andrey
2017-01-01
ameliorate surface wave propagation and even generate new types of waves. Here, we demonstrate that high aspect ratio (1:20) grating structures with plasmonic lamellas in deep nanoscale trenches, whose pitch is 1/10 – 1/35 of a wavelength, function as a versatile platform supporting both surface and guided...... bulk infrared waves. The surface waves exhibit a unique combination of properties: directionality, broadband existence (from 4 µm to at least 14 μm and beyond) and high localization, making them an attractive tool for effective control of light in an extended range of infrared frequencies....
Surface Acoustic Waves to Drive Plant Transpiration.
Gomez, Eliot F; Berggren, Magnus; Simon, Daniel T
2017-03-31
Emerging fields of research in electronic plants (e-plants) and agro-nanotechnology seek to create more advanced control of plants and their products. Electronic/nanotechnology plant systems strive to seamlessly monitor, harvest, or deliver chemical signals to sense or regulate plant physiology in a controlled manner. Since the plant vascular system (xylem/phloem) is the primary pathway used to transport water, nutrients, and chemical signals-as well as the primary vehicle for current e-plant and phtyo-nanotechnology work-we seek to directly control fluid transport in plants using external energy. Surface acoustic waves generated from piezoelectric substrates were directly coupled into rose leaves, thereby causing water to rapidly evaporate in a highly localized manner only at the site in contact with the actuator. From fluorescent imaging, we find that the technique reliably delivers up to 6x more water/solute to the site actuated by acoustic energy as compared to normal plant transpiration rates and 2x more than heat-assisted evaporation. The technique of increasing natural plant transpiration through acoustic energy could be used to deliver biomolecules, agrochemicals, or future electronic materials at high spatiotemporal resolution to targeted areas in the plant; providing better interaction with plant physiology or to realize more sophisticated cyborg systems.
Multi-component joint analysis of surface waves
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Dal Moro, Giancarlo; Moura, R.M.M.; Moustafa, S.S.R.
2015-01-01
Roč. 119, AUG (2015), s. 128-138 ISSN 0926-9851 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : surface waves * surface wave dispersion * seismic data acquisition * seismic data inversion * velocity spectrum Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.355, year: 2015
Guiding, bending, and splitting of coupled defect surface modes in a surface-wave photonic crystal
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gao, Zhen; Gao, Fei [Division of Physics and Applied Physics, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, Singapore 637371 (Singapore); Zhang, Baile, E-mail: blzhang@ntu.edu.sg [Division of Physics and Applied Physics, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, Singapore 637371 (Singapore); Centre for Disruptive Photonic Technologies, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, Singapore 637371 (Singapore)
2016-01-25
We experimentally demonstrate a type of waveguiding mechanism for coupled surface-wave defect modes in a surface-wave photonic crystal. Unlike conventional spoof surface plasmon waveguides, waveguiding of coupled surface-wave defect modes is achieved through weak coupling between tightly localized defect cavities in an otherwise gapped surface-wave photonic crystal, as a classical wave analogue of tight-binding electronic wavefunctions in solid state lattices. Wave patterns associated with the high transmission of coupled defect surface modes are directly mapped with a near-field microwave scanning probe for various structures including a straight waveguide, a sharp corner, and a T-shaped splitter. These results may find use in the design of integrated surface-wave devices with suppressed crosstalk.
Guiding, bending, and splitting of coupled defect surface modes in a surface-wave photonic crystal
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gao, Zhen; Gao, Fei; Zhang, Baile
2016-01-01
We experimentally demonstrate a type of waveguiding mechanism for coupled surface-wave defect modes in a surface-wave photonic crystal. Unlike conventional spoof surface plasmon waveguides, waveguiding of coupled surface-wave defect modes is achieved through weak coupling between tightly localized defect cavities in an otherwise gapped surface-wave photonic crystal, as a classical wave analogue of tight-binding electronic wavefunctions in solid state lattices. Wave patterns associated with the high transmission of coupled defect surface modes are directly mapped with a near-field microwave scanning probe for various structures including a straight waveguide, a sharp corner, and a T-shaped splitter. These results may find use in the design of integrated surface-wave devices with suppressed crosstalk
Eigenwave spectrum of surface acoustic waves on a rough self-affine fractal surface
Palasantzas, George
1994-01-01
The propagation of a sound wave along a statistically rough solid-vacuum interface is investigated for the case of self-affine fractals. The wave-number relation ω=ω(k) is examined for the transverse polarized surface wave. The range of existence of this wave is analyzed as a function of the degree
Surface flute waves in plasmas theory and applications
Girka, Volodymyr; Thumm, Manfred
2014-01-01
The book presents results of a comprehensive study of various features of eigen electromagnetic waves propagating across the axis of plasma filled metal waveguides with cylindrical geometry. The authors collected in one book material on various features of surface flute waves, i. e. impact of waveguide design on wave dispersion, wave damping influenced by various reasons, impact of plasma density and external magnetic field inhomogeneity on the wave, and impact of waveguide corrugation and electric current on the wave. A variety of present surface waves applications and possible future applications is also included. Using the method of successive approximations it is shown how one can solve problems, which concern real experimental devices, starting from simple models. The book applies to both professionals dealing with problems of confined plasmas and to graduate and post-graduate students specializing in the field of plasma physics and related applications.
2015-09-30
Interaction of Surface Gravity Waves with Nonlinear Internal Gravity Waves Lian Shen St. Anthony Falls Laboratory and Department of Mechanical...on studying surface gravity wave evolution and spectrum in the presence of surface currents caused by strongly nonlinear internal solitary waves...interaction of surface and internal gravity waves in the South China Sea. We will seek answers to the following questions: 1) How does the wind-wave
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
El Naggar, I.A.; Hussein, A.M.; Khalil, Sh.M.
1992-09-01
Electromagnetic waves radiated with combination frequencies from a semi-bounded plasma due to nonlinear interaction of radiation with surface wave (both of P-polarization) has been investigated. Waves are radiated both into vacuum and plasma are found to be P-polarized. We take into consideration the continuity at the plasma boundary of the tangential components of the electric field of the waves. The case of normal incidence of radiation and rarefield plasma layer is also studied. (author). 7 refs
Near-surface compressional and shear wave speeds constrained by body-wave polarization analysis
Park, Sunyoung; Ishii, Miaki
2018-06-01
A new technique to constrain near-surface seismic structure that relates body-wave polarization direction to the wave speed immediately beneath a seismic station is presented. The P-wave polarization direction is only sensitive to shear wave speed but not to compressional wave speed, while the S-wave polarization direction is sensitive to both wave speeds. The technique is applied to data from the High-Sensitivity Seismograph Network in Japan, and the results show that the wave speed estimates obtained from polarization analysis are compatible with those from borehole measurements. The lateral variations in wave speeds correlate with geological and physical features such as topography and volcanoes. The technique requires minimal computation resources, and can be used on any number of three-component teleseismic recordings, opening opportunities for non-invasive and inexpensive study of the shallowest (˜100 m) crustal structures.
Direct detection of near-surface faults by migration of back-scattered surface waves
Yu, Han
2014-08-05
We show that diffraction stack migration can be used to estimate the distribution of near-surface faults. The assumption is that near-surface faults generate detectable back-scattered surface waves from impinging surface waves. The processing steps are to isolate the back-scattered surface waves, and then migrate them by diffraction migration using the surface wave velocity as the migration velocity. Instead of summing events along trial quasi-hyperbolas, surface wave migration sums events along trial quasi-linear trajectories that correspond to the moveout of back-scattered surface waves. A deconvolution filter derived from the data can be used to collapse a dispersive arrival into a non-dispersive event. Results with synthetic data and field records validate the feasibility of this method. Applying this method to USArray data or passively recorded exploration data might open new opportunities in mapping tectonic features over the extent of the array.
Simulation and Optimization of Surface Acoustic Wave Devises
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dühring, Maria Bayard
2007-01-01
In this paper a method to model the interaction of the mechanical field from a surface acoustic wave and the optical field in the waveguides of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer is presented. The surface acoustic waves are generated by interdigital transducers using a plane strain model...... in effective refractive index introduced in the Mach-Zehnder interferometer arms by the stresses from the surface acoustic wave is calculated. It is shown that the effective refractive index of the fundamental optical mode increases at a surface acoustic wave crest and decreases at a trough. The height...... of a piezoelectric, inhomogeneous material and reflections from the boundaries are avoided by applying perfectly matched layers. The optical modes in the waveguides are modeled by the time-harmonic wave equation for the magnetic field. The two models are coupled using the stress-optical relation and the change...
Study of Magnetohydrodynamic Surface Waves on Liquid Gallium
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hantao Ji; William Fox; David Pace; H.L. Rappaport
2004-05-13
Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) surface waves on liquid gallium are studied theoretically and experimentally in the small magnetic Reynolds number limit. A linear dispersion relation is derived when a horizontal magnetic field and a horizontal electric current is imposed. No wave damping is found in the shallow liquid limit while waves always damp in the deep liquid limit with a magnetic field parallel to the propagation direction. When the magnetic field is weak, waves are weakly damped and the real part of the dispersion is unaffected, while in the opposite limit waves are strongly damped with shortened wavelengths. In a table-top experiment, planar MHD surface waves on liquid gallium are studied in detail in the regime of weak magnetic field and deep liquid. A non-invasive diagnostic accurately measures surface waves at multiple locations by reflecting an array of lasers off the surface onto a screen, which is recorded by an Intensified-CCD camera. The measured dispersion relation is consistent with the linear theory with a reduced surface tension likely due to surface oxidation. In excellent agreement with linear theory, it is observed that surface waves are damped only when a horizontal magnetic field is imposed parallel to the propagation direction. No damping is observed under a perpendicular magnetic field. The existence of strong wave damping even without magnetic field suggests the importance of the surface oxide layer. Implications to the liquid metal wall concept in fusion reactors, especially on the wave damping and a Rayleigh-Taylor instability when the Lorentz force is used to support liquid metal layer against gravity, are discussed.
Study of Magnetohydrodynamic Surface Waves on Liquid Gallium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hantao Ji; William Fox; David Pace; Rappaport, H.L.
2004-01-01
Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) surface waves on liquid gallium are studied theoretically and experimentally in the small magnetic Reynolds number limit. A linear dispersion relation is derived when a horizontal magnetic field and a horizontal electric current is imposed. No wave damping is found in the shallow liquid limit while waves always damp in the deep liquid limit with a magnetic field parallel to the propagation direction. When the magnetic field is weak, waves are weakly damped and the real part of the dispersion is unaffected, while in the opposite limit waves are strongly damped with shortened wavelengths. In a table-top experiment, planar MHD surface waves on liquid gallium are studied in detail in the regime of weak magnetic field and deep liquid. A non-invasive diagnostic accurately measures surface waves at multiple locations by reflecting an array of lasers off the surface onto a screen, which is recorded by an Intensified-CCD camera. The measured dispersion relation is consistent with the linear theory with a reduced surface tension likely due to surface oxidation. In excellent agreement with linear theory, it is observed that surface waves are damped only when a horizontal magnetic field is imposed parallel to the propagation direction. No damping is observed under a perpendicular magnetic field. The existence of strong wave damping even without magnetic field suggests the importance of the surface oxide layer. Implications to the liquid metal wall concept in fusion reactors, especially on the wave damping and a Rayleigh-Taylor instability when the Lorentz force is used to support liquid metal layer against gravity, are discussed
Effect of surface conditions on blast wave propagation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Song, Seung Ho; Li, Yi Bao; Lee, Chang Hoon; Choi, Jung Il
2016-01-01
We performed numerical simulations of blast wave propagations on surfaces by solving axisymmetric two-dimensional Euler equations. Assuming the initial stage of fireball at the breakaway point after an explosion, we investigated the effect of surface conditions considering surface convex or concave elements and thermal conditions on blast wave propagations near the ground surface. Parametric studies were performed by varying the geometrical factors of the surface element as well as thermal layer characteristics. We found that the peak overpressure near the ground zero was increased due to the surface elements, while modulations of the blast wave propagations were limited within a region for the surface elements. Because of the thermal layer, the precursor was formed in the propagations, which led to the attenuation of the peak overpressure on the ground surface
Imaging near-surface heterogeneities by natural migration of surface waves
Liu, Zhaolun; AlTheyab, Abdullah; Hanafy, Sherif M.; Schuster, Gerard T.
2016-01-01
We demonstrate that near-surface heterogeneities can be imaged by natural migration of backscattered surface waves in common shot gathers. No velocity model is required because the data are migrated onto surface points with the virtual Green
Nonlinear frequency shift of finite-amplitude electrostatic surface waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stenflo, L.
1989-01-01
The problem concerning the appropriate form for the nonlinear frequency shift arising from slow density modulations of electrostatic surface waves in a semi-infinite unmagnetized plasma is reconsidered. The spatial dependence of the wave amplitude normal to the surface is kept general in order to allow for possible nonlinear attenuation behaviour of the surface waves. It is found that if the frequency shift is expressed as a function of the density and its gradient then the result is identical with that of Zhelyazkov, I. Proceedings International Conference on Plasma Physics, Kiev, 1987, Vol. 2, p. 694, who assumed a linear exponential attenuation behaviour. (author)
Kelly, Grace M; O'Mahony, James A; Kelly, Alan L; O'Callaghan, Donal J
2016-09-01
Physical properties of spray-dried dairy powders depend on their composition and physical characteristics. This study investigated the effect of hydrolyzed whey protein on the microstructure and physical stability of dried model infant formula. Model infant formulas were produced containing either intact (DH 0) or hydrolyzed (DH 12) whey protein, where DH=degree of hydrolysis (%). Before spray drying, apparent viscosities of liquid feeds (at 55°C) at a shear rate of 500 s(-1) were 3.02 and 3.85 mPa·s for intact and hydrolyzed infant formulas, respectively. On reconstitution, powders with hydrolyzed whey protein had a significantly higher fat globule size and lower emulsion stability than intact whey protein powder. Lactose crystallization in powders occurred at higher relative humidity for hydrolyzed formula. The Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer equation, fitted to sorption isotherms, showed increased monolayer moisture when intact protein was present. As expected, glass transition decreased significantly with increasing water content. Partial hydrolysis of whey protein in model infant formula resulted in altered powder particle surface morphology, lactose crystallization properties, and storage stability. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ray-map migration of transmitted surface waves
Li, Jing
2016-08-25
Near-surface normal faults can sometimes separate two distinct zones of velocity heterogeneity, where the medium on one side of the fault has a faster velocity than on the other side. Therefore, the slope of surface-wave arrivals in a common-shot gather should abruptly change near the surface projection of the fault. We present ray-map imaging method that migrates transmitted surface waves to the fault plane, and therefore it roughly estimates the orientation, depth, and location of the near-surface fault. The main benefits of this method are that it is computationally inexpensive and robust in the presence of noise.
Horizon effects with surface waves on moving water
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rousseaux, Germain; Maissa, Philippe; Mathis, Christian; Coullet, Pierre [Universite de Nice-Sophia Antipolis, Laboratoire J-A Dieudonne, UMR CNRS-UNS 6621, Parc Valrose, 06108 Nice Cedex 02 (France); Philbin, Thomas G; Leonhardt, Ulf, E-mail: Germain.Rousseaux@unice.f [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews KY16 9SS (United Kingdom)
2010-09-15
Surface waves on a stationary flow of water are considered in a linear model that includes the surface tension of the fluid. The resulting gravity-capillary waves experience a rich array of horizon effects when propagating against the flow. In some cases, three horizons (points where the group velocity of the wave reverses) exist for waves with a single laboratory frequency. Some of these effects are familiar in fluid mechanics under the name of wave blocking, but other aspects, in particular waves with negative co-moving frequency and the Hawking effect, were overlooked until surface waves were investigated as examples of analogue gravity (Schuetzhold R and Unruh W G 2002 Phys. Rev. D 66 044019). A comprehensive presentation of the various horizon effects for gravity-capillary waves is given, with emphasis on the deep water/ short wavelength case kh>>1, where many analytical results can be derived. A similarity of the state space of the waves to that of a thermodynamic system is pointed out.
Numerical simulation of floating bodies in extreme free surface waves
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Z. Z. Hu
2011-02-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we use the in-house Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD flow code AMAZON-SC as a numerical wave tank (NWT to study wave loading on a wave energy converter (WEC device in heave motion. This is a surface-capturing method for two fluid flows that treats the free surface as contact surface in the density field that is captured automatically without special provision. A time-accurate artificial compressibility method and high resolution Godunov-type scheme are employed in both fluid regions (air/water. The Cartesian cut cell method can provide a boundary-fitted mesh for a complex geometry with no requirement to re-mesh globally or even locally for moving geometry, requiring only changes to cut cell data at the body contour. Extreme wave boundary conditions are prescribed in an empty NWT and compared with physical experiments prior to calculations of extreme waves acting on a floating Bobber-type device. The validation work also includes the wave force on a fixed cylinder compared with theoretical and experimental data under regular waves. Results include free surface elevations, vertical displacement of the float, induced vertical velocity and heave force for a typical Bobber geometry with a hemispherical base under extreme wave conditions.
Solitary ionizing surface waves on low-temperature plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vladimirov, S.V.; Yu, M.Y.
1993-01-01
It is demonstrated that at the boundary of semi-infinite low-temperature plasma new types of localized ionizing surface wave structures can propagate. The solitary waves are described by an evolution equation similar to the KdV equation, but the solutions differ considerably from that of the latter
Wave-Breaking Turbulence in the Ocean Surface Layer
2016-06-01
2004) used direct numerical simulation ( DNS ) to show that a single breaking wave can energize the surface layer for more than 50 wave periods, and...1941: Dissipation of energy in the locally isotropic turbulence. Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSR, 30, 301–305. Kukulka, T., and K. Brunner, 2015: Passive
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peralta, J.; López-Valverde, M. A.; Imamura, T.; Read, P. L.; Luz, D.; Piccialli, A.
2014-01-01
This paper is the second in a two-part study devoted to developing tools for a systematic classification of the wide variety of atmospheric waves expected on slowly rotating planets with atmospheric superrotation. Starting with the primitive equations for a cyclostrophic regime, we have deduced the analytical solution for the possible waves, simultaneously including the effect of the metric terms for the centrifugal force and the meridional shear of the background wind. In those cases where the conditions for the method of the multiple scales in height are met, these wave solutions are also valid when vertical shear of the background wind is present. A total of six types of waves have been found and their properties were characterized in terms of the corresponding dispersion relations and wave structures. In this second part, we study the waves' solutions when several atmospheric approximations are applied: Lamb, surface, and centrifugal waves. Lamb and surface waves are found to be quite similar to those in a geostrophic regime. By contrast, centrifugal waves turn out to be a special case of Rossby waves that arise in atmospheres in cyclostrophic balance. Finally, we use our results to identify the nature of the waves behind atmospheric periodicities found in polar and lower latitudes of Venus's atmosphere
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Peralta, J.; López-Valverde, M. A. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC), Glorieta de la Astronomía, 18008 Granada (Spain); Imamura, T. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science-Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency 3-1-1, Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Read, P. L. [Clarendon Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford (United Kingdom); Luz, D. [Centro de Astronomia e Astrofísica da Universidade de Lisboa (CAAUL), Observatório Astronómico de Lisboa, Tapada da Ajuda, 1349-018 Lisboa (Portugal); Piccialli, A., E-mail: peralta@iaa.es [LATMOS, UVSQ, 11 bd dAlembert, 78280 Guyancourt (France)
2014-07-01
This paper is the second in a two-part study devoted to developing tools for a systematic classification of the wide variety of atmospheric waves expected on slowly rotating planets with atmospheric superrotation. Starting with the primitive equations for a cyclostrophic regime, we have deduced the analytical solution for the possible waves, simultaneously including the effect of the metric terms for the centrifugal force and the meridional shear of the background wind. In those cases where the conditions for the method of the multiple scales in height are met, these wave solutions are also valid when vertical shear of the background wind is present. A total of six types of waves have been found and their properties were characterized in terms of the corresponding dispersion relations and wave structures. In this second part, we study the waves' solutions when several atmospheric approximations are applied: Lamb, surface, and centrifugal waves. Lamb and surface waves are found to be quite similar to those in a geostrophic regime. By contrast, centrifugal waves turn out to be a special case of Rossby waves that arise in atmospheres in cyclostrophic balance. Finally, we use our results to identify the nature of the waves behind atmospheric periodicities found in polar and lower latitudes of Venus's atmosphere.
CAMEX-3 JPL SURFACE ACOUSTIC WAVE (SAW) HYGROMETER V1
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This CAMEX-3 Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) Hygrometer dataset consists of dewpoint timeline measurements acquired during each DC-8...
Surface Wave Focusing and Acoustic Communications in the Surf Zone
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Preisig, James
2004-01-01
The forward scattering of acoustic signals off of shoaling surface gravity waves in the surf zone results in a time-varying channel impulse response that is characterized by intense, rapidly fluctuating arrivals...
Surface waves in fibre-reinforced anisotropic elastic media
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22
Department of Mathematics, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak 124001,. India e-mail: s−j−singh@yahoo.com. MS received 1 March 2002. Abstract. In the paper under discussion, the problem of surface waves in fibre- ... On close exam-.
Response of surface buoy moorings in steady and wave flows
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Anand, N.M.; Nayak, B.U.; SanilKumar, V.
A numerical model has been developed to evaluate the dynamics of surface buoy mooring systems under wave and current loading. System tension response and variation of tension in the mooring line at various depths have been evaluated for deep water...
Scaling observations of surface waves in the Beaufort Sea
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Madison Smith
2016-04-01
Full Text Available Abstract The rapidly changing Arctic sea ice cover affects surface wave growth across all scales. Here, in situ measurements of waves, observed from freely-drifting buoys during the 2014 open water season, are interpreted using open water distances determined from satellite ice products and wind forcing time series measured in situ with the buoys. A significant portion of the wave observations were found to be limited by open water distance (fetch when the wind duration was sufficient for the conditions to be considered stationary. The scaling of wave energy and frequency with open water distance demonstrated the indirect effects of ice cover on regional wave evolution. Waves in partial ice cover could be similarly categorized as distance-limited by applying the same open water scaling to determine an ‘effective fetch’. The process of local wave generation in ice appeared to be a strong function of the ice concentration, wherein the ice cover severely reduces the effective fetch. The wave field in the Beaufort Sea is thus a function of the sea ice both locally, where wave growth primarily occurs in the open water between floes, and regionally, where the ice edge may provide a more classic fetch limitation. Observations of waves in recent years may be indicative of an emerging trend in the Arctic Ocean, where we will observe increasing wave energy with decreasing sea ice extent.
Estimating propagation velocity through a surface acoustic wave sensor
Xu, Wenyuan; Huizinga, John S.
2010-03-16
Techniques are described for estimating the propagation velocity through a surface acoustic wave sensor. In particular, techniques which measure and exploit a proper segment of phase frequency response of the surface acoustic wave sensor are described for use as a basis of bacterial detection by the sensor. As described, use of velocity estimation based on a proper segment of phase frequency response has advantages over conventional techniques that use phase shift as the basis for detection.
Lage-area planar RF plasma productions by surface waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nonaka, S.
1994-01-01
Large-area rf plasmas are confirmed to be produced by means of RF discharges inside a large-area dielectric tube. The plasma space is 73 cm x 176 cm and 2.5 cm. The plasma is thought to be produced by an odd plasma-surface wave (PSW ο ) in case of using large-area electrodes and by an even plasma-surface wave (PSW ο ) in case of without the electrodes. (author). 7 refs, 4 figs
Anomalous Surface Wave Launching by Handedness Phase Control
Zhang, Xueqian; Xu, Yuehong; Yue, Weisheng; Tian, Zhen; Gu, Jianqiang; Li, Yanfeng; Singh, Ranjan; Zhang, Shuang; Han, Jiaguang; Zhang, Weili
2015-01-01
Anomalous launch of a surface wave with different handedness phase control is achieved in a terahertz metasurface based on phase discontinuities. The polarity of the phase profile of the surface waves is found to be strongly correlated to the polarization handedness, promising polarization-controllable wavefront shaping, polarization sensing, and environmental refractive-index sensing. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Anomalous Surface Wave Launching by Handedness Phase Control
Zhang, Xueqian
2015-10-09
Anomalous launch of a surface wave with different handedness phase control is achieved in a terahertz metasurface based on phase discontinuities. The polarity of the phase profile of the surface waves is found to be strongly correlated to the polarization handedness, promising polarization-controllable wavefront shaping, polarization sensing, and environmental refractive-index sensing. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Modulation of cavity-polaritons by surface acoustic waves
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
de Lima, M. M.; Poel, Mike van der; Hey, R.
2006-01-01
We modulate cavity-polaritons using surface acoustic waves. The corresponding formation of a mini-Brillouin zone and band folding of the polariton dispersion is demonstrated for the first time. Results are in good agreement with model calculations.......We modulate cavity-polaritons using surface acoustic waves. The corresponding formation of a mini-Brillouin zone and band folding of the polariton dispersion is demonstrated for the first time. Results are in good agreement with model calculations....
Flow profiling of a surface acoustic wave nanopump
Guttenberg, Z.; Rathgeber, A.; Keller, S.; Rädler, J. O.; Wixforth, A.; Kostur, M.; Schindler, M.; Talkner, P.
2004-01-01
The flow profile in a capillary gap and the pumping efficiency of an acoustic micropump employing Surface Acoustic Waves is investigated both experimentally and theoretically. Such ultrasonic surface waves on a piezoelectric substrate strongly couple to a thin liquid layer and generate an internal streaming within the fluid. Such acoustic streaming can be used for controlled agitation during, e.g., microarray hybridization. We use fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and fluorescence microsc...
Oscillon dynamics and rogue wave generation in Faraday surface ripples.
Xia, H; Maimbourg, T; Punzmann, H; Shats, M
2012-09-14
We report new experimental results which suggest that the generation of extreme wave events in the Faraday surface ripples is related to the increase in the horizontal mobility of oscillating solitons (oscillons). The analysis of the oscillon trajectories in a horizontal plane shows that at higher vertical acceleration, oscillons move chaotically, merge and form enclosed areas on the water surface. The probability of the formation of such craters, which precede large wave events, increases with the increase in horizontal mobility.
Electric field vector measurements in a surface ionization wave discharge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goldberg, Benjamin M; Adamovich, Igor V; Lempert, Walter R; Böhm, Patrick S; Czarnetzki, Uwe
2015-01-01
This work presents the results of time-resolved electric field vector measurements in a short pulse duration (60 ns full width at half maximum), surface ionization wave discharge in hydrogen using a picosecond four-wave mixing technique. Electric field vector components are measured separately, using pump and Stokes beams linearly polarized in the horizontal and vertical planes, and a polarizer placed in front of the infrared detector. The time-resolved electric field vector is measured at three different locations across the discharge gap, and for three different heights above the alumina ceramic dielectric surface, ∼100, 600, and 1100 μm (total of nine different locations). The results show that after breakdown, the discharge develops as an ionization wave propagating along the dielectric surface at an average speed of 1 mm ns −1 . The surface ionization wave forms near the high voltage electrode, close to the dielectric surface (∼100 μm). The wave front is characterized by significant overshoot of both vertical and horizontal electric field vector components. Behind the wave front, the vertical field component is rapidly reduced. As the wave propagates along the dielectric surface, it also extends further away from the dielectric surface, up to ∼1 mm near the grounded electrode. The horizontal field component behind the wave front remains quite significant, to sustain the electron current toward the high voltage electrode. After the wave reaches the grounded electrode, the horizontal field component experiences a secondary rise in the quasi-dc discharge, where it sustains the current along the near-surface plasma sheet. The measurement results indicate presence of a cathode layer formed near the grounded electrode with significant cathode voltage fall, ≈3 kV, due to high current density in the discharge. The peak reduced electric field in the surface ionization wave is 85–95 Td, consistent with dc breakdown field estimated from the Paschen
Surface electrostatic waves in bounded high temperature superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Averkov, Yu.O.; Yakovenko, V.M.
2008-01-01
The dispersion relations of surface electrostatic waves propagating along the surface of semi bounded layered superconductor and in the slab of layered superconductor are theoretically investigated. An arbitrary inclination of superconductor layers to the interface of a vacuum - crystal and an arbitrary direction of propagation of surface waves in the plane of the interface are taking into account. The possibility of initiation of an absolute instability during the propagation of a non-relativistic plasma stream above the surface of the layered superconductor is shown
High-frequency shear-horizontal surface acoustic wave sensor
Branch, Darren W
2013-05-07
A Love wave sensor uses a single-phase unidirectional interdigital transducer (IDT) on a piezoelectric substrate for leaky surface acoustic wave generation. The IDT design minimizes propagation losses, bulk wave interferences, provides a highly linear phase response, and eliminates the need for impedance matching. As an example, a high frequency (.about.300-400 MHz) surface acoustic wave (SAW) transducer enables efficient excitation of shear-horizontal waves on 36.degree. Y-cut lithium tantalate (LTO) giving a highly linear phase response (2.8.degree. P-P). The sensor has the ability to detect at the pg/mm.sup.2 level and can perform multi-analyte detection in real-time. The sensor can be used for rapid autonomous detection of pathogenic microorganisms and bioagents by field deployable platforms.
Improved ion acceleration via laser surface plasma waves excitation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bigongiari, A. [CEA/DSM/LSI, CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); TIPS/LULI, Université Paris 6, CNRS, CEA, Ecole Polytechnique, 3, rue Galilée, 94200 Ivry-sur-Seine (France); Raynaud, M. [CEA/DSM/LSI, CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Riconda, C. [TIPS/LULI, Université Paris 6, CNRS, CEA, Ecole Polytechnique, 3, rue Galilée, 94200 Ivry-sur-Seine (France); Héron, A. [CPHT, CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France)
2013-05-15
The possibility of enhancing the emission of the ions accelerated in the interaction of a high intensity ultra-short (<100 fs) laser pulse with a thin target (<10λ{sub 0}), via surface plasma wave excitation is investigated. Two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations are performed for laser intensities ranging from 10{sup 19} to 10{sup 20} Wcm{sup −2}μm{sup 2}. The surface wave is resonantly excited by the laser via the coupling with a modulation at the target surface. In the cases where the surface wave is excited, we find an enhancement of the maximum ion energy of a factor ∼2 compared to the cases where the target surface is flat.
Surface-wave potential for triggering tectonic (nonvolcanic) tremor
Hill, D.P.
2010-01-01
Source processes commonly posed to explain instances of remote dynamic triggering of tectonic (nonvolcanic) tremor by surface waves include frictional failure and various modes of fluid activation. The relative potential for Love- and Rayleigh-wave dynamic stresses to trigger tectonic tremor through failure on critically stressed thrust and vertical strike-slip faults under the Coulomb-Griffith failure criteria as a function of incidence angle is anticorrelated over the 15- to 30-km-depth range that hosts tectonic tremor. Love-wave potential is high for strike-parallel incidence on low-angle reverse faults and null for strike-normal incidence; the opposite holds for Rayleigh waves. Love-wave potential is high for both strike-parallel and strike-normal incidence on vertical, strike-slip faults and minimal for ~45?? incidence angles. The opposite holds for Rayleigh waves. This pattern is consistent with documented instances of tremor triggered by Love waves incident on the Cascadia mega-thrust and the San Andreas fault (SAF) in central California resulting from shear failure on weak faults (apparent friction, ????? 0.2). However, documented instances of tremor triggered by surface waves with strike-parallel incidence along the Nankai megathrust beneath Shikoku, Japan, is associated primarily with Rayleigh waves. This is consistent with the tremor bursts resulting from mixed-mode failure (crack opening and shear failure) facilitated by near-lithostatic ambient pore pressure, low differential stress, with a moderate friction coefficient (?? ~ 0.6) on the Nankai subduction interface. Rayleigh-wave dilatational stress is relatively weak at tectonic tremor source depths and seems unlikely to contribute significantly to the triggering process, except perhaps for an indirect role on the SAF in sustaining tremor into the Rayleigh-wave coda that was initially triggered by Love waves.
Thickness Measurement of Surface Attachment on Plate with Lamb Wave
Ma, Xianglong; Zhang, Yinghong; Wen, Lichao; He, Yehu
2017-12-01
Aiming at the thickness detection of the plate surface attachment, a nondestructive testing method based on the Lamb wave is presented. This method utilizes Lamb wave propagation characteristics of signals in a bi-layer medium to measure the surface attachment plate thickness. Propagation of Lamb wave in bi-layer elastic is modeled and analyzed. The two-dimensional simulation model of electromagnetic ultrasonic plate - scale is established. The simulation is conducted by software COMSOL for simulation analysis under different boiler scale thickness wave form curve. Through this study, the thickness of the attached material can be judged by analyzing the characteristics of the received signal when the thickness of the surface of the plate is measured.
Nonlinear surface waves at ferrite-metamaterial waveguide structure
Hissi, Nour El Houda; Mokhtari, Bouchra; Eddeqaqi, Noureddine Cherkaoui; Shabat, Mohammed Musa; Atangana, Jacques
2016-09-01
A new ferrite slab made of a metamaterial (MTM), surrounded by a nonlinear cover cladding and a ferrite substrate, was shown to support unusual types of electromagnetic surface waves. We impose the boundary conditions to derive the dispersion relation and others necessary to formulate the proposed structure. We analyse the dispersion properties of the nonlinear surface waves and we calculate the associated propagation index and the film-cover interface nonlinearity. In the calculation, several sets of the permeability of the MTM are considered. Results show that the waves behaviour depends on the values of the permeability of the MTM, the thickness of the waveguide and the film-cover interface nonlinearity. It is also shown that the use of the singular solutions to the electric field equation allows to identify several new properties of surface waves which do not exist in conventional waveguide.
Imaging near-surface heterogeneities by natural migration of backscattered surface waves
AlTheyab, Abdullah; Lin, Fan-Chi; Schuster, Gerard T.
2016-01-01
We present a migration method that does not require a velocity model to migrate backscattered surface waves to their projected locations on the surface. This migration method, denoted as natural migration, uses recorded Green's functions along
Dispersion surfaces and ion wave instabilities in space plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andre, M
1985-08-01
In this thesis, the dispersion relation of linear waves in a non-relativistic, collisionless and homogeneous plasma in a uniform magnetic field, is solved numerically. Both electrostatic and elecromagnetic waves with frequencies from below the ion gyrofrequency to above the electron gyrofrequency are studied for all angles of propagation. Modes occurring in a cold plasma as well as waves dependent on thermal effects are included. Dispersion surfaces, that is plots of frequency versus wavevector components, are presented for some models of space plasmas. Waves with frequencies of the order of the ion gyrofrequency (ion waves), are well known to exist in space plasmas. In this thesis, the generation of ion waves by ion distributions with loss-cones or temperature anisotropies, or by beams of charged particles, is investigated by numerical methods. Effects of heavy ions are considered. Dispersion surfaces and analytical arguments are used to clarify the results. It is shown that particle beams and ion loss-cone distributions can generate electrostatic ion waves, even when a significant amount of the electrons are cool. These calculations are in agreement with simultaneous observatons of waves and particles obtained by a satellite on auroral field lines. (author)
On the interaction of Rayleigh surface waves with structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Simpson, I.C.
1976-12-01
A two-dimensional soil-structure interaction analysis is carried out for transient Rayleigh surface waves that are incident on a structure. The structure is modelled by a three-degree of freedom rigid basemat to which is attached a flexible superstructure, modelled by a single mass-spring system. The structural responses to a given Rayleigh wave train are compared with those that would have been obtained if the free-field acceleration-time history had been applied as a normally incident body wave. The results clearly exhibit the 'frequency filtering' effects of the rigid basemat on the incident Rayleigh waves. It is shown that, if seismic excitation of a structure is, in fact, due to Rayleigh surface waves, then an analysis assuming normally incident body waves can considerably over-estimate structural response, both at basemat level for horizontal and vertical oscillations of the superstructure. However, in the examples considered here, relatively large rocking effects were induced by the Rayleigh waves, thus giving maximum horizontal accelerations in the superstructure that were of comparable magnitude for Rayleigh and normally incident body waves. (author)
Experimental Investigations on Microshock Waves and Contact Surfaces
Kai, Yun; Garen, Walter; Teubner, Ulrich
2018-02-01
The present work reports on progress in the research of a microshock wave. Because of the lack of a good understanding of the propagation mechanism of the microshock flow system (shock wave, contact surface, and boundary layer), the current work concentrates on measuring microshock flows with special attention paid to the contact surface. A novel setup involving a glass capillary (with a 200 or 300 μ m hydraulic diameter D ) and a high-speed magnetic valve is applied to generate a shock wave with a maximum initial Mach number of 1.3. The current work applies a laser differential interferometer to perform noncontact measurements of the microshock flow's trajectory, velocity, and density. The current work presents microscale measurements of the shock-contact distance L that solves the problem of calculating the scaling factor Sc =Re ×D /(4 L ) (introduced by Brouillette), which is a parameter characterizing the scaling effects of shock waves. The results show that in contrast to macroscopic shock waves, shock waves at the microscale have a different propagation or attenuation mechanism (key issue of this Letter) which cannot be described by the conventional "leaky piston" model. The main attenuation mechanism of microshock flow may be the ever slower moving contact surface, which drives the shock wave. Different from other measurements using pressure transducers, the current setup for density measurements resolves the whole microshock flow system.
Solar energy converter using surface plasma waves
Anderson, L. M. (Inventor)
1984-01-01
Sunlight is dispersed over a diffraction grating formed on the surface of a conducting film on a substrate. The angular dispersion controls the effective grating period so that a matching spectrum of surface plasmons is excited for parallel processing on the conducting film. The resulting surface plasmons carry energy to an array of inelastic tunnel diodes. This solar energy converter does not require different materials for each frequency band, and sunlight is directly converted to electricity in an efficient manner by extracting more energy from the more energetic photons.
Scattering of a TEM wave from a time varying surface
Elcrat, Alan R.; Harder, T. Mark; Stonebraker, John T.
1990-03-01
A solution is given for reflection of a plane wave with TEM polarization from a planar surface with time varying properties. These properties are given in terms of the currents on the surface. The solution is obtained by numerically solving a system of differential-delay equations in the time domain.
Ray-map migration of transmitted surface waves
Li, Jing; Schuster, Gerard T.
2016-01-01
Near-surface normal faults can sometimes separate two distinct zones of velocity heterogeneity, where the medium on one side of the fault has a faster velocity than on the other side. Therefore, the slope of surface-wave arrivals in a common
Modulation of photonic structures by surface acoustic waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mauricio M de Lima Jr; Santos, Paulo V
2005-01-01
This paper reviews the interaction between coherently stimulated acoustic phonons in the form of surface acoustic waves with light beams in semiconductor based photonic structures. We address the generation of surface acoustic wave modes in these structures as well as the technological aspects related to control of the propagation and spatial distribution of the acoustic fields. The microscopic mechanisms responsible for the interaction between light and surface acoustic modes in different structures are then reviewed. Particular emphasis is given to the acousto-optical interaction in semiconductor microcavities and its application in photon control. These structures exhibit high optical modulation levels under acoustic excitation and are compatible with integrated light sources and detectors
Experiments on seismic metamaterials: molding surface waves.
Brûlé, S; Javelaud, E H; Enoch, S; Guenneau, S
2014-04-04
Materials engineered at the micro- and nanometer scales have had a tremendous and lasting impact in photonics and phononics. At much larger scales, natural soils civil engineered at decimeter to meter scales may interact with seismic waves when the global properties of the medium are modified, or alternatively thanks to a seismic metamaterial constituted of a mesh of vertical empty inclusions bored in the initial soil. Here, we show the experimental results of a seismic test carried out using seismic waves generated by a monochromatic vibrocompaction probe. Measurements of the particles' velocities show a modification of the seismic energy distribution in the presence of the metamaterial in agreement with numerical simulations using an approximate plate model. For complex natural materials such as soils, this large-scale experiment was needed to show the practical feasibility of seismic metamaterials and to stress their importance for applications in civil engineering. We anticipate this experiment to be a starting point for smart devices for anthropic and natural vibrations.
Zhang, Yu; Li, Yan; Shao, Hao; Zhong, Yaozhao; Zhang, Sai; Zhao, Zongxi
2012-06-01
Band structure and wave localization are investigated for sea surface water waves over large-scale sand wave topography. Sand wave height, sand wave width, water depth, and water width between adjacent sand waves have significant impact on band gaps. Random fluctuations of sand wave height, sand wave width, and water depth induce water wave localization. However, random water width produces a perfect transmission tunnel of water waves at a certain frequency so that localization does not occur no matter how large a disorder level is applied. Together with theoretical results, the field experimental observations in the Taiwan Bank suggest band gap and wave localization as the physical mechanism of sea surface water wave propagating over natural large-scale sand waves.
