WorldWideScience

Sample records for surface water ice

  1. Dynamics of ice nucleation on water repellent surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Azar; Yamada, Masako; Li, Ri; Shang, Wen; Otta, Shourya; Zhong, Sheng; Ge, Liehui; Dhinojwala, Ali; Conway, Ken R; Bahadur, Vaibhav; Vinciquerra, A Joseph; Stephens, Brian; Blohm, Margaret L

    2012-02-14

    Prevention of ice accretion and adhesion on surfaces is relevant to many applications, leading to improved operation safety, increased energy efficiency, and cost reduction. Development of passive nonicing coatings is highly desirable, since current antiicing strategies are energy and cost intensive. Superhydrophobicity has been proposed as a lead passive nonicing strategy, yet the exact mechanism of delayed icing on these surfaces is not clearly understood. In this work, we present an in-depth analysis of ice formation dynamics upon water droplet impact on surfaces with different wettabilities. We experimentally demonstrate that ice nucleation under low-humidity conditions can be delayed through control of surface chemistry and texture. Combining infrared (IR) thermometry and high-speed photography, we observe that the reduction of water-surface contact area on superhydrophobic surfaces plays a dual role in delaying nucleation: first by reducing heat transfer and second by reducing the probability of heterogeneous nucleation at the water-substrate interface. This work also includes an analysis (based on classical nucleation theory) to estimate various homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation rates in icing situations. The key finding is that ice nucleation delay on superhydrophobic surfaces is more prominent at moderate degrees of supercooling, while closer to the homogeneous nucleation temperature, bulk and air-water interface nucleation effects become equally important. The study presented here offers a comprehensive perspective on the efficacy of textured surfaces for nonicing applications.

  2. WATER ICE AT THE SURFACE OF THE HD 100546 DISK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honda, M. [Department of Physics, Kurume University School of Medicine, 67 Asahi-machi, Kurume, Fukuoka, 830-0011 (Japan); Kudo, T.; Terada, H.; Takato, N. [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 650 North A’ohoku Place, Hilo, Hawaii 96720 (United States); Takatsuki, S.; Nakamoto, T. [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Inoue, A. K. [College of General Education, Osaka Sangyo University, Daito, Osaka 574-8530 (Japan); Fukagawa, M.; Tamura, M. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2016-04-10

    We made near-infrared multicolor imaging observations of a disk around Herbig Be star HD 100546 using Gemini/NICI. K (2.2 μm), H{sub 2}O ice (3.06 μm), and L′ (3.8 μm) disk images were obtained and we found a 3.1 μm absorption feature in the scattered light spectrum, likely due to water ice grains at the disk surface. We compared the observed depth of the ice absorption feature with the disk model based on Oka et al., including the water ice photodesorption effect by stellar UV photons. The observed absorption depth can be explained by both the disk models with and without the photodesorption effect within the measurement accuracy, but the model with photodesorption effects is slightly more favored, implying that the UV photons play an important role in the survival/destruction of ice grains at the Herbig Ae/Be disk surface. Further improvement to the accuracy of the observations of the water ice absorption depth is needed to constrain the disk models.

  3. WATER ICE AT THE SURFACE OF THE HD 100546 DISK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, M.; Kudo, T.; Terada, H.; Takato, N.; Takatsuki, S.; Nakamoto, T.; Inoue, A. K.; Fukagawa, M.; Tamura, M.

    2016-01-01

    We made near-infrared multicolor imaging observations of a disk around Herbig Be star HD 100546 using Gemini/NICI. K (2.2 μm), H 2 O ice (3.06 μm), and L′ (3.8 μm) disk images were obtained and we found a 3.1 μm absorption feature in the scattered light spectrum, likely due to water ice grains at the disk surface. We compared the observed depth of the ice absorption feature with the disk model based on Oka et al., including the water ice photodesorption effect by stellar UV photons. The observed absorption depth can be explained by both the disk models with and without the photodesorption effect within the measurement accuracy, but the model with photodesorption effects is slightly more favored, implying that the UV photons play an important role in the survival/destruction of ice grains at the Herbig Ae/Be disk surface. Further improvement to the accuracy of the observations of the water ice absorption depth is needed to constrain the disk models

  4. Heterogeneous Ice Nucleation: Interplay of Surface Properties and Their Impact on Water Orientations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatz, Brittany; Sarupria, Sapna

    2018-01-23

    Ice is ubiquitous in nature, and heterogeneous ice nucleation is the most common pathway of ice formation. How surface properties affect the propensity to observe ice nucleation on that surface remains an open question. We present results of molecular dynamics studies of heterogeneous ice nucleation on model surfaces. The models surfaces considered emulate the chemistry of kaolinite, an abundant component of mineral dust. We investigate the interplay of surface lattice and hydrogen bonding properties in affecting ice nucleation. We find that lattice matching and hydrogen bonding are necessary but not sufficient conditions for observing ice nucleation at these surfaces. We correlate this behavior to the orientations sampled by the metastable supercooled water in contact with the surfaces. We find that ice is observed in cases where water molecules not only sample orientations favorable for bilayer formation but also do not sample unfavorable orientations. This distribution depends on both surface-water and water-water interactions and can change with subtle modifications to the surface properties. Our results provide insights into the diverse behavior of ice nucleation observed at different surfaces and highlight the complexity in elucidating heterogeneous ice nucleation.

  5. Surfacing behavior and gas release of the physostome sprat (Sprattus sprattus) in ice-free and ice-covered waters

    KAUST Repository

    Solberg, Ingrid

    2013-10-04

    Upward-facing echosounders that provided continuous, long-term measurements were applied to address the surfacing behavior and gas release of the physostome sprat (Sprattus sprattus) throughout an entire winter in a 150-m-deep Norwegian fjord. During ice-free conditions, the sprat surfaced and released gas bubbles at night with an estimated surfacing rate of 3.5 times per fish day-1. The vertical swimming speeds during surfacing were considerably higher (~10 times) than during diel vertical migrations, especially when returning from the surface, and particularly when the fjord was not ice covered. The sprat released gas a few hours after surfacing, suggesting that the sprat gulped atmospheric air during its excursions to the surface. While the surface activity increased after the fjord became ice covered, the records of gas release decreased sharply. The under-ice fish then displayed a behavior interpreted as "searching for the surface" by repeatedly ascending toward the ice, apparently with limited success of filling the swim bladder. This interpretation was supported by lower acoustic target strength in ice-covered waters. The frequent surfacing behavior demonstrated in this study indicates that gulping of atmospheric air is an important element in the life of sprat. While at least part of the population endured overwintering in the ice-covered habitat, ice covering may constrain those physostome fishes that lack a gas-generating gland in ways that remain to be established. 2013 The Author(s).

  6. Drag Moderation by the Melting of an Ice Surface in Contact with Water

    KAUST Repository

    Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev

    2015-07-24

    We report measurements of the effects of a melting ice surface on the hydrodynamic drag of ice-shell-metal-core spheres free falling in water at a Reynolds of number Re∼2×104–3×105 and demonstrate that the melting surface induces the early onset of the drag crisis, thus reducing the hydrodynamic drag by more than 50%. Direct visualization of the flow pattern demonstrates the key role of surface melting. Our observations support the hypothesis that the drag reduction is due to the disturbance of the viscous boundary layer by the mass transfer from the melting ice surface.

  7. Drag Moderation by the Melting of an Ice Surface in Contact with Water

    KAUST Repository

    Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev; Chan, Derek Y.  C.; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2015-01-01

    We report measurements of the effects of a melting ice surface on the hydrodynamic drag of ice-shell-metal-core spheres free falling in water at a Reynolds of number Re∼2×104–3×105 and demonstrate that the melting surface induces the early onset of the drag crisis, thus reducing the hydrodynamic drag by more than 50%. Direct visualization of the flow pattern demonstrates the key role of surface melting. Our observations support the hypothesis that the drag reduction is due to the disturbance of the viscous boundary layer by the mass transfer from the melting ice surface.

  8. Methane excess in Arctic surface water-triggered by sea ice formation and melting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damm, E; Rudels, B; Schauer, U; Mau, S; Dieckmann, G

    2015-11-10

    Arctic amplification of global warming has led to increased summer sea ice retreat, which influences gas exchange between the Arctic Ocean and the atmosphere where sea ice previously acted as a physical barrier. Indeed, recently observed enhanced atmospheric methane concentrations in Arctic regions with fractional sea-ice cover point to unexpected feedbacks in cycling of methane. We report on methane excess in sea ice-influenced water masses in the interior Arctic Ocean and provide evidence that sea ice is a potential source. We show that methane release from sea ice into the ocean occurs via brine drainage during freezing and melting i.e. in winter and spring. In summer under a fractional sea ice cover, reduced turbulence restricts gas transfer, then seawater acts as buffer in which methane remains entrained. However, in autumn and winter surface convection initiates pronounced efflux of methane from the ice covered ocean to the atmosphere. Our results demonstrate that sea ice-sourced methane cycles seasonally between sea ice, sea-ice-influenced seawater and the atmosphere, while the deeper ocean remains decoupled. Freshening due to summer sea ice retreat will enhance this decoupling, which restricts the capacity of the deeper Arctic Ocean to act as a sink for this greenhouse gas.

  9. Thermal desorption of formamide and methylamine from graphite and amorphous water ice surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaabouni, H.; Diana, S.; Nguyen, T.; Dulieu, F.

    2018-04-01

    Context. Formamide (NH2CHO) and methylamine (CH3NH2) are known to be the most abundant amine-containing molecules in many astrophysical environments. The presence of these molecules in the gas phase may result from thermal desorption of interstellar ices. Aims: The aim of this work is to determine the values of the desorption energies of formamide and methylamine from analogues of interstellar dust grain surfaces and to understand their interaction with water ice. Methods: Temperature programmed desorption (TPD) experiments of formamide and methylamine ices were performed in the sub-monolayer and monolayer regimes on graphite (HOPG) and non-porous amorphous solid water (np-ASW) ice surfaces at temperatures 40-240 K. The desorption energy distributions of these two molecules were calculated from TPD measurements using a set of independent Polanyi-Wigner equations. Results: The maximum of the desorption of formamide from both graphite and ASW ice surfaces occurs at 176 K after the desorption of H2O molecules, whereas the desorption profile of methylamine depends strongly on the substrate. Solid methylamine starts to desorb below 100 K from the graphite surface. Its desorption from the water ice surface occurs after 120 K and stops during the water ice sublimation around 150 K. It continues to desorb from the graphite surface at temperatures higher than160 K. Conclusions: More than 95% of solid NH2CHO diffuses through the np-ASW ice surface towards the graphitic substrate and is released into the gas phase with a desorption energy distribution Edes = 7460-9380 K, which is measured with the best-fit pre-exponential factor A = 1018 s-1. However, the desorption energy distribution of methylamine from the np-ASW ice surface (Edes = 3850-8420 K) is measured with the best-fit pre-exponential factor A = 1012 s-1. A fraction of solid methylamine monolayer of roughly 0.15 diffuses through the water ice surface towards the HOPG substrate. This small amount of methylamine

  10. Rapid changes in surface water carbonate chemistry during Antarctic sea ice melt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Elizabeth M.; Bakker, Dorothee C. E.; Venables, Hugh J.; Whitehouse, Michael J.; Korb, Rebecca E.; Watson, Andrew J.

    2010-11-01

    ABSTRACT The effect of sea ice melt on the carbonate chemistry of surface waters in the Weddell-Scotia Confluence, Southern Ocean, was investigated during January 2008. Contrasting concentrations of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), total alkalinity (TA) and the fugacity of carbon dioxide (fCO2) were observed in and around the receding sea ice edge. The precipitation of carbonate minerals such as ikaite (CaCO3.6H2O) in sea ice brine has the net effect of decreasing DIC and TA and increasing the fCO2 in the brine. Deficits in DIC up to 12 +/- 3 μmol kg-1 in the marginal ice zone (MIZ) were consistent with the release of DIC-poor brines to surface waters during sea ice melt. Biological utilization of carbon was the dominant processes and accounted for 41 +/- 1 μmol kg-1 of the summer DIC deficit. The data suggest that the combined effects of biological carbon uptake and the precipitation of carbonates created substantial undersaturation in fCO2 of 95 μatm in the MIZ during summer sea ice melt. Further work is required to improve the understanding of ikaite chemistry in Antarctic sea ice and its importance for the sea ice carbon pump.

  11. Satellite altimetry in sea ice regions - detecting open water for estimating sea surface heights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Felix L.; Dettmering, Denise; Bosch, Wolfgang

    2017-04-01

    The Greenland Sea and the Farm Strait are transporting sea ice from the central Arctic ocean southwards. They are covered by a dynamic changing sea ice layer with significant influences on the Earth climate system. Between the sea ice there exist various sized open water areas known as leads, straight lined open water areas, and polynyas exhibiting a circular shape. Identifying these leads by satellite altimetry enables the extraction of sea surface height information. Analyzing the radar echoes, also called waveforms, provides information on the surface backscatter characteristics. For example waveforms reflected by calm water have a very narrow and single-peaked shape. Waveforms reflected by sea ice show more variability due to diffuse scattering. Here we analyze altimeter waveforms from different conventional pulse-limited satellite altimeters to separate open water and sea ice waveforms. An unsupervised classification approach employing partitional clustering algorithms such as K-medoids and memory-based classification methods such as K-nearest neighbor is used. The classification is based on six parameters derived from the waveform's shape, for example the maximum power or the peak's width. The open-water detection is quantitatively compared to SAR images processed while accounting for sea ice motion. The classification results are used to derive information about the temporal evolution of sea ice extent and sea surface heights. They allow to provide evidence on climate change relevant influences as for example Arctic sea level rise due to enhanced melting rates of Greenland's glaciers and an increasing fresh water influx into the Arctic ocean. Additionally, the sea ice cover extent analyzed over a long-time period provides an important indicator for a globally changing climate system.

  12. Response of faults to climate-driven changes in ice and water volumes on Earth's surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampel, Andrea; Hetzel, Ralf; Maniatis, Georgios

    2010-05-28

    Numerical models including one or more faults in a rheologically stratified lithosphere show that climate-induced variations in ice and water volumes on Earth's surface considerably affect the slip evolution of both thrust and normal faults. In general, the slip rate and hence the seismicity of a fault decreases during loading and increases during unloading. Here, we present several case studies to show that a postglacial slip rate increase occurred on faults worldwide in regions where ice caps and lakes decayed at the end of the last glaciation. Of note is that the postglacial amplification of seismicity was not restricted to the areas beneath the large Laurentide and Fennoscandian ice sheets but also occurred in regions affected by smaller ice caps or lakes, e.g. the Basin-and-Range Province. Our results do not only have important consequences for the interpretation of palaeoseismological records from faults in these regions but also for the evaluation of the future seismicity in regions currently affected by deglaciation like Greenland and Antarctica: shrinkage of the modern ice sheets owing to global warming may ultimately lead to an increase in earthquake frequency in these regions.

  13. Bio-optical properties of Arctic drift ice and surface waters north of Svalbard from winter to spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczuk, Piotr; Meler, Justyna; Kauko, Hanna M.; Pavlov, Alexey K.; Zabłocka, Monika; Peeken, Ilka; Dybwad, Christine; Castellani, Giulia; Granskog, Mats A.

    2017-06-01

    We have quantified absorption by CDOM, aCDOM(λ), particulate matter, ap(λ), algal pigments, aph(λ), and detrital material, aNAP(λ), coincident with chlorophyll a in sea ice and surface waters in winter and spring 2015 in the Arctic Ocean north of Svalbard. The aCDOM(λ) was low in contrast to other regions of the Arctic Ocean, while ap(λ) has the largest contribution to absorption variability in sea ice and surface waters. ap(443) was 1.4-2.8 times and 1.3-1.8 times higher than aCDOM(443) in surface water and sea ice, respectively. aph(λ) contributed 90% and 81% to ap(λ), in open leads and under-ice waters column, and much less (53%-74%) in sea ice, respectively. Both aCDOM(λ) and ap(λ) followed closely the vertical distribution of chlorophyll a in sea ice and the water column. We observed a tenfold increase of the chlorophyll a concentration and nearly twofold increase in absorption at 443 nm in sea ice from winter to spring. The aCDOM(λ) dominated the absorption budget in the UV both in sea ice and surface waters. In the visible range, absorption was dominated by aph(λ), which contributed more than 50% and aCDOM(λ), which contributed 43% to total absorption in water column. Detrital absorption contributed significantly (33%) only in surface ice layer. Algae dynamics explained more than 90% variability in ap(λ) and aph(λ) in water column, but less than 70% in the sea ice. This study presents detailed absorption budget that is relevant for modeling of radiative transfer and primary production.

  14. COMPUTATIONAL STUDY OF INTERSTELLAR GLYCINE FORMATION OCCURRING AT RADICAL SURFACES OF WATER-ICE DUST PARTICLES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimola, Albert; Sodupe, Mariona; Ugliengo, Piero

    2012-01-01

    Glycine is the simplest amino acid, and due to the significant astrobiological implications that suppose its detection, the search for it in the interstellar medium (ISM), meteorites, and comets is intensively investigated. In the present work, quantum mechanical calculations based on density functional theory have been used to model the glycine formation on water-ice clusters present in the ISM. The removal of either one H atom or one electron from the water-ice cluster has been considered to simulate the effect of photolytic radiation and of ionizing particles, respectively, which lead to the formation of OH . radical and H 3 O + surface defects. The coupling of incoming CO molecules with the surface OH . radicals on the ice clusters yields the formation of the COOH . radicals via ZPE-corrected energy barriers and reaction energies of about 4-5 kcal mol –1 and –22 kcal mol –1 , respectively. The COOH . radicals couple with incoming NH=CH 2 molecules (experimentally detected in the ISM) to form the NHCH 2 COOH . radical glycine through energy barriers of 12 kcal mol –1 , exceedingly high at ISM cryogenic temperatures. Nonetheless, when H 3 O + is present, one proton may be barrierless transferred to NH=CH 2 to give NH 2 =CH 2 + . This latter may react with the COOH . radical to give the NH 2 CH 2 COOH +. glycine radical cation which can then be transformed into the NH 2 CHC(OH) 2 +. species (the most stable form of glycine in its radical cation state) or into the NH 2 CHCOOH . neutral radical glycine. Estimated rate constants of these events suggest that they are kinetically feasible at temperatures of 100-200 K, which indicate that their occurrence may take place in hot molecular cores or in comets exposed to warmer regions of solar systems. Present results provide quantum chemical evidence that defects formed on water ices due to the harsh-physical conditions of the ISM may trigger reactions of cosmochemical interest. The relevance of surface H 3 O

  15. Computational Study of Interstellar Glycine Formation Occurring at Radical Surfaces of Water-ice Dust Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimola, Albert; Sodupe, Mariona; Ugliengo, Piero

    2012-07-01

    Glycine is the simplest amino acid, and due to the significant astrobiological implications that suppose its detection, the search for it in the interstellar medium (ISM), meteorites, and comets is intensively investigated. In the present work, quantum mechanical calculations based on density functional theory have been used to model the glycine formation on water-ice clusters present in the ISM. The removal of either one H atom or one electron from the water-ice cluster has been considered to simulate the effect of photolytic radiation and of ionizing particles, respectively, which lead to the formation of OH• radical and H3O+ surface defects. The coupling of incoming CO molecules with the surface OH• radicals on the ice clusters yields the formation of the COOH• radicals via ZPE-corrected energy barriers and reaction energies of about 4-5 kcal mol-1 and -22 kcal mol-1, respectively. The COOH• radicals couple with incoming NH=CH2 molecules (experimentally detected in the ISM) to form the NHCH2COOH• radical glycine through energy barriers of 12 kcal mol-1, exceedingly high at ISM cryogenic temperatures. Nonetheless, when H3O+ is present, one proton may be barrierless transferred to NH=CH2 to give NH2=CH2 +. This latter may react with the COOH• radical to give the NH2CH2COOH+• glycine radical cation which can then be transformed into the NH2CHC(OH)2 +• species (the most stable form of glycine in its radical cation state) or into the NH2CHCOOH• neutral radical glycine. Estimated rate constants of these events suggest that they are kinetically feasible at temperatures of 100-200 K, which indicate that their occurrence may take place in hot molecular cores or in comets exposed to warmer regions of solar systems. Present results provide quantum chemical evidence that defects formed on water ices due to the harsh-physical conditions of the ISM may trigger reactions of cosmochemical interest. The relevance of surface H3O+ ions to facilitate chemical

  16. COMPUTATIONAL STUDY OF INTERSTELLAR GLYCINE FORMATION OCCURRING AT RADICAL SURFACES OF WATER-ICE DUST PARTICLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rimola, Albert; Sodupe, Mariona [Departament de Quimica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Ugliengo, Piero, E-mail: albert.rimola@uab.cat [Dipartimento di Chimica, NIS Centre of Excellence and INSTM (Materials and Technology National Consortium), UdR Torino, Universita di Torino, Via P. Giuria 7, 10125 Torino (Italy)

    2012-07-20

    Glycine is the simplest amino acid, and due to the significant astrobiological implications that suppose its detection, the search for it in the interstellar medium (ISM), meteorites, and comets is intensively investigated. In the present work, quantum mechanical calculations based on density functional theory have been used to model the glycine formation on water-ice clusters present in the ISM. The removal of either one H atom or one electron from the water-ice cluster has been considered to simulate the effect of photolytic radiation and of ionizing particles, respectively, which lead to the formation of OH{sup .} radical and H{sub 3}O{sup +} surface defects. The coupling of incoming CO molecules with the surface OH{sup .} radicals on the ice clusters yields the formation of the COOH{sup .} radicals via ZPE-corrected energy barriers and reaction energies of about 4-5 kcal mol{sup -1} and -22 kcal mol{sup -1}, respectively. The COOH{sup .} radicals couple with incoming NH=CH{sub 2} molecules (experimentally detected in the ISM) to form the NHCH{sub 2}COOH{sup .} radical glycine through energy barriers of 12 kcal mol{sup -1}, exceedingly high at ISM cryogenic temperatures. Nonetheless, when H{sub 3}O{sup +} is present, one proton may be barrierless transferred to NH=CH{sub 2} to give NH{sub 2}=CH{sub 2}{sup +}. This latter may react with the COOH{sup .} radical to give the NH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}COOH{sup +.} glycine radical cation which can then be transformed into the NH{sub 2}CHC(OH){sub 2}{sup +.} species (the most stable form of glycine in its radical cation state) or into the NH{sub 2}CHCOOH{sup .} neutral radical glycine. Estimated rate constants of these events suggest that they are kinetically feasible at temperatures of 100-200 K, which indicate that their occurrence may take place in hot molecular cores or in comets exposed to warmer regions of solar systems. Present results provide quantum chemical evidence that defects formed on water ices due to the harsh

  17. Computational studies of atmospherically-relevant chemical reactions in water clusters and on liquid water and ice surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, R Benny; Varner, Mychel E; Hammerich, Audrey D; Riikonen, Sampsa; Murdachaew, Garold; Shemesh, Dorit; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J

    2015-02-17

    CONSPECTUS: Reactions on water and ice surfaces and in other aqueous media are ubiquitous in the atmosphere, but the microscopic mechanisms of most of these processes are as yet unknown. This Account examines recent progress in atomistic simulations of such reactions and the insights provided into mechanisms and interpretation of experiments. Illustrative examples are discussed. The main computational approaches employed are classical trajectory simulations using interaction potentials derived from quantum chemical methods. This comprises both ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) and semiempirical molecular dynamics (SEMD), the latter referring to semiempirical quantum chemical methods. Presented examples are as follows: (i) Reaction of the (NO(+))(NO3(-)) ion pair with a water cluster to produce the atmospherically important HONO and HNO3. The simulations show that a cluster with four water molecules describes the reaction. This provides a hydrogen-bonding network supporting the transition state. The reaction is triggered by thermal structural fluctuations, and ultrafast changes in atomic partial charges play a key role. This is an example where a reaction in a small cluster can provide a model for a corresponding bulk process. The results support the proposed mechanism for production of HONO by hydrolysis of NO2 (N2O4). (ii) The reactions of gaseous HCl with N2O4 and N2O5 on liquid water surfaces. Ionization of HCl at the water/air interface is followed by nucleophilic attack of Cl(-) on N2O4 or N2O5. Both reactions proceed by an SN2 mechanism. The products are ClNO and ClNO2, precursors of atmospheric atomic chlorine. Because this mechanism cannot result from a cluster too small for HCl ionization, an extended water film model was simulated. The results explain ClNO formation experiments. Predicted ClNO2 formation is less efficient. (iii) Ionization of acids at ice surfaces. No ionization is found on ideal crystalline surfaces, but the process is efficient on

  18. Adsorption and structure of water on kaolinite surfaces: possible insight into ice nucleation from grand canonical monte carlo calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croteau, T; Bertram, A K; Patey, G N

    2008-10-30

    Grand canonical Monte Carlo calculations are used to determine water adsorption and structure on defect-free kaolinite surfaces as a function of relative humidity at 235 K. This information is then used to gain insight into ice nucleation on kaolinite surfaces. Results for both the SPC/E and TIP5P-E water models are compared and demonstrate that the Al-surface [(001) plane] and both protonated and unprotonated edges [(100) plane] strongly adsorb at atmospherically relevant relative humidities. Adsorption on the Al-surface exhibits properties of a first-order process with evidence of collective behavior, whereas adsorption on the edges is essentially continuous and appears dominated by strong water lattice interactions. For the protonated and unprotonated edges no structure that matches hexagonal ice is observed. For the Al-surface some of the water molecules formed hexagonal rings. However, the a o lattice parameter for these rings is significantly different from the corresponding constant for hexagonal ice ( Ih). A misfit strain of 14.0% is calculated between the hexagonal pattern of water adsorbed on the Al-surface and the basal plane of ice Ih. Hence, the ring structures that form on the Al-surface are not expected to be good building-blocks for ice nucleation due to the large misfit strain.

  19. Surface studies of water isotopes in Antarctica for quantitative interpretation of deep ice core data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landais, Amaelle; Casado, Mathieu; Prié, Frédéric; Magand, Olivier; Arnaud, Laurent; Ekaykin, Alexey; Petit, Jean-Robert; Picard, Ghislain; Fily, Michel; Minster, Bénédicte; Touzeau, Alexandra; Goursaud, Sentia; Masson-Delmotte, Valérie; Jouzel, Jean; Orsi, Anaïs

    2017-07-01

    Polar ice cores are unique climate archives. Indeed, most of them have a continuous stratigraphy and present high temporal resolution of many climate variables in a single archive. While water isotopic records (δD or δ18O) in ice cores are often taken as references for past atmospheric temperature variations, their relationship to temperature is associated with a large uncertainty. Several reasons are invoked to explain the limitation of such an approach; in particular, post-deposition effects are important in East Antarctica because of the low accumulation rates. The strong influence of post-deposition processes highlights the need for surface polar research programs in addition to deep drilling programs. We present here new results on water isotopes from several recent surface programs, mostly over East Antarctica. Together with previously published data, the new data presented in this study have several implications for the climatic reconstructions based on ice core isotopic data: (1) The spatial relationship between surface mean temperature and mean snow isotopic composition over the first meters in depth can be explained quite straightforwardly using simple isotopic models tuned to d-excess vs. δ18O evolution in transects on the East Antarctic sector. The observed spatial slopes are significantly higher (∼ 0.7-0.8‰·°C-1 for δ18O vs. temperature) than seasonal slopes inferred from precipitation data at Vostok and Dome C (0.35 to 0.46‰·°C-1). We explain these differences by changes in condensation versus surface temperature between summer and winter in the central East Antarctic plateau, where the inversion layer vanishes in summer. (2) Post-deposition effects linked to exchanges between the snow surface and the atmospheric water vapor lead to an evolution of δ18O in the surface snow, even in the absence of any precipitation event. This evolution preserves the positive correlation between the δ18O of snow and surface temperature, but is

  20. Sputtering of water ice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baragiola, R.A.; Vidal, R.A.; Svendsen, W.; Schou, J.; Shi, M.; Bahr, D.A.; Atteberrry, C.L.

    2003-01-01

    We present results of a range of experiments of sputtering of water ice together with a guide to the literature. We studied how sputtering depends on the projectile energy and fluence, ice growth temperature, irradiation temperature and external electric fields. We observed luminescence from the decay of H(2p) atoms sputtered by heavy ion impact, but not bulk ice luminescence. Radiolyzed ice does not sputter under 3.7 eV laser irradiation

  1. Diazotroph Diversity in the Sea Ice, Melt Ponds, and Surface Waters of the Eurasian Basin of the Central Arctic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Méndez, Mar; Turk-Kubo, Kendra A; Buttigieg, Pier L; Rapp, Josephine Z; Krumpen, Thomas; Zehr, Jonathan P; Boetius, Antje

    2016-01-01

    The Eurasian basin of the Central Arctic Ocean is nitrogen limited, but little is known about the presence and role of nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Recent studies have indicated the occurrence of diazotrophs in Arctic coastal waters potentially of riverine origin. Here, we investigated the presence of diazotrophs in ice and surface waters of the Central Arctic Ocean in the summer of 2012. We identified diverse communities of putative diazotrophs through targeted analysis of the nifH gene, which encodes the iron protein of the nitrogenase enzyme. We amplified 529 nifH sequences from 26 samples of Arctic melt ponds, sea ice and surface waters. These sequences resolved into 43 clusters at 92% amino acid sequence identity, most of which were non-cyanobacterial phylotypes from sea ice and water samples. One cyanobacterial phylotype related to Nodularia sp. was retrieved from sea ice, suggesting that this important functional group is rare in the Central Arctic Ocean. The diazotrophic community in sea-ice environments appear distinct from other cold-adapted diazotrophic communities, such as those present in the coastal Canadian Arctic, the Arctic tundra and glacial Antarctic lakes. Molecular fingerprinting of nifH and the intergenic spacer region of the rRNA operon revealed differences between the communities from river-influenced Laptev Sea waters and those from ice-related environments pointing toward a marine origin for sea-ice diazotrophs. Our results provide the first record of diazotrophs in the Central Arctic and suggest that microbial nitrogen fixation may occur north of 77°N. To assess the significance of nitrogen fixation for the nitrogen budget of the Arctic Ocean and to identify the active nitrogen fixers, further biogeochemical and molecular biological studies are needed.

  2. Diazotroph diversity in the sea ice, melt ponds and surface waters of the Eurasian Basin of the Central Arctic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mar Fernández-Méndez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Eurasian basin of the Central Arctic Ocean is nitrogen limited, but little is known about the presence and role of nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Recent studies have indicated the occurrence of diazotrophs in Arctic coastal waters potentially of riverine origin. Here, we investigated the presence of diazotrophs in ice and surface waters of the Central Arctic Ocean in the summer of 2012. We identified diverse communities of putative diazotrophs through targeted analysis of the nifH gene, which encodes the iron protein of the nitrogenase enzyme. We amplified 529 nifH sequences from 26 samples of Arctic melt ponds, sea ice and surface waters. These sequences resolved into 43 clusters at 92% amino acid sequence identity, most of which were non-cyanobacterial phylotypes from sea ice and water samples. One cyanobacterial phylotype related to Nodularia sp. was retrieved from sea ice, suggesting that this important functional group is rare in the Central Arctic Ocean. The diazotrophic community in sea-ice environments appear distinct from other cold-adapted diazotrophic communities, such as those present in the coastal Canadian Arctic, the Arctic tundra and glacial Antarctic lakes. Molecular fingerprinting of nifH and the intergenic spacer region of the rRNA operon revealed differences between the communities from river-influenced Laptev Sea waters and those from ice-related environments pointing towards a marine origin for sea-ice diazotrophs. Our results provide the first record of diazotrophs in the Central Arctic and suggest that microbial nitrogen fixation may occur north of 77ºN. To assess the significance of nitrogen fixation for the nitrogen budget of the Arctic Ocean and to identify the active nitrogen fixers, further biogeochemical and molecular biological studies are needed.

  3. Sputtering of water ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baragiola, R.A.; Vidal, R.A.; Svendsen, W.

    2003-01-01

    We present results of a range of experiments of sputtering of water ice together with a guide to the literature. We studied how sputtering depends on the projectile energy and fluence, ice growth temperature, irradiation temperature and external electric fields. We observed luminescence from...

  4. Temperature distribution of a water droplet moving on a heated super-hydrophobic surface under the icing condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Masafumi; Sumino, Yutaka; Morita, Katsuaki

    2017-11-01

    In the aviation industry, ice accretion on the airfoil has been a hazardous issue since it greatly declines the aerodynamic performance. Electric heaters and bleed air, which utilizes a part of gas emissions from engines, are used to prevent the icing. Nowadays, a new de-icing system combining electric heaters and super hydrophobic coatings have been developed to reduce the energy consumption. In the system, the heating temperature and the coating area need to be adjusted. Otherwise, the heater excessively consumes energy when it is set too high and when the coating area is not properly located, water droplets which are once dissolved possibly adhere again to the rear part of the airfoil as runback ice In order to deal with these problems, the physical phenomena of water droplets on the hydrophobic surface demand to be figured out. However, not many investigations focused on the behavior of droplets under the icing condition have been conducted. In this research, the temperature profiling of the rolling droplet on a heated super-hydrophobic surface is experimentally observed by the dual luminescent imaging.

  5. Impact of surface nanostructure on ice nucleation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiang-Xiong; Chen, Min; Fu, Ming

    2014-09-28

    Nucleation of water on solid surface can be promoted noticeably when the lattice parameter of a surface matches well with the ice structure. However, the characteristic length of the surface lattice reported is generally less than 0.5 nm and is hardly tunable. In this paper, we show that a surface with nanoscale roughness can also remarkably promote ice nucleation if the characteristic length of the surface structure matches well with the ice crystal. A series of surfaces composed of periodic grooves with same depth but different widths are constructed in molecular dynamics simulations. Water cylinders are placed on the constructed surfaces and frozen at constant undercooling. The nucleation rates of the water cylinders are calculated in the simulation using the mean first-passage time method and then used to measure the nucleation promotion ability of the surfaces. Results suggest that the nucleation behavior of the supercooled water is significantly sensitive to the width of the groove. When the width of the groove matches well with the specific lengths of the ice crystal structure, the nucleation can be promoted remarkably. If the width does not match with the ice crystal, this kind of promotion disappears and the nucleation rate is even smaller than that on the smooth surface. Simulations also indicate that even when water molecules are adsorbed onto the surface structure in high-humidity environment, the solid surface can provide promising anti-icing ability as long as the characteristic length of the surface structure is carefully designed to avoid geometric match.

  6. Near-Surface Profiles of Water Stable Isotope Components and Indicated Transitional History of Ice-Wedge Polygons Near Barrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwahana, G.; Wilson, C.; Newman, B. D.; Heikoop, J. M.; Busey, R.

    2017-12-01

    Wetlands associated with ice-wedge polygons are commonly distributed across the Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska, a region underlain by continuous permafrost. Micro-topography of the ice-wedge polygons controls local hydrology, and the micro-topography could be altered due to factors such like surface vegetation, wetness, freeze-thaw cycles, and permafrost degradation/aggradation under climate change. Understanding status of the wetlands in the near future is important because it determines biogeochemical cycle, which drives release of greenhouse gases from the ground. However, transitional regime of the ice-wedge polygons under the changing climate is not fully understood. In this study, we analyzed geochemistry of water extracted from frozen soil cores sampled down to about 1m depth in 2014 March at NGEE-Arctic sites in the Barrow Environmental Observatory. The cores were sampled from troughs/rims/centers of five different low-centered or flat-centered polygons. The frozen cores are divided into 5-10cm cores for each location, thawed in sealed plastic bags, and then extracted water was stored in vials. Comparison between the profiles of geochemistry indicated connection of soil water in the active layer at different location in a polygon, while it revealed that distinctly different water has been stored in permafrost layer at troughs/rims/centers of some polygons. Profiles of volumetric water content (VWC) showed clear signals of freeze-up desiccation in the middle of saturated active layers as low VWC anomalies at most sampling points. Water in the active layer and near-surface permafrost was classified into four categories: ice wedge / fresh meteoric / transitional / highly fractionated water. The overall results suggested prolonged separation of water in the active layer at the center of low-centered polygons without lateral connection in water path in the past.

  7. Modeling of Waves Propagating in Water with a Crushed Ice Layer on the Free Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szmidt, Kazimierz

    2017-12-01

    A transformation of gravitational waves in fluid of constant depth with a crushed ice layer floating on the free fluid surface is considered. The propagating waves undergo a slight damping along their path of propagation. The main goal of the study is to construct an approximate descriptive model of this phenomenon.With regard to small displacements of the free surface, a viscous type model of damping is considered, which corresponds to a continuous distribution of dash-pots at the free surface of the fluid. A constant parameter of the dampers is assumed in advance as known parameter of damping. This parameter may be obtained by means of experiments in a laboratory flume.

  8. Viscosity of interfacial water regulates ice nucleation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Kaiyong; Chen, Jing; Zhang, Qiaolan; Zhang, Yifan; Xu, Shun; Zhou, Xin; Cui, Dapeng; Wang, Jianjun; Song, Yanlin

    2014-01-01

    Ice formation on solid surfaces is an important phenomenon in many fields, such as cloud formation and atmospheric icing, and a key factor for applications in preventing freezing. Here, we report temperature-dependent nucleation rates of ice for hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces. The results show that hydrophilic surface presents a lower ice nucleation rate. We develop a strategy to extract the thermodynamic parameters, J 0 and Γ, in the context of classical nucleation theory. From the extracted J 0 and Γ, we reveal the dominant role played by interfacial water. The results provide an insight into freezing mechanism on solid surfaces

  9. Hydrogen-Bonding Surfaces for Ice Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joseph G., Jr.; Wohl, Christopher J.; Kreeger, Richard E.; Hadley, Kevin R.; McDougall, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Ice formation on aircraft, either on the ground or in-flight, is a major safety issue. While ground icing events occur predominantly during the winter months, in-flight icing can happen anytime during the year. The latter is more problematic since it could result in increased drag and loss of lift. Under a Phase I ARMD NARI Seedling Activity, coated aluminum surfaces possessing hydrogen-bonding groups were under investigation for mitigating ice formation. Hydroxyl and methyl terminated dimethylethoxysilanes were prepared via known chemistries and characterized by spectroscopic methods. These materials were subsequently used to coat aluminum surfaces. Surface compositions were based on pure hydroxyl and methyl terminated species as well as mixtures of the two. Coated surfaces were characterized by contact angle goniometry. Receding water contact angle data suggested several potential surfaces that may exhibit reduced ice adhesion. Qualitative icing experiments performed under representative environmental temperatures using supercooled distilled water delivered via spray coating were inconclusive. Molecular modeling studies suggested that chain mobility affected the interface between ice and the surface more than terminal group chemical composition. Chain mobility resulted from the creation of "pockets" of increased free volume for longer chains to occupy.

  10. Fabrication of stable and durable superhydrophobic surface on copper substrates for oil-water separation and ice-over delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jie; Yang, Fuchao; Guo, Zhiguang

    2016-03-15

    We report a simple and rapid method to fabricate superhydrophobic films on copper substrates via Fe(3+) etching and octadecanethiol (ODT) modification. The etching process can be as short as 5 min and the ODT treatment only takes several seconds. In addition, the whole process is quite flexible in reaction time. The superhydrophobicity of as-prepared surfaces is mechanically durable and chemically stable, which have great performance in oil-water separation and ice-over resistance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Ikaite crystals in melting sea ice - implications for pCO2 and pH levels in Arctic surface waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rysgaard, S.; Glud, R. N.; Lennert, K.; Cooper, M.; Halden, N.; Leakey, R. J. G.; Hawthorne, F. C.; Barber, D.

    2012-08-01

    A major issue of Arctic marine science is to understand whether the Arctic Ocean is, or will be, a source or sink for air-sea CO2 exchange. This has been complicated by the recent discoveries of ikaite (a polymorph of CaCO3·6H2O) in Arctic and Antarctic sea ice, which indicate that multiple chemical transformations occur in sea ice with a possible effect on CO2 and pH conditions in surface waters. Here, we report on biogeochemical conditions, microscopic examinations and x-ray diffraction analysis of single crystals from a melting 1.7 km2 (0.5-1 m thick) drifting ice floe in the Fram Strait during summer. Our findings show that ikaite crystals are present throughout the sea ice but with larger crystals appearing in the upper ice layers. Ikaite crystals placed at elevated temperatures disintegrated into smaller crystallites and dissolved. During our field campaign in late June, melt reduced the ice floe thickness by 0.2 m per week and resulted in an estimated 3.8 ppm decrease of pCO2 in the ocean surface mixed layer. This corresponds to an air-sea CO2 uptake of 10.6 mmol m-2 sea ice d-1 or to 3.3 ton km-2 ice floe week-1. This is markedly higher than the estimated primary production within the ice floe of 0.3-1.3 mmol m-2 sea ice d-1. Finally, the presence of ikaite in sea ice and the dissolution of the mineral during melting of the sea ice and mixing of the melt water into the surface oceanic mixed layer accounted for half of the estimated pCO2 uptake.

  12. Ikaite crystals in melting sea ice – implications for pCO2 and pH levels in Arctic surface waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. G. Leakey

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A major issue of Arctic marine science is to understand whether the Arctic Ocean is, or will be, a source or sink for air–sea CO2 exchange. This has been complicated by the recent discoveries of ikaite (a polymorph of CaCO3·6H2O in Arctic and Antarctic sea ice, which indicate that multiple chemical transformations occur in sea ice with a possible effect on CO2 and pH conditions in surface waters. Here, we report on biogeochemical conditions, microscopic examinations and x-ray diffraction analysis of single crystals from a melting 1.7 km2 (0.5–1 m thick drifting ice floe in the Fram Strait during summer. Our findings show that ikaite crystals are present throughout the sea ice but with larger crystals appearing in the upper ice layers. Ikaite crystals placed at elevated temperatures disintegrated into smaller crystallites and dissolved. During our field campaign in late June, melt reduced the ice floe thickness by 0.2 m per week and resulted in an estimated 3.8 ppm decrease of pCO2 in the ocean surface mixed layer. This corresponds to an air–sea CO2 uptake of 10.6 mmol m−2 sea ice d−1 or to 3.3 ton km−2 ice floe week−1. This is markedly higher than the estimated primary production within the ice floe of 0.3–1.3 mmol m−2 sea ice d−1. Finally, the presence of ikaite in sea ice and the dissolution of the mineral during melting of the sea ice and mixing of the melt water into the surface oceanic mixed layer accounted for half of the estimated pCO2 uptake.

  13. Micrometer-sized Water Ice Particles for Planetary Science Experiments: Influence of Surface Structure on Collisional Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaertner, Sabrina; Gundlach, Bastian; Headen, Thomas F.; Ratte, Judy; Oesert, Joachim; Gorb, Stanislav N.; Youngs, Tristan G. A.; Bowron, Daniel T.; Blum, Jürgen; Fraser, Helen

    2018-06-01

    Models and observations suggest that particle aggregation at and beyond the snowline is aided by water ice. As icy particles play such a crucial role in the earliest stages of planet formation, many laboratory studies have exploited their collisional properties across a wide range of parameters (particle size, impact velocity, temperature T, and pressure P).However, not all of these parameters have always been varied systematically, leading to apparently contradictory results on collision outcomes. Previous experiments only agreed that a temperature dependence set in above ≈210 K. Open questions remain as to what extent the structural properties of the particles themselves dictate collision outcomes. The P–T gradients in protoplanetary disks mean that the ices are constantly processed, undergoing phase changes between different solid phases and the gas phase. To understand how effectively collision experiments reproduce protoplanetary disk conditions, environmental impacts on particle structure need to be investigated.We characterized the bulk and surface structure of icy particles used in collision experiments, exploiting the unique capabilities of the NIMROD neutron scattering instrument. Varying temperature at a constant pressure of around 30 mbar, we studied structural alterations to determine which of the observed properties matches the temperature dependencies observed in collisional behaviour.Our icy grains are formed under liquid nitrogen and heated from 103 to 247 K. As a result, they undergo changes in the crystalline ice-phase, sublimation, sintering and surface pre-melting. An increase in the thickness of the diffuse surface layer from ≈10 to ≈30 Å (≈2.5 to 12 bilayers) suggests increased molecular mobility at temperatures above ≈210 K.Because none of the other changes ties in with the temperature trends in collisional outcomes, we conclude that the diffuse interface plays a key role in collision experiments at these temperatures

  14. Surfacing behavior and gas release of the physostome sprat (Sprattus sprattus) in ice-free and ice-covered waters

    KAUST Repository

    Solberg, Ingrid; Kaartvedt, Stein

    2013-01-01

    Upward-facing echosounders that provided continuous, long-term measurements were applied to address the surfacing behavior and gas release of the physostome sprat (Sprattus sprattus) throughout an entire winter in a 150-m-deep Norwegian fjord

  15. The Mars Dust Cycle: Investigating the Effects of Radiatively Active Water Ice Clouds on Surface Stresses and Dust Lifting Potential with the NASA Ames Mars General Circulation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahre, Melinda A.; Hollingsworth, Jeffery

    2012-01-01

    The dust cycle is a critically important component of Mars' current climate system. Dust is present in the atmosphere of Mars year-round but the dust loading varies with season in a generally repeatable manner. Dust has a significant influence on the thermal structure of the atmosphere and thus greatly affects atmospheric circulation. The dust cycle is the most difficult of the three climate cycles (CO2, water, and dust) to model realistically with general circulation models. Until recently, numerical modeling investigations of the dust cycle have typically not included the effects of couplings to the water cycle through cloud formation. In the Martian atmosphere, dust particles likely provide the seed nuclei for heterogeneous nucleation of water ice clouds. As ice coats atmospheric dust grains, the newly formed cloud particles exhibit different physical and radiative characteristics. Thus, the coupling between the dust and water cycles likely affects the distributions of dust, water vapor and water ice, and thus atmospheric heating and cooling and the resulting circulations. We use the NASA Ames Mars GCM to investigate the effects of radiatively active water ice clouds on surface stress and the potential for dust lifting. The model includes a state-of-the-art water ice cloud microphysics package and a radiative transfer scheme that accounts for the radiative effects of CO2 gas, dust, and water ice clouds. We focus on simulations that are radiatively forced by a prescribed dust map, and we compare simulations that do and do not include radiatively active clouds. Preliminary results suggest that the magnitude and spatial patterns of surface stress (and thus dust lifting potential) are substantial influenced by the radiative effects of water ice clouds.

  16. Carbon Monoxide Hydrogenation on Ice Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwahata, Kazuaki; Ohno, Kaoru

    2018-03-14

    We have performed density functional calculations to investigate the carbon monoxide hydrogenation reaction (H+CO→HCO), which is important in interstellar clouds. We found that the activation energy of the reaction on amorphous ice is lower than that on crystalline ice. In the course of this study, we demonstrated that it is roughly possible to use the excitation energy of the reactant molecule (CO) in place of the activation energy. This relationship holds also for small water clusters at the CCSD level of calculation and the two-layer-level ONIOM (CCSD : X3LYP) calculation. Generally, since it is computationally demanding to estimate activation energies of chemical reactions in a circumstance of many water molecules, this relationship enables one to determine the activation energy of this reaction on ice surfaces from the knowledge of the excitation energy of CO only. Incorporating quantum-tunneling effects, we discuss the reaction rate on ice surfaces. Our estimate that the reaction rate on amorphous ice is almost twice as large as that on crystalline ice is qualitatively consistent with the experimental evidence reported by Hidaka et al. [Chem. Phys. Lett., 2008, 456, 36.]. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Identification of hydrogen and deuterium at the surface of water ice by reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yubero, F.; Toekesi, K.

    2009-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The study of elastically backscattered electrons from surfaces by reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy (REELS) has been recently recommended as an alternative technique to quantify the H content at the surface of a-C:H and polymer samples. This analysis is based on the fact that the energy loss of the incident electrons due to the recoil effect depends on the atomic mass of the particular atom present at the surface. The observed difference in recoil energies between H and O atoms (about 2 eV for 1.5 keV primary electrons) can be easily measured with standard electron spectrometers used in surface analysis. In this paper we go one step forward to explore if, with the same experimental approach, it is possible to differentiate between hydrogen and deuterium (D) in the surface region of a sample. This capability could be important for technological fields such as surface functionalization, where it is desired to distinguish between H and D at surfaces after interaction with labeled compounds. We have chosen normal and deuterated water as test labeled compounds because this polar molecule is of key importance in numerous surface reactions. It has been shown that H and D can be easily distinguished at the surface of water ice [4] using standard REELS measurements with 1000 - 1650 eV primary-electron energies, i.e., a surface analytical technique. Differences in recoil energies of the O - H and O - D atom pairs present in H 2 O and D 2 O have been found to agree with MC simulations (see Fig.1). There are many possible applications of H and D detection by REELS. Among many others, this study opens the possibility of nondestructive studies of deuterium-labeled atoms present or adsorbed on surfaces. For example, studies of H incorporation into a polymer or carbonbased surface after plasma activation with gas mixtures with several labeled molecules containing H atoms. Acknowledgements F.Y. thanks the Spanish Ministry of Science

  18. Surface freezing of water

    OpenAIRE

    P?rez-D?az, J. L.; ?lvarez-Valenzuela, M. A.; Rodr?guez-Celis, F.

    2016-01-01

    Freezing, melting, evaporation and condensation of water are essential ingredients for climate and eventually life on Earth. In the present work, we show how surface freezing of supercooled water in an open container is conditioned and triggered?exclusively?by humidity in air. Additionally, a change of phase is demonstrated to be triggered on the water surface forming surface ice crystals prior to freezing of bulk. The symmetry of the surface crystal, as well as the freezing point, depend on ...

  19. Sensitivity of open-water ice growth and ice concentration evolution in a coupled atmosphere-ocean-sea ice model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiaoxu; Lohmann, Gerrit

    2017-09-01

    A coupled atmosphere-ocean-sea ice model is applied to investigate to what degree the area-thickness distribution of new ice formed in open water affects the ice and ocean properties. Two sensitivity experiments are performed which modify the horizontal-to-vertical aspect ratio of open-water ice growth. The resulting changes in the Arctic sea-ice concentration strongly affect the surface albedo, the ocean heat release to the atmosphere, and the sea-ice production. The changes are further amplified through a positive feedback mechanism among the Arctic sea ice, the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC), and the surface air temperature in the Arctic, as the Fram Strait sea ice import influences the freshwater budget in the North Atlantic Ocean. Anomalies in sea-ice transport lead to changes in sea surface properties of the North Atlantic and the strength of AMOC. For the Southern Ocean, the most pronounced change is a warming along the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC), owing to the interhemispheric bipolar seasaw linked to AMOC weakening. Another insight of this study lies on the improvement of our climate model. The ocean component FESOM is a newly developed ocean-sea ice model with an unstructured mesh and multi-resolution. We find that the subpolar sea-ice boundary in the Northern Hemisphere can be improved by tuning the process of open-water ice growth, which strongly influences the sea ice concentration in the marginal ice zone, the North Atlantic circulation, salinity and Arctic sea ice volume. Since the distribution of new ice on open water relies on many uncertain parameters and the knowledge of the detailed processes is currently too crude, it is a challenge to implement the processes realistically into models. Based on our sensitivity experiments, we conclude a pronounced uncertainty related to open-water sea ice growth which could significantly affect the climate system sensitivity.

  20. New evidence for surface water ice in small-scale cold traps and in three large craters at the north polar region of Mercury from the Mercury Laser Altimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Ariel N.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Head, James W.

    2017-09-01

    The Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) measured surface reflectance, rs, at 1064 nm. On Mercury, most water-ice deposits have anomalously low rs values indicative of an insulating layer beneath which ice is buried. Previous detections of surface water ice (without an insulating layer) were limited to seven possible craters. Here we map rs in three additional permanently shadowed craters that host radar-bright deposits. Each crater has a mean rs value >0.3, suggesting that water ice is exposed at the surface without an overlying insulating layer. We also identify small-scale cold traps (rs >0.3 and permanent shadows have biannual maximum surface temperatures <100 K. We suggest that a substantial amount of Mercury's water ice is not confined to large craters but exists within microcold traps, within rough patches and intercrater terrain.

  1. Surface freezing of water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Díaz, J L; Álvarez-Valenzuela, M A; Rodríguez-Celis, F

    2016-01-01

    Freezing, melting, evaporation and condensation of water are essential ingredients for climate and eventually life on Earth. In the present work, we show how surface freezing of supercooled water in an open container is conditioned and triggered-exclusively-by humidity in air. Additionally, a change of phase is demonstrated to be triggered on the water surface forming surface ice crystals prior to freezing of bulk. The symmetry of the surface crystal, as well as the freezing point, depend on humidity, presenting at least three different types of surface crystals. Humidity triggers surface freezing as soon as it overpasses a defined value for a given temperature, generating a plurality of nucleation nodes. An evidence of simultaneous nucleation of surface ice crystals is also provided.

  2. WATER ICE IN THE KUIPER BELT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, M. E.; Fraser, W. C.; Schaller, E. L.

    2012-01-01

    We examine a large collection of low-resolution near-infrared spectra of Kuiper Belt objects (KBOs) and centaurs in an attempt to understand the presence of water ice in the Kuiper Belt. We find that water ice on the surface of these objects occurs in three separate manners: (1) Haumea family members uniquely show surfaces of nearly pure water ice, presumably a consequence of the fragmentation of the icy mantle of a larger differentiated proto-Haumea; (2) large objects with absolute magnitudes of H < 3 (and a limited number to H = 4.5) have surface coverings of water ice—perhaps mixed with ammonia—that appears to be related to possibly ancient cryovolcanism on these large objects; and (3) smaller KBOs and centaurs which are neither Haumea family members nor cold-classical KBOs appear to divide into two families (which we refer to as 'neutral' and 'red'), each of which is a mixture of a common nearly neutral component and either a slightly red or very red component that also includes water ice. A model suggesting that the difference between neutral and red objects due to formation in an early compact solar system either inside or outside, respectively, of the ∼20 AU methanol evaporation line is supported by the observation that methanol is only detected on the reddest objects, which are those which would be expected to have the most of the methanol containing mixture.

  3. Turbulent heat exchange between water and ice at an evolving ice-water interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramudu, Eshwan; Hirsh, Benjamin Henry; Olson, Peter; Gnanadesikan, Anand

    2016-07-01

    We conduct laboratory experiments on the time evolution of an ice layer cooled from below and subjected to a turbulent shear flow of warm water from above. Our study is motivated by observations of warm water intrusion into the ocean cavity under Antarctic ice shelves, accelerating the melting of their basal surfaces. The strength of the applied turbulent shear flow in our experiments is represented in terms of its Reynolds number $\\textit{Re}$, which is varied over the range $2.0\\times10^3 \\le \\textit{Re} \\le 1.0\\times10^4$. Depending on the water temperature, partial transient melting of the ice occurs at the lower end of this range of $\\textit{Re}$ and complete transient melting of the ice occurs at the higher end. Following these episodes of transient melting, the ice reforms at a rate that is independent of $\\textit{Re}$. We fit our experimental measurements of ice thickness and temperature to a one-dimensional model for the evolution of the ice thickness in which the turbulent heat transfer is parameterized in terms of the friction velocity of the shear flow. The melting mechanism we investigate in our experiments can easily account for the basal melting rate of Pine Island Glacier ice shelf inferred from observations.

  4. Ikaite crystals in melting sea ice – implications for pCO2 and pH levels in Arctic surface waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rysgaard, Søren; Glud, R.N.; Lennert, K.

    2012-01-01

    A major issue of Arctic marine science is to understand whether the Arctic Ocean is, or will be, a source or sink for air-sea CO 2 exchange. This has been complicated by the recent discoveries of ikaite (a polymorph of CaCO 3•6H 2O) in Arctic and Antarctic sea ice, which indicate that multiple...... chemical transformations occur in sea ice with a possible effect on CO 2 and pH conditions in surface waters. Here, we report on biogeochemical conditions, microscopic examinations and x-ray diffraction analysis of single crystals from a melting 1.7 km 2 (0.5-1 m thick) drifting ice floe in the Fram Strait...... during summer. Our findings show that ikaite crystals are present throughout the sea ice but with larger crystals appearing in the upper ice layers. Ikaite crystals placed at elevated temperatures disintegrated into smaller crystallites and dissolved. During our field campaign in late June, melt reduced...

  5. Micrometer-sized Water Ice Particles for Planetary Science Experiments: Influence of Surface Structure on Collisional Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gärtner, S.; Fraser, H. J. [School of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Gundlach, B.; Ratte, J.; Blum, J. [Institut für Geophysik und extraterrestrische Physik, TU Braunschweig, Mendelssohnstr. 3, D-38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Headen, T. F.; Youngs, T. G. A.; Bowron, D. T. [ISIS Facility, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Oesert, J.; Gorb, S. N., E-mail: sabrina.gaertner@stfc.ac.uk, E-mail: helen.fraser@open.ac.uk [Zoologisches Institut, Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Am Botanischen Garten 1-9, D-24118 Kiel (Germany)

    2017-10-20

    Models and observations suggest that ice-particle aggregation at and beyond the snowline dominates the earliest stages of planet formation, which therefore is subject to many laboratory studies. However, the pressure–temperature gradients in protoplanetary disks mean that the ices are constantly processed, undergoing phase changes between different solid phases and the gas phase. Open questions remain as to whether the properties of the icy particles themselves dictate collision outcomes and therefore how effectively collision experiments reproduce conditions in protoplanetary environments. Previous experiments often yielded apparently contradictory results on collision outcomes, only agreeing in a temperature dependence setting in above ≈210 K. By exploiting the unique capabilities of the NIMROD neutron scattering instrument, we characterized the bulk and surface structure of icy particles used in collision experiments, and studied how these structures alter as a function of temperature at a constant pressure of around 30 mbar. Our icy grains, formed under liquid nitrogen, undergo changes in the crystalline ice-phase, sublimation, sintering and surface pre-melting as they are heated from 103 to 247 K. An increase in the thickness of the diffuse surface layer from ≈10 to ≈30 Å (≈2.5 to 12 bilayers) proves increased molecular mobility at temperatures above ≈210 K. Because none of the other changes tie-in with the temperature trends in collisional outcomes, we conclude that the surface pre-melting phenomenon plays a key role in collision experiments at these temperatures. Consequently, the pressure–temperature environment, may have a larger influence on collision outcomes than previously thought.

  6. Molecular hydrogen formation on surfaces of astrophysical interest: first results on water ice at very low temperature and on graphite at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baouche, Saoud

    2004-01-01

    As the generally admitted mechanism of formation of the H_2 molecule in the interstellar medium (ISM) is a catalytic reaction between two atoms of H on the surface of cosmic powder grains, where grains are supposed to be carbons or silicates and could have ice coats, this research thesis aims at providing some elements about the efficiency of this reaction, what happens to the bound energy released after formation of the H_2 molecule. The author first describes the FORMOLISM experiment (Formation of molecule in the ISM), and then reports the study of the source of H or D atoms which is a very important component of the experiment. He reports and comments results obtained on the formation of H_2 and D_2 molecules on amorphous water ice. He reports the study of the dynamics of formation of the D_2 molecule on a graphite surface by using the laser-aided associative adsorption technique

  7. Evidence for Surface Water Ice in the Lunar Polar Regions Using Reflectance Measurements from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter and Temperature Measurements from the Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Elizabeth A.; Lucey, Paul G.; Lemelin, Myriam; Greenhagen, Benjamin T.; Siegler, Matthew A.; Mazarico, Erwan; Aharonson, Oded; Williams, Jean-Pierre; Hayne, Paul O.; Neumann, Gregory A.; hide

    2017-01-01

    We find that the reflectance of the lunar surface within 5 deg of latitude of theSouth Pole increases rapidly with decreasing temperature, near approximately 110K, behavior consistent with the presence of surface water ice. The North polar region does not show this behavior, nor do South polar surfaces at latitudes more than 5 deg from the pole. This South pole reflectance anomaly persists when analysis is limited to surfaces with slopes less than 10 deg to eliminate false detection due to the brightening effect of mass wasting, and also when the very bright south polar crater Shackleton is excluded from the analysis. We also find that south polar regions of permanent shadow that have been reported to be generally brighter at 1064 nm do not show anomalous reflectance when their annual maximum surface temperatures are too high to preserve water ice. This distinction is not observed at the North Pole. The reflectance excursion on surfaces with maximum temperatures below 110K is superimposed on a general trend of increasing reflectance with decreasing maximum temperature that is present throughout the polar regions in the north and south; we attribute this trend to a temperature or illumination-dependent space weathering effect (e.g. Hemingway et al. 2015). We also find a sudden increase in reflectance with decreasing temperature superimposed on the general trend at 200K and possibly at 300K. This may indicate the presence of other volatiles such as sulfur or organics. We identified and mapped surfaces with reflectances so high as to be unlikely to be part of an ice-free population. In this south we find a similar distribution found by Hayne et al. 2015 based on UV properties. In the north a cluster of pixels near that pole may represent a limited frost exposure.

  8. Evidence for surface water ice in the lunar polar regions using reflectance measurements from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter and temperature measurements from the Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Elizabeth A.; Lucey, Paul G.; Lemelin, Myriam; Greenhagen, Benjamin T.; Siegler, Matthew A.; Mazarico, Erwan; Aharonson, Oded; Williams, Jean-Pierre; Hayne, Paul O.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Paige, David A.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.

    2017-08-01

    We find that the reflectance of the lunar surface within 5° of latitude of the South Pole increases rapidly with decreasing temperature, near ∼110 K, behavior consistent with the presence of surface water ice. The North polar region does not show this behavior, nor do South polar surfaces at latitudes more than 5° from the pole. This South pole reflectance anomaly persists when analysis is limited to surfaces with slopes less than 10° to eliminate false detection due to the brightening effect of mass wasting, and also when the very bright south polar crater Shackleton is excluded from the analysis. We also find that south polar regions of permanent shadow that have been reported to be generally brighter at 1064 nm do not show anomalous reflectance when their annual maximum surface temperatures are too high to preserve water ice. This distinction is not observed at the North Pole. The reflectance excursion on surfaces with maximum temperatures below 110 K is superimposed on a general trend of increasing reflectance with decreasing maximum temperature that is present throughout the polar regions in the north and south; we attribute this trend to a temperature or illumination-dependent space weathering effect (e.g. Hemingway et al., 2015). We also find a sudden increase in reflectance with decreasing temperature superimposed on the general trend at 200 K and possibly at 300 K. This may indicate the presence of other volatiles such as sulfur or organics. We identified and mapped surfaces with reflectances so high as to be unlikely to be part of an ice-free population. In this south we find a similar distribution found by Hayne et al. (2015) based on UV properties. In the north a cluster of pixels near that pole may represent a limited frost exposure.

