Databases of surface wave dispersion
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L. Boschi
2005-06-01
Full Text Available Observations of seismic surface waves provide the most important constraint on the elastic properties of the Earths lithosphere and upper mantle. Two databases of fundamental mode surface wave dispersion were recently compiled and published by groups at Harvard (Ekström et al., 1997 and Utrecht/Oxford (Trampert and Woodhouse, 1995, 2001, and later employed in 3-d global tomographic studies. Although based on similar sets of seismic records, the two databases show some significant discrepancies. We derive phase velocity maps from both, and compare them to quantify the discrepancies and assess the relative quality of the data; in this endeavour, we take careful account of the effects of regularization and parametrization. At short periods, where Love waves are mostly sensitive to crustal structure and thickness, we refer our comparison to a map of the Earths crust derived from independent data. On the assumption that second-order effects like seismic anisotropy and scattering can be neglected, we find the measurements of Ekström et al. (1997 of better quality; those of Trampert and Woodhouse (2001 result in phase velocity maps of much higher spatial frequency and, accordingly, more difficult to explain and justify geophysically. The discrepancy is partly explained by the more conservative a priori selection of data implemented by Ekström et al. (1997. Nevertheless, it becomes more significant with decreasing period, which indicates that it could also be traced to the different measurement techniques employed by the authors.
Skeletonized wave equation of surface wave dispersion inversion
Li, Jing
2016-09-06
We present the theory for wave equation inversion of dispersion curves, where the misfit function is the sum of the squared differences between the wavenumbers along the predicted and observed dispersion curves. Similar to wave-equation travel-time inversion, the complicated surface-wave arrivals in traces are skeletonized as simpler data, namely the picked dispersion curves in the (kx,ω) domain. Solutions to the elastic wave equation and an iterative optimization method are then used to invert these curves for 2D or 3D velocity models. This procedure, denoted as wave equation dispersion inversion (WD), does not require the assumption of a layered model and is less prone to the cycle skipping problems of full waveform inversion (FWI). The synthetic and field data examples demonstrate that WD can accurately reconstruct the S-wave velocity distribution in laterally heterogeneous media.
Skeletonized wave equation of surface wave dispersion inversion
Li, Jing; Schuster, Gerard T.
2016-01-01
We present the theory for wave equation inversion of dispersion curves, where the misfit function is the sum of the squared differences between the wavenumbers along the predicted and observed dispersion curves. Similar to wave-equation travel
Optimized nonlinear inversion of surface-wave dispersion data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Raykova, Reneta B.
2014-01-01
A new code for inversion of surface wave dispersion data is developed to obtain Earth’s crustal and upper mantle velocity structure. The author developed Optimized Non–Linear Inversion ( ONLI ) software, based on Monte-Carlo search. The values of S–wave velocity VS and thickness h for a number of horizontal homogeneous layers are parameterized. Velocity of P–wave VP and density ρ of relevant layers are calculated by empirical or theoretical relations. ONLI explores parameters space in two modes, selective and full search, and the main innovation of software is evaluation of tested models. Theoretical dispersion curves are calculated if tested model satisfied specific conditions only, reducing considerably the computation time. A number of tests explored impact of parameterization and proved the ability of ONLI approach to deal successfully with non–uniqueness of inversion problem. Key words: Earth’s structure, surface–wave dispersion, non–linear inversion, software
Dispersion of acoustic surface waves by velocity gradients
Kwon, S. D.; Kim, H. C.
1987-10-01
The perturbation theory of Auld [Acoustic Fields and Waves in Solids (Wiley, New York, 1973), Vol. II, p. 294], which describes the effect of a subsurface gradient on the velocity dispersion of surface waves, has been modified to a simpler form by an approximation using a newly defined velocity gradient for the case of isotropic materials. The modified theory is applied to nitrogen implantation in AISI 4140 steel with a velocity gradient of Gaussian profile, and compared with dispersion data obtained by the ultrasonic right-angle technique in the frequency range from 2.4 to 14.8 MHz. The good agreement between experiments and our theory suggests that the compound layer in the subsurface region plays a dominant role in causing the dispersion of acoustic surface waves.
Dispersion surfaces and ion wave instabilities in space plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andre, M
1985-08-01
In this thesis, the dispersion relation of linear waves in a non-relativistic, collisionless and homogeneous plasma in a uniform magnetic field, is solved numerically. Both electrostatic and elecromagnetic waves with frequencies from below the ion gyrofrequency to above the electron gyrofrequency are studied for all angles of propagation. Modes occurring in a cold plasma as well as waves dependent on thermal effects are included. Dispersion surfaces, that is plots of frequency versus wavevector components, are presented for some models of space plasmas. Waves with frequencies of the order of the ion gyrofrequency (ion waves), are well known to exist in space plasmas. In this thesis, the generation of ion waves by ion distributions with loss-cones or temperature anisotropies, or by beams of charged particles, is investigated by numerical methods. Effects of heavy ions are considered. Dispersion surfaces and analytical arguments are used to clarify the results. It is shown that particle beams and ion loss-cone distributions can generate electrostatic ion waves, even when a significant amount of the electrons are cool. These calculations are in agreement with simultaneous observatons of waves and particles obtained by a satellite on auroral field lines. (author)
Li, Jing; Schuster, Gerard T.; Zeng, Zhaofa
2017-01-01
A robust imaging technology is reviewed that provide subsurface information in challenging environments: wave-equation dispersion inversion (WD) of surface waves for the shear velocity model. We demonstrate the benefits and liabilities of the method
Long wave dispersion relations for surface waves in a magnetically structured atmosphere
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rae, I.C.; Roberts, B.
1983-01-01
A means of obtaining approximate dispersion relations for long wavelength magnetoacoustic surface waves propagating in a magnetically structured atmosphere is presented. A general dispersion relation applying to a wide range of magnetic profiles is obtained, and illustrated for the special cases of a single interface and a magnetic slab. In the slab geometry, for example, the dispersion relation contains both the even (sausage) and odd (kink) modes in one formalism
Wave-equation dispersion inversion of surface waves recorded on irregular topography
Li, Jing
2017-08-17
Significant topographic variations will strongly influence the amplitudes and phases of propagating surface waves. Such effects should be taken into account, otherwise the S-velocity model inverted from the Rayleigh dispersion curves will contain significant inaccuracies. We now show that the recently developed wave-equation dispersion inversion (WD) method naturally takes into account the effects of topography to give accurate S-velocity tomograms. Application of topographic WD to demonstrates that WD can accurately invert dispersion curves from seismic data recorded over variable topography. We also apply this method to field data recorded on the crest of mountainous terrain and find with higher resolution than the standard WD tomogram.
Wave-equation dispersion inversion of surface waves recorded on irregular topography
Li, Jing; Schuster, Gerard T.; Lin, Fan-Chi; Alam, Amir
2017-01-01
Significant topographic variations will strongly influence the amplitudes and phases of propagating surface waves. Such effects should be taken into account, otherwise the S-velocity model inverted from the Rayleigh dispersion curves will contain significant inaccuracies. We now show that the recently developed wave-equation dispersion inversion (WD) method naturally takes into account the effects of topography to give accurate S-velocity tomograms. Application of topographic WD to demonstrates that WD can accurately invert dispersion curves from seismic data recorded over variable topography. We also apply this method to field data recorded on the crest of mountainous terrain and find with higher resolution than the standard WD tomogram.
Li, Jing
2017-12-22
A robust imaging technology is reviewed that provide subsurface information in challenging environments: wave-equation dispersion inversion (WD) of surface waves for the shear velocity model. We demonstrate the benefits and liabilities of the method with synthetic seismograms and field data. The benefits of WD are that 1) there is no layered medium assumption, as there is in conventional inversion of dispersion curves, so that the 2D or 3D S-velocity model can be reliably obtained with seismic surveys over rugged topography, and 2) WD mostly avoids getting stuck in local minima. The synthetic and field data examples demonstrate that WD can accurately reconstruct the S-wave velocity distributions in laterally heterogeneous media if the dispersion curves can be identified and picked. The WD method is easily extended to anisotropic media and the inversion of dispersion curves associated with Love wave. The liability is that is almost as expensive as FWI and only recovers the Vs distribution to a depth no deeper than about 1/2~1/3 wavelength.
Dispersion and energy conservation relations of surface waves in semi-infinite plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Atanassov, V.
1981-01-01
The hydrodynamic theory of surface wave propagation in semi-infinite homogeneous isotropic plasma is considered. Explicit linear surface wave solutions are given for the electric and magnetic fields, charge and current densities. These solutions are used to obtain the well-known dispersion relations and, together with the general energy conservation equation, to find appropriate definitions for the energy and the energy flow densities of surface waves. These densities are associated with the dispersion relation and the group velocity by formulae similar to those for bulk waves in infinite plasmas. Both cases of high-frequency (HF) and low-frequency (LF) surface waves are considered. (author)
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Julia, Jordi; Ammon, Charles J; Herrimann, Robert B
2006-01-01
.... Receiver functions are primarily sensitive to shear-wave velocity contrasts and vertical travel times and surface-wave dispersion measurements are sensitive to vertical shear-wave velocity averages...
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Herrmann, Robert B; Julia, Jordi; Ammon, Charles J
2007-01-01
.... Receiver functions are primarily sensitive to shear-wave velocity contrast and vertical travel times and surface-wave dispersion measurements are sensitive to vertical shear-wave velocity averages...
Zhang, X.
2009-01-01
This thesis is a study on upper mantle shear velocity structure beneath the Gulf of California. Surface wave interstation dispersion data were measured in the Gulf of California area and vicinity to obtain a 3-D shear velocity structure of the upper mantle. This work has particular significance for
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dühring, Maria Bayard; Laude, Vincent; Khelif, Abdelkrim
2009-01-01
It has been shown previously that surface acoustic waves can be efficiently trapped and slowed by steep ridges on a piezoelectric substrate, giving rise to two families of shear-horizontal and vertically polarized surface waves. The mechanisms of energy storage and dispersion are explored by using...... the finite element method to model surface acoustic waves generated by high aspect ratio electrodes. A periodic model is proposed including a perfectly matched layer to simulate radiation conditions away from the sources, from which the modal distributions are found. The ratio of the mechanical energy...... confined to the electrode as compared to the total mechanical energy is calculated and is found to be increasing for increasing aspect ratio and to tend to a definite limit for the two families of surface waves. This observation is in support of the interpretation that high aspect ratio electrodes act...
The use of multiwavelets for uncertainty estimation in seismic surface wave dispersion.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Poppeliers, Christian [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2017-12-01
This report describes a new single-station analysis method to estimate the dispersion and uncer- tainty of seismic surface waves using the multiwavelet transform. Typically, when estimating the dispersion of a surface wave using only a single seismic station, the seismogram is decomposed into a series of narrow-band realizations using a bank of narrow-band filters. By then enveloping and normalizing the filtered seismograms and identifying the maximum power as a function of frequency, the group velocity can be estimated if the source-receiver distance is known. However, using the filter bank method, there is no robust way to estimate uncertainty. In this report, I in- troduce a new method of estimating the group velocity that includes an estimate of uncertainty. The method is similar to the conventional filter bank method, but uses a class of functions, called Slepian wavelets, to compute a series of wavelet transforms of the data. Each wavelet transform is mathematically similar to a filter bank, however, the time-frequency tradeoff is optimized. By taking multiple wavelet transforms, I form a population of dispersion estimates from which stan- dard statistical methods can be used to estimate uncertainty. I demonstrate the utility of this new method by applying it to synthetic data as well as ambient-noise surface-wave cross-correlelograms recorded by the University of Nevada Seismic Network.
Joint Inversion of Surface Waves Dispersion and Receiver Function at Cuba Seismic Stations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gonzalez, O'Leary; Moreno, Bladimir; Romanelli, Fabio; Panza, Giuliano F.
2010-06-01
Joint inversion of Rayleigh wave group velocity dispersion and receiver functions have been used to estimate the crust and upper mantle structure at eight seismic stations in Cuba. Receiver functions have been computed from teleseismic recordings of earthquakes at epicentral (angular) distances between 30 o and 90 o and Rayleigh wave group velocity dispersion have been taken from a surface-wave tomography study of the Caribbean area. The thickest crust (around 27 km) is found at Cascorro (CCC), Soroa (SOR), Moa (MOA) and Maisi (MAS) stations while the thinnest crust (around 18 km) is found at stations Rio Carpintero (RCC) and Guantanamo Bay (GTBY), in the southeastern of Cuba; this result is in agreement with the southward gradual thinning of the crust revealed by previous studies. The inversion shows a crystalline crust with S-wave velocity between 2.9 km/s and 3.9 km/s and at the crust-mantle transition zone the shear wave velocity varies from 3.9 km/s and 4.3 km/s. The lithospheric thickness varies from 74 km, in the youngest lithosphere, to 200 km in the middle of the Cuban island. Evidences of a subducted slab possibly belonging to the Caribbean plate are present below the stations Las Mercedes (LMG), RCC and GTBY and a thicker slab is present below the SOR station. (author)
Confinement of surface waves at the air-water interface to control aerosol size and dispersity
Nazarzadeh, Elijah; Wilson, Rab; King, Xi; Reboud, Julien; Tassieri, Manlio; Cooper, Jonathan M.
2017-11-01
The precise control over the size and dispersity of droplets, produced within aerosols, is of great interest across many manufacturing, food, cosmetic, and medical industries. Amongst these applications, the delivery of new classes of high value drugs to the lungs has recently attracted significant attention from pharmaceutical companies. This is commonly achieved through the mechanical excitation of surface waves at the air liquid interface of a parent liquid volume. Previous studies have established a correlation between the wavelength on the surface of liquid and the final aerosol size. In this work, we show that the droplet size distribution of aerosols can be controlled by constraining the liquid inside micron-sized cavities and coupling surface acoustic waves into different volumes of liquid inside micro-grids. In particular, we show that by reducing the characteristic physical confinement size (i.e., either the initial liquid volume or the cavities' diameters), higher harmonics of capillary waves are revealed with a consequent reduction of both aerosol mean size and dispersity. In doing so, we provide a new method for the generation and fine control of aerosols' sizes distribution.
Wave-equation dispersion inversion
Li, Jing
2016-12-08
We present the theory for wave-equation inversion of dispersion curves, where the misfit function is the sum of the squared differences between the wavenumbers along the predicted and observed dispersion curves. The dispersion curves are obtained from Rayleigh waves recorded by vertical-component geophones. Similar to wave-equation traveltime tomography, the complicated surface wave arrivals in traces are skeletonized as simpler data, namely the picked dispersion curves in the phase-velocity and frequency domains. Solutions to the elastic wave equation and an iterative optimization method are then used to invert these curves for 2-D or 3-D S-wave velocity models. This procedure, denoted as wave-equation dispersion inversion (WD), does not require the assumption of a layered model and is significantly less prone to the cycle-skipping problems of full waveform inversion. The synthetic and field data examples demonstrate that WD can approximately reconstruct the S-wave velocity distributions in laterally heterogeneous media if the dispersion curves can be identified and picked. The WD method is easily extended to anisotropic data and the inversion of dispersion curves associated with Love waves.
Badawy, Ahmed; Hegazi, Mona; Gaber, Hanan; Korrat, Ibrahim
2018-01-01
In this study, we used a combined inversion of body wave receiver functions and surface wave dispersion measurements to provide constraints on the crustal structure of northern Egypt. The two techniques are complementary to each other: receiver functions (RFs) are sensitive to shear-wave velocity contrasts, while surface wave dispersion (SWD) measurements are sensitive to finite variations of shear-wave velocity with depth. A database of 122 teleseismic events digitally recorded by the Egyptian National Seismological Network (ENSN) stations has been used as well. To enhance the resulting RFs at each ENSN station, the H-k stacking method was applied. A joint inversion process between the resulting receiver functions and the surface wave dispersion curves was applied as well. We have produced three averaged velocity structure models for distinct geographic and tectonic provinces namely Sinai, eastern desert, and western desert from east to the west respectively. These models will deeply help in estimation the epicenter distance of earthquake, focal mechanism solutions, and earthquake hazard analysis in northern Egypt. An obvious image of the subsurface structure has been determined which shows that generally the crustal structure of northern Egypt consists of three layers covered with a sequence of sediments that differs in thickness from across the region except in the Sharm area where the sedimentary cover is absent. The obtained results indicate that crustal thickness differs from east to west and reaches its maximum value of about 36 km at Siwa station (SWA) in the western desert and its minimum value of about 28 km at Sharm station (SHR) of the southern tip of the Sinai Peninsula. The Vp/Vs ratio varies between 1.71 and 2.07 in northern Egypt. Generally, the high values (1.93) of (Vp/Vs) at SWA station may reflect the well-known rich aquifer with fully saturated sediments of the Swia Oasis in the Western Desert. Moreover, the highest value (2.07) of (Vp/Vs) at
Badawy, Ahmed; Hegazi, Mona; Gaber, Hanan; Korrat, Ibrahim
2018-05-01
In this study, we used a combined inversion of body wave receiver functions and surface wave dispersion measurements to provide constraints on the crustal structure of northern Egypt. The two techniques are complementary to each other: receiver functions (RFs) are sensitive to shear-wave velocity contrasts, while surface wave dispersion (SWD) measurements are sensitive to finite variations of shear-wave velocity with depth. A database of 122 teleseismic events digitally recorded by the Egyptian National Seismological Network (ENSN) stations has been used as well. To enhance the resulting RFs at each ENSN station, the H-k stacking method was applied. A joint inversion process between the resulting receiver functions and the surface wave dispersion curves was applied as well. We have produced three averaged velocity structure models for distinct geographic and tectonic provinces namely Sinai, eastern desert, and western desert from east to the west respectively. These models will deeply help in estimation the epicenter distance of earthquake, focal mechanism solutions, and earthquake hazard analysis in northern Egypt. An obvious image of the subsurface structure has been determined which shows that generally the crustal structure of northern Egypt consists of three layers covered with a sequence of sediments that differs in thickness from across the region except in the Sharm area where the sedimentary cover is absent. The obtained results indicate that crustal thickness differs from east to west and reaches its maximum value of about 36 km at Siwa station (SWA) in the western desert and its minimum value of about 28 km at Sharm station (SHR) of the southern tip of the Sinai Peninsula. The Vp/Vs ratio varies between 1.71 and 2.07 in northern Egypt. Generally, the high values (1.93) of (Vp/Vs) at SWA station may reflect the well-known rich aquifer with fully saturated sediments of the Swia Oasis in the Western Desert. Moreover, the highest value (2.07) of (Vp/Vs) at
Determining the near-surface current profile from measurements of the wave dispersion relation
Smeltzer, Benjamin; Maxwell, Peter; Aesøy, Eirik; Ellingsen, Simen
2017-11-01
The current-induced Doppler shifts of waves can yield information about the background mean flow, providing an attractive method of inferring the current profile in the upper layer of the ocean. We present measurements of waves propagating on shear currents in a laboratory water channel, as well as theoretical investigations of inversion techniques for determining the vertical current structure. Spatial and temporal measurements of the free surface profile obtained using a synthetic Schlieren method are analyzed to determine the wave dispersion relation and Doppler shifts as a function of wavelength. The vertical current profile can then be inferred from the Doppler shifts using an inversion algorithm. Most existing algorithms rely on a priori assumptions of the shape of the current profile, and developing a method that uses less stringent assumptions is a focus of this study, allowing for measurement of more general current profiles. The accuracy of current inversion algorithms are evaluated by comparison to measurements of the mean flow profile from particle image velocimetry (PIV), and a discussion of the sensitivity to errors in the Doppler shifts is presented.
Kayen, Robert E.; Carkin, Brad A.; Corbett, Skye C.
2017-10-19
Vertical one-dimensional shear wave velocity (VS) profiles are presented for strong-motion sites in Arizona for a suite of stations surrounding the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station. The purpose of the study is to determine the detailed site velocity profile, the average velocity in the upper 30 meters of the profile (VS30), the average velocity for the entire profile (VSZ), and the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) site classification. The VS profiles are estimated using a non-invasive continuous-sine-wave method for gathering the dispersion characteristics of surface waves. Shear wave velocity profiles were inverted from the averaged dispersion curves using three independent methods for comparison, and the root-mean-square combined coefficient of variation (COV) of the dispersion and inversion calculations are estimated for each site.
Mi, Binbin; Xia, Jianghai; Shen, Chao; Wang, Limin
2018-03-01
High-frequency surface-wave analysis methods have been effectively and widely used to determine near-surface shear (S) wave velocity. To image the dispersion energy and identify different dispersive modes of surface waves accurately is one of key steps of using surface-wave methods. We analyzed the dispersion energy characteristics of Rayleigh and Love waves in near-surface layered models based on numerical simulations. It has been found that if there is a low-velocity layer (LVL) in the half-space, the dispersion energy of Rayleigh or Love waves is discontinuous and ``jumping'' appears from the fundamental mode to higher modes on dispersive images. We introduce the guided waves generated in an LVL (LVL-guided waves, a trapped wave mode) to clarify the complexity of the dispersion energy. We confirm the LVL-guided waves by analyzing the snapshots of SH and P-SV wavefield and comparing the dispersive energy with theoretical values of phase velocities. Results demonstrate that LVL-guided waves possess energy on dispersive images, which can interfere with the normal dispersion energy of Rayleigh or Love waves. Each mode of LVL-guided waves having lack of energy at the free surface in some high frequency range causes the discontinuity of dispersive energy on dispersive images, which is because shorter wavelengths (generally with lower phase velocities and higher frequencies) of LVL-guided waves cannot penetrate to the free surface. If the S wave velocity of the LVL is higher than that of the surface layer, the energy of LVL-guided waves only contaminates higher mode energy of surface waves and there is no interlacement with the fundamental mode of surface waves, while if the S wave velocity of the LVL is lower than that of the surface layer, the energy of LVL-guided waves may interlace with the fundamental mode of surface waves. Both of the interlacements with the fundamental mode or higher mode energy may cause misidentification for the dispersion curves of surface
Incorporating Floating Surface Objects into a Fully Dispersive Surface Wave Model
2016-04-19
Bateman c , Joseph Calantoni c , James T. Kirby b a NRL Code 7320, 1009 Balch Blvd, Stennis Space Center, MS 39529 USA b Center for Applied Coastal...wave prop- agation. J. Waterway Port Coast. Ocean Eng. 119, 618–638 . rzech, M., Shi, F., Calantoni, J., Bateman , S., Veeramony, J., 2014. Small-scale...F., Bateman , S., Calantoni, J., 2016. Modeling small- scale physics of waves and ice in the MIZ. AGU 2016 Ocean Sciences Meeting, Session 9483
Wave Equation Inversion of Skeletonized SurfaceWaves
Zhang, Zhendong; Liu, Yike; Schuster, Gerard T.
2015-01-01
We present a surface-wave inversion method that inverts for the S-wave velocity from the Rayleigh dispersion curve for the fundamental-mode. We call this wave equation inversion of skeletonized surface waves because the dispersion curve
Luo, Y.; Xia, J.; Xu, Y.; Zeng, C.; Liu, J.
2010-01-01
Love-wave propagation has been a topic of interest to crustal, earthquake, and engineering seismologists for many years because it is independent of Poisson's ratio and more sensitive to shear (S)-wave velocity changes and layer thickness changes than are Rayleigh waves. It is well known that Love-wave generation requires the existence of a low S-wave velocity layer in a multilayered earth model. In order to study numerically the propagation of Love waves in a layered earth model and dispersion characteristics for near-surface applications, we simulate high-frequency (>5 Hz) Love waves by the staggered-grid finite-difference (FD) method. The air-earth boundary (the shear stress above the free surface) is treated using the stress-imaging technique. We use a two-layer model to demonstrate the accuracy of the staggered-grid modeling scheme. We also simulate four-layer models including a low-velocity layer (LVL) or a high-velocity layer (HVL) to analyze dispersive energy characteristics for near-surface applications. Results demonstrate that: (1) the staggered-grid FD code and stress-imaging technique are suitable for treating the free-surface boundary conditions for Love-wave modeling, (2) Love-wave inversion should be treated with extra care when a LVL exists because of a lack of LVL information in dispersions aggravating uncertainties in the inversion procedure, and (3) energy of high modes in a low-frequency range is very weak, so that it is difficult to estimate the cutoff frequency accurately, and "mode-crossing" occurs between the second higher and third higher modes when a HVL exists. ?? 2010 Birkh??user / Springer Basel AG.
Wave-equation dispersion inversion
Li, Jing; Feng, Zongcai; Schuster, Gerard T.
2016-01-01
We present the theory for wave-equation inversion of dispersion curves, where the misfit function is the sum of the squared differences between the wavenumbers along the predicted and observed dispersion curves. The dispersion curves are obtained
Simanungkalit, R. H.; Anggono, T.; Syuhada; Amran, A.; Supriyanto
2018-03-01
Earthquake signal observations around the world allow seismologists to obtain the information of internal structure of the Earth especially the Earth’s crust. In this study, we used joint inversion of receiver functions and surface wave group velocities to investigate crustal structure beneath CBJI station in West Java, Indonesia. Receiver function were calculated from earthquakes with magnitude more than 5 and at distance 30°-90°. Surface wave group velocities were calculated using frequency time analysis from earthquakes at distance of 30°- 40°. We inverted shear wave velocity model beneath the station by conducting joint inversion from receiver functions and surface wave dispersions. We suggest that the crustal thickness beneath CBJI station, West Java, Indonesia is about 35 km.
Parsimonious Surface Wave Interferometry
Li, Jing
2017-10-24
To decrease the recording time of a 2D seismic survey from a few days to one hour or less, we present a parsimonious surface-wave interferometry method. Interferometry allows for the creation of a large number of virtual shot gathers from just two reciprocal shot gathers by crosscoherence of trace pairs, where the virtual surface waves can be inverted for the S-wave velocity model by wave-equation dispersion inversion (WD). Synthetic and field data tests suggest that parsimonious wave-equation dispersion inversion (PWD) gives S-velocity tomograms that are comparable to those obtained from a full survey with a shot at each receiver. The limitation of PWD is that the virtual data lose some information so that the resolution of the S-velocity tomogram can be modestly lower than that of the S-velocity tomogram inverted from a conventional survey.
Parsimonious Surface Wave Interferometry
Li, Jing; Hanafy, Sherif; Schuster, Gerard T.
2017-01-01
To decrease the recording time of a 2D seismic survey from a few days to one hour or less, we present a parsimonious surface-wave interferometry method. Interferometry allows for the creation of a large number of virtual shot gathers from just two reciprocal shot gathers by crosscoherence of trace pairs, where the virtual surface waves can be inverted for the S-wave velocity model by wave-equation dispersion inversion (WD). Synthetic and field data tests suggest that parsimonious wave-equation dispersion inversion (PWD) gives S-velocity tomograms that are comparable to those obtained from a full survey with a shot at each receiver. The limitation of PWD is that the virtual data lose some information so that the resolution of the S-velocity tomogram can be modestly lower than that of the S-velocity tomogram inverted from a conventional survey.
Ravenna, Matteo; Lebedev, Sergei; Celli, Nicolas
2017-04-01
We develop a Markov Chain Monte Carlo inversion of fundamental and higher mode phase-velocity curves for radially and azimuthally anisotropic structure of the crust and upper mantle. In the inversions of Rayleigh- and Love-wave dispersion curves for radially anisotropic structure, we obtain probabilistic 1D radially anisotropic shear-velocity profiles of the isotropic average Vs and anisotropy (or Vsv and Vsh) as functions of depth. In the inversions for azimuthal anisotropy, Rayleigh-wave dispersion curves at different azimuths are inverted for the vertically polarized shear-velocity structure (Vsv) and the 2-phi component of azimuthal anisotropy. The strength and originality of the method is in its fully non-linear approach. Each model realization is computed using exact forward calculations. The uncertainty of the models is a part of the output. In the inversions for azimuthal anisotropy, in particular, the computation of the forward problem is performed separately at different azimuths, with no linear approximations on the relation of the Earth's elastic parameters to surface wave phase velocities. The computations are performed in parallel in order reduce the computing time. We compare inversions of the fundamental mode phase-velocity curves alone with inversions that also include overtones. The addition of higher modes enhances the resolving power of the anisotropic structure of the deep upper mantle. We apply the inversion method to phase-velocity curves in a few regions, including the Hangai dome region in Mongolia. Our models provide constraints on the Moho depth, the Lithosphere-Asthenosphere Boundary, and the alignment of the anisotropic fabric and the direction of current and past flow, from the crust down to the deep asthenosphere.
Tatar, M.; Nasrabadi, A.
2013-10-01
Variations in crustal thickness in the Zagros determined by joint inversion of P wave receiver functions (RFs) and Rayleigh wave group and phase velocity dispersion. The time domain iterative deconvolution procedure was employed to compute RFs from teleseismic recordings at seven broadband stations of INSN network. Rayleigh wave phase velocity dispersion curves were estimated employing two-station method. Fundamental mode Rayleigh wave group velocities for each station is taken from a regional scale surface wave tomographic imaging. The main variations in crustal thickness that we observe are between stations located in the Zagros fold and thrust belt with those located in the Sanandaj-Sirjan zone (SSZ) and Urumieh-Dokhtar magmatic assemblage (UDMA). Our results indicate that the average crustal thickness beneath the Zagros Mountain Range varies from ˜46 km in Western and Central Zagros beneath SHGR and GHIR up to ˜50 km beneath BNDS located in easternmost of the Zagros. Toward NE, we observe an increase in Moho depth where it reaches ˜58 km beneath SNGE located in the SSZ. Average crustal thickness also varies beneath the UDMA from ˜50 km in western parts below ASAO to ˜58 in central parts below NASN. The observed variation along the SSZ and UDMA may be associated to ongoing slab steepening or break off in the NW Zagros, comparing under thrusting of the Arabian plate beneath Central Zagros. The results show that in Central Iran, the crustal thickness decrease again to ˜47 km below KRBR. There is not a significant crustal thickness difference along the Zagros fold and thrust belt. We found the same crystalline crust of ˜34 km thick beneath the different parts of the Zagros fold and thrust belt. The similarity of crustal structure suggests that the crust of the Zagros fold and thrust belt was uniform before subsidence and deposition of the sediments. Our results confirm that the shortening of the western and eastern parts of the Zagros basement is small and
Study on evaluation methods for Rayleigh wave dispersion characteristic
Shi, L.; Tao, X.; Kayen, R.; Shi, H.; Yan, S.
2005-01-01
The evaluation of Rayleigh wave dispersion characteristic is the key step for detecting S-wave velocity structure. By comparing the dispersion curves directly with the spectra analysis of surface waves (SASW) method, rather than comparing the S-wave velocity structure, the validity and precision of microtremor-array method (MAM) can be evaluated more objectively. The results from the China - US joint surface wave investigation in 26 sites in Tangshan, China, show that the MAM has the same precision with SASW method in 83% of the 26 sites. The MAM is valid for Rayleigh wave dispersion characteristic testing and has great application potentiality for site S-wave velocity structure detection.
Surface Wave Detection and Measurement Using a One Degree Global Dispersion Grid
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Stevens, Jeffry L
2006-01-01
.... The models consist of approximately 550 distinct crust and upper mantle structures, with surface layering and/or ocean depths that vary on a one-degree grid to create a total of 64,800 earth models...
Nonlinear surface Alfven waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cramer, N.F.
1991-01-01
The problem of nonlinear surface Alfven waves propagating on an interface between a plasma and a vacuum is discussed, with dispersion provided by the finite-frequency effect, i.e. the finite ratio of the frequency to the ion-cyclotron frequency. A set of simplified nonlinear wave equations is derived using the method of stretched co-ordinates, and another approach uses the generation of a second-harmonic wave and its interaction with the first harmonic to obtain a nonlinear dispersion relation. A nonlinear Schroedinger equation is then derived, and soliton solutions found that propagate as solitary pulses in directions close to parallel and antiparallel to the background magnetic field. (author)
González, O'Leary; Clouard, Valerie; Tait, Stephen; Panza, Giuliano F.
2018-06-01
We present an overview of S-wave velocities (Vs) within the crust and upper mantle of the Lesser Antilles as determined with 19 seismic broadband stations. Receiver functions (RF) have been computed from teleseismic recordings of earthquakes, and Rayleigh wave group velocity dispersion relations have been taken from earlier surface wave tomographic studies in the Caribbean area. Local smoothness optimization (LSO) procedure has been applied, combined with an H-K stacking method, the spatial distribution of hypocenters of local earthquakes and of the energy they released, in order to identify an optimum 1D model of Vs below each station. Several features of the Caribbean plate and its interaction with the Atlantic subducting slab are visible in the resulting models: (a) relatively thick oceanic crust below these stations ranges from 21 km to 33 km, being slight thinner in the middle of the island arc; (b) crustal low velocity zones are present below stations SABA, SEUS, SKI, SMRT, CBE, DSD, GCMP and TDBA; (c) lithospheric thickness range from 40 km to 105 km but lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary was not straightforward to correlate between stations; (d) the aseismic mantle wedge between the Caribbean seismic lithosphere and the subducted slab varies in thickness as well as Vs values which are, in general, lower below the West of Martinique than below the West of Guadeloupe; (e) the depth of the subducted slab beneath the volcanic arc, appears to be greater to the North, and relatively shallower below some stations (e.g. DLPL, SAM, BIM and FDF) than was estimated in previous studies based on the depth-distribution of seismicity; f) the WBZ is >10-15 km deeper than the top of the slab below the Central Lesser Antilles (Martinique and Dominica) where the presence of partial melt in the mantle wedge seems also to be more evident.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cheng, Chia-Chi; Huang, Chi-Luen; Chiang, Chih-Hong; Hsu, Keng-Tsang; Ke, Ying Tsu [Chaoyang Univ. of Technology, Taichung, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Construction Engineering
2015-07-01
Surface waves generated by an impact are used to assess depth of deterioration for thick concrete plate. The proposed method uses one receiver positioned away from the impacting source. The spectrogram of the group velocity obtained from the signal recorded from the receiver is calculated by Short-Time Fourier Transform and the reassigned technique. The impact duration and the source-receiver distance for concrete plate with different thickness of weak top layer are explored by finite-element modeling. The image in spectrogram fit better with the theoretical dispersion curve of Lamb-wave or SH-wave modes for composite plate when the source-receiver distance is longer. The definition of the image in the reassigned spectrogram is affected more by the impact-duration for solid case than for the cases with weak top layer. The preliminary results show the material property as well as the depth of the weak top layer can be evaluated by the proposed method.
Wave Equation Inversion of Skeletonized SurfaceWaves
Zhang, Zhendong
2015-08-19
We present a surface-wave inversion method that inverts for the S-wave velocity from the Rayleigh dispersion curve for the fundamental-mode. We call this wave equation inversion of skeletonized surface waves because the dispersion curve for the fundamental-mode Rayleigh wave is inverted using finite-difference solutions to the wave equation. The best match between the predicted and observed dispersion curves provides the optimal S-wave velocity model. Results with synthetic and field data illustrate the benefits and limitations of this method.
Sebastian, Nita; Kim, Seongryong; Tkalčić, Hrvoje; Sippl, Christian
2017-04-01
The purpose of this study is to develop an integrated inference on the lithospheric structure of NE China using three passive seismic networks comprised of 92 stations. The NE China plain consists of complex lithospheric domains characterised by the co-existence of complex geodynamic processes such as crustal thinning, active intraplate cenozoic volcanism and low velocity anomalies. To estimate lithospheric structures with greater detail, we chose to perform the joint inversion of independent data sets such as receiver functions and surface wave dispersion curves (group and phase velocity). We perform a joint inversion based on principles of Bayesian transdimensional optimisation techniques (Kim etal., 2016). Unlike in the previous studies of NE China, the complexity of the model is determined from the data in the first stage of the inversion, and the data uncertainty is computed based on Bayesian statistics in the second stage of the inversion. The computed crustal properties are retrieved from an ensemble of probable models. We obtain major structural inferences with well constrained absolute velocity estimates, which are vital for inferring properties of the lithosphere and bulk crustal Vp/Vs ratio. The Vp/Vs estimate obtained from joint inversions confirms the high Vp/Vs ratio ( 1.98) obtained using the H-Kappa method beneath some stations. Moreover, we could confirm the existence of a lower crustal velocity beneath several stations (eg: station SHS) within the NE China plain. Based on these findings we attempt to identify a plausible origin for structural complexity. We compile a high-resolution 3D image of the lithospheric architecture of the NE China plain.
Zhang, Zhendong; Schuster, Gerard T.; Liu, Yike; Hanafy, Sherif M.; Li, Jing
2016-01-01
We present a surface-wave inversion method that inverts for the S-wave velocity from the Rayleigh wave dispersion curve using a difference approximation to the gradient of the misfit function. We call this wave equation inversion of skeletonized
Zhang, Zhendong
2016-07-26
We present a surface-wave inversion method that inverts for the S-wave velocity from the Rayleigh wave dispersion curve using a difference approximation to the gradient of the misfit function. We call this wave equation inversion of skeletonized surface waves because the skeletonized dispersion curve for the fundamental-mode Rayleigh wave is inverted using finite-difference solutions to the multi-dimensional elastic wave equation. The best match between the predicted and observed dispersion curves provides the optimal S-wave velocity model. Our method can invert for lateral velocity variations and also can mitigate the local minimum problem in full waveform inversion with a reasonable computation cost for simple models. Results with synthetic and field data illustrate the benefits and limitations of this method. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.
Skeletonized wave-equation Qs tomography using surface waves
Li, Jing; Dutta, Gaurav; Schuster, Gerard T.
2017-01-01
We present a skeletonized inversion method that inverts surface-wave data for the Qs quality factor. Similar to the inversion of dispersion curves for the S-wave velocity model, the complicated surface-wave arrivals are skeletonized as simpler data
Wave modulation in a nonlinear dispersive medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Y.C.; Khadra, L.; Powers, E.J.
1980-01-01
A model describing the simultaneous amplitude and phase modulation of a carrier wave propagating in a nonlinear dispersive medium is developed in terms of nonlinear wave-wave interactions between the sidebands and a low frequency wave. It is also shown that the asymmetric distribution of sidebands is determined by the wavenumber dependence of the coupling coefficient. Digital complex demodulation techniques are used to study modulated waves in a weakly ionized plasma and the experimental results support the analytical model
Dispersion of extensional waves in fluid-saturated porous cylinders at ultrasonic frequencies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berryman, J.G.
1983-01-01
Ultrasonic dispersion of extensional waves in fluid-saturated porous cylinders is studied by analyzing generalized Pochhammer equations derived using Biot's theory. Cases with open-pore surface and closed-pore surface boundary conditions are considered. For both cases, the dispersion of the fast extensional wave does not differ much qualitatively from the dispersion expected for extensional waves in isotropic elastic cylinders. A slow extensional wave propagates in the case with a closed-pore surface but not in the case with an open-pore surface. The propagating slow wave has very weak dispersion and its speed is always lower than, but close to, the bulk slow wave speed
Eddy, C. L.; Ekstrom, G.; Nettles, M.; Gaherty, J. B.
2017-12-01
We present a three-dimensional model of the anisotropic velocity structure of the Pacific lithosphere and asthenosphere. The presence of seismic anisotropy in the oceanic upper mantle provides information about the geometry of flow in the mantle, the nature of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary, and the possible presence of partial melt in the asthenosphere. Our dataset consists of fundamental-mode dispersion for Rayleigh and Love waves measured between 25-250 s with paths crossing the Pacific Ocean. We invert the phase anomaly measurements directly for three-dimensional anisotropic velocity structure. Our models are radially anisotropic and include the full set of elastic parameters that describe azimuthal variations in velocity (e.g. Gc, Gs). We investigate the age dependence of seismic velocity and radial anisotropy and find that there are significant deviations from the velocities predicted by a simple oceanic plate cooling model. We observe strong radial anisotropy with vsh > vsv in the asthenosphere of the central Pacific. We investigate the radial anisotropy in the shallow lithosphere, where previous models have reported conflicting results. There is a contrast in both upper-mantle isotropic velocities and radial anisotropy between the Pacific and Nazca plates, across the East Pacific Rise. We also investigate lateral variations in azimuthal anisotropy throughout the Pacific upper mantle and find that there are large areas over which the anisotropy fast axis does not align with absolute plate motion, suggesting the presence of small-scale convection or pressure-driven flow beneath the base of the oceanic plate.
Capillary waves with surface viscosity
Shen, Li; Denner, Fabian; Morgan, Neal; van Wachem, Berend; Dini, Daniele
2017-11-01
Experiments over the last 50 years have suggested a correlation between the surface (shear) viscosity and the stability of a foam or emulsion. With recent techniques allowing more accurate measurements of the elusive surface viscosity, we examine this link theoretically using small-amplitude capillary waves in the presence of the Marangoni effect and surface viscosity modelled via the Boussinesq-Scriven model. The surface viscosity effect is found to contribute a damping effect on the amplitude of the capillary wave with subtle differences to the effect of the convective-diffusive Marangoni transport. The general wave dispersion is augmented to take into account the Marangoni and surface viscosity effects, and a first-order correction to the critical damping wavelength is derived. The authors acknowledge the financial support of the Shell University Technology Centre for fuels and lubricants.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Takayama, Osamu; Crasovan, Lucian Cornel; Johansen, Steffen Kjær
2008-01-01
The interface of two semi-infinite media, where at least one of them is a birefringent crystal, supports a special type of surface wave that was predicted theoretically by D'yakonov in 1988. Since then, the properties of such waves, which exist in transparent media only under very special......, the existence of these surface waves in specific material examples is analyzed, discussing the challenge posed by their experimental observation....
Li, Mengkui; Zhang, Shuangxi; Wu, Tengfei; Hua, Yujin; Zhang, Bo
2018-03-01
The Tengchong volcanic area is located in the southeastern margin of the collision zone between the Indian and Eurasian Plates. It is one of the youngest intraplate volcano groups in mainland China. Imaging the S-wave velocity structure of the crustal and uppermost mantle beneath the Tengchong volcanic area is an important means of improving our understanding of its volcanic activity and seismicity. In this study, we analyze teleseismic data from nine broadband seismic stations in the Tengchong Earthquake Monitoring Network. We then image the crustal and uppermost mantle S-wave velocity structure by joint analysis of receiver functions and surface-wave dispersion. The results reveal widely distributed low-velocity zones. We find four possible magma chambers in the upper-to-middle crust and one in the uppermost mantle. The chamber in the uppermost mantle locates in the depth range from 55 to 70 km. The four magma chambers in the crust occur at different depths, ranging from the depth of 7 to 25 km in general. They may be the heat sources for the high geothermal activity at the surface. Based on the fine crustal and uppermost mantle S-wave velocity structure, we propose a model for the distribution of the magma chambers.
Pizzo, Nick
2017-11-01
A simple criterion for water particles to surf an underlying surface gravity wave is presented. It is found that particles travelling near the phase speed of the wave, in a geometrically confined region on the forward face of the crest, increase in speed. The criterion is derived using the equation of John (Commun. Pure Appl. Maths, vol. 6, 1953, pp. 497-503) for the motion of a zero-stress free surface under the action of gravity. As an example, a breaking water wave is theoretically and numerically examined. Implications for upper-ocean processes, for both shallow- and deep-water waves, are discussed.
Borcherdt, R. D.
2007-12-01
General theoretical solutions for Rayleigh- and Love-Type surface waves in viscoelastic media describe physical characteristics of the surface waves in elastic as well as anelastic media with arbitrary amounts of intrinsic absorption. In contrast to corresponding physical characteristics for Rayleigh waves in elastic media, Rayleigh- Type surface waves in anelastic media demonstrate; 1) tilt of the particle motion orbit that varies with depth, and 2) amplitude and volumetric strain distributions with superimposed sinusoidal variations that decay exponentially with depth. Each characteristic is dependent on the amount of intrinsic absorption and the chosen model of viscoelasticity. Distinguishing characteristics of anelastic Love-Type surface waves include: 1) dependencies of the wave speed and absorption coefficient on the chosen model and amount of intrinsic absorption and frequency, and 2) superimposed sinusoidal amplitude variations with an exponential decay with depth. Numerical results valid for a variety of viscoelastic models provide quantitative estimates of the physical characteristics of both types of viscoelastic surface waves appropriate for interpretations pertinent to models of earth materials ranging from low-loss in the crust to moderate- and high-loss in water-saturated soils.
Modeling of Rayleigh wave dispersion in Iberia
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
José Badal
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Phase and group velocities of 15–70 s Rayleigh waves propagating across the Iberian Peninsula have been transformed into local dispersion curves by linear inversion of travel times. The procedure permits that the waveform dispersion to be obtained as a continuous period-dependent velocity function at grid points belonging to the area probed by the waves, thus providing phase- and group-velocity contour maps for several periods within the interval of interest. The regionalization process rests on a homogeneous initial data set in which the number of observations remains almost constant for all periods of reference. Damped least-squares inversion of the local dispersion curves for shear-wave velocity structure is performed to obtain depth-dependent S-wave velocity profiles at the grid points covering the model region. The reliability of the results should improve significantly owing to the use of phase and group velocities simultaneously. On this basis, we have built horizontal depth sections that give an updated view of the seismic velocity structure of the peninsula at lithospheric and upper mantle depths (20–200 km. After averaging all the pure-path S-wave velocities previously determined at each grid point, the velocity-depth models so obtained for major tectonic units allow the comparison between the Hercynian basement and other areas of Mesozoic folding and Tertiary basins.
Harmonic surface wave propagation in plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shivarova, A.; Stoychev, T.
1980-01-01
Second order harmonic surface waves generated by one fundamental high-frequency surface wave are investigated experimentally in gas discharge plasma. Two types of harmonic waves of equal frequency, associated with the linear dispersion relation and the synchronism conditions relatively propagate. The experimental conditions and the different space damping rates of the waves ensure the existence of different spatial regions (consecutively arranged along the plasma column) of a dominant propagation of each one of these two waves. Experimental data are obtained both for the wavenumbers and the space damping rates by relatively precise methods for wave investigations such as the methods of time-space diagrams and of phase shift measurements. The results are explained by the theoretical model for nonlinear mixing of dispersive waves. (author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dühring, Maria Bayard
The work of this project is concerned with the simulation of surface acoustic waves (SAW) and topology optimization of SAW devices. SAWs are elastic vibrations that propagate along a material surface and are extensively used in electromechanical filters and resonators in telecommunication. A new...
Absorption and dispersion of ultrasonic waves
Herzfeld, Karl F; Massey, H S W; Brueckner, Keith A
1959-01-01
Absorption and Dispersion of Ultrasonic Waves focuses on the influence of ultrasonics on molecular processes in liquids and gases, including hydrodynamics, energy exchange, and chemical reactions. The book first offers information on the Stokes-Navier equations of hydrodynamics, as well as equations of motion, viscosity, formal introduction of volume viscosity, and linearized wave equation for a nonviscous fluid. The manuscript then ponders on energy exchange between internal and external degrees of freedom as relaxation phenomenon; effect of slow energy exchange on sound propagation; differe
Longitudinal ultrasonic waves dispersion in bars
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suarez Antola, R.
2001-01-01
The exhibition intends to review some aspects of the propagation of the longitudinal ultrasonic pulses shortly in bars of traverse section uniform.Aspects they are part of the denominated geometric dispersion of the pulses.This phenomenon It can present like an additional complication in the ultrasonic essay of low frequency of thin pieces in structures and machines but takes place former ex professed in some applications of the wave guides been accustomed to in the prosecution of signs
Reiter, D. T.; Rodi, W. L.
2015-12-01
Constructing 3D Earth models through the joint inversion of large geophysical data sets presents numerous theoretical and practical challenges, especially when diverse types of data and model parameters are involved. Among the challenges are the computational complexity associated with large data and model vectors and the need to unify differing model parameterizations, forward modeling methods and regularization schemes within a common inversion framework. The challenges can be addressed in part by decomposing the inverse problem into smaller, simpler inverse problems that can be solved separately, providing one knows how to merge the separate inversion results into an optimal solution of the full problem. We have formulated an approach to the decomposition of large inverse problems based on the augmented Lagrangian technique from optimization theory. As commonly done, we define a solution to the full inverse problem as the Earth model minimizing an objective function motivated, for example, by a Bayesian inference formulation. Our decomposition approach recasts the minimization problem equivalently as the minimization of component objective functions, corresponding to specified data subsets, subject to the constraints that the minimizing models be equal. A standard optimization algorithm solves the resulting constrained minimization problems by alternating between the separate solution of the component problems and the updating of Lagrange multipliers that serve to steer the individual solution models toward a common model solving the full problem. We are applying our inversion method to the reconstruction of the·crust and upper-mantle seismic velocity structure across Eurasia.· Data for the inversion comprise a large set of P and S body-wave travel times·and fundamental and first-higher mode Rayleigh-wave group velocities.
Generalized dispersive wave emission in nonlinear fiber optics.
Webb, K E; Xu, Y Q; Erkintalo, M; Murdoch, S G
2013-01-15
We show that the emission of dispersive waves in nonlinear fiber optics is not limited to soliton-like pulses propagating in the anomalous dispersion regime. We demonstrate, both numerically and experimentally, that pulses propagating in the normal dispersion regime can excite resonant dispersive radiation across the zero-dispersion wavelength into the anomalous regime.
Assessing ground compaction via time lapse surface wave analysis
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Dal Moro, Giancarlo; Al-Arifi, N.; Moustafa, S.S.R.
2016-01-01
Roč. 13, č. 3 (2016), s. 249-256 ISSN 1214-9705 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : Full velocity spectrum (FVS) analysis * ground compaction * ground compaction * phase velocities * Rayleigh waves * seismic data inversion * surface wave dispersion * surface waves Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 0.699, year: 2016
Dispersive Wave Analysis Using the Chirplet Transform
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kerber, Florian; Luangvilai, Kritsakorn; Kuttig, Helge; Niethammer, Marc; Jacobs, Laurence J.
2007-01-01
Time-frequency representations (TFR) are a widely used tool to analyze signals of guided waves such as Lamb waves. As a consequence of the uncertainty principle, however, the resolution in time and frequency is limited for all existing TFR methods. Due to the multi-modal and dispersive character of Lamb waves, displacement or energy related quantities can only be allocated to individual modes when they are well-separated in the time-frequency plane.The chirplet transform (CT) has been introduced as a generalization of both the wavelet and Short-time Fourier transform (STFT). It offers additional degrees of freedom to adjust time-frequency atoms which can be exploited in a model-based approach to match the group delay of individual modes. Thus, more exact allocation of quantities of interest is possible.The objective of this research is to use a previously developed adaptive algorithm based on the CT for nondestructive evaluation. Both numerically and experimentally generated data for a single aluminum plate is analyzed to determine the accuracy and robustness of the new method in comparison the classical STFT
Effects of metal and 'magnetic wall' on the dispersion characteristic of magnetostatic waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lock, Edwin H.; Vashkovsky, Anatoly V.
2006-01-01
The dispersion relation of magnetostatic waves tangentially magnetized to saturation ferrite film, with a 'magnetic wall' condition (tangential component of microwave magnetic field is equal to zero) on one of the film surface and with a metal condition on the opposite surface is analyzed. The dispersion characteristics show that unidirectional magnetostatic waves appear in this structure: they can transfer energy in one direction only and fundamentally cannot transfer energy in the opposite direction. The dispersion-free propagation of magnetostatic waves also is possible in the structure in a wide frequency interval
Wave dispersion relations in two-dimensional Yukawa systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu Yanhong; Liu Bin; Chen Yanping; Yang Size; Wang Long; Wang Xiaogang
2003-01-01
Collective modes in a two-dimensional Yukawa system are investigated by molecular dynamics simulation in a wide range of coupling parameter Γ and screening strength κ. The dispersion relations and sound speeds of the transverse and longitudinal waves obtained for hexagonal lattice are in agreement with the theoretical results. The negative dispersion of the longitudinal wave is demonstrated. Frequency gaps are found on the dispersion curves of the transverse wave due to scattering of the waves on lattice defects for proper values of Γ. The common frequency of transverse and longitudinal waves drops dramatically with the increasing screening strength κ
Wave-equation Qs Inversion of Skeletonized Surface Waves
Li, Jing
2017-02-08
We present a skeletonized inversion method that inverts surface-wave data for the Qs quality factor. Similar to the inversion of dispersion curves for the S-wave velocity model, the complicated surface-wave arrivals are skeletonized as simpler data, namely the amplitude spectra of the windowed Rayleigh-wave arrivals. The optimal Qs model is the one that minimizes the difference in the peak frequencies of the predicted and observed Rayleigh wave arrivals using a gradient-based wave-equation optimization method. Solutions to the viscoelastic wave-equation are used to compute the predicted Rayleigh-wave arrivals and the misfit gradient at every iteration. This procedure, denoted as wave-equation Qs inversion (WQs), does not require the assumption of a layered model and tends to have fast and robust convergence compared to full waveform inversion (FWI). Numerical examples with synthetic and field data demonstrate that the WQs method can accurately invert for a smoothed approximation to the subsurface Qs distribution as long as the Vs model is known with sufficient accuracy.
Skeletonized wave-equation Qs tomography using surface waves
Li, Jing
2017-08-17
We present a skeletonized inversion method that inverts surface-wave data for the Qs quality factor. Similar to the inversion of dispersion curves for the S-wave velocity model, the complicated surface-wave arrivals are skeletonized as simpler data, namely the amplitude spectra of the windowed Rayleigh-wave arrivals. The optimal Qs model is then found that minimizes the difference in the peak frequencies of the predicted and observed Rayleigh wave arrivals using a gradient-based wave-equation optimization method. Solutions to the viscoelastic wave-equation are used to compute the predicted Rayleigh-wave arrivals and the misfit gradient at every iteration. This procedure, denoted as wave-equation Qs tomography (WQs), does not require the assumption of a layered model and tends to have fast and robust convergence compared to Q full waveform inversion (Q-FWI). Numerical examples with synthetic and field data demonstrate that the WQs method can accurately invert for a smoothed approximation to the subsur-face Qs distribution as long as the Vs model is known with sufficient accuracy.
Wave-equation Qs Inversion of Skeletonized Surface Waves
Li, Jing; Dutta, Gaurav; Schuster, Gerard T.
2017-01-01
We present a skeletonized inversion method that inverts surface-wave data for the Qs quality factor. Similar to the inversion of dispersion curves for the S-wave velocity model, the complicated surface-wave arrivals are skeletonized as simpler data, namely the amplitude spectra of the windowed Rayleigh-wave arrivals. The optimal Qs model is the one that minimizes the difference in the peak frequencies of the predicted and observed Rayleigh wave arrivals using a gradient-based wave-equation optimization method. Solutions to the viscoelastic wave-equation are used to compute the predicted Rayleigh-wave arrivals and the misfit gradient at every iteration. This procedure, denoted as wave-equation Qs inversion (WQs), does not require the assumption of a layered model and tends to have fast and robust convergence compared to full waveform inversion (FWI). Numerical examples with synthetic and field data demonstrate that the WQs method can accurately invert for a smoothed approximation to the subsurface Qs distribution as long as the Vs model is known with sufficient accuracy.
Surface Waves on Metamaterials Interfaces
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Takayama, Osamu; Shkondin, Evgeniy; Panah, Mohammad Esmail Aryaee
2016-01-01
We analyze surface electromagnetic waves supported at the interface between isotropic medium and effective anisotropic material that can be realized by alternating conductive and dielectrics layers. This configuration can host various types of surface waves and therefore can serve as a rich...... platform for applications of surface photonics. Most of these surface waves are directional and as such their propagation can be effectively controlled by changing wavelength or material parameters tuning....