Transient space-time surface waves characterization using Gabor analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Martinez, L; Wilkie-Chancellier, N; Caplain, E [Universite de Cergy Pontoise, ENS Cachan, UMR CNRS 8029, Laboratoire Systemes et Applications des Techniques de l' Information et de l' Energie (SATIE), 5 mail Gay-Lussac, F 9500 Cergy-Pontoise (France); Glorieux, C; Sarens, B, E-mail: nicolas.wilkie-chancellier@u-cergy.f [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Laboratorium voor Akoestiek en Thermische Fysica (LATF), Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)
2009-11-01
Laser ultrasonics allow the observation of transient surface waves along their propagation media and their interaction with encountered objects like cracks, holes, borders. In order to characterize and localize these transient aspects in the Space-Time-Wave number-Frequency domains, the 1D, 2D and 3D Gabor transforms are presented. The Gabor transform enables the identification of several properties of the local wavefronts such as their shape, wavelength, frequency, attenuation, group velocity and the full conversion sequence along propagation. The ability of local properties identification by Gabor transform is illustrated by two experimental studies: Lamb waves generated by an annular source on a circular quartz and Lamb wave interaction with a fluid droplet. In both cases, results obtained with Gabor transform enable ones to identify the observed local waves.
Discrete microfluidics based on aluminum nitride surface acoustic wave devices
Zhou, J.; Pang, H.F.; Garcia-Gancedo, L.; Iborra, E.; Clement, M.; De Miguel-Ramos, M.; Jin, H.; Luo, J.K.; Smith, S.; Dong, S.R.; Wang, D.M.; Fu, Y.Q.
2015-01-01
To date, most surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices have been made from bulk piezoelectric materials, such as quartz, lithium niobate or lithium tantalite. These bulk materials are brittle, less easily integrated with electronics for control and signal processing, and difficult to realize multiple wave modes or apply complex electrode designs. Using thin film SAWs makes it convenient to integrate microelectronics and multiple sensing or microfluidics techniques into a lab-on-a-chip with low cos...
Surface wave photonic device based on porous silicon multilayers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guillermain, E.; Lysenko, V.; Benyattou, T.
2006-01-01
Porous silicon is widely studied in the field of photonics due to its interesting optical properties. In this work, we present theoretical and first experimental studies of a new kind of porous silicon photonic device based on optical surface wave. A theoretical analysis of the device is presented using plane-wave approximation. The porous silicon multilayered structures are realized using electrochemical etching of p + -type silicon. Morphological and optical characterizations of the realized structures are reported
Simplied formula for the illuminance in an optical system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burkhard, D.G.; Shealy, D.L.
1981-01-01
A formula is derived for the illuminance at any surface in an optical system. By tracing a single ray one can compute the flux density at the image plane or any other position along the ray. The formula involves the ratio of the products of the principal curvatures of the wave front as it approaches each surface to products of the same qualitities after the wave front is refracted at each surface. A procedure is presented for determining the required principal curvatures by generalizing the Coddinton equations to multiple surfaces for both meridional and skew rays. Results are applicable to both sphreical and aspherical surfaces. Since principal radii of curvature specify points on the caustic surfaces, the formula and computation procedure automatically yields the equations for caustic surfaces as a by-product. To illustrate the computation procedure the illuminance and caustic surfaces are derived for an aspherical singlet
High-Temperature Surface-Acoustic-Wave Transducer
Zhao, Xiaoliang; Tittmann, Bernhard R.
2010-01-01
Aircraft-engine rotating equipment usually operates at high temperature and stress. Non-invasive inspection of microcracks in those components poses a challenge for the non-destructive evaluation community. A low-profile ultrasonic guided wave sensor can detect cracks in situ. The key feature of the sensor is that it should withstand high temperatures and excite strong surface wave energy to inspect surface/subsurface cracks. As far as the innovators know at the time of this reporting, there is no existing sensor that is mounted to the rotor disks for crack inspection; the most often used technology includes fluorescent penetrant inspection or eddy-current probes for disassembled part inspection. An efficient, high-temperature, low-profile surface acoustic wave transducer design has been identified and tested for nondestructive evaluation of structures or materials. The development is a Sol-Gel bismuth titanate-based surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) sensor that can generate efficient surface acoustic waves for crack inspection. The produced sensor is very thin (submillimeter), and can generate surface waves up to 540 C. Finite element analysis of the SAW transducer design was performed to predict the sensor behavior, and experimental studies confirmed the results. One major uniqueness of the Sol-Gel bismuth titanate SAW sensor is that it is easy to implement to structures of various shapes. With a spray coating process, the sensor can be applied to surfaces of large curvatures. Second, the sensor is very thin (as a coating) and has very minimal effect on airflow or rotating equipment imbalance. Third, it can withstand temperatures up to 530 C, which is very useful for engine applications where high temperature is an issue.
Numerical Simulation of Floating Bodies in Extreme Free Surface Waves
Hu, Zheng Zheng; Causon, Derek; Mingham, Clive; Qiang, Ling
2010-05-01
A task of the EPSRC funded research project 'Extreme Wave loading on Offshore Wave Energy Devices: a Hierarchical Team Approach' is to investigate the survivability of two wave energy converter (WEC) devices Pelamis and the Manchester Bobber using different CFD approaches. Both devices float on the water surface, generating the electricity from the motion of the waves. In this paper, we describe developments of the AMAZON-SC 3D numerical wave tank (NWT) to study extreme wave loading of a fixed or floating (in Heave motion) structure. The extreme wave formulation as an inlet condition is due to Dalzell (1999) and Ning et. al. (2009) in which a first or second-order Stokes focused wave can be prescribed. The AMAZON-SC 3D code (see e.g. Hu et al. (2009)) uses a cell centred finite volume method of the Godunov-type for the space discretization of the Euler and Navier Stokes equations. The computational domain includes both air and water regions with the air/water boundary captured as a discontinuity in the density field thereby admitting the break up and recombination of the free surface. Temporal discretisation uses the artificial compressibility method and a dual time stepping strategy to maintain a divergence free velocity field. Cartesian cut cells are used to provide a fully boundary-fitted gridding capability on an regular background Cartesian grid. Solid objects are cut out of the background mesh leaving a set of irregularly shaped cells fitted to the boundary. The advantages of the cut cell approach have been outlined previously by Causon et al. (2000, 2001) including its flexibility for dealing with complex geometries whether stationary or in relative motion. The field grid does not need to be recomputed globally or even locally for moving body cases; all that is necessary is to update the local cut cell data at the body contour for as long as the motion continues. The handing of numerical wave paddles and device motion in a NWT is therefore straightforward
Analysis shear wave velocity structure obtained from surface wave methods in Bornova, Izmir
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pamuk, Eren, E-mail: eren.pamuk@deu.edu.tr; Akgün, Mustafa, E-mail: mustafa.akgun@deu.edu.tr [Department of Geophysical Engineering, Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir (Turkey); Özdağ, Özkan Cevdet, E-mail: cevdet.ozdag@deu.edu.tr [Dokuz Eylul University Rectorate, Izmir (Turkey)
2016-04-18
Properties of the soil from the bedrock is necessary to describe accurately and reliably for the reduction of earthquake damage. Because seismic waves change their amplitude and frequency content owing to acoustic impedance difference between soil and bedrock. Firstly, shear wave velocity and depth information of layers on bedrock is needed to detect this changing. Shear wave velocity can be obtained using inversion of Rayleigh wave dispersion curves obtained from surface wave methods (MASW- the Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves, ReMi-Refraction Microtremor, SPAC-Spatial Autocorrelation). While research depth is limeted in active source study, a passive source methods are utilized for deep depth which is not reached using active source methods. ReMi method is used to determine layer thickness and velocity up to 100 m using seismic refraction measurement systems.The research carried out up to desired depth depending on radius using SPAC which is utilized easily in conditions that district using of seismic studies in the city. Vs profiles which are required to calculate deformations in under static and dynamic loads can be obtained with high resolution using combining rayleigh wave dispersion curve obtained from active and passive source methods. In the this study, Surface waves data were collected using the measurements of MASW, ReMi and SPAC at the İzmir Bornova region. Dispersion curves obtained from surface wave methods were combined in wide frequency band and Vs-depth profiles were obtained using inversion. Reliability of the resulting soil profiles were provided by comparison with theoretical transfer function obtained from soil paremeters and observed soil transfer function from Nakamura technique and by examination of fitting between these functions. Vs values are changed between 200-830 m/s and engineering bedrock (Vs>760 m/s) depth is approximately 150 m.
Surface Wave Velocity-Stress Relationship in Uniaxially Loaded Concrete
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Shokouhi, Parisa; Zoëga, Andreas; Wiggenhauser, Herbert
2012-01-01
The sonic surface wave (or Rayleigh wave) velocity measured on prismatic concrete specimens under uniaxial compression was found to be highly stress-dependent. At low stress levels, the acoustoelastic effect and the closure of existing microcracks results in a gradual increase in surface wave...... velocities. At higher stress levels, concrete suffers irrecoverable damage: the existing microcracks widen and coalesce and new microcracks form. This progressive damage process leads first to the flattening and eventually the drop in the velocity-stress curves. Measurements on specimens undergoing several...... loading cycles revealed that the velocities show a stress-memory effect in good agreement with the Kaiser effect. Comparing the velocities measured during loading and unloading, the effects of stress and damage on the measured velocities could be differentiated. Moreover, the stress dependency of surface...
Relationship between ultrasonic Rayleigh waves and surface residual stress
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adler, L.; Cook, K.V.; Dewey, B.R.; King, R.T.
1977-01-01
Local variations of Rayleigh (surface) circumferential ultrasonic wave velocity near a pipe-girth weld in large-diameter thin-wall type 316H stainless steel pipe were measured. The weldment was similar to those anticipated for the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) piping systems. The residual stress distribution was estimated independently from shell theory for an elastic, infinite, thin shell with circumferential line loading. An upper bound on the magnitude of the residual stresses was estimated assuming the deformation of the shell was entirely elastic. The pattern of surface wave velocity variations matches the theoretical residual stress pattern closely. It is suggested that the monitoring of surface wave velocity variations might be used for characterizing residual stress patterns near critical welds in piping, aiding in design calculations, and for in-service monitoring of the state of stress of weldments
Surface Acoustic Wave Devices for Harsh Environment Wireless Sensing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
David W. Greve
2013-05-01
Full Text Available Langasite surface acoustic wave devices can be used to implement harsh-environment wireless sensing of gas concentration and temperature. This paper reviews prior work on the development of langasite surface acoustic wave devices, followed by a report of recent progress toward the implementation of oxygen gas sensors. Resistive metal oxide films can be used as the oxygen sensing film, although development of an adherent barrier layer will be necessary with the sensing layers studied here to prevent interaction with the langasite substrate. Experimental results are presented for the performance of a langasite surface acoustic wave oxygen sensor with tin oxide sensing layer, and these experimental results are correlated with direct measurements of the sensing layer resistivity.
Measuring sea surface height with a GNSS-Wave Glider
Morales Maqueda, Miguel Angel; Penna, Nigel T.; Foden, Peter R.; Martin, Ian; Cipollini, Paolo; Williams, Simon D.; Pugh, Jeff P.
2017-04-01
A GNSS-Wave Glider is a novel technique to measure sea surface height autonomously using the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS). It consists of an unmanned surface vehicle manufactured by Liquid Robotics, a Wave Glider, and a geodetic-grade GNSS antenna-receiver system, with the antenna installed on a mast on the vehicle's deck. The Wave Glider uses the differential wave motion through the water column for propulsion, thus guaranteeing an, in principle, indefinite autonomy. Solar energy is collected to power all on-board instrumentation, including the GNSS system. The GNSS-Wave Glider was first tested in Loch Ness in 2013, demonstrating that the technology is capable of mapping geoid heights within the loch with an accuracy of a few centimetres. The trial in Loch Ness did not conclusively confirm the reliability of the technique because, during the tests, the state of the water surface was much more benign than would normally be expect in the open ocean. We now report on a first deployment of a GNSS-Wave Glider in the North Sea. The deployment took place in August 2016 and lasted thirteen days, during which the vehicle covered a distance of about 350 nautical miles in the north western North Sea off Great Britain. During the experiment, the GNSS-Wave Glider experienced sea states between 1 (0-0.1 m wave heights) and 5 (2.5-4 m wave heights). The GNSS-Wave Glider data, recorded at 5 Hz frequency, were analysed using a post-processed kinematic GPS-GLONASS precise point positioning (PPP) approach, which were quality controlled using double difference GPS kinematic processing with respect to onshore reference stations. Filtered with a 900 s moving-average window, the PPP heights reveal geoid patterns in the survey area that are very similar to the EGM2008 geoid model, thus demonstrating the potential use of a GNSS-Wave Glider for marine geoid determination. The residual of subtracting the modelled or measured marine geoid from the PPP signal combines information
Photonic Crystal Biosensor Based on Optical Surface Waves
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Giovanni Dietler
2013-02-01
Full Text Available A label-free biosensor device based on registration of photonic crystal surface waves is described. Angular interrogation of the optical surface wave resonance is used to detect changes in the thickness of an adsorbed layer, while an additional simultaneous detection of the critical angle of total internal reflection provides independent data of the liquid refractive index. The abilities of the device are demonstrated by measuring of biotin molecule binding to a streptavidin monolayer, and by measuring association and dissociation kinetics of immunoglobulin G proteins. Additionally, deposition of PSS / PAH polyelectrolytes is recorded in situ resulting calculation of PSS and PAH monolayer thicknesses separately.
Flow profiling of a surface-acoustic-wave nanopump
Guttenberg, Z.; Rathgeber, A.; Keller, S.; Rädler, J. O.; Wixforth, A.; Kostur, M.; Schindler, M.; Talkner, P.
2004-11-01
The flow profile in a capillary gap and the pumping efficiency of an acoustic micropump employing surface acoustic waves is investigated both experimentally and theoretically. Ultrasonic surface waves on a piezoelectric substrate strongly couple to a thin liquid layer and generate a quadrupolar streaming pattern within the fluid. We use fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and fluorescence microscopy as complementary tools to investigate the resulting flow profile. The velocity was found to depend on the applied power approximately linearly and to decrease with the inverse third power of the distance from the ultrasound generator on the chip. The found properties reveal acoustic streaming as a promising tool for the controlled agitation during microarray hybridization.
Evaluation of ground stiffness parameters using continuous surface wave geophysics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gordon, Anne; Foged, Niels
2000-01-01
Present day knowledge of the magnitude of the strain levels in the ground associated with geotechnical structures, together with an increasing number of projects requiring the best estimates of ground movements around excavations, has led to, inter alia, increased interest in measuring the very......-small-strain stiffness of the ground Gmax. Continuous surface wave geophysics offers a quick, non-intrusive and economical way of making such measurements. This paper reviews the continuous surface wave techniques and evaluates, in engineering terms, the applicability of the method to the site investigation industry....
Improved Modeling and Prediction of Surface Wave Amplitudes
2017-05-31
AFRL-RV-PS- AFRL-RV-PS- TR-2017-0162 TR-2017-0162 IMPROVED MODELING AND PREDICTION OF SURFACE WAVE AMPLITUDES Jeffry L. Stevens, et al. Leidos...data does not license the holder or any other person or corporation; or convey any rights or permission to manufacture, use, or sell any patented...SUBTITLE Improved Modeling and Prediction of Surface Wave Amplitudes 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA9453-14-C-0225 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER
Super-virtual Interferometric Separation and Enhancement of Back-scattered Surface Waves
Guo, Bowen
2015-08-19
Back-scattered surface waves can be migrated to detect near-surface reflectors with steep dips. A robust surface-wave migration requires the prior separation of the back-scattered surface-wave events from the data. This separation is often difficult to implement because the back-scattered surface waves are masked by the incident surface waves. We mitigate this problem by using a super-virtual interferometric method to enhance and separate the back-scattered surface waves. The key idea is to calculate the virtual back-scattered surface waves by stacking the resulting virtual correlated and convolved traces associated with the incident and back-scattered waves. Stacking the virtual back-scattered surface waves improves their signal-to-noise ratio and separates the back-scattered surface-waves from the incident field. Both synthetic and field data results validate the robustness of this method.
Study on surface wave characteristics of free surface flow of liquid metal lithium for IFMIF
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hoashi, Eiji; Sugiura, Hirokazu; Yoshihashi-Suzuki, Sachiko; Yamaoka, Nobuo; Horiike, Hiroshi; Kanemura, Takuji; Kondo, Hiroo
2011-01-01
The international fusion materials irradiation facility (IFMIF) presents an intense neutron source to develop fusion reactor materials. The free surface flow of a liquid metal Lithium (Li) is planned as a target irradiated by two deuteron beams to generate intense neutrons and it is thus important to obtain knowledge of the surface wave characteristic for the safety and the efficiency of system in the IFMIF. We have been studying on surface wave characteristics experimentally using the liquid metal Li circulation facility at Osaka University and numerically using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code, FLUENT. This paper reports the results of the surface fluctuation, the wave height and the surface velocity in the free surface flow of the liquid metal Li examined experimentally and numerically. In the experiment, an electro-contact probe apparatus was used to obtain the surface fluctuation and the wave height, and a high speed video was used to measure the surface velocity. We resulted in knowledge of the surface wave growth mechanism. On the other hand, a CFD simulation was also conducted to obtain information on the relation of the free surface with the inner flow. In the simulation, the model included from a two-staged contraction nozzle to a flow channel with a free surface flow region and simulation results were compared with the experimental data. (author)
Spectral analysis of surface waves method to assess shear wave velocity within centrifuge models
MURILLO, Carol Andrea; THOREL, Luc; CAICEDO, Bernardo
2009-01-01
The method of the spectral analysis of surface waves (SASW) is tested out on reduced scale centrifuge models, with a specific device, called the mini Falling Weight, developed for this purpose. Tests are performed on layered materials made of a mixture of sand and clay. The shear wave velocity VS determined within the models using the SASW is compared with the laboratory measurements carried out using the bender element test. The results show that the SASW technique applied to centrifuge test...
Deflecting Rayleigh surface acoustic waves by a meta-ridge with a gradient phase shift
Xu, Yanlong; Yang, Zhichun; Cao, Liyun
2018-05-01
We propose a non-resonant meta-ridge to deflect Rayleigh surface acoustic waves (RSAWs) according to the generalized Snell’s law with a gradient phase shift. The gradient phase shift is predicted by an analytical formula, which is related to the path length of the traveling wave. The non-resonant meta-ridge is designed based on the characteristics of the RSAW: it only propagates along the interface with a penetration depth, and it is dispersion-free with a constant phase velocity. To guarantee that the characteristics are still valid when RSAWs propagate in a three-dimensional (3D) structure, grooves are employed to construct the supercell of the meta-ridge. The horizontal length, inclined angle, and thickness of the ridge, along with the filling ratio of the groove, are parametrically examined step by step to investigate their influences on the propagation of RSAWs. The final 3D meta-ridges are designed theoretically and their capability of deflecting the incident RSAWs are validated numerically. The study presents a new method to control the trajectory of RSAWs, which will be conducive to developing innovative devices for surface acoustic waves.
Swimming droplets driven by a surface wave
Ebata, Hiroyuki; Sano, Masaki
2015-02-01
Self-propelling motion is ubiquitous for soft active objects such as crawling cells, active filaments, and liquid droplets moving on surfaces. Deformation and energy dissipation are required for self-propulsion of both living and non-living matter. From the perspective of physics, searching for universal laws of self-propelled motions in a dissipative environment is worthwhile, regardless of the objects' details. In this article, we propose a simple experimental system that demonstrates spontaneous migration of a droplet under uniform mechanical agitation. As we vary control parameters, spontaneous symmetry breaking occurs sequentially, and cascades of bifurcations of the motion arise. Equations describing deformable particles and hydrodynamic simulations successfully describe all of the observed motions. This system should enable us to improve our understanding of spontaneous motions of self-propelled objects.
Surface waves on currents with arbitrary vertical shear
Smeltzer, Benjamin K.; Ellingsen, Simen Å.
2017-04-01
We study dispersion properties of linear surface gravity waves propagating in an arbitrary direction atop a current profile of depth-varying magnitude using a piecewise linear approximation and develop a robust numerical framework for practical calculation. The method has been much used in the past for the case of waves propagating along the same axis as the background current, and we herein extend and apply it to problems with an arbitrary angle between the wave propagation and current directions. Being valid for all wavelengths without loss of accuracy, the scheme is particularly well suited to solve problems involving a broad range of wave vectors, such as ship waves and Cauchy-Poisson initial value problems. We examine the group and phase velocities over different wavelength regimes and current profiles, highlighting characteristics due to the depth-variable vorticity. We show an example application to ship waves on an arbitrary current profile and demonstrate qualitative differences in the wake patterns between concave down and concave up profiles when compared to a constant shear profile with equal depth-averaged vorticity. We also discuss the nature of additional solutions to the dispersion relation when using the piecewise-linear model. These are vorticity waves, drifting vortical structures which are artifacts of the piecewise model. They are absent for a smooth profile and are spurious in the present context.
Optimized nonlinear inversion of surface-wave dispersion data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Raykova, Reneta B.
2014-01-01
A new code for inversion of surface wave dispersion data is developed to obtain Earth’s crustal and upper mantle velocity structure. The author developed Optimized Non–Linear Inversion ( ONLI ) software, based on Monte-Carlo search. The values of S–wave velocity VS and thickness h for a number of horizontal homogeneous layers are parameterized. Velocity of P–wave VP and density ρ of relevant layers are calculated by empirical or theoretical relations. ONLI explores parameters space in two modes, selective and full search, and the main innovation of software is evaluation of tested models. Theoretical dispersion curves are calculated if tested model satisfied specific conditions only, reducing considerably the computation time. A number of tests explored impact of parameterization and proved the ability of ONLI approach to deal successfully with non–uniqueness of inversion problem. Key words: Earth’s structure, surface–wave dispersion, non–linear inversion, software
Holograms for power-efficient excitation of optical surface waves
Ignatov, Anton I.; Merzlikin, Alexander M.
2018-02-01
A method for effective excitation of optical surface waves based on holography principles has been proposed. For a particular example of excitation of a plasmonic wave in a dielectric layer on metal the efficiency of proposed volume holograms in the dielectric layer has been analyzed in comparison with optimized periodic gratings in the dielectric layer. Conditions when the holograms are considerably more efficient than the gratings have been found out. In addition, holograms recorded in two iterations have been proposed and studied. Such holograms are substantially more efficient than the optimized periodic gratings for all incidence angles of an exciting Gaussian beam. The proposed method is universal: it can be extended for efficient excitation of different types of optical surface waves and optical waveguide modes.
Dispersion of acoustic surface waves by velocity gradients
Kwon, S. D.; Kim, H. C.
1987-10-01
The perturbation theory of Auld [Acoustic Fields and Waves in Solids (Wiley, New York, 1973), Vol. II, p. 294], which describes the effect of a subsurface gradient on the velocity dispersion of surface waves, has been modified to a simpler form by an approximation using a newly defined velocity gradient for the case of isotropic materials. The modified theory is applied to nitrogen implantation in AISI 4140 steel with a velocity gradient of Gaussian profile, and compared with dispersion data obtained by the ultrasonic right-angle technique in the frequency range from 2.4 to 14.8 MHz. The good agreement between experiments and our theory suggests that the compound layer in the subsurface region plays a dominant role in causing the dispersion of acoustic surface waves.
Surface Plasmon Waves on Thin Metal Films.
Craig, Alan Ellsworth
Surface-plasmon polaritons propagating on thin metal films bounded by dielectrics of nearly equal refractive indexes comprise two bound modes. Calculations indicate that, while the modes are degenerate on thick films, both the real and the imaginary components of the propagation constants for the modes split into two branches on successively thinner films. Considering these non-degenerate modes, the mode exhibiting a symmetric (antisymmetric) transverse profile of the longitudinally polarized electric field component, has propagation constant components both of which increase (decrease) with decreasing film thickness. Theoretical propagation constant eigenvalue (PCE) curves have been plotted which delineate this dependence of both propagation constant components on film thickness. By means of a retroreflecting, hemispherical glass coupler in an attenuated total reflection (ATR) configuration, light of wavelength 632.8 nm coupled to the modes of thin silver films deposited on polished glass substrates. Lorentzian lineshape dips in the plots of reflectance vs. angle of incidence indicate the presence of the plasmon modes. The real and imaginary components of the propagation constraints (i.e., the propagation constant and loss coefficient) were calculated from the angular positions and widths of the ATR resonances recorded. Films of several thicknesses were probed. Results which support the theoretically predicted curves were reported.
Optimizing surface acoustic wave sensors for trace chemical detection
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Frye, G.C.; Kottenstette, R.J.; Heller, E.J. [and others
1997-06-01
This paper describes several recent advances for fabricating coated surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors for applications requiring trace chemical detection. Specifically, we have demonstrated that high surface area microporous oxides can provide 100-fold improvements in SAW sensor responses compared with more typical polymeric coatings. In addition, we fabricated GaAs SAW devices with frequencies up to 500 MHz to provide greater sensitivity and an ideal substrate for integration with high-frequency electronics.
Spectral analysis of surface waves method to assess shear wave velocity within centrifuge models
Murillo, Carol Andrea; Thorel, Luc; Caicedo, Bernardo
2009-06-01
The method of the spectral analysis of surface waves (SASW) is tested out on reduced scale centrifuge models, with a specific device, called the mini Falling Weight, developed for this purpose. Tests are performed on layered materials made of a mixture of sand and clay. The shear wave velocity VS determined within the models using the SASW is compared with the laboratory measurements carried out using the bender element test. The results show that the SASW technique applied to centrifuge testing is a relevant method to characterize VS near the surface.
Quantitative photography of intermittency in surface wave turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wright, W.; Budakian, R.; Putterman, S.J.
1997-01-01
At high amplitudes of excitation surface waves on water distribute their energy according to a Kolmogorov type of turbulent power spectrum. We have used diffusing light photography to measure the power spectrum and to quantify the presence of large structures in the turbulent state
Universal Quantum Transducers Based on Surface Acoustic Waves
Schuetz, M.J.A.; Kessler, E.M.; Giedke, G.; Vandersypen, L.M.K.; Lukin, M.D.; Cirac, J.I.
2015-01-01
We propose a universal, on-chip quantum transducer based on surface acoustic waves in piezoactive materials. Because of the intrinsic piezoelectric (and/or magnetostrictive) properties of the material, our approach provides a universal platform capable of coherently linking a broad array of qubits,
Tuning Acoustic Wave Properties by Mechanical Resonators on a Surface
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dühring, Maria Bayard; Laude, Vincent; Khelif, Abdelkrim
Vibrations generated by high aspects ratio electrodes are studied by the finite element method. It is found that the modes are combined of a surface wave and vibration in the electrodes. For increasing aspect ratio most of the mechanical energy is confined to the electrodes which act as mechanical...
Field verification of ADCP surface gravity wave elevation spectra
Hoitink, A.J.F.; Peters, H.C.; Schroevers, M.
2007-01-01
Acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs) can measure orbital velocities induced by surface gravity waves, yet the ADCP estimates of these velocities are subject to a relatively high noise level. The present paper introduces a linear filtration technique to significantly reduce the influence of
Kinetic theory of surface waves in plasma jets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shokri, B.
2002-01-01
The kinetic theory analysis of surface waves propagating along a semi-bounded plasma jet is presented. The frequency spectra and their damping rate are obtained in both the high and low frequency regions. Finally, the penetration of the static field in the plasma jet under the condition that the plasma jet velocity is smaller than the sound velocity is studied
Electron acceleration by surface plasma waves in double metal surface structure
Liu, C. S.; Kumar, Gagan; Singh, D. B.; Tripathi, V. K.
2007-12-01
Two parallel metal sheets, separated by a vacuum region, support a surface plasma wave whose amplitude is maximum on the two parallel interfaces and minimum in the middle. This mode can be excited by a laser using a glass prism. An electron beam launched into the middle region experiences a longitudinal ponderomotive force due to the surface plasma wave and gets accelerated to velocities of the order of phase velocity of the surface wave. The scheme is viable to achieve beams of tens of keV energy. In the case of a surface plasma wave excited on a single metal-vacuum interface, the field gradient normal to the interface pushes the electrons away from the high field region, limiting the acceleration process. The acceleration energy thus achieved is in agreement with the experimental observations.
Full-waveform inversion of surface waves in exploration geophysics
Borisov, D.; Gao, F.; Williamson, P.; Tromp, J.
2017-12-01
Full-waveform inversion (FWI) is a data fitting approach to estimate high-resolution properties of the Earth from seismic data by minimizing the misfit between observed and calculated seismograms. In land seismics, the source on the ground generates high-amplitude surface waves, which generally represent most of the energy recorded by ground sensors. Although surface waves are widely used in global seismology and engineering studies, they are typically treated as noise within the seismic exploration community since they mask deeper reflections from the intervals of exploration interest. This is mainly due to the fact that surface waves decay exponentially with depth and for a typical frequency range (≈[5-50] Hz) sample only the very shallow part of the subsurface, but also because they are much more sensitive to S-wave than P-wave velocities. In this study, we invert surface waves in the hope of using them as additional information for updating the near surface. In a heterogeneous medium, the main challenge of surface wave inversion is associated with their dispersive character, which makes it difficult to define a starting model for conventional FWI which can avoid cycle-skipping. The standard approach to dealing with this is by inverting the dispersion curves in the Fourier (f-k) domain to generate locally 1-D models, typically for the shear wavespeeds only. However this requires that the near-surface zone be more or less horizontally invariant over a sufficient distance for the spatial Fourier transform to be applicable. In regions with significant topography, such as foothills, this is not the case, so we revert to the time-space domain, but aim to minimize the differences of envelopes in the early stages of the inversion to resolve the cycle-skipping issue. Once the model is good enough, we revert to the classic waveform-difference inversion. We first present a few synthetic examples. We show that classical FWI might be trapped in a local minimum even for
Huang, Y.; Weisberg, R.H.; Zheng, L.; Zijlema, M.
2013-01-01
The effects of wind input parameterizations on wave estimations under hurricane conditions are examined using the unstructured grid, third-generation wave model, Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN). Experiments using Hurricane Ike wind forcing, which impacted the Gulf of Mexico in 2008, illustrate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Petrishchev, Vitaly; Leonov, Sergey; Adamovich, Igor V
2014-01-01
Surface ionization wave discharges generated by high-voltage nanosecond pulses, propagating over a planar quartz surface and over liquid surfaces (distilled water and 1-butanol) have been studied in a rectangular cross section test cell. The discharge was initiated using a custom-made, alternating polarity, high-voltage nanosecond pulse plasma generator, operated at a pulse repetition rate of 100–500 Hz, with a pulse peak voltage and current of 10–15 kV and 7–20 A, respectively, a pulse FWHM of ∼100 ns, and a coupled pulse energy of 2–9 mJ/pulse. Wave speed was measured using a capacitive probe. ICCD camera images demonstrated that the ionization wave propagated predominantly over the quartz wall or over the liquid surface adjacent to the grounded waveguide placed along the bottom wall of the test cell. Under all experimental conditions tested, the surface plasma ‘sheet’ was diffuse and fairly uniform, both for positive and negative polarities. The parameters of ionization wave discharge propagating over distilled water and 1-butanol surfaces were close to those of the discharge over a quartz wall. No perturbation of the liquid surface by the discharge was detected. In most cases, the positive polarity surface ionization wave propagated at a higher speed and over a longer distance compared to the negative polarity wave. For all three sets of experiments (surface ionization wave discharge over quartz, water and 1-butanol), wave speed and travel distance decreased with pressure. Diffuse, highly reproducible surface ionization wave discharge was also observed over the liquid butanol–saturated butanol vapor interface, as well as over the distilled water–saturated water vapor interface, without buffer gas flow. No significant difference was detected between surface ionization discharges sustained using single-polarity (positive or negative), or alternating polarity high-voltage pulses. Plasma emission images yielded preliminary evidence of charge
Source effects on surface waves from Nevada Test Site explosions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Patton, H.J.; Vergino, E.S.
1981-11-01
Surface waves recorded on the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) digital network have been used to study five underground nuclear explosions detonated in Yucca Valley at the Nevada Test Site. The purpose of this study is to characterize the reduced displacement potential (RDP) at low frequencies and to test secondary source models of underground explosions. The observations consist of Rayleigh- and Love-wave amplitude and phase spectra in the frequency range 0.03 to 0.16 Hz. We have found that Rayleigh-wave spectral amplitudes are modeled well by a RDP with little or no overshoot for explosions detonated in alluvium and tuff. On the basis of comparisons between observed and predicted source phase, the spall closure source proposed by Viecelli does not appear to be a significant source of Rayleigh waves that reach the far field. We tested two other secondary source models, the strike-slip, tectonic strain release model proposed by Toksoez and Kehrer and the dip-slip thrust model of Masse. The surface-wave observations do not provide sufficient information to discriminate between these models at the low F-values (0.2 to 0.8) obtained for these explosions. In the case of the strike-slip model, the principal stress axes inferred from the fault slip angle and strike angle are in good agreement with the regional tectonic stress field for all but one explosion, Nessel. The results of the Nessel explosion suggest a mechanism other than tectonic strain release
On the interaction between ocean surface waves and seamounts
Sosa, Jeison; Cavaleri, Luigi; Portilla-Yandún, Jesús
2017-12-01
Of the many topographic features, more specifically seamounts, that are ubiquitous in the ocean floor, we focus our attention on those with relatively shallow summits that can interact with wind-generated surface waves. Among these, especially relatively long waves crossing the oceans (swells) and stormy seas are able to affect the water column up to a considerable depth and therefore interact with these deep-sea features. We quantify this interaction through numerical experiments using a numerical wave model (SWAN), in which a simply shaped seamount is exposed to waves of different length. The results show a strong interaction that leads to significant changes in the wave field, creating wake zones and regions of large wave amplification. This is then exemplified in a practical case where we analyze the interaction of more realistic sea conditions with a very shallow rock in the Yellow Sea. Potentially important for navigation and erosion processes, mutatis mutandis, these results are also indicative of possible interactions with emerged islands and sand banks in shelf seas.
The Measurement and Interpretation of Surface Wave Group Arrival Times
Masters, G.; Kane, D.; Morrow, J.; Zhou, Y.; Tromp, J.
2005-12-01
We have recently developed an efficient technique for measuring the relative group arrival times of surface waves by using cross-correlation and cluster analysis of waveform envelope functions. Applying the analysis to minor arc Love and Rayleigh waves in the frequency band 7 to 35 mHz for all events over magnitude 5.5 results in a dataset of over 200,000 measurements at each frequency for long period Rayleigh waves (frequency less than 25 mHz) and about 100,000 measurements at the shorter periods. Analysis of transverse components results in about half as many Love wave measurements. Simple ray theory inversions of the relative arrival times for apparent group velocity produce maps which are accurate representations of the data (often over 90% variance reduction of the relative arrival times) and which show features strongly correlated with tectonics and crustal thickness. The apparent group velocity variations can be extremely large: 30% velocity variations for 20 mHz Rayleigh waves and 40% variations for 30 mHz Rayleigh waves and can have abrupt lateral changes. This raises the concern that non-ray theory effects could be important. Indeed, a recent analysis by Dahlen and Zhou (personal communication) suggests that the group arrival times should be a functions of both the group velocity AND the phase velocity. The simplest way to test the interpretation of the measurements is to perform the analysis on synthetic seismograms computed for a realistic model of the Earth. Here, we use the SEM with a model which incorporates realistic crust and mantle structure. We are currently computing synthetics for a suite of roughly 1000 events recorded globally that extend to a period of 18 seconds. We shall present the results of applying both ray-based and finite frequency inversions to the synthetic data as well as evaluating the effects of off path propagation at short periods using surface wave ray tracing.
Imaging near-surface heterogeneities by natural migration of surface waves
Liu, Zhaolun
2016-09-06
We demonstrate that near-surface heterogeneities can be imaged by natural migration of backscattered surface waves in common shot gathers. No velocity model is required because the data are migrated onto surface points with the virtual Green\\'s functions computed from the shot gathers. Migrating shot gathers recorded by 2D and 3D land surveys validates the effectiveness of detecting nearsurface heterogeneities by natural migration. The implication is that more accurate hazard maps can be created by migrating surface waves in land surveys.
Short-Period Surface Wave Based Seismic Event Relocation
White-Gaynor, A.; Cleveland, M.; Nyblade, A.; Kintner, J. A.; Homman, K.; Ammon, C. J.
2017-12-01
Accurate and precise seismic event locations are essential for a broad range of geophysical investigations. Superior location accuracy generally requires calibration with ground truth information, but superb relative location precision is often achievable independently. In explosion seismology, low-yield explosion monitoring relies on near-source observations, which results in a limited number of observations that challenges our ability to estimate any locations. Incorporating more distant observations means relying on data with lower signal-to-noise ratios. For small, shallow events, the short-period (roughly 1/2 to 8 s period) fundamental-mode and higher-mode Rayleigh waves (including Rg) are often the most stable and visible portion of the waveform at local distances. Cleveland and Ammon [2013] have shown that teleseismic surface waves are valuable observations for constructing precise, relative event relocations. We extend the teleseismic surface wave relocation method, and apply them to near-source distances using Rg observations from the Bighorn Arche Seismic Experiment (BASE) and the Earth Scope USArray Transportable Array (TA) seismic stations. Specifically, we present relocation results using short-period fundamental- and higher-mode Rayleigh waves (Rg) in a double-difference relative event relocation for 45 delay-fired mine blasts and 21 borehole chemical explosions. Our preliminary efforts are to explore the sensitivity of the short-period surface waves to local geologic structure, source depth, explosion magnitude (yield), and explosion characteristics (single-shot vs. distributed source, etc.). Our results show that Rg and the first few higher-mode Rayleigh wave observations can be used to constrain the relative locations of shallow low-yield events.
Wave optics simulation of statistically rough surface scatter
Lanari, Ann M.; Butler, Samuel D.; Marciniak, Michael; Spencer, Mark F.
2017-09-01
The bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) describes optical scatter from surfaces by relating the incident irradiance to the exiting radiance over the entire hemisphere. Laboratory verification of BRDF models and experimentally populated BRDF databases are hampered by sparsity of monochromatic sources and ability to statistically control the surface features. Numerical methods are able to control surface features, have wavelength agility, and via Fourier methods of wave propagation, may be used to fill the knowledge gap. Monte-Carlo techniques, adapted from turbulence simulations, generate Gaussian distributed and correlated surfaces with an area of 1 cm2 , RMS surface height of 2.5 μm, and correlation length of 100 μm. The surface is centered inside a Kirchhoff absorbing boundary with an area of 16 cm2 to prevent wrap around aliasing in the far field. These surfaces are uniformly illuminated at normal incidence with a unit amplitude plane-wave varying in wavelength from 3 μm to 5 μm. The resultant scatter is propagated to a detector in the far field utilizing multi-step Fresnel Convolution and observed at angles from -2 μrad to 2 μrad. The far field scatter is compared to both a physical wave optics BRDF model (Modified Beckmann Kirchhoff) and two microfacet BRDF Models (Priest, and Cook-Torrance). Modified Beckmann Kirchhoff, which accounts for diffraction, is consistent with simulated scatter for multiple wavelengths for RMS surface heights greater than λ/2. The microfacet models, which assume geometric optics, are less consistent across wavelengths. Both model types over predict far field scatter width for RMS surface heights less than λ/2.
Photon management assisted by surface waves on photonic crystals
Angelini, Angelo
2017-01-01
This book illustrates original pathways to manipulate light at the nanoscale by means of surface electromagnetic waves (here, Bloch surface waves, BSWs) on planar dielectric multilayers, also known as one-dimensional photonic crystals. This approach is particularly valuable as it represents an effective alternative to the widely exploited surface plasmon paradigm. After a brief overview on the fundamentals of BSWs, several significant applications of BSW-sustaining structures are described. Particular consideration is given to the propagation, guiding, and diffraction of BSW-coupled radiation. Further, the interaction of organic emitters with BSWs on planar and corrugated multilayers is investigated, including fluorescence beaming in free space. To provide greater insight into sensing applications, an illustrative example of fluorescent microarray-based detection is presented. The book is intended for scientists and researchers working on photon management opportunities in fields such as biosensing, optical c...
Wavefront modulation of water surface wave by a metasurface
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sun Hai-Tao; Cheng Ying; Liu Xiao-Jun; Wang Jing-Shi
2015-01-01
We design a planar metasurface to modulate the wavefront of a water surface wave (WSW) on a deep sub-wavelength scale. The metasurface is composed of an array of coiling-up-space units with specially designed parameters, and can take on the work of steering the wavefront when it is pierced into water. Like their acoustic counterparts, the modulation of WSW is ascribed to the gradient phase shift of the coiling-up-space units, which can be perfectly tuned by changing the coiling plate length and channel number inside the units. According to the generalized Snell’s law, negative refraction and ‘driven’ surface mode of WSW are also demonstrated at certain incidences. Specially, the transmitted WSW could be efficiently guided out by linking a symmetrically-corrugated channel in ‘driven’ surface mode. This work may have potential applications in water wave energy extraction and coastal protection. (paper)
Subwavelength wave manipulation in a thin surface-wave bandgap crystal.