  9. 21 CFR 135.160 - Water ices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Water ices. 135.160 Section 135.160 Food and Drugs... CONSUMPTION FROZEN DESSERTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Frozen Desserts § 135.160 Water ices. (a) Description. Water ices are the foods each of which is prepared from the same ingredients and in the same...

  10. Robust Anti-Icing Performance of a Flexible Superhydrophobic Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Gong, Qihua; Zhan, Shihui; Jiang, Lei; Zheng, Yongmei

    2016-09-01

    A material with superhydrophobic and anti-ice/de-icing properties, which has a micro-/nanostructured surface, is produced by a straightforward method. This material comprises a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microstructure with ZnO nanohairs and shows excellent water and ice repellency even at low temperatures (-20 °C) and relatively high humidity (90%) for over three months. These results are expected to be helpful for designing smart, non-wetting materials that can be adapted to low-temperature environments for the development of anti-icing systems. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Surface Water & Surface Drainage

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set contains boundaries for all surface water and surface drainage for the state of New Mexico. It is in a vector digital data structure digitized from a...

  12. Ice-surface adsorption enhanced colligative effect of antifreeze proteins in ice growth inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yougang; Ba, Yong

    2006-09-01

    This Communication describes a mechanism to explain antifreeze protein's function to inhibit the growth of ice crystals. We propose that the adsorption of antifreeze protein (AFP) molecules on an ice surface induces a dense AFP-water layer, which can significantly decrease the mole fraction of the interfacial water and, thus, lower the temperature for a seed ice crystal to grow in a super-cooled AFP solution. This mechanism can also explain the nearly unchanged melting point for the ice crystal due to the AFP's ice-surface adsorption. A mathematical model combining the Langmuir theory of adsorption and the colligative effect of thermodynamics has been proposed to find the equilibrium constants of the ice-surface adsorptions, and the interfacial concentrations of AFPs through fitting the theoretical curves to the experimental thermal hysteresis data. This model has been demonstrated by using the experimental data of serial size-mutated beetle Tenebrio molitor (Tm) AFPs. It was found that the AFP's ice-surface adsorptions could increase the interfacial AFP's concentrations by 3 to 4 orders compared with those in the bulk AFP solutions.

  13. Yield surface evolution for columnar ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhiwei; Ma, Wei; Zhang, Shujuan; Mu, Yanhu; Zhao, Shunpin; Li, Guoyu

    A series of triaxial compression tests, which has capable of measuring the volumetric strain of the sample, were conducted on columnar ice. A new testing approach of probing the experimental yield surface was performed from a single sample in order to investigate yield and hardening behaviors of the columnar ice under complex stress states. Based on the characteristic of the volumetric strain, a new method of defined the multiaxial yield strengths of the columnar ice is proposed. The experimental yield surface remains elliptical shape in the stress space of effective stress versus mean stress. The effect of temperature, loading rate and loading path in the initial yield surface and deformation properties of the columnar ice were also studied. Subsequent yield surfaces of the columnar ice have been explored by using uniaxial and hydrostatic paths. The evolution of the subsequent yield surface exhibits significant path-dependent characteristics. The multiaxial hardening law of the columnar ice was established experimentally. A phenomenological yield criterion was presented for multiaxial yield and hardening behaviors of the columnar ice. The comparisons between the theoretical and measured results indicate that this current model is capable of giving a reasonable prediction for the multiaxial yield and post-yield properties of the columnar ice subjected to different temperature, loading rate and path conditions.

  14. Export of Ice-Cavity Water from Pine Island Ice Shelf, West Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurnherr, Andreas; Jacobs, Stanley; Dutrieux, Pierre

    2013-04-01

    Stability of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet is sensitive to changes in melting at the bottom of floating ice shelves that form the seaward extensions of Antarctic glaciers flowing into the ocean. Not least because observations in the cavities beneath ice shelves are difficult, heat fluxes and melt rates have been inferred from oceanographic measurements obtained near the ice edge (calving fronts). Here, we report on a set of hydrographic and velocity data collected in early 2009 near the calving front of the Amundsen Sea's fast-moving and (until recently) accelerating Pine Island Glacier and its associated ice shelf. CTD profiles collected along the southern half of the meridionally-trending ice front show clear evidence for export of ice-cavity water. That water was carried in the upper ocean along the ice front by a southward current that is possibly related to a striking clockwise gyre that dominated the (summertime) upper-ocean circulation in Pine Island Bay. Signatures of ice-cavity water appear unrelated to current direction along most of the ice front, suggesting that cross-frontal exchange is dominated by temporal variability. However, repeated hydrographic and velocity measurements in a small "ice cove" at the southern end of the calving front show a persistent strong (mean velocity peaking near 0.5 ms-1) outflow of ice-cavity water in the upper 500 m. While surface features (boils) suggested upwelling from deep below the ice shelf, vertical velocity measurements reveal 1) that the mean upwelling within the confines of the cove was too weak to feed the observed outflow, and 2) that large high-frequency internal waves dominated the vertical motion of water inside the cove. These observations indicate that water exchange between the Pine Island Ice Shelf cavity and the Amundsen sea is strongly asymmetric with weak broad inflow at depth and concentrated surface-intensified outflow of melt-laden deep water at the southern edge of the calving front. The lack of

  15. Antarctic Ice Shelf Potentially Stabilized by Export of Meltwater in Surface River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Robin E.; Chu, Winnie; Kingslake, Jonathan; Das, Indrani; Tedesco, Marco; Tinto, Kirsty J.; Zappa, Christopher J.; Frezzotti, Massimo; Boghosian, Alexandra; Lee, Won Sang

    2017-01-01

    Meltwater stored in ponds and crevasses can weaken and fracture ice shelves, triggering their rapid disintegration. This ice-shelf collapse results in an increased flux of ice from adjacent glaciers and ice streams, thereby raising sea level globally. However, surface rivers forming on ice shelves could potentially export stored meltwater and prevent its destructive effects. Here we present evidence for persistent active drainage networks-interconnected streams, ponds and rivers-on the Nansen Ice Shelf in Antarctica that export a large fraction of the ice shelf's meltwater into the ocean. We find that active drainage has exported water off the ice surface through waterfalls and dolines for more than a century. The surface river terminates in a 130-metre-wide waterfall that can export the entire annual surface melt over the course of seven days. During warmer melt seasons, these drainage networks adapt to changing environmental conditions by remaining active for longer and exporting more water. Similar networks are present on the ice shelf in front of Petermann Glacier, Greenland, but other systems, such as on the Larsen C and Amery Ice Shelves, retain surface water at present. The underlying reasons for export versus retention remain unclear. Nonetheless our results suggest that, in a future warming climate, surface rivers could export melt off the large ice shelves surrounding Antarctica-contrary to present Antarctic ice-sheet models, which assume that meltwater is stored on the ice surface where it triggers ice-shelf disintegration.

  16. Design and characterization of a low cost CubeSat multi-band optical receiver to map water ice on the lunar surface for the Lunar Flashlight mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinckier, Quentin; Crabtree, Karlton; Paine, Christopher G.; Hayne, Paul O.; Sellar, Glenn R.

    2017-08-01

    Lunar Flashlight is an innovative NASA CubeSat mission dedicated to mapping water ice in the permanently shadowed regions of the Moon, which may act as cold traps for volatiles. To this end, a multi-band reflectometer will be sent to orbit the Moon. This instrument consists of an optical receiver aligned with four lasers, each of which emits sequentially at a different wavelength in the near-infrared between 1 μm and 2 μm. The receiver measures the laser light reflected from the lunar surface; continuum/absorption band ratios are then analyzed to quantify water ice in the illuminated spot. Here, we present the current state of the optical receiver design. To optimize the optical signal-to-noise ratio, we have designed the receiver so as to maximize the laser signal collected, while minimizing the stray light reaching the detector from solarilluminated areas of the lunar surface outside the field-of-view, taking into account the complex lunar topography. Characterization plans are also discussed. This highly mass- and volume-constrained mission will demonstrate several firsts, including being one of the first CubeSats performing science measurements beyond low Earth orbit.

  17. Ice dynamic response to two modes of surface lake drainage on the Greenland ice sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tedesco, Marco; Alexander, Patrick; Willis, Ian C; Banwell, Alison F; Arnold, Neil S; Hoffman, Matthew J

    2013-01-01

    Supraglacial lake drainage on the Greenland ice sheet opens surface-to-bed connections, reduces basal friction, and temporarily increases ice flow velocities by up to an order of magnitude. Existing field-based observations of lake drainages and their impact on ice dynamics are limited, and focus on one specific draining mechanism. Here, we report and analyse global positioning system measurements of ice velocity and elevation made at five locations surrounding two lakes that drained by different mechanisms and produced different dynamic responses. For the lake that drained slowly (>24 h) by overtopping its basin, delivering water via a channel to a pre-existing moulin, speedup and uplift were less than half those associated with a lake that drained rapidly (∼2 h) through hydrofracturing and the creation of new moulins in the lake bottom. Our results suggest that the mode and associated rate of lake drainage govern the impact on ice dynamics. (letter)

  18. Experimental provocation of 'ice-cream headache' by ice cubes and ice water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mages, Stephan; Hensel, Ole; Zierz, Antonia Maria; Kraya, Torsten; Zierz, Stephan

    2017-04-01

    Background There are various studies on experimentally provoked 'ice-cream headache' or 'headache attributed to ingestion or inhalation of a cold stimulus' (HICS) using different provocation protocols. The aim of this study was to compare two provocation protocols. Methods Ice cubes pressed to the palate and fast ingestion of ice water were used to provoke HICS and clinical features were compared. Results The ice-water stimulus provoked HICS significantly more often than the ice-cube stimulus (9/77 vs. 39/77). Ice-water-provoked HICS had a significantly shorter latency (median 15 s, range 4-97 s vs. median 68 s, range 27-96 s). There was no difference in pain localisation. Character after ice-cube stimulation was predominantly described as pressing and after ice-water stimulation as stabbing. A second HICS followed in 10/39 (26%) of the headaches provoked by ice water. Lacrimation occurred significantly more often in volunteers with than in those without HICS. Discussion HICS provoked by ice water was more frequent, had a shorter latency, different pain character and higher pain intensity than HICS provoked by ice cubes. The finding of two subsequent HICS attacks in the same volunteers supports the notion that two types of HICS exist. Lacrimation during HICS indicates involvement of the trigeminal-autonomic reflex.

  19. Bibliography of Ice Properties and Forecasting Related to Transportation in Ice-Covered Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    N. and Tabata , T., Ice study in the Gulf of Peschanskii, I.S., Ice science and ice technology, Bothnia, III: observations on large grains of ice...ice and by Sterrett, K.F., The arctic environment and the hitting ice floes. Results of these measurements have arctic surface effect vehicle, Cold...ice growth, temperature 26-3673 effects, ice cover thickness. 28-557 Determining contact stresses when a ship’s stem hits the ice, Kheisin, D.E

  20. Vibrational effects on surface energies and band gaps in hexagonal and cubic ice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engel, Edgar A.; Needs, Richard J.; Monserrat, Bartomeu

    2016-01-01

    Surface energies of hexagonal and cubic water ice are calculated using first-principles quantum mechanical methods, including an accurate description of anharmonic nuclear vibrations. We consider two proton-orderings of the hexagonal and cubic ice basal surfaces and three proton-orderings of hexagonal ice prism surfaces, finding that vibrations reduce the surface energies by more than 10%. We compare our vibrational densities of states to recent sum frequency generation absorption measurements and identify surface proton-orderings of experimental ice samples and the origins of characteristic absorption peaks. We also calculate zero point quantum vibrational corrections to the surface electronic band gaps, which range from −1.2 eV for the cubic ice basal surface up to −1.4 eV for the hexagonal ice prism surface. The vibrational corrections to the surface band gaps are up to 12% smaller than for bulk ice.

  1. Ice nucleation on nanotextured surfaces: the influence of surface fraction, pillar height and wetting states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metya, Atanu K; Singh, Jayant K; Müller-Plathe, Florian

    2016-09-29

    In this work, we address the nucleation behavior of a supercooled monatomic cylindrical water droplet on nanoscale textured surfaces using molecular dynamics simulations. The ice nucleation rate at 203 K on graphite based textured surfaces with nanoscale roughness is evaluated using the mean fast-passage time method. The simulation results show that the nucleation rate depends on the surface fraction as well as the wetting states. The nucleation rate enhances with increasing surface fraction for water in the Cassie-Baxter state, while contrary behavior is observed for the case of Wenzel state. Based on the spatial histogram distribution of ice formation, we observed two pathways for ice nucleation. Heterogeneous nucleation is observed at a high surface fraction. However, the probability of homogeneous ice nucleation events increases with decreasing surface fraction. We further investigate the role of the nanopillar height in ice nucleation. The nucleation rate is enhanced with increasing nanopillar height. This is attributed to the enhanced contact area with increasing nanopillar height and the shift in nucleation events towards the three-phase contact line associated with the nanotextured surface. The ice-surface work of adhesion for the Wenzel state is found to be 1-2 times higher than that in the Cassie-Baxter state. Furthermore, the work of adhesion of ice in the Wenzel state is found to be linearly dependent on the contour length of the droplet, which is in line with that reported for liquid droplets.

  2. Passive anti-frosting surfaces using microscopic ice arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Farzad; Nath, Saurabh; Iliff, Grady; Boreyko, Jonathan

    2017-11-01

    Despite exceptional advances in surface chemistry and micro/nanofabrication, no engineered surface has been able to passively suppress the in-plane growth of frost occurring in humid, subfreezing environments. Motivated by this, and inspired by the fact that ice itself can evaporate nearby liquid water droplets, we present a passive anti-frosting surface in which the majority of the surface remains dry indefinitely. We fabricated an aluminum surface exhibiting an array of small metallic fins, where a wicking micro-groove was laser-cut along the top of each fin to produce elevated water ``stripes'' that freeze into ice. As the saturation vapor pressure of ice is less than that of supercooled liquid water, the ice stripes serve as overlapping humidity sinks that siphon all nearby moisture from the air and prevent condensation and frost from forming anywhere else on the surface. Our experimental results show that regions between stripes remain dry even after 24 hours of operation under humid and supercooled conditions. We believe that the presented anti-frosting technology has the potential to help solve the world's multi-billion dollar frosting problem that adversely affects transportation, power generation, and HVAC systems.

  3. Instability of water-ice interface under turbulent flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Norihiro; Naito, Kensuke; Yokokawa, Miwa

    2015-04-01

    It is known that plane water-ice interface becomes unstable to evolve into a train of waves. The underside of ice formed on the water surface of rivers are often observed to be covered with ice ripples. Relatively steep channels which discharge melting water from glaciers are characterized by beds covered with a series of steps. Though the flowing agent inducing instability is not water but gas including water vapor, a similar train of steps have been recently observed on the Polar Ice Caps on Mars (Spiral Troughs). They are expected to be caused by the instability of water-ice interface induced by flowing fluid on ice. There have been some studies on this instability in terms of linear stability analysis. Recently, Caporeale and Ridolfi (2012) have proposed a complete linear stability analysis in the case of laminar flow, and found that plane water-ice interface is unstable in the range of sufficiently large Reynolds numbers, and that the important parameters are the Reynolds number, the slope angle, and the water surface temperature. However, the flow inducing instability on water-ice interface in the field should be in the turbulent regime. Extension of the analysis to the case of fully developed turbulent flow with larger Reynolds numbers is needed. We have performed a linear stability analysis on the instability of water-ice interface under turbulent flow conditions with the use of the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations with the mixing length turbulent model, the continuity equation of flow, the diffusion/dispersion equation of heat, and the Stefan equation. In order to reproduce the accurate velocity distribution and the heat transfer in the vicinity of smooth walls with the use of the mixing length model, it is important to take into account of the rapid decrease in the mixing length in the viscous sublayer. We employ the Driest model (1956) to the formulation. In addition, as the thermal boundary condition at the water surface, we describe the

  4. Mesoscopic surface roughness of ice crystals pervasive across a wide range of ice crystal conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, N. B.; Miller, A.; Amaral, M.; Cumiskey, A.

    2014-11-01

    Here we show high-magnification images of hexagonal ice crystals acquired by environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). Most ice crystals were grown and sublimated in the water vapor environment of an FEI-Quanta-200 ESEM, but crystals grown in a laboratory diffusion chamber were also transferred intact and imaged via ESEM. All of these images display prominent mesoscopic topography including linear striations, ridges, islands, steps, peaks, pits, and crevasses; the roughness is not observed to be confined to prism facets. The observations represent the most highly magnified images of ice surfaces yet reported and expand the range of conditions in which rough surface features are known to be conspicuous. Microscale surface topography is seen to be ubiquitously present at temperatures ranging from -10 °C to -40 °C, in supersaturated and subsaturated conditions, on all crystal facets, and irrespective of substrate. Despite the constant presence of surface roughness, the patterns of roughness are observed to be dramatically different between growing and sublimating crystals, and transferred crystals also display qualitatively different patterns of roughness. Crystals are also demonstrated to sometimes exhibit inhibited growth in moderately supersaturated conditions following exposure to near-equilibrium conditions, a phenomenon interpreted as evidence of 2-D nucleation. New knowledge about the characteristics of these features could affect the fundamental understanding of ice surfaces and their physical parameterization in the context of satellite retrievals and cloud modeling. Links to supplemental videos of ice growth and sublimation are provided.

  5. Surface decontamination using dry ice snow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Jungdong; Park, Kwangheon; Lee, Bumsik; Kim Yangeun

    1999-01-01

    An adjustable nozzle for controlling the size of dry ice snow was developed. The converging/diverging nozzle can control the size of snows from sub-microns to 10 micron size. Using the nozzle, a surface decontamination device was made. The removal mechanisms of surface contaminants are mechanical impact, partial dissolving and evaporation process, and viscous flow. A heat supply system is added for the prevention of surface ice layer formation. The cleaning power is slightly dependent on the size of snow. Small snows are the better in viscous flow cleaning, while large snows are slightly better in dissolving and sublimation process. Human oils like fingerprints on glass were easy to remove. Decontamination ability was tested using a contaminated pump-housing surface. About 40 to 80% of radioactivity was removed. This device is effective in surface-decontamination of any electrical devices like detector, controllers which cannot be cleaned in aqueous solution. (author)

  6. Water ice grains in comet C/2013 US10 (Catalina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protopapa, Silvia; Kelley, Michael S. P.; Yang, Bin; Woodward, Charles E.; Sunshine, Jessica M.

    2017-10-01

    Knowledge of the the physical properties of water ice in cometary nuclei is critical in determining how the Solar System was formed. While it is difficult to directly study the properties of water ice in comet nuclei, we can study comet interiors through their comae. Cometary activity makes the interiors of these objects available for characterization. However, the properties (grain size, abundance, purity, chemical state) of water-ice grains detected in the coma do not necessarily represent the characteristics of the water ice on the surface and/or in the interior of the nucleus. This is due to the potential physical and chemical evolution of the emitted material. Once in the coma, water-ice grains are heated by sunlight, and if temperatures are warm enough, they sublime. In this case, their sizes and potentially their ice-to-dust fractions are reduced.We present IRTF/SpeX measurements of the Oort cloud comet C/2013 US10 (Catalina), which reached perihelion in Nov 2015 at a heliocentric distance Rh=0.822 AU. Observations of US10 were acquired on UT 2014-08-13, 2016-01-12, and 2016-08-13 (Rh=5.9, 1.3, and 3.9 AU). This set of measurements, spanning a broad range in Rh, are rare and fundamental for estimating how ice grains evolve in the coma. The spectrum obtained close to perihelion is featureless and red sloped, which is consistent with a dust-dominated coma. Conversely, the spectra acquired on August 2014 and 2016 display neutral slopes and absorption bands at 1.5 and 2.0 μm, consistent with the presence of water-ice grains. These variations in water ice with heliocentric distance are correlated with sublimation rates. Additionally, the measurements obtained at 5.8 AU and 3.9 AU are nearly identical, suggesting that water-ice grains, once in the coma, do not sublime significantly. Therefore, the properties of these long-lived water-ice grains may represent their state in the nucleus or immediately after insertion into the coma. We will present radiative

  7. Meltwater storage in low-density near-surface bare ice in the Greenland ice sheet ablation zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Matthew G.; Smith, Laurence C.; Rennermalm, Asa K.; Miège, Clément; Pitcher, Lincoln H.; Ryan, Jonathan C.; Yang, Kang; Cooley, Sarah W.

    2018-03-01

    We document the density and hydrologic properties of bare, ablating ice in a mid-elevation (1215 m a.s.l.) supraglacial internally drained catchment in the Kangerlussuaq sector of the western Greenland ice sheet. We find low-density (0.43-0.91 g cm-3, μ = 0.69 g cm-3) ice to at least 1.1 m depth below the ice sheet surface. This near-surface, low-density ice consists of alternating layers of water-saturated, porous ice and clear solid ice lenses, overlain by a thin (sheet ablation zone surface. A conservative estimate for the ˜ 63 km2 supraglacial catchment yields 0.009-0.012 km3 of liquid meltwater storage in near-surface, porous ice. Further work is required to determine if these findings are representative of broader areas of the Greenland ice sheet ablation zone, and to assess the implications for sub-seasonal mass balance processes, surface lowering observations from airborne and satellite altimetry, and supraglacial runoff processes.

  8. Ice crystallization in ultrafine water-salt aerosols: nucleation, ice-solution equilibrium, and internal structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudait, Arpa; Molinero, Valeria

    2014-06-04

    Atmospheric aerosols have a strong influence on Earth's climate. Elucidating the physical state and internal structure of atmospheric aqueous aerosols is essential to predict their gas and water uptake, and the locus and rate of atmospherically important heterogeneous reactions. Ultrafine aerosols with sizes between 3 and 15 nm have been detected in large numbers in the troposphere and tropopause. Nanoscopic aerosols arising from bubble bursting of natural and artificial seawater have been identified in laboratory and field experiments. The internal structure and phase state of these aerosols, however, cannot yet be determined in experiments. Here we use molecular simulations to investigate the phase behavior and internal structure of liquid, vitrified, and crystallized water-salt ultrafine aerosols with radii from 2.5 to 9.5 nm and with up to 10% moles of ions. We find that both ice crystallization and vitrification of the nanodroplets lead to demixing of pure water from the solutions. Vitrification of aqueous nanodroplets yields nanodomains of pure low-density amorphous ice in coexistence with vitrified solute rich aqueous glass. The melting temperature of ice in the aerosols decreases monotonically with an increase of solute fraction and decrease of radius. The simulations reveal that nucleation of ice occurs homogeneously at the subsurface of the water-salt nanoparticles. Subsequent ice growth yields phase-segregated, internally mixed, aerosols with two phases in equilibrium: a concentrated water-salt amorphous mixture and a spherical cap-like ice nanophase. The surface of the crystallized aerosols is heterogeneous, with ice and solution exposed to the vapor. Free energy calculations indicate that as the concentration of salt in the particles, the advance of the crystallization, or the size of the particles increase, the stability of the spherical cap structure increases with respect to the alternative structure in which a core of ice is fully surrounded by

  9. The surface of the ice-age Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-03-19

    In the Northern Hemisphere the 18,000 B.P. world differed strikingly from the present in the huge land-based ice sheets, reaching approximately 3 km in thickness, and in a dramatic increase in the extent of pack ice and marine-based ice sheets. In the Southern Hemisphere the most striking contrast was the greater extent of sea ice. On land, grasslands, steppes, and deserts spread at the expense of forests. This change in vegetation, together with extensive areas of permanent ice and sandy outwash plains, caused an increase in global surface albedo over modern values. Sea level was lower by at least 85 m. The 18,000 B.P. oceans were characterized by: (i) marked steepening of thermal gradients along polar frontal systems, particularly in the North Atlantic and Antarctic; (ii) an equatorward displacement of polar frontal systems; (iii) general cooling of most surface waters, with a global average of -2.3 degrees C; (iv) increased cooling and up-welling along equatorial divergences in the Pacific and Atlantic; (v) low temperatures extending equatorward along the western coast of Africa, Australia, and South America, indicating increased upwelling and advection of cool waters; and (vi) nearly stable positions and temperatures of the central gyres in the subtropical Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian oceans.

  10. Nye Lecture: Water Under Ice: Curiosities, Complexities, and Catastrophes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, G. K.

    2006-12-01

    Meltwater beneath glaciers and ice sheets activates some of the most curious and impressive phenomena known to glaciology. These range from the generation of miniscule electrokinetic currents by water flow through subglacial sediment to massive outburst floods that rearrange landscapes and deliver freshwater pulses to the ocean. The source of this water varies but is some mix of surface water and water melted from the glacier base by geothermal and frictional heating. The outflow of subglacial water is somewhat affected by bed topography but the dominant influence is from gradients in ice overburden pressure and thus from the surface topography of the ice sheet. Upslope water flow is possible and large adverse bed slopes are required before topographic water traps can exist. As a consequence, subglacial topographic basins tend to be leaky and less than 5% of the area of the contemporary Antarctic Ice Sheet provides suitable habitat for subglacial lakes. Following a variety of subglacial pathways, water can migrate toward the ice margins, either as a liquid or as refrozen meltwater accreted to the ice base. The morphology of the subglacial water system is thought to comprise a combination of sheet-like, channel-like, and vein-like elements, all of which lend themselves to mathematical representation. Water transport processes need not operate in a steady fashion and morphological switching between sheet-like and channel-like endmembers is linked to spectacular events such as glacier surges and outburst floods. Large outbursts of proglacially or subglacially-stored meltwater, the classic Icelandic j{ö}kulhaups, continue to occur in glaciated regions of the world and much larger floods were released during the Late Pleistocene--Early Holocene deglaciation of the Northern Hemisphere. Whether large subglacial lakes like Lake Vostok, Earth's seventh largest lake, have similar potential for delivering cataclysmic floods remains uncertain. The recent detection of a small

  11. Surface and Subsurface Meltwater Ponding and Refreezing on the Bach Ice Shelf, Antarctic Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, I.; Haggard, E.; Benedek, C. L.; MacAyeal, D. R.; Banwell, A. F.

    2017-12-01

    There is growing concern about the stability and fate of Antarctic ice shelves, as four major ice shelves on the Antarctic Peninsula have completely disintegrated since the 1950s. Their collapse has been linked to the southward movement of the -9 oC mean annual temperature isotherm. The proximal causes of ice shelf instability are not fully known, but an increase in surface melting leading to water ponding and ice flexure, fracture and calving has been implicated. Close to the recently collapsed Wilkins Ice Shelf, the Bach Ice Shelf (72°S 72°W) may be at risk from break up in the near future. Here, we document the changing surface hydrology of the Bach Ice Shelf between 2001 and 2017 using Landsat 7 & 8 imagery. Extensive surface water is identified across the Bach Ice Shelf and its tributary glaciers. Two types of drainage system are observed, drainage into firn via simple stream networks and drainage into the ocean via more complex networks. There are differences between the surface hydrology on the ice shelf and the tributary glaciers, as well as variations within and between summer seasons linked to surface air temperature fluctuations. We also document the changing subsurface hydrology of the ice shelf between 2014 and 2017 using Sentinel 1 A/B SAR imagery. Forty-five subsurface features are identified and analysed for their patterns and temporal evolution. Fourteen of the features show similar characteristics to previously-identified buried lakes and some occur in areas associated with surface lakes in previous years. The buried lakes show seasonal variability in area and surface backscatter, which varies with surface air temperature, and are consistent with the presence, enlargement and contraction of liquid water bodies. Buried lakes are an overlooked source of water loading on ice shelves, which may contribute to ice shelf flexure and potential fracture.

  12. Tracing Atlantic Water Signature in the Arctic Sea Ice Cover East of Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir V. Ivanov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We focus on the Arctic Ocean between Svalbard and Franz Joseph Land in order to elucidate the possible role of Atlantic water (AW inflow in shaping ice conditions. Ice conditions substantially affect the temperature regime of the Spitsbergen archipelago, particularly in winter. We test the hypothesis that intensive vertical mixing at the upper AW boundary releases substantial heat upwards that eventually reaches the under-ice water layer, thinning the ice cover. We examine spatial and temporal variation of ice concentration against time series of wind, air temperature, and AW temperature. Analysis of 1979–2011 ice properties revealed a general tendency of decreasing ice concentration that commenced after the mid-1990s. AW temperature time series in Fram Strait feature a monotonic increase after the mid-1990s, consistent with shrinking ice cover. Ice thins due to increased sensible heat flux from AW; ice erosion from below allows wind and local currents to more effectively break ice. The winter spatial pattern of sea ice concentration is collocated with patterns of surface heat flux anomalies. Winter minimum sea ice thickness occurs in the ice pack interior above the AW path, clearly indicating AW influence on ice thickness. Our study indicates that in the AW inflow region heat flux from the ocean reduces the ice thickness.

  13. Water ice clouds observations with PFS on Mars Express

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroz, V. I.; Zasova, L. V.; Formisano, V.; Grassi, D.; Ignatiev, N. I.; Giuranna, M.; Maturilli, A.; Pfs Team

    The water ice cloud observation is one of the scientific goals of PFS. Presence and properties of the ice particles are identified from absorption features, observed in both spectral ranges of PFS. Being in the near perihelion condition, the temperature of the Martian atmosphere is pretty high and ice clouds exist only in some places, for example, related to topography or at north high latitudes et etc. The ice clouds are observed often above the tops of the volcanoes. We have found the ice clouds above Olympus (orbit 37) and Ascraeus Mons (orbit 68). Effective radius of particles according to the thermal IR is preliminary estimated of 1 μ m, which leads to the visual opacity of 0.2 -0.3 above Olympus and of maximum of 0.6 above Ascraeus Mons. In the case of Ascraeus Mons the ice clouds are observed on the south slope near the top of the volcano. The maximum surface temperature, observed there, results in the upward flux of warm air, which, cooling, provides the condensation of H2O. We will present a detailed analysis of the ice clouds, observed over the planet in the IR spectral range.

  14. Exospheric transport restrictions on water ice in lunar polar traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, R. R., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    There is little doubt that at least 10 exp 17 g of water has accreted on the moon as a result of the reduction of ferric iron at the regolith surface by solar wind protons, the vaporization of chondrites, and perhaps comet impacts. Lacking an efficient escape mechanism, most of this water (or its progeny) is probably on the moon now. If the water were to have migrated to permanently shaded cold traps near the lunar poles, ice deposts with densities greater than 1000 g/sq cm would cover the traps, providing accessible resources. However, exospheric transport considerations suggest that the actual amount of water ice in the cold traps is probably too small to be of practical interest. The alternative is global assimilation of most of the water into the regolith, a process that must account for about 30 micromoles of water per gram of soil.

  15. Characterization of an IceTop tank for the IceCube surface extension IceVeto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemp, Julian; Auffenberg, Jan; Hansmann, Bengt; Rongen, Martin; Stahlberg, Martin; Wiebusch, Christopher [III. Physikalisches Institut B, RWTH Aachen University (Germany); Collaboration: IceCube-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    IceTop is an air-shower detector located at the South Pole on the surface above the IceCube detector. It consists of 81 detector stations with two Cherenkov tanks each. The tanks are filled with clear ice and instrumented with two photomultipliers. IceTop detects cosmic-ray induced air-showers above an energy threshold of ∝300 TeV. Muons and neutrinos from these air-showers are the main background for astrophysical neutrino searches with IceCube. The usage of IceTop to veto air-showers largely reduces this background in the field of view. To enlarge the field of view an extension of the surface detector, IceVeto, is planned. Therefore, we investigate the properties of an original IceTop tank as a laboratory reference for the development of new detection module designs. First results of these measurements are presented.

  16. Forced convective melting at an evolving ice-water interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramudu, Eshwan; Hirsh, Benjamin; Olson, Peter; Gnanadesikan, Anand

    2015-11-01

    The intrusion of warm Circumpolar Deep Water into the ocean cavity between the base of ice shelves and the sea bed in Antarctica causes melting at the ice shelves' basal surface, producing a turbulent melt plume. We conduct a series of laboratory experiments to investigate how the presence of forced convection (turbulent mixing) changes the delivery of heat to the ice-water interface. We also develop a theoretical model for the heat balance of the system that can be used to predict the change in ice thickness with time. In cases of turbulent mixing, the heat balance includes a term for turbulent heat transfer that depends on the friction velocity and an empirical coefficient. We obtain a new value for this coefficient by comparing the modeled ice thickness against measurements from a set of nine experiments covering one order of magnitude of Reynolds numbers. Our results are consistent with the altimetry-inferred melting rate under Antarctic ice shelves and can be used in climate models to predict their disintegration. This work was supported by NSF grant EAR-110371.

  17. The effect of ice-cream-scoop water on the hygiene of ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, I. G.; Heaney, J. C.; Weatherup, S. T.

    1997-01-01

    A survey of unopened ice cream, ice cream in use, and ice-cream-scoop water (n = 91) was conducted to determine the effect of scoop water hygiene on the microbiological quality of ice cream. An aerobic plate count around 10(6) c.f.u. ml-1 was the modal value for scoop waters. Unopened ice creams generally had counts around 10(3)-10(4) c.f.u. ml-1 and this increased by one order of magnitude when in use. Many scoop waters had low coliform counts, but almost half contained > 100 c.f.u. ml-1. E. coli was isolated in 18% of ice creams in use, and in 10% of unopened ice creams. S. aureus was not detected in any sample. Statistical analysis showed strong associations between indicator organisms and increased counts in ice cream in use. EC guidelines for indicator organisms in ice cream were exceeded by up to 56% of samples. PMID:9287941

  18. A review of the physics of ice surface friction and the development of ice skating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formenti, Federico

    2014-01-01

    Our walking and running movement patterns require friction between shoes and ground. The surface of ice is characterised by low friction in several naturally occurring conditions, and compromises our typical locomotion pattern. Ice skates take advantage of this slippery nature of ice; the first ice skates were made more than 4000 years ago, and afforded the development of a very efficient form of human locomotion. This review presents an overview of the physics of ice surface friction, and discusses the most relevant factors that can influence ice skates' dynamic friction coefficient. It also presents the main stages in the development of ice skating, describes the associated implications for exercise physiology, and shows the extent to which ice skating performance improved through history. This article illustrates how technical and materials' development, together with empirical understanding of muscle biomechanics and energetics, led to one of the fastest forms of human powered locomotion.

  19. Experimental and theoretical evidence for bilayer-by-bilayer surface melting of crystalline ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sánchez, M. Alejandra; Kling, Tanja; Ishiyama, Tatsuya

    2017-01-01

    , and its nature, we investigate the surface melting of hexagonal ice by combining noncontact, surfacespecific vibrational sum frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy and spectra calculated from molecular dynamics simulations. Using SFG, we probe the outermost water layers of distinct single crystalline ice...

  20. Water ice and sub-micron ice particles on Tethys and Mimas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scipioni, Francesca; Nordheim, Tom; Clark, Roger Nelson; D'Aversa, Emiliano; Cruikshank, Dale P.; Tosi, Federico; Schenk, Paul M.; Combe, Jean-Philippe; Dalle Ore, Cristina M.

    2017-10-01

    IntroductionWe present our ongoing work, mapping the variation of the main water ice absorption bands, and the distribution of the sub-micron particles, across Mimas and Tethys’ surfaces using Cassini-VIMS cubes acquired in the IR range (0.8-5.1 μm). We present our results in the form of maps of variation of selected spectral indicators (depth of absorption bands, reflectance peak height, spectral slopes).Data analysisVIMS acquires hyperspectral data in the 0.3-5.1 μm spectral range. We selected VIMS cubes of Tethys and Mimas in the IR range (0.8-5.1 μm). For all pixels in the selected cubes, we measured the band depths for water-ice absorptions at 1.25, 1.5 and 2.02 μm and the height of the 3.6 μm reflection peak. Moreover, we considered the spectral indictors for particles smaller than 1 µm [1]: (i) the 2 µm absorption band is asymmetric and (ii) it has the minimum shifted to longer λ (iii) the band depth ratio 1.5/2.0 µm decreases; (iv) the reflection peak at 2.6 µm decreases; (v) the Fresnel reflection peak is suppressed; (vi) the 5 µm reflectance is decreased relative to the 3.6 µm peak. To characterize the global variation of water-ice band depths, and of sub-micron particles spectral indicators, across Mimas and Tethys, we sampled the two satellites’ surfacees with a 1°x1° fixed-resolution grid and then averaged the band depths and peak values inside each square cell.3. ResultsFor both moons we find that large geologic features, such as the Odysseus and Herschel impact basins, do not correlate with water ice’s abundance variation. For Tethys, we found a quite uniform surface on both hemispheres. The only deviation from this pattern shows up on the trailing hemisphere, where we notice two north-oriented, dark areas around 225° and 315°. For Mimas, the leading and trailing hemispheres appear to be quite similar in water ice abundance, the trailing portion having water ice absorption bands lightly more suppressed than the leading side

  1. Surface science studies of ethene containing model interstellar ices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puletti, F.; Whelan, M.; Brown, W. A.

    2011-05-01

    The formation of saturated hydrocarbons in the interstellar medium (ISM) is difficult to explain only by taking into account gas phase reactions. This is mostly due to the fact that carbonium ions only react with H_2 to make unsaturated hydrocarbons, and hence no viable route to saturated hydrocarbons has been postulated to date. It is therefore likely that saturation processes occur via surface reactions that take place on interstellar dust grains. One of the species of interest in this family of reactions is C_2H_4 (ethene) which is an intermediate in several molecular formation routes (e.g. C_2H_2 → C_2H_6). To help to understand some of the surface processes involving ethene, a study of ethene deposited on a dust grain analogue surface (highly oriented pyrolytic graphite) held under ultra-high vacuum at 20 K has been performed. The adsorption and desorption of ethene has been studied both in water-free and water-dominated model interstellar ices. A combination of temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS) have been used to identify the adsorbed and trapped species and to determine the kinetics of the desorption processes. In all cases, ethene is found to physisorb on the carbonaceous surface. As expected water has a very strong influence on the desorption of ethene, as previously observed for other model interstellar ice systems.

  2. GLERL Radiation Transfer Through Freshwater Ice

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Radiation transmittance (ratio of transmitted to incident radiation) through clear ice, refrozen slush ice and brash ice, from ice surface to ice-water interface in...

  3. THE STRUCTURE OF SURFACE H{sub 2}O LAYERS OF ICE-COVERED PLANETS WITH HIGH-PRESSURE ICE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueta, S.; Sasaki, T., E-mail: ueta@geo.titech.ac.jp, E-mail: takanori@geo.titech.ac.jp [Earth and Planetary Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan)

    2013-10-01

    Many extrasolar (bound) terrestrial planets and free-floating (unbound) planets have been discovered. While the existence of bound and unbound terrestrial planets with liquid water is an important question, of particular importance is the question of these planets' habitability. Even for a globally ice-covered planet, geothermal heat from the planetary interior may melt the interior ice, creating an internal ocean covered by an ice shell. In this paper, we discuss the conditions that terrestrial planets must satisfy for such an internal ocean to exist on the timescale of planetary evolution. The question is addressed in terms of planetary mass, distance from a central star, water abundance, and abundance of radiogenic heat sources. In addition, we investigate the structure of the surface H{sub 2}O layers of ice-covered planets by considering the effects of ice under high pressure (high-pressure ice). As a fiducial case, a 1 M{sub ⊕} planet at 1 AU from its central star and with 0.6-25 times the H{sub 2}O mass of the Earth could have an internal ocean. We find that high-pressure ice layers may appear between the internal ocean and the rock portion on a planet with an H{sub 2}O mass over 25 times that of the Earth. The planetary mass and abundance of surface water strongly restrict the conditions under which an extrasolar terrestrial planet may have an internal ocean with no high-pressure ice under the ocean. Such high-pressure ice layers underlying the internal ocean are likely to affect the habitability of the planet.

  4. Local Effects of Ice Floes on Skin Sea Surface Temperature in the Marginal Ice Zone from UAVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappa, C. J.; Brown, S.; Emery, W. J.; Adler, J.; Wick, G. A.; Steele, M.; Palo, S. E.; Walker, G.; Maslanik, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    Recent years have seen extreme changes in the Arctic. Particularly striking are changes within the Pacific sector of the Arctic Ocean, and especially in the seas north of the Alaskan coast. These areas have experienced record warming, reduced sea ice extent, and loss of ice in areas that had been ice-covered throughout human memory. Even the oldest and thickest ice types have failed to survive through the summer melt period in areas such as the Beaufort Sea and Canada Basin, and fundamental changes in ocean conditions such as earlier phytoplankton blooms may be underway. Marginal ice zones (MIZ), or areas where the "ice-albedo feedback" driven by solar warming is highest and ice melt is extensive, may provide insights into the extent of these changes. Airborne remote sensing, in particular InfraRed (IR), offers a unique opportunity to observe physical processes at sea-ice margins. It permits monitoring the ice extent and coverage, as well as the ice and ocean temperature variability. It can also be used for derivation of surface flow field allowing investigation of turbulence and mixing at the ice-ocean interface. Here, we present measurements of visible and IR imagery of melting ice floes in the marginal ice zone north of Oliktok Point AK in the Beaufort Sea made during the Marginal Ice Zone Ocean and Ice Observations and Processes EXperiment (MIZOPEX) in July-August 2013. The visible and IR imagery were taken from the unmanned airborne vehicle (UAV) ScanEagle. The visible imagery clearly defines the scale of the ice floes. The IR imagery show distinct cooling of the skin sea surface temperature (SST) as well as a intricate circulation and mixing pattern that depends on the surface current, wind speed, and near-surface vertical temperature/salinity structure. Individual ice floes develop turbulent wakes as they drift and cause transient mixing of an influx of colder surface (fresh) melt water. The upstream side of the ice floe shows the coldest skin SST, and

  5. Discrete Surface Evolution and Mesh Deformation for Aircraft Icing Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, David; Tong, Xiaoling; Arnoldus, Qiuhan; Collins, Eric; McLaurin, David; Luke, Edward; Bidwell, Colin S.

    2013-01-01

    Robust, automated mesh generation for problems with deforming geometries, such as ice accreting on aerodynamic surfaces, remains a challenging problem. Here we describe a technique to deform a discrete surface as it evolves due to the accretion of ice. The surface evolution algorithm is based on a smoothed, face-offsetting approach. We also describe a fast algebraic technique to propagate the computed surface deformations into the surrounding volume mesh while maintaining geometric mesh quality. Preliminary results presented here demonstrate the ecacy of the approach for a sphere with a prescribed accretion rate, a rime ice accretion, and a more complex glaze ice accretion.

  6. Surface treatment to reduce icing; Oberflaechenbehandlung zur Vereisungsverringerung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, P.; Kulik, G.; Zehnder, M.

    2003-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of work done at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne, Switzerland, on reducing ice formation on the evaporators of air-water heat-pumps and speeding-up the defrosting cycle by making their surfaces hydrophobic. The authors report that highest water repellence was achieved by high surface roughness and application of a strongly hydrophobic per fluorosilane coating. The results of tests carried out with uncoated and differently coated sample heat exchangers are presented. Three geometrically identical miniaturised heat exchangers were used that differed in roughness and surface wettability. Surprisingly, the rough and strongly repellent heat-exchanger showed worse defrosting behaviour than the uncoated heat-exchanger. The flat and hydrophobic-coated heat-exchanger showed the best performance. The amount of frost formed was 25% less and defrosting time was much shorter.

  7. Simulation of an extended surface detector IceVeto for IceCube-Gen2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansmann, Tim; Auffenberg, Jan; Haack, Christian; Hansmann, Bengt; Kemp, Julian; Konietz, Richard; Leuner, Jakob; Raedel, Leif; Stahlberg, Martin; Schoenen, Sebastian; Wiebusch, Christopher [III. Physikalisches Institut B, RWTH Aachen University (Germany); Collaboration: IceCube-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    IceCube is a neutrino observatory located at the geographic South Pole. The main backgrounds for IceCube's primary goal, the measurement of astrophysical neutrinos, are muons and neutrinos from cosmic-ray air showers in the Earth's atmosphere. Strong supression of these backgrounds from the Southern hemisphere has been demonstrated by coincident detection of these air showers with the IceTop surface detector. For an extended instrument, IceCube-Gen2, it is considered to build an enlarged surface array, IceVeto, that will improve the detection capabilities of coincident air showers. We will present simulation studies to estimate the IceVeto capabilities to optimize the IceCube-Gen2 design.

  8. Simulating the roles of crevasse routing of surface water and basal friction on the surge evolution of Basin 3, Austfonna ice cap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yongmei; Zwinger, Thomas; Åström, Jan; Altena, Bas; Schellenberger, Thomas; Gladstone, Rupert; Moore, John C.

    2018-05-01

    The marine-terminating outlet in Basin 3, Austfonna ice cap, has been accelerating since the mid-1990s. Stepwise multi-annual acceleration associated with seasonal summer speed-up events was observed before the outlet entered the basin-wide surge in autumn 2012. We used multiple numerical models to explore hydrologic activation mechanisms for the surge behaviour. A continuum ice dynamic model was used to invert basal friction coefficient distributions using the control method and observed surface velocity data between April 2012 and July 2014. This has provided input to a discrete element model capable of simulating individual crevasses, with the aim of finding locations where meltwater entered the glacier during the summer and reached the bed. The possible flow paths of surface meltwater reaching the glacier bed as well as those of meltwater produced at the bed were calculated according to the gradient of the hydraulic potential. The inverted friction coefficients show the unplugging of the stagnant ice front and expansion of low-friction regions before the surge reached its peak velocity in January 2013. Crevasse distribution reflects the basal friction pattern to a high degree. The meltwater reaches the bed through the crevasses located above the margins of the subglacial valley and the basal melt that is generated mainly by frictional heating flows either to the fast-flowing units or potentially accumulates in an overdeepened region. Based on these results, the mechanisms facilitated by basal meltwater production, crevasse opening and the routing of meltwater to the bed are discussed for the surge in Basin 3.

  9. Simulating the roles of crevasse routing of surface water and basal friction on the surge evolution of Basin 3, Austfonna ice cap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Gong

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The marine-terminating outlet in Basin 3, Austfonna ice cap, has been accelerating since the mid-1990s. Stepwise multi-annual acceleration associated with seasonal summer speed-up events was observed before the outlet entered the basin-wide surge in autumn 2012. We used multiple numerical models to explore hydrologic activation mechanisms for the surge behaviour. A continuum ice dynamic model was used to invert basal friction coefficient distributions using the control method and observed surface velocity data between April 2012 and July 2014. This has provided input to a discrete element model capable of simulating individual crevasses, with the aim of finding locations where meltwater entered the glacier during the summer and reached the bed. The possible flow paths of surface meltwater reaching the glacier bed as well as those of meltwater produced at the bed were calculated according to the gradient of the hydraulic potential.The inverted friction coefficients show the unplugging of the stagnant ice front and expansion of low-friction regions before the surge reached its peak velocity in January 2013. Crevasse distribution reflects the basal friction pattern to a high degree. The meltwater reaches the bed through the crevasses located above the margins of the subglacial valley and the basal melt that is generated mainly by frictional heating flows either to the fast-flowing units or potentially accumulates in an overdeepened region. Based on these results, the mechanisms facilitated by basal meltwater production, crevasse opening and the routing of meltwater to the bed are discussed for the surge in Basin 3.

  10. Linking Regional Winter Sea Ice Thickness and Surface Roughness to Spring Melt Pond Fraction on Landfast Arctic Sea Ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasha Nasonova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic sea ice cover has decreased strongly in extent, thickness, volume and age in recent decades. The melt season presents a significant challenge for sea ice forecasting due to uncertainty associated with the role of surface melt ponds in ice decay at regional scales. This study quantifies the relationships of spring melt pond fraction (fp with both winter sea ice roughness and thickness, for landfast first-year sea ice (FYI and multiyear sea ice (MYI. In 2015, airborne measurements of winter sea ice thickness and roughness, as well as high-resolution optical data of melt pond covered sea ice, were collected along two ~5.2 km long profiles over FYI- and MYI-dominated regions in the Canadian Arctic. Statistics of winter sea ice thickness and roughness were compared to spring fp using three data aggregation approaches, termed object and hybrid-object (based on image segments, and regularly spaced grid-cells. The hybrid-based aggregation approach showed strongest associations because it considers the morphology of the ice as well as footprints of the sensors used to measure winter sea ice thickness and roughness. Using the hybrid-based data aggregation approach it was found that winter sea ice thickness and roughness are related to spring fp. A stronger negative correlation was observed between FYI thickness and fp (Spearman rs = −0.85 compared to FYI roughness and fp (rs = −0.52. The association between MYI thickness and fp was also negative (rs = −0.56, whereas there was no association between MYI roughness and fp. 47% of spring fp variation for FYI and MYI can be explained by mean thickness. Thin sea ice is characterized by low surface roughness allowing for widespread ponding in the spring (high fp whereas thick sea ice has undergone dynamic thickening and roughening with topographic features constraining melt water into deeper channels (low fp. This work provides an important contribution towards the parameterizations of fp in

  11. Influence of ice thickness and surface properties on light transmission through Arctic sea ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katlein, Christian; Arndt, Stefanie; Nicolaus, Marcel; Perovich, Donald K; Jakuba, Michael V; Suman, Stefano; Elliott, Stephen; Whitcomb, Louis L; McFarland, Christopher J; Gerdes, Rüdiger; Boetius, Antje; German, Christopher R

    2015-09-01

    The observed changes in physical properties of sea ice such as decreased thickness and increased melt pond cover severely impact the energy budget of Arctic sea ice. Increased light transmission leads to increased deposition of solar energy in the upper ocean and thus plays a crucial role for amount and timing of sea-ice-melt and under-ice primary production. Recent developments in underwater technology provide new opportunities to study light transmission below the largely inaccessible underside of sea ice. We measured spectral under-ice radiance and irradiance using the new Nereid Under-Ice (NUI) underwater robotic vehicle, during a cruise of the R/V Polarstern to 83°N 6°W in the Arctic Ocean in July 2014. NUI is a next generation hybrid remotely operated vehicle (H-ROV) designed for both remotely piloted and autonomous surveys underneath land-fast and moving sea ice. Here we present results from one of the first comprehensive scientific dives of NUI employing its interdisciplinary sensor suite. We combine under-ice optical measurements with three dimensional under-ice topography (multibeam sonar) and aerial images of the surface conditions. We investigate the influence of spatially varying ice-thickness and surface properties on the spatial variability of light transmittance during summer. Our results show that surface properties such as melt ponds dominate the spatial distribution of the under-ice light field on small scales (sea ice-thickness is the most important predictor for light transmission on larger scales. In addition, we propose the use of an algorithm to obtain histograms of light transmission from distributions of sea ice thickness and surface albedo.

  12. Sum-frequency spectroscopic studies: I. Surface melting of ice, II. Surface alignment of polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Xing [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Surface vibrational spectroscopy via infrared-visible sum-frequency generation (SFG) has been established as a useful tool to study the structures of different kinds of surfaces and interfaces. This technique was used to study the (0001) face of hexagonal ice (Ih). SFG spectra in the O-H stretch frequency range were obtained at various sample temperatures. For the vapor(air)/ice interface, the degree of orientational order of the dangling OH bonds at the surface was measured as a function of temperature. Disordering sets in around 200 K and increases dramatically with temperature, which is strong evidence of surface melting of ice. For the other ice interfaces (silica/OTS/ice and silica/ice), a similar temperature dependence of the hydrogen bonded OH stretch peak was observed; the free OH stretch mode, however, appears to be different from that of the vapor (air)/ice interface due to interactions at the interfaces. The technique was also used to measure the orientational distributions of the polymer chains on a rubbed polyvinyl alcohol surface. Results show that the polymer chains at the surface appear to be well aligned by rubbing, and the adsorbed liquid crystal molecules are aligned, in turn, by the surface polymer chains. A strong correlation exists between the orientational distributions of the polymer chains and the liquid crystal molecules, indicating that the surface-induced bulk alignment of a liquid crystal film by rubbed polymer surfaces is via an orientational epitaxy-like mechanism. This thesis also contains studies on some related issues that are crucial to the above applications. An experiment was designed to measure SFG spectra in both reflection and transmission. The result confirms that SFG in reflection is generally dominated by the surface contribution. Another issue is the motional effect due to fast orientational motion of molecules at a surface or interface. Calculations show that the effect is significant if the molecular orientation varies

  13. Inhibition of ice nucleation by slippery liquid-infused porous surfaces (SLIPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Peter W; Lu, Weizhe; Xu, Haojun; Kim, Philseok; Kreder, Michael J; Alvarenga, Jack; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2013-01-14

    Ice repellent coatings have been studied and keenly sought after for many years, where any advances in the durability of such coatings will result in huge energy savings across many fields. Progress in creating anti-ice and anti-frost surfaces has been particularly rapid since the discovery and development of slippery, liquid infused porous surfaces (SLIPS). Here we use SLIPS-coated differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) pans to investigate the effects of the surface modification on the nucleation of supercooled water. This investigation is inherently different from previous studies which looked at the adhesion of ice to SLIPS surfaces, or the formation of ice under high humidity conditions. Given the stochastic nature of nucleation of ice from supercooled water, multiple runs on the same sample are needed to determine if a given surface coating has a real and statistically significant effect on the nucleation temperature. We have cycled supercooling to freezing and then thawing of deionized water in hydrophilic (untreated aluminum), hydrophobic, superhydrophobic, and SLIPS-treated DSC pans multiple times to determine the effects of surface treatment on the nucleation and subsequent growth of ice. We find that SLIPS coatings lower the nucleation temperature of supercooled water in contact with statistical significance and show no deterioration or change in the coating performance even after 150 freeze-thaw cycles.

  14. Proceedings of the 19. IAHR international symposium on ice : using new technology to understand water-ice interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasek, M.; Andrishak, R.; Siddiqui, A.

    2008-01-01

    This conference provided a venue for scientists, engineers and researchers an opportunity to expand their knowledge of water-ice interactions with reference to water resources, river and coastal hydraulics, risk analysis, energy and the environment. The the theme of new technology falls into 3 basic groups, notably measurement and instrumentation; remote sensing; and numerical simulation. The thermal regime of rivers was discussed along with ice mechanics, ice hydraulics, ice structures and modelling ice phenomena. The titles of the sessions were: river ice, glaciers and climate change; freeze-up processes on rivers and oceans; river ice-structure interactions; numerical simulations in ice engineering; river-ice break-up and ice jam formation; ice measurement; Grasse River ice evaluation; evaluation of structural ice control alternatives; remote sensing; hydropower and dam decommissioning; mechanical behaviour of river ice, ice covered flow and thermal modelling; mathematical and computer model formulations for ice friction and sea ice; ice bergs and ice navigation; ice crushing processes; sea ice and shore/structure interactions; ice properties, testing and physical modelling; ice actions on compliant structures; oil spills in ice; desalination, ice thickness and climate change; and, sea ice ridges. The conference featured 123 presentations, of which 20 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  15. Challenges for understanding Antarctic surface hydrology and ice-shelf stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingslake, J.; Bell, R. E.; Banwell, A. F.; Boghosian, A.; Spergel, J.; Trusel, L. D.

    2017-12-01

    It is widely hypothesized that surface meltwater can contribute to ice mass loss in Antarctica through its impact on ice-shelf stability. Meltwater potentially expedites ice-shelf calving by flowing into and enlarging existing crevasses, and could even trigger ice-shelf disintegration via stresses generated by melt ponds. When ice shelves collapse, the adjacent grounded ice accelerates and thins, which contributes to sea-level rise. How these mechanisms mediate the interactions between the atmosphere, the ocean and the ice sheet is the subject of long-standing research efforts. The drainage of water across the surface of the Antarctic Ice Sheet and its ice shelves is beginning to be recognized as another important aspect of the system. Recent studies have revealed that surface meltwater drainage is more widespread than previously thought and that surface hydrological systems in Antarctica may expand and proliferate this century. Contrasting hypotheses regarding the impact of the proliferation of drainage systems on ice-shelf stability have emerged. Surface drainage could deliver meltwater to vulnerable area or export meltwater from ice shelves entirely. Which behavior dominates may have a large impact on the future response of the Antarctic Ice Sheet to atmospheric warming. We will discuss these recent discoveries and hypotheses, as well as new detailed studies of specific areas where hydrological systems are well developed, such as Amery and Nimrod Ice Shelves. We will highlight analogies that can be drawn with Greenlandic (near-)surface hydrology and, crucially, where hydrological systems on the two ice sheets are very different, leading to potentially important gaps in our understanding. Finally, we will look ahead to the key questions that we argue will need to be if we are to determine the role Antarctic surface hydrology could play in the future of the ice sheet. These include: Where does meltwater pond today and how will this change this century? What

  16. The Contribution of Water Ice Clouds to the Water Cycle in the North Polar Region of Mars: Preliminary Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, D. S.; Tamppari, L. K.

    2000-01-01

    While it has long been known that Mars' north residual polar cap and the Martian regolith are significant sources of atmospheric water vapor, the amount of water vapor observed in the northern spring season by the Viking Mars Atmospheric Water Detector instrument (MAWD) cannot be attributed to cap and regolith sources alone. Kahn suggested that ice hazes may be the mechanism by which additional water is supplied to the Martian atmosphere. Additionally, a significant decrease in atmospheric water vapor was observed in the late northern summer that could not be correlated with the return of the cold seasonal C02 ice. While the detection of water ice clouds on Mars indicate that water exists in Mars' atmosphere in several different phases, the extent to which water ice clouds play a role in moving water through the Martian atmosphere remains uncertain. Work by Bass et. al. suggested that the time dependence of water ice cap seasonal variability and the increase in atmospheric water vapor depended on the polar cap center reaching 200K, the night time saturation temperature. Additionally, they demonstrated that a decrease in atmospheric water vapor may be attributed to deposition of water ice onto the surface of the polar cap; temperatures were still too warm at this time in the summer for the deposition of carbon dioxide. However, whether water ice clouds contribute significantly to this variability is unknown. Additional information is contained in original extended abstract.

  17. Assimilation of ice and water observations from SAR imagery to improve estimates of sea ice concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Andrea Scott

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the assimilation of binary observations calculated from synthetic aperture radar (SAR images of sea ice is investigated. Ice and water observations are obtained from a set of SAR images by thresholding ice and water probabilities calculated using a supervised maximum likelihood estimator (MLE. These ice and water observations are then assimilated in combination with ice concentration from passive microwave imagery for the purpose of estimating sea ice concentration. Due to the fact that the observations are binary, consisting of zeros and ones, while the state vector is a continuous variable (ice concentration, the forward model used to map the state vector to the observation space requires special consideration. Both linear and non-linear forward models were investigated. In both cases, the assimilation of SAR data was able to produce ice concentration analyses in closer agreement with image analysis charts than when assimilating passive microwave data only. When both passive microwave and SAR data are assimilated, the bias between the ice concentration analyses and the ice concentration from ice charts is 19.78%, as compared to 26.72% when only passive microwave data are assimilated. The method presented here for the assimilation of SAR data could be applied to other binary observations, such as ice/water information from visual/infrared sensors.

  18. Periodic fluctuations in deep water formation due to sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, R.

    2012-12-01

    During the last ice age, several abrupt warming events took place, known as Dansgaard-Oeschger (D-O) events. Their effects were felt globally, although the North Atlantic experienced the largest temperature increase. The leading hypothesis to explain their occurrence postulates that the warming was caused by abrupt disruptions of the North Atlantic Current due to meltwater discharge from destabilized ice sheets (Heinrich events). However, the number of warming events outnumber the those of ice-sheet collapse. Thus, the majority of D-O events are not attributed to surface freshwater anomalies, and the underlying mechanism behind their occurrence remain unexplained. Using a simple dynamical model of sea ice and an overturning circulation, I show the existence of self-sustained relaxation oscillations in the overturning circulation. The insulating effect of sea ice is shown to paradoxically lead to a net loss of heat from the top layer of the polar ocean when sea ice retreats. Repeated heat loss results in a denser top layer and a destabilized water column, which triggers convection. The convective state pulls the system out of its preferred mode of circulation, setting up relaxation oscillations. The period of oscillations in this case is linked to the geometry of the ocean basin, if solar forcing is assumed to remain constant. If appropriate glacial freshwater forcing is applied to the model, a pattern of oscillation is produced that bears remarkable similarity to the observed fluctuations in North Atlantic climate between 50,000 and 30,000 years before present.; Comparison of NGRIP δ 18-O (proxy for near surface air temperature) between 50,000 and 30,000 years before present, showing Bond cycles (left) with the model output when forced with appropriate glacial freshwater forcing (right).

  19. Greenland Ice Sheet Surface Temperature, Melt, and Mass Loss: 2000-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Williams, Richard S., Jr.; Luthcke, Scott B.; DiGirolamo, Nocolo

    2007-01-01

    Extensive melt on the Greenland Ice Sheet has been documented by a variety of ground and satellite measurements in recent years. If the well-documented warming continues in the Arctic, melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet will likely accelerate, contributing to sea-level rise. Modeling studies indicate that an annual or summer temperature rise of 1 C on the ice sheet will increase melt by 20-50% therefore, surface temperature is one of the most important ice-sheet parameters to study for analysis of changes in the mass balance of the ice-sheet. The Greenland Ice Sheet contains enough water to produce a rise in eustatic sea level of up to 7.0 m if the ice were to melt completely. However, even small changes (centimeters) in sea level would cause important economic and societal consequences in the world's major coastal cities thus it is extremely important to monitor changes in the ice-sheet surface temperature and to ultimately quantify these changes in terms of amount of sea-level rise. We have compiled a high-resolution, daily time series of surface temperature of the Greenland Ice Sheet, using the I-km resolution, clear-sky land-surface temperature (LST) standard product from the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), from 2000 - 2006. We also use Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) data, averaged over 10-day periods, to measure change in mass of the ice sheet as it melt and snow accumulates. Surface temperature can be used to determine frequency of surface melt, timing of the start and the end of the melt season, and duration of melt. In conjunction with GRACE data, it can also be used to analyze timing of ice-sheet mass loss and gain.