Surface wave velocity tracking by bisection method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maeda, T.
2005-01-01
Calculation of surface wave velocity is a classic problem dating back to the well-known Haskell's transfer matrix method, which contributes to solutions of elastic wave propagation, global subsurface structure evaluation by simulating observed earthquake group velocities, and on-site evaluation of subsurface structure by simulating phase velocity dispersion curves and/or H/V spectra obtained by micro-tremor observation. Recently inversion analysis on micro-tremor observation requires efficient method of generating many model candidates and also stable, accurate, and fast computation of dispersion curves and Raleigh wave trajectory. The original Haskell's transfer matrix method has been improved in terms of its divergence tendency mainly by the generalized transmission and reflection matrix method with formulation available for surface wave velocity; however, root finding algorithm has not been fully discussed except for the one by setting threshold to the absolute value of complex characteristic functions. Since surface wave number (reciprocal to the surface wave velocity multiplied by frequency) is a root of complex valued characteristic function, it is intractable to use general root finding algorithm. We will examine characteristic function in phase plane to construct two dimensional bisection algorithm with consideration on a layer to be evaluated and algorithm for tracking roots down along frequency axis. (author)
Properties of surface waves in granular media under gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zheng He-Peng
2014-01-01
Acoustical waves propagating along the free surface of granular media under gravity are investigated in the framework of elasticity theory. The influence of stress on a surface wave is analyzed. The results have shown that two types of surface waves, namely sagittal and transverse modes exist depending on initial stress states, which may have some influence on the dispersion relations of surface waves, but the influence is not great. Considering that the present experimental accuracy is far from distinguishing this detail, the validity of elasticity theory on the surface waves propagating in granular media can still be maintained. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)
Resonances and surface waves in bounded plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bowers, K.J.; Qui, D.W.; Smith, H.B.; Birdsall, C.K.
1999-01-01
Surface waves provide a promising means of creating large, area plasmas. These waves can uniformly distribute the excitation energy and while presenting a small resistance and zero reactance to the driving source. Experimentally and in the simulations, the electron temperature is low (like 1--3 eV) as is the plasma potential (like 10 Te). The use of surface waves experimentally, and now industrially, to sustain large area plasma sources with device size is comparable to free space wavelength have motivated the authors to refine the theories of [1] and [2] to be fully electromagnetic. The wave dispersion predicted by the electromagnetic theory differs from the predictions of the prior theories and the results illuminate limitations of the electrostatic model. The use of surface waves have also motivated them to explore the mechanisms by which surface waves heat the plasma. In the 1d electrostatic simulations high velocity electron bunches are formed in the sheaths and are alternatively accelerated from each sheath into the bulk plasma each RF cycle. They speculate similar mechanisms provide the ionization in surface wave discharges. They also see in these simulations the plasma makes an abrupt transition from capacitively coupled to resistively coupled and the series resonance locks onto the drive frequency; these abrupt transitions resemble mode-jumping seen experimentally in large area sources. Furthermore, the density profile of the plasma tracks the drive frequency while in the resonant mode giving a new mechanism by which the plasma parameters can be controlled. They are currently investigating the effect of the driving electrode shape has on these resonances and conducting 2d simulations of a large area surface wave source to explore the ignition of surface wave devices and how the plasma fills in the device
Multi-component joint analysis of surface waves
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Dal Moro, Giancarlo; Moura, R.M.M.; Moustafa, S.S.R.
2015-01-01
Roč. 119, AUG (2015), s. 128-138 ISSN 0926-9851 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : surface waves * surface wave dispersion * seismic data acquisition * seismic data inversion * velocity spectrum Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.355, year: 2015
Modulation of cavity-polaritons by surface acoustic waves
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
de Lima, M. M.; Poel, Mike van der; Hey, R.
2006-01-01
We modulate cavity-polaritons using surface acoustic waves. The corresponding formation of a mini-Brillouin zone and band folding of the polariton dispersion is demonstrated for the first time. Results are in good agreement with model calculations.......We modulate cavity-polaritons using surface acoustic waves. The corresponding formation of a mini-Brillouin zone and band folding of the polariton dispersion is demonstrated for the first time. Results are in good agreement with model calculations....
Polarization waves in dielectric films with spatial dispersion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jardin, Jean-Pierre; Moch, Philippe; Dvorak, Vladimir
2002-01-01
The polarization waves propagating in a slab-shaped or in a semi-infinite dielectric medium with spatial dispersion characterized by a volume free-energy density and by a boundary-surface energy density are studied, taking into account Maxwell's equations, in the framework of the Landau-Ginzburg formalism. It is shown that two independent extrapolation lengths providing for the required additional boundary conditions need to be specified at each surface limiting the medium. Complete calculations are performed in the electrostatic approximation: they provide evidence of the differences between the transverse in-plane polarized modes (s modes) and the sagittal plane polarized modes (p modes). True surface modes exist only in the case of negative extrapolation lengths. A detailed analysis of the symmetry properties of the surface and of the guided bulk modes in a slab is developed. Finally, our results are compared with those from previous models describing the boundary conditions in media where spatial dispersion is present. (author)
Model-based dispersive wave processing: A recursive Bayesian solution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Candy, J.V.; Chambers, D.H.
1999-01-01
Wave propagation through dispersive media represents a significant problem in many acoustic applications, especially in ocean acoustics, seismology, and nondestructive evaluation. In this paper we propose a propagation model that can easily represent many classes of dispersive waves and proceed to develop the model-based solution to the wave processing problem. It is shown that the underlying wave system is nonlinear and time-variable requiring a recursive processor. Thus the general solution to the model-based dispersive wave enhancement problem is developed using a Bayesian maximum a posteriori (MAP) approach and shown to lead to the recursive, nonlinear extended Kalman filter (EKF) processor. The problem of internal wave estimation is cast within this framework. The specific processor is developed and applied to data synthesized by a sophisticated simulator demonstrating the feasibility of this approach. copyright 1999 Acoustical Society of America.
Agrawal, M.; Pulliam, J.; Sen, M. K.
2013-12-01
The seismic structure beneath Texas Gulf Coast Plain (GCP) is determined via velocity analysis of stacked common conversion point (CCP) Ps and Sp receiver functions and surface wave dispersion. The GCP is a portion of a ocean-continental transition zone, or 'passive margin', where seismic imaging of lithospheric Earth structure via passive seismic techniques has been rare. Seismic data from a temporary array of 22 broadband stations, spaced 16-20 km apart, on a ~380-km-long profile from Matagorda Island, a barrier island in the Gulf of Mexico, to Johnson City, Texas were employed to construct a coherent image of the crust and uppermost mantle. CCP stacking was applied to data from teleseismic earthquakes to enhance the signal-to-noise ratios of converted phases, such as Ps phases. An inaccurate velocity model, used for time-to-depth conversion in CCP stacking, may produce higher errors, especially in a region of substantial lateral velocity variations. An accurate velocity model is therefore essential to constructing high quality depth-domain images. To find accurate velocity P- and S-wave models, we applied a joint modeling approach that searches for best-fitting models via simulated annealing. This joint inversion approach, which we call 'multi objective optimization in seismology' (MOOS), simultaneously models Ps receiver functions, Sp receiver functions and group velocity surface wave dispersion curves after assigning relative weights for each objective function. Weights are computed from the standard deviations of the data. Statistical tools such as the posterior parameter correlation matrix and posterior probability density (PPD) function are used to evaluate the constraints that each data type places on model parameters. They allow us to identify portions of the model that are well or poorly constrained.
Direct detection of near-surface faults by migration of back-scattered surface waves
Yu, Han
2014-08-05
We show that diffraction stack migration can be used to estimate the distribution of near-surface faults. The assumption is that near-surface faults generate detectable back-scattered surface waves from impinging surface waves. The processing steps are to isolate the back-scattered surface waves, and then migrate them by diffraction migration using the surface wave velocity as the migration velocity. Instead of summing events along trial quasi-hyperbolas, surface wave migration sums events along trial quasi-linear trajectories that correspond to the moveout of back-scattered surface waves. A deconvolution filter derived from the data can be used to collapse a dispersive arrival into a non-dispersive event. Results with synthetic data and field records validate the feasibility of this method. Applying this method to USArray data or passively recorded exploration data might open new opportunities in mapping tectonic features over the extent of the array.
Viscoelastic love-type surface waves
Borcherdt, Roger D.
2008-01-01
The general theoretical solution for Love-Type surface waves in viscoelastic media provides theoreticalexpressions for the physical characteristics of the waves in elastic as well as anelastic media with arbitraryamounts of intrinsic damping. The general solution yields dispersion and absorption-coefficient curves for the waves as a function of frequency and theamount of intrinsic damping for any chosen viscoelastic model.Numerical results valid for a variety of viscoelastic models provide quantitative estimates of the physicalcharacteristics of the waves pertinent to models of Earth materials ranging from small amounts of damping in the Earth’s crust to moderate and large amounts of damping in soft soils and water-saturated sediments. Numerical results, presented herein, are valid for a wide range of solids and applications.
Creation evidence of the second non-dispersive Zakharenko wave ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
create the third non-dispersive Zakharenko wave [1] (the positive roton or fourth sound) by ..... ('thermal phonons' or 'resistive phonons') instead of 'negative rotons' in the liquid ... the energy conservation law that allow us to state that such BEE ...
On the propagation of truncated localized waves in dispersive silica
Salem, Mohamed; Bagci, Hakan
2010-01-01
Propagation characteristics of truncated Localized Waves propagating in dispersive silica and free space are numerically analyzed. It is shown that those characteristics are affected by the changes in the relation between the transverse spatial
Automated detection and association of surface waves
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. R. D. Woodgold
1994-06-01
Full Text Available An algorithm for the automatic detection and association of surface waves has been developed and tested over an 18 month interval on broad band data from the Yellowknife array (YKA. The detection algorithm uses a conventional STA/LTA scheme on data that have been narrow band filtered at 20 s periods and a test is then applied to identify dispersion. An average of 9 surface waves are detected daily using this technique. Beamforming is applied to determine the arrival azimuth; at a nonarray station this could be provided by poIarization analysis. The detected surface waves are associated daily with the events located by the short period array at Yellowknife, and later with the events listed in the USGS NEIC Monthly Summaries. Association requires matching both arrival time and azimuth of the Rayleigh waves. Regional calibration of group velocity and azimuth is required. . Large variations in both group velocity and azimuth corrections were found, as an example, signals from events in Fiji Tonga arrive with apparent group velocities of 2.9 3.5 krn/s and azimuths from 5 to + 40 degrees clockwise from true (great circle azimuth, whereas signals from Kuriles Kamchatka have velocities of 2.4 2.9 km/s and azimuths off by 35 to 0 degrees. After applying the regional corrections, surface waves are considered associated if the arrival time matches to within 0.25 km/s in apparent group velocity and the azimuth is within 30 degrees of the median expected. Over the 18 month period studied, 32% of the automatically detected surface waves were associated with events located by the Yellowknife short period array, and 34% (1591 with NEIC events; there is about 70% overlap between the two sets of events. Had the automatic detections been reported to the USGS, YKA would have ranked second (after LZH in terms of numbers of associated surface waves for the study period of April 1991 to September 1992.
Pc1 pearl waves with magnetosonic dispersion
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Feygin, F. Z.; Nekrasov, A. K.; Pikkarainen, T.; Raita, T.; Prikner, Karel
2007-01-01
Roč. 69, č. 14 (2007), s. 1644-1650 ISSN 1364-6826 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : magnetosphere * geomagnetic pulsations * Alfvén waves * magnetosonic waves Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 1.566, year: 2007
Evolution of Modulated Dispersive Electron Waves in a Plasma
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sugai, H.; Lynov, Jens-Peter; Michelsen, Poul
1979-01-01
The linear propagation of amplitude-modulated electron waves was examined in a low-density Q-machine plasma. Three effects of the strong dispersion on the modulated wave have been demonstrated: (i) a wavepacket expands along its direction of propagation, followed by a shift of the frequency through...
Competition and Dispersal in Predator-Prey Waves
Savill, N.J.; Hogeweg, P.
1998-01-01
Dispersing predators and prey can exhibit complex spatio-temporal wave-like patterns if the interactions between them cause oscillatory dynamics. We study the effect of these predator- prey density waves on the competition between prey populations and between predator popu- lations with different
Variational Boussinesq model for strongly nonlinear dispersive waves
Lawrence, C.; Adytia, D.; van Groesen, E.
2018-01-01
For wave tank, coastal and oceanic applications, a fully nonlinear Variational Boussinesq model with optimized dispersion is derived and a simple Finite Element implementation is described. Improving a previous weakly nonlinear version, high waves over flat and varying bottom are shown to be
Rogue and shock waves in nonlinear dispersive media
Resitori, Stefania; Baronio, Fabio
2016-01-01
This self-contained set of lectures addresses a gap in the literature by providing a systematic link between the theoretical foundations of the subject matter and cutting-edge applications in both geophysical fluid dynamics and nonlinear optics. Rogue and shock waves are phenomena that may occur in the propagation of waves in any nonlinear dispersive medium. Accordingly, they have been observed in disparate settings – as ocean waves, in nonlinear optics, in Bose-Einstein condensates, and in plasmas. Rogue and dispersive shock waves are both characterized by the development of extremes: for the former, the wave amplitude becomes unusually large, while for the latter, gradients reach extreme values. Both aspects strongly influence the statistical properties of the wave propagation and are thus considered together here in terms of their underlying theoretical treatment. This book offers a self-contained graduate-level text intended as both an introduction and reference guide for a new generation of scientists ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Arshad
Full Text Available In this manuscript, we constructed different form of new exact solutions of generalized coupled Zakharov–Kuznetsov and dispersive long wave equations by utilizing the modified extended direct algebraic method. New exact traveling wave solutions for both equations are obtained in the form of soliton, periodic, bright, and dark solitary wave solutions. There are many applications of the present traveling wave solutions in physics and furthermore, a wide class of coupled nonlinear evolution equations can be solved by this method. Keywords: Traveling wave solutions, Elliptic solutions, Generalized coupled Zakharov–Kuznetsov equation, Dispersive long wave equation, Modified extended direct algebraic method
The collapse of acoustic waves in dispersive media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuznetsov, E.A.; Musher, S.L.; Shafarenko, A.V.
1983-01-01
The existence of the collapse of acoustic waves with a positive dispersion is demonstrated. A qualitative description of wave collapse, based on the analysis of invariants, is proposed. Through the use of a numerical simulation, it is established that, in the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili three-dimensional equation, collapse is accompanied by the formation of a weakly turbulent background by the wave radiation from the cavity
Dispersive shock waves in nonlinear and atomic optics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kamchatnov Anatoly
2017-01-01
Full Text Available A brief review is given of dispersive shock waves observed in nonlinear optics and dynamics of Bose-Einstein condensates. The theory of dispersive shock waves is developed on the basis of Whitham modulation theory for various situations taking place in these two fields. In particular, the full classification is established for types of wave structures evolving from initial discontinuities for propagation of long light pulses in fibers with account of steepening effect and for dynamics of the polarization mode in two-component Bose-Einstein condensates.
Approximate Dispersion Relations for Waves on Arbitrary Shear Flows
Ellingsen, S. À.; Li, Y.
2017-12-01
An approximate dispersion relation is derived and presented for linear surface waves atop a shear current whose magnitude and direction can vary arbitrarily with depth. The approximation, derived to first order of deviation from potential flow, is shown to produce good approximations at all wavelengths for a wide range of naturally occuring shear flows as well as widely used model flows. The relation reduces in many cases to a 3-D generalization of the much used approximation by Skop (1987), developed further by Kirby and Chen (1989), but is shown to be more robust, succeeding in situations where the Kirby and Chen model fails. The two approximations incur the same numerical cost and difficulty. While the Kirby and Chen approximation is excellent for a wide range of currents, the exact criteria for its applicability have not been known. We explain the apparently serendipitous success of the latter and derive proper conditions of applicability for both approximate dispersion relations. Our new model has a greater range of applicability. A second order approximation is also derived. It greatly improves accuracy, which is shown to be important in difficult cases. It has an advantage over the corresponding second-order expression proposed by Kirby and Chen that its criterion of accuracy is explicitly known, which is not currently the case for the latter to our knowledge. Our second-order term is also arguably significantly simpler to implement, and more physically transparent, than its sibling due to Kirby and Chen.Plain Language SummaryIn order to answer key questions such as how the ocean surface affects the climate, erodes the coastline and transports nutrients, we must understand how waves move. This is not so easy when depth varying currents are present, as they often are in coastal waters. We have developed a modeling tool for accurately predicting wave properties in such situations, ready for use, for example, in the complex oceanographic computer models. Our
Propagation and dispersion of shock waves in magnetoelastic materials
Crum, R. S.; Domann, J. P.; Carman, G. P.; Gupta, V.
2017-12-01
Previous studies examining the response of magnetoelastic materials to shock waves have predominantly focused on applications involving pulsed power generation, with limited attention given to the actual wave propagation characteristics. This study provides detailed magnetic and mechanical measurements of magnetoelastic shock wave propagation and dispersion. Laser generated rarefacted shock waves exceeding 3 GPa with rise times of 10 ns were introduced to samples of the magnetoelastic material Galfenol. The resulting mechanical measurements reveal the evolution of the shock into a compressive acoustic front with lateral release waves. Importantly, the wave continues to disperse even after it has decayed into an acoustic wave, due in large part to magnetoelastic coupling. The magnetic data reveal predominantly shear wave mediated magnetoelastic coupling, and were also used to noninvasively measure the wave speed. The external magnetic field controlled a 30% increase in wave propagation speed, attributed to a 70% increase in average stiffness. Finally, magnetic signals propagating along the sample over 20× faster than the mechanical wave were measured, indicating these materials can act as passive antennas that transmit information in response to mechanical stimuli.
Breaking of ocean surface waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Babanin, A.V.
2009-01-01
Wind-generated waves are the most prominent feature of the ocean surface, and so are breaking waves manifested by the appearance of sporadic whitecaps. Such breaking represents one of the most interesting and most challenging problems for both fluid mechanics and physical oceanography. It is an intermittent random process, very fast by comparison with other processes in the wave breaking on the water surface is not continuous, but its role in maintaining the energy balance within the continuous wind-wave field is critical. Ocean wave breaking also plays the primary role in the air-sea exchange of momentum, mass and heat, and it is of significant importance for ocean remote sensing, coastal and maritime engineering, navigation and other practical applications. Understanding the wave breaking its occurrence, the breaking rates and even ability to describe its onset has been hindered for decades by the strong non-linearity of the process, together with its irregular and ferocious nature. Recently, this knowledge has significantly advanced, and the review paper is an attempt to summarise the facts into a consistent, albeit still incomplete picture of the phenomenon. In the paper, variety of definitions related to the were breaking are discussed and formulated and methods for breaking detection and measurements are examined. Most of attention is dedicated to the research of wave breaking probability and severity. Experimental, observational, numerical and statistical approaches and their outcomes are reviewed. Present state of the wave-breaking research and knowledge is analysed and main outstanding problems are outlined (Authors)
Pseudospectral modeling and dispersion analysis of Rayleigh waves in viscoelastic media
Zhang, K.; Luo, Y.; Xia, J.; Chen, C.
2011-01-01
Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) is one of the most widely used techniques in environmental and engineering geophysics to determine shear-wave velocities and dynamic properties, which is based on the elastic layered system theory. Wave propagation in the Earth, however, has been recognized as viscoelastic and the propagation of Rayleigh waves presents substantial differences in viscoelastic media as compared with elastic media. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out numerical simulation and dispersion analysis of Rayleigh waves in viscoelastic media to better understand Rayleigh-wave behaviors in the real world. We apply a pseudospectral method to the calculation of the spatial derivatives using a Chebyshev difference operator in the vertical direction and a Fourier difference operator in the horizontal direction based on the velocity-stress elastodynamic equations and relations of linear viscoelastic solids. This approach stretches the spatial discrete grid to have a minimum grid size near the free surface so that high accuracy and resolution are achieved at the free surface, which allows an effective incorporation of the free surface boundary conditions since the Chebyshev method is nonperiodic. We first use an elastic homogeneous half-space model to demonstrate the accuracy of the pseudospectral method comparing with the analytical solution, and verify the correctness of the numerical modeling results for a viscoelastic half-space comparing the phase velocities of Rayleigh wave between the theoretical values and the dispersive image generated by high-resolution linear Radon transform. We then simulate three types of two-layer models to analyze dispersive-energy characteristics for near-surface applications. Results demonstrate that the phase velocity of Rayleigh waves in viscoelastic media is relatively higher than in elastic media and the fundamental mode increases by 10-16% when the frequency is above 10. Hz due to the velocity dispersion of P
Dispersion characteristics of plasmonic waveguides for THz waves
Markides, Christos; Viphavakit, Charusluk; Themistos, Christos; Komodromos, Michael; Kalli, Kyriacos; Quadir, Anita; Rahman, Azizur
2013-05-01
Today there is an increasing surge in Surface Plasmon based research and recent studies have shown that a wide range of plasmon-based optical elements and techniques have led to the development of a variety of active switches, passive waveguides, biosensors, lithography masks, to name just a few. The Terahertz (THz) frequency region of the electromagnetic spectrum is located between the traditional microwave spectrum and the optical frequencies, and offers a significant scientific and technological potential in many fields, such as in sensing, in imaging and in spectroscopy. Waveguiding in this intermediate spectral region is a major challenge. Amongst the various THz waveguides suggested, the metal-clad waveguides supporting surface plasmon modes waves and specifically hollow core structures, coated with insulating material are showing the greatest promise as low-loss waveguides for their use in active components and as well as passive waveguides. The H-field finite element method (FEM) based full-vector formulation is used to study the vectorial modal field properties and the complex propagation characteristics of Surface Plasmon modes of a hollow-core dielectric coated rectangular waveguide structure. Additionally, the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method is used to estimate the dispersion parameters and the propagation loss of the rectangular waveguide.
Relation between the behaviors of P-wave and QT dispersions in elderly patients with heart failure
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Szlejf Cláudia
2002-01-01
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the relation between P-wave and QT dispersions in elderly patients with heart failure. METHODS: Forty-seven elderly patients (75.6±6 years with stable heart failure in NYHA functional classes II or III and with ejection fractions of 37±6% underwent body surface mapping to analyze P-wave and QT dispersions. The degree of correlation between P-wave and QT dispersions was assessed, and P-wave dispersion values in patients with QT dispersion greater than and smaller than 100 ms were compared. RESULTS: The mean values of P-wave and QT dispersions were 54±14 ms and 68±27 ms, respectively. The correlation between the 2 variables was R=0.41 (p=0.04. In patients with QT dispersion values > 100 ms, P-wave dispersion was significantly greater than in those with QT dispersion values < 100 ms (58±16 vs 53±12 ms, p=0.04 . CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that, in elderly patients with heart failure, a correlation between the values of P-wave and QT dispersions exists. These findings may have etiopathogenic, pathophysiologic, prognostic, and therapeutic implications, which should be investigated in other studies.
PARTICLE SCATTERING OFF OF RIGHT-HANDED DISPERSIVE WAVES
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schreiner, C.; Kilian, P.; Spanier, F., E-mail: cschreiner@astro.uni-wuerzburg.de [Centre for Space Research, North-West University, 2520 Potchefstroom (South Africa)
2017-01-10
Resonant scattering of fast particles off low frequency plasma waves is a major process determining transport characteristics of energetic particles in the heliosphere and contributing to their acceleration. Usually, only Alfvén waves are considered for this process, although dispersive waves are also present throughout the heliosphere. We investigate resonant interaction of energetic electrons with dispersive, right-handed waves. For the interaction of particles and a single wave a variable transformation into the rest frame of the wave can be performed. Here, well-established analytic models derived in the framework of magnetostatic quasi-linear theory can be used as a reference to validate simulation results. However, this approach fails as soon as several dispersive waves are involved. Based on analytic solutions modeling the scattering amplitude in the magnetostatic limit, we present an approach to modify these equations for use in the plasma frame. Thereby we aim at a description of particle scattering in the presence of several waves. A particle-in-cell code is employed to study wave–particle scattering on a micro-physically correct level and to test the modified model equations. We investigate the interactions of electrons at different energies (from 1 keV to 1 MeV) and right-handed waves with various amplitudes. Differences between model and simulation arise in the case of high amplitudes or several waves. Analyzing the trajectories of single particles we find no microscopic diffusion in the case of a single plasma wave, although a broadening of the particle distribution can be observed.
Dispersion properties of transverse waves in electrically polarized BECs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andreev, Pavel A; Kuz'menkov, L S
2014-01-01
Further development of the method of quantum hydrodynamics in applications for Bose–Einstein condensates (BECs) is presented. To consider the evolution of polarization direction along with particle movement, we have developed a corresponding set of quantum hydrodynamic equations. It includes equations of the polarization evolution and the polarization-current evolution along with the continuity equation and the Euler equation (the momentum-balance equation). Dispersion properties of the transverse waves, including the electromagnetic waves propagating through the BECs, are considered. To this end, we consider a full set of the Maxwell equations for the description of electromagnetic field dynamics. This approximation gives us the possibility of considering the electromagnetic waves along with the matter waves. We find a splitting of the electromagnetic-wave dispersion on two branches. As a result, we have four solutions, two for the electromagnetic waves and two for the matter waves; the last two are the concentration-polarization waves appearing as a generalization of the Bogoliubov mode. We also find that if the matter wave propagates perpendicular to the external electric field then the dipolar contribution does not disappear (as it follows from our generalization of the Bogoliubov spectrum). A small dipolar frequency shift exists in this case due to the transverse electric field of perturbation. (paper)
Dispersion relation of linearly polarized strong electromagnetic waves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ferrari, A; Massaglia, S [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Turin (Italy). Lab. di Cosmo-Geofisica; Dobrowolny, M [Comitato Nazionale per l' Energia Nucleaire, Frascati (Italy). Lab. Plasma Spazio
1975-12-15
A numerical study is presented of the dispersion relation of linearly polarized strong electromagnetic waves in a cold electron plasma. The nonlinear effects introduced by the relativistic motion of electrons are: (1) the dispersion relation depends explicitly on the field strength ..cap alpha..=eE/sub 0//mc..omega../sub 0/, and (2) the propagation of modes with frequencies below the formal electron plasma frequency is allowed.
Langmuir wave dispersion relation in non-Maxwellian plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ouazene, M.; Annou, R.
2010-01-01
The Langmuir wave dispersion relation is derived in partially ionized plasmas, where free electrons are confined to move in a nearest neighbor ions' potential well. The equilibrium velocity distribution function experiences then, a departure from Maxwell distribution function. The effect of the non-Maxwellian character of the distribution function on the Langmuir phase and group velocities as well as the phase matching conditions and the nonlinear growth rate of decay instability is investigated. The proposed Langmuir wave dispersion relation is relevant to dense and cryogenic plasmas.
Optical bulk and surface waves with negative refraction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Agranovich, V.M.; Shen, Y.R.; Baughman, R.H.; Zakhidov, A.A.
2004-01-01
In materials with negative refraction, the direction of wave propagation is opposite to the direction of the wave vector. Using an approach that characterizes the optical response of a medium totally by a generalized dielectric permittivity, ε-bar (ω,k-bar), we discuss the possibility of seeing negative refraction for optical waves in a number of nonmagnetic media. These include bulk waves in organic materials and in gyrotropic materials where additional exciton-polariton waves can have a negative group velocity. It is known that dispersion of surface waves can be engineered by tailoring a surface transition layer. We show how this effect can be used to obtain surface waves with negative refraction
Study of Magnetohydrodynamic Surface Waves on Liquid Gallium
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hantao Ji; William Fox; David Pace; H.L. Rappaport
2004-05-13
Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) surface waves on liquid gallium are studied theoretically and experimentally in the small magnetic Reynolds number limit. A linear dispersion relation is derived when a horizontal magnetic field and a horizontal electric current is imposed. No wave damping is found in the shallow liquid limit while waves always damp in the deep liquid limit with a magnetic field parallel to the propagation direction. When the magnetic field is weak, waves are weakly damped and the real part of the dispersion is unaffected, while in the opposite limit waves are strongly damped with shortened wavelengths. In a table-top experiment, planar MHD surface waves on liquid gallium are studied in detail in the regime of weak magnetic field and deep liquid. A non-invasive diagnostic accurately measures surface waves at multiple locations by reflecting an array of lasers off the surface onto a screen, which is recorded by an Intensified-CCD camera. The measured dispersion relation is consistent with the linear theory with a reduced surface tension likely due to surface oxidation. In excellent agreement with linear theory, it is observed that surface waves are damped only when a horizontal magnetic field is imposed parallel to the propagation direction. No damping is observed under a perpendicular magnetic field. The existence of strong wave damping even without magnetic field suggests the importance of the surface oxide layer. Implications to the liquid metal wall concept in fusion reactors, especially on the wave damping and a Rayleigh-Taylor instability when the Lorentz force is used to support liquid metal layer against gravity, are discussed.
Study of Magnetohydrodynamic Surface Waves on Liquid Gallium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hantao Ji; William Fox; David Pace; Rappaport, H.L.
2004-01-01
Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) surface waves on liquid gallium are studied theoretically and experimentally in the small magnetic Reynolds number limit. A linear dispersion relation is derived when a horizontal magnetic field and a horizontal electric current is imposed. No wave damping is found in the shallow liquid limit while waves always damp in the deep liquid limit with a magnetic field parallel to the propagation direction. When the magnetic field is weak, waves are weakly damped and the real part of the dispersion is unaffected, while in the opposite limit waves are strongly damped with shortened wavelengths. In a table-top experiment, planar MHD surface waves on liquid gallium are studied in detail in the regime of weak magnetic field and deep liquid. A non-invasive diagnostic accurately measures surface waves at multiple locations by reflecting an array of lasers off the surface onto a screen, which is recorded by an Intensified-CCD camera. The measured dispersion relation is consistent with the linear theory with a reduced surface tension likely due to surface oxidation. In excellent agreement with linear theory, it is observed that surface waves are damped only when a horizontal magnetic field is imposed parallel to the propagation direction. No damping is observed under a perpendicular magnetic field. The existence of strong wave damping even without magnetic field suggests the importance of the surface oxide layer. Implications to the liquid metal wall concept in fusion reactors, especially on the wave damping and a Rayleigh-Taylor instability when the Lorentz force is used to support liquid metal layer against gravity, are discussed
Surface phonons and elastic surface waves
Büscher, H.; Klein-Heßling, W.; Ludwig, W.
Theoretical investigations on the dynamics of the (001), (110) and (111) surfaces of some cubic metals (Ag, Cu, Ni) will be reviewed. Both, lattice dynamical and continuum theoretical results are obtained via a Green's function formalism. The main attitude of this paper is the comparison of our results with experiments and with results obtained via slab-calculations. The calculation of elastic surface waves has been performed using a modified surface-green-function-matching method. We have used two different approaches of calculation the bulk Green's function (a) using the spectral representation and (b) a method, what works on residues. The investigations are carried out using shortrange phenomenological potentials. The atomic force constants in the first surface layers are modified to describe surface phonon anomalies, observed by experiments. In the case of Ag (100) and Ag(110) we conclude that the detection of odd symmetry shear modes by Erskine et al. [1 a, b] was not very accurate.
Surface phonons and elastic surface waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buescher, H.; Klein-Hessling, W.; Ludwig, W.
1993-01-01
Theoretical investigations on the dynamics of the (001), (110) and (111) surfaces of some cubic metals (Ag, Cu, Ni) will be reviewed. Both, lattice dynamical and continuum theoretical results are obtained via a Green's function formalism. The main attitude of this paper is the comparison of our results with experiments and with results obtained via slab-calculations. The calculation of elastic surface waves has been performed using a modified surface-green-function-matching method. We have used two different approaches of calculation the bulk Green's function (a) using the spectral representation and (b) a method, what works on residues. The investigations are carried out using shortrange phenomenological potentials. The atomic force constants in the first surface layers are modified to describe surface phonon anomalies, observed by experiments. In the case of Ag(100) and Ag(110) we conclude that the detection of odd symmetry shear modes by Erskine et al. was not very accurate. (orig.)
Dispersion durations of P-wave and QT interval in children treated with a ketogenic diet.
Doksöz, Önder; Güzel, Orkide; Yılmaz, Ünsal; Işgüder, Rana; Çeleğen, Kübra; Meşe, Timur
2014-04-01
Limited data are available on the effects of a ketogenic diet on dispersion duration of P-wave and QT-interval measures in children. We searched for the changes in these measures with serial electrocardiograms in patients treated with a ketogenic diet. Twenty-five drug-resistant patients with epilepsy treated with a ketogenic diet were enrolled in this study. Electrocardiography was performed in all patients before the beginning and at the sixth month after implementation of the ketogenic diet. Heart rate, maximum and minimum P-wave duration, P-wave dispersion, and maximum and minimum corrected QT interval and QT dispersion were manually measured from the 12-lead surface electrocardiogram. Minimum and maximum corrected QT and QT dispersion measurements showed nonsignificant increase at month 6 compared with baseline values. Other previously mentioned electrocardiogram parameters also showed no significant changes. A ketogenic diet of 6 months' duration has no significant effect on electrocardiogram parameters in children. Further studies with larger samples and longer duration of follow-up are needed to clarify the effects of ketogenic diet on P-wave dispersion and corrected QT and QT dispersion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Defocusing regimes of nonlinear waves in media with negative dispersion
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bergé, L.; Kuznetsov, E.A.; Juul Rasmussen, J.
1996-01-01
Defocusing regimes of quasimonochromatic waves governed by a nonlinear Schrodinger equation with mixed-sign dispersion are investigated. For a power-law nonlinearity, we show that localized solutions to this equation defined at the so-called critical dimension cannot collapse in finite time...
Unstructured Spectral Element Model for Dispersive and Nonlinear Wave Propagation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter; Eskilsson, Claes; Bigoni, Daniele
2016-01-01
We introduce a new stabilized high-order and unstructured numerical model for modeling fully nonlinear and dispersive water waves. The model is based on a nodal spectral element method of arbitrary order in space and a -transformed formulation due to Cai, Langtangen, Nielsen and Tveito (1998). In...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhixiang Deng
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The absence of Raman and unique pressure-tunable dispersion is the characteristic feature of gas-filled photonic crystal fiber (PCF, and its zero dispersion points can be extended to the near-infrared by increasing gas pressure. The generation of dispersive wave (DW in the normal group velocity dispersion (GVD region of PCF is investigated. It is demonstrated that considering the self-steepening (SS and introducing the chirp of the initial input pulse are two suitable means to control the DW generation. The SS enhances the relative average intensity of blue-shift DW while weakening that of red-shift DW. The required propagation distance of DW emission is markedly varied by introducing the frequency chirp. Manipulating DW generation in gas-filled PCF by the combined effects of either SS or chirp and three-order dispersion (TOD provides a method for a concentrated transfer of energy into the targeted wavelengths.
Dispersive Evolution of Nonlinear Fast Magnetoacoustic Wave Trains
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pascoe, D. J.; Goddard, C. R.; Nakariakov, V. M., E-mail: D.J.Pascoe@warwick.ac.uk [Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)
2017-10-01
Quasi-periodic rapidly propagating wave trains are frequently observed in extreme ultraviolet observations of the solar corona, or are inferred by the quasi-periodic modulation of radio emission. The dispersive nature of fast magnetohydrodynamic waves in coronal structures provides a robust mechanism to explain the detected quasi-periodic patterns. We perform 2D numerical simulations of impulsively generated wave trains in coronal plasma slabs and investigate how the behavior of the trapped and leaky components depend on the properties of the initial perturbation. For large amplitude compressive perturbations, the geometrical dispersion associated with the waveguide suppresses the nonlinear steepening for the trapped wave train. The wave train formed by the leaky components does not experience dispersion once it leaves the waveguide and so can steepen and form shocks. The mechanism we consider can lead to the formation of multiple shock fronts by a single, large amplitude, impulsive event and so can account for quasi-periodic features observed in radio spectra.
Modal analysis of wave propagation in dispersive media
Abdelrahman, M. Ismail; Gralak, B.
2018-01-01
Surveys on wave propagation in dispersive media have been limited since the pioneering work of Sommerfeld [Ann. Phys. 349, 177 (1914), 10.1002/andp.19143491002] by the presence of branches in the integral expression of the wave function. In this article a method is proposed to eliminate these critical branches and hence to establish a modal expansion of the time-dependent wave function. The different components of the transient waves are physically interpreted as the contributions of distinct sets of modes and characterized accordingly. Then, the modal expansion is used to derive a modified analytical expression of the Sommerfeld precursor improving significantly the description of the amplitude and the oscillating period up to the arrival of the Brillouin precursor. The proposed method and results apply to all waves governed by the Helmholtz equations.
Nonlinear surface waves at ferrite-metamaterial waveguide structure
Hissi, Nour El Houda; Mokhtari, Bouchra; Eddeqaqi, Noureddine Cherkaoui; Shabat, Mohammed Musa; Atangana, Jacques
2016-09-01
A new ferrite slab made of a metamaterial (MTM), surrounded by a nonlinear cover cladding and a ferrite substrate, was shown to support unusual types of electromagnetic surface waves. We impose the boundary conditions to derive the dispersion relation and others necessary to formulate the proposed structure. We analyse the dispersion properties of the nonlinear surface waves and we calculate the associated propagation index and the film-cover interface nonlinearity. In the calculation, several sets of the permeability of the MTM are considered. Results show that the waves behaviour depends on the values of the permeability of the MTM, the thickness of the waveguide and the film-cover interface nonlinearity. It is also shown that the use of the singular solutions to the electric field equation allows to identify several new properties of surface waves which do not exist in conventional waveguide.
Surface flute waves in plasmas theory and applications
Girka, Volodymyr; Thumm, Manfred
2014-01-01
The book presents results of a comprehensive study of various features of eigen electromagnetic waves propagating across the axis of plasma filled metal waveguides with cylindrical geometry. The authors collected in one book material on various features of surface flute waves, i. e. impact of waveguide design on wave dispersion, wave damping influenced by various reasons, impact of plasma density and external magnetic field inhomogeneity on the wave, and impact of waveguide corrugation and electric current on the wave. A variety of present surface waves applications and possible future applications is also included. Using the method of successive approximations it is shown how one can solve problems, which concern real experimental devices, starting from simple models. The book applies to both professionals dealing with problems of confined plasmas and to graduate and post-graduate students specializing in the field of plasma physics and related applications.
Xu, Yanlong; Peng, Pai
2015-01-01
. The graded grooved surface is structured by drilling one dimensional array of graded grooves with increased depths on a flat surface. We investigate SAW dispersion relations, wave field distribution at several typical SAW wavelengths, and time evolution of a
Opportunities and pitfalls in surface-wave interpretation
Schuster, Gerard T.; Li, Jing; Lu, Kai; Metwally, Ahmed Mohsen Hassan; AlTheyab, Abdullah; Hanafy, Sherif
2017-01-01
Many explorationists think of surface waves as the most damaging noise in land seismic data. Thus, much effort is spent in designing geophone arrays and filtering methods that attenuate these noisy events. It is now becoming apparent that surface waves can be a valuable ally in characterizing the near-surface geology. This review aims to find out how the interpreter can exploit some of the many opportunities available in surface waves recorded in land seismic data. For example, the dispersion curves associated with surface waves can be inverted to give the S-wave velocity tomogram, the common-offset gathers can reveal the presence of near-surface faults or velocity anomalies, and back-scattered surface waves can be migrated to detect the location of near-surface faults. However, the main limitation of surface waves is that they are typically sensitive to S-wave velocity variations no deeper than approximately half to one-third the dominant wavelength. For many exploration surveys, this limits the depth of investigation to be no deeper than approximately 0.5-1.0 km.
Opportunities and pitfalls in surface-wave interpretation
Schuster, Gerard T.
2017-01-21
Many explorationists think of surface waves as the most damaging noise in land seismic data. Thus, much effort is spent in designing geophone arrays and filtering methods that attenuate these noisy events. It is now becoming apparent that surface waves can be a valuable ally in characterizing the near-surface geology. This review aims to find out how the interpreter can exploit some of the many opportunities available in surface waves recorded in land seismic data. For example, the dispersion curves associated with surface waves can be inverted to give the S-wave velocity tomogram, the common-offset gathers can reveal the presence of near-surface faults or velocity anomalies, and back-scattered surface waves can be migrated to detect the location of near-surface faults. However, the main limitation of surface waves is that they are typically sensitive to S-wave velocity variations no deeper than approximately half to one-third the dominant wavelength. For many exploration surveys, this limits the depth of investigation to be no deeper than approximately 0.5-1.0 km.
A phase space approach to wave propagation with dispersion.
Ben-Benjamin, Jonathan S; Cohen, Leon; Loughlin, Patrick J
2015-08-01
A phase space approximation method for linear dispersive wave propagation with arbitrary initial conditions is developed. The results expand on a previous approximation in terms of the Wigner distribution of a single mode. In contrast to this previously considered single-mode case, the approximation presented here is for the full wave and is obtained by a different approach. This solution requires one to obtain (i) the initial modal functions from the given initial wave, and (ii) the initial cross-Wigner distribution between different modal functions. The full wave is the sum of modal functions. The approximation is obtained for general linear wave equations by transforming the equations to phase space, and then solving in the new domain. It is shown that each modal function of the wave satisfies a Schrödinger-type equation where the equivalent "Hamiltonian" operator is the dispersion relation corresponding to the mode and where the wavenumber is replaced by the wavenumber operator. Application to the beam equation is considered to illustrate the approach.
Chávez-González, Elibet; González-Rodríguez, Emilio; Llanes-Camacho, María Del Carmen; Garí-Llanes, Merlin; García-Nóbrega, Yosvany; García-Sáez, Julieta
2014-01-01
Increased P wave dispersion are identified as a predictor of atrial fibrillation. There are associations between hypertension, P wave dispersion, constitutional and echocardiographic variables. These relationships have been scarcely studied in pediatrics. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between P wave dispersion, blood pressure, echocardiographic and constitutional variables, and determine the most influential variables on P wave dispersion increases in pediatrics. In the frame of the PROCDEC II project, children from 8 to 11 years old, without known heart conditions were studied. Arterial blood pressure was measured in all the children; a 12-lead surface electrocardiogram and an echocardiogram were done as well. Left ventricular mass index mean values for normotensive (25.91±5.96g/m(2.7)) and hypertensive (30.34±8.48g/m(2.7)) showed significant differences P=.000. When we add prehypertensive and hypertensive there are 50.38% with normal left ventricular mass index and P wave dispersion was increased versus 13.36% of normotensive. Multiple regression demonstrated that the mean blood pressure, duration of A wave of mitral inflow, weight and height have a value of r=0.88 as related to P wave dispersion. P wave dispersion is increased in pre- and hypertensive children compared to normotensive. There are pre- and hypertensive patients with normal left ventricular mass index and increased P wave dispersion. Mean arterial pressure, duration of the A wave of mitral inflow, weight and height are the variables with the highest influence on increased P wave dispersion. Copyright © 2013 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.
Dispersion analysis for waves propagated in fractured media
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lesniak, A; Niitsuma, H [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering
1996-05-01
Dispersion of velocity is defined as a variation of the phase velocity with frequency. This paper describes the dispersion analysis of compressional body waves propagated in the heterogeneous fractured media. The new method proposed and discussed here permitted the evaluation of the variation in P wave arrival with frequency. For this processing method, any information about the attenuation of the medium are not required, and only an assumption of weak heterogeneity is important. It was shown that different mechanisms of dispersion can be distinguished and its value can be quantitatively estimated. Although the frequency used in this study was lower than those in most previous experiments reported in literature, the evaluated dispersion was large. It was suggested that such a large dispersion may be caused by the velocity structure of the media studied and by frequency dependent processes in a highly fractured zone. It was demonstrated that the present method can be used in the evaluation of subsurface fracture systems or characterization of any kind of heterogeneities. 10 refs., 6 figs.
Surface electrostatic waves in bounded high temperature superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Averkov, Yu.O.; Yakovenko, V.M.
2008-01-01
The dispersion relations of surface electrostatic waves propagating along the surface of semi bounded layered superconductor and in the slab of layered superconductor are theoretically investigated. An arbitrary inclination of superconductor layers to the interface of a vacuum - crystal and an arbitrary direction of propagation of surface waves in the plane of the interface are taking into account. The possibility of initiation of an absolute instability during the propagation of a non-relativistic plasma stream above the surface of the layered superconductor is shown
On the propagation of truncated localized waves in dispersive silica
Salem, Mohamed
2010-01-01
Propagation characteristics of truncated Localized Waves propagating in dispersive silica and free space are numerically analyzed. It is shown that those characteristics are affected by the changes in the relation between the transverse spatial spectral components and the wave vector. Numerical experiments demonstrate that as the non-linearity of this relation gets stronger, the pulses propagating in silica become more immune to decay and distortion whereas the pulses propagating in free-space suffer from early decay and distortion. © 2010 Optical Society of America.
Dispersion-Engineered Traveling Wave Kinetic Inductance Parametric Amplifier
Zmuidzinas, Jonas (Inventor); Day, Peter K. (Inventor)
2014-01-01
A traveling wave kinetic inductance parametric amplifier comprises a superconducting transmission line and a dispersion control element. The transmission line can include periodic variations of its dimension along its length. The superconducting material can include a high normal state resistivity material. In some instances the high normal state resistivity material includes nitrogen and a metal selected from the group consisting of titanium, niobium and vanadium. The traveling wave kinetic inductance parametric amplifier is expected to exhibit a noise temperature below 100 mK/GHz.
Surface wave propagation in steady ideal Hall-magnetohydrodynamic magnetic slabs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miteva, Rossitsa; Zhelyazkov, Ivan; Erdelyi, Robert
2003-01-01
This paper studies the dispersion characteristics of sausage and kink surface waves traveling along a plasma layer within the framework of Hall magnetohydrodynamics in steady state. While in a static plasma slab these waves are Alfven ones (their phase velocities are close to the Alfven speed in the layer); in a slab with steady flows they may become super Alfvenic waves. Moreover, there exist two types of waves: forward and backward ones bearing in mind that the flow velocity defines the positive (forward) direction. As a typical representative of a magnetic slab in steady state here is considered a solar wind flux rope with a finite β plasma flow (typically β∼1).The forward sausage surface mode exhibits an increased dispersion at small wave numbers while the forward kink waves become practically non-dispersive. Both backward propagating sausage and kink surface modes show an increased dispersion for large wave numbers
Dispersive shock waves in systems with nonlocal dispersion of Benjamin-Ono type
El, G. A.; Nguyen, L. T. K.; Smyth, N. F.
2018-04-01
We develop a general approach to the description of dispersive shock waves (DSWs) for a class of nonlinear wave equations with a nonlocal Benjamin-Ono type dispersion term involving the Hilbert transform. Integrability of the governing equation is not a pre-requisite for the application of this method which represents a modification of the DSW fitting method previously developed for dispersive-hydrodynamic systems of Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) type (i.e. reducible to the KdV equation in the weakly nonlinear, long wave, unidirectional approximation). The developed method is applied to the Calogero-Sutherland dispersive hydrodynamics for which the classification of all solution types arising from the Riemann step problem is constructed and the key physical parameters (DSW edge speeds, lead soliton amplitude, intermediate shelf level) of all but one solution type are obtained in terms of the initial step data. The analytical results are shown to be in excellent agreement with results of direct numerical simulations.
Electromagnetic surface waves at the interface of a relativistic electron beam with vacuum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shoucri, M.M.; Gagne, R.R.J.
1977-01-01
The dispersion relation for electromagnetic surface waves propagating at the interface between a relativistic electron beam and vacuum is derived. The excitation of surface modes in a plasma at rest by a relativistic electron beam is discussed
Meijborg, Veronique M F; Chauveau, Samuel; Janse, Michiel J; Anyukhovsky, Evgeny P; Danilo, Peter R; Rosen, Michael R; Opthof, Tobias; Coronel, Ruben
BACKGROUND: Long QT2 (LQT2) syndrome is characterized by bifid (or notched) T waves, whose mechanism is not understood. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to test whether increased interventricular dispersion of repolarization induces bifid T waves. METHODS: We simultaneously recorded surface
Meijborg, Veronique M. F.; Chauveau, Samuel; Janse, Michiel J.; Anyukhovsky, Evgeny P.; Danilo, Peter R.; Rosen, Michael R.; Opthof, Tobias; Coronel, Ruben
2015-01-01
Long QT2 (LQT2) syndrome is characterized by bifid (or notched) T waves, whose mechanism is not understood. The purpose of this study was to test whether increased interventricular dispersion of repolarization induces bifid T waves. We simultaneously recorded surface ECG and unipolar electrograms at
Automated dispersion mapping of surface waves
Westerhoff, R.S.; Noorlandt, R.P.
2008-01-01
With the increasing amount of innovative geophysical sensors and sensor networks there is a need for faster and more controlled data processing and interpretation in order to cope with the abundance of data coming from monitoring systems. In this article, we are presenting a possible method to deal
Parametric study of guided waves dispersion curves for composite plates
Predoi, Mihai Valentin; Petre, Cristian Cǎtǎlin; Kettani, Mounsif Ech Cherif El; Leduc, Damien
2018-02-01
Nondestructive testing of composite panels benefit from the relatively long range propagation of guided waves in sandwich structures. The guided waves are sensitive to delamination, air bubbles inclusions and cracks and can thus bring information about hidden defects in the composite panel. The preliminary data in all such inspections is represented by the dispersion curves, representing the dependency of the phase/group velocity on the frequency for the propagating modes. In fact, all modes are more or less attenuated, so it is even more important to compute the dispersion curves, which provide also the modal attenuation as function of frequency. Another important aspect is the sensitivity of the dispersion curves on each of the elastic constant of the composite, which are orthotropic in most cases. All these aspects are investigated in the present work, based on our specially developed finite element numerical model implemented in Comsol, which has several advantages over existing methods. The dispersion curves and modal displacements are computed for an example of composite plate. Comparison with literature data validates the accuracy of our results.
Deterministic and stochastic evolution equations for fully dispersive and weakly nonlinear waves
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Eldeberky, Y.; Madsen, Per A.
1999-01-01
and stochastic formulations are solved numerically for the case of cross shore motion of unidirectional waves and the results are verified against laboratory data for wave propagation over submerged bars and over a plane slope. Outside the surf zone the two model predictions are generally in good agreement......This paper presents a new and more accurate set of deterministic evolution equations for the propagation of fully dispersive, weakly nonlinear, irregular, multidirectional waves. The equations are derived directly from the Laplace equation with leading order nonlinearity in the surface boundary...... is significantly underestimated for larger wave numbers. In the present work we correct this inconsistency. In addition to the improved deterministic formulation, we present improved stochastic evolution equations in terms of the energy spectrum and the bispectrum for multidirectional waves. The deterministic...
Electromagnetic Cyclotron Waves in the Solar Wind: Wind Observation and Wave Dispersion Analysis
Jian, L. K.; Moya, P. S.; Vinas, A. F.; Stevens, M.
2016-01-01
Wind observed long-lasting electromagnetic cyclotron waves near the proton cyclotron frequency on 11 March 2005, in the descending part of a fast wind stream. Bi-Maxwellian velocity distributions are fitted for core protons, beam protons, and alpha-particles. Using the fitted plasma parameters we conduct kinetic linear dispersion analysis and find ion cyclotron and/or firehose instabilities grow in six of 10 wave intervals. After Doppler shift, some of the waves have frequency and polarization consistent with observation, thus may be correspondence to the cyclotron waves observed.
Effects of Single Dose Energy Drink on QT and P-Wave Dispersion
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Huseyin Arinc
2013-12-01
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Aim of this study is to evaluate the cardiac electrophysiological effects of energy drink (Red Bull on QT and P duration and dispersion on surface electrocardiogram. METHODS: Twenty healthy volunteers older than 17 years of age were included the study. Subjects with a cardiac rhythm except sinus rhythm, history of atrial or ventricular arrhythmia, family history of premature sudden cardiac death, palpitations, T-wave abnormalities, QTc interval greater than 440 milliseconds, or those P-waves and QT intervals unavailable in at least eight ECG leads were excluded. Subjects having insomnia, lactose intolerance, caffeine allergy, recurrent headaches, depression, any psychiatric condition, and history of alcohol or drug abuse, pregnant or lactating women were also excluded from participation. 12 lead ECG was obtained before and after consumption of 250 cc enegry drink. QT and P-wave dispersion was calculated. RESULTS: No significant difference have occurred in heart rate (79 ± 14 vs.81 ±13, p=0.68, systolic pressure (114 ± 14 vs.118 ± 16,p=0.38, diastolic blood pressure (74 ± 12 vs.76 ± 14, p=0.64, QT dispersion (58 ± 12 vs. 57 ± 22, p= 0.785 and P-wave dispersion (37 ± 7 vs. 36 ± 13, p= 0.755 between before and 2 hours after consumption of energy drink. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Consumption of single dose energy drink doesn't affect QT dispersion and P-wave dispersion, heart rate and blood pressure in healthy adults.
Spin wave absorber generated by artificial surface anisotropy for spin wave device network
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Naoki Kanazawa
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Spin waves (SWs have the potential to reduce the electric energy loss in signal processing networks. The SWs called magnetostatic forward volume waves (MSFVWs are advantageous for networking due to their isotropic dispersion in the plane of a device. To control the MSFVW flow in a processing network based on yttrium iron garnet, we developed a SW absorber using artificial structures. The mechanical surface polishing method presented in this work can well control extrinsic damping without changing the SW dispersion of the host material. Furthermore, enhancement of the ferromagnetic resonance linewidth over 3 Oe was demonstrated.
Particle dispersion and mixing induced by breaking internal gravity waves
Bouruet-Aubertot, Pascale; Koudella, C.; Staquet, C.; Winters, K. B.
2001-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to analyze diapycnal mixing induced by the breaking of an internal gravity wave — the primary wave — either standing or propagating. To achieve this aim we apply two different methods. The first method consists of a direct estimate of vertical eddy diffusion from particle dispersion while the second method relies upon potential energy budgets [Winters, K.B., Lombard, P.N., Riley, J.J., D'Asaro, E.A., 1995. J. Fluid Mech. 289, 115-128; Winters, K.B., D'Asaro, E.A., 1996. J. Fluid Mech. 317, 179-193]. The primary wave we consider is of small amplitude and is statically stable, a case for which the breaking process involves two-dimensional instabilities. The dynamics of the waves have been previously analyzed by means of two-dimensional direct numerical simulations [Bouruet-Aubertot, P., Sommeria, J., Staquet, C., 1995. J. Fluid Mech. 285, 265-301; Bouruet-Aubertot, P., Sommeria, J., Staquet, C., 1996. Dyn. Atmos. Oceans 29, 41-63; Koudella, C., Staquet, C., 1998. In: Davis, P. (Ed.), Proceedings of the IMA Conference on Mixing and Dispersion on Stably-stratified Flows, Dundee, September 1996. IMA Publication]. High resolution three-dimensional calculations of the same wave are also reported here [Koudella, C., 1999]. A local estimate of mixing is first inferred from the time evolution of sets of particles released in the flow during the breaking regime. We show that, after an early evolution dominated by shear effects, a diffusion law is reached and the dispersion coefficient is fairly independent of the initial seeding location of the particles in the flow. The eddy diffusion coefficient, K, is then estimated from the diapycnal diffusive flux. A good agreement with the value inferred from particle dispersion is obtained. This finding is of particular interest regarding the interpretation of in situ estimates of K inferred either from tracer dispersion or from microstructure measurements. Computation of the Cox number, equal to the
Oblique Propagation of Fast Surface Waves in a Low-Beta Hall-Magnetohydrodynamics Plasma Slab
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhelyazkov, I.; Mann, G.