Gao, Zhen; Wang, Zhuoyuan; Zhang, Baile
2018-01-01
It has been recently reported that the unit cell of wire media metamaterials can be tailored locally to shape the flow of electromagnetic waves at deep-subwavelength scales [Nat. Phys.9, 55 (2013)NPAHAX1745-247310.1038/nphys2480]. However, such bulk structures have a thickness of at least the order of wavelength, thus hindering their applications in the on-chip compact plasmonic integrated circuits. Here, based upon a Sievenpiper "mushroom" array [IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.47, 2059 (1999)IETMAB0018-948010.1109/22.798001], which is compatible with standard printed circuit board technology, we propose and experimentally demonstrate the subwavelength manipulation of surface waves on a thin surface-wave bandgap crystal with a thickness much smaller than the wavelength (1/30th of the operating wavelength). Functional devices including a T-shaped splitter and sharp bend are constructed with good performance.
Surface wave phase velocities between Bulgaria and the Czech Republic
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Gaždová, Renata; Kolínský, Petr; Popova, I.; Dimitrova, L.
2011-01-01
Roč. 18, č. 2 (2011), s. 16-23 ISSN 1803-1447. [OVA´11 – New Knowledge and Measurements in Seismology, Engineering Geophysics and Geotechnics. Ostrava, 12.04.2011-14.04.2011] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/09/1244 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : surface waves * phase velocity * shear wave velocity Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure http://www.caag.cz/egrse/2011-2/03%20gazdova_ova.pdf
Secondary Instabilities and Spatiotemporal Chaos in Parametric Surface Waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, W.; Vinals, J.
1995-01-01
A 2D model is introduced to study the onset of parametric surface waves, their secondary instabilities, and the transition to spatiotemporal chaos. We obtain the stability boundary of a periodic standing wave above onset against Eckhaus, zigzag, and transverse amplitude modulations (TAM), as a function of the control parameter var-epsilon and the wavelength of the pattern. The Eckhaus and TAM boundaries cross at a finite value of var-epsilon, thus explaining the finite threshold for the TAM observed experimentally. At larger values of var-epsilon, a numerical solution reveals a transition to spatiotemporal chaotic states mediated by the TAM instability
Surface impedance of travelling--Wave antenna in magnetized plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Denisenko, I.B.; Ostrikov, K.N.
1993-01-01
Wave properties of metal antennas immersed in a magnetoactive plasma are intensively studied nowadays with the objects of radio communications in ionosphere, plasma heating, gas discharge technique. Many papers are devoted to studies of sheath waves (SW) in magnetoplasma, which are surface by nature and propagate along the metal-low-density sheath-plasma waveguide structure. The results of these papers suggest that the existence of these waves makes significant contribution in antenna impedance. Note that the impedance measurement is one of possible ways of experimental surface waves characterization. In the present report the surface impedance of travelling SW antenna immersed in magnetoactive plasma is calculated and its dependence on the waveguide structure parameters such as plasma density, external magnetic field H 0 and electrons collisional frequency values, sheath region width, conductivity of metal surface is studied. The calculations have been carried out in a quasiplane approximation, when antenna radius greatly exceeds the SW skin depth. Note that the finite conductivity of metal is necessary to be taken into account to provide a finite surface impedance value. The surface impedance is calculated in two cases, namely when SW propagate along (Ζ parallel ) and across (Ζ perpendicular ) the external magnetic field. The relation between the values Ζ parallel and Ζ perpendicular is obtained. This relation shows that the values Ζ parallel and Ζ parallel may satisfy both inequalities Ζ parallel much-gt Ζ perpendicular and Ζ perpendicular approx-gt Ζ perpendicular dependent on the parameters of the structure. The comparison of dispersion properties of the SW propagating along Η 0 with the experimental results is carried out. The results are shown to satisfactorily correspond to the experimental results
Lagrangian modelling of ocean surface waves and synthetic aperture radar wave measurements
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fouques, Sebastien
2005-07-01
The present thesis is concerned with the estimation of the ocean wave spectrum from synthetic aperture radar imaging and the modelling of ocean surface waves using the Lagrangian formalism. The first part gives a short overview of the theories of ocean surface waves and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) whereas the second part consists of five independent publications. The first two articles investigate the influence of the radar backscatter model on the SAR imaging of ocean waves. In Article I, Monte Carlo simulations of SAR images of the ocean surface are carried out using a nonlinear backscatter model that include both specular reflection and Bragg scattering and the results are compared to simulations from the classical Hasselmann integral transform (Hasselmann and Hasselmann, 1991). It is shown that nonlinearities in the backscatter model strongly influence the imaging of range-travelling waves and that the former can suppress the range-splitting effect (Bruning et al., 1988). Furthermore, in Article II a database of Envisat-ASAR Wave Mode products co-located with directional wave spectra from the numerical model WAM and which contains range-travelling wave cases only, is set up. The WAM spectra are used as input to several ocean-to-SAR integral transforms, with various real aperture radar (RAR) models and the obtained SAR image cross-spectra are compared to the Envisat-ASAR observations. A first result is that the use of a linear backscatter model leads to a high proportion of non-physical negative backscatter values in the RAR image, as suggested by Schulz-Stellenfleth (2001). Then, a comparison between the observed SAR cross-spectra and the ones simulated through Hasselmann's integral transform reveals that only twenty percents of the observations show a range-splitting effect as strong as in the simulations. A much better agreement is obtained when using the integral transform by Schulz-Stellenfleth (2003), which is based on a nonlinear hackscatter model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boaga, J; Vignoli, G; Cassiani, G
2011-01-01
Inversion is a critical step in all geophysical techniques, and is generally fraught with ill-posedness. In the case of seismic surface wave studies, the inverse problem can lead to different equivalent subsoil models and consequently to different local seismic response analyses. This can have a large impact on an earthquake engineering design. In this paper, we discuss the consequences of non-uniqueness of surface wave inversion on seismic responses, with both numerical and experimental data. Our goal is to evaluate the consequences on common seismic response analysis in the case of different impedance contrast conditions. We verify the implications of inversion uncertainty, and consequently of data information content, on realistic local site responses. A stochastic process is used to generate a set of 1D shear wave velocity profiles from several specific subsurface models. All these profiles are characterized as being equivalent, i.e. their responses, in terms of a dispersion curve, are compatible with the uncertainty in the same surface wave data. The generated 1D shear velocity models are then subjected to a conventional one-dimensional seismic ground response analysis using a realistic input motion. While recent analyses claim that the consequences of surface wave inversion uncertainties are very limited, our test points out that a relationship exists between inversion confidence and seismic responses in different subsoils. In the case of regular and relatively smooth increase of shear wave velocities with depth, as is usual in sedimentary plains, our results show that the choice of a specific model among equivalent solutions strongly influences the seismic response. On the other hand, when the shallow subsoil is characterized by a strong impedance contrast (thus revealing a characteristic soil resonance period), as is common in the presence of a shallow bedrock, equivalent solutions provide practically the same seismic amplification, especially in the
Sensitivity of Rayleigh wave ellipticity and implications for surface wave inversion
Cercato, Michele
2018-04-01
The use of Rayleigh wave ellipticity has gained increasing popularity in recent years for investigating earth structures, especially for near-surface soil characterization. In spite of its widespread application, the sensitivity of the ellipticity function to the soil structure has been rarely explored in a comprehensive and systematic manner. To this end, a new analytical method is presented for computing the sensitivity of Rayleigh wave ellipticity with respect to the structural parameters of a layered elastic half-space. This method takes advantage of the minor decomposition of the surface wave eigenproblem and is numerically stable at high frequency. This numerical procedure allowed to retrieve the sensitivity for typical near surface and crustal geological scenarios, pointing out the key parameters for ellipticity interpretation under different circumstances. On this basis, a thorough analysis is performed to assess how ellipticity data can efficiently complement surface wave dispersion information in a joint inversion algorithm. The results of synthetic and real-world examples are illustrated to analyse quantitatively the diagnostic potential of the ellipticity data with respect to the soil structure, focusing on the possible sources of misinterpretation in data inversion.
Attenuation of surface waves in porous media: Shock wave experiments and modelling
Chao, G.E; Smeulders, D.M.J.; Dongen, van M.E.H.
2005-01-01
In this project we conduct experimental and numerical investigations on the attenuation mechanisms of surface waves in poroelastic materials. Viscous dissipation effects are modelled in the framework of Biot's theory. The experiments are performed using a shock tube technique. Quantitative agreement
Approximate optimal tracking control for near-surface AUVs with wave disturbances
Yang, Qing; Su, Hao; Tang, Gongyou
2016-10-01
This paper considers the optimal trajectory tracking control problem for near-surface autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) in the presence of wave disturbances. An approximate optimal tracking control (AOTC) approach is proposed. Firstly, a six-degrees-of-freedom (six-DOF) AUV model with its body-fixed coordinate system is decoupled and simplified and then a nonlinear control model of AUVs in the vertical plane is given. Also, an exosystem model of wave disturbances is constructed based on Hirom approximation formula. Secondly, the time-parameterized desired trajectory which is tracked by the AUV's system is represented by the exosystem. Then, the coupled two-point boundary value (TPBV) problem of optimal tracking control for AUVs is derived from the theory of quadratic optimal control. By using a recently developed successive approximation approach to construct sequences, the coupled TPBV problem is transformed into a problem of solving two decoupled linear differential sequences of state vectors and adjoint vectors. By iteratively solving the two equation sequences, the AOTC law is obtained, which consists of a nonlinear optimal feedback item, an expected output tracking item, a feedforward disturbances rejection item, and a nonlinear compensatory term. Furthermore, a wave disturbances observer model is designed in order to solve the physically realizable problem. Simulation is carried out by using the Remote Environmental Unit (REMUS) AUV model to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.
Waves on the surface of the Orion molecular cloud.
Berné, Olivier; Marcelino, Núria; Cernicharo, José
2010-08-19
Massive stars influence their parental molecular cloud, and it has long been suspected that the development of hydrodynamical instabilities can compress or fragment the cloud. Identifying such instabilities has proved difficult. It has been suggested that elongated structures (such as the 'pillars of creation') and other shapes arise because of instabilities, but alternative explanations are available. One key signature of an instability is a wave-like structure in the gas, which has hitherto not been seen. Here we report the presence of 'waves' at the surface of the Orion molecular cloud near where massive stars are forming. The waves seem to be a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability that arises during the expansion of the nebula as gas heated and ionized by massive stars is blown over pre-existing molecular gas.
Super-virtual Interferometric Separation and Enhancement of Back-scattered Surface Waves
Guo, Bowen; Hanafy, Sherif; Schuster, Gerard T.
2015-01-01
Back-scattered surface waves can be migrated to detect near-surface reflectors with steep dips. A robust surface-wave migration requires the prior separation of the back-scattered surface-wave events from the data. This separation is often difficult
Cluster observations of surface waves on the dawn flank magnetopause
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. J. Owen
2004-03-01
Full Text Available On 14 June 2001 the four Cluster spacecraft recorded multiple encounters of the dawn-side flank magnetopause. The characteristics of the observed electron populations varied between a cold, dense magnetosheath population and warmer, more rarified boundary layer population on a quasi-periodic basis. The demarcation between these two populations can be readily identified by gradients in the scalar temperature of the electrons. An analysis of the differences in the observed timings of the boundary at each spacecraft indicates that these magnetopause crossings are consistent with a surface wave moving across the flank magnetopause. When compared to the orientation of the magnetopause expected from models, we find that the leading edges of these waves are approximately 45° steeper than the trailing edges, consistent with the Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH driving mechanism. A stability analysis of this interval suggests that the magnetopause is marginally stable to this mechanism during this event. Periods in which the analysis predicts that the magnetopause is unstable correspond to observations of greater wave steepening. Analysis of the pulses suggests that the waves have an average wavelength of approximately 3.4 R_{E} and move at an average speed of ~65km s^{-1} in an anti-sunward and northward direction, despite the spacecraft location somewhat south of the GSE Z=0 plane. This wave propagation direction lies close to perpendicular to the average magnetic field direction in the external magnetosheath, suggesting that these waves may preferentially propagate in the direction that requires no bending of these external field lines
Key words. Magnetospheric physics (magnetospheric configuration and dynamics; MHD waves and unstabilities; solar wind-magnetosphere interactions
Characterization of microchannel anechoic corners formed by surface acoustic waves
Destgeer, Ghulam; Alam, Ashar; Ahmed, Husnain; Park, Jinsoo; Jung, Jin Ho; Park, Kwangseok; Sung, Hyung Jin
2018-02-01
Surface acoustic waves (SAWs) generated in a piezoelectric substrate couple with a liquid according to Snell's law such that a compressional acoustic wave propagates obliquely at a Rayleigh angle ( θ t) inside the microchannel to form a region devoid of a direct acoustic field, which is termed a microchannel anechoic corner (MAC). In the present study, we used microchannels with various heights and widths to characterize the width of the MAC region formed by a single travelling SAW. The attenuation of high-frequency SAWs produced a strong acoustic streaming flow that moved the particles in and out of the MAC region, whereas reflections of the acoustic waves within the microchannel resulted in standing acoustic waves that trapped particles at acoustic pressure nodes located within or outside of the MAC region. A range of actuation frequencies and particle diameters were used to investigate the effects of the acoustic streaming flow and the direct acoustic radiation forces by the travelling as well as standing waves on the particle motion with respect to the MAC region. The width of the MAC ( w c), measured experimentally by tracing the particles, increased with the height of the microchannel ( h m) according to a simple trigonometric equation w c = h m × tan ( θ t ).
Assessment of soil compaction properties based on surface wave techniques
Jihan Syamimi Jafri, Nur; Rahim, Mohd Asri Ab; Zahid, Mohd Zulham Affandi Mohd; Faizah Bawadi, Nor; Munsif Ahmad, Muhammad; Faizal Mansor, Ahmad; Omar, Wan Mohd Sabki Wan
2018-03-01
Soil compaction plays an important role in every construction activities to reduce risks of any damage. Traditionally, methods of assessing compaction include field tests and invasive penetration tests for compacted areas have great limitations, which caused time-consuming in evaluating large areas. Thus, this study proposed the possibility of using non-invasive surface wave method like Multi-channel Analysis of Surface Wave (MASW) as a useful tool for assessing soil compaction. The aim of this study was to determine the shear wave velocity profiles and field density of compacted soils under varying compaction efforts by using MASW method. Pre and post compaction of MASW survey were conducted at Pauh Campus, UniMAP after applying rolling compaction with variation of passes (2, 6 and 10). Each seismic data was recorded by GEODE seismograph. Sand replacement test was conducted for each survey line to obtain the field density data. All seismic data were processed using SeisImager/SW software. The results show the shear wave velocity profiles increase with the number of passes from 0 to 6 passes, but decrease after 10 passes. This method could attract the interest of geotechnical community, as it can be an alternative tool to the standard test for assessing of soil compaction in the field operation.
Aymard, François; Gulminelli, Francesca; Margueron, Jérôme
2016-08-01
We have recently addressed the problem of the determination of the nuclear surface energy for symmetric nuclei in the framework of the extended Thomas-Fermi (ETF) approximation using Skyrme functionals. We presently extend this formalism to the case of asymmetric nuclei and the question of the surface symmetry energy. We propose an approximate expression for the diffuseness and the surface energy. These quantities are analytically related to the parameters of the energy functional. In particular, the influence of the different equation of state parameters can be explicitly quantified. Detailed analyses of the different energy components (local/non-local, isoscalar/isovector, surface/curvature and higher order) are also performed. Our analytical solution of the ETF integral improves previous models and leads to a precision of better than 200 keV per nucleon in the determination of the nuclear binding energy for dripline nuclei.
Spin wave absorber generated by artificial surface anisotropy for spin wave device network
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Naoki Kanazawa
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Spin waves (SWs have the potential to reduce the electric energy loss in signal processing networks. The SWs called magnetostatic forward volume waves (MSFVWs are advantageous for networking due to their isotropic dispersion in the plane of a device. To control the MSFVW flow in a processing network based on yttrium iron garnet, we developed a SW absorber using artificial structures. The mechanical surface polishing method presented in this work can well control extrinsic damping without changing the SW dispersion of the host material. Furthermore, enhancement of the ferromagnetic resonance linewidth over 3 Oe was demonstrated.
Wave-equation dispersion inversion of surface waves recorded on irregular topography
Li, Jing
2017-08-17
Significant topographic variations will strongly influence the amplitudes and phases of propagating surface waves. Such effects should be taken into account, otherwise the S-velocity model inverted from the Rayleigh dispersion curves will contain significant inaccuracies. We now show that the recently developed wave-equation dispersion inversion (WD) method naturally takes into account the effects of topography to give accurate S-velocity tomograms. Application of topographic WD to demonstrates that WD can accurately invert dispersion curves from seismic data recorded over variable topography. We also apply this method to field data recorded on the crest of mountainous terrain and find with higher resolution than the standard WD tomogram.
Wave-equation dispersion inversion of surface waves recorded on irregular topography
Li, Jing; Schuster, Gerard T.; Lin, Fan-Chi; Alam, Amir
2017-01-01
Significant topographic variations will strongly influence the amplitudes and phases of propagating surface waves. Such effects should be taken into account, otherwise the S-velocity model inverted from the Rayleigh dispersion curves will contain significant inaccuracies. We now show that the recently developed wave-equation dispersion inversion (WD) method naturally takes into account the effects of topography to give accurate S-velocity tomograms. Application of topographic WD to demonstrates that WD can accurately invert dispersion curves from seismic data recorded over variable topography. We also apply this method to field data recorded on the crest of mountainous terrain and find with higher resolution than the standard WD tomogram.
Bending and splitting of spoof surface acoustic waves through structured rigid surface
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sujun Xie
2018-03-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we demonstrated that a 90°-bended imaging of spoof surface acoustic waves with subwavelength resolution of 0.316λ can be realized by a 45° prism-shaped surface phononic crystal (SPC, which is composed of borehole arrays with square lattice in a rigid plate. Furthermore, by combining two identical prism-shaped phononic crystal to form an interface (to form a line-defect, the excited spoof surface acoustic waves can be split into bended and transmitted parts. The power ratio between the bended and transmitted surface waves can be tuned arbitrarily by adjusting the defect size. This acoustic system is believed to have potential applications in various multifunctional acoustic solutions integrated by different acoustical devices.
Comparison of Transmission Line Methods for Surface Acoustic Wave Modeling
Wilson, William; Atkinson, Gary
2009-01-01
Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) technology is low cost, rugged, lightweight, extremely low power and can be used to develop passive wireless sensors. For these reasons, NASA is investigating the use of SAW technology for Integrated Vehicle Health Monitoring (IVHM) of aerospace structures. To facilitate rapid prototyping of passive SAW sensors for aerospace applications, SAW models have been developed. This paper reports on the comparison of three methods of modeling SAWs. The three models are the Impulse Response Method (a first order model), and two second order matrix methods; the conventional matrix approach, and a modified matrix approach that is extended to include internal finger reflections. The second order models are based upon matrices that were originally developed for analyzing microwave circuits using transmission line theory. Results from the models are presented with measured data from devices. Keywords: Surface Acoustic Wave, SAW, transmission line models, Impulse Response Method.
Integrated immunoassay using tuneable surface acoustic waves and lensfree detection.
Bourquin, Yannyk; Reboud, Julien; Wilson, Rab; Zhang, Yi; Cooper, Jonathan M
2011-08-21
The diagnosis of infectious diseases in the Developing World is technologically challenging requiring complex biological assays with a high analytical performance, at minimal cost. By using an opto-acoustic immunoassay technology, integrating components commonly used in mobile phone technologies, including surface acoustic wave (SAW) transducers to provide pressure driven flow and a CMOS camera to enable lensfree detection technique, we demonstrate the potential to produce such an assay. To achieve this, antibody functionalised microparticles were manipulated on a low-cost disposable cartridge using the surface acoustic waves and were then detected optically. Our results show that the biomarker, interferon-γ, used for the diagnosis of diseases such as latent tuberculosis, can be detected at pM concentrations, within a few minutes (giving high sensitivity at a minimal cost). This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011
Multi-channel Analysis of Passive Surface Waves (MAPS)
Xia, J.; Cheng, F. Mr; Xu, Z.; Wang, L.; Shen, C.; Liu, R.; Pan, Y.; Mi, B.; Hu, Y.
2017-12-01
Urbanization is an inevitable trend in modernization of human society. In the end of 2013 the Chinese Central Government launched a national urbanization plan—"Three 100 Million People", which aggressively and steadily pushes forward urbanization. Based on the plan, by 2020, approximately 100 million people from rural areas will permanently settle in towns, dwelling conditions of about 100 million people in towns and villages will be improved, and about 100 million people in the central and western China will permanently settle in towns. China's urbanization process will run at the highest speed in the urbanization history of China. Environmentally friendly, non-destructive and non-invasive geophysical assessment method has played an important role in the urbanization process in China. Because human noise and electromagnetic field due to industrial life, geophysical methods already used in urban environments (gravity, magnetics, electricity, seismic) face great challenges. But humanity activity provides an effective source of passive seismic methods. Claerbout pointed out that wavefileds that are received at one point with excitation at the other point can be reconstructed by calculating the cross-correlation of noise records at two surface points. Based on this idea (cross-correlation of two noise records) and the virtual source method, we proposed Multi-channel Analysis of Passive Surface Waves (MAPS). MAPS mainly uses traffic noise recorded with a linear receiver array. Because Multi-channel Analysis of Surface Waves can produces a shear (S) wave velocity model with high resolution in shallow part of the model, MPAS combines acquisition and processing of active source and passive source data in a same flow, which does not require to distinguish them. MAPS is also of ability of real-time quality control of noise recording that is important for near-surface applications in urban environment. The numerical and real-world examples demonstrated that MAPS can be
Ultrasonic phased array with surface acoustic wave for imaging cracks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yoshikazu Ohara
2017-06-01
Full Text Available To accurately measure crack lengths, we developed a real-time surface imaging method (SAW PA combining an ultrasonic phased array (PA with a surface acoustic wave (SAW. SAW PA using a Rayleigh wave with a high sensitivity to surface defects was implemented for contact testing using a wedge with the third critical angle that allows the Rayleigh wave to be generated. Here, to realize high sensitivity imaging, SAW PA was optimized in terms of the wedge and the imaging area. The improved SAW PA was experimentally demonstrated using a fatigue crack specimen made of an aluminum alloy. For further verification in more realistic specimens, SAW PA was applied to stainless-steel specimens with a fatigue crack and stress corrosion cracks (SCCs. The fatigue crack was visualized with a high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR and its length was measured with a high accuracy of better than 1 mm. The SCCs generated in the heat-affected zones (HAZs of a weld were successfully visualized with a satisfactory SNR, although responses at coarse grains appeared throughout the imaging area. The SCC lengths were accurately measured. The imaging results also precisely showed complicated distributions of SCCs, which were in excellent agreement with the optically observed distributions.
An oxygen pressure sensor using surface acoustic wave devices
Leighty, Bradley D.; Upchurch, Billy T.; Oglesby, Donald M.
1993-01-01
Surface acoustic wave (SAW) piezoelectric devices are finding widespread applications in many arenas, particularly in the area of chemical sensing. We have developed an oxygen pressure sensor based on coating a SAW device with an oxygen binding agent which can be tailored to provide variable sensitivity. The coating is prepared by dissolving an oxygen binding agent in a toluene solution of a copolymer which is then sprayed onto the surface of the SAW device. Experimental data shows the feasibility of tailoring sensors to measure the partial pressure of oxygen from 2.6 to 67 KPa (20 to 500 torr). Potential applications of this technology are discussed.
Surface acoustic wave micromotor with arbitrary axis rotational capability
Tjeung, Ricky T.; Hughes, Mark S.; Yeo, Leslie Y.; Friend, James R.
2011-11-01
A surface acoustic wave (SAW) actuated rotary motor is reported here, consisting of a millimeter-sized spherical metal rotor placed on the surface of a lead zirconate titanate piezoelectric substrate upon which the SAW is made to propagate. At the design frequency of 3.2 MHz and with a fixed preload of 41.1 μN, the maximum rotational speed and torque achieved were approximately 1900 rpm and 5.37 μN-mm, respectively, producing a maximum output power of 1.19 μW. The surface vibrations were visualized using laser Doppler vibrometry and indicate that the rotational motion arises due to retrograde elliptical motions of the piezoelectric surface elements. Rotation about orthogonal axes in the plane of the substrate has been obtained by using orthogonally placed interdigital electrodes on the substrate to generate SAW impinging on the rotor, offering a means to generate rotation about an arbitrary axis in the plane of the substrate.
Surface Roughness Measurements Utilizing Long-Range Surface-Plasma Waves
1984-11-01
8217 The theory dealt only with the depen- modes, one symmetric and one antisymmetric, dence of the real wave vector on the real part of that propagate...quantity, while the wave vector is complex. It is shown that for both the supported and unsup- From Eqs. (1) and (2) one obtains the real implic- ported...Opt. Soc. sabbatical leave from the University of Toledo. Am.). Optical feild enhancemeft by long-range surface- I" ouT In O’ in OUT way@, plasma waves
P-wave and surface wave survey for permafrost analysis in alpine regions
Godio, A.; Socco, L. V.; Garofalo, F.; Arato, A.; Théodule, A.
2012-04-01
In various high mountain environments the estimate of mechanical properties of slope and sediments are relevant for the link of the geo-mechanical properties with the climate change effects. Two different locations were selected to perform seismic and georadar surveying, the Tsanteleina glacier (Gran Paradiso) and the Blue Lake in Val d'Ayas in the massif of Monterosa. The analysis of the seismic and GPR lines allowed to characterize the silty soil (top layer) and underlying bedrock. We applied seismic survey in time lapse mode to check the presence of "active" layer and estimate the mechanical properties of the moraines material and their sensitivity to the permafrost changes. Mechanical properties of sediments and moraines in glacial areas are related to the grain-size, the compaction of the material subjected to the past glacial activity, the presence of frozen materials and the reactivity of the permafrost to the climate changes. The test site of Tsanteleina has been equipped with sensors to monitor the temperature of soil and air and with time domain reflectometry to estimate the soil moisture and the frozen and thawing cycle of the uppermost material. Seismic reflections from the top of the permafrost layer are difficult to identify as they are embedded in the source-generated noise. Therefore we estimate seismic velocities from the analysis of traveltime refraction tomography and the analysis of surface wave. This approach provides information on compressional and shear waves using a single acquisition layout and a hammer acts as source. This reduces the acquisition time in complex logistical condition especially in winter period. The seismic survey was performed using 48 vertical geophones with 2 m spacing. The survey has been repeated in two different periods: summer 2011 and winter 2011. Common offset reflection lines with a 200 MHz GPR system (in summer) permitted to investigate the sediments and obtain information on the subsoil layering. The processing
Oblique Propagation of Fast Surface Waves in a Low-Beta Hall-Magnetohydrodynamics Plasma Slab
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhelyazkov, I.; Mann, G.
1999-01-01
The oblique propagation of fast sausage and kink magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) surface waves in an ideal magnetized plasma slab in the low-beta plasma limit is studied considering the Hall term in the generalized Ohm's law. It is found that the combined action of the Hall effect and oblique wave propagation makes possible the existence of multivalued solutions to the wave dispersion relations - some of them corresponding to positive values of the transfer wave number, k y , undergo a 'propagation stop' at specific (numerically found) full wave numbers. It is also shown that with growing wave number the waves change their nature - from bulk modes to pseudosurface or pure surface waves. (author)
Calculation of surface acoustic waves in a multilayered piezoelectric structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Zuwei; Wen Zhiyu; Hu Jing
2013-01-01
The propagation properties of the surface acoustic waves (SAWs) in a ZnO—SiO 2 —Si multilayered piezoelectric structure are calculated by using the recursive asymptotic method. The phase velocities and the electromechanical coupling coefficients for the Rayleigh wave and the Love wave in the different ZnO—SiO 2 —Si structures are calculated and analyzed. The Love mode wave is found to be predominantly generated since the c-axis of the ZnO film is generally perpendicular to the substrate. In order to prove the calculated results, a Love mode SAW device based on the ZnO—SiO 2 —Si multilayered structure is fabricated by micromachining, and its frequency responses are detected. The experimental results are found to be mainly consistent with the calculated ones, except for the slightly larger velocities induced by the residual stresses produced in the fabrication process of the films. The deviation of the experimental results from the calculated ones is reduced by thermal annealing. (semiconductor physics)
Multi-directional plasmonic surface-wave splitters with full bandwidth isolation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gao, Zhen; Gao, Fei; Zhang, Baile
2016-01-01
We present a multidirectional plasmonic surface-wave splitter with full bandwidth isolation experimentally based on coupled defect surface modes in a surface-wave photonic crystal. In contrast to conventional plasmonic surface-wave frequency splitters with polaritonic dispersion relations that overlap at low frequencies, this multidirectional plasmonic surface-wave splitter based on coupled defect surface modes can split different frequency bands into different waveguide branches without bandwidth overlap. Transmission spectra and near-field imaging measurements have been implemented in the microwave frequencies to verify the performance of the multidirectional plasmonic surface-wave splitter. This surface wave structure can be used as a plasmonic wavelength-division multiplexer that may find potential applications in the surface-wave integrated circuits from microwave to terahertz frequencies.
Long wave dispersion relations for surface waves in a magnetically structured atmosphere
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rae, I.C.; Roberts, B.
1983-01-01
A means of obtaining approximate dispersion relations for long wavelength magnetoacoustic surface waves propagating in a magnetically structured atmosphere is presented. A general dispersion relation applying to a wide range of magnetic profiles is obtained, and illustrated for the special cases of a single interface and a magnetic slab. In the slab geometry, for example, the dispersion relation contains both the even (sausage) and odd (kink) modes in one formalism
Particle separation by phase modulated surface acoustic waves.
Simon, Gergely; Andrade, Marco A B; Reboud, Julien; Marques-Hueso, Jose; Desmulliez, Marc P Y; Cooper, Jonathan M; Riehle, Mathis O; Bernassau, Anne L
2017-09-01
High efficiency isolation of cells or particles from a heterogeneous mixture is a critical processing step in lab-on-a-chip devices. Acoustic techniques offer contactless and label-free manipulation, preserve viability of biological cells, and provide versatility as the applied electrical signal can be adapted to various scenarios. Conventional acoustic separation methods use time-of-flight and achieve separation up to distances of quarter wavelength with limited separation power due to slow gradients in the force. The method proposed here allows separation by half of the wavelength and can be extended by repeating the modulation pattern and can ensure maximum force acting on the particles. In this work, we propose an optimised phase modulation scheme for particle separation in a surface acoustic wave microfluidic device. An expression for the acoustic radiation force arising from the interaction between acoustic waves in the fluid was derived. We demonstrated, for the first time, that the expression of the acoustic radiation force differs in surface acoustic wave and bulk devices, due to the presence of a geometric scaling factor. Two phase modulation schemes are investigated theoretically and experimentally. Theoretical findings were experimentally validated for different mixtures of polystyrene particles confirming that the method offers high selectivity. A Monte-Carlo simulation enabled us to assess performance in real situations, including the effects of particle size variation and non-uniform acoustic field on sorting efficiency and purity, validating the ability to separate particles with high purity and high resolution.
Wave propagation in photonic crystals and metamaterials: Surface waves, nonlinearity and chirality
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Bingnan [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)
2009-01-01
Photonic crystals and metamaterials, both composed of artificial structures, are two interesting areas in electromagnetism and optics. New phenomena in photonic crystals and metamaterials are being discovered, including some not found in natural materials. This thesis presents my research work in the two areas. Photonic crystals are periodically arranged artificial structures, mostly made from dielectric materials, with period on the same order of the wavelength of the working electromagnetic wave. The wave propagation in photonic crystals is determined by the Bragg scattering of the periodic structure. Photonic band-gaps can be present for a properly designed photonic crystal. Electromagnetic waves with frequency within the range of the band-gap are suppressed from propagating in the photonic crystal. With surface defects, a photonic crystal could support surface modes that are localized on the surface of the crystal, with mode frequencies within the band-gap. With line defects, a photonic crystal could allow the propagation of electromagnetic waves along the channels. The study of surface modes and waveguiding properties of a 2D photonic crystal will be presented in Chapter 1. Metamaterials are generally composed of artificial structures with sizes one order smaller than the wavelength and can be approximated as effective media. Effective macroscopic parameters such as electric permittivity ϵ, magnetic permeability μ are used to characterize the wave propagation in metamaterials. The fundamental structures of the metamaterials affect strongly their macroscopic properties. By designing the fundamental structures of the metamaterials, the effective parameters can be tuned and different electromagnetic properties can be achieved. One important aspect of metamaterial research is to get artificial magnetism. Metallic split-ring resonators (SRRs) and variants are widely used to build magnetic metamaterials with effective μ < 1 or even μ < 0. Varactor based
Surface Acoustic Wave Vibration Sensors for Measuring Aircraft Flutter
Wilson, William C.; Moore, Jason P.; Juarez, Peter D.
2016-01-01
Under NASA's Advanced Air Vehicles Program the Advanced Air Transport Technology (AATT) Project is investigating flutter effects on aeroelastic wings. To support that work a new method for measuring vibrations due to flutter has been developed. The method employs low power Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) sensors. To demonstrate the ability of the SAW sensor to detect flutter vibrations the sensors were attached to a Carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite panel which was vibrated at six frequencies from 1Hz to 50Hz. The SAW data was compared to accelerometer data and was found to resemble sine waves and match each other closely. The SAW module design and results from the tests are presented here.
Transport Powder and Liquid Samples by Surface Acoustic Waves
Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Louyeh, Sahar
2009-01-01
Sample transport is an important requirement for In-situ analysis of samples in NASA planetary exploration missions. Tests have shown that powders or liquid drops on a surface can be transported by surface acoustic waves (SAW) that are generated on the surface using interdigital transducers. The phenomena were investigated experimentally and to generate SAWs interdigital electrodes were deposited on wafers of 128 deg rotated Y-cut LiNbO?. Transporting capability of the SAW device was tested using particles of various sizes and drops of various viscosities liquids. Because of different interaction mechanisms with the SAWs, the powders and the liquid drops were observed to move in opposite directions. In the preliminary tests, a speed of 180 mm/s was achieved for powder transportation. The detailed experimental setup and results are presented in this paper. The transporting mechanism can potentially be applied to miniaturize sample analysis system or " lab-on-chip" devices.
High intensity surface plasma waves, theory and PIC simulations
Raynaud, M.; Héron, A.; Adam, J.-C.
2018-01-01
With the development of intense (>1019 W cm-2) short pulses (≤25 fs) laser with very high contrast, surface plasma wave (SPW) can be explored in the relativistic regime. As the SPW propagates with a phase velocity close to the speed of light it may results in a strong acceleration of electron bunches along the surface permitting them to reach relativistic energies. This may be important e.g. for applications in the field of plasma-based accelerators. We investigate in this work the excitation of SPWs on grating preformed over-dense plasmas for laser intensities ranging from 1019 up to 1021 W cm-2. We discuss the nature of the interaction with respect to the solid case in which surface plasmon can be resonantly excited with weak laser intensity. In particular, we show the importance of the pulse duration and focalization of the laser beam on the amplitude of the SPW.
Mechanical Balance Laws for Boussinesq Models of Surface Water Waves
Ali, Alfatih; Kalisch, Henrik
2012-06-01
Depth-integrated long-wave models, such as the shallow-water and Boussinesq equations, are standard fare in the study of small amplitude surface waves in shallow water. While the shallow-water theory features conservation of mass, momentum and energy for smooth solutions, mechanical balance equations are not widely used in Boussinesq scaling, and it appears that the expressions for many of these quantities are not known. This work presents a systematic derivation of mass, momentum and energy densities and fluxes associated with a general family of Boussinesq systems. The derivation is based on a reconstruction of the velocity field and the pressure in the fluid column below the free surface, and the derivation of differential balance equations which are of the same asymptotic validity as the evolution equations. It is shown that all these mechanical quantities can be expressed in terms of the principal dependent variables of the Boussinesq system: the surface excursion η and the horizontal velocity w at a given level in the fluid.
Surface wave propagation effects on buried segmented pipelines
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Peixin Shi
2015-08-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with surface wave propagation (WP effects on buried segmented pipelines. Both simplified analytical model and finite element (FE model are developed for estimating the axial joint pullout movement of jointed concrete cylinder pipelines (JCCPs of which the joints have a brittle tensile failure mode under the surface WP effects. The models account for the effects of peak ground velocity (PGV, WP velocity, predominant period of seismic excitation, shear transfer between soil and pipelines, axial stiffness of pipelines, joint characteristics, and cracking strain of concrete mortar. FE simulation of the JCCP interaction with surface waves recorded during the 1985 Michoacan earthquake results in joint pullout movement, which is consistent with the field observations. The models are expanded to estimate the joint axial pullout movement of cast iron (CI pipelines of which the joints have a ductile tensile failure mode. Simplified analytical equation and FE model are developed for estimating the joint pullout movement of CI pipelines. The joint pullout movement of the CI pipelines is mainly affected by the variability of the joint tensile capacity and accumulates at local weak joints in the pipeline.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Myoung-Jae [Department of Physics, Hanyang University, Seoul 04763 (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute for Natural Sciences, Hanyang University, Seoul 04763 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Young-Dae, E-mail: ydjung@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Applied Physics and Department of Bionanotechnology, Hanyang University, Ansan, Kyunggi-Do 15588 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, MC 0407, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0407 (United States)
2017-02-12
High frequency electrostatic wave propagation in a dense and semi-bounded electron quantum plasma is investigated with consideration of the Bohm potential. The dispersion relation for the surface mode of quantum plasma is derived and numerically analyzed. We found that the quantum effect enhances the frequency of the wave especially in the high wave number regime. However, the frequency of surface wave is found to be always lower than that of the bulk wave for the same quantum wave number. The group velocity of the surface wave for various quantum wave number is also obtained. - Highlights: • High frequency electrostatic wave propagation is investigated in a dense semi-bounded quantum plasma. • The dispersion relation for the surface mode of quantum plasma is derived and numerically analyzed. • The quantum effect enhances the frequency of the wave especially in the high wave number regime. • The frequency of surface wave is found to be always lower than that of the bulk wave. • The group velocity of the surface wave for various quantum wave number is also obtained.
Reducing extrinsic damping of surface acoustic waves at gigahertz frequencies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gelda, Dhruv, E-mail: gelda2@illinois.edu; Sadhu, Jyothi; Ghossoub, Marc G.; Ertekin, Elif [Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Sinha, Sanjiv [Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Micro and Nanotechnology Laboratory, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)
2016-04-28
High-frequency surface acoustic waves (SAWs) in the gigahertz range can be generated using absorption from an ultrafast laser in a patterned metallic grating on a substrate. Reducing the attenuation at these frequencies can yield better sensors as well as enable them to better probe phonon and electron-phonon interactions near surfaces. It is not clear from existing experiments which mechanisms dominate damping at high frequencies. We calculate damping times of SAWs due to various mechanisms in the 1–100 GHz range to find that mechanical loading of the grating on the substrate dominates dissipation by radiating energy from the surface into the bulk. To overcome this and enable future measurements to probe intrinsic damping, we propose incorporating distributed acoustic Bragg reflectors in the experimental structure. Layers of alternating materials with contrasting acoustic impedances embedded a wavelength away from the surface serve to reflect energy back to the surface. Using numerical simulations, we show that a single Bragg reflector is sufficient to increase the energy density at the surface by more than five times. We quantify the resulting damping time to find that it is longer than the intrinsic damping time. The proposed structure can enable future measurements of intrinsic damping in SAWs at ∼100 GHz.
Li, Jing
2017-12-22
A robust imaging technology is reviewed that provide subsurface information in challenging environments: wave-equation dispersion inversion (WD) of surface waves for the shear velocity model. We demonstrate the benefits and liabilities of the method with synthetic seismograms and field data. The benefits of WD are that 1) there is no layered medium assumption, as there is in conventional inversion of dispersion curves, so that the 2D or 3D S-velocity model can be reliably obtained with seismic surveys over rugged topography, and 2) WD mostly avoids getting stuck in local minima. The synthetic and field data examples demonstrate that WD can accurately reconstruct the S-wave velocity distributions in laterally heterogeneous media if the dispersion curves can be identified and picked. The WD method is easily extended to anisotropic media and the inversion of dispersion curves associated with Love wave. The liability is that is almost as expensive as FWI and only recovers the Vs distribution to a depth no deeper than about 1/2~1/3 wavelength.
Modeling of a Surface Acoustic Wave Strain Sensor
Wilson, W. C.; Atkinson, Gary M.
2010-01-01
NASA Langley Research Center is investigating Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) sensor technology for harsh environments aimed at aerospace applications. To aid in development of sensors a model of a SAW strain sensor has been developed. The new model extends the modified matrix method to include the response of Orthogonal Frequency Coded (OFC) reflectors and the response of SAW devices to strain. These results show that the model accurately captures the strain response of a SAW sensor on a Langasite substrate. The results of the model of a SAW Strain Sensor on Langasite are presented
Surface acoustic wave solid-state rotational micromotor
Shilton, Richie J.; Langelier, Sean M.; Friend, James R.; Yeo, Leslie Y.