  20. Dissolved iron in the Arctic shelf seas and surface waters of the central Arctic Ocean : Impact of Arctic river water and ice-melt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klunder, M. B.; Bauch, D.; Laan, P.; de Baar, H. J. W.; van Heuven, S.; Ober, S.

    2012-01-01

    Concentrations of dissolved (10 nM) in the bottom waters of the Laptev Sea shelf may be attributed to either sediment resuspension, sinking of brine or regeneration of DFe in the lower layers. A significant correlation (R-2 = 0.60) between salinity and DFe is observed. Using delta O-18, salinity,

  1. Functional display of ice nucleation protein InaZ on the surface of bacterial ghosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassmannhuber, Johannes; Rauscher, Mascha; Schöner, Lea; Witte, Angela; Lubitz, Werner

    2017-09-03

    In a concept study the ability to induce heterogeneous ice formation by Bacterial Ghosts (BGs) from Escherichia coli carrying ice nucleation protein InaZ from Pseudomonas syringae in their outer membrane was investigated by a droplet-freezing assay of ultra-pure water. As determined by the median freezing temperature and cumulative ice nucleation spectra it could be demonstrated that both the living recombinant E. coli and their corresponding BGs functionally display InaZ on their surface. Under the production conditions chosen both samples belong to type II ice-nucleation particles inducing ice formation at a temperature range of between -5.6 °C and -6.7 °C, respectively. One advantage for the application of such BGs over their living recombinant mother bacteria is that they are non-living native cell envelopes retaining the biophysical properties of ice nucleation and do no longer represent genetically modified organisms (GMOs).

  2. Effetively trapping air or lqiud water for anti-icing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianjun

    2014-03-01

    Icing on solid surfaces leads to operational difficulties and high maintenance efforts for power networks, aircrafts, ships, ground transportation vehicles and house-hold refrigerators, to name but a few. In extreme cases, icing on surfaces causes disastrous events such as crash of aircrafts and collapse of power networks, which result in severe economic impact and large loss of life. This talk is focused on the fundamentals of the ice formation and adhesion of ice with solid substrates aiming for fighting against icing on solid surfaces. When the supercooling is low, it would be possible to remove supercooled liquid water from the solid surfaces before freezing occurs. To achieve this, we design and constructed surfaces that can trap the air at the subfreezing temperature thus condensed water microdroplets could be spontaneously removed after the coalescence. When the supercooling is high, icing on surfaces occurs spontaniously. In this case, we constructed coatings on which aqueous lubricating layer could be trapped, thus the ice adhesion on the coating is so low that the ice formed atop could be removed by a wind action or its own gravity.

  3. Surface ice flow velocity and tide retrieval of the amery ice shelf using precise point positioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, X.H.; Andersen, Ole Baltazar

    2006-01-01

    Five days of continuous GPS observation data were collected in the frontal zone of the Amery ice shelf and subsequently post-processed using precise point position (PPP) technology based on precise orbit and clock products from the International GNSS service. The surface ice flow velocity of the ...

  4. The Ice Nucleation Activity of Surface Modified Soot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häusler, Thomas; Witek, Lorenz; Felgitsch, Laura; Hitzenberger, Regina; Grothe, Hinrich

    2017-04-01

    The ice nucleation efficiency of many important atmospheric particles remains poorly understood. Since soot is ubiquitous in the Earth's troposphere, they might have the potential to significantly impact the Earth's climate (Finlayson-Pitts and Pitts, 2000; Seinfeld and Pandis, 1998). Here we present the ice nucleation activity (INA) in immersion freezing mode of different types of soot. Therefor a CAST (combustion aerosol standard) generator was used to produce different kinds of soot samples. The CAST generator combusts a propane-air-mixture and deposits thereby produced soot on a polyvinyl fluoride filter. By varying the propane to air ratio, the amount of organic portion of the soot can be varied from black carbon (BC) with no organic content to brown carbon (BrC) with high organic content. To investigate the impact of functional sites of ice nuclei (IN), the soot samples were exposed to NO2 gas for a certain amount of time (30 to 360 minutes) to chemically modify the surface. Immersion freezing experiments were carried out in a unique reaction gadget. In this device a water-in-oil suspension (with the soot suspended in the aqueous phase) was cooled till the freezing point and was observed through a microscope (Pummer et al., 2012; Zolles et al., 2015) It was found that neither modified nor unmodified BC shows INA. On the contrary, unmodified BrC shows an INA at -32˚ C, which can be increased up to -20˚ C. The INA of BrC depends on the duration of NO2- exposure. To clarify the characteristics of the surface modifications, surface sensitive analysis like infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were carried out. Finlayson-Pitts, B. J. and Pitts, J. N. J.: Chemistry of the Upper and Lower Atmosphere, Elsevier, New York, 2000. Pummer, B. G., Bauer, H., Bernardi, J., Bleicher, S., and Grothe, H.: Suspendable macromolecules are responsible for ice nucleation activity of birch and conifer pollen, Atmos Chem Phys, 12, 2541-2550, 2012. Seinfeld, J

  5. DISCOVERY OF CRYSTALLIZED WATER ICE IN A SILHOUETTE DISK IN THE M43 REGION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terada, Hiroshi [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 650 North A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Tokunaga, Alan T., E-mail: terada@subaru.naoj.org [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu 96822 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    We present the 1.9-4.2 {mu}m spectra of the five bright (L {<=} 11.2) young stars associated with silhouette disks with a moderate to high inclination angle of 39 Degree-Sign -80 Degree-Sign in the M42 and M43 regions. The water ice absorption is seen toward d121-1925 and d216-0939, while the spectra of d182-316, d183-405, and d218-354 show no water ice feature around 3.1 {mu}m within the detection limits. By comparing the water ice features toward nearby stars, we find that the water ice absorption toward d121-1925 and d216-0939 most likely originates from the foreground material and the surrounding disk, respectively. The angle of the disk inclination is found to be mainly responsible for the difference of the optical depth of the water ice among the five young stars. Our results suggest that there is a critical inclination angle between 65 Degree-Sign and 75 Degree-Sign for the circumstellar disk where the water ice absorption becomes strong. The average density at the disk surface of d216-0939 was found to be 6.38 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -18} g cm{sup -3}. The water ice absorption band in the d216-0939 disk is remarkable in that the maximum optical depth of the water ice band is at a longer wavelength than detected before. It indicates that the primary carrier of the feature is purely crystallized water ice at the surface of the d216-0939 disk with characteristic size of {approx}0.8 {mu}m, which suggests grain growth. This is the first direct detection of purely crystallized water ice in a silhouette disk.

  6. Open-source algorithm for detecting sea ice surface features in high-resolution optical imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. C. Wright

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Snow, ice, and melt ponds cover the surface of the Arctic Ocean in fractions that change throughout the seasons. These surfaces control albedo and exert tremendous influence over the energy balance in the Arctic. Increasingly available meter- to decimeter-scale resolution optical imagery captures the evolution of the ice and ocean surface state visually, but methods for quantifying coverage of key surface types from raw imagery are not yet well established. Here we present an open-source system designed to provide a standardized, automated, and reproducible technique for processing optical imagery of sea ice. The method classifies surface coverage into three main categories: snow and bare ice, melt ponds and submerged ice, and open water. The method is demonstrated on imagery from four sensor platforms and on imagery spanning from spring thaw to fall freeze-up. Tests show the classification accuracy of this method typically exceeds 96 %. To facilitate scientific use, we evaluate the minimum observation area required for reporting a representative sample of surface coverage. We provide an open-source distribution of this algorithm and associated training datasets and suggest the community consider this a step towards standardizing optical sea ice imagery processing. We hope to encourage future collaborative efforts to improve the code base and to analyze large datasets of optical sea ice imagery.

  7. Open-source algorithm for detecting sea ice surface features in high-resolution optical imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Nicholas C.; Polashenski, Chris M.

    2018-04-01

    Snow, ice, and melt ponds cover the surface of the Arctic Ocean in fractions that change throughout the seasons. These surfaces control albedo and exert tremendous influence over the energy balance in the Arctic. Increasingly available meter- to decimeter-scale resolution optical imagery captures the evolution of the ice and ocean surface state visually, but methods for quantifying coverage of key surface types from raw imagery are not yet well established. Here we present an open-source system designed to provide a standardized, automated, and reproducible technique for processing optical imagery of sea ice. The method classifies surface coverage into three main categories: snow and bare ice, melt ponds and submerged ice, and open water. The method is demonstrated on imagery from four sensor platforms and on imagery spanning from spring thaw to fall freeze-up. Tests show the classification accuracy of this method typically exceeds 96 %. To facilitate scientific use, we evaluate the minimum observation area required for reporting a representative sample of surface coverage. We provide an open-source distribution of this algorithm and associated training datasets and suggest the community consider this a step towards standardizing optical sea ice imagery processing. We hope to encourage future collaborative efforts to improve the code base and to analyze large datasets of optical sea ice imagery.

  8. Surface Energy and Mass Balance Model for Greenland Ice Sheet and Future Projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaojian

    The Greenland Ice Sheet contains nearly 3 million cubic kilometers of glacial ice. If the entire ice sheet completely melted, sea level would raise by nearly 7 meters. There is thus considerable interest in monitoring the mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet. Each year, the ice sheet gains ice from snowfall and loses ice through iceberg calving and surface melting. In this thesis, we develop, validate and apply a physics based numerical model to estimate current and future surface mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet. The numerical model consists of a coupled surface energy balance and englacial model that is simple enough that it can be used for long time scale model runs, but unlike previous empirical parameterizations, has a physical basis. The surface energy balance model predicts ice sheet surface temperature and melt production. The englacial model predicts the evolution of temperature and meltwater within the ice sheet. These two models can be combined with estimates of precipitation (snowfall) to estimate the mass balance over the Greenland Ice Sheet. We first compare model performance with in-situ observations to demonstrate that the model works well. We next evaluate how predictions are degraded when we statistically downscale global climate data. We find that a simple, nearest neighbor interpolation scheme with a lapse rate correction is able to adequately reproduce melt patterns on the Greenland Ice Sheet. These results are comparable to those obtained using empirical Positive Degree Day (PDD) methods. Having validated the model, we next drove the ice sheet model using the suite of atmospheric model runs available through the CMIP5 atmospheric model inter-comparison, which in turn built upon the RCP 8.5 (business as usual) scenarios. From this exercise we predict how much surface melt production will increase in the coming century. This results in 4-10 cm sea level equivalent, depending on the CMIP5 models. Finally, we try to bound melt water

  9. Improving Surface Mass Balance Over Ice Sheets and Snow Depth on Sea Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Lora Suzanne; Box, Jason; Kurtz, Nathan

    2013-01-01

    Surface mass balance (SMB) over ice sheets and snow on sea ice (SOSI) are important components of the cryosphere. Large knowledge gaps remain in scientists' abilities to monitor SMB and SOSI, including insufficient measurements and difficulties with satellite retrievals. On ice sheets, snow accumulation is the sole mass gain to SMB, and meltwater runoff can be the dominant single loss factor in extremely warm years such as 2012. SOSI affects the growth and melt cycle of the Earth's polar sea ice cover. The summer of 2012 saw the largest satellite-recorded melt area over the Greenland ice sheet and the smallest satellite-recorded Arctic sea ice extent, making this meeting both timely and relevant.

  10. The effects of additional black carbon on Arctic sea ice surface albedo: variation with sea ice type and snow cover

    OpenAIRE

    A. A. Marks; M. D. King

    2013-01-01

    Black carbon in sea ice will decrease sea ice surface albedo through increased absorption of incident solar radiation, exacerbating sea ice melting. Previous literature has reported different albedo responses to additions of black carbon in sea ice and has not considered how a snow cover may mitigate the effect of black carbon in sea ice. Sea ice is predominately snow covered. Visible light absorption and light scattering coefficients are calculated for a typical first year and multi-y...

  11. Morphology of bottom surfaces of glacier ice tongues in the East Antarctic region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianchi, C.; Chiappini, M.; Zirizzotti, A.; Zuccheretti, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Rome (Italy); Tabacco, I. E. [Milan Univ., Milan (Italy). Sez. Geofisica; Passerini, A. [Milan Univ. Bicocca, Milan (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica

    2001-02-01

    During three Antarctic summer campaigns (1995/97/99) Radio Echo Sounding (RES) system data from some glacier ice tongues in the East Antarctic regions between Victoria Land and George 5. Land were collected. The morphology and structure of the bottom surfaces deduced from the electromagnetic interpretation of echo signal were observed. The bottom surfaces at the ice/water interface show either irregular or flat contours or both. Some ice tongues are nearly perfectly flat, others show clear signs of irregularities while three of them have good regular spaced rippled bottom surfaces. The latter structures are well-evident in the longitudinal traverse of the tongues, whereas the transversal paths do not show the same features. This particular shape of the bottom surfaces related to the ablation process and detachment mechanism could be interesting especially to determine some physical characteristics and the possible fracture points of the ice tongues.

  12. Morphology of bottom surfaces of glacier ice tongues in the East Antarctic region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Zuccheretti

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available During three Antarctic summer campaigns (1995/97/99 Radio Echo Sounding (RES system data from some glacier ice tongues in the East Antarctic regions between Victoria Land and George V Land were collected. The morphology and structure of the bottom surfaces deduced from the electromagnetic interpretation of echo signal were observed. The bottom surfaces at the ice/water interface show either irregular or flat contours or both. Some ice tongues are nearly perfectly flat, others show clear signs of irregularities while three of them have good regular spaced rippled bottom surfaces. The latter structures are well-evident in the longitudinal traverse of the tongues, whereas the transversal paths do not show the same features. This particular shape of the bottom surfaces related to the ablation process and detachment mechanism could be interesting especially to determine some physical characteristics and the possible fracture points of the ice tongues.

  13. Flexural-response of the McMurdo Ice Shelf to surface lake filling and drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banwell, A. F.; MacAyeal, D. R.; Willis, I.; Macdonald, G. J.; Goodsell, B.

    2017-12-01

    Antarctic ice-shelf instability and break-up, as exhibited by the Larsen B ice shelf in 2002, remains one of the most difficult glaciological processes to observe directly. It is, however, vital to do so because ice-shelf breakup has the potential to influence the buttressing controls on inland ice discharge, and thus to affect sea level. Several mechanisms enabling Larsen B style breakup have previously been proposed, including the ability of surface lakes to introduce ice-shelf fractures when they fill and drain. During the austral summer of 2016/2017, we monitored the filling and draining of four surface lakes on the McMurdo Ice Shelf, Antarctica, and the effect of these processes on ice-shelf flexure. Water-depth data from pressure sensors reveal that two lakes filled to >2 m in depth and subsequently drained over multiple week timescales, which had a simultaneous effect on vertical ice deflection in the area. Differential GPS data from 12 receivers over three months show that vertical deflection varies as a function of distance from the maximum load change (i.e. at the lake centre). Using remote sensing techniques applied to both Landsat 8 and Worldview imagery, we also quantify the meltwater volume in these two lakes through the melt season, which, together with the vertical deflection data, are used to constrain key flexural parameter values in numerical models of ice-shelf flexure.

  14. A Closer Look at Some of Mercury's North Polar Deposits: Three Craters that Could Have Extensive Surface Ice but Don't?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabot, N. L.; Neumann, G. A.; Ernst, C. M.; Mazarico, E. M.; Shread, E. E.

    2018-05-01

    We investigate three of Mercury's north polar craters that are predicted from their thermal conditions to be conducive to the presence of extensive water ice at the surface, but that may lack such ice.

  15. On the Formation of Interstellar Water Ice: Constraints from a Search for Hydrogen Peroxide Ice in Molecular Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. G.; Charnely, S. B.; Pendleton, Y. J.; Wright, C. M.; Maldoni, M. M.; Robinson, G.

    2011-01-01

    Recent surface chemistry experiments have shown that the hydrogenation of molecular oxygen on interstellar dust grains is a plausible formation mechanism, via hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), for the production of water (H2O) ice mantles in the dense interstellar medium. Theoretical chemistry models also predict the formation of a significant abundance of H2O2 ice in grain mantles by this route. At their upper limits, the predicted and experimental abundances are sufficiently high that H2O2 should be detectable in molecular cloud ice spectra. To investigate this further, laboratory spectra have been obtained for H2O2/H2O ice films between 2.5 and 200 micron, from 10 to 180 K, containing 3%, 30%, and 97% H2O2 ice. Integrated absorbances for all the absorption features in low-temperature H2O2 ice have been derived from these spectra. For identifying H2O2 ice, the key results are the presence of unique features near 3.5, 7.0, and 11.3 micron. Comparing the laboratory spectra with the spectra of a group of 24 protostars and field stars, all of which have strong H2O ice absorption bands, no absorption features are found that can definitely be identified with H2O2 ice. In the absence of definite H2O2 features, the H2O2 abundance is constrained by its possible contribution to the weak absorption feature near 3.47 micron found on the long-wavelength wing of the 3 micron H2O ice band. This gives an average upper limit for H2O2, as a percentage of H2O, of 9% +/- 4%. This is a strong constraint on parameters for surface chemistry experiments and dense cloud chemistry models.

  16. Heavy ion irradiation of crystalline water ice. Cosmic ray amorphisation cross-section and sputtering yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dartois, E.; Augé, B.; Boduch, P.; Brunetto, R.; Chabot, M.; Domaracka, A.; Ding, J. J.; Kamalou, O.; Lv, X. Y.; Rothard, H.; da Silveira, E. F.; Thomas, J. C.

    2015-04-01

    Context. Under cosmic irradiation, the interstellar water ice mantles evolve towards a compact amorphous state. Crystalline ice amorphisation was previously monitored mainly in the keV to hundreds of keV ion energies. Aims: We experimentally investigate heavy ion irradiation amorphisation of crystalline ice, at high energies closer to true cosmic rays, and explore the water-ice sputtering yield. Methods: We irradiated thin crystalline ice films with MeV to GeV swift ion beams, produced at the GANIL accelerator. The ice infrared spectral evolution as a function of fluence is monitored with in-situ infrared spectroscopy (induced amorphisation of the initial crystalline state into a compact amorphous phase). Results: The crystalline ice amorphisation cross-section is measured in the high electronic stopping-power range for different temperatures. At large fluence, the ice sputtering is measured on the infrared spectra, and the fitted sputtering-yield dependence, combined with previous measurements, is quadratic over three decades of electronic stopping power. Conclusions: The final state of cosmic ray irradiation for porous amorphous and crystalline ice, as monitored by infrared spectroscopy, is the same, but with a large difference in cross-section, hence in time scale in an astrophysical context. The cosmic ray water-ice sputtering rates compete with the UV photodesorption yields reported in the literature. The prevalence of direct cosmic ray sputtering over cosmic-ray induced photons photodesorption may be particularly true for ices strongly bonded to the ice mantles surfaces, such as hydrogen-bonded ice structures or more generally the so-called polar ices. Experiments performed at the Grand Accélérateur National d'Ions Lourds (GANIL) Caen, France. Part of this work has been financed by the French INSU-CNRS programme "Physique et Chimie du Milieu Interstellaire" (PCMI) and the ANR IGLIAS.

  17. Hydration behavior at the ice-binding surface of the Tenebrio molitor antifreeze protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midya, Uday Sankar; Bandyopadhyay, Sanjoy

    2014-05-08

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been carried out at two different temperatures (300 and 220 K) to study the conformational rigidity of the hyperactive Tenebrio molitor antifreeze protein (TmAFP) in aqueous medium and the structural arrangements of water molecules hydrating its surface. It is found that irrespective of the temperature the ice-binding surface (IBS) of the protein is relatively more rigid than its nonice-binding surface (NIBS). The presence of a set of regularly arranged internally bound water molecules is found to play an important role in maintaining the flat rigid nature of the IBS. Importantly, the calculations reveal that the strategically located hydroxyl oxygens of the threonine (Thr) residues in the IBS influence the arrangements of five sets of ordered waters around it on two parallel planes that closely resemble the basal plane of ice. As a result, these waters can register well with the ice basal plane, thereby allowing the IBS to preferentially bind at the ice interface and inhibit its growth. This provides a possible molecular reason behind the ice-binding activity of TmAFP at the basal plane of ice.

  18. The modelled liquid water balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steger, Christian R.; Reijmer, Carleen H.; van den Broeke, Michiel R.

    2017-11-01

    Recent studies indicate that the surface mass balance will dominate the Greenland Ice Sheet's (GrIS) contribution to 21st century sea level rise. Consequently, it is crucial to understand the liquid water balance (LWB) of the ice sheet and its response to increasing surface melt. We therefore analyse a firn simulation conducted with the SNOWPACK model for the GrIS and over the period 1960-2014 with a special focus on the LWB and refreezing. Evaluations of the simulated refreezing climate with GRACE and firn temperature observations indicate a good model-observation agreement. Results of the LWB analysis reveal a spatially uniform increase in surface melt (0.16 m w.e. a-1) during 1990-2014. As a response, refreezing and run-off also indicate positive changes during this period (0.05 and 0.11 m w.e. a-1, respectively), where refreezing increases at only half the rate of run-off, implying that the majority of the additional liquid input runs off the ice sheet. This pattern of refreeze and run-off is spatially variable. For instance, in the south-eastern part of the GrIS, most of the additional liquid input is buffered in the firn layer due to relatively high snowfall rates. Modelled increase in refreezing leads to a decrease in firn air content and to a substantial increase in near-surface firn temperature. On the western side of the ice sheet, modelled firn temperature increases are highest in the lower accumulation zone and are primarily caused by the exceptional melt season of 2012. On the eastern side, simulated firn temperature increases are more gradual and are associated with the migration of firn aquifers to higher elevations.

  19. Improved Instrument for Detecting Water and Ice in Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehler, Martin; Chin, Keith; Keymeulen, Didler; McCann, Timothy; Seshadri, Suesh; Anderson, Robert

    2009-01-01

    An instrument measures electrical properties of relatively dry soils to determine their liquid water and/or ice contents. Designed as a prototype of instruments for measuring the liquid-water and ice contents of lunar and planetary soils, the apparatus could also be utilized for similar purposes in research and agriculture involving terrestrial desert soils and sands, and perhaps for measuring ice buildup on aircraft surfaces. This instrument is an improved version of the apparatus described in Measuring Low Concentrations of Liquid Water and Ice in Soil (NPO-41822), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 33, No. 2 (February 2009), page 22. The designs of both versions are based on the fact that the electrical behavior of a typical soil sample is well approximated by a network of resistors and capacitors in which resistances decrease and capacitances increase (and the magnitude and phase angle of impedance changes accordingly) with increasing water content. The previous version included an impedance spectrometer and a jar into which a sample of soil was placed. Four stainless-steel screws at the bottom of the jar were used as electrodes of a fourpoint impedance probe connected to the spectrometer. The present instrument does not include a sample jar and can be operated without acquiring or handling samples. Its impedance probe consists of a compact assembly of electrodes housed near the tip of a cylinder. The electrodes protrude slightly from the cylinder (see Figure 1). In preparation for measurements, the cylinder is simply pushed into the ground to bring the soil into contact with the electrodes.

  20. Erosion resistant anti-ice surfaces generated by ultra short laser pulses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Del Cerro, D.A.; Römer, G.R.B.E.; Huis in't Veld, A.J.

    2010-01-01

    Wetting properties of a wide range of materials can be modified by accurate laser micromachining with ultra short laser pulses. Controlling the surface topography in a micro and sub-micrometer scale allows the generation of water-repellent surfaces, which remain dry and prevent ice accumulation

  1. A significant reduction of ice adhesion on nanostructured surfaces that consist of an array of single-walled carbon nanotubes: A molecular dynamics simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Luyao; Huang, Zhaoyuan; Priezjev, Nikolai V.; Chen, Shaoqiang; Luo, Kai; Hu, Haibao

    2018-04-01

    It is well recognized that excessive ice accumulation at low-temperature conditions can cause significant damage to civil infrastructure. The passive anti-icing surfaces provide a promising solution to suppress ice nucleation and enhance ice removal. However, despite extensive efforts, it remains a challenge to design anti-icing surfaces with low ice adhesion. Using all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we show that surfaces with single-walled carbon nanotube array (CNTA) significantly reduce ice adhesion due to the extremely low solid areal fraction. It was found that the CNTA surface exhibits up to a 45% decrease in the ice adhesion strength in comparison with the atomically smooth graphene surface. The details of the ice detachment from the CNTA surface were examined for different water-carbon interaction energies and temperatures of the ice cube. Remarkably, the results of MD simulations demonstrate that the ice detaching strength depends linearly on the ratio of the ice-surface interaction energy and the ice temperature. These results open the possibility for designing novel robust surfaces with low ice adhesion for passive anti-icing applications.

  2. VOLATILE TRANSPORT INSIDE SUPER-EARTHS BY ENTRAPMENT IN THE WATER-ICE MATRIX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levi, A.; Podolak, M. [Department of Geophysics and Planetary Science, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Sasselov, D., E-mail: amitlevi.planetphys@gmail.com [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2013-05-20

    Whether volatiles can be entrapped in a background matrix composing planetary envelopes and be dragged via convection to the surface is a key question in understanding atmospheric fluxes, cycles, and composition. In this paper, we consider super-Earths with an extensive water mantle (i.e., water planets), and the possibility of entrapment of methane in their extensive water-ice envelopes. We adopt the theory developed by van der Waals and Platteeuw for modeling solid solutions, often used for modeling clathrate hydrates, and modify it in order to estimate the thermodynamic stability field of a new phase called methane filled ice Ih. We find that in comparison to water ice VII the filled ice Ih structure may be stable not only at the high pressures but also at the high temperatures expected at the core-water mantle transition boundary of water planets.

  3. Radiation Effects in Hydrogen-Laden Porous Water Ice Films: Implications for Interstellar Ices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raut, Ujjwal; Baragiola, Raul; Mitchell, Emma; Shi, Jianming

    H _{2} is the dominant gas in the dense clouds of the interstellar medium (ISM). At densities of 10 (5) cm (-3) , an H _{2} molecule arrives at the surface of a 0.1 mum-sized, ice-covered dust grain once every few seconds [1]. At 10 K, H _{2} can diffuse into the pores of the ice mantle and adsorb at high-energy binding sites, loading the ice with hydrogen over the lifetime of the cloud. These icy grains are also impacted by galactic cosmic rays and stellar winds (in clouds with embedded protostar). Based on the available cosmic proton flux spectrum [2], we estimate a small impact rate of nearly 1 hit per year on a 0.1 μm sized grain, or 10 (-7) times the impact frequency of the neutral H _{2}. The energy deposited by such impacts can release the adsorbed H _{2} into the gas phase (impact desorption or sputtering). Recently, we have reported on a new process of ion-induced enhanced adsorption, where molecules from the gas phase are incorporated into the film when irradiation is performed in the presence of ambient gas [3]. The interplay between ion-induced ejection and adsorption can be important in determining the gas-solid balance in the ISM. To understand the effects of cosmic rays/stellar winds impacts on interstellar ice immersed in H _{2} gas, we have performed irradiation of porous amorphous ice films loaded with H _{2} through co-deposition or adsorption following growth. The irradiations were performed with 100 keV H (+) using fluxes of 10 (10) -10 (12) H (+) cm (-2) s (-1) at 7 K, in presence of ambient H _{2} at pressures ranging from 10 (-5) to 10 (-8) Torr. Our initial results show a net loss in adsorbed H _{2} during irradiation, from competing ion-induced ejection and adsorption. The H _{2} loss per ion decreases exponentially with fluence, with a cross-section of 10 (-13) cm (2) . In addition to hydrogen removal, irradiation also leads to trapping of H _{2} in the ice film, from closing of the pores during irradiation [4]. As a result, 2.6 percent

  4. Water, ice and mud: Lahars and lahar hazards at ice- and snow-clad volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waythomas, Christopher F.

    2014-01-01

    Large-volume lahars are significant hazards at ice and snow covered volcanoes. Hot eruptive products produced during explosive eruptions can generate a substantial volume of melt water that quickly evolves into highly mobile flows of ice, sediment and water. At present it is difficult to predict the size of lahars that can form at ice and snow covered volcanoes due to their complex flow character and behaviour. However, advances in experiments and numerical approaches are producing new conceptual models and new methods for hazard assessment. Eruption triggered lahars that are ice-dominated leave behind thin, almost unrecognizable sedimentary deposits, making them likely to be under-represented in the geological record.

  5. First Detection of Water Ice and Organics on an Asteroid: A Possible Link to the Origin of Earth's Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargrove, Kelsey D.; Campins, H.; Pinilla-Alonso, N.; Howell, E. S.; Kelley, M. S.; Licandro, J.; Mothédiniz, T.; Fernández, Y.; Ziffer, J.

    2010-05-01

    We report the detection of water ice and organics on the surface of asteroid 24 Themis. Our rotationally-resolved infrared (2-4 µm) spectra of this asteroid indicate that the ice and organics are widespread on its surface. The spectral difference with other asteroids observed in the same manner, makes 24 Themis unique so far. Our identification of water ice and organic compounds on this asteroid agrees with independent results (Rivkin and Emery 2010). At first glance, the presence of any surface ice on 24 Themis, particularly over a significant fraction of its surface, is puzzling because of the instability for exposed water ice at Themis's heliocentric distance ( 3.2 AU). Nevertheless, there are several possible sources for this unstable ice and identifying them is likely to be diagnostic of other processes on primitive asteroids. The presence of water ice on 24 Themis supports the idea that ice sublimation drives the cometary activity in two small members of the Themis dynamical family, labeled "Main Belt comets” by Hsieh and Jewitt (2006). It also helps to address other relevant questions, such as, how abundant is water ice in the outer asteroid belt and where was the "snow” line when the solar system formed? The answers to these questions could transform current views of primitive asteroids, delivery of water and organic molecules to Earth, and models of Solar System formation. This research was published in the April 29, 2010 issue of the journal Nature. Hargrove and Campins are visiting astronomers at the Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF), which is operated by the University of Hawaii under Cooperative Agreement no. NCC 5-538 with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  6. The study of fresh-water lake ice using multiplexed imaging radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Bryan M.; Larson, R.W.

    1975-01-01

    The study of ice in the upper Great Lakes, both from the operational and the scientific points of view, is receiving continued attention. Quantitative and qualitative field work is being conducted to provide the needed background for accurate interpretation of remotely sensed data. The data under discussion in this paper were obtained by a side-looking multiplexed airborne radar (SLAR) supplemented with ground-truth data.Because of its ability to penetrate adverse weather, radar is an especially important instrument for monitoring ice in the upper Great Lakes. It has previously been shown that imaging radars can provide maps of ice cover in these areas. However, questions concerning both the nature of the surfaces reflecting radar energy and the interpretation of the radar imagery continually arise.Our analysis of ice in Whitefish Bay (Lake Superior) indicates that the combination of the ice/water interlace and the ice/air interface is the major contributor to the radar backscatter as seen on the imagery At these frequencies the ice has a very low relative dielectric permittivity (types studied include newly formed black ice, pancake ice, and frozen and consolidated pack and brash ice.Although ice thickness cannot be measured directly from the received signals, it is suspected that by combining the information pertaining to radar backscatter with data on the meteorological and sea-state history of the area, together with some basic ground truth, better estimates of the ice thickness may be provided. In addition, certain ice features (e.g. ridges, ice-foot formation, areas of brash ice) may be identified with reasonable confidence. There is a continued need for additional ground work to verify the validity of imaging radars for these types of interpretations.

  7. Modeling surface energy fluxes and thermal dynamics of a seasonally ice-covered hydroelectric reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weifeng; Roulet, Nigel T; Strachan, Ian B; Tremblay, Alain

    2016-04-15

    The thermal dynamics of human created northern reservoirs (e.g., water temperatures and ice cover dynamics) influence carbon processing and air-water gas exchange. Here, we developed a process-based one-dimensional model (Snow, Ice, WAater, and Sediment: SIWAS) to simulate a full year's surface energy fluxes and thermal dynamics for a moderately large (>500km(2)) boreal hydroelectric reservoir in northern Quebec, Canada. There is a lack of climate and weather data for most of the Canadian boreal so we designed SIWAS with a minimum of inputs and with a daily time step. The modeled surface energy fluxes were consistent with six years of observations from eddy covariance measurements taken in the middle of the reservoir. The simulated water temperature profiles agreed well with observations from over 100 sites across the reservoir. The model successfully captured the observed annual trend of ice cover timing, although the model overestimated the length of ice cover period (15days). Sensitivity analysis revealed that air temperature significantly affects the ice cover duration, water and sediment temperatures, but that dissolved organic carbon concentrations have little effect on the heat fluxes, and water and sediment temperatures. We conclude that the SIWAS model is capable of simulating surface energy fluxes and thermal dynamics for boreal reservoirs in regions where high temporal resolution climate data are not available. SIWAS is suitable for integration into biogeochemical models for simulating a reservoir's carbon cycle. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Theoretical study of the localization of excess electrons at the surface of ice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermann, A; Schwerdtfeger, P; Schmidt, W G

    2008-01-01

    The localization of excess electrons at the basal plane surface of hexagonal ice Ih is investigated theoretically, combining density functional theory (DFT) with a partial self-interaction correction (SIC) scheme, to account for spurious self-interaction effects that artificially delocalize the excess electrons. Starting from energetically favored surface geometries, we find strong localization of excess electrons at surface dangling bonds, in particular for surface adsorbed water monomers and dimers

  9. Thermomechanical Mechanisms of Reducing Ice Adhesion on Superhydrophobic Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, N; Dotan, A; Dodiuk, H; Kenig, S

    2016-09-20

    Superhydrophobic (SH) coatings have been shown to reduce freezing and ice nucleation rates, by means of low surface energy chemistry tailored with nano/micro roughness. Durability enhancement of SH surfaces is a crucial issue. Consequently, the present research on reducing ice adhesion is based on radiation-induced radical reaction for covalently bonding SiO2 nanoparticles to polymer coatings to obtain durable roughness. Results indicated that the proposed approach resulted in SH surfaces having high contact angles (>155°) and low sliding angles (reduction of shear adhesion to a variety of SH treated substrates having low thermal expansion coefficient (copper and aluminum) and high thermal expansion coefficient (polycarbonate and poly(methyl methacrylate)). It was concluded that the thermal mismatch between the adhering ice and the various substrates and its resultant interfacial thermal stresses affect the adhesion strength of the ice to the respective substrate.

  10. Electrophoresis in ice surface grooves for probing protein affinity to a specific plane of ice crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagawa, Arinori; Okada, Yusuke; Okada, Tetsuo

    2018-06-01

    Channel-like grooves are formed on the surface of frozen aqueous sucrose. They are filled with a freeze concentrated solution (FCS) and act as an efficient size-tunable separation field for micro and nanoparticles. The width of the channel can be easily varied by changing the temperature. Because the channel width decreases with decreasing temperature, particles become immobilized due to physical interference from the ice wall when the temperature reaches a threshold point specific to the particle size. Surface modification of particles can add a factor of chemical interaction between the particles and ice walls. In this study, anti-freeze proteins (AFPs) are anchored on 1µm-polystyrene (PS) particles, and their behavior in the surface grooves on the ice is studied. The threshold temperature is an effective criterion for evaluating chemical interactions between particles and ice walls. The AFP binding on 1µm PS particles lowers the threshold temperature by 2.5°C, indicating interactions between AFPs on the PS particles and the ice wall. Because the AFPs studied here show selectivity towards the prism plane, it is critical that the prism plane of the ice crystal is in contact with the FCS in the surface grooves. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Could the Hokusai Impact Have Delivered Mercury's Water Ice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, C. M.; Chabot, N. L.; Barnouin, O. S.

    2018-05-01

    Hokusai is the best candidate source crater for Mercury’s water-ice inventory if it was primarily delivered by a single impact event. The Hokusai impact could account for the inventory of water ice on Mercury for impact velocities <30 km/s.

  12. Chlorine-containing salts as water ice nucleating particles on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago-Materese, D. L.; Iraci, L. T.; Clapham, M. E.; Chuang, P. Y.

    2018-03-01

    Water ice cloud formation on Mars largely is expected to occur on the most efficient ice nucleating particle available. Salts have been observed on the Martian surface and have been known to facilitate water cloud formation on Earth. We examined heterogeneous ice nucleation onto sodium chloride and sodium perchlorate substrates under Martian atmospheric conditions, in the range of 150 to 180 K and 10-7 to 10-5 Torr water partial pressure. Sub-155 K data for the critical saturation ratio (Scrit) suggests an exponential model best describes the temperature-dependence of nucleation onset of water ice for all substrates tested. While sodium chloride does not facilitate water ice nucleation more easily than bare silicon, sodium perchlorate does support depositional nucleation at lower saturation levels than other substrates shown and is comparable to smectite-rich clay in its ability to support cloud initiation. Perchlorates could nucleate water ice at partial pressures up to 40% lower than other substrates examined to date under Martian atmospheric conditions. These findings suggest air masses on Mars containing uplifted salts such as perchlorates could form water ice clouds at lower saturation ratios than in air masses absent similar particles.

  13. Ice haze, snow, and the Mars water cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahn, R.

    1990-01-01

    Images of the limb of Mars reveal discrete cloud layers between 20 and 80 km above the surface. They appear to be composed of water ice and have a number of characteristics similar to hazes that produce diamond dust precipitation in the continental Antarctic of Earth. Temperatures from 170 K to 190 K are deduced at the condensation levels. Eddy diffusion coefficients around 10 5 cm 2 s -1 , typical of a nonconvecting atmosphere, are also derived in the haze regions at times when the atmosphere is relatively clear of dust. This parameter apparently changes by more than 3 orders of magnitude with season and local conditions, with important implications for vertical transport of water and dust and for models of photochemistry and middle atmosphere dynamics. For the cases studied, particle sizes vary systematically by more than an order of magnitude with condensation level, in such a way that the characteristic fall time for particles is always about 1 Mars day, which is the dominant thermal forcing time. The hazes may play a key role in the seasonal water cycle of Mars. They provide a mechanism for growing particles large enough to move atmospheric water closer to the surface, thereby improving the efficiency of adsorption and ice deposit formation in the regolith. This is particularly likely in late northern summer, when the rapid hemispheric decrease in atmospheric water vapor may reflect the precipitation of snow. This rapid decrease in late summer involves atmospheric water vapor in about the quantities needed to supply the mid-latitude regolith with the water that appears in the atmosphere early in the following spring

  14. Possibility of oil film detection on the ice cover of the sea surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, I.M.; Radomyslskaya, T.M.; Osadchy, V.J.; Rybalka, N.N.; Klementieva, N.Y.; Zhou, J.; Li, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Ice cover in the Arctic regions makes the application of traditional remote methods of environmental monitoring difficult, and can also prevent the use of probes or other measurement tools. This paper presented a method of detecting oil pollution on ice-covered sea surfaces. The method was able to detect oil films on the lower ice-water boundary from above and below under both natural and artificial illumination. Pollution was detected when the sensor signal, the apparent contrast of oil-ice, and signal-noise ratio exceeded corresponding threshold values. A standard TV system at a low altitude was used to detect oil pollution on pure crystalline ice with a snow cover from 0.6 to 0.8 meters to several meters thick. At higher altitudes, the contrast in oil and water decreased due to the presence of atmospheric haze. Underwater pulsed-laser imaging systems were used to detect oil pollution when ice was covered by with soot, dust, aquatic plants, and phytoplankton pigments. It was concluded that both methods can be used to detect oil on the water-ice boundary. 10 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs

  15. Proton dynamics and the phase diagram of dense water ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, J-A; Caracas, R

    2018-06-07

    All the different phases of water ice between 2 GPa and several megabars are based on a single body-centered cubic sub-lattice of oxygen atoms. They differ only by the behavior of the hydrogen atoms. In this study, we investigate the dynamics of the H atoms at high pressures and temperatures in water ice from first-principles molecular dynamics simulations. We provide a detailed analysis of the O-H⋯O bonding dynamics over the entire stability domain of the body-centered cubic (bcc) water ices and compute transport properties and vibrational density-of-states. We report the first ab initio evidence for a plastic phase of water and we propose a coherent phase diagram for bcc water ices compatible with the two groups of melting curves and with the multiple anomalies reported in ice VII around 15 GPa.

  16. Triple Isotope Water Measurements of Lake Untersee Ice using Off-Axis ICOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, E. S.; Huang, Y. W.; Andersen, D. T.; Gupta, M.; McKay, C. P.

    2015-12-01

    Lake Untersee (71.348°S, 13.458°E) is the largest surface freshwater lake in the interior of the Gruber Mountains of central Queen Maud Land in East Antarctica. The lake is permanently covered with ice, is partly bounded by glacier ice and has a mean annual air temperature of -10°C. In contrast to other Antarctic lakes the dominating physical process controlling ice-cover dynamics is low summer temperatures and high wind speeds resulting in sublimation rather than melting as the main mass-loss process. The ice-cover of the lake is composed of lake-water ice formed during freeze-up and rafted glacial ice derived from the Anuchin Glacier. The mix of these two fractions impacts the energy balance of the lake, which directly affects ice-cover thickness. Ice-cover is important if one is to understand the physical, chemical, and biological linkages within these unique, physically driven ecosystems. We have analyzed δ2H, δ18O, and δ17O from samples of lake and glacier ice collected at Lake Untersee in Dec 2014. Using these data we seek to answer two specific questions: Are we able to determine the origin and history of the lake ice, discriminating between rafted glacial ice and lake water? Can isotopic gradients in the surface ice indicate the ablation (sublimation) rate of the surface ice? The triple isotope water analyzer developed by Los Gatos Research (LGR 912-0032) uses LGR's patented Off-Axis ICOS (Integrated Cavity Output Spectroscopy) technology and incorporates proprietary internal thermal control for high sensitivity and optimal instrument stability. This analyzer measures δ2H, δ18O, and δ17O from water, as well as the calculated d-excess and 17O-excess. The laboratory precision in high performance mode for both δ17O and δ18O is 0.03 ‰, and for δ2H is 0.2 ‰. Methodology and isotope data from Lake Untersee samples are presented. Figure: Ice samples were collected across Lake Untersee from both glacial and lake ice regions for this study.

  17. Ice Velocity Mapping of Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica by Matching Surface Undulations Measured by Icesat Laser Altimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Choon-Ki; Han, Shin-Chan; Yu, Jaehyung; Scambos, Ted A.; Seo, Ki-Weon

    2012-01-01

    We present a novel method for estimating the surface horizontal velocity on ice shelves using laser altimetrydata from the Ice Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat; 20032009). The method matches undulations measured at crossover points between successive campaigns.

  18. NOAA JPSS Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Ice Concentration and Ice Surface Temperature Environmental Data Records (EDRs) from NDE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a high quality operational Environmental Data Record (EDR) of Sea Ice Concentration (SIC) and Ice Surface Temperature (IST) from the Visible...

  19. Perennial water stratification and the role of freshwater in the mass balance of Arctic ice shelves and multiyear landfast sea ice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffries, M.O.

    1991-01-01

    A number of the ice shelves of northern Ellesmere Island in the Canadian High Arctic owe their origin to multiyear landfast sea ice (MLSI) growth during the post-Hypsithermal cooling ca. 3,000-4,000 BP. Since they grew in response to an arctic-wide climatic deterioration and contain evidence of occasional post-4,000 BP climatic ameliorations, they may be expected to be sensitive to future global climate changes manifested in the High Arctic. The purpose of this paper is to examine ice-ocean interactions and feedbacks, and the response of the ice shelves and the MLSI to the improved summer climate of the last ca. 100 years, and implications for the future. There is good evidence that there has been a negative surface mass balance since the turn of the century. Mass balance measurements on the Ward Hunt Ice Shelf between 1966 and 1985 indicate a total ice loss of 1.371 m at a mean annual rate of 68.5 mm. The interannual pattern of accumulation and ablation and the long-term losses on the ice shelf are similar to other Canadian High Arctic glacier mass balance records. It is evident from water and ice core records of salinity, δ 18 0 and tritium, that perennial water stratification is common below and behind the ice shelves and MLSI. The coastal waters are highly stratified, with anything from 0.5 m to 41.0 m of freshwater interposed between the overlying ice and underlying seawater. The primary source of the freshwater is summer run-off of snow-meltwater from the adjacent land and from the ice itself. There is minimal mixing between the influent freshwater and seawater, and the freshwater is either dammed behind the ice shelves and the MLSI, with subsequent under-ice freshwater outflows, or pooled in under-ice depressions

  20. Air-sea flux of CO2 in arctic coastal waters influenced by glacial melt water and sea ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sejr, Mikael Kristian; Krause-Jensen, Dorte; Rysgaard, Søren

    2011-01-01

    Annual air–sea exchange ofCO2 inYoung Sound,NEGreenlandwas estimated using pCO2 surface-water measurements during summer (2006–2009) and during an ice-covered winter 2008. All surface pCO2 values were below atmospheric levels indicating an uptake of atmospheric CO2. During sea ice formation...... and thereby efficiently blocked air–sea CO2 exchange. During sea ice melt, dissolution of CaCO3 combined with primary production and strong stratification of the water column acted to lower surface-water pCO2 levels in the fjord. Also, a large input of glacial melt water containing geochemically reactive...... year-to-year variation in annual gas exchange....

  1. Surface science investigations of photoprocesses in model interstellar ices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thrower, J. D.; Collings, M. P.; McCoustra, M. R. S.; Burke, D. J.; Brown, W. A.; Dawes, A.; Holtom, P. D.; Kendall, P.; Mason, N. J.; Jamme, F.; Fraser, H. J.; Clark, I. P.; Parker, A. W.

    2008-01-01

    The kinetic energy of benzene and water molecules photodesorbed from astrophysically relevant ices on a sapphire substrate under irradiation by a UV laser tuned to the S 1 (leftarrow)S 0 π→π* transition of benzene has been measured using time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Three distinct photodesorption mechanisms have been identified--a direct adsorbate-mediated desorption of benzene, an indirect adsorbate-mediated desorption of water, and a substrate-mediated desorption of both benzene and water. The translational temperature of each desorbing population was well in excess of the ambient temperature of the ice matrix

  2. Estimation of Melt Ponds over Arctic Sea Ice using MODIS Surface Reflectance Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Y.; Cheng, X.; Liu, J.

    2017-12-01

    Melt ponds over Arctic sea ice is one of the main factors affecting variability of surface albedo, increasing absorption of solar radiation and further melting of snow and ice. In recent years, a large number of melt ponds have been observed during the melt season in Arctic. Moreover, some studies have suggested that late spring to mid summer melt ponds information promises to improve the prediction skill of seasonal Arctic sea ice minimum. In the study, we extract the melt pond fraction over Arctic sea ice since 2000 using three bands MODIS weekly surface reflectance data by considering the difference of spectral reflectance in ponds, ice and open water. The preliminary comparison shows our derived Arctic-wide melt ponds are in good agreement with that derived by the University of Hamburg, especially at the pond distribution. We analyze seasonal evolution, interannual variability and trend of the melt ponds, as well as the changes of onset and re-freezing. The melt pond fraction shows an asymmetrical growth and decay pattern. The observed melt ponds fraction is almost within 25% in early May and increases rapidly in June and July with a high fraction of more than 40% in the east of Greenland and Beaufort Sea. A significant increasing trend in the melt pond fraction is observed for the period of 2000-2017. The relationship between melt pond fraction and sea ice extent will be also discussed. Key Words: melt ponds, sea ice, Arctic

  3. The Large Scale Distribution of Water Ice in the Polar Regions of the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, A.; Wilson, J. K.; Schwadron, N.; Spence, H. E.

    2017-12-01

    For in situ resource utilization, one must know where water ice is on the Moon. Many datasets have revealed both surface deposits of water ice and subsurface deposits of hydrogen near the lunar poles, but it has proved difficult to resolve the differences among the locations of these deposits. Despite these datasets disagreeing on how deposits are distributed on small scales, we show that most of these datasets do agree on the large scale distribution of water ice. We present data from the Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation (CRaTER) on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), LRO's Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND), the Neutron Spectrometer on Lunar Prospector (LPNS), LRO's Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP), LRO's Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA), and Chandrayaan-1's Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3). All, including those that show clear evidence for water ice, reveal surprisingly similar trends with latitude, suggesting that both surface and subsurface datasets are measuring ice. All show that water ice increases towards the poles, and most demonstrate that its signature appears at about ±70° latitude and increases poleward. This is consistent with simulations of how surface and subsurface cold traps are distributed with latitude. This large scale agreement constrains the origin of the ice, suggesting that an ancient cometary impact (or impacts) created a large scale deposit that has been rendered locally heterogeneous by subsequent impacts. Furthermore, it also shows that water ice may be available down to ±70°—latitudes that are more accessible than the poles for landing.

  4. Spin ice Thin Film: Surface Ordering, Emergent Square ice, and Strain Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaubert, L. D. C.; Lin, T.; Opel, T. S.; Holdsworth, P. C. W.; Gingras, M. J. P.

    2017-05-01

    Motivated by recent realizations of Dy2 Ti2 O7 and Ho2 Ti2 O7 spin ice thin films, and more generally by the physics of confined gauge fields, we study a model spin ice thin film with surfaces perpendicular to the [001] cubic axis. The resulting open boundaries make half of the bonds on the interfaces inequivalent. By tuning the strength of these inequivalent "orphan" bonds, dipolar interactions induce a surface ordering equivalent to a two-dimensional crystallization of magnetic surface charges. This surface ordering may also be expected on the surfaces of bulk crystals. For ultrathin films made of one cubic unit cell, once the surfaces have ordered, a square ice phase is stabilized over a finite temperature window. The square ice degeneracy is lifted at lower temperature and the system orders in analogy with the well-known F transition of the 6-vertex model. To conclude, we consider the addition of strain effects, a possible consequence of interface mismatches at the film-substrate interface. Our simulations qualitatively confirm that strain can lead to a smooth loss of Pauling entropy upon cooling, as observed in recent experiments on Dy2 Ti2 O7 films.

  5. Modelling of destructive ability of water-ice-jet while machine processing of machine elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burnashov Mikhail

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents the classification of the most common contaminants, appearing on the surfaces of machine elements after a long-term service.The existing well-known surface cleaning methods are described and analyzed in the framework of this paper. The article is intended to provide the reader with an understanding of the process of cleaning and removing contamination from machine elements surface by means of water-ice-jet with preprepared beforehand particles, as well as the process of water-ice-jet formation. The paper deals with the description of such advantages of this method as low costs, wastelessness, high quality of the surface, undergoing processing, minimization of harmful impact upon environment and eco-friendliness, which makes it differ radically from formerly known methods. The scheme of interection between the surface and ice particle is represented. A thermo-physical model of destruction of contaminants by means of a water-ice-jet cleaning technology was developed on its basis. The thermo-physical model allows us to make setting of processing mode and the parameters of water-ice-jet scientifically substantiated and well-grounded.

  6. Linking atmospheric synoptic transport, cloud phase, surface energy fluxes, and sea-ice growth: observations of midwinter SHEBA conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, P. Ola G.; Shupe, Matthew D.; Perovich, Don; Solomon, Amy

    2017-08-01

    Observations from the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean (SHEBA) project are used to describe a sequence of events linking midwinter long-range advection of atmospheric heat and moisture into the Arctic Basin, formation of supercooled liquid water clouds, enhancement of net surface energy fluxes through increased downwelling longwave radiation, and reduction in near-surface conductive heat flux loss due to a warming of the surface, thereby leading to a reduction in sea-ice bottom growth. The analyses provide details of two events during Jan. 1-12, 1998, one entering the Arctic through Fram Strait and the other from northeast Siberia; winter statistics extend the results. Both deep, precipitating frontal clouds and post-frontal stratocumulus clouds impact the surface radiation and energy budget. Cloud liquid water, occurring preferentially in stratocumulus clouds extending into the base of the inversion, provides the strongest impact on surface radiation and hence modulates the surface forcing, as found previously. The observations suggest a minimum water vapor threshold, likely case dependent, for producing liquid water clouds. Through responses to the radiative forcing and surface warming, this cloud liquid water also modulates the turbulent and conductive heat fluxes, and produces a thermal wave penetrating into the sea ice. About 20-33 % of the observed variations of bottom ice growth can be directly linked to variations in surface conductive heat flux, with retarded ice growth occurring several days after these moisture plumes reduce the surface conductive heat flux. This sequence of events modulate pack-ice wintertime environmental conditions and total ice growth, and has implications for the annual sea-ice evolution, especially for the current conditions of extensive thinner ice.

  7. Martian North Polar Water-Ice Clouds During the Viking Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamppari, L. K.; Bass, D. S.

    2000-01-01

    The Viking Orbiters determined that the surface of Mars' northern residual cap consists of water ice. Observed atmospheric water vapor abundances in the equatorial regions have been related to seasonal exchange between reservoirs such as the polar caps, the regolith and between different phases in the atmosphere. Kahn modeled the physical characteristics of ice hazes seen in Viking Orbiter imaging limb data, hypothesizing that ice hazes provide a method for scavenging water vapor from the atmosphere and accumulating it into ice particles. Given that Jakosky found that these particles had sizes such that fallout times were of order one Martian sol, these water-ice hazes provided a method for returning more water to the regolith than that provided by adsorption alone. These hazes could also explain the rapid hemispheric decrease in atmospheric water in late northern summer as well as the increase during the following early spring. A similar comparison of water vapor abundance versus polar cap brightness has been done for the north polar region. They have shown that water vapor decreases steadily between L(sub s) = 100-150 deg while polar cap albedo increases during the same time frame. As a result, they suggested that late summer water-ice deposition onto the ice cap may be the cause of the cap brightening. This deposition could be due to adsorption directly onto the cap surface or to snowfall. Thus, an examination of north polar waterice clouds could lend insight into the fate of the water vapor during this time period. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  8. Water droplet behavior on superhydrophobic SiO2 nanocomposite films during icing/deicing cycles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lazauskas, A.; Guobiene, A.; Prosycevas, I.; Baltrusaitis, V.; Grigaliunas, V.; Narmontas, P.; Baltrusaitis, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    This work investigates water droplet behavior on superhydrophobic (water contact angle value of 162 ± 1°) SiO2 nanocomposite films subjected to repetitive icing/deicing treatments, changes in SiO2 nanocomposite film surface morphology and their non-wetting characteristics. During the experiment,

  9. Seasonally-Active Water on Mars: Vapour, Ice, Adsorbate, and the Possibility of Liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, M. I.

    2002-12-01

    Seasonally-active water can be defined to include any water reservoir that communicates with other reservoirs on time scales of a year or shorter. It is the interaction of these water reservoirs, under the influence of varying solar radiation and in conjunction with surface and atmospheric temperatures, that determines the phase-stability field for water at the surface, and the distribution of water in various forms below, on, and above the surface. The atmosphere is the critical, dynamical link in this cycling system, and also (fortunately) one of the easiest to observe. Viking and Mars Global Surveyor observations paint a strongly asymmetric picture of the global seasonal water cycle, tied proximately to planetary eccentricity, and the existence of residual ice caps of different composition at the two poles. The northern summer experiences the largest water vapour columns, and is associated with sublimation from the northern residual water ice cap. The southern summer residual carbon dioxide ice cap is cold trap for water. Asymmetry in the water cycle is an unsolved problem. Possible solutions may involve the current timing of perihelion (the water cap resides at the pole experiencing the longer but cooler summer), the trapping of water ice in the northern hemisphere by tropical water ice clouds, and the bias in the annual-average, zonal-mean atmospheric circulation resulting from the zonal-mean difference in the elevation of the northern and southern hemispheres. Adsorbed and frozen water have proven harder to constrain. Recent Odyssey Gamma Ray Spectrometer results suggest substantial ground ice in the mid- and high-latitudes, but this water is likely below the seasonal skin depth for two reasons: the GRS results are best fit with such a model, and GCM models of the water cycle produce dramatically unrealistic atmospheric vapour distributions when such a very near surface, GRS-like distribution is initialized - ultimately removing the water to the northern and

  10. Surface-water surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saldi, K.A.; Dirkes, R.L.; Blanton, M.L.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the Surface water on and near the Hanford Site is monitored to determine the potential effects of Hanford operations. Surface water at Hanford includes the Columbia River, riverbank springs, ponds located on the Hanford Site, and offsite water systems directly east and across the Columbia River from the Hanford Site, and offsite water systems directly east and across the Columbia River from the Hanford Site. Columbia River sediments are also included in this discussion. Tables 5.3.1 and 5.3.2 summarize the sampling locations, sample types, sampling frequencies, and sample analyses included in surface-water surveillance activities during 1994. Sample locations are also identified in Figure 5.3.1. This section describes the surveillance effort and summarizes the results for these aquatic environments. Detailed analytical results are reported by Bisping (1995).

  11. Surface-water surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saldi, K.A.; Dirkes, R.L.; Blanton, M.L.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the Surface water on and near the Hanford Site is monitored to determine the potential effects of Hanford operations. Surface water at Hanford includes the Columbia River, riverbank springs, ponds located on the Hanford Site, and offsite water systems directly east and across the Columbia River from the Hanford Site, and offsite water systems directly east and across the Columbia River from the Hanford Site. Columbia River sediments are also included in this discussion. Tables 5.3.1 and 5.3.2 summarize the sampling locations, sample types, sampling frequencies, and sample analyses included in surface-water surveillance activities during 1994. Sample locations are also identified in Figure 5.3.1. This section describes the surveillance effort and summarizes the results for these aquatic environments. Detailed analytical results are reported by Bisping (1995)

  12. Heterogeneous ice nucleation in aqueous solutions: the role of water activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zobrist, B; Marcolli, C; Peter, T; Koop, T

    2008-05-01

    Heterogeneous ice nucleation experiments have been performed with four different ice nuclei (IN), namely nonadecanol, silica, silver iodide and Arizona test dust. All IN are either immersed in the droplets or located at the droplets surface. The IN were exposed to various aqueous solutions, which consist of (NH4)2SO4, H2SO4, MgCl2, NaCl, LiCl, Ca(NO3)2, K2CO3, CH3COONa, ethylene glycol, glycerol, malonic acid, PEG300 or a NaCl/malonic acid mixture. Freezing was studied using a differential scanning calorimeter and a cold finger cell. The results show that the heterogeneous ice freezing temperatures decrease with increasing solute concentration; however, the magnitude of this effect is solute dependent. In contrast, when the results are analyzed in terms of the solution water activity a very consistent behavior emerges: heterogeneous ice nucleation temperatures for all four IN converge each onto a single line, irrespective of the nature of the solute. We find that a constant offset with respect to the ice melting point curve, Deltaaw,het, can describe the observed freezing temperatures for each IN. Such a behavior is well-known for homogeneous ice nucleation from supercooled liquid droplets and has led to the development of water-activity-based ice nucleation theory. The large variety of investigated solutes together with different general types of ice nuclei studied (monolayers, ionic crystals, covalently bound network-forming compounds, and a mixture of chemically different crystallites) underlines the general applicability of water-activity-based ice nucleation theory also for heterogeneous ice nucleation in the immersion mode. Finally, the ice nucleation efficiencies of the various IN, as well as the atmospheric implication of the developed parametrization are discussed.

  13. The role of ice dynamics in shaping vegetation in flowing waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Lovisa; Nilsson, Christer; Polvi, Lina E; Weber, Christine

    2014-11-01

    Ice dynamics is an important factor affecting vegetation in high-altitude and high-latitude streams and rivers. During the last few decades, knowledge about ice in streams and rivers has increased significantly and a respectable body of literature is now available. Here we review the literature on how ice dynamics influence riparian and aquatic vegetation. Traditionally, plant ecologists have focused their studies on the summer period, largely ignoring the fact that processes during winter also impact vegetation dynamics. For example, the freeze-up period in early winter may result in extensive formation of underwater ice that can restructure the channel, obstruct flow, and cause flooding and thus formation of more ice. In midwinter, slow-flowing reaches develop a surface-ice cover that accumulates snow, protecting habitats under the ice from formation of underwater ice but also reducing underwater light, thus suppressing photosynthesis. Towards the end of winter, ice breaks up and moves downstream. During this transport, ice floes can jam up and cause floods and major erosion. The magnitudes of the floods and their erosive power mainly depend on the size of the watercourse, also resulting in different degrees of disturbance to the vegetation. Vegetation responds both physically and physiologically to ice dynamics. Physical action involves the erosive force of moving ice and damage caused by ground frost, whereas physiological effects - mostly cell damage - happen as a result of plants freezing into the ice. On a community level, large magnitudes of ice dynamics seem to favour species richness, but can be detrimental for individual plants. Human impacts, such as flow regulation, channelisation, agriculturalisation and water pollution have modified ice dynamics; further changes are expected as a result of current and predicted future climate change. Human impacts and climate change can both favour and disfavour riverine vegetation dynamics. Restoration of streams

  14. Ultrafast electron dynamics at alkali/ice structures adsorbed on a metal surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this work is to study the interaction between excess electrons in water ice structures adsorbed on metal surfaces and other charged or neutral species, like alkali ions, or chemically reactive molecules, like chlorofluorocarbons (CFC), respectively. The excess electrons in the ice can interact with the ions directly or indirectly via the hydrogen bonded water molecules. In both cases the presence of the alkali influences the population, localization, and lifetime of electronic states of excess electrons in the ice adlayer. These properties are of great relevance when considering the highly reactive character of the excess electrons, which can mediate chemical reactions by dissociative electron attachment (DEA). The influence of alkali adsorption on electron solvation and transfer dynamics in ice structures is investigated for two types of adsorption configurations using femtosecond time-resolved two-photon photoelectron spectroscopy. In the first system alkali atoms are coadsorbed on top of a wetting amorphous ice film adsorbed on Cu(111). At temperatures between 60 and 100 K alkali adsorption leads to the formation of positively charged alkali ions at the ice/vacuum interface. The interaction between the alkali ions at the surface and the dipole moments of the surrounding water molecules results in a reorientation of the water molecules. As a consequence new electron trapping sites, i.e. at local potential minima, are formed. Photoinjection of excess electrons into these alkali-ion covered amorphous ice layers, results in the trapping of a solvated electron at an alkali-ion/water complex. In contrast to solvation in pure amorphous ice films, where the electrons are located in the bulk of the ice layer, solvated electrons at alkali-ion/water complexes are located at the ice/vacuum interface. They exhibit lifetimes of several picoseconds and show a fast energetic stabilization. With ongoing solvation, i.e. pump-probe time delay, the electron transfer is

  15. Radiation Chemistry in Ammonia-Water Ices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeffler, M. J.; Raut, U.; Baragiola, R. A.