1999-01-01
The oblique propagation of fast sausage and kink magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) surface waves in an ideal magnetized plasma slab in the low-beta plasma limit is studied considering the Hall term in the generalized Ohm's law. It is found that the combined action of the Hall effect and oblique wave propagation makes possible the existence of multivalued solutions to the wave dispersion relations - some of them corresponding to positive values of the transfer wave number, k y , undergo a 'propagation stop' at specific (numerically found) full wave numbers. It is also shown that with growing wave number the waves change their nature - from bulk modes to pseudosurface or pure surface waves. (author)
Analysis shear wave velocity structure obtained from surface wave methods in Bornova, Izmir
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pamuk, Eren, E-mail: eren.pamuk@deu.edu.tr; Akgün, Mustafa, E-mail: mustafa.akgun@deu.edu.tr [Department of Geophysical Engineering, Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir (Turkey); Özdağ, Özkan Cevdet, E-mail: cevdet.ozdag@deu.edu.tr [Dokuz Eylul University Rectorate, Izmir (Turkey)
2016-04-18
Properties of the soil from the bedrock is necessary to describe accurately and reliably for the reduction of earthquake damage. Because seismic waves change their amplitude and frequency content owing to acoustic impedance difference between soil and bedrock. Firstly, shear wave velocity and depth information of layers on bedrock is needed to detect this changing. Shear wave velocity can be obtained using inversion of Rayleigh wave dispersion curves obtained from surface wave methods (MASW- the Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves, ReMi-Refraction Microtremor, SPAC-Spatial Autocorrelation). While research depth is limeted in active source study, a passive source methods are utilized for deep depth which is not reached using active source methods. ReMi method is used to determine layer thickness and velocity up to 100 m using seismic refraction measurement systems.The research carried out up to desired depth depending on radius using SPAC which is utilized easily in conditions that district using of seismic studies in the city. Vs profiles which are required to calculate deformations in under static and dynamic loads can be obtained with high resolution using combining rayleigh wave dispersion curve obtained from active and passive source methods. In the this study, Surface waves data were collected using the measurements of MASW, ReMi and SPAC at the İzmir Bornova region. Dispersion curves obtained from surface wave methods were combined in wide frequency band and Vs-depth profiles were obtained using inversion. Reliability of the resulting soil profiles were provided by comparison with theoretical transfer function obtained from soil paremeters and observed soil transfer function from Nakamura technique and by examination of fitting between these functions. Vs values are changed between 200-830 m/s and engineering bedrock (Vs>760 m/s) depth is approximately 150 m.
1-D profiling using highly dispersive guided waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Volker, Arno; Zon, Tim van
2014-01-01
Corrosion is one of the industries major issues regarding the integrity of assets. Currently, inspections are conducted at regular intervals to ensure a sufficient integrity level of these assets. Cost reduction while maintaining a high level of reliability and safety of installations is a major challenge. There are many situations where the actual defect location is not accessible, e.g., a pipe support or a partially buried pipe. Guided wave tomography has been developed to reconstruct the wall thickness of steel pipes. In case of bottom of the line corrosion, i.e., a single corrosion pit, a simpler approach may be followed. Data is collected in a pitch-catch configuration at the 12 o'clock position using highly dispersive guided waves. After dispersion correction the data collapses to a short pulse, any residual dispersion indicates wall loss. The phase spectrum is used to invert for the wall thickness profile in the circumferential direction, assuming a Gaussian defect profile. The approach is evaluated on numerically simulated and on measured data. The method is intended for rapid, semi-quantitative screening of pipes
1-D profiling using highly dispersive guided waves
Volker, Arno; van Zon, Tim
2014-02-01
Corrosion is one of the industries major issues regarding the integrity of assets. Currently, inspections are conducted at regular intervals to ensure a sufficient integrity level of these assets. Cost reduction while maintaining a high level of reliability and safety of installations is a major challenge. There are many situations where the actual defect location is not accessible, e.g., a pipe support or a partially buried pipe. Guided wave tomography has been developed to reconstruct the wall thickness of steel pipes. In case of bottom of the line corrosion, i.e., a single corrosion pit, a simpler approach may be followed. Data is collected in a pitch-catch configuration at the 12 o'clock position using highly dispersive guided waves. After dispersion correction the data collapses to a short pulse, any residual dispersion indicates wall loss. The phase spectrum is used to invert for the wall thickness profile in the circumferential direction, assuming a Gaussian defect profile. The approach is evaluated on numerically simulated and on measured data. The method is intended for rapid, semi-quantitative screening of pipes.
Dispersive photonic crystals from the plane wave method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guevara-Cabrera, E.; Palomino-Ovando, M.A. [Facultad de Ciencias Físico Matemáticas, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Apdo. Post. 165, Puebla, Pue. 72000, México (Mexico); Flores-Desirena, B., E-mail: bflores@fcfm.buap.mx [Facultad de Ciencias Físico Matemáticas, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Apdo. Post. 165, Puebla, Pue. 72000, México (Mexico); Gaspar-Armenta, J.A. [Departamento de Investigación en Física de la Universidad de Sonora Apdo, Post 5-088, Hermosillo Sonora 83190, México (Mexico)
2016-03-01
Nowadays photonic crystals are widely used in many different applications. One of the most used methods to compute their band structure is the plane wave method (PWM). However, it can only be applied directly to non-dispersive media and be extended to systems with a few model dielectric functions. We explore an extension of the PWM to photonic crystals containing dispersive materials, that solves an eigenvalue equation for the Bloch wave vectors. First we compare our calculation with analytical results for one dimensional photonic crystals containing Si using experimental values of its optical parameters, and obtainig very well agreement, even for the spectrum region with strong absorption. Then, using the same method, we computed the band structure for a two dimensional photonic crystal without absorption, formed by an square array of MgO cylinders in air. The optical parameters for MgO were modeled with the Lorentz dielectric function. Finally, we studied an array of MgO cylinders in a metal, using Drude model without absorption, for the metal dielectric function. For this last case, we study the gap–midgap ratio as a function of the filling fraction for both the square and triangular lattice. The gap–midgap ratio is larger for the triangular lattice, with a maximum value of 10% for a filling fraction of 0.6. Our results show that the method can be applied to dispersive materials, and then to a wide range of applications where photonic crystals can be used.
The influence of multiple ion species on Alfven wave dispersion and Alfven wave plasma heating
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Elfimov, A.G.; Tataronis, J.A.; Hershkowitz, N.
1994-01-01
In this paper, the effects of light impurities, such as deuterium, helium, or carbon, on Alfven wave dispersion characteristics are explored. It is shown that a small population of light impurities in a hydrogen plasma modify the dispersion of the global Alfven waves and the Alfven continuum in such a way that the wave frequency depends weakly on the toroidal wave number. It is also shown that the global Alfven wave enters into the Alfven continuum. Under these conditions, it is possible to heat plasma efficiently by employing an antenna with a broad toroidal wavelength spectrum. The relationship between impurity concentration and the efficiency of Alfven wave heating is explored. Under appropriate conditions, the results indicate that in the presence of impurities, Alfven waves can heat electrons predominantly in the central part of the plasma. This effect is explored via a series of numerical calculations of the heating specifically for the Phaedrus-T Alfven wave heating experiment [Phys. Fluids B 5, 2506 (1993)
Effects of Single Dose Energy Drink on QT and P-Wave Dispersion
Arınç, Hüseyin; Sarli, Bahadir; Baktir, Ahmet Oguz; Yolcu, Mustafa; Ozyildirim, Serhan; Kayardi, Mahmut; Cosgun, Mehmet; Erguzel, Nuri; Gunduz, Huseyin; Uyan, Cihangir
2013-01-01
Objective: Aim of this study is to evaluate the cardiac electrophysiological effects of energy drink (Red Bull) on QT and P duration and dispersion on surface electrocardiogram.Methods: Twenty healthy volunteers older than 17 years of age were included the study. Subjects with a cardiac rhythm except sinus rhythm, history of atrial or ventricular arrhythmia, family history of premature sudden cardiac death, palpitations, T-wave abnormalities, QTc interval greater than 440 milliseconds, or tho...
Drift wave dispersion relation for arbitrarily collisional plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Angus, Justin R.; Krasheninnikov, Sergei I.
2012-01-01
The standard local linear analysis of drift waves in a plasma slab is generalized to be valid for arbitrarily collisional electrons by considering the electrons to be governed by the drift-kinetic equation with a BGK-like (Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook) collision operator. The obtained dispersion relation reduces to that found from collisionless kinetic theory when the collision frequency is zero. Electron temperature fluctuations must be retained in the standard fluid analysis in order to obtain good quantitative agreement with our general solution in the highly collisional limit. Any discrepancies between the fluid solution and our general solution in this limit are attributed to the limitations of the BGK collision operator. The maximum growth rates in both the collisional and collisionless limits are comparable and are both on the order of the fundamental drift wave frequency. The main role of the destabilizing mechanism is found to be in determining the parallel wave number at which the maximum growth rate will occur. The parallel wave number corresponding to the maximum growth rate is set by the wave-particle resonance condition in the collisionless limit and transitions to being set by the real frequency being on the order of the rate for electrons to diffuse a parallel wavelength in the collisional limit.
Drift wave dispersion relation for arbitrarily collisional plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Angus, Justin R.; Krasheninnikov, Sergei I. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0417 (United States)
2012-05-15
The standard local linear analysis of drift waves in a plasma slab is generalized to be valid for arbitrarily collisional electrons by considering the electrons to be governed by the drift-kinetic equation with a BGK-like (Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook) collision operator. The obtained dispersion relation reduces to that found from collisionless kinetic theory when the collision frequency is zero. Electron temperature fluctuations must be retained in the standard fluid analysis in order to obtain good quantitative agreement with our general solution in the highly collisional limit. Any discrepancies between the fluid solution and our general solution in this limit are attributed to the limitations of the BGK collision operator. The maximum growth rates in both the collisional and collisionless limits are comparable and are both on the order of the fundamental drift wave frequency. The main role of the destabilizing mechanism is found to be in determining the parallel wave number at which the maximum growth rate will occur. The parallel wave number corresponding to the maximum growth rate is set by the wave-particle resonance condition in the collisionless limit and transitions to being set by the real frequency being on the order of the rate for electrons to diffuse a parallel wavelength in the collisional limit.
Dyakonov surface waves in lossy metamaterials
Sorní Laserna, Josep; Naserpour, Mahin; Zapata Rodríguez, Carlos Javier; Miret Marí, Juan José
2015-01-01
We analyze the existence of localized waves in the vicinities of the interface between two dielectrics, provided one of them is uniaxial and lossy. We found two families of surface waves, one of them approaching the well-known Dyakonov surface waves (DSWs). In addition, a new family of wave fields exists which are tightly bound to the interface. Although its appearance is clearly associated with the dissipative character of the anisotropic material, the characteristic propagation length of su...
Alajlouni, Sa'ed; Albakri, Mohammad; Tarazaga, Pablo
2018-05-01
An algorithm is introduced to solve the general multilateration (source localization) problem in a dispersive waveguide. The algorithm is designed with the intention of localizing impact forces in a dispersive floor, and can potentially be used to localize and track occupants in a building using vibration sensors connected to the lower surface of the walking floor. The lower the wave frequencies generated by the impact force, the more accurate the localization is expected to be. An impact force acting on a floor, generates a seismic wave that gets distorted as it travels away from the source. This distortion is noticeable even over relatively short traveled distances, and is mainly caused by the dispersion phenomenon among other reasons, therefore using conventional localization/multilateration methods will produce localization error values that are highly variable and occasionally large. The proposed localization approach is based on the fact that the wave's energy, calculated over some time window, decays exponentially as the wave travels away from the source. Although localization methods that assume exponential decay exist in the literature (in the field of wireless communications), these methods have only been considered for wave propagation in non-dispersive media, in addition to the limiting assumption required by these methods that the source must not coincide with a sensor location. As a result, these methods cannot be applied to the indoor localization problem in their current form. We show how our proposed method is different from the other methods, and that it overcomes the source-sensor location coincidence limitation. Theoretical analysis and experimental data will be used to motivate and justify the pursuit of the proposed approach for localization in a dispersive medium. Additionally, hammer impacts on an instrumented floor section inside an operational building, as well as finite element model simulations, are used to evaluate the performance of
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peralta, J.; López-Valverde, M. A.; Imamura, T.; Read, P. L.; Luz, D.; Piccialli, A.
2014-01-01
This paper is the second in a two-part study devoted to developing tools for a systematic classification of the wide variety of atmospheric waves expected on slowly rotating planets with atmospheric superrotation. Starting with the primitive equations for a cyclostrophic regime, we have deduced the analytical solution for the possible waves, simultaneously including the effect of the metric terms for the centrifugal force and the meridional shear of the background wind. In those cases where the conditions for the method of the multiple scales in height are met, these wave solutions are also valid when vertical shear of the background wind is present. A total of six types of waves have been found and their properties were characterized in terms of the corresponding dispersion relations and wave structures. In this second part, we study the waves' solutions when several atmospheric approximations are applied: Lamb, surface, and centrifugal waves. Lamb and surface waves are found to be quite similar to those in a geostrophic regime. By contrast, centrifugal waves turn out to be a special case of Rossby waves that arise in atmospheres in cyclostrophic balance. Finally, we use our results to identify the nature of the waves behind atmospheric periodicities found in polar and lower latitudes of Venus's atmosphere
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Peralta, J.; López-Valverde, M. A. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC), Glorieta de la Astronomía, 18008 Granada (Spain); Imamura, T. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science-Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency 3-1-1, Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Read, P. L. [Clarendon Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford (United Kingdom); Luz, D. [Centro de Astronomia e Astrofísica da Universidade de Lisboa (CAAUL), Observatório Astronómico de Lisboa, Tapada da Ajuda, 1349-018 Lisboa (Portugal); Piccialli, A., E-mail: peralta@iaa.es [LATMOS, UVSQ, 11 bd dAlembert, 78280 Guyancourt (France)
2014-07-01
This paper is the second in a two-part study devoted to developing tools for a systematic classification of the wide variety of atmospheric waves expected on slowly rotating planets with atmospheric superrotation. Starting with the primitive equations for a cyclostrophic regime, we have deduced the analytical solution for the possible waves, simultaneously including the effect of the metric terms for the centrifugal force and the meridional shear of the background wind. In those cases where the conditions for the method of the multiple scales in height are met, these wave solutions are also valid when vertical shear of the background wind is present. A total of six types of waves have been found and their properties were characterized in terms of the corresponding dispersion relations and wave structures. In this second part, we study the waves' solutions when several atmospheric approximations are applied: Lamb, surface, and centrifugal waves. Lamb and surface waves are found to be quite similar to those in a geostrophic regime. By contrast, centrifugal waves turn out to be a special case of Rossby waves that arise in atmospheres in cyclostrophic balance. Finally, we use our results to identify the nature of the waves behind atmospheric periodicities found in polar and lower latitudes of Venus's atmosphere.
SURFACE ALFVEN WAVES IN SOLAR FLUX TUBES
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Goossens, M.; Andries, J.; Soler, R.; Van Doorsselaere, T. [Centre for Plasma Astrophysics, Department of Mathematics, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200B, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Arregui, I.; Terradas, J., E-mail: marcel.goossens@wis.kuleuven.be [Solar Physics Group, Departament de Fisica, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain)
2012-07-10
Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves are ubiquitous in the solar atmosphere. Alfven waves and magneto-sonic waves are particular classes of MHD waves. These wave modes are clearly different and have pure properties in uniform plasmas of infinite extent only. Due to plasma non-uniformity, MHD waves have mixed properties and cannot be classified as pure Alfven or magneto-sonic waves. However, vorticity is a quantity unequivocally related to Alfven waves as compression is for magneto-sonic waves. Here, we investigate MHD waves superimposed on a one-dimensional non-uniform straight cylinder with constant magnetic field. For a piecewise constant density profile, we find that the fundamental radial modes of the non-axisymmetric waves have the same properties as surface Alfven waves at a true discontinuity in density. Contrary to the classic Alfven waves in a uniform plasma of infinite extent, vorticity is zero everywhere except at the cylinder boundary. If the discontinuity in density is replaced with a continuous variation of density, vorticity is spread out over the whole interval with non-uniform density. The fundamental radial modes of the non-axisymmetric waves do not need compression to exist unlike the radial overtones. In thin magnetic cylinders, the fundamental radial modes of the non-axisymmetric waves with phase velocities between the internal and the external Alfven velocities can be considered as surface Alfven waves. On the contrary, the radial overtones can be related to fast-like magneto-sonic modes.
P Wave Dispersion is Increased in Pulmonary Stenosis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Namik Ozmen
2006-01-01
Full Text Available Aim: The right atrium pressure load is increased in pulmonary stenosis (PS that is a congenital anomaly and this changes the electrophysiological characteristics of the atria. However, there is not enough data on the issue of P wave dispersion (PWD in PS. Methods: Forty- two patients diagnosed as having valvular PS with echocardiography and 33 completely healthy individuals as the control group were included in the study. P wave duration, p wave maximum (p max and p minimum (p min were calculated from resting electrocariography (ECG obtained at the rate of 50 mm/sec. P wave dispersion was derived by subtracting p min from p max. The mean pressure gradient (MPG at the pulmonary valve, structure of the valve and diameters of the right and left atria were measured with echocardiography. The data from two groups were compared with the Mann-Whitney U test and correlation analysis was performed with the Pearson correlation technique. Results: There wasn’t any statistically significance in the comparison of age, left atrial diameter and p min between two groups. While the MPG at the pulmonary valve was 43.11 ± 18.8 mmHg in PS patients, it was 8.4 ± 4.5 mmHg in the control group. While p max was 107.1 ± 11.5 in PS group, it was 98.2 ± 5.1 in control group (p=0.01, PWD was 40.4 ± 1.2 in PS group, and 27.2 ± 9.3 in the control group (p=0.01Moreover, while the diameter of the right atrium in PS group was greater than that of the control group, (38.7 ± 3.9 vs 30.2 ± 2.5, p=0.02. We detected a correlation between PWD and pressure gradient in regression analysis. Conclusion: P wave dispersion and p max are increased in PS. While PWD was correlated with the pressure gradient that is the degree of narrowing, it was not correlated with the diameters of the right and left atria.
de Lara-Castells, María Pilar; Stoll, Hermann; Civalleri, Bartolomeo; Causà, Mauro; Voloshina, Elena; Mitrushchenkov, Alexander O; Pi, Martí
2014-10-21
In this work we propose a general strategy to calculate accurate He-surface interaction potentials. It extends the dispersionless density functional approach recently developed by Pernal et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 263201 (2009)] to adsorbate-surface interactions by including periodic boundary conditions. We also introduce a scheme to parametrize the dispersion interaction by calculating two- and three-body dispersion terms at coupled cluster singles and doubles and perturbative triples (CCSD(T)) level via the method of increments [H. Stoll, J. Chem. Phys. 97, 8449 (1992)]. The performance of the composite approach is tested on (4)He/graphene by determining the energies of the low-lying selective adsorption states, finding an excellent agreement with the best available theoretical data. Second, the capability of the approach to describe dispersionless correlation effects realistically is used to extract dispersion effects in time-dependent density functional simulations on the collision of (4)He droplets with a single graphene sheet. It is found that dispersion effects play a key role in the fast spreading of the (4)He nanodroplet, the evaporation-like process of helium atoms, and the formation of solid-like helium structures. These characteristics are expected to be quite general and highly relevant to explain experimental measurements with the newly developed helium droplet mediated deposition technique.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lara-Castells, María Pilar de, E-mail: Pilar.deLara.Castells@csic.es [Instituto de Física Fundamental (C.S.I.C.), Serrano 123, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Stoll, Hermann [Institut für Theoretische Chemie, Universität Stuttgart, D-70550 Stuttgart (Germany); Civalleri, Bartolomeo [Dipartimento di Chimica e Centro Interdipartimentale NIS, Universitá di Torino, Via P. Giuria 7, 10125 Torino (Italy); Causà, Mauro [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, dei Materiali e delle Produzioni Industriali, Universiá di Napoli Federico II, Piazzale Tecchio, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Voloshina, Elena [Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Institut für Chemie, Brook-Taylor-Str. 2, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Mitrushchenkov, Alexander O. [Université Paris-Est, Laboratoire Modélisation et Simulation Multi Echelle, MSME UMR 8208 CNRS, 5 bd Descartes, 77454 Marne-la-Vallée (France); Pi, Martí [Department ECM, Facultat de Física, and IN" 2UB, Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 645, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain)
2014-10-21
In this work we propose a general strategy to calculate accurate He–surface interaction potentials. It extends the dispersionless density functional approach recently developed by Pernal et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 263201 (2009)] to adsorbate-surface interactions by including periodic boundary conditions. We also introduce a scheme to parametrize the dispersion interaction by calculating two- and three-body dispersion terms at coupled cluster singles and doubles and perturbative triples (CCSD(T)) level via the method of increments [H. Stoll, J. Chem. Phys. 97, 8449 (1992)]. The performance of the composite approach is tested on {sup 4}He/graphene by determining the energies of the low-lying selective adsorption states, finding an excellent agreement with the best available theoretical data. Second, the capability of the approach to describe dispersionless correlation effects realistically is used to extract dispersion effects in time-dependent density functional simulations on the collision of {sup 4}He droplets with a single graphene sheet. It is found that dispersion effects play a key role in the fast spreading of the {sup 4}He nanodroplet, the evaporation-like process of helium atoms, and the formation of solid-like helium structures. These characteristics are expected to be quite general and highly relevant to explain experimental measurements with the newly developed helium droplet mediated deposition technique.
Dispersive waves induced by self-defocusing temporal solitons in a beta-barium-borate crystal
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhou, Binbin; Bache, Morten
2015-01-01
We experimentally observe dispersive waves in the anomalous dispersion regime of a beta-barium-borate (BBO) crystal, induced by a self-defocusing few-cycle temporal soliton. Together the soliton and dispersive waves form an energetic octave-spanning supercontinuum. The soliton was excited...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Myoung-Jae [Department of Physics, Hanyang University, Seoul 04763 (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute for Natural Sciences, Hanyang University, Seoul 04763 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Young-Dae, E-mail: ydjung@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Applied Physics and Department of Bionanotechnology, Hanyang University, Ansan, Kyunggi-Do 15588 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, MC 0407, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0407 (United States)
2017-02-12
High frequency electrostatic wave propagation in a dense and semi-bounded electron quantum plasma is investigated with consideration of the Bohm potential. The dispersion relation for the surface mode of quantum plasma is derived and numerically analyzed. We found that the quantum effect enhances the frequency of the wave especially in the high wave number regime. However, the frequency of surface wave is found to be always lower than that of the bulk wave for the same quantum wave number. The group velocity of the surface wave for various quantum wave number is also obtained. - Highlights: • High frequency electrostatic wave propagation is investigated in a dense semi-bounded quantum plasma. • The dispersion relation for the surface mode of quantum plasma is derived and numerically analyzed. • The quantum effect enhances the frequency of the wave especially in the high wave number regime. • The frequency of surface wave is found to be always lower than that of the bulk wave. • The group velocity of the surface wave for various quantum wave number is also obtained.
Multi-directional plasmonic surface-wave splitters with full bandwidth isolation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gao, Zhen; Gao, Fei; Zhang, Baile
2016-01-01
We present a multidirectional plasmonic surface-wave splitter with full bandwidth isolation experimentally based on coupled defect surface modes in a surface-wave photonic crystal. In contrast to conventional plasmonic surface-wave frequency splitters with polaritonic dispersion relations that overlap at low frequencies, this multidirectional plasmonic surface-wave splitter based on coupled defect surface modes can split different frequency bands into different waveguide branches without bandwidth overlap. Transmission spectra and near-field imaging measurements have been implemented in the microwave frequencies to verify the performance of the multidirectional plasmonic surface-wave splitter. This surface wave structure can be used as a plasmonic wavelength-division multiplexer that may find potential applications in the surface-wave integrated circuits from microwave to terahertz frequencies.
Wave scattering from statistically rough surfaces
Bass, F G; ter Haar, D
2013-01-01
Wave Scattering from Statistically Rough Surfaces discusses the complications in radio physics and hydro-acoustics in relation to wave transmission under settings seen in nature. Some of the topics that are covered include radar and sonar, the effect of variations in topographic relief or ocean waves on the transmission of radio and sound waves, the reproduction of radio waves from the lower layers of the ionosphere, and the oscillations of signals within the earth-ionosphere waveguide. The book begins with some fundamental idea of wave transmission theory and the theory of random processes a
P-wave dispersion in endogenous and exogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism.
Gen, R; Akbay, E; Camsari, A; Ozcan, T
2010-02-01
The aim of this study was to measure maximum P wave duration (Pmax) and P wave dispersion (PWD), which can be indicators for the risk of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation when increased, and to reveal their relationship with thyroid hormone levels in patients with endogenous and exogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism. Seventy-one patients with sublinical thyrotoxicosis (34 endogenous, 37 exogenous) and 69 healthy individuals were enrolled in the study. Pmax and minimum P wave duration (Pmin) on electrocardiogram recordings were measured and PWD was calculated as Pmax-Pmin. Pmax (pendogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism compared with the control group. Pmax (pexogenous subclinical thyrotoxicosis compared with the control group. Pmax (p=0.710) and PWD (p=0.127) were not significantly different in patients with endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism compared with exogenous subclinical hyperthyroid patients. Pmax and PWD negatively associated with TSH in endogenous and exogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism. In the present study, we observed that Pmax and PWD were longer in patients with endogenous and exogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism. Lack of a difference in Pmax and PWD between patients with endogenous and exogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism seems to support the idea that hormone levels rather than the etiology of thyrotoxicosis affect the heart.
Increased P-wave dispersion a risk for atrial fibrillation in adolescents with anorexia nervosa.
Ertuğrul, İlker; Akgül, Sinem; Derman, Orhan; Karagöz, Tevfik; Kanbur, Nuray
2016-01-01
Studies have shown that a prolonged P-wave dispersion is a risk factor for the development of atrial fibrillation. The aim of this study was to evaluate P-wave dispersion in adolescents with anorexia nervosa at diagnosis. We evaluated electrocardiographic findings, particularly the P-wave dispersion, at initial assessment in 47 adolescents with anorexia nervosa. Comparison of P-wave dispersion between adolescents with anorexia nervosa and controls showed a statistically significant higher P-wave dispersion in patients with anorexia nervosa (72 ± 16.3 msec) when compared to the control group (43.8 ± 9.5 msec). Percent of body weight lost, lower body mass index, and higher weight loss rate in the patients with anorexia nervosa had no effect on P-wave dispersion. Due to the fact that anorexia nervosa has a high mortality rate we believe that cardiac pathologies such as atrial fibrillation must also be considered in the medical evaluation.
On solitary surface waves in cold plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vladimirov, S.V.; Yu, M.Y.; Stenflo, L.
1993-01-01
A new type of nonlinear electromagnetic solitary surface waves propagating along the boundary of a cold plasma is discussed. These waves are described by a novel nonlinear evolution equation, obtained when the nonlinear surface currents at the boundary are taken into consideration. (Author)
Surface waves on currents with arbitrary vertical shear
Smeltzer, Benjamin K.; Ellingsen, Simen Å.
2017-04-01
We study dispersion properties of linear surface gravity waves propagating in an arbitrary direction atop a current profile of depth-varying magnitude using a piecewise linear approximation and develop a robust numerical framework for practical calculation. The method has been much used in the past for the case of waves propagating along the same axis as the background current, and we herein extend and apply it to problems with an arbitrary angle between the wave propagation and current directions. Being valid for all wavelengths without loss of accuracy, the scheme is particularly well suited to solve problems involving a broad range of wave vectors, such as ship waves and Cauchy-Poisson initial value problems. We examine the group and phase velocities over different wavelength regimes and current profiles, highlighting characteristics due to the depth-variable vorticity. We show an example application to ship waves on an arbitrary current profile and demonstrate qualitative differences in the wake patterns between concave down and concave up profiles when compared to a constant shear profile with equal depth-averaged vorticity. We also discuss the nature of additional solutions to the dispersion relation when using the piecewise-linear model. These are vorticity waves, drifting vortical structures which are artifacts of the piecewise model. They are absent for a smooth profile and are spurious in the present context.
Photonics surface waves on metamaterials interfaces
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Takayama, Osamu; Bogdanov, Andrey; Lavrinenko, Andrei V
2017-01-01
A surface wave (SW) in optics is a light wave, which is supported at an interface of two dissimilar media and propagates along the interface with its field amplitude exponentially decaying away from the boundary. The research on surface waves has been flourishing in last few decades thanks...... to their unique properties of surface sensitivity and field localization. These features have resulted in applications in nano-guiding, sensing, light-trapping and imaging based on the near-field techniques, contributing to the establishment of the nanophotonics as a field of research. Up to present, a wide...... variety of surface waves has been investigated in numerous material and structure settings. This paper reviews the recent progress and development in the physics of SWs localized at metamaterial interfaces, as well as bulk media in order to provide broader perspectives on optical surface waves in general...
Su, Ho-Ming; Tsai, Wei-Chung; Lin, Tsung-Hsien; Hsu, Po-Chao; Lee, Wen-Hsien; Lin, Ming-Yen; Chen, Szu-Chia; Lee, Chee-Siong; Voon, Wen-Chol; Lai, Wen-Ter; Sheu, Sheng-Hsiung
2012-01-01
The P wave parameters measured by 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) are commonly used as noninvasive tools to assess for left atrial enlargement. There are limited studies to evaluate whether P wave parameters are independently associated with decline in renal function. Accordingly, the aim of this study is to assess whether P wave parameters are independently associated with progression to renal end point of ≥25% decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). This longitudinal study included 166 patients. The renal end point was defined as ≥25% decline in eGFR. We measured two ECG P wave parameters corrected by heart rate, i.e. corrected P wave dispersion (PWdisperC) and corrected P wave maximum duration (PWdurMaxC). Heart function and structure were measured from echocardiography. Clinical data, P wave parameters, and echocardiographic measurements were compared and analyzed. Forty-three patients (25.9%) reached renal end point. Kaplan-Meier curves for renal end point-free survival showed PWdisperC > median (63.0 ms) (log-rank P = 0.004) and PWdurMaxC > median (117.9 ms) (log-rank Pfunction decline.
Existence of traveling waves for diffusive-dispersive conservation laws
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cezar I. Kondo
2013-02-01
Full Text Available In this work we show the existence existence and uniqueness of traveling waves for diffusive-dispersive conservation laws with flux function in $C^{1}(mathbb{R}$, by using phase plane analysis. Also we estimate the domain of attraction of the equilibrium point attractor corresponding to the right-hand state. The equilibrium point corresponding to the left-hand state is a saddle point. According to the phase portrait close to the saddle point, there are exactly two semi-orbits of the system. We establish that only one semi-orbit come in the domain of attraction and converges to $(u_{-},0$ as $yo -infty$. This provides the desired saddle-attractor connection.
Isotropic and anisotropic surface wave cloaking techniques
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McManus, T M; Spada, L La; Hao, Y
2016-01-01
In this paper we compare two different approaches for surface waves cloaking. The first technique is a unique application of Fermat’s principle and requires isotropic material properties, but owing to its derivation is limited in its applicability. The second technique utilises a geometrical optics approximation for dealing with rays bound to a two dimensional surface and requires anisotropic material properties, though it can be used to cloak any smooth surface. We analytically derive the surface wave scattering behaviour for both cloak techniques when applied to a rotationally symmetric surface deformation. Furthermore, we simulate both using a commercially available full-wave electromagnetic solver and demonstrate a good level of agreement with their analytically derived solutions. Our analytical solutions and simulations provide a complete and concise overview of two different surface wave cloaking techniques. (paper)
Isotropic and anisotropic surface wave cloaking techniques
McManus, T. M.; La Spada, L.; Hao, Y.
2016-04-01
In this paper we compare two different approaches for surface waves cloaking. The first technique is a unique application of Fermat’s principle and requires isotropic material properties, but owing to its derivation is limited in its applicability. The second technique utilises a geometrical optics approximation for dealing with rays bound to a two dimensional surface and requires anisotropic material properties, though it can be used to cloak any smooth surface. We analytically derive the surface wave scattering behaviour for both cloak techniques when applied to a rotationally symmetric surface deformation. Furthermore, we simulate both using a commercially available full-wave electromagnetic solver and demonstrate a good level of agreement with their analytically derived solutions. Our analytical solutions and simulations provide a complete and concise overview of two different surface wave cloaking techniques.
Tapping of Love waves in an isotropic surface waveguide by surface-to-bulk wave transduction.
Tuan, H.-S.; Chang, C.-P.
1972-01-01
A theoretical study of tapping a Love wave in an isotropic microacoustic surface waveguide is given. The surface Love wave is tapped by partial transduction into a bulk wave at a discontinuity. It is shown that, by careful design of the discontinuity, the converted bulk wave power and the radiation pattern may be controlled. General formulas are derived for the calculation of these important characteristics from a relatively general surface contour deformation.
Dispersion of linearly polarized electromagnetic wave in magnetized quantum plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Singh, Abhisek Kumar; Kumar, Punit
2015-01-01
The generation of harmonic radiation is significant in terms of laser-plasma interaction and has brought interesting notice due to the diversity of its applications. The odd harmonics of laser frequency are generated in the majority of laser interactions with homogenous plasma. It has been remarked that second harmonic generation takes place in the presence of density gradient which gives rise to perturbation in the electron density at the laser frequency. The density perturbation coupled with the quiver motion of the electrons produces a source current at the second harmonic frequency. Second harmonic generation has also been related with filamentation. In the present paper, a study of second harmonic generation by propagation of a linearly polarized electromagnetic wave through homogeneous high density quantum plasma in the presence of transverse magnetic field. The nonlinear current density and dispersion relations for the fundamental and second harmonic frequencies have been obtained using the recently developed quantum hydrodynamic (QHD) model. The effect of quantum Bohm potential, Fermi pressure and the electron spin have been taken into account. The second harmonic is found to be less dispersed than the first. (author)
Unal Guntekin; Yilmaz Gunes; Hakki Simsek; Mustafa Tuncer; Sevket Arslan
2009-01-01
Background: Prolonged P wave duration and P wave dispersion (PWD) have been associated with an increased risk for atrial fibrillation (AF). Hyperthytodism is a frequent cause of atrial fibrillation (AF). Methods: Forty-two patients with newly diagnosed overt hyperthyroidism and 20 healthy people were enrolled in the study. Transthoracic echocardiography, 12 lead surface ECG and thyroid hormone levels were studied at the time of enrollment and after achievement of euthyroid state with propylth...
Mishra, Rinku; Dey, M.
2018-04-01
An analytical model is developed that explains the propagation of a high frequency electrostatic surface wave along the interface of a plasma system where semi-infinite electron-ion plasma is interfaced with semi-infinite dusty plasma. The model emphasizes that the source of such high frequency waves is inherent in the presence of ion acoustic and dust ion acoustic/dust acoustic volume waves in electron-ion plasma and dusty plasma region. Wave dispersion relation is obtained for two distinct cases and the role of plasma parameters on wave dispersion is analyzed in short and long wavelength limits. The normalized surface wave frequency is seen to grow linearly for lower wave number but becomes constant for higher wave numbers in both the cases. It is observed that the normalized frequency depends on ion plasma frequencies when dust oscillation frequency is neglected.
1D profiling using highly dispersive guided waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Volker, Arno; Zon, Tim van; Enthoven, Daniel; Verburg, Wesley
2015-01-01
Corrosion is one of the industries major issues regarding the integrity of assets. Currently inspections are conducted at regular intervals to ensure a sufficient integrity level of these assets. Cost reduction while maintaining a high level of reliability and safety of installations is a major challenge. There are many situations where the actual defect location is not accessible, e.g., a pipe support or a partially buried pipe. Guided wave tomography has been developed to reconstruct the wall thickness. In case of bottom of the line corrosion, i.e., a single corrosion pit, a simpler approach may be followed. Data is collected in a pit-catch configuration at the 12 o'clock position using highly dispersive guided waves. The phase spectrum is used to invert for a wall thickness profile in the circumferential direction, assuming a Gaussian defect profile. An EMAT sensor design has been made to measure at the 12 o'clock position of a pipe. The concept is evaluated on measured data, showing good sizing capabilities on a variety simple defect profiles
Future heat waves and surface ozone
Meehl, Gerald A.; Tebaldi, Claudia; Tilmes, Simone; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Bates, Susan; Pendergrass, Angeline; Lombardozzi, Danica
2018-06-01
A global Earth system model is used to study the relationship between heat waves and surface ozone levels over land areas around the world that could experience either large decreases or little change in future ozone precursor emissions. The model is driven by emissions of greenhouse gases and ozone precursors from a medium-high emission scenario (Representative Concentration Pathway 6.0–RCP6.0) and is compared to an experiment with anthropogenic ozone precursor emissions fixed at 2005 levels. With ongoing increases in greenhouse gases and corresponding increases in average temperature in both experiments, heat waves are projected to become more intense over most global land areas (greater maximum temperatures during heat waves). However, surface ozone concentrations on future heat wave days decrease proportionately more than on non-heat wave days in areas where ozone precursors are prescribed to decrease in RCP6.0 (e.g. most of North America and Europe), while surface ozone concentrations in heat waves increase in areas where ozone precursors either increase or have little change (e.g. central Asia, the Mideast, northern Africa). In the stabilized ozone precursor experiment, surface ozone concentrations increase on future heat wave days compared to non-heat wave days in most regions except in areas where there is ozone suppression that contributes to decreases in ozone in future heat waves. This is likely associated with effects of changes in isoprene emissions at high temperatures (e.g. west coast and southeastern North America, eastern Europe).
Laboratory Study of Dispersion of Buoyant Surface Plumes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Petersen, Ole; Larsen, Torben
1990-01-01
-differences. Other methods as infra-red sensing are used for visualizing purpose. The results are used to calibrate an integral model of the dispersion. Conclusions are that the dispersion of a buoyant surface plume can be treated the superposition of a buoyancy induced stretching and turbulent diffusion, reduced...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guezel, J.Ch.
2006-01-01
The wave- or thalasso-energy, potentially as promising as wind energy, have started to develop in Europe. Great Britain has already a good experience in this domain but France shows also ambitions in this beginning industry with several projects in progress. This article makes an overview of the existing tide-, current- and wave-powered generators: tide mills, underwater hydro-turbines, immersed linear generators, air-compression systems, buoy systems, etc. (J.S.)
Velocity model of the Hronov-Poříčí Fault Zone from Rayleigh wave dispersion
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kolínský, Petr; Valenta, Jan; Málek, Jiří
2014-01-01
Roč. 18, č. 3 (2014), s. 617-635 ISSN 1383-4649 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/09/1244; GA MŠk LM2010008 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : Bohemian Massif * surface waves * phase-velocity * dispersion curve Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.386, year: 2014
The Relationship Between Aging and P Wave Dispersion
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
İrfan Barutçu
2009-12-01
Full Text Available Objective: Atrial fibrillation (AF, commonly observed in advanced ages, displays striking age dependent increase and increased P wave dispersion (PWD has been shown to be a predictor of AF. In this studywe sought to determine whether P wave duration and PWD increase with aging. Method and Results: Eighty-three elderly subjects (group-I mean age 75±8 years and 40 healthy young subjects (group-II, mean age 37±6 years participated in this study. 12-lead ECG recorded at a paper speed of 50mm/s was obtained from each participant. Maximum (Pmax and minimum P wave duration (Pmin was measured manually with a caliper and the difference between two values was defined asPWD. Pmax and PWD were significantly higher in group-I compared to group-II. (98±8 vs. 93±8 p=0.01, 41±12 vs. 34±13 p=0.002, respectively. Among the elderly population when those with cardiovascular disorders such as hypertension, coronary artery disease and heart failure were excluded, Pmax and PWD were still significantly higher than the young population. (Pmax: 98±7 vs. 93±7, p=0.02 and PWD: 42±11 vs. 34±13, p=0.002. Moreover, on correlation analysis a positive correlation was detected between Pmaxand PWD and aging. (r=0.29, p=0.004; r=0.30, p=0.003 respectively.Conclusion: PWD shows age dependent increase and may be a useful marker for estimation the risk of developing AF seen in advanced ages.
On the problem of propagation of magnetoplasma surface waves in semiconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Davydov, A.B.; Zakharov, V.A.
1975-01-01
A calculation is made of the spectrum of surface waves traveling along a boundary separating a dielectric from a magnetized semiconductor plasma parallel or at right angles to a magnetic field B. Dispersion relationships are obtained for the k is parallel to B case and these relationships explain the origin of the investigated surface waves on the boundary of a two-component (electron-hole) plasma in InSb. An analysis is made of the dispersion of the surface waves in the k is perpendicular to B case, which leads to a nonreciprocal propagation. (author)
Full-waveform inversion of surface waves in exploration geophysics
Borisov, D.; Gao, F.; Williamson, P.; Tromp, J.
2017-12-01
Full-waveform inversion (FWI) is a data fitting approach to estimate high-resolution properties of the Earth from seismic data by minimizing the misfit between observed and calculated seismograms. In land seismics, the source on the ground generates high-amplitude surface waves, which generally represent most of the energy recorded by ground sensors. Although surface waves are widely used in global seismology and engineering studies, they are typically treated as noise within the seismic exploration community since they mask deeper reflections from the intervals of exploration interest. This is mainly due to the fact that surface waves decay exponentially with depth and for a typical frequency range (≈[5-50] Hz) sample only the very shallow part of the subsurface, but also because they are much more sensitive to S-wave than P-wave velocities. In this study, we invert surface waves in the hope of using them as additional information for updating the near surface. In a heterogeneous medium, the main challenge of surface wave inversion is associated with their dispersive character, which makes it difficult to define a starting model for conventional FWI which can avoid cycle-skipping. The standard approach to dealing with this is by inverting the dispersion curves in the Fourier (f-k) domain to generate locally 1-D models, typically for the shear wavespeeds only. However this requires that the near-surface zone be more or less horizontally invariant over a sufficient distance for the spatial Fourier transform to be applicable. In regions with significant topography, such as foothills, this is not the case, so we revert to the time-space domain, but aim to minimize the differences of envelopes in the early stages of the inversion to resolve the cycle-skipping issue. Once the model is good enough, we revert to the classic waveform-difference inversion. We first present a few synthetic examples. We show that classical FWI might be trapped in a local minimum even for
Sarout, Joel; Cazes, Emilie; Delle Piane, Claudio; Arena, Alessio; Esteban, Lionel
2017-08-01
We experimentally assess the impact of microstructure, pore fluid, and frequency on wave velocity, wave dispersion, and permeability in thermally cracked Carrara marble under effective pressure up to 50 MPa. The cracked rock is isotropic, and we observe that (1) P and S wave velocities at 500 kHz and the low-strain (S waves and 9% for P waves at 1 MPa, and (4) wave dispersion virtually vanishes above 30 MPa. Assuming no interactions between the cracks, effective medium theory is used to model the rock's elastic response and its permeability. P and S wave velocity data are jointly inverted to recover the crack density and effective aspect ratio. The permeability data are inverted to recover the cracks' effective radius. These parameters lead to a good agreement between predicted and measured wave velocities, dispersion and permeability up to 50 MPa, and up to a crack density of 0.5. The evolution of the crack parameters suggests that three deformation regimes exist: (1) contact between cracks' surface asperities up to 10 MPa, (2) progressive crack closure between 10 and 30 MPa, and (3) crack closure effectively complete above 30 MPa. The derived crack parameters differ significantly from those obtained by analysis of 2-D electron microscope images of thin sections or 3-D X-ray microtomographic images of millimeter-size specimens.
Frequency tunable surface magneto elastic waves
Janusonis, J.; Chang, C. L.; van Loosdrecht, P. H. M.; Tobey, R. I.
2015-01-01
We use the transient grating technique to generate narrow-band, widely tunable, in-plane surface magnetoelastic waves in a nickel film. We monitor both the structural deformation of the acoustic wave and the accompanying magnetic precession and witness their intimate coupling in the time domain.
Solar energy converter using surface plasma waves
Anderson, L. M. (Inventor)
1984-01-01
Sunlight is dispersed over a diffraction grating formed on the surface of a conducting film on a substrate. The angular dispersion controls the effective grating period so that a matching spectrum of surface plasmons is excited for parallel processing on the conducting film. The resulting surface plasmons carry energy to an array of inelastic tunnel diodes. This solar energy converter does not require different materials for each frequency band, and sunlight is directly converted to electricity in an efficient manner by extracting more energy from the more energetic photons.
Quantum X waves with orbital angular momentum in nonlinear dispersive media
Ornigotti, Marco; Conti, Claudio; Szameit, Alexander
2018-06-01
We present a complete and consistent quantum theory of generalised X waves with orbital angular momentum in dispersive media. We show that the resulting quantised light pulses are affected by neither dispersion nor diffraction and are therefore resilient against external perturbations. The nonlinear interaction of quantised X waves in quadratic and Kerr nonlinear media is also presented and studied in detail.
Reversed phase propagation for hyperbolic surface waves
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Repän, Taavi; Novitsky, Andrey; Willatzen, Morten
2018-01-01
Magnetic properties can be used to control phase propagation in hyperbolic metamaterials. However, in the visible spectrum magnetic properties are difficult to obtain. We discuss hyperbolic surface waves allowing for a similar control over phase, achieved without magnetic properties....
Existence of torsional surface waves in an earth's crustal layer lying ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
This paper aims to study the dispersion of torsional surface waves in a crustal layer being sandwiched between a rigid boundary plane and a sandy mantle. In the mantle, rigidity and initial stress vary linearly while density remains constant. Dispersion relation has been deduced in a closed form by means of variable ...
Wave power balance in resonant dissipative media with spatial and temporal dispersion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tokman, M.D.; Gavrilova, M.A.; Westerhof, E. . www.rijnh.nl
2003-01-01
A power balance for waves in resonant dissipative media is formulated, which generalizes well-known expressions for dielectric wave energy density, wave energy flux, and dissipated power density. The identification of the different terms with wave energy density and flux remains only phenomenological. The result is better viewed as an equation for the evolution of wave intensity. In that form, its consequences are discussed in particular in relation to anomalous dispersion. A discrimination is made between boundary and initial value problems. For boundary value problems, anomalous dispersion is shown not to lead to unphysical results. In contrast, for initial value problems the solution for the evolution of wave intensity is shown to be at fault in the case of anomalous dispersion. Further illustration is provided by consideration of wave dispersion in a medium of charged harmonic oscillators and of ordinary-mode dispersion in plasma. Both are characterized by anomalous dispersion and show marked differences in the solutions of the dispersion relation solved either for complex wave vector at real frequency, k(ω) (applicable to boundary value problems), or for complex frequency at real wave vector ω(k) (applicable to initial value problems). (author)
On the maximum of wave surface of sea waves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, B
1980-01-01
This article considers wave surface as a normal stationary random process to solve the estimation of the maximum of wave surface in a given time interval by means of the theoretical results of probability theory. The results are represented by formulas (13) to (19) in this article. It was proved in this article that when time interval approaches infinite, the formulas (3), (6) of E )eta max) that were derived from the references (Cartwright, Longuet-Higgins) can also be derived by asymptotic distribution of the maximum of wave surface provided by the article. The advantage of the results obtained from this point of view as compared with the results obtained from the references was discussed.
Skeletonized inversion of surface wave: Active source versus controlled noise comparison
Li, Jing; Hanafy, Sherif
2016-01-01
We have developed a skeletonized inversion method that inverts the S-wave velocity distribution from surface-wave dispersion curves. Instead of attempting to fit every wiggle in the surface waves with predicted data, it only inverts the picked dispersion curve, thereby mitigating the problem of getting stuck in a local minimum. We have applied this method to a synthetic model and seismic field data from Qademah fault, located at the western side of Saudi Arabia. For comparison, we have performed dispersion analysis for an active and controlled noise source seismic data that had some receivers in common with the passive array. The active and passive data show good agreement in the dispersive characteristics. Our results demonstrated that skeletonized inversion can obtain reliable 1D and 2D S-wave velocity models for our geologic setting. A limitation is that we need to build layered initial model to calculate the Jacobian matrix, which is time consuming.
Skeletonized inversion of surface wave: Active source versus controlled noise comparison
Li, Jing
2016-07-14
We have developed a skeletonized inversion method that inverts the S-wave velocity distribution from surface-wave dispersion curves. Instead of attempting to fit every wiggle in the surface waves with predicted data, it only inverts the picked dispersion curve, thereby mitigating the problem of getting stuck in a local minimum. We have applied this method to a synthetic model and seismic field data from Qademah fault, located at the western side of Saudi Arabia. For comparison, we have performed dispersion analysis for an active and controlled noise source seismic data that had some receivers in common with the passive array. The active and passive data show good agreement in the dispersive characteristics. Our results demonstrated that skeletonized inversion can obtain reliable 1D and 2D S-wave velocity models for our geologic setting. A limitation is that we need to build layered initial model to calculate the Jacobian matrix, which is time consuming.
Surface Acoustic Waves in ferroelectrics
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Tarasenko A., Nataliya; Jastrabík, Lubomír; Tarasenko, Alexander
2004-01-01
Roč. 298, - (2004), s. 325-333 ISSN 0015-0193 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS1010203 Keywords : Rayleigh waves * ferroelectric films * phase transition Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.517, year: 2004
Dispersion of Lamb waves in a honeycomb composite sandwich panel.
Baid, Harsh; Schaal, Christoph; Samajder, Himadri; Mal, Ajit
2015-02-01
Composite materials are increasingly being used in advanced aircraft and aerospace structures. Despite their many advantages, composites are often susceptible to hidden damages that may occur during manufacturing and/or service of the structure. Therefore, safe operation of composite structures requires careful monitoring of the initiation and growth of such defects. Ultrasonic methods using guided waves offer a reliable and cost effective method for defects monitoring in advanced structures due to their long propagation range and their sensitivity to defects in their propagation path. In this paper, some of the useful properties of guided Lamb type waves are investigated, using analytical, numerical and experimental methods, in an effort to provide the knowledge base required for the development of viable structural health monitoring systems for composite structures. The laboratory experiments involve a pitch-catch method in which a pair of movable transducers is placed on the outside surface of the structure for generating and recording the wave signals. The specific cases considered include an aluminum plate, a woven composite laminate and an aluminum honeycomb sandwich panel. The agreement between experimental, numerical and theoretical results are shown to be excellent in certain frequency ranges, providing a guidance for the design of effective inspection systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Photonics surface waves on metamaterials interfaces.
Takayama, Osamu; Bogdanov, Andrey; Lavrinenko, Andrei V
2017-09-12
A surface wave (SW) in optics is a light wave, which is supported at an interface of two dissimilar media and propagates along the interface with its field amplitude exponentially decaying away from the boundary. The research on surface waves has been flourishing in last few decades thanks to their unique properties of surface sensitivity and field localization. These features have resulted in applications in nano-guiding, sensing, light-trapping and imaging based on the near-field techniques, contributing to the establishment of the nanophotonics as a field of research. Up to present, a wide variety of surface waves has been investigated in numerous material and structure settings. This paper reviews the recent progress and development in the physics of SWs localized at metamaterial interfaces, as well as bulk media in order to provide broader perspectives on optical surface waves in general. For each type of the surface waves, we discuss material and structural platforms. We mainly focus on experimental realizations in the visible and near-infrared wavelength ranges. We also address existing and potential application of SWs in chemical and biological sensing, and experimental excitation and characterization methods. © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.
Surface acoustic wave dust deposition monitor
Fasching, G.E.; Smith, N.S. Jr.
1988-02-12
A system is disclosed for using the attenuation of surface acoustic waves to monitor real time dust deposition rates on surfaces. The system includes a signal generator, a tone-burst generator/amplifier connected to a transmitting transducer for converting electrical signals into acoustic waves. These waves are transmitted through a path defining means adjacent to a layer of dust and then, in turn, transmitted to a receiving transducer for changing the attenuated acoustic wave to electrical signals. The signals representing the attenuated acoustic waves may be amplified and used in a means for analyzing the output signals to produce an output indicative of the dust deposition rates and/or values of dust in the layer. 8 figs.
Propagation of an ionizing surface electromagnetic wave
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Boev, A.G.; Prokopov, A.V.
1976-11-01
The propagation of an rf surface wave in a plasma which is ionized by the wave itself is analyzed. The exact solution of the nonlinear Maxwell equations is discussed for the case in which the density of plasma electrons is an exponential function of the square of the electric field. The range over which the surface wave exists and the frequency dependence of the phase velocity are found. A detailed analysis is given for the case of a plasma whose initial density exceeds the critical density at the wave frequency. An increase in the wave amplitude is shown to expand the frequency range over which the plasma is transparent; The energy flux in the plasma tends toward a certain finite value which is governed by the effective ionization field.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kolínský, Petr; Málek, Jiří; Brokešová, J.
2011-01-01
Roč. 15, č. 1 (2011), s. 81-104 ISSN 1383-4649 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300460602; GA AV ČR IAA300460705; GA ČR(CZ) GA205/06/1780 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : love waves * phase velocity dispersion * frequency-time analysis Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 1.326, year: 2011 www.springerlink.com/content/w3149233l60111t1/
Array processing for seismic surface waves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Marano, S.
2013-07-01
This dissertation submitted to the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETH in Zurich takes a look at the analysis of surface wave properties which allows geophysicists to gain insight into the structure of the subsoil, thus avoiding more expensive invasive techniques such as borehole drilling. This thesis aims at improving signal processing techniques for the analysis of surface waves in various directions. One main contribution of this work is the development of a method for the analysis of seismic surface waves. The method also deals with the simultaneous presence of multiple waves. Several computational approaches to minimize costs are presented and compared. Finally, numerical experiments that verify the effectiveness of the proposed cost function and resulting array geometry designs are presented. These lead to greatly improved estimation performance in comparison to arbitrary array geometries.
Array processing for seismic surface waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marano, S.