2012-01-01
Surface acoustic waves (SAWs) are used to drive a 1 mm diameter rotor at speeds exceeding 9000 rpm and torque of nearly 5 nNm. Unlike recent high-speed SAW rotary motors, however, the present design does not require a fluid coupling layer but interestingly exploits adhesive stiction as an internal preload, a force usually undesirable at these scales; with additional preloads, smaller rotors can be propelled to 15 000 rpm. This solid-state motor has no moving parts except for the rotor and is sufficiently simple to allow integration into miniaturized drive systems for potential use in microfluidic diagnostics, optical switching and microrobotics.
Gas loading of graphene-quartz surface acoustic wave devices
Whitehead, E. F.; Chick, E. M.; Bandhu, L.; Lawton, L. M.; Nash, G. R.
2013-08-01
Graphene was transferred to the propagation path of quartz surface acoustic wave devices and the attenuation due to gas loading of air and argon measured at 70 MHz and 210 MHz and compared to devices with no graphene. Under argon loading, there was no significant difference between the graphene and non-graphene device and the values of measured attenuation agree well with those calculated theoretically. Under air loading, at 210 MHz, there was a significant difference between the non-graphene and graphene devices, with the average value of attenuation obtained with the graphene devices being approximately twice that obtained from the bare quartz devices.
Circuit Design of Surface Acoustic Wave Based Micro Force Sensor
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yuanyuan Li
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Pressure sensors are commonly used in industrial production and mechanical system. However, resistance strain, piezoresistive sensor, and ceramic capacitive pressure sensors possess limitations, especially in micro force measurement. A surface acoustic wave (SAW based micro force sensor is designed in this paper, which is based on the theories of wavelet transform, SAW detection, and pierce oscillator circuits. Using lithium niobate as the basal material, a mathematical model is established to analyze the frequency, and a peripheral circuit is designed to measure the micro force. The SAW based micro force sensor is tested to show the reasonable design of detection circuit and the stability of frequency and amplitude.
Evanescent wave scattering at off-axis incidence on multiple cylinders located near a surface
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Siu-Chun
2015-01-01
The scattering characteristics of an infinite cylinder are strongly influenced by the incidence angle relative to its axis. If the incident wave propagates in the plane normal to the axis of the cylinder, the polarization of the scattered wave remains unchanged and the scattered wave propagates in the same plan as the incident wave. At off-axis incidence such that the incident direction makes an oblique angle with the cylinder axis, the scattered wave is depolarized, and its spatial distribution becomes three-dimensional. This paper presents the scattering solution for oblique incidence on multiple parallel cylinders located near a planar interface by an evanescent wave that is generated by total internal reflection of the source wave propagating in the higher refractive index substrate. Hertz potentials are utilized to formulate the interaction of inhomogeneous waves with the cylinders, scattering at the substrate interface, and near field scattering between the cylinders. Analytic formulas are derived for the electromagnetic fields and Poynting vector of scattered radiation in the near-field and their asymptotic forms in the far-field. Numerical examples are shown to illustrate scattering of evanescent wave by multiple cylinders at off-axis incidence. - Highlights: • Developed an exact solution for off-axis incidence on multiple cylinders. • Included depolarization, near-field scattering, and Fresnel effect in theory. • Derived analytic formulas for scattered radiation in the far field. • Illustrated evanescent scattering at off-axis incidence by numerical data
Liu, Zhaolun; AlTheyab, Abdullah; Hanafy, Sherif M.; Schuster, Gerard T.
2017-01-01
We have developed a methodology for detecting the presence of near-surface heterogeneities by naturally migrating backscattered surface waves in controlled-source data. The near-surface heterogeneities must be located within a depth of approximately one-third the dominant wavelength λ of the strong surface-wave arrivals. This natural migration method does not require knowledge of the near-surface phase-velocity distribution because it uses the recorded data to approximate the Green’s functions for migration. Prior to migration, the backscattered data are separated from the original records, and the band-passed filtered data are migrated to give an estimate of the migration image at a depth of approximately one-third λ. Each band-passed data set gives a migration image at a different depth. Results with synthetic data and field data recorded over known faults validate the effectiveness of this method. Migrating the surface waves in recorded 2D and 3D data sets accurately reveals the locations of known faults. The limitation of this method is that it requires a dense array of receivers with a geophone interval less than approximately one-half λ.
Liu, Zhaolun
2017-03-06
We have developed a methodology for detecting the presence of near-surface heterogeneities by naturally migrating backscattered surface waves in controlled-source data. The near-surface heterogeneities must be located within a depth of approximately one-third the dominant wavelength λ of the strong surface-wave arrivals. This natural migration method does not require knowledge of the near-surface phase-velocity distribution because it uses the recorded data to approximate the Green’s functions for migration. Prior to migration, the backscattered data are separated from the original records, and the band-passed filtered data are migrated to give an estimate of the migration image at a depth of approximately one-third λ. Each band-passed data set gives a migration image at a different depth. Results with synthetic data and field data recorded over known faults validate the effectiveness of this method. Migrating the surface waves in recorded 2D and 3D data sets accurately reveals the locations of known faults. The limitation of this method is that it requires a dense array of receivers with a geophone interval less than approximately one-half λ.
An Analysis of Fundamental Mode Surface Wave Amplitude Measurements
Schardong, L.; Ferreira, A. M.; van Heijst, H. J.; Ritsema, J.
2014-12-01
Seismic tomography is a powerful tool to decipher the Earth's interior structure at various scales. Traveltimes of seismic waves are widely used to build velocity models, whereas amplitudes are still only seldomly accounted for. This mainly results from our limited ability to separate the various physical effects responsible for observed amplitude variations, such as focussing/defocussing, scattering and source effects. We present new measurements from 50 global earthquakes of fundamental-mode Rayleigh and Love wave amplitude anomalies measured in the period range 35-275 seconds using two different schemes: (i) a standard time-domain amplitude power ratio technique; and (ii) a mode-branch stripping scheme. For minor-arc data, we observe amplitude anomalies with respect to PREM in the range of 0-4, for which the two measurement techniques show a very good overall agreement. We present here a statistical analysis and comparison of these datasets, as well as comparisons with theoretical calculations for a variety of 3-D Earth models. We assess the geographical coherency of the measurements, and investigate the impact of source, path and receiver effects on surface wave amplitudes, as well as their variations with frequency in a wider range than previously studied.
Yu, Han
2016-04-26
We demonstrate that diffraction stack migration can be used to discover the distribution of near-surface faults. The methodology is based on the assumption that near-surface faults generate detectable back-scattered surface waves from impinging surface waves. We first isolate the back-scattered surface waves by muting or FK filtering, and then migrate them by diffraction migration using the surface wave velocity as the migration velocity. Instead of summing events along trial quasi-hyperbolas, surface wave migration sums events along trial quasi-linear trajectories that correspond to the moveout of back-scattered surface waves. We have also proposed a natural migration method that utilizes the intrinsic traveltime property of the direct and the back-scattered waves at faults. For the synthetic data sets and the land data collected in Aqaba, where surface wave velocity has unexpected perturbations, we migrate the back-scattered surface waves with both predicted velocity profiles and natural Green\\'s function without velocity information. Because the latter approach avoids the need for an accurate velocity model in event summation, both the prestack and stacked migration images show competitive quality. Results with both synthetic data and field records validate the feasibility of this method. We believe applying this method to global or passive seismic data can open new opportunities in unveiling tectonic features.
Upper Mantle Shear Wave Structure Beneath North America From Multi-mode Surface Wave Tomography
Yoshizawa, K.; Ekström, G.
2008-12-01
The upper mantle structure beneath the North American continent has been investigated from measurements of multi-mode phase speeds of Love and Rayleigh waves. To estimate fundamental-mode and higher-mode phase speeds of surface waves from a single seismogram at regional distances, we have employed a method of nonlinear waveform fitting based on a direct model-parameter search using the neighbourhood algorithm (Yoshizawa & Kennett, 2002). The method of the waveform analysis has been fully automated by employing empirical quantitative measures for evaluating the accuracy/reliability of estimated multi-mode phase dispersion curves, and thus it is helpful in processing the dramatically increasing numbers of seismic data from the latest regional networks such as USArray. As a first step toward modeling the regional anisotropic shear-wave velocity structure of the North American upper mantle with extended vertical resolution, we have applied the method to long-period three-component records of seismic stations in North America, which mostly comprise the GSN and US regional networks as well as the permanent and transportable USArray stations distributed by the IRIS DMC. Preliminary multi-mode phase-speed models show large-scale patterns of isotropic heterogeneity, such as a strong velocity contrast between the western and central/eastern United States, which are consistent with the recent global and regional models (e.g., Marone, et al. 2007; Nettles & Dziewonski, 2008). We will also discuss radial anisotropy of shear wave speed beneath North America from multi-mode dispersion measurements of Love and Rayleigh waves.
Anomalous shear wave delays and surface wave velocities at Yellowstone Caldera, Wyoming
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Daniel, R.G.; Boore, D.M.
1982-01-01
To investigate the effects of a geothermal area on the propagation of intermediate-period (1--30 s) teleseismic body waves and surface waves, a specially designed portable seismograph system was operated in Yellowstone Caldera, Wyoming. Travel time residuals, relative to a station outside the caldera, of up to 2 s for compressional phases are in agreement with short-period residuals for P phases measured by other investigators. Travel time delays for shear arrivals in the intermediate-period band range from 2 to 9 s and decrease with increasing dT/dΔ. Measured Rayleigh wave phase velocities are extremely low, ranging from 3.2 km/s at 27-s period to 2.0 km/s at 7-s period; the estimated uncertainty associated with these values is 15%. We propose a model for compressional and shear velocities and Poisson's ratio beneath the Yellowstone caldera which fits the teleseismic body and surface wave data: it consists of a highly anomalous crust with an average shear velocity of 3.0 km/s overlying an upper mantle with average velocity of 4.1 km/s. The high average value of Poisson's ratio in the crust (0.34) suggests the presence of fluids there; Poisson's ratio in the mantle between 40 and approximately 200 km is more nearly normal (0.29) than in the crust. A discrepancy between normal values of Poisson's ratio in the crust calculated from short-period data and high values calculated from teleseismic data can be resolved by postulating a viscoelastic crustal model with frequency-dependent shear velocity and attenuation
Absorption of surface acoustic waves by topological insulator thin films
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, L. L.; Xu, W.
2014-01-01
We present a theoretical study on the absorption of the surface acoustic waves (SAWs) by Dirac electrons in topological insulator (TI) thin films (TITFs). We find that due to momentum and energy conservation laws, the absorption of the SAWs in TITFs can only be achieved via intra-band electronic transitions. The strong absorption can be observed up to sub-terahertz frequencies. With increasing temperature, the absorption intensity increases significantly and the cut-off frequency is blue-shifted. More interestingly, we find that the absorption of the SAWs by the TITFs can be markedly enhanced by the tunable subgap in the Dirac energy spectrum of the TI surface states. Such a subgap is absent in conventional two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs) and in the gapless Dirac 2DEG such as graphene. This study is pertinent to the exploration of the acoustic properties of TIs and to potential application of TIs as tunable SAW devices working at hypersonic frequencies
Effects of Sea-Surface Waves and Ocean Spray on Air-Sea Momentum Fluxes
Zhang, Ting; Song, Jinbao
2018-04-01
The effects of sea-surface waves and ocean spray on the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) at different wind speeds and wave ages were investigated. An MABL model was developed that introduces a wave-induced component and spray force to the total surface stress. The theoretical model solution was determined assuming the eddy viscosity coefficient varied linearly with height above the sea surface. The wave-induced component was evaluated using a directional wave spectrum and growth rate. Spray force was described using interactions between ocean-spray droplets and wind-velocity shear. Wind profiles and sea-surface drag coefficients were calculated for low to high wind speeds for wind-generated sea at different wave ages to examine surface-wave and ocean-spray effects on MABL momentum distribution. The theoretical solutions were compared with model solutions neglecting wave-induced stress and/or spray stress. Surface waves strongly affected near-surface wind profiles and sea-surface drag coefficients at low to moderate wind speeds. Drag coefficients and near-surface wind speeds were lower for young than for old waves. At high wind speeds, ocean-spray droplets produced by wind-tearing breaking-wave crests affected the MABL strongly in comparison with surface waves, implying that wave age affects the MABL only negligibly. Low drag coefficients at high wind caused by ocean-spray production increased turbulent stress in the sea-spray generation layer, accelerating near-sea-surface wind. Comparing the analytical drag coefficient values with laboratory measurements and field observations indicated that surface waves and ocean spray significantly affect the MABL at different wind speeds and wave ages.
Upper Mantle Structure beneath Afar: inferences from surface waves.
Sicilia, D.; Montagner, J.; Debayle, E.; Lepine, J.; Leveque, J.; Cara, M.; Ataley, A.; Sholan, J.
2001-12-01
The Afar hotspot is related to one of the most important plume from a geodynamic point of view. It has been advocated to be the surface expression of the South-West African Superswell. Below the lithosphere, the Afar plume might feed other hotspots in central Africa (Hadiouche et al., 1989; Ebinger & Sleep, 1998). The processes of interaction between crust, lithosphere and plume are not well understood. In order to gain insight into the scientific issue, we have performed a surface-wave tomography covering the Horn of Africa. A data set of 1404 paths for Rayleigh waves and 473 paths for Love waves was selected in the period range 45-200s. They were collected from the permanent IRIS and GEOSCOPE networks and from the PASSCAL experiment, in Tanzania and Saudi Arabia. Other data come from the broadband stations deployed in Ethiopia and Yemen in the framework of the French INSU program ``Horn of Africa''. The results presented here come from a path average phase velocities obtained with a method based on a least-squares minimization (Beucler et al., 2000). The local phase velocity distribution and the azimuthal anisotropy were simultaneously retrieved by using the tomographic technique of Montagner (1986). A correction of the data is applied according to the crustal structure of the 3SMAC model (Nataf & Ricard, 1996). We find low velocities down to 200 km depth beneath the Red Sea, the Gulf of Aden, Afars, the Ethiopian Plateau and southern Arabia. High velocities are present in the eastern Arabia and the Tanzania Craton. The anisotropy beneath Afar seems to be complex, but enables to map the flow pattern at the interface lithosphere-asthenosphere. The results presented here are complementary to those obtained by Debayle et al. (2001) at upper-mantle transition zone depths using waveform inversion of higher Rayle igh modes.
Radiation dominated acoustophoresis driven by surface acoustic waves.
Guo, Jinhong; Kang, Yuejun; Ai, Ye
2015-10-01
Acoustophoresis-based particle manipulation in microfluidics has gained increasing attention in recent years. Despite the fact that experimental studies have been extensively performed to demonstrate this technique for various microfluidic applications, numerical simulation of acoustophoresis driven by surface acoustic waves (SAWs) has still been largely unexplored. In this work, a numerical model taking into account the acoustic-piezoelectric interaction was developed to simulate the generation of a standing surface acoustic wave (SSAW) field and predict the acoustic pressure field in the liquid. Acoustic radiation dominated particle tracing was performed to simulate acoustophoresis of particles with different sizes undergoing a SSAW field. A microfluidic device composed of two interdigital transducers (IDTs) for SAW generation and a microfluidic channel was fabricated for experimental validation. Numerical simulations could well capture the focusing phenomenon of particles to the pressure nodes in the experimental observation. Further comparison of particle trajectories demonstrated considerably quantitative agreement between numerical simulations and experimental results with fitting in the applied voltage. Particle switching was also demonstrated using the fabricated device that could be further developed as an active particle sorting device. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Surface Waves Propagating on Grounded Anisotropic Dielectric Slab
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhuozhu Chen
2018-01-01
Full Text Available This paper investigates the characteristics of surface waves propagating on a grounded anisotropic dielectric slab. Distinct from the existing analyses that generally assume that the fields of surface wave uniformly distribute along the transverse direction of the infinitely large grounded slab, our method takes into account the field variations along the transverse direction of a finite-width slab. By solving Maxwell’s equations in closed-form, it is revealed that no pure transverse magnetic (TM or transverse electric (TE mode exists if the fields are non-uniformly distributed along the transverse direction of the grounded slab. Instead, two hybrid modes, namely quasi-TM and quasi-TE modes, are supported. In addition, the propagation characteristics of two hybrid modes supported by the grounded anisotropic slab are analyzed in terms of the slab thickness, slab width, as well as the relative permittivity tensor of the anisotropic slab. Furthermore, different methods are employed to compare the analyses, as well as to validate our derivations. The proposed method is very suitable for practical engineering applications.
A cdk1 gradient guides surface contraction waves in oocytes.
Bischof, Johanna; Brand, Christoph A; Somogyi, Kálmán; Májer, Imre; Thome, Sarah; Mori, Masashi; Schwarz, Ulrich S; Lénárt, Péter
2017-10-11
Surface contraction waves (SCWs) in oocytes and embryos lead to large-scale shape changes coupled to cell cycle transitions and are spatially coordinated with the cell axis. Here, we show that SCWs in the starfish oocyte are generated by a traveling band of myosin II-driven cortical contractility. At the front of the band, contractility is activated by removal of cdk1 inhibition of the RhoA/RhoA kinase/myosin II signaling module, while at the rear, contractility is switched off by negative feedback originating downstream of RhoA kinase. The SCW's directionality and speed are controlled by a spatiotemporal gradient of cdk1-cyclinB. This gradient is formed by the release of cdk1-cyclinB from the asymmetrically located nucleus, and progressive degradation of cyclinB. By combining quantitative imaging, biochemical and mechanical perturbations with mathematical modeling, we demonstrate that the SCWs result from the spatiotemporal integration of two conserved regulatory modules, cdk1-cyclinB for cell cycle regulation and RhoA/Rok/NMYII for actomyosin contractility.Surface contraction waves (SCWs) are prominent shape changes coupled to cell cycle transitions in oocytes. Here the authors show that SCWs are patterned by the spatiotemporal integration of two conserved modules, cdk1-cyclinB for cell cycle regulation and RhoA/Rok/NMYII for actomyosin contractility.
Determination of optimum "multi-channel surface wave method" field parameters.
2012-12-01
Multi-channel surface wave methods (especially the multi-channel analyses of surface wave method; MASW) are routinely used to : determine the shear-wave velocity of the subsurface to depths of 100 feet for site classification purposes. Users are awar...
Wind fields of storms from surface isobars for wave hindcasting
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Varkey, M.J.; Vaithiyanathan, R.; Santanam, K.
Marine operations of various types are critically linked to mean and extreme wave statistics. In the Indian seas extreme wave conditions are caused by cyclones and steady strong monsoon winds. Wave data from cyclone areas are not directly available...
Patrone, Paul N.; Einstein, T. L.; Margetis, Dionisios
2010-12-01
We study analytically and numerically a one-dimensional model of interacting line defects (steps) fluctuating on a vicinal crystal. Our goal is to formulate and validate analytical techniques for approximately solving systems of coupled nonlinear stochastic differential equations (SDEs) governing fluctuations in surface motion. In our analytical approach, the starting point is the Burton-Cabrera-Frank (BCF) model by which step motion is driven by diffusion of adsorbed atoms on terraces and atom attachment-detachment at steps. The step energy accounts for entropic and nearest-neighbor elastic-dipole interactions. By including Gaussian white noise to the equations of motion for terrace widths, we formulate large systems of SDEs under different choices of diffusion coefficients for the noise. We simplify this description via (i) perturbation theory and linearization of the step interactions and, alternatively, (ii) a mean-field (MF) approximation whereby widths of adjacent terraces are replaced by a self-consistent field but nonlinearities in step interactions are retained. We derive simplified formulas for the time-dependent terrace-width distribution (TWD) and its steady-state limit. Our MF analytical predictions for the TWD compare favorably with kinetic Monte Carlo simulations under the addition of a suitably conservative white noise in the BCF equations.
Patrone, Paul; Einstein, T. L.; Margetis, Dionisios
2011-03-01
We study a 1+1D, stochastic, Burton-Cabrera-Frank (BCF) model of interacting steps fluctuating on a vicinal crystal. The step energy accounts for entropic and nearest-neighbor elastic-dipole interactions. Our goal is to formulate and validate a self-consistent mean-field (MF) formalism to approximately solve the system of coupled, nonlinear stochastic differential equations (SDEs) governing fluctuations in surface motion. We derive formulas for the time-dependent terrace width distribution (TWD) and its steady-state limit. By comparison with kinetic Monte-Carlo simulations, we show that our MF formalism improves upon models in which step interactions are linearized. We also indicate how fitting parameters of our steady state MF TWD may be used to determine the mass transport regime and step interaction energy of certain experimental systems. PP and TLE supported by NSF MRSEC under Grant DMR 05-20471 at U. of Maryland; DM supported by NSF under Grant DMS 08-47587.
Eilon, Zachary; Fischer, Karen M.; Dalton, Colleen A.
2018-04-01
We present a methodology for 1-D imaging of upper mantle structure using a Bayesian approach that incorporates a novel combination of seismic data types and an adaptive parameterisation based on piecewise discontinuous splines. Our inversion algorithm lays the groundwork for improved seismic velocity models of the lithosphere and asthenosphere by harnessing the recent expansion of large seismic arrays and computational power alongside sophisticated data analysis. Careful processing of P- and S-wave arrivals isolates converted phases generated at velocity gradients between the mid-crust and 300 km depth. This data is allied with ambient noise and earthquake Rayleigh wave phase velocities to obtain detailed VS and VP velocity models. Synthetic tests demonstrate that converted phases are necessary to accurately constrain velocity gradients, and S-p phases are particularly important for resolving mantle structure, while surface waves are necessary for capturing absolute velocities. We apply the method to several stations in the northwest and north-central United States, finding that the imaged structure improves upon existing models by sharpening the vertical resolution of absolute velocity profiles, offering robust uncertainty estimates, and revealing mid-lithospheric velocity gradients indicative of thermochemical cratonic layering. This flexible method holds promise for increasingly detailed understanding of the upper mantle.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Longinov, A.V.; Lukinov, V.A.
1992-01-01
It is proposed to use a system of auxiliary passive gaps to excite waves in a plasma traveling in one direction parallel to the magnetic field, in order to localize the radiating surface of a surface-wave antenna. Using excitation of ion Bernstein waves in the plasma as an example the main properties of such an antenna system have been studied. It is shown that the use of passive gaps permits high directionality to be achieved for the radiation and allows the size of the radiating surface of the antenna to be controlled. 10 refs., 6 figs
S-wave velocity measurements along levees in New Orleans using passive surface wave methods
Hayashi, K.; Lorenzo, J. M.; Craig, M. S.; Gostic, A.
2017-12-01
In order to develop non-invasive methods for levee inspection, geophysical investigations were carried out at four sites along levees in the New Orleans area: 17th Street Canal, London Avenue Canal, Marrero Levee, and Industrial Canal. Three of the four sites sustained damage from Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and have since been rebuilt. The geophysical methods used include active and passive surface wave methods, and capacitively coupled resistivity. This paper summarizes the acquisition and analysis of the 1D and 2D passive surface wave data. Twelve wireless seismic data acquisition units with 2 Hz vertical component geophones were used to record data. Each unit includes a GPS receiver so that all units can be synchronized over any distance without cables. The 1D passive method used L shaped arrays of three different sizes with geophone spacing ranging from 5 to 340 m. Ten minutes to one hour of ambient noise was recorded with each array, and total data acquisition took approximately two hours at each site. The 2D method used a linear array with a geophone spacing of 5m. Four geophones were moved forward every 10 minutes along 400 1000 m length lines. Data acquisition took several hours for each line. Recorded ambient noise was processed using the spatial autocorrelation method and clear dispersion curves were obtained at all sites (Figure 1a). Minimum frequencies ranged from 0.4 to 0.7 Hz and maximum frequencies ranged from 10 to 30 Hz depending on the site. Non-linear inversion was performed and 1D and 2D S-wave velocity models were obtained. The 1D method penetrated to depths ranging from 200 to 500 m depending on the site (Figure 1b). The 2D method penetrated to a depth of 40 60 m and provided 400 1000 m cross sections along the levees (Figure 2). The interpretation focused on identifying zones beneath the levees or canal walls having low S-wave velocities corresponding to saturated, unconsolidated sands, or low-rigidity clays. Resultant S-wave velocity profiles
Risk analysis of breakwater caisson under wave attack using load surface approximation
Kim, Dong Hyawn
2014-12-01
A new load surface based approach to the reliability analysis of caisson-type breakwater is proposed. Uncertainties of the horizontal and vertical wave loads acting on breakwater are considered by using the so-called load surfaces, which can be estimated as functions of wave height, water level, and so on. Then, the first-order reliability method (FORM) can be applied to determine the probability of failure under the wave action. In this way, the reliability analysis of breakwaters with uncertainties both in wave height and in water level is possible. Moreover, the uncertainty in wave breaking can be taken into account by considering a random variable for wave height ratio which relates the significant wave height to the maximum wave height. The proposed approach is applied numerically to the reliability analysis of caisson breakwater under wave attack that may undergo partial or full wave breaking.
Effect of attenuation correction on surface amplitude distribution of wind waves
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Varkey, M.J.
Some selected wave profiles recorded using a ship borne wave recorder are analysed to study the effect of attenuation correction on the distribution of the surface amplitudes. A new spectral width parameter is defined to account for wide band...
Effect of phase coupling on surface amplitude distribution of wind waves
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Varkey, M.J.
Nonlinear features of wind generated surface waves are considered here to be caused by nonrandomness (non-Uniform) in the phase spectrum. Nonrandomness in recorded waves, if present, would be generally obscured within the error level of observations...
Peng, Yang; Wu, Chao; Zheng, Yifu; Dong, Jun
2017-01-01
Welded joints are prone to fatigue cracking with the existence of welding defects and bending stress. Fracture mechanics is a useful approach in which the fatigue life of the welded joint can be predicted. The key challenge of such predictions using fracture mechanics is how to accurately calculate the stress intensity factor (SIF). An empirical formula for calculating the SIF of welded joints under bending stress was developed by Baik, Yamada and Ishikawa based on the hybrid method. However, when calculating the SIF of a semi-elliptical crack, this study found that the accuracy of the Baik-Yamada formula was poor when comparing the benchmark results, experimental data and numerical results. The reasons for the reduced accuracy of the Baik-Yamada formula were identified and discussed in this paper. Furthermore, a new correction factor was developed and added to the Baik-Yamada formula by using theoretical analysis and numerical regression. Finally, the predictions using the modified Baik-Yamada formula were compared with the benchmark results, experimental data and numerical results. It was found that the accuracy of the modified Baik-Yamada formula was greatly improved. Therefore, it is proposed that this modified formula is used to conveniently and accurately calculate the SIF of semi-elliptical cracks in welded joints under bending stress. PMID:28772527
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khalil, Sh.M.; El-Sherif, N.; El-Siragy, N.M.; Tanta Univ.; El-Naggar, I.A.; Alexandria Univ.
1985-01-01
Investigation is made for nonlinear interaction between incident radiation and a surface wave in a magnetized plasma layer. Both interacting waves are of P polarization. The generated currents and fields at combination frequencies are obtained analytically. Unlike the S-polarized interacting waves, the magnetic field affects the fundamental waves and leads to an amplification of generated waves when their frequencies approach the cyclotron frequency. (author)
On-line surveillance of lubricants in bearings by means of surface acoustic waves.
Lindner, Gerhard; Schmitt, Martin; Schubert, Josephine; Krempel, Sandro; Faustmann, Hendrik
2010-01-01
The acoustic wave propagation in bearings filled with lubricants and driven by pulsed excitation of surface acoustic waves has been investigated with respect to the presence and the distribution of different lubricants. Experimental setups, which are based on the mode conversion between surface acoustic waves and compression waves at the interface between a solid substrate of the bearing and a lubricant are described. The results of preliminary measurements at linear friction bearings, rotation ball bearings and axial cylinder roller bearings are presented.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dragila, R.; Vukovic, S.
1988-01-01
The properties of surfave waves that are associated with a boundary between a rare plasma and a dense magnetoactive plasma and that propagate along a dc magnetic field are investigated. It is shown that the presence of the magnetic field introduces symmetry in terms of the polarization of the incident electromagnetic wave that excites the surface waves. A surface wave excited by an incident p-polarized (s-polarized) electromagnetic wave leaks in the form of an s-polarized (p-polarized) electromagnetic wave. The rate of rotation of polarization is independent of the polarization of the incident wave. Because a surface wave can leak in the form of an s-polarized electromagnetic wave, it can also be pumped by such a wave, and conditions were found for excitation of a surface wave by an s-polarized incident electromagnetic wave
Xu, Yanlong; Peng, Pai
2015-01-01
. The graded grooved surface is structured by drilling one dimensional array of graded grooves with increased depths on a flat surface. We investigate SAW dispersion relations, wave field distribution at several typical SAW wavelengths, and time evolution of a
Viscoelasticity evaluation of rubber by surface reflection of supersonic wave.
Omata, Nobuaki; Suga, Takahiro; Furusawa, Hirokazu; Urabe, Shinichi; Kondo, Takeru; Ni, Qing-Qing
2006-12-22
The main characteristic of rubber is a viscoelasticity. So it is important to research the characteristic of the viscoelasticity of the high frequency band for the friction between a rubber material and the hard one with roughness, for instance, the tire and the road. As for the measurement of the viscoelasticity of rubber, DMA (dynamic mechanical analysis) is general. However, some problems are pointed out to the measurement of the high frequency band by DMA. Then, we evaluated the viscoelasticity characteristic by the supersonic wave measurement. However, attenuation of rubber is large, and when the viscoelasticity is measured by the supersonic wave therefore, it is inconvenient and limited in a past method by means of bottom reflection. In this report, we tried the viscoelasticity evaluation by the method of using complex surface reflection coefficient and we compared with the friction coefficient under wide-range friction velocity. As a result, some relationships had been found for two properties. We report the result that character of viscoelasticity of rubber was comparable to friction coefficient.
A Microring Temperature Sensor Based on the Surface Plasmon Wave
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wenchao Li
2015-01-01
Full Text Available A structure of microring sensor suitable for temperature measurement based on the surface plasmon wave is put forward in this paper. The sensor uses surface plasmon multilayer waveguiding structure in the vertical direction and U-shaped microring structure in the horizontal direction and utilizes SOI as the thermal material. The transfer function derivation of the structure of surface plasmon microring sensor is according to the transfer matrix method. While the change of refractive index of Si is caused by the change of ambient temperature, the effective refractive index of the multilayer waveguiding structure is changed, resulting in the drifting of the sensor output spectrum. This paper focuses on the transmission characteristics of multilayer waveguide structure and the impact on the output spectrum caused by refractive index changes in temperature parts. According to the calculation and simulation, the transmission performance of the structure is stable and the sensitivity is good. The resonance wavelength shift can reach 0.007 μm when the temperature is increased by 100 k and FSR can reach about 60 nm. This structure achieves a high sensitivity in the temperature sense taking into account a wide range of filter frequency selections, providing a theoretical basis for the preparation of microoptics.
Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW Resonators for Monitoring Conditioning Film Formation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Siegfried Hohmann
2015-05-01
Full Text Available We propose surface acoustic wave (SAW resonators as a complementary tool for conditioning film monitoring. Conditioning films are formed by adsorption of inorganic and organic substances on a substrate the moment this substrate comes into contact with a liquid phase. In the case of implant insertion, for instance, initial protein adsorption is required to start wound healing, but it will also trigger immune reactions leading to inflammatory responses. The control of the initial protein adsorption would allow to promote the healing process and to suppress adverse immune reactions. Methods to investigate these adsorption processes are available, but it remains difficult to translate measurement results into actual protein binding events. Biosensor transducers allow user-friendly investigation of protein adsorption on different surfaces. The combination of several transduction principles leads to complementary results, allowing a more comprehensive characterization of the adsorbing layer. We introduce SAW resonators as a novel complementary tool for time-resolved conditioning film monitoring. SAW resonators were coated with polymers. The adsorption of the plasma proteins human serum albumin (HSA and fibrinogen onto the polymer-coated surfaces were monitored. Frequency results were compared with quartz crystal microbalance (QCM sensor measurements, which confirmed the suitability of the SAW resonators for this application.
Surface acoustic wave coding for orthogonal frequency coded devices
Malocha, Donald (Inventor); Kozlovski, Nikolai (Inventor)
2011-01-01
Methods and systems for coding SAW OFC devices to mitigate code collisions in a wireless multi-tag system. Each device producing plural stepped frequencies as an OFC signal with a chip offset delay to increase code diversity. A method for assigning a different OCF to each device includes using a matrix based on the number of OFCs needed and the number chips per code, populating each matrix cell with OFC chip, and assigning the codes from the matrix to the devices. The asynchronous passive multi-tag system includes plural surface acoustic wave devices each producing a different OFC signal having the same number of chips and including a chip offset time delay, an algorithm for assigning OFCs to each device, and a transceiver to transmit an interrogation signal and receive OFC signals in response with minimal code collisions during transmission.
A Comparison of Surface Acoustic Wave Modeling Methods
Wilson, W. c.; Atkinson, G. M.
2009-01-01
Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) technology is low cost, rugged, lightweight, extremely low power and can be used to develop passive wireless sensors. For these reasons, NASA is investigating the use of SAW technology for Integrated Vehicle Health Monitoring (IVHM) of aerospace structures. To facilitate rapid prototyping of passive SAW sensors for aerospace applications, SAW models have been developed. This paper reports on the comparison of three methods of modeling SAWs. The three models are the Impulse Response Method a first order model, and two second order matrix methods; the conventional matrix approach, and a modified matrix approach that is extended to include internal finger reflections. The second order models are based upon matrices that were originally developed for analyzing microwave circuits using transmission line theory. Results from the models are presented with measured data from devices.
Surface waves on the tailward flanks of the Earth's magnetopause
Seon, J.; Frank, L. A.; Lazarus, A. J.; Lepping, R. P.
1995-01-01
Forty-three examples of ISEE 1 tailward flank side magnetopause crossings are examined and directly compared with upstream solar wind parameters. The crossings are classified into two groups. In the first group, a few sudden magnetopause crossings are observed, whereas repeated magnetopause crossings and oscillatory motions, often with boundary layer signatures, are observed in the second group. These distinctive characteristics of the two groups are interpreted in terms of the surface waves due to the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. It is found that low solar wind speed tends to favor characteristics of the first group, whereas high solar wind speed yields those of the second group. However, no evident correlations between the groups and the interplanetary magnetic field directions are found.
Surface Acoustic Wave Tag-Based Coherence Multiplexing
Youngquist, Robert C. (Inventor); Malocha, Donald (Inventor); Saldanha, Nancy (Inventor)
2016-01-01
A surface acoustic wave (SAW)-based coherence multiplexing system includes SAW tags each including a SAW transducer, a first SAW reflector positioned a first distance from the SAW transducer and a second SAW reflector positioned a second distance from the SAW transducer. A transceiver including a wireless transmitter has a signal source providing a source signal and circuitry for transmitting interrogation pulses including a first and a second interrogation pulse toward the SAW tags, and a wireless receiver for receiving and processing response signals from the SAW tags. The receiver receives scrambled signals including a convolution of the wideband interrogation pulses with response signals from the SAW tags and includes a computing device which implements an algorithm that correlates the interrogation pulses or the source signal before transmitting against the scrambled signals to generate tag responses for each of the SAW tags.
Electron Density in Atmospheric Pressure Microwave Surface Wave Discharges
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jasinski, M.; Zakrzewski, Z.; Mizeraczyk, J.
2008-01-01
In this paper, we present results of the spectroscopic measurements of the electron density in a microwave surface wave sustained discharges in Ar and Ne at atmospheric pressure. The discharge in the form of a plasma column was generated inside a quartz tube cooled with a dielectric liquid. The microwave power delivered to the discharge via rectangular waveguide was applied in the range of 200-1500 W. In all investigations presented in this paper, the gas flow rate was relatively low (0.5 l/min), so the plasma column was generated in the form of a single filament, and the lengths of the upstream and downstream plasma columns were almost the same. The electron density in the plasma columns was determined using the method based on the Stark broadening of H β spectral line, including plasma region inside the waveguide which was not investigated earlier
A radioisotope-powered surface acoustic wave transponder
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tin, S; Lal, A
2009-01-01
We demonstrate a 63 Ni radioisotope-powered pulse transponder that has a SAW (surface acoustic wave) device as the frequency transmission frequency selector. Because the frequency is determined by a SAW device, narrowband detection with an identical SAW device enables the possibility for a long-distance RF-link. The SAW transponders can be buried deep into structural constructs such as steel and concrete, where changing batteries or harvesting vibration or EM energy is not a reliable option. RF-released power to radioisotope- released power amplification is 10 8 , even when regulatory safe amounts of 63 Ni are used. Here we have achieved an 800 µW pulse (315 MHz, 10 µs pause) across a 50 Ω load every 3 min, using a 1.5 milli-Ci 63 Ni source
Kinetic computer modeling of microwave surface-wave plasma production
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ganachev, Ivan P.
2004-01-01
Kinetic computer plasma modeling occupies an intermediate position between the time consuming rigorous particle dynamic simulation and the fast but rather rough cold- or warm-plasma fluid models. The present paper reviews the kinetic modeling of microwave surface-wave discharges with accent on recent kinetic self-consistent models, where the external input parameters are reduced to the necessary minimum (frequency and intensity of the applied microwave field and pressure and geometry of the discharge vessel). The presentation is limited to low pressures, so that Boltzmann equation is solved in non-local approximation and collisional electron heating is neglected. The numerical results reproduce correctly the bi-Maxwellian electron energy distribution functions observed experimentally. (author)
Terahertz wave manipulation based on multi-bit coding artificial electromagnetic surfaces
Li, Jiu-Sheng; Zhao, Ze-Jiang; Yao, Jian-Quan
2018-05-01
A polarization insensitive multi-bit coding artificial electromagnetic surface is proposed for terahertz wave manipulation. The coding artificial electromagnetic surfaces composed of four-arrow-shaped particles with certain coding sequences can generate multi-bit coding in the terahertz frequencies and manipulate the reflected terahertz waves to the numerous directions by using of different coding distributions. Furthermore, we demonstrate that our coding artificial electromagnetic surfaces have strong abilities to reduce the radar cross section with polarization insensitive for TE and TM incident terahertz waves as well as linear-polarized and circular-polarized terahertz waves. This work offers an effectively strategy to realize more powerful manipulation of terahertz wave.
A Surface Wave's View of the Mid-Continent Rift
Foster, A. E.; Darbyshire, F. A.; Schaeffer, A. J.
2017-12-01
The presence of the Mid-Continent Rift (MCR), a 1.1Ga failed rift in central North America, raises many questions. We address the following: what lasting effects has it had on the continental lithosphere? Though many studies have looked at the area with a variety of data types, the combination of USArray Transportable Array stations to the south, permanent and temporary Canadian stations to the north, and SPREE stations in strategic locations crossing the rift provide a new opportunity for a regional surface-wave study. We select 80 stations with roughly 200 km spacing, resulting in dense path coverage of a broad area centered on the MCR. We use teleseismic data for all earthquakes from January 2005-August 2016 with a magnitude greater than 6.0, amounting to over 1200 events, and we make Rayleigh wave two-station dispersion measurements for all station pairs with suitable event-station geometry. We invert these measurements for anisotropic phase-velocity maps at periods of 20-200 s, yielding information not only on the wave speed but also the current fabric of the lithosphere, a complicated record of strain from formation, through modification from orogeny, attempted rifting, and hotspot interaction, to present day plate motion. We observe a clear signature of the MCR at short (20-25 s) periods, with the slowest phase-velocity anomaly in the region aligning with the strongest gravity anomaly. At increasing periods, and thus greater depths, this slowest anomaly shifts to beneath the center of Lake Superior (30-40 s). Eventually, it appears to merge with a slow anomaly to the north associated with the Nipigon Embayment, and contrasts sharply with an adjacent fast anomaly in the western Superior Province. In our preliminary anisotropy results, we observe weak anisotropy at the latitude of the MCR and to the south, whereas to the north of the MCR we find strong anisotropy. This is similar to the spatial variations in magnitude of delay times from shear-wave splitting
Electromagnetic shielding formulae
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dahlberg, E.
1979-02-01
This addendum to an earlier collection of electromagnetic shielding formulae (TRITA-EPP-75-27) contains simple transfer matrices suitable for calculating the quasistatic shielding efficiency for multiple transverse-field and axial-field cylindrical and spherical shields, as well as for estimating leakage fields from long coaxial cables and the normal-incidence transmission of a plane wave through a multiple plane shield. The differences and similarities between these cases are illustrated by means of equivalent circuits and transmission line analogies. The addendum also includes a discussion of a possible heuristic improvement of some shielding formulae. (author)
Satellite Remote Sensing of Ocean Winds, Surface Waves and Surface Currents during the Hurricanes
Zhang, G.; Perrie, W. A.; Liu, G.; Zhang, L.