    2010-01-01

    We studied the effects of 100 keV proton irradiation on films of ammonia-water mixtures between 20 and 120 K. Irradiation destroys ammonia, leading to the formation and trapping of H2, N2 NO, and N2O, the formation of cavities containing radiolytic gases, and ejection of molecules by sputtering. Using infrared spectroscopy, we show that at all temperatures the destruction of ammonia is substantial, but at higher temperatures (120 K), it is nearly complete (approximately 97% destroyed) after a fluence of 10(exp 16) ions per square centimeter. Using mass spectroscopy and microbalance gravimetry, we measure the sputtering yield of our sample and the main components of the sputtered flux. We find that the sputtering yield depends on fluence. At low temperatures, the yield is very low initially and increases quadratically with fluence, while at 120 K the yield is constant and higher initially. The increase in the sputtering yield with fluence is explained by the formation and trapping of the ammonia decay products, N2 and H2 which are seen to be ejected from the ice at all temperatures.

  16. Sea ice and primary production proxies in surface sediments from a High Arctic Greenland fjord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribeiro, Sofia; Sejr, Mikael K; Limoges, Audrey

    2017-01-01

    Monitoring Programme. Clear spatial gradients in organic carbon and biogenic silica contents reflected marine influence, nutrient availability and river-induced turbidity, in good agreement with in situ measurements. The sea ice proxy IP25 was detected at all sites but at low concentrations, indicating...... that IP25 records from fjords need to be carefully considered and not directly compared to marine settings. The sea ice-associated biomarker HBI III revealed an open-water signature, with highest concentrations near the mid-July ice edge. This proxy evaluation is an important step towards reliable......In order to establish a baseline for proxy-based reconstructions for the Young Sound–Tyrolerfjord system (Northeast Greenland), we analysed the spatial distribution of primary production and sea ice proxies in surface sediments from the fjord, against monitoring data from the Greenland Ecosystem...

  17. Field Investigation of Surface-Lake Processes on Ice Shelves: Results of the 2015/16 Field Campaign on McMurdo Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacAyeal, Doug; Banwell, Alison; Willis, Ian; Macdonald, Grant

    2016-04-01

    Ice-shelf instability and breakup of the style exhibited by Larsen B Ice Shelf in 2002 remains the most difficult glaciological process of consequence to observe in detail. It is, however, vital to do so because ice-shelf breakup has the potential to influence the buttressing controls on inland ice discharge, and thus to affect sea level. Several mechanisms enabling Larsen B style breakup have been proposed, including the ability of surface lakes to introduce ice-shelf fractures when they fill and drain, thereby changing the surface loads the ice-shelf must adjust to. Our model suggest that these fractures resulted in a chain-reaction style drainage of >2750 surface lakes on the Larsen B in the days prior to its demise. To validate this and other models, we began a field project on the McMurdo Ice Shelf (MIS) during the 2015/16 austral summer. Advantages of the MIS study site are: there is considerable surface melting during 3-6 weeks of the summer season, the ice is sufficiently thin (logistical support (McMurdo Station). Here we show initial results from the field campaign, including GPS and water-depth observations of a lake that has filled and drained over multiple week timescales in previous austral summers. We also report on the analysis of high-resolution WorldView satellite imagery from several summers that reveals the complexity of surface meltwater movement in channels and subsurface void spaces. Initial reconnaissance of the largest surface-lake features reveal that they have a central circular depression surrounded by an uplifted ring, which supports one of the central tenets of our ice-shelf flexure theory. A second field season is anticipated for the 2016/17 austral summer.

  18. Surface Water in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, Delwyn S.

    2003-01-01

    Surface water in Hawaii is a valued resource as well as a potential threat to human lives and property. The surface-water resources of Hawaii are of significant economic, ecologic, cultural, and aesthetic importance. Streams supply more than 50 percent of the irrigation water in Hawaii, and although streams supply only a few percent of the drinking water statewide, surface water is the main source of drinking water in some places. Streams also are a source of hydroelectric power, provide important riparian and instream habitats for many unique native species, support traditional and customary Hawaiian gathering rights and the practice of taro cultivation, and possess valued aesthetic qualities. Streams affect the physical, chemical, and aesthetic quality of receiving waters, such as estuaries, bays, and nearshore waters, which are critical to the tourism-based economy of the islands. Streams in Hawaii pose a danger because of their flashy nature; a stream's stage, or water level, can rise several feet in less than an hour during periods of intense rainfall. Streams in Hawaii are flashy because rainfall is intense, drainage basins are small, basins and streams are steep, and channel storage is limited. Streamflow generated during periods of heavy rainfall has led to loss of property and human lives in Hawaii. Most Hawaiian streams originate in the mountainous interiors of the islands and terminate at the coast. Streams are significant sculptors of the Hawaiian landscape because of the erosive power of the water they convey. In geologically young areas, such as much of the southern part of the island of Hawaii, well-defined stream channels have not developed because the permeability of the surface rocks generally is so high that rainfall infiltrates before flowing for significant distances on the surface. In geologically older areas that have received significant rainfall, streams and mass wasting have carved out large valleys.

  19. Sea-ice cover in the Nordic Seas and the sensitivity to Atlantic water temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Mari F.; Nisancioglu, Kerim H.; Spall, Michael A.

    2017-04-01

    Changes in the sea-ice cover of the Nordic Seas have been proposed to play a key role for the dramatic temperature excursions associated with the Dansgaard-Oeschger events during the last glacial. However, with its proximity to the warm Atlantic water, how a sea-ice cover can persist in the Nordic Seas is not well understood. In this study, we apply an eddy-resolving configuration of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model with an idealized topography to study the presence of sea ice in a Nordic Seas-like domain. We assume an infinite amount of warm Atlantic water present in the south by restoring the southern area to constant temperatures. The sea-surface temperatures are restored toward cold, atmospheric temperatures, and as a result, sea ice is present in the interior of the domain. However, the sea-ice cover in the margins of the Nordic Seas, an area with a warm, cyclonic boundary current, is sensitive to the amount of heat entering the domain, i.e., the restoring temperature in the south. When the temperature of the warm, cyclonic boundary current is high, the margins are free of sea ice and heat is released to the atmosphere. We show that with a small reduction in the temperature of the incoming Atlantic water, the Nordic Seas-like domain is fully covered in sea ice. Warm water is still entering the Nordic Seas, however, this happens at depths below a cold, fresh surface layer produced by melted sea ice. Consequently, the heat release to the atmosphere is reduced along with the eddy heat fluxes. Results suggest a threshold value in the amount of heat entering the Nordic Seas before the sea-ice cover disappears in the margins. We study the sensitivity of this threshold to changes in atmospheric temperatures and vertical diffusivity.

  20. Positron Lifetimes in Pure and Doped Ice and in Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eldrup, Morten Mostgaard; Mogensen, O.; Trumpy, Georg

    1972-01-01

    for the other components show a complex behavior. The spectra for mono- and polycrystalline light ice and for polycrystalline heavy ice are identical. For water long lifetime components attributed to ortho-Ps are 1.86 nsec, 27% for H2O and 2.01 nsec, 22% for D2O. Theoretical explanations are suggested. Fast......Positron lifetime spectra were measured in mono- and polycrystalline light ice, polycrystalline heavy ice, doped light ice, as well as in light and heavy water. All spectra were resolved into three components. At temperatures between −196° and −100°C the lifetimes and relative intensities...... of the spectra are found by heating above approximately −120°C. Measurements on a number of fast frozen aqueous solutions of acids, bases, and salts are reported, none of them showing as strong influence on the ortho-Ps lifetime as HF. ©1972 The American Institute of Physics...

  1. Determination of ice water path in ice-over-water cloud systems using combined MODIS and AMSR-E measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jianping; Minnis, Patrick; Lin, Bing; Yi, Yuhong; Fan, T.-F.; Sun-Mack, Sunny; Ayers, J. K.

    2006-11-01

    To provide more accurate ice cloud microphysical properties, the multi-layered cloud retrieval system (MCRS) is used to retrieve ice water path (IWP) in ice-over-water cloud systems globally over oceans using combined instrument data from Aqua. The liquid water path (LWP) of lower-layer water clouds is estimated from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS (AMSR-E) measurements. The properties of the upper-level ice clouds are then derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) measurements by matching simulated radiances from a two-cloud-layer radiative transfer model. The results show that the MCRS can significantly improve the accuracy and reduce the over-estimation of optical depth and IWP retrievals for ice-over-water cloud systems. The mean daytime ice cloud optical depth and IWP for overlapped ice-over-water clouds over oceans from Aqua are 7.6 and 146.4 gm-2, respectively, down from the initial single-layer retrievals of 17.3 and 322.3 gm-2. The mean IWP for actual single-layer clouds is 128.2 gm-2.

  2. Transport of contaminants by Arctic sea ice and surface ocean currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfirman, S.

    1995-01-01

    Sea ice and ocean currents transport contaminants in the Arctic from source areas on the shelves, to biologically active regions often more than a thousand kilometers away. Coastal regions along the Siberian margin are polluted by discharges of agricultural, industrial and military wastes in river runoff, from atmospheric deposition and ocean dumping. The Kara Sea is of particular concern because of deliberate dumping of radioactive waste, as well as the large input of polluted river water. Contaminants are incorporated in ice during suspension freezing on the shelves, and by atmospheric deposition during drift. Ice releases its contaminant load through brine drainage, surface runoff of snow and meltwater, and when the floe disintegrates. The marginal ice zone, a region of intense biological activity, may also be the site of major contaminant release. Potentially contaminated ice from the Kara Sea is likely to influence the marginal ice zones of the Barents and Greenland seas. From studies conducted to date it appears that sea ice from the Kara Sea does not typically enter the Beaufort Gyre, and thus is unlikely to affect the northern Canadian and Alaskan margins

  3. Influence of glacial ice sheets on the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation through surface wind change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherriff-Tadano, Sam; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Yoshimori, Masakazu; Oka, Akira; Chan, Wing-Le

    2018-04-01

    Coupled modeling studies have recently shown that the existence of the glacial ice sheets intensifies the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC). However, most models show a strong AMOC in their simulations of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), which is biased compared to reconstructions that indicate both a weaker and stronger AMOC during the LGM. Therefore, a detailed investigation of the mechanism behind this intensification of the AMOC is important for a better understanding of the glacial climate and the LGM AMOC. Here, various numerical simulations are conducted to focus on the effect of wind changes due to glacial ice sheets on the AMOC and the crucial region where the wind modifies the AMOC. First, from atmospheric general circulation model experiments, the effect of glacial ice sheets on the surface wind is evaluated. Second, from ocean general circulation model experiments, the influence of the wind stress change on the AMOC is evaluated by applying wind stress anomalies regionally or at different magnitudes as a boundary condition. These experiments demonstrate that glacial ice sheets intensify the AMOC through an increase in the wind stress at the North Atlantic mid-latitudes, which is induced by the North American ice sheet. This intensification of the AMOC is caused by the increased oceanic horizontal and vertical transport of salt, while the change in sea ice transport has an opposite, though minor, effect. Experiments further show that the Eurasian ice sheet intensifies the AMOC by directly affecting the deep-water formation in the Norwegian Sea.

  4. ON THE FORMATION OF INTERSTELLAR WATER ICE: CONSTRAINTS FROM A SEARCH FOR HYDROGEN PEROXIDE ICE IN MOLECULAR CLOUDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R. G.; Wright, C. M.; Robinson, G. [School of Physical, Environmental and Mathematical Sciences, University of New South Wales, Australian Defence Force Academy, Canberra, ACT 2600 (Australia); Charnley, S. B. [Astrochemistry Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Pendleton, Y. J. [NASA Lunar Science Institute, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Maldoni, M. M., E-mail: r.smith@adfa.edu.au, E-mail: c.wright@adfa.edu.au, E-mail: g.robinson@adfa.edu.au, E-mail: Steven.B.Charnley@nasa.gov, E-mail: yvonne.pendleton@nasa.gov [Geoscience Australia, Canberra, ACT 2601 (Australia)

    2011-12-20

    Recent surface chemistry experiments have shown that the hydrogenation of molecular oxygen on interstellar dust grains is a plausible formation mechanism, via hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}), for the production of water (H{sub 2}O) ice mantles in the dense interstellar medium. Theoretical chemistry models also predict the formation of a significant abundance of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} ice in grain mantles by this route. At their upper limits, the predicted and experimental abundances are sufficiently high that H{sub 2}O{sub 2} should be detectable in molecular cloud ice spectra. To investigate this further, laboratory spectra have been obtained for H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O ice films between 2.5 and 200 {mu}m, from 10 to 180 K, containing 3%, 30%, and 97% H{sub 2}O{sub 2} ice. Integrated absorbances for all the absorption features in low-temperature H{sub 2}O{sub 2} ice have been derived from these spectra. For identifying H{sub 2}O{sub 2} ice, the key results are the presence of unique features near 3.5, 7.0, and 11.3 {mu}m. Comparing the laboratory spectra with the spectra of a group of 24 protostars and field stars, all of which have strong H{sub 2}O ice absorption bands, no absorption features are found that can definitely be identified with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} ice. In the absence of definite H{sub 2}O{sub 2} features, the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} abundance is constrained by its possible contribution to the weak absorption feature near 3.47 {mu}m found on the long-wavelength wing of the 3 {mu}m H{sub 2}O ice band. This gives an average upper limit for H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, as a percentage of H{sub 2}O, of 9% {+-} 4%. This is a strong constraint on parameters for surface chemistry experiments and dense cloud chemistry models.

  5. Hexagonal ice in pure water and biological NMR samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Thomas; Gath, Julia; Hunkeler, Andreas; Ernst, Matthias, E-mail: maer@ethz.ch [ETH Zurich, Physical Chemistry (Switzerland); Böckmann, Anja, E-mail: a.bockmann@ibcp.fr [UMR 5086 CNRS, Université de Lyon 1, Institut de Biologie et Chimie des Protéines (France); Meier, Beat H., E-mail: beme@ethz.ch [ETH Zurich, Physical Chemistry (Switzerland)

    2017-01-15

    Ice, in addition to “liquid” water and protein, is an important component of protein samples for NMR spectroscopy at subfreezing temperatures but it has rarely been observed spectroscopically in this context. We characterize its spectroscopic behavior in the temperature range from 100 to 273 K, and find that it behaves like pure water ice. The interference of magic-angle spinning (MAS) as well as rf multiple-pulse sequences with Bjerrum-defect motion greatly influences the ice spectra.

  6. Magnetospheric ion sputtering and water ice grain size at Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, T. A.; Paranicas, C. P.; Shirley, J. H.; Dalton, J. B., III; Teolis, B. D.; Johnson, R. E.; Kamp, L.; Hendrix, A. R.

    2013-03-01

    We present the first calculation of Europa's sputtering (ion erosion) rate as a function of position on Europa's surface. We find a global sputtering rate of 2×1027 H2O s-1, some of which leaves the surface in the form of O2 and H2. The calculated O2 production rate is 1×1026 O2 s-1, H2 production is twice that value. The total sputtering rate (including all species) peaks at the trailing hemisphere apex and decreases to about 1/3rd of the peak value at the leading hemisphere apex. O2 and H2 sputtering, by contrast, is confined almost entirely to the trailing hemisphere. Most sputtering is done by energetic sulfur ions (100s of keV to MeV), but most of the O2 and H2 production is done by cold oxygen ions (temperature ∼ 100 eV, total energy ∼ 500 eV). As a part of the sputtering rate calculation we compared experimental sputtering yields with analytic estimates. We found that the experimental data are well approximated by the expressions of Famá et al. for ions with energies less than 100 keV (Famá, M., Shi, J., Baragiola, R.A., 2008. Sputtering of ice by low-energy ions. Surf. Sci. 602, 156-161), while the expressions from Johnson et al. fit the data best at higher energies (Johnson, R.E., Burger, M.H., Cassidy, T.A., Leblanc, F., Marconi, M., Smyth, W.H., 2009. Composition and Detection of Europa's Sputter-Induced Atmosphere, in: Pappalardo, R.T., McKinnon, W.B., Khurana, K.K. (Eds.), Europa. University of Arizona Press, Tucson.). We compare the calculated sputtering rate with estimates of water ice regolith grain size as estimated from Galileo Near-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) data, and find that they are strongly correlated as previously suggested by Clark et al. (Clark, R.N., Fanale, F.P., Zent, A.P., 1983. Frost grain size metamorphism: Implications for remote sensing of planetary surfaces. Icarus 56, 233-245.). The mechanism responsible for the sputtering rate/grain size link is uncertain. We also report a surface composition estimate using

  7. Bacterial activity in sea ice and open water of the Weddell Sea, Antarctica: A microautoradiographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossmann, S

    1994-07-01

    Metabolic activity of bacteria was investigated in open water, newly forming sea ice, and successive stages of pack ice in the Weddell Sea. Microautoradiography, using [(3)H]leucine as substrate, was compared with incorporation rates of [(3)H]leucine into proteins. Relation of [(3)H]leucine incorporation to the biomass of active bacteria provides information about changes of specific metabolic activity of cells. During a phytoplankton bloom in an ice-free, stratified water column, total numbers of bacteria in the euphotic zone averaged 2.3 × 10(5) ml(-1), but only about 13% showed activity via leucine uptake. Growth rate of the active bacteria was estimated as 0.3-0.4 days(-1). Total cell concentration of bacteria in 400 m depth was 6.6 × 10(4) ml(-1). Nearly 50% of these cells were active, although biomass production and specific growth rate were only about one-tenth that of the surface populations. When sea ice was forming in high concentrations of phytoplankton, bacterial biomass in the newly formed ice was 49.1 ng C ml(-1), exceeding that in open water by about one order of magnitude. Attachment of large bacteria to algal cells seems to cause their enrichment in the new ice, since specific bacterial activity was reduced during ice formation, and enrichment of bacteria was not observed when ice formed at low algal concentration. During growth of pack ice, biomass of bacteria increased within the brine channel system. Specific activity was still reduced at these later stages of ice development, and percentages of active cells were as low as 3-5%. In old, thick pack ice, bacterial activity was high and about 30% of cells were active. However, biomass-specific activity of bacteria remained significantly lower than that in open water. It is concluded that bacterial assemblages different to those of open water developed within the ice and were dominated by bacteria with lower average metabolic activity than those of ice-free water.

  8. When Big Ice Turns Into Water It Matters For Houses, Stores And Schools All Over

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, R. E.

    2017-12-01

    When ice in my glass turns to water it is not bad but when the big ice at the top and bottom of the world turns into water it is not good. This new water makes many houses, stores and schools wet. It is really bad during when the wind is strong and the rain is hard. New old ice water gets all over the place. We can not get to work or school or home. We go to the big ice at the top and bottom of the world to see if it will turn to water soon and make more houses wet. We fly over the big ice to see how it is doing. Most of the big ice sits on rock. Around the edge of the big sitting on rock ice, is really low ice that rides on top of the water. This really low ice slows down the big rock ice turning into water. If the really low ice cracks up and turns into little pieces of ice, the big rock ice will make more houses wet. We look to see if there is new water in the cracks. Water in the cracks is bad as it hurts the big rock ice. Water in the cracks on the really low ice will turn the low ice into many little pieces of ice. Then the big rock ice will turn to water. That is water in cracks is bad for the houses, schools and businesses. If water moves off the really low ice, it does not stay in the cracks. This is better for the really low ice. This is better for the big rock ice. We took pictures of the really low ice and saw water leaving. The water was not staying in the cracks. Water leaving the really low ice might be good for houses, schools and stores.

  9. The effect of surface modification on initial ice formation on aluminum surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahimi, Maral; Afshari, Alireza; Fojan, Peter

    2015-01-01

    material of heat exchanger fins is aluminum, this paper focuses on the effect of aluminum wettability on the initial stages of ice formation. The ice growth was studied on bare as well as hydrophilically and hydrophobically modified surfaces of aluminum (8011A) sheets, commonly used in heat exchangers...

  10. Surface return direction-of-arrival analysis for radar ice sounding surface clutter suppression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulrik; Dall, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    Airborne radar ice sounding is challenged by surface clutter masking the depth signal of interest. Surface clutter may even be prohibitive for potential space-based ice sounding radars. To some extent the radar antenna suppresses the surface clutter, and a multi-phase-center antenna in combination...... with coherent signal processing techniques can improve the suppression, in particular if the direction of arrival (DOA) of the clutter signal is estimated accurately. This paper deals with data-driven DOA estimation. By using P-band data from the ice shelf in Antarctica it is demonstrated that a varying...

  11. Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of water ice porosity: extrapolations of deposition parameters from the laboratory to interstellar space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Aspen R.; Berk, Brandon; Cooke, Ilsa R.; Garrod, Robin T.

    2018-02-01

    Using an off-lattice kinetic Monte Carlo model we reproduce experimental laboratory trends in the density of amorphous solid water (ASW) for varied deposition angle, rate and surface temperature. Extrapolation of the model to conditions appropriate to protoplanetary disks and interstellar dark clouds indicate that these ices may be less porous than laboratory ices.

  12. River ice implications related to water power production in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asvall, R.P. [Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate, Oslo (Norway). Hydrology Dept.

    2009-07-01

    Nearly 99 per cent of the electricity produced in Norway is based on water power. While the period of large power development is over, the current focus lies in developing small hydroelectric power plants. A new market based energy law was implemented in Norway in 1991 to achieve more efficient use of electricity production by means of market forces. Since water regulation influences ice conditions in lakes and rivers, this paper focused on the implications of changes in ice conditions. In Norway, the expected changes in ice conditions are taken into account when issuing permits for water regulations and schemes for water discharge because some waterways are used as winter roads. Follow-up includes both close and long term observations and measurements. The impact of variable price on power was also discussed, with particular reference to ice conditions in cases where water discharge occurs on rivers. This paper summarized selected ice problems and how they have been handled. The paper also included a summary of anticipated climatic changes relevant to ice conditions.

  13. River ice implications related to water power production in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asvall, R.P.

    2009-01-01

    Nearly 99 per cent of the electricity produced in Norway is based on water power. While the period of large power development is over, the current focus lies in developing small hydroelectric power plants. A new market based energy law was implemented in Norway in 1991 to achieve more efficient use of electricity production by means of market forces. Since water regulation influences ice conditions in lakes and rivers, this paper focused on the implications of changes in ice conditions. In Norway, the expected changes in ice conditions are taken into account when issuing permits for water regulations and schemes for water discharge because some waterways are used as winter roads. Follow-up includes both close and long term observations and measurements. The impact of variable price on power was also discussed, with particular reference to ice conditions in cases where water discharge occurs on rivers. This paper summarized selected ice problems and how they have been handled. The paper also included a summary of anticipated climatic changes relevant to ice conditions.

  14. Evidence for Surface and Subsurface Ice Inside Micro Cold-Traps on Mercury's North Pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubanenko, L.; Mazarico, E.; Neumann, G. A.; Paige, D. A.

    2017-01-01

    The small obliquity of Mercury causes topographic depressions located near its poles to cast persistent shadows. Many [1, 9, 15] have shown these permanently shadowed regions (PSRs) may trap water ice for geologic time periods inside cold-traps. More recently, direct evidence for the presence of water ice deposits inside craters was remotely sensed in RADAR [5] and visible imagery [3]. Albedo measurements (reflectence at 1064 nm) obtained by the MErcury Space ENviroment GEochemistry and Ranging Laser Altimeter (MLA) found unusually bright and dark areas next to Mercury's north pole [7]. Using a thermal illumination model, Paige et al. [8] found the bright deposits are correlated with surface cold-traps, and the dark deposits are correlated with subsurface cold-traps. They suggested these anomalous deposits were brought to the surface by comets and were processed by the magnetospheric radiation flux, removing hydrogen and mixing C-N-O-S atoms to form a variety of molecules which will darken with time. Here we use a thermal illumination model to find the link between the cold-trap area fraction of a rough surface and its albedo. Using this link and the measurements obtained by MESSENGER we derive a surface and a subsurface ice distribution map on Mercury's north pole below the MESSENGER spatial resolution, approximately 500 m. We find a large fraction of the polar ice on Mercury resides inside micro cold-traps (of scales 10 - 100 m) distributed along the inter-crater terrain.

  15. ICE911 Research: Floating Safe Inert Materials to Preserve Ice and Conserve Water in Order to Mitigate Climate Change Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, L. A.; Manzara, A.; Chetty, S.; Venkatesh, S.; Scholtz, A.

    2015-12-01

    Ice911 Research has conducted years of field testing to develop and test localized reversible engineering techniques to mitigate the negative impacts of polar ice melt. The technology uses environmentally safe materials to reflect energy in carefully selected, limited areas from summertime polar sun. The technology is now being adapted to help with California's drought. We have tested the albedo modification technique on a small scale over seven Winter/Spring seasons at sites including California's Sierra Nevada Mountains, a Canadian lake, and a small artificial pond in Minnesota about 100 ft in diameter and 6 ft deep at the center, using various materials and an evolving array of instrumentation. On the pond in Minnesota, this year's test results for ice preservation, using hollow glass spheres deployed over our largest test areas yet, showed that glass bubbles can provide an effective material for increasing albedo, significantly reducing the melting rate of ice. This year Ice911 also undertook its first small Arctic field test in Barrow, Alaska on a lake in Barrow's BEO area, and results are still coming in. The technology that Ice911 has been developing for ice preservation has also been shown to keep small test areas of water cooler, in various small-scale tests spanning years. We believe that with some adaptations of the technology, the materials can be applied to reservoirs and lakes to help stretch these precious resources further in California's ongoing drought. There are several distinct advantages for this method over alternatives such as large reverse osmosis projects or building new reservoirs, which could possibly allow a drought-stricken state to build fewer of these more-costly alternatives. First, applying an ecologically benign surface treatment of Ice911's materials can be accomplished within a season, at a lower cost, with far less secondary environmental impact, than such capital-and-time-intensive infrastructure projects. Second, keeping

  16. Cloud screening and melt water detection over melting sea ice using AATSR/SLSTR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istomina, Larysa; Heygster, Georg

    2014-05-01

    With the onset of melt in the Arctic Ocean, the fraction of melt water on sea ice, the melt pond fraction, increases. The consequences are: the reduced albedo of sea ice, increased transmittance of sea ice and affected heat balance of the system with more heat passing through the ice into the ocean, which facilitates further melting. The onset of melt, duration of melt season and melt pond fraction are good indicators of the climate state of the Arctic and its change. In the absence of reliable sea ice thickness retrievals in summer, melt pond fraction retrieval from satellite is in demand as input for GCM as an indicator of melt state of the sea ice. The retrieval of melt pond fraction with a moderate resolution radiometer as AATSR is, however, a non-trivial task due to a variety of subpixel surface types with very different optical properties, which give non-unique combinations if mixed. In this work this has been solved by employing additional information on the surface and air temperature of the pixel. In the current work, a concept of melt pond detection on sea ice is presented. The basis of the retrieval is the sensitivity of AATSR reflectance channels 550nm and 860nm to the amount of melt water on sea ice. The retrieval features extensive usage of a database of in situ surface albedo spectra. A tree of decisions is employed to select the feasible family of in situ spectra for the retrieval, depending on the melt stage of the surface. Reanalysis air temperature at the surface and brightness temperature measured by the satellite sensor are analyzed in order to evaluate the melting status of the surface. Case studies for FYI and MYI show plausible retrieved melt pond fractions, characteristic for both of the ice types. The developed retrieval can be used to process the historical AATSR (2002-2012) dataset, as well as for the SLSTR sensor onboard the future Sentinel-3 mission (scheduled for launch in 2015), to keep the continuity and obtain longer time sequence

  17. Increased Surface Wind Speeds Follow Diminishing Arctic Sea Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mioduszewski, J.; Vavrus, S. J.; Wang, M.; Holland, M. M.; Landrum, L.

    2017-12-01

    Projections of Arctic sea ice through the end of the 21st century indicate the likelihood of a strong reduction in ice area and thickness in all seasons, leading to a substantial thermodynamic influence on the overlying atmosphere. This is likely to have an effect on winds over the Arctic Basin, due to changes in atmospheric stability and/or baroclinicity. Prior research on future Arctic wind changes is limited and has focused mainly on the practical impacts on wave heights in certain seasons. Here we attempt to identify patterns and likely mechanisms responsible for surface wind changes in all seasons across the Arctic, particularly those associated with sea ice loss in the marginal ice zone. Sea level pressure, near-surface (10 m) and upper-air (850 hPa) wind speeds, and lower-level dynamic and thermodynamic variables from the Community Earth System Model Large Ensemble Project (CESM-LE) were analyzed for the periods 1971-2000 and 2071-2100 to facilitate comparison between a present-day and future climate. Mean near-surface wind speeds over the Arctic Ocean are projected to increase by late century in all seasons but especially during autumn and winter, when they strengthen by up to 50% locally. The most extreme wind speeds in the 90th percentile change even more, increasing in frequency by over 100%. The strengthened winds are closely linked to decreasing lower-tropospheric stability resulting from the loss of sea ice cover and consequent surface warming (locally over 20 ºC warmer in autumn and winter). A muted pattern of these future changes is simulated in CESM-LE historical runs from 1920-2005. The enhanced winds near the surface are mostly collocated with weaker winds above the boundary layer during autumn and winter, implying more vigorous vertical mixing and a drawdown of high-momentum air.The implications of stronger future winds include increased coastal hazards and the potential for a positive feedback with sea ice by generating higher winds and

  18. Process and device for fabrication of ice beads and application to abrasive blasting with ice beads for surface treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnier, M.; Manificat, A.; Perroud, P.

    1989-01-01

    A device is described for cleaning and decontamination by abrasive blasting with ice beads. It comprises a water injector, with many holes, at the top of a column feeded with cold gas where solidification of water droplets begins, solidification is completed in a cooling liquids, ice is extracted by a screw and pushed to the projection nozzle with cold gas [fr

  19. Surface interaction of PuO.sub.2./sub., UO.sub.2+x./sub. and UO.sub.3./sub. with water ice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gouder, T.; Shick, Alexander; Huber, F.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 12 (2013), s. 1112-1120 ISSN 1022-5528 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : photoemission * catalysis * surface oxidation Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.220, year: 2013

  20. Sea ice local surface topography from single-pass satellite InSAR measurements: a feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Dierking

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative parameters characterizing the sea ice surface topography are needed in geophysical investigations such as studies on atmosphere–ice interactions or sea ice mechanics. Recently, the use of space-borne single-pass interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR for retrieving the ice surface topography has attracted notice among geophysicists. In this paper the potential of InSAR measurements is examined for several satellite configurations and radar frequencies, considering statistics of heights and widths of ice ridges as well as possible magnitudes of ice drift. It is shown that, theoretically, surface height variations can be retrieved with relative errors  ≤  0.5 m. In practice, however, the sea ice drift and open water leads may contribute significantly to the measured interferometric phase. Another essential factor is the dependence of the achievable interferometric baseline on the satellite orbit configurations. Possibilities to assess the influence of different factors on the measurement accuracy are demonstrated: signal-to-noise ratio, presence of a snow layer, and the penetration depth into the ice. Practical examples of sea surface height retrievals from bistatic SAR images collected during the TanDEM-X Science Phase are presented.

  1. Uptake of acetone, ethanol and benzene to snow and ice: effects of surface area and temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbatt, J P D; Bartels-Rausch, T; Ullerstam, M; Ye, T J

    2008-01-01

    The interactions of gas-phase acetone, ethanol and benzene with smooth ice films and artificial snow have been studied. In one technique, the snow is packed into a cylindrical column and inserted into a low-pressure flow reactor coupled to a chemical-ionization mass spectrometer for gas-phase analysis. At 214 and 228 K, it is found for acetone and ethanol that the adsorbed amounts per surface area match those for adsorption to thin films of ice formed by freezing liquid water, when the specific surface area of the snow (as determined from Kr adsorption at 77 K) and the geometric surface area of the ice films are used. This indicates that freezing thin films of water leads to surfaces that are smooth at the molecular level. Experiments performed to test the effect of film growth on ethanol uptake indicate that uptake is independent of ice growth rate, up to 2.4 μm min -1 . In addition, traditional Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) experiments were performed with these gases on artificial snow from 238 to 266.5 K. A transition from a BET type I isotherm indicative of monolayer formation to a BET type II isotherm indicative of multilayer uptake is observed for acetone at T≥263 K and ethanol at T≥255 K, arising from solution formation on the ice. When multilayer formation does not occur, as was the case for benzene at T≤263 K and for acetone at T≤255 K, the saturated surface coverage increased with increasing temperature, consistent with the quasi-liquid layer affecting adsorption prior to full dissolution/multilayer formation.

  2. A scheme for parameterizing ice cloud water content in general circulation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymsfield, Andrew J.; Donner, Leo J.

    1989-01-01

    A method for specifying ice water content in GCMs is developed, based on theory and in-cloud measurements. A theoretical development of the conceptual precipitation model is given and the aircraft flights used to characterize the ice mass distribution in deep ice clouds is discussed. Ice water content values derived from the theoretical parameterization are compared with the measured values. The results demonstrate that a simple parameterization for atmospheric ice content can account for ice contents observed in several synoptic contexts.

  3. Water on graphene surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordillo, M C [Departamento de Sistemas Fisicos, Quimicos y Naturales, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Carretera de Utrera, km 1, E-41013 Sevilla (Spain); Marti, J, E-mail: cgorbar@upo.e, E-mail: jordi.marti@upc.ed [Departament de Fisica i Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, B4-B5 Campus Nord, E-08034 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain)

    2010-07-21

    In this paper, we summarize the main results obtained in our group about the behavior of water confined inside or close to different graphene surfaces by means of molecular dynamics simulations. These include the inside and outside of carbon nanotubes, and the confinement inside a slit pore or a single graphene sheet. We paid special attention to some thermodynamical (binding energies), structural (hydrogen-bond distributions) and dynamic (infrared spectra) properties, and their comparison to their bulk counterparts.

  4. Sea ice - Multiyear cycles and white ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledley, T. S.

    1985-01-01

    The multiyear thickness cycles represent one of the interesting features of the sea ice studies performed by Semtner (1976) and Washington et al. (1976) with simple thermodynamic models of sea ice. In the present article, a description is given of results which show that the insulating effect of snow on the surface of the sea ice is important in producing these multiyear cycles given the physics included in the model. However, when the formation of white ice is included, the cycles almost disappear. White ice is the ice which forms at the snow-ice interface when the snow layer becomes thick enough to depress the ice below the water level. Water infiltrates the snow by coming through the ice at leads and generally freezes there, forming white ice.

  5. Adsorption of trace gases to ice surfaces: surface, bulk and co-adsorbate effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerbrat, Michael; Bartels-Rausch, Thorsten; Huthwelker, Thomas; Schneebeli, Martin; Pinzer, Bernd; Ammann, Markus

    2010-05-01

    Atmospheric ices frequently interact with trace gases and aerosol making them an important storage, transport or reaction medium in the global ecosystem. Further, this also alters the physical properties of the ice particles with potential consequences for the global irradiation balance and for the relative humidity of surrounding air masses. We present recent results from a set of laboratory experiments of atmospheric relevance to investigate the nature of the uptake processes. The focus of this talk will be placed on the partitioning of acidic acid and nitrous acid on ice surfaces.The presented results span from very simple reversible adsorption experiments of a single trace gas onto ice surfaces to more complex, but well controlled, experimental procedures that successfully allowed us to - Disentangle surface adsorption and uptake into the ice matrix using radioactive labelled trace gases. - Show that simultaneous adsorption of acetic acid and nitrous acid to an ice surface is consistent with the Langmuir co-adsorption model. The experiments were done in a packed ice bed flow tube at atmospheric pressure and at temperatures between 213 and 253 K. The HONO gas phase mixing ratio was between 0.4 and 137 ppbv, the mixing ratio of acetic acid between 5 and 160 ppbv . The use of the radioactive labelled nitrous acid molecules for these experiments enabled in situ monitoring of the migration of trace gas in the flow tube. The measurements showed that the interactions do not only occur through adsorption but also via diffusion into polycrystalline ice. A method is suggested to disentangle the bulk and the surface processes. The co-adsorption of acetic and nitrous acids was also investigated. The measurements are well reproduced by a competitive Langmuir adsorption model.

  6. Surface elevation changes of the greenland ice sheet - results from ESA'S ice sheet CCI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredenslund Levinsen, Joanna; Khvorostovky, Kirill; Meister, Rakia

    2013-01-01

    In order to ensure long-term climate data records for the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS), ESA have launched the Climate Change Initiative (CCI). This work presents the preliminary steps towards the Ice Sheet CCI's surface elevation change (SEC) derivation using radar altimeter data. In order to find...... the most optimal method, a Round Robin exercise was conducted in which the scientific community was asked to provide their best SEC estimate over the Jakobshavn Isbr drainage basin. The participants used both repeat-track (RT), overlapping footprints, and the cross-over (XO) methods, and both ICESat laser...... and Envisat radar altimeter data were used. Based on this and feedback sheets describing their methods we found that a combination of the RT and XO techniques yielded the best results. In the following, the obtained results will be presented and discussed....

  7. Coherent Surface Clutter Suppression Techniques with Topography Estimation for Multi-Phase-Center Radar Ice Sounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulrik; Dall, Jørgen; Kristensen, Steen Savstrup

    2012-01-01

    Radar ice sounding enables measurement of the thickness and internal structures of the large ice sheets on Earth. Surface clutter masking the signal of interest is a major obstacle in ice sounding. Algorithms for surface clutter suppression based on multi-phase-center radars are presented. These ...

  8. Oxygen exchange and ice melt measured at the ice-water interface by eddy correlation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Long, M.H.; Koopmans, D.; Berg, P.

    2012-01-01

    heterotrophic with a daily gross primary production of 0.69 mmol O2 mĝ̂'2 dĝ̂'1 and a respiration rate of ĝ̂'2.13 mmol O2 mĝ̂'2 dĝ̂'1 leading to a net ecosystem metabolism of ĝ̂'1.45 mmol O2 mĝ̂'2 dĝ̂'1. This application of the eddy correlation technique produced high temporal resolution O2 fluxes and ice melt......This study examined fluxes across the ice-water interface utilizing the eddy correlation technique. Temperature eddy correlation systems were used to determine rates of ice melting and freezing, and O2 eddy correlation systems were used to examine O2 exchange rates driven by biological and physical...

  9. The phase diagram of water at negative pressures: virtual ices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, M M; Vega, C; Tribello, G A; Slater, B

    2009-07-21

    The phase diagram of water at negative pressures as obtained from computer simulations for two models of water, TIP4P/2005 and TIP5P is presented. Several solid structures with lower densities than ice Ih, so-called virtual ices, were considered as possible candidates to occupy the negative pressure region of the phase diagram of water. In particular the empty hydrate structures sI, sII, and sH and another, recently proposed, low-density ice structure. The relative stabilities of these structures at 0 K was determined using empirical water potentials and density functional theory calculations. By performing free energy calculations and Gibbs-Duhem integration the phase diagram of TIP4P/2005 was determined at negative pressures. The empty hydrates sII and sH appear to be the stable solid phases of water at negative pressures. The phase boundary between ice Ih and sII clathrate occurs at moderate negative pressures, while at large negative pressures sH becomes the most stable phase. This behavior is in reasonable agreement with what is observed in density functional theory calculations.

  10. How much can Greenland melt? An upper bound on mass loss from the Greenland Ice Sheet through surface melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X.; Bassis, J. N.

    2015-12-01

    With observations showing accelerated mass loss from the Greenland Ice Sheet due to surface melt, the Greenland Ice Sheet is becoming one of the most significant contributors to sea level rise. The contribution of the Greenland Ice Sheet o sea level rise is likely to accelerate in the coming decade and centuries as atmospheric temperatures continue to rise, potentially triggering ever larger surface melt rates. However, at present considerable uncertainty remains in projecting the contribution to sea level of the Greenland Ice Sheet both due to uncertainty in atmospheric forcing and the ice sheet response to climate forcing. Here we seek an upper bound on the contribution of surface melt from the Greenland to sea level rise in the coming century using a surface energy balance model coupled to an englacial model. We use IPCC Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP8.5, RCP6, RCP4.5, RCP2.6) climate scenarios from an ensemble of global climate models in our simulations to project the maximum rate of ice volume loss and related sea-level rise associated with surface melting. To estimate the upper bound, we assume the Greenland Ice Sheet is perpetually covered in thick clouds, which maximize longwave radiation to the ice sheet. We further assume that deposition of black carbon darkens the ice substantially turning it nearly black, substantially reducing its albedo. Although assuming that all melt water not stored in the snow/firn is instantaneously transported off the ice sheet increases mass loss in the short term, refreezing of retained water warms the ice and may lead to more melt in the long term. Hence we examine both assumptions and use the scenario that leads to the most surface melt by 2100. Preliminary models results suggest that under the most aggressive climate forcing, surface melt from the Greenland Ice Sheet contributes ~1 m to sea level by the year 2100. This is a significant contribution and ignores dynamic effects. We also examined a lower bound

  11. Theoretical Analysis on Marangoni-driven Cavity Formation in Ice during In Situ Burning of Oil Spills in Ice-infested Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmahini Farahani, H.; Jomaas, G.; Rangwala, A. S.

    2017-12-01

    In situ burning, intentional burning of discharged oil on the water surface, is a promising response method to oil spill accidents in the Arctic. However, burning of the oil adjacent to ice bodies creates a lateral cavity in the ice. As a result of the cavity formation the removal efficiency which is a key success criterion for in situ burning operation will decrease. The formation of lateral cavities are noticed recently and only a few experimental studies have addressed them. These experiments have shown lateral cavities with a length of severe horizontal temperature gradient which in turn generates a Marangoni flow from hot to cold regions. This is found to be the dominant heat transfer mechanism that is providing the heat for the ice to melt. Here, we introduce an order of magnitude analysis on the governing equations of the ice melting problem to estimate the penetration length of a burning oil near ice. This correlation incorporates the flame heat feedback with the surface flow driven by Marangoni convection. The melting energy continuity is also included in the analysis to complete the energy transfer cycle that leads to melting of the ice. The comparison between this correlation and the existing experimental data shows a very good agreement. Therefore, this correlation can be used to estimate the penetration length for burning of an actual spill and can be applied towards improved guidelines of burning adjacent to ice bodies, so as to enhance the chances for successful implantation of in situ burning.

  12. Efficacy of sanitized ice in reducing bacterial load on fish fillet and in the water collected from the melted ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feliciano, Lizanel; Lee, Jaesung; Lopes, John A; Pascall, Melvin A

    2010-05-01

    This study investigated the efficacy of sanitized ice for the reduction of bacteria in the water collected from the ice that melted during storage of whole and filleted Tilapia fish. Also, bacterial reductions on the fish fillets were investigated. The sanitized ice was prepared by freezing solutions of PRO-SAN (an organic acid formulation) and neutral electrolyzed water (NEW). For the whole fish study, the survival of the natural microflora was determined from the water of the melted ice prepared with PRO-SAN and tap water. These water samples were collected during an 8 h storage period. For the fish fillet study, samples were inoculated with Escherichia coli K12, Listeria innocua, and Pseudomonas putida then stored on crushed sanitized ice. The efficacies of these were tested by enumerating each bacterial species on the fish fillet and in the water samples at 12 and 24 h intervals for 72 h, respectively. Results showed that each bacterial population was reduced during the test. However, a bacterial reduction of fillet samples. A maximum of approximately 2 log CFU and > 3 log CFU reductions were obtained in the waters sampled after the storage of whole fish and the fillets, respectively. These reductions were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the water from sanitized ice when compared with the water from the unsanitized melted ice. These results showed that the organic acid formulation and NEW considerably reduced the bacterial numbers in the melted ice and thus reduced the potential for cross-contamination.

  13. Oxo Crater on (1) Ceres: Geological History and the Role of Water-ice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nathues, A.; Platz, T.; Hoffmann, M.; Thangjam, G.; Le Corre, L.; Reddy, V. [Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, D-37077 Goettingen (Germany); Cloutis, E. A.; Applin, D. M. [University of Winnipeg, Winnipeg, MB R3B 2E9 (Canada); Mengel, K. [IELF, TU Clausthal, Adolph-Roemer-Straße 2A, D-38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Protopapa, S. [University of Maryland, Department of Astronomy, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Takir, D. [SETI Institute, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Preusker, F. [German Aerospace Center (DLR), Institute of Planetary Research, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Schmidt, B. E. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Russell, C. T., E-mail: nathues@mps.mpg.de [Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics, Dept. of Earth, Planetary and Space Sciences, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Dwarf planet Ceres (∅ ∼ 940 km) is the largest object in the main asteroid belt. Investigations suggest that Ceres is a thermally evolved, volatile-rich body with potential geological activity, a body that was never completely molten, but one that possibly partially differentiated into a rocky core and an ice-rich mantle, and may contain remnant internal liquid water. Thermal alteration and the infall of exogenic material contribute to producing a (dark) carbonaceous chondritic-like surface containing ammoniated phyllosilicates. Here we report imaging and spectroscopic analyses of data on the bright Oxo crater derived from the Framing Camera and the Visible and Infrared Spectrometer on board the Dawn spacecraft. We confirm that the transitional complex crater Oxo (∅ ∼ 9 km) exhibits exposed surface water-ice. We show that this water-ice-rich material is associated exclusively with two lobate deposits at pole-facing scarps, deposits that also contain carbonates and admixed phyllosilicates. Due to Oxo’s location at −4802 m below the cerean reference ellipsoid and its very young age of only 190 ka (1 σ : +100 ka, −70 ka), Oxo is predestined for ongoing water-ice sublimation.

  14. Wind-sea surface temperature-sea ice relationship in the Chukchi-Beaufort Seas during autumn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Stegall, Steve T.; Zhang, Xiangdong

    2018-03-01

    Dramatic climate changes, especially the largest sea ice retreat during September and October, in the Chukchi-Beaufort Seas could be a consequence of, and further enhance, complex air-ice-sea interactions. To detect these interaction signals, statistical relationships between surface wind speed, sea surface temperature (SST), and sea ice concentration (SIC) were analyzed. The results show a negative correlation between wind speed and SIC. The relationships between wind speed and SST are complicated by the presence of sea ice, with a negative correlation over open water but a positive correlation in sea ice dominated areas. The examination of spatial structures indicates that wind speed tends to increase when approaching the ice edge from open water and the area fully covered by sea ice. The anomalous downward radiation and thermal advection, as well as their regional distribution, play important roles in shaping these relationships, though wind-driven sub-grid scale boundary layer processes may also have contributions. Considering the feedback loop involved in the wind-SST-SIC relationships, climate model experiments would be required to further untangle the underlying complex physical processes.

  15. Ice formation via deposition nucleation on mineral dust and organics: dependence of onset relative humidity on total particulate surface area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanji, Zamin A; Florea, Octavian; Abbatt, Jonathan P D

    2008-01-01

    We present ice nucleation results for Arizona test dust, kaolinite, montmorillonite, silica, silica coated with a hydrophobic octyl chain, oxalic acid dihydrate, Gascoyne leonardite (a humic material), and Aldrich humic acid (sodium salt). The focus was on deposition mode nucleation below water saturation at 233 K. Particles were deposited onto a hydrophobic cold stage by atomization of a slurry/solution and exposed to a constant partial pressure of water vapor. By lowering the temperature of the stage, the relative humidity with respect to ice (RH i ) was gradually increased until ice nucleation was observed using digital photography. Different numbers of particles were deposited onto the cold stage by varying the atomization solution concentration and deposition time. For the same total particulate surface area, mineral dust particles nucleated ice at lower supersaturations than all other materials. The most hydrophobic materials, i.e. Gascoyne leonardite and octyl silica, were the least active. For our limit of detection of one ice crystal, the ice onset RH i values were dependent on the total surface area of the particulates, indicating that no unique threshold RH i for ice nucleation prevails

  16. Ice formation via deposition nucleation on mineral dust and organics: dependence of onset relative humidity on total particulate surface area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanji, Zamin A; Florea, Octavian; Abbatt, Jonathan P D [Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, 80 St George Street, Toronto, ON, M5S 3H6 (Canada)], E-mail: zkanji@chem.utoronto.ca

    2008-04-15

    We present ice nucleation results for Arizona test dust, kaolinite, montmorillonite, silica, silica coated with a hydrophobic octyl chain, oxalic acid dihydrate, Gascoyne leonardite (a humic material), and Aldrich humic acid (sodium salt). The focus was on deposition mode nucleation below water saturation at 233 K. Particles were deposited onto a hydrophobic cold stage by atomization of a slurry/solution and exposed to a constant partial pressure of water vapor. By lowering the temperature of the stage, the relative humidity with respect to ice (RH{sub i}) was gradually increased until ice nucleation was observed using digital photography. Different numbers of particles were deposited onto the cold stage by varying the atomization solution concentration and deposition time. For the same total particulate surface area, mineral dust particles nucleated ice at lower supersaturations than all other materials. The most hydrophobic materials, i.e. Gascoyne leonardite and octyl silica, were the least active. For our limit of detection of one ice crystal, the ice onset RH{sub i} values were dependent on the total surface area of the particulates, indicating that no unique threshold RH{sub i} for ice nucleation prevails.

  17. Archival processes of the water stable isotope signal in East Antarctic ice cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casado, Mathieu; Landais, Amaelle; Picard, Ghislain; Münch, Thomas; Laepple, Thomas; Stenni, Barbara; Dreossi, Giuliano; Ekaykin, Alexey; Arnaud, Laurent; Genthon, Christophe; Touzeau, Alexandra; Masson-Delmotte, Valerie; Jouzel, Jean

    2018-05-01

    The oldest ice core records are obtained from the East Antarctic Plateau. Water isotopes are key proxies to reconstructing past climatic conditions over the ice sheet and at the evaporation source. The accuracy of climate reconstructions depends on knowledge of all processes affecting water vapour, precipitation and snow isotopic compositions. Fractionation processes are well understood and can be integrated in trajectory-based Rayleigh distillation and isotope-enabled climate models. However, a quantitative understanding of processes potentially altering snow isotopic composition after deposition is still missing. In low-accumulation sites, such as those found in East Antarctica, these poorly constrained processes are likely to play a significant role and limit the interpretability of an ice core's isotopic composition. By combining observations of isotopic composition in vapour, precipitation, surface snow and buried snow from Dome C, a deep ice core site on the East Antarctic Plateau, we found indications of a seasonal impact of metamorphism on the surface snow isotopic signal when compared to the initial precipitation. Particularly in summer, exchanges of water molecules between vapour and snow are driven by the diurnal sublimation-condensation cycles. Overall, we observe in between precipitation events modification of the surface snow isotopic composition. Using high-resolution water isotopic composition profiles from snow pits at five Antarctic sites with different accumulation rates, we identified common patterns which cannot be attributed to the seasonal variability of precipitation. These differences in the precipitation, surface snow and buried snow isotopic composition provide evidence of post-deposition processes affecting ice core records in low-accumulation areas.

  18. Multipole moments of water molecules in clusters and ice Ih from first principles calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batista, E.R.; Xantheas, S.S.; Jonsson, H.

    1999-01-01

    We have calculated molecular multipole moments for water molecules in clusters and in ice Ih by partitioning the charge density obtained from first principles calculations. Various schemes for dividing the electronic charge density among the water molecules were used. They include Bader close-quote s zero flux surfaces and Voronoi partitioning schemes. A comparison was also made with an induction model including dipole, dipole-quadrupole, quadrupole-quadrupole polarizability and first hyperpolarizability as well as fixed octopole and hexadecapole moments. We have found that the different density partitioning schemes lead to widely different values for the molecular multipoles, illustrating how poorly defined molecular multipoles are in clusters and condensed environments. For instance, the magnitude of the molecular dipole moment in ice Ih ranges between 2.3 D and 3.1 D depending on the partitioning scheme used. Within each scheme, though, the value for the molecular dipole moment in ice is larger than in the hexamer. The magnitude of the molecular dipole moment in the clusters shows a monotonic increase from the gas phase value to the one in ice Ih, with the molecular dipole moment in the water ring hexamer being smaller than the one in ice Ih for all the partitioning schemes used. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  19. Polyamorphism in Water: Amorphous Ices and their Glassy States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amann-Winkel, K.; Boehmer, R.; Fujara, F.; Gainaru, C.; Geil, B.; Loerting, T.

    2015-12-01

    Water is ubiquitous and of general importance for our environment. But it is also known as the most anomalous liquid. The fundamental origin of the numerous anomalies of water is still under debate. An understanding of these anomalous properties of water is closely linked to an understanding of the phase diagram of the metastable non-crystalline states of ice. The process of pressure induced amorphization of ice was first observed by Mishima et al. [1]. The authors pressurized hexagonal ice at 77 K up to a pressure of 1.6 GPa to form high density amorphous ice (HDA). So far three distinct structural states of amorphous water are known [2], they are called low- (LDA), high- (HDA) and very high density amorphous ice (VHDA). Since the discovery of multiple distinct amorphous states it is controversy discussed whether this phenomenon of polyamorphism at high pressures is connected to the occurrence of more than one supercooled liquid phase [3]. Alternatively, amorphous ices have been suggested to be of nanocrystalline nature, unrelated to liquids. Indeed inelastic X-ray scattering measurements indicate sharp crystal-like phonons in the amorphous ices [4]. In case of LDA the connection to the low-density liquid (LDL) was inferred from several experiments including the observation of a calorimetric glass-to-liquid transition at 136 K and ambient pressure [5]. Recently also the glass transition in HDA was observed at 116 K at ambient pressure [6] and at 140 K at elevated pressure of 1 GPa [7], using calorimetric measurements as well as dielectric spectroscopy. We discuss here the general importance of amorphous ices and their liquid counterparts and present calorimetric and dielectric measurements on LDA and HDA. The good agreement between dielectric and calorimetric results convey for a clearer picture of water's vitrification phenomenon. [1] O. Mishima, L. D. Calvert, and E. Whalley, Nature 314, 76, 1985 [2] D.T. Bowron, J. L. Finney, A. Hallbrucker, et al., J. Chem

  20. Heterogeneous and Evolving Distributions of Pluto's Volatile Surface Ices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundy, William M.; Olkin, C. B.; Young, L. A.; Buie, M. W.; Young, E. F.

    2013-10-01

    We report observations of Pluto's 0.8 to 2.4 µm reflectance spectrum with IRTF/SpeX on 70 nights over the 13 years from 2001 to 2013. The spectra show numerous vibrational absorption features of simple molecules CH4, CO, and N2 condensed as ices on Pluto's surface. These absorptions are modulated by the planet's 6.39 day rotation period, enabling us to constrain the longitudinal distributions of the three ices. Absorptions of CO and N2 are concentrated on Pluto's anti-Charon hemisphere, unlike absorptions of less volatile CH4 ice that are offset by roughly 90° from the longitude of maximum CO and N2 absorption. In addition to the diurnal/longitudinal variations, the spectra show longer term trends. On decadal timescales, Pluto's stronger CH4 absorption bands have deepened, while the amplitude of their diurnal variation has diminished, consistent with additional CH4 absorption by high northern latitude regions rotating into view as the sub-Earth latitude moves north (as defined by the system's angular momentum vector). Unlike the CH4 absorptions, Pluto's CO and N2 absorptions are declining over time, suggesting more equatorial or southerly distributions of those species. The authors gratefully thank the staff of IRTF for their tremendous assistance over the dozen+ years of this project. The work was funded in part by NSF grants AST-0407214 and AST-0085614 and NASA grants NAG5-4210 and NAG5-12516.

  1. Bulk water freezing dynamics on superhydrophobic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavan, S.; Carpenter, J.; Nallapaneni, M.; Chen, J. Y.; Miljkovic, N.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we elucidate the mechanisms governing the heat-transfer mediated, non-thermodynamic limited, freezing delay on non-wetting surfaces for a variety of characteristic length scales, Lc (volume/surface area, 3 mm commercial superhydrophobic spray coatings, showing a monotonic increase in freezing time with coating thickness. The added thermal resistance of thicker coatings was much larger than that of the nanoscale superhydrophobic features, which reduced the droplet heat transfer and increased the total freezing time. Transient finite element method heat transfer simulations of the water slab freezing process were performed to calculate the overall heat transfer coefficient at the substrate-water/ice interface during freezing, and shown to be in the range of 1-2.5 kW/m2K for these experiments. The results shown here suggest that in order to exploit the heat-transfer mediated freezing delay, thicker superhydrophobic coatings must be deposited on the surface, where the coating resistance is comparable to the bulk water/ice conduction resistance.

  2. Revealing Surface Waters on an Antifreeze Protein by Fusion Protein Crystallography Combined with Molecular Dynamic Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tianjun; Gauthier, Sherry Y; Campbell, Robert L; Davies, Peter L

    2015-10-08

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) adsorb to ice through an extensive, flat, relatively hydrophobic surface. It has been suggested that this ice-binding site (IBS) organizes surface waters into an ice-like clathrate arrangement that matches and fuses to the quasi-liquid layer on the ice surface. On cooling, these waters join the ice lattice and freeze the AFP to its ligand. Evidence for the generality of this binding mechanism is limited because AFPs tend to crystallize with their IBS as a preferred protein-protein contact surface, which displaces some bound waters. Type III AFP is a 7 kDa globular protein with an IBS made up two adjacent surfaces. In the crystal structure of the most active isoform (QAE1), the part of the IBS that docks to the primary prism plane of ice is partially exposed to solvent and has clathrate waters present that match this plane of ice. The adjacent IBS, which matches the pyramidal plane of ice, is involved in protein-protein crystal contacts with few surface waters. Here we have changed the protein-protein contacts in the ice-binding region by crystallizing a fusion of QAE1 to maltose-binding protein. In this 1.9 Å structure, the IBS that fits the pyramidal plane of ice is exposed to solvent. By combining crystallography data with MD simulations, the surface waters on both sides of the IBS were revealed and match well with the target ice planes. The waters on the pyramidal plane IBS were loosely constrained, which might explain why other isoforms of type III AFP that lack the prism plane IBS are less active than QAE1. The AFP fusion crystallization method can potentially be used to force the exposure to solvent of the IBS on other AFPs to reveal the locations of key surface waters.

  3. Ground-Penetrating-Radar Profiles of Interior Alaska Highways: Interpretation of Stratified Fill, Frost Depths, Water Table, and Thaw Settlement over Ice-Rich Permafrost

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    along either massive ice surfaces or within sections of segregated ice. The uninsulated ice surface at Tok in Figure 17B is irregular. All of the...ER D C/ CR RE L TR -1 6- 14 ERDC’s Center-Directed Research Program Ground -Penetrating-Radar Profiles of Interior Alaska Highways...August 2016 Ground -Penetrating-Radar Profiles of Interior Alaska Highways Interpretation of Stratified Fill, Frost Depths, Water Table, and Thaw

  4. Caltech water-ice dusty plasma: preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellan, Paul; Chai, Kilbyoung

    2013-10-01

    A water-ice dusty plasma laboratory experiment has begun operation at Caltech. As in Ref., a 1-5 watt parallel-plate 13.56 MHz rf discharge plasma has LN2-cooled electrodes that cool the neutral background gas to cryogenic temperatures. However, instead of creating water vapor by in-situ deuterium-oxygen bonding, here the neutral gas is argon and water vapor is added in a controlled fashion. Ice grains spontaneously form after a few seconds. Photography with a HeNe line filter of a sheet of HeNe laser light sheet illuminating a cross section of dust grains shows a large scale whorl pattern composed of concentric sub-whorls having wave-like spatially varying intensity. Each sub-whorl is composed of very evenly separated fine-scale stream-lines indicating that the ice grains move in self-organized lanes like automobiles on a multi-line highway. HeNe laser extinction together with an estimate of dust density from the intergrain spacing in photographs indicates a 5 micron nominal dust grain radius. HeNe laser diffraction patterns indicate the ice dust grains are large and ellipsoidal at low pressure (200 mT) but small and spheroidal at high pressure (>600 mT). Supported by USDOE.

  5. Skating on thin ice: surface chemistry under interstellar conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, H.; van Dishoeck, E.; Tielens, X.

    Solid CO2 has been observed towards both active star forming regions and quiescent clouds (Gerakines et. al. (1999)). The high abundance of CO2 in the solid phase, and its low abundance in the gas phase, support the idea that CO2 is almost exclusively formed in the solid state. Several possible formation mechanisms have been postulated (Ruffle &Herbst (2001): Charnley &Kaufman (2000)), and the detection of CO2 towards quiescent sources such as Elias 16 (Whittet et. al. (1998)) clearly suggests that CO2 can be produced in the absence of UV or electron mediated processes. The most likely route is via the surface reactions between O atoms, or OH radicals, and CO. The tools of modern surface- science offer us the potential to determine many of the physical and chemical attributes of icy interstellar grain mantles under highly controlled conditions, that closely mimic interstellar environments. The Leiden Surface Reaction Simulation Device ( urfreside) combines UHV (UltraS High Vacuum) surface science techniques with an atomic beam to study chemical reactions occurring on the SURFACE and in the BULK of interstellar ice grain mimics. By simultaneously combining two or more surface analysis techniques, the chemical kinetics, reaction mechanisms and activation energies can be determined directly. The experiment is aimed at identifying the key barrierless reactions and desorption pathways on and in H2 O and CO ices under interstellar conditions. The results from traditional HV (high vacuum) and UHV studies of the CO + O and CO + OH reactions will be presented in this paper. Charnley, S.B., & Kaufman, M.J., 2000, ApJ, 529, L111 Gerakines, P.A., 1999, ApJ, 522, 357 Ruffle, D.P., & Herbst, E., 2001, MNRAS, 324, 1054 Whittet, D.C.B., et.al., 1998, ApJ, 498, L159

  6. 22-year surface salinity changes in the Seasonal Ice Zone near 140°E off Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Rosemary; Kestenare, Elodie

    2017-11-01

    Seasonal and interannual variations in sea surface salinity (SSS) are analyzed in the Sea Ice Zone south of 60°S, from a 22-year time series of observations near 140°E. In the northern sea-ice zone during the warming, melting cycle from October to March, waters warm by an average of 3.5 °C and become fresher by 0.1 to 0.25. In the southern sea-ice zone, the surface temperatures vary from - 1 to 1 °C over summer, and the maximal SSS range occurs in December, with a minimum SSS of 33.65 near the Southern Boundary of the ACC, reaching 34.4 in the shelf waters close to the coast. The main fronts, normally defined at subsurface, are shown to have more distinct seasonal characteristics in SSS than in SST. The interannual variations in SSS are more closely linked to variations in upstream sea-ice cover than surface forcing. SSS and sea-ice variations show distinct phases, with large biannual variations in the early 1990s, weaker variations in the 2000s and larger variations again from 2009 onwards. The calving of the Mertz Glacier Tongue in February 2010 leads to increased sea-ice cover and widespread freshening of the surface layers from 2011 onwards. Summer freshening in the northern sea-ice zone is 0.05-0.07 per decade, increasing to 0.08 per decade in the southern sea-ice zone, largely influenced by the Mertz Glacier calving event at the end of our time series. The summer time series of SSS on the shelf at 140°E is in phase but less variable than the SSS observed upstream in the Adélie Depression, and thus represents a spatially integrated index of the wider SSS variations.