2013-01-01
This dissertation submitted to the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETH in Zurich takes a look at the analysis of surface wave properties which allows geophysicists to gain insight into the structure of the subsoil, thus avoiding more expensive invasive techniques such as borehole drilling. This thesis aims at improving signal processing techniques for the analysis of surface waves in various directions. One main contribution of this work is the development of a method for the analysis of seismic surface waves. The method also deals with the simultaneous presence of multiple waves. Several computational approaches to minimize costs are presented and compared. Finally, numerical experiments that verify the effectiveness of the proposed cost function and resulting array geometry designs are presented. These lead to greatly improved estimation performance in comparison to arbitrary array geometries
Rostami, Javad; Tse, Peter W T; Fang, Zhou
2017-06-06
Ultrasonic guided wave is an effective tool for structural health monitoring of structures for detecting defects. In practice, guided wave signals are dispersive and contain multiple modes and noise. In the presence of overlapped wave-packets/modes and noise together with dispersion, extracting meaningful information from these signals is a challenging task. Handling such challenge requires an advanced signal processing tool. The aim of this study is to develop an effective and robust signal processing tool to deal with the complexity of guided wave signals for non-destructive testing (NDT) purpose. To achieve this goal, Sparse Representation with Dispersion Based Matching Pursuit (SDMP) is proposed. Addressing the three abovementioned facts that complicate signal interpretation, SDMP separates overlapped modes and demonstrates good performance against noise with maximum sparsity. With the dispersion taken into account, an overc-omplete and redundant dictionary of basic atoms based on a narrowband excitation signal is designed. As Finite Element Method (FEM) was used to predict the form of wave packets propagating along structures, these atoms have the maximum resemblance with real guided wave signals. SDMP operates in two stages. In the first stage, similar to Matching Pursuit (MP), the approximation improves by adding, a single atom to the solution set at each iteration. However, atom selection criterion of SDMP utilizes the time localization of guided wave reflections that makes a portion of overlapped wave-packets to be composed mainly of a single echo. In the second stage of the algorithm, the selected atoms that have frequency inconsistency with the excitation signal are discarded. This increases the sparsity of the final representation. Meanwhile, leading to accurate approximation, as discarded atoms are not representing guided wave reflections, it simplifies extracting physical meanings for defect detection purpose. To verify the effectiveness of SDMP for
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Javad Rostami
2017-06-01
Full Text Available Ultrasonic guided wave is an effective tool for structural health monitoring of structures for detecting defects. In practice, guided wave signals are dispersive and contain multiple modes and noise. In the presence of overlapped wave-packets/modes and noise together with dispersion, extracting meaningful information from these signals is a challenging task. Handling such challenge requires an advanced signal processing tool. The aim of this study is to develop an effective and robust signal processing tool to deal with the complexity of guided wave signals for non-destructive testing (NDT purpose. To achieve this goal, Sparse Representation with Dispersion Based Matching Pursuit (SDMP is proposed. Addressing the three abovementioned facts that complicate signal interpretation, SDMP separates overlapped modes and demonstrates good performance against noise with maximum sparsity. With the dispersion taken into account, an overc-omplete and redundant dictionary of basic atoms based on a narrowband excitation signal is designed. As Finite Element Method (FEM was used to predict the form of wave packets propagating along structures, these atoms have the maximum resemblance with real guided wave signals. SDMP operates in two stages. In the first stage, similar to Matching Pursuit (MP, the approximation improves by adding, a single atom to the solution set at each iteration. However, atom selection criterion of SDMP utilizes the time localization of guided wave reflections that makes a portion of overlapped wave-packets to be composed mainly of a single echo. In the second stage of the algorithm, the selected atoms that have frequency inconsistency with the excitation signal are discarded. This increases the sparsity of the final representation. Meanwhile, leading to accurate approximation, as discarded atoms are not representing guided wave reflections, it simplifies extracting physical meanings for defect detection purpose. To verify the
Dust-Lower-Hybrid Surface Waves in Classical and Degenerate Plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ayub, M.; Shah, H.A.; Qureshi, M.N.S.; Salimullah, M.
2013-01-01
The dispersion relation for general dust low frequency electrostatic surface waves propagating on an interface between a magnetized dusty plasma region and a vacuum is derived by using specular reflection boundary conditions both in classical and quantum regimes. The frequency limit ω ≪ ω ci ≪ ω ce is considered and the dispersion relation for the Dust-Lower-Hybrid Surface Waves (DLHSW's) is derived for both classical and quantum plasma half-space and analyzed numerically. It is shown that the wave behavior changes as the quantum nature of the problem is considered. (physics of gases, plasmas, and electric discharges)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abd-alla, Abo-el-nour N.; Al-sheikh, Fatimah; Al-Hossain, Abdullah Y.
2009-01-01
Effect of initial stresses on dispersion relation for transverse surface waves circulating around a piezoelectric cylinder covered with perfectly conducting layers is investigated. Two overlay materials are considered: Gold and Aluminum. The piezoelectric substrate is considered to have the symmetry of a hexagonal crystal, and the layer is perfectly conducting. The dispersion equation has been given in the form of determinant involving Bessel functions. The roots of the dispersion equation give the values of the characteristic circular frequency parameters of the first three modes for various geometries. These roots are numerically calculated by 'Bisection method iterations technique' and presented graphically for various thickness of the overlayer and for different values of the initial stress. The effects of the initial stress on the natural frequencies are illustrated on the figures. It is found that both the thickness of the overlayer and the initial stress have a substantial effect on the dispersion behavior. The results obtained in this paper may not only help us get insight into the electro-mechanical coupling behavior of the piezoelectric composites cylinders, but can also offer theoretical basis and meaningful suggestions for the design of piezoelectric probes and electro-acoustic devices in the nondestructive evaluation technology. Finally, the results are compared graphically when the overlay is Gold or Aluminum with some special cases which do not have initial stresses and electric field.
Observation of spin-wave dispersion in Nd-Fe-B magnets using neutron Brillouin scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ono, K.; Inami, N.; Saito, K.; Takeichi, Y.; Kawana, D.; Yokoo, T.; Itoh, S.; Yano, M.; Shoji, T.; Manabe, A.; Kato, A.; Kaneko, Y.
2014-01-01
The low-energy spin-wave dispersion in polycrystalline Nd-Fe-B magnets was observed using neutron Brillouin scattering (NBS). Low-energy spin-wave excitations for the lowest acoustic spin-wave mode were clearly observed. From the spin-wave dispersion, we were able to determine the spin-wave stiffness constant D sw (100.0 ± 4.9 meV.Å 2 ) and the exchange stiffness constant A (6.6 ± 0.3 pJ/m)
Dogan, Yuksel; Soylu, Aliye; Eren, Gulay A; Poturoglu, Sule; Dolapcioglu, Can; Sonmez, Kenan; Duman, Habibe; Sevindir, Isa
2011-01-01
In inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) number of thromboembolic events are increased due to hypercoagulupathy and platelet activation. Increases in mean platelet volume (MPV) can lead to platelet activation, this leads to thromboembolic events and can cause acute coronary syndromes. In IBD patients, QT-dispersion and P-wave dispersion are predictors of ventricular arrhythmias and atrial fibrilation; MPV is accepted as a risk factor for acute coronary syndromes, we aimed at evaluating the correlations of these with the duration of disease, its localization and activity. The study group consisted of 69 IBD (Ulcerative colitis n: 54, Crohn's Disease n: 15) patients and the control group included 38 healthy individuals. Disease activity was evaluated both endoscopically and clinically. Patients with existing cardiac conditions, those using QT prolonging medications and having systemic diseases, anemia and electrolyte imbalances were excluded from the study. QT-dispersion, P-wave dispersion and MPV values of both groups were compared with disease activity, its localization, duration of disease and the antibiotics used. The P-wave dispersion values of the study group were significantly higher than those of the control group. Duration of the disease was not associated with QT-dispersion, and MPV levels. QT-dispersion, P-wave dispersion, MPV and platelet count levels were similar between the active and in mild ulcerative colitis patients. QT-dispersion levels were similar between IBD patients and the control group. No difference was observed between P-wave dispersion, QT-dispersion and MPV values; with regards to disease duration, disease activity, and localization in the study group (p>0.05). P-wave dispersion which is accepted as a risk factor for the development of atrial fibirilation was found to be high in our IBD patients. This demonstrates us that the risk of developing atrial fibrillation may be high in patients with IBD. No significant difference was found in the QT-dispersion
Strongly nonlinear evolution of low-frequency wave packets in a dispersive plasma
Vasquez, Bernard J.
1993-01-01
The evolution of strongly nonlinear, strongly modulated wave packets is investigated in a dispersive plasma using a hybrid numerical code. These wave packets have amplitudes exceeding the strength of the external magnetic field, along which they propagate. Alfven (left helicity) wave packets show strong steepening for p Schrodinger (DNLS) equation.
Demultiplexing Surface Waves With Silicon Nanoantennas
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sinev, I.; Bogdanov, A.; Komissarenko, F.
2017-01-01
We demonstrate directional launching of surface plasmon polaritons on thin gold film with a single silicon nanosphere. The directivity pattern of the excited surface waves exhibits rapid switching from forward to backward excitation within extremely narrow spectral hand (! 50 nm), which is driven...... by the mutual interference of magnetic and electric dipole moments supported by the dielectric nanoantenna....
Determination of surface tension coefficient of liquids by diffraction of light on capillary waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nikolić, D; Nešić, Lj
2012-01-01
This paper describes a simple technique for determining the coefficient of the surface tension of liquids, based on laser light diffraction on capillary waves. Capillary waves of given frequency are created by an exciter needle acting on the surface of liquid and represent a reflective diffraction grating, the constant of which (the wavelength of capillary waves) can be determined based on a known incidence angle of light (grazing angle). We obtain the coefficient of the surface tension of liquids by applying the dispersion relation for capillary waves and analyze the difficulties that arise when setting up and conducting the experiment in detail. (paper)
Wu, Pingping; Tan, Handong; Peng, Miao; Ma, Huan; Wang, Mao
2018-05-01
Magnetotellurics and seismic surface waves are two prominent geophysical methods for deep underground exploration. Joint inversion of these two datasets can help enhance the accuracy of inversion. In this paper, we describe a method for developing an improved multi-objective genetic algorithm (NSGA-SBX) and applying it to two numerical tests to verify the advantages of the algorithm. Our findings show that joint inversion with the NSGA-SBX method can improve the inversion results by strengthening structural coupling when the discontinuities of the electrical and velocity models are consistent, and in case of inconsistent discontinuities between these models, joint inversion can retain the advantages of individual inversions. By applying the algorithm to four detection points along the Longmenshan fault zone, we observe several features. The Sichuan Basin demonstrates low S-wave velocity and high conductivity in the shallow crust probably due to thick sedimentary layers. The eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau shows high velocity and high resistivity in the shallow crust, while two low velocity layers and a high conductivity layer are observed in the middle lower crust, probably indicating the mid-crustal channel flow. Along the Longmenshan fault zone, a high conductivity layer from 8 to 20 km is observed beneath the northern segment and decreases with depth beneath the middle segment, which might be caused by the elevated fluid content of the fault zone.
Nie, Guoquan; Liu, Jinxi; Liu, Xianglin
2017-10-01
Propagation of transverse surface waves in a three-layer system consisting of a piezoelectric/piezomagnetic (PE/PM) bi-layer bonded on an elastic half-space is theoretically investigated in this paper. Dispersion relations and mode shapes for transverse surface waves are obtained in closed form under electrically open and shorted boundary conditions at the upper surface. Two transverse surface waves related both to Love-type wave and Bleustein-Gulyaev (B-G) type wave propagating in corresponding three-layer structure are discussed through numerically solving the derived dispersion equation. The results show that Love-type wave possesses the property of multiple modes, it can exist all of the values of wavenumber for every selected thickness ratios regardless of the electrical boundary conditions. The presence of PM interlayer makes the phase velocity of Love-type wave decrease. There exist two modes allowing the propagation of B-G type wave under electrically shorted circuit, while only one mode appears in the case of electrically open circuit. The modes of B-G type wave are combinations of partly normal dispersion and partly anomalous dispersion whether the electrically open or shorted. The existence range of mode for electrically open case is greatly related to the thickness ratios, with the thickness of PM interlayer increasing the wavenumber range for existence of B-G type wave quickly shortened. When the thickness ratio is large enough, the wavenumber range of the second mode for electrically shorted circuit is extremely narrow which can be used to remove as an undesired mode. The propagation behaviors and mode shapes of transverse surface waves can be regulated by the modification of the thickness of PM interlayer. The obtained results provide a theoretical prediction and basis for applications of PE-PM composites and acoustic wave devices.
Optical tsunamis: shoaling of shallow water rogue waves in nonlinear fibers with normal dispersion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wabnitz, Stefan
2013-01-01
In analogy with ocean waves running up towards the beach, shoaling of pre-chirped optical pulses may occur in the normal group-velocity dispersion regime of optical fibers. We present exact Riemann wave solutions of the optical shallow water equations and show that they agree remarkably well with the numerical solutions of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation, at least up to the point where a vertical pulse front develops. We also reveal that extreme wave events or optical tsunamis may be generated in dispersion tapered fibers in the presence of higher-order dispersion. (paper)
Numerical study of the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation and dispersive shock waves
Grava, T.; Klein, C.; Pitton, G.
2018-02-01
A detailed numerical study of the long time behaviour of dispersive shock waves in solutions to the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (KP) I equation is presented. It is shown that modulated lump solutions emerge from the dispersive shock waves. For the description of dispersive shock waves, Whitham modulation equations for KP are obtained. It is shown that the modulation equations near the soliton line are hyperbolic for the KPII equation while they are elliptic for the KPI equation leading to a focusing effect and the formation of lumps. Such a behaviour is similar to the appearance of breathers for the focusing nonlinear Schrödinger equation in the semiclassical limit.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S.-D. Zhang
2000-10-01
Full Text Available By analyzing the results of the numerical simulations of nonlinear propagation of three Gaussian gravity-wave packets in isothermal atmosphere individually, the nonlinear effects on the characteristics of gravity waves are studied quantitatively. The analyses show that during the nonlinear propagation of gravity wave packets the mean flows are accelerated and the vertical wavelengths show clear reduction due to nonlinearity. On the other hand, though nonlinear effects exist, the time variations of the frequencies of gravity wave packets are close to those derived from the dispersion relation and the amplitude and phase relations of wave-associated disturbance components are consistent with the predictions of the polarization relation of gravity waves. This indicates that the dispersion and polarization relations based on the linear gravity wave theory can be applied extensively in the nonlinear region.Key words: Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (middle atmosphere dynamics; waves and tides
Sensitivity of Rayleigh wave ellipticity and implications for surface wave inversion
Cercato, Michele
2018-04-01
The use of Rayleigh wave ellipticity has gained increasing popularity in recent years for investigating earth structures, especially for near-surface soil characterization. In spite of its widespread application, the sensitivity of the ellipticity function to the soil structure has been rarely explored in a comprehensive and systematic manner. To this end, a new analytical method is presented for computing the sensitivity of Rayleigh wave ellipticity with respect to the structural parameters of a layered elastic half-space. This method takes advantage of the minor decomposition of the surface wave eigenproblem and is numerically stable at high frequency. This numerical procedure allowed to retrieve the sensitivity for typical near surface and crustal geological scenarios, pointing out the key parameters for ellipticity interpretation under different circumstances. On this basis, a thorough analysis is performed to assess how ellipticity data can efficiently complement surface wave dispersion information in a joint inversion algorithm. The results of synthetic and real-world examples are illustrated to analyse quantitatively the diagnostic potential of the ellipticity data with respect to the soil structure, focusing on the possible sources of misinterpretation in data inversion.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lei-Jian, Shen; Chuang-She, Li; Yi-Gang, Du; Cui-Cui, Zuo; Zhi-Qiang, Nie; Yan-Peng, Zhang; Yuan-Yuan, Li; Chen-Li, Gan; Ke-Qing, Lu
2008-01-01
We study the competition between dispersion and absorption of doubly-dressed four-wave mixing (DDFWM) and dressed six-wave mixing. In the case of weak coupling fields limit, we find DDFWM signal is affected by destructive interference between four-wave mixing(FWM) and six-wave mixing as well as constructive interference between FWM and eight-wave mixing. By analysing the difference between two kinds of doubly dressing mechanisms (parallel cascade and nested cascade) in this opening five-level system, we can further understand the generated high-order nonlinear optical signal dressed by multi-fields
P-wave dispersion: relationship to left ventricular function in sickle cell anaemia.
Oguanobi, N I; Onwubere, B J; Ike, S O; Anisiuba, B C; Ejim, E C; Ibegbulam, O G
2011-01-01
The prognostic implications of P-wave dispersion in patients with a variety of cardiac disease conditions are increasingly being recognised. The relationship between P-wave dispersion and left ventricular function in sickle cell anaemia is unknown. This study was aimed at evaluating the relationship between P-wave dispersion and left ventricular function in adult Nigerian sickle cell anaemia patients. Between February and August 2007, a total of 62 sickle cell anaemia patients (aged 18-44 years; mean 28.27 ± 5.58) enrolled in the study. These were drawn from patients attending the adult sickle cell clinic of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku-Ozalla, Enugu. An equal number of age- and gender-matched normal subjects served as controls. All the participants were evaluated with electrocardiography and echocardiography. P-wave dispersion was defined as the difference between the maximum and minimum P-wave duration measured in a 12-lead electrocardiogram. P-wave duration and P-wave dispersion were significantly higher in patients than in controls. Significant correlation was demonstrated between P-wave dispersion and age in the patients (r = 0.387; p = 0.031). A comparison of subsets of sickle cell anaemia patients and controls with comparable haematocrit values (30-35%) showed significantly higher P-wave duration and P-wave dispersion in the patients than in the controls. The P-wave duration in patients and controls, respectively, was 111.10 ± 14.53 ms and 89.14 ± 16.45 ms (t = 3.141; p = 0.006). P-wave dispersion was 64.44 ± 15.86 ms in the patients and 36.43 ± 10.35 ms in the controls (t = 2.752; p = 0.013). Significant negative correlation was found between P-wave dispersion and left ventricular transmitral E/A ratio (r = -0.289; p = 0.023). These findings suggest that P-wave dispersion could be useful in the evaluation of sickle cell patients with left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. Further prospective studies are recommended to evaluate
Surface wave propagation in an ideal Hall-magnetohydrodynamic plasma jet in flowing environment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sikka, Himanshu; Kumar, Nagendra; Zhelyazkov, Ivan
2004-01-01
The behavior of the Hall-magnetohydrodynamic (Hall-MHD) sausage and kink waves is studied in the presence of steady flow. The influence of the flow both inside and outside the plasma slab is taken into account. The plasma in the environment is considered to be cold and moves with the different flow velocity outside the slab. In the limit of parallel propagation, dispersion relation is derived to discuss the propagation of both the modes. Numerical results for the propagation characteristics are obtained for different Alfvenic Mach number ratios inside and outside the slab. It is found that the dispersion curves for both surface modes, namely, the sausage and kink ones in cold plasma show complexities in their behavior in terms of multivalued portions of the curves. These multivalued portions correspond to the different normalized phase velocities for the same value of Alfvenic Mach number. In contrast to the conventional MHD surface waves which are assumed to be pure surface waves or pseudosurface waves, surface waves are obtained which are bulk waves for very small dimensionless wave numbers, then turn to leaky waves and finally transform to pure surface waves for values of dimensionless wave number greater than one
Opthof, Tobias; Coronel, Ruben; Wilms-Schopman, Francien J. G.; Plotnikov, Alexei N.; Shlapakova, Iryna N.; Danilo, Peter; Rosen, Michael R.; Janse, Michiel J.
2007-01-01
BACKGROUND: The concept that the interval between the peak (T(peak)) and the end (T(end)) of the T wave (T(p-e)) is a measure of transmural dispersion of repolarization time is widely accepted but has not been tested rigorously by transmural mapping of the intact heart. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of
Dispersion relation of test waves in an electron beam plasma system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hayashi, N.; Tanaka, M.; Shinohara, S.; Kawai, Y.
1994-01-01
Test waves are propagated in an electron beam plasma system and the dispersion relation is measured. At the center of the experimental region a beam mode is excited. Near the chamber wall an electron plasma wave is excited and propagates from the chamber wall to the center of the experimental region. It is also found that observed unstable waves are standing wave which is formed by superposing the beam modes propagating in the opposite directions each other. (author). 6 refs, 6 figs
Utilization of multimode Love wave dispersion curve inversion for geotechnical site investigation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hamimu, La; Nawawi, Mohd; Safani, Jamhir
2011-01-01
Inversion codes based on a modified genetic algorithm (GA) have been developed to invert multimode Love wave dispersion curves. The multimode Love wave dispersion curves were synthesized from the profile representing shear-wave velocity reversal using a full SH (shear horizontal) waveform. In this study, we used a frequency–slowness transform to extract the dispersion curve from the full SH waveform. Dispersion curves overlain in dispersion images were picked manually. These curves were then inverted using the modified GA. To assess the accuracy of the inversion results, differences between the true and inverted shear-wave velocity profile were quantified in terms of shear-wave velocity and thickness errors, E S and E H . Our numerical modeling showed that the inversion of multimode dispersion curves can significantly provide the better assessment of a shear-wave velocity structure, especially with a velocity reversal profile at typical geotechnical site investigations. This approach has been applied on field data acquired at a site in Niigata prefecture, Japan. In these field data, our inversion results show good agreement between the calculated and experimental dispersion curves and accurately detect low velocity layer targets
Controllable behaviours of rogue wave triplets in the nonautonomous nonlinear and dispersive system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dai Chaoqing; Tian Qing; Zhu Shiqun
2012-01-01
A similarity transformation connecting the variable coefficient nonlinear Schrödinger equation with the standard nonlinear Schrödinger equation is constructed. The self-similar rogue wave triplet solutions (rational solutions) are analytically obtained for the nonautonomous nonlinear and dispersive system. The controllable behaviours of rogue wave triplets in two typical soliton management systems are discussed. In the exponential dispersion decreasing fibre, three kinds of rogue wave triplets with controllable behaviours are analysed. In the periodic distributed system, the rogue wave triplets recur periodically in the form of a cluster. (paper)
Spatial dispersion in atom-surface quantum friction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reiche, D.; Dalvit, D. A. R.; Busch, K.; Intravaia, F.
2017-01-01
We investigate the influence of spatial dispersion on atom-surface quantum friction. We show that for atom-surface separations shorter than the carrier's mean free path within the material, the frictional force can be several orders of magnitude larger than that predicted by local optics. In addition, when taking into account spatial dispersion effects, we show that the commonly used local thermal equilibrium approximation underestimates by approximately 95% the drag force, obtained by employing the recently reported nonequilibrium fluctuation-dissipation relation for quantum friction. Unlike the treatment based on local optics, spatial dispersion in conjunction with corrections to local thermal equilibrium change not only the magnitude but also the distance scaling of quantum friction.
Suppression of transverse instabilities of dark solitons and their dispersive shock waves
Armaroli, Andrea; Trillo, Stefano; Fratalocchi, Andrea
2009-01-01
single soliton input and in the regime where dispersive shock waves develop (multisoliton regime). Such conclusions are supported by the linear stability analysis and numerical simulation of the propagation. © 2009 The American Physical Society.
Fast surface waves in an ideal Hall-magnetohydrodynamic plasma slab
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhelyazkov, I.; Debosscher, A.; Goossens, M.
1996-01-01
The propagation of fast sausage and kink magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) surface waves in an ideal magnetized plasma slab is studied taking into account the Hall term in the generalized Ohm close-quote s law. It is found that the Hall effect modifies the dispersion characteristics of MHD surface modes when the Hall term scaling length is not negligible (less than, but comparable to the slab thickness). The dispersion relations for both modes have been derived for parallel propagation (along the ambient equilibrium magnetic field lines).The Hall term imposes some limits on the possible wave number range. It turns out that the space distribution of almost all perturbed quantities in sausage and kink surface waves with Hall effect is rather complicated as compared to that of usual fast MHD surface waves. The applicability to solar wind aspects of the results obtained, is briefly discussed. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics
Chiral surface waves for enhanced circular dichroism
Pellegrini, Giovanni; Finazzi, Marco; Celebrano, Michele; Duò, Lamberto; Biagioni, Paolo
2017-06-01
We present a novel chiral sensing platform that combines a one-dimensional photonic crystal design with a birefringent surface defect. The platform sustains simultaneous transverse electric and transverse magnetic surface modes, which are exploited to generate chiral surface waves. The present design provides homogeneous and superchiral fields of both handednesses over arbitrarily large areas in a wide spectral range, resulting in the enhancement of the circular dichroism signal by more than two orders of magnitude, thus paving the road toward the successful combination of surface-enhanced spectroscopies and electromagnetic superchirality.
Surface acoustic wave propagation in graphene film
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roshchupkin, Dmitry; Plotitcyna, Olga; Matveev, Viktor; Kononenko, Oleg; Emelin, Evgenii; Irzhak, Dmitry; Ortega, Luc; Zizak, Ivo; Erko, Alexei; Tynyshtykbayev, Kurbangali; Insepov, Zinetula
2015-01-01
Surface acoustic wave (SAW) propagation in a graphene film on the surface of piezoelectric crystals was studied at the BESSY II synchrotron radiation source. Talbot effect enabled the visualization of the SAW propagation on the crystal surface with the graphene film in a real time mode, and high-resolution x-ray diffraction permitted the determination of the SAW amplitude in the graphene/piezoelectric crystal system. The influence of the SAW on the electrical properties of the graphene film was examined. It was shown that the changing of the SAW amplitude enables controlling the magnitude and direction of current in graphene film on the surface of piezoelectric crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boaga, J; Vignoli, G; Cassiani, G
2011-01-01
Inversion is a critical step in all geophysical techniques, and is generally fraught with ill-posedness. In the case of seismic surface wave studies, the inverse problem can lead to different equivalent subsoil models and consequently to different local seismic response analyses. This can have a large impact on an earthquake engineering design. In this paper, we discuss the consequences of non-uniqueness of surface wave inversion on seismic responses, with both numerical and experimental data. Our goal is to evaluate the consequences on common seismic response analysis in the case of different impedance contrast conditions. We verify the implications of inversion uncertainty, and consequently of data information content, on realistic local site responses. A stochastic process is used to generate a set of 1D shear wave velocity profiles from several specific subsurface models. All these profiles are characterized as being equivalent, i.e. their responses, in terms of a dispersion curve, are compatible with the uncertainty in the same surface wave data. The generated 1D shear velocity models are then subjected to a conventional one-dimensional seismic ground response analysis using a realistic input motion. While recent analyses claim that the consequences of surface wave inversion uncertainties are very limited, our test points out that a relationship exists between inversion confidence and seismic responses in different subsoils. In the case of regular and relatively smooth increase of shear wave velocities with depth, as is usual in sedimentary plains, our results show that the choice of a specific model among equivalent solutions strongly influences the seismic response. On the other hand, when the shallow subsoil is characterized by a strong impedance contrast (thus revealing a characteristic soil resonance period), as is common in the presence of a shallow bedrock, equivalent solutions provide practically the same seismic amplification, especially in the
Active micromixer using surface acoustic wave streaming
Branch,; Darren W. , Meyer; Grant D. , Craighead; Harold, G [Ithaca, NY
2011-05-17
An active micromixer uses a surface acoustic wave, preferably a Rayleigh wave, propagating on a piezoelectric substrate to induce acoustic streaming in a fluid in a microfluidic channel. The surface acoustic wave can be generated by applying an RF excitation signal to at least one interdigital transducer on the piezoelectric substrate. The active micromixer can rapidly mix quiescent fluids or laminar streams in low Reynolds number flows. The active micromixer has no moving parts (other than the SAW transducer) and is, therefore, more reliable, less damaging to sensitive fluids, and less susceptible to fouling and channel clogging than other types of active and passive micromixers. The active micromixer is adaptable to a wide range of geometries, can be easily fabricated, and can be integrated in a microfluidic system, reducing dead volume. Finally, the active micromixer has on-demand on/off mixing capability and can be operated at low power.
Traveling waves in a delayed SIR model with nonlocal dispersal and nonlinear incidence
Zhang, Shou-Peng; Yang, Yun-Rui; Zhou, Yong-Hui
2018-01-01
This paper is concerned with traveling waves of a delayed SIR model with nonlocal dispersal and a general nonlinear incidence. The existence and nonexistence of traveling waves of the system are established respectively by Schauder's fixed point theorem and two-sided Laplace transform. It is also shown that the spread speed c is influenced by the dispersal rate of the infected individuals and the delay τ.
Xu, Yanlong
2015-01-21
We report high quality broadband spatial reflections of Rayleigh surface acoustic waves (SAWs) through a graded grooved surface. High quality means that no wave is allowed to transmit and the incident wave is nearly all reflected to the input side. The graded grooved surface is structured by drilling one dimensional array of graded grooves with increased depths on a flat surface. We investigate SAW dispersion relations, wave field distribution at several typical SAW wavelengths, and time evolution of a Gaussian pulse through the graded grooved surface. Results show that the input broadband Rayleigh SAWs can be slowed, spatially enhanced and stopped, and finally reflected to the input side. The study suggests that engraving the flat surface can be used as an efficient and economical way to manipulate Rayleigh SAWs, which has potential application in novel SAW devices such as filters, reflectors, sensors, energy harvesters, and diodes.
Surface Resonance Bands on (001)W: Experimental Dispersion Relations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Willis, R. F.; Feuerbacher, B.; Christensen, N. Egede
1977-01-01
A band of unbound surface states (resonances), located in an energy region above the vacuum threshold corresponding to an energy band gap in the electron states of the bulk crystal, has been observed by angle-resolved secondary-electron-emission spectroscopy. The experimental dispersion behavior...... is in agreement with the two-dimensional band structure of a clean (001)W surface recently proposed by Smith and Mittheiss....
Surface waves on metal-dielectric metamaterials
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Takayama, Osamu; Shkondin, Evgeniy; Panah, Mohammad Esmail Aryaee
2016-01-01
In this paper we analyze surface electromagnetic waves supported at an interface between an isotropic medium and an effective anisotropic material that can be realized by alternating conductive and dielectric layers with deep subwavelength thicknesses. This configuration can host various types...
Non-perturbational surface-wave inversion: A Dix-type relation for surface waves
Haney, Matt; Tsai, Victor C.
2015-01-01
We extend the approach underlying the well-known Dix equation in reflection seismology to surface waves. Within the context of surface wave inversion, the Dix-type relation we derive for surface waves allows accurate depth profiles of shear-wave velocity to be constructed directly from phase velocity data, in contrast to perturbational methods. The depth profiles can subsequently be used as an initial model for nonlinear inversion. We provide examples of the Dix-type relation for under-parameterized and over-parameterized cases. In the under-parameterized case, we use the theory to estimate crustal thickness, crustal shear-wave velocity, and mantle shear-wave velocity across the Western U.S. from phase velocity maps measured at 8-, 20-, and 40-s periods. By adopting a thin-layer formalism and an over-parameterized model, we show how a regularized inversion based on the Dix-type relation yields smooth depth profiles of shear-wave velocity. In the process, we quantitatively demonstrate the depth sensitivity of surface-wave phase velocity as a function of frequency and the accuracy of the Dix-type relation. We apply the over-parameterized approach to a near-surface data set within the frequency band from 5 to 40 Hz and find overall agreement between the inverted model and the result of full nonlinear inversion.
Surface impedance of travelling--Wave antenna in magnetized plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Denisenko, I.B.; Ostrikov, K.N.
1993-01-01
Wave properties of metal antennas immersed in a magnetoactive plasma are intensively studied nowadays with the objects of radio communications in ionosphere, plasma heating, gas discharge technique. Many papers are devoted to studies of sheath waves (SW) in magnetoplasma, which are surface by nature and propagate along the metal-low-density sheath-plasma waveguide structure. The results of these papers suggest that the existence of these waves makes significant contribution in antenna impedance. Note that the impedance measurement is one of possible ways of experimental surface waves characterization. In the present report the surface impedance of travelling SW antenna immersed in magnetoactive plasma is calculated and its dependence on the waveguide structure parameters such as plasma density, external magnetic field H 0 and electrons collisional frequency values, sheath region width, conductivity of metal surface is studied. The calculations have been carried out in a quasiplane approximation, when antenna radius greatly exceeds the SW skin depth. Note that the finite conductivity of metal is necessary to be taken into account to provide a finite surface impedance value. The surface impedance is calculated in two cases, namely when SW propagate along (Ζ parallel ) and across (Ζ perpendicular ) the external magnetic field. The relation between the values Ζ parallel and Ζ perpendicular is obtained. This relation shows that the values Ζ parallel and Ζ parallel may satisfy both inequalities Ζ parallel much-gt Ζ perpendicular and Ζ perpendicular approx-gt Ζ perpendicular dependent on the parameters of the structure. The comparison of dispersion properties of the SW propagating along Η 0 with the experimental results is carried out. The results are shown to satisfactorily correspond to the experimental results
Electromagnetic drift waves dispersion for arbitrarily collisional plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Wonjae, E-mail: wol023@ucsd.edu; Krasheninnikov, Sergei I., E-mail: skrash@mae.ucsd.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Angus, J. R. [Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Avenue, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)
2015-07-15
The impacts of the electromagnetic effects on resistive and collisionless drift waves are studied. A local linear analysis on an electromagnetic drift-kinetic equation with Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook-like collision operator demonstrates that the model is valid for describing linear growth rates of drift wave instabilities in a wide range of plasma parameters showing convergence to reference models for limiting cases. The wave-particle interactions drive collisionless drift-Alfvén wave instability in low collisionality and high beta plasma regime. The Landau resonance effects not only excite collisionless drift wave modes but also suppress high frequency electron inertia modes observed from an electromagnetic fluid model in collisionless and low beta regime. Considering ion temperature effects, it is found that the impact of finite Larmor radius effects significantly reduces the growth rate of the drift-Alfvén wave instability with synergistic effects of high beta stabilization and Landau resonance.
Surface and body waves from surface and underground explosions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kusubov, A.S.
1976-06-01
The characteristics of surface and ground waves were recorded for surface and underground explosions up to 100 tons and 40 kt in magnitude, respectively, and a preliminary analysis of these results is presented. The experiments were conducted at NTS in the Yucca Flats, Nevada. Ground motions were detected with triaxial geophones along seismic lines extending up to 16 miles from the point of explosions. A comparison of Rayleigh waves generated by surface and underground explosions in the same lake bed is presented indicating a very different behavior of surface and ground waves from the two types of explosions. The magnitude of the transverse wave for surface shots was smaller by a factor of two than its longitudinal counterpart. The dependence of apparent periods on the blast energy was not apparent at a fixed distance from the explosions. Changes in the apparent period with distance for both types of explosion are compared indicating a strong layering effect of the lake bed. The ground motion study was complimented by excavation of cavities generated by the explosions
Non-dispersive traveling waves in inclined shallow water channels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Didenkulova, Ira; Pelinovsky, Efim
2009-01-01
Existence of traveling waves propagating without internal reflection in inclined water channels of arbitrary slope is demonstrated. It is shown that traveling non-monochromatic waves exist in both linear and nonlinear shallow water theories in the case of a uniformly inclined channel with a parabolic cross-section. The properties of these waves are studied. It is shown that linear traveling waves should have a sign-variable shape. The amplitude of linear traveling waves in a channel satisfies the same Green's law, which is usually derived from the energy flux conservation for smoothly inhomogeneous media. Amplitudes of nonlinear traveling waves deviate from the linear Green's law, and the behavior of positive and negative amplitudes are different. Negative amplitude grows faster than positive amplitude in shallow water. The phase of nonlinear waves (travel time) is described well by the linear WKB approach. It is shown that nonlinear traveling waves of any amplitude always break near the shoreline if the boundary condition of the full absorption is applied.
Writing magnetic patterns with surface acoustic waves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Weiyang; Buford, Benjamin; Jander, Albrecht; Dhagat, Pallavi, E-mail: dhagat@eecs.oregonstate.edu [School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331 (United States)
2014-05-07
A novel patterning technique that creates magnetization patterns in a continuous magnetostrictive film with surface acoustic waves is demonstrated. Patterns of 10 μm wide stripes of alternating magnetization and a 3 μm dot of reversed magnetization are written using standing and focusing acoustic waves, respectively. The magnetization pattern is size-tunable, erasable, and rewritable by changing the magnetic field and acoustic power. This versatility, along with its solid-state implementation (no moving parts) and electronic control, renders it as a promising technique for application in magnetic recording, magnonic signal processing, magnetic particle manipulation, and spatial magneto-optical modulation.
Dispersion relation for Bernstein waves using a new transformation for the modified Bessel function
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sato, Masumi
1985-01-01
Aitken's or Shanks' transformation of the exponent-modified Bessel function produces better approximations. Dispersion relations for the hybrid and Bernstein waves using these provide better thermal and parallel wavenumber corrections. They also predict more closely the evolution and mode-conversion of these waves. (author)
Dispersion formulae for waves in a magneto-active relativistic plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Misra, P.; Mohanty, J.N.
1980-01-01
Dispersion formulae are derived for the transverse waves propagating through a collisionless magneto-active plasma in the direction of the magnetic field valid for relativistic as well as non-relativistic temperatures. Wave propagation under various limiting conditions of temperatures and magnetic field are discussed. (author)
Dispersion formulae for waves in a magneto-active relativistic plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Misra, P. (Ravenshaw Coll., Cuttack (India)); Mohanty, J.N. (F.M. College, Balasore (India). Dept. of Physics)
1980-12-01
Dispersion formulae are derived for the transverse waves propagating through a collisionless magneto-active plasma in the direction of the magnetic field valid for relativistic as well as non-relativistic temperatures. Wave propagation under various limiting conditions of temperatures and magnetic field are discussed.
Tokman, M. D.; Westerhof, E.; Gavrilova, M. A.
2000-01-01
The special features of the propagation of electromagnetic waves in gyrotropic medium with dispersion and resonant dissipation (specifically, in a magnetoactive plasma) are studied. Even though the anti-Hermitian components of the permittivity tensor are substantial in magnitude, weakly damped waves
Dispersion relation of electromagnetic waves in one-dimensional plasma photonic crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hojo, Hitoshi; Mase, Atsushi
2004-01-01
The dispersion relation of electromagnetic waves in one-dimensional plasma photonic crystals is studied. The plasma photonic crystal is a periodic array composed of alternating thin plasma and dielectric material. The dispersion relation is obtained by solving a Maxwell wave equation using a method analogous to Kronig-Penny's problem in quantum mechanics, and it is found that the frequency gap and cut-off appear in the dispersion relation. The frequency gap is shown to become larger with the increase of the plasma density as well as plasma width. (author)
Inversion of residual stress profiles from ultrasonic Rayleigh wave dispersion data
Mora, P.; Spies, M.
2018-05-01
We investigate theoretically and with synthetic data the performance of several inversion methods to infer a residual stress state from ultrasonic surface wave dispersion data. We show that this particular problem may reveal in relevant materials undesired behaviors for some methods that could be reliably applied to infer other properties. We focus on two methods, one based on a Taylor-expansion, and another one based on a piecewise linear expansion regularized by a singular value decomposition. We explain the instabilities of the Taylor-based method by highlighting singularities in the series of coefficients. At the same time, we show that the other method can successfully provide performances which only weakly depend on the material.
Dosso, S. E.; Molnar, S.; Cassidy, J.
2010-12-01
Bayesian inversion of microtremor array dispersion data is applied, with evaluation of data errors and model parameterization, to produce the most-probable shear-wave velocity (VS) profile together with quantitative uncertainty estimates. Generally, the most important property characterizing earthquake site response is the subsurface VS structure. The microtremor array method determines phase velocity dispersion of Rayleigh surface waves from multi-instrument recordings of urban noise. Inversion of dispersion curves for VS structure is a non-unique and nonlinear problem such that meaningful evaluation of confidence intervals is required. Quantitative uncertainty estimation requires not only a nonlinear inversion approach that samples models proportional to their probability, but also rigorous estimation of the data error statistics and an appropriate model parameterization. A Bayesian formulation represents the solution of the inverse problem in terms of the posterior probability density (PPD) of the geophysical model parameters. Markov-chain Monte Carlo methods are used with an efficient implementation of Metropolis-Hastings sampling to provide an unbiased sample from the PPD to compute parameter uncertainties and inter-relationships. Nonparametric estimation of a data error covariance matrix from residual analysis is applied with rigorous a posteriori statistical tests to validate the covariance estimate and the assumption of a Gaussian error distribution. The most appropriate model parameterization is determined using the Bayesian information criterion (BIC), which provides the simplest model consistent with the resolving power of the data. Parameter uncertainties are found to be under-estimated when data error correlations are neglected and when compressional-wave velocity and/or density (nuisance) parameters are fixed in the inversion. Bayesian inversion of microtremor array data is applied at two sites in British Columbia, the area of highest seismic risk in
Blackfolds, plane waves and minimal surfaces
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Armas, Jay [Physique Théorique et Mathématique, Université Libre de Bruxelles and International Solvay Institutes, ULB-Campus Plaine CP231, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, University of Bern,Sidlerstrasse 5, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Blau, Matthias [Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, University of Bern,Sidlerstrasse 5, 3012 Bern (Switzerland)
2015-07-29
Minimal surfaces in Euclidean space provide examples of possible non-compact horizon geometries and topologies in asymptotically flat space-time. On the other hand, the existence of limiting surfaces in the space-time provides a simple mechanism for making these configurations compact. Limiting surfaces appear naturally in a given space-time by making minimal surfaces rotate but they are also inherent to plane wave or de Sitter space-times in which case minimal surfaces can be static and compact. We use the blackfold approach in order to scan for possible black hole horizon geometries and topologies in asymptotically flat, plane wave and de Sitter space-times. In the process we uncover several new configurations, such as black helicoids and catenoids, some of which have an asymptotically flat counterpart. In particular, we find that the ultraspinning regime of singly-spinning Myers-Perry black holes, described in terms of the simplest minimal surface (the plane), can be obtained as a limit of a black helicoid, suggesting that these two families of black holes are connected. We also show that minimal surfaces embedded in spheres rather than Euclidean space can be used to construct static compact horizons in asymptotically de Sitter space-times.
Blackfolds, plane waves and minimal surfaces
Armas, Jay; Blau, Matthias
2015-07-01
Minimal surfaces in Euclidean space provide examples of possible non-compact horizon geometries and topologies in asymptotically flat space-time. On the other hand, the existence of limiting surfaces in the space-time provides a simple mechanism for making these configurations compact. Limiting surfaces appear naturally in a given space-time by making minimal surfaces rotate but they are also inherent to plane wave or de Sitter space-times in which case minimal surfaces can be static and compact. We use the blackfold approach in order to scan for possible black hole horizon geometries and topologies in asymptotically flat, plane wave and de Sitter space-times. In the process we uncover several new configurations, such as black helicoids and catenoids, some of which have an asymptotically flat counterpart. In particular, we find that the ultraspinning regime of singly-spinning Myers-Perry black holes, described in terms of the simplest minimal surface (the plane), can be obtained as a limit of a black helicoid, suggesting that these two families of black holes are connected. We also show that minimal surfaces embedded in spheres rather than Euclidean space can be used to construct static compact horizons in asymptotically de Sitter space-times.
Dispersion relation for pure dust Bernstein waves in a non-Maxwellian magnetized dusty plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deeba, F.; Ahmad, Zahoor; Murtaza, G.
2011-01-01
Pure dust Bernstein waves are investigated using non-Maxwellian kappa and (r,q) distribution functions in a collisionless, uniform magnetized dusty plasma. Dispersion relations for both the distributions are derived by considering waves whose frequency is of the order of dust cyclotron frequency, and dispersion curves are plotted. It is observed that the propagation band for dust Bernstein waves is rather narrow as compared with that of the electron Bernstein waves. However, the band width increases for higher harmonics, for both kappa and (r,q) distributions. Effect of dust charge on dispersion curves is also studied, and one observes that with increasing dust charge, the dispersion curves shift toward the lower frequencies. Increasing the dust to ion density ratio ((n d0 /n i0 )) causes the dispersion curve to shift toward the higher frequencies. It is also found that for large values of spectral index kappa (κ), the dispersion curves approach to the Maxwellian curves. The (r,q) distribution approaches the kappa distribution for r = 0, whereas for r > 0, the dispersion curves show deviation from the Maxwellian curves as expected. Relevance of this work can be found in astrophysical plasmas, where non-Maxwellian velocity distributions as well as dust particles are commonly observed.
Dispersion relation for pure dust Bernstein waves in a non-Maxwellian magnetized dusty plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Deeba, F. [National Tokamak Fusion Program, PAEC, P.O. Box 3329, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Department of Physics, G.C. University, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Ahmad, Zahoor [National Tokamak Fusion Program, PAEC, P.O. Box 3329, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Murtaza, G. [Salam Chair in Physics, G.C. University, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan)
2011-07-15
Pure dust Bernstein waves are investigated using non-Maxwellian kappa and (r,q) distribution functions in a collisionless, uniform magnetized dusty plasma. Dispersion relations for both the distributions are derived by considering waves whose frequency is of the order of dust cyclotron frequency, and dispersion curves are plotted. It is observed that the propagation band for dust Bernstein waves is rather narrow as compared with that of the electron Bernstein waves. However, the band width increases for higher harmonics, for both kappa and (r,q) distributions. Effect of dust charge on dispersion curves is also studied, and one observes that with increasing dust charge, the dispersion curves shift toward the lower frequencies. Increasing the dust to ion density ratio ((n{sub d0}/n{sub i0})) causes the dispersion curve to shift toward the higher frequencies. It is also found that for large values of spectral index kappa ({kappa}), the dispersion curves approach to the Maxwellian curves. The (r,q) distribution approaches the kappa distribution for r = 0, whereas for r > 0, the dispersion curves show deviation from the Maxwellian curves as expected. Relevance of this work can be found in astrophysical plasmas, where non-Maxwellian velocity distributions as well as dust particles are commonly observed.
Wave dispersion relation of two-dimensional plasma crystals in a magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Uchida, G.; Konopka, U.; Morfill, G.
2004-01-01
The wave dispersion relation in a two-dimensional strongly coupled plasma crystal is studied by theoretical analysis and molecular dynamics simulation taking into account a constant magnetic field parallel to the crystal normal. The expression for the wave dispersion relation clearly shows that high-frequency and low-frequency branches exist as a result of the coupling of longitudinal and transverse modes due to the Lorenz force acting on the dust particles. The high-frequency and the low-frequency branches are found to belong to right-hand and left-hand polarized waves, respectively
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vashkovsky, Anatolii V; Lock, Edwin H
2011-01-01
The energy and dispersion characteristics of a dipole spin wave in a ferrite-dielectric-metal structure are calculated. An analysis of spin wave dispersion characteristics with extreme points demonstrates how fundamental relationships among the propagation constant, phase and group velocities, Poynting vector, and power flux manifest themselves when the wavenumber changes near these points. A comparison of magnetostatic approximation results with calculations using Maxwell's equations shows the inadequacy of the magnetostatic approximation formulas currently used for calculating the Poynting vector and power flux of dipole spin waves. A correct alternative is proposed. (methodological notes)
Modeling the propagation of electromagnetic waves over the surface of the human body
Vendik, I. B.; Vendik, O. G.; Kirillov, V. V.; Pleskachev, V. V.; Tural'chuk, P. A.
2016-12-01
The results of modeling and an experimental study of electromagnetic (EM) waves in microwave range propagating along the surface of the human body have been presented. The parameters of wave propagation, such as the attenuation and phase velocity, have also been investigated. The calculation of the propagation of EM waves by the numerical method FDTD (finite difference time domain), as well as the use of the analytical model of the propagation of the EM wave along flat and curved surfaces has been fulfilled. An experimental study on a human body has been conducted. It has been shown that creeping waves are slow and exhibit a noticeable dispersion, while the surface waves are dispersionless and propagate at the speed of light in free space. A comparison of the results of numerical simulation, analytical calculation, and experimental investigations at a frequency of 2.55 GHz has been carried out.
Dispersion relation and Landau damping of waves in high-energy density plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhu Jun; Ji Peiyong
2012-01-01
We present a theoretical investigation on the propagation of electromagnetic waves and electron plasma waves in high energy density plasmas using the covariant Wigner function approach. Based on the covariant Wigner function and Dirac equation, a relativistic quantum kinetic model is established to describe the physical processes in high-energy density plasmas. With the zero-temperature Fermi–Dirac distribution, the dispersion relation and Landau damping of waves containing the relativistic quantum corrected terms are derived. The relativistic quantum corrections to the dispersion relation and Landau damping are analyzed by comparing our results with those obtained in classical and non-relativistic quantum plasmas. We provide a detailed discussion on the Landau damping obtained in classical plasmas, non-relativistic Fermi plasmas and relativistic Fermi plasmas. The contributions of the Bohm potential, the Fermi statistics pressure and relativistic effects to the dispersion relation and Landau damping of waves are quantitatively calculated with real plasma parameters. (paper)
Mathematical aspects of surface water waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Craig, Walter; Wayne, Clarence E
2007-01-01
The theory of the motion of a free surface over a body of water is a fascinating subject, with a long history in both applied and pure mathematical research, and with a continuing relevance to the enterprises of mankind having to do with the sea. Despite the recent advances in the field (some of which we will hear about during this Workshop on Mathematical Hydrodynamics at the Steklov Institute), and the current focus of the mathematical community on the topic, many fundamental mathematical questions remain. These have to do with the evolution of surface water waves, their approximation by model equations and by computer simulations, the detailed dynamics of wave interactions, such as would produce rogue waves in an open ocean, and the theory (partially probabilistic) of approximating wave fields over large regions by averaged 'macroscopic' quantities which satisfy essentially kinetic equations of motion. In this note we would like to point out open problems and some of the directions of current research in the field. We believe that the introduction of new analytical techniques and novel points of view will play an important role in the future development of the area.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cohen, B.I.
1987-01-01
The existence of compact dispersion relations for parametric instabilities of coherent electromagnetic waves in magnetized plasmas is addressed here. In general, comprehensive dispersion relations for parametric instabilities in unmagnetized plasmas become more complicated in the presence of an applied time-independent magnetic field. This is demonstrated with a fluid perturbation theory. A compact dispersion relation for parametric instabilities in unmagnetized plasma is heuristically extended here to the case of a magnetized plasma. This dispersion relation gives the correct results in a variety of circumstances of interest in considering electron cyclotron heating applications
Measurements of the power spectrum and dispersion relation of self-excited dust acoustic waves
Nosenko, V.; Zhdanov, S. K.; Kim, S.-H.; Heinrich, J.; Merlino, R. L.; Morfill, G. E.
2009-12-01
The spectrum of spontaneously excited dust acoustic waves was measured. The waves were observed with high temporal resolution using a fast video camera operating at 1000 frames per second. The experimental system was a suspension of micron-size kaolin particles in the anode region of a dc discharge in argon. Wave activity was found at frequencies as high as 450 Hz. At high wave numbers, the wave dispersion relation was acoustic-like (frequency proportional to wave number). At low wave numbers, the wave frequency did not tend to zero, but reached a cutoff frequency instead. The cutoff value declined with distance from the anode. We ascribe the observed cutoff to the particle confinement in this region.
Berg, E.; Lin, F. C.; Qiu, H.; Wang, Y.; Allam, A. A.; Clayton, R. W.; Ben-Zion, Y.
2017-12-01
Rayleigh waves extracted from cross-correlations of ambient seismic noise have proven useful in imaging the shallow subsurface velocity structure. In contrast to phase velocities, which are sensitive to slightly deeper structure, Rayleigh wave ellipticity (H/V ratios) constrains the uppermost crust. We conduct Rayleigh wave ellipticity and phase dispersion measurements in Southern California between 6 and 18 second periods, computed from multi-component ambient noise cross-correlations using 315 stations across the region in 2015. Because of the complimentary sensitivity of phase velocity and H/V, this method enables simple and accurate resolution of near-surface geological features from the surface to 20km depth. We compare the observed H/V ratios and phase velocities to predictions generated from the current regional models (SCEC UCVM), finding strong correspondence where the near-surface structure is well-resolved by the models. This includes high H/V ratios in the LA Basin, Santa Barbara Basin and Salton Trough; and low ratios in the San Gabriel, San Jacinto and southern Sierra Nevada mountains. Disagreements in regions such as the Western Transverse Ranges, Salton Trough, San Jacinto and Elsinore fault zones motivate further work to improve the community models. A new updated 3D isotropic model of the area is derived via a joint inversion of Rayleigh phase dispersions and H/V ratios. Additionally, we examine azimuthal dependence of the H/V ratio to ascertain anisotropy patterns for each station. Clear 180º periodicity is observed for many stations suggesting strong shallow anisotropy across the region including up to 20% along the San Andreas fault, 15% along the San Jacinto Fault and 25% in the LA Basin. To better resolve basin structures, we apply similar techniques to three dense linear geophone arrays in the San Gabriel and San Bernardino basins. The three arrays are composed by 50-125 three-component 5Hz geophones deployed for one month each with 15-25km
Upper Mantle Shear Wave Structure Beneath North America From Multi-mode Surface Wave Tomography
Yoshizawa, K.; Ekström, G.
2008-12-01
The upper mantle structure beneath the North American continent has been investigated from measurements of multi-mode phase speeds of Love and Rayleigh waves. To estimate fundamental-mode and higher-mode phase speeds of surface waves from a single seismogram at regional distances, we have employed a method of nonlinear waveform fitting based on a direct model-parameter search using the neighbourhood algorithm (Yoshizawa & Kennett, 2002). The method of the waveform analysis has been fully automated by employing empirical quantitative measures for evaluating the accuracy/reliability of estimated multi-mode phase dispersion curves, and thus it is helpful in processing the dramatically increasing numbers of seismic data from the latest regional networks such as USArray. As a first step toward modeling the regional anisotropic shear-wave velocity structure of the North American upper mantle with extended vertical resolution, we have applied the method to long-period three-component records of seismic stations in North America, which mostly comprise the GSN and US regional networks as well as the permanent and transportable USArray stations distributed by the IRIS DMC. Preliminary multi-mode phase-speed models show large-scale patterns of isotropic heterogeneity, such as a strong velocity contrast between the western and central/eastern United States, which are consistent with the recent global and regional models (e.g., Marone, et al. 2007; Nettles & Dziewonski, 2008). We will also discuss radial anisotropy of shear wave speed beneath North America from multi-mode dispersion measurements of Love and Rayleigh waves.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bhumika Patel
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The present study was aimed to increase the solubility of the poorly water soluble drug Telmisartan by using Surface solid dispersion (SSD made of polymers like Poloxamer 407, PEG 6000 by Solvent evaporation method. The drug was solubilized by surfactants and/or polymers then adsorbed onto the surface of extremely fine carriers to increase its surface area and to form the SSD which give the more Surface area for absorption of the drug. A 2 2 full factorial design was used to investigate for each carrier the joint influence of formulation variables: Amount of carrier and adsorbent. Saturation solubility studies shows the improvement in solubility of drug batch SSD 8 give more solubility improvement than the other batch, in-vitro dissolution of pure drug, physical mixtures and SSDs were carried out in that SSDs were found to be effective in increasing the dissolution rate of Telmisartan in form of SSD when compared to pure drug. Also FT-IR spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffractometry studies were carried out in order to characterize the drug and Surface solid dispersion. Furthermore, both DSC and X-ray diffraction showed a decrease in the melting enthalpy and reduced drug crystallinity consequently in SSDs. However, infrared spectroscopy revealed no drug interactions with the carriers.
Breaking Waves on the Ocean Surface
Schwendeman, Michael S.
equilibrium range waves and normalizing by the wave directional spread. Meanwhile, correlation of W with turbulent dissipation measurements is significantly worse, which may be due to uncertainty in the measurements or bias related to micro-breaking waves. Finally, phase-resolved, three-dimensional, measurements of the whitecaps were made from a new ship-based stereo video system. Comparison with concurrent buoy measurements indicate that the stereo data accurately reproduces the wave statistics, including the frequency spectra. The whitecaps are characterized by transient and spatially localized regions of extreme surface gradients, rather than large crest-to-trough steepnesses. It was found that whitecaps were around 10 times more likely to have extreme slopes, and 50% of the observed extreme surface slopes were in the vicinity of the breaking waves. The maximum whitecap slopes show good agreement with the Stokes 120 degree limiting crest geometry, and the whitecap crest loses much of its maximum steepness shortly after the onset of breaking. The whitecap phase speeds are consistently less than the linear or weakly nonlinear predicted phase speed, which indicate the effect of narrow-band wave groups, despite the broad-band wave spectra.