2017-12-01
Hurricanes over the ocean have been observed by spaceborne aperture radar (SAR) since the first SAR images were available in 1978. SAR has high spatial resolution (about 1 km), relatively large coverage and capability for observations during almost all-weather, day-and-night conditions. In this study, seven C-band RADARSAT-2 dual-polarized (VV and VH) ScanSAR wide images from the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) Hurricane Watch Program in 2017 are collected over five hurricanes: Harvey, Irma, Maria, Nate, and Ophelia. We retrieve the ocean winds by applying our C-band Cross-Polarization Coupled-Parameters Ocean (C-3PO) wind retrieval model [Zhang et al., 2017, IEEE TGRS] to the SAR images. Ocean waves are estimated by applying a relationship based on the fetch- and duration-limited nature of wave growth inside hurricanes [Hwang et al., 2016; 2017, J. Phys. Ocean.]. We estimate the ocean surface currents using the Doppler Shift extracted from VV-polarized SAR images [Kang et al., 2016, IEEE TGRS]. C-3PO model is based on theoretical analysis of ocean surface waves and SAR microwave backscatter. Based on the retrieved ocean winds, we estimate the hurricane center locations, maxima wind speeds, and radii of the five hurricanes by adopting the SHEW model (Symmetric Hurricane Estimates for Wind) by Zhang et al. [2017, IEEE TGRS]. Thus, we investigate possible relations between hurricane structures and intensities, and especially some possible effects of the asymmetrical characteristics on changes in the hurricane intensities, such as the eyewall replacement cycle. The three SAR images of Ophelia include the north coast of Ireland and east coast of Scotland allowing study of ocean surface currents respond to the hurricane. A system of methods capable of observing marine winds, surface waves, and surface currents from satellites is of value, even if these data are only available in near real-time or from SAR-related satellite images. Insight into high resolution ocean winds
Detection of defects and evaluation of material deterioration using surface wave technique
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yokono, Yoshikazu; Yoshiara, Toshikatsu; Suetsugu, Jun; Imanaka, Takuichi
1996-01-01
It is very important to detect surface damage and evaluate deterioration of material surface because of their influences on mechanical properties of materials. In general, magnetic particle testing, liquid penetrant testing and eddy current testing are commonly used for detecting surface flaws. These methods, however, are neither effective for estimating flaw height nor for evaluating material deterioration. In this paper the authors apply surface wave propagating along the test surface for these purposes. The surface wave (Rayleigh wave) propagates only near the surface layer in the order of one wave length. In other words, the lower the frequency, the deeper the penetration depth of the surface wave. Accordingly, they can select the frequency considering the inspection purpose. On the other hand, when surface wave having broad-band frequency propagates along the surface of a specimen, higher frequency ultrasound propagates very close to the surface and lower frequency ultrasound propagates deeper in the specimen. Hence, frequency analysis is expected to be effective for estimating upper edge of flaw. Surface wave is also very sensitive to material surface properties such as existence of voids or micro cracks. Acoustic characteristics such as sound velocity, attenuation and other feature parameters are influenced by the variation of the material properties. Hence, material deterioration can be evaluated by the acoustic features
McWilliams, J. C.; Lane, E.; Melville, K.; Restrepo, J.; Sullivan, P.
2004-12-01
Oceanic surface gravity waves are approximately irrotational, weakly nonlinear, and conservative, and they have a much shorter time scale than oceanic currents and longer waves (e.g., infragravity waves) --- except where the primary surface waves break. This provides a framework for an asymptotic theory, based on separation of time (and space) scales, of wave-averaged effects associated with the conservative primary wave dynamics combined with a stochastic representation of the momentum transfer and induced mixing associated with non-conservative wave breaking. Such a theory requires only modest information about the primary wave field from measurements or operational model forecasts and thus avoids the enormous burden of calculating the waves on their intrinsically small space and time scales. For the conservative effects, the result is a vortex force associated with the primary wave's Stokes drift; a wave-averaged Bernoulli head and sea-level set-up; and an incremental material advection by the Stokes drift. This can be compared to the "radiation stress" formalism of Longuet-Higgins, Stewart, and Hasselmann; it is shown to be a preferable representation since the radiation stress is trivial at its apparent leading order. For the non-conservative breaking effects, a population of stochastic impulses is added to the current and infragravity momentum equations with distribution functions taken from measurements. In offshore wind-wave equilibria, these impulses replace the conventional surface wind stress and cause significant differences in the surface boundary layer currents and entrainment rate, particularly when acting in combination with the conservative vortex force. In the surf zone, where breaking associated with shoaling removes nearly all of the primary wave momentum and energy, the stochastic forcing plays an analogous role as the widely used nearshore radiation stress parameterizations. This talk describes the theoretical framework and presents some
Interpretation of nonlinearity in wind generated ocean surface waves
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Varkey, M.J.
of sinusoidal component waves; a consequent idea arising out of Fourier analysis. It is hypothesised that a sea state which is always nonlinear to various degrees is a result of interaction, both linear and nonlinear, between nonlinear component waves...
Picosecond ultrasonic study of surface acoustic waves on titanium nitride nanostructures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bjornsson, M. M.; Connolly, A. B.; Mahat, S.; Rachmilowitz, B. E.; Daly, B. C.; Antonelli, G. A.; Myers, A.; Singh, K. J.; Yoo, H. J.; King, S. W.
2015-01-01
We have measured surface acoustic waves on nanostructured TiN wires overlaid on multiple thin films on a silicon substrate using the ultrafast pump-probe technique known as picosecond ultrasonics. We find a prominent oscillation in the range of 11–54 GHz for samples with varying pitch ranging from 420 nm down to 168 nm. We find that the observed oscillation increases monotonically in frequency with decrease in pitch, but that the increase is not linear. By comparing our data to two-dimensional mechanical simulations of the nanostructures, we find that the type of surface oscillation to which we are sensitive changes depending on the pitch of the sample. Surface waves on substrates that are loaded by thin films can take multiple forms, including Rayleigh-like waves, Sezawa waves, and radiative (leaky) surface waves. We describe evidence for detection of modes that display characteristics of these three surface wave types
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
He Jianhong; Guo Huazhong; Song Li; Zhang Wei; Gao Jie; Lu Chuan
2010-01-01
We present a comprehensive study of the effects of two counterpropagating surface acoustic waves on the acoustoelectric current of single electron transport devices. A significant improvement in the accuracy of current quantization is achieved as a result of an additional surface acoustic wave beam. The experiments reveal the sinusoidally periodical modulation in the acoustoelectric current characteristic as a function of the relative phase of the two surface acoustic wave beams. Besides, by using standing surface acoustic waves, the acoustoelectric current is detected which we consider as the so-called anomalous acoustoelectric current produced by acoustic wave mechanical deformations. This kind current is contributed to one component of the acoustoelectric current in surface acoustic wave device, which could enable us to establish a more adequate description of acoustoelectric effects on single-electron acoustic charge transport.
Sinibaldi, Alberto; Descrovi, Emiliano; Giorgis, Fabrizio; Dominici, Lorenzo; Ballarini, Mirko; Mandracci, Pietro; Danz, Norbert; Michelotti, Francesco
2012-10-01
We exploit the properties of surface electromagnetic waves propagating at the surface of finite one dimensional photonic crystals to improve the performance of optical biosensors with respect to the standard surface plasmon resonance approach. We demonstrate that the hydrogenated amorphous silicon nitride technology is a versatile platform for fabricating one dimensional photonic crystals with any desirable design and operating in a wide wavelength range, from the visible to the near infrared. We prepared sensors based on photonic crystals sustaining either guided modes or surface electromagnetic waves, also known as Bloch surface waves. We carried out for the first time a direct experimental comparison of their sensitivity and figure of merit with surface plasmon polaritons on metal layers, by making use of a commercial surface plasmon resonance instrument that was slightly adapted for the experiments. Our measurements demonstrate that the Bloch surface waves on silicon nitride photonic crystals outperform surface plasmon polaritons by a factor 1.3 in terms of figure of merit.
Effect of irregularity on torsional surface waves in an initially ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
propagation of seismic waves is available in Ewing et al. (1957). The propagation of Love waves in water-saturated soil underlain by a heterogeneous elastic medium has been discussed by Chakraborty and Dey (1982). Dey et al. (1996) studied propa- gation of Love waves in heterogeneous crust over a heterogeneous ...
Impact of surface waves in a Regional Climate Model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rutgersson, Anna; Sætra, Oyvind; Semedo, Alvaro
2010-01-01
A coupled regional atmosphere-wave model system is developed with the purpose of investigating the impact of climate changes on the wave field, as well as feed-back effects of the wave field on the atmospheric parameters. This study focuses on the effects of introducing a two-way atmosphere...
Xu, Yanlong
2015-01-21
We report high quality broadband spatial reflections of Rayleigh surface acoustic waves (SAWs) through a graded grooved surface. High quality means that no wave is allowed to transmit and the incident wave is nearly all reflected to the input side. The graded grooved surface is structured by drilling one dimensional array of graded grooves with increased depths on a flat surface. We investigate SAW dispersion relations, wave field distribution at several typical SAW wavelengths, and time evolution of a Gaussian pulse through the graded grooved surface. Results show that the input broadband Rayleigh SAWs can be slowed, spatially enhanced and stopped, and finally reflected to the input side. The study suggests that engraving the flat surface can be used as an efficient and economical way to manipulate Rayleigh SAWs, which has potential application in novel SAW devices such as filters, reflectors, sensors, energy harvesters, and diodes.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amein, W.H.; El-Siragy, N.M.; Nagy, O.Z.; Sayed, Y.A.
1981-01-01
Nonlinear interaction of S-Polarized surface waves at the boundary of a semibounded magnetized plasma is investigated. The expressions of the amplitudes of the generated waves are found. It is shown that, the generated waves with combined frequencies are equally radiated from the transient layer into plasma and vacuum
A new type of surface acoustic waves in solids due to nonlinear elasticity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mozhaev, V.G.
1988-12-01
It is shown that in nonlinear elastic semi-infinite medium possessing a property of self focusing of shear waves, besides bulk non-linear shear waves, new surface acoustic waves exist, localization of which near the boundary is entirely due to nonlinear effects. (author). 8 refs
Surface wave effect on the upper ocean in marine forecast
Wang, Guansuo; Qiao, Fangli; Xia, Changshui; Zhao, Chang
2015-04-01
An Operational Coupled Forecast System for the seas off China and adjacent (OCFS-C) is constructed based on the paralleled wave-circulation coupled model, which is tested with comprehensive experiments and operational since November 1st, 2007. The main feature of the system is that the wave-induced mixing is considered in circulation model. Daily analyses and three day forecasts of three-dimensional temperature, salinity, currents and wave height are produced. Coverage is global at 1/2 degreed resolution with nested models up to 1/24 degree resolution in China Sea. Daily remote sensing sea surface temperatures (SST) are taken to relax to an analytical product as hot restarting fields for OCFS-C by the Nudging techniques. Forecasting-data inter-comparisons are performed to measure the effectiveness of OCFS-C in predicting upper-ocean quantities including SST, mixed layer depth (MLD) and subsurface temperature. The variety of performance with lead time and real-time is discussed as well using the daily statistic results for SST between forecast and satellite data. Several buoy observations and many Argo profiles are used for this validation. Except the conventional statistical metrics, non-dimension skill scores (SS) is taken to estimate forecast skill. Model SST comparisons with more one year-long SST time series from 2 buoys given a large SS value (more than 0.90). And skill in predicting the seasonal variability of SST is confirmed. Model subsurface temperature comparisons with that from a lot of Argo profiles indicated that OCFS-C has low skill in predicting subsurface temperatures between 80m and 120m. Inter-comparisons of MLD reveal that MLD from model is shallower than that from Argo profiles by about 12m. QCFS-C is successful and steady in predicting MLD. The daily statistic results for SST between 1-d, 2-d and 3-d forecast and data is adopted to describe variability of Skill in predicting SST with lead time or real time. In a word QCFS-C shows reasonable
Mishra, Rinku; Dey, M.
2018-04-01
An analytical model is developed that explains the propagation of a high frequency electrostatic surface wave along the interface of a plasma system where semi-infinite electron-ion plasma is interfaced with semi-infinite dusty plasma. The model emphasizes that the source of such high frequency waves is inherent in the presence of ion acoustic and dust ion acoustic/dust acoustic volume waves in electron-ion plasma and dusty plasma region. Wave dispersion relation is obtained for two distinct cases and the role of plasma parameters on wave dispersion is analyzed in short and long wavelength limits. The normalized surface wave frequency is seen to grow linearly for lower wave number but becomes constant for higher wave numbers in both the cases. It is observed that the normalized frequency depends on ion plasma frequencies when dust oscillation frequency is neglected.
Surface wave propagation in steady ideal Hall-magnetohydrodynamic magnetic slabs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miteva, Rossitsa; Zhelyazkov, Ivan; Erdelyi, Robert
2003-01-01
This paper studies the dispersion characteristics of sausage and kink surface waves traveling along a plasma layer within the framework of Hall magnetohydrodynamics in steady state. While in a static plasma slab these waves are Alfven ones (their phase velocities are close to the Alfven speed in the layer); in a slab with steady flows they may become super Alfvenic waves. Moreover, there exist two types of waves: forward and backward ones bearing in mind that the flow velocity defines the positive (forward) direction. As a typical representative of a magnetic slab in steady state here is considered a solar wind flux rope with a finite β plasma flow (typically β∼1).The forward sausage surface mode exhibits an increased dispersion at small wave numbers while the forward kink waves become practically non-dispersive. Both backward propagating sausage and kink surface modes show an increased dispersion for large wave numbers
Observation of low-frequency acoustic surface waves in the nocturnal boundary layer.
Talmadge, Carrick L; Waxler, Roger; Di, Xiao; Gilbert, Kenneth E; Kulichkov, Sergey
2008-10-01
A natural terrain surface, because of its porosity, can support an acoustic surface wave that is a mechanical analog of the familiar vertically polarized surface wave in AM radio transmission. At frequencies of several hundred hertz, the acoustic surface wave is attenuated over distances of a few hundred meters. At lower frequencies (e.g., below approximately 200 Hz) the attenuation is much less, allowing surface waves to propagate thousands of meters. At night, a low-frequency surface wave is generally present at long ranges even when downward refraction is weak. Thus, surface waves represent a ubiquitous nighttime transmission mode that exists even when other transmission modes are weak or absent. Data from recent nighttime field experiments and theoretical calculations are presented, demonstrating the persistence of the surface wave under different meteorological conditions. The low-frequency surface wave described here is the "quasiharmonical" tail observed previously in nighttime measurements but not identified by S. Kulichkov and his colleagues (Chunchuzov, I. P. et al. 1990. "On acoustical impulse propagation in a moving inhomogeneous atmospheric layer," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 88, 455-461).
Chen, Shuyi S.; Curcic, Milan
2016-07-01
Forecasting hurricane impacts of extreme winds and flooding requires accurate prediction of hurricane structure and storm-induced ocean surface waves days in advance. The waves are complex, especially near landfall when the hurricane winds and water depth varies significantly and the surface waves refract, shoal and dissipate. In this study, we examine the spatial structure, magnitude, and directional spectrum of hurricane-induced ocean waves using a high resolution, fully coupled atmosphere-wave-ocean model and observations. The coupled model predictions of ocean surface waves in Hurricane Ike (2008) over the Gulf of Mexico and Superstorm Sandy (2012) in the northeastern Atlantic and coastal region are evaluated with the NDBC buoy and satellite altimeter observations. Although there are characteristics that are general to ocean waves in both hurricanes as documented in previous studies, wave fields in Ike and Sandy possess unique properties due mostly to the distinct wind fields and coastal bathymetry in the two storms. Several processes are found to significantly modulate hurricane surface waves near landfall. First, the phase speed and group velocities decrease as the waves become shorter and steeper in shallow water, effectively increasing surface roughness and wind stress. Second, the bottom-induced refraction acts to turn the waves toward the coast, increasing the misalignment between the wind and waves. Third, as the hurricane translates over land, the left side of the storm center is characterized by offshore winds over very short fetch, which opposes incoming swell. Landfalling hurricanes produce broader wave spectra overall than that of the open ocean. The front-left quadrant is most complex, where the combination of windsea, swell propagating against the wind, increasing wind-wave stress, and interaction with the coastal topography requires a fully coupled model to meet these challenges in hurricane wave and surge prediction.
Upper Meter Processes: Short Wind Waves, Surface Flow, and Micro-Turbulence
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Jaehne, Bernd
2000-01-01
The primary goal of this project was to advance the knowledge of small-scale air-sea interaction processes at the ocean surface, focussing on the dynamics of short waves, the surface flow field and the micro-turbulence...
Electromagnetic surface waves at the interface of a relativistic electron beam with vacuum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shoucri, M.M.; Gagne, R.R.J.
1977-01-01
The dispersion relation for electromagnetic surface waves propagating at the interface between a relativistic electron beam and vacuum is derived. The excitation of surface modes in a plasma at rest by a relativistic electron beam is discussed
Determination of surface tension coefficient of liquids by diffraction of light on capillary waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nikolić, D; Nešić, Lj
2012-01-01
This paper describes a simple technique for determining the coefficient of the surface tension of liquids, based on laser light diffraction on capillary waves. Capillary waves of given frequency are created by an exciter needle acting on the surface of liquid and represent a reflective diffraction grating, the constant of which (the wavelength of capillary waves) can be determined based on a known incidence angle of light (grazing angle). We obtain the coefficient of the surface tension of liquids by applying the dispersion relation for capillary waves and analyze the difficulties that arise when setting up and conducting the experiment in detail. (paper)
Controlling the plasmonic surface waves of metallic nanowires by transformation optics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liu, Yichao; Yuan, Jun; Yin, Ge; Ma, Yungui, E-mail: yungui@zju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Modern Optical Instrumentation, Centre for Optical and Electromagnetic Research, College of Optical Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); He, Sailing [State Key Laboratory of Modern Optical Instrumentation, Centre for Optical and Electromagnetic Research, College of Optical Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Department of Electromagnetic Engineering, School of Electrical Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, S-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)
2015-07-06
In this letter, we introduce the technique of using transformation optics to manipulate the mode states of surface plasmonic waves of metallic nanowire waveguides. As examples we apply this technique to design two optical components: a three-dimensional (3D) electromagnetic mode rotator and a mode convertor. The rotator can rotate the polarization state of the surface wave around plasmonic nanowires by arbitrarily desired angles, and the convertor can transform the surface wave modes from one to another. Full-wave simulation is performed to verify the design and efficiency of our devices. Their potential application in photonic circuits is envisioned.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Antipov Valerij Ivanovich
2015-10-01
Full Text Available The article gives a modern interpretation of the Fisher formula, the calculated velocity of circulation of money supply M2 in the interval 1995-2013 and forecast of its changes until 2030 when hypotheses about the rate of inflation and GDP. Points to the fallacy of its direct use to control inflation and money supply. For a more detailed understanding of the inflationary process proposes a new frequency formula and the explanation of the situation with the regulation of prices in the economy.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Astrup Jensen, Bjarne
analysis. We use Makeham's formula to decompose the return on a bond investment into interest payments, realized capital gains and accrued capital gains for a variety of accounting rules for measuring accruals in order to study the theoretical properties of these accounting rules, their taxation...... consequences and their implications for the relation between the yield before tax and the yield after tax. We also show how Makeham's formula produces short-cut expressions for the duration and convexity of a bond and facilitates the analytical calculation of the yield in certain cases....
Characterization of the Deep Water Surface Wave Variability in the California Current Region
Villas Bôas, Ana B.; Gille, Sarah T.; Mazloff, Matthew R.; Cornuelle, Bruce D.
2017-11-01
Surface waves are crucial for the dynamics of the upper ocean not only because they mediate exchanges of momentum, heat, energy, and gases between the ocean and the atmosphere, but also because they determine the sea state. The surface wave field in a given region is set by the combination of local and remote forcing. The present work characterizes the seasonal variability of the deep water surface wave field in the California Current region, as retrieved from over two decades of satellite altimetry data combined with wave buoys and wave model hindcast (WaveWatch III). In particular, the extent to which the local wind modulates the variability of the significant wave height, peak period, and peak direction is assessed. During spring/summer, regional-scale wind events of up to 10 m/s are the dominant forcing for waves off the California coast, leading to relatively short-period waves (8-10 s) that come predominantly from the north-northwest. The wave climatology throughout the California Current region shows average significant wave heights exceeding 2 m during most of the year, which may have implications for the planning and retrieval methods of the Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission.
Anisotropic surface wave tomography in the Horn of Africa.
Sicilia, D.; Montagner, J. P.; Debayle, E.; Leveque, J. J.; Cara, M.; Lepine, J. C.; Beucler, E.; Sebai, A.
2003-04-01
One of the largest continental hotspot is located in the Afar Depression, in East of Africa. It has been advocated to be the surface expression of the South-West African Superswell, which is the antipode of the Pacific Superswell in the framework of the mantle degree 2 pattern. We performed an anisotropic surface wave tomography in the Horn of Africa in order to image the seismic structure beneath the region. Data were collected from the permanent IRIS and GEOSCOPE networks and from the PASSCAL experiment in Tanzania and Saudi Arabia. We supplemented our data base with a French deployment of 5 portable broadband stations surrounding the Afar Hotspot. Path average phase velocities are obtained using a method based on a least-squares minimization (Beucler et al., 2002). The data are corrected from the effect of the crust according to the a priori 3SMAC model (Nataf et Ricard, 1996). 3D-models of velocity, radial and azimuthal anisotropies are inverted for. We find low velocities beneath the Red Sea, the Gulf of Aden, the South East of the Tanzania Craton, the Hotspot and Central Africa. High velocities are present in the eastern Arabia and the Tanzania Craton. These results are in agreement with the anisotropic model of Debayle et al.(2002). The flow pattern can be derived from fast axis directions of seismic anisotropy. The anisotropy model beneath Afar displays a complex pattern, in which the hotspot seems to play a perturbating role. The azimuthal anisotropy shows that the Afar plume might be interpreted as feeding other hotspots in central Africa. The directions of fast axis are in good agreement with the results of previous SKS studies performed in the region (Gao et al., 1997; Wolfe et al., 1999; Barruol and Ismail, 2001).
Surface acoustic wave nebulization facilitating lipid mass spectrometric analysis.
Yoon, Sung Hwan; Huang, Yue; Edgar, J Scott; Ting, Ying S; Heron, Scott R; Kao, Yuchieh; Li, Yanyan; Masselon, Christophe D; Ernst, Robert K; Goodlett, David R
2012-08-07
Surface acoustic wave nebulization (SAWN) is a novel method to transfer nonvolatile analytes directly from the aqueous phase to the gas phase for mass spectrometric analysis. The lower ion energetics of SAWN and its planar nature make it appealing for analytically challenging lipid samples. This challenge is a result of their amphipathic nature, labile nature, and tendency to form aggregates, which readily precipitate clogging capillaries used for electrospray ionization (ESI). Here, we report the use of SAWN to characterize the complex glycolipid, lipid A, which serves as the membrane anchor component of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and has a pronounced tendency to clog nano-ESI capillaries. We also show that unlike ESI SAWN is capable of ionizing labile phospholipids without fragmentation. Lastly, we compare the ease of use of SAWN to the more conventional infusion-based ESI methods and demonstrate the ability to generate higher order tandem mass spectral data of lipid A for automated structure assignment using our previously reported hierarchical tandem mass spectrometry (HiTMS) algorithm. The ease of generating SAWN-MS(n) data combined with HiTMS interpretation offers the potential for high throughput lipid A structure analysis.
The Effects of Surface Waves and Submergence on the Performance and Loading of a Tidal Turbine
Guo, Xiaoxian; Gao, Zhen; Yang, Jianmin; Moan, Torgeir; Lu, Haining; Li, Xin; Lu, Wenyue
2017-01-01
Tidal energy has the advantages of high predictability, high energy density, and limited environmental impacts. As tidal turbines are expected to be used in the most energetic waters where there might be significant waves, the assessment of unsteady hydrodynamic load due to surface waves is of great concern. The objective of this paper is to assess the effects of surface waves and submergence of the turbine on the power performance and loads of a tidal turbine by experimental approach. The ex...
Precise and versatile formula for birefringent filters
Shao, Zhongxing
1996-07-01
In an investigation of extraordinary-(E-) ray behavior and the index of refraction for E waves in a uniaxial crystal, a precise and versatile formula for birefringent filters, based on the exact construction of the optical path difference, is set up with neither the approximation Delta n = no - ne less than or equals no (or n e), nor the ambiguity sin( theta )/sin(rw) = ne. The exact construction gives the correct variation of the position and the dimension in each path, yielding the path difference while the filter is tuning. The formula is applicable not only to a filter with its optical axis parallel to the entrance surface (FAPS) but also to a filter with its axis inclined to the surface (FAIS). Also, the formula indicates that a FAIS allows laser wavelengths to be tuned over a wider range than does a FAPS. The origin of the wider range is interpreted to be the greater variation in the index for the FAIS while the filter is tuning. With the help of the formula we design a FAIS for tuning a cw 42.25.Lc.
Surface wave propagation in an ideal Hall-magnetohydrodynamic plasma jet in flowing environment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sikka, Himanshu; Kumar, Nagendra; Zhelyazkov, Ivan
2004-01-01
The behavior of the Hall-magnetohydrodynamic (Hall-MHD) sausage and kink waves is studied in the presence of steady flow. The influence of the flow both inside and outside the plasma slab is taken into account. The plasma in the environment is considered to be cold and moves with the different flow velocity outside the slab. In the limit of parallel propagation, dispersion relation is derived to discuss the propagation of both the modes. Numerical results for the propagation characteristics are obtained for different Alfvenic Mach number ratios inside and outside the slab. It is found that the dispersion curves for both surface modes, namely, the sausage and kink ones in cold plasma show complexities in their behavior in terms of multivalued portions of the curves. These multivalued portions correspond to the different normalized phase velocities for the same value of Alfvenic Mach number. In contrast to the conventional MHD surface waves which are assumed to be pure surface waves or pseudosurface waves, surface waves are obtained which are bulk waves for very small dimensionless wave numbers, then turn to leaky waves and finally transform to pure surface waves for values of dimensionless wave number greater than one
Van Dalen, K.N.; Wapenaar, C.P.A.; Halliday, D.F.
2013-01-01
Virtual-source surface wave responses can be retrieved using the crosscorrelation (CC) of wavefields observed at two receivers. Higher mode surface waves cannot be properly retrieved when there is a lack of subsurface sources that excite these wavefields, as is often the case. In this paper, we
Charge pumping in InAs nanowires by surface acoustic waves
Roddaro, Stefano; Strambini, Elia; Romeo, Lorenzo; Piazza, Vincenzo; Nilsson, Kristian; Samuelson, Lars; Beltram, Fabio
2010-01-01
We investigate the interaction between surface acoustic waves on a piezoelectric LiNbO3 substrate and charge carriers in InAs nanowire transistors. Interdigital transducers are used to excite electromechanical waves on the chip surface and their influence on the transport in the nanowire devices is
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gulyaev, Yuri V.
1974-01-01
acoustoelectric effect but also lead to amplification of surface acoustic waves by electron drift perpendicular to the surface. For Love waves in a piezoelectric semiconductor film on a highly conducting substrate, the amplification coefficient is found and the conditions necessary for amplification...
Chirality Driven by Magnetic Dipole Response for Demultiplexing of Surface Waves
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sinev, Ivan S.; Bogdanov, Andrey A.; Komissarenko, Filipp E.
2017-01-01
Surface electromagnetic waves are characterized by the intrinsic spin-orbit interaction which results in the fascinating spin-momentum locking. Therefore, directional coupling of light to surface waves can be achieved through chiral nanoantennas. Here, we show that dielectric nanoantenna provides...
Improved surface?wave retrieval from ambient seismic noise by multi?dimensional deconvolution
Wapenaar, C.P.A.; Ruigrok, E.N.; Van der Neut, J.R.; Draganov, D.S.
2011-01-01
The methodology of surface?wave retrieval from ambient seismic noise by crosscorrelation relies on the assumption that the noise field is equipartitioned. Deviations from equipartitioning degrade the accuracy of the retrieved surface?wave Green's function. A point?spread function, derived from the
Liu, Huiqing; Xie, Lian
2009-06-01
The effects of wave-current interactions on ocean surface waves induced by Hurricane Hugo in and around the Charleston Harbor and its adjacent coastal waters are examined by using a three-dimensional (3D) wave-current coupled modeling system. The 3D storm surge modeling component of the coupled system is based on the Princeton Ocean Model (POM), the wave modeling component is based on the third generation wave model, Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN), and the inundation model is adopted from [Xie, L., Pietrafesa, L. J., Peng, M., 2004. Incorporation of a mass-conserving inundation scheme into a three-dimensional storm surge model. J. Coastal Res., 20, 1209-1223]. The results indicate that the change of water level associated with the storm surge is the primary cause for wave height changes due to wave-surge interaction. Meanwhile, waves propagating on top of surge cause a feedback effect on the surge height by modulating the surface wind stress and bottom stress. This effect is significant in shallow coastal waters, but relatively small in offshore deep waters. The influence of wave-current interaction on wave propagation is relatively insignificant, since waves generally propagate in the direction of the surface currents driven by winds. Wave-current interactions also affect the surface waves as a result of inundation and drying induced by the storm. Waves break as waters retreat in regions of drying, whereas waves are generated in flooded regions where no waves would have occurred without the flood water.
Li, X.; Gao, M.
2017-12-01
The magnitude of an earthquake is one of its basic parameters and is a measure of its scale. It plays a significant role in seismology and earthquake engineering research, particularly in the calculations of the seismic rate and b value in earthquake prediction and seismic hazard analysis. However, several current types of magnitudes used in seismology research, such as local magnitude (ML), surface wave magnitude (MS), and body-wave magnitude (MB), have a common limitation, which is the magnitude saturation phenomenon. Fortunately, the problem of magnitude saturation was solved by a formula for calculating the seismic moment magnitude (MW) based on the seismic moment, which describes the seismic source strength. Now the moment magnitude is very commonly used in seismology research. However, in China, the earthquake scale is primarily based on local and surface-wave magnitudes. In the present work, we studied the empirical relationships between moment magnitude (MW) and local magnitude (ML) as well as surface wave magnitude (MS) in the Chinese Mainland. The China Earthquake Networks Center (CENC) ML catalog, China Seismograph Network (CSN) MS catalog, ANSS Comprehensive Earthquake Catalog (ComCat), and Global Centroid Moment Tensor (GCMT) are adopted to regress the relationships using the orthogonal regression method. The obtained relationships are as follows: MW=0.64+0.87MS; MW=1.16+0.75ML. Therefore, in China, if the moment magnitude of an earthquake is not reported by any agency in the world, we can use the equations mentioned above for converting ML to MW and MS to MW. These relationships are very important, because they will allow the China earthquake catalogs to be used more effectively for seismic hazard analysis, earthquake prediction, and other seismology research. We also computed the relationships of and (where Mo is the seismic moment) by linear regression using the Global Centroid Moment Tensor. The obtained relationships are as follows: logMo=18
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Astrup Jensen, Bjarne
analysis. We use Makeham's formula to decompose the return on a bond investment into interest payments, realized capital gains and accrued capital gains for a variety of accounting rules for measuring accruals in order to study the theoretical properties of these accounting rules, their taxation...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gutierrez Tapia, C.
1990-01-01
It is shown in a one-dimensional model that when a current in a plasma sheath is present, the excitation of surface waves and electrostatic fields by a RF wave is possible in the sheath. This phenomena depends strongly on the joint action of Miller's and driven forces. It is also shown that the action of these forces are carried out at different characteristic times when the wave front travels through the plasma sheath. The influence of the current, in the steady limit, is taken into account by a small functional variation of the density perturbations and generated electrostatic field. (Author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Frigaard, Peter; Høgedal, Michael; Christensen, Morten
The intention of this manual is to provide some formulas and techniques which can be used for generating waves in hydraulic laboratories. Both long crested waves (2-D waves) and short crested waves (3-D waves) are considered.......The intention of this manual is to provide some formulas and techniques which can be used for generating waves in hydraulic laboratories. Both long crested waves (2-D waves) and short crested waves (3-D waves) are considered....
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Julia, Jordi; Ammon, Charles J; Herrimann, Robert B
2006-01-01
.... Receiver functions are primarily sensitive to shear-wave velocity contrasts and vertical travel times and surface-wave dispersion measurements are sensitive to vertical shear-wave velocity averages...
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Herrmann, Robert B; Julia, Jordi; Ammon, Charles J
2007-01-01
.... Receiver functions are primarily sensitive to shear-wave velocity contrast and vertical travel times and surface-wave dispersion measurements are sensitive to vertical shear-wave velocity averages...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kousaka, Hiroyuki; Ono, Kouichi
2003-01-01
The electromagnetic fields and plasma parameters have been studied in an azimuthally symmetric surface wave-excited plasma (SWP) source, by using a two-dimensional numerical analysis based on the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) approximation to Maxwell's equations self-consistently coupled with a fluid model for plasma evolution. The FDTD/fluid hybrid simulation was performed for different gas pressures in Ar and different microwave powers at 2.45 GHz, showing that the surface waves (SWs) occur along the plasma-dielectric interfaces to sustain overdense plasmas. The numerical results indicated that the electromagnetic SWs consist of two different waves, Wave-1 and Wave-2, having relatively shorter and longer wavelengths. The Wave-1 was seen to fade away with increasing pressure and increasing power, while the Wave-2 remained relatively unchanged over the range of pressure and power investigated. The numerical results revealed that the Wave-1 propagates as backward SWs whose phase velocity and group velocity point in the opposite directions. In contrast, the Wave-2 appeared to form standing waves, being ascribed to a superposition of forward SWs whose phase and group velocities point in the same direction. The fadeaway of the Wave-1 or backward SWs at increased pressures and increased powers was seen with the damping rate increasing in the axial direction, being related to the increased plasma electron densities. A comparison with the conventional FDTD simulation indicated that such fine structure of the electromagnetic fields of SWs is not observed in the FDTD simulation with spatially uniform and time-independent plasma distributions; thus, the FDTD/fluid hybrid model should be employed in simulating the electromagnetic fields and plasma parameters in SWPs with high accuracy
Manipulation of Bloch surface waves: from subwavelength focusing to nondiffracting beam
Kim, Myun-Sik; Herzig, Hans Peter
2018-01-01
We present a different type of electromagnetic surface wave than a surface plasmon polariton (SPP), called Bloch surface wave (BSW). BSWs are sustained by dielectric multilayers, and therefore they do not suffer from dissipation. Their propagation length is unbeatably long, e.g., over several millimeters. Thanks to this feature, larger integrations of 2D photonic chips are realizable. To do this, 2D optical components and corresponding techniques are necessary to manipulate in-plane propagation of surface waves. We overview recent progresses of the BSW research on manipulation techniques and developed components. Our study will provide a good guideline of the BSW components for users.
Excitation of surface waves of ultracold neutrons on absorbing trap walls as anomalous loss factor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bokun, R.Ch.
2006-01-01
One analyzed probability of excitation of surface waves of ultracold neutrons in terms of a plane model consisting of three media: vacuum, a finite depth neutron absorbing substance layer and a neutron reflecting substrate. One demonstrated the absence of the mentioned surface waves in terms of the generally accepted model of two media: vacuum contiguous to the plane surface of a substance filled half-space. One pointed out the effect of the excited surface waves of ultracold neutrons on the increase of their anomalous losses in traps [ru
Induction of subterahertz surface waves on a metal wire by intense laser interaction with a foil
Teramoto, Kensuke; Inoue, Shunsuke; Tokita, Shigeki; Yasuhara, Ryo; Nakamiya, Yoshihide; Nagashima, Takeshi; Mori, Kazuaki; Hashida, Masaki; Sakabe, Shuji
2018-02-01
We have demonstrated that a pulsed electromagnetic wave (Sommerfeld wave) of subterahertz frequency and 11-MV/m field strength can be induced on a metal wire by the interaction of an intense femtosecond laser pule with an adjacent metal foil at a laser intensity of 8.5 × 1018W /c m2 . The polarity of the electric field of this surface wave is opposite to that obtained by the direct interaction of the laser with the wire. Numerical simulations suggest that an electromagnetic wave associated with electron emission from the foil induces the surface wave. A tungsten wire is placed normal to an aluminum foil with a gap so that the wire is not irradiated and damaged by the laser pulse, thus making it possible to generate surface waves on the wire repeatedly.
Modeling the propagation of electromagnetic waves over the surface of the human body
Vendik, I. B.; Vendik, O. G.; Kirillov, V. V.; Pleskachev, V. V.; Tural'chuk, P. A.
2016-12-01
The results of modeling and an experimental study of electromagnetic (EM) waves in microwave range propagating along the surface of the human body have been presented. The parameters of wave propagation, such as the attenuation and phase velocity, have also been investigated. The calculation of the propagation of EM waves by the numerical method FDTD (finite difference time domain), as well as the use of the analytical model of the propagation of the EM wave along flat and curved surfaces has been fulfilled. An experimental study on a human body has been conducted. It has been shown that creeping waves are slow and exhibit a noticeable dispersion, while the surface waves are dispersionless and propagate at the speed of light in free space. A comparison of the results of numerical simulation, analytical calculation, and experimental investigations at a frequency of 2.55 GHz has been carried out.
Sun, Yimin; Verschuur, Eric; van Borselen, Roald
2018-03-01
The Rayleigh integral solution of the acoustic Helmholtz equation in a homogeneous medium can only be applied when the integral surface is a planar surface, while in reality almost all surfaces where pressure waves are measured exhibit some curvature. In this paper we derive a theoretically rigorous way of building propagation operators for pressure waves on an arbitrarily curved surface. Our theory is still based upon the Rayleigh integral, but it resorts to matrix inversion to overcome the limitations faced by the Rayleigh integral. Three examples are used to demonstrate the correctness of our theory - propagation of pressure waves acquired on an arbitrarily curved surface to a planar surface, on an arbitrarily curved surface to another arbitrarily curved surface, and on a spherical cap to a planar surface, and results agree well with the analytical solutions. The generalization of our method for particle velocities and the calculation cost of our method are also discussed.
Surface and Internal Waves due to a Moving Load on a Very Large Floating Structure
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Taro Kakinuma
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Interaction of surface/internal water waves with a floating platform is discussed with nonlinearity of fluid motion and flexibility of oscillating structure. The set of governing equations based on a variational principle is applied to a one- or two-layer fluid interacting with a horizontally very large and elastic thin plate floating on the water surface. Calculation results of surface displacements are compared with the existing experimental data, where a tsunami, in terms of a solitary wave, propagates across one-layer water with a floating thin plate. We also simulate surface and internal waves due to a point load, such as an airplane, moving on a very large floating structure in shallow water. The wave height of the surface or internal mode is amplified when the velocity of moving point load is equal to the surface- or internal-mode celerity, respectively.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Utko, Pawel; Hansen, Jørn Bindslev; Lindelof, Poul Erik
2007-01-01
We have investigated the response of the acoustoelectric-current driven by a surface-acoustic wave through a quantum point contact in the closed-channel regime. Under proper conditions, the current develops plateaus at integer multiples of ef when the frequency f of the surface-acoustic wave...... or the gate voltage V-g of the point contact is varied. A pronounced 1.1 MHz beat period of the current indicates that the interference of the surface-acoustic wave with reflected waves matters. This is supported by the results obtained after a second independent beam of surface-acoustic wave was added......, traveling in opposite direction. We have found that two sub-intervals can be distinguished within the 1.1 MHz modulation period, where two different sets of plateaus dominate the acoustoelectric-current versus gate-voltage characteristics. In some cases, both types of quantized steps appeared simultaneously...
Unified Approach of Unmanned Surface Vehicle Navigation in Presence of Waves
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Oren Gal
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Most of the present work for unmanned surface vehicle (USV navigation does not take into account environmental disturbances such as ocean waves, winds, and currents. In some scenarios, waves should be treated as special case of dynamic obstacle and can be critical to USV’s safety. For the first time, this paper presents unique concept facing this challenge by combining ocean waves' formulation with the probabilistic velocity obstacle (PVO method for autonomous navigation. A simple navigation algorithm is presented in order to apply the method of USV’s navigation in presence of waves. A planner simulation dealing with waves and obstacles avoidance is introduced.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ruderman, M S
1988-08-01
Nonlinear Alfven surface wave propagation at a magnetic interface in a compressible fluid is considered. It is supposed that the magnetic field directions at both sides of the interface and the direction of wave propagation coincide. The equation governing time-evolution of nonlinear small-amplitude waves is derived by the method of multiscale expansions. This equation is similar to the equation for nonlinear Alfven surface waves in an incompressible fluid derived previously. The numerical solution of the equation shows that a sinusoidal disturbance overturns, i.e. infinite gradients arise.
Influence of Sea Surface Roughness on the Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in the Duct Environment
Zhao, X.; Huang, S.
2010-01-01
This paper deals with a study of the influence of sea surface roughness on the electromagnetic wave propagation in the duct environment. The problem of electromagnetic wave propagation is modeled by using the parabolic equation method. The roughness of the sea surface is computed by modifying the smooth surface Fresnel reflection coefficient to account for the reduction in the specular reflection due to the roughness resulting from sea wind speed. The propagation model is solved by the mixed ...