  7. Water/ice phase transition: The role of zirconium acetate, a compound with ice-shaping properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcellini, Moreno; Fernandes, Francisco M.; Dedovets, Dmytro; Deville, Sylvain

    2017-04-01

    Few compounds feature ice-shaping properties. Zirconium acetate is one of the very few inorganic compounds reported so far to have ice-shaping properties similar to that of ice-shaping proteins, encountered in many organisms living at low temperature. When a zirconium acetate solution is frozen, oriented and perfectly hexagonal ice crystals can be formed and their growth follows the temperature gradient. To shed light on the water/ice phase transition while freezing zirconium acetate solution, we carried out differential scanning calorimetry measurements. From our results, we estimate how many water molecules do not freeze because of their interaction with Zr cations. We estimate the colligative properties of the Zr acetate on the apparent critical temperature. We further show that the phase transition is unaffected by the nature of the base which is used to adjust the pH. Our results provide thus new hints on the ice-shaping mechanism of zirconium acetate.

  8. Water at surfaces with tunable surface chemistries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Stephanie E.; Vanselous, Heather; Petersen, Poul B.

    2018-03-01

    Aqueous interfaces are ubiquitous in natural environments, spanning atmospheric, geological, oceanographic, and biological systems, as well as in technical applications, such as fuel cells and membrane filtration. Where liquid water terminates at a surface, an interfacial region is formed, which exhibits distinct properties from the bulk aqueous phase. The unique properties of water are governed by the hydrogen-bonded network. The chemical and physical properties of the surface dictate the boundary conditions of the bulk hydrogen-bonded network and thus the interfacial properties of the water and any molecules in that region. Understanding the properties of interfacial water requires systematically characterizing the structure and dynamics of interfacial water as a function of the surface chemistry. In this review, we focus on the use of experimental surface-specific spectroscopic methods to understand the properties of interfacial water as a function of surface chemistry. Investigations of the air-water interface, as well as efforts in tuning the properties of the air-water interface by adding solutes or surfactants, are briefly discussed. Buried aqueous interfaces can be accessed with careful selection of spectroscopic technique and sample configuration, further expanding the range of chemical environments that can be probed, including solid inorganic materials, polymers, and water immiscible liquids. Solid substrates can be finely tuned by functionalization with self-assembled monolayers, polymers, or biomolecules. These variables provide a platform for systematically tuning the chemical nature of the interface and examining the resulting water structure. Finally, time-resolved methods to probe the dynamics of interfacial water are briefly summarized before discussing the current status and future directions in studying the structure and dynamics of interfacial water.

  9. Sea Ice Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrigo, Kevin R.

    2014-01-01

    Polar sea ice is one of the largest ecosystems on Earth. The liquid brine fraction of the ice matrix is home to a diverse array of organisms, ranging from tiny archaea to larger fish and invertebrates. These organisms can tolerate high brine salinity and low temperature but do best when conditions are milder. Thriving ice algal communities, generally dominated by diatoms, live at the ice/water interface and in recently flooded surface and interior layers, especially during spring, when temperatures begin to rise. Although protists dominate the sea ice biomass, heterotrophic bacteria are also abundant. The sea ice ecosystem provides food for a host of animals, with crustaceans being the most conspicuous. Uneaten organic matter from the ice sinks through the water column and feeds benthic ecosystems. As sea ice extent declines, ice algae likely contribute a shrinking fraction of the total amount of organic matter produced in polar waters.

  10. Consequences of long-distance swimming and travel over deep-water pack ice for a female polar bear during a year of extreme sea ice retreat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durner, George M.; Whiteman, J.P.; Harlow, H.J.; Amstrup, Steven C.; Regehr, E.V.; Ben-David, M.

    2011-01-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) prefer to live on Arctic sea ice but may swim between ice floes or between sea ice and land. Although anecdotal observations suggest that polar bears are capable of swimming long distances, no data have been available to describe in detail long distance swimming events or the physiological and reproductive consequences of such behavior. Between an initial capture in late August and a recapture in late October 2008, a radio-collared adult female polar bear in the Beaufort Sea made a continuous swim of 687 km over 9 days and then intermittently swam and walked on the sea ice surface an additional 1,800 km. Measures of movement rate, hourly activity, and subcutaneous and external temperature revealed distinct profiles of swimming and walking. Between captures, this polar bear lost 22% of her body mass and her yearling cub. The extraordinary long distance swimming ability of polar bears, which we confirm here, may help them cope with reduced Arctic sea ice. Our observation, however, indicates that long distance swimming in Arctic waters, and travel over deep water pack ice, may result in high energetic costs and compromise reproductive fitness.

  11. SHARAD detection and characterization of subsurface water ice deposits in Utopia Planitia, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuurman, C. M.; Osinski, G. R.; Holt, J. W.; Levy, J. S.; Brothers, T. C.; Kerrigan, M.; Campbell, B. A.

    2016-09-01

    Morphological analyses of Utopia Planitia, Mars, have led to the hypothesis that the region contains a substantial amount of near-surface ice. This paper tests this hypothesis using ground-penetrating radar techniques. We have identified an expansive radar reflective region spanning approximately 375,000 km2 in SHAllow RADar (SHARAD) data over western Utopia Planitia. The SHARAD reflective regions coincides with high densities of scalloped depressions and polygonal terrain. The reflectors are associated with layered mesas ˜80-170 m thick. We find a value of 2.8 ± 0.8 for the dielectric constant of the material overlying the reflectors. This work finds that the dielectric constant is consistent with a mixture of ice, air, and dust, containing a water ice volume up to 14,300 km3 in this unit.

  12. The seasonal cycle of snow cover, sea ice and surface albedo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robock, A.

    1980-01-01

    The paper examines satellite data used to construct mean snow cover caps for the Northern Hemisphere. The zonally averaged snow cover from these maps is used to calculate the seasonal cycle of zonally averaged surface albedo. The effects of meltwater on the surface, solar zenith angle, and cloudiness are parameterized and included in the calculations of snow and ice albedo. The data allows a calculation of surface albedo for any land or ocean 10 deg latitude band as a function of surface temperature ice and snow cover; the correct determination of the ice boundary is more important than the snow boundary for accurately simulating the ice and snow albedo feedback.

  13. Sustaining dry surfaces under water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Paul R.; Hao, Xiuqing; Cruz-Chu, Eduardo R.

    2015-01-01

    Rough surfaces immersed under water remain practically dry if the liquid-solid contact is on roughness peaks, while the roughness valleys are filled with gas. Mechanisms that prevent water from invading the valleys are well studied. However, to remain practically dry under water, additional...... mechanisms need consideration. This is because trapped gas (e.g. air) in the roughness valleys can dissolve into the water pool, leading to invasion. Additionally, water vapor can also occupy the roughness valleys of immersed surfaces. If water vapor condenses, that too leads to invasion. These effects have...... not been investigated, and are critically important to maintain surfaces dry under water.In this work, we identify the critical roughness scale, below which it is possible to sustain the vapor phase of water and/or trapped gases in roughness valleys – thus keeping the immersed surface dry. Theoretical...

  14. Snow, ice and water in alpine regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumgartner, H.

    2009-01-01

    This article takes a look at how climate change will have a deep impact on alpine regions. The findings discussed at a conference organised by the Swiss Hydrologic Commission are presented and discussed. Flooding incidents that occurred 'once in a century' are now becoming more frequent and were considered at the conference as being an indicator of climate change. Changing hydrological factors are also discussed and the influence of climate factors in alpine regions on the water quantities in the rivers are looked at. Also, the spontaneous emptying of glacial lakes as has already happened in Switzerland and the consequences to be drawn from such incidences are discussed.

  15. 3 micron spectrophotometry of Comet Halley - Evidence for water ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bregman, Jesse D.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Witteborn, Fred C.; Rank, David M.; Wooden, Diane

    1988-01-01

    Structure has been observed in the 3-3.6 micron preperihelion spectrum of Comet Halley consistent with either an absorption band near 3.1 microns or emission near 3.3 microns. The results suggest that a large fraction of the water molecules lost by the comet are initially ejected in the form of small ice particles rather than in the gas phase.

  16. Nuclear Data Libraries for Hydrogen in Light Water Ice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, L; Gillette, V.H

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear data libraries were produced for hydrogen (H) in light water ice at different temperatures, 20, 30, 50, 77, 112, 180, 230 K.These libraries were produced using the NJOY nuclear data processing system.With this code we produce pointwise cross sections and related quantities, in the ENDF format, and in the ACE format for MCNP.Experimental neutron spectra at such temperatures were compared with MCNP4B simulations, based on the locally produced libraries, leading to satisfactory results

  17. Water on a Hydrophobic surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scruggs, Ryan; Zhu, Mengjue; Poynor, Adele

    2012-02-01

    Hydrophobicity, meaning literally fear of water, is exhibited on the surfaces of non-stick cooking pans and water resistant clothing, on the leaves of the lotus plan, or even during the protein folding process in our bodies. Hydrophobicity is directly measured by determining a contact angle between water and an objects surface. Associated with a hydrophobic surface is the depletion layer, a low density region approximately 0.2 nm thick. We study this region by comparing data found in lab using surface plasmon resonance techniques to theoretical calculations. Experiments use gold slides coated in ODT and Mercapto solutions to model both hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces respectively.

  18. The barrier to ice nucleation in monatomic water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestipino, Santi

    2018-03-01

    Crystallization from a supercooled liquid initially proceeds via the formation of a small solid embryo (nucleus), which requires surmounting an activation barrier. This phenomenon is most easily studied by numerical simulation, using specialized biased-sampling techniques to overcome the limitations imposed by the rarity of nucleation events. Here, I focus on the barrier to homogeneous ice nucleation in supercooled water, as represented by the monatomic-water model, which in the bulk exhibits a complex interplay between different ice structures. I consider various protocols to identify solidlike particles on a computer, which perform well enough for the Lennard-Jones model, and compare their respective impact on the shape and height of the nucleation barrier. It turns out that the effect is stronger on the nucleus size than on the barrier height. As a by-product of the analysis, I determine the structure of the nucleation cluster, finding that the relative amount of ice phases in the cluster heavily depends on the method used for classifying solidlike particles. Moreover, the phase which is most favored during the earlier stages of crystallization may happen, depending on the nucleation coordinate adopted, to be different from the stable polymorph. Therefore, the quality of a reaction coordinate cannot be assessed simply on the basis of the barrier height obtained. I explain how this outcome is possible and why it just points out the shortcoming of collective variables appropriate to simple fluids in providing a robust method of particle classification for monatomic water.

  19. Fire, ice, water, and dirt: A simple climate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, John

    2017-07-01

    A simple paleoclimate model was developed as a modeling exercise. The model is a lumped parameter system consisting of an ocean (water), land (dirt), glacier, and sea ice (ice) and driven by the sun (fire). In comparison with other such models, its uniqueness lies in its relative simplicity yet yielding good results. For nominal values of parameters, the system is very sensitive to small changes in the parameters, yielding equilibrium, steady oscillations, and catastrophes such as freezing or boiling oceans. However, stable solutions can be found, especially naturally oscillating solutions. For nominally realistic conditions, natural periods of order 100kyrs are obtained, and chaos ensues if the Milankovitch orbital forcing is applied. An analysis of a truncated system shows that the naturally oscillating solution is a limit cycle with the characteristics of a relaxation oscillation in the two major dependent variables, the ocean temperature and the glacier ice extent. The key to getting oscillations is having the effective emissivity decreasing with temperature and, at the same time, the effective ocean albedo decreases with increasing glacier extent. Results of the original model compare favorably to the proxy data for ice mass variation, but not for temperature variation. However, modifications to the effective emissivity and albedo can be made to yield much more realistic results. The primary conclusion is that the opinion of Saltzman [Clim. Dyn. 5, 67-78 (1990)] is plausible that the external Milankovitch orbital forcing is not sufficient to explain the dominant 100kyr period in the data.

  20. Fire, ice, water, and dirt: A simple climate model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, John

    2017-07-01

    A simple paleoclimate model was developed as a modeling exercise. The model is a lumped parameter system consisting of an ocean (water), land (dirt), glacier, and sea ice (ice) and driven by the sun (fire). In comparison with other such models, its uniqueness lies in its relative simplicity yet yielding good results. For nominal values of parameters, the system is very sensitive to small changes in the parameters, yielding equilibrium, steady oscillations, and catastrophes such as freezing or boiling oceans. However, stable solutions can be found, especially naturally oscillating solutions. For nominally realistic conditions, natural periods of order 100kyrs are obtained, and chaos ensues if the Milankovitch orbital forcing is applied. An analysis of a truncated system shows that the naturally oscillating solution is a limit cycle with the characteristics of a relaxation oscillation in the two major dependent variables, the ocean temperature and the glacier ice extent. The key to getting oscillations is having the effective emissivity decreasing with temperature and, at the same time, the effective ocean albedo decreases with increasing glacier extent. Results of the original model compare favorably to the proxy data for ice mass variation, but not for temperature variation. However, modifications to the effective emissivity and albedo can be made to yield much more realistic results. The primary conclusion is that the opinion of Saltzman [Clim. Dyn. 5, 67-78 (1990)] is plausible that the external Milankovitch orbital forcing is not sufficient to explain the dominant 100kyr period in the data.

  1. Effectiveness of a chemical herder in association with in-situ burning of oil spills in ice-infested water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne; Jomaas, Grunde

    2017-01-01

    The average herded slick thickness, surface distribution and burning efficiency of a light crude oil were studied in ice-infested water to determine the effectiveness of a chemical herder in facilitating the in-situ burning of oil. Experiments were performed in a small scale (1.0m2) and an interm......The average herded slick thickness, surface distribution and burning efficiency of a light crude oil were studied in ice-infested water to determine the effectiveness of a chemical herder in facilitating the in-situ burning of oil. Experiments were performed in a small scale (1.0m2...

  2. Spontaneous De-Icing Phenomena on Extremely Cold Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Dong; Choi, Chang-Hwan

    2017-11-01

    Freezing of droplets on cold surfaces is universal phenomenon, while the mechanisms are still inadequately understood. Here we report spontaneous de-icing phenomena of an impacting droplet which occur on extreme cold surfaces. When a droplet impacts on cold surfaces lower than -80°, it takes more than two times longer for the droplet to freeze than the ones at -50°. Moreover, the frozen droplet below -80° breaks up into several large parts spontaneously in the end. When a droplet impacts on the extreme cold surfaces, evaporation and condensation occur immediately as the droplet approaches the substrate. A thick layer of frost forms between the droplet and substrate, decreasing the contact area of the droplet with substrate. It leads to impede the heat transfer and hence extends the freezing time significantly. On the extremely cold substrate, the droplet freezes from the center to the edge area, in contrast to a typical case freezing from the bottom to the top. This novel from-center-to-edge freezing process changes the internal tension of the frozen droplet and results in the instantaneous breakup and release eventually, which can be taken advantage of for effective deicing mechanisms.

  3. Data assimilation of surface altimetry on the North-Easter Ice Stream using the Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larour, Eric; Utke, Jean; Morlighem, Mathieu; Seroussi, Helene; Csatho, Beata; Schenk, Anton; Rignot, Eric; Khazendar, Ala

    2014-05-01

    Extensive surface altimetry data has been collected on polar ice sheets over the past decades, following missions such as Envisat and IceSat. This data record will further increase in size with the new CryoSat mission, the ongoing Operation IceBridge Mission and the soon to launch IceSat-2 mission. In order to make the best use of these dataset, ice flow models need to improve on the way they ingest surface altimetry to infer: 1) parameterizations of poorly known physical processes such as basal friction; 2) boundary conditions such as Surface Mass Balance (SMB). Ad-hoc sensitivity studies and adjoint-based inversions have so far been the way ice sheet models have attempted to resolve the impact of 1) on their results. As for boundary conditions or the lack thereof, most studies assume that they are a fixed quantity, which, though prone to large errors from the measurement itself, is not varied according to the simulated results. Here, we propose a method based on automatic differentiation to improve boundary conditions at the base and surface of the ice sheet during a short-term transient run for which surface altimetry observations are available. The method relies on minimizing a cost-function, the best fit between modeled surface evolution and surface altimetry observations, using gradients that are computed for each time step from automatic differentiation of the ISSM (Ice Sheet System Model) code. The approach relies on overloaded operators using the ADOLC (Automatic Differentiation by OverLoading in C++) package. It is applied to the 79 North Glacier, Greenland, for a short term transient spanning a couple of decades before the start of the retreat of the Zachariae Isstrom outlet glacier. Our results show adjustments required on the basal friction and the SMB of the whole basin to best fit surface altimetry observations, along with sensitivities each one of these parameters has on the overall cost function. Our approach presents a pathway towards assimilating

  4. Nuclear momentum distribution and potential energy surface in hexagonal ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lin; Morrone, Joseph; Car, Roberto; Parrinello, Michele

    2011-03-01

    The proton momentum distribution in ice Ih has been recently measured by deep inelastic neutron scattering and calculated from open path integral Car-Parrinello simulation. Here we report a detailed investigation of the relation between momentum distribution and potential energy surface based on both experiment and simulation results. The potential experienced by the proton is largely harmonic and characterized by 3 principal frequencies, which can be associated to weighted averages of phonon frequencies via lattice dynamics calculations. This approach also allows us to examine the importance of quantum effects on the dynamics of the oxygen nuclei close to the melting temperature. Finally we quantify the anharmonicity that is present in the potential acting on the protons. This work is supported by NSF and by DOE.

  5. Thermodynamical effects accompanied freezing of two water layers separated by sea ice sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogorodsky, Petr; Marchenko, Aleksey

    2014-05-01

    The process of melt pond freezing is very important for generation of sea ice cover thermodynamic and mass balance during winterperiod. However, due to significant difficulties of field measurements the available data of model estimations still have no instrumental confirmation. In May 2009 the authors carried out laboratory experiment on freezing of limited water volume in the University Centre in Svalbard ice tank. In the course of experiment fresh water layer of 27.5 cm thickness at freezing point poured on the 24 cm sea ice layer was cooled during 50 hours at the temperature -10º C and then once again during 60 hours at -20º C. For revealing process typical characteristics the data of continuous measurements of temperature and salinity in different phases were compared with data of numerical computations obtained with thermodynamic model which was formulated in the frames of 1-D equation system (infinite extension of water freezing layer) and adapted to laboratory conditions. The known surprise of the experiment became proximity of calculated and measured estimates of process dynamics that confirmed the adequacy of the problem mathematical statement (excluding probably process finale stage). This effect can be explained by formation of cracks on the upper layer of ice at sharp decreases of air temperature, which temporary compensated hydrostatic pressure growth during freezing of closed water volume. Another compensated mechanism can be migration of brine through the lower layer of ice under influence of vertical pressure gradient and also rejection of gas dissolved in water which increased its compressibility. During 110 hours cooling thickness of water layer between ice layers reduced approximately to 2 cm. According to computations this layer is not chilled completely but keeps as thin brine interlayer within ice body whose thickness (about units of mm) is determined by temperature fluctuations of cooled surface. Nevertheless, despite good coincidence of

  6. Wetland Surface Water Processes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1993-01-01

    .... Temporary storage includes channel, overbank, basin, and groundwater storage. Water is removed from the wetland through evaporation, plant transpiration, channel, overland and tidal flow, and groundwater recharge...

  7. Coupling of climate models and ice sheet models by surface mass balance gradients: application to the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Helsen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available It is notoriously difficult to couple surface mass balance (SMB results from climate models to the changing geometry of an ice sheet model. This problem is traditionally avoided by using only accumulation from a climate model, and parameterizing the meltwater run-off as a function of temperature, which is often related to surface elevation (Hs. In this study, we propose a new strategy to calculate SMB, to allow a direct adjustment of SMB to a change in ice sheet topography and/or a change in climate forcing. This method is based on elevational gradients in the SMB field as computed by a regional climate model. Separate linear relations are derived for ablation and accumulation, using pairs of Hs and SMB within a minimum search radius. The continuously adjusting SMB forcing is consistent with climate model forcing fields, also for initially non-glaciated areas in the peripheral areas of an ice sheet. When applied to an asynchronous coupled ice sheet – climate model setup, this method circumvents traditional temperature lapse rate assumptions. Here we apply it to the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS. Experiments using both steady-state forcing and glacial-interglacial forcing result in realistic ice sheet reconstructions.

  8. CHEMICAL PROCESSING OF PURE AMMONIA AND AMMONIA-WATER ICES INDUCED BY HEAVY IONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bordalo, V.; Da Silveira, E. F. [Departamento de Fisica/Laboratorio do Acelerador Van de Graaff, Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, Rua Marques de S. Vicente 225, 22451-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Lv, X. Y.; Domaracka, A.; Rothard, H.; Boduch, P. [Centre de Recherche sur les Ions, les Materiaux et la Photonique (CEA/CNRS/ENSICAEN/Universite de Caen-Basse Normandie), CIMAP-CIRIL-GANIL, Boulevard Henri Becquerel, BP 5133, F-14070 Caen Cedex 05 (France); Seperuelo Duarte, E., E-mail: vbordalo@fis.puc-rio.br [Grupo de Fisica e Astronomia, Instituto Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rua Lucio Tavares 1045, 26530-060 Nilopolis, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-09-10

    Cosmic rays are possibly the main agents to prevent the freeze-out of molecules onto grain surfaces in cold dense clouds. Ammonia (NH{sub 3}) is one of the most abundant molecules present in dust ice mantles, with a concentration of up to 15% relative to water (H{sub 2}O). FTIR spectroscopy is used to monitor pure NH{sub 3} and NH{sub 3}-H{sub 2}O ice samples as they are irradiated with Ni and Zn ion beams (500-600 MeV) at GANIL/France. New species, such as hydrazine (N{sub 2}H{sub 4}), diazene (N{sub 2}H{sub 2} isomers), molecular hydrogen (H{sub 2}), and nitrogen (N{sub 2}) were identified after irradiation of pure NH{sub 3} ices. Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), nitrogen oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), and hydroxylamine (NH{sub 2}OH) are some of the products of the NH{sub 3}-H{sub 2}O ice radiolysis. The spectral band at 6.85 {mu}m was observed after irradiation of both types of ice. Besides the likely contribution of ammonium (NH{sub 4}{sup +}) and amino (NH{sub 2}) radicals, data suggest a small contribution of NH{sub 2}OH to this band profile after high fluences of irradiation of NH{sub 3}-H{sub 2}O ices. The spectral shift of the NH{sub 3} ''umbrella'' mode (9.3 {mu}m) band is parameterized as a function of NH{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O ratio in amorphous ices. Ammonia and water destruction cross-sections are obtained, as well as the rate of NH{sub 3}-H{sub 2}O (1:10) ice compaction, measured by the OH dangling bond destruction cross-section. Ammonia destruction is enhanced in the presence of H{sub 2}O in the ice and a power law relationship between stopping power and NH{sub 3} destruction cross-section is verified. Such results may provide relevant information for the evolution of molecular species in dense molecular clouds.

  9. Synoptic Traveling Weather Systems on Mars: Effects of Radiatively-Active Water Ice Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, Jeffery; Kahre, Melinda; Haberle, Robert; Urata, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosols on Mars are critical in determining the nature of its thermal structure, its large-scale circulation, and hence the overall climate of the planet. We conduct multi-annual simulations with the latest version of the NASA Ames Mars global climate model (GCM), gcm2.3+, that includes a modernized radiative-transfer package and complex water-ice cloud microphysics package which permit radiative effects and interactions of suspended atmospheric aerosols (e.g., water ice clouds, water vapor, dust, and mutual interactions) to influence the net diabatic heating. Results indicate that radiatively active water ice clouds profoundly affect the seasonal and annual mean climate. The mean thermal structure and balanced circulation patterns are strongly modified near the surface and aloft. Warming of the subtropical atmosphere at altitude and cooling of the high latitude atmosphere at low levels takes place, which increases the mean pole-to-equator temperature contrast (i.e., "baroclinicity"). With radiatively active water ice clouds (RAC) compared to radiatively inert water ice clouds (nonRAC), significant changes in the intensity of the mean state and forced stationary Rossby modes occur, both of which affect the vigor and intensity of traveling, synoptic period weather systems.Such weather systems not only act as key agents in the transport of heat and momentum beyond the extent of the Hadley circulation, but also the transport of trace species such as water vapor, water ice-clouds, dust and others. The northern hemisphere (NH) forced Rossby waves and resultant wave train are augmented in the RAC case: the modes are more intense and the wave train is shifted equatorward. Significant changes also occur within the subtropics and tropics. The Rossby wave train sets up, combined with the traveling synoptic period weather systems (i.e., cyclones and anticyclones), the geographic extent of storm zones (or storm tracks) within the NH. A variety of circulation

  10. Atmospheric components of the surface energy budget over young sea ice: Results from the N-ICE2015 campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walden, Von P.; Hudson, Stephen R.; Cohen, Lana; Murphy, Sarah Y.; Granskog, Mats A.

    2017-08-01

    The Norwegian young sea ice campaign obtained the first measurements of the surface energy budget over young, thin Arctic sea ice through the seasonal transition from winter to summer. This campaign was the first of its kind in the North Atlantic sector of the Arctic. This study describes the atmospheric and surface conditions and the radiative and turbulent heat fluxes over young, thin sea ice. The shortwave albedo of the snow surface ranged from about 0.85 in winter to 0.72-0.80 in early summer. The near-surface atmosphere was typically stable in winter, unstable in spring, and near neutral in summer once the surface skin temperature reached 0°C. The daily average radiative and turbulent heat fluxes typically sum to negative values (-40 to 0 W m-2) in winter but then transition toward positive values of up to nearly +60 W m-2 as solar radiation contributes significantly to the surface energy budget. The sensible heat flux typically ranges from +20-30 W m-2 in winter (into the surface) to negative values between 0 and -20 W m-2 in spring and summer. A winter case study highlights the significant effect of synoptic storms and demonstrates the complex interplay of wind, clouds, and heat and moisture advection on the surface energy components over sea ice in winter. A spring case study contrasts a rare period of 24 h of clear-sky conditions with typical overcast conditions and highlights the impact of clouds on the surface radiation and energy budgets over young, thin sea ice.

  11. The wide-spread presence of rib-like patterns in basal shear of ice streams detected by surface data inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergienko, O. V.

    2013-12-01

    The direct observations of the basal conditions under continental-scale ice sheets are logistically impossible. A possible approach to estimate conditions at the ice - bed interface is from surface observations by means of inverse methods. The recent advances in remote and ground-based observations have allowed to acquire a wealth observations from Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets. Using high-resolution data sets of ice surface and bed elevations and surface velocities, inversions for basal conditions have been performed for several ice streams in Greenland and Antarctica. The inversion results reveal the wide-spread presence of rib-like spatial structures in basal shear. The analysis of the hydraulic potential distribution shows that these rib-like structures co-locate with highs of the gradient of hydraulic potential. This suggests that subglacial water plays a role in the development and evolution of the basal shear ribs.

  12. The ancient heritage of water ice in the solar system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleeves, L Ilsedore; Bergin, Edwin A; Alexander, Conel M O'D; Du, Fujun; Graninger, Dawn; Öberg, Karin I; Harries, Tim J

    2014-09-26

    Identifying the source of Earth's water is central to understanding the origins of life-fostering environments and to assessing the prevalence of such environments in space. Water throughout the solar system exhibits deuterium-to-hydrogen enrichments, a fossil relic of low-temperature, ion-derived chemistry within either (i) the parent molecular cloud or (ii) the solar nebula protoplanetary disk. Using a comprehensive treatment of disk ionization, we find that ion-driven deuterium pathways are inefficient, which curtails the disk's deuterated water formation and its viability as the sole source for the solar system's water. This finding implies that, if the solar system's formation was typical, abundant interstellar ices are available to all nascent planetary systems. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  13. Optimal Electromagnetic (EM) Geophysical Techniques to Map the Concentration of Subsurface Ice and Adsorbed Water on Mars and the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillman, D. E.; Grimm, R. E.

    2013-12-01

    Water ice is ubiquitous in our Solar System and is a probable target for planetary exploration. Mapping the lateral and vertical concentration of subsurface ice from or near the surface could determine the origin of lunar and martian ice and quantify a much-needed resource for human exploration. Determining subsurface ice concentration on Earth is not trivial and has been attempted previously with electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), ground penetrating radar (GPR), airborne EM (AEM), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). These EM geophysical techniques do not actually detect ice, but rather the absence of unfrozen water. This causes a non-unique interpretation of frozen and dry subsurface sediments. This works well in the arctic because most locations are not dry. However, for planetary exploration, liquid water is exceedingly rare and subsurface mapping must discriminate between an ice-rich and a dry subsurface. Luckily, nature has provided a unique electrical signature of ice: its dielectric relaxation. The dielectric relaxation of ice creates a temperature and frequency dependence of the electrical properties and varies the relative dielectric permittivity from ~3.1 at radar frequencies to >100 at low frequencies. On Mars, sediments smaller than silt size can hold enough adsorbed unfrozen water to complicate the measurement. This is because the presence of absorbed water also creates frequency-dependent electrical properties. The dielectric relaxation of adsorbed water and ice can be separated as they have different shapes and frequency ranges as long as a spectrum spanning the two relaxations is measured. The volume concentration of ice and adsorbed water is a function of the strength of their relaxations. Therefore, we suggest that capacitively-coupled dielectric spectroscopy (a.k.a. spectral induced polarization or complex resistivity) can detect the concentration of both ice and adsorbed water in the subsurface. To prove this concept we have collected

  14. IceBridge Riegl Laser Altimeter L2 Geolocated Surface Elevation Triplets

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The IceBridge Riegl Laser Altimeter L2 Geolocated Surface Elevation Triplets (ILUTP2) data set contains surface range values for Antarctica and Greenland derived...

  15. Effect of Salted Ice Bags on Surface and Intramuscular Tissue Cooling and Rewarming Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Eric J; Ostrowski, Jennifer; Donahue, Matthew; Crowley, Caitlyn; Herzog, Valerie

    2016-02-01

    Many researchers have investigated the effectiveness of different cryotherapy agents at decreasing intramuscular tissue temperatures. However, no one has looked at the effectiveness of adding salt to an ice bag. To compare the cooling effectiveness of different ice bags (wetted, salted cubed, and salted crushed) on cutaneous and intramuscular temperatures. Repeated-measures counterbalanced design. University research laboratory. 24 healthy participants (13 men, 11 women; age 22.46 ± 2.33 y, height 173.25 ± 9.78 cm, mass 74.51 ± 17.32 kg, subcutaneous thickness 0.63 ± 0.27 cm) with no lower-leg injuries, vascular diseases, sensitivity to cold, compromised circulation, or chronic use of NSAIDs. Ice bags made of wetted ice (2000 mL ice and 300 mL water), salted cubed ice (intervention A; 2000 mL of cubed ice and 1/2 tablespoon of salt), and salted crushed ice (intervention B; 2000 mL of crushed ice and 1/2 tablespoon of salt) were applied to the posterior gastrocnemius for 30 min. Each participant received all conditions with at least 4 d between treatments. Cutaneous and intramuscular (2 cm plus adipose thickness) temperatures of nondominant gastrocnemius were measured during a 10-min baseline period, a 30-min treatment period, and a 45-min rewarming period. Differences from baseline were observed for all treatments. The wetted-ice and salted-cubed-ice bags produced significantly lower intramuscular temperatures than the salted-crushed-ice bag. Wetted-ice bags produced the greatest temperature change for cutaneous tissues. Wetted- and salted-cubed-ice bags were equally effective at decreasing intramuscular temperature at 2 cm subadipose. Clinical practicality may favor salted-ice bags over wetted-ice bags.

  16. Hydrophobic durability characteristics of butterfly wing surface after freezing cycles towards the design of nature inspired anti-icing surfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingkun Chen

    Full Text Available The hydrophobicity and anti-icing performance of the surfaces of some artificial hydrophobic coatings degraded after several icing and de-icing cycles. In this paper, the frost formation on the surfaces of butterfly wings from ten different species was observed, and the contact angles were measured after 0 to 6 frosting/defrosting cycles. The results show that no obvious changes in contact angle for the butterfly wing specimens were not obvious during the frosting/defrosting process. Further, the conclusion was inferred that the topography of the butterfly wing surface forms a special space structure which has a larger space inside that can accommodate more frozen droplets; this behavior prevents destruction of the structure. The findings of this study may provide a basis and new concepts for the design of novel industrially important surfaces to inhibit frost/ice growth, such as durable anti-icing coatings, which may decrease or prevent the socio-economic loss.

  17. Hydrophobic durability characteristics of butterfly wing surface after freezing cycles towards the design of nature inspired anti-icing surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tingkun; Cong, Qian; Qi, Yingchun; Jin, Jingfu; Choy, Kwang-Leong

    2018-01-01

    The hydrophobicity and anti-icing performance of the surfaces of some artificial hydrophobic coatings degraded after several icing and de-icing cycles. In this paper, the frost formation on the surfaces of butterfly wings from ten different species was observed, and the contact angles were measured after 0 to 6 frosting/defrosting cycles. The results show that no obvious changes in contact angle for the butterfly wing specimens were not obvious during the frosting/defrosting process. Further, the conclusion was inferred that the topography of the butterfly wing surface forms a special space structure which has a larger space inside that can accommodate more frozen droplets; this behavior prevents destruction of the structure. The findings of this study may provide a basis and new concepts for the design of novel industrially important surfaces to inhibit frost/ice growth, such as durable anti-icing coatings, which may decrease or prevent the socio-economic loss.

  18. The Longevity of Water Ice on Ganymedes and Europas around Migrated Giant Planets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmer, Owen R.; Catling, David C.; Zahnle, Kevin J.

    2017-01-01

    The gas giant planets in the Solar System have a retinue of icy moons, and we expect giant exoplanets to have similar satellite systems. If a Jupiter-like planet were to migrate toward its parent star the icy moons orbiting it would evaporate, creating atmospheres and possible habitable surface oceans. Here, we examine how long the surface ice and possible oceans would last before being hydrodynamically lost to space. The hydrodynamic loss rate from the moons is determined, in large part, by the stellar flux available for absorption, which increases as the giant planet and icy moons migrate closer to the star. At some planet–star distance the stellar flux incident on the icy moons becomes so great that they enter a runaway greenhouse state. This runaway greenhouse state rapidly transfers all available surface water to the atmosphere as vapor, where it is easily lost from the small moons. However, for icy moons of Ganymede’s size around a Sun-like star we found that surface water (either ice or liquid) can persist indefinitely outside the runaway greenhouse orbital distance. In contrast, the surface water on smaller moons of Europa’s size will only persist on timescales greater than 1 Gyr at distances ranging 1.49–0.74 au around a Sun-like star for Bond albedos of 0.2 and 0.8, where the lower albedo becomes relevant if ice melts. Consequently, small moons can lose their icy shells, which would create a torus of H atoms around their host planet that might be detectable in future observations.

  19. The Longevity of Water Ice on Ganymedes and Europas around Migrated Giant Planets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehmer, Owen R.; Catling, David C. [Dept. of Earth and Space Sciences/Astrobiology Program, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Zahnle, Kevin J., E-mail: olehmer@gmail.com [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA (United States)

    2017-04-10

    The gas giant planets in the Solar System have a retinue of icy moons, and we expect giant exoplanets to have similar satellite systems. If a Jupiter-like planet were to migrate toward its parent star the icy moons orbiting it would evaporate, creating atmospheres and possible habitable surface oceans. Here, we examine how long the surface ice and possible oceans would last before being hydrodynamically lost to space. The hydrodynamic loss rate from the moons is determined, in large part, by the stellar flux available for absorption, which increases as the giant planet and icy moons migrate closer to the star. At some planet–star distance the stellar flux incident on the icy moons becomes so great that they enter a runaway greenhouse state. This runaway greenhouse state rapidly transfers all available surface water to the atmosphere as vapor, where it is easily lost from the small moons. However, for icy moons of Ganymede’s size around a Sun-like star we found that surface water (either ice or liquid) can persist indefinitely outside the runaway greenhouse orbital distance. In contrast, the surface water on smaller moons of Europa’s size will only persist on timescales greater than 1 Gyr at distances ranging 1.49–0.74 au around a Sun-like star for Bond albedos of 0.2 and 0.8, where the lower albedo becomes relevant if ice melts. Consequently, small moons can lose their icy shells, which would create a torus of H atoms around their host planet that might be detectable in future observations.

  20. Cascading water underneath Wilkes Land, East Antarctic ice sheet, observed using altimetry and digital elevation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flament, T.; Berthier, E.; Rémy, F.

    2014-04-01

    We describe a major subglacial lake drainage close to the ice divide in Wilkes Land, East Antarctica, and the subsequent cascading of water underneath the ice sheet toward the coast. To analyse the event, we combined altimetry data from several sources and subglacial topography. We estimated the total volume of water that drained from Lake CookE2 by differencing digital elevation models (DEM) derived from ASTER and SPOT5 stereo imagery acquired in January 2006 and February 2012. At 5.2 ± 1.5 km3, this is the largest single subglacial drainage event reported so far in Antarctica. Elevation differences between ICESat laser altimetry spanning 2003-2009 and the SPOT5 DEM indicate that the discharge started in November 2006 and lasted approximately 2 years. A 13 m uplift of the surface, corresponding to a refilling of about 0.6 ± 0.3 km3, was observed between the end of the discharge in October 2008 and February 2012. Using the 35-day temporal resolution of Envisat radar altimetry, we monitored the subsequent filling and drainage of connected subglacial lakes located downstream of CookE2. The total volume of water traveling within the theoretical 500-km-long flow paths computed with the BEDMAP2 data set is similar to the volume that drained from Lake CookE2, and our observations suggest that most of the water released from Lake CookE2 did not reach the coast but remained trapped underneath the ice sheet. Our study illustrates how combining multiple remote sensing techniques allows monitoring of the timing and magnitude of subglacial water flow beneath the East Antarctic ice sheet.

  1. An integrated approach to the remote sensing of floating ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, W. J.; Ramseier, R. O.; Weeks, W. F.; Gloersen, P.

    1976-01-01

    Review article on remote sensing applications to glaciology. Ice parameters sensed include: ice cover vs open water, ice thickness, distribution and morphology of ice formations, vertical resolution of ice thickness, ice salinity (percolation and drainage of brine; flushing of ice body with fresh water), first-year ice and multiyear ice, ice growth rate and surface heat flux, divergence of ice packs, snow cover masking ice, behavior of ice shelves, icebergs, lake ice and river ice; time changes. Sensing techniques discussed include: satellite photographic surveys, thermal IR, passive and active microwave studies, microwave radiometry, microwave scatterometry, side-looking radar, and synthetic aperture radar. Remote sensing of large aquatic mammals and operational ice forecasting are also discussed.

  2. The impact of radiatively active water-ice clouds on Martian mesoscale atmospheric circulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiga, A.; Madeleine, J.-B.; Hinson, D.; Navarro, T.; Forget, F.

    2014-04-01

    Background and Goals Water ice clouds are a key component of the Martian climate [1]. Understanding the properties of the Martian water ice clouds is crucial to constrain the Red Planet's climate and hydrological cycle both in the present and in the past [2]. In recent years, this statement have become all the more true as it was shown that the radiative effects of water ice clouds is far from being as negligible as hitherto believed; water ice clouds plays instead a key role in the large-scale thermal structure and dynamics of the Martian atmosphere [3, 4, 5]. Nevertheless, the radiative effect of water ice clouds at lower scales than the large synoptic scale (the so-called meso-scales) is still left to be explored. Here we use for the first time mesoscale modeling with radiatively active water ice clouds to address this open question.

  3. Increased Ice-age Influence of Antarctic Intermediate Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratli, J.; McManus, J.; Mix, A.; Chase, Z.

    2008-12-01

    A depth transect of three ODP sites collected along the central Chile Margin constrain Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW) distributions and regional export production over the last 30 ka. Reduced Re and Cd, and increased Mn are proxies for higher bottom water oxygenation; 230Th-normalized burial of opal is a proxy for productivity. Mn/Al is high during the glacial interval at all three sites, suggesting high oxygenation and the retreat of the oxygen minimum zone during this period. At Site 1233, within the core of modern AAIW, Re and Cd are unchanged from detrital values throughout the last 30 ky, implying continuously oxic conditions. In contrast, at the northern sites 1234 and 1235, which reside below and above AAIW respectively, Re and Cd rise rapidly from low glacial values at ~15ka, signifying lower oxygen concentrations at the sea floor during Holocene time relative to ice-age conditions. Local productivity, recorded in Th-normalized opal burial, is highest during the glacial interval at both sites 1233 and 1234, and varies independently from the redox proxies. We conclude that local productivity does not drive bottom water oxygenation here, and that ventilation of the shallow subsurface southeast Pacific increased during the last ice age, with an expanded depth range of AAIW relative to the present.

  4. Accretion growth of water-ice grains in astrophysically-relevant dusty plasma experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Kil-Byoung; Marshall, Ryan; Bellan, Paul

    2016-10-01

    The grain growth process in the Caltech water-ice dusty plasma experiment has been studied using a high-speed camera equipped with a long-distance microscope lens. It is found that (i) the ice grain number density decreases four-fold as the average grain length increases from 20 to 80 um, (ii) the ice grain length has a log-normal distribution rather than a power-law dependence, and (iii) no collisions between ice grains are apparent. The grains have a large negative charge so the agglomeration growth is prevented by their strong mutual repulsion. It is concluded that direct accretion of water molecules is in good agreement with the observed ice grain growth. The volumetric packing factor of the ice grains must be less than 0.25 in order for the grain kinetic energy to be sufficiently small to prevent collisions between ice grains; this conclusion is consistent with ice grain images showing a fractal character.

  5. Effect of Adsorption on Ice Surfaces on the Composition of Enceladus' Plumes: Partitioning of Oxygen-Bearing Organics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouquet, A.; Teolis, B. D.; Waite, J. H., Jr.

    2017-12-01

    Introduction: The plumes of Enceladus offer an opportunity to access a sample of water from its internal ocean. However, to gain valuable insights into the ocean's composition, it is necessary to take into account any possible process that would alter the mixture between the water table and the geysers. The adsorption of refractory compounds on the ice walls in the vents could partition them depending on their properties. Evaluating the effect of this fractionation is critical in anticipating which organics could be detected by a future mission. Models: We used a model using the temkin isotherm and published experimental desorption energies for our compounds of interest. The model calculates how the coverage of an ice surface exposed to the flow can evolve with time and what is the final composition of the adsorbed mixture is. The model considers the ice walls and the ice grains, as the latter have the potential to gather the most sticky compounds and put them within reach of sampling by a spacecraft. Our list of species included formaldehyde, methanol, acetic acid, formic acid, ethanol, butanol, benzene and hexanal.Results: We found that simple hydrocarbons have a very short residence time on ice, and are expected to stay in gas phase. Oxygen-bearing organic compounds, though, stick to the ice and will be concentrated on the walls and ice grains, with the exception of formaldehyde. With the species listed above originally in equal abundance in gas phase, we found the ice surface to hold mostly formic acid, acetic acid and butanol, with a small amount of ethanol and hexanal. The high number of collisions in the closed space of a 1 meter wide vent allows for a gas/adsorbed equilibration within a second. Way forward: The possible impact of ammonia, detected in the plumes, is unknown. Ammonia can accumulate on the ice surface and influence adsorption of other species, and potentially create a liquid layer by depressing the freezing point of water. The impact of these

  6. A water activity based model of heterogeneous ice nucleation kinetics for freezing of water and aqueous solution droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopf, Daniel A; Alpert, Peter A

    2013-01-01

    Immersion freezing of water and aqueous solutions by particles acting as ice nuclei (IN) is a common process of heterogeneous ice nucleation which occurs in many environments, especially in the atmosphere where it results in the glaciation of clouds. Here we experimentally show, using a variety of IN types suspended in various aqueous solutions, that immersion freezing temperatures and kinetics can be described solely by temperature, T, and solution water activity, a(w), which is the ratio of the vapour pressure of the solution and the saturation water vapour pressure under the same conditions and, in equilibrium, equivalent to relative humidity (RH). This allows the freezing point and corresponding heterogeneous ice nucleation rate coefficient, J(het), to be uniquely expressed by T and a(w), a result we term the a(w) based immersion freezing model (ABIFM). This method is independent of the nature of the solute and accounts for several varying parameters, including cooling rate and IN surface area, while providing a holistic description of immersion freezing and allowing prediction of freezing temperatures, J(het), frozen fractions, ice particle production rates and numbers. Our findings are based on experimental freezing data collected for various IN surface areas, A, and cooling rates, r, of droplets variously containing marine biogenic material, two soil humic acids, four mineral dusts, and one organic monolayer acting as IN. For all investigated IN types we demonstrate that droplet freezing temperatures increase as A increases. Similarly, droplet freezing temperatures increase as the cooling rate decreases. The log10(J(het)) values for the various IN types derived exclusively by Tand a(w), provide a complete description of the heterogeneous ice nucleation kinetics. Thus, the ABIFM can be applied over the entire range of T, RH, total particulate surface area, and cloud activation timescales typical of atmospheric conditions. Lastly, we demonstrate that ABIFM can

  7. The surface climatology of the Ross Ice Shelf Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanza, Carol A; Lazzara, Matthew A; Keller, Linda M; Cassano, John J

    2016-12-01

    The University of Wisconsin-Madison Antarctic Automatic Weather Station (AWS) project has been making meteorological surface observations on the Ross Ice Shelf (RIS) for approximately 30 years. This network offers the most continuous set of routine measurements of surface meteorological variables in this region. The Ross Island area is excluded from this study. The surface climate of the RIS is described using the AWS measurements. Temperature, pressure, and wind data are analysed on daily, monthly, seasonal, and annual time periods for 13 AWS across the RIS. The AWS are separated into three representative regions - central, coastal, and the area along the Transantarctic Mountains - in order to describe specific characteristics of sections of the RIS. The climatology describes general characteristics of the region and significant changes over time. The central AWS experiences the coldest mean temperature, and the lowest resultant wind speed. These AWSs also experience the coldest potential temperatures with a minimum of 209.3 K at Gill AWS. The AWS along the Transantarctic Mountains experiences the warmest mean temperature, the highest mean sea-level pressure, and the highest mean resultant wind speed. Finally, the coastal AWS experiences the lowest mean pressure. Climate indices (MEI, SAM, and SAO) are compared to temperature and pressure data of four of the AWS with the longest observation periods, and significant correlation is found for most AWS in sea-level pressure and temperature. This climatology study highlights characteristics that influence the climate of the RIS, and the challenges of maintaining a long-term Antarctic AWS network. Results from this effort are essential for the broader Antarctic meteorology community for future research.

  8. Total Nitrogen in Surface Water

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Excess nitrogen in surface water can result in eutrophication. TOTALN is reported in kilograms/hectare/year. More information about these resources, including the...

  9. Total Phosphorus in Surface Water

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Excess phosphorus in surface water can result in eutrophication. TOTALP is reported in kilograms/hectare/year. More information about these resources, including the...

  10. Free Surface Water Tunnel (FSWT)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description: The Free Surface Water Tunnel consists of the intake plenum, the test section and the exit plenum. The intake plenum starts with a perforated pipe that...

  11. A new temperature and humidity dependent surface site density approach for deposition ice nucleation

    OpenAIRE

    I. Steinke; C. Hoose; O. Möhler; P. Connolly; T. Leisner

    2014-01-01

    Deposition nucleation experiments with Arizona Test Dust (ATD) as a surrogate for mineral dusts were conducted at the AIDA cloud chamber at temperatures between 220 and 250 K. The influence of the aerosol size distribution and the cooling rate on the ice nucleation efficiencies was investigated. Ice nucleation active surface site (INAS) densities were calculated to quantify the ice nucleation efficiency as a function of temperature, humidity and the aerosol ...

  12. Surface Geophysical Measurements for Locating and Mapping Ice-Wedges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingeman-Nielsen, Thomas; Tomaskovicova, Sonia; Larsen, S.H.

    2012-01-01

    to test the applicability of DC electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) to identifying and mapping ice-wedge occurrences. The site is located in Central West Greenland, and the ice-wedges are found in a permafrozen peat soil with an active layer of about 30 cm. ERT...

  13. GLOBAL CHANGES IN THE SEA ICE COVER AND ASSOCIATED SURFACE TEMPERATURE CHANGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Comiso

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The trends in the sea ice cover in the two hemispheres have been observed to be asymmetric with the rate of change in the Arctic being negative at −3.8 % per decade while that of the Antarctic is positive at 1.7 % per decade. These observations are confirmed in this study through analyses of a more robust data set that has been enhanced for better consistency and updated for improved statistics. With reports of anthropogenic global warming such phenomenon appears physically counter intuitive but trend studies of surface temperature over the same time period show the occurrence of a similar asymmetry. Satellite surface temperature data show that while global warming is strong and dominant in the Arctic, it is relatively minor in the Antarctic with the trends in sea ice covered areas and surrounding ice free regions observed to be even negative. A strong correlation of ice extent with surface temperature is observed, especially during the growth season, and the observed trends in the sea ice cover are coherent with the trends in surface temperature. The trend of global averages of the ice cover is negative but modest and is consistent and compatible with the positive but modest trend in global surface temperature. A continuation of the trend would mean the disappearance of summer ice by the end of the century but modelling projections indicate that the summer ice could be salvaged if anthropogenic greenhouse gases in the atmosphere are kept constant at the current level.

  14. Microwave emission measurements of sea surface roughness, soil moisture, and sea ice structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloersen, P.; Wilheit, T. T.; Schmugge, T. J.

    1972-01-01

    In order to demonstrate the feasibility of the microwave radiometers to be carried aboard the Nimbus 5 and 6 satellites and proposed for one of the earth observatory satellites, remote measurements of microwave radiation at wavelengths ranging from 0.8 to 21 cm have been made of a variety of the earth's surfaces from the NASA CV-990 A/C. Brightness temperatures of sea water surfaces of varying roughness, of terrain with varying soil moisture, and of sea ice of varying structure were observed. In each case, around truth information was available for correlation with the microwave brightness temperature. The utility of passive microwave radiometry in determining ocean surface wind speeds, at least for values higher than 7 meters/second has been demonstrated. In addition, it was shown that radiometric signatures can be used to determine soil moisture in unvegetated terrain to within five percentage points by weight. Finally, it was demonstrated that first year thick, multi-year, and first year thin sea ice can be distinguished by observing their differing microwave emissivities at various wavelengths.

  15. Airborne Spectral Measurements of Surface-Atmosphere Anisotropy for Arctic Sea Ice and Tundra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, G. Thomas; Tsay, Si-Chee; King, Michael D.; Li, Jason Y.; Soulen, Peter F.

    1999-01-01

    Angular distributions of spectral reflectance for four common arctic surfaces: snow-covered sea ice, melt-season sea ice, snow-covered tundra, and tundra shortly after snowmelt were measured using an aircraft based, high angular resolution (1-degree) multispectral radiometer. Results indicate bidirectional reflectance is higher for snow-covered sea ice than melt-season sea ice at all wavelengths between 0.47 and 2.3 pm, with the difference increasing with wavelength. Bidirectional reflectance of snow-covered tundra is higher than for snow-free tundra for measurements less than 1.64 pm, with the difference decreasing with wavelength. Bidirectional reflectance patterns of all measured surfaces show maximum reflectance in the forward scattering direction of the principal plane, with identifiable specular reflection for the melt-season sea ice and snow-free tundra cases. The snow-free tundra had the most significant backscatter, and the melt-season sea ice the least. For sea ice, bidirectional reflectance changes due to snowmelt were more significant than differences among the different types of melt-season sea ice. Also the spectral-hemispherical (plane) albedo of each measured arctic surface was computed. Comparing measured nadir reflectance to albedo for sea ice and snow-covered tundra shows albedo underestimated 5-40%, with the largest bias at wavelengths beyond 1 pm. For snow-free tundra, nadir reflectance underestimates plane albedo by about 30-50%.

  16. Heterogeneous Ice Nucleation by Soufriere Hills Volcanic Ash Immersed in Water Droplets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T P Mangan

    Full Text Available Fine particles of ash emitted during volcanic eruptions may sporadically influence cloud properties on a regional or global scale as well as influencing the dynamics of volcanic clouds and the subsequent dispersion of volcanic aerosol and gases. It has been shown that volcanic ash can trigger ice nucleation, but ash from relatively few volcanoes has been studied for its ice nucleating ability. In this study we quantify the efficiency with which ash from the Soufriere Hills volcano on Montserrat nucleates ice when immersed in supercooled water droplets. Using an ash sample from the 11th February 2010 eruption, we report ice nucleating efficiencies from 246 to 265 K. This wide range of temperatures was achieved using two separate droplet freezing instruments, one employing nanolitre droplets, the other using microlitre droplets. Soufriere Hills volcanic ash was significantly more efficient than all other ash samples that have been previously examined. At present the reasons for these differences are not understood, but may be related to mineralogy, amorphous content and surface chemistry.

  17. Heterogeneous Ice Nucleation by Soufriere Hills Volcanic Ash Immersed in Water Droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, T P; Atkinson, J D; Neuberg, J W; O'Sullivan, D; Wilson, T W; Whale, T F; Neve, L; Umo, N S; Malkin, T L; Murray, B J

    2017-01-01

    Fine particles of ash emitted during volcanic eruptions may sporadically influence cloud properties on a regional or global scale as well as influencing the dynamics of volcanic clouds and the subsequent dispersion of volcanic aerosol and gases. It has been shown that volcanic ash can trigger ice nucleation, but ash from relatively few volcanoes has been studied for its ice nucleating ability. In this study we quantify the efficiency with which ash from the Soufriere Hills volcano on Montserrat nucleates ice when immersed in supercooled water droplets. Using an ash sample from the 11th February 2010 eruption, we report ice nucleating efficiencies from 246 to 265 K. This wide range of temperatures was achieved using two separate droplet freezing instruments, one employing nanolitre droplets, the other using microlitre droplets. Soufriere Hills volcanic ash was significantly more efficient than all other ash samples that have been previously examined. At present the reasons for these differences are not understood, but may be related to mineralogy, amorphous content and surface chemistry.

  18. Influence of sea ice cover and icebergs on circulation and water mass formation in a numerical circulation model of the Ross Sea, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinniman, Michael S.; Klinck, John M.; Smith, Walker O.

    2007-11-01

    Satellite imagery shows that there was substantial variability in the sea ice extent in the Ross Sea during 2001-2003. Much of this variability is thought to be due to several large icebergs that moved through the area during that period. The effects of these changes in sea ice on circulation and water mass distributions are investigated with a numerical general circulation model. It would be difficult to simulate the highly variable sea ice from 2001 to 2003 with a dynamic sea ice model since much of the variability was due to the floating icebergs. Here, sea ice concentration is specified from satellite observations. To examine the effects of changes in sea ice due to iceberg C-19, simulations were performed using either climatological ice concentrations or the observed ice for that period. The heat balance around the Ross Sea Polynya (RSP) shows that the dominant term in the surface heat budget is the net exchange with the atmosphere, but advection of oceanic warm water is also important. The area average annual basal melt rate beneath the Ross Ice Shelf is reduced by 12% in the observed sea ice simulation. The observed sea ice simulation also creates more High-Salinity Shelf Water. Another simulation was performed with observed sea ice and a fixed iceberg representing B-15A. There is reduced advection of warm surface water during summer from the RSP into McMurdo Sound due to B-15A, but a much stronger reduction is due to the late opening of the RSP in early 2003 because of C-19.

  19. A balanced water layer concept for subglacial hydrology in large-scale ice sheet models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Goeller

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available There is currently no doubt about the existence of a widespread hydrological network under the Antarctic Ice Sheet, which lubricates the ice base and thus leads to increased ice velocities. Consequently, ice models should incorporate basal hydrology to obtain meaningful results for future ice dynamics and their contribution to global sea level rise. Here, we introduce the balanced water layer concept, covering two prominent subglacial hydrological features for ice sheet modeling on a continental scale: the evolution of subglacial lakes and balance water fluxes. We couple it to the thermomechanical ice-flow model RIMBAY and apply it to a synthetic model domain. In our experiments we demonstrate the dynamic generation of subglacial lakes and their impact on the velocity field of the overlaying ice sheet, resulting in a negative ice mass balance. Furthermore, we introduce an elementary parametrization of the water flux–basal sliding coupling and reveal the predominance of the ice loss through the resulting ice streams against the stabilizing influence of less hydrologically active areas. We point out that established balance flux schemes quantify these effects only partially as their ability to store subglacial water is lacking.

  20. A balanced water layer concept for subglacial hydrology in large scale ice sheet models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goeller, S.; Thoma, M.; Grosfeld, K.; Miller, H.

    2012-12-01

    There is currently no doubt about the existence of a wide-spread hydrological network under the Antarctic ice sheet, which lubricates the ice base and thus leads to increased ice velocities. Consequently, ice models should incorporate basal hydrology to obtain meaningful results for future ice dynamics and their contribution to global sea level rise. Here, we introduce the balanced water layer concept, covering two prominent subglacial hydrological features for ice sheet modeling on a continental scale: the evolution of subglacial lakes and balance water fluxes. We couple it to the thermomechanical ice-flow model RIMBAY and apply it to a synthetic model domain inspired by the Gamburtsev Mountains, Antarctica. In our experiments we demonstrate the dynamic generation of subglacial lakes and their impact on the velocity field of the overlaying ice sheet, resulting in a negative ice mass balance. Furthermore, we introduce an elementary parametrization of the water flux-basal sliding coupling and reveal the predominance of the ice loss through the resulting ice streams against the stabilizing influence of less hydrologically active areas. We point out, that established balance flux schemes quantify these effects only partially as their ability to store subglacial water is lacking.

  1. Future climate warming increases Greenland ice sheet surface mass balance variability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fyke, J.G.; Vizcaino, M.; Lipscomb, W.; Price, S.

    2014-01-01

    The integrated surface mass balance (SMB) of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) has large interannual variability. Long-term future changes to this variability will affect GrIS dynamics, freshwater fluxes, regional oceanography, and detection of changes in ice volume trends. Here we analyze a simulated

  2. Spatiotemporal variability in surface energy balance across tundra, snow and ice in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Magnus; Stiegler, Christian; Abermann, Jakob

    2017-01-01

    The surface energy balance (SEB) is essential for understanding the coupled cryosphere–atmosphere system in the Arctic. In this study, we investigate the spatiotemporal variability in SEB across tundra, snow and ice. During the snow-free period, the main energy sink for ice sites is surface melt....... For tundra, energy is used for sensible and latent heat flux and soil heat flux leading to permafrost thaw. Longer snow-free period increases melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet and glaciers and may promote tundra permafrost thaw. During winter, clouds have a warming effect across surface types whereas during...

  3. Controllability of Surface Water Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riasi, M. Sadegh; Yeghiazarian, Lilit

    2017-12-01

    To sustainably manage water resources, we must understand how to control complex networked systems. In this paper, we study surface water networks from the perspective of structural controllability, a concept that integrates classical control theory with graph-theoretic formalism. We present structural controllability theory and compute four metrics: full and target controllability, control centrality and control profile (FTCP) that collectively determine the structural boundaries of the system's control space. We use these metrics to answer the following questions: How does the structure of a surface water network affect its controllability? How to efficiently control a preselected subset of the network? Which nodes have the highest control power? What types of topological structures dominate controllability? Finally, we demonstrate the structural controllability theory in the analysis of a wide range of surface water networks, such as tributary, deltaic, and braided river systems.

  4. Fabrication and icing property of superhydrophilic and superhydrophobic aluminum surfaces derived from anodizing aluminum foil in a sodium chloride aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Meirong; Liu, Yuru; Cui, Shumin; Liu, Long; Yang, Min

    2013-10-01

    An aluminum foil with a rough surface was first prepared by anodic treatment in a neutral aqueous solution with the help of pitting corrosion of chlorides. First, the hydrophobic Al surface (contact angle around 79°) became superhydrophilic (contact angle smaller than 5°) after the anodizing process. Secondly, the superhydrophilic Al surface became superhydrophobic (contact angle larger than 150°) after being modified by oleic acid. Finally, the icing property of superhydrophilic, untreated, and superhydrophobic Al foils were investigated in a refrigerated cabinet at -12 °C. The mean total times to freeze a water droplet (6 μL) on the three foils were 17 s, 158 s and 1604 s, respectively. Thus, the superhydrophilic surface accelerates the icing process, while the superhydrophobic surface delays the process. The main reason for this transition might mainly result from the difference of the contact area of the water droplet with Al substrate: the increase in contact area with Al substrate will accelerate the heat conduct process, as well as the icing process; the decrease in contact area with Al substrate will delay the heat conduct process, as well as the icing process. Compared to the untreated Al foil, the contact area of the water droplet with the Al substrate was higher on superhydrophilic surface and smaller on the superhydrophobic surface, which led to the difference of the heat transfer time as well as the icing time.

  5. The Inferred Distribution of Liquid Water in Europa's Ice Shell: Implications for the Europa Lander Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noviello, J. L.; Torrano, Z. A.; Rhoden, A.; Manga, M.