Zhen, Ya-Xin
2017-02-01
In this paper, the transverse wave propagation in fluid-conveying viscoelastic single-walled carbon nanotubes is investigated based on nonlocal elasticity theory with consideration of surface effect. The governing equation is formulated utilizing nonlocal Euler-Bernoulli beam theory and Kelvin-Voigt model. Explicit wave dispersion relation is developed and wave phase velocities and frequencies are obtained. The effect of the fluid flow velocity, structural damping, surface effect, small scale effects and tube diameter on the wave propagation properties are discussed with different wave numbers. The wave frequency increases with the increase of fluid flow velocity, but decreases with the increases of tube diameter and wave number. The effect of surface elasticity and residual surface tension is more significant for small wave number and tube diameter. For larger values of wave number and nonlocal parameters, the real part of frequency ratio raises.
Wireless Multiplexed Surface Acoustic Wave Sensors Project
Youngquist, Robert C.
2014-01-01
Wireless Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) Sensor is a new technology for obtaining multiple, real-time measurements under extreme environmental conditions. This project plans to develop a wireless multiplexed sensor system that uses SAW sensors, with no batteries or semiconductors, that are passive and rugged, can operate down to cryogenic temperatures and up to hundreds of degrees C, and can be used to sense a wide variety of parameters over reasonable distances (meters).
Laser-based linear and nonlinear guided elastic waves at surfaces (2D) and wedges (1D).
Hess, Peter; Lomonosov, Alexey M; Mayer, Andreas P
2014-01-01
The characteristic features and applications of linear and nonlinear guided elastic waves propagating along surfaces (2D) and wedges (1D) are discussed. Laser-based excitation, detection, or contact-free analysis of these guided waves with pump-probe methods are reviewed. Determination of material parameters by broadband surface acoustic waves (SAWs) and other applications in nondestructive evaluation (NDE) are considered. The realization of nonlinear SAWs in the form of solitary waves and as shock waves, used for the determination of the fracture strength, is described. The unique properties of dispersion-free wedge waves (WWs) propagating along homogeneous wedges and of dispersive wedge waves observed in the presence of wedge modifications such as tip truncation or coatings are outlined. Theoretical and experimental results on nonlinear wedge waves in isotropic and anisotropic solids are presented. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Circuit quantum acoustodynamics with surface acoustic waves.
Manenti, Riccardo; Kockum, Anton F; Patterson, Andrew; Behrle, Tanja; Rahamim, Joseph; Tancredi, Giovanna; Nori, Franco; Leek, Peter J
2017-10-17
The experimental investigation of quantum devices incorporating mechanical resonators has opened up new frontiers in the study of quantum mechanics at a macroscopic level. It has recently been shown that surface acoustic waves (SAWs) can be piezoelectrically coupled to superconducting qubits, and confined in high-quality Fabry-Perot cavities in the quantum regime. Here we present measurements of a device in which a superconducting qubit is coupled to a SAW cavity, realising a surface acoustic version of cavity quantum electrodynamics. We use measurements of the AC Stark shift between the two systems to determine the coupling strength, which is in agreement with a theoretical model. This quantum acoustodynamics architecture may be used to develop new quantum acoustic devices in which quantum information is stored in trapped on-chip acoustic wavepackets, and manipulated in ways that are impossible with purely electromagnetic signals, due to the 10 5 times slower mechanical waves.In this work, Manenti et al. present measurements of a device in which a tuneable transmon qubit is piezoelectrically coupled to a surface acoustic wave cavity, realising circuit quantum acoustodynamic architecture. This may be used to develop new quantum acoustic devices.
Direct detection of near-surface faults by migration of back-scattered surface waves
Yu, Han; Guo, Bowen; Hanafy, Sherif; Lin, Fan-Chi; Schuster, Gerard T.
2014-01-01
We show that diffraction stack migration can be used to estimate the distribution of near-surface faults. The assumption is that near-surface faults generate detectable back-scattered surface waves from impinging surface waves. The processing steps
Surface-enhanced chiroptical spectroscopy with superchiral surface waves.
Pellegrini, Giovanni; Finazzi, Marco; Celebrano, Michele; Duò, Lamberto; Biagioni, Paolo
2018-07-01
We study the chiroptical properties of one-dimensional photonic crystals supporting superchiral surface waves by introducing a simple formalism based on the Fresnel reflection matrix. We show that the proposed framework provides useful insights on the behavior of all the relevant chiroptical quantities, allowing for a deeper understanding of surface-enhanced chiral sensing platforms based on one-dimensional photonic crystals. Finally, we analyze and discuss the limitations of such platforms as the surface concentration of the target chiral analytes is gradually increased. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Surface effects on anti-plane shear waves propagating in magneto-electro-elastic nanoplates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu, Bin; Zhang, Chunli; Chen, Weiqiu; Zhang, Chuanzeng
2015-01-01
Material surfaces may have a remarkable effect on the mechanical behavior of magneto-electro-elastic (or multiferroic) structures at nanoscale. In this paper, a surface magneto-electro-elasticity theory (or effective boundary condition formulation), which governs the motion of the material surface of magneto-electro-elastic nanoplates, is established by employing the state-space formalism. The properties of anti-plane shear (SH) waves propagating in a transversely isotropic magneto-electro-elastic plate with nanothickness are investigated by taking surface effects into account. The size-dependent dispersion relations of both antisymmetric and symmetric SH waves are presented. The thickness-shear frequencies and the asymptotic characteristics of the dispersion relations considering surface effects are determined analytically as well. Numerical results show that surface effects play a very pronounced role in elastic wave propagation in magneto-electro-elastic nanoplates, and the dispersion properties depend strongly on the chosen surface material parameters of magneto-electro-elastic nanoplates. As a consequence, it is possible to modulate the waves in magneto-electro-elastic nanoplates through surface engineering. (paper)
Superresolution Near-field Imaging with Surface Waves
Fu, Lei; Liu, Zhaolun; Schuster, Gerard T.
2017-01-01
We present the theory for near-field superresolution imaging with surface waves and time reverse mirrors (TRMs). Theoretical formulas and numerical results show that applying the TRM operation to surface waves in an elastic half-space can achieve
Illusions and Cloaks for Surface Waves
McManus, T. M.; Valiente-Kroon, J. A.; Horsley, S. A. R.; Hao, Y.
2014-08-01
Ever since the inception of Transformation Optics (TO), new and exciting ideas have been proposed in the field of electromagnetics and the theory has been modified to work in such fields as acoustics and thermodynamics. The most well-known application of this theory is to cloaking, but another equally intriguing application of TO is the idea of an illusion device. Here, we propose a general method to transform electromagnetic waves between two arbitrary surfaces. This allows a flat surface to reproduce the scattering behaviour of a curved surface and vice versa, thereby giving rise to perfect optical illusion and cloaking devices, respectively. The performance of the proposed devices is simulated using thin effective media with engineered material properties. The scattering of the curved surface is shown to be reproduced by its flat analogue (for illusions) and vice versa for cloaks.
Observation of Self-Cavitating Envelope Dispersive Shock Waves in Yttrium Iron Garnet Thin Films
Janantha, P. A. Praveen; Sprenger, Patrick; Hoefer, Mark A.; Wu, Mingzhong
2017-07-01
The formation and properties of envelope dispersive shock wave (DSW) excitations from repulsive nonlinear waves in a magnetic film are studied. Experiments involve the excitation of a spin wave step pulse in a low-loss magnetic Y3Fe5O12 thin film strip, in which the spin wave amplitude increases rapidly, realizing the canonical Riemann problem of shock theory. Under certain conditions, the envelope of the spin wave pulse evolves into a DSW that consists of an expanding train of nonlinear oscillations with amplitudes increasing from front to back, terminated by a black soliton. The onset of DSW self-cavitation, indicated by a point of zero power and a concomitant 180° phase jump, is observed for sufficiently large steps, indicative of the bidirectional dispersive hydrodynamic nature of the DSW. The experimental observations are interpreted with theory and simulations of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation.
Dispersion of axially symmetric waves in fluid-filled cylindrical shells
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bao, X.L.; Überall, H.; Raju, P. K.
2000-01-01
Acoustic waves normally incident on an elastic cylindrical shell can cause the excitation of circumferential elastic waves on the shell. These shells may be empty and fluid immersed, or fluid filled in an ambient medium of air, or doubly fluid loaded inside and out. Circumferential waves...... on such shells have been investigated for the case of aluminum shells, and their phase-velocity dispersion curves have been obtained for double fluid loading [Bao, Raju, and Überall, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 105, 2704 (1999)]. Similar results were obtained for empty or fluid-filled brass shells [Kumar, Acustica 27......, 317 (1972)]. We have extended the work of Kumar to the case of fluid-filled aluminum shells and steel shells imbedded in air. These cases demonstrate the existence of circumferential waves traveling in the filler fluid, exhibiting a certain simplicity of the dispersion curves of these waves...
Megaquakes, prograde surface waves and urban evolution
Lomnitz, C.; Castaños, H.
2013-05-01
Cities grow according to evolutionary principles. They move away from soft-ground conditions and avoid vulnerable types of structures. A megaquake generates prograde surface waves that produce unexpected damage in modern buildings. The examples (Figs. 1 and 2) were taken from the 1985 Mexico City and the 2010 Concepción, Chile megaquakes. About 400 structures built under supervision according to modern building codes were destroyed in the Mexican earthquake. All were sited on soft ground. A Rayleigh wave will cause surface particles to move as ellipses in a vertical plane. Building codes assume that this motion will be retrograde as on a homogeneous elastic halfspace, but soft soils are intermediate materials between a solid and a liquid. When Poisson's ratio tends to ν→0.5 the particle motion turns prograde as it would on a homogeneous fluid halfspace. Building codes assume that the tilt of the ground is not in phase with the acceleration but we show that structures on soft ground tilt into the direction of the horizontal ground acceleration. The combined effect of gravity and acceleration may destabilize a structure when it is in resonance with its eigenfrequency. Castaños, H. and C. Lomnitz, 2013. Charles Darwin and the 1835 Chile earthquake. Seismol. Res. Lett., 84, 19-23. Lomnitz, C., 1990. Mexico 1985: the case for gravity waves. Geophys. J. Int., 102, 569-572. Malischewsky, P.G. et al., 2008. The domain of existence of prograde Rayleigh-wave particle motion. Wave Motion 45, 556-564.; Figure 1 1985 Mexico megaquake--overturned 15-story apartment building in Mexico City ; Figure 2 2010 Chile megaquake Overturned 15-story R-C apartment building in Concepción
Parametric analysis of change in wave number of surface waves
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tadić Ljiljana
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The paper analyzes the dependence of the change wave number of materials soil constants, ie the frequency of the waves. The starting point in this analysis cosists of wave equation and dynamic stiffness matrix of soil.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Guanghui, E-mail: wanggh@scnu.edu.cn; Lei, Yuandong; Zhang, Weifeng
2015-02-20
Dispersion properties of transverse magnetic (TM) waves in a subwavelength metallic waveguide loaded by uniaxial metamaterials are investigated, based on two kinds of uniaxial metamaterials with different orientations of optical axis. The numerical results show that the existence of fundamental TM{sub 0} mode and high-order TM modes in the waveguide system is dependent on the orientation of optical axis. In addition, their anomalous dispersion properties are clarified. When the orientation of optical axis is selected properly, there are two branches of dispersion curves for each high-order mode—one is normal dispersion and another belongs to anomalous dispersion, showing a transition from a backward wave to a forward one with the increase of working frequency. Moreover, the group velocity and energy flow distribution for TM{sub 1} mode are also demonstrated. These properties may have potential applications in optical information storage, integrated optics and nanophotonic devices. - Highlights: • Two kinds of subwavelength uniaxial metamaterial waveguides are constructed. • We demonstrate anomalous dispersion properties of transverse magnetic (TM) guided modes. • There are two branches of dispersion curves for high-order TM modes, showing a transition from a backward wave to a forward one. • Group velocity can approach to zero, having potential application in optical information storage. • Negative group velocity and energy flow distribution for TM modes are shown.
Relation of wave energy and momentum with the plasma dispersion relation in an inhomogeneous plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berk, H.L.; Pfirsch, D.
1988-01-01
The expressions for wave energy and angular momentum commonly used in homogeneous and near-homogeneous media is generalized to inhomogeneous media governed by a nonlocal conductivity tensor. The expression for wave energy applies to linear excitations in an arbitrary three-dimensional equilibrium, while the expression for angular momentum applies to linear excitations of azimuthally symmetric equilibria. The wave energy E-script/sub wave/ is interpreted as the energy transferred from linear external sources to the plasma if there is no dissipation. With dissipation, such a simple interpretation is lacking as energy is also thermally absorbed. However, for azimuthally symmetric equilibria, the expression for the wave energy in a frame rotating with a frequency ω can be unambiguously separated from thermal energy. This expression is given by E-script/sub wave/ -ωL/sub wave/ l, where L/sub wave/ is the wave angular momentum defined in the text and l the azimuthal wavenumber and it is closely related to the real part of a dispersion relation for marginal stability. The imaginary part of the dispersion is closely related to the energy input into a system. Another useful quantity discussed is the impedance form, which can be used for three-dimensional equilibrium without an ignorable coordinate and the expression is closely related to the wave impedance used in antenna theory. Applications to stability theory are also discussed
Guntekin, Unal; Gunes, Yilmaz; Simsek, Hakki; Tuncer, Mustafa; Arslan, Sevket
2009-09-01
Prolonged P wave duration and P wave dispersion (PWD) have been associated with an increased risk for atrial fibrillation (AF). Hyperthytodism is a frequent cause of atrial fibrillation (AF). Forty-two patients with newly diagnosed overt hyperthyroidism and 20 healthy people were enrolled in the study. Transthoracic echocardiography, 12 lead surface ECG and thyroid hormone levels were studied at the time of enrollment and after achievement of euthyroid state with propylthiouracil treatment. Maximum P wave duration (Pmax) (97.4+/-14.6 vs. 84.2+/-9.5 msec, phyperthyroid patients compared to control group. Pmax and PWD were significantly correlated with the presence of hyperthyroidism. Pmax (97.4+/-14.6 to 84.3+/-8.6 msec, phyperthyroidism. Diastolic dyfunction was seen in 5 patients at hyperthroid state but only in one patient at euthyroid state. Hyperthyroidism is associated with prolonged P wave duration and dispersion. Achievement of euthyroid state with propylthiouracil treatment results in shortening of P wave variables. Diastolic function may have a partial effect for the increased Pmax and PWD. Shortening of Pmax and PWD may be a marker for the prevention of AF with the anti-thyroid treatment.
Effect of surface wave propagation in a four-layered oceanic crust model
Paul, Pasupati; Kundu, Santimoy; Mandal, Dinbandhu
2017-12-01
Dispersion of Rayleigh type surface wave propagation has been discussed in four-layered oceanic crust. It includes a sandy layer over a crystalline elastic half-space and over it there are two more layers—on the top inhomogeneous liquid layer and under it a liquid-saturated porous layer. Frequency equation is obtained in the form of determinant. The effects of the width of different layers as well as the inhomogeneity of liquid layer, sandiness of sandy layer on surface waves are depicted and shown graphically by considering all possible case of the particular model. Some special cases have been deduced, few special cases give the dispersion equation of Scholte wave and Stoneley wave, some of which have already been discussed elsewhere.
Smooth and non-smooth travelling waves in a nonlinearly dispersive Boussinesq equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shen Jianwei; Xu Wei; Lei Youming
2005-01-01
The dynamical behavior and special exact solutions of nonlinear dispersive Boussinesq equation (B(m,n) equation), u tt -u xx -a(u n ) xx +b(u m ) xxxx =0, is studied by using bifurcation theory of dynamical system. As a result, all possible phase portraits in the parametric space for the travelling wave system, solitary wave, kink and anti-kink wave solutions and uncountably infinite many smooth and non-smooth periodic wave solutions are obtained. It can be shown that the existence of singular straight line in the travelling wave system is the reason why smooth waves converge to cusp waves, finally. When parameter are varied, under different parametric conditions, various sufficient conditions guarantee the existence of the above solutions are given
A water wave model with horizontal circulation and accurate dispersion
Cotter, C.; Bokhove, Onno
We describe a new water wave model which is variational, and combines a depth-averaged vertical (component of) vorticity with depth-dependent potential flow. The model facilitates the further restriction of the vertical profile of the velocity potential to n-th order polynomials or a finite element
Nonlinear wave propagation studies, dispersion modeling, and signal parameters correction
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Převorovský, Zdeněk
..: ..., 2004, 00. [European Workshop on FP6-AERONEWS /1./. Naples (IT), 13.09.2004-16.09.2004] EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 502927 - AERO-NEWS Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2076919 Keywords : nodestructive testing * nonlinear elastic wave spectroscopy Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics
Blast wave interaction with a rigid surface
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Josey, T.; Whitehouse, D.R.; Ripley, R.C.; Dionne, J.P.
2004-01-01
A simple model used to investigate blast wave interactions with a rigid surface is presented. The model uses a constant volume energy source analogue to predict pressure histories at gauges located directly above the charge. A series of two-dimensional axi-symmetric CFD calculations were performed, varying the height of the charge relative to the ground. Pressure histories, along with isopycnic plots are presented to evaluate the effects of placing a charge in close proximity to a rigid surface. When a charge is placed near a solid surface the pressure histories experienced at gauges above the charge indicate the presence of two distinct pressure peaks. The first peak is caused by the primary shock and the second peak is a result of the wave reflections from the rigid surface. As the distance from the charge to the wall is increased the magnitude of the second pressure peak is reduced, provided that the distance between the charge and the gauge is maintained constant. The simple model presented is able to capture significant, predictable flow features. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lazar, M.; Schlickeiser, R.
2006-01-01
The properties of transverse waves parallel propagating in magnetized plasmas with arbitrary composition and thermally anisotropic, are investigated on the basis of relativistic Vlasov-Maxwell equations. The transverse dispersion relations for plasmas with arbitrary distribution functions are derived. These dispersion relations describe the linear response of the system to the initial perturbations and thus define all existing linear (transverse) plasma modes in the system. By analytic continuation the dispersion relations in the whole complex frequency plane are constructed. Further analysis is restricted to the important case of anisotropic bi-Maxwellian equilibrium plasma distribution functions. Explicit forms of the relativistically correct transverse dispersion relations are derived that hold for any values of the plasma temperatures and the temperature anisotropy. In the limit of nonrelativistic plasma temperatures the dispersion relations are expressed in terms of plasma dispersion function, however, the dependence on frequency and wave numbers is markedly different from the standard noncovariant nonrelativistic analysis. Only in the strictly unphysical formal limit of an infinitely large speed of light, c→∞, does the nonrelativistic dispersion relations reduce to the standard noncovariant dispersion relations
Fang, Hongjian; Zhang, Haijiang; Yao, Huajian; Allam, Amir; Zigone, Dimitri; Ben-Zion, Yehuda; Thurber, Clifford; vanÂ derÂ Hilst, Robert D.
2016-05-01
We introduce a new algorithm for joint inversion of body wave and surface wave data to get better 3-D P wave (Vp) and S wave (Vs) velocity models by taking advantage of the complementary strengths of each data set. Our joint inversion algorithm uses a one-step inversion of surface wave traveltime measurements at different periods for 3-D Vs and Vp models without constructing the intermediate phase or group velocity maps. This allows a more straightforward modeling of surface wave traveltime data with the body wave arrival times. We take into consideration the sensitivity of surface wave data with respect to Vp in addition to its large sensitivity to Vs, which means both models are constrained by two different data types. The method is applied to determine 3-D crustal Vp and Vs models using body wave and Rayleigh wave data in the Southern California plate boundary region, which has previously been studied with both double-difference tomography method using body wave arrival times and ambient noise tomography method with Rayleigh and Love wave group velocity dispersion measurements. Our approach creates self-consistent and unique models with no prominent gaps, with Rayleigh wave data resolving shallow and large-scale features and body wave data constraining relatively deeper structures where their ray coverage is good. The velocity model from the joint inversion is consistent with local geological structures and produces better fits to observed seismic waveforms than the current Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) model.
Surface Solid Dispersion and Solid Dispersion of Meloxicam: Comparison and Product Development.
Chaturvedi, Mayank; Kumar, Manish; Pathak, Kamla; Bhatt, Shailendra; Saini, Vipin
2017-12-01
Purpose: A comparative study was carried out between surface solid dispersion (SSD) and solid dispersion (SD) of meloxicam (MLX) to assess the solubility and dissolution enhancement approach and thereafter develop as patient friendly orodispersible tablet. Methods: Crospovidone (CPV), a hydrophilic carrier was selected for SSD preparation on the basis of 89% in- vitro MLX adsorption, 19% hydration capacity and high swelling index. SD on the other hand was made with PEG4000. Both were prepared by co-grinding and solvent evaporation method using drug: carrier ratios of 1:1, 1:4, and 1:8. Formulation SSDS3 (MLX: CPV in 1:8 ratio) made by solvent evaporation method showed t 50% of 28 min and 80.9% DE 50min which was higher in comparison to the corresponding solid dispersion, SDS3 (t 50% of 35min and 76.4% DE 50min ). Both SSDS3 and SDS3 were developed as orodispersible tablets and evaluated. Results: Tablet formulation F3 made with SSD3 with a disintegration time of 11 secs, by wetting time= 6 sec, high water absorption of 78%by wt and cumulative drug release of 97% proved to be superior than the tablet made with SD3. Conclusion: Conclusively, the SSD of meloxicam has the potential to be developed as fast acing formulation that can ensure almost complete release of drug.
Surface Solid Dispersion and Solid Dispersion of Meloxicam: Comparison and Product Development
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mayank Chaturvedi
2017-12-01
Full Text Available Purpose: A comparative study was carried out between surface solid dispersion (SSD and solid dispersion (SD of meloxicam (MLX to assess the solubility and dissolution enhancement approach and thereafter develop as patient friendly orodispersible tablet. Methods: Crospovidone (CPV, a hydrophilic carrier was selected for SSD preparation on the basis of 89% in- vitro MLX adsorption, 19% hydration capacity and high swelling index. SD on the other hand was made with PEG4000. Both were prepared by co-grinding and solvent evaporation method using drug: carrier ratios of 1:1, 1:4, and 1:8. Formulation SSDS3 (MLX: CPV in 1:8 ratio made by solvent evaporation method showed t50% of 28 min and 80.9% DE50min which was higher in comparison to the corresponding solid dispersion, SDS3 (t50% of 35min and 76.4% DE50min. Both SSDS3 and SDS3 were developed as orodispersible tablets and evaluated. Results: Tablet formulation F3 made with SSD3 with a disintegration time of 11 secs, by wetting time= 6 sec, high water absorption of 78%by wt and cumulative drug release of 97% proved to be superior than the tablet made with SD3. Conclusion: Conclusively, the SSD of meloxicam has the potential to be developed as fast acing formulation that can ensure almost complete release of drug.
Seismic wave attenuation and velocity dispersion in UAE carbonates
Ogunsami, Abdulwaheed Remi
Interpreting the seismic property of fluids in hydrocarbon reservoirs at low frequency scale has been a cherished goal of petroleum geophysics research for decades. Lately, there has been tremendous interest in understanding attenuation as a result of fluid flow in porous media. Although interesting, the emerging experimental and theoretical information still remain ambiguous and are practically not utilized for reasons not too obscure. Attenuation is frequency dependent and hard to measure in the laboratory at low frequency. This thesis describes and reports the results of an experimental study of low frequency attenuation and velocity dispersion on a selected carbonate reservoir samples in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). For the low frequency measurements, stress-strain method was used to measure the moduli from which the velocity is derived. Attenuation was measured as the phase difference between the applied stress and the strain. For the ultrasonic component, the pulse propagation method was employed. To study the fluid effect especially at reservoir in situ conditions, the measurements were made dry and saturated with liquid butane and brine at differential pressures of up to 5000 psi with pore pressure held constant at 500 psi. Similarly to what has been documented in the literatures for sandstone, attenuation of the bulk compressibility mode dominates the losses in these dry and somewhat partially saturated carbonate samples with butane and brine. Overall, the observed attenuation cannot be simply said to be frequency dependent within this low seismic band. While attenuation seems to be practically constant in the low frequency band for sample 3H, such conclusion cannot be made for sample 7H. For the velocities, significant dispersion is observed and Gassmann generally fails to match the measured velocities. Only the squirt model fairly fits the velocities, but not at all pressures. Although the observed dispersion is larger than Biot's prediction, the fact
Influence of the electromagnetic parameters on the surface wave attenuation in thin absorbing layers
Li, Yinrui; Li, Dongmeng; Wang, Xian; Nie, Yan; Gong, Rongzhou
2018-05-01
This paper describes the relationships between the surface wave attenuation properties and the electromagnetic parameters of radar absorbing materials (RAMs). In order to conveniently obtain the attenuation constant of TM surface waves over a wide frequency range, the simplified dispersion equations in thin absorbing materials were firstly deduced. The validity of the proposed method was proved by comparing with the classical dispersion equations. Subsequently, the attenuation constants were calculated separately for the absorbing layers with hypothetical relative permittivity and permeability. It is found that the surface wave attenuation properties can be strongly tuned by the permeability of RAM. Meanwhile, the permittivity should be appropriate so as to maintain high cutoff frequency. The present work provides specific methods and designs to improve the attenuation performances of radar absorbing materials.
Rimza, Tripti; Sharma, Prerana
2017-05-01
The dispersion properties of lower hybrid wave are studied in electron-iondegenerate plasma with exchange effect in non-relativistic regime. It is found that the combined effect of Bohm potential and exchange correlation potential significantly modifies the dispersion properties of lower hybrid wave. The graphical results explicitly show the influence of degeneracy pressure, Bohm force and exchange correlation potential on the frequency of the lower hybrid mode. Present work should be of relevance for the dense astrophysical environments like white dwarfs and for laboratory experiments.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bandyopadhyay, P. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India)], E-mail: pintu@ipr.res.in; Prasad, G.; Sen, A.; Kaw, P.K. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India)
2007-09-03
The dispersion properties of low frequency dust acoustic waves in the strong coupling regime are investigated experimentally in an argon plasma embedded with a mixture of kaolin and MnO{sub 2} dust particles. The neutral pressure is varied over a wide range to change the collisional properties of the dusty plasma. In the low collisional regime the turnover of the dispersion curve at higher wave numbers and the resultant region of {partial_derivative}{omega}/{partial_derivative}k<0 are identified as signatures of dust-dust correlations. In the high collisional regime dust neutral collisions produce a similar effect and prevent an unambiguous identification of strong coupling effects.
Bandyopadhyay, P.; Prasad, G.; Sen, A.; Kaw, P. K.
2016-01-01
The dispersion properties of low frequency dust acoustic waves in the strong coupling regime are investigated experimentally in an argon plasma embedded with a mixture of kaolin and $MnO_2$ dust particles. The neutral pressure is varied over a wide range to change the collisional properties of the dusty plasma. In the low collisional regime the turnover of the dispersion curve at higher wave numbers and the resultant region of $\\partial\\omega/\\partial k < 0$ are identified as signatures of du...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bandyopadhyay, P.; Prasad, G.; Sen, A.; Kaw, P.K.
2007-01-01
The dispersion properties of low frequency dust acoustic waves in the strong coupling regime are investigated experimentally in an argon plasma embedded with a mixture of kaolin and MnO 2 dust particles. The neutral pressure is varied over a wide range to change the collisional properties of the dusty plasma. In the low collisional regime the turnover of the dispersion curve at higher wave numbers and the resultant region of ∂ω/∂k<0 are identified as signatures of dust-dust correlations. In the high collisional regime dust neutral collisions produce a similar effect and prevent an unambiguous identification of strong coupling effects
Bandyopadhyay, P.; Prasad, G.; Sen, A.; Kaw, P. K.
2007-09-01
The dispersion properties of low frequency dust acoustic waves in the strong coupling regime are investigated experimentally in an argon plasma embedded with a mixture of kaolin and MnO2 dust particles. The neutral pressure is varied over a wide range to change the collisional properties of the dusty plasma. In the low collisional regime the turnover of the dispersion curve at higher wave numbers and the resultant region of ∂ω/∂k<0 are identified as signatures of dust dust correlations. In the high collisional regime dust neutral collisions produce a similar effect and prevent an unambiguous identification of strong coupling effects.
Surface acoustic wave oxygen pressure sensor
Oglesby, Donald M. (Inventor); Upchurch, Billy T. (Inventor); Leighty, Bradley D. (Inventor)
1994-01-01
A transducer for the measurement of absolute gas-state oxygen pressure from pressures of less than 100 Pa to atmospheric pressure (1.01 x 10(exp 5) Pa) is based on a standard surface acoustic wave (SAW) device. The piezoelectric material of the SAW device is coated with a compound which will selectively and reversibly bind oxygen. When oxygen is bound by the coating, the mass of the coating increases by an amount equal to the mass of the bound oxygen. Such an increase in the mass of the coating causes a corresponding decrease in the resonant frequency of the SAW device.
Distributed feedback guided surface acoustic wave microresonator
Golan, G.; Griffel, G.; Seidman, A.; Croitoru, N.
1989-08-01
Surface acoustic wave resonators have been used in a number of applications: high-Q frequency filtering, very accurate frequency sources, etc. A major disadvantage of conventional resonators is their large dimensions, which makes them inadequate for integrated acoustics applications. In order to overcome these size limitations a new type of microresonator was designed, developed, and tested. In this paper, theoretical calculations and measurements on two kinds of such devices (a corrugated waveguide filter and a microresonator structure) are presented and their possible applications are discussed.
Phase dispersion of Raman and Rayleigh-enhanced four-wave mixings in femtosecond polarization beats
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yan, Zhao; Zhi-Qiang, Nie; Chang-Biao, Li; Yan-Peng, Zhang; Chen-Li, Gan; Huai-Bin, Zheng; Yuan-Yuan, Li; Ke-Qing, Lu
2009-01-01
Based on color-locking noisy field correlation in three Markovian stochastic models, phase dispersions of the Raman- and Rayleigh-enhanced four-wave mixing (FWM) have been investigated. The phase dispersions are modified by both linewidth and time delay for negative time delay, but only by linewidth for positive time delay. Moreover, the results under narrowband condition are close to the nonmodified nonlinear dispersion and absorption of the material. Homodyne and heterodyne detections of the Raman, the Rayleigh and the mixing femtosecond difference-frequency polarization beats have also been investigated, separately
Solitary waves for a coupled nonlinear Schrodinger system with dispersion management
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Panayotis Panayotaros
2010-08-01
Full Text Available We consider a system of coupled nonlinear Schrodinger equations with periodically varying dispersion coefficient that arises in the context of fiber-optics communication. We use Lions's Concentration Compactness principle to show the existence of standing waves with prescribed L^2 norm in an averaged equation that approximates the coupled system. We also use the Mountain Pass Lemma to prove the existence of standing waves with prescribed frequencies.
Coherent structural trapping through wave packet dispersion during photoinduced spin state switching
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lemke, Henrik T.; Kjær, Kasper Skov; Hartsock, Robert
2017-01-01
The description of ultrafast nonadiabatic chemical dynamics during molecular photo-transformations remains challenging because electronic and nuclear configurations impact each other and cannot be treated independently. Here we gain experimental insights, beyond the Born-Oppenheimer approximation...... is distinguished from the structural trapping dynamics, which launches a coherent oscillating wave packet (265 fs period), clearly identified as molecular breathing. Throughout the structural trapping, the dispersion of the wave packet along the reaction coordinate reveals details of intramolecular vibronic...
Military jet pilots have higher p-wave dispersions compared to the transport aircraft aircrew
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mustafa Çakar
2016-08-01
Full Text Available Objectives: For the purpose of flight safety military aircrew must be healthy. P-wave dispersion (PWD is the p-wave length difference in an electrocardiographic (ECG examination and represents the risk of developing atrial fibrillation. In the study we aimed at investigating PWD in healthy military aircrew who reported for periodical examinations. Material and Methods: Seventy-five asymptomatic military aircrew were enrolled in the study. All the subjects underwent physical, radiologic and biochemical examinations, and a 12-lead electrocardiography. P-wave dispersions were calculated. Results: The mean age of the study participants was 36.15±8.97 years and the mean p-wave duration was 100.8±12 ms in the whole group. Forty-seven subjects were non-pilot aircrew, and 28 were pilots. Thirteen study subjects were serving in jets, 49 in helicopters, and 13 were transport aircraft pilots. Thirty-six of the helicopter and 11 of the transport aircraft aircrew were non-pilot aircrew. P-wave dispersion was the lowest in the transport aircraft aircrew, and the highest in jet pilots. P-wave dispersions were similar in the pilots and non-pilot aircrew. Twenty-three study subjects were overweight, 19 had thyroiditis, 26 had hepatosteatosis, 4 had hyperbilirubinemia, 2 had hypertension, and 5 had hyperlipidemia. The PWD was significantly associated with thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH levels. Serum uric acid levels were associated with p-wave durations. Serum TSH levels were the most important predictor of PWD. Conclusions: When TSH levels were associated with PWD, uric acid levels were associated with p-wave duration in the military aircrew. The jet pilots had higher PWDs. These findings reveal that military jet pilots may have a higher risk of developing atrial fibrillation, and PWD should be recorded during periodical examinations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Censor, Dan
2010-01-01
Identifying invariance properties helps in simplifying calculations and consolidating concepts. Presently the Special Relativistic invariance of dispersion relations and their associated scalar wave operators is investigated for general dispersive homogeneous linear media. Invariance properties of the four-dimensional Fourier-transform integrals is demonstrated, from which the invariance of the scalar Green-function is inferred. Dispersion relations and the associated group velocities feature in Hamiltonian ray tracing theory. The derivation of group velocities for moving media from the dispersion relation for these media at rest is discussed. It is verified that the group velocity concept satisfies the relativistic velocity-addition formula. In this respect it is considered to be 'real', i.e., substantial, physically measurable, and not merely a mathematical artifact. Conversely, if we assume the group velocity to be substantial, it follows that the dispersion relation must be a relativistic invariant. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Averbukh, Elena [Nizhny Novgorod State Technical University n.a. R.E. Alekseev, Minin St. 24, 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Kurkina, Oksana, E-mail: okurkina@hse.ru [Nizhny Novgorod State Technical University n.a. R.E. Alekseev, Minin St. 24, 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); National Research University Higher School of Economics, 25/12 Bol' shaya Pecherskaya St., 603155 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Kurkin, Andrey [Nizhny Novgorod State Technical University n.a. R.E. Alekseev, Minin St. 24, 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Soomere, Tarmo, E-mail: soomere@cs.ioc.ee [Institute of Cybernetics at Tallinn University of Technology, Akadeemia tee 21, 12618 Tallinn (Estonia); Estonian Academy of Sciences, Kohtu 6, 10130 Tallinn (Estonia)
2014-01-03
By employing a simple model for small-scale linear edge waves propagating along a homogeneous sloping beach, we demonstrate that certain combinations of linear wave components may lead to durable changes in the thickness of the surfactant film, equivalently, in the concentration of various substances (debris, litter) floating on the water surface. Such changes are caused by high-amplitude transient elevations that resemble rogue waves and occur during dispersive focusing of wave fields with a continuous spectrum. This process can be treated as an intrinsic mechanism of production of patches in the surface layer of an otherwise homogeneous coastal environment impacted by linear edge waves.
Lamb wave extraction of dispersion curves in micro/nano-plates using couple stress theories
Ghodrati, Behnam; Yaghootian, Amin; Ghanbar Zadeh, Afshin; Mohammad-Sedighi, Hamid
2018-01-01
In this paper, Lamb wave propagation in a homogeneous and isotropic non-classical micro/nano-plates is investigated. To consider the effect of material microstructure on the wave propagation, three size-dependent models namely indeterminate-, modified- and consistent couple stress theories are used to extract the dispersion equations. In the mentioned theories, a parameter called 'characteristic length' is used to consider the size of material microstructure in the governing equations. To generalize the parametric studies and examine the effect of thickness, propagation wavelength, and characteristic length on the behavior of miniature plate structures, the governing equations are nondimensionalized by defining appropriate dimensionless parameters. Then the dispersion curves for phase and group velocities are plotted in terms of a wide frequency-thickness range to study the lamb waves propagation considering microstructure effects in very high frequencies. According to the illustrated results, it was observed that the couple stress theories in the Cosserat type material predict more rigidity than the classical theory; so that in a plate with constant thickness, by increasing the thickness to characteristic length ratio, the results approach to the classical theory, and by reducing this ratio, wave propagation speed in the plate is significantly increased. In addition, it is demonstrated that for high-frequency Lamb waves, it converges to dispersive Rayleigh wave velocity.
1D profiling using highly dispersive guided waves
Volker, Arno; Brandenburg, Martijn
2017-02-01
Corrosion is one of the industries major issues regarding the integrity of assets. Currently inspections are conducted at regular intervals to ensure a sufficient integrity level of these assets. There are many situations where the actual defect location is not accessible, e.g., a pipe support or a partially buried pipe. Last year an approach was presented using a phase inversion of guided waves that propagated around the circumference of a pipe. This approach works well for larger corrosion spots, but shows significant under-sizing of small spots due to lack of sufficient phase rotation. In this paper the use of arrival time and amplitude loss of higher order circumferential passes is evaluated. Using higher order passes increases sensitivity for sizing smaller defects. Different defect profiles are assumed and the change in arrival time and amplitude loss are calculated using a wave equation based approach for different defect widths and depths. This produces a differential travel time and amplitude change map as function of defect depth and defect width. The actually measured travel time change and amplitude change produces two contours in these maps. Calculating the intersection point gives the defect dimensions. The contours for amplitude loss and travel time change are quite orthogonal, this yields a good discrimination between deep and shallow defects. The approach is evaluated using experimental data from different pipes contain artificial and real defects.
Resonant surface acoustic wave chemical detector
Brocato, Robert W.; Brocato, Terisse; Stotts, Larry G.
2017-08-08
Apparatus for chemical detection includes a pair of interdigitated transducers (IDTs) formed on a piezoelectric substrate. The apparatus includes a layer of adsorptive material deposited on a surface of the piezoelectric substrate between the IDTs, where each IDT is conformed, and is dimensioned in relation to an operating frequency and an acoustic velocity of the piezoelectric substrate, so as to function as a single-phase uni-directional transducer (SPUDT) at the operating frequency. Additionally, the apparatus includes the pair of IDTs is spaced apart along a propagation axis and mutually aligned relative to said propagation axis so as to define an acoustic cavity that is resonant to surface acoustic waves (SAWs) at the operating frequency, where a distance between each IDT of the pair of IDTs ranges from 100 wavelength of the operating frequency to 400 wavelength of the operating frequency.
Seasonal changing sand waves and the effect of surface waves
Sterlini, Fenneke; van Dijk, Thaiënne A.G.P.; IJzer, Steven; Hulscher, Suzanne; Schüttrumpf, Holger; Tomasicchio, Guiseppe Roberto
2012-01-01
Sand waves are wavelike subaqueous sediment structures that exist in large areas in shelf seas. Due to their characteristics sand waves can severely affect human offshore activities, such as navigation. This makes it important to understand the physical processes that shape and change sand waves. In
Surface acoustic wave actuated cell sorting (SAWACS).
Franke, T; Braunmüller, S; Schmid, L; Wixforth, A; Weitz, D A
2010-03-21
We describe a novel microfluidic cell sorter which operates in continuous flow at high sorting rates. The device is based on a surface acoustic wave cell-sorting scheme and combines many advantages of fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) and fluorescence activated droplet sorting (FADS) in microfluidic channels. It is fully integrated on a PDMS device, and allows fast electronic control of cell diversion. We direct cells by acoustic streaming excited by a surface acoustic wave which deflects the fluid independently of the contrast in material properties of deflected objects and the continuous phase; thus the device underlying principle works without additional enhancement of the sorting by prior labelling of the cells with responsive markers such as magnetic or polarizable beads. Single cells are sorted directly from bulk media at rates as fast as several kHz without prior encapsulation into liquid droplet compartments as in traditional FACS. We have successfully directed HaCaT cells (human keratinocytes), fibroblasts from mice and MV3 melanoma cells. The low shear forces of this sorting method ensure that cells survive after sorting.
Small surface wave discharge at atmospheric pressure
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kiss' ovski, Zh; Kolev, M; Ivanov, A; Lishev, St; Koleva, I, E-mail: kissov@phys.uni-sofia.b [Faculty of Physics, Sofia University, BG-1164 Sofia (Bulgaria)
2009-09-21
A small surface wave driven source produces plasma at atmospheric pressure. Microwave power at frequency 2.45 GHz is coupled with the source and a discharge is ignited at power levels below 10 W. The coaxial exciter of the surface waves has a length of 10 mm because its dielectric is a high permittivity discharge tube. The plasma source operates as a plasma jet in the case of plasma columns longer than the tube length. The source maintains stable plasma columns over a wide range of neutral gas flow and applied power in continuous and pulse regimes. An additional advantage of this source is the discharge self-ignition. An electron temperature of T{sub e} {approx} 1.9 eV and a density of n{sub e} {approx} 3.9 x 10{sup 14} cm{sup -3} are estimated by the probe diagnostics method. The emission spectra in the wavelength range 200-1000 nm under different experimental conditions are analysed and they prove the applicability of the source for analytical spectroscopy. The dependences of column length, reflected power and plasma parameters on the gas flow and the input power are discussed. (fast track communication)
P-wave and surface wave survey for permafrost analysis in alpine regions
Godio, A.; Socco, L. V.; Garofalo, F.; Arato, A.; Théodule, A.
2012-04-01
of seismic data involved the tomographic interpretation of traveltime P-wave first arrivals by considering the continuous refraction of the ray-paths. Several surface-wave dispersion curves were extracted in f-k domain along the seismic line and then inverted through a laterally constrained inversion algorithm to obtain a pseudo-2D section of S-wave velocity. Georadar investigation (about 2 km of georadar lines in the first site) confirmed the presence both of fine and coarse sediments in the uppermost layer; the seismic data allowed the moraines to be characterized down to 20-25 meters of depth. At the elevation of 2700 m asl, we observed a general decrease of the P-wave traveltimes collected in November, when the near surface layer was in frozen condition, respect to the data acquired in June. The frozen layer is responsible of the inversion of P-wave velocity with depth; the higher velocity layer (frozen) cannot be detected in the tomographic interpretation of refraction tomographic of the P-wave arrivals. Compressional wave velocity ranges from 700 m/s on the uppermost part, to 2000-2500 m/s in the internal part of the sediments reaching values higher than 5000 m/s at depth about 20 m. The analysis of surface wave permitted to estimate a slight increase from summer to winter of the S-wave velocity, in the depth range between 0 to 5 m.
Grain size measurements by ultrasonic Rayleigh surface waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Palanichamy, P.; Jayakumar, T.
1996-01-01
The use of Rayleigh surface waves to determine average grain size nondestructively in an austenitic stainless steel AISI type 316 stainless is discussed. Two commercial type 4MHz frequency surface wave transducers, one as transmitter and the other as receiver were employed for the measurement of surface wave amplitudes. Relative amplitudes of the Rayleigh surface waves were correlated with the metallographically obtained grain sizes. Results indicate that surface/sub-surface average grain sizes of AISI type 316 austenitic stainless steel can be estimated with a confidence level of more than 80% in the grain size range 30-170 μm. (author)
Surface waves in fibre-reinforced anisotropic elastic media
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Springer Verlag Heidelberg #4 2048 1996 Dec 15 10:16:45
Rayleigh, Love and Stoneley types. The wave velocity equations are found to be in agreement with the corresponding classical result when the ... (1924) and Jeffreys (1959), regarding surface waves in classical elasticity. Sengupta and his research collaborators have also studied surface waves (Acharya & Sengupta 1978;.
On spherical harmonic representation of transient waves in dispersive media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Borisov, Victor V
2003-01-01
Axisymmetric transient solutions to the inhomogeneous telegraph equation are constructed in terms of spherical harmonics. Explicit solutions of the initial-value problem are derived in the spacetime domain by means of the Smirnov method of incomplete separation of variables and the Riemann formula. The corresponding Riemann function is constructed with the help of the Olevsky theorem. Solutions for some source distributions on a sphere expanding with a velocity greater than the wavefront velocity are obtained. This allows an analogous solution in the case of a circle belonging to a sphere expanding with the wavefront velocity to be written at once. Application of the scalar solution to a description of electromagnetic waves is also discussed
Surface Plasmon Wave Adapter Designed with Transformation Optics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhang, Jingjing; Xiao, Sanshui; Wubs, Martijn
2011-01-01
On the basis of transformation optics, we propose the design of a surface plasmon wave adapter which confines surface plasmon waves on non-uniform metal surfaces and enables adiabatic mode transformation of surface plasmon polaritons with very short tapers. This adapter can be simply achieved...... with homogeneous anisotropic naturally occurring materials or subwavelength grating-structured dielectric materials. Full wave simulations based on a finite-element method have been performed to validate our proposal....
Scaling relations for soliton compression and dispersive-wave generation in tapered optical fibers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lægsgaard, Jesper
2018-01-01
In this paper, scaling relations for soliton compression in tapered optical fibers are derived and discussed. The relations allow simple and semi-accurate estimates of the compression point and output noise level, which is useful, for example, for tunable dispersive-wave generation with an agile ...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lillieholm, Mads; Galili, Michael; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo
2016-01-01
We present a segmented composite HNLF optimised for mitigation of dispersion-fluctuation impairments for broadband pulsed four-wave mixing. The HNLF-segmentation allows for pulsed FWMprocessing of a 13-nm wide input WDM-signal with -4.6-dB conversion efficiency...
Joint body and surface wave tomography applied to the Toba caldera complex (Indonesia)
Jaxybulatov, Kairly; Koulakov, Ivan; Shapiro, Nikolai
2016-04-01
We developed a new algorithm for a joint body and surface wave tomography. The algorithm is a modification of the existing LOTOS code (Koulakov, 2009) developed for local earthquake tomography. The input data for the new method are travel times of P and S waves and dispersion curves of Rayleigh and Love waves. The main idea is that the two data types have complementary sensitivities. The body-wave data have good resolution at depth, where we have enough crossing rays between sources and receivers, whereas the surface waves have very good near-surface resolution. The surface wave dispersion curves can be retrieved from the correlations of the ambient seismic noise and in this case the sampled path distribution does not depend on the earthquake sources. The contributions of the two data types to the inversion are controlled by the weighting of the respective equations. One of the clearest cases where such approach may be useful are volcanic systems in subduction zones with their complex magmatic feeding systems that have deep roots in the mantle and intermediate magma chambers in the crust. In these areas, the joint inversion of different types of data helps us to build a comprehensive understanding of the entire system. We apply our algorithm to data collected in the region surrounding the Toba caldera complex (north Sumatra, Indonesia) during two temporary seismic experiments (IRIS, PASSCAL, 1995, GFZ, LAKE TOBA, 2008). We invert 6644 P and 5240 S wave arrivals and ~500 group velocity dispersion curves of Rayleigh and Love waves. We present a series of synthetic tests and real data inversions which show that joint inversion approach gives more reliable results than the separate inversion of two data types. Koulakov, I., LOTOS code for local earthquake tomographic inversion. Benchmarks for testing tomographic algorithms, Bull. seism. Soc. Am., 99(1), 194-214, 2009, doi:10.1785/0120080013
Symmetries of the triple degenerate DNLS equations for weakly nonlinear dispersive MHD waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Webb, G. M.; Brio, M.; Zank, G. P.
1996-01-01
A formulation of Hamiltonian and Lagrangian variational principles, Lie point symmetries and conservation laws for the triple degenerate DNLS equations describing the propagation of weakly nonlinear dispersive MHD waves along the ambient magnetic field, in β∼1 plasmas is given. The equations describe the interaction of the Alfven and magnetoacoustic modes near the triple umbilic point, where the fast magnetosonic, slow magnetosonic and Alfven speeds coincide and a g 2 =V A 2 where a g is the gas sound speed and V A is the Alfven speed. A discussion is given of the travelling wave similarity solutions of the equations, which include solitary wave and periodic traveling waves. Strongly compressible solutions indicate the necessity for the insertion of shocks in the flow, whereas weakly compressible, near Alfvenic solutions resemble similar, shock free travelling wave solutions of the DNLS equation
Frequency-Wavenumber (FK)-Based Data Selection in High-Frequency Passive Surface Wave Survey
Cheng, Feng; Xia, Jianghai; Xu, Zongbo; Hu, Yue; Mi, Binbin
2018-04-01
Passive surface wave methods have gained much attention from geophysical and civil engineering communities because of the limited application of traditional seismic surveys in highly populated urban areas. Considering that they can provide high-frequency phase velocity information up to several tens of Hz, the active surface wave survey would be omitted and the amount of field work could be dramatically reduced. However, the measured dispersion energy image in the passive surface wave survey would usually be polluted by a type of "crossed" artifacts at high frequencies. It is common in the bidirectional noise distribution case with a linear receiver array deployed along roads or railways. We review several frequently used passive surface wave methods and derive the underlying physics for the existence of the "crossed" artifacts. We prove that the "crossed" artifacts would cross the true surface wave energy at fixed points in the f-v domain and propose a FK-based data selection technique to attenuate the artifacts in order to retrieve the high-frequency information. Numerical tests further demonstrate the existence of the "crossed" artifacts and indicate that the well-known wave field separation method, FK filter, does not work for the selection of directional noise data. Real-world applications manifest the feasibility of the proposed FK-based technique to improve passive surface wave methods by a priori data selection. Finally, we discuss the applicability of our approach.
Frequency-Wavenumber (FK)-Based Data Selection in High-Frequency Passive Surface Wave Survey
Cheng, Feng; Xia, Jianghai; Xu, Zongbo; Hu, Yue; Mi, Binbin
2018-07-01
Passive surface wave methods have gained much attention from geophysical and civil engineering communities because of the limited application of traditional seismic surveys in highly populated urban areas. Considering that they can provide high-frequency phase velocity information up to several tens of Hz, the active surface wave survey would be omitted and the amount of field work could be dramatically reduced. However, the measured dispersion energy image in the passive surface wave survey would usually be polluted by a type of "crossed" artifacts at high frequencies. It is common in the bidirectional noise distribution case with a linear receiver array deployed along roads or railways. We review several frequently used passive surface wave methods and derive the underlying physics for the existence of the "crossed" artifacts. We prove that the "crossed" artifacts would cross the true surface wave energy at fixed points in the f- v domain and propose a FK-based data selection technique to attenuate the artifacts in order to retrieve the high-frequency information. Numerical tests further demonstrate the existence of the "crossed" artifacts and indicate that the well-known wave field separation method, FK filter, does not work for the selection of directional noise data. Real-world applications manifest the feasibility of the proposed FK-based technique to improve passive surface wave methods by a priori data selection. Finally, we discuss the applicability of our approach.
Propagation and dispersion of electrostatic waves in the ionospheric E region
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. Iranpour
Full Text Available Low-frequency electrostatic fluctuations in the ionospheric E region were detected by instruments on the ROSE rockets. The phase velocity and dispersion of plasma waves in the ionospheric E region are determined by band-pass filtering and cross-correlating data of the electric-field fluctuations detected by the probes on the ROSE F4 rocket. The results were confirmed by a different method of analysis of the same data. The results show that the waves propagate in the Hall-current direction with a velocity somewhat below the ion sound speed obtained for ionospheric conditions during the flight. It is also found that the waves are dispersive, with the longest wavelengths propagating with the lowest velocity.
Propagation and dispersion of electrostatic waves in the ionospheric E region
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. Iranpour
1997-07-01
Full Text Available Low-frequency electrostatic fluctuations in the ionospheric E region were detected by instruments on the ROSE rockets. The phase velocity and dispersion of plasma waves in the ionospheric E region are determined by band-pass filtering and cross-correlating data of the electric-field fluctuations detected by the probes on the ROSE F4 rocket. The results were confirmed by a different method of analysis of the same data. The results show that the waves propagate in the Hall-current direction with a velocity somewhat below the ion sound speed obtained for ionospheric conditions during the flight. It is also found that the waves are dispersive, with the longest wavelengths propagating with the lowest velocity.
EXPERIMENTAL DETERMINATION OF WHISTLER WAVE DISPERSION RELATION IN THE SOLAR WIND
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stansby, D.; Horbury, T. S.; Chen, C. H. K.; Matteini, L., E-mail: david.stansby14@imperial.ac.uk [Department of Physics, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)
2016-09-20
The origins and properties of large-amplitude whistler wavepackets in the solar wind are still unclear. In this Letter, we utilize single spacecraft electric and magnetic field waveform measurements from the ARTEMIS mission to calculate the plasma frame frequency and wavevector of individual wavepackets over multiple intervals. This allows direct comparison of experimental measurements with theoretical dispersion relations to identify the observed waves as whistler waves. The whistlers are right-hand circularly polarized, travel anti-sunward, and are aligned with the background magnetic field. Their dispersion is strongly affected by the local electron parallel beta in agreement with linear theory. The properties measured are consistent with the electron heat flux instability acting in the solar wind to generate these waves.
Time-Frequency-Wavenumber Analysis of Surface Waves Using the Continuous Wavelet Transform
Poggi, V.; Fäh, D.; Giardini, D.
2013-03-01
A modified approach to surface wave dispersion analysis using active sources is proposed. The method is based on continuous recordings, and uses the continuous wavelet transform to analyze the phase velocity dispersion of surface waves. This gives the possibility to accurately localize the phase information in time, and to isolate the most significant contribution of the surface waves. To extract the dispersion information, then, a hybrid technique is applied to the narrowband filtered seismic recordings. The technique combines the flexibility of the slant stack method in identifying waves that propagate in space and time, with the resolution of f- k approaches. This is particularly beneficial for higher mode identification in cases of high noise levels. To process the continuous wavelet transform, a new mother wavelet is presented and compared to the classical and widely used Morlet type. The proposed wavelet is obtained from a raised-cosine envelope function (Hanning type). The proposed approach is particularly suitable when using continuous recordings (e.g., from seismological-like equipment) since it does not require any hardware-based source triggering. This can be subsequently done with the proposed method. Estimation of the surface wave phase delay is performed in the frequency domain by means of a covariance matrix averaging procedure over successive wave field excitations. Thus, no record stacking is necessary in the time domain and a large number of consecutive shots can be used. This leads to a certain simplification of the field procedures. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the method, we tested it on synthetics as well on real field data. For the real case we also combine dispersion curves from ambient vibrations and active measurements.
Surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) flow sensor
Joshi, Shrinivas G.
1991-03-01
The use of a surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) device to measure the rate of gas flow is described. A SAW oscillator heated to a suitable temperature above ambient is placed in the path of a flowing gas. Convective cooling caused by the gas flow results in a change in the oscillator frequency. A 73-MHz oscillator fabricated on 128 deg rotated Y-cut lithium niobate substrate and heated to 55 C above ambient shows a frequency variation greater than 142 kHz for flow-rate variation from 0 to 1000 cu cm/min. The output of the sensor can be calibrated to provide a measurement of volume flow rate, pressure differential across channel ports, or mass flow rate. High sensitivity, wide dynamic range, and direct digital output are among the attractive features of this sensor. Theoretical expressions for the sensitivity and response time of the sensor are derived. It is shown that by using ultrasonic Lamb waves propagating in thin membranes, a flow sensor with faster response than a SAW sensor can be realized.