Surface wave statistics and spectra for Valiathura coastlines, SW coast of India
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Asharaf, T.T.M.; Nair, R.P.; Sanjana, M.C.; Muraleedharan, G.; Kurup, P.G.
Sciences Vol. 30, March , 2001, pp 9-17 Surface wave statistics and spectra for Valiathura coastline, SW coast of India T T Mohamed Asharaf National Institute of Oceanography, Regional Centre, Cochin, 682 014, India and Ratish P Nair, M.... 2D), the prominent direction was MOHAMED ASHARAF et al. : WAVE STATISTICS AND SPECTRA 11 Fig. 2Direction surface plots of January-June INDIAN J. MAR. SCI., VOL 30, MARCH 2001 12 Fig. 2 (Contd) ... Direction surface...
Nie, Guoquan; Liu, Jinxi; Liu, Xianglin
2017-10-01
Propagation of transverse surface waves in a three-layer system consisting of a piezoelectric/piezomagnetic (PE/PM) bi-layer bonded on an elastic half-space is theoretically investigated in this paper. Dispersion relations and mode shapes for transverse surface waves are obtained in closed form under electrically open and shorted boundary conditions at the upper surface. Two transverse surface waves related both to Love-type wave and Bleustein-Gulyaev (B-G) type wave propagating in corresponding three-layer structure are discussed through numerically solving the derived dispersion equation. The results show that Love-type wave possesses the property of multiple modes, it can exist all of the values of wavenumber for every selected thickness ratios regardless of the electrical boundary conditions. The presence of PM interlayer makes the phase velocity of Love-type wave decrease. There exist two modes allowing the propagation of B-G type wave under electrically shorted circuit, while only one mode appears in the case of electrically open circuit. The modes of B-G type wave are combinations of partly normal dispersion and partly anomalous dispersion whether the electrically open or shorted. The existence range of mode for electrically open case is greatly related to the thickness ratios, with the thickness of PM interlayer increasing the wavenumber range for existence of B-G type wave quickly shortened. When the thickness ratio is large enough, the wavenumber range of the second mode for electrically shorted circuit is extremely narrow which can be used to remove as an undesired mode. The propagation behaviors and mode shapes of transverse surface waves can be regulated by the modification of the thickness of PM interlayer. The obtained results provide a theoretical prediction and basis for applications of PE-PM composites and acoustic wave devices.
Radar Measurements of Ocean Surface Waves using Proper Orthogonal Decomposition
2017-03-30
Golinval, 2002, Physical interpretation of the proper orthogonal modes using the singular value decomposition, Journal of Sound and Vibration, 249...complex and contain contributions from the environment (e.g., wind, waves, currents) as well as artifacts associated with electromagnetic (EM) (wave...Although there is no physical basis/ interpretation inherent to the method because it is purely a mathematical tool, there has been an increasing
Pasquet, S.; Wang, W.; Holbrook, W. S.; Bodet, L.; Carr, B.; Flinchum, B. A.
2017-12-01
Estimating porosity and saturation in the shallow subsurface over large lateral scales is vitally important for understanding the development and evolution of the Critical Zone (CZ). Because elastic properties (P- and S-wave velocities) are particularly sensitive to porosity and saturation, seismic methods (in combination with petrophysical models) are effective tools for mapping CZ architecture and processes. While many studies employ P-wave refraction methods, fewer use the surface waves that are typically also recorded in those same surveys. Here we show the value of exploiting surface waves to extract supplementary shear-wave velocity (Vs) information in the CZ. We use a new, user-friendly, open-source MATLAB-based package (SWIP) to invert surface-wave data and estimate lateral variations of Vs in the CZ. Results from synthetics show that this approach enables the resolution of physical property variations in the upper 10-15 m below the surface with lateral scales of about 5 m - a vast improvement compared to P-wave tomography alone. A field example at a Yellowstone hydrothermal system also demonstrates the benefits of including Vs in the petrophysical models to estimate not only porosity but also saturation, thus highlighting subsurface gas pathways. In light of these results, we strongly suggest that surface-wave analysis should become a standard approach in CZ seismic surveys.
Polydiagnostic calibration performed on a low pressure surface wave sustained argon plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vries, N de; Iordanova, E I; Van Veldhuizen, E M; Mullen, J J A M van der; Palomares, J M
2008-01-01
The electron density and electron temperature of a low pressure surface wave sustained argon plasma have been determined using passive and active (laser) spectroscopic methods simultaneously. In this way the validity of the various techniques is established while the plasma properties are determined more precisely. The electron density, n e , is determined with Thomson scattering (TS), absolute continuum measurements, Stark broadening and an extrapolation of the atomic state distribution function (ASDF). The electron temperature, T e , is obtained using TS and absolute line intensity (ALI) measurements combined with a collisional-radiative (CR) model for argon. At an argon pressure of 15 mbar, the n e values obtained with TS and Stark broadening agree with each other within the error bars and are equal to (4 ± 0.5) x 10 19 m -3 , whereas the n e value (2 ± 0.5) x 10 19 m -3 obtained from the continuum is about 30% lower. This suggests that the used formula and cross-section values for the continuum method have to be reconsidered. The electron density determined by means of extrapolation of the ASDF to the continuum is too high (∼10 20 m -3 ). This is most probably related to the fact that the plasma is strongly ionizing so that the extrapolation method is not justified. At 15 mbar, the T e values obtained with TS are equal to 13 400 ± 1100 K while the ALI/CR-model yields an electron temperature that is about 10% lower. It can be concluded that the passive results are in good or fair agreement with the active results. Therefore, the calibrated passive methods can be applied to other plasmas in a similar regime for which active diagnostic techniques cannot be used.
Polydiagnostic calibration performed on a low pressure surface wave sustained argon plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vries, N de; Iordanova, E I; Van Veldhuizen, E M; Mullen, J J A M van der [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Palomares, J M [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Cordoba, Campus de Rabanales, ed. C-2, 14071 Cordoba (Spain)], E-mail: j.j.a.m.v.d.Mullen@tue.nl
2008-10-21
The electron density and electron temperature of a low pressure surface wave sustained argon plasma have been determined using passive and active (laser) spectroscopic methods simultaneously. In this way the validity of the various techniques is established while the plasma properties are determined more precisely. The electron density, n{sub e}, is determined with Thomson scattering (TS), absolute continuum measurements, Stark broadening and an extrapolation of the atomic state distribution function (ASDF). The electron temperature, T{sub e}, is obtained using TS and absolute line intensity (ALI) measurements combined with a collisional-radiative (CR) model for argon. At an argon pressure of 15 mbar, the n{sub e} values obtained with TS and Stark broadening agree with each other within the error bars and are equal to (4 {+-} 0.5) x 10{sup 19} m{sup -3}, whereas the n{sub e} value (2 {+-} 0.5) x 10{sup 19} m{sup -3} obtained from the continuum is about 30% lower. This suggests that the used formula and cross-section values for the continuum method have to be reconsidered. The electron density determined by means of extrapolation of the ASDF to the continuum is too high ({approx}10{sup 20} m{sup -3}). This is most probably related to the fact that the plasma is strongly ionizing so that the extrapolation method is not justified. At 15 mbar, the T{sub e} values obtained with TS are equal to 13 400 {+-} 1100 K while the ALI/CR-model yields an electron temperature that is about 10% lower. It can be concluded that the passive results are in good or fair agreement with the active results. Therefore, the calibrated passive methods can be applied to other plasmas in a similar regime for which active diagnostic techniques cannot be used.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sun Hongxiang; Zhang Shuyi; Xu Baiqiang
2011-01-01
Taking account of the viscoelasticity of materials, the pulsed laser generation of surface acoustic waves in coating-substrate systems has been investigated quantitatively by using the finite element method. The displacement spectra of the surface acoustic waves have been calculated in frequency domain for different coating-substrate systems, in which the viscoelastic properties of the coatings and substrates are considered separately. Meanwhile, the temporal displacement waveforms have been obtained by applying inverse fast Fourier transforms. The numerical results of the normal surface displacements are presented for different configurations: a single plate, a slow coating on a fast substrate, and a fast coating on a slow substrate. The influences of the viscoelastic properties of the coating and the substrate on the attenuation of the surface acoustic waves have been studied. In addition, the influence of the coating thickness on the attenuation of the surface acoustic waves has been also investigated in detail.
Enhancing Plasma Surface Modification using high Intensity and high Power Ultrasonic Acoustic Waves
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2010-01-01
high intensity and high power acoustic waves (102) by at least one ultrasonic high intensity and high power acoustic wave generator (101 ), wherein the ultrasonic acoustic waves are directed to propagate towards said surface (314) of the object (100) so that a laminar boundary layer (313) of a gas...... or a mixture of gases (500) flow in contact with said solid object (100) is thinned or destructed for at least a part of said surface (314). In this way, the plasma can more efficiently access and influence the surface of the solid object to be treated by the plasma, which speeds the process time up...
On the problem of propagation of magnetoplasma surface waves in semiconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Davydov, A.B.; Zakharov, V.A.
1975-01-01
A calculation is made of the spectrum of surface waves traveling along a boundary separating a dielectric from a magnetized semiconductor plasma parallel or at right angles to a magnetic field B. Dispersion relationships are obtained for the k is parallel to B case and these relationships explain the origin of the investigated surface waves on the boundary of a two-component (electron-hole) plasma in InSb. An analysis is made of the dispersion of the surface waves in the k is perpendicular to B case, which leads to a nonreciprocal propagation. (author)
Analysis of the Scattering Characteristics of Sea Surface with the Influence from Internal Wave
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wei Yi-wen
2015-06-01
Full Text Available The internal wave travels beneath the sea surface and modulate the roughness of the sea surface through the wave-current interaction. This makes some dark and bright bands can be observed in the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR images. In this paper, we first establish the profile of the internal wave based on the KdV equations; then, the action balance equation and the wave-current interaction source function are used to modify the sea spectrum; finally, the two-scale theory based facet model is combined with the modified sea spectrum to calculate the scattering characteristics of the sea. We have simulated the scattering coefficient distribution of the sea with an internal wave traveling through. The influence on the scattering coefficients and the Doppler spectra under different internal wave parameters and sea state parameters are analyzed.
A size selective porous silicon grating-coupled Bloch surface and sub-surface wave biosensor.
Rodriguez, Gilberto A; Ryckman, Judson D; Jiao, Yang; Weiss, Sharon M
2014-03-15
A porous silicon (PSi) grating-coupled Bloch surface and sub-surface wave (BSW/BSSW) biosensor is demonstrated to size selectively detect the presence of both large and small molecules. The BSW is used to sense large immobilized analytes at the surface of the structure while the BSSW that is confined inside but near the top of the structure is used to sensitively detect small molecules. Functionality of the BSW and BSSW modes is theoretically described by dispersion relations, field confinements, and simulated refractive index shifts within the structure. The theoretical results are experimentally verified by detecting two different small chemical molecules and one large 40 base DNA oligonucleotide. The PSi-BSW/BSSW structure is benchmarked against current porous silicon technology and is shown to have a 6-fold higher sensitivity in detecting large molecules and a 33% improvement in detecting small molecules. This is the first report of a grating-coupled BSW biosensor and the first report of a BSSW propagating mode. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.
Trace formulae for arithmetical systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bogomolny, E.B.; Georgeot, B.; Giannoni, M.J.; Schmit, C.
1992-09-01
For quantum problems on the pseudo-sphere generated by arithmetic groups there exist special trace formulae, called trace formulae for Hecke operators, which permit the reconstruction of wave functions from the knowledge of periodic orbits. After a short discussion of this subject, the Hecke operators trace formulae are presented for the Dirichlet problem on the modular billiard, which is a prototype of arithmetical systems. The results of numerical computations for these semiclassical type relations are in good agreement with the directly computed eigenfunctions. (author) 23 refs.; 2 figs
Simulating Seismic Wave Propagation in Viscoelastic Media with an Irregular Free Surface
Liu, Xiaobo; Chen, Jingyi; Zhao, Zhencong; Lan, Haiqiang; Liu, Fuping
2018-05-01
In seismic numerical simulations of wave propagation, it is very important for us to consider surface topography and attenuation, which both have large effects (e.g., wave diffractions, conversion, amplitude/phase change) on seismic imaging and inversion. An irregular free surface provides significant information for interpreting the characteristics of seismic wave propagation in areas with rugged or rapidly varying topography, and viscoelastic media are a better representation of the earth's properties than acoustic/elastic media. In this study, we develop an approach for seismic wavefield simulation in 2D viscoelastic isotropic media with an irregular free surface. Based on the boundary-conforming grid method, the 2D time-domain second-order viscoelastic isotropic equations and irregular free surface boundary conditions are transferred from a Cartesian coordinate system to a curvilinear coordinate system. Finite difference operators with second-order accuracy are applied to discretize the viscoelastic wave equations and the irregular free surface in the curvilinear coordinate system. In addition, we select the convolutional perfectly matched layer boundary condition in order to effectively suppress artificial reflections from the edges of the model. The snapshot and seismogram results from numerical tests show that our algorithm successfully simulates seismic wavefields (e.g., P-wave, Rayleigh wave and converted waves) in viscoelastic isotropic media with an irregular free surface.
Frequency-Wavenumber (FK)-Based Data Selection in High-Frequency Passive Surface Wave Survey
Cheng, Feng; Xia, Jianghai; Xu, Zongbo; Hu, Yue; Mi, Binbin
2018-04-01
Passive surface wave methods have gained much attention from geophysical and civil engineering communities because of the limited application of traditional seismic surveys in highly populated urban areas. Considering that they can provide high-frequency phase velocity information up to several tens of Hz, the active surface wave survey would be omitted and the amount of field work could be dramatically reduced. However, the measured dispersion energy image in the passive surface wave survey would usually be polluted by a type of "crossed" artifacts at high frequencies. It is common in the bidirectional noise distribution case with a linear receiver array deployed along roads or railways. We review several frequently used passive surface wave methods and derive the underlying physics for the existence of the "crossed" artifacts. We prove that the "crossed" artifacts would cross the true surface wave energy at fixed points in the f-v domain and propose a FK-based data selection technique to attenuate the artifacts in order to retrieve the high-frequency information. Numerical tests further demonstrate the existence of the "crossed" artifacts and indicate that the well-known wave field separation method, FK filter, does not work for the selection of directional noise data. Real-world applications manifest the feasibility of the proposed FK-based technique to improve passive surface wave methods by a priori data selection. Finally, we discuss the applicability of our approach.
Frequency-Wavenumber (FK)-Based Data Selection in High-Frequency Passive Surface Wave Survey
Cheng, Feng; Xia, Jianghai; Xu, Zongbo; Hu, Yue; Mi, Binbin
2018-07-01
Passive surface wave methods have gained much attention from geophysical and civil engineering communities because of the limited application of traditional seismic surveys in highly populated urban areas. Considering that they can provide high-frequency phase velocity information up to several tens of Hz, the active surface wave survey would be omitted and the amount of field work could be dramatically reduced. However, the measured dispersion energy image in the passive surface wave survey would usually be polluted by a type of "crossed" artifacts at high frequencies. It is common in the bidirectional noise distribution case with a linear receiver array deployed along roads or railways. We review several frequently used passive surface wave methods and derive the underlying physics for the existence of the "crossed" artifacts. We prove that the "crossed" artifacts would cross the true surface wave energy at fixed points in the f- v domain and propose a FK-based data selection technique to attenuate the artifacts in order to retrieve the high-frequency information. Numerical tests further demonstrate the existence of the "crossed" artifacts and indicate that the well-known wave field separation method, FK filter, does not work for the selection of directional noise data. Real-world applications manifest the feasibility of the proposed FK-based technique to improve passive surface wave methods by a priori data selection. Finally, we discuss the applicability of our approach.
Wavelet-based multiscale adjoint waveform-difference tomography using body and surface waves
Yuan, Y. O.; Simons, F. J.; Bozdag, E.
2014-12-01
We present a multi-scale scheme for full elastic waveform-difference inversion. Using a wavelet transform proves to be a key factor to mitigate cycle-skipping effects. We start with coarse representations of the seismogram to correct a large-scale background model, and subsequently explain the residuals in the fine scales of the seismogram to map the heterogeneities with great complexity. We have previously applied the multi-scale approach successfully to body waves generated in a standard model from the exploration industry: a modified two-dimensional elastic Marmousi model. With this model we explored the optimal choice of wavelet family, number of vanishing moments and decomposition depth. For this presentation we explore the sensitivity of surface waves in waveform-difference tomography. The incorporation of surface waves is rife with cycle-skipping problems compared to the inversions considering body waves only. We implemented an envelope-based objective function probed via a multi-scale wavelet analysis to measure the distance between predicted and target surface-wave waveforms in a synthetic model of heterogeneous near-surface structure. Our proposed method successfully purges the local minima present in the waveform-difference misfit surface. An elastic shallow model with 100~m in depth is used to test the surface-wave inversion scheme. We also analyzed the sensitivities of surface waves and body waves in full waveform inversions, as well as the effects of incorrect density information on elastic parameter inversions. Based on those numerical experiments, we ultimately formalized a flexible scheme to consider both body and surface waves in adjoint tomography. While our early examples are constructed from exploration-style settings, our procedure will be very valuable for the study of global network data.
Probability function of breaking-limited surface elevation. [wind generated waves of ocean
Tung, C. C.; Huang, N. E.; Yuan, Y.; Long, S. R.
1989-01-01
The effect of wave breaking on the probability function of surface elevation is examined. The surface elevation limited by wave breaking zeta sub b(t) is first related to the original wave elevation zeta(t) and its second derivative. An approximate, second-order, nonlinear, non-Gaussian model for zeta(t) of arbitrary but moderate bandwidth is presented, and an expression for the probability density function zeta sub b(t) is derived. The results show clearly that the effect of wave breaking on the probability density function of surface elevation is to introduce a secondary hump on the positive side of the probability density function, a phenomenon also observed in wind wave tank experiments.
Fang, Hongjian; Zhang, Haijiang; Yao, Huajian; Allam, Amir; Zigone, Dimitri; Ben-Zion, Yehuda; Thurber, Clifford; vanÂ derÂ Hilst, Robert D.
2016-05-01
We introduce a new algorithm for joint inversion of body wave and surface wave data to get better 3-D P wave (Vp) and S wave (Vs) velocity models by taking advantage of the complementary strengths of each data set. Our joint inversion algorithm uses a one-step inversion of surface wave traveltime measurements at different periods for 3-D Vs and Vp models without constructing the intermediate phase or group velocity maps. This allows a more straightforward modeling of surface wave traveltime data with the body wave arrival times. We take into consideration the sensitivity of surface wave data with respect to Vp in addition to its large sensitivity to Vs, which means both models are constrained by two different data types. The method is applied to determine 3-D crustal Vp and Vs models using body wave and Rayleigh wave data in the Southern California plate boundary region, which has previously been studied with both double-difference tomography method using body wave arrival times and ambient noise tomography method with Rayleigh and Love wave group velocity dispersion measurements. Our approach creates self-consistent and unique models with no prominent gaps, with Rayleigh wave data resolving shallow and large-scale features and body wave data constraining relatively deeper structures where their ray coverage is good. The velocity model from the joint inversion is consistent with local geological structures and produces better fits to observed seismic waveforms than the current Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) model.
Propagation of a surface electromagnetic wave in a plasma with allowance for electron heating
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boev, A.G.; Prokopov, A.V.
1978-01-01
Considered is propagation of a surface high-frequency wave in a semibounded plasma, which electron component is heated within the wave field. Dissipative effects are considered small, that is possible if wave frequency is much higher than the collision frequency and phase velocity of wave considerably exceeds electron heat velocity. Under conditions of anomalous skin-effect the distributions of electron temperature and wave damping have been found. It is established, that higher electron temperature on the boundary results in a higher decrease of temperature inside a plasma, far from the boundary temperature decreases exponentially; damping coefficient under anomalous skin-effect conditions is characterized by a stronger dependence not only on the wave amplitude, but as well as on gas pressure and wave frequency in comparison with normal conditions
Coherent reflection from surface gravity water waves during reciprocal acoustic transmissions.
Badiey, Mohsen; Song, Aijun; Smith, Kevin B
2012-10-01
During a recent experiment in Kauai, Hawaii, reciprocal transmissions were conducted between two acoustic transceivers mounted on the seafloor at a depth of 100 m. The passage of moving surface wave crests was shown to generate focused and intense coherent acoustic returns, which had increasing or decreasing delay depending on the direction of propagation relative to the direction of surface wave crests. It is shown that a rough surface two-dimensional parabolic equation model with an evolving sea surface can produce qualitative agreement with data for the dynamic surface returns.
Excitation of the Uller-Zenneck electromagnetic surface waves in the prism-coupled configuration
Rasheed, Mehran; Faryad, Muhammad
2017-08-01
A configuration to excite the Uller-Zenneck surface electromagnetic waves at the planar interfaces of homogeneous and isotropic dielectric materials is proposed and theoretically analyzed. The Uller-Zenneck waves are surface waves that can exist at the planar interface of two dissimilar dielectric materials of which at least one is a lossy dielectric material. In this paper, a slab of a lossy dielectric material was taken with lossless dielectric materials on both sides. A canonical boundary-value problem was set up and solved to find the possible Uller-Zenneck waves and waveguide modes. The Uller-Zenneck waves guided by the slab of the lossy dielectric material were found to be either symmetric or antisymmetric and transmuted into waveguide modes when the thickness of that slab was increased. A prism-coupled configuration was then successfully devised to excite the Uller-Zenneck waves. The results showed that the Uller-Zenneck waves are excited at the same angle of incidence for any thickness of the slab of the lossy dielectric material, whereas the waveguide modes can be excited when the slab is sufficiently thick. The excitation of Uller-Zenneck waves at the planar interfaces with homogeneous and all-dielectric materials can usher in new avenues for the applications for electromagnetic surface waves.
Elastic waves at periodically-structured surfaces and interfaces of solids
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. G. Every
2014-12-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a simple treatment of elastic wave scattering at periodically structured surfaces and interfaces of solids, and the existence and nature of surface acoustic waves (SAW and interfacial (IW waves at such structures. Our treatment is embodied in phenomenological models in which the periodicity resides in the boundary conditions. These yield zone folding and band gaps at the boundary of, and within the Brillouin zone. Above the transverse bulk wave threshold, there occur leaky or pseudo-SAW and pseudo-IW, which are attenuated via radiation into the bulk wave continuum. These have a pronounced effect on the transmission and reflection of bulk waves. We provide examples of pseudo-SAW and pseudo-IW for which the coupling to the bulk wave continuum vanishes at isloated points in the dispersion relation. These supersonic guided waves correspond to embedded discrete eigenvalues within a radiation continuum. We stress the generality of the phenomena that are exhibited at widely different scales of length and frequency, and their relevance to situations as diverse as the guiding of seismic waves in mine stopes, the metrology of periodic metal interconnect structures in the semiconductor industry, and elastic wave scattering by an array of coplanar cracks in a solid.
Thomas P. Albright; Anna M. Pidgeon; Chadwick D. Rittenhouse; Murray K. Clayton; Curtis H. Flather; Patrick D. Culbert; Volker C. Radeloff
2011-01-01
Heat waves are expected to become more frequent and severe as climate changes, with unknown consequences for biodiversity. We sought to identify ecologically-relevant broad-scale indicators of heat waves based on MODIS land surface temperature (LST) and interpolated air temperature data and assess their associations with avian community structure. Specifically, we...
Experimental observations of surface electrostatic wave on KT-5B tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhu Shiyao; Han Shensheng
1991-01-01
Shear Alfven waves have been successfully excited in KT-5B small tokamak by means of the one turn longitudinal loop antenna located in the shadow area. The measured antenna loadings show their rich structure, and the loadings are also found to be sensitive to the plasma current. Preliminary evidence of surface electrostatic wave was observed
Finite element analysis of surface acoustic waves in high aspect ratio electrodes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dühring, Maria Bayard; Laude, Vincent; Khelif, Abdelkrim
2008-01-01
This paper elaborates on how the finite element method is employed to model surface acoustic waves generated by high aspect ratio electrodes and their interaction with optical waves in a waveguide. With a periodic model it is shown that these electrodes act as a mechanical resonator which slows...
Spatial and temporal variation of surface waves in shallow waters along the eastern Arabian Sea.
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Anoop, T.R.; SanilKumar, V.; Shanas, P.R.
We studied the spatial and temporal variation of surface waves along the eastern Arabian Sea during 2011 and 2012. Measured directional wave data at two shallow water locations and re-analysis datasets (ERA-Interim) at 0.751 intervals at four...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hashemi, Mahdieh; Xiao, Sanshui; Farzad, Mahmood Hosseini
2014-01-01
Interference of surface plasmon (SP) waves plays a key role in light transmission through a subwavelength aperture surrounded by groove structures. In order to characterize interference of the hole and groove-generated SP waves, their phase information was carefully investigated using finite diff...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kryshtal, R.G.; Medved, A.V.
2015-01-01
Experimental results of investigations of nonreciprocity for surface magnetostatic spin waves (SMSW) in the magnonic crystal created by surface acoustic waves (SAW) in yttrium iron garnet films on a gallium gadolinium garnet substrate as without metallization and with aluminum films with different electrical conductivities (thicknesses) are presented. In structures without metallization, the frequency of magnonic gaps is dependent on mutual directions of propagation of the SAW and SMSW, showing nonreciprocal properties for SMSW in SAW – magnonic crystals even with the symmetrical dispersion characteristic. In metalized SAW – magnonic crystals the shift of the magnonic band gaps frequencies at the inversion of the biasing magnetic field was observed. The frequencies of magnonic band gaps as functions of SAW frequency are presented. Measured dependencies, showing the decrease of magnonic gaps frequency and the expansion of the magnonic band gap width with the decreasing of the metal film conductivity are given. Such nonreciprocal properties of the SAW – magnonic crystals are promising for signal processing in the GHz range. - Highlights: • Spin waves nonreciprocity in YIG magnonic crystals with SAW was studied. • SAW was shown to create nonreciprocity for spin waves in YIG–GGG even without metal. • Frequency and width of magnonic band gaps were measured versus metal conductivity. • Conductivity for practical use of spin waves in the structure YIG–metal was defined
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kryshtal, R.G.; Medved, A.V., E-mail: avm@ms.ire.rssi.ru
2015-12-01
Experimental results of investigations of nonreciprocity for surface magnetostatic spin waves (SMSW) in the magnonic crystal created by surface acoustic waves (SAW) in yttrium iron garnet films on a gallium gadolinium garnet substrate as without metallization and with aluminum films with different electrical conductivities (thicknesses) are presented. In structures without metallization, the frequency of magnonic gaps is dependent on mutual directions of propagation of the SAW and SMSW, showing nonreciprocal properties for SMSW in SAW – magnonic crystals even with the symmetrical dispersion characteristic. In metalized SAW – magnonic crystals the shift of the magnonic band gaps frequencies at the inversion of the biasing magnetic field was observed. The frequencies of magnonic band gaps as functions of SAW frequency are presented. Measured dependencies, showing the decrease of magnonic gaps frequency and the expansion of the magnonic band gap width with the decreasing of the metal film conductivity are given. Such nonreciprocal properties of the SAW – magnonic crystals are promising for signal processing in the GHz range. - Highlights: • Spin waves nonreciprocity in YIG magnonic crystals with SAW was studied. • SAW was shown to create nonreciprocity for spin waves in YIG–GGG even without metal. • Frequency and width of magnonic band gaps were measured versus metal conductivity. • Conductivity for practical use of spin waves in the structure YIG–metal was defined.
Detection of a Surface-Breaking Crack by Using the Surface Wave of a Laser Ultrasound
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, Seung-Kyu; Baik, Sung-Hoon; Jung, Hyun-Kyu; Joo, Young-Sang; Cha, Hyung-Ki; Kang, Young-June
2006-01-01
A laser ultrasonic system is a non-contact inspection device with a high spatial resolution and a wide-band spectrum. Also it provides absolute measurements of the moving distance and can be applied to the hard-to access locations with curved or rough surfaces like a nuclear power plant. Several laser ultrasonic techniques are applied for the detection of micro cracks in a nuclear power plant. Also, laser ultrasonic techniques are used to measure the grain size of materials and to detect cracks in railroads and aircrafts. Though the laser ultrasonic inspection system is widely applicable, it is comparatively expensive and it provides a low signal-to-noise ratio when compared to the conventional piezoelectric transducers. Many studies have been carried out to improve the system performance. One of the widely used measurement devices of a ultrasound is the Confocal Fabry-Perot Interferometer(CFPI) with a dynamic stabilizer. The dynamic stabilizer improves the stability of the CFPI by adaptively maintaining the optimum working status at the measuring time of the CFPI. In this paper, we have investigated the detection methods of the depth of a surface-breaking crack by using the surface wave of a laser ultrasound. We have fabricated a laser ultrasonic inspection system on an optical table by using a pulse laser, a CFPI with a dynamic stabilizer and a computer. The computer acquires the laser ultrasound by using a high speed A/D converter with a sampling rate of 1000 MHz. The dynamic stabilizer stabilizes the CFPI by adaptively maintaining it at an optimum status when the laser ultrasound is generated. The computer processes the ultrasonic signal in real time to extract the depth information of a surface-breaking crack. We extracted the depth information from the peak-to-valley values in the time domain and also from the center frequencies of the spectrum in the frequency domain
Travelling wave solutions for a surface wave equation in fluid mechanics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tian Yi
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This paper considers a non-linear wave equation arising in fluid mechanics. The exact traveling wave solutions of this equation are given by using G'/G-expansion method. This process can be reduced to solve a system of determining equations, which is large and difficult. To reduce this process, we used Wu elimination method. Example shows that this method is effective.
Fast surface waves in an ideal Hall-magnetohydrodynamic plasma slab
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhelyazkov, I.; Debosscher, A.; Goossens, M.
1996-01-01
The propagation of fast sausage and kink magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) surface waves in an ideal magnetized plasma slab is studied taking into account the Hall term in the generalized Ohm close-quote s law. It is found that the Hall effect modifies the dispersion characteristics of MHD surface modes when the Hall term scaling length is not negligible (less than, but comparable to the slab thickness). The dispersion relations for both modes have been derived for parallel propagation (along the ambient equilibrium magnetic field lines).The Hall term imposes some limits on the possible wave number range. It turns out that the space distribution of almost all perturbed quantities in sausage and kink surface waves with Hall effect is rather complicated as compared to that of usual fast MHD surface waves. The applicability to solar wind aspects of the results obtained, is briefly discussed. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dühring, Maria Bayard; Laude, Vincent; Khelif, Abdelkrim
2009-01-01
It has been shown previously that surface acoustic waves can be efficiently trapped and slowed by steep ridges on a piezoelectric substrate, giving rise to two families of shear-horizontal and vertically polarized surface waves. The mechanisms of energy storage and dispersion are explored by using...... the finite element method to model surface acoustic waves generated by high aspect ratio electrodes. A periodic model is proposed including a perfectly matched layer to simulate radiation conditions away from the sources, from which the modal distributions are found. The ratio of the mechanical energy...... confined to the electrode as compared to the total mechanical energy is calculated and is found to be increasing for increasing aspect ratio and to tend to a definite limit for the two families of surface waves. This observation is in support of the interpretation that high aspect ratio electrodes act...
A Four-Quadrant PVDF Transducer for Surface Acoustic Wave Detection
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhi Chen
2012-08-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF piezoelectric transducer was developed to detect laser-induced surface acoustic waves in a SiO_{2}-thin film–Si-substrate structure. In order to solve the problems related to, firstly, the position of the probe, and secondly, the fact that signals at different points cannot be detected simultaneously during the detection process, a four-quadrant surface acoustic wave PVDF transducer was designed and constructed for the purpose of detecting surface acoustic waves excited by a pulse laser line source. The experimental results of the four-quadrant piezoelectric detection in comparison with the commercial nanoindentation technology were consistent, the relative error is 0.56%, and the system eliminates the piezoelectric surface wave detection direction deviation errors, improves the accuracy of the testing system by 1.30%, achieving the acquisition at the same time at different testing positions of the sample.
Miguel, A; de la Macorra, J C
2001-05-01
To find a predictive formula of stress, considering the surfaces (free, adhered) involved, the volume and characteristics of material and the deformation of the measuring system. 231 samples of five chemically cured restoratives (Silar (SIL, 23), Clearfil F2 (CLE, 39), P10 (P10, 33), Concise (CON, 30), Isopast (ISO, 28)) and four luting (3M Experimental 241 (EXM, 20), Variolink II (VAR, 13), Vitremer LC (VTM, 20) and Dyract Cem (DYR, 25)) materials were allowed to polymerize until they reached a maximum tension (T(max), 25 min) between six pairs (null 5.81, 8.5, 11.26, 12.42, 17.02, 23.14 mm) of polished metallic discs (range of distances: 0.02-5.9 mm) mounted in a tension machine. The deformation of the measuring system was measured for the recorded forces. A descriptive non-linear formula T(max)=KVol(-3.267)FS(3.283)AS(0.642)Def(0.561) was found that individualizes the material's characteristics (K) that considers volume (Vol), free (FS) and adhered (AS) surfaces and deformation (Def) of the system for each force. This formula renders good correlation (material K (r(2) coefficient)): SIL 0.9998 (0.995), CLE 1.0062 (0.989), P10 1.0224 (0.990), CON 0.9908 (0.992), ISO 0.9648 (0.974), EXM 1.0083 (0.991), VAR 0.9777 (0.996), VTM 0.9925 (0.993), DYR 0.9971 (0.997) between actual T(max) and calculated Tension. There are statistically significant differences (p=0.002) between K values of both (restorative and luting) groups. Predictive parameters have influence in a different way to what is actually considered, if the system is allowed to have deformation, as occurs naturally and volume and material's characteristics are considered.
New Hydrokinetic Turbine for Free Surface Gravitational Wave Transformation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Berins J.
2017-12-01
Full Text Available The present article deals with an alternative form of energy – the conversion of marine/ocean wave energy using an axial self-regulating blade (SB hydrokinetic turbine (ASRBHK turbine. The article analyses the operation of the ASRBHK turbine and draws the resulting conclusions about the mechanism, in which the power transfer element is a self-regulating blade.
New Hydrokinetic Turbine for Free Surface Gravitational Wave Transformation
Berins, J.
2017-12-01
The present article deals with an alternative form of energy - the conversion of marine/ocean wave energy using an axial self-regulating blade (SB) hydrokinetic turbine (ASRBHK turbine). The article analyses the operation of the ASRBHK turbine and draws the resulting conclusions about the mechanism, in which the power transfer element is a self-regulating blade.
Wavenumber Spectrum of Intermediate-Scale Ocean Surface Waves
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Hwang, Paul A
2005-01-01
... (wavelengths between 0.02 and 6 m) under various sea-state conditions. The main result of the analysis is that the dependence of the dimensionless wave spectrum on the dimensionless wind friction velocity follows a power-law function...
Surface wave propagation in a fluid-saturated incompressible ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
dilatational and one rotational elastic waves in fluid-saturated porous solids. Biot theory ..... If the pore liquid is absent or gas is filled in the pores, then ρF ..... Biot M A (1962) Mechanics of deformation and acoustic propagation in porous media.
On the dependence of sea surface roughness on wind waves
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Johnson, H.K.; Højstrup, J.; Vested, H.J.
1998-01-01
that calculations of the wind friction velocities using the wave-spectra-dependent expression of Hansen and Larsen agrees quite well with measured values during RASEX. It also gives a trend in Charnock parameter consistent with that found by combining the field data. Last, calculations using a constant Charnock...
Optical Effects Induced by Bloch Surface Waves in One-Dimensional Photonic Crystals
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Irina V. Soboleva
2018-01-01
Full Text Available The review considers the influence of Bloch surface waves on the optical and magneto-optical effects observed in photonic crystals; for example, the Goos–Hänchen effect, the Faraday effect, optical trapping and so on. Prospects for using Bloch surface waves for spatial light modulation, for controlling the polarization of light, for optical trapping and control of micro-objects are discussed.
Mapping the Qademah Fault with Traveltime, Surface-wave, and Resistivity Tomograms
Hanafy, Sherif M.
2015-08-19
Traveltime, surface-wave, and resistivity tomograms are used to track the buried Qademah fault located near King Abdullah Economic City (KAEC), Saudi Arabia. The fault location is confirmed by the 1) resistivity tomogram obtained from an electrical resistivity experiment, 2) the refraction traveltime tomogram, 3) the reflection image computed from 2D seismic data set recorded at the northern part of the fault, and 4) the surface-wave tomogram.
Mapping the Qademah Fault with Traveltime, Surface-wave, and Resistivity Tomograms
Hanafy, Sherif M.
2015-01-01
Traveltime, surface-wave, and resistivity tomograms are used to track the buried Qademah fault located near King Abdullah Economic City (KAEC), Saudi Arabia. The fault location is confirmed by the 1) resistivity tomogram obtained from an electrical resistivity experiment, 2) the refraction traveltime tomogram, 3) the reflection image computed from 2D seismic data set recorded at the northern part of the fault, and 4) the surface-wave tomogram.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Thamnoon Rasmeemasmuang
2014-03-01
Full Text Available On occasions, sandbag revetments are temporarily applied to armour sandy beaches from erosion. Nevertheless, an empirical formula to determine the wave run -up height on sandbag slopes has not been available heretofore. In this study a wave run-up formula which considers the roughness of slope surfaces is proposed for the case of sandbag slopes. A series of laboratory experiments on the wave run -up on smooth slopes and sandbag slopes were conducted in a regular-wave flume, leading to the finding of empirical parameters for the formula. The proposed empirical formula is applicable to wave steepness ranging from 0.01 to 0.14 and to the thickness of placed sandbags relative to the wave height ranging from 0.17 to 3.0. The study shows that the wave run-up height computed by the formula for the sandbag slopes is 26-40% lower than that computed by the formula for the smooth slopes.
Design Formula for Breakage of Tetrapods
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Burcharth, H. F.; Jensen, Jacob Birk; Liu, Z.
1995-01-01
The paper presents a design formula for Tetrapod armour on a 1:1.5 slope exposed to head-on random wave attack. The formula predicts the relative number of broken Tetrapods as function of: the mass of the Tetrapods, the concrete tensile strength and the wave height in front of the structure. Thus......, the formula addresses the observed problem of ensuring structural integrity of the slender types of non-reinforced armour units. The formula is based on results from small scale model tests with load-cell instrumented Tetrapods in which both the static, the quasi-static and the impact proportions of the loads...
On the behaviour of the spectre of surface waves in a uniform rotating fluid
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fraguela Collar, A.
1990-10-01
This work is devoted to the study of the spectre of surface waves arising in the linear oscillations problem of a portion of an ideal heavy non capillary liquid constrained into a vessel with interior spatial domain U. In the present work we will be concerned with the following two equations: Under which conditions on U and V (volume of liquid enclosed into U) is it possible to assure non existence of discrete spectre of superficial waves in the threshold of the inner wave spectre? How do spectre of superficial waves depend on local variations of angular speed? (author). 5 refs
The Detection of Vertical Cracks in Asphalt Using Seismic Surface Wave Methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iodice, M; Muggleton, J; Rustighi, E
2016-01-01
Assessment of the location and of the extension of cracking in road surfaces is important for determining the potential level of deterioration in the road overall and the infrastructure buried beneath it. Damage in a pavement structure is usually initiated in the tarmac layers, making the Rayleigh wave ideally suited for the detection of shallow surface defects. This paper presents an investigation of two surface wave methods to detect and locate top-down cracks in asphalt layers. The aim of the study is to compare the results from the well- established Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) and the more recent Multiple Impact of Surface Waves (MISW) in the presence of a discontinuity and to suggest the best surface wave technique for evaluating the presence and the extension of vertical cracks in roads. The study is conducted through numerical simulations alongside experimental investigations and it considers the cases for which the cracking is internal and external to the deployment of sensors. MISW is found to enhance the visibility of the reflected waves in the frequency wavenumber ( f-k ) spectrum, helping with the detection of the discontinuity. In some cases, by looking at the f-k spectrum obtained with MISW it is possible to extract information regarding the location and the depth of the cracking. (paper)
Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding
... for Educators Search English Español Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding KidsHealth / For Parents / Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding What's ... work with a lactation specialist. All About Formula Feeding Commercially prepared infant formulas are a nutritious alternative ...