    2017-12-01

    A key objective of the Europa lander mission is to identify liquid water within 30 km of the lander (Europa Lander SDT report, 2017), to provide essential context with which to evaluate samples and enable assessment of Europa's overall habitability. To inform lander mission development, we utilize a model of surface feature formation that invokes liquid water within Europa's ice shell to map out the implied 3D distribution of liquid water and assess the likelihood of a lander to be within 30 km of liquid water given regional variability. Europa's surface displays a variety of microfeatures, also called lenticulae, including pits, domes, spots, and microchaos. A recent model by Manga and Michaut (2017) attributes these features to various stages in the thermal-mechanical evolution of liquid water intrusions (i.e. sills) within the ice shell, from sill emplacement to surface breaching (in the case of microchaos) to freezing of the sill. Pits are of particular interest because they appear only when liquid water is still present. Another key feature of the model is that the size of a microfeature at the surface is controlled by the depth of the sill. Hence, we can apply this model to regions of Europa that contain microfeatures to infer the size, depth, and spatial distribution of liquid water within the ice shell. We are creating a database of microfeatures that includes digitized, collated data from previous mapping efforts along with our own mapping study. We focus on images with 220 m/pixel resolution, which includes the regional mapping data sets. Analysis of a preliminary study area suggests that sills are typically located at depths of 2km or less from the surface. We will present analysis of the full database of microfeatures and the corresponding 3D distribution of sills implied by the model. Our preliminary analysis also shows that pits are clustered in some regions, consistent with previous results, although individual pits are also observed. We apply a

  6. Feasibility of surface detection of oil under ice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gill, R

    1979-01-01

    ... ice: radio frequency, acoustic, optical, nuclear and gas sniffer modes. Of the five modes studied, it was determined that the optical and gas sniffer modes would not be applicable for various reasons...

  7. Dielectric constant and low-frequency infrared spectra for liquid water and ice Ih within the E3B model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, L.; Ni, Y.; Drews, S. E. P.; Skinner, J. L. [Theoretical Chemistry Institute and Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    2014-08-28

    Two intrinsic difficulties in modeling condensed-phase water with conventional rigid non-polarizable water models are: reproducing the static dielectric constants for liquid water and ice Ih, and generating the peak at about 200 cm{sup −1} in the low-frequency infrared spectrum for liquid water. The primary physical reason for these failures is believed to be the missing polarization effect in these models, and consequently various sophisticated polarizable water models have been developed. However, in this work we pursue a different strategy and propose a simple empirical scheme to include the polarization effect only on the dipole surface (without modifying a model's intermolecular interaction potential). We implement this strategy for our explicit three-body (E3B) model. Our calculated static dielectric constants and low-frequency infrared spectra are in good agreement with experiment for both liquid water and ice Ih over wide temperature ranges, albeit with one fitting parameter for each phase. The success of our modeling also suggests that thermal fluctuations about local minima and the energy differences between different proton-disordered configurations play minor roles in the static dielectric constant of ice Ih. Our analysis shows that the polarization effect is important in resolving the two difficulties mentioned above and sheds some light on the origin of several features in the low-frequency infrared spectra for liquid water and ice Ih.

  8. Northern Alaskan land surface response to reduced Arctic sea ice extent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higgins, Matthew E. [University of Colorado, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, Boulder, CO (United States); Cassano, John J. [University of Colorado, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2012-05-15

    With Arctic sea ice extent at near-record lows, an improved understanding of the relationship between sea ice and the land surface is warranted. We examine the land surface response to changing sea ice by first conducting a simulation using the Community Atmospheric Model version 3.1 with end of the twenty-first century sea ice extent. This future atmospheric response is then used to force the Weather and Research Forecasting Model version 3.1 to examine the terrestrial land surface response at high resolution over the North Slope of Alaska. Similar control simulations with twentieth century sea ice projections are also performed, and in both simulations only sea ice extent is altered. In the future sea ice extent experiment, atmospheric temperature increases significantly due to increases in latent and sensible heat flux, particularly in the winter season. Precipitation and snow pack increase significantly, and the increased snow pack contributes to warmer soil temperatures for most seasons by insulating the land surface. In the summer, however, soil temperatures are reduced due to increased albedo. Despite warmer near-surface atmospheric temperatures, it is found that spring melt is delayed throughout much of the North Slope due to the increased snow pack, and the growing season length is shortened. (orig.)

  9. Some aspects of floating ice related to sea surface operations in the Barents sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loeset, S.

    1993-01-01

    The present work highlights some aspects of floating ice related to sea surface operations in the Barents sea. The thesis consists of eight papers which fall into two main categories; one part deals with numerical modeling of the temperature distribution and ablation of icebergs (three papers), and the other part studies the behavior of broken ice, focusing on both laboratory experiments and numerical modeling. The temperature distribution within an iceberg affects the mechanical strength of the ice and is therefore crucial in engineering applications when estimating loads from impinging icebergs on offshore structures. A numerical model which simulates the temperature distribution and ablation of icebergs has been developed. The model shows that the depth of the thermal disturbance and slope of the temperature gradient of an iceberg depend on the boundary conditions and the time at sea. By about 12 m into the ice, the temperature is virtually free of any thermal boundary influence. Oil spill response techniques are vulnerable to the presence of sea ice. Deflecting ice upstream of a spill site by means of a flexible boom will facilitate the application of conventional oil spill recovery systems such as oil skimmers and booms. Experiments with such an ice deflecting boom were conducted in an ice tank to determine the loads on the boom and to study the ice-free wake. The study indicated the technical feasibility of the ice boom concept as an operational tool for oil spill cleanups. A two-dimensional discrete element model has been developed. This model simulates the dynamics and interaction forces between distinct ice floes in a broken ice field. The numerical model was applied to estimate the loads on a boom used for ice management. 121 refs., 70 figs., 10 tabs

  10. Laser-induced plasma from pure and doped water-ice at high fluence by ultraviolet and infrared radiation - art. no. 70050X

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Jørgen; Matei, A.; Rodrigo, Katarzyna Agnieszka

    2008-01-01

    Ice made of ultrapure water or water doped with 1 % polymer (polyethylene glycol, "PEG") was irradiated by laser light with fluences between 2 and 80 J/cm(2) in the ultraviolet (UV) regime at 355 nm and in the infrared (IR) regime at 1064 nm in vacuum. In the UV regime there is a threshold for pl...... of ionization breakdown at the ice surface....

  11. The relation between Arctic sea ice surface elevation and draft: A case study using coincident AUV sonar and airborne scanning laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doble, Martin J.; Skourup, Henriette; Wadhams, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Data are presented from a survey by airborne scanning laser profilometer and an AUV-mounted, upward looking swath sonar in the spring Beaufort Sea. The air-snow (surface elevation) and water-ice (draft) surfaces were mapped at 1 x 1 m resolution over a 300 x 300 m area. Data were separated into l...

  12. Decompression-induced melting of ice IV and the liquid-liquid transition in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishima, Osamu; Stanley, H. Eugene

    1998-03-01

    Although liquid water has been the focus of intensive research for over 100 years, a coherent physical picture that unifies all of the known anomalies of this liquid, is still lacking. Some of these anomalies occur in the supercooled region, and have been rationalized on the grounds of a possible retracing of the liquid-gas spinodal (metastability limit) line into the supercooled liquid region, or alternatively the presence of a line of first-order liquid-liquid phase transitions in this region which ends in a critical point,. But these ideas remain untested experimentally, in part because supercooled water can be probed only above the homogeneous nucleation temperature TH at which water spontaneously crystallizes. Here we report an experimental approach that is not restricted by the barrier imposed by TH, involving measurement of the decompression-induced melting curves of several high-pressure phases of ice in small emulsified droplets. We find that the melting curve for ice IV seems to undergo a discontinuity at precisely the location proposed for the line of liquid-liquid phase transitions. This is consistent with, but does not prove, the coexistence of two different phases of (supercooled) liquid water. From the experimental data we calculate a possible Gibbs potential surface and a corresponding equation of state for water, from the forms of which we estimate the coordinates of the liquid-liquid critical point to be at pressure Pc ~ 0.1GPa and temperature Tc ~ 220K.

  13. The Distribution of Basal Water Beneath the Greenland Ice Sheet from Radio-Echo Sounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, T.; Williams, C.; Schroeder, D. M.; Martos, Y. M.; Cooper, M.; Siegert, M. J.; Paden, J. D.; Huybrechts, P.; Bamber, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    There is widespread, but often indirect, evidence that a significant fraction of the Greenland Ice Sheet is thawed at the bed. This includes major outlet glaciers and around the NorthGRIP ice-core in the interior. However, the ice-sheet-wide distribution of basal water is poorly constrained by existing observations, and the spatial relationship between basal water and other ice-sheet and subglacial properties is therefore largely unexplored. In principle, airborne radio-echo sounding (RES) surveys provide the necessary information and spatial coverage to infer the presence of basal water at the ice-sheet scale. However, due to uncertainty and spatial variation in radar signal attenuation, the commonly used water diagnostic, bed-echo reflectivity, is highly ambiguous and prone to spatial bias. Here we introduce a new RES diagnostic for the presence of basal water which incorporates both sharp step-transitions and rapid fluctuations in bed-echo reflectivity. This has the advantage of being (near) independent of attenuation model, and enables a decade of recent Operation Ice Bride RES survey data to be combined in a single map for basal water. The ice-sheet-wide water predictions are compared with: bed topography and drainage network structure, existing knowledge of the thermal state and geothermal heat flux, and ice velocity. In addition to the fast flowing ice-sheet margins, we also demonstrate widespread water routing and storage in parts of the slow-flowing northern interior. Notably, this includes a quasi-linear `corridor' of basal water, extending from NorthGRIP to Petermann glacier, which spatially correlates with a region of locally high (magnetic-derived) geothermal heat flux. The predicted water distribution places a new constraint upon the basal thermal state of the Greenland Ice Sheet, and could be used as an input for ice-sheet model simulations.

  14. SEMIC: an efficient surface energy and mass balance model applied to the Greenland ice sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Krapp

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We present SEMIC, a Surface Energy and Mass balance model of Intermediate Complexity for snow- and ice-covered surfaces such as the Greenland ice sheet. SEMIC is fast enough for glacial cycle applications, making it a suitable replacement for simpler methods such as the positive degree day (PDD method often used in ice sheet modelling. Our model explicitly calculates the main processes involved in the surface energy and mass balance, while maintaining a simple interface and requiring minimal data input to drive it. In this novel approach, we parameterise diurnal temperature variations in order to more realistically capture the daily thaw–freeze cycles that characterise the ice sheet mass balance. We show how to derive optimal model parameters for SEMIC specifically to reproduce surface characteristics and day-to-day variations similar to the regional climate model MAR (Modèle Atmosphérique Régional, version 2 and its incorporated multilayer snowpack model SISVAT (Soil Ice Snow Vegetation Atmosphere Transfer. A validation test shows that SEMIC simulates future changes in surface temperature and surface mass balance in good agreement with the more sophisticated multilayer snowpack model SISVAT included in MAR. With this paper, we present a physically based surface model to the ice sheet modelling community that is general enough to be used with in situ observations, climate model, or reanalysis data, and that is at the same time computationally fast enough for long-term integrations, such as glacial cycles or future climate change scenarios.

  15. Denali Ice Core Record of North Pacific Sea Surface Temperatures and Marine Primary Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polashenski, D.; Osterberg, E. C.; Kreutz, K. J.; Winski, D.; Wake, C. P.; Ferris, D. G.; Introne, D.; Campbell, S. W.

    2016-12-01

    Chemical analyses of precipitation preserved in glacial ice cores provide a unique opportunity to study changes in atmospheric circulation patterns and ocean surface conditions through time. In this study, we aim to investigate changes in both the physical and biological parameters of the north-central Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea over the twentieth century using the deuterium excess (d-excess) and methanesulfonic acid (MSA) records from the Mt. Hunter ice cores drilled in Denali National Park, Alaska. These parallel, 208 m-long ice cores were drilled to bedrock during the 2013 field season on the Mt. Hunter plateau (63° N, 151° W, 3,900 m above sea level) by a collaborative research team consisting of members from Dartmouth College and the Universities of Maine and New Hampshire. The cores were sampled on a continuous melter system at Dartmouth College and analyzed for the concentrations major ions (Dionex IC) and trace metals (Element2 ICPMS), and for stable water isotope ratios (Picarro). The depth-age scale has been accurately dated to 400 AD using annual layer counting of several chemical species and further validated using known historical volcanic eruptions and the Cesium-137 spike associated with nuclear weapons testing in 1963. We use HYSPLIT back trajectory modeling to identify likely source areas of moisture and aerosol MSA being transported to the core site. Satellite imagery allows for a direct comparison between chlorophyll a concentrations in these source areas and MSA concentrations in the core record. Preliminary analysis of chlorophyll a and MSA concentrations, both derived almost exclusively from marine biota, suggest that the Mt. Hunter ice cores reflect changes in North Pacific and Bering Sea marine primary productivity. Analysis of the water isotope and MSA data in conjunction with climate reanalysis products shows significant correlations (psea surface temperatures in the Bering Sea and North Central Pacific. These findings, coupled with

  16. IceBridge NSERC L1B Geolocated Meteorologic and Surface Temperature Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The IceBridge National Suborbital Education & Research Center (NSERC) L1B Geolocated Meteorologic and Surface Temperature (IAMET1B) data set is a collection of...

  17. IceBridge NSERC L1B Geolocated Meteorologic and Surface Temperature Data, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The IceBridge National Suborbital Education & Research Center (NSERC) L1B Geolocated Meteorologic and Surface Temperature (IAMET1B) data set is a collection of...

  18. A study on the fabrication of superhydrophobic iron surfaces by chemical etching and galvanic replacement methods and their anti-icing properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Kunquan, E-mail: likunquan1987@gmail.com; Zeng, Xingrong, E-mail: psxrzeng@gmail.com; Li, Hongqiang, E-mail: hqli1979@gmail.com; Lai, Xuejun, E-mail: msxjlai@scut.edu.cn

    2015-08-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Superhydrophobic iron surfaces were prepared by etching and replacement method. • The fabrication process was simple, time-saving and inexpensive. • Galvanic replacement method was more favorable to create roughness on iron surface. • The superhydrophobic iron surface showed excellent anti-icing properties. - Abstract: Hierarchical structures on iron surfaces were constructed by means of chemical etching by hydrochloric acid (HCl) solution or the galvanic replacement by silver nitrate (AgNO{sub 3}) solution. The superhydrophobic iron surfaces were successfully prepared by subsequent hydrophobic modification with stearic acid. The superhydrophobic iron surfaces were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and water contact angle (WCA). The effects of reactive concentration and time on the microstructure and the wetting behavior were investigated. In addition, the anti-icing properties of the superhydrophobic iron surfaces were also studied. The FTIR study showed that the stearic acid was chemically bonded onto the iron surface. With the HCl concentration increase from 4 mol/L to 8 mol/L, the iron surface became rougher with a WCA ranging from 127° to 152°. The AgNO{sub 3} concentration had little effect on the wetting behavior, but a high AgNO{sub 3} concentration caused Ag particle aggregates to transform from flower-like formations into dendritic crystals, owing to the preferential growth direction of the Ag particles. Compared with the etching method, the galvanic replacement method on the iron surface more favorably created roughness required for achieving superhydrophobicity. The superhydrophobic iron surface showed excellent anti-icing properties in comparison with the untreated iron. The icing time of water droplets on the superhydrophobic surface was delayed to 500 s, which was longer than that of 295 s for

  19. Groundwater–Surface Water Exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karan, Sachin

    The exchange of groundwater-surface water has been invetigated in the western part of Denmark. Holtum AA provides the framework for all the performed investigations. Several methods are used, primarily eld based measurements ombined with numerical models to achieve insight to the governing...... processes of interaction between groundwater and surface water. By using heat as a tracer it has been possible to use temperature directly as calibrationtargets in a groundwater and heat transport model. Thus, it is possible to use heat investigate the change in groundwater discharge in dynamic conditions...... by using simple temperature devices along a stream to delineate the areas of interest in regard to GW{SW exchange. Thus, at several locations in a stream a temperature data logger was placed in the water column and right at the streambed-water interface. By looking at the correlation of streambed...

  20. High-Speed Imaging of a Water Droplet Impacting a Super Cold Surface

    KAUST Repository

    Khaled, Narimane

    2016-08-01

    Frost formation is of a major research interest as it can affect many industrial processes. Frost appears as a thin deposit of ice crystals when the temperature of the surface is below the freezing point of the liquid. The objective of this research is to study icing with hope to propose new anti-icing and deicing methods. In the beginning of the research, cracking of the ice layer was observed when a deionized water droplet impacts a ?50 oC cooled sphere surface that is in contact with dry ice. To further investigate the cracks occurrence, multiple experiments were conducted. It was observed that the sphere surface temperature and droplet temperature (ranges from 10-80 oC) have no effect on the crack formation. On the other hand, it was observed that formation of a thin layer of frost on the sphere before the drop impact leads the lateral cracking of the ice. Thus, attempts to reproduce the cracks on clean super cold sphere surfaces were made using scratched and sandblasted spheres as well as superhydrophobized and polymer particle coated spheres. Furthermore, innovative methods were tried to initiate the cracks by placing epoxy glue bumps and ice-islands coatings on the surface of the spheres. All of these attempts to reproduce the crack formation without the presence of frost, failed. Nonetheless, the adding of isolated frost on the sphere surfaces always leads to the crack formation. Generally, frost forms on the small spheres faster than it does on the bigger ones. Additionally, the cold water droplet produces thicker water and ice layer compared to a hot water droplet; and the smaller the sphere the larger its water and ice layer thicknesses.

  1. Groundwater and surface water pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chae, Y.S.; Hamidi, A. [eds.

    2000-07-01

    This book contains almost all the technical know-how that is required to clean up the water supply. It provides a survey of up-to-date technologies for remediation, as well as a step-by-step guide to pollution assessment for both ground and surface waters. In addition to focusing on causes, effects, and remedies, the book stresses reuse, recycling, and recovery of resources. The authors suggest that through total recycling wastes can become resources.

  2. Possible significance of cubic water-ice, H2O-Ic, in the atmospheric water cycle of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooding, James L.

    1988-01-01

    The possible formation and potential significance of the cubic ice polymorph on Mars is discussed. When water-ice crystallizes on Earth, the ambient conditions of temperature and pressure result in the formation of the hexagonal ice polymorph; however, on Mars, the much lower termperature and pressures may permit the crystallization of the cubic polymorph. Cubic ice has two properties of possible importance on Mars: it is an excellant nucleator of other volatiles (such as CO2), and it undergoes an exothermic transition to hexagonal ice at temperatures above 170 K. These properties may have significant implications for both martian cloud formation and the development of the seasonal polar caps.

  3. Comparison of skating kinetics and kinematics on ice and on a synthetic surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stidwill, T J; Pearsall, David; Turcotte, Rene

    2010-03-01

    The recent popularization and technological improvements of synthetic or artificial ice surfaces provide an attractive alternative to real ice in venues where the latter is impractical to install. Potentially, synthetic ice (SI) may be installed in controlled laboratory settings to permit detailed biomechanical analysis of skating manoeuvres. Unknown, however, is the extent to which skating on SI replicates skating on traditional ice (ICE). Hence, the purpose of this study was to compare kinetic and kinematic forward skating parameters between SI and ICE surfaces. With 11 male hockey players, a portable strain gauge system adhered to the outside of the skate blade holder was used to measure skate propulsive force synchronized with electrogoniometers for tracking dynamic knee and ankle movements during forward skating acceleration. In general, the kinetic and kinematic variables investigated in this study showed minimal differences between the two surfaces (P > 0.06), and no individual variable differences were identified between the two surfaces (P > or = 0.1) with the exception of greater knee extension on SI than ICE (15.2 degrees to 11.0 degrees; P skating, and thus offer the potential for valid analogous conditions for in-lab testing and training.

  4. Volcanic flows versus water- and ice-related outburst deposits in eastern Hellas: A comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelker, M.; Hauber, E.; Stephan, K.; Jaumann, R.

    2018-06-01

    Hellas Planitia is one of the major topographic sinks on Mars for the deposition of any kind of sediments. We report on our observations of sheet deposits in the eastern part of the basin that are apparently related to the Dao Vallis outflow channel. The deposits have lobate flow fronts and a thickness of a few decameters. Despite their generally smooth surface, some distinctive textures and patterns can be identified, such as longitudinal lineations, distributive channels, and polygons. We compared these deposits to other sheet deposits on Mars and tested three hypotheses of their origin: volcanic flows as well as water- and ice-related mass wastings. Despite some similarities to volcanic sheet flows on Mars, we found several morphological characteristics that are not known for sheet lava flows; for example conically arranged lineations and channel systems very similar to fluvial incisions. We also reject an ice-related formation similar to terrestrial rock-ice avalanches, as there is no sufficient relief energy to explain their extent and location. A water-related origin appears most consistent with our observations, and we favor an emplacement by fluvially-driven mass wasting processes, e.g., debris flows. Assuming a water-related origin, we calculated the amount of water that would be required to deposit such large sedimentary bodies for different flow types. Our calculations show a large range of possible water volumes, from 64 to 2,042 km³, depending on the specific flow mechanism. The close link to Dao Vallis makes these deposits a unique place to study the deposition of outflow channel sediments, as the deposits of other outflow channels on Mars, such as those around Chryse Planitia, are mostly buried by younger sediments and volcanic flows.

  5. Characterizing Water Ice Clouds on the Coldest Known Brown Dwarf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhman, Kevin; Burgasser, Adam; Cushing, Michael; Esplin, Taran; Fortney, Jonathan; Hardegree-Ullman, Kevin; Marley, Mark; Morley, Caroline; Schneider, Adam; Trucks, Jesica

    2014-12-01

    We have conducted a search for high proper motion brown dwarfs using multi-epoch all-sky mid-infrared images from the WISE satellite. Through this work, we have discovered an object with a parallactic distance of 2.3 pc and a temperature of 250 K, making it the 4th closest neighbor of the Sun, and the coldest known brown dwarf. Because of its extreme proximity and temperature, it represents an unparalleled laboratory for studying planet-like atmospheres in an unexplored temperature regime. We propose to photometrically monitor this object with IRAC to 1) detect and characterize water ice clouds in its atmosphere via the short-term variations induced during rotation and 2) constrain the long-term evolution of its clouds across a period of months.

  6. Experimental investigation of ice and snow melting process on pavement utilizing geothermal tail water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Huajun; Zhao Jun; Chen Zhihao

    2008-01-01

    Road ice and snow melting based on low temperature geothermal tail water is of significance to realize energy cascading utilization. A small scale ice and snow melting system is built in this work. Experiments of dynamic melting processes of crushed ice, solid ice, artificial snow and natural snow are conducted on concrete pavement. The results show that the melting process of ice and snow includes three phases: a starting period, a linear period and an accelerated period. The critical value of the snow free area ratio between the linear period and the accelerated period is about 0.6. The physical properties of ice and snow, linked with ambient conditions, have an obvious effect on the melting process. The difference of melting velocity and melting time between ice and snow is compared. To reduce energy consumption, the formation of ice on roads should be avoided if possible. The idling process is an effective pathway to improve the performance of melting systems. It is feasible to utilize geothermal tail water of about 40 deg. C for melting ice and snow on winter roads, and it is unnecessary to keep too high fluid temperatures during the practical design and applications. Besides, with the exception of solid ice, the density and porosity of snow and ice tend to be decreasing and increasing, respectively, as the ambient temperature decreases

  7. The effect of a heated skate blade on the ice surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hache, A. [Moncton Univ., NB (Canada). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy

    2007-05-15

    A new hockey skate using a heated blade, called the Therma Blade, cuts ice friction by half, thereby improving skating performance but has created questions about melting and damage of the ice surface. This paper discussed the effect of the heated skate blade on the ice surface. The paper discussed the thermal power produced by the Therma Blade skate, the ice melting capacity of the therma blade, and the ice temperature profile around the heated blade. It also examined the power dissipation by friction comparing the cold versus the heated blade. Units and definitions as well as conversion factors were also presented in appendix format. Constants and technical specifications were listed in an appendix. It was concluded that the maximum melting capacity of the therma blade is 0.7 grams of ice per skate per minute. This is the upper limit as set by the laws of physics, and this requires the skate to be completely static over ice at 0 degrees Celsius and all the power drawn by the battery to reach the ice friction force. 5 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  8. Acquisition of Ice Thickness and Ice Surface Characteristics in the Seasonal Ice Zone by CULPIS-X during the US Coast Guard’s Arctic Domain Awareness Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    OBJECTIVES • What is the volume of sea ice in the Beaufort Sea Seasonal Ice Zone (SIZ) and how does this evolve during summer as the ice edge...retreats? Recent observations suggest that the remaining ice in the Beaufort Sea is younger and thinner in recent years in part because even the oldest...surrounding ice . Recent analyses have indicated that ponds on thinner ice are often darker, accelerating the ice - albedo feedback over thin ice in summer

  9. Influence of Ice Particle Surface Roughening on the Global Cloud Radiative Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Bingqi; Yang, Ping; Baum, Bryan A.; LEcuyer, Tristan; Oreopoulos, Lazaros; Mlawer, Eli J.; Heymsfield, Andrew J.; Liou, Kuo-Nan

    2013-01-01

    Ice clouds influence the climate system by changing the radiation budget and large-scale circulation. Therefore, climate models need to have an accurate representation of ice clouds and their radiative effects. In this paper, new broadband parameterizations for ice cloud bulk scattering properties are developed for severely roughened ice particles. The parameterizations are based on a general habit mixture that includes nine habits (droxtals, hollow/solid columns, plates, solid/hollow bullet rosettes, aggregate of solid columns, and small/large aggregates of plates). The scattering properties for these individual habits incorporate recent advances in light-scattering computations. The influence of ice particle surface roughness on the ice cloud radiative effect is determined through simulations with the Fu-Liou and the GCM version of the Rapid Radiative Transfer Model (RRTMG) codes and the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Atmosphere Model (CAM, version 5.1). The differences in shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) radiative effect at both the top of the atmosphere and the surface are determined for smooth and severely roughened ice particles. While the influence of particle roughening on the single-scattering properties is negligible in the LW, the results indicate that ice crystal roughness can change the SW forcing locally by more than 10 W m(exp -2) over a range of effective diameters. The global-averaged SW cloud radiative effect due to ice particle surface roughness is estimated to be roughly 1-2 W m(exp -2). The CAM results indicate that ice particle roughening can result in a large regional SW radiative effect and a small but nonnegligible increase in the global LW cloud radiative effect.

  10. Imaging spectroscopy to assess the composition of ice surface materials and their impact on glacier mass balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naegeli, Kathrin; Huss, Matthias; Damm, Alexander; de Jong, Rogier; Schaepman, Michael; Hoelzle, Martin

    2014-05-01

    composition and spatial distribution of cryoconite and impurities on the surface of Glacier de la Plaine Morte. Spectral properties of five different endmembers (bright ice, old snow, clear water, brown-grey and black supraglacial material) were determined in-situ and their abundances and distribution across the entire glacier surface were evaluated by means of an SMA approach that was applied to the image data. Results provide important information to improve the understanding of the spatial distribution of glacier ablation, which appears to be strongly dependent on surface albedo.

  11. Molecular multipole moments of water molecules in ice Ih

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batista, E.R.; Xantheas, S.S.; Jonsson, H.

    1998-01-01

    We have used an induction model including dipole, dipole endash quadrupole, quadrupole endash quadrupole polarizability and first hyperpolarizability as well as fixed octopole and hexadecapole moments to study the electric field in ice. The self-consistent induction calculations gave an average total dipole moment of 3.09 D, a 67% increase over the dipole moment of an isolated water molecule. A previous, more approximate induction model study by Coulson and Eisenberg [Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 291, 445 (1966)] suggested a significantly smaller average value of 2.6 D. This value has been used extensively in recent years as a reference point in the development of various polarizable interaction potentials for water as well as for assessment of the convergence of water cluster properties to those of bulk. The reason for this difference is not due to approximations made in the computational scheme of Coulson and Eisenberg but rather due to the use of less accurate values for the molecular multipoles in these earlier calculations. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  12. Surface water quality assessment using factor analysis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-01-16

    Jan 16, 2006 ... Surface water, groundwater quality assessment and environ- .... Urbanisation influences the water cycle through changes in flow and water ..... tion of aquatic life, CCME water quality Index 1, 0. User`s ... Water, Air Soil Pollut.

  13. Effects of surface design on aerodynamic forces of iced bridge cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koss, Holger

    2014-01-01

    In recent years the relevance of ice accretion for wind-induced vibration of structural bridge cables has been recognised and became a subject of research in bridge engineering. Full-scale monitoring and observation indicate that light precipitation at moderate low temperatures between zero and -...... influences the accretion of ice to an extent that the aerodynamic forces differ significantly amongst the designs. The experiments were conducted in a wind tunnel facility capable amongst others to simulate in-cloud icing conditions........ The determination of these force coefficients require a proper simulation of the ice layer occurring under the specific climatic conditions, favouring real ice accretion over simplified artificial reproduction. The work presented in this paper was performed to study whether the design of bridge cable surface...

  14. Observations of the PCB distribution within and in-between ice, snow, ice-rafted debris, ice-interstitial water, and seawater in the Barents Sea marginal ice zone and the North Pole area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, O; Andersson, P; Axelman, J; Bucheli, T D; Kömp, P; McLachlan, M S; Sobek, A; Thörngren, J-O

    2005-04-15

    To evaluate the two hypotheses of locally elevated exposure of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in ice-associated microenvironments and ice as a key carrier for long-range transport of POPs to the Arctic marginal ice zone (MIZ), dissolved and particulate polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were analyzed in ice, snow, ice-interstitial water (IIW), seawater in the melt layer underlying the ice, and in ice-rafted sediment (IRS) from the Barents Sea MIZ to the high Arctic in the summer of 2001. Ultra-clean sampling equipment and protocols were specially developed for this expedition, including construction of a permanent clean room facility and a stainless steel seawater intake system on the I/B ODEN as well as two mobile 370 l ice-melting systems. Similar concentrations were found in several ice-associated compartments. For instance, the concentration of one of the most abundant congeners, PCB 52, was typically on the order of 0.1-0.3 pg l(-1) in the dissolved (melted) phase of the ice, snow, IIW, and underlying seawater while its particulate organic-carbon (POC) normalized concentrations were around 1-3 ng gPOC(-1) in the ice, snow, IIW, and IRS. The solid-water distribution of PCBs in ice was well correlated with and predictable from K(ow) (ice log K(oc)-log K(ow) regressions: p<0.05, r2=0.78-0.98, n=9), indicating near-equilibrium partitioning of PCBs within each local ice system. These results do generally not evidence the existence of physical microenvironments with locally elevated POP exposures. However, there were some indications that the ice-associated system had harbored local environments with higher exposure levels earlier/before the melting/vegetative season, as a few samples had PCB concentrations elevated by factors of 5-10 relative to the typical values, and the elevated levels were predominantly found at the station where melting had putatively progressed the least. The very low PCB concentrations and absence of any significant concentration

  15. Observations of the PCB distribution within and in-between ice, snow, ice-rafted debris, ice-interstitial water, and seawater in the Barents Sea marginal ice zone and the North Pole area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafsson, Oe.; Andersson, P.; Axelman, J.; Bucheli, T.D.; Koemp, P.; McLachlan, M.S.; Sobek, A.; Thoerngren, J.-O.

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the two hypotheses of locally elevated exposure of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in ice-associated microenvironments and ice as a key carrier for long-range transport of POPs to the Arctic marginal ice zone (MIZ), dissolved and particulate polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were analyzed in ice, snow, ice-interstitial water (IIW), seawater in the melt layer underlying the ice, and in ice-rafted sediment (IRS) from the Barents Sea MIZ to the high Arctic in the summer of 2001. Ultra-clean sampling equipment and protocols were specially developed for this expedition, including construction of a permanent clean room facility and a stainless steel seawater intake system on the I/B ODEN as well as two mobile 370 l ice-melting systems. Similar concentrations were found in several ice-associated compartments. For instance, the concentration of one of the most abundant congeners, PCB 52, was typically on the order of 0.1-0.3 pg l -1 in the dissolved (melted) phase of the ice, snow, IIW, and underlying seawater while its particulate organic-carbon (POC) normalized concentrations were around 1-3 ng gPOC -1 in the ice, snow, IIW, and IRS. The solid-water distribution of PCBs in ice was well correlated with and predictable from K ow (ice log K oc -log K ow regressions: p 2 =0.78-0.98, n=9), indicating near-equilibrium partitioning of PCBs within each local ice system. These results do generally not evidence the existence of physical microenvironments with locally elevated POP exposures. However, there were some indications that the ice-associated system had harbored local environments with higher exposure levels earlier/before the melting/vegetative season, as a few samples had PCB concentrations elevated by factors of 5-10 relative to the typical values, and the elevated levels were predominantly found at the station where melting had putatively progressed the least. The very low PCB concentrations and absence of any significant concentration gradients, both

  16. A Novel Concrete-Based Sensor for Detection of Ice and Water on Roads and Bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabai, Habib; Aljuboori, Mohammed

    2017-12-14

    Hundreds of people are killed or injured annually in the United States in accidents related to ice formation on roadways and bridge decks. In this paper, a novel embedded sensor system is proposed for the detection of black ice as well as wet, dry, and frozen pavement conditions on roads, runways, and bridges. The proposed sensor works by detecting changes in electrical resistance between two sets of stainless steel poles embedded in the concrete sensor to assess surface and near-surface conditions. A preliminary decision algorithm is developed that utilizes sensor outputs indicating resistance changes and surface temperature. The sensor consists of a 102-mm-diameter, 38-mm-high, concrete cylinder. Laboratory results indicate that the proposed sensor can effectively detect surface ice and wet conditions even in the presence of deicing chlorides and rubber residue. This sensor can further distinguish black ice from ice that may exist within concrete pores.

  17. A Novel Concrete-Based Sensor for Detection of Ice and Water on Roads and Bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib Tabatabai

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Hundreds of people are killed or injured annually in the United States in accidents related to ice formation on roadways and bridge decks. In this paper, a novel embedded sensor system is proposed for the detection of black ice as well as wet, dry, and frozen pavement conditions on roads, runways, and bridges. The proposed sensor works by detecting changes in electrical resistance between two sets of stainless steel poles embedded in the concrete sensor to assess surface and near-surface conditions. A preliminary decision algorithm is developed that utilizes sensor outputs indicating resistance changes and surface temperature. The sensor consists of a 102-mm-diameter, 38-mm-high, concrete cylinder. Laboratory results indicate that the proposed sensor can effectively detect surface ice and wet conditions even in the presence of deicing chlorides and rubber residue. This sensor can further distinguish black ice from ice that may exist within concrete pores.

  18. Imaging of Ground Ice with Surface-Based Geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    terrains. Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), in particular, has been effective for imaging ground ice. ERT measures the ability of materials to...13 2.2.1 Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT...Engineer Research and Development Center ERT Electrical Resistivity Tomography GPS Global Positioning System LiDAR Light Detection and Ranging SIPRE

  19. Evaporation Rates for Liquid Water and Ice Under Current Martian Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, D. W. G.; Moore, S. R.; Meier, A.; Chittenden, J.; Kareev, M.; Farmer, C. B.

    2004-01-01

    A number of studies have been concerned with the evaporation rates under martian conditions in order to place limits on the possible survival time of both liquid water and ice exposed on the surface of Mars. Such studies also aid in assessing the efficacy of an overlying layer of dust or loose regolith material in providing a barrier to free evaporation and thus prolong the lifetime of water in locations where its availability to putative living organisms would be significant. A better quantitative understanding of the effects of phase changes of water in the near surface environment would also aid the evaluation of the possible role of water in the formation of currently observed features, such as gullies in cliff walls and relatively short-term changes in the albedo of small surface areas ('dark stains'). Laboratory measurements aimed at refinement of our knowledge of these values are described here. The establishment of accurate values for evaporation rates and their dependence on the physical conditions of temperature, pressure and energy input, is an important benchmark for the further investigation of the efficacy of barriers to free evaporation in providing a prolonged period of survival of the water, particularly as a liquid.

  20. A New Energy Source for Organic Synthesis in Europa's Surface Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borucki, Jerome G.; Khare, Bishun; Cruikshank, Dale P.; DeVincenzi, D. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Colored regions on Jupiter's satellite Europa and other icy bodies in the outer Solar System may be contaminated by organic macromolecular solid material that is produced when surface ices are exposed to electrical energy. Hypervelocity meteorite impacts and fracture release tidal and tectonic stresses in icy crusts in the form of electrical discharges, which provide the energy for in situ synthesis of the organic solids. We report measurements of electrical discharge, light emission, and magnetic phenomena in hypervelocity impacts into ice with projectiles with V approx. 5 km/s. Part of the projectile's kinetic energy is converted into electrical potential, while the mechanical disruption of the impact also releases stress energy as light, heat, electrical, and magnetic fields as secondary emissions. These newly recognized energy sources suggest that the dark material in the area of impact craters are tholins generated from the energy of the impacts and that well up from the fracture zone. Large pools of liquid water would persist under the meteorite crater for thousands of years, with the potential for prebiotic chemistry to take place at an accelerated rate due to energy pumped in from the secondary emissions.

  1. Ice Water Classification Using Statistical Distribution Based Conditional Random Fields in RADARSAT-2 Dual Polarization Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Li, F.; Zhang, S.; Hao, W.; Zhu, T.; Yuan, L.; Xiao, F.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, Statistical Distribution based Conditional Random Fields (STA-CRF) algorithm is exploited for improving marginal ice-water classification. Pixel level ice concentration is presented as the comparison of methods based on CRF. Furthermore, in order to explore the effective statistical distribution model to be integrated into STA-CRF, five statistical distribution models are investigated. The STA-CRF methods are tested on 2 scenes around Prydz Bay and Adélie Depression, where contain a variety of ice types during melt season. Experimental results indicate that the proposed method can resolve sea ice edge well in Marginal Ice Zone (MIZ) and show a robust distinction of ice and water.

  2. Study on heat transfer performance of water-borne and oily graphene coatings using anti-/de-icing component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Long; Zhang, Yidu; Wu, Qiong; Jie, Zhang

    2018-02-01

    A graphene coating anti-/de-icing experiment was proposed by employing water-borne and oily graphene coatings on the composite material anti-/de-icing component. Considering the characteristics of helicopter rotor sensitivity to icing, a new graphene coating enhancing thermal conductivity of anti-/de-icing component was proposed. The anti-/de-icing experiment was conducted to validate the effectiveness of graphene coating. The results of the experiment show that the graphene coatings play a prominent role in controlling the heat transfer of anti-/de-icing component. The anti-/de-icing effect of oily graphene coating is superior to water-borne graphene.

  3. Inferring Ice Thickness from a Glacier Dynamics Model and Multiple Surface Datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Y.; Haran, M.; Pollard, D.

    2017-12-01

    The future behavior of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) may have a major impact on future climate. For instance, ice sheet melt may contribute significantly to global sea level rise. Understanding the current state of WAIS is therefore of great interest. WAIS is drained by fast-flowing glaciers which are major contributors to ice loss. Hence, understanding the stability and dynamics of glaciers is critical for predicting the future of the ice sheet. Glacier dynamics are driven by the interplay between the topography, temperature and basal conditions beneath the ice. A glacier dynamics model describes the interactions between these processes. We develop a hierarchical Bayesian model that integrates multiple ice sheet surface data sets with a glacier dynamics model. Our approach allows us to (1) infer important parameters describing the glacier dynamics, (2) learn about ice sheet thickness, and (3) account for errors in the observations and the model. Because we have relatively dense and accurate ice thickness data from the Thwaites Glacier in West Antarctica, we use these data to validate the proposed approach. The long-term goal of this work is to have a general model that may be used to study multiple glaciers in the Antarctic.

  4. Effects of sea-ice and biogeochemical processes and storms on under-ice water fCO2 during the winter-spring transition in the high Arctic Ocean: Implications for sea-air CO2 fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fransson, Agneta; Chierici, Melissa; Skjelvan, Ingunn; Olsen, Are; Assmy, Philipp; Peterson, Algot K.; Spreen, Gunnar; Ward, Brian

    2017-07-01

    We performed measurements of carbon dioxide fugacity (fCO2) in the surface water under Arctic sea ice from January to June 2015 during the Norwegian young sea ICE (N-ICE2015) expedition. Over this period, the ship drifted with four different ice floes and covered the deep Nansen Basin, the slopes north of Svalbard, and the Yermak Plateau. This unique winter-to-spring data set includes the first winter-time under-ice water fCO2 observations in this region. The observed under-ice fCO2 ranged between 315 µatm in winter and 153 µatm in spring, hence was undersaturated relative to the atmospheric fCO2. Although the sea ice partly prevented direct CO2 exchange between ocean and atmosphere, frequently occurring leads and breakup of the ice sheet promoted sea-air CO2 fluxes. The CO2 sink varied between 0.3 and 86 mmol C m-2 d-1, depending strongly on the open-water fractions (OW) and storm events. The maximum sea-air CO2 fluxes occurred during storm events in February and June. In winter, the main drivers of the change in under-ice water fCO2 were dissolution of CaCO3 (ikaite) and vertical mixing. In June, in addition to these processes, primary production and sea-air CO2 fluxes were important. The cumulative loss due to CaCO3 dissolution of 0.7 mol C m-2 in the upper 10 m played a major role in sustaining the undersaturation of fCO2 during the entire study. The relative effects of the total fCO2 change due to CaCO3 dissolution was 38%, primary production 26%, vertical mixing 16%, sea-air CO2 fluxes 16%, and temperature and salinity insignificant.

  5. Ice haze, snow, and the Mars water cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Ralph

    1990-01-01

    Light curves and extinction profiles derived from Martian limb observations are used to constrain the atmospheric temperature structure in regions of the atmosphere with thin haze and to analyze the haze particle properties and atmospheric eddy mixing. Temperature between 170 and 190 K are obtained for three cases at levels in the atmosphere ranging from 20 to 50 km. Eddy diffusion coefficients around 100,000 sq cm/s, typical of a nonconvecting atmosphere, are derived in the haze regions at times when the atmosphere is relatively clear of dust. This parameter apparently changes by more than three orders of magnitude with season and local conditions. The derived particle size parameter varies systematically by more than an order of magnitude with condensation level, in such a way that the characteristic fall time is always about one Martian day. Ice hazes provide a mechanism for scavenging water vapor in the thin Mars atmosphere and may play a key role in the seasonal cycle of water on Mars.

  6. Part 2: Surface water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    In 1996 the surface water quality measurements were performed, according to the Agreement, at 8 profiles on the Hungarian territory and at 15 profiles on the Slovak territory. Basic physical and chemical parameters (as water temperature, pH values, conductivity, suspended solids, cations and anions (nitrates, ammonium ion, nitrites, total nitrogen, phosphates, total phosphorus, oxygen and organic carbon regime parameters), metals (iron, manganese and heavy metals), biological and microbiological parameters (coliform bacteria, chlorophyll-a, saprobity index and other biological parameters) and quality of sediment were measured

  7. A COMPREHENSIVE STUDY OF HYDROGEN ADSORBING TO AMORPHOUS WATER ICE: DEFINING ADSORPTION IN CLASSICAL MOLECULAR DYNAMICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupuy, John L.; Lewis, Steven P.; Stancil, P. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and the Center for Simulational Physics, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Gas–grain and gas–phase reactions dominate the formation of molecules in the interstellar medium (ISM). Gas–grain reactions require a substrate (e.g., a dust or ice grain) on which the reaction is able to occur. The formation of molecular hydrogen (H{sub 2}) in the ISM is the prototypical example of a gas–grain reaction. In these reactions, an atom of hydrogen will strike a surface, stick to it, and diffuse across it. When it encounters another adsorbed hydrogen atom, the two can react to form molecular hydrogen and then be ejected from the surface by the energy released in the reaction. We perform in-depth classical molecular dynamics simulations of hydrogen atoms interacting with an amorphous water-ice surface. This study focuses on the first step in the formation process; the sticking of the hydrogen atom to the substrate. We find that careful attention must be paid in dealing with the ambiguities in defining a sticking event. The technical definition of a sticking event will affect the computed sticking probabilities and coefficients. Here, using our new definition of a sticking event, we report sticking probabilities and sticking coefficients for nine different incident kinetic energies of hydrogen atoms [5–400 K] across seven different temperatures of dust grains [10–70 K]. We find that probabilities and coefficients vary both as a function of grain temperature and incident kinetic energy over the range of 0.99–0.22.

  8. The potential influence of Asian and African mineral dust on ice, mixed-phase and liquid water clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Wiacek

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This modelling study explores the availability of mineral dust particles as ice nuclei for interactions with ice, mixed-phase and liquid water clouds, also tracking the particles' history of cloud-processing. We performed 61 320 one-week forward trajectory calculations originating near the surface of major dust emitting regions in Africa and Asia using high-resolution meteorological analysis fields for the year 2007. Dust-bearing trajectories were assumed to be those coinciding with known dust emission seasons, without explicitly modelling dust emission and deposition processes. We found that dust emissions from Asian deserts lead to a higher potential for interactions with high ice clouds, despite being the climatologically much smaller dust emission source. This is due to Asian regions experiencing significantly more ascent than African regions, with strongest ascent in the Asian Taklimakan desert at ~25%, ~40% and 10% of trajectories ascending to 300 hPa in spring, summer and fall, respectively. The specific humidity at each trajectory's starting point was transported in a Lagrangian manner and relative humidities with respect to water and ice were calculated in 6-h steps downstream, allowing us to estimate the formation of liquid, mixed-phase and ice clouds. Downstream of the investigated dust sources, practically none of the simulated air parcels reached conditions of homogeneous ice nucleation (T≲−40 °C along trajectories that have not experienced water saturation first. By far the largest fraction of cloud forming trajectories entered conditions of mixed-phase clouds, where mineral dust will potentially exert the biggest influence. The majority of trajectories also passed through atmospheric regions supersaturated with respect to ice but subsaturated with respect to water, where so-called "warm ice clouds" (T≳−40 °C theoretically may form prior to supercooled water or mixed-phase clouds. The importance of "warm ice

  9. Water, ice, and meteorological measurements at South Cascade glacier, Washington, balance year 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidlake, William R.; Josberger, Edward G.; Savoca, Mark E.

    2005-01-01

    Winter snow accumulation and summer snow and ice ablation were measured at South Cascade Glacier, Washington, to estimate glacier mass-balance quantities for balance year 2003. The 2003 glacier-average maximum winter snow balance was 2.66 meters water equivalent, which was about equal to the average of such balances for the glacier since balance year 1959. The 2003 glacier summer balance (-4.76 meters water equivalent) was the most negative reported for the glacier, and the 2003 net balance (-2.10 meters water equivalent), was the second-most negative reported. The glacier 2003 annual (water year) balance was -1.89 meters water equivalent. The area of the glacier near the end of the balance year was 1.89 square kilometers, a decrease of 0.03 square kilometer from the previous year. The equilibrium-line altitude was higher than any part of the glacier; however, because snow remained along part of one side of the upper glacier, the accumulation-area ratio was 0.07. During September 13, 2002-September 13, 2003, the glacier terminus retreated at a rate of about 15 meters per year. Average speed of surface ice, computed using a series of vertical aerial photographs dating back to 2001, ranged from 2.2 to 21.8 meters per year. Runoff from the subbasin containing the glacier and from an adjacent non-glacierized basin was gaged during part of water year 2003. Air temperature, precipitation, atmospheric water-vapor pressure, wind speed, and incoming solar radiation were measured at selected locations on and near the glacier. Summer 2003 at the glacier was among the warmest for which data are available.

  10. Atmospheric river impacts on Greenland Ice Sheet surface melt and mass balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattingly, K.; Mote, T. L.

    2017-12-01

    Mass loss from the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) has accelerated during the early part of the 21st Century. Several episodes of widespread GrIS melt in recent years have coincided with intense poleward moisture transport by atmospheric rivers (ARs), suggesting that variability in the frequency and intensity of these events may be an important driver of the surface mass balance (SMB) of the GrIS. ARs may contribute to GrIS surface melt through the greenhouse effect of water vapor, the radiative effects of clouds, condensational latent heating within poleward-advected air masses, and the energy provided by liquid precipitation. However, ARs may also provide significant positive contributions to GrIS SMB through enhanced snow accumulation. Prior research on the role of ARs in Arctic climate has consisted of case studies of ARs associated with major GrIS melt events or examined the effects of poleward moisture flux on Arctic sea ice. In this study, a long-term (1979-2016) record of intense moisture transport events affecting Greenland is compiled using a conventional AR identification algorithm as well as a self-organizing map (SOM) classification applied to integrated water vapor transport (IVT) data from several atmospheric reanalysis datasets. An analysis of AR effects on GrIS melt and SMB is then performed with GrIS surface melt data from passive microwave satellite observations and the Modèle Atmosphérique Régional (MAR) regional climate model. Results show that meltwater production is above normal during and after AR impact days throughout the GrIS during all seasons, with surface melt enhanced most by strong (> 85th percentile IVT) and extreme (> 95th percentile IVT) ARs. This relationship holds at the seasonal scale, as the total amount of water vapor transported to the GrIS by ARs is significantly greater during above-normal melt seasons. ARs exert a more complex influence on SMB. Normal (< 85th percentile IVT) ARs generally do not have a substantial impact on

  11. Wave excited motion of a body floating on water confined between two semi-infinite ice sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, K.; Wu, G. X.; Thomas, G. A.

    2016-12-01

    The wave excited motion of a body floating on water confined between two semi-infinite ice sheets is investigated. The ice sheet is treated as an elastic thin plate and water is treated as an ideal and incompressible fluid. The linearized velocity potential theory is adopted in the frequency domain and problems are solved by the method of matched eigenfunctions expansion. The fluid domain is divided into sub-regions and in each sub-region the velocity potential is expanded into a series of eigenfunctions satisfying the governing equation and the boundary conditions on horizontal planes including the free surface and ice sheets. Matching is conducted at the interfaces of two neighbouring regions to ensure the continuity of the pressure and velocity, and the unknown coefficients in the expressions are obtained as a result. The behaviour of the added mass and damping coefficients of the floating body with the effect of the ice sheets and the excitation force are analysed. They are found to vary oscillatorily with the wave number, which is different from that for a floating body in the open sea. The motion of the body confined between ice sheets is investigated, in particular its resonant behaviour with extremely large motion found to be possible under certain conditions. Standing waves within the polynya are also observed.

  12. Fabrication of Self-Cleaning and Anti-Icing Durable Surface on Glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Zhiping; Liao, Ruijin; Guo, Chao; Zhao, Xuetong; Zhuang, Aoyun; Yuan, Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Ice accumulation on insulators affected the safety of power system and may inflict serious consequences such as insulator flashover accidents and power failure. This article reported a simple method to prepare anti-icing polydimethylsiloxane superhydrophobic surface on glass by utilizing nano-particle filling method. The effect of concentration of silica nanoparticles on superhydrophobicity of the samples was investigated. The wettability, surface morphology and anti-icing property of the as-prepared superhydrophobic surface were characterized by corresponding methods. Results show that the as-prepared surface with addition amount of 7 g silica nanoparticles exhibited self-cleaning property and excellent superhydrophobicity with a contact angle of 165.7 ± 2.4° and a sliding angle of 3.8°. It was found that the ice formation was delayed for 29 min at −5 °C. Moreover, the as-prepared superhydrophobic surface showed superhydrophobicity in the pH range of 1–13 and exhibited excellent drop impact stability. The as-prepared superhydrophobic surface may be suitable for applications in cold regions owing to its flexibility, durability and anti-icing property.

  13. Circulation and water properties in the landfast ice zone of the Alaskan Beaufort Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingartner, Thomas J.; Danielson, Seth L.; Potter, Rachel A.; Trefry, John H.; Mahoney, Andy; Savoie, Mark; Irvine, Cayman; Sousa, Leandra

    2017-09-01

    Moorings, hydrography, satellite-tracked drifters, and high-frequency radar data describe the annual cycle in circulation and water properties in the landfast ice zone (LIZ) of the Alaskan Beaufort Sea. Three seasons, whose duration and characteristics are controlled by landfast ice formation and ablation, define the LIZ: ;winter;, ;break-up;, and ;open-water;. Winter begins in October with ice formation and ends in June when rivers commence discharging. Winter LIZ ice velocities are zero, under-ice currents are weak ( 5 cm s-1), and poorly correlated with winds and local sea level. The along-shore momentum balance is between along-shore pressure gradients and bottom and ice-ocean friction. Currents at the landfast ice-edge are swift ( 35 cm s-1), wind-driven, with large horizontal shears, and potentially unstable. Weak cross-shore velocities ( 1 cm s-1) imply limited exchanges between the LIZ and the outer shelf in winter. The month-long break-up season (June) begins with the spring freshet and concludes when landfast ice detaches from the bottom. Cross-shore currents increase, and the LIZ hosts shallow ( 2 m), strongly-stratified, buoyant and sediment-laden, under-ice river plumes that overlie a sharp, 1 m thick, pycnocline across which salinity increases by 30. The plume salt balance is between entrainment and cross-shore advection. Break-up is followed by the 3-month long open-water season when currents are swift (≥20 cm s-1) and predominantly wind-driven. Winter water properties are initialized by fall advection and evolve slowly due to salt rejection from ice. Fall waters and ice within the LIZ derive from local rivers, the Mackenzie and/or Chukchi shelves, and the Arctic basin.

  14. Analytical solutions for the surface response to small amplitude perturbations in boundary data in the shallow-ice-stream approximation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. H. Gudmundsson

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available New analytical solutions describing the effects of small-amplitude perturbations in boundary data on flow in the shallow-ice-stream approximation are presented. These solutions are valid for a non-linear Weertman-type sliding law and for Newtonian ice rheology. Comparison is made with corresponding solutions of the shallow-ice-sheet approximation, and with solutions of the full Stokes equations. The shallow-ice-stream approximation is commonly used to describe large-scale ice stream flow over a weak bed, while the shallow-ice-sheet approximation forms the basis of most current large-scale ice sheet models. It is found that the shallow-ice-stream approximation overestimates the effects of bed topography perturbations on surface profile for wavelengths less than about 5 to 10 ice thicknesses, the exact number depending on values of surface slope and slip ratio. For high slip ratios, the shallow-ice-stream approximation gives a very simple description of the relationship between bed and surface topography, with the corresponding transfer amplitudes being close to unity for any given wavelength. The shallow-ice-stream estimates for the timescales that govern the transient response of ice streams to external perturbations are considerably more accurate than those based on the shallow-ice-sheet approximation. In particular, in contrast to the shallow-ice-sheet approximation, the shallow-ice-stream approximation correctly reproduces the short-wavelength limit of the kinematic phase speed given by solving a linearised version of the full Stokes system. In accordance with the full Stokes solutions, the shallow-ice-sheet approximation predicts surface fields to react weakly to spatial variations in basal slipperiness with wavelengths less than about 10 to 20 ice thicknesses.

  15. Surface mass balance contributions to acceleration of Antarctic ice mass loss during 2003-2013

    OpenAIRE

    Seo, Ki-Weon; Wilson, Clark R.; Scambos, Ted; Kim, Baek-Min; Waliser, Duane E.; Tian, Baijun; Kim, Byeong-Hoon; Eom, Jooyoung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Recent observations from satellite gravimetry (the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission) suggest an acceleration of ice mass loss from the Antarctic Ice Sheet (AIS). The contribution of surface mass balance changes (due to variable precipitation) is compared with GRACE?derived mass loss acceleration by assessing the estimated contribution of snow mass from meteorological reanalysis data. We find that over much of the continent, the acceleration can be explained by ...

  16. Rate of Homogenous Nucleation of Ice in Supercooled Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, James D; Murray, Benjamin J; O'Sullivan, Daniel

    2016-08-25

    The homogeneous freezing of water is of fundamental importance to a number of fields, including that of cloud formation. However, there is considerable scatter in homogeneous nucleation rate coefficients reported in the literature. Using a cold stage droplet system designed to minimize uncertainties in temperature measurements, we examined the freezing of over 1500 pure water droplets with diameters between 4 and 24 μm. Under the assumption that nucleation occurs within the bulk of the droplet, nucleation rate coefficients fall within the spread of literature data and are in good agreement with a subset of more recent measurements. To quantify the relative importance of surface and volume nucleation in our experiments, where droplets are supported by a hydrophobic surface and surrounded by oil, comparison of droplets with different surface area to volume ratios was performed. From our experiments it is shown that in droplets larger than 6 μm diameter (between 234.6 and 236.5 K), nucleation in the interior is more important than nucleation at the surface. At smaller sizes we cannot rule out a significant contribution of surface nucleation, and in order to further constrain surface nucleation, experiments with smaller droplets are necessary. Nevertheless, in our experiments, it is dominantly volume nucleation controlling the observed nucleation rate.

  17. Parameterization of atmosphere-surface exchange of CO2 over sea ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, L. L.; Jensen, B.; Glud, Ronnie N.

    2014-01-01

    are discussed. We found the flux to be small during the late winter with fluxes in both directions. Not surprisingly we find that the resistance across the surface controls the fluxes and detailed knowledge of the brine volume and carbon chemistry within the brines as well as knowledge of snow cover and carbon...... chemistry in the ice are essential to estimate the partial pressure of pCO2 and CO2 flux. Further investigations of surface structure and snow cover and driving parameters such as heat flux, radiation, ice temperature and brine processes are required to adequately parameterize the surface resistance....

  18. A Snow Density Dataset for Improving Surface Boundary Conditions in Greenland Ice Sheet Firn Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    S. Fausto, Robert; E. Box, Jason; Vandecrux, Baptiste Robert Marcel

    2018-01-01

    The surface snow density of glaciers and ice sheets is of fundamental importance in converting volume to mass in both altimetry and surface mass balance studies, yet it is often poorly constrained. Site-specific surface snow densities are typically derived from empirical relations based...... on temperature and wind speed. These parameterizations commonly calculate the average density of the top meter of snow, thereby systematically overestimating snow density at the actual surface. Therefore, constraining surface snow density to the top 0.1 m can improve boundary conditions in high-resolution firn......-evolution modeling. We have compiled an extensive dataset of 200 point measurements of surface snow density from firn cores and snow pits on the Greenland ice sheet. We find that surface snow density within 0.1 m of the surface has an average value of 315 kg m−3 with a standard deviation of 44 kg m−3, and has...

  19. Illumination Conditions at the Asteroid 4 Vesta: Implications for the Presence of Water Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, Timothy J.; Wang, Yongli

    2011-01-01

    The mean illumination conditions and surface temperatures over one orbital period are calculated for the Asteroid 4 Vesta using a coarse digital elevation model produced from Hubble Space Telescope images. Even with the anticipated effects of finer-scale topography taken into account, it is unlikely that any significant permanently shadowed regions currently exist on Vesta due to its large axial tilt (approx. = 27deg). However, under present day conditions, it is predicted that about half of Vesta's surface has an average temperature of less than 145 K, which, based on previous thermal modeling of main belt asteroids, suggests that water ice could survive in the top few meters of the vestal regolith on billion-year timescales.

  20. Greenland surface mass-balance observations from the ice-sheet ablation area and local glaciers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machguth, Horst; Thomsen, Henrik H.; Weidick, Anker

    2016-01-01

    Glacier surface mass-balance measurements on Greenland started more than a century ago, but no compilation exists of the observations from the ablation area of the ice sheet and local glaciers. Such data could be used in the evaluation of modelled surface mass balance, or to document changes in g...

  1. SIMULATION OF THE Ku-BAND RADAR ALTIMETER SEA ICE EFFECTIVE SCATTERING SURFACE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonboe, Rasmus; Andersen, Søren; Pedersen, Leif Toudal

    2006-01-01

    A radiative transfer model is used to simulate the sea ice radar altimeter effective scattering surface variability as a function of snow depth and density. Under dry snow conditions without layering these are the primary snow parameters affecting the scattering surface variability. The model is ...

  2. Greenland surface mass-balance observations from the ice-sheet ablation area and local glaciers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Machguth, Horst; Thomsen, Henrik H.; Weidick, Anker; Ahlstrøm, Andreas P.; Abermann, Jakob; Andersen, Morten L.; Andersen, Signe B.; Bjørk, Anders A.; Box, Jason E.; Braithwaite, Roger J.; Bøggild, Carl E.; Citterio, Michele; Clement, Poul; Colgan, William; Fausto, Robert S.; Gleie, Karin; Gubler, Stefanie; Hasholt, Bent; Hynek, Bernhard; Knudsen, Niels T.; Larsen, Signe H.; Mernild, Sebastian H.; Oerlemans, Johannes; Oerter, Hans; Olesen, Ole B.; Smeets, C. J P Paul; Steffen, Konrad; Stober, Manfred; Sugiyama, Shin; Van As, Dirk; Van Den Broeke, Michiel R.; Van De Wal, Roderik S W

    2016-01-01

    Glacier surface mass-balance measurements on Greenland started more than a century ago, but no compilation exists of the observations from the ablation area of the ice sheet and local glaciers. Such data could be used in the evaluation of modelled surface mass balance, or to document changes in

  3. Assimilation of MODIS Ice Surface Temperature and Albedo into the Snow and Ice Model CROCUS Over the Greenland Ice Sheet Along the K-transect Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navari, M.; Margulis, S. A.; Bateni, S. M.; Alexander, P. M.; Tedesco, M.