Li, Zhengkai; Lee, Kenneth; King, Thomas; Boufadel, Michel C; Venosa, Albert D
2010-09-01
The effectiveness of chemical dispersants (Corexit 9500 and SPC 1000) on heavy fuel oil (IFO180 as test oil) has been evaluated under different wave conditions in a flow-through wave tank. The dispersant effectiveness was determined by measuring oil concentrations and droplet size distributions. An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) model indicated that wave type and temperature significantly (p or = 400 microm). Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deeba, F.; Ahmad, Zahoor; Murtaza, G.
2010-01-01
A generalized dielectric constant for the electron Bernstein waves using non-Maxwellian distribution functions is derived in a collisionless, uniform magnetized plasma. Using the Neumann series expansion for the products of Bessel functions, we can derive the dispersion relations for both kappa and the generalized (r,q) distributions in a straightforward manner. The dispersion relations now become dependent upon the spectral indices κ and (r,q) for the kappa and the generalized (r,q) distribution, respectively. Our results show how the non-Maxwellian dispersion curves deviate from the Maxwellian depending upon the values of the spectral indices chosen. It may be noted that the (r,q) dispersion relation is reduced to the kappa distribution for r=0 and q=κ+1, which, in turn, is further reducible to the Maxwellian distribution for κ→∞.
Surface acoustic waves voltage controlled directional coupler
Golan, G.; Griffel, G.; Yanilov, E.; Ruschin, S.; Seidman, A.; Croitoru, N.
1988-10-01
An important condition for the development of surface wave integrated-acoustic devices is the ability to guide and control the propagation of the acoustic energy. This can be implemented by deposition of metallic "loading" channels on an anisotropic piezoelectric substrate. Deposition of such two parallel channels causes an effective coupling of acoustic energy from one channel to the other. A basic requirement for this coupling effect is the existence of the two basic modes: a symmetrical and a nonsymmetrical one. A mode map that shows the number of sustained modes as a function of the device parameters (i.e., channel width; distance between channels; material velocity; and acoustical exciting frequency) is presented. This kind of map can help significantly in the design process of such a device. In this paper we devise an advanced acoustical "Y" coupler with the ability to control its effective coupling by an externally applied voltage, thereby causing modulation of the output intensities of the signals.
THz detectors using surface Josephson plasma waves in layered superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Savel'ev, Sergey; Yampol'skii, Valery; Nori, Franco
2006-01-01
We describe a proposal for THz detectors based on the excitation of surface waves, in layered superconductors, at frequencies lower than the Josephson plasma frequency ω J . These waves propagate along the vacuum-superconductor interface and are attenuated in both transverse directions out of the surface (i.e., towards the superconductor and towards the vacuum). The surface Josephson plasma waves are also important for the complete suppression of the specular reflection from a sample (Wood's anomalies, used for gratings) and produce a huge enhancement of the wave absorption, which can be used for the detection of THz waves
Elastic waves at periodically-structured surfaces and interfaces of solids
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. G. Every
2014-12-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a simple treatment of elastic wave scattering at periodically structured surfaces and interfaces of solids, and the existence and nature of surface acoustic waves (SAW and interfacial (IW waves at such structures. Our treatment is embodied in phenomenological models in which the periodicity resides in the boundary conditions. These yield zone folding and band gaps at the boundary of, and within the Brillouin zone. Above the transverse bulk wave threshold, there occur leaky or pseudo-SAW and pseudo-IW, which are attenuated via radiation into the bulk wave continuum. These have a pronounced effect on the transmission and reflection of bulk waves. We provide examples of pseudo-SAW and pseudo-IW for which the coupling to the bulk wave continuum vanishes at isloated points in the dispersion relation. These supersonic guided waves correspond to embedded discrete eigenvalues within a radiation continuum. We stress the generality of the phenomena that are exhibited at widely different scales of length and frequency, and their relevance to situations as diverse as the guiding of seismic waves in mine stopes, the metrology of periodic metal interconnect structures in the semiconductor industry, and elastic wave scattering by an array of coplanar cracks in a solid.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abo-Dahab, S. M. [Taif University, Taif (Saudi Arabia); Abd-Alla, A. M. [SVU, Qena (Egypt); Khan, Aftab [Sohag University, Sohag (Egypt)
2015-08-15
The aim of this paper is to study the propagation of surface waves in a rotating fibre-reinforced viscoelastic media of higher order under the influence of magnetic field. The general surface wave speeds derived to study the effects of rotation and magnetic field on surface waves. Particular cases for Stoneley, Love and Rayleigh waves are also discussed and dispersion relation for the waves has been deduced. The results obtained in this investigation are more general in the sense that some earlier published results are obtained from our result as special cases. For order zero our results are well agreement to fibre-reinforced materials. Also by neglecting the reinforced elastic parameters, the results reduce to well known isotropic medium. It is observed that in a rotating medium the surface waves are dispersive. Also magnetic effects play a significant roll. It is observed that Love wave remain unaffected in a rotating medium but remain under the influence of magnetic field. Rayleigh waves are affected by rotation and magnetic field whereas Stoneley waves are independent of Maxwell stresses. It is also observed that, surface waves cannot propagate in a fast rotating medium or in the presence of magnetic field of high intensity. Numerical results for particular materials are given and illustrated graphically. The results indicate that the effect of rotation and magnetic field are very pronounced.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abo-Dahab, S. M.; Abd-Alla, A. M.; Khan, Aftab
2015-01-01
The aim of this paper is to study the propagation of surface waves in a rotating fibre-reinforced viscoelastic media of higher order under the influence of magnetic field. The general surface wave speeds derived to study the effects of rotation and magnetic field on surface waves. Particular cases for Stoneley, Love and Rayleigh waves are also discussed and dispersion relation for the waves has been deduced. The results obtained in this investigation are more general in the sense that some earlier published results are obtained from our result as special cases. For order zero our results are well agreement to fibre-reinforced materials. Also by neglecting the reinforced elastic parameters, the results reduce to well known isotropic medium. It is observed that in a rotating medium the surface waves are dispersive. Also magnetic effects play a significant roll. It is observed that Love wave remain unaffected in a rotating medium but remain under the influence of magnetic field. Rayleigh waves are affected by rotation and magnetic field whereas Stoneley waves are independent of Maxwell stresses. It is also observed that, surface waves cannot propagate in a fast rotating medium or in the presence of magnetic field of high intensity. Numerical results for particular materials are given and illustrated graphically. The results indicate that the effect of rotation and magnetic field are very pronounced.
Surface-Wave Pulse Routing around Sharp Right Angles
Gao, Z.; Xu, H.; Gao, F.; Zhang, Y.; Luo, Y.; Zhang, B.
2018-04-01
Surface-plasmon polaritons (SPPs), or localized electromagnetic surface waves propagating on a metal-dielectric interface, are deemed promising information carriers for future subwavelength terahertz and optical photonic circuitry. However, surface waves fundamentally suffer from scattering loss when encountering sharp corners in routing and interconnection of photonic signals. Previous approaches enabling scattering-free surface-wave guidance around sharp corners are limited to either volumetric waveguide environments or extremely narrow bandwidth, being unable to guide a surface-wave pulse (SPP wave packet) on an on-chip platform. Here, in a surface-wave band-gap crystal implemented on a single metal surface, we demonstrate in time-domain routing a surface-wave pulse around multiple sharp right angles without perceptible scattering. Our work not only offers a solution to on-chip surface-wave pulse routing along an arbitrary path, but it also provides spatiotemporal information on the interplay between surface-wave pulses and sharp corners, both of which are desirable in developing high-performance large-scale integrated photonic circuits.
Hybrid dispersive media with controllable wave propagation: A new take on smart materials
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bergamini, Andrea E., E-mail: andrea.bergamini@empa.ch [Empa, Materials Science and Technology, Laboratory for Mechanical Integrity of Energy Systems, Überlandstrasse 129, CH-8600, Dübendorf (Switzerland); Zündel, Manuel [ETH Zürich, Institute of Mechanical Systems, Leonhardstrasse 21, CH-8092 Zürich (Switzerland); Flores Parra, Edgar A.; Ermanni, Paolo [ETH Zürich, Composite Materials and Adaptive Structures Laboratory, Leonhardstrasse 21, CH-8092 Zürich (Switzerland); Delpero, Tommaso [Empa, Materials Science and Technology, Laboratory for Mechanical Integrity of Energy Systems, Überlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Ruzzene, Massimo [Georgia Institute of Technology, G.W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, 801 Ferst Drive, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0405 (United States)
2015-10-21
In this paper, we report on the wave transmission characteristics of a hybrid one dimensional (1D) medium. The hybrid characteristic is the result of the coupling between a 1D mechanical waveguide in the form of an elastic beam, supporting the propagation of transverse waves and a discrete electrical transmission line, consisting of a series of inductors connected to ground through capacitors. The capacitors correspond to a periodic array of piezoelectric patches that are bonded to the beam and that couple the two waveguides. The coupling leads to a hybrid medium that is characterized by a coincidence condition for the frequency/wavenumber value corresponding to the intersection of the branches of the two waveguides. In the frequency range centered at coincidence, the hybrid medium features strong attenuation of wave motion as a result of the energy transfer towards the electrical transmission line. This energy transfer, and the ensuing attenuation of wave motion, is alike the one obtained through internal resonating units of the kind commonly used in metamaterials. However, the distinct shape of the dispersion curves suggests how this energy transfer is not the result of a resonance and is therefore fundamentally different. This paper presents the numerical investigation of the wave propagation in the considered media, it illustrates experimental evidence of wave transmission characteristics and compares the performance of the considered configuration with that of internal resonating metamaterials. In addition, the ability to conveniently tune the dispersion properties of the electrical transmission line is exploited to adapt the periodicity of the domain and to investigate diatomic periodic configurations that are characterized by a richer dispersion spectrum and broader bandwidth of wave attenuation at coincidence. The medium consisting of mechanical, piezoelectric, and analog electronic elements can be easily interfaced to digital devices to offer a novel
Nonlinear Dispersive Elastic Waves in Solids: Exact, Approximate, and Numerical Solutions
Khajehtourian, Romik
Wave motion lies at the heart of many disciplines in the physical sciences and engineering. For example, problems and applications involving light, sound, heat, or fluid flow are all likely to involve wave dynamics at some level. A particular class of problems is concerned with the propagation of elastic waves in a solid medium, such as a fiber-reinforced composite material responding to vibratory excitations, or soil and rock admitting seismic waves moments after the onset of an earthquake, or phonon transport in a semiconducting crystal like silicon. Regardless of the type of wave, the dispersion relation provides a fundamental characterization of the elastodynamic properties of the medium. The first part of the dissertation examines the propagation of a large-amplitude elastic wave in a one-dimensional homogeneous medium with a focus on the effects of inherent nonlinearities on the dispersion relation. Considering a thin rod, where the thickness is small compared to the wavelength, an exact, closed-form formulation is presented for the treatment of two types of nonlinearity in the strain-displacement gradient relation: Green-Lagrange and Hencky. The derived relation is then verified by direct time-domain simulations, examining both instantaneous dispersion (by direct observation) and short-term, pre-breaking dispersion (by Fourier transformation). A high-order perturbation analysis is also conducted yielding an explicit analytical space-time solution, which is shown to be spectrally accurate. The results establish a perfect match between theory and simulation and reveal that regardless of the strength of the nonlinearity, the dispersion relation fully embodies all information pertaining to the nonlinear harmonic generation mechanism that unfolds as an arbitrary-profiled wave evolves in the medium. In the second part of the dissertation, the analysis is extended to a continuous periodic thin rod exhibiting multiple phases or embedded local resonators. The
Hydration-controlled bacterial motility and dispersal on surfaces
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dechesne, Arnaud; Wang, G.; Gulez, Gamze
2010-01-01
hydrated habitats, where water dynamics result in fragmented aquatic habitats connected by micrometric films, is debated. Here, we quantify the spatial dynamics of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 and its nonflagellated isogenic mutant as affected by the hydration status of a rough porous surface using......Flagellar motility, a mode of active motion shared by many prokaryotic species, is recognized as a key mechanism enabling population dispersal and resource acquisition in microbial communities living in marine, freshwater, and other liquid-replete habitats. By contrast, its role in variably...... an experimental system that mimics aquatic habitats found in unsaturated soils. The flagellar motility of the model soil bacterium decreased sharply within a small range of water potential (0 to −2 kPa) and nearly ceased in liquid films of effective thickness smaller than 1.5 μm. However, bacteria could rapidly...
Mode conversion and its utilization of degenerating surface wave modes on a plasma column
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nonaka, S.; Akao, Y.
1983-01-01
Both mode conversion at degenerating points of dispersion relations for surface wave modes on a discharge plasma column and the methods for their detection and utilization are presented. Mode conversions at three degenerating points become observable by using a surface wave resonator when an azimuthal inhomogeneity of plasma is produced by a static magnetic field of about 1 G applied perpendicular to the column axis. Two of the three detected degenerating points can be utilized for an easy and exact determination of the electron density and its distribution in the discharge tube
Huang, N. E.; Tung, C.-C.
1977-01-01
The influence of the directional distribution of wave energy on the dispersion relation is calculated numerically using various directional wave spectrum models. The results indicate that the dispersion relation varies both as a function of the directional energy distribution and the direction of propagation of the wave component under consideration. Furthermore, both the mean deviation and the random scatter from the linear approximation increase as the energy spreading decreases. Limited observational data are compared with the theoretical results. The agreement is favorable.
Imaging ultrasonic dispersive guided wave energy in long bones using linear radon transform.
Tran, Tho N H T; Nguyen, Kim-Cuong T; Sacchi, Mauricio D; Le, Lawrence H
2014-11-01
Multichannel analysis of dispersive ultrasonic energy requires a reliable mapping of the data from the time-distance (t-x) domain to the frequency-wavenumber (f-k) or frequency-phase velocity (f-c) domain. The mapping is usually performed with the classic 2-D Fourier transform (FT) with a subsequent substitution and interpolation via c = 2πf/k. The extracted dispersion trajectories of the guided modes lack the resolution in the transformed plane to discriminate wave modes. The resolving power associated with the FT is closely linked to the aperture of the recorded data. Here, we present a linear Radon transform (RT) to image the dispersive energies of the recorded ultrasound wave fields. The RT is posed as an inverse problem, which allows implementation of the regularization strategy to enhance the focusing power. We choose a Cauchy regularization for the high-resolution RT. Three forms of Radon transform: adjoint, damped least-squares, and high-resolution are described, and are compared with respect to robustness using simulated and cervine bone data. The RT also depends on the data aperture, but not as severely as does the FT. With the RT, the resolution of the dispersion panel could be improved up to around 300% over that of the FT. Among the Radon solutions, the high-resolution RT delineated the guided wave energy with much better imaging resolution (at least 110%) than the other two forms. The Radon operator can also accommodate unevenly spaced records. The results of the study suggest that the high-resolution RT is a valuable imaging tool to extract dispersive guided wave energies under limited aperture. Copyright © 2014 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frank, A.I.; Nosov, V.G.
1995-01-01
Modern theoretical concepts concerning the dispersion relation for slow neutrons in matter are considered. The generally accepted optical-potential model is apparently not quite accurate and should be supplemented with some small corrections in the energy range attainable in experiments. For ultracold neutrons, these corrections are related to the proximity of the applicability boundary of the theory; for cold neutrons, these corrections are due to correlations in the positions of scatters. The accuracy of existing experiments is insufficient for confirmation or refutation these conclusions. A precision experiment is proposed to verify the dispersion relation for long-wave neutrons. 30 refs., 3 figs
Broadband light generation at ~1300 nm through spectrally recoiled solitons and dispersive waves
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Falk, Peter Andreas; Frosz, Michael Henoch; Bang, Ole
2008-01-01
We experimentally study the generation of broadband light at ~1300 nm from an 810 nm Ti:sapphire femtosecond pump laser. We use two photonic crystal fibers with a second infrared zero-dispersion wavelength (λZ2) and compare the efficiency of two schemes: in one fiber λZ2=1400 nm and the light...... at 1300 nm is composed of spectrally recoiled solitons; in the other fiber λZ2=1200 nm and the light at 1300 nm is composed of dispersive waves....
Wave dispersion characteristics of axially loaded magneto-electro-elastic nanobeams
Ebrahimi, Farzad; Barati, Mohammad Reza; Dabbagh, Ali
2016-11-01
The analysis of wave propagation behavior of a magneto-electro-elastic functionally graded (MEE-FG) nanobeam is performed in the framework of classical beam theory. To capture small-scale effects, the nonlocal elasticity theory of Eringen is applied. Furthermore, the material properties of nanobeam are assumed to vary gradually through the thickness based on power-law form. Nonlocal governing equations of MEE-FG nanobeam have been derived employing Hamilton's principle. The results of present research have been validated by comparing with those of previous investigations. An analytical solution of governing equations is utilized to obtain wave frequencies, phase velocities and escape frequencies. Effects of various parameters such as wave number, nonlocal parameter, gradient index, axial load, magnetic potential and electric voltage on wave dispersion characteristics of MEE-FG nanoscale beams are studied in detail.
Zirak, H.; Jafari, S.
2015-06-01
In this study, a theory of free-electron laser (FEL) with a Langmuir wave wiggler in the presence of an axial magnetic field has been presented. The small wavelength of the plasma wave (in the sub-mm range) allows obtaining higher frequency than conventional wiggler FELs. Electron trajectories have been obtained by solving the equations of motion for a single electron. In addition, a fourth-order Runge-Kutta method has been used to simulate the electron trajectories. Employing a perturbation analysis, the dispersion relation for an electromagnetic and space-charge waves has been derived by solving the momentum transfer, continuity, and wave equations. Numerical calculations show that the growth rate increases with increasing the e-beam energy and e-beam density, while it decreases with increasing the strength of the axial guide magnetic field.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jiang, Shixiao W; Lu, Haihao; Zhou, Douglas; Cai, David
2016-01-01
Characterizing dispersive wave turbulence in the long time dynamics is central to understanding of many natural phenomena, e.g., in atmosphere ocean dynamics, nonlinear optics, and plasma physics. Using the β -Fermi–Pasta–Ulam nonlinear system as a prototypical example, we show that in thermal equilibrium and non-equilibrium steady state the turbulent state even in the strongly nonlinear regime possesses an effective linear stochastic structure in renormalized normal variables. In this framework, we can well characterize the spatiotemporal dynamics, which are dominated by long-wavelength renormalized waves. We further demonstrate that the energy flux is nearly saturated by the long-wavelength renormalized waves in non-equilibrium steady state. The scenario of such effective linear stochastic dynamics can be extended to study turbulent states in other nonlinear wave systems. (paper)
Temperature-mediated transition from Dyakonov-Tamm surface waves to surface-plasmon-polariton waves
Chiadini, Francesco; Fiumara, Vincenzo; Mackay, Tom G.; Scaglione, Antonio; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh
2017-08-01
The effect of changing the temperature on the propagation of electromagnetic surface waves (ESWs), guided by the planar interface of a homogeneous isotropic temperature-sensitive material (namely, InSb) and a temperature-insensitive structurally chiral material (SCM) was numerically investigated in the terahertz frequency regime. As the temperature rises, InSb transforms from a dissipative dielectric material to a dissipative plasmonic material. Correspondingly, the ESWs transmute from Dyakonov-Tamm surface waves into surface-plasmon-polariton waves. The effects of the temperature change are clearly observed in the phase speeds, propagation distances, angular existence domains, multiplicity, and spatial profiles of energy flow of the ESWs. Remarkably large propagation distances can be achieved; in such instances the energy of an ESW is confined almost entirely within the SCM. For certain propagation directions, simultaneous excitation of two ESWs with (i) the same phase speeds but different propagation distances or (ii) the same propagation distances but different phase speeds are also indicated by our results.
Nonlinear interaction of the surface waves at a plasma boundary
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dolgopolov, V.V.; El-Naggar, I.A.; Hussein, A.M.; Khalil, Sh.M.
1976-01-01
Amplitudes of electromagnetic waves with combination frequencies, radiating from the plasma boundary due to nonlinear interaction of the surface waves, have been found. Previous papers on this subject did not take into account that the tangential components of the electric field of waves with combination frequencies were discontinuous at the plasma boundary. (Auth.)
Transformation of second sound into surface waves in superfluid helium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khalatnikov, I.M.; Kolmakov, G.V.; Pokrovsky, V.L.
1995-01-01
The Hamiltonian theory of superfluid liquid with a free boundary is developed. Nonlinear amplitudes of parametric Cherenkov radiation of a surface wave by second sound and the inner decay of second sound waves are found. Threshold amplitudes of second sound waves for these two processes are determined. 4 refs
Phase spectral composition of wind generated ocean surface waves
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Varkey, M.J.
A study of the composition of the phase spectra of wind generated ocean surface waves is carried out using wave records collected employing a ship borne wave recorder. It is found that the raw phase spectral estimates could be fitted by the Uniform...
Local-in-space blow-up criteria for a class of nonlinear dispersive wave equations
Novruzov, Emil
2017-11-01
This paper is concerned with blow-up phenomena for the nonlinear dispersive wave equation on the real line, ut -uxxt +[ f (u) ] x -[ f (u) ] xxx +[ g (u) + f″/(u) 2 ux2 ] x = 0 that includes the Camassa-Holm equation as well as the hyperelastic-rod wave equation (f (u) = ku2 / 2 and g (u) = (3 - k) u2 / 2) as special cases. We establish some a local-in-space blow-up criterion (i.e., a criterion involving only the properties of the data u0 in a neighborhood of a single point) simplifying and precising earlier blow-up criteria for this equation.
S-wave velocity measurements along levees in New Orleans using passive surface wave methods
Hayashi, K.; Lorenzo, J. M.; Craig, M. S.; Gostic, A.
2017-12-01
In order to develop non-invasive methods for levee inspection, geophysical investigations were carried out at four sites along levees in the New Orleans area: 17th Street Canal, London Avenue Canal, Marrero Levee, and Industrial Canal. Three of the four sites sustained damage from Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and have since been rebuilt. The geophysical methods used include active and passive surface wave methods, and capacitively coupled resistivity. This paper summarizes the acquisition and analysis of the 1D and 2D passive surface wave data. Twelve wireless seismic data acquisition units with 2 Hz vertical component geophones were used to record data. Each unit includes a GPS receiver so that all units can be synchronized over any distance without cables. The 1D passive method used L shaped arrays of three different sizes with geophone spacing ranging from 5 to 340 m. Ten minutes to one hour of ambient noise was recorded with each array, and total data acquisition took approximately two hours at each site. The 2D method used a linear array with a geophone spacing of 5m. Four geophones were moved forward every 10 minutes along 400 1000 m length lines. Data acquisition took several hours for each line. Recorded ambient noise was processed using the spatial autocorrelation method and clear dispersion curves were obtained at all sites (Figure 1a). Minimum frequencies ranged from 0.4 to 0.7 Hz and maximum frequencies ranged from 10 to 30 Hz depending on the site. Non-linear inversion was performed and 1D and 2D S-wave velocity models were obtained. The 1D method penetrated to depths ranging from 200 to 500 m depending on the site (Figure 1b). The 2D method penetrated to a depth of 40 60 m and provided 400 1000 m cross sections along the levees (Figure 2). The interpretation focused on identifying zones beneath the levees or canal walls having low S-wave velocities corresponding to saturated, unconsolidated sands, or low-rigidity clays. Resultant S-wave velocity profiles
Magnethohydrodynamic surface and body waves in rectangular and cylindrical geometries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Donnelly, I.J.
1982-03-01
Low frequency magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves are studied in both rectangular slab and cylindrical geometry cavities containing low β plasmas. The plasma density distribution is modelled by an inner region of constant density surrounded by an outer region of lower density and a conducting boundary. The wave frequencies and fields are obtained as functions of the density distribution and the wavenumber components k(parall) and k(perp). The lowest frequency wave mode is a surface wave in which the wave fields decrease in magnitude with distance from the interface between the two plasma densities. It has the properties of a shear wave when k(perp)/k(parall) is either small or large but is compressive when k(perp) is approximately equal to k(parall). The surface wave does not exist when k(perp) = 0. Higher frequency modes have the properties of fast magnetosonic waves, at least in the inner density region
Al-Jabr, Ahmad Ali; Alsunaidi, Mohammad A.; Ng, Tien Khee; Ooi, Boon S.
2013-01-01
In this paper, an finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) algorithm for simulating propagation of EM waves in anisotropic material is presented. The algorithm is based on the auxiliary differential equation and the general polarization formulation. In anisotropic materials, electric fields are coupled and elements in the permittivity tensor are, in general, multiterm dispersive. The presented algorithm resolves the field coupling using a formulation based on electric polarizations. It also offers a simple procedure for the treatment of multiterm dispersion in the FDTD scheme. The algorithm is tested by simulating wave propagation in 1-D magnetized plasma showing excellent agreement with analytical solutions. Extension of the algorithm to multidimensional structures is straightforward. The presented algorithm is efficient and simple compared to other algorithms found in the literature. © 2012 IEEE.
Al-Jabr, Ahmad Ali
2013-03-01
In this paper, an finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) algorithm for simulating propagation of EM waves in anisotropic material is presented. The algorithm is based on the auxiliary differential equation and the general polarization formulation. In anisotropic materials, electric fields are coupled and elements in the permittivity tensor are, in general, multiterm dispersive. The presented algorithm resolves the field coupling using a formulation based on electric polarizations. It also offers a simple procedure for the treatment of multiterm dispersion in the FDTD scheme. The algorithm is tested by simulating wave propagation in 1-D magnetized plasma showing excellent agreement with analytical solutions. Extension of the algorithm to multidimensional structures is straightforward. The presented algorithm is efficient and simple compared to other algorithms found in the literature. © 2012 IEEE.
HF Surface Wave Radar Operation in Adverse Conditions
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Ponsford, Anthony M; Dizaji, Reza M; McKerracher, Richard
2005-01-01
...) system based on HF Surface Wave Radar (HFSWR). the primary objective behind the programme was to demonstrate the capability of HFSWR to continuously detect and track surface targets (ships and icebergs...
Pulsed discharges produced by high-power surface waves
Böhle, A.; Ivanov, O.; Kolisko, A.; Kortshagen, U.; Schlüter, H.; Vikharev, A.
1996-02-01
The mechanisms of the ionization front advance in surface-wave-produced discharges are investigated using two experimental set-ups. The high-power surface waves are excited in a 3 cm wavelength band by a surfaguide and a novel type of launcher (an E-plane junction). The ionization front velocity of the surface wave is measured for a wide range of gas pressures, incident microwave power and initial pre-ionization. The experimental results are compared with theoretical ones based on three different models. The comparison between theory and experiment allows one to suggest a new interpretation of the ionization front's advance. The ionization front velocity is determined by a breakdown wave or an ionization wave in the electric field of a high-power surface wave in the zone near the ionization front.
Midinfrared Surface Waves on a High Aspect Ratio Nanotrench Platform
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Takayama, Osamu; Shkondin, Evgeniy; Bodganov, Andrey
2017-01-01
ameliorate surface wave propagation and even generate new types of waves. Here, we demonstrate that high aspect ratio (1:20) grating structures with plasmonic lamellas in deep nanoscale trenches, whose pitch is 1/10 – 1/35 of a wavelength, function as a versatile platform supporting both surface and guided...... bulk infrared waves. The surface waves exhibit a unique combination of properties: directionality, broadband existence (from 4 µm to at least 14 μm and beyond) and high localization, making them an attractive tool for effective control of light in an extended range of infrared frequencies....
Spin-Wave Dispersion and Sublattice Magnetization in NiCl_2
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lindgård, Per-Anker; Birgeneau, R. J.; Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage
1975-01-01
temperature dependence on the sublattice magnetization, gap energy and specific heat. The authors report an inelastic neutron scattering study of the spin waves both at low temperatures and, for selected q-vectors, for temperatures up to TN=52.3K. The sublattice magnetization has been measured from 1.5K to TN......-dependent dispersion relations (together with the sublattice magnetization) and the gap energy up to approximately 0.4 TN are properly predicted....
Suppression of transverse instabilities of dark solitons and their dispersive shock waves
Armaroli, Andrea
2009-11-03
We investigate the impact of nonlocality, owing to diffusive behavior, on transverse instabilities of a dark stripe propagating in a defocusing cubic medium. The nonlocal response turns out to have a strongly stabilizing effect both in the case of a single soliton input and in the regime where dispersive shock waves develop (multisoliton regime). Such conclusions are supported by the linear stability analysis and numerical simulation of the propagation. © 2009 The American Physical Society.
Cui, Quan; Chen, Zhongyun; Liu, Qian; Zhang, Zhihong; Luo, Qingming; Fu, Ling
2017-09-01
In this study, we demonstrate endogenous fluorescence imaging using visible continuum pulses based on 100-fs Ti:sapphire oscillator and a nonlinear photonic crystal fiber. Broadband (500-700 nm) and high-power (150 mW) continuum pulses are generated through enhanced dispersive wave generation by pumping femtosecond pulses at the anomalous dispersion region near zero-dispersion wavelength of high-nonlinear photonic crystal fibers. We also minimize the continuum pulse width by determining the proper fiber length. The visible-wavelength two-photon microscopy produces NADH and tryptophan images of mice tissues simultaneously. Our 500-700 nm continuum pulses support extending nonlinear microscopy to visible wavelength range that is inaccessible to 100-fs Ti:sapphire oscillators and other applications requiring visible laser pulses.
von Kameke, A; Huhn, F; Fernández-García, G; Muñuzuri, A P; Pérez-Muñuzuri, V
2011-08-12
We report the experimental observation of Richardson dispersion and a double cascade in a thin horizontal fluid flow induced by Faraday waves. The energy spectra and the mean spectral energy flux obtained from particle image velocimetry data suggest an inverse energy cascade with Kolmogorov type scaling E(k) ∝ k(γ), γ ≈ -5/3 and an E(k) ∝ k(γ), γ ≈ -3 enstrophy cascade. Particle transport is studied analyzing absolute and relative dispersion as well as the finite size Lyapunov exponent (FSLE) via the direct tracking of real particles and numerical advection of virtual particles. Richardson dispersion with ∝ t(3) is observed and is also reflected in the slopes of the FSLE (Λ ∝ ΔR(-2/3)) for virtual and real particles.
A robust approach for analysing dispersion of elastic waves in an orthotropic cylindrical shell
Kaplunov, J.; Nobili, A.
2017-08-01
Dispersion of elastic waves in a thin orthotropic cylindrical shell is considered, within the framework of classical 2D Kirchhoff-Love theory. In contrast to direct multi-parametric analysis of the lowest propagating modes, an alternative robust approach is proposed that simply requires evaluation of the evanescent modes (quasi-static edge effect), which, at leading order, do not depend on vibration frequency. A shortened dispersion relation for the propagating modes is then derived by polynomial division and its accuracy is numerically tested against the full Kirchhoff-Love dispersion relation. It is shown that the same shortened relation may be also obtained from a refined dynamic version of the semi-membrane theory for cylindrical shells. The presented results may be relevant for modelling various types of nanotubes which, according to the latest experimental findings, possess strong material anisotropy.
Surface Acoustic Waves to Drive Plant Transpiration.
Gomez, Eliot F; Berggren, Magnus; Simon, Daniel T
2017-03-31
Emerging fields of research in electronic plants (e-plants) and agro-nanotechnology seek to create more advanced control of plants and their products. Electronic/nanotechnology plant systems strive to seamlessly monitor, harvest, or deliver chemical signals to sense or regulate plant physiology in a controlled manner. Since the plant vascular system (xylem/phloem) is the primary pathway used to transport water, nutrients, and chemical signals-as well as the primary vehicle for current e-plant and phtyo-nanotechnology work-we seek to directly control fluid transport in plants using external energy. Surface acoustic waves generated from piezoelectric substrates were directly coupled into rose leaves, thereby causing water to rapidly evaporate in a highly localized manner only at the site in contact with the actuator. From fluorescent imaging, we find that the technique reliably delivers up to 6x more water/solute to the site actuated by acoustic energy as compared to normal plant transpiration rates and 2x more than heat-assisted evaporation. The technique of increasing natural plant transpiration through acoustic energy could be used to deliver biomolecules, agrochemicals, or future electronic materials at high spatiotemporal resolution to targeted areas in the plant; providing better interaction with plant physiology or to realize more sophisticated cyborg systems.
Effect of magnetic field on the wave dispersion relation in three-dimensional dusty plasma crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang Xuefeng; Wang Zhengxiong
2012-01-01
Three-dimensional plasma crystals under microgravity condition are investigated by taking into account an external magnetic field. The wave dispersion relations of dust lattice modes in the body centered cubic (bcc) and the face centered cubic (fcc) plasma crystals are obtained explicitly when the magnetic field is perpendicular to the wave motion. The wave dispersion relations of dust lattice modes in the bcc and fcc plasma crystals are calculated numerically when the magnetic field is in an arbitrary direction. The numerical results show that one longitudinal mode and two transverse modes are coupled due to the Lorentz force in the magnetic field. Moreover, three wave modes, i.e., the high frequency phonon mode, the low frequency phonon mode, and the optical mode, are obtained. The optical mode and at least one phonon mode are hybrid modes. When the magnetic field is neither parallel nor perpendicular to the primitive wave motion, all the three wave modes are hybrid modes and do not have any intersection points. It is also found that with increasing the magnetic field strength, the frequency of the optical mode increases and has a cutoff at the cyclotron frequency of the dust particles in the limit of long wavelength, and the mode mixings for both the optical mode and the high frequency phonon mode increase. The acoustic velocity of the low frequency phonon mode is zero. In addition, the acoustic velocity of the high frequency phonon mode depends on the angle of the magnetic field and the wave motion but does not depend on the magnetic field strength.
Benoit, Michel; Yates, Marissa L.; Raoult, Cécile
2017-04-01
Efficient and accurate numerical models simulating wave propagation are required for a variety of engineering projects including the evaluation of coastal risks, the design of protective coastal structures, and the estimation of the potential for marine renewable energy devices. Nonlinear and dispersive effects are particularly significant in the coastal zone where waves interact with the bottom, the shoreline, and coastal structures. The main challenge in developing a numerical models is finding a compromise between computational efficiency and the required accuracy of the simulated wave field. Here, a potential approach is selected and the (fully nonlinear) water wave problem is formulated using the Euler-Zakharov equations (Zakharov, 1968) describing the temporal evolution of the free surface elevation and velocity potential. The proposed model (Yates and Benoit, 2015) uses a spectral approach in the vertical (i.e. the vertical variation of the potential is approximated by a linear combination of the first NT+1 Chebyshev polynomials, following the work of Tian and Sato (2008)). The Zakharov equations are integrated in time using a fourth-order Runge-Kutta scheme with a constant time step. At each sub-timestep, the Laplace Boundary Value Problem (BVP) is solved to estimate the free surface vertical velocity using the spectral approach, with typical values of NT between 5 to 8 for practical applications. The 1DH version of the code is validated with comparisons to the experimental data set of Becq-Girard et al. (1999), which studied the propagation of irregular waves over a beach profile with a submerged bar. The nonlinear and dispersive capacities of the model are verified with the correct representation of wave-wave interactions, in particular the transfer of energy between different harmonic components during wave propagation (analysis of the transformation of the variance spectrum along the channel). Evolution of wave skewness, asymmetry and kurtosis along the
Feng, Lei; Zhang, Yugui
2017-08-01
Dispersion analysis is an important part of in-seam seismic data processing, and the calculation accuracy of the dispersion curve directly influences pickup errors of channel wave travel time. To extract an accurate channel wave dispersion curve from in-seam seismic two-component signals, we proposed a time-frequency analysis method based on single-trace signal processing; in addition, we formulated a dispersion calculation equation, based on S-transform, with a freely adjusted filter window width. To unify the azimuth of seismic wave propagation received by a two-component geophone, the original in-seam seismic data undergoes coordinate rotation. The rotation angle can be calculated based on P-wave characteristics, with high energy in the wave propagation direction and weak energy in the vertical direction. With this angle acquisition, a two-component signal can be converted to horizontal and vertical directions. Because Love channel waves have a particle vibration track perpendicular to the wave propagation direction, the signal in the horizontal and vertical directions is mainly Love channel waves. More accurate dispersion characters of Love channel waves can be extracted after the coordinate rotation of two-component signals.
Guiding, bending, and splitting of coupled defect surface modes in a surface-wave photonic crystal
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gao, Zhen; Gao, Fei [Division of Physics and Applied Physics, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, Singapore 637371 (Singapore); Zhang, Baile, E-mail: blzhang@ntu.edu.sg [Division of Physics and Applied Physics, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, Singapore 637371 (Singapore); Centre for Disruptive Photonic Technologies, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, Singapore 637371 (Singapore)
2016-01-25
We experimentally demonstrate a type of waveguiding mechanism for coupled surface-wave defect modes in a surface-wave photonic crystal. Unlike conventional spoof surface plasmon waveguides, waveguiding of coupled surface-wave defect modes is achieved through weak coupling between tightly localized defect cavities in an otherwise gapped surface-wave photonic crystal, as a classical wave analogue of tight-binding electronic wavefunctions in solid state lattices. Wave patterns associated with the high transmission of coupled defect surface modes are directly mapped with a near-field microwave scanning probe for various structures including a straight waveguide, a sharp corner, and a T-shaped splitter. These results may find use in the design of integrated surface-wave devices with suppressed crosstalk.
Guiding, bending, and splitting of coupled defect surface modes in a surface-wave photonic crystal
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gao, Zhen; Gao, Fei; Zhang, Baile
2016-01-01
We experimentally demonstrate a type of waveguiding mechanism for coupled surface-wave defect modes in a surface-wave photonic crystal. Unlike conventional spoof surface plasmon waveguides, waveguiding of coupled surface-wave defect modes is achieved through weak coupling between tightly localized defect cavities in an otherwise gapped surface-wave photonic crystal, as a classical wave analogue of tight-binding electronic wavefunctions in solid state lattices. Wave patterns associated with the high transmission of coupled defect surface modes are directly mapped with a near-field microwave scanning probe for various structures including a straight waveguide, a sharp corner, and a T-shaped splitter. These results may find use in the design of integrated surface-wave devices with suppressed crosstalk
The dispersion surface of X-rays very near the absorption edge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fukamachi, T.; Negishi, R.; Kawamura, T.
1995-01-01
To discuss the X-ray dynamical diffraction when the imaginary part of the X-ray polarizability is larger than the real part, the dispersion surface is studied as a function of the ratio between the real and the imaginary parts of the polarizability. The dispersion surface in the Laue case when the real part is zero has a similar form to that in the Bragg case when the imaginary part is zero. The relations between the dispersion surface and the diffracted intensity are studied in some special cases. The abnormal absorption and the abnormal transmission effect are related to the features of the dispersion surface. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kryshtal, R.G.; Medved, A.V.
2015-01-01
Experimental results of investigations of nonreciprocity for surface magnetostatic spin waves (SMSW) in the magnonic crystal created by surface acoustic waves (SAW) in yttrium iron garnet films on a gallium gadolinium garnet substrate as without metallization and with aluminum films with different electrical conductivities (thicknesses) are presented. In structures without metallization, the frequency of magnonic gaps is dependent on mutual directions of propagation of the SAW and SMSW, showing nonreciprocal properties for SMSW in SAW – magnonic crystals even with the symmetrical dispersion characteristic. In metalized SAW – magnonic crystals the shift of the magnonic band gaps frequencies at the inversion of the biasing magnetic field was observed. The frequencies of magnonic band gaps as functions of SAW frequency are presented. Measured dependencies, showing the decrease of magnonic gaps frequency and the expansion of the magnonic band gap width with the decreasing of the metal film conductivity are given. Such nonreciprocal properties of the SAW – magnonic crystals are promising for signal processing in the GHz range. - Highlights: • Spin waves nonreciprocity in YIG magnonic crystals with SAW was studied. • SAW was shown to create nonreciprocity for spin waves in YIG–GGG even without metal. • Frequency and width of magnonic band gaps were measured versus metal conductivity. • Conductivity for practical use of spin waves in the structure YIG–metal was defined
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kryshtal, R.G.; Medved, A.V., E-mail: avm@ms.ire.rssi.ru
2015-12-01
Experimental results of investigations of nonreciprocity for surface magnetostatic spin waves (SMSW) in the magnonic crystal created by surface acoustic waves (SAW) in yttrium iron garnet films on a gallium gadolinium garnet substrate as without metallization and with aluminum films with different electrical conductivities (thicknesses) are presented. In structures without metallization, the frequency of magnonic gaps is dependent on mutual directions of propagation of the SAW and SMSW, showing nonreciprocal properties for SMSW in SAW – magnonic crystals even with the symmetrical dispersion characteristic. In metalized SAW – magnonic crystals the shift of the magnonic band gaps frequencies at the inversion of the biasing magnetic field was observed. The frequencies of magnonic band gaps as functions of SAW frequency are presented. Measured dependencies, showing the decrease of magnonic gaps frequency and the expansion of the magnonic band gap width with the decreasing of the metal film conductivity are given. Such nonreciprocal properties of the SAW – magnonic crystals are promising for signal processing in the GHz range. - Highlights: • Spin waves nonreciprocity in YIG magnonic crystals with SAW was studied. • SAW was shown to create nonreciprocity for spin waves in YIG–GGG even without metal. • Frequency and width of magnonic band gaps were measured versus metal conductivity. • Conductivity for practical use of spin waves in the structure YIG–metal was defined.
Eigenwave spectrum of surface acoustic waves on a rough self-affine fractal surface
Palasantzas, George
1994-01-01
The propagation of a sound wave along a statistically rough solid-vacuum interface is investigated for the case of self-affine fractals. The wave-number relation ω=ω(k) is examined for the transverse polarized surface wave. The range of existence of this wave is analyzed as a function of the degree
Higher P-Wave Dispersion in Migraine Patients with Higher Number of Attacks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Koçer
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Objective and Aim. An imbalance of the sympathetic system may explain many of the clinical manifestations of the migraine. We aimed to evaluate P-waves as a reveal of sympathetic system function in migraine patients and healthy controls. Materials and Methods. Thirty-five episodic type of migraine patients (complained of migraine during 5 years or more, BMI < 30 kg/m2 and 30 controls were included in our study. We measured P-wave durations (minimum, maximum, and dispersion from 12-lead ECG recording during pain-free periods. ECGs were transferred to a personal computer via a scanner and then used for magnification of x400 by Adobe Photoshop software. Results. P-wave durations were found to be similar between migraine patients and controls. Although P WD (P-wave dispersion was similar, the mean value was higher in migraine subjects. P WD was positively correlated with P max (P<0.01. Attacks number per month and male gender were the factors related to the P WD (P<0.01. Conclusions. Many previous studies suggested that increased sympathetic activity may cause an increase in P WD. We found that P WD of migraine patients was higher than controls, and P WD was related to attacks number per month and male gender. Further studies are needed to explain the chronic effects of migraine.
Experimental study of the propgation and dispersion of internal atmospheric gravity waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ballard, K.A.
1981-01-01
Traveling ionospheric disturbances (TID's) appear as large-scale transverse waves in the F-region (150 to 1000 km altitude), with frequencies on the order of 0.005 to 0.005 cycles per minute, which propagate horizontally over hundreds or even thousands of kilometers. These disturbances have been observed by various radiowave techniques over the past thirty-five years and are now generally accepted as being the manifestation, in the ionized medium, of internal atmospheric gravity waves. A model describing the propagation of gravity waves in an isothermal atmosphere is presented here. The dispersion relation is derived from fundamental principles, and the relation between phase velocity and group velocity is examined. The effects of the Coriolis force and horizontally stratified winds on wave propagation are also analyzed. Conservation of energy in the gravity wave requires increasing amplitude with increasing altitude, inasmuch as the atmospheric density decreases with height. However, this is counteracted by dissipation of wave energy by ion drag, thermal conductivity, and viscous damping. The production of TID's (in the ionized medium) by gravity waves (in the neutral medium) is discussed in quantitative terms, and the vertical predictive function is derived. Dartmouth College has operated a three-station ionosonde network in northern New Hampshire and Vermont on an intermittent basis since 1968. Seven large TID's, found in the 1969 data, are reexamined here in an exhaustive and successful comparison with the gravity wave model. Iso-true-height contours of electron density are used to determine several pertinent TID wave parameters as a function of height
A New Alternative in Urban Geophysics: Multi-Channel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) Method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ozcep, F.
2007-01-01
Geophysical studies are increasingly being applied to geotechnical investigations as they can identify soil properties and soil boundaries. Other advantage is that many of these methods are non-invasive and environment friendly. Soil stiffness is one of the critical material parameters considered during an early stage of most foundation construction. It is related directly to the stability of structural load, especially as it relates to possible earthquake hazard. Soil lacking sufficient stiffness for a given load can experience a significant reduction in strength under earthquake shaking resulting in liquefaction, a condition responsible for tremendous amounts of damage from earthquakes around the world The multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW) method originated from the traditional seismic exploration approach that employs multiple (twelve or more) receivers placed along a linear survey line. Main advantage is its capability of recognizing different types of seismic waves based on wave propagation characteristics such as velocity and attenuation. The MASW method utilizes this capability to discriminate the fundamental-mode Rayleigh wave against all other types of surface and body waves generated not only from the active seismic source but also from the ambient site conditions. Dispersive characteristics of seismic waves are imaged from an objective 2-D wave field transformation. The present paper indicates results from MASW survey at different urban site in Turkey. MASW techniques will prove to be important tools for obtaining shear wave velocity and evaluating liquefaction potential, soil bearing capacity and soil amplification, etc. for future geophysical and geotechnical engineering community
2015-09-30
Interaction of Surface Gravity Waves with Nonlinear Internal Gravity Waves Lian Shen St. Anthony Falls Laboratory and Department of Mechanical...on studying surface gravity wave evolution and spectrum in the presence of surface currents caused by strongly nonlinear internal solitary waves...interaction of surface and internal gravity waves in the South China Sea. We will seek answers to the following questions: 1) How does the wind-wave
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
El Naggar, I.A.; Hussein, A.M.; Khalil, Sh.M.
1992-09-01
Electromagnetic waves radiated with combination frequencies from a semi-bounded plasma due to nonlinear interaction of radiation with surface wave (both of P-polarization) has been investigated. Waves are radiated both into vacuum and plasma are found to be P-polarized. We take into consideration the continuity at the plasma boundary of the tangential components of the electric field of the waves. The case of normal incidence of radiation and rarefield plasma layer is also studied. (author). 7 refs
Response surface analysis to improve dispersed crude oil biodegradation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zahed, Mohammad A.; Aziz, Hamidi A.; Mohajeri, Leila [School of Civil Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Isa, Mohamed H. [Civil Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)
2012-03-15
In this research, the bioremediation of dispersed crude oil, based on the amount of nitrogen and phosphorus supplementation in the closed system, was optimized by the application of response surface methodology and central composite design. Correlation analysis of the mathematical-regression model demonstrated that a quadratic polynomial model could be used to optimize the hydrocarbon bioremediation (R{sup 2} = 0.9256). Statistical significance was checked by analysis of variance and residual analysis. Natural attenuation was removed by 22.1% of crude oil in 28 days. The highest removal on un-optimized condition of 68.1% were observed by using nitrogen of 20.00 mg/L and phosphorus of 2.00 mg/L in 28 days while optimization process exhibited a crude oil removal of 69.5% via nitrogen of 16.05 mg/L and phosphorus 1.34 mg/L in 27 days therefore optimization can improve biodegradation in shorter time with less nutrient consumption. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Fujimoto, Yuhi; Yodogawa, Kenji; Takahashi, Kenta; Tsuboi, Ippei; Hayashi, Hiroshi; Uetake, Shunsuke; Iwasaki, Yu-Ki; Hayashi, Meiso; Miyauchi, Yasushi; Shimizu, Wataru
2017-11-01
Atrial fibrillation (AF) itself creates structural and electrophysiological changes such as atrial enlargement, shortening of refractory period and decrease in conduction velocity, called "atrial remodeling", promoting its persistence. Although the remodeling process is considered to be reversible, it has not been elucidated in detail. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of P wave dispersion in the assessment of reverse atrial remodeling following catheter ablation of AF. Consecutive 126 patients (88 males, age 63.0 ± 10.4 years) who underwent catheter ablation for paroxysmal AF were investigated. P wave dispersion was calculated from the 12 lead ECG before, 1 day, 1 month, 3 months and 6 months after the procedure. Left atrial diameter (LAD), left atrial volume index (LAVI), left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), transmitral flow velocity waveform (E/A), and tissue Doppler (E/e') on echocardiography, plasma B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) concentrations, serum creatinine, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were also measured. Of all patients, 103 subjects remained free of AF for 1 year follow-up. In these patients, P wave dispersion was not changed 1 day and 1 month after the procedure. However, it was significantly decreased at 3 and 6 months (50.1 ± 14.8 to 45.4 ± 14.4 ms, p < 0.05, 45.2 ± 9.9 ms, p < 0.05, respectively). Plasma BNP concentrations, LAD and LAVI were decreased (81.1 ± 103.8 to 44.8 ± 38.3 pg/mL, p < 0.05, 38.2 ± 5.7 to 35.9 ± 5.6 mm, p < 0.05, 33.3 ± 14.2 to 29.3 ± 12.3 mL/m 2 , p < 0.05) at 6 months after the procedure. There were no significant changes in LVEF, E/A, E/e', serum creatinine, and eGFR during the follow up period. P wave dispersion was decreased at 3 and 6 months after catheter ablation in patients without recurrence of AF. P wave dispersion is useful for assessment of reverse remodeling after catheter ablation of AF.
Smooth and non-smooth traveling wave solutions of a class of nonlinear dispersive equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhao Xiaoshan; Wu Aidi; He Wenzhang
2009-01-01
There is the widespread existence of wave phenomena in physics, mechanics. This clearly necessitates a study of traveling waves in depth and of the modeling and analysis involved. In this paper, we study a nonlinear dispersive K(n,-n,2n) equation, which can be regarded as a generalized K(n,n) equation. Applying the bifurcation theory and the method of phase portraits analysis, we obtain the dynamical behavior and special exact solutions of the K(n,-n,2n) equation. As a result, the conditions under which peakon and compacton solutions appear are also given and the analytic expressions of peakon solutions, compacton and periodic cusp wave solutions are obtained.
Near-surface compressional and shear wave speeds constrained by body-wave polarization analysis
Park, Sunyoung; Ishii, Miaki
2018-06-01
A new technique to constrain near-surface seismic structure that relates body-wave polarization direction to the wave speed immediately beneath a seismic station is presented. The P-wave polarization direction is only sensitive to shear wave speed but not to compressional wave speed, while the S-wave polarization direction is sensitive to both wave speeds. The technique is applied to data from the High-Sensitivity Seismograph Network in Japan, and the results show that the wave speed estimates obtained from polarization analysis are compatible with those from borehole measurements. The lateral variations in wave speeds correlate with geological and physical features such as topography and volcanoes. The technique requires minimal computation resources, and can be used on any number of three-component teleseismic recordings, opening opportunities for non-invasive and inexpensive study of the shallowest (˜100 m) crustal structures.
An Eulerian two-phase flow model for sediment transport under realistic surface waves
Hsu, T. J.; Kim, Y.; Cheng, Z.; Chauchat, J.
2017-12-01
Wave-driven sediment transport is of major importance in driving beach morphology. However, the complex mechanisms associated with unsteadiness, free-surface effects, and wave-breaking turbulence have not been fully understood. Particularly, most existing models for sediment transport adopt bottom boundary layer approximation that mimics the flow condition in oscillating water tunnel (U-tube). However, it is well-known that there are key differences in sediment transport when comparing to large wave flume datasets, although the number of wave flume experiments are relatively limited regardless of its importance. Thus, a numerical model which can resolve the entire water column from the bottom boundary layer to the free surface can be a powerful tool. This study reports an on-going effort to better understand and quantify sediment transport under shoaling and breaking surface waves through the creation of open-source numerical models in the OpenFOAM framework. An Eulerian two-phase flow model, SedFoam (Cheng et al., 2017, Coastal Eng.) is fully coupled with a volume-of-fluid solver, interFoam/waves2Foam (Jacobsen et al., 2011, Int. J. Num. Fluid). The fully coupled model, named SedWaveFoam, regards the air and water phases as two immiscible fluids with the interfaces evolution resolved, and the sediment particles as dispersed phase. We carried out model-data comparisons with the large wave flume sheet flow data for nonbreaking waves reported by Dohmen-Janssen and Hanes (2002, J. Geophysical Res.) and good agreements were obtained for sediment concentration and net transport rate. By further simulating a case without free-surface (mimic U-tube condition), the effects of free-surface, most notably the boundary layer streaming effect on total transport, can be quantified.
An Ultrasound Surface Wave Technique for Assessing Skin and Lung Diseases.
Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhou, Boran; Kalra, Sanjay; Bartholmai, Brian; Greenleaf, James; Osborn, Thomas
2018-02-01
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a multi-organ connective tissue disease characterized by immune dysregulation and organ fibrosis. Severe organ involvement, especially of the skin and lung, is the cause of morbidity and mortality in SSc. Interstitial lung disease (ILD) includes multiple lung disorders in which the lung tissue is fibrotic and stiffened. The purpose of this study was to translate ultrasound surface wave elastography (USWE) for assessing patients with SSc and/or ILD via measuring surface wave speeds of both skin and superficial lung tissue. Forty-one patients with both SSc and ILD and 30 healthy patients were enrolled in this study. An external harmonic vibration was used to generate the wave propagation on the skin or lung. Three excitation frequencies of 100, 150 and 200 Hz were used. An ultrasound probe was used to measure the wave propagation in the tissue non-invasively. Surface wave speeds were measured on the forearm and upper arm of both left and right arm, as well as the upper and lower lungs, through six intercostal spaces of patients and healthy patients. Viscoelasticity of the skin was calculated by the wave speed dispersion with frequency using the Voigt model. The magnitudes of surface wave speed and viscoelasticity of patients' skin were significantly higher than those of healthy patients (p wave speeds of patients' lung were significantly higher than those of healthy patients (p ionizing technique for measuring both skin and lung surface wave speed and may be useful for quantitative assessment of SSc and/or ILD. Copyright © 2018 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wang, Xiang-Hua; Yin, Wen-Yan; Chen, Zhi Zhang David
2013-09-09
The one-step leapfrog alternating-direction-implicit finite-difference time-domain (ADI-FDTD) method is reformulated for simulating general electrically dispersive media. It models material dispersive properties with equivalent polarization currents. These currents are then solved with the auxiliary differential equation (ADE) and then incorporated into the one-step leapfrog ADI-FDTD method. The final equations are presented in the form similar to that of the conventional FDTD method but with second-order perturbation. The adapted method is then applied to characterize (a) electromagnetic wave propagation in a rectangular waveguide loaded with a magnetized plasma slab, (b) transmission coefficient of a plane wave normally incident on a monolayer graphene sheet biased by a magnetostatic field, and (c) surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) propagation along a monolayer graphene sheet biased by an electrostatic field. The numerical results verify the stability, accuracy and computational efficiency of the proposed one-step leapfrog ADI-FDTD algorithm in comparison with analytical results and the results obtained with the other methods.