Orbital magnetism of Bloch electrons I. General formula
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ogata, Masao; Fukuyama, Hidetoshi
2015-01-01
We derive an exact formula of orbital susceptibility expressed in terms of Bloch wave functions, starting from the exact one-line formula by Fukuyama in terms of Green's functions. The obtained formula contains four contributions: (1) Landau-Peierls susceptibility, (2) interband contribution, (3) Fermi surface contribution, and (4) contribution from occupied states. Except for the Landau-Peierls susceptibility, the other three contributions involve the crystal-momentum derivatives of Bloch wave functions. Physical meaning of each term is clarified. The present formula is simplified compared with those obtained previously by Hebborn et al. Based on the formula, it is seen first of all that diamagnetism from core electrons and Van Vleck susceptibility are the only contributions in the atomic limit. The band effects are then studied in terms of linear combination of atomic orbital treating overlap integrals between atomic orbitals as a perturbation and the itinerant feature of Bloch electrons in solids are clarified systematically for the first time. (author)
The surface effect on axisymmetric wave propagation in piezoelectric cylindrical shells
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yunying Zhou
2015-02-01
Full Text Available Based on the surface piezoelectricity theory and first-order shear deformation theory, the surface effect on the axisymmetric wave propagating in piezoelectric cylindrical shells is analyzed. The Gurtin–Murdoch theory is utilized to get the nontraditional boundary conditions and constitutive equations of the surface, in company with classical governing equations of the bulk, from which the basic formulations are obtained. Numerical results show that the surface layer has a profound effect on wave characteristics in nanostructure at a higher mode.
Acoustic tweezing of particles using decaying opposing travelling surface acoustic waves (DOTSAW).
Ng, Jia Wei; Devendran, Citsabehsan; Neild, Adrian
2017-10-11
Surface acoustic waves offer a versatile and biocompatible method of manipulating the location of suspended particles or cells within microfluidic systems. The most common approach uses the interference of identical frequency, counter propagating travelling waves to generate a standing surface acoustic wave, in which particles migrate a distance less than half the acoustic wavelength to their nearest pressure node. The result is the formation of a periodic pattern of particles. Subsequent displacement of this pattern, the prerequisite for tweezing, can be achieved by translation of the standing wave, and with it the pressure nodes; this requires changing either the frequency of the pair of waves, or their relative phase. Here, in contrast, we examine the use of two counterpropagating traveling waves of different frequency. The non-linearity of the acoustic forces used to manipulate particles, means that a small frequency difference between the two waves creates a substantially different force field, which offers significant advantages. Firstly, this approach creates a much longer range force field, in which migration takes place across multiple wavelengths, and causes particles to be gathered together in a single trapping site. Secondly, the location of this single trapping site can be controlled by the relative amplitude of the two waves, requiring simply an attenuation of one of the electrical drive signals. Using this approach, we show that by controlling the powers of the opposing incoherent waves, 5 μm particles can be migrated laterally across a fluid flow to defined locations with an accuracy of ±10 μm.
Surface wave resonance and chirality in a tubular cavity with metasurface design
Qin, Yuzhou; Fang, Yangfu; Wang, Lu; Tang, Shiwei; Sun, Shulin; Liu, Zhaowei; Mei, Yongfeng
2018-06-01
Optical microcavities with whispering-gallery modes (WGMs) have been indispensable in both photonic researches and applications. Besides, metasurfaces, have attracted much attention recently due to their strong abilities to manipulate electromagnetic waves. Here, combining these two optical elements together, we show a tubular cavity can convert input propagating cylindrical waves into directed localized surface waves (SWs), enabling the circulating like WGMs along the wall surface of the designed tubular cavity. Finite element method (FEM) simulations demonstrate that such near-field WGM shows both large chirality and high local field. This work may stimulate interesting potential applications in e.g. directional emission, sensing, and lasing.
Effective wave tilt and surface impedance over a laterally inhomogeneous two-layer earth
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hughes, W.J.; Wait, J.R.
1975-01-01
Using a perturbation method, the effect of a simple two-dimensional model on the electromagnetic fields at the surface of the Earth is considered for a postulated downcoming plane wave. The calculated change in the surface impedance and wave tilt due to lateral inhomogeneities is examined. It is found that the magnetic wave tilt (H/sub z//H/sub x/) is most seriously affected by such anomalies. This may have important consequences on electromagnetic probing of nonuniform portions of the Earth's crust
An efficient domain decomposition strategy for wave loads on surface piercing circular cylinders
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Paulsen, Bo Terp; Bredmose, Henrik; Bingham, Harry B.
2014-01-01
A fully nonlinear domain decomposed solver is proposed for efficient computations of wave loads on surface piercing structures in the time domain. A fully nonlinear potential flow solver was combined with a fully nonlinear Navier–Stokes/VOF solver via generalized coupling zones of arbitrary shape....... Sensitivity tests of the extent of the inner Navier–Stokes/VOF domain were carried out. Numerical computations of wave loads on surface piercing circular cylinders at intermediate water depths are presented. Four different test cases of increasing complexity were considered; 1) weakly nonlinear regular waves...
Dust-Lower-Hybrid Surface Waves in Classical and Degenerate Plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ayub, M.; Shah, H.A.; Qureshi, M.N.S.; Salimullah, M.
2013-01-01
The dispersion relation for general dust low frequency electrostatic surface waves propagating on an interface between a magnetized dusty plasma region and a vacuum is derived by using specular reflection boundary conditions both in classical and quantum regimes. The frequency limit ω ≪ ω ci ≪ ω ce is considered and the dispersion relation for the Dust-Lower-Hybrid Surface Waves (DLHSW's) is derived for both classical and quantum plasma half-space and analyzed numerically. It is shown that the wave behavior changes as the quantum nature of the problem is considered. (physics of gases, plasmas, and electric discharges)
Modifications of Surface Wave Discrimination Filter Based on the Polarization Properties
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kutlu, Y. A.; Sayil, N.
2007-01-01
The polarization properties of Love and Rayleigh waves are utilized to design Surface Wave Discrimination Filter. Filtering process for a selected window length and moving interval is that the amplitudes at each frequency on vertical, radial and transverse components are weighted according to how closely the theoretical three-dimensional particle motion pattern. In this study, weighted functions have been modified for epicenteral distances smaller than about 2200 km to corresponding with angular distribution of polarization parameters obtained from computed synthetic seismograms. Modified Surface Wave Discrimination Filter has been tested on synthetic seismograms and digital three-components broadband records at Trabzon earthquake station
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suemoto, Tohru; Nakajima, Makoto; Matsuoka, Taira; Yasukawa, Keizo; Koyama, Takeshi
2007-01-01
The wave packet dynamics on adiabatic potential surfaces studied by means of time-resolved luminescence spectroscopy is reviewed and the advantages of this method are discussed. In quasi-one-dimensional bromine-bridged platinum complexes, a movie representing the time evolution of the wave packet motion and shape was constructed. A two-dimensional Lissajous-like motion of the wave packet was suggested in the same material at low temperature. In F-centers in KI, evidence for tunneling of the wave packet between the adjacent adiabatic potential surfaces was found. Selective observation of the wave packet motion on the excited state was demonstrated for F-centers in KBr and compared with the results from pump-and-probe experiments in literature
Ishihara, Kunihiko; Ohashi, Keishi; Ikari, Tomofumi; Minamide, Hiroaki; Yokoyama, Hiroyuki; Shikata, Jun-ichi; Ito, Hiromasa
2006-11-01
We demonstrate the terahertz-wave near-field imaging with subwavelength resolution using a bow-tie shaped aperture surrounded by concentric periodic structures in a metal film. A subwavelength aperture with concentric periodic grooves, which are known as a bull's eye structure, shows extremely large enhanced transmission beyond the diffraction limit caused by the resonant excitation of surface waves. Additionally, a bow-tie aperture exhibits extraordinary field enhancement at the sharp tips of the metal, which enhances the transmission and the subwavelength spatial resolution. We introduced a bow-tie aperture to the bull's eye structure and achieved high spatial resolution (˜λ/17) in the near-field region. The terahertz-wave near-field image of the subwavelength metal pattern (pattern width=20μm) was obtained for the wavelength of 207μm.
Excitation of surface electromagnetic waves in a graphene-based Bragg grating.
Sreekanth, Kandammathe Valiyaveedu; Zeng, Shuwen; Shang, Jingzhi; Yong, Ken-Tye; Yu, Ting
2012-01-01
Here, we report the fabrication of a graphene-based Bragg grating (one-dimensional photonic crystal) and experimentally demonstrate the excitation of surface electromagnetic waves in the periodic structure using prism coupling technique. Surface electromagnetic waves are non-radiative electromagnetic modes that appear on the surface of semi-infinite 1D photonic crystal. In order to fabricate the graphene-based Bragg grating, alternating layers of high (graphene) and low (PMMA) refractive index materials have been used. The reflectivity plot shows a deepest, narrow dip after total internal reflection angle corresponds to the surface electromagnetic mode propagating at the Bragg grating/air boundary. The proposed graphene based Bragg grating can find a variety of potential surface electromagnetic wave applications such as sensors, fluorescence emission enhancement, modulators, etc.
An Eulerian two-phase flow model for sediment transport under realistic surface waves
Hsu, T. J.; Kim, Y.; Cheng, Z.; Chauchat, J.
2017-12-01
Wave-driven sediment transport is of major importance in driving beach morphology. However, the complex mechanisms associated with unsteadiness, free-surface effects, and wave-breaking turbulence have not been fully understood. Particularly, most existing models for sediment transport adopt bottom boundary layer approximation that mimics the flow condition in oscillating water tunnel (U-tube). However, it is well-known that there are key differences in sediment transport when comparing to large wave flume datasets, although the number of wave flume experiments are relatively limited regardless of its importance. Thus, a numerical model which can resolve the entire water column from the bottom boundary layer to the free surface can be a powerful tool. This study reports an on-going effort to better understand and quantify sediment transport under shoaling and breaking surface waves through the creation of open-source numerical models in the OpenFOAM framework. An Eulerian two-phase flow model, SedFoam (Cheng et al., 2017, Coastal Eng.) is fully coupled with a volume-of-fluid solver, interFoam/waves2Foam (Jacobsen et al., 2011, Int. J. Num. Fluid). The fully coupled model, named SedWaveFoam, regards the air and water phases as two immiscible fluids with the interfaces evolution resolved, and the sediment particles as dispersed phase. We carried out model-data comparisons with the large wave flume sheet flow data for nonbreaking waves reported by Dohmen-Janssen and Hanes (2002, J. Geophysical Res.) and good agreements were obtained for sediment concentration and net transport rate. By further simulating a case without free-surface (mimic U-tube condition), the effects of free-surface, most notably the boundary layer streaming effect on total transport, can be quantified.
An Ultrasound Surface Wave Technique for Assessing Skin and Lung Diseases.
Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhou, Boran; Kalra, Sanjay; Bartholmai, Brian; Greenleaf, James; Osborn, Thomas
2018-02-01
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a multi-organ connective tissue disease characterized by immune dysregulation and organ fibrosis. Severe organ involvement, especially of the skin and lung, is the cause of morbidity and mortality in SSc. Interstitial lung disease (ILD) includes multiple lung disorders in which the lung tissue is fibrotic and stiffened. The purpose of this study was to translate ultrasound surface wave elastography (USWE) for assessing patients with SSc and/or ILD via measuring surface wave speeds of both skin and superficial lung tissue. Forty-one patients with both SSc and ILD and 30 healthy patients were enrolled in this study. An external harmonic vibration was used to generate the wave propagation on the skin or lung. Three excitation frequencies of 100, 150 and 200 Hz were used. An ultrasound probe was used to measure the wave propagation in the tissue non-invasively. Surface wave speeds were measured on the forearm and upper arm of both left and right arm, as well as the upper and lower lungs, through six intercostal spaces of patients and healthy patients. Viscoelasticity of the skin was calculated by the wave speed dispersion with frequency using the Voigt model. The magnitudes of surface wave speed and viscoelasticity of patients' skin were significantly higher than those of healthy patients (p wave speeds of patients' lung were significantly higher than those of healthy patients (p ionizing technique for measuring both skin and lung surface wave speed and may be useful for quantitative assessment of SSc and/or ILD. Copyright © 2018 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kwon, Do-Hoon; Tretyakov, Sergei A.
2018-01-01
For passive, lossless impenetrable metasurfaces, a design technique for arbitrary beam control of receiving, guiding, and launching is presented. Arbitrary control is enabled by a custom surface wave in an orthogonal polarization such that its addition to the incident (input) and the desired scattered (output) fields is supported by a reactive surface impedance everywhere on the reflecting surface. Such a custom surface wave (SW) takes the form of an evanescent wave propagating along the surface with a spatially varying envelope. A growing SW appears when an illuminating beam is received. The SW amplitude stays constant when power is guided along the surface. The amplitude diminishes as a propagating wave (PW) is launched from the surface as a leaky wave. The resulting reactive tensor impedance profile may be realized as an array of anisotropic metallic resonators printed on a grounded dielectric substrate. Illustrative design examples of a Gaussian beam translator-reflector, a probe-fed beam launcher, and a near-field focusing lens are provided.
Zhen, Ya-Xin
2017-02-01
In this paper, the transverse wave propagation in fluid-conveying viscoelastic single-walled carbon nanotubes is investigated based on nonlocal elasticity theory with consideration of surface effect. The governing equation is formulated utilizing nonlocal Euler-Bernoulli beam theory and Kelvin-Voigt model. Explicit wave dispersion relation is developed and wave phase velocities and frequencies are obtained. The effect of the fluid flow velocity, structural damping, surface effect, small scale effects and tube diameter on the wave propagation properties are discussed with different wave numbers. The wave frequency increases with the increase of fluid flow velocity, but decreases with the increases of tube diameter and wave number. The effect of surface elasticity and residual surface tension is more significant for small wave number and tube diameter. For larger values of wave number and nonlocal parameters, the real part of frequency ratio raises.
Torsional surface waves in an inhomogeneous layer over a gravitating anisotropic porous half-space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gupta, Shishir; Pramanik, Abhijit
2015-01-01
The present work aims to deal with the propagation of torsional surface wave in an inhomogeneous layer over a gravitating anisotropic porous half space. The inhomogeneous layer exhibits the inhomogeneity of quadratic type. In order to show the effect of gravity the equation for the velocity of torsional wave has been obtained. It is also observed that for a layer over a homogeneous half space without gravity, the torsional surface wave does not propagate. An attempt is also made to assess the possible propagation of torsional surface waves in that medium in the absence of the upper layer. The effects of inhomogeneity factors and porosity on the phase velocity are depicted by means of graphs. (paper)
Exploration Technology Development including Surface Acoustic Wave RFID chips
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project is focused on maturing future surface exploration technologies and instrumentation and working towards flight instrumentation and systems to support...
Hanya, Shizuo
2013-01-01
Lack of high-fidelity simultaneous measurements of pressure and flow velocity in the aorta has impeded the direct validation of the water-hammer formula for estimating regional aortic pulse wave velocity (AO-PWV1) and has restricted the study of the change of beat-to-beat AO-PWV1 under varying physiological conditions in man. Aortic pulse wave velocity was derived using two methods in 15 normotensive subjects: 1) the conventional two-point (foot-to-foot) method (AO-PWV2) and 2) a one-point method (AO-PWV1) in which the pressure velocity-loop (PV-loop) was analyzed based on the water hammer formula using simultaneous measurements of flow velocity (Vm) and pressure (Pm) at the same site in the proximal aorta using a multisensor catheter. AO-PWV1 was calculated from the slope of the linear regression line between Pm and Vm where wave reflection (Pb) was at a minimum in early systole in the PV-loop using the water hammer formula, PWV1 = (Pm/Vm)/ρ, where ρ is the blood density. AO-PWV2 was calculated using the conventional two-point measurement method as the distance/traveling time of the wave between 2 sites for measuring P in the proximal aorta. Beat-to-beat alterations of AO-PWV1 in relationship to aortic pressure and linearity of the initial part of the PV-loop during a Valsalva maneuver were also assessed in one subject. The initial part of the loop became steeper in association with the beat-to-beat increase in diastolic pressure in phase 4 during the Valsalva maneuver. The linearity of the initial part of the PV-loop was maintained consistently during the maneuver. Flow velocity vs. pressure in the proximal aorta was highly linear during early systole, with Pearson's coefficients ranging from 0.9954 to 0.9998. The average values of AO-PWV1 and AO-PWV2 were 6.3 ± 1.2 and 6.7 ± 1.3 m/s, respectively. The regression line of AO-PWV1 on AO-PWV2 was y = 0.95x + 0.68 (r = 0.93, p <0.001). This study concluded that the water-hammer formula (one-point method) provides
Light reflection from a rough liquid surface including wind-wave effects in a scattering atmosphere
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Salinas, Santo V.; Liew, S.C.
2007-01-01
Visible and near-IR images of the ocean surface, taken from remote satellites, often contain important information of near-surface or sub-surface processes, which occur on, or over the ocean. Remote measurements of near surface winds, sea surface temperature and salinity, ocean color and underwater bathymetry, all, one way or another, depend on how well we understand sea surface roughness. However, in order to extract useful information from our remote measurements, we need to construct accurate models of the transfer of solar radiation inside the atmosphere as well as, its reflection from the sea surface. To approach this problem, we numerically solve the radiative transfer equation (RTE) by implementing a model for the atmosphere-ocean system. A one-dimensional atmospheric radiation model is solved via the widely known doubling and adding method and the ocean body is treated as a boundary condition to the problem. The ocean surface is modeled as a rough liquid surface which includes wind interaction and wave states, such as wave age. The model can have possible applications to the retrieval of wind and wave states, such as wave age, near a Sun glint region
Identification of nonlinear coupling in wave turbulence at the surface of water
Campagne, Antoine; Hassaini, Roumaissa; Redor, Ivan; Aubourg, Quentin; Sommeria, Joël; Mordant, Nicolas
2017-11-01
The Weak Turbulence Theory is a theory, in the limit of vanishing nonlinearity, that derive analytically statistical features of wave turbulence. The stationary spectrum for the surface elevation in the case of gravity waves, is predicted to E(k) k - 5 / 2 . This spectral exponent -5/2 remains elusive in all experiments. in which the measured exponent is systematically lower than the prediction. Furthermore in the experiments the weaker the nonlinearity the further the spectral exponent is from the prediction. In order to investigate the reason for this observation we developed an experiment in the CORIOLIS facility in Grenoble. It is a 13m-diameter circular pool filled with water with a 70 cm depth. We generate wave turbulence by using two wedge wavemakers. Surface elevation measurements are performed by a stereoscopic optical technique and by capacitive probes. The nonlinear coupling at work in this system are analyzed by computing 3- and 4-wave correlations of the Fourier wave amplitudes in frequency. Theory predicts that coupling should occur through 4-wave resonant interaction. In our data, strong 3-wave correlations are observed in addition to the 4-wave correlation. Most our observations are consistent with field observation in the Black Sea (Leckler et al. 2015). This project has received funding from the European Research Council (ERC, Grant Agreement No 647018-WATU).
A New Alternative in Urban Geophysics: Multi-Channel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) Method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ozcep, F.
2007-01-01
Geophysical studies are increasingly being applied to geotechnical investigations as they can identify soil properties and soil boundaries. Other advantage is that many of these methods are non-invasive and environment friendly. Soil stiffness is one of the critical material parameters considered during an early stage of most foundation construction. It is related directly to the stability of structural load, especially as it relates to possible earthquake hazard. Soil lacking sufficient stiffness for a given load can experience a significant reduction in strength under earthquake shaking resulting in liquefaction, a condition responsible for tremendous amounts of damage from earthquakes around the world The multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW) method originated from the traditional seismic exploration approach that employs multiple (twelve or more) receivers placed along a linear survey line. Main advantage is its capability of recognizing different types of seismic waves based on wave propagation characteristics such as velocity and attenuation. The MASW method utilizes this capability to discriminate the fundamental-mode Rayleigh wave against all other types of surface and body waves generated not only from the active seismic source but also from the ambient site conditions. Dispersive characteristics of seismic waves are imaged from an objective 2-D wave field transformation. The present paper indicates results from MASW survey at different urban site in Turkey. MASW techniques will prove to be important tools for obtaining shear wave velocity and evaluating liquefaction potential, soil bearing capacity and soil amplification, etc. for future geophysical and geotechnical engineering community
Damping of surface waves due to oil emulsions in application to ocean remote sensing
Sergievskaya, I.; Ermakov, S.; Lazareva, T.; Lavrova, O.
2017-10-01
Applications of different radar and optical methods for detection of oil pollutions based on the effect of damping of short wind waves by surface films have been extensively studied last decades. The main problem here is poor knowledge of physical characteristics of oil films, in particular, emulsified oil layers (EOL). The latter are ranged up to 70% of all pollutants. Physical characteristics of EOL which are responsible for wave damping and respectively for possibilities of their remote sensing depend on conditions of emulsification processes, e.g., mixing due to wave breaking, on percentage of water in the oil, etc. and are not well studied by now. In this paper results of laboratory studies of damping of gravity-capillary waves due to EOL on water are presented and compared to oil layers (OL). A laboratory method used previously for monomolecular films and OL, and based on measuring the damping coefficient and wavelength of parametrically generated standing waves has been applied for determination of EOL characteristics. Investigations of characteristics of crude oil, oil emulsions and crude OL and EOL have been carried out in a wide range of surface wave frequencies (from 10 to 25 Hz) and OL and EOL film thickness (from hundredths of millimeter to a few millimeters. The selected frequency range corresponds to Bragg waves for microwave, X- to Ka-band radars typically used for ocean remote sensing. An effect of enhanced wave damping due to EOL compared to non emulsified crude OL is revealed.
High resolution 3-D shear wave velocity structure in South China from surface wave tomography
Ning, S.; Guo, Z.; Chen, Y. J.
2017-12-01
Using continuous data from a total of 638 seismic stations, including 484 from CEArray between 2008 and 2013 and 154 from SINOPROBE between 2014 and 2015, we perform both ambient noise and earthquake Rayleigh wave tomography across South China. Combining Rayleigh wave phase velocity between 6and 40s periods from ambient noise tomography and Rayleigh wave phase velocity between 20and 140s from teleseismic two-plane-wave tomography, we obtain phase velocity maps between 6 and140 s periods. We then invert Rayleigh wave phase velocity to construct a 3-D shear wave velocity structure of South China by Markov Chain Monte Carlo method. Similar to other inversion results, our results correspond topography well. Moreover, our results also reveal that velocity structure of the eastern South China in mantle depth is similar to eastern North China, the core of the western South China, Sichuan Block (SB),still exists thick lithosphere. However, owing to much more data employed and some data quality control techniques in this research, our results reveal more detailed structures. Along Qinling-Dabie Orogenic Belt (QDOB), North-South Gravity Lineament (NSGL) and the Sichuan-Yunnan Rhombic Block (SYRB), there are obvious high speed anomalies in depths of 10-20 km, which possibly imply ancient intrusions. Moreover, it seems that Tancheng-Lujiang Fault Zone (TLFZ) has already cut through QDOB, forming a deep fracture cutting through the crust of the whole China continent. Although SB still exists thick lithosphere, there are indications for thermal erosion. At the same time, the lithosphere of the central SYRB seems to be experiencing delamination process, obviously forming a barrier to prevent the hot Tibetan Plateau (TP) mantle material from flowing further southeast. Upwelling hot mantle material possibly triggered by this delamination process might be the cause of the Emeishan Large Igneous Province. There exists an intercontinental low velocity layer in the crust of the TP
Surface effects on anti-plane shear waves propagating in magneto-electro-elastic nanoplates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu, Bin; Zhang, Chunli; Chen, Weiqiu; Zhang, Chuanzeng
2015-01-01
Material surfaces may have a remarkable effect on the mechanical behavior of magneto-electro-elastic (or multiferroic) structures at nanoscale. In this paper, a surface magneto-electro-elasticity theory (or effective boundary condition formulation), which governs the motion of the material surface of magneto-electro-elastic nanoplates, is established by employing the state-space formalism. The properties of anti-plane shear (SH) waves propagating in a transversely isotropic magneto-electro-elastic plate with nanothickness are investigated by taking surface effects into account. The size-dependent dispersion relations of both antisymmetric and symmetric SH waves are presented. The thickness-shear frequencies and the asymptotic characteristics of the dispersion relations considering surface effects are determined analytically as well. Numerical results show that surface effects play a very pronounced role in elastic wave propagation in magneto-electro-elastic nanoplates, and the dispersion properties depend strongly on the chosen surface material parameters of magneto-electro-elastic nanoplates. As a consequence, it is possible to modulate the waves in magneto-electro-elastic nanoplates through surface engineering. (paper)
Palasantzas, G.
2008-01-01
In this work we study the quality factor associated with dissipation due to scattering of shear horizontal surface acoustic waves by random self-affine roughness. It is shown that the quality factor is strongly influenced by both the surface roughness exponent H and the roughness amplitude w to
Time-resolved PIV measurements of the atmospheric boundary layer over wind-driven surface waves
Markfort, Corey; Stegmeir, Matt
2017-11-01
Complex interactions at the air-water interface result in two-way coupling between wind-driven surface waves and the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). Turbulence generated at the surface plays an important role in aquatic ecology and biogeochemistry, exchange of gases such as oxygen and carbon dioxide, and it is important for the transfer of energy and controlling evaporation. Energy transferred from the ABL promotes the generation and maintenance of waves. A fraction of the energy is transferred to the surface mixed layer through the generation of turbulence. Energy is also transferred back to the ABL by waves. There is a need to quantify the details of the coupled boundary layers of the air-water system to better understand how turbulence plays a role in the interactions. We employ time-resolved PIV to measure the detailed structure of the air and water boundary layers under varying wind and wave conditions in the newly developed IIHR Boundary-Layer Wind-Wave Tunnel. The facility combines a 30-m long recirculating water channel with an open-return boundary layer wind tunnel. A thick turbulent boundary layer is developed in the 1 m high air channel, over the water surface, allowing for the study of boundary layer turbulence interacting with a wind-driven wave field.
Influence of Sea Surface Roughness on the Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in the Duct Environment
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
X. Zhao
2010-12-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with a study of the influence of sea surface roughness on the electromagnetic wave propagation in the duct environment. The problem of electromagnetic wave propagation is modeled by using the parabolic equation method. The roughness of the sea surface is computed by modifying the smooth surface Fresnel reflection coefficient to account for the reduction in the specular reflection due to the roughness resulting from sea wind speed. The propagation model is solved by the mixed Fourier split-step algorithm. Numerical experiments indicate that wind-driven roughened sea surface has an impact on the electromagnetic wave propagation in the duct environment, and the strength is intensified along with the increment of sea wind speeds and/or the operating frequencies. In a fixed duct environment, however, proper disposition of the transmitter could reduce these impacts.
Observation of sagittal X-ray diffraction by surface acoustic waves in Bragg geometry.
Vadilonga, Simone; Zizak, Ivo; Roshchupkin, Dmitry; Evgenii, Emelin; Petsiuk, Andrei; Leitenberger, Wolfram; Erko, Alexei
2017-04-01
X-ray Bragg diffraction in sagittal geometry on a Y-cut langasite crystal (La 3 Ga 5 SiO 14 ) modulated by Λ = 3 µm Rayleigh surface acoustic waves was studied at the BESSY II synchrotron radiation facility. Owing to the crystal lattice modulation by the surface acoustic wave diffraction, satellites appear. Their intensity and angular separation depend on the amplitude and wavelength of the ultrasonic superlattice. Experimental results are compared with the corresponding theoretical model that exploits the kinematical diffraction theory. This experiment shows that the propagation of the surface acoustic waves creates a dynamical diffraction grating on the crystal surface, and this can be used for space-time modulation of an X-ray beam.
A differential optical interferometer for measuring short pulses of surface acoustic waves.
Shaw, Anurupa; Teyssieux, Damien; Laude, Vincent
2017-09-01
The measurement of the displacements caused by the propagation of a short pulse of surface acoustic waves on a solid substrate is investigated. A stabilized time-domain differential interferometer is proposed, with the surface acoustic wave (SAW) sample placed outside the interferometer. Experiments are conducted with surface acoustic waves excited by a chirped interdigital transducer on a piezoelectric lithium niobate substrate having an operational bandwidth covering the 200-400MHz frequency range and producing 10-ns pulses with 36nm maximum out-of-plane displacement. The interferometric response is compared with a direct electrical measurement obtained with a receiving wide bandwidth interdigital transducer and good correspondence is observed. The effects of varying the path difference of the interferometer and the measurement position on the surface are discussed. Pulse compression along the chirped interdigital transducer is observed experimentally. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Effect of irregularity on torsional surface waves in an initially ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
initially stressed anisotropic porous layer sandwiched between ... layer under a rigid boundary and lying over an ..... surface is flat, the above boundary condition reduces to ..... Gubbins D 1990 Seismology and plate tectonics; Cambridge.
Excitation of Surface Electromagnetic Waves on Railroad Rail
1978-03-31
UMTA's Office of Rail Technology research programs aim to improve urban rail transportation systems safety. This rail-transit research study attempts to develop an onboard, separate and independent obstacle-detection system--Surface Electromagnetic W...
Pan, Yudi; Gao, Lingli; Bohlen, Thomas
2018-05-01
Correct estimation of near-surface seismic-wave velocity when encountering lateral heterogeneity and free surface topography is one of the challenges to current shallow seismic. We propose to use time-domain full-waveform inversion (FWI) of surface waves, including both Rayleigh and Love waves, to solve this problem. We adopt a 2D time-domain finite-difference method with an improved vacuum formulation (IVF) to simulate shallow-seismic Rayleigh wave in presence of free-surface topography. We modify the IVF for SH-wave equation for the simulation of Love wave in presence of topographic free surface and prove its accuracy by benchmark tests. Checkboard model tests are performed in both cases when free-surface topography is included or neglected in FWI. Synthetic model containing a dipping planar free surface and lateral heterogeneity was then tested, in both cases of considering and neglecting free-surface topography. Both checkerboard and synthetic models show that Rayleigh- and Love-wave FWI have similar ability of reconstructing near-surface structures when free-surface topography is considered, while Love-wave FWI could reconstruct near-surface structures better than Rayleigh-wave when free-surface topography is neglected.
Modelling offshore sand wave evolution
Nemeth, Attila; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.; van Damme, Rudolf M.J.
2007-01-01
We present a two-dimensional vertical (2DV) flow and morphological numerical model describing the behaviour of offshore sand waves. The model contains the 2DV shallow water equations, with a free water surface and a general bed load formula. The water movement is coupled to the sediment transport
Ashraf, M. A. M.; Kumar, N. S.; Yusoh, R.; Hazreek, Z. A. M.; Aziman, M.
2018-04-01
Site classification utilizing average shear wave velocity (Vs(30) up to 30 meters depth is a typical parameter. Numerous geophysical methods have been proposed for estimation of shear wave velocity by utilizing assortment of testing configuration, processing method, and inversion algorithm. Multichannel Analysis of Surface Wave (MASW) method is been rehearsed by numerous specialist and professional to geotechnical engineering for local site characterization and classification. This study aims to determine the site classification on soft and hard ground using MASW method. The subsurface classification was made utilizing National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NERHP) and international Building Code (IBC) classification. Two sites are chosen to acquire the shear wave velocity which is in the state of Pulau Pinang for soft soil and Perlis for hard rock. Results recommend that MASW technique can be utilized to spatially calculate the distribution of shear wave velocity (Vs(30)) in soil and rock to characterize areas.
Skeletonized inversion of surface wave: Active source versus controlled noise comparison
Li, Jing; Hanafy, Sherif
2016-01-01
We have developed a skeletonized inversion method that inverts the S-wave velocity distribution from surface-wave dispersion curves. Instead of attempting to fit every wiggle in the surface waves with predicted data, it only inverts the picked dispersion curve, thereby mitigating the problem of getting stuck in a local minimum. We have applied this method to a synthetic model and seismic field data from Qademah fault, located at the western side of Saudi Arabia. For comparison, we have performed dispersion analysis for an active and controlled noise source seismic data that had some receivers in common with the passive array. The active and passive data show good agreement in the dispersive characteristics. Our results demonstrated that skeletonized inversion can obtain reliable 1D and 2D S-wave velocity models for our geologic setting. A limitation is that we need to build layered initial model to calculate the Jacobian matrix, which is time consuming.
Shi, Jinjie; Yazdi, Shahrzad; Lin, Sz-Chin Steven; Ding, Xiaoyun; Chiang, I-Kao; Sharp, Kendra; Huang, Tony Jun
2011-07-21
Three-dimensional (3D) continuous microparticle focusing has been achieved in a single-layer polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic channel using a standing surface acoustic wave (SSAW). The SSAW was generated by the interference of two identical surface acoustic waves (SAWs) created by two parallel interdigital transducers (IDTs) on a piezoelectric substrate with a microchannel precisely bonded between them. To understand the working principle of the SSAW-based 3D focusing and investigate the position of the focal point, we computed longitudinal waves, generated by the SAWs and radiated into the fluid media from opposite sides of the microchannel, and the resultant pressure and velocity fields due to the interference and reflection of the longitudinal waves. Simulation results predict the existence of a focusing point which is in good agreement with our experimental observations. Compared with other 3D focusing techniques, this method is non-invasive, robust, energy-efficient, easy to implement, and applicable to nearly all types of microparticles.
Skeletonized inversion of surface wave: Active source versus controlled noise comparison
Li, Jing
2016-07-14
We have developed a skeletonized inversion method that inverts the S-wave velocity distribution from surface-wave dispersion curves. Instead of attempting to fit every wiggle in the surface waves with predicted data, it only inverts the picked dispersion curve, thereby mitigating the problem of getting stuck in a local minimum. We have applied this method to a synthetic model and seismic field data from Qademah fault, located at the western side of Saudi Arabia. For comparison, we have performed dispersion analysis for an active and controlled noise source seismic data that had some receivers in common with the passive array. The active and passive data show good agreement in the dispersive characteristics. Our results demonstrated that skeletonized inversion can obtain reliable 1D and 2D S-wave velocity models for our geologic setting. A limitation is that we need to build layered initial model to calculate the Jacobian matrix, which is time consuming.
High-energy terahertz wave parametric oscillator with a surface-emitted ring-cavity configuration.
Yang, Zhen; Wang, Yuye; Xu, Degang; Xu, Wentao; Duan, Pan; Yan, Chao; Tang, Longhuang; Yao, Jianquan
2016-05-15
A surface-emitted ring-cavity terahertz (THz) wave parametric oscillator has been demonstrated for high-energy THz output and fast frequency tuning in a wide frequency range. Through the special optical design with a galvano-optical scanner and four-mirror ring-cavity structure, the maximum THz wave output energy of 12.9 μJ/pulse is achieved at 1.359 THz under the pump energy of 172.8 mJ. The fast THz frequency tuning in the range of 0.7-2.8 THz can be accessed with the step response of 600 μs. Moreover, the maximum THz wave output energy from this configuration is 3.29 times as large as that obtained from the conventional surface-emitted THz wave parametric oscillator with the same experimental conditions.
Effect of surface wave propagation in a four-layered oceanic crust model
Paul, Pasupati; Kundu, Santimoy; Mandal, Dinbandhu
2017-12-01
Dispersion of Rayleigh type surface wave propagation has been discussed in four-layered oceanic crust. It includes a sandy layer over a crystalline elastic half-space and over it there are two more layers—on the top inhomogeneous liquid layer and under it a liquid-saturated porous layer. Frequency equation is obtained in the form of determinant. The effects of the width of different layers as well as the inhomogeneity of liquid layer, sandiness of sandy layer on surface waves are depicted and shown graphically by considering all possible case of the particular model. Some special cases have been deduced, few special cases give the dispersion equation of Scholte wave and Stoneley wave, some of which have already been discussed elsewhere.
Terahertz Wave Propagation in a Nanotube Conveying Fluid Taking into Account Surface Effect
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bo Fang
2013-06-01
Full Text Available In nanoscale structure sizes, the surface-to-bulk energy ratio is high and the surface effects must be taken into account. Surface effect plays a key role in accurately predicting the vibration behavior of nanostructures. In this paper, the wave behaviors of a single-walled carbon nanotube (CNT conveying fluid are studied. The nonlocal Timoshenko beam theory is used and the surface effect is taken into account. It is found that the fluid can flow at a very high flow velocity and the wave propagates in the terahertz frequency range. The surface effects can significantly enhance the propagating frequency. This finding is different from the classical model where the surface effect is neglected.
Koju, Vijay
Photonic crystals and their use in exciting Bloch surface waves have received immense attention over the past few decades. This interest is mainly due to their applications in bio-sensing, wave-guiding, and other optical phenomena such as surface field enhanced Raman spectroscopy. Improvement in numerical modeling techniques, state of the art computing resources, and advances in fabrication techniques have also assisted in growing interest in this field. The ability to model photonic crystals computationally has benefited both the theoretical as well as experimental communities. It helps the theoretical physicists in solving complex problems which cannot be solved analytically and helps to acquire useful insights that cannot be obtained otherwise. Experimentalists, on the other hand, can test different variants of their devices by changing device parameters to optimize performance before fabrication. In this dissertation, we develop two commonly used numerical techniques, namely transfer matrix method, and rigorous coupled wave analysis, in C++ and MATLAB, and use two additional software packages, one open-source and another commercial, to model one-dimensional photonic crystals. Different variants of one-dimensional multilayered structures such as perfectly periodic dielectric multilayers, quasicrystals, aperiodic multilayer are modeled, along with one-dimensional photonic crystals with gratings on the top layer. Applications of Bloch surface waves, along with new and novel aperiodic dielectric multilayer structures that support Bloch surface waves are explored in this dissertation. We demonstrate a slow light configuration that makes use of Bloch Surface Waves as an intermediate excitation in a double-prism tunneling configuration. This method is simple compared to the more usual techniques for slowing light using the phenomenon of electromagnetically induced transparency in atomic gases or doped ionic crystals operated at temperatures below 4K. Using a semi
Radar cross-section (RCS) analysis of high frequency surface wave radar targets
ÇAKIR, Gonca; SEVGİ, Levent
2010-01-01
Realistic high frequency surface wave radar (HFSWR) targets are investigated numerically in terms of electromagnetic wave -- target interactions. Radar cross sections (RCS) of these targets are simulated via both the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method and the Method of Moments (MoM). The virtual RCS prediction tool that was introduced in previous work is used for these investigations. The virtual tool automatically creates the discrete FDTD model of the target under investi...
Joint body and surface wave tomography applied to the Toba caldera complex (Indonesia)
Jaxybulatov, Kairly; Koulakov, Ivan; Shapiro, Nikolai
2016-04-01
We developed a new algorithm for a joint body and surface wave tomography. The algorithm is a modification of the existing LOTOS code (Koulakov, 2009) developed for local earthquake tomography. The input data for the new method are travel times of P and S waves and dispersion curves of Rayleigh and Love waves. The main idea is that the two data types have complementary sensitivities. The body-wave data have good resolution at depth, where we have enough crossing rays between sources and receivers, whereas the surface waves have very good near-surface resolution. The surface wave dispersion curves can be retrieved from the correlations of the ambient seismic noise and in this case the sampled path distribution does not depend on the earthquake sources. The contributions of the two data types to the inversion are controlled by the weighting of the respective equations. One of the clearest cases where such approach may be useful are volcanic systems in subduction zones with their complex magmatic feeding systems that have deep roots in the mantle and intermediate magma chambers in the crust. In these areas, the joint inversion of different types of data helps us to build a comprehensive understanding of the entire system. We apply our algorithm to data collected in the region surrounding the Toba caldera complex (north Sumatra, Indonesia) during two temporary seismic experiments (IRIS, PASSCAL, 1995, GFZ, LAKE TOBA, 2008). We invert 6644 P and 5240 S wave arrivals and ~500 group velocity dispersion curves of Rayleigh and Love waves. We present a series of synthetic tests and real data inversions which show that joint inversion approach gives more reliable results than the separate inversion of two data types. Koulakov, I., LOTOS code for local earthquake tomographic inversion. Benchmarks for testing tomographic algorithms, Bull. seism. Soc. Am., 99(1), 194-214, 2009, doi:10.1785/0120080013
New specimen design for studying the growth of small fatigue cracks with surface acoustic waves
London, Blair
1985-08-01
The study of small surface fatigue cracks in AISI 4140 quenched and tempered steel by a nondestructive surface acoustic wave technique is summarized. A novel cantilevered bending, plate-type fatigue specimen is described that is compatible with the acoustic method. Small cracks are initiated from a 25-μm deep surface pit produced by an electrospark machine. The importance of studying these cracks which closely approximate naturally occurring fatigue cracks is briefly discussed.
Surface/state correspondence and bulk local operators in pp-wave holography
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nakwoo Kim
2015-12-01
Full Text Available We apply the surface/state correspondence proposal of Miyaji et al. to IIB pp-waves and propose that the bulk local operators should be instantonic D-branes. In line with ordinary AdS/CFT correspondence, the bulk local operators in pp-waves also create a hole, or a boundary, in the dual gauge theory as pointed out by H. Verlinde, and by Y. Nakayama and H. Ooguri. We also present simple calculations which illustrate how to extract the spacetime metric of pp-waves from instantonic D-branes in boundary state formalism.
Diffraction of a plane wave on two-dimensional conductive structures and a surface wave
Davidovich, Mikhael V.
2018-04-01
We consider the structures type of two-dimensional electron gas in the form of a thin conductive, in particular, graphene films described by tensor conductivity, which are isolated or located on the dielectric layers. The dispersion equation for hybrid modes, as well as scattering parameters. We show that free wave (eigenwaves) problem follow from the problem of diffraction when linking the amplitude of the current of the linear equations are unsolvable, i.e., the determinant of this system is zero. As a particular case the dispersion equation follow from the conditions of matching (with zero reflection coefficient).