    2016-12-01

    Estimating the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) surface mass balance (SMB) is an important component of current and future projections of sea level rise. In situ measurement provides direct estimates of the SMB, but are inherently limited by their spatial extent and representativeness. Given this limitation, physically based regional climate models (RCMs) are critical for understanding GrIS physical processes and estimating of the GrIS SMB. However, the uncertainty in estimates of SMB from RCMs is still high. Surface remote sensing (RS) has been used as a complimentary tool to characterize various aspects related to the SMB. The difficulty of using these data streams is that the links between them and the SMB terms are most often indirect and implicit. Given the lack of in situ information, imperfect models, and under-utilized RS data it is critical to merge the available data in a systematic way to better characterize the spatial and temporal variation of the GrIS SMB. This work proposes a data assimilation (DA) framework that yields temporally-continuous and physically consistent SMB estimates that benefit from state-of-the-art models and relevant remote sensing data streams. Ice surface temperature (IST) is the most important factor that regulates partitioning of the net radiation into the subsurface snow/ice, sensible and latent heat fluxes and plays a key role in runoff generation. Therefore it can be expected that a better estimate of surface temperature from a data assimilation system would contribute to a better estimate of surface mass fluxes. Albedo plays an important role in the surface energy balance of the GrIS. However, even advanced albedo modules are not adequate to simulate albedo over the GrIS. Therefore, merging remotely sensed albedo product into a physically based model has a potential to improve the estimates of the GrIS SMB. In this work a MODIS-derived IST and a 16-day albedo product are independently assimilated into the snow and ice model CROCUS

  4. Direct calculation of ice homogeneous nucleation rate for a molecular model of water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji-Akbari, Amir; Debenedetti, Pablo G.

    2015-01-01

    Ice formation is ubiquitous in nature, with important consequences in a variety of environments, including biological cells, soil, aircraft, transportation infrastructure, and atmospheric clouds. However, its intrinsic kinetics and microscopic mechanism are difficult to discern with current experiments. Molecular simulations of ice nucleation are also challenging, and direct rate calculations have only been performed for coarse-grained models of water. For molecular models, only indirect estimates have been obtained, e.g., by assuming the validity of classical nucleation theory. We use a path sampling approach to perform, to our knowledge, the first direct rate calculation of homogeneous nucleation of ice in a molecular model of water. We use TIP4P/Ice, the most accurate among existing molecular models for studying ice polymorphs. By using a novel topological approach to distinguish different polymorphs, we are able to identify a freezing mechanism that involves a competition between cubic and hexagonal ice in the early stages of nucleation. In this competition, the cubic polymorph takes over because the addition of new topological structural motifs consistent with cubic ice leads to the formation of more compact crystallites. This is not true for topological hexagonal motifs, which give rise to elongated crystallites that are not able to grow. This leads to transition states that are rich in cubic ice, and not the thermodynamically stable hexagonal polymorph. This mechanism provides a molecular explanation for the earlier experimental and computational observations of the preference for cubic ice in the literature. PMID:26240318

  5. Effect of ice surface size on collision rates and head impacts at the World Junior Hockey Championships, 2002 to 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wennberg, Richard

    2005-03-01

    To determine if collision rates and head impacts in elite junior hockey differed between games played on the small North American ice surface (85 ft wide), an intermediate-size Finnish ice surface (94 ft wide), and the large standard international ice surface (100 ft wide). Videotape analysis of all games involving Team Canada from the 2002 (large ice, Czech Republic), 2003 (small ice, Canada), and 2004 (intermediate ice, Finland) World Junior Championships. All collisions were counted and separated into various categories (volitional player/player bodychecks, into boards or open ice, plus accidental/incidental player/boards, player/ice, head/stick, head/puck). Further subdivisions included collisions involving the head directly or indirectly and notably severe head impacts. Small, intermediate, and large ice surface mean collisions/game, respectively, were 295, 258, 222, total collisions; 251, 220, 181, volitional bodychecks; 126, 115, 88, into boards; 125, 106, 93, open ice; 71, 52, 44, total head; 44, 36, 30, indirect head; 26, 16, 13, direct head; and 1.3, 0.5, 0.3, severe head (P < 0.05 for small-intermediate ice and intermediate-large ice differences in total collisions; P < 0.005 for small-large ice difference; P < 0.05 for small-intermediate ice differences in head impacts; P < 0.01 for small-large ice differences in total and severe head impacts). There is a significant inverse correlation between ice size and collision rates in elite hockey, including direct, indirect, and severe head impacts. These findings suggest that uniform usage of the larger international rinks could reduce the risk of injury, and specifically, concussions in elite hockey by decreasing the occurrence of collisions and head impacts.

  6. The role of water ice clouds in the Martian hydrologic cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Philip B.

    1990-01-01

    A one-dimensional model for the seasonal cycle of water on Mars has been used to investigate the direction of the net annual transport of water on the planet and to study the possible role of water ice clouds, which are included as an independent phase in addition to ground ice and water vapor, in the cycle. The calculated seasonal and spatial patterns of occurrence of water ice clouds are qualitatively similar to the observed polar hoods, suggesting that these polar clouds are, in fact, an important component of water cycle. A residual dry ice in the south acts as a cold trap which, in the absence of sources other than the caps, will ultimately attract the water ice from the north cap; however, in the presence of a source of water in northern midlatitudes during spring, it is possible that the observed distribution of vapor and ice can be in a steady state even if a residual CO2 cap is a permanent feature of the system.

  7. Oxide/water interfaces: how the surface chemistry modifies interfacial water properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaigeot, Marie-Pierre; Sprik, Michiel; Sulpizi, Marialore

    2012-01-01

    The organization of water at the interface with silica and alumina oxides is analysed using density functional theory-based molecular dynamics simulation (DFT-MD). The interfacial hydrogen bonding is investigated in detail and related to the chemistry of the oxide surfaces by computing the surface charge density and acidity. We find that water molecules hydrogen-bonded to the surface have different orientations depending on the strength of the hydrogen bonds and use this observation to explain the features in the surface vibrational spectra measured by sum frequency generation spectroscopy. In particular, ‘ice-like’ and ‘liquid-like’ features in these spectra are interpreted as the result of hydrogen bonds of different strengths between surface silanols/aluminols and water. (paper)

  8. Observations of surface momentum exchange over the marginal ice zone and recommendations for its parametrisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Elvidge

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Comprehensive aircraft observations are used to characterise surface roughness over the Arctic marginal ice zone (MIZ and consequently make recommendations for the parametrisation of surface momentum exchange in the MIZ. These observations were gathered in the Barents Sea and Fram Strait from two aircraft as part of the Aerosol–Cloud Coupling And Climate Interactions in the Arctic (ACCACIA project. They represent a doubling of the total number of such aircraft observations currently available over the Arctic MIZ. The eddy covariance method is used to derive estimates of the 10 m neutral drag coefficient (CDN10 from turbulent wind velocity measurements, and a novel method using albedo and surface temperature is employed to derive ice fraction. Peak surface roughness is found at ice fractions in the range 0.6 to 0.8 (with a mean interquartile range in CDN10 of 1.25 to 2.85  ×  10−3. CDN10 as a function of ice fraction is found to be well approximated by the negatively skewed distribution provided by a leading parametrisation scheme (Lüpkes et al., 2012 tailored for sea-ice drag over the MIZ in which the two constituent components of drag – skin and form drag – are separately quantified. Current parametrisation schemes used in the weather and climate models are compared with our results and the majority are found to be physically unjustified and unrepresentative. The Lüpkes et al. (2012 scheme is recommended in a computationally simple form, with adjusted parameter settings. A good agreement holds for subsets of the data from different locations, despite differences in sea-ice conditions. Ice conditions in the Barents Sea, characterised by small, unconsolidated ice floes, are found to be associated with higher CDN10 values – especially at the higher ice fractions – than those of Fram Strait, where typically larger, smoother floes are observed. Consequently, the important influence of sea-ice morphology and floe size on

  9. Observations of surface momentum exchange over the marginal ice zone and recommendations for its parametrisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvidge, A. D.; Renfrew, I. A.; Weiss, A. I.; Brooks, I. M.; Lachlan-Cope, T. A.; King, J. C.

    2016-02-01

    Comprehensive aircraft observations are used to characterise surface roughness over the Arctic marginal ice zone (MIZ) and consequently make recommendations for the parametrisation of surface momentum exchange in the MIZ. These observations were gathered in the Barents Sea and Fram Strait from two aircraft as part of the Aerosol-Cloud Coupling And Climate Interactions in the Arctic (ACCACIA) project. They represent a doubling of the total number of such aircraft observations currently available over the Arctic MIZ. The eddy covariance method is used to derive estimates of the 10 m neutral drag coefficient (CDN10) from turbulent wind velocity measurements, and a novel method using albedo and surface temperature is employed to derive ice fraction. Peak surface roughness is found at ice fractions in the range 0.6 to 0.8 (with a mean interquartile range in CDN10 of 1.25 to 2.85 × 10-3). CDN10 as a function of ice fraction is found to be well approximated by the negatively skewed distribution provided by a leading parametrisation scheme (Lüpkes et al., 2012) tailored for sea-ice drag over the MIZ in which the two constituent components of drag - skin and form drag - are separately quantified. Current parametrisation schemes used in the weather and climate models are compared with our results and the majority are found to be physically unjustified and unrepresentative. The Lüpkes et al. (2012) scheme is recommended in a computationally simple form, with adjusted parameter settings. A good agreement holds for subsets of the data from different locations, despite differences in sea-ice conditions. Ice conditions in the Barents Sea, characterised by small, unconsolidated ice floes, are found to be associated with higher CDN10 values - especially at the higher ice fractions - than those of Fram Strait, where typically larger, smoother floes are observed. Consequently, the important influence of sea-ice morphology and floe size on surface roughness is recognised, and

  10. Observations of surface momentum exchange over the marginal-ice-zone and recommendations for its parameterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvidge, A. D.; Renfrew, I. A.; Weiss, A. I.; Brooks, I. M.; Lachlan-Cope, T. A.; King, J. C.

    2015-10-01

    Comprehensive aircraft observations are used to characterise surface roughness over the Arctic marginal ice zone (MIZ) and consequently make recommendations for the parameterization of surface momentum exchange in the MIZ. These observations were gathered in the Barents Sea and Fram Strait from two aircraft as part of the Aerosol-Cloud Coupling And Climate Interactions in the Arctic (ACCACIA) project. They represent a doubling of the total number of such aircraft observations currently available over the Arctic MIZ. The eddy covariance method is used to derive estimates of the 10 m neutral drag coefficient (CDN10) from turbulent wind velocity measurements, and a novel method using albedo and surface temperature is employed to derive ice fraction. Peak surface roughness is found at ice fractions in the range 0.6 to 0.8 (with a mean interquartile range in CDN10 of 1.25 to 2.85 × 10-3). CDN10 as a function of ice fraction is found to be well approximated by the negatively skewed distribution provided by a leading parameterization scheme (Lüpkes et al., 2012) tailored for sea ice drag over the MIZ in which the two constituent components of drag - skin and form drag - are separately quantified. Current parameterization schemes used in the weather and climate models are compared with our results and the majority are found to be physically unjustified and unrepresentative. The Lüpkes et al. (2012) scheme is recommended in a computationally simple form, with adjusted parameter settings. A good agreement is found to hold for subsets of the data from different locations despite differences in sea ice conditions. Ice conditions in the Barents Sea, characterised by small, unconsolidated ice floes, are found to be associated with higher CDN10 values - especially at the higher ice fractions - than those of Fram Strait, where typically larger, smoother floes are observed. Consequently, the important influence of sea ice morphology and floe size on surface roughness is

  11. A simulation study of homogeneous ice nucleation in supercooled salty water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria, Guiomar D.; Espinosa, Jorge R.; Ramirez, Jorge; Valeriani, Chantal; Vega, Carlos; Sanz, Eduardo

    2018-06-01

    We use computer simulations to investigate the effect of salt on homogeneous ice nucleation. The melting point of the employed solution model was obtained both by direct coexistence simulations and by thermodynamic integration from previous calculations of the water chemical potential. Using a seeding approach, in which we simulate ice seeds embedded in a supercooled aqueous solution, we compute the nucleation rate as a function of temperature for a 1.85 NaCl mol per water kilogram solution at 1 bar. To improve the accuracy and reliability of our calculations, we combine seeding with the direct computation of the ice-solution interfacial free energy at coexistence using the Mold Integration method. We compare the results with previous simulation work on pure water to understand the effect caused by the solute. The model captures the experimental trend that the nucleation rate at a given supercooling decreases when adding salt. Despite the fact that the thermodynamic driving force for ice nucleation is higher for salty water for a given supercooling, the nucleation rate slows down with salt due to a significant increase of the ice-fluid interfacial free energy. The salty water model predicts an ice nucleation rate that is in good agreement with experimental measurements, bringing confidence in the predictive ability of the model. We expect that the combination of state-of-the-art simulation methods here employed to study ice nucleation from solution will be of much use in forthcoming numerical investigations of crystallization in mixtures.

  12. A Snow Density Dataset for Improving Surface Boundary Conditions in Greenland Ice Sheet Firn Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert S. Fausto

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The surface snow density of glaciers and ice sheets is of fundamental importance in converting volume to mass in both altimetry and surface mass balance studies, yet it is often poorly constrained. Site-specific surface snow densities are typically derived from empirical relations based on temperature and wind speed. These parameterizations commonly calculate the average density of the top meter of snow, thereby systematically overestimating snow density at the actual surface. Therefore, constraining surface snow density to the top 0.1 m can improve boundary conditions in high-resolution firn-evolution modeling. We have compiled an extensive dataset of 200 point measurements of surface snow density from firn cores and snow pits on the Greenland ice sheet. We find that surface snow density within 0.1 m of the surface has an average value of 315 kg m−3 with a standard deviation of 44 kg m−3, and has an insignificant annual air temperature dependency. We demonstrate that two widely-used surface snow density parameterizations dependent on temperature systematically overestimate surface snow density over the Greenland ice sheet by 17–19%, and that using a constant density of 315 kg m−3 may give superior results when applied in surface mass budget modeling.

  13. Bio-inspired design of ice-retardant devices based on benthic marine invertebrates: the effect of surface texture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homayun Mehrabani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Growth of ice on surfaces poses a challenge for both organisms and for devices that come into contact with liquids below the freezing point. Resistance of some organisms to ice formation and growth, either in subtidal environments (e.g., Antarctic anchor ice, or in environments with moisture and cold air (e.g., plants, intertidal begs examination of how this is accomplished. Several factors may be important in promoting or mitigating ice formation. As a start, here we examine the effect of surface texture alone. We tested four candidate surfaces, inspired by hard-shelled marine invertebrates and constructed using a three-dimensional printing process. We examined sub-polar marine organisms to develop sample textures and screened them for ice formation and accretion in submerged conditions using previous methods for comparison to data for Antarctic organisms. The sub-polar organisms tested were all found to form ice readily. We also screened artificial 3-D printed samples using the same previous methods, and developed a new test to examine ice formation from surface droplets as might be encountered in environments with moist, cold air. Despite limitations inherent to our techniques, it appears surface texture plays only a small role in delaying the onset of ice formation: a stripe feature (corresponding to patterning found on valves of blue mussels, Mytilus edulis, or on the spines of the Antarctic sea urchin Sterechinus neumayeri slowed ice formation an average of 25% compared to a grid feature (corresponding to patterning found on sub-polar butterclams, Saxidomas nuttalli. The geometric dimensions of the features have only a small (∼6% effect on ice formation. Surface texture affects ice formation, but does not explain by itself the large variation in ice formation and species-specific ice resistance observed in other work. This suggests future examination of other factors, such as material elastic properties and surface coatings, and their

  14. Formation of recent martian debris flows by melting of near-surface ground ice at high obliquity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costard, F; Forget, F; Mangold, N; Peulvast, J P

    2002-01-04

    The observation of small gullies associated with recent surface runoff on Mars has renewed the question of liquid water stability at the surface of Mars. The gullies could be formed by groundwater seepage from underground aquifers; however, observations of gullies originating from isolated peaks and dune crests question this scenario. We show that these landforms may result from the melting of water ice in the top few meters of the martian subsurface at high obliquity. Our conclusions are based on the analogy between the martian gullies and terrestrial debris flows observed in Greenland and numerical simulations that show that above-freezing temperatures can occur at high obliquities in the near surface of Mars, and that such temperatures are only predicted at latitudes and for slope orientations corresponding to where the gullies have been observed on Mars.

  15. Do morphometric parameters and geological conditions determine chemistry of glacier surface ice? Spatial distribution of contaminants present in the surface ice of Spitsbergen glaciers (European Arctic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Sara; Gajek, Grzegorz; Chmiel, Stanisław; Polkowska, Żaneta

    2016-12-01

    The chemism of the glaciers is strongly determined by long-distance transport of chemical substances and their wet and dry deposition on the glacier surface. This paper concerns spatial distribution of metals, ions, and dissolved organic carbon, as well as the differentiation of physicochemical parameters (pH, electrical conductivity) determined in ice surface samples collected from four Arctic glaciers during the summer season in 2012. The studied glaciers represent three different morphological types: ground based (Blomlibreen and Scottbreen), tidewater which evolved to ground based (Renardbreen), and typical tidewater glacier (Recherchebreen). All of the glaciers are functioning as a glacial system and hence are subject to the same physical processes (melting, freezing) and the process of ice flowing resulting from the cross-impact force of gravity and topographic conditions. According to this hypothesis, the article discusses the correlation between morphometric parameters, changes in mass balance, geological characteristics of the glaciers and the spatial distribution of analytes on the surface of ice. A strong correlation (r = 0.63) is recorded between the aspect of glaciers and values of pH and ions, whereas dissolved organic carbon (DOC) depends on the minimum elevation of glaciers (r = 0.55) and most probably also on the development of the accumulation area. The obtained results suggest that although certain morphometric parameters largely determine the spatial distribution of analytes, also the geology of the bed of glaciers strongly affects the chemism of the surface ice of glaciers in the phase of strong recession.

  16. Ice formation and growth shape bacterial community structure in Baltic Sea drift ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eronen-Rasimus, Eeva; Lyra, Christina; Rintala, Janne-Markus; Jürgens, Klaus; Ikonen, Vilma; Kaartokallio, Hermanni

    2015-02-01

    Drift ice, open water and under-ice water bacterial communities covering several developmental stages from open water to thick ice were studied in the northern Baltic Sea. The bacterial communities were assessed with 16S rRNA gene terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism and cloning, together with bacterial abundance and production measurements. In the early stages, open water and pancake ice were dominated by Alphaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria, which are common bacterial groups in Baltic Sea wintertime surface waters. The pancake ice bacterial communities were similar to the open-water communities, suggesting that the parent water determines the sea-ice bacterial community in the early stages of sea-ice formation. In consolidated young and thick ice, the bacterial communities were significantly different from water bacterial communities as well as from each other, indicating community development in Baltic Sea drift ice along with ice-type changes. The thick ice was dominated by typical sea-ice genera from classes Flavobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria, similar to those in polar sea-ice bacterial communities. Since the thick ice bacterial community was remarkably different from that of the parent seawater, results indicate that thick ice bacterial communities were recruited from the rarer members of the seawater bacterial community. © FEMS 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Great Lakes Daily Ice Observations at NOAA Water Level Gauge Sites, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains daily visual ice observations taken yearly from 1 November to 30 April at NOAA/National Ocean Service water level gauge sites in the Great...

  18. Great Lakes Daily Ice Observations at NOAA Water Level Gauge Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains daily visual ice observations taken yearly from 1 November to 30 April at NOAA/National Ocean Service water level gauge sites in the Great...

  19. Dynamic Impacts of Water Droplets onto Icephobic Soft Surfaces at High Weber Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Liqun; Liu, Yang; Hu, Hui; Wang, Wei; Kota, Arun

    2017-11-01

    An experimental investigation was performed to examine the effects of the stiffness of icephobic soft PDMS materials on the impact dynamics of water drops at high weber numbers pertinent to aircraft icing phenomena. The experimental study was performed in the Icing Research Tunnel available at Iowa State University (ISU-IRT). During the experiments, both the shear modulus of the soft PDMS surface and the Weber numbers of the impinging water droplets are controlled for the comparative study. While the shear modulus of the soft PDMS surface was changed by tuning the recipes to make the PDMS materials, the Weber number of the impinging water droplets was altered by adjusting the airflow speed in the wind tunnel. A suite of advanced flow diagnostic techniques, which include high-speed photographic imaging, digital image projection (DIP), and infrared (IR) imaging thermometry, were used to quantify the transient behavior of water droplet impingement, unsteady heat transfer and dynamic ice accreting process over the icephobic soft airfoil surfaces. The findings derived from the icing physics studies can be used to improve current icing accretion models for more accurate prediction of ice formation and accretion on aircraft wings and to develop effective anti-/deicing strategies for safer and more efficient operation of aircraft in cold weather.

  20. Characterization of nitrogen ice on Pluto's surface from 1-4 micron spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, E.; Olkin, C.; Grundy, W.; Young, L.; Schmitt, B.; Tokunaga, A.; Owen, T.; Roush, T.; Terada, H.

    Nitrogen ice is the predominant ice on Pluto's surface. Methane and CO have also been identified (e.g., Grundy & Buie 2001), but they are thought to be trace consituents relative to N2 , mainly because of the strength of nitrogen's 2.147 µm feature. It is assumed that the temperature of the surface N2 frost controls the column abundance of Pluto's atmosphere through vapor pressure equilibrium. The vapor pressures of CO and CH4 are about 5 and 10,000 times less than that of N2 at a typical temperature for Pluto's surface. There is spectroscopic evidence that CH4 ice exists as a dissolved constituent in a predominantly nitrogen ice matrix as well as separate, pure CH4 ice. It would be interesting to know what fraction of N2 ice is pure for purposes of modeling the surface/atmosphere interactions on Pluto. We present spectroscopic modeling to show that the fraction of pure N2 ice on Pluto is very small indeed - conservatively less than 6% by area. We will present spectral observations and modeling results from the IRTF1 , W.M. Keck2 and Subaru3 Observatories spanning 1.0 to 4.0 µm. We have implemented a Hapke model (Hapke 1993) to constrain the abundance and states of N2 ice and CH4 ice. The depth of the Pluto spectrum at 3.3 µm effectively limits the amount of pure N2 ice that can be present on Pluto. Grundy, W. M. & Buie, M. W. 2001, Icarus, 153, 248. Hapke, B. 1993, Theory of Reflectance and Emittance Spectroscopy, Cambridge Univ. Press, New York. 1 Based in part on data obtained at the Infrared Telescope Facility, which is operated by the University of Hawaii under Cooperative Agreement no. NCC 5-538 with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Science Mission Directorate, Planetary Astronomy Program. 2 The data presented herein were obtained at the W.M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The 1

  1. A study on the fabrication of superhydrophobic iron surfaces by chemical etching and galvanic replacement methods and their anti-icing properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kunquan; Zeng, Xingrong; Li, Hongqiang; Lai, Xuejun

    2015-08-01

    Hierarchical structures on iron surfaces were constructed by means of chemical etching by hydrochloric acid (HCl) solution or the galvanic replacement by silver nitrate (AgNO3) solution. The superhydrophobic iron surfaces were successfully prepared by subsequent hydrophobic modification with stearic acid. The superhydrophobic iron surfaces were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and water contact angle (WCA). The effects of reactive concentration and time on the microstructure and the wetting behavior were investigated. In addition, the anti-icing properties of the superhydrophobic iron surfaces were also studied. The FTIR study showed that the stearic acid was chemically bonded onto the iron surface. With the HCl concentration increase from 4 mol/L to 8 mol/L, the iron surface became rougher with a WCA ranging from 127° to 152°. The AgNO3 concentration had little effect on the wetting behavior, but a high AgNO3 concentration caused Ag particle aggregates to transform from flower-like formations into dendritic crystals, owing to the preferential growth direction of the Ag particles. Compared with the etching method, the galvanic replacement method on the iron surface more favorably created roughness required for achieving superhydrophobicity. The superhydrophobic iron surface showed excellent anti-icing properties in comparison with the untreated iron. The icing time of water droplets on the superhydrophobic surface was delayed to 500 s, which was longer than that of 295 s for untreated iron. Meanwhile, the superhydrophobic iron surface maintained superhydrophobicity after 10 icing and de-icing cycles in cold conditions.

  2. Sliding-surface-liquefaction of sand-dry ice mixture and submarine landslides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuoka, H.; Tsukui, A.

    2010-12-01

    methane hydrates in laboratories because no explosion protection facility is required. In order to prevent rapid gasification, the specimen was prepared without water. Applied total normal stress was 200 kPa and initial normal stress was maintained at about 70 kPa by slightly opening the drainage valve to vent pressured CO2 gas. When the sample was sheared at 30 cm/s, the stress path reached failure line of friction angle of about 37 degrees immediately. However, excess pore air pressure increased soon after and the stress path moved to the origin along the failure line. This means rapid shearing generates frictional heat and it accelerates the gasification of dry ice quickly. On the other hand, crushing of pellets may contribute to increase the total surface area of dry ice and to acceleration of gasification, to some extent. Authors are conducting to examine the velocity weakening characteristics of the samples and upcoming results will give more detail of the mechanism. But this sliding-surface-liquefaction in the mixture supports the possibility of similar accelerating displacement in the sand-MH mixture or boundaries between MH and sand layer induced by certain strong ground motion under sea floor.

  3. Determining ice water content from 2D crystal images in convective cloud systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Delphine; Coutris, Pierre; Fontaine, Emmanuel; Schwarzenboeck, Alfons; Strapp, J. Walter

    2016-04-01

    Cloud microphysical in-situ instrumentation measures bulk parameters like total water content (TWC) and/or derives particle size distributions (PSD) (utilizing optical spectrometers and optical array probes (OAP)). The goal of this work is to introduce a comprehensive methodology to compute TWC from OAP measurements, based on the dataset collected during recent HAIC (High Altitude Ice Crystals)/HIWC (High Ice Water Content) field campaigns. Indeed, the HAIC/HIWC field campaigns in Darwin (2014) and Cayenne (2015) provide a unique opportunity to explore the complex relationship between cloud particle mass and size in ice crystal environments. Numerous mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) were sampled with the French Falcon 20 research aircraft at different temperature levels from -10°C up to 50°C. The aircraft instrumentation included an IKP-2 (isokinetic probe) to get reliable measurements of TWC and the optical array probes 2D-S and PIP recording images over the entire ice crystal size range. Based on the known principle relating crystal mass and size with a power law (m=α•Dβ), Fontaine et al. (2014) performed extended 3D crystal simulations and thereby demonstrated that it is possible to estimate the value of the exponent β from OAP data, by analyzing the surface-size relationship for the 2D images as a function of time. Leroy et al. (2015) proposed an extended version of this method that produces estimates of β from the analysis of both the surface-size and perimeter-size relationships. Knowing the value of β, α then is deduced from the simultaneous IKP-2 TWC measurements for the entire HAIC/HIWC dataset. The statistical analysis of α and β values for the HAIC/HIWC dataset firstly shows that α is closely linked to β and that this link changes with temperature. From these trends, a generalized parameterization for α is proposed. Finally, the comparison with the initial IKP-2 measurements demonstrates that the method is able to predict TWC values

  4. Petroleum activity in ice covered waters - development and operation phase. Focus of eventual consequential explanation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomassen, J.; Andresen, K.H.; Moe, K.A.

    1996-06-01

    This report from a seminar relates to the petroleum activities in the Barentshavet north. The focal point was to put on petroleum activities in ice covered waters covering the drilling and operation phase, to identify discharges from various technical solutions, and to classify possible research requirements when mapping the impacts of such components. In addition to this approach, the seminar also focused on other factors regarding drilling and production activities in ice covered waters. 3 refs., 13 figs., 25 tabs

  5. Photolytic degradation of methyl-parathion and fenitrothion in ice and water: Implications for cold environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Jan [Lancaster Environment Centre, Centre for Chemicals Management, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom); Kurkova, Romana; Klanova, Jana [RECETOX, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kamenice 3, 625 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Klan, Petr, E-mail: klan@sci.muni.c [Dept of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kamenice 5/A8, 625 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Halsall, Crispin J., E-mail: c.halsall@lancaster.ac.u [Lancaster Environment Centre, Centre for Chemicals Management, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom)

    2009-12-15

    Here we investigate the photodegradation of structurally similar organophosphorus pesticides; methyl-parathion and fenitrothion in water (20 deg. C) and ice (-15 deg. C) under environmentally-relevant conditions with the aim of comparing these laboratory findings to limited field observations. Both compounds were found to be photolyzed more efficiently in ice than in aqueous solutions, with quantum yields of degradation being higher in ice than in water (fenitrothion > methyl-parathion). This rather surprising observation was attributed to the concentration effect caused by freezing the aqueous solutions. The major phototransformation products included the corresponding oxons (methyl-paraoxon and fenitroxon) and the nitrophenols (3-methyl-nitrophenol and nitrophenol) in both irradiated water and ice samples. The presence of oxons in ice following irradiation, demonstrates an additional formation mechanism of these toxicologically relevant compounds in cold environments, although further photodegradation of oxons in ice indicates that photochemistry of OPs might be an environmentally important sink in cold environments. - Photodegradation of methyl-parathion and fenitrothion in water and ice under environmentally-relevant conditions is described.

  6. Rate of ice accumulation during ice storms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feknous, N. [SNC-Lavalin, Montreal, PQ (Canada); Chouinard, L. [McGill Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada); Sabourin, G. [Hydro-Quebec, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    The rate of glaze ice accumulation is the result of a complex process dependent on numerous meteorological and physical factors. The aim of this paper was to estimate the distribution rate of glaze ice accumulation on conductors in southern Quebec for use in the design of mechanical and electrical de-icing devices. The analysis was based on direct observations of ice accumulation collected on passive ice meters. The historical database of Hydro-Quebec, which contains observations at over 140 stations over period of 25 years, was used to compute accumulation rates. Data was processed so that each glaze ice event was numbered in a chronological sequence. Each event consisted of the time series of ice accumulations on each of the 8 cylinders of the ice meters, as well as on 5 of its surfaces. Observed rates were converted to represent the average ice on a 30 mm diameter conductor at 30 m above ground with a span of 300 m. Observations were corrected to account for the water content of the glaze ice as evidenced by the presence of icicles. Results indicated that despite significant spatial variations in the expected severity of ice storms as a function of location, the distribution function for rates of accumulation were fairly similar and could be assumed to be independent of location. It was concluded that the observations from several sites could be combined in order to obtain better estimates of the distribution of hourly rates of ice accumulation. However, the rates were highly variable. For de-icing strategies, it was suggested that average accumulation rates over 12 hour periods were preferable, and that analyses should be performed for other time intervals to account for the variability in ice accumulation rates over time. In addition, accumulation rates did not appear to be highly correlated with average wind speed for maximum hourly accumulation rates. 3 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs.

  7. ASTER-Derived High-Resolution Ice Surface Temperature for the Arctic Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Sun Son

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Ice surface temperature (IST controls the rate of sea ice growth and the heat exchange between the atmosphere and ocean. In this study, high-resolution IST using the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer (ASTER thermal infrared region (TIR images was retrieved to observe the thermal change of coastal sea ice. The regression coefficients of the multi-channel equation using ASTER brightness temperatures ( B T and MODIS ISTs were derived. MODIS IST products (MOD29 were used as an in situ temperature substitute. The ASTER IST using five channels from band 10 ( B T 10 to band 14 ( B T 14 showed an RMSE of 0.746 K for the validation images on the Alaskan coast. The uncertainty of the two-channel ( B T 13 and B T 14 ASTER IST was 0.497 K, which was better than that of the five-channel. We thus concluded that the two-channel equation using ASTER B T 13 and B T 14 was an optimal model for the surface temperature retrieval of coastal sea ice. The two-channel ASTER IST showed similar accuracy at higher latitudes than in Alaska. Therefore, ASTER-derived IST with 90 m spatial resolution can be used to observe small-scale thermal variations on the sea ice surface along the Arctic coast.

  8. Arctic Sea Ice Basal Melt Onset Variability and Associated Ocean Surface Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrick, R. A.; Hutchings, J. K.

    2015-12-01

    The interannual and regional variability in Arctic sea ice melt has previously been characterized only in terms of surface melting. A focus on the variability in the onset of basal melt is additionally required to understand Arctic melt patterns. Monitoring basal melt provides a glimpse into the importance of ocean heating to sea ice melt. This warming is predominantly through seawater exposure due to lead opening and the associated solar warming at the ocean's surface. We present the temporal variability in basal melt onset observed by ice mass balance buoys throughout the Arctic Ocean since 2003, providing a different perspective than the satellite microwave data used to measure the onset of surface melt. We found that melt onset varies greatly, even for buoys deployed within 100km of each other. Therefore large volumes of data are necessary to accurately estimate the variability of basal melt onset. Once the variability of basal melt onset has been identified, we can investigate how this range has been changing as a response to atmospheric and oceanic warming, changes in ice morphology as well as the intensification of the ice albedo feedback.

  9. Direct measurements of meltwater runoff on the Greenland ice sheet surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Laurence C; Yang, Kang; Pitcher, Lincoln H; Overstreet, Brandon T; Chu, Vena W; Rennermalm, Åsa K; Ryan, Jonathan C; Cooper, Matthew G; Gleason, Colin J; Tedesco, Marco; Jeyaratnam, Jeyavinoth; van As, Dirk; van den Broeke, Michiel R; van de Berg, Willem Jan; Noël, Brice; Langen, Peter L; Cullather, Richard I; Zhao, Bin; Willis, Michael J; Hubbard, Alun; Box, Jason E; Jenner, Brittany A; Behar, Alberto E

    2017-12-12

    Meltwater runoff from the Greenland ice sheet surface influences surface mass balance (SMB), ice dynamics, and global sea level rise, but is estimated with climate models and thus difficult to validate. We present a way to measure ice surface runoff directly, from hourly in situ supraglacial river discharge measurements and simultaneous high-resolution satellite/drone remote sensing of upstream fluvial catchment area. A first 72-h trial for a 63.1-km 2 moulin-terminating internally drained catchment (IDC) on Greenland's midelevation (1,207-1,381 m above sea level) ablation zone is compared with melt and runoff simulations from HIRHAM5, MAR3.6, RACMO2.3, MERRA-2, and SEB climate/SMB models. Current models cannot reproduce peak discharges or timing of runoff entering moulins but are improved using synthetic unit hydrograph (SUH) theory. Retroactive SUH applications to two older field studies reproduce their findings, signifying that remotely sensed IDC area, shape, and supraglacial river length are useful for predicting delays in peak runoff delivery to moulins. Applying SUH to HIRHAM5, MAR3.6, and RACMO2.3 gridded melt products for 799 surrounding IDCs suggests their terminal moulins receive lower peak discharges, less diurnal variability, and asynchronous runoff timing relative to climate/SMB model output alone. Conversely, large IDCs produce high moulin discharges, even at high elevations where melt rates are low. During this particular field experiment, models overestimated runoff by +21 to +58%, linked to overestimated surface ablation and possible meltwater retention in bare, porous, low-density ice. Direct measurements of ice surface runoff will improve climate/SMB models, and incorporating remotely sensed IDCs will aid coupling of SMB with ice dynamics and subglacial systems. Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  10. Response of Antarctic sea surface temperature and sea ice to ozone depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, D.; Gnanadesikan, A.; Kostov, Y.; Marshall, J.; Seviour, W.; Waugh, D.

    2017-12-01

    The influence of the Antarctic ozone hole extends all the way from the stratosphere through the troposphere down to the surface, with clear signatures on surface winds, and SST during summer. In this talk we discuss the impact of these changes on the ocean circulation and sea ice state. We are notably motivated by the observed cooling of the surface Southern Ocean and associated increase in Antarctic sea ice extent since the 1970s. These trends are not reproduced by CMIP5 climate models, and the underlying mechanism at work in nature and the models remain unexplained. Did the ozone hole contribute to the observed trends?Here, we review recent advances toward answering these issues using "abrupt ozone depletion" experiments. The ocean and sea ice response is rather complex, comprising two timescales: a fast ( 1-2y) cooling of the surface ocean and sea ice cover increase, followed by a slower warming trend, which, depending on models, flip the sign of the SST and sea ice responses on decadal timescale. Although the basic mechanism seems robust, comparison across climate models reveal large uncertainties in the timescales and amplitude of the response to the extent that even the sign of the ocean and sea ice response to ozone hole and recovery remains unconstrained. After briefly describing the dynamics and thermodynamics behind the two-timescale response, we will discuss the main sources of uncertainties in the modeled response, namely cloud effects and air-sea heat exchanges, surface wind stress response and ocean eddy transports. Finally, we will consider the implications of our results on the ability of coupled climate models to reproduce observed Southern Ocean changes.

  11. Direct measurements of meltwater runoff on the Greenland ice sheet surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Laurence C.; Yang, Kang; Pitcher, Lincoln H.; Overstreet, Brandon T.; Chu, Vena W.; Rennermalm, Åsa K.; Ryan, Jonathan C.; Cooper, Matthew G.; Gleason, Colin J.; Tedesco, Marco; Jeyaratnam, Jeyavinoth; van As, Dirk; van den Broeke, Michiel R.; van de Berg, Willem Jan; Noël, Brice; Langen, Peter L.; Cullather, Richard I.; Zhao, Bin; Willis, Michael J.; Hubbard, Alun; Box, Jason E.; Jenner, Brittany A.; Behar, Alberto E.

    2017-12-01

    Meltwater runoff from the Greenland ice sheet surface influences surface mass balance (SMB), ice dynamics, and global sea level rise, but is estimated with climate models and thus difficult to validate. We present a way to measure ice surface runoff directly, from hourly in situ supraglacial river discharge measurements and simultaneous high-resolution satellite/drone remote sensing of upstream fluvial catchment area. A first 72-h trial for a 63.1-km2 moulin-terminating internally drained catchment (IDC) on Greenland's midelevation (1,207–1,381 m above sea level) ablation zone is compared with melt and runoff simulations from HIRHAM5, MAR3.6, RACMO2.3, MERRA-2, and SEB climate/SMB models. Current models cannot reproduce peak discharges or timing of runoff entering moulins but are improved using synthetic unit hydrograph (SUH) theory. Retroactive SUH applications to two older field studies reproduce their findings, signifying that remotely sensed IDC area, shape, and supraglacial river length are useful for predicting delays in peak runoff delivery to moulins. Applying SUH to HIRHAM5, MAR3.6, and RACMO2.3 gridded melt products for 799 surrounding IDCs suggests their terminal moulins receive lower peak discharges, less diurnal variability, and asynchronous runoff timing relative to climate/SMB model output alone. Conversely, large IDCs produce high moulin discharges, even at high elevations where melt rates are low. During this particular field experiment, models overestimated runoff by +21 to +58%, linked to overestimated surface ablation and possible meltwater retention in bare, porous, low-density ice. Direct measurements of ice surface runoff will improve climate/SMB models, and incorporating remotely sensed IDCs will aid coupling of SMB with ice dynamics and subglacial systems.

  12. STICKING OF MOLECULES ON NONPOROUS AMORPHOUS WATER ICE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Jiao; Vidali, Gianfranco [Physics Department, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13244 (United States); Acharyya, Kinsuk, E-mail: gvidali@syr.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States)

    2016-05-20

    Accurate modeling of physical and chemical processes in the interstellar medium (ISM) requires detailed knowledge of how atoms and molecules adsorb on dust grains. However, the sticking coefficient, a number between 0 and 1 that measures the first step in the interaction of a particle with a surface, is usually assumed in simulations of ISM environments to be either 0.5 or 1. Here we report on the determination of the sticking coefficient of H{sub 2}, D{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4}, and CO{sub 2} on nonporous amorphous solid water. The sticking coefficient was measured over a wide range of surface temperatures using a highly collimated molecular beam. We showed that the standard way of measuring the sticking coefficient—the King–Wells method—leads to the underestimation of trapping events in which there is incomplete energy accommodation of the molecule on the surface. Surface scattering experiments with the use of a pulsed molecular beam are used instead to measure the sticking coefficient. Based on the values of the measured sticking coefficient, we suggest a useful general formula of the sticking coefficient as a function of grain temperature and molecule-surface binding energy. We use this formula in a simulation of ISM gas–grain chemistry to find the effect of sticking on the abundance of key molecules both on grains and in the gas phase.

  13. Effect of particle surface area on ice active site densities retrieved from droplet freezing spectra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Beydoun

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Heterogeneous ice nucleation remains one of the outstanding problems in cloud physics and atmospheric science. Experimental challenges in properly simulating particle-induced freezing processes under atmospherically relevant conditions have largely contributed to the absence of a well-established parameterization of immersion freezing properties. Here, we formulate an ice active, surface-site-based stochastic model of heterogeneous freezing with the unique feature of invoking a continuum assumption on the ice nucleating activity (contact angle of an aerosol particle's surface that requires no assumptions about the size or number of active sites. The result is a particle-specific property g that defines a distribution of local ice nucleation rates. Upon integration, this yields a full freezing probability function for an ice nucleating particle. Current cold plate droplet freezing measurements provide a valuable and inexpensive resource for studying the freezing properties of many atmospheric aerosol systems. We apply our g framework to explain the observed dependence of the freezing temperature of droplets in a cold plate on the concentration of the particle species investigated. Normalizing to the total particle mass or surface area present to derive the commonly used ice nuclei active surface (INAS density (ns often cannot account for the effects of particle concentration, yet concentration is typically varied to span a wider measurable freezing temperature range. A method based on determining what is denoted an ice nucleating species' specific critical surface area is presented and explains the concentration dependence as a result of increasing the variability in ice nucleating active sites between droplets. By applying this method to experimental droplet freezing data from four different systems, we demonstrate its ability to interpret immersion freezing temperature spectra of droplets containing variable particle concentrations. It is shown

  14. Surface Ice and Tholins on the Extreme Centaur 2012 DR30

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Gy. M.; Kiss, Cs.; Pinilla-Alonso, N.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Marion, G. H.; Györgyey Ries, J.; Duffard, R.; Alvarez-Candal, A.; Sárneczky, K.; Vinkó, J.

    2018-04-01

    2012 {DR}}30 is one of the known solar system objects with the largest aphelion distance, exceeding 2200 au, on a high inclination orbit (i = 78°). It has been recognized to be either a borderline representative of high inclination, high perihelion distance (HiHq) objects, or even a new class of bodies, similar to HiHq objects for orbit but with an aphelion in the inner Oort Cloud. Here, we present photometry using long-term data from 2000 to 2013 taken by the SDSS sky survey, ESO MPG 2.2 m and McDonald 2.1 m telescopes, and a visual+near-infrared spectrum taken with the Southern Astrophysical Research Telescope and Magellan telescopes, providing insights into the surface composition of this body. Our best fit suggests that the surface contains 60% of complex organics (30% of Titan and 30% of Triton tholins) with a significant fraction of ice (30%, including pure water and water with inclusions of complex organics) and 10% silicates. The models also suggest a low limit of amorphous carbons, and hence the fragmentation of long-chained complex organics is slower than their rate of generation. 2012 {DR}}30 just recently passed the perihelion, and the long-term photometry of the object suggested ambiguous signs of activity, since the long-term photometric scatter well exceeded the supposed measurement errors and the expected brightness variation related to rotation. Photometric colors put 2012 {DR}}30 exactly between dark neutral and red objects, thus it either can be in a transition phase between the two classes or have differing surface properties from these populated classes.

  15. The Effect of Seasonal Variability of Atlantic Water on the Arctic Sea Ice Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, V. V.; Repina, I. A.

    2018-01-01

    Under the influence of global warming, the sea ice in the Arctic Ocean (AO) is expected to reduce with a transition toward a seasonal ice cover by the end of this century. A comparison of climate-model predictions with measurements shows that the actual rate of ice cover decay in the AO is higher than the predicted one. This paper argues that the rapid shrinking of the Arctic summer ice cover is due to its increased seasonality, while seasonal oscillations of the Atlantic origin water temperature create favorable conditions for the formation of negative anomalies in the ice-cover area in winter. The basis for this hypothesis is the fundamental possibility of the activation of positive feedback provided by a specific feature of the seasonal cycle of the inflowing Atlantic origin water and the peaking of temperature in the Nansen Basin in midwinter. The recently accelerated reduction in the summer ice cover in the AO leads to an increased accumulation of heat in the upper ocean layer during the summer season. The extra heat content of the upper ocean layer favors prerequisite conditions for winter thermohaline convection and the transfer of heat from the Atlantic water (AW) layer to the ice cover. This, in turn, contributes to further ice thinning and a decrease in ice concentration, accelerated melting in summer, and a greater accumulation of heat in the ocean by the end of the following summer. An important role is played by the seasonal variability of the temperature of AW, which forms on the border between the North European and Arctic basins. The phase of seasonal oscillation changes while the AW is moving through the Nansen Basin. As a result, the timing of temperature peak shifts from summer to winter, additionally contributing to enhanced ice melting in winter. The formulated theoretical concept is substantiated by a simplified mathematical model and comparison with observations.

  16. Sediment plume response to surface melting and supraglacial lake drainages on the Greenland ice sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chu, Vena W.; Smith, Laurence C; Rennermalm, Asa K.

    2009-01-01

    ) supraglacial lake drainage events from MODIS. Results confirm that the origin of the sediment plume is meltwater release from the ice sheet. Interannual variations in plume area reflect interannual variations in surface melting. Plumes appear almost immediately with seasonal surface-melt onset, provided...... the estuary is free of landfast sea ice. A seasonal hysteresis between melt extent and plume area suggests late-season exhaustion in sediment supply. Analysis of plume sensitivity to supraglacial events is less conclusive, with 69% of melt pulses and 38% of lake drainage events triggering an increase in plume...... area. We conclude that remote sensing of sediment plume behavior offers a novel tool for detecting the presence, timing and interannual variability of meltwater release from the ice sheet....

  17. Modelling global fresh surface water temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, L.P.H. van; Eikelboom, T.; Vliet, M.T.H. van; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    2011-01-01

    Temperature directly determines a range of water physical properties including vapour pressure, surface tension, density and viscosity, and the solubility of oxygen and other gases. Indirectly water temperature acts as a strong control on fresh water biogeochemistry, influencing sediment

  18. Water Ice Clouds and Dust in the Martian Atmosphere Observed by Mars Climate Sounder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Jennifer L.; Kass, David; Heavens, Nicholas; Kleinbohl, Armin

    2011-01-01

    The water ice clouds are primarily controlled by the temperature structure and form at the water condensation level. Clouds in all regions presented show day/night differences. Cloud altitude varies between night and day in the SPH and tropics: (1) NPH water ice opacity is greater at night than day at some seasons (2) The diurnal thermal tide controls the daily variability. (3) Strong day/night changes indicate that the amount of gas in the atmosphere varies significantly. See significant mixtures of dust and ice at the same altitude planet-wide (1) Points to a complex radiative and thermal balance between dust heating (in the visible) and ice heating or cooling in the infrared. Aerosol layering: (1) Early seasons reveal a zonally banded spatial distribution (2) Some localized longitudinal structure of aerosol layers (3) Later seasons show no consistent large scale organization

  19. Competition for water vapour results in suppression of ice formation in mixed-phase clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. L. Simpson

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The formation of ice in clouds can initiate precipitation and influence a cloud's reflectivity and lifetime, affecting climate to a highly uncertain degree. Nucleation of ice at elevated temperatures requires an ice nucleating particle (INP, which results in so-called heterogeneous freezing. Previously reported measurements for the ability of a particle to nucleate ice have been made in the absence of other aerosol which will act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN and are ubiquitous in the atmosphere. Here we show that CCN can outcompete INPs for available water vapour thus suppressing ice formation, which has the potential to significantly affect the Earth's radiation budget. The magnitude of this suppression is shown to be dependent on the mass of condensed water required for freezing. Here we show that ice formation in a state-of-the-art cloud parcel model is strongly dependent on the criteria for heterogeneous freezing selected from those previously hypothesised. We have developed an alternative criteria which agrees well with observations from cloud chamber experiments. This study demonstrates the dominant role that competition for water vapour can play in ice formation, highlighting both a need for clarity in the requirements for heterogeneous freezing and for measurements under atmospherically appropriate conditions.

  20. Competition for water vapour results in suppression of ice formation in mixed-phase clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Emma L.; Connolly, Paul J.; McFiggans, Gordon

    2018-05-01

    The formation of ice in clouds can initiate precipitation and influence a cloud's reflectivity and lifetime, affecting climate to a highly uncertain degree. Nucleation of ice at elevated temperatures requires an ice nucleating particle (INP), which results in so-called heterogeneous freezing. Previously reported measurements for the ability of a particle to nucleate ice have been made in the absence of other aerosol which will act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and are ubiquitous in the atmosphere. Here we show that CCN can outcompete INPs for available water vapour thus suppressing ice formation, which has the potential to significantly affect the Earth's radiation budget. The magnitude of this suppression is shown to be dependent on the mass of condensed water required for freezing. Here we show that ice formation in a state-of-the-art cloud parcel model is strongly dependent on the criteria for heterogeneous freezing selected from those previously hypothesised. We have developed an alternative criteria which agrees well with observations from cloud chamber experiments. This study demonstrates the dominant role that competition for water vapour can play in ice formation, highlighting both a need for clarity in the requirements for heterogeneous freezing and for measurements under atmospherically appropriate conditions.

  1. Groundwater-surface water interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, P.A.; Clausen, B.; Hunt, B.; Cameron, S.; Weir, J.J.

    2001-01-01

    This chapter discusses natural and modified interactions between groundwater and surface water. Theory on recharge to groundwater from rivers is introduced, and the relative importance of groundwater recharge from rivers is illustrated with an example from the Ngaruroro River, Hawke's Bay. Some of the techniques used to identify and measure recharge to groundwater from gravel-bed rivers will be outlined, with examples from the Ngaruroro River, where the recharge reach is relatively well defined, and from the Rakaia River, where it is poorly defined. Groundwater recharged from rivers can have characteristic chemical and isotopic signatures, as shown by Waimakariri River water in the Christchurch-West Melton groundwater system. The incorporation of groundwater-river interaction in a regional groundwater flow model is outlined for the Waimea Plains, and relationships between river scour and groundwater recharge are examined for the Waimakariri River. Springs are the result of natural discharge from groundwater systems and are important water sources. The interactions between groundwater systems, springs, and river flow for the Avon River in New Zealand will be outlined. The theory of depletion of stream flow by groundwater pumpage will be introduced with a case study from Canterbury, and salt-water intrusion into groundwater systems with examples from Nelson and Christchurch. The theory of artificial recharge to groundwater systems is introduced with a case study from Hawke's Bay. Wetlands are important to flora, and the relationship of the wetland environment to groundwater hydrology will be discussed, with an example from the South Taupo wetland. (author). 56 refs., 25 figs., 3 tabs

  2. Patterns of ice nuclei from natural water sources in the mountains of Tirol, Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baloh, Philipp; Hanlon, Regina; Pietsch, Renee; Anderson, Christopher; Schmale, David G., III; Grothe, Hinrich

    2017-04-01

    Heterogeneous ice nucleation—the process by which particles can nucleate ice between 0 and -35°C—is important for generating artificial snow. Though abiotic and biotic ice nuclei are present in many different natural and managed ecosystems, little is known about their nature, sources, and ecological roles. We collected samples of water and snow from the mountains of Tyrol, Austria in June, July, and November, 2016. The collected water was mostly from sources with minimal anthropogenic pollution, since most of the water from the sampled streams came from glacial melt. The samples were filtered through a 0.22μm filter, and microorganisms were cultured on different types of media. Resulting colonies were tested for their ice nucleation ability using a droplet freezing assay and identified to the level of the species. The unfiltered water and the filtered water will be subjected to additional assays using cryo microscopy and vibrational microscopy (IR and Raman- spectroscopy). Preliminary analyses suggested that the percentage of ice-nucleating microbes varied with season; greater percentages of ice nucleating microbes were present during colder months. The glacial melt also varies strongly over the year with the fraction of mineral dust suspended in it which serves as an inorganic ice nucleation agent. Further investigation of these samples may help to show the combined ice nuleation abilities of biological and non biological particles present in the mountains of Tirol, Austria. Future work may shed light on how the nucleation properties of the natural water changes with the time of the year and what may be responsible for these changes.

  3. Observationally constrained surface mass balance of Larsen C ice shelf, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kuipers Munneke

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The surface mass balance (SMB of the Larsen C ice shelf (LCIS, Antarctica, is poorly constrained due to a dearth of in situ observations. Combining several geophysical techniques, we reconstruct spatial and temporal patterns of SMB over the LCIS. Continuous time series of snow height (2.5–6 years at five locations allow for multi-year estimates of seasonal and annual SMB over the LCIS. There is high interannual variability in SMB as well as spatial variability: in the north, SMB is 0.40 ± 0.06 to 0.41 ± 0.04 m w.e. year−1, while farther south, SMB is up to 0.50 ± 0.05 m w.e. year−1. This difference between north and south is corroborated by winter snow accumulation derived from an airborne radar survey from 2009, which showed an average snow thickness of 0.34 m w.e. north of 66° S, and 0.40 m w.e. south of 68° S. Analysis of ground-penetrating radar from several field campaigns allows for a longer-term perspective of spatial variations in SMB: a particularly strong and coherent reflection horizon below 25–44 m of water-equivalent ice and firn is observed in radargrams collected across the shelf. We propose that this horizon was formed synchronously across the ice shelf. Combining snow height observations, ground and airborne radar, and SMB output from a regional climate model yields a gridded estimate of SMB over the LCIS. It confirms that SMB increases from north to south, overprinted by a gradient of increasing SMB to the west, modulated in the west by föhn-induced sublimation. Previous observations show a strong decrease in firn air content toward the west, which we attribute to spatial patterns of melt, refreezing, and densification rather than SMB.

  4. Azimuthal Structure of the Sand Erg that Encircles the North Polar Water-Ice Cap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodoro, L. A.; Elphic, R. C.; Eke, V. R.; Feldman, W. C.; Maurice, S.; Pathare, A.

    2011-12-01

    The sand erg that completely encircles the perennial water-ice cap that covers the Martian north geographic pole displays considerable azimuthal structure as seen in visible and near-IR images. Much of this structure is associated with the terminations of the many steep troughs that cut spiral the approximately 3 km thick polar ice cap. Other contributions come from the katabatic winds that spill over steep-sided edges of the cap, such as what bounds the largest set of dunes that comprise Olympia Undae. During the spring and summer months when these winds initiate from the higher altitudes that contain sublimating CO2 ice, which is very cold and dry, heat adiabatically when they compress as they lose altitude. These winds should then remove H2O moisture from the uppermost layer of the sand dunes that are directly in their path. Two likely locations where this desiccation may occur preferentially is at the termination of Chasma Boreale and the ice cap at Olympia Undae. We will search for this effect by sharpening the spatial structure of the epithermal neutron counting rates measured at northern high latitudes using the Mars Odyssey Neutron Spectrometer (MONS). The epithermal range of neutron energies is nearly uniquely sensitive to the hydrogen content of surface soils, which should likely be in the form of H2O/OH molecules/radicals. We therefore convert epithermal counting rates in terms of Water-Equivalent-Hydrogen, WEH. However, MONS counting-rate data have a FWHM of ~550 km., which is sufficiently broad to prevent a close association of WEH variability with images of geological features. In this study, we reduce spurious features in the instrument smeared neutron counting rates through deconvolution. We choose the PIXON numerical deconvolution technique for this purpose. This technique uses a statistical approach (Pina 2001, Eke 2001), which is capable of removing spurious features in the data in the presence of noise. We have previously carried out a detailed

  5. Elevation change of the Greenland Ice Sheet due to surface mass balance and firn processes, 1960-2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers Munneke, P.; Ligtenberg, S. R M; Noël, B. P Y; Howat, I. M.; Box, J. E.; Mosley-Thompson, E.; McConnell, J. R.; Steffen, K.; Harper, J. T.; Das, S. B.; Van Den Broeke, M. R.

    2015-01-01

    Observed changes in the surface elevation of the Greenland Ice Sheet are caused by ice dynamics, basal elevation change, basal melt, surface mass balance (SMB) variability, and by compaction of the overlying firn. The last two contributions are quantified here using a firn model that includes

  6. Higher surface mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet revealed by high - resolution climate modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ettema, Janneke; van den Broeke, Michiel R.; van Meijgaard, Erik; van de Berg, Willem Jan; Bamber, Jonathan L.; Box, Jason E.; Bales, Roger C.

    2009-01-01

    High‐resolution (∼11 km) regional climate modeling shows total annual precipitation on the Greenland ice sheet for 1958–2007 to be up to 24% and surface mass balance up to 63% higher than previously thought. The largest differences occur in coastal southeast Greenland, where the much higher

  7. The Role of the Mean State of Arctic Sea Ice on Near-Surface Temperature Trends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, van der E.C.; Bintanja, R.; Hazeleger, W.; Katsman, C.A.

    2014-01-01

    Century-scale global near-surface temperature trends in response to rising greenhouse gas concentrations in climate models vary by almost a factor of 2, with greatest intermodel spread in the Arctic region where sea ice is a key climate component. Three factors contribute to the intermodel spread:

  8. The pattern of anthropogenic signal emergence in Greenland Ice Sheet surface mass balance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fyke, J.G.; Vizcaino, M.; Lipscomb, W.H.

    2014-01-01

    Surface mass balance (SMB) trends influence observed Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) mass loss, but the component of these trends related to anthropogenic forcing is unclear. Here we study the simulated spatial pattern of emergence of an anthropogenically derived GrIS SMB signal between 1850 and 2100

  9. Control and Prevention of Ice Formation on the Surface of an Aluminum Alloy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahimi, Maral

    modified with (3-aminopropyl) triethoxy silane (APTES) exhibited longer freezing delays as compared to both more hydrophilic and more hydrophobic substrates. This is attributed to a particular surface chemistry of the APTES modification that prevents ice formation at the interface of the substrate due...

  10. Greenland meltwater storage in firn limited by near-surface ice formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machguth, Horst; MacFerrin, Mike; van As, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    above sea level), firn has undergone substantial densification, while at lower elevations, where melt is most abundant, porous firn has lost most of its capability to retain meltwater. Here, the formation of near-surface ice layers renders deep pore space difficult to access, forcing meltwater to enter...

  11. Greenland ice sheet surface mass balance: evaluating simulations and making projections with regional climate models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rae, J.G.L.; Aðalgeirsdóttir, G.; Edwards, T.L.; Fettweis, X.; Gregory, J.M.; Hewitt, H.T.; Lowe, J.A.; Lucas-Picher, P.; Mottram, R.H.; Payne, A.J.; Ridley, J.K.; Shannon, S.R.; van de Berg, W.J.; van de Wal, R.S.W.; van den Broeke, M.R.

    2012-01-01

    Four high-resolution regional climate models (RCMs) have been set up for the area of Greenland, with the aim of providing future projections of Greenland ice sheet surface mass balance (SMB), and its contribution to sea level rise, with greater accuracy than is possible from coarser-resolution

  12. Ice versus liquid water saturation in simulations of the indian summer monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazer, Russell H.; Misra, Vasubandhu

    2018-02-01

    At the same temperature, below 0 °C, the saturation vapor pressure (SVP) over ice is slightly less than the SVP over liquid water. Numerical models use the Clausius-Clapeyron relation to calculate the SVP and relative humidity, but there is not a consistent method for the treatment of saturation above the freezing level where ice and mixed-phase clouds may be present. In the context of current challenges presented by cloud microphysics in climate models, we argue that a better understanding of the impact that this treatment has on saturation-related processes like cloud formation and precipitation, is needed. This study explores the importance of the SVP calculation through model simulations of the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) using the regional spectral model (RSM) at 15 km grid spacing. A combination of seasonal and multiyear simulations is conducted with two saturation parameterizations. In one, the SVP over liquid water is prescribed through the entire atmospheric column (woIce), and in another the SVP over ice is used above the freezing level (wIce). When SVP over ice is prescribed, a thermodynamic drying of the middle and upper troposphere above the freezing level occurs due to increased condensation. In the wIce runs, the model responds to the slight decrease in the saturation condition by increasing, relative to the SVP over liquid water only run, grid-scale condensation of water. Increased grid-scale mean seasonal precipitation is noted across the ISM region in the simulation with SVP over ice prescribed. Modification of the middle and upper troposphere moisture results in a decrease in mean seasonal mid-level cloud amount and an increase in high cloud amount when SVP over ice is prescribed. Multiyear simulations strongly corroborate the qualitative results found in the seasonal simulations regarding the impact of ice versus liquid water SVP on the ISM's mean precipitation and moisture field. The mean seasonal rainfall difference over All India between wIce

  13. The Regional Water Cycle and Water Ice Clouds in the Tharsis - Valles Marineris System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, C. W. S.; Rafkin, S. C.

    2017-12-01

    The regional atmospheric circulation on Mars is highly influenced by local topographic gradients. Terrain-following air parcels forced along the slopes of the major Tharsis volcanoes and the steep canyon walls of Valles Marineris significantly impact the local water vapor concentration and the associated conditions for cloud formation. Using a non-hydrostatic mesoscale atmospheric model with aerosol & cloud microphysics, we investigate the meteorological conditions for water ice cloud formation in the coupled Tharsis - Valles Marineris system near the aphelion season. The usage of a limited area regional model ensures that topographic slopes are well resolved compared to the typical resolutions of a global-coverage general circulation model. The effects of shadowing and slope angle geometries on the energy budget is also taken into account. Diurnal slope winds in complex terrains are typically characterized by the reversal of wind direction twice per sol: upslope during the day, and downslope at night. However, our simulation results of the regional circulation and diurnal water cycle indicate substantial asymmetries in the day-night circulation. The convergence of moist air masses enters Valles Marineris via easterly flows, whereas dry air sweep across the plateau of the canyon system from the south towards the north. We emphasize the non-uniform vertical distribution of water vapor in our model results. Water vapor mixing ratios in the lower planetary boundary layer may be factors greater than the mixing ratio aloft. Water ice clouds are important contributors to the climatic forcing on Mars, and their effects on the mesoscale circulations in the Tharsis - Valles Marineris region significantly contribute to the regional perturbations in the large-scale global atmospheric circulation.

  14. COBE-SST2 Sea Surface Temperature and Ice

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A new sea surface temperature (SST) analysis on a centennial time scale is presented. The dataset starts in 1850 with monthly 1x1 means and is periodically updated....

  15. Identification of Accretion as Grain Growth Mechanism in Astrophysically Relevant Water&ice Dusty Plasma Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Ryan S.; Chai, Kil-Byoung; Bellan, Paul M.

    2017-03-01

    The grain growth process in the Caltech water-ice dusty plasma experiment has been studied using a high-speed camera and a long-distance microscope lens. It is observed that (I) the ice grain number density decreases fourfold as the average grain major axis increases from 20 to 80 μm, (II) the major axis length has a log-normal distribution rather than a power-law dependence, and (III) no collisions between ice grains are apparent. The grains have a large negative charge resulting in strong mutual repulsion and this, combined with the fractal character of the ice grains, prevents them from agglomerating. In order for the grain kinetic energy to be sufficiently small to prevent collisions between ice grains, the volumetric packing factor (I.e., ratio of the actual volume to the volume of a circumscribing ellipsoid) of the ice grains must be less than ˜0.1 depending on the exact relative velocity of the grains in question. Thus, it is concluded that direct accretion of water molecules is very likely to dominate the observed ice grain growth.

  16. Protozoan Bacterivory in the Ice and the Water Column of a Cold Temperate Lagoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sime-Ngando; Demers; Juniper

    1999-02-01

    > Abstract Bacterial abundance and bacterivorous protist abundance and activity were examined in ice-brine and water column communities of a cold temperate Japanese lagoon (Saroma-Ko Lagoon, Hokkaido, 44 degreesN, 144 degreesE), during the late winter phase of ice community development (February-March 1992). Bacterial abundance averaged 6 and 1 x 10(5) cells ml-1 in the ice-brine and plankton samples, respectively, and generally decreased during the sampling period. Bacterivorous protists, identified based on direct observation of short-term (Protist abundance averaged 4 x 10(3) and 8.1 cells ml-1 in the ice-brine and 0.3 x 10(3) and 1.2 cells ml-1 in the plankton, for flagellates and ciliates, respectively. In contrast to bacteria, the abundance of protists generally increased throughout the sampling period, indicating predator-prey interactions. Protistan bacterivory, measured from the rate of FLB disappearance over 24 h, averaged 36% (ice) and 24% (plankton) of bacterial standing stock and exhibited the same seasonal pattern as for protist abundance. The calculated specific clearance (range, 2-67 nl protozoa-1 h-1) and ingestion (protists" on nonbacterial food items were also provided. Although alternative sources of bacterial loss are likely to be of importance, this study provides evidence for the potential of protozoan assemblages as bacterial grazers in both sea ice-brine biota and water column at the southern limit of sea ice in the northern hemisphere.

  17. Sea ice-atmospheric interaction: Application of multispectral satellite data in polar surface energy flux estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, Konrad; Key, J.; Maslanik, J.; Schweiger, A.

    1993-01-01

    This is the third annual report on: Sea Ice-Atmosphere Interaction - Application of Multispectral Satellite Data in Polar Surface Energy Flux Estimates. The main emphasis during the past year was on: radiative flux estimates from satellite data; intercomparison of satellite and ground-based cloud amounts; radiative cloud forcing; calibration of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) visible channels and comparison of two satellite derived albedo data sets; and on flux modeling for leads. Major topics covered are arctic clouds and radiation; snow and ice albedo, and leads and modeling.

  18. Surface Assisted Formation of methane Hydrates on Ice and Na Montmorillonite Clay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, Margaret Ellen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Teich-McGoldrick, Stephanie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Cygan, Randall Timothy [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Meserole, Stephen P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rodriguez, Mark A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Methane hydrates are extremely important naturally-occurring crystalline materials that impact climate change, energy resources, geological hazards, and other major environmental issues. Whereas significant experimental effort has been completed to understanding the bulk thermodynamics of methane hydrate assemblies, little is understood on heterogeneous nucleation and growth of methane hydrates in clay-rich environments. Controlled synthesis experiments were completed at 265-285 K and 6.89 MPa to examine the impact of montmorillonite surfaces in clay-ice mixtures to nucleate and form methane hydrate. The results suggest that the hydrophilic and methane adsorbing properties of Namontmorillonite reduce the nucleation period of methane hydrate formation in pure ice systems.

  19. Cavitation and water fluxes driven by ice water potential in Juglans regia during freeze-thaw cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charra-Vaskou, Katline; Badel, Eric; Charrier, Guillaume; Ponomarenko, Alexandre; Bonhomme, Marc; Foucat, Loïc; Mayr, Stefan; Améglio, Thierry

    2016-02-01

    Freeze-thaw cycles induce major hydraulic changes due to liquid-to-ice transition within tree stems. The very low water potential at the ice-liquid interface is crucial as it may cause lysis of living cells as well as water fluxes and embolism in sap conduits, which impacts whole tree-water relations. We investigated water fluxes induced by ice formation during freeze-thaw cycles in Juglans regia L. stems using four non-invasive and complementary approaches: a microdendrometer, magnetic resonance imaging, X-ray microtomography, and ultrasonic acoustic emissions analysis. When the temperature dropped, ice nucleation occurred, probably in the cambium or pith areas, inducing high water potential gradients within the stem. The water was therefore redistributed within the stem toward the ice front. We could thus observe dehydration of the bark's living cells leading to drastic shrinkage of this tissue, as well as high tension within wood conduits reaching the cavitation threshold in sap vessels. Ultrasonic emissions, which were strictly emitted only during freezing, indicated cavitation events (i.e. bubble formation) following ice formation in the xylem sap. However, embolism formation (i.e. bubble expansion) in stems was observed only on thawing via X-ray microtomography for the first time on the same sample. Ultrasonic emissions were detected during freezing and were not directly related to embolism formation. These results provide new insights into the complex process and dynamics of water movements and ice formation during freeze-thaw cycles in tree stems. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  20. Lattice Boltzmann Simulation of Water Isotope Fractionation During Growth of Ice Crystals in Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, G.; Depaolo, D.; Kang, Q.; Zhang, D.

    2006-12-01

    The isotopic composition of precipitation, especially that of snow, plays a special role in the global hydrological cycle and in reconstruction of past climates using polar ice cores. The fractionation of the major water isotope species (HHO, HDO, HHO-18) during ice crystal formation is critical to understanding the global distribution of isotopes in precipitation. Ice crystal growth in clouds is traditionally treated with a spherically- symmetric steady state diffusion model, with semi-empirical modifications added to account for ventilation and for complex crystal morphology. Although it is known that crystal growth rate, which depends largely on the degree of vapor over-saturation, determines crystal morphology, there are no existing quantitative models that directly relate morphology to the vapor saturation factor. Since kinetic (vapor phase diffusion-controlled) isotopic fractionation also depends on growth rate, there should be a direct relationship between vapor saturation, crystal morphology, and crystal isotopic composition. We use a 2D Lattice-Boltzmann model to simulate diffusion-controlled ice crystal growth from vapor- oversaturated air. In the model, crystals grow solely according to the diffusive fluxes just above the crystal surfaces, and hence crystal morphology arises from the initial and boundary conditions in the model and does not need to be specified a priori. The input parameters needed are the isotope-dependent vapor deposition rate constant (k) and the water vapor diffusivity in air (D). The values of both k and D can be computed from kinetic theory, and there are also experimentally determined values of D. The deduced values of k are uncertain to the extent that the sticking coefficient (or accommodation coefficient) for ice is uncertain. The ratio D/k is a length that determines the minimum scale of dendritic growth features and allows us to scale the numerical calculations to atmospheric conditions using a dimensionless Damkohler number

  1. Electron Density Dropout Near Enceladus in the Context of Water-Vapor and Water-Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, W. M.; Kurth, W. S.; Gurnett, D. A.; Johnson, R. E.; Kaiser, M. L.; Wahlund, J.-E.; Waite, J. H., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    On 12 March 2008, the Cassini spacecraft made a close encounter with the Saturnian moon Enceladus, passing within 52 km of the moon. The spacecraft trajectory was intentionally-oriented in a southerly direction to create a close alignment with the intense water-dominated plumes emitted from the south polar region. During the passage, the Cassini Radio and Plasma Wave System (RPWS) detected two distinct radio signatures: 1) Impulses associated with small water-ice dust grain impacts and 2) an upper hybrid (UH) resonance emission that both intensified and displayed a sharp frequency decrease in the near-vicinity of the moon. The frequency decrease of the UH emission is associated with an unexpectedly sharp decrease in electron density from approximately 90 el/cubic cm to below 20 el/cubic cm that occurs on a time scale of a minute near the closest encounter with the moon. In this work, we consider a number of scenarios to explain this sharp electron dropout, but surmise that electron absorption by ice grains is the most likely process.

  2. Hydrophobic Surfaces: Topography Effects on Wetting by Supercooled Water and Freezing Delay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydari, Golrokh; Thormann, Esben; Järn, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    Hydrophobicity, and in particular superhydrophobicity, has been extensively considered to promote ice-phobicity. Dynamic contact angle measurements above 0 °C have been widely used to evaluate the water repellency. However, it is the wetting properties of supercooled water at subzero temperatures...... and the derived work of adhesion that are important for applications dealing with icing. In this work we address this issue by determining the temperature-dependent dynamic contact angle of microliter-sized water droplets on a smooth hydrophobic and a superhydrophobic surface with similar surface chemistry....... The data highlight how the work of adhesion of water in the temperature interval from about 25 °C to below −10 °C is affected by surface topography. A marked decrease in contact angle on the superhydrophobic surface is observed with decreasing temperature, and we attribute this to condensation below...

  3. A rapid transition from ice covered CO2–rich waters to a biologically mediated CO2 sink in the eastern Weddell Gyre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Geibert

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW, locally called Warm Deep Water (WDW, enters the Weddell Gyre in the southeast, roughly at 25° E to 30° E. In December 2002 and January 2003 we studied the effect of entrainment of WDW on the fugacity of carbon dioxide (fCO2 and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC in Weddell Sea surface waters. Ultimately the fCO2 difference across the sea surface drives air-sea fluxes of CO2. Deep CTD sections and surface transects of fCO2 were made along the Prime Meridian, a northwest-southeast section, and along 17° E to 23° E during cruise ANT XX/2 on FS Polarstern. Upward movement and entrainment of WDW into the winter mixed layer had significantly increased DIC and fCO2 below the sea ice along 0° W and 17° E to 23° E, notably in the southern Weddell Gyre. Nonetheless, the ice cover largely prevented outgassing of CO2 to the atmosphere. During and upon melting of the ice, biological activity rapidly reduced surface water fCO2 by up to 100 μatm, thus creating a sink for atmospheric CO2. Despite the tendency of the surfacing WDW to cause CO2 supersaturation, the Weddell Gyre may well be a CO2 sink on an annual basis due to this effective mechanism involving ice cover and ensuing biological fCO2 reduction. Dissolution of calcium carbonate (CaCO3 in melting sea ice may play a minor role in this rapid reduction of surface water fCO2.

  4. Future projections of the Greenland ice sheet energy balance driving the surface melt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Franco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, simulations at 25 km resolution are performed over the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS throughout the 20th and 21st centuries, using the regional climate model MAR forced by four RCP scenarios from three CMIP5 global circulation models (GCMs, in order to investigate the projected changes of the surface energy balance (SEB components driving the surface melt. Analysis of 2000–2100 melt anomalies compared to melt results over 1980–1999 reveals an exponential relationship of the GrIS surface melt rate simulated by MAR to the near-surface air temperature (TAS anomalies, mainly due to the surface albedo positive feedback associated with the extension of bare ice areas in summer. On the GrIS margins, the future melt anomalies are preferentially driven by stronger sensible heat fluxes, induced by enhanced warm air advection over the ice sheet. Over the central dry snow zone, the surface albedo positive feedback induced by the increase in summer melt exceeds the negative feedback of heavier snowfall for TAS anomalies higher than 4 °C. In addition to the incoming longwave flux increase associated with the atmosphere warming, GCM-forced MAR simulations project an increase of the cloud cover decreasing the ratio of the incoming shortwave versus longwave radiation and dampening the albedo feedback. However, it should be noted that this trend in the cloud cover is contrary to that simulated by ERA-Interim–forced MAR for recent climate conditions, where the observed melt increase since the 1990s seems mainly to be a consequence of more anticyclonic atmospheric conditions. Finally, no significant change is projected in the length of the melt season, which highlights the importance of solar radiation absorbed by the ice sheet surface in the melt SEB.

  5. Monitoring and Quantifying Subsurface Ice and Water Content in Permafrost Regions Based on Geophysical Data Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, C.; Bach, M.; Hilbich, C.

    2007-12-01

    Based on recent observational evidence of climate change in permafrost regions, it is now recognised that a detailed knowledge of the material composition of the subsurface in permafrost regions is required for modelling of the future evolution of the ground thermal regime and an assessment of the hazard potential due to degrading permafrost. However, due to the remote location of permafrost areas and the corresponding difficulties in obtaining high-quality data sets of the subsurface, knowledge about the material composition in permafrost areas is scarce. In frozen ground subsurface material may consist of four different phases: rock/soil matrix, unfrozen pore water, ice and air-filled pore space. Applications of geophysical techniques for determining the subsurface composition are comparatively cheap and logistically feasible alternatives to the single point information from boreholes. Due to the complexity of the subsurface a combination of complementary geophysical methods (e.g. electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and refraction seismic tomography) is often favoured to avoid ambiguities in the interpretation of the results. The indirect nature of geophysical soundings requires a relation between the measured variable (electrical resistivity, seismic velocity) and the rock-, water-, ice- and air content. In this contribution we will present a model which determines the volumetric fractions of these four phases from tomographic electrical and seismic data sets. The so-called 4-phase model is based on two well-known geophysical mixing rules using observed resistivity and velocity data as input data on a 2-dimensional grid. Material properties such as resistivity and P- wave velocity of the host rock material and the pore water have to be known beforehand. The remaining free model parameters can be determined by a Monte-Carlo approach, the results of which are used additionally as indicator for the reliability of the model results. First results confirm the

  6. Radar and infrared remote sensing of terrain, water resources, arctic sea ice, and agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, A. W.

    1983-01-01

    Radar range measurements, basic waveforms of radar systems, and radar displays are initially described. These are followed by backscatter from several types of terrain and vegetation as a function of frequency and grazing angle. Analytical models for this backscatter include the facet models of radar return, with range-angle, velocity-range, velocity-angle, range, velocity, and angular only discriminations. Several side-looking airborne radar geometries are presented. Radar images of Arctic sea ice, fresh water lake ice, cloud-covered terrain, and related areas are presented to identify applications of radar imagery. Volume scatter models are applied to radar imagery from alpine snowfields. Short pulse ice thickness radar for subsurface probes is discussed in fresh-water ice and sea ice detection. Infrared scanners, including multispectral, are described. Diffusion of cold water into a river, Arctic sea ice, power plant discharges, volcanic heat, and related areas are presented in thermal imagery. Multispectral radar and infrared imagery are discussed, with comparisons of photographic, infrared, and radar imagery of the same terrain or subjects.

  7. The sensitivity of the Late Saalian (140 ka) and LGM (21 ka) Eurasian ice sheets to sea surface conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colleoni, Florence [Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici, Bologna (Italy); UJF, CNRS, Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Geophysique de l' Environnement, Saint Martin d' Heres Cedex (France); Stockholm University, Department of Geological Sciences, Stockhlom (Sweden); Liakka, Johan [Stockholm University, Department of Meteorology, Stockholm (Sweden); Krinner, Gerhard; Peyaud, Vincent [UJF, CNRS, Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Geophysique de l' Environnement, Saint Martin d' Heres Cedex (France); Jakobsson, Martin [Stockholm University, Department of Geological Sciences, Stockhlom (Sweden); Masina, Simona [Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici, Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Bologna (Italy)

    2011-08-15

    This work focuses on the Late Saalian (140 ka) Eurasian ice sheets' surface mass balance (SMB) sensitivity to changes in sea surface temperatures (SST). An Atmospheric General Circulation Model (AGCM), forced with two preexisting Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, 21 ka) SST reconstructions, is used to compute climate at 140 and 21 ka (reference glaciation). Contrary to the LGM, the ablation almost stopped at 140 ka due to the climatic cooling effect from the large ice sheet topography. Late Saalian SST are simulated using an AGCM coupled with a mixed layer ocean. Compared to the LGM, these 140 ka SST show an inter-hemispheric asymmetry caused by the larger ice-albedo feedback, cooling climate. The resulting Late Saalian ice sheet SMB is smaller due to the extensive simulated sea ice reducing the precipitation. In conclusion, SST are important for the stability and growth of the Late Saalian Eurasian ice sheet. (orig.)

  8. Vertical Distribution of Dust and Water Ice Aerosols from CRISM Limb-geometry Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael Doyle; Wolff, Michael J.; Clancy, Todd; Kleinbohl, Armin; Murchie, Scott L.

    2013-01-01

    [1] Near-infrared spectra taken in a limb-viewing geometry by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) on board the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter provide a useful tool for probing atmospheric structure. Specifically, the observed radiance as a function of wavelength and height above the limb enables the vertical distribution of both dust and water ice aerosols to be retrieved. More than a dozen sets of CRISM limb observations have been taken so far providing pole-to-pole cross sections, spanning more than a full Martian year. Radiative transfer modeling is used to model the observations taking into account multiple scattering from aerosols and the spherical geometry of the limb observations. Both dust and water ice vertical profiles often show a significant vertical structure for nearly all seasons and latitudes that is not consistent with the well-mixed or Conrath-v assumptions that have often been used in the past for describing aerosol vertical profiles for retrieval and modeling purposes. Significant variations are seen in the retrieved vertical profiles of dust and water ice aerosol as a function of season. Dust typically extends to higher altitudes (approx. 40-50km) during the perihelion season than during the aphelion season (water ice clouds are common, and water ice aerosols are observed to cap the dust layer in all seasons.

  9. Sea ice-albedo climate feedback mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schramm, J.L.; Curry, J.A. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Ebert, E.E. [Bureau of Meterology Research Center, Melbourne (Australia)

    1995-02-01

    The sea ice-albedo feedback mechanism over the Arctic Ocean multiyear sea ice is investigated by conducting a series of experiments using several one-dimensional models of the coupled sea ice-atmosphere system. In its simplest form, ice-albedo feedback is thought to be associated with a decrease in the areal cover of snow and ice and a corresponding increase in the surface temperature, further decreasing the area cover of snow and ice. It is shown that the sea ice-albedo feedback can operate even in multiyear pack ice, without the disappearance of this ice, associated with internal processes occurring within the multiyear ice pack (e.g., duration of the snow cover, ice thickness, ice distribution, lead fraction, and melt pond characteristics). The strength of the ice-albedo feedback mechanism is compared for several different thermodynamic sea ice models: a new model that includes ice thickness distribution., the Ebert and Curry model, the Mayjut and Untersteiner model, and the Semtner level-3 and level-0 models. The climate forcing is chosen to be a perturbation of the surface heat flux, and cloud and water vapor feedbacks are inoperative so that the effects of the sea ice-albedo feedback mechanism can be isolated. The inclusion of melt ponds significantly strengthens the ice-albedo feedback, while the ice thickness distribution decreases the strength of the modeled sea ice-albedo feedback. It is emphasized that accurately modeling present-day sea ice thickness is not adequate for a sea ice parameterization; the correct physical processes must be included so that the sea ice parameterization yields correct sensitivities to external forcing. 22 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Effect of MeV Electron Radiation on Europa’s Surface Ice Analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudipati, Murthy; Henderson, Bryana; Bateman, Fred

    2017-10-01

    MeV electrons that impact Europa’s trailing hemisphere and cause both physical and chemical alteration of the surface and near-surface. The trailing hemisphere receives far lower fluxes above 25 MeV as compared with lower energy particles, but can cause significant chemical and physical modifications at these energies. With NASA's planned Europa Clipper mission and a Europa Lander Concept on the horizon, it is critical to understand and quantify the effect of Europa’s radiation environment on the surface and near surface.Electrons penetrate through ice by far the deepest at any given energy compared to protons and ions, making the role of electrons very important to understand. In addition, secondary radiation - Bremsstrahlung, in X-ray wavelengths - is generated during high-energy particle penetration through solids. Secondary X-rays are equally lethal to life and penetrate even deeper than electrons, making the cumulative effect of radiation on damaging organic matter on the near surface of Europa a complex process that could have effects several meters below Europa’s surface. Other physical properties such as coloration could be caused by radiation.In order to quantify this effect under realistic Europa trailing hemisphere conditions, we devised, built, tested, and obtained preliminary results using our ICE-HEART instrument prototype totally funded by JPL’s internal competition funding for Research and Technology Development. Our Ice Chamber for Europa High-Energy Electron And Radiation-Environment Testing (ICE-HEART) operates at ~100 K. We have also implemented a magnet that is used to remove primary electrons subsequent to passing through an ice column, in order to determine the flux of secondary X-radiation and its penetration through ice.Some of the first results from these studies will be presented and their relevance to understand physical and chemical properties of Europa’s trailing hemisphere surface.This work has been carried out at Jet

  11. Mass balance and surface movement of the Greenland Ice Sheet at Summit, Central Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidberg, C.S.; Keller, K.; Gundestrup, N.S.

    1997-01-01

    During the GRIP deep drilling in Central Greenland, the ice sheet topography and surface movement at Summit has been mapped with GPS. Measurements of the surface velocity are presented for a strain net consisting of 13 poles at distances of 25-60 km from the GRIP site. Some results are: The GRIP...... site is located approximately 2 km NW of the topographic summit; the surface velocity at the GISP 2 site is 1.7 m/yr in the W direction. The present mass balance at Summit is calculated to be -0.03+/-0.04 m/yr, i.e. close to steady state. This result is the best now available for Summit. A small...... thinning rate might be a transient response of the Greenland Ice Sheet due to the temperature increase at the Wisconsin-Holocene transition....

  12. Electrophysiological and behavioural responses of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) cooled in ices water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambooij, E.; Bracke, M.B.M.; Reimert, H.G.M.; Foss, A.; Imsland, A.; Vis, van de J.W.

    2015-01-01

    Behavioural, neural and physiological aspects related to pre-slaughter cooling of turbot habituated to two environmental temperatures (18.7 and 12.0 °C) were investigated. Six fish in both treatments were immersed in ice water for 75 min. For control, four fish were immersed in water under their

  13. A Molecular Explanation of How the Fog Is Produced When Dry Ice Is Placed in Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntzleman, Thomas S.; Ford, Nathan; No, Jin-Hwan; Ott, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    Everyone enjoys seeing the cloudy white fog generated when solid carbon dioxide (dry ice) is placed in water. Have you ever wondered what physical and chemical processes occur to produce this fog? When asked this question, many chemical educators suggest that the fog is produced when atmospheric water vapor condenses on cold carbon dioxide gas…

  14. 3D Micro-topography of Transferred Laboratory and Natural Ice Crystal Surfaces Imaged by Cryo and Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, N. B.; Boaggio, K.; Bancroft, L.; Bandamede, M.

    2015-12-01

    Recent work has highlighted micro-scale roughness on the surfaces of ice crystals grown and imaged in-situ within the chambers of environmental scanning electron microscopes (ESEM). These observations appear to align with theoretical and satellite observations that suggest a prevalence of rough ice in cirrus clouds. However, the atmospheric application of the lab observations are indeterminate because the observations have been based only on crystals grown on substrates and in pure-water vapor environments. In this work, we present details and results from the development of a transfer technique which allows natural and lab-grown ice and snow crystals to be captured, preserved, and transferred into the ESEM for 3D imaging. Ice crystals were gathered from 1) natural snow, 2) a balloon-borne cirrus particle capture device, and 3) lab-grown ice crystals from a diffusion chamber. Ice crystals were captured in a pre-conditioned small-volume (~1 cm3) cryo-containment cell. The cell was then sealed closed and transferred to a specially-designed cryogenic dewer (filled with liquid nitrogen or crushed dry ice) for transport to a new Hitachi Field Emission, Variable Pressure SEM (SU-5000). The cryo-cell was then removed from the dewer and quickly placed onto the pre-conditioned cryo transfer stage attached to the ESEM (Quorum 3010T). Quantitative 3D topographical digital elevation models of ice surfaces are reported from SEM for the first time, including a variety of objective measures of statistical surface roughness. The surfaces of the transported crystals clearly exhibit signatures of mesoscopic roughening that are similar to examples of roughness seen in ESEM-grown crystals. For most transported crystals, the habits and crystal edges are more intricate that those observed for ice grown directly on substrates within the ESEM chamber. Portions of some crystals do appear smooth even at magnification greater than 1000x, a rare observation in our ESEM-grown crystals. The

  15. Insight into biogeochemical inputs and composition of Greenland Ice Sheet surface snow and glacial forefield river catchment environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Karen; Hagedorn, Birgit; Dieser, Markus; Christner, Brent; Choquette, Kyla; Sletten, Ronald; Lui, Lu; Junge, Karen

    2014-05-01

    The volume of freshwater transported from Greenland to surrounding marine waters has tended to increase annually over the past four decades as a result of warmer surface air temperatures (Bamber et al 2012, Hanna et al 2008). Ice sheet run off is estimated to make up approximately of third of this volume (Bamber et al 2012). However, the biogeochemical composition and seeding sources of the Greenland Ice Sheet supraglacial landscape is largely unknown. In this study, the structure and diversity of surface snow microbial assemblages from two regions of the western Greenland Ice Sheet ice-margin was investigated through the sequencing of small subunit rRNA genes. Furthermore, the origins of microbiota were investigated by examining correlations to molecular data obtained from marine, soil, freshwater and atmospheric environments and to geochemical analytes measured in the snow. Snow was found to contain a diverse assemblage of bacteria (Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria) and eukarya (Alveolata, Fungi, Stramenopiles and Viridiplantae). Phylotypes related to archaeal Thaumarchaeota and Euryarchaeota phyla were also identified. The structure of microbial assemblages was found to have strong similarities to communities sampled from marine and air environments, and sequences obtained from the South-West region, near Kangerlussuaq, which is bordered by an extensive periglacial expanse, had additional resemblances to soil originating communities. Strong correlations were found between bacterial beta diversity and Na+ and Cl- concentrations. These data suggest that surface snow from western regions of Greenland contain microbiota that are most likely derived from exogenous, wind transported sources. Downstream of the supraglacial environment, Greenland's rivers likely influence the ecology of localized estuary and marine systems. Here we characterize the geochemical and biotic composition of a glacial and glacial forefield fed river catchment in

  16. Surface Mass Balance Contributions to Acceleration of Antarctic Ice Mass Loss during 2003- 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, K. W.; Wilson, C. R.; Scambos, T. A.; Kim, B. M.; Waliser, D. E.; Tian, B.; Kim, B.; Eom, J.

    2015-12-01

    Recent observations from satellite gravimetry (the GRACE mission) suggest an acceleration of ice mass loss from the Antarctic Ice Sheet (AIS). The contribution of surface mass balance changes (due to variable precipitation) is compared with GRACE-derived mass loss acceleration by assessing the estimated contribution of snow mass from meteorological reanalysis data. We find that over much of the continent, the acceleration can be explained by precipitation anomalies. However, on the Antarctic Peninsula and other parts of West Antarctica mass changes are not explained by precipitation and are likely associated with ice discharge rate increases. The total apparent GRACE acceleration over all of the AIS between 2003 and 2013 is -13.6±7.2 GTon/yr2. Of this total, we find that the surface mass balance component is -8.2±2.0 GTon/yr2. However, the GRACE estimate appears to contain errors arising from the atmospheric pressure fields used to remove air mass effects. The estimated acceleration error from this effect is about 9.8±5.8 GTon/yr2. Correcting for this yields an ice discharge acceleration of -15.1±6.5 GTon/yr2.

  17. Bioinspired Materials for Controlling Ice Nucleation, Growth, and Recrystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhiyuan; Liu, Kai; Wang, Jianjun

    2018-05-15

    Ice formation, mainly consisting of ice nucleation, ice growth, and ice recrystallization, is ubiquitous and crucial in wide-ranging fields from cryobiology to atmospheric physics. Despite active research for more than a century, the mechanism of ice formation is still far from satisfactory. Meanwhile, nature has unique ways of controlling ice formation and can provide resourceful avenues to unravel the mechanism of ice formation. For instance, antifreeze proteins (AFPs) protect living organisms from freezing damage via controlling ice formation, for example, tuning ice nucleation, shaping ice crystals, and inhibiting ice growth and recrystallization. In addition, AFP mimics can have applications in cryopreservation of cells, tissues, and organs, food storage, and anti-icing materials. Therefore, continuous efforts have been made to understand the mechanism of AFPs and design AFP inspired materials. In this Account, we first review our recent research progress in understanding the mechanism of AFPs in controlling ice formation. A Janus effect of AFPs on ice nucleation was discovered, which was achieved via selectively tethering the ice-binding face (IBF) or the non-ice-binding face (NIBF) of AFPs to solid surfaces and investigating specifically the effect of the other face on ice nucleation. Through molecular dynamics (MD) simulation analysis, we observed ordered hexagonal ice-like water structure atop the IBF and disordered water structure atop the NIBF. Therefore, we conclude that the interfacial water plays a critical role in controlling ice formation. Next, we discuss the design and fabrication of AFP mimics with capabilities in tuning ice nucleation and controlling ice shape and growth, as well as inhibiting ice recrystallization. For example, we tuned ice nucleation via modifying solid surfaces with supercharged unfolded polypeptides (SUPs) and polyelectrolyte brushes (PBs) with different counterions. We found graphene oxide (GO) and oxidized quasi

  18. Investigation of heterogeneous ice nucleation in pollen suspensions and washing water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreischmeier, Katharina; Budke, Carsten; Koop, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Biological particles such as pollen often show ice nucleation activity at temperatures higher than -20 °C. Immersion freezing experiments of pollen washing water demonstrate comparable ice nucleation behaviour as water containing the whole pollen bodies (Pummer et al., 2012). It was suggested that polysaccharide molecules leached from the grains are responsible for the ice nucleation. Here, heterogeneous ice nucleation in birch pollen suspensions and their washing water was investigated by two different experimental methods. The optical freezing array BINARY (Bielefeld Ice Nucleation ARraY) allows the direct observation of freezing of microliter-sized droplets. The IN spectra obtained from such experiments with birch pollen suspensions over a large concentration range indicate several different ice nucleation active species, two of which are present also in the washing water. The latter was probed also in differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) experiments of emulsified sub-picoliter droplets. Due to the small droplet size in the emulsion samples and at small concentration of IN in the washing water, such DSC experiments can exhibit the ice nucleation behaviour of a single nucleus. The two heterogeneous freezing signals observed in the DSC thermograms can be assigned to two different kinds of ice nuclei, confirming the observation from the BINARY measurements, and also previous studies on Swedish birch pollen washing water (Augustin et al., 2012). The authors gratefully acknowledge funding by the German Research Foundation (DFG) through the project BIOCLOUDS (KO 2944/1-1) and through the research unit INUIT (FOR 1525) under KO 2944/2-1. We particularly thank our INUIT partners for fruitful collaboration and sharing of ideas and IN samples. S. Augustin, H. Wex, D. Niedermeier, B. Pummer, H. Grothe, S. Hartmann, L. Tomsche, T. Clauss, J. Voigtländer, K. Ignatius, and F. Stratmann, Immersion freezing of birch pollen washing water, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 10989

  19. Suppression of the water ice and snow albedo feedback on planets orbiting red dwarf stars and the subsequent widening of the habitable zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Manoj M; Haberle, Robert M

    2012-01-01

    M stars comprise 80% of main sequence stars, so their planetary systems provide the best chance for finding habitable planets, that is, those with surface liquid water. We have modeled the broadband albedo or reflectivity of water ice and snow for simulated planetary surfaces orbiting two observed red dwarf stars (or M stars), using spectrally resolved data of Earth's cryosphere. The gradual reduction of the albedos of snow and ice at wavelengths greater than 1 μm, combined with M stars emitting a significant fraction of their radiation at these same longer wavelengths, means that the albedos of ice and snow on planets orbiting M stars are much lower than their values on Earth. Our results imply that the ice/snow albedo climate feedback is significantly weaker for planets orbiting M stars than for planets orbiting G-type stars such as the Sun. In addition, planets with significant ice and snow cover will have significantly higher surface temperatures for a given stellar flux if the spectral variation of cryospheric albedo is considered, which in turn implies that the outer edge of the habitable zone around M stars may be 10-30% farther away from the parent star than previously thought.

  20. Sensitivity of Greenland Ice Sheet surface mass balance to surface albedo parameterization: a study with a regional climate model

    OpenAIRE

    Angelen, J. H.; Lenaerts, J. T. M.; Lhermitte, S.; Fettweis, X.; Kuipers Munneke, P.; Broeke, M. R.; Meijgaard, E.; Smeets, C. J. P. P.

    2012-01-01

    We present a sensitivity study of the surface mass balance (SMB) of the Greenland Ice Sheet, as modeled using a regional atmospheric climate model, to various parameter settings in the albedo scheme. The snow albedo scheme uses grain size as a prognostic variable and further depends on cloud cover, solar zenith angle and black carbon concentration. For the control experiment the overestimation of absorbed shortwave radiation (+6%) at the K-transect (west Greenland) for the period 2004–2009 is...

  1. Validation of the Suomi NPP VIIRS Ice Surface Temperature Environmental Data Record

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinghui Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Continuous monitoring of the surface temperature is critical to understanding and forecasting Arctic climate change; as surface temperature integrates changes in the surface energy budget. The sea-ice surface temperature (IST has been measured with optical and thermal infrared sensors for many years. With the IST Environmental Data Record (EDR available from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS onboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP and future Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS satellites; we can continue to monitor and investigate Arctic climate change. This work examines the quality of the VIIRS IST EDR. Validation is performed through comparisons with multiple datasets; including NASA IceBridge measurements; air temperature from Arctic drifting ice buoys; Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS IST; MODIS IST simultaneous nadir overpass (SNO; and surface air temperature from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR reanalysis. Results show biases of −0.34; −0.12; 0.16; −3.20; and −3.41 K compared to an aircraft-mounted downward-looking pyrometer; MODIS; MODIS SNO; drifting buoy; and NCEP/NCAR reanalysis; respectively; root-mean-square errors of 0.98; 1.02; 0.95; 4.89; and 6.94 K; and root-mean-square errors with the bias removed of 0.92; 1.01; 0.94; 3.70; and 6.04 K. Based on the IceBridge and MODIS results; the VIIRS IST uncertainty (RMSE meets or exceeds the JPSS system requirement of 1.0 K. The product can therefore be considered useful for meteorological and climatological applications.

  2. The Secret of the Svalbard Sea Ice Barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, Son V.; Van Woert, Michael L.; Neumann, Gregory

    2004-01-01

    An elongated sea ice feature called the Svalbard sea ice barrier rapidly formed over an area in the Barents Sea to the east of Svalbard posing navigation hazards. The secret of its formation lies in the bottom bathymetry that governs the distribution of cold Arctic waters masses, which impacts sea ice growth on the water surface.

  3. Dissected Mantle Terrain on Mars: Formation Mechanisms and the Implications for Mid- latitude Near-surface Ground Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searls, M. L.; Mellon, M. T.

    2008-12-01

    Determining the present and past distribution of surface and subsurface ice on Mars is critical for understanding the volatile inventory and climatic history of the planet. An analysis of a latitude-dependent layer of surface material known as the dissected mantle terrain can provide valuable insight into the distribution of ice in the recent past. The dissected mantle terrain is a surface unit that occurs globally in the mid-latitude of Mars. This unit is characterized by a smooth mantle of uniform thickness and albedo that is draped over the existing topography. This smooth mantle is disaggregated and dissected in places resulting in a hummocky pitted appearance. We propose that the mid-latitude dissected terrain results from collapse of a dusty mantle into the void left from desiccation of an underlying ice-rich (pure or dirty ice) layer. During period(s) of high obliquity, it is possible for ice to become stable at lower latitudes. Due to lack of direct solar insolation, surface ice deposits will preferentially accumulate on pole-ward facing slopes first. A mantle of dust and dirt is then deposited on top of these ice-rich deposits. As the climate changes, desiccation of the now buried ice leads to collapse of the overlying dusty layer resulting in a hummocky pitted appearance. This theory is supported by the pole-ward preference for the dissection pits as well an increase in dissection with increasing latitude. A study of the global distribution of the mid-latitude dissected terrain can provide invaluable clues towards unlocking the distribution of ice in the recent past. An analysis of HiRISE images and MOLA data indicate that the distribution of dissection pits varies from one region to the next. Knowing the distribution of ice in conjunction with ice stability modeling can provide a global view of the climate and orbital history of Mars at the time these features formed.

  4. EPR Evidence of Liquid Water in Ice: An Intrinsic Property of Water or a Self-Confinement Effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangswamy, Muthulakshmi; Maheshwari, Priya; Dutta, Dhanadeep; Rane, Vinayak; Pujari, Pradeep K

    2018-06-01

    Liquid water (LW) existence in pure ice below 273 K has been a controversial aspect primarily because of the lack of experimental evidence. Recently, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) has been used to study deeply supercooled water in a rapidly frozen polycrystalline ice. The same technique can also be used to probe the presence of LW in polycrystalline ice that has formed through a more conventional, slow cooling one. In this context, the present study aims to emphasize that in case of an external probe involving techniques such as EPR, the results are influenced by the binary phase (BP) diagram of the probe-water system, which also predicts the existence of LW domains in ice, up to the eutectic point. Here we report the results of our such EPR spin-probe studies on water, which demonstrate that smaller the concentration of the probe stronger is the EPR evidence of liquid domains in polycrystalline ice. We used computer simulations based on stochastic Liouville theory to analyze the lineshapes of the EPR spectra. We show that the presence of the spin probe modifies the BP diagram of water, at very low concentrations of the spin probe. The spin probe thus acts, not like a passive reporter of the behavior of the solvent and its environment, but as an active impurity to influence the solvent. We show that there exists a lower critical concentration, below which BP diagram needs to be modified, by incorporating the effect of confinement of the spin probe. With this approach, we demonstrate that the observed EPR evidence of LW domains in ice can be accounted for by the modified BP diagram of the probe-water system. The present work highlights the importance of taking cognizance of the possibility of spin probes affecting the host systems, when interpreting the EPR (or any other probe based spectroscopic) results of phase transitions of host, as its ignorance may lead to serious misinterpretations.

  5. Freezing on a Chip—A New Approach to Determine Heterogeneous Ice Nucleation of Micrometer-Sized Water Droplets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Häusler

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We are presenting a new approach to analyze the freezing behavior of aqueous droplets containing ice nucleating particles. The freezing chip consists of an etched and sputtered (15 × 15 × 1 mm gold-plated silicon or pure gold chip, enabling the formation of droplets with defined diameters between 20 and 80 µm. Several applications like an automated process control and an automated image evaluation were implemented to improve the quality of heterogeneous freezing experiments. To show the functionality of the setup, we compared freezing temperatures of aqueous droplets containing ice nucleating particles (i.e., microcline, birch pollen washing water, juniper pollen, and Snomax® solution measured with our setup, with literature data. The ice nucleation active surface/mass site density (ns/m of microcline, juniper pollen, and birch pollen washing water are shown to be in good agreement with literature data. Minor variations can be explained by slight differences in composition and droplet generation technique. The nm values of Snomax® differ by up to one order of magnitude at higher subzero temperatures when compared with fresh samples but are in agreement when compared with reported data of aged Snomax® samples.

  6. Nonthermal ice nucleation observed at distorted contact lines of supercooled water drops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Cruikshank, Owen; He, Weilue; Kostinski, Alex; Shaw, Raymond A

    2018-02-01

    Ice nucleation is the crucial step for ice formation in atmospheric clouds and therefore underlies climatologically relevant precipitation and radiative properties. Progress has been made in understanding the roles of temperature, supersaturation, and material properties, but an explanation for the efficient ice nucleation occurring when a particle contacts a supercooled water drop has been elusive for over half a century. Here, we explore ice nucleation initiated at constant temperature and observe that mechanical agitation induces freezing of supercooled water drops at distorted contact lines. Results show that symmetric motion of supercooled water on a vertically oscillating substrate does not freeze, no matter how we agitate it. However, when the moving contact line is distorted with the help of trace amounts of oil or inhomogeneous pinning on the substrate, freezing can occur at temperatures much higher than in a static droplet, equivalent to ∼10^{10} increase in nucleation rate. Several possible mechanisms are proposed to explain the observations. One plausible explanation among them, decreased pressure due to interface curvature, is explored theoretically and compared with the observational results quasiquantitatively. Indeed, the observed freezing-temperature increase scales with contact line speed in a manner consistent with the pressure hypothesis. Whatever the mechanism, the experiments demonstrate a strong preference for ice nucleation at three-phase contact lines compared to the two-phase interface, and they also show that movement and distortion of the contact line are necessary contributions to stimulating the nucleation process.

  7. Hydroelectric power development and the ice regime of inland waters: A northern community perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerard, R.

    1989-03-01

    Inland waters play a vital role in the life of the many small northern communities which depend in large measure on the provisions of the natural environment for their sustenance. These communities are therefore particularly vulnerable to changes in the ice regime of these waters, especially changes that are irregular. However, the north is also the site of much of Canada's hydroelectric power development and potential, developments that have a major influence on the ice regime of effected waters. As a contribution to the background information required for the necessary discussions and negotiations associated with such developments, the various aspects of the natural ice regime, the possible effects of hydroelectric development and operation on this regime, and its consequences, are briefly reviewed. The emphasis has been placed on changes that will likely be of most significance to northern communities in the bedrock-controlled country of the western Canadian Shield. The major direct, and in some circumstances life-threatening, impact of changes to the ice regime is on trafficability of the iceways that play such a vital role in the life of the communities. Hence particular emphasis has been placed on this aspect and on the formation of the slush and thin ice conditions that are the bane of over-ice travel and that are subject to unexpected changes by hydroelectric development and operation. To place these changes and their effects in some perspective, the nature of a hydroelectric development is also briefly described and an effort made to indicate the large costs incurred if these developments are restrained in their operation to avoid or mitigate some of the effects on the ice regime. 31 refs., 57 figs., 1 tab

  8. High Ice Water Concentrations in the 19 August 2015 Coastal Mesoconvective System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Fred H.; Harrah, Steven; Switzer, George F.; Strickland, Justin K.; Hunt, Patricia J.

    2017-01-01

    During August 2015, NASA's DC-8 research aircraft was flown into High Ice Water Content (HIWC) events as part of a three-week campaign to collect airborne radar data and to obtain measurements from microphysical probes. Goals for this flight campaign included improved characterization of HIWC events, especially from an airborne radar perspective. This paper focuses on one of the flight days, in which a coastal mesoscale convective system (MCS) was investigated for HIWC conditions. The system appears to have been maintained by bands of convection flowing in from the Gulf of Mexico. These convective bands were capped by a large cloud canopy, which masks the underlying structure if viewed from an infrared sensing satellite. The DC-8 was equipped with an IsoKinetic Probe that measured ice concentrations of up to 2.3 g m(exp -3) within the cloud canopy of this system. Sustained measurements of ice crystals with concentrations exceeding 1 g m(exp -3) were encountered for up to ten minutes of flight time. Airborne Radar reflectivity factors were found to be weak within these regions of high ice water concentrations, suggesting that Radar detection of HIWC would be a challenging endeavor. This case is then investigated using a three-dimensional numerical cloud model. Profiles of ice water concentrations and radar reflectivity factor demonstrate similar magnitudes and scales between the flight measurements and model simulation. Also discussed are recent modifications to the numerical model's ice-microphysics that are based on measurements during the flight campaign. The numerical model and its updated ice-microphysics are further validated with a simulation of a well-known case of a supercell hailstorm measured during the Cooperative Convective Precipitation Experiment. Differences in HIWC between the continental supercell and the coastal MCS are discussed.

  9. Ice and water droplets on graphite: A comparison of quantum and classical simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramírez, Rafael; Singh, Jayant K.; Müller-Plathe, Florian; Böhm, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    Ice and water droplets on graphite have been studied by quantum path integral and classical molecular dynamics simulations. The point-charge q-TIP4P/F potential was used to model the interaction between flexible water molecules, while the water-graphite interaction was described by a Lennard-Jones potential previously used to reproduce the macroscopic contact angle of water droplets on graphite. Several energetic and structural properties of water droplets with sizes between 10 2 and 10 3 molecules were analyzed in a temperature interval of 50–350 K. The vibrational density of states of crystalline and amorphous ice drops was correlated to the one of ice Ih to assess the influence of the droplet interface and molecular disorder on the vibrational properties. The average distance of covalent OH bonds is found 0.01 Å larger in the quantum limit than in the classical one. The OO distances are elongated by 0.03 Å in the quantum simulations at 50 K. Bond distance fluctuations are large as a consequence of the zero-point vibrations. The analysis of the H-bond network shows that the liquid droplet is more structured in the classical limit than in the quantum case. The average kinetic and potential energy of the ice and water droplets on graphite has been compared with the values of ice Ih and liquid water as a function of temperature. The droplet kinetic energy shows a temperature dependence similar to the one of liquid water, without apparent discontinuity at temperatures where the droplet is solid. However, the droplet potential energy becomes significantly larger than the one of ice or water at the same temperature. In the quantum limit, the ice droplet is more expanded than in a classical description. Liquid droplets display identical density profiles and liquid-vapor interfaces in the quantum and classical limits. The value of the contact angle is not influenced by quantum effects. Contact angles of droplets decrease as the size of the water droplet increases

  10. Electrical Capacitance Tomography Measurement of the Migration of Ice Frontal Surface in Freezing Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu J.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The tracking of the migration of ice frontal surface is crucial for the understanding of the underlying physical mechanisms in freezing soil. Owing to the distinct advantages, including non-invasive sensing, high safety, low cost and high data acquisition speed, the electrical capacitance tomography (ECT is considered to be a promising visualization measurement method. In this paper, the ECT method is used to visualize the migration of ice frontal surface in freezing soil. With the main motivation of the improvement of imaging quality, a loss function with multiple regularizers that incorporate the prior formation related to the imaging objects is proposed to cast the ECT image reconstruction task into an optimization problem. An iteration scheme that integrates the superiority of the split Bregman iteration (SBI method is developed for searching for the optimal solution of the proposed loss function. An unclosed electrodes sensor is designed for satisfying the requirements of practical measurements. An experimental system of one dimensional freezing in frozen soil is constructed, and the ice frontal surface migration in the freezing process of the wet soil sample containing five percent of moisture is measured. The visualization measurement results validate the feasibility and effectiveness of the ECT visualization method

  11. Approximating Matsubara dynamics using the planetary model: Tests on liquid water and ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willatt, Michael J.; Ceriotti, Michele; Althorpe, Stuart C.

    2018-03-01

    Matsubara dynamics is the quantum-Boltzmann-conserving classical dynamics which remains when real-time coherences are taken out of the exact quantum Liouvillian [T. J. H. Hele et al., J. Chem. Phys. 142, 134103 (2015)]; because of a phase-term, it cannot be used as a practical method without further approximation. Recently, Smith et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 142, 244112 (2015)] developed a "planetary" model dynamics which conserves the Feynman-Kleinert (FK) approximation to the quantum-Boltzmann distribution. Here, we show that for moderately anharmonic potentials, the planetary dynamics gives a good approximation to Matsubara trajectories on the FK potential surface by decoupling the centroid trajectory from the locally harmonic Matsubara fluctuations, which reduce to a single phase-less fluctuation particle (the "planet"). We also show that the FK effective frequency can be approximated by a direct integral over these fluctuations, obviating the need to solve iterative equations. This modification, together with use of thermostatted ring-polymer molecular dynamics, allows us to test the planetary model on water (gas-phase, liquid, and ice) using the q-TIP4P/F potential surface. The "planetary" fluctuations give a poor approximation to the rotational/librational bands in the infrared spectrum, but a good approximation to the bend and stretch bands, where the fluctuation lineshape is found to be motionally narrowed by the vibrations of the centroid.

  12. Global glacier and ice sheet surface velocities derived from 31 years of Landsat imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, A. S.; Scambos, T. A.; Fahnestock, M. A.

    2016-12-01

    Glaciers and ice sheets are contributing substantial volumes of water to the world's oceans due to enhanced melt resulting from changes in ocean and atmospheric conditions and respective feedbacks. Improving understanding of the processes leading to accelerated rates of ice loss is necessary for reducing uncertainties sea level projections. One key to doing this is to assemble and analyze long records of glacier change that characterize grounded ice response to changes in driving stress, buttressing, and basal conditions. As part of the NASA funded GO_LIVE project we exploit 31 years of Landsat imagery to construct detailed time histories of global glacier velocities. Early exploration of the dataset reveals the diversity of information to be gleaned: sudden tidewater glacier speedups in the Antarctic Peninsula, rifting of Antarctic ice shelves, high variability in velocities near glacier grounding lines, frequent surge activity in the mountainous regions of Alaska and High Mountain Asia, and the slowdown of land-terminating valley glaciers in Arctic Canada and elsewhere.

  13. Open-water and under-ice seasonal variations in trace element content and physicochemical associations in fluvial bed sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doig, Lorne E; Carr, Meghan K; Meissner, Anna G N; Jardine, Tim D; Jones, Paul D; Bharadwaj, Lalita; Lindenschmidt, Karl-Erich

    2017-11-01

    Across the circumpolar world, intensive anthropogenic activities in the southern reaches of many large, northward-flowing rivers can cause sediment contamination in the downstream depositional environment. The influence of ice cover on concentrations of inorganic contaminants in bed sediment (i.e., sediment quality) is unknown in these rivers, where winter is the dominant season. A geomorphic response unit approach was used to select hydraulically diverse sampling sites across a northern test-case system, the Slave River and delta (Northwest Territories, Canada). Surface sediment samples (top 1 cm) were collected from 6 predefined geomorphic response units (12 sites) to assess the relationships between bed sediment physicochemistry (particle size distribution and total organic carbon content) and trace element content (mercury and 18 other trace elements) during open-water conditions. A subset of sites was resampled under-ice to assess the influence of season on these relationships and on total trace element content. Concentrations of the majority of trace elements were strongly correlated with percent fines and proxies for grain size (aluminum and iron), with similar trace element grain size/grain size proxy relationships between seasons. However, finer materials were deposited under ice with associated increases in sediment total organic carbon content and the concentrations of most trace elements investigated. The geomorphic response unit approach was effective at identifying diverse hydrological environments for sampling prior to field operations. Our data demonstrate the need for under-ice sampling to confirm year-round consistency in trace element-geochemical relationships in fluvial systems and to define the upper extremes of these relationships. Whether contaminated or not, under-ice bed sediment can represent a "worst-case" scenario in terms of trace element concentrations and exposure for sediment-associated organisms in northern fluvial systems

  14. Modelling the surface mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet and neighbouring ice caps : A dynamical and statistical downscaling approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noël, B.P.Y.

    2018-01-01

    The Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) is the world’s second largest ice mass, storing about one tenth of the Earth’s freshwater. If totally melted, global sea level would rise by 7.4 m, affecting low-lying regions worldwide. Since the mid-1990s, increased atmospheric and oceanic temperatures have

  15. Endmembers of Ice Shelf Melt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boghosian, A.; Child, S. F.; Kingslake, J.; Tedesco, M.; Bell, R. E.; Alexandrov, O.; McMichael, S.

    2017-12-01

    Studies of surface melt on ice shelves have defined a spectrum of meltwater behavior. On one end the storage of meltwater in persistent surface ponds can trigger ice shelf collapse as in the 2002 event leading to the disintegration of the Larsen B Ice Shelf. On the other, meltwater export by rivers can stabilize an ice shelf as was recently shown on the Nansen Ice Shelf. We explore this dichotomy by quantifying the partitioning between stored and transported water on two glaciers adjacent to floating ice shelves, Nimrod (Antarctica) and Peterman (Greenland). We analyze optical satellite imagery (LANDSAT, WorldView), airborne imagery (Operation IceBridge, Trimetrogon Aerial Phototography), satellite radar (Sentinel-1), and digital elevation models (DEMs) to categorize surface meltwater fate and map the evolution of ice shelf hydrology and topographic features through time. On the floating Peterman Glacier tongue a sizable river exports water to the ocean. The surface hydrology of Nimrod Glacier, geometrically similar to Peterman but with ten times shallower surface slope, is dominated by storage in surface lakes. In contrast, the Nansen has the same surface slope as Nimrod but transports water through surface rivers. Slope alone is not the sole control on ice shelf hydrology. It is essential to track the storage and transport volumes for each of these systems. To estimate water storage and transport we analyze high resolution (40 cm - 2 m) modern and historical DEMs. We produce historical (1957 onwards) DEMs with structure-from-motion photogrammetry. The DEMs are used to constrain water storage potential estimates of observed basins and water routing/transport potential. We quantify the total volume of water stored seasonally and interannually. We use the normalize difference water index to map meltwater extent, and estimate lake water depth from optical data. We also consider the role of stored water in subsurface aquifers in recharging surface water after

  16. Benchmarking a first-principles thermal neutron scattering law for water ice with a diffusion experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holmes Jesse

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The neutron scattering properties of water ice are of interest to the nuclear criticality safety community for the transport and storage of nuclear materials in cold environments. The common hexagonal phase ice Ih has locally ordered, but globally disordered, H2O molecular orientations. A 96-molecule supercell is modeled using the VASP ab initio density functional theory code and PHONON lattice dynamics code to calculate the phonon vibrational spectra of H and O in ice Ih. These spectra are supplied to the LEAPR module of the NJOY2012 nuclear data processing code to generate thermal neutron scattering laws for H and O in ice Ih in the incoherent approximation. The predicted vibrational spectra are optimized to be representative of the globally averaged ice Ih structure by comparing theoretically calculated and experimentally measured total cross sections and inelastic neutron scattering spectra. The resulting scattering kernel is then supplied to the MC21 Monte Carlo transport code to calculate time eigenvalues for the fundamental mode decay in ice cylinders at various temperatures. Results are compared to experimental flux decay measurements for a pulsed-neutron die-away diffusion benchmark.

  17. Viscous organic aerosol particles in the upper troposphere: diffusivity-controlled water uptake and ice nucleation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Lienhard

    2015-12-01

    secondary organic aerosol (SOA material produced by oxidation of α-pinene and in a number of organic/inorganic model mixtures (3-methylbutane-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid (3-MBTCA, levoglucosan, levoglucosan/NH4HSO4, raffinose are presented. These indicate that water diffusion coefficients are determined by several properties of the aerosol substance and cannot be inferred from the glass transition temperature or bouncing properties. Our results suggest that water diffusion in SOA particles is faster than often assumed and imposes no significant kinetic limitation on water uptake and release at temperatures above 220 K. The fast diffusion of water suggests that heterogeneous ice nucleation on a glassy core is very unlikely in these systems. At temperatures below 220 K, model simulations of SOA particles suggest that heterogeneous ice nucleation may occur in the immersion mode on glassy cores which remain embedded in a liquid shell when experiencing fast updraft velocities. The particles absorb significant quantities of water during these updrafts which plasticize their outer layers such that these layers equilibrate readily with the gas phase humidity before the homogeneous ice nucleation threshold is reached. Glass formation is thus unlikely to restrict homogeneous ice nucleation. Only under most extreme conditions near the very high tropical tropopause may the homogeneous ice nucleation rate coefficient be reduced as a consequence of slow condensed-phase water diffusion. Since the differences between the behavior limited or non limited by diffusion are small even at the very high tropical tropopause, condensed-phase water diffusivity is unlikely to have significant consequences on the direct climatic effects of SOA particles under tropospheric conditions.

  18. Distribution and Characteristics of Boulder Halos at High Latitudes on Mars: Ground Ice and Surface Processes Drive Surface Reworking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, J. S.; Fassett, C. I.; Rader, L. X.; King, I. R.; Chaffey, P. M.; Wagoner, C. M.; Hanlon, A. E.; Watters, J. L.; Kreslavsky, M. A.; Holt, J. W.; Russell, A. T.; Dyar, M. D.

    2018-02-01

    Boulder halos are circular arrangements of clasts present at Martian middle to high latitudes. Boulder halos are thought to result from impacts into a boulder-poor surficial unit that is rich in ground ice and/or sediments and that is underlain by a competent substrate. In this model, boulders are excavated by impacts and remain at the surface as the crater degrades. To determine the distribution of boulder halos and to evaluate mechanisms for their formation, we searched for boulder halos over 4,188 High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment images located between 50-80° north and 50-80° south latitude. We evaluate geological and climatological parameters at halo sites. Boulder halos are about three times more common in the northern hemisphere than in the southern hemisphere (19% versus 6% of images) and have size-frequency distributions suggesting recent Amazonian formation (tens to hundreds of millions of years). In the north, boulder halo sites are characterized by abundant shallow subsurface ice and high thermal inertia. Spatial patterns of halo distribution indicate that excavation of boulders from beneath nonboulder-bearing substrates is necessary for the formation of boulder halos, but that alone is not sufficient. Rather, surface processes either promote boulder halo preservation in the north or destroy boulder halos in the south. Notably, boulder halos predate the most recent period of near-surface ice emplacement on Mars and persist at the surface atop mobile regolith. The lifetime of observed boulders at the Martian surface is greater than the lifetime of the craters that excavated them. Finally, larger minimum boulder halo sizes in the north indicate thicker icy soil layers on average throughout climate variations driven by spin/orbit changes during the last tens to hundreds of millions of years.

  19. Toward Monitoring Surface and Subsurface Lakes on the Greenland Ice Sheet Using Sentinel-1 SAR and Landsat-8 OLI Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie E. Miles

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Supraglacial lakes are an important component of the Greenland Ice Sheet's mass balance and hydrology, with their drainage affecting ice dynamics. This study uses imagery from the recently launched Sentinel-1A Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR satellite to investigate supraglacial lakes in West Greenland. A semi-automated algorithm is developed to detect surface lakes from Sentinel-1 images during the 2015 summer. A combined Landsat-8 and Sentinel-1 dataset, which has a comparable temporal resolution to MODIS (3 days vs. daily but a higher spatial resolution (25–40 vs. 250–500 m, is then used together with a fully automated lake drainage detection algorithm. Rapid (<4 days and slow (>4 days drainages are investigated for both small (<0.125 km2, the minimum size detectable by MODIS and large (≥0.125 km2 lakes through the summer. Drainage events of small lakes occur at lower elevations (mean 159 m, and slightly earlier (mean 4.5 days in the melt season than those of large lakes. The analysis is extended manually into the early winter to calculate the dates and elevations of lake freeze-through more precisely than is possible with optical imagery (mean 30 August; 1,270 m mean elevation. Finally, the Sentinel-1 imagery is used to detect subsurface lakes and, for the first time, their dates of appearance and freeze-through (mean 9 August and 7 October, respectively. These subsurface lakes occur at higher elevations than the surface lakes detected in this study (mean 1,593 and 1,185 m, respectively. Sentinel-1 imagery therefore provides great potential for tracking melting, water movement and freezing within both the firn zone and ablation area of the Greenland Ice Sheet.

  20. Towards monitoring surface and subsurface lakes on the Greenland Ice Sheet using Sentinel-1 SAR and Landsat-8 OLI imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Katie E.; Willis, Ian C.; Benedek, Corinne L.; Williamson, Andrew G.; Tedesco, Marco

    2017-07-01

    Supraglacial lakes are an important component of the Greenland Ice Sheet’s mass balance and hydrology, with their drainage affecting ice dynamics. This study uses imagery from the recently launched Sentinel-1A Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) satellite to investigate supraglacial lakes in West Greenland. A semi-automated algorithm is developed to detect surface lakes from Sentinel-1 images during the 2015 summer. A combined Landsat-8 and Sentinel-1 dataset, which has a comparable temporal resolution to MODIS (3 days versus daily) but a higher spatial resolution (25-40 m versus 250-500 m), is then used together with a fully-automated lake drainage detection algorithm. Rapid (days) and slow (> 4 days) drainages are investigated for both small (summer. Drainage events of small lakes occur at lower elevations (mean 159 m), and slightly earlier (mean 4.5 days) in the melt season than those of large lakes. The analysis is extended manually into the early winter to calculate the dates and elevations of lake freeze-through more precisely than is possible with optical imagery (mean 30 August; 1270 m mean elevation). Finally, the Sentinel-1 imagery is used to detect subsurface lakes and, for the first time, their dates of appearance and freeze-through (mean 9 August and 7 October, respectively). These subsurface lakes occur at higher elevations than the surface lakes detected in this study (mean 1593 m and 1185 m, respectively). Sentinel-1 imagery therefore provides great potential for tracking melting, water movement and freezing within both the firn zone and ablation area of the Greenland Ice Sheet.

  1. Mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet - a study of ICESat data, surface density and firn compaction modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, L. S.; Simonsen, Sebastian Bjerregaard; Nielsen, K.

    2010-01-01

    ICESat has provided surface elevation measurements of the ice sheets since the launch in January 2003, resulting in a unique data set for monitoring the changes of the cryosphere. Here we present a novel method for determining the mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet derived from ICESat...... in estimating the mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet. We find firn dynamics and surface densities to be important factors in deriving the mass loss from remote sensing altimetry. The volume change derived from ICESat data is corrected for firn compaction, vertical bedrock movement and an intercampaign...... boundary conditions. We find an annual mass loss of the Greenland ice sheet of 210 ± 21 Gt yr-1 in the period from October 2003 to March 2008. This result is in good agreement with other studies of the Greenland ice sheet mass balance, based on different remote sensing techniques....

  2. Development of a Capacitive Ice Sensor to Measure Ice Growth in Real Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Zhi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of the capacitive sensor to measure the growth of ice on a fuel pipe surface in real time. The ice sensor consists of pairs of electrodes to detect the change in capacitance and a thermocouple temperature sensor to examine the ice formation situation. In addition, an environmental chamber was specially designed to control the humidity and temperature to simulate the ice formation conditions. From the humidity, a water film is formed on the ice sensor, which results in an increase in capacitance. Ice nucleation occurs, followed by the rapid formation of frost ice that decreases the capacitance suddenly. The capacitance is saturated. The developed ice sensor explains the ice growth providing information about the icing temperature in real time.

  3. Development of a capacitive ice sensor to measure ice growth in real time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Xiang; Cho, Hyo Chang; Wang, Bo; Ahn, Cheol Hee; Moon, Hyeong Soon; Go, Jeung Sang

    2015-03-19

    This paper presents the development of the capacitive sensor to measure the growth of ice on a fuel pipe surface in real time. The ice sensor consists of pairs of electrodes to detect the change in capacitance and a thermocouple temperature sensor to examine the ice formation situation. In addition, an environmental chamber was specially designed to control the humidity and temperature to simulate the ice formation conditions. From the humidity, a water film is formed on the ice sensor, which results in an increase in capacitance. Ice nucleation occurs, followed by the rapid formation of frost ice that decreases the capacitance suddenly. The capacitance is saturated. The developed ice sensor