Liu, Shuyong; Jiang, J.; Parr, Nicola
2016-09-01
Water loss in distribution systems is a global problem for the water industry and governments. According to the international water supply association (IWSA), as a result of leaks from distribution pipes, 20% to 30% of water is lost while in transit from treatment plants to consumers. Although governments have tried to push the water industry to reduce the water leaks, a lot of experts have pointed out that a wide use of plastic pipes instead of metal pipes in recent years has caused difficulties in the detection of leaks using current acoustic technology. Leaks from plastic pipes are much quieter than traditional metal pipes and comparing to metal pipes the plastic pipes have very different coupling characteristics with soil, water and surrounding structures, such as other pipes, road surface and building foundations. The dispersion characteristics of wave propagating along buried plastic pipes are investigated in this paper using finite element and boundary element based models. Both empty and water- filled pipes were considered. Influences from nearby pipes and building foundations were carefully studied. The results showed that soil condition and nearby structures have significant influences on the dispersion characteristics of wave propagating along buried plastic pipes.
How valuable is P-wave dispersion in the determination of carboxyhemoglobin levels?
Sener, M T; Anci, Y; Kalkan, K; Kir, M Z; Emet, M
2014-05-01
To determine whether or not wave/interval dispersions in electrocardiography (ECG) are increased, and to define whether wave and interval dispersions are correlated with carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) levels. ECG, complete blood count, and biochemical parameters were taken from 87 patients with carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning as well as 90 control patients with similar age, gender, and body mass index distribution. COHb levels were recorded in CO-poisoning patients. The COHb levels and the relationships with ECG parameters were studied. Pmax, Pmin, Pd, PRmax, PRmin, PRd, QTmax, QTmin, QTd, cQTmax, cQTmin, cQTd, Tmax, Tmin, and Td in ECG were higher in intoxicated patients than the control group (p < 0.05 for all). Pearson's correlation analyses showed moderately significant positive correlations between COHb level and Pmax (r = 0.224; p = 0.037) and Pd (r = 0.222; p = 0.039). The receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) curve showed that a Pd value of 38 ms determined by ECG separates patients with a COHb ≥ 20% with area under the ROC curve of 0.78 (95%CI = 0.71-0.83), a sensitivity of 67.9% (95%CI = 59.4-75.6), a specificity of 95% (95%CI = 83.0-99.2], a positive predictive value of 97.9% (95%CI = 92.5-99.7), and a negative predictive value of 46.3% (95%CI = 35.3-57.7.) A significant increase in wave/interval dispersions in the ECG of CO-poisoning patients compared with controls may show that not only a part is affected but both atrium and the ventricles as a whole are affected by hypoxic ischemia. When COHb levels of the patients are unavailable, P dispersion on ECG may show CO poisoning level of the patient.
Simulation and Optimization of Surface Acoustic Wave Devises
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dühring, Maria Bayard
2007-01-01
In this paper a method to model the interaction of the mechanical field from a surface acoustic wave and the optical field in the waveguides of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer is presented. The surface acoustic waves are generated by interdigital transducers using a plane strain model...... in effective refractive index introduced in the Mach-Zehnder interferometer arms by the stresses from the surface acoustic wave is calculated. It is shown that the effective refractive index of the fundamental optical mode increases at a surface acoustic wave crest and decreases at a trough. The height...... of a piezoelectric, inhomogeneous material and reflections from the boundaries are avoided by applying perfectly matched layers. The optical modes in the waveguides are modeled by the time-harmonic wave equation for the magnetic field. The two models are coupled using the stress-optical relation and the change...
Quantum effects on propagation of bulk and surface waves in a thin quantum plasma film
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moradi, Afshin
2015-01-01
The propagation of bulk and surface plasma waves in a thin quantum plasma film is investigated, taking into account the quantum effects. The generalized bulk and surface plasma dispersion relation due to quantum effects is derived, using the quantum hydrodynamic dielectric function and applying appropriate additional boundary conditions. The quantum mechanical and film geometric effects on the bulk and surface modes are discussed. It is found that quantum effects become important for a thin film of small thickness. - Highlights: • New bulk and surface plasma dispersion relations due to quantum effects are derived, in a thin quantum plasma film. • It is found that quantum effects become important for a thin quantum film of small thickness
A Surface Wave's View of the Mid-Continent Rift
Foster, A. E.; Darbyshire, F. A.; Schaeffer, A. J.
2017-12-01
The presence of the Mid-Continent Rift (MCR), a 1.1Ga failed rift in central North America, raises many questions. We address the following: what lasting effects has it had on the continental lithosphere? Though many studies have looked at the area with a variety of data types, the combination of USArray Transportable Array stations to the south, permanent and temporary Canadian stations to the north, and SPREE stations in strategic locations crossing the rift provide a new opportunity for a regional surface-wave study. We select 80 stations with roughly 200 km spacing, resulting in dense path coverage of a broad area centered on the MCR. We use teleseismic data for all earthquakes from January 2005-August 2016 with a magnitude greater than 6.0, amounting to over 1200 events, and we make Rayleigh wave two-station dispersion measurements for all station pairs with suitable event-station geometry. We invert these measurements for anisotropic phase-velocity maps at periods of 20-200 s, yielding information not only on the wave speed but also the current fabric of the lithosphere, a complicated record of strain from formation, through modification from orogeny, attempted rifting, and hotspot interaction, to present day plate motion. We observe a clear signature of the MCR at short (20-25 s) periods, with the slowest phase-velocity anomaly in the region aligning with the strongest gravity anomaly. At increasing periods, and thus greater depths, this slowest anomaly shifts to beneath the center of Lake Superior (30-40 s). Eventually, it appears to merge with a slow anomaly to the north associated with the Nipigon Embayment, and contrasts sharply with an adjacent fast anomaly in the western Superior Province. In our preliminary anisotropy results, we observe weak anisotropy at the latitude of the MCR and to the south, whereas to the north of the MCR we find strong anisotropy. This is similar to the spatial variations in magnitude of delay times from shear-wave splitting
Effect of surface conditions on blast wave propagation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Song, Seung Ho; Li, Yi Bao; Lee, Chang Hoon; Choi, Jung Il
2016-01-01
We performed numerical simulations of blast wave propagations on surfaces by solving axisymmetric two-dimensional Euler equations. Assuming the initial stage of fireball at the breakaway point after an explosion, we investigated the effect of surface conditions considering surface convex or concave elements and thermal conditions on blast wave propagations near the ground surface. Parametric studies were performed by varying the geometrical factors of the surface element as well as thermal layer characteristics. We found that the peak overpressure near the ground zero was increased due to the surface elements, while modulations of the blast wave propagations were limited within a region for the surface elements. Because of the thermal layer, the precursor was formed in the propagations, which led to the attenuation of the peak overpressure on the ground surface
Imaging near-surface heterogeneities by natural migration of surface waves
Liu, Zhaolun; AlTheyab, Abdullah; Hanafy, Sherif M.; Schuster, Gerard T.
2016-01-01
We demonstrate that near-surface heterogeneities can be imaged by natural migration of backscattered surface waves in common shot gathers. No velocity model is required because the data are migrated onto surface points with the virtual Green
Guo, Hairun; Herkommer, Clemens; Billat, Adrien; Grassani, Davide; Zhang, Chuankun; Pfeiffer, Martin H. P.; Weng, Wenle; Brès, Camille-Sophie; Kippenberg, Tobias J.
2018-06-01
Mid-infrared optical frequency combs are of significant interest for molecular spectroscopy due to the large absorption of molecular vibrational modes on the one hand, and the ability to implement superior comb-based spectroscopic modalities with increased speed, sensitivity and precision on the other hand. Here, we demonstrate a simple, yet effective, method for the direct generation of mid-infrared optical frequency combs in the region from 2.5 to 4.0 μm (that is, 2,500-4,000 cm-1), covering a large fraction of the functional group region, from a conventional and compact erbium-fibre-based femtosecond laser in the telecommunication band (that is, 1.55 μm). The wavelength conversion is based on dispersive wave generation within the supercontinuum process in an unprecedented large-cross-section silicon nitride (Si3N4) waveguide with the dispersion lithographically engineered. The long-wavelength dispersive wave can perform as a mid-infrared frequency comb, whose coherence is demonstrated via optical heterodyne measurements. Such an approach can be considered as an alternative option to mid-infrared frequency comb generation. Moreover, it has the potential to realize compact dual-comb spectrometers. The generated combs also have a fine teeth-spacing, making them suitable for gas-phase analysis.
Sharifian, Mohammad Kazem; Kesserwani, Georges; Hassanzadeh, Yousef
2018-05-01
This work extends a robust second-order Runge-Kutta Discontinuous Galerkin (RKDG2) method to solve the fully nonlinear and weakly dispersive flows, within a scope to simultaneously address accuracy, conservativeness, cost-efficiency and practical needs. The mathematical model governing such flows is based on a variant form of the Green-Naghdi (GN) equations decomposed as a hyperbolic shallow water system with an elliptic source term. Practical features of relevance (i.e. conservative modeling over irregular terrain with wetting and drying and local slope limiting) have been restored from an RKDG2 solver to the Nonlinear Shallow Water (NSW) equations, alongside new considerations to integrate elliptic source terms (i.e. via a fourth-order local discretization of the topography) and to enable local capturing of breaking waves (i.e. via adding a detector for switching off the dispersive terms). Numerical results are presented, demonstrating the overall capability of the proposed approach in achieving realistic prediction of nearshore wave processes involving both nonlinearity and dispersion effects within a single model.
Modeling blast waves, gas and particles dispersion in urban and hilly ground areas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hank, S.; Saurel, R.; Le Metayer, O.; Lapebie, E.
2014-01-01
The numerical simulation of shock and blast waves as well as particles dispersion in highly heterogeneous media such as cities, urban places, industrial plants and part of countries is addressed. Examples of phenomena under study are chemical gas products dispersion from damaged vessels, gas dispersion in urban places under explosion conditions, shock wave propagation in urban environment. A three-dimensional simulation multiphase flow code (HI2LO) is developed in this aim. To simplify the consideration of complex geometries, a heterogeneous discrete formulation is developed. When dealing with large scale domains, such as countries, the topography is considered with the help of elevation data. Meteorological conditions are also considered, in particular regarding complex temperature and wind profiles. Heat and mass transfers on sub-scale objects, such as buildings, trees and other obstacles are considered as well. Particles motion is addressed through a new turbulence model involving a single parameter to describe accurately plumes. Validations against experiments in basic situations are presented as well as examples of industrial and environmental computations. (authors)
Investigating the conformation of polymeric dispersant molecules on nanoparticle surface
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yasin, S.; Luckham, P.F.; Iqbal, T
2016-01-01
Block copolymers are widely used as stabilizers in industrial dispersions. These polymers adsorb on surfaces by an anchor chain and extend by a hydrophilic chain. Scaling model or de Gennes theory has been used to determine the grafting density of the block copolymers. By implementing this theory to the block copolymers, conformation of the polymer molecules as a function of distance between adjacent anchor chains can be determined. The scaling model was applied to a selection of block copolymers (PE/F 103, PE/F 108, NPE1800, Triton X100, Triton X405, Lugalvan BNO12, Hypermer LP1, Hypermer B246 and OLOA 11000) in this study. The cross sectional area sc, distance s (square root of sc) and the Flory radius (end to end dimension of polymer), Rf, for all the polymers was determined. The cross sectional area per PEO (Poly Ethylene Oxide) chain (nm2) was found to be increasing with the size of stabilizing chain. Triton X100 and Lugalvan BNO12 has the smaller stabilizing chains so occupy smaller cross sectional areas whereas PE/F108 and triton X405 have larger number of PEO units and occupy a larger cross sectional area. This shows that stabilizing chain regulates the adsorption amounts that are lower in case of lower number of EO units. The application of de Gennes theory to experimental results suggested brush configuration of adsorbed polymer molecules in case of PE/F 103, PE/F 108, Triton X100, Triton X405, NPE1800, Lugalvan BNO12, Hypermer B246 and OLOA 11000. Whereas, Hypermer LP1 is more likely found to be adsorbed on graphitic carbon black in loops and trains. (author)
Lambert, Simon A.; Näsholm, Sven Peter; Nordsletten, David; Michler, Christian; Juge, Lauriane; Serfaty, Jean-Michel; Bilston, Lynne; Guzina, Bojan; Holm, Sverre; Sinkus, Ralph
2015-08-01
Wave scattering provides profound insight into the structure of matter. Typically, the ability to sense microstructure is determined by the ratio of scatterer size to probing wavelength. Here, we address the question of whether macroscopic waves can report back the presence and distribution of microscopic scatterers despite several orders of magnitude difference in scale between wavelength and scatterer size. In our analysis, monosized hard scatterers 5 μ m in radius are immersed in lossless gelatin phantoms to investigate the effect of multiple reflections on the propagation of shear waves with millimeter wavelength. Steady-state monochromatic waves are imaged in situ via magnetic resonance imaging, enabling quantification of the phase velocity at a voxel size big enough to contain thousands of individual scatterers, but small enough to resolve the wavelength. We show in theory, experiments, and simulations that the resulting coherent superposition of multiple reflections gives rise to power-law dispersion at the macroscopic scale if the scatterer distribution exhibits apparent fractality over an effective length scale that is comparable to the probing wavelength. Since apparent fractality is naturally present in any random medium, microstructure can thereby leave its fingerprint on the macroscopically quantifiable power-law exponent. Our results are generic to wave phenomena and carry great potential for sensing microstructure that exhibits intrinsic fractality, such as, for instance, vasculature.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Bin Peng [Research Center of Carbon Fiber, Key Laboratory for Liquid–Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials of Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Tianjin Binhai New Area Finance Bureau, Tianjin 300450 (China); Wang, Cheng Guo, E-mail: sduwangchg@gmail.com [Research Center of Carbon Fiber, Key Laboratory for Liquid–Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials of Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Wang, Wen [Norinco Group China North Material Science and Engineering Technology Group Corporation, Jinan 250031 (China); Yu, Mei Jie; Gao, Rui; Chen, Yang; Xiang Wang, Yan [Research Center of Carbon Fiber, Key Laboratory for Liquid–Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials of Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China)
2014-09-01
Composites with micro-sized magnetic particles dispersed in amorphous carbon were fabricated conveniently and economically by carbonizing polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fibers mixed with micro-sized iron particles under different temperatures. The composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electric microscope (SEM). The electromagnetic (EM) properties were measured by a vector network analyzer in the frequency range of 2–18 GHz based on which analog computations of EM wave absorption properties were carried out. The influences of temperature on phase composition and EM wave absorption properties were also investigated, indicating that the composites had good electromagnetic absorption properties with both electrical loss and magnetic loss. Effective reflection loss (RL<−10 dB) was observed in a large frequency range of 7.5–18 GHz with the absorber thickness of 2.0–3.0 mm for the paraffin samples with composite powders heated up to 750 °C and the minimum absorption peak around −40 dB appeared at approximately 10 GHz with matching thickness of 2.0 mm for the paraffin sample with composite powders heated up to 800 °C. - Highlights: • High-performance electromagnetic wave absorption materials were fabricated conveniently and economically. • The materials are composites with micro-sized magnetic particles dispersed in porous amorphous carbon. • The influences of temperature on phase composition and electromagnetic wave absorption properties were investigated. • The composites heated up to 750 °C and 800 °C had good electromagnetic wave absorption property.
Nonlinear frequency shift of finite-amplitude electrostatic surface waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stenflo, L.
1989-01-01
The problem concerning the appropriate form for the nonlinear frequency shift arising from slow density modulations of electrostatic surface waves in a semi-infinite unmagnetized plasma is reconsidered. The spatial dependence of the wave amplitude normal to the surface is kept general in order to allow for possible nonlinear attenuation behaviour of the surface waves. It is found that if the frequency shift is expressed as a function of the density and its gradient then the result is identical with that of Zhelyazkov, I. Proceedings International Conference on Plasma Physics, Kiev, 1987, Vol. 2, p. 694, who assumed a linear exponential attenuation behaviour. (author)
Sethi, M.; Sharma, A.; Vasishth, A.
2017-05-01
The present paper deals with the mathematical modeling of the propagation of torsional surface waves in a non-homogeneous transverse isotropic elastic half-space under a rigid layer. Both rigidities and density of the half-space are assumed to vary inversely linearly with depth. Separation of variable method has been used to get the analytical solutions for the dispersion equation of the torsional surface waves. Also, the effects of nonhomogeneities on the phase velocity of torsional surface waves have been shown graphically. Also, dispersion equations have been derived for some particular cases, which are in complete agreement with some classical results.
Dispersion equations for field-aligned cyclotron waves in axisymmetric magnetospheric plasmas
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. I. Grishanov
2006-03-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we derive the dispersion equations for field-aligned cyclotron waves in two-dimensional (2-D magnetospheric plasmas with anisotropic temperature. Two magnetic field configurations are considered with dipole and circular magnetic field lines. The main contribution of the trapped particles to the transverse dielectric permittivity is estimated by solving the linearized Vlasov equation for their perturbed distribution functions, accounting for the cyclotron and bounce resonances, neglecting the drift effects, and assuming the weak connection of the left-hand and right-hand polarized waves. Both the bi-Maxwellian and bi-Lorentzian distribution functions are considered to model the ring current ions and electrons in the dipole magnetosphere. A numerical code has been developed to analyze the dispersion characteristics of electromagnetic ion-cyclotron waves in an electron-proton magnetospheric plasma with circular magnetic field lines, assuming that the steady-state distribution function of the energetic protons is bi-Maxwellian. As in the uniform magnetic field case, the growth rate of the proton-cyclotron instability (PCI in the 2-D magnetospheric plasmas is defined by the contribution of the energetic ions/protons to the imaginary part of the transverse permittivity elements. We demonstrate that the PCI growth rate in the 2-D axisymmetric plasmasphere can be significantly smaller than that for the straight magnetic field case with the same macroscopic bulk parameters.
Soliton shock wave fronts and self-similar discontinuities in dispersion hydrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gurevich, A.V.; Meshcherkin, A.P.
1987-01-01
Nonlinear flows in nondissipative dispersion hydrodynamics are examined. It is demonstrated that in order to describe such flows it is necessary to incorporate a new concept: a special discontinuity called a ''self-similar'' discontinuity consisting of a nondissipative shock wave and a powerful slow wave discontinuity in regular hydrodynamics. The ''self similar discontinuity'' expands linearly over time. It is demonstrated that this concept may be introduced in a solution to Euler equations. The boundary conditions of the ''self similar discontinuity'' that allow closure of Euler equations for dispersion hydrodynamics are formulated, i.e., those that replace the shock adiabatic curve of standard dissipative hydrodynamics. The structure of the soliton front and of the trailing edge of the shock wave is investigated. A classification and complete solution are given to the problem of the decay of random initial discontinuities in the hydrodynamics of highly nonisothermic plasma. A solution is derived to the problem of the decay of initial discontinuities in the hydrodynamics of magnetized plasma. It is demonstrated that in this plasma, a feature of current density arises at the point of soliton inversion
Ray-map migration of transmitted surface waves
Li, Jing
2016-08-25
Near-surface normal faults can sometimes separate two distinct zones of velocity heterogeneity, where the medium on one side of the fault has a faster velocity than on the other side. Therefore, the slope of surface-wave arrivals in a common-shot gather should abruptly change near the surface projection of the fault. We present ray-map imaging method that migrates transmitted surface waves to the fault plane, and therefore it roughly estimates the orientation, depth, and location of the near-surface fault. The main benefits of this method are that it is computationally inexpensive and robust in the presence of noise.
Modelling surface radioactive spill dispersion in the Alboran Sea
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Perianez, R.
2006-01-01
The Strait of Gibraltar and the Alboran Sea are the only connection between the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. Intense shipping activities occur in the area, including transport of waste radionuclides and transit of nuclear submarines. Thus, it is relevant to have a dispersion model that can be used in an emergency situation after an accident, to help the decision-making process. Such dispersion model requires an appropriate description of the physical oceanography of the region of interest, with simulations of tides and residual (average) circulation. In this work, a particle-tracking dispersion model that can be used to simulate the dispersion of radionuclides in the system Strait of Gibraltar-Alboran Sea is described. Tides are simulated using a barotropic model and for the average circulation a reduced-gravity model is applied. This model is able to reproduce the main features of the Alboran circulation (the well known Western Alboran Gyre, WAG, and the coastal circulation mode). The dispersion model is run off-line, using previously computed tidal and residual currents. The contamination patch is simulated by a number of particles whose individual paths are computed; diffusion and decay being modelled using a Monte Carlo method. Radionuclide concentrations may be obtained from the density of particles per water volume unit. Results from the hydrodynamic models have been compared with observations in the area. Several examples of dispersion computations under different wind and circulation conditions are presented
Spin-wave dispersion relations in disordered Fe-V alloys
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakai, Y.; Schibuya, N.; Kunitomi, N.; Wakabayashi, N.; Cooke, J.F.
1982-01-01
The spin-wave dispersion relations of the ferromagnetic disordered alloys Fe/sub 1-x/V/sub x/(x = 0.076, 0.135, 0.160, and 0.187) were studied by means of the inelastic scattering of neutrons. The observed dispersion relations are adequately represented by the power law, E = Dq 2 (1-βq 2 ), in a wide energy range up to 80 meV. The concentration dependence of the exchange stiffness constant D shows good agreement with previous results obtained by means of the small-angle scattering of neutrons and by the analysis of the temperature dependence of the bulk magnetization. The observed results can be explained by the Heisenberg model and, to some extent, by the itinerant-electron model
Horizon effects with surface waves on moving water
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rousseaux, Germain; Maissa, Philippe; Mathis, Christian; Coullet, Pierre [Universite de Nice-Sophia Antipolis, Laboratoire J-A Dieudonne, UMR CNRS-UNS 6621, Parc Valrose, 06108 Nice Cedex 02 (France); Philbin, Thomas G; Leonhardt, Ulf, E-mail: Germain.Rousseaux@unice.f [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews KY16 9SS (United Kingdom)
2010-09-15
Surface waves on a stationary flow of water are considered in a linear model that includes the surface tension of the fluid. The resulting gravity-capillary waves experience a rich array of horizon effects when propagating against the flow. In some cases, three horizons (points where the group velocity of the wave reverses) exist for waves with a single laboratory frequency. Some of these effects are familiar in fluid mechanics under the name of wave blocking, but other aspects, in particular waves with negative co-moving frequency and the Hawking effect, were overlooked until surface waves were investigated as examples of analogue gravity (Schuetzhold R and Unruh W G 2002 Phys. Rev. D 66 044019). A comprehensive presentation of the various horizon effects for gravity-capillary waves is given, with emphasis on the deep water/ short wavelength case kh>>1, where many analytical results can be derived. A similarity of the state space of the waves to that of a thermodynamic system is pointed out.
Numerical simulation of floating bodies in extreme free surface waves
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Z. Z. Hu
2011-02-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we use the in-house Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD flow code AMAZON-SC as a numerical wave tank (NWT to study wave loading on a wave energy converter (WEC device in heave motion. This is a surface-capturing method for two fluid flows that treats the free surface as contact surface in the density field that is captured automatically without special provision. A time-accurate artificial compressibility method and high resolution Godunov-type scheme are employed in both fluid regions (air/water. The Cartesian cut cell method can provide a boundary-fitted mesh for a complex geometry with no requirement to re-mesh globally or even locally for moving geometry, requiring only changes to cut cell data at the body contour. Extreme wave boundary conditions are prescribed in an empty NWT and compared with physical experiments prior to calculations of extreme waves acting on a floating Bobber-type device. The validation work also includes the wave force on a fixed cylinder compared with theoretical and experimental data under regular waves. Results include free surface elevations, vertical displacement of the float, induced vertical velocity and heave force for a typical Bobber geometry with a hemispherical base under extreme wave conditions.
Solitary ionizing surface waves on low-temperature plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vladimirov, S.V.; Yu, M.Y.
1993-01-01
It is demonstrated that at the boundary of semi-infinite low-temperature plasma new types of localized ionizing surface wave structures can propagate. The solitary waves are described by an evolution equation similar to the KdV equation, but the solutions differ considerably from that of the latter
Wave-Breaking Turbulence in the Ocean Surface Layer
2016-06-01
2004) used direct numerical simulation ( DNS ) to show that a single breaking wave can energize the surface layer for more than 50 wave periods, and...1941: Dissipation of energy in the locally isotropic turbulence. Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSR, 30, 301–305. Kukulka, T., and K. Brunner, 2015: Passive
Li, C.; Miller, J.; Wang, J.; Koley, S. S.; Katz, J.
2017-10-01
This laboratory experimental study investigates the temporal evolution of the size distribution of subsurface oil droplets generated as breaking waves entrain oil slicks. The measurements are performed for varying wave energy, as well as large variations in oil viscosity and oil-water interfacial tension, the latter achieved by premixing the oil with dispersant. In situ measurements using digital inline holography at two magnifications are applied for measuring the droplet sizes and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) for determining the temporal evolution of turbulence after wave breaking. All early (2-10 s) size distributions have two distinct size ranges with different slopes. For low dispersant to oil ratios (DOR), the transition between them could be predicted based on a turbulent Weber (We) number in the 2-4 range, suggesting that turbulence plays an important role. For smaller droplets, all the number size distributions have power of about -2.1, and for larger droplets, the power decreases well below -3. The measured steepening of the size distribution over time is predicted by a simple model involving buoyant rise and turbulence dispersion. Conversely, for DOR 1:100 and 1:25 oils, the diameter of slope transition decreases from ˜1 mm to 46 and 14 µm, respectively, much faster than the We-based prediction, and the size distribution steepens with increasing DOR. Furthermore, the concentration of micron-sized droplets of DOR 1:25 oil increases for the first 10 min after entrainment. These phenomena are presumably caused by the observed formation and breakup oil microthreads associated with tip streaming.
Numerous laboratory test systems have been developed for the comparison of efficacy between various chemical oil dispersant formulations. However, for the assessment of chemical dispersant effectiveness under realistic sea state, test protocols are required to produce hydrodynam...
Driben, Rodislav; Mitschke, Fedor; Zhavoronkov, Nickolai
2010-12-06
The complex mechanism of multiple interactions between solitary and dispersive waves at the advanced stage of supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber is studied in experiment and numerical simulations. Injection of high power negatively chirped pulses near zero dispersion frequency results in an effective soliton fission process with multiple interactions between red shifted Raman solitons and dispersive waves. These interactions may result in relative acceleration of solitons with further collisions between them of quasi-elastic or quasi-plastic kinds. In the spectral domain these processes result in enhancement of certain wavelength regions within the spectrum or development of a new significant band at the long wavelength side of the spectrum.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tu, Haohua; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Zhang, Rui
2013-01-01
We predict and realize the targeted wavelength conversion from the 1550-nm band of a fs Er:fiber laser to an isolated band inside 370-850 nm, corresponding to a blue-shift of 700-1180 nm. The conversion utilizes resonant dispersive wave generation in widely available optical fibers with good...... efficiency (~7%). The converted band has a large pulse energy (~1 nJ), high spectral brightness (~1 mW/nm), and broad Gaussian-like spectrum compressible to clean transform-limited ~17 fs pulses. The corresponding coherent fiber sources open up portable applications of optical parametric oscillators and dual......-output synchronized ultrafast lasers....
Dispersion and damping of two-dimensional dust acoustic waves: theory and simulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Upadhyaya, Nitin; Miskovic, Z L; Hou, L-J
2010-01-01
A two-dimensional generalized hydrodynamics (GH) model is developed to study the full spectrum of both longitudinal and transverse dust acoustic waves (DAW) in strongly coupled complex (dusty) plasmas, with memory-function-formalism being implemented to enforce high-frequency sum rules. Results are compared with earlier theories (such as quasi-localized charge approximation and its extended version) and with a self-consistent Brownian dynamics simulation. It is found that the GH approach provides a good account, not only of dispersion relations, but also of damping rates of the DAW modes in a wide range of coupling strengths, an issue hitherto not fully addressed for dusty plasmas.
Influence of wavelength-dependent-loss on dispersive wave in nonlinear optical fibers.
Herrera, Rodrigo Acuna
2012-11-01
In this work, we study numerically the influence of wavelength-dependent loss on the generation of dispersive waves (DWs) in nonlinear fiber. This kind of loss can be obtained, for instance, by the acousto-optic effect in fiber optics. We show that this loss lowers DW frequency in an opposite way that the Raman effect does. Also, we see that the Raman effect does not change the DW frequency too much when wavelength-dependent loss is included. Finally, we show that the DW frequency is not practically affected by fiber length.
Distance measurement and wave dispersion in a Liouville-string approach to quantum gravity
Amelino-Camelia, G; Mavromatos, Nikolaos E; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V
1997-01-01
Within a Liouville approach to non-critical string theory, we discuss space-time foam effects on the propagation of low-energy particles. We find an induced frequency-dependent dispersion in the propagation of a wave packet, and observe that this would affect the outcome of measurements involving low-energy particles as probes. In particular, the maximum possible order of magnitude of the space-time foam effects would give rise to an error in the measurement of distance comparable to that independently obtained in some recent heuristic quantum-gravity analyses. We also briefly compare these error estimates with the precision of astrophysical measurements.
Effects of waves on water dispersion in a semi-enclosed estuarine bay
Delpey, M. T.; Ardhuin, F.; Otheguy, P.
2012-04-01
The bay of Saint Jean de Luz - Ciboure is a touristic destination located in the south west of France on the Basque coast. This small bay is 1.5km wide for 1km long. It is semi-enclosed by breakwaters, so that the area is mostly protected from waves except in its eastern part, where wave breaking is regularly observed over a shallow rock shelf. In the rest of the area the currents are generally weak. The bay receives fresh water inflows from two rivers. During intense raining events, the rivers can introduce pollutants in the bay. The input of pollutants combined with the low level dynamic of the area can affect the water quality for several days. To study such a phenomenon, mechanisms of water dispersion in the bay are investigated. The present paper focuses on the effects of waves on bay dynamics. Several field experiments were conducted in the area, combining wave and current measurements from a set of ADCP and ADV, lagrangian difter experiments in the surfzone, salinity and temperature profile measurements. An analysis of this set of various data is provided. It reveals that the bay combines remarkable density stratification due to fresh water inflows and occasionally intense wave-induced currents in the surfzone. These currents have a strong influence on river plume dynamics when the sea state is energetic. Moreover, modifications of hydrodynamics in the bay passes are found to be remarkably correlated with sea state evolutions. This result suggests a significant impact of waves on the bay flushing. To further analyse these phenomena, a three dimensional numerical model of bay hydrodynamics is developed. The model aims at reproducing fresh water inflows combined with wind-, tide- and wave-induced currents and mixing. The model of the bay is implemented using the code MOHID , which has been modified to allow the three dimensional representation of wave-current interactions proposed by Ardhuin et al. [2008b] . The circulation is forced by the wave field modelled
A size selective porous silicon grating-coupled Bloch surface and sub-surface wave biosensor.
Rodriguez, Gilberto A; Ryckman, Judson D; Jiao, Yang; Weiss, Sharon M
2014-03-15
A porous silicon (PSi) grating-coupled Bloch surface and sub-surface wave (BSW/BSSW) biosensor is demonstrated to size selectively detect the presence of both large and small molecules. The BSW is used to sense large immobilized analytes at the surface of the structure while the BSSW that is confined inside but near the top of the structure is used to sensitively detect small molecules. Functionality of the BSW and BSSW modes is theoretically described by dispersion relations, field confinements, and simulated refractive index shifts within the structure. The theoretical results are experimentally verified by detecting two different small chemical molecules and one large 40 base DNA oligonucleotide. The PSi-BSW/BSSW structure is benchmarked against current porous silicon technology and is shown to have a 6-fold higher sensitivity in detecting large molecules and a 33% improvement in detecting small molecules. This is the first report of a grating-coupled BSW biosensor and the first report of a BSSW propagating mode. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.
CAMEX-3 JPL SURFACE ACOUSTIC WAVE (SAW) HYGROMETER V1
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This CAMEX-3 Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) Hygrometer dataset consists of dewpoint timeline measurements acquired during each DC-8...
Surface Wave Focusing and Acoustic Communications in the Surf Zone
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Preisig, James
2004-01-01
The forward scattering of acoustic signals off of shoaling surface gravity waves in the surf zone results in a time-varying channel impulse response that is characterized by intense, rapidly fluctuating arrivals...
Surface waves in fibre-reinforced anisotropic elastic media
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22
Department of Mathematics, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak 124001,. India e-mail: s−j−singh@yahoo.com. MS received 1 March 2002. Abstract. In the paper under discussion, the problem of surface waves in fibre- ... On close exam-.
Response of surface buoy moorings in steady and wave flows
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Anand, N.M.; Nayak, B.U.; SanilKumar, V.
A numerical model has been developed to evaluate the dynamics of surface buoy mooring systems under wave and current loading. System tension response and variation of tension in the mooring line at various depths have been evaluated for deep water...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bigoni, Daniele; Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter; Eskilsson, Claes
2016-01-01
A major challenge in next-generation industrial applications is to improve numerical analysis by quantifying uncertainties in predictions. In this work we present a formulation of a fully nonlinear and dispersive potential flow water wave model with random inputs for the probabilistic description...... at different points in the parameter space, allowing for the reuse of existing simulation software. The choice of the applied methods is driven by the number of uncertain input parameters and by the fact that finding the solution of the considered model is computationally intensive. We revisit experimental...... benchmarks often used for validation of deterministic water wave models. Based on numerical experiments and assumed uncertainties in boundary data, our analysis reveals that some of the known discrepancies from deterministic simulation in comparison with experimental measurements could be partially explained...
A numerical study of wave dispersion curves in cylindrical rods with circular cross-section
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Valsamos G.
2013-06-01
Full Text Available This work presents a finite element approach for modeling longitudinal wave propagation in thick cylindrical rods with circular cross-section. The formulation is based on simple time domain response of the structure to a properly chosen excitation, and is calculated with an explicit finite element solver. The proposed post-treatment procedure identifies the wavenumber for each mode of wave propagation at the desired frequency. The procedure is implemented and integrated in an efficient way in the explicit finite element code Europlexus. The numerical results are compared to the analytical ones obtained from the solution of the Pochhammer — Chree equation, which provides the dispersion curves for wavetrains in solid cylinders of infinite length.
Scaling observations of surface waves in the Beaufort Sea
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Madison Smith
2016-04-01
Full Text Available Abstract The rapidly changing Arctic sea ice cover affects surface wave growth across all scales. Here, in situ measurements of waves, observed from freely-drifting buoys during the 2014 open water season, are interpreted using open water distances determined from satellite ice products and wind forcing time series measured in situ with the buoys. A significant portion of the wave observations were found to be limited by open water distance (fetch when the wind duration was sufficient for the conditions to be considered stationary. The scaling of wave energy and frequency with open water distance demonstrated the indirect effects of ice cover on regional wave evolution. Waves in partial ice cover could be similarly categorized as distance-limited by applying the same open water scaling to determine an ‘effective fetch’. The process of local wave generation in ice appeared to be a strong function of the ice concentration, wherein the ice cover severely reduces the effective fetch. The wave field in the Beaufort Sea is thus a function of the sea ice both locally, where wave growth primarily occurs in the open water between floes, and regionally, where the ice edge may provide a more classic fetch limitation. Observations of waves in recent years may be indicative of an emerging trend in the Arctic Ocean, where we will observe increasing wave energy with decreasing sea ice extent.
Estimating propagation velocity through a surface acoustic wave sensor
Xu, Wenyuan; Huizinga, John S.
2010-03-16
Techniques are described for estimating the propagation velocity through a surface acoustic wave sensor. In particular, techniques which measure and exploit a proper segment of phase frequency response of the surface acoustic wave sensor are described for use as a basis of bacterial detection by the sensor. As described, use of velocity estimation based on a proper segment of phase frequency response has advantages over conventional techniques that use phase shift as the basis for detection.
Lage-area planar RF plasma productions by surface waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nonaka, S.
1994-01-01
Large-area rf plasmas are confirmed to be produced by means of RF discharges inside a large-area dielectric tube. The plasma space is 73 cm x 176 cm and 2.5 cm. The plasma is thought to be produced by an odd plasma-surface wave (PSW ο ) in case of using large-area electrodes and by an even plasma-surface wave (PSW ο ) in case of without the electrodes. (author). 7 refs, 4 figs
Anomalous Surface Wave Launching by Handedness Phase Control
Zhang, Xueqian; Xu, Yuehong; Yue, Weisheng; Tian, Zhen; Gu, Jianqiang; Li, Yanfeng; Singh, Ranjan; Zhang, Shuang; Han, Jiaguang; Zhang, Weili
2015-01-01
Anomalous launch of a surface wave with different handedness phase control is achieved in a terahertz metasurface based on phase discontinuities. The polarity of the phase profile of the surface waves is found to be strongly correlated to the polarization handedness, promising polarization-controllable wavefront shaping, polarization sensing, and environmental refractive-index sensing. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Anomalous Surface Wave Launching by Handedness Phase Control
Zhang, Xueqian
2015-10-09
Anomalous launch of a surface wave with different handedness phase control is achieved in a terahertz metasurface based on phase discontinuities. The polarity of the phase profile of the surface waves is found to be strongly correlated to the polarization handedness, promising polarization-controllable wavefront shaping, polarization sensing, and environmental refractive-index sensing. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Flow profiling of a surface acoustic wave nanopump
Guttenberg, Z.; Rathgeber, A.; Keller, S.; Rädler, J. O.; Wixforth, A.; Kostur, M.; Schindler, M.; Talkner, P.
2004-01-01
The flow profile in a capillary gap and the pumping efficiency of an acoustic micropump employing Surface Acoustic Waves is investigated both experimentally and theoretically. Such ultrasonic surface waves on a piezoelectric substrate strongly couple to a thin liquid layer and generate an internal streaming within the fluid. Such acoustic streaming can be used for controlled agitation during, e.g., microarray hybridization. We use fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and fluorescence microsc...
Oscillon dynamics and rogue wave generation in Faraday surface ripples.
Xia, H; Maimbourg, T; Punzmann, H; Shats, M
2012-09-14
We report new experimental results which suggest that the generation of extreme wave events in the Faraday surface ripples is related to the increase in the horizontal mobility of oscillating solitons (oscillons). The analysis of the oscillon trajectories in a horizontal plane shows that at higher vertical acceleration, oscillons move chaotically, merge and form enclosed areas on the water surface. The probability of the formation of such craters, which precede large wave events, increases with the increase in horizontal mobility.
Akdag, S; Cim, N; Yildizhan, R; Akyol, A; Ozturk, F; Babat, N
2015-09-01
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a prevalent disease with many potential long-term cardiovascular risks. P-wave dispersion (Pdis) and QT dispersion (QTdis) have been shown to be noninvasive electrocardiographic predictors for development of cardiac arrhythmias. In this study we aimed to search Pdis and QTdis parameters in patients with PCOS. The study included 82 patients with PCOS and 74 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Baseline 12-lead electrocardiographic and transthoracic echocardiographic measurements were evaluated. P-wave maximum duration (Pmax), P-wave minimum duration (Pmin), Pdis, QT interval, heart rate-corrected QT dispersion and QTdis were calculated by two cardiologists. Patients wirh PCOS had significantly higher QT dispersion (49.5 ± 14.1 vs. 37.9 ± 12.6 ms, p PCOS patients.
Seadawy, A. R.; El-Rashidy, K.
2018-03-01
The Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (KP) and modified KP equations are two of the most universal models in nonlinear wave theory, which arises as a reduction of system with quadratic nonlinearity which admit weakly dispersive waves. The generalized extended tanh method and the F-expansion method are used to derive exact solitary waves solutions of KP and modified KP equations. The region of solutions are displayed graphically.
Spatial Statistics of Deep-Water Ambient Noise; Dispersion Relations for Sound Waves and Shear Waves
2015-09-30
bi-linear hydrophone 8 array to locate biological sound sources on a coral reef ”, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 137, 30-41 (2015) [published, refereed]. 3...Friedlander, A. K. Gregg, S. A. Sandin and M. J. Buckingham, “The origins of ambient biological sound from coral reef ecosystems in the Line Islands...descending under gravity and, after releasing a drop weight at a pre-assigned depth, returning to the surface under buoyancy. Throughout the descent and
Vanel, Florence O.; Baysal, Oktay
1995-01-01
Important characteristics of the aeroacoustic wave propagation are mostly encoded in their dispersion relations. Hence, a computational aeroacoustic (CAA) algorithm, which reasonably preserves these relations, was investigated. It was derived using an optimization procedure to ensure, that the numerical derivatives preserved the wave number and angular frequency of the differential terms in the linearized, 2-D Euler equations. Then, simulations were performed to validate the scheme and a compatible set of discretized boundary conditions. The computational results were found to agree favorably with the exact solutions. The boundary conditions were transparent to the outgoing waves, except when the disturbance source was close to a boundary. The time-domain data generated by such CAA solutions were often intractable until their spectra was analyzed. Therefore, the relative merits of three different methods were included in the study. For simple, periodic waves, the periodogram method produced better estimates of the steep-sloped spectra than the Blackman-Tukey method. Also, for this problem, the Hanning window was more effective when used with the weighted-overlapped-segment-averaging and Blackman-Tukey methods gave better results than the periodogram method. Finally, it was demonstrated that the representation of time domain-data was significantly dependent on the particular spectral analysis method employed.
Electric field vector measurements in a surface ionization wave discharge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goldberg, Benjamin M; Adamovich, Igor V; Lempert, Walter R; Böhm, Patrick S; Czarnetzki, Uwe
2015-01-01
This work presents the results of time-resolved electric field vector measurements in a short pulse duration (60 ns full width at half maximum), surface ionization wave discharge in hydrogen using a picosecond four-wave mixing technique. Electric field vector components are measured separately, using pump and Stokes beams linearly polarized in the horizontal and vertical planes, and a polarizer placed in front of the infrared detector. The time-resolved electric field vector is measured at three different locations across the discharge gap, and for three different heights above the alumina ceramic dielectric surface, ∼100, 600, and 1100 μm (total of nine different locations). The results show that after breakdown, the discharge develops as an ionization wave propagating along the dielectric surface at an average speed of 1 mm ns −1 . The surface ionization wave forms near the high voltage electrode, close to the dielectric surface (∼100 μm). The wave front is characterized by significant overshoot of both vertical and horizontal electric field vector components. Behind the wave front, the vertical field component is rapidly reduced. As the wave propagates along the dielectric surface, it also extends further away from the dielectric surface, up to ∼1 mm near the grounded electrode. The horizontal field component behind the wave front remains quite significant, to sustain the electron current toward the high voltage electrode. After the wave reaches the grounded electrode, the horizontal field component experiences a secondary rise in the quasi-dc discharge, where it sustains the current along the near-surface plasma sheet. The measurement results indicate presence of a cathode layer formed near the grounded electrode with significant cathode voltage fall, ≈3 kV, due to high current density in the discharge. The peak reduced electric field in the surface ionization wave is 85–95 Td, consistent with dc breakdown field estimated from the Paschen
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kamiya, Hidehiro; Iijima, Motoyuki
2010-01-01
Inorganic nanoparticles are indispensable for science and technology as materials, pigments and cosmetics products. Improving the dispersion stability of nanoparticles in various liquids is essential for those applications. In this review, we discuss why it is difficult to control the stability of nanoparticles in liquids. We also overview the role of surface interaction between nanoparticles in their dispersion and characterization, e.g. by colloid probe atomic force microscopy (CP-AFM). Two types of surface modification concepts, post-synthesis and in situ modification, were investigated in many previous studies. Here, we focus on post-synthesis modification using adsorption of various kinds of polymer dispersants and surfactants on the particle surface, as well as surface chemical reactions of silane coupling agents. We discuss CP-AFM as a technique to analyze the surface interaction between nanoparticles and the effect of surface modification on the nanoparticle dispersion in liquids. (topical review)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hidehiro Kamiya and Motoyuki Iijima
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Inorganic nanoparticles are indispensable for science and technology as materials, pigments and cosmetics products. Improving the dispersion stability of nanoparticles in various liquids is essential for those applications. In this review, we discuss why it is difficult to control the stability of nanoparticles in liquids. We also overview the role of surface interaction between nanoparticles in their dispersion and characterization, e.g. by colloid probe atomic force microscopy (CP-AFM. Two types of surface modification concepts, post-synthesis and in situ modification, were investigated in many previous studies. Here, we focus on post-synthesis modification using adsorption of various kinds of polymer dispersants and surfactants on the particle surface, as well as surface chemical reactions of silane coupling agents. We discuss CP-AFM as a technique to analyze the surface interaction between nanoparticles and the effect of surface modification on the nanoparticle dispersion in liquids.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Unal Guntekin
2009-09-01
Full Text Available Background: Prolonged P wave duration and P wave dispersion (PWD have been associated with an increased risk for atrial fibrillation (AF. Hyperthytodism is a frequent cause of atrial fibrillation (AF. Methods: Forty-two patients with newly diagnosed overt hyperthyroidism and 20 healthy people were enrolled in the study. Transthoracic echocardiography, 12 lead surface ECG and thyroid hormone levels were studied at the time of enrollment and after achievement of euthyroid state with propylthiouracil treatment. Results: Maximum P wave duration (Pmax (97.4±14.6 vs. 84.2±9.5 msec, p<0.001, PWD (42.9±10.7 vs. 31.0±6.2 msec, p<0.001, deceleration (DT (190.7±22.6 vs. 177.0±10.2 msec, p=0.013 and isovolumetric relaxation times (IVRT (90.9±11.2 vs. 79.6±10.5 msec, p<0.001 were significantly higher in hyperthyroid patients compared to control group. Pmax and PWD were significantly correlated with the presence of hyperthyroidism. Pmax (97.4±14.6 to 84.3±8.6 msec, p<0,001 Pmin (54.1±8.6 to 48.1±8.5 msec, p=0.002, PWD (42.9±10.7 to 35.9±8.1 msec, p=0.002 and DT (190.7±22.6 to 185.5±18.3, p=0.036 were significantly decreased after achievement of euthyroid state in patients with hyperthyroidism. Diastolic dyfunction was seen in 5 patients at hyperthroid state but only in one patient at euthyroid state. Conclusions: Hyperthyroidism is associated with prolonged P wave duration and dispersion. Achievement of euthyroid state with propylthiouracil treatment results in shortening of P wave variables. Diastolic function may have a partial effect for the increased Pmax and PWD. Shortening of Pmax and PWD may be a marker for the prevention of AF with the anti-thyroid treatment.
High-frequency shear-horizontal surface acoustic wave sensor
Branch, Darren W
2013-05-07
A Love wave sensor uses a single-phase unidirectional interdigital transducer (IDT) on a piezoelectric substrate for leaky surface acoustic wave generation. The IDT design minimizes propagation losses, bulk wave interferences, provides a highly linear phase response, and eliminates the need for impedance matching. As an example, a high frequency (.about.300-400 MHz) surface acoustic wave (SAW) transducer enables efficient excitation of shear-horizontal waves on 36.degree. Y-cut lithium tantalate (LTO) giving a highly linear phase response (2.8.degree. P-P). The sensor has the ability to detect at the pg/mm.sup.2 level and can perform multi-analyte detection in real-time. The sensor can be used for rapid autonomous detection of pathogenic microorganisms and bioagents by field deployable platforms.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, C.
1994-01-01
A Pierce-type dispersion relation is derived for the interaction of an intense relativistic electron beam with a cylindrical slow-wave structure of arbitrary corrugation depth. It is shown that near a resonance, the Pierce parameter can be expressed in terms of the vacuum dispersion function and the beam current. The dispersion relation is valid in both the low-current (Compton) regime and the high-current (Raman) regime. The dispersion characteristics of the interaction, such as the linear instability growth rate and bandwidth, are analyzed for both regimes
Diffraction of a plane wave on two-dimensional conductive structures and a surface wave
Davidovich, Mikhael V.
2018-04-01
We consider the structures type of two-dimensional electron gas in the form of a thin conductive, in particular, graphene films described by tensor conductivity, which are isolated or located on the dielectric layers. The dispersion equation for hybrid modes, as well as scattering parameters. We show that free wave (eigenwaves) problem follow from the problem of diffraction when linking the amplitude of the current of the linear equations are unsolvable, i.e., the determinant of this system is zero. As a particular case the dispersion equation follow from the conditions of matching (with zero reflection coefficient).
Improved ion acceleration via laser surface plasma waves excitation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bigongiari, A. [CEA/DSM/LSI, CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); TIPS/LULI, Université Paris 6, CNRS, CEA, Ecole Polytechnique, 3, rue Galilée, 94200 Ivry-sur-Seine (France); Raynaud, M. [CEA/DSM/LSI, CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Riconda, C. [TIPS/LULI, Université Paris 6, CNRS, CEA, Ecole Polytechnique, 3, rue Galilée, 94200 Ivry-sur-Seine (France); Héron, A. [CPHT, CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France)
2013-05-15
The possibility of enhancing the emission of the ions accelerated in the interaction of a high intensity ultra-short (<100 fs) laser pulse with a thin target (<10λ{sub 0}), via surface plasma wave excitation is investigated. Two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations are performed for laser intensities ranging from 10{sup 19} to 10{sup 20} Wcm{sup −2}μm{sup 2}. The surface wave is resonantly excited by the laser via the coupling with a modulation at the target surface. In the cases where the surface wave is excited, we find an enhancement of the maximum ion energy of a factor ∼2 compared to the cases where the target surface is flat.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jixiong Xiao
2017-01-01
Full Text Available A linear theory for the electromagnetic properties and interactions of an annular beam-ion channel system in plasma waveguide is presented. The dispersion relations for two families of propagating modes, including the electrostatic and transverse magnetic modes, are derived. The dependencies of the dispersion behavior and interaction for different wave modes on the thickness of the annular beam and betatron oscillation frequency are studied in detail by numerical calculations. The results show that the inner and outer radii of the beam have different influences on propagation properties of the electrostatic and electromagnetic modes with different betatron oscillation parameters. In the weak ion channel situation, the two types of electrostatic waves, that is, space charge and betatron modes, have no interaction with the transverse magnetic modes. However, in the strong ion channel situation, the transverse magnetic modes will have two branches and a low frequency mode emerged as the new branch. In this case, compared with the solid beam case, the betatron modes not only can interact with the high frequency branch at small wavenumber but also can interact with the low frequency branch at large wavenumber.
Keefe, Laurence
2016-11-01
Parabolized acoustic propagation in transversely inhomogeneous media is described by the operator update equation U (x , y , z + Δz) =eik0 (- 1 +√{ 1 + Z }) U (x , y , z) for evolution of the envelope of a wavetrain solution to the original Helmholtz equation. Here the operator, Z =∇T2 + (n2 - 1) , involves the transverse Laplacian and the refractive index distribution. Standard expansion techniques (on the assumption Z << 1)) produce pdes that approximate, to greater or lesser extent, the full dispersion relation of the original Helmholtz equation, except that none of them describe evanescent/damped waves without special modifications to the expansion coefficients. Alternatively, a discretization of both the envelope and the operator converts the operator update equation into a matrix multiply, and existing theorems on matrix functions demonstrate that the complete (discrete) Helmholtz dispersion relation, including evanescent/damped waves, is preserved by this discretization. Propagation-constant/damping-rates contour comparisons for the operator equation and various approximations demonstrate this point, and how poorly the lowest-order, textbook, parabolized equation describes propagation in lined ducts.
Surface-wave potential for triggering tectonic (nonvolcanic) tremor
Hill, D.P.
2010-01-01
Source processes commonly posed to explain instances of remote dynamic triggering of tectonic (nonvolcanic) tremor by surface waves include frictional failure and various modes of fluid activation. The relative potential for Love- and Rayleigh-wave dynamic stresses to trigger tectonic tremor through failure on critically stressed thrust and vertical strike-slip faults under the Coulomb-Griffith failure criteria as a function of incidence angle is anticorrelated over the 15- to 30-km-depth range that hosts tectonic tremor. Love-wave potential is high for strike-parallel incidence on low-angle reverse faults and null for strike-normal incidence; the opposite holds for Rayleigh waves. Love-wave potential is high for both strike-parallel and strike-normal incidence on vertical, strike-slip faults and minimal for ~45?? incidence angles. The opposite holds for Rayleigh waves. This pattern is consistent with documented instances of tremor triggered by Love waves incident on the Cascadia mega-thrust and the San Andreas fault (SAF) in central California resulting from shear failure on weak faults (apparent friction, ????? 0.2). However, documented instances of tremor triggered by surface waves with strike-parallel incidence along the Nankai megathrust beneath Shikoku, Japan, is associated primarily with Rayleigh waves. This is consistent with the tremor bursts resulting from mixed-mode failure (crack opening and shear failure) facilitated by near-lithostatic ambient pore pressure, low differential stress, with a moderate friction coefficient (?? ~ 0.6) on the Nankai subduction interface. Rayleigh-wave dilatational stress is relatively weak at tectonic tremor source depths and seems unlikely to contribute significantly to the triggering process, except perhaps for an indirect role on the SAF in sustaining tremor into the Rayleigh-wave coda that was initially triggered by Love waves.
Thickness Measurement of Surface Attachment on Plate with Lamb Wave
Ma, Xianglong; Zhang, Yinghong; Wen, Lichao; He, Yehu
2017-12-01
Aiming at the thickness detection of the plate surface attachment, a nondestructive testing method based on the Lamb wave is presented. This method utilizes Lamb wave propagation characteristics of signals in a bi-layer medium to measure the surface attachment plate thickness. Propagation of Lamb wave in bi-layer elastic is modeled and analyzed. The two-dimensional simulation model of electromagnetic ultrasonic plate - scale is established. The simulation is conducted by software COMSOL for simulation analysis under different boiler scale thickness wave form curve. Through this study, the thickness of the attached material can be judged by analyzing the characteristics of the received signal when the thickness of the surface of the plate is measured.
Imaging near-surface heterogeneities by natural migration of backscattered surface waves
AlTheyab, Abdullah; Lin, Fan-Chi; Schuster, Gerard T.
2016-01-01
We present a migration method that does not require a velocity model to migrate backscattered surface waves to their projected locations on the surface. This migration method, denoted as natural migration, uses recorded Green's functions along
Early modern human dispersal from Africa: genomic evidence for multiple waves of migration.
Tassi, Francesca; Ghirotto, Silvia; Mezzavilla, Massimo; Vilaça, Sibelle Torres; De Santi, Lisa; Barbujani, Guido
2015-01-01
Anthropological and genetic data agree in indicating the African continent as the main place of origin for anatomically modern humans. However, it is unclear whether early modern humans left Africa through a single, major process, dispersing simultaneously over Asia and Europe, or in two main waves, first through the Arab Peninsula into southern Asia and Oceania, and later through a northern route crossing the Levant. Here, we show that accurate genomic estimates of the divergence times between European and African populations are more recent than those between Australo-Melanesia and Africa and incompatible with the effects of a single dispersal. This difference cannot possibly be accounted for by the effects of either hybridization with archaic human forms in Australo-Melanesia or back migration from Europe into Africa. Furthermore, in several populations of Asia we found evidence for relatively recent genetic admixture events, which could have obscured the signatures of the earliest processes. We conclude that the hypothesis of a single major human dispersal from Africa appears hardly compatible with the observed historical and geographical patterns of genome diversity and that Australo-Melanesian populations seem still to retain a genomic signature of a more ancient divergence from Africa.
Hakoda, Christopher; Rose, Joseph; Shokouhi, Parisa; Lissenden, Clifford
2018-04-01
Dispersion curves are essential to any guided-wave-related project. The Semi-Analytical Finite Element (SAFE) method has become the conventional way to compute dispersion curves for homogeneous waveguides. However, only recently has a general SAFE formulation for commercial and open-source software become available, meaning that until now SAFE analyses have been variable and more time consuming than desirable. Likewise, the Floquet boundary conditions enable analysis of waveguides with periodicity and have been an integral part of the development of metamaterials. In fact, we have found the use of Floquet boundary conditions to be an extremely powerful tool for homogeneous waveguides, too. The nuances of using periodic boundary conditions for homogeneous waveguides that do not exhibit periodicity are discussed. Comparisons between this method and SAFE are made for selected homogeneous waveguide applications. The COMSOL Multiphysics software is used for the results shown, but any standard finite element software that can implement Floquet periodicity (user-defined or built-in) should suffice. Finally, we identify a number of complex waveguides for which dispersion curves can be found with relative ease by using the periodicity inherent to the Floquet boundary conditions.
On the interaction of Rayleigh surface waves with structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Simpson, I.C.
1976-12-01
A two-dimensional soil-structure interaction analysis is carried out for transient Rayleigh surface waves that are incident on a structure. The structure is modelled by a three-degree of freedom rigid basemat to which is attached a flexible superstructure, modelled by a single mass-spring system. The structural responses to a given Rayleigh wave train are compared with those that would have been obtained if the free-field acceleration-time history had been applied as a normally incident body wave. The results clearly exhibit the 'frequency filtering' effects of the rigid basemat on the incident Rayleigh waves. It is shown that, if seismic excitation of a structure is, in fact, due to Rayleigh surface waves, then an analysis assuming normally incident body waves can considerably over-estimate structural response, both at basemat level for horizontal and vertical oscillations of the superstructure. However, in the examples considered here, relatively large rocking effects were induced by the Rayleigh waves, thus giving maximum horizontal accelerations in the superstructure that were of comparable magnitude for Rayleigh and normally incident body waves. (author)
Experimental Investigations on Microshock Waves and Contact Surfaces
Kai, Yun; Garen, Walter; Teubner, Ulrich
2018-02-01
The present work reports on progress in the research of a microshock wave. Because of the lack of a good understanding of the propagation mechanism of the microshock flow system (shock wave, contact surface, and boundary layer), the current work concentrates on measuring microshock flows with special attention paid to the contact surface. A novel setup involving a glass capillary (with a 200 or 300 μ m hydraulic diameter D ) and a high-speed magnetic valve is applied to generate a shock wave with a maximum initial Mach number of 1.3. The current work applies a laser differential interferometer to perform noncontact measurements of the microshock flow's trajectory, velocity, and density. The current work presents microscale measurements of the shock-contact distance L that solves the problem of calculating the scaling factor Sc =Re ×D /(4 L ) (introduced by Brouillette), which is a parameter characterizing the scaling effects of shock waves. The results show that in contrast to macroscopic shock waves, shock waves at the microscale have a different propagation or attenuation mechanism (key issue of this Letter) which cannot be described by the conventional "leaky piston" model. The main attenuation mechanism of microshock flow may be the ever slower moving contact surface, which drives the shock wave. Different from other measurements using pressure transducers, the current setup for density measurements resolves the whole microshock flow system.
The complex dispersion relation of surface plasmon polaritons at gold/para-hexaphenylene interfaces
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lemke, Christoph; Leißner, Till; Klick, Alwin
2014-01-01
Two-photon photoemission electron microscopy (2P-PEEM) is used to measure the real and imaginary part of the dispersion relation of surface plasmon polaritons at different interface systems. A comparison of calculated and measured dispersion data for a gold/vacuum interface demonstrates...
Scattering of a TEM wave from a time varying surface
Elcrat, Alan R.; Harder, T. Mark; Stonebraker, John T.
1990-03-01
A solution is given for reflection of a plane wave with TEM polarization from a planar surface with time varying properties. These properties are given in terms of the currents on the surface. The solution is obtained by numerically solving a system of differential-delay equations in the time domain.
Ray-map migration of transmitted surface waves
Li, Jing; Schuster, Gerard T.
2016-01-01
Near-surface normal faults can sometimes separate two distinct zones of velocity heterogeneity, where the medium on one side of the fault has a faster velocity than on the other side. Therefore, the slope of surface-wave arrivals in a common
Modulation of photonic structures by surface acoustic waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mauricio M de Lima Jr; Santos, Paulo V
2005-01-01
This paper reviews the interaction between coherently stimulated acoustic phonons in the form of surface acoustic waves with light beams in semiconductor based photonic structures. We address the generation of surface acoustic wave modes in these structures as well as the technological aspects related to control of the propagation and spatial distribution of the acoustic fields. The microscopic mechanisms responsible for the interaction between light and surface acoustic modes in different structures are then reviewed. Particular emphasis is given to the acousto-optical interaction in semiconductor microcavities and its application in photon control. These structures exhibit high optical modulation levels under acoustic excitation and are compatible with integrated light sources and detectors
Experiments on seismic metamaterials: molding surface waves.
Brûlé, S; Javelaud, E H; Enoch, S; Guenneau, S
2014-04-04
Materials engineered at the micro- and nanometer scales have had a tremendous and lasting impact in photonics and phononics. At much larger scales, natural soils civil engineered at decimeter to meter scales may interact with seismic waves when the global properties of the medium are modified, or alternatively thanks to a seismic metamaterial constituted of a mesh of vertical empty inclusions bored in the initial soil. Here, we show the experimental results of a seismic test carried out using seismic waves generated by a monochromatic vibrocompaction probe. Measurements of the particles' velocities show a modification of the seismic energy distribution in the presence of the metamaterial in agreement with numerical simulations using an approximate plate model. For complex natural materials such as soils, this large-scale experiment was needed to show the practical feasibility of seismic metamaterials and to stress their importance for applications in civil engineering. We anticipate this experiment to be a starting point for smart devices for anthropic and natural vibrations.
Bayır, Pınar Türker; Güray, Ümit; Duyuler, Serkan; Demirkan, Burcu; Kayaalp, Oya; Kanat, Selçuk; Güray, Yeşim
2016-02-01
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with increased cardiovascular risk, including ischemic stroke. Prolonged atrial electromechanical interval (EMI) is related to increased atrial fibrillation (AF) risk. The aim of the study is to evaluate atrial EMI and electrocardiographic P-wave indices related to increased AF risk in patients with PCOS. Forty PCOS patients diagnosed on the basis of the Rotterdam criteria and 20 age-matched controls were prospectively included. patients with atrioventricular or intraventricular conduction abnormalities, dysrhythmia or taking antiarrhythmic drugs, atherosclerotic heart disease, cardiomyopathies, valvular lesions, pericardial disease, a history of pulmonary emboli or pulmonary hypertension, and abnormal thyroid function were excluded. Intra and interatrial EMI were measured by tissue Doppler imaging and P-wave dispersion (Pd) was calculated on 12-lead electrocardiography (ECG). The Isovolumetric relaxation time was the interval between the aortic valve closure artifact at the end of the LV outflow envelope and the mitral valve opening artifact at the beginning of the mitral E wave. Patients with PCOS had significantly higher interatrial [38 (24-65) ms vs. 16 (9-19) ms pPCOS group compared with control group [45 (27-60) ms vs. 30 (26-38) ms, pPCOS. PCOS is associated with prolonged inter- and intra-atrial conduction times, which are related to increased AF risk.
Size Effects on Surface Elastic Waves in a Semi-Infinite Medium with Atomic Defect Generation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F. Mirzade
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The paper investigates small-scale effects on the Rayleigh-type surface wave propagation in an isotopic elastic half-space upon laser irradiation. Based on Eringen’s theory of nonlocal continuum mechanics, the basic equations of wave motion and laser-induced atomic defect dynamics are derived. Dispersion equation that governs the Rayleigh surface waves in the considered medium is derived and analyzed. Explicit expressions for phase velocity and attenuation (amplification coefficients which characterize surface waves are obtained. It is shown that if the generation rate is above the critical value, due to concentration-elastic instability, nanometer sized ordered concentration-strain structures on the surface or volume of solids arise. The spatial scale of these structures is proportional to the characteristic length of defect-atom interaction and increases with the increase of the temperature of the medium. The critical value of the pump parameter is directly proportional to recombination rate and inversely proportional to deformational potentials of defects.
Zhang, Yu; Li, Yan; Shao, Hao; Zhong, Yaozhao; Zhang, Sai; Zhao, Zongxi
2012-06-01
Band structure and wave localization are investigated for sea surface water waves over large-scale sand wave topography. Sand wave height, sand wave width, water depth, and water width between adjacent sand waves have significant impact on band gaps. Random fluctuations of sand wave height, sand wave width, and water depth induce water wave localization. However, random water width produces a perfect transmission tunnel of water waves at a certain frequency so that localization does not occur no matter how large a disorder level is applied. Together with theoretical results, the field experimental observations in the Taiwan Bank suggest band gap and wave localization as the physical mechanism of sea surface water wave propagating over natural large-scale sand waves.
Evaluation of surface-wave waveform modeling for lithosphere velocity structure
Chang, Tao-Ming
Surface-waveform modeling methods will become standard tools for studying the lithosphere structures because they can place greater constraints on earth structure and because of interest in the three-dimensional earth. The purpose of this study is to begin to learn the applicabilities and limitations of these methods. A surface-waveform inversion method is implemented using generalized seismological data functional theory. The method has been tested using synthetic and real seismic data and show that this method is well suited for teleseismic and regional seismograms. Like other linear inversion problems, this method also requires a good starting model. To ease reliance on good starting models, a global search technique, the genetic algorithm, has been applied to surface waveform modeling. This method can rapidly find good models for explaining surface-wave waveform at regional distance. However, this implementation also reveals that criteria which are widely used in seismological studies are not good enough to indicate the goodness of waveform fit. These two methods with the linear waveform inversion method, and traditional surface wave dispersion inversion method have been applied to a western Texas earthquake to test their abilities. The focal mechanism of the Texas event has been reestimated using a grid search for surface wave spectral amplitudes. A comparison of these four algorithms shows some interesting seismic evidences for lithosphere structure.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ding, Yong; Yu, Zongzhi; Zheng, Junping, E-mail: jpzheng@tju.edu.cn [Tianjin University, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composite and Functional Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering (China)
2017-03-15
Dispersing inorganic nanoparticles in aqueous solutions is a key requirement for a great variety of products and processes, including carriers in drug delivery or fillers in polymers. To be highly functional in the final product, inorganic particles are required to be finely dispersed in nanoscale. In this study, silica was selected as a representative inorganic particle. Surface stabilizers with different chain length and charged group were designed to reveal the influence of electrostatic and van der Waals forces between silica and stabilizer on the dispersion of silica particles in aqueous medium. Results showed surface stabilizer with longer alkyl chain and charged group exerted best ability to deaggregate silica, leading to a hydrodynamic size of 51.1 nm. Surface stabilizer designing with rational structure is a promising solution for deagglomerating and reducing process time and energy. Giving the designability and adaptability of surface stabilizer, this method is of potential for dispersion of other inorganic nanoparticles.
Ding, Yong; Yu, Zongzhi; Zheng, Junping
2017-03-01
Dispersing inorganic nanoparticles in aqueous solutions is a key requirement for a great variety of products and processes, including carriers in drug delivery or fillers in polymers. To be highly functional in the final product, inorganic particles are required to be finely dispersed in nanoscale. In this study, silica was selected as a representative inorganic particle. Surface stabilizers with different chain length and charged group were designed to reveal the influence of electrostatic and van der Waals forces between silica and stabilizer on the dispersion of silica particles in aqueous medium. Results showed surface stabilizer with longer alkyl chain and charged group exerted best ability to deaggregate silica, leading to a hydrodynamic size of 51.1 nm. Surface stabilizer designing with rational structure is a promising solution for deagglomerating and reducing process time and energy. Giving the designability and adaptability of surface stabilizer, this method is of potential for dispersion of other inorganic nanoparticles.
Transient space-time surface waves characterization using Gabor analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Martinez, L; Wilkie-Chancellier, N; Caplain, E [Universite de Cergy Pontoise, ENS Cachan, UMR CNRS 8029, Laboratoire Systemes et Applications des Techniques de l' Information et de l' Energie (SATIE), 5 mail Gay-Lussac, F 9500 Cergy-Pontoise (France); Glorieux, C; Sarens, B, E-mail: nicolas.wilkie-chancellier@u-cergy.f [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Laboratorium voor Akoestiek en Thermische Fysica (LATF), Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)
2009-11-01
Laser ultrasonics allow the observation of transient surface waves along their propagation media and their interaction with encountered objects like cracks, holes, borders. In order to characterize and localize these transient aspects in the Space-Time-Wave number-Frequency domains, the 1D, 2D and 3D Gabor transforms are presented. The Gabor transform enables the identification of several properties of the local wavefronts such as their shape, wavelength, frequency, attenuation, group velocity and the full conversion sequence along propagation. The ability of local properties identification by Gabor transform is illustrated by two experimental studies: Lamb waves generated by an annular source on a circular quartz and Lamb wave interaction with a fluid droplet. In both cases, results obtained with Gabor transform enable ones to identify the observed local waves.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Li, Jiying; Jensen, Thomas Bagger Stibius; Andersen, Niels Hessel
2009-01-01
) indicates the instability of the Ising-type ground state that eventually evolves into the incommensurate phase as the temperature is raised. The pure LiNiPO4 system (x=0) undergoes a first-order magnetic phase transition from a long-range incommensurate phase to an antiferromagnetic (AFM) ground state at TN......Elastic and inelastic neutron-scattering studies of Li(Ni1−xFex)PO4 single crystals reveal anomalous spin-wave dispersions along the crystallographic direction parallel to the characteristic wave vector of the magnetic incommensurate phase. The anomalous spin-wave dispersion (magnetic soft mode......=20.8 K. At 20% Fe concentrations, although the AFM ground state is to a large extent preserved as that of the pure system, the phase transition is second order, and the incommensurate phase is completely suppressed. Analysis of the dispersion curves using a Heisenberg spin Hamiltonian that includes...
Discrete microfluidics based on aluminum nitride surface acoustic wave devices
Zhou, J.; Pang, H.F.; Garcia-Gancedo, L.; Iborra, E.; Clement, M.; De Miguel-Ramos, M.; Jin, H.; Luo, J.K.; Smith, S.; Dong, S.R.; Wang, D.M.; Fu, Y.Q.
2015-01-01
To date, most surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices have been made from bulk piezoelectric materials, such as quartz, lithium niobate or lithium tantalite. These bulk materials are brittle, less easily integrated with electronics for control and signal processing, and difficult to realize multiple wave modes or apply complex electrode designs. Using thin film SAWs makes it convenient to integrate microelectronics and multiple sensing or microfluidics techniques into a lab-on-a-chip with low cos...
Surface wave photonic device based on porous silicon multilayers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guillermain, E.; Lysenko, V.; Benyattou, T.
2006-01-01
Porous silicon is widely studied in the field of photonics due to its interesting optical properties. In this work, we present theoretical and first experimental studies of a new kind of porous silicon photonic device based on optical surface wave. A theoretical analysis of the device is presented using plane-wave approximation. The porous silicon multilayered structures are realized using electrochemical etching of p + -type silicon. Morphological and optical characterizations of the realized structures are reported
High-Temperature Surface-Acoustic-Wave Transducer
Zhao, Xiaoliang; Tittmann, Bernhard R.
2010-01-01
Aircraft-engine rotating equipment usually operates at high temperature and stress. Non-invasive inspection of microcracks in those components poses a challenge for the non-destructive evaluation community. A low-profile ultrasonic guided wave sensor can detect cracks in situ. The key feature of the sensor is that it should withstand high temperatures and excite strong surface wave energy to inspect surface/subsurface cracks. As far as the innovators know at the time of this reporting, there is no existing sensor that is mounted to the rotor disks for crack inspection; the most often used technology includes fluorescent penetrant inspection or eddy-current probes for disassembled part inspection. An efficient, high-temperature, low-profile surface acoustic wave transducer design has been identified and tested for nondestructive evaluation of structures or materials. The development is a Sol-Gel bismuth titanate-based surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) sensor that can generate efficient surface acoustic waves for crack inspection. The produced sensor is very thin (submillimeter), and can generate surface waves up to 540 C. Finite element analysis of the SAW transducer design was performed to predict the sensor behavior, and experimental studies confirmed the results. One major uniqueness of the Sol-Gel bismuth titanate SAW sensor is that it is easy to implement to structures of various shapes. With a spray coating process, the sensor can be applied to surfaces of large curvatures. Second, the sensor is very thin (as a coating) and has very minimal effect on airflow or rotating equipment imbalance. Third, it can withstand temperatures up to 530 C, which is very useful for engine applications where high temperature is an issue.
Surface waves tomography and non-linear inversion in the southeast Carpathians
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Raykova, R.B.; Panza, G.F.
2005-11-01
A set of shear-wave velocity models of the lithosphere-asthenosphere system in the southeast Carpathians is determined by the non-linear inversion of surface wave group velocity data, obtained from a tomographic analysis. The local dispersion curves are assembled for the period range 7 s - 150 s, combining regional group velocity measurements and published global Rayleigh wave dispersion data. The lithosphere-asthenosphere velocity structure is reliably reconstructed to depths of about 250 km. The thickness of the lithosphere in the region varies from about 120 km to 250 km and the depth of the asthenosphere between 150 km and 250 km. Mantle seismicity concentrates where the high velocity lid is detected just below the Moho. The obtained results are in agreement with recent seismic refraction, receiver function, and travel time P-wave tomography investigations in the region. The similarity among the results obtained from different kinds of structural investigations (including the present work) highlights some new features of the lithosphere-asthenosphere system in southeast Carpathians, as the relatively thin crust under Transylvania basin and Vrancea zone. (author)
Numerical Simulation of Floating Bodies in Extreme Free Surface Waves
Hu, Zheng Zheng; Causon, Derek; Mingham, Clive; Qiang, Ling
2010-05-01
A task of the EPSRC funded research project 'Extreme Wave loading on Offshore Wave Energy Devices: a Hierarchical Team Approach' is to investigate the survivability of two wave energy converter (WEC) devices Pelamis and the Manchester Bobber using different CFD approaches. Both devices float on the water surface, generating the electricity from the motion of the waves. In this paper, we describe developments of the AMAZON-SC 3D numerical wave tank (NWT) to study extreme wave loading of a fixed or floating (in Heave motion) structure. The extreme wave formulation as an inlet condition is due to Dalzell (1999) and Ning et. al. (2009) in which a first or second-order Stokes focused wave can be prescribed. The AMAZON-SC 3D code (see e.g. Hu et al. (2009)) uses a cell centred finite volume method of the Godunov-type for the space discretization of the Euler and Navier Stokes equations. The computational domain includes both air and water regions with the air/water boundary captured as a discontinuity in the density field thereby admitting the break up and recombination of the free surface. Temporal discretisation uses the artificial compressibility method and a dual time stepping strategy to maintain a divergence free velocity field. Cartesian cut cells are used to provide a fully boundary-fitted gridding capability on an regular background Cartesian grid. Solid objects are cut out of the background mesh leaving a set of irregularly shaped cells fitted to the boundary. The advantages of the cut cell approach have been outlined previously by Causon et al. (2000, 2001) including its flexibility for dealing with complex geometries whether stationary or in relative motion. The field grid does not need to be recomputed globally or even locally for moving body cases; all that is necessary is to update the local cut cell data at the body contour for as long as the motion continues. The handing of numerical wave paddles and device motion in a NWT is therefore straightforward
Surface-plasmon dispersion relation for the inhomogeneous charge-density medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harsh, O.K.; Agarwal, B.K.
1989-01-01
The surface-plasmon dispersion relation is derived for the plane-bounded electron gas when there is an inhomogeneous charge-density distribution in the plasma. The hydrodynamical model is used. Both cphi and dcphi/dx are taken to be continuous at the surface of the slab, where cphi is the scalar potential. The dispersion relation is compared with the theoretical works of Stern and Ferrell and of Harsh and Agarwal. It is also compared with the observations of Kunz. A dispersion relation for the volume-plasmon oscillations is derived which resembles the well-known relation of Bohm and Pines
Waves on the surface of a boiling liquid at various medium stratifications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sinkevich, O. A.
2015-01-01
The stability of relatively small perturbations of the stationary state consisting of a plane liquid layer and a vapor film is studied when no liquid evaporation or vapor condensation occurs in the stationary state. In this case, heat from a hot to cold wall is removed through a vapor–liquid layer via heat conduction. The boundary conditions that take into account liquid evaporation (appearance of a mass flux) at the vapor–liquid phase surface and the temperature dependence of the saturation pressure are derived. Dispersion equations are obtained. The wave processes for the stable (light vapor under a liquid layer) and unstable stratifications of the phases at rest and during their relative motion are studied. The deformation of the phase boundary results in liquid evaporation, changes in the boiling temperature and the saturation pressure, and generation of weakly damped low-amplitude waves of a new type. These waves ensure the stability of a vapor film under a liquid layer at rest or a liquid layer moving at a constant velocity in the gravity field. The velocities of these waves are much higher than the gravity wave velocities. The critical heat flows and wavelengths at which wave boiling regimes at normal pressure can exist are determined, and the calculated and experimental data are compared
Surface acoustic waves in two dimensional phononic crystal with anisotropic inclusions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ketata H.
2012-06-01
Full Text Available An analysis is given to the band structure of the two dimensional solid phononic crystal considered as a semi infinite medium. The lattice includes an array of elastic anisotropic materials with different shapes embedded in a uniform matrix. For illustration two kinds of phononic materials are assumed. A particular attention is devoted to the computational procedure which is mainly based on the plane wave expansion (PWE method. It has been adapted to Matlab environment. Numerical calculations of the dispersion curves have been achieved by introducing particular functions which transform motion equations into an Eigen value problem. Significant improvements are obtained by increasing reasonably the number of Fourier components even when a large elastic mismatch is assumed. Such approach can be generalized to different types of symmetry and permit new physical properties as piezoelectricity to be added. The actual semi infinite phononic structure with a free surface has been shown to support surface acoustic waves (SAW. The obtained dispersion curves reveal band gaps in the SAW branches. It has been found that the influence, of the filling factor and anisotropy on their band gaps, is different from that of bulk waves.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rezzan Deniz Acar
2014-07-01
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of our study was to investigate the P-wave dispersion from standard electrocardiograms (ECGs in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI after cardiac rehabilitation (CR and determine its relation to arterial stiffness. METHODS: This is a prospective study included 33 patients with AMI and successfully re-vascularized by percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI underwent CR. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF was measured by biplane Simpson’s method. Left atrium (LA volume was calculated. The maximum and minimum durations of P-waves (Pmax and Pmin, respectively were detected, and the difference between Pmax and Pmin was defined as P-wave dispersion (Pd = Pmax–Pmin. Aortic elasticity parameters were measured. RESULTS: LVEF was better after CR. The systolic and diastolic blood pressures decreased after CR, these differences were statistically significant. With exercise training, LA volume decreased significantly. Pmax and Pd values were significantly shorter after the CR program. The maximum and minimum P-waves and P-wave dispersion after CR were 97 ± 6 ms, 53 ± 5 ms, and 44 ± 5 ms, respectively. Aortic strain and distensibility increased and aortic stiffness index was decreased significantly. Aortic stiffness index was 0.4 ± 0.2 versus 0.3 ± 0.2, P = 0.001. Aortic stiffness and left atrial volume showed a moderate positive correlation with P-wave dispersion (r = 0.52, P = 0.005; r = 0.64, P = 0.000, respectively. CONCLUSION: This study showed decreased arterial stiffness indexes in AMI patient’s participated CR, with a significant relationship between the electromechanical properties of the LA that may raise a question of the preventive effect of CR from atrial fibrillation and stroke in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Keywords: Cardiac Rehabilitation, P-Wave Dispersion, Aortic Stiffness, Acute Myocardial Infarction
Surface Wave Velocity-Stress Relationship in Uniaxially Loaded Concrete
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Shokouhi, Parisa; Zoëga, Andreas; Wiggenhauser, Herbert
2012-01-01
The sonic surface wave (or Rayleigh wave) velocity measured on prismatic concrete specimens under uniaxial compression was found to be highly stress-dependent. At low stress levels, the acoustoelastic effect and the closure of existing microcracks results in a gradual increase in surface wave...... velocities. At higher stress levels, concrete suffers irrecoverable damage: the existing microcracks widen and coalesce and new microcracks form. This progressive damage process leads first to the flattening and eventually the drop in the velocity-stress curves. Measurements on specimens undergoing several...... loading cycles revealed that the velocities show a stress-memory effect in good agreement with the Kaiser effect. Comparing the velocities measured during loading and unloading, the effects of stress and damage on the measured velocities could be differentiated. Moreover, the stress dependency of surface...
Relationship between ultrasonic Rayleigh waves and surface residual stress
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adler, L.; Cook, K.V.; Dewey, B.R.; King, R.T.
1977-01-01
Local variations of Rayleigh (surface) circumferential ultrasonic wave velocity near a pipe-girth weld in large-diameter thin-wall type 316H stainless steel pipe were measured. The weldment was similar to those anticipated for the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) piping systems. The residual stress distribution was estimated independently from shell theory for an elastic, infinite, thin shell with circumferential line loading. An upper bound on the magnitude of the residual stresses was estimated assuming the deformation of the shell was entirely elastic. The pattern of surface wave velocity variations matches the theoretical residual stress pattern closely. It is suggested that the monitoring of surface wave velocity variations might be used for characterizing residual stress patterns near critical welds in piping, aiding in design calculations, and for in-service monitoring of the state of stress of weldments
Surface Acoustic Wave Devices for Harsh Environment Wireless Sensing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
David W. Greve
2013-05-01
Full Text Available Langasite surface acoustic wave devices can be used to implement harsh-environment wireless sensing of gas concentration and temperature. This paper reviews prior work on the development of langasite surface acoustic wave devices, followed by a report of recent progress toward the implementation of oxygen gas sensors. Resistive metal oxide films can be used as the oxygen sensing film, although development of an adherent barrier layer will be necessary with the sensing layers studied here to prevent interaction with the langasite substrate. Experimental results are presented for the performance of a langasite surface acoustic wave oxygen sensor with tin oxide sensing layer, and these experimental results are correlated with direct measurements of the sensing layer resistivity.
Guo, Xiao; Wei, Peijun
2016-03-01
The dispersion relations of elastic waves in a one-dimensional phononic crystal formed by periodically repeating of a pre-stressed piezoelectric slab and a pre-stressed piezomagnetic slab are studied in this paper. The influences of initial stress on the dispersive relation are considered based on the incremental stress theory. First, the incremental stress theory of elastic solid is extended to the magneto-electro-elasto solid. The governing equations, constitutive equations, and boundary conditions of the incremental stresses in a magneto-electro-elasto solid are derived with consideration of the existence of initial stresses. Then, the transfer matrices of a pre-stressed piezoelectric slab and a pre-stressed piezomagnetic slab are formulated, respectively. The total transfer matrix of a single cell in the phononic crystal is obtained by the multiplication of two transfer matrixes related with two adjacent slabs. Furthermore, the Bloch theorem is used to obtain the dispersive equations of in-plane and anti-plane Bloch waves. The dispersive equations are solved numerically and the numerical results are shown graphically. The oblique propagation and the normal propagation situations are both considered. In the case of normal propagation of elastic waves, the analytical expressions of the dispersion equation are derived and compared with other literatures. The influences of initial stresses, including the normal initial stresses and shear initial stresses, on the dispersive relations are both discussed based on the numerical results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liu Yongjun
2015-01-01
Full Text Available In this thesis, the influence of complete Coriolis force (the model includes both the vertical and horizontal components of Coriolis force on the dispersion relation of ocean internal-wave under background currents field are studied, it is important to the study of ocean internal waves in density-stratified ocean. We start from the control equation of sea water movement in the background of the non-traditional approximation, and the vertical velocity solution is derived where buoyancy frequency N(z gradually varies with the ocean depth z. The results show that the influence of complete Coriolis force on the dispersion relation of ocean internal-wave under background currents field is obvious, and these results provide strong evidence for the understanding of dynamic process of density stratified ocean internal waves.
Anisotropic surface acoustic waves in tungsten/lithium niobate phononic crystals
Sun, Jia-Hong; Yu, Yuan-Hai
2018-02-01
Phononic crystals (PnC) were known for acoustic band gaps for different acoustic waves. PnCs were already applied in surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices as reflective gratings based on the band gaps. In this paper, another important property of PnCs, the anisotropic propagation, was studied. PnCs made of circular tungsten films on a lithium niobate substrate were analyzed by finite element method. Dispersion curves and equal frequency contours of surface acoustic waves in PnCs of various dimensions were calculated to study the anisotropy. The non-circular equal frequency contours and negative refraction of group velocity were observed. Then PnC was applied as an acoustic lens based on the anisotropic propagation. Trajectory of SAW passing PnC lens was calculated and transmission of SAW was optimized by selecting proper layers of lens and applying tapered PnC. The result showed that PnC lens can suppress diffraction of surface waves effectively and improve the performance of SAW devices.
Measuring sea surface height with a GNSS-Wave Glider
Morales Maqueda, Miguel Angel; Penna, Nigel T.; Foden, Peter R.; Martin, Ian; Cipollini, Paolo; Williams, Simon D.; Pugh, Jeff P.
2017-04-01
A GNSS-Wave Glider is a novel technique to measure sea surface height autonomously using the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS). It consists of an unmanned surface vehicle manufactured by Liquid Robotics, a Wave Glider, and a geodetic-grade GNSS antenna-receiver system, with the antenna installed on a mast on the vehicle's deck. The Wave Glider uses the differential wave motion through the water column for propulsion, thus guaranteeing an, in principle, indefinite autonomy. Solar energy is collected to power all on-board instrumentation, including the GNSS system. The GNSS-Wave Glider was first tested in Loch Ness in 2013, demonstrating that the technology is capable of mapping geoid heights within the loch with an accuracy of a few centimetres. The trial in Loch Ness did not conclusively confirm the reliability of the technique because, during the tests, the state of the water surface was much more benign than would normally be expect in the open ocean. We now report on a first deployment of a GNSS-Wave Glider in the North Sea. The deployment took place in August 2016 and lasted thirteen days, during which the vehicle covered a distance of about 350 nautical miles in the north western North Sea off Great Britain. During the experiment, the GNSS-Wave Glider experienced sea states between 1 (0-0.1 m wave heights) and 5 (2.5-4 m wave heights). The GNSS-Wave Glider data, recorded at 5 Hz frequency, were analysed using a post-processed kinematic GPS-GLONASS precise point positioning (PPP) approach, which were quality controlled using double difference GPS kinematic processing with respect to onshore reference stations. Filtered with a 900 s moving-average window, the PPP heights reveal geoid patterns in the survey area that are very similar to the EGM2008 geoid model, thus demonstrating the potential use of a GNSS-Wave Glider for marine geoid determination. The residual of subtracting the modelled or measured marine geoid from the PPP signal combines information
Stop and Go - Waves of Tarsier Dispersal Mirror the Genesis of Sulawesi Island.
Driller, Christine; Merker, Stefan; Perwitasari-Farajallah, Dyah; Sinaga, Walberto; Anggraeni, Novita; Zischler, Hans
2015-01-01
The Indonesian island of Sulawesi harbors a highly endemic and diverse fauna sparking fascination since long before Wallace's contemplation of biogeographical patterns in the region. Allopatric diversification driven by geological or climatic processes has been identified as the main mechanism shaping present faunal distribution on the island. There is both consensus and conflict among range patterns of terrestrial species pointing to the different effects of vicariant events on once co-distributed taxa. Tarsiers, small nocturnal primates with possible evidence of an Eocene fossil record on the Asian mainland, are at present exclusively found in insular Southeast Asia. Sulawesi is hotspot of tarsier diversity, whereby island colonization and subsequent radiation of this old endemic primate lineage remained largely enigmatic. To resolve the phylogeographic history of Sulawesi tarsiers we analyzed an island-wide sample for a set of five approved autosomal phylogenetic markers (ABCA1, ADORA3, AXIN1, RAG1, and TTR) and the paternally inherited SRY gene. We constructed ML and Bayesian phylogenetic trees and estimated divergence times between tarsier populations. We found that their arrival at the Proto-Sulawesi archipelago coincided with initial Miocene tectonic uplift and hypothesize that tarsiers dispersed over the region in distinct waves. Intra-island diversification was spurred by land emergence and a rapid succession of glacial cycles during the Plio-Pleistocene. Some tarsier range boundaries concur with spatial limits in other taxa backing the notion of centers of faunal endemism on Sulawesi. This congruence, however, has partially been superimposed by taxon-specific dispersal patterns.
P-wave and QT dispersion in patients with conversion disorder.
Izci, Filiz; Hocagil, Hilal; Izci, Servet; Izci, Vedat; Koc, Merve Iris; Acar, Rezzan Deniz
2015-01-01
The aim of this study was to investigate QT dispersion (QTd), which is the noninvasive marker of ventricular arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death, and P-wave dispersion, which is the noninvasive marker of atrial arrhythmia, in patients with conversion disorder (CD). A total of 60 patients with no known organic disease who were admitted to outpatient emergency clinic and were diagnosed with CD after psychiatric consultation were included in this study along with 60 healthy control subjects. Beck Anxiety Inventory and Beck Depression Scale were administered to patients and 12-lead electrocardiogram measurements were obtained. Pd and QTd were calculated by a single blinded cardiologist. There was no statistically significant difference in terms of age, sex, education level, socioeconomic status, weight, height, and body mass index between CD patients and controls. Beck Anxiety Inventory scores (25.2±10.8 and 3.8±3.2, respectively, Pconversion patients and control group (46±5.7 vs 44±5.5, respectively, P=0.156). Regarding QTc and QTd, there was a statistically significant increase in all intervals in conversion patients (416±10 vs 398±12, Pdisorders was also observed in CD patients. QTc and QTd were significantly increased compared to the control group in patients with CD. These results suggest a possibility of increased risk of ventricular arrhythmia resulting from QTd in CD patients. Larger samples are needed to evaluate the clinical course and prognosis in terms of arrhythmia risk in CD patients.
Photonic Crystal Biosensor Based on Optical Surface Waves
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Giovanni Dietler
2013-02-01
Full Text Available A label-free biosensor device based on registration of photonic crystal surface waves is described. Angular interrogation of the optical surface wave resonance is used to detect changes in the thickness of an adsorbed layer, while an additional simultaneous detection of the critical angle of total internal reflection provides independent data of the liquid refractive index. The abilities of the device are demonstrated by measuring of biotin molecule binding to a streptavidin monolayer, and by measuring association and dissociation kinetics of immunoglobulin G proteins. Additionally, deposition of PSS / PAH polyelectrolytes is recorded in situ resulting calculation of PSS and PAH monolayer thicknesses separately.
Flow profiling of a surface-acoustic-wave nanopump
Guttenberg, Z.; Rathgeber, A.; Keller, S.; Rädler, J. O.; Wixforth, A.; Kostur, M.; Schindler, M.; Talkner, P.
2004-11-01
The flow profile in a capillary gap and the pumping efficiency of an acoustic micropump employing surface acoustic waves is investigated both experimentally and theoretically. Ultrasonic surface waves on a piezoelectric substrate strongly couple to a thin liquid layer and generate a quadrupolar streaming pattern within the fluid. We use fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and fluorescence microscopy as complementary tools to investigate the resulting flow profile. The velocity was found to depend on the applied power approximately linearly and to decrease with the inverse third power of the distance from the ultrasound generator on the chip. The found properties reveal acoustic streaming as a promising tool for the controlled agitation during microarray hybridization.
Evaluation of ground stiffness parameters using continuous surface wave geophysics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gordon, Anne; Foged, Niels
2000-01-01
Present day knowledge of the magnitude of the strain levels in the ground associated with geotechnical structures, together with an increasing number of projects requiring the best estimates of ground movements around excavations, has led to, inter alia, increased interest in measuring the very......-small-strain stiffness of the ground Gmax. Continuous surface wave geophysics offers a quick, non-intrusive and economical way of making such measurements. This paper reviews the continuous surface wave techniques and evaluates, in engineering terms, the applicability of the method to the site investigation industry....
Improved Modeling and Prediction of Surface Wave Amplitudes
2017-05-31
AFRL-RV-PS- AFRL-RV-PS- TR-2017-0162 TR-2017-0162 IMPROVED MODELING AND PREDICTION OF SURFACE WAVE AMPLITUDES Jeffry L. Stevens, et al. Leidos...data does not license the holder or any other person or corporation; or convey any rights or permission to manufacture, use, or sell any patented...SUBTITLE Improved Modeling and Prediction of Surface Wave Amplitudes 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA9453-14-C-0225 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER
Super-virtual Interferometric Separation and Enhancement of Back-scattered Surface Waves
Guo, Bowen
2015-08-19
Back-scattered surface waves can be migrated to detect near-surface reflectors with steep dips. A robust surface-wave migration requires the prior separation of the back-scattered surface-wave events from the data. This separation is often difficult to implement because the back-scattered surface waves are masked by the incident surface waves. We mitigate this problem by using a super-virtual interferometric method to enhance and separate the back-scattered surface waves. The key idea is to calculate the virtual back-scattered surface waves by stacking the resulting virtual correlated and convolved traces associated with the incident and back-scattered waves. Stacking the virtual back-scattered surface waves improves their signal-to-noise ratio and separates the back-scattered surface-waves from the incident field. Both synthetic and field data results validate the robustness of this method.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Song Lina; Zhang Hongqing
2007-01-01
In this work, by means of a generalized method and symbolic computation, we extend the Jacobi elliptic function rational expansion method to uniformly construct a series of stochastic wave solutions for stochastic evolution equations. To illustrate the effectiveness of our method, we take the (2+1)-dimensional stochastic dispersive long wave system as an example. We not only have obtained some known solutions, but also have constructed some new rational formal stochastic Jacobi elliptic function solutions.
Study on surface wave characteristics of free surface flow of liquid metal lithium for IFMIF
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hoashi, Eiji; Sugiura, Hirokazu; Yoshihashi-Suzuki, Sachiko; Yamaoka, Nobuo; Horiike, Hiroshi; Kanemura, Takuji; Kondo, Hiroo
2011-01-01
The international fusion materials irradiation facility (IFMIF) presents an intense neutron source to develop fusion reactor materials. The free surface flow of a liquid metal Lithium (Li) is planned as a target irradiated by two deuteron beams to generate intense neutrons and it is thus important to obtain knowledge of the surface wave characteristic for the safety and the efficiency of system in the IFMIF. We have been studying on surface wave characteristics experimentally using the liquid metal Li circulation facility at Osaka University and numerically using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code, FLUENT. This paper reports the results of the surface fluctuation, the wave height and the surface velocity in the free surface flow of the liquid metal Li examined experimentally and numerically. In the experiment, an electro-contact probe apparatus was used to obtain the surface fluctuation and the wave height, and a high speed video was used to measure the surface velocity. We resulted in knowledge of the surface wave growth mechanism. On the other hand, a CFD simulation was also conducted to obtain information on the relation of the free surface with the inner flow. In the simulation, the model included from a two-staged contraction nozzle to a flow channel with a free surface flow region and simulation results were compared with the experimental data. (author)
Spectral analysis of surface waves method to assess shear wave velocity within centrifuge models
MURILLO, Carol Andrea; THOREL, Luc; CAICEDO, Bernardo
2009-01-01
The method of the spectral analysis of surface waves (SASW) is tested out on reduced scale centrifuge models, with a specific device, called the mini Falling Weight, developed for this purpose. Tests are performed on layered materials made of a mixture of sand and clay. The shear wave velocity VS determined within the models using the SASW is compared with the laboratory measurements carried out using the bender element test. The results show that the SASW technique applied to centrifuge test...
Xu, Yanlong
2015-08-01
The coupled mode theory with coupling of diffraction modes and waveguide modes is usually used on the calculations of transmission and reflection coefficients for electromagnetic waves traveling through periodic sub-wavelength structures. In this paper, I extend this method to derive analytical solutions of high-order dispersion relations for shear horizontal (SH) wave propagation in elastic plates with periodic stubs. In the long wavelength regime, the explicit expression is obtained by this theory and derived specially by employing an effective medium. This indicates that the periodical stubs are equivalent to an effective homogenous layer in the long wavelength. Notably, in the short wavelength regime, high-order diffraction modes in the plate and high-order waveguide modes in the stubs are considered with modes coupling to compute the band structures. Numerical results of the coupled mode theory fit pretty well with the results of the finite element method (FEM). In addition, the band structures\\' evolution with the height of the stubs and the thickness of the plate shows clearly that the method can predict well the Bragg band gaps, locally resonant band gaps and high-order symmetric and anti-symmetric thickness-twist modes for the periodically structured plates. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.
Amador, Carolina; Urban, Matthew W; Chen, Shigao; Greenleaf, James F
2012-03-07
Elasticity imaging methods have been used to study tissue mechanical properties and have demonstrated that tissue elasticity changes with disease state. In current shear wave elasticity imaging methods typically only shear wave speed is measured and rheological models, e.g. Kelvin-Voigt, Maxwell and Standard Linear Solid, are used to solve for tissue mechanical properties such as the shear viscoelastic complex modulus. This paper presents a method to quantify viscoelastic material properties in a model-independent way by estimating the complex shear elastic modulus over a wide frequency range using time-dependent creep response induced by acoustic radiation force. This radiation force induced creep method uses a conversion formula that is the analytic solution of a constitutive equation. The proposed method in combination with shearwave dispersion ultrasound vibrometry is used to measure the complex modulus so that knowledge of the applied radiation force magnitude is not necessary. The conversion formula is shown to be sensitive to sampling frequency and the first reliable measure in time according to numerical simulations using the Kelvin-Voigt model creep strain and compliance. Representative model-free shear complex moduli from homogeneous tissue mimicking phantoms and one excised swine kidney were obtained. This work proposes a novel model-free ultrasound-based elasticity method that does not require a rheological model with associated fitting requirements.
Spin-wave dispersion of nanostructured magnonic crystals with periodic defects
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. L. Zhang
2016-11-01
Full Text Available The spin-wave dispersions in nanostructured magnonic crystals with periodic defects have been mapped by Brillouin light scattering. The otherwise perfect crystals are one-dimensional arrays of alternating 460nm-wide Ni80Fe20 stripes and 40nm-wide air gaps, where one in ten Ni80Fe20 stripes is a defect of width other than 460 nm. Experimentally, the defects are manifested as additional Brillouin peaks, lying within the first and second bandgaps of the perfect crystal, whose frequencies decrease with increasing defect stripe width. Finite-element calculations, based on a supercell comprising one defect and nine perfect Py stripes, show that the defect modes are localized about the defects, with the localization exhibiting an approximate U-shaped dependence on defect size. Calculations also reveal extra magnon branches and the opening of mini-bandgaps, within the allowed bands of the perfect crystal, arising from Bragg reflections at the boundaries of the shorter supercell Brillouin zone. Simulated magnetization profiles of the band-edge modes of the major and mini-bandgaps reveal their different symmetries and localization properties. The findings could find application in microwave magnonic devices like single-frequency passband spin-wave filters.
Jin, Xin; Zhang, Zhen-Hai; Zhu, Jing; Sun, E; Yu, Dan-Hong; Chen, Xiao-Yun; Liu, Qi-Yuan; Ning, Qing; Jia, Xiao-Bin
2012-04-01
This article reports that nano-silica solid dispersion technology was used to raise genistein efficiency through increasing the enzymatic hydrolysis rate. Firstly, genistin-nano-silica solid dispersion was prepared by solvent method. And differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to verify the formation of solid dispersion, then enzymatic hydrolysis of solid dispersion was done by snailase to get genistein. With the conversion of genistein as criteria, single factor experiments were used to study the different factors affecting enzymatic hydrolysis of genistin and its solid dispersion. And then, response surface method was used to optimize of nano-silica solid dispersion technology assistant enzymatic hydrolysis. The optimum condition to get genistein through enzymatic hydrolysis of genistin-nano-silica solid dispersion was pH 7.1, temperature 52.2 degrees C, enzyme concentration 5.0 mg x mL(-1) and reaction time 7 h. Under this condition, the conversion of genistein was (93.47 +/- 2.40)%. Comparing with that without forming the genistin-nano-silica solid dispersion, the conversion increased 2.62 fold. At the same time, the product of hydrolysis was purified to get pure genistein. The method of enzymatic hydrolysis of genistin-nano-silica solid dispersion by snailase to obtain genistein is simple, efficiency and suitable for the modern scale production.
P-wave and QT dispersion in patients with conversion disorder
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Izci F
2015-03-01
Full Text Available Filiz Izci,1 Hilal Hocagil,2 Servet Izci,3 Vedat Izci,4 Merve Iris Koc,5 Rezzan Deniz Acar3 1Department of Psychiatry, Istanbul Bilim University, Sisli Florence Nightingale Hospital; 2Department of Emergency, Faculty of Medicine Hospital Zonguldak Bulent Ecevit University, Zonguldak, Turkey; 3Department of Cardiology, Kosuyolu High Specialization Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey; 4Department of Emergency, Kartal Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey; 5Department of Psychiatry, Erenköy Training and Research Hospital for Psychiatry, Istanbul, Turkey Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate QT dispersion (QTd, which is the noninvasive marker of ventricular arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death, and P-wave dispersion, which is the noninvasive marker of atrial arrhythmia, in patients with conversion disorder (CD.Patients and methods: A total of 60 patients with no known organic disease who were admitted to outpatient emergency clinic and were diagnosed with CD after psychiatric consultation were included in this study along with 60 healthy control subjects. Beck Anxiety Inventory and Beck Depression Scale were administered to patients and 12-lead electrocardiogram measurements were obtained. Pd and QTd were calculated by a single blinded cardiologist.Results: There was no statistically significant difference in terms of age, sex, education level, socioeconomic status, weight, height, and body mass index between CD patients and controls. Beck Anxiety Inventory scores (25.2±10.8 and 3.8±3.2, respectively, P<0.001 and Beck Depression Scale scores (11.24±6.15 and 6.58±5.69, respectively, P<0.01 were significantly higher in CD patients. P-wave dispersion measurements did not show any significant differences between conversion patients and control group (46±5.7 vs 44±5.5, respectively, P=0.156. Regarding QTc and QTd, there was a statistically significant increase in all intervals in conversion patients (416
Imaging near-surface heterogeneities by natural migration of backscattered surface waves
AlTheyab, Abdullah
2016-02-01
We present a migration method that does not require a velocity model to migrate backscattered surface waves to their projected locations on the surface. This migration method, denoted as natural migration, uses recorded Green\\'s functions along the surface instead of simulated Green\\'s functions. The key assumptions are that the scattering bodies are within the depth interrogated by the surface waves, and the Green\\'s functions are recorded with dense receiver sampling along the free surface. This natural migration takes into account all orders of multiples, mode conversions and non-linear effects of surface waves in the data. The natural imaging formulae are derived for both active source and ambient-noise data, and computer simulations show that natural migration can effectively image near-surface heterogeneities with typical ambient-noise sources and geophone distributions.
Swimming droplets driven by a surface wave
Ebata, Hiroyuki; Sano, Masaki
2015-02-01
Self-propelling motion is ubiquitous for soft active objects such as crawling cells, active filaments, and liquid droplets moving on surfaces. Deformation and energy dissipation are required for self-propulsion of both living and non-living matter. From the perspective of physics, searching for universal laws of self-propelled motions in a dissipative environment is worthwhile, regardless of the objects' details. In this article, we propose a simple experimental system that demonstrates spontaneous migration of a droplet under uniform mechanical agitation. As we vary control parameters, spontaneous symmetry breaking occurs sequentially, and cascades of bifurcations of the motion arise. Equations describing deformable particles and hydrodynamic simulations successfully describe all of the observed motions. This system should enable us to improve our understanding of spontaneous motions of self-propelled objects.
Holograms for power-efficient excitation of optical surface waves
Ignatov, Anton I.; Merzlikin, Alexander M.
2018-02-01
A method for effective excitation of optical surface waves based on holography principles has been proposed. For a particular example of excitation of a plasmonic wave in a dielectric layer on metal the efficiency of proposed volume holograms in the dielectric layer has been analyzed in comparison with optimized periodic gratings in the dielectric layer. Conditions when the holograms are considerably more efficient than the gratings have been found out. In addition, holograms recorded in two iterations have been proposed and studied. Such holograms are substantially more efficient than the optimized periodic gratings for all incidence angles of an exciting Gaussian beam. The proposed method is universal: it can be extended for efficient excitation of different types of optical surface waves and optical waveguide modes.
Surface Plasmon Waves on Thin Metal Films.
Craig, Alan Ellsworth
Surface-plasmon polaritons propagating on thin metal films bounded by dielectrics of nearly equal refractive indexes comprise two bound modes. Calculations indicate that, while the modes are degenerate on thick films, both the real and the imaginary components of the propagation constants for the modes split into two branches on successively thinner films. Considering these non-degenerate modes, the mode exhibiting a symmetric (antisymmetric) transverse profile of the longitudinally polarized electric field component, has propagation constant components both of which increase (decrease) with decreasing film thickness. Theoretical propagation constant eigenvalue (PCE) curves have been plotted which delineate this dependence of both propagation constant components on film thickness. By means of a retroreflecting, hemispherical glass coupler in an attenuated total reflection (ATR) configuration, light of wavelength 632.8 nm coupled to the modes of thin silver films deposited on polished glass substrates. Lorentzian lineshape dips in the plots of reflectance vs. angle of incidence indicate the presence of the plasmon modes. The real and imaginary components of the propagation constraints (i.e., the propagation constant and loss coefficient) were calculated from the angular positions and widths of the ATR resonances recorded. Films of several thicknesses were probed. Results which support the theoretically predicted curves were reported.
Optimizing surface acoustic wave sensors for trace chemical detection
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Frye, G.C.; Kottenstette, R.J.; Heller, E.J. [and others
1997-06-01
This paper describes several recent advances for fabricating coated surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors for applications requiring trace chemical detection. Specifically, we have demonstrated that high surface area microporous oxides can provide 100-fold improvements in SAW sensor responses compared with more typical polymeric coatings. In addition, we fabricated GaAs SAW devices with frequencies up to 500 MHz to provide greater sensitivity and an ideal substrate for integration with high-frequency electronics.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Benova, E.; Ghanashev, I.; Zhelyazkov, I.
1992-01-01
The modelling of isotropic plasma columns sustained by travelling electromagnetic waves in the dipolar mode (angular dependence exp imφ, m=±1) shows that the m=±1 modes have identical dispersion characteristics. In the presence of an external static magnetic field, however, the modes behave rather differently. This observation arose in studying the axial structures of magnetized plasma columns surrounded by vacuum and produced by travelling electromagnetic waves in the dipolar modes. We examine the propagation of electromagnetic waves along a homogeneous cold plasma column of radius R and electron number density n immersed in an axial constant magnetic field. (author) 3 refs., 3 figs
Spectral analysis of surface waves method to assess shear wave velocity within centrifuge models
Murillo, Carol Andrea; Thorel, Luc; Caicedo, Bernardo
2009-06-01
The method of the spectral analysis of surface waves (SASW) is tested out on reduced scale centrifuge models, with a specific device, called the mini Falling Weight, developed for this purpose. Tests are performed on layered materials made of a mixture of sand and clay. The shear wave velocity VS determined within the models using the SASW is compared with the laboratory measurements carried out using the bender element test. The results show that the SASW technique applied to centrifuge testing is a relevant method to characterize VS near the surface.
Quantitative photography of intermittency in surface wave turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wright, W.; Budakian, R.; Putterman, S.J.
1997-01-01
At high amplitudes of excitation surface waves on water distribute their energy according to a Kolmogorov type of turbulent power spectrum. We have used diffusing light photography to measure the power spectrum and to quantify the presence of large structures in the turbulent state
Universal Quantum Transducers Based on Surface Acoustic Waves
Schuetz, M.J.A.; Kessler, E.M.; Giedke, G.; Vandersypen, L.M.K.; Lukin, M.D.; Cirac, J.I.
2015-01-01
We propose a universal, on-chip quantum transducer based on surface acoustic waves in piezoactive materials. Because of the intrinsic piezoelectric (and/or magnetostrictive) properties of the material, our approach provides a universal platform capable of coherently linking a broad array of qubits,
Tuning Acoustic Wave Properties by Mechanical Resonators on a Surface
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dühring, Maria Bayard; Laude, Vincent; Khelif, Abdelkrim
Vibrations generated by high aspects ratio electrodes are studied by the finite element method. It is found that the modes are combined of a surface wave and vibration in the electrodes. For increasing aspect ratio most of the mechanical energy is confined to the electrodes which act as mechanical...
Field verification of ADCP surface gravity wave elevation spectra
Hoitink, A.J.F.; Peters, H.C.; Schroevers, M.
2007-01-01
Acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs) can measure orbital velocities induced by surface gravity waves, yet the ADCP estimates of these velocities are subject to a relatively high noise level. The present paper introduces a linear filtration technique to significantly reduce the influence of
Kinetic theory of surface waves in plasma jets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shokri, B.
2002-01-01
The kinetic theory analysis of surface waves propagating along a semi-bounded plasma jet is presented. The frequency spectra and their damping rate are obtained in both the high and low frequency regions. Finally, the penetration of the static field in the plasma jet under the condition that the plasma jet velocity is smaller than the sound velocity is studied
Lee, Myoung-Jae; Jung, Young-Dae
2018-05-01
The dispersion properties of surface dust ion-acoustic waves in a self-gravitating magnetized dusty plasma layer with the (r, q) distribution are investigated. The result shows that the wave frequency of the symmetric mode in the plasma layer decreases with an increase in the wave number. It is also shown that the wave frequency of the symmetric mode decreases with an increase in the spectral index r. However, the wave frequency of the anti-symmetric mode increases with an increase in the wave number. It is also found that the anti-symmetric mode wave frequency increases with an increase in the spectral index r. In addition, it is found that the influence of the self-gravitation on the symmetric mode wave frequency decreases with increasing scaled Jeans frequency. Moreover, it is found that the wave frequency of the symmetric mode increases with an increase in the dust charge; however, the anti-symmetric mode shows opposite behavior.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gliese, Ulrik Bo; Nielsen, Søren Nørskov; Nielsen, Søren Nørskov
1996-01-01
Chromatic dispersion significantly limits the distance and/or frequency in fibre-optic microwave and millimeter-wave links based on direct detection due to a decrease of the carrier to noise ratio. The limitations in links based on coherent remote heterodyne detection, however, are far less...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Koefoed, Jacob Gade; Friis, Søren Michael Mørk; Christensen, Jesper Bjerge
2017-01-01
We model the spectral quantum-mechanical purity of heralded single photons from a photon-pair source based on nondegenerate spontaneous four-wave mixing taking the impact of distributed dispersion fluctuations into account. The considered photon-pair-generation scheme utilizes pump-pulse walk...
Electron acceleration by surface plasma waves in double metal surface structure
Liu, C. S.; Kumar, Gagan; Singh, D. B.; Tripathi, V. K.
2007-12-01
Two parallel metal sheets, separated by a vacuum region, support a surface plasma wave whose amplitude is maximum on the two parallel interfaces and minimum in the middle. This mode can be excited by a laser using a glass prism. An electron beam launched into the middle region experiences a longitudinal ponderomotive force due to the surface plasma wave and gets accelerated to velocities of the order of phase velocity of the surface wave. The scheme is viable to achieve beams of tens of keV energy. In the case of a surface plasma wave excited on a single metal-vacuum interface, the field gradient normal to the interface pushes the electrons away from the high field region, limiting the acceleration process. The acceleration energy thus achieved is in agreement with the experimental observations.