Interaction of the precessional wave with free-boundary Alfven surface waves in tandem mirrors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berk, H.L.; Kaiser, T.B.
1984-04-01
We consider a symmetric tandem mirror plugging a long central cell, with plugs stabilized by a hot component plasma. The system is taken to have a flat pressure profile with a steep edge gradient. We then consider the interaction of the precessional mode with Alfven waves generated in the central cell. This analysis is non-eikonal and is valid when mΔ/r < 1 (m is the azimuthal mode number. r the plasma radius and Δ the radial gradient scale length) for long-wavelength radial modes. We find that without FLR effects the precessional mode is always destabilized by the excitation of the Alfven waves for m greater than or equal to 2. For m=1, it is possible to achieve stabilization with conducting walls. A discussion is given of how FLR affects stabilization of the m greater than or equal to 2 long-wavelength modes and of finite-Larmor-radius stabilization of modes described in the eikonal approximation
Observation of Atom Wave Phase Shifts Induced by Van Der Waals Atom-Surface Interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Perreault, John D.; Cronin, Alexander D.
2005-01-01
The development of nanotechnology and atom optics relies on understanding how atoms behave and interact with their environment. Isolated atoms can exhibit wavelike (coherent) behavior with a corresponding de Broglie wavelength and phase which can be affected by nearby surfaces. Here an atom interferometer is used to measure the phase shift of Na atom waves induced by the walls of a 50 nm wide cavity. To our knowledge this is the first direct measurement of the de Broglie wave phase shift caused by atom-surface interactions. The magnitude of the phase shift is in agreement with that predicted by Lifshitz theory for a nonretarded van der Waals interaction. This experiment also demonstrates that atom waves can retain their coherence even when atom-surface distances are as small as 10 nm
Effect of air gap on uniformity of large-scale surface-wave plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lan Chaohui; Hu Xiwei; Jiang Zhonghe; Liu Minghai
2009-01-01
The effect of air gap on the uniformity of large-scale surface-wave plasma (SWP) in a rectangular chamber device is studied by using three-dimensional numerical analyses based on the finite difference time-domain (FDTD) approximation to Maxwell's equations and plasma fluid model. The spatial distributions of surface wave excited by slot-antenna array and the plasma parameters such as electron density and temperature are presented. For different air gap thicknesses, the results show that the existence of air gap would severely weaken the excitations of the surface wave and thereby the SWP. Thus the air gap should be eliminated completely in the design of the SWP source, which is opposite to the former research results. (authors)
Shukla-Spatschek diffusion effects on surface plasma waves in astrophysical turbulent plasmas
Lee, Myoung-Jae; Jung, Young-Dae
2017-02-01
The effects of Shukla-Spatschek turbulent diffusion on a temporal mode of surface waves propagating at the interface of an astrophysical turbulent plasma are investigated. The damping rates for high and low modes of surface wave are kinetically derived by employing the Vlasov-Poisson equation and the specular reflection boundary condition. We found that the diffusion caused by the fluctuating electric fields leads to damping for both high and low modes of surface waves. The high-mode damping is enhanced with an increase of the wavenumber and the diffusion coefficient, but suppressed by an increase of electron thermal energy. By contrast, the low-mode damping is suppressed as the wavenumber and the thermal energy increase although it is enhanced as the diffusion increases. The variation of the damping rate due to the Shukla-Spatschek turbulent diffusion is also discussed.
A Low-Cost Energy-Efficient Cableless Geophone Unit for Passive Surface Wave Surveys.
Dai, Kaoshan; Li, Xiaofeng; Lu, Chuan; You, Qingyu; Huang, Zhenhua; Wu, H Felix
2015-09-25
The passive surface wave survey is a practical, non-invasive seismic exploration method that has increasingly been used in geotechnical engineering. However, in situ deployment of traditional wired geophones is labor intensive for a dense sensor array. Alternatively, stand-alone seismometers can be used, but they are bulky, heavy, and expensive because they are usually designed for long-term monitoring. To better facilitate field applications of the passive surface wave survey, a low-cost energy-efficient geophone system was developed in this study. The hardware design is presented in this paper. To validate the system's functionality, both laboratory and field experiments were conducted. The unique feature of this newly-developed cableless geophone system allows for rapid field applications of the passive surface wave survey with dense array measurements.
Improved surface-wave retrieval from ambient seismic noise by multi-dimensional deconvolution
Wapenaar, Kees; Ruigrok, Elmer; van der Neut, Joost; Draganov, Deyan
2011-01-01
The methodology of surface-wave retrieval from ambient seismic noise by crosscorrelation relies on the assumption that the noise field is equipartitioned. Deviations from equipartitioning degrade the accuracy of the retrieved surface-wave Green's function. A point-spread function, derived from the same ambient noise field, quantifies the smearing in space and time of the virtual source of the Green's function. By multidimensionally deconvolving the retrieved Green's function by the point-spread function, the virtual source becomes better focussed in space and time and hence the accuracy of the retrieved surface-wave Green's function may improve significantly. We illustrate this at the hand of a numerical example and discuss the advantages and limitations of this new methodology.
Influence of the electromagnetic parameters on the surface wave attenuation in thin absorbing layers
Li, Yinrui; Li, Dongmeng; Wang, Xian; Nie, Yan; Gong, Rongzhou
2018-05-01
This paper describes the relationships between the surface wave attenuation properties and the electromagnetic parameters of radar absorbing materials (RAMs). In order to conveniently obtain the attenuation constant of TM surface waves over a wide frequency range, the simplified dispersion equations in thin absorbing materials were firstly deduced. The validity of the proposed method was proved by comparing with the classical dispersion equations. Subsequently, the attenuation constants were calculated separately for the absorbing layers with hypothetical relative permittivity and permeability. It is found that the surface wave attenuation properties can be strongly tuned by the permeability of RAM. Meanwhile, the permittivity should be appropriate so as to maintain high cutoff frequency. The present work provides specific methods and designs to improve the attenuation performances of radar absorbing materials.
Apertureless SNOM imaging of the surface phonon polariton waves: what do we measure?
Kazantsev, D. V.; Ryssel, H.
2013-10-01
The apertureless scanning near-field microscope (ASNOM) mapping of surface phonon polariton (SPP) waves being excited at the surface of the SiC polar crystal at a frequency corresponding to the lattice resonance was investigated. The wave with well-defined direction and source position, as well as a well-known propagation law, was used to calibrate the signal of an ASNOM. An experimental proof is presented showing that the signal collected by the ASNOM in such a case is proportional (as a complex number) to the local field amplitude above the surface, regardless of the tip response model. It is shown that the expression describing an ASNOM response, which is, in general case, rather complicated nonlinear function of a surface/tip dielectric constants, wavelength, tip vibration amplitude, tip shape etc., can be dramatically simplified in the case of the SPP waves mapping in a mid-IR range, due to a lucky combination of the tip and surface parameters for the case being considered. A tip vibration amplitude is much less than a running SPP wave field decay height in a normal direction. At the same time, the tip amplitude is larger than a characteristic distance at which a tip-surface electromagnetic near-field interaction plays a significant role.
Multiharmonic Frequency-Chirped Transducers for Surface-Acoustic-Wave Optomechanics
Weiß, Matthias; Hörner, Andreas L.; Zallo, Eugenio; Atkinson, Paola; Rastelli, Armando; Schmidt, Oliver G.; Wixforth, Achim; Krenner, Hubert J.
2018-01-01
Wide-passband interdigital transducers are employed to establish a stable phase lock between a train of laser pulses emitted by a mode-locked laser and a surface acoustic wave generated electrically by the transducer. The transducer design is based on a multiharmonic split-finger architecture for the excitation of a fundamental surface acoustic wave and a discrete number of its overtones. Simply by introducing a variation of the transducer's periodicity p , a frequency chirp is added. This combination results in wide frequency bands for each harmonic. The transducer's conversion efficiency from the electrical to the acoustic domain is characterized optomechanically using single quantum dots acting as nanoscale pressure sensors. The ability to generate surface acoustic waves over a wide band of frequencies enables advanced acousto-optic spectroscopy using mode-locked lasers with fixed repetition rate. Stable phase locking between the electrically generated acoustic wave and the train of laser pulses is confirmed by performing stroboscopic spectroscopy on a single quantum dot at a frequency of 320 MHz. Finally, the dynamic spectral modulation of the quantum dot is directly monitored in the time domain combining stable phase-locked optical excitation and time-correlated single-photon counting. The demonstrated scheme will be particularly useful for the experimental implementation of surface-acoustic-wave-driven quantum gates of optically addressable qubits or collective quantum states or for multicomponent Fourier synthesis of tailored nanomechanical waveforms.
Body and Surface Wave Modeling of Observed Seismic Events
1981-04-30
mechanisms for foreshock , mainshock, and aftershock sequences using Seismic Research Observatory (SRO) data, EOS, 57(12), p. 954, 1976. Bache, T.C., W.L...the event as well as that of the immediate foreshock were 95 located (Allen and Nordquist, 1972) and where the largest surface displacements were...1972). Foreshock , main shock and larger aftershocks of the Borrego Mountain earthquake, U. S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 787, 16-23. Bache
Parisi, Laura; Ferreira, Ana M.G.
2016-01-01
The surface wave full ray theory (FRT) is an efficient tool to calculate synthetic waveforms of surface waves. It combines the concept of local modes with exact ray tracing as a function of frequency, providing a more complete description of surface
Modulation of surface meteorological parameters by extratropical planetary-scale Rossby waves
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. Niranjan Kumar
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This study examines the link between upper-tropospheric planetary-scale Rossby waves and surface meteorological parameters based on the observations made in association with the Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment (GVAX campaign at an extratropical site at Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences, Nainital (29.45° N, 79.5° E during November–December 2011. The spectral analysis of the tropospheric wind field from radiosonde measurements indicates a predominance power of around 8 days in the upper troposphere during the observational period. An analysis of the 200 hPa meridional wind (v200 hPa anomalies from the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA reanalysis shows distinct Rossby-wave-like structures over a high-altitude site in the central Himalayan region. Furthermore, the spectral analysis of global v200 hPa anomalies indicates the Rossby waves are characterized by zonal wave number 6. The amplification of the Rossby wave packets over the site leads to persistent subtropical jet stream (STJ patterns, which further affects the surface weather conditions. The propagating Rossby waves in the upper troposphere along with the undulations in the STJ create convergence and divergence regions in the mid-troposphere. Therefore, the surface meteorological parameters such as the relative humidity, wind speeds, and temperature are synchronized with the phase of the propagating Rossby waves. Moreover, the present study finds important implications for medium-range forecasting through the upper-level Rossby waves over the study region.
Filamentation of a surface plasma wave over a semiconductor-free space interface
Kumar, Gagan; Tripathi, V. K.
2007-12-01
A large amplitude surface plasma wave (SPW), propagating over a semiconductor-free space interface, is susceptible to filamentation instability. A small perturbation in the amplitude of the SPW across the direction of propagation exerts a ponderomotive force on free electrons and holes, causing spatial modulation in free carrier density and hence the effective permittivity ɛeff of the semiconductor. The regions with higher ɛeff attract more power from the nieghborhood, leading to the growth of the perturbation. The growth rate increases with the intensity of the surface wave. It decreases with the frequency of the SPW.
Cylindrical stationary striations in surface wave produced plasma columns of argon
Kumar, Rajneesh; Kulkarni, Sanjay V.; Bora, Dhiraj
2007-12-01
Striations are a good example of manifestation of a glow discharge. In the present investigation, stationary striations in the surface wave produced plasma column are formed. Physical parameters (length, number, etc.) of such striations can be controlled by operating parameters. With the help of bifurcation theory, experimental results are explained by considering two-step ionization in the surface wave discharge mechanism in argon gas. It is also observed that the bifurcation parameter is a function of input power, working pressure, and tube radius.
Surface Acoustic Wave Monitor for Deposition and Analysis of Ultra-Thin Films
Hines, Jacqueline H. (Inventor)
2015-01-01
A surface acoustic wave (SAW) based thin film deposition monitor device and system for monitoring the deposition of ultra-thin films and nanomaterials and the analysis thereof is characterized by acoustic wave device embodiments that include differential delay line device designs, and which can optionally have integral reference devices fabricated on the same substrate as the sensing device, or on a separate device in thermal contact with the film monitoring/analysis device, in order to provide inherently temperature compensated measurements. These deposition monitor and analysis devices can include inherent temperature compensation, higher sensitivity to surface interactions than quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) devices, and the ability to operate at extreme temperatures.
Effect of surface modes on coupling to fast waves in the LHRF
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pinsker, R.I.; Colestock, P.L.
1990-01-01
The effect of surface modes of propagation on coupling to fast waves in the LHRF is studied theoretically and experimentally. The previously reported 'up-down' poloidal phasing asymmetry for coupling to a uniform plasma is shown to be due to the properties of a mode which carries energy along the plasma-conducting wall interface. Comparison of the theory with coupling experiments performed on the PLT tokamak with a phased array of twelve dielectric-loaded waveguides at 800 MHz shows that the observed dependence of the net reflection coefficient on toroidal phase angle can be explained only if the surface wave is taken into account. 43 refs., 10 figs
Mode conversion and its utilization of degenerating surface wave modes on a plasma column
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nonaka, S.; Akao, Y.
1983-01-01
Both mode conversion at degenerating points of dispersion relations for surface wave modes on a discharge plasma column and the methods for their detection and utilization are presented. Mode conversions at three degenerating points become observable by using a surface wave resonator when an azimuthal inhomogeneity of plasma is produced by a static magnetic field of about 1 G applied perpendicular to the column axis. Two of the three detected degenerating points can be utilized for an easy and exact determination of the electron density and its distribution in the discharge tube
Incorporating Floating Surface Objects into a Fully Dispersive Surface Wave Model
2016-04-19
Bateman c , Joseph Calantoni c , James T. Kirby b a NRL Code 7320, 1009 Balch Blvd, Stennis Space Center, MS 39529 USA b Center for Applied Coastal...wave prop- agation. J. Waterway Port Coast. Ocean Eng. 119, 618–638 . rzech, M., Shi, F., Calantoni, J., Bateman , S., Veeramony, J., 2014. Small-scale...F., Bateman , S., Calantoni, J., 2016. Modeling small- scale physics of waves and ice in the MIZ. AGU 2016 Ocean Sciences Meeting, Session 9483
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cotrino, J.; Gamero, A.; Sola, A.; Lao, C.
1989-01-01
During the first instant, previous to steady-state in a surface-wave-produced plasma, an ionization front advance front the launcher to the plasma column end. The velocity of the ionization front is much slower than the group velocity of the surface wave, this give a reflection of the incident signal on the moving ionization front. In this paper, the authors use this effect to calculate the surface wave group velocity
Surface wave effects in the NEMO ocean model: Forced and coupled experiments
Breivik, Øyvind; Mogensen, Kristian; Bidlot, Jean-Raymond; Balmaseda, Magdalena Alonso; Janssen, Peter A. E. M.
2015-04-01
The NEMO general circulation ocean model is extended to incorporate three physical processes related to ocean surface waves, namely the surface stress (modified by growth and dissipation of the oceanic wavefield), the turbulent kinetic energy flux from breaking waves, and the Stokes-Coriolis force. Experiments are done with NEMO in ocean-only (forced) mode and coupled to the ECMWF atmospheric and wave models. Ocean-only integrations are forced with fields from the ERA-Interim reanalysis. All three effects are noticeable in the extratropics, but the sea-state-dependent turbulent kinetic energy flux yields by far the largest difference. This is partly because the control run has too vigorous deep mixing due to an empirical mixing term in NEMO. We investigate the relation between this ad hoc mixing and Langmuir turbulence and find that it is much more effective than the Langmuir parameterization used in NEMO. The biases in sea surface temperature as well as subsurface temperature are reduced, and the total ocean heat content exhibits a trend closer to that observed in a recent ocean reanalysis (ORAS4) when wave effects are included. Seasonal integrations of the coupled atmosphere-wave-ocean model consisting of NEMO, the wave model ECWAM, and the atmospheric model of ECMWF similarly show that the sea surface temperature biases are greatly reduced when the mixing is controlled by the sea state and properly weighted by the thickness of the uppermost level of the ocean model. These wave-related physical processes were recently implemented in the operational coupled ensemble forecast system of ECMWF.
Impact of dissipation on the energy spectrum of experimental turbulence of gravity surface waves
Campagne, Antoine; Hassaini, Roumaissa; Redor, Ivan; Sommeria, Joël; Valran, Thomas; Viboud, Samuel; Mordant, Nicolas
2018-04-01
We discuss the impact of dissipation on the development of the energy spectrum in wave turbulence of gravity surface waves with emphasis on the effect of surface contamination. We performed experiments in the Coriolis facility, which is a 13-m-diam wave tank. We took care of cleaning surface contamination as well as possible, considering that the surface of water exceeds 100 m2. We observe that for the cleanest condition the frequency energy spectrum shows a power-law decay extending up to the gravity capillary crossover (14 Hz) with a spectral exponent that is increasing with the forcing strength and decaying with surface contamination. Although slightly higher than reported previously in the literature, the exponent for the cleanest water remains significantly below the prediction from the weak turbulence theory. By discussing length and time scales, we show that weak turbulence cannot be expected at frequencies above 3 Hz. We observe with a stereoscopic reconstruction technique that the increase with the forcing strength of energy spectrum beyond 3 Hz is mostly due to the formation and strengthening of bound waves.
Mozhaev, V G; Weihnacht, M
2000-07-01
The extraordinary case of increase in velocity of surface acoustic waves (SAW) caused by electrical shorting of the surface of the superstrong piezoelectric crystal potassium niobate, KNbO3, is numerically found. The explanation of this effect is based on considering SAWs as coupled Rayleigh and Bleustein-Gulyaev modes. A general procedure of approximate decoupling of the modes is suggested for piezoelectric crystals of arbitrary anisotropy. The effect under study takes place when the phase velocity of uncoupled sagittally polarized Rayleigh waves is intermediate between the phase velocities of uncoupled shear-horizontal Bleustein Gulyaev waves at the free and metallized surfaces. In this case, the metallization of the surface by an infinitely thin layer may cause a crossover of the velocity curves of the uncoupled waves. The presence of the mode coupling results in splitting of the curves with transition from one uncoupled branch to the other. This transition is responsible for the increase in SAW velocity, which appears to be greater than its common decrease produced by electrical shorting of the substrate surface.
Ciliary metachronal wave propagation on the compliant surface of Paramecium cells.
Narematsu, Naoki; Quek, Raymond; Chiam, Keng-Hwee; Iwadate, Yoshiaki
2015-12-01
Ciliary movements in protozoa exhibit metachronal wave-like coordination, in which a constant phase difference is maintained between adjacent cilia. It is at present generally thought that metachronal waves require hydrodynamic coupling between adjacent cilia and the extracellular fluid. To test this hypothesis, we aspirated a Paramecium cell using a micropipette which completely sealed the surface of the cell such that no fluid could pass through the micropipette. Thus, the anterior and the posterior regions of the cell were hydrodynamically decoupled. Nevertheless, we still observed that metachronal waves continued to propagate from the anterior to the posterior ends of the cell, suggesting that in addition to hydrodynamic coupling, there are other mechanisms that can also transmit the metachronal waves. Such transmission was also observed in computational modeling where the fluid was fully decoupled between two partitions of a beating ciliary array. We also imposed cyclic stretching on the surface of live Paramecium cells and found that metachronal waves persisted in the presence of cyclic stretching. This demonstrated that, in addition to hydrodynamic coupling, a compliant substrate can also play a critical role in mediating the propagation of metachronal waves. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Ray splitting in the reflection and refraction of surface acoustic waves in anisotropic solids.
Every, A G; Maznev, A A
2010-05-01
This paper examines the conditions for, and provides examples of, ray splitting in the reflection and refraction of surface acoustic waves (SAW) in elastically anisotropic solids at straight obstacles such as edges, surface breaking cracks, and interfaces between different solids. The concern here is not with the partial scattering of an incident SAW's energy into bulk waves, but with the occurrence of more than one SAW ray in the reflected and/or transmitted wave fields, by analogy with birefringence in optics and mode conversion of bulk elastic waves at interfaces. SAW ray splitting is dependent on the SAW slowness curve possessing concave regions, which within the constraint of wave vector conservation parallel to the obstacle allows multiple outgoing SAW modes for certain directions of incidence and orientation of obstacle. The existence of pseudo-SAW for a given surface provides a further channel for ray splitting. This paper discusses some typical material configurations for which SAW ray splitting occurs. An example is provided of mode conversion entailing backward reflection or negative refraction. Experimental demonstration of ray splitting in the reflection of a laser generated SAW in GaAs(111) is provided. The calculation of SAW mode conversion amplitudes lies outside the scope of this paper.
Multichannel analysis of the surface waves of earth materials in some parts of Lagos State, Nigeria
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Adegbola R.B.
2016-09-01
Full Text Available We present a method that utilizes multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW, which was used to measure shear wave velocities, with a view to establishing the probable causes of road failure, subsidence and weakening of structures in some local government areas in Lagos, Nigeria. MASW data were acquired using a 24-channel seismograph. The acquired data were processed and transformed into a two-dimensional (2-D structure reflective of the depth and surface wave velocity distribution within a depth of 0–15 m beneath the surface using SURFSEIS software. The shear wave velocity data were compared with other geophysical/ borehole data that were acquired along the same profile. The comparison and correlation illustrate the accuracy and consistency of MASW-derived shear wave velocity profiles. Rigidity modulus and N-value were also generated. The study showed that the low velocity/ very low velocity data are reflective of organic clay/ peat materials and thus likely responsible for the failure, subsidence and weakening of structures within the study areas.
Seismic interferometry of railroad induced ground motions: body and surface wave imaging
Quiros, Diego A.; Brown, Larry D.; Kim, Doyeon
2016-04-01
Seismic interferometry applied to 120 hr of railroad traffic recorded by an array of vertical component seismographs along a railway within the Rio Grande rift has recovered surface and body waves characteristic of the geology beneath the railway. Linear and hyperbolic arrivals are retrieved that agree with surface (Rayleigh), direct and reflected P waves observed by nearby conventional seismic surveys. Train-generated Rayleigh waves span a range of frequencies significantly higher than those recovered from typical ambient noise interferometry studies. Direct P-wave arrivals have apparent velocities appropriate for the shallow geology of the survey area. Significant reflected P-wave energy is also present at relatively large offsets. A common midpoint stack produces a reflection image consistent with nearby conventional reflection data. We suggest that for sources at the free surface (e.g. trains) increasing the aperture of the array to record wide angle reflections, in addition to longer recording intervals, might allow the recovery of deeper geological structure from railroad traffic. Frequency-wavenumber analyses of these recordings indicate that the train source is symmetrical (i.e. approaching and receding) and that deeper refracted energy is present although not evident in the time-offset domain. These results confirm that train-generated vibrations represent a practical source of high-resolution subsurface information, with particular relevance to geotechnical and environmental applications.
Lamb wave tuning curve calibration for surface-bonded piezoelectric transducers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sohn, Hoon; Lee, Sang Jun
2010-01-01
Surface-bonded lead zirconate titanate (PZT) transducers have been widely used for guided wave generation and measurement. For selective actuation and sensing of Lamb wave modes, the sizes of the transducers and the driving frequency of the input waveform should be tuned. For this purpose, a theoretical Lamb wave tuning curve (LWTC) of a specific transducer size is generally obtained. Here, the LWTC plots each Lamb wave mode' amplitude as a function of the driving frequency. However, a discrepancy between experimental and existing theoretical LWTCs has been observed due to little consideration of the bonding layer and the energy distribution between Lamb wave modes. In this study, calibration techniques for theoretical LWTCs are proposed. First, a theoretical LWTC is developed when circular PZT transducers are used for both Lamb wave excitation and sensing. Then, the LWTC is calibrated by estimating the effective PZT size with PZT admittance measurement. Finally, the energy distributions among symmetric and antisymmetric modes are taken into account for better prediction of the relative amplitudes between Lamb wave modes. The effectiveness of the proposed calibration techniques is examined through numerical simulations and experimental estimation of the LWTC using the circular PZT transducers instrumented on an aluminum plate
Detection of heat wave using Kalpana-1 VHRR land surface temperature product over India
Shah, Dhiraj; Pandya, Mehul R.; Pathak, Vishal N.; Darji, Nikunj P.; Trivedi, Himanshu J.
2016-05-01
Heat Waves can have notable impacts on human mortality, ecosystem, economics and energy supply. The effect of heat wave is much more intense during summer than the other seasons. During the period of April to June, spells of very hot weather occur over certain regions of India and global warming scenario may result in further increases of such temperature anomalies and corresponding heat waves conditions. In this paper, satellite observations have been used to detect the heat wave conditions prevailing over India for the period of May-June 2015. The Kalpana-1 VHRR derived land surface temperature (LST) products have been used in the analysis to detect the heat wave affected regions over India. Results from the analysis shows the detection of heat wave affected pixels over Indian land mass. It can be seen that during the study period the parts of the west India, Indo-gangetic plane, Telangana and part of Vidarbh was under severe heat wave conditions which is also confirmed with Automatic Weather Station (AWS) air temperature observations.
Simulation of ultrasonic surface waves with multi-Gaussian and point source beam models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhao, Xinyu; Schmerr, Lester W. Jr.; Li, Xiongbing; Sedov, Alexander
2014-01-01
In the past decade, multi-Gaussian beam models have been developed to solve many complicated bulk wave propagation problems. However, to date those models have not been extended to simulate the generation of Rayleigh waves. Here we will combine Gaussian beams with an explicit high frequency expression for the Rayleigh wave Green function to produce a three-dimensional multi-Gaussian beam model for the fields radiated from an angle beam transducer mounted on a solid wedge. Simulation results obtained with this model are compared to those of a point source model. It is shown that the multi-Gaussian surface wave beam model agrees well with the point source model while being computationally much more efficient
Mechanical Properties of Laminate Materials: From Surface Waves to Bloch Oscillations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Liang, Z.; Willatzen, Morten; Christensen, Johan
2015-01-01
for designing Bloch oscillations in classical plate structures and show how mechanical Bloch oscillations can be generated in arrays of solid plates when the modal wavelength is gradually reduced. The design recipe describes how Bloch oscillations in classical structures of arbitrary dimensions can be generated......We propose hitherto unexplored and fully analytical insights into laminate elastic materials in a true condensed-matter-physics spirit. Pure mechanical surface waves that decay as evanescent waves from the interface are discussed, and we demonstrate how these designer Scholte waves are controlled......, and we demonstrate this numerically for structures with millimeter and centimeter dimensions in the kilohertz to megahertz range. Analytical predictions agree entirely with full wave simulations showing how elastodynamics can mimic quantum-mechanical condensed-matter phenomena....
Near-surface viscosity measurements with a love acoustic wave device
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Collings, A.F.; Cooper, B.J.; Lappas, S.; Sor, J.A.
1999-01-01
Full text: In the last decade, considerable research effort has been directed towards interfacing piezoelectric transducers with biological detection systems to produce efficient and highly selective biosensors. Several types of piezoelectric or, more specifically, acoustic wave transducers have been investigated. Our group has developed Love wave (guided surface skimming wave) devices which are made by attaching a thin overlayer with the appropriate acoustic properties to the surface of a conventional surface horizontal mode device. An optimised layer concentrates most of the propagating wave energy in the guiding layer and can improve the device sensitivity in detecting gas-phase mass loading on the surface some 20- to 40-fold. Love wave devices used in liquid phase sensing will also respond to viscous, as well as mass, loading on the device surface. We have studied the propagation of viscous waves into liquid sitting on a Love wave device both theoretically and experimentally. Modelling of the effect of a viscous liquid layer on a Love wave propagating in a layered medium predicts the velocity profile in the solid substrate and in the adjoining liquid. This is a function of the thickness of the guiding layer, the elastic properties of the guiding layer and the piezoelectric substrate, and of the viscosity and density of the liquid layer. We report here on measurements of the viscosity of aqueous glycerine solutions made with a quartz Love wave device with a 5.5 μm SiO 2 guiding layer. The linear relationship between the decrease in the device frequency and the square root of the viscosity density product is accurately observed at Newtonian viscosities. At higher viscosities, there is an increase in damping, the insertion loss of the device saturates, Δf is no longer proportional to (ηp) l/2 and reaches a maximum. We also show results for the determination of the gelation time in protein and inorganic aqueous gels and for the rate of change of viscosity with
Graphene as a high impedance surface for ultra-wideband electromagnetic waves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aldrigo, Martino; Costanzo, Alessandra [Department of Electrical, Electronic, and Information Engineering “Guglielmo Marconi” – DEI, University of Bologna, Viale del Risorgimento, 2, 40132 Bologna (Italy); Dragoman, Mircea [National Institute for Research and Development in Microtechnology (IMT), P.O. Box 38-160, 023573 Bucharest (Romania); Dragoman, Daniela [Department of Physics, University of Bucharest, P.O. Box MG-11, 077125 Bucharest (Romania)
2013-11-14
The metals are regularly used as reflectors of electromagnetic fields emitted by antennas ranging from microwaves up to THz. To enhance the reflection and thus the gain of the antenna, metallic high impedance surfaces (HIS) are used. HIS is a planar array of continuous metallic periodic cell surfaces able to suppress surface waves, which cause multipath interference and backward radiation in a narrow bandwidth near the cell resonance. Also, the image currents are reduced, and therefore the antenna can be placed near the HIS. We demonstrate that graphene is acting as a HIS surface in a very large bandwidth, from microwave to THz, suppressing the radiation leakages better than a metal.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kumar, A.; Rao, K.S.; Srinivasan, M.
1983-01-01
The Trombay criticality formula (TCF) has been derived by incorporating a number of well-known concepts of criticality physics to enable prediction of changes in critical size or k /SUB eff/ following alterations in geometrical and physical parameters of uniformly reflected small reactor assemblies characterized by large neutron leakage from the core. The variant parameters considered are size, shape, density and diluent concentration of the core, and density and thickness of the reflector. The effect of these changes (except core size) manifests, through sigma /SUB c/ the critical surface mass density of the ''corresponding critical core,'' that sigma, the massto-surface-area ratio of the core,'' is essentially a measure of the product /rho/ extended to nonspherical systems and plays a dominant role in the TCF. The functional dependence of k /SUB eff/ on sigma/sigma /SUB c/ , the system size relative to critical, is expressed in the TCF through two alternative representations, namely the modified Wigner rational form and, an exponential form, which is given
Bloch surface wave structures for high sensitivity detection and compact waveguiding
Khan, Muhammad Umar; Corbett, Brian
2016-01-01
Resonant propagating waves created on the surface of a dielectric multilayer stack, called Bloch surface waves (BSW), can be designed for high sensitivity monitoring of the adjacent refractive index as an alternative platform to the metal-based surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensing. The resonant wavelength and polarization can be designed by engineering of the dielectric layers unlike the fixed resonance of SPR, while the wide bandwidth low loss of dielectrics permits sharper resonances, longer propagation lengths and thus their use in waveguiding devices. The transparency of the dielectrics allows the excitation and monitoring of surface-bound fluorescent molecules. We review the recent developments in this technology. We show the advantages that can be obtained by using high index contrast layered structures. Operating at 1550 nm wavelengths will allow the BSW sensors to be implemented in the silicon photonics platform where active waveguiding can be used in the realization of compact planar integrated circuits for multi-parameter sensing.
Mechanical characterisation of the first centimeters of concrete with surface waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chekroun, M.
2008-01-01
Cover concrete is the part of concrete structures directly in contact with the outside. Its thickness is a few centimetres and its main role is to protect reinforcement bars. Surface waves with wavelength varying from a few millimetres to a few centimetres are used to characterise this cover concrete. An estimation of the properties of the propagation of waves (phase and group velocities, damping factor) may allow us to evaluate mechanical properties and to detect possible damages. However, these waves will interact strongly with the numerous heterogeneities of the concrete (sand, aggregates,.) which dimensions are close to the wavelength. Waves will propagate in a multiple scattering regime. These effects have to be quantified in order to separate them from other effects linked to mechanical properties. An analytical and numerical study present theories of effective mediums to describe coherent wave propagation in an elastic matrix with random elastic inclusions. These models are then extended to take into account the viscoelasticity of the materials and the granulometry. We quantify with such model the importance of multiple scattering on surface wave propagation in concrete. Experimental measurements are carried on, using a specific protocol and efficient signal processing methods, allowing precise evaluation of phase and group velocity and of the damping factor of coherent surface waves on concrete or mortar slabs. The results show that these three parameters can provide complementary information on concrete properties (water to cement ratio, aggregate distribution,...), but also on other phenomenon like varying effective properties with depth. Effects of multiple scattering predicted by the model are experimentally observed, which opens interesting perspectives for the inverse problem. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xiong, Yan [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu 610500 (China); Oil and Gas Field Applied Chemistry Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu, 610500 (China); Tan, Jun; Wang, Chengjie; Zhu, Ying [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu 610500 (China); Fang, Shenwen [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu 610500 (China); Oil and Gas Field Applied Chemistry Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu, 610500 (China); Wu, Jiayi; Wang, Qing [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu 610500 (China); Duan, Ming, E-mail: swpua124@126.com [State Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu 610500 (China); School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu 610500 (China); Oil and Gas Field Applied Chemistry Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu, 610500 (China)
2016-11-15
In this work, a miniaturized sensor was integrated on fiber surface and developed for oxygen determination through evanescent-wave induced fluorescence quenching. The sensor was designed by using light emitting diode (LED) as light source and optical fiber as light transmission element. Tris(2,2′-bipyridyl) ruthenium ([Ru(bpy){sub 3}]{sup 2+}) fluorophore was immobilized in the organically modified silicates (ORMOSILs) film and coated onto the fiber surface. When light propagated by total internal reflection (TIR) in the fiber core, evanescent wave could be produced on the fiber surface and excite [Ru(bpy){sub 3}]{sup 2+} fluorophore to produce fluorescence emission. Then oxygen could be determinated by its quenching effect on the fluorescence and its concentration could be evaluated according to Stern–Volumer model. Through integrating evanescent wave excitation and fluorescence quenching on fiber surface, the sensor was successfully miniaturized and exhibit improved performances of high sensitivity (1.4), excellent repeatability (1.2%) and fast analysis (12 s) for oxygen determination. The sensor provided a newly portable method for in-situ and real-time measurement of oxygen and showed potential for practical oxygen analysis in different application fields. Furthermore, the fabrication of this sensor provides a miniaturized and portable detection platform for species monitoring by simple modular design. - Highlights: • ORMOSILs sensing film immobilized with [Ru(bpy){sub 3}]{sup 2+} fluorophore was coated on fiber surface. • Evanescent wave on the fiber surface was utilized as excitation source to produce fluorescence. • Oxygen was measured based on its quenching effect on evanescent wave-induce fluorescence. • Sensor fabrication was miniaturized by integrating detection and sensing elements on the fiber. • The modular design sensor provides a detection platform for other species monitoring.
Huang, N. E.; Long, S. R.
1980-01-01
Laboratory experiments were performed to measure the surface elevation probability density function and associated statistical properties for a wind-generated wave field. The laboratory data along with some limited field data were compared. The statistical properties of the surface elevation were processed for comparison with the results derived from the Longuet-Higgins (1963) theory. It is found that, even for the highly non-Gaussian cases, the distribution function proposed by Longuet-Higgins still gives good approximations.
Time-Frequency-Wavenumber Analysis of Surface Waves Using the Continuous Wavelet Transform
Poggi, V.; Fäh, D.; Giardini, D.
2013-03-01
A modified approach to surface wave dispersion analysis using active sources is proposed. The method is based on continuous recordings, and uses the continuous wavelet transform to analyze the phase velocity dispersion of surface waves. This gives the possibility to accurately localize the phase information in time, and to isolate the most significant contribution of the surface waves. To extract the dispersion information, then, a hybrid technique is applied to the narrowband filtered seismic recordings. The technique combines the flexibility of the slant stack method in identifying waves that propagate in space and time, with the resolution of f- k approaches. This is particularly beneficial for higher mode identification in cases of high noise levels. To process the continuous wavelet transform, a new mother wavelet is presented and compared to the classical and widely used Morlet type. The proposed wavelet is obtained from a raised-cosine envelope function (Hanning type). The proposed approach is particularly suitable when using continuous recordings (e.g., from seismological-like equipment) since it does not require any hardware-based source triggering. This can be subsequently done with the proposed method. Estimation of the surface wave phase delay is performed in the frequency domain by means of a covariance matrix averaging procedure over successive wave field excitations. Thus, no record stacking is necessary in the time domain and a large number of consecutive shots can be used. This leads to a certain simplification of the field procedures. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the method, we tested it on synthetics as well on real field data. For the real case we also combine dispersion curves from ambient vibrations and active measurements.
Computation of 3D steady Navier-Stokes flow with free-surface gravity waves
Lewis, M.R.; Koren, B.; Raven, H.C.; Armfield, S.; Morgan, P.; Srinivas, K,
2003-01-01
In this paper an iterative method for the computation of stationary gravity-wave solutions is investigated, using a novel formulation of the free-surface (FS) boundary-value problem. This method requires the solution of a sequence of stationary Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes subproblems employing
Computation of 3D steady Navier-Stokes flow with free-surface gravity waves
M.R. Lewis; B. Koren (Barry); H.C. Raven
2003-01-01
textabstractIn this paper an iterative method for the computation of stationary gravity-wave solutions is investigated, using a novel formulation of the free-surface (FS) boundary-value problem. This method requires the solution of a sequence of stationary Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes subproblems
A Finite Element Model of a MEMS-based Surface Acoustic Wave Hydrogen Sensor
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Walied A. Moussa
2010-02-01
Full Text Available Hydrogen plays a significant role in various industrial applications, but careful handling and continuous monitoring are crucial since it is explosive when mixed with air. Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW sensors provide desirable characteristics for hydrogen detection due to their small size, low fabrication cost, ease of integration and high sensitivity. In this paper a finite element model of a Surface Acoustic Wave sensor is developed using ANSYS12© and tested for hydrogen detection. The sensor consists of a YZ-lithium niobate substrate with interdigital electrodes (IDT patterned on the surface. A thin palladium (Pd film is added on the surface of the sensor due to its high affinity for hydrogen. With increased hydrogen absorption the palladium hydride structure undergoes a phase change due to the formation of the β-phase, which deteriorates the crystal structure. Therefore with increasing hydrogen concentration the stiffness and the density are significantly reduced. The values of the modulus of elasticity and the density at different hydrogen concentrations in palladium are utilized in the finite element model to determine the corresponding SAW sensor response. Results indicate that with increasing the hydrogen concentration the wave velocity decreases and the attenuation of the wave is reduced.
Gao, Lingli; Pan, Yudi
2018-05-01
The correct estimation of the seismic source signature is crucial to exploration geophysics. Based on seismic interferometry, the virtual real source (VRS) method provides a model-independent way for source signature estimation. However, when encountering multimode surface waves, which are commonly seen in the shallow seismic survey, strong spurious events appear in seismic interferometric results. These spurious events introduce errors in the virtual-source recordings and reduce the accuracy of the source signature estimated by the VRS method. In order to estimate a correct source signature from multimode surface waves, we propose a mode-separated VRS method. In this method, multimode surface waves are mode separated before seismic interferometry. Virtual-source recordings are then obtained by applying seismic interferometry to each mode individually. Therefore, artefacts caused by cross-mode correlation are excluded in the virtual-source recordings and the estimated source signatures. A synthetic example showed that a correct source signature can be estimated with the proposed method, while strong spurious oscillation occurs in the estimated source signature if we do not apply mode separation first. We also applied the proposed method to a field example, which verified its validity and effectiveness in estimating seismic source signature from shallow seismic shot gathers containing multimode surface waves.
Continuous-wave optically pumped green perovskite vertical-cavity surface-emitter
Alias, Mohd Sharizal; Liu, Zhixiong; Alatawi, Abdullah; Ng, Tien Khee; Wu, Tao; Ooi, Boon S.
2017-01-01
We report an optically pumped green perovskite vertical-cavity surface-emitter operating in continuous-wave (CW) with a power density threshold of ~89 kW/cm2. The device has an active region of CH3NH3PbBr3 embedded in a dielectric microcavity
A surface-integral-equation approach to the propagation of waves in EBG-based devices
Lancellotti, V.; Tijhuis, A.G.
2012-01-01
We combine surface integral equations with domain decomposition to formulate and (numerically) solve the problem of electromagnetic (EM) wave propagation inside finite-sized structures. The approach is of interest for (but not limited to) the analysis of devices based on the phenomenon of
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Grabec, T.; Sedlák, Petr; Stoklasová, Pavla; Thomasová, M.; Shilo, D.; Kabla, M.; Seiner, Hanuš; Landa, Michal
2016-01-01
Roč. 25, č. 12 (2016), č. článku 127002. ISSN 0964-1726 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-15264S Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : thin films * shape memory alloys * surface acoustic waves Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.909, year: 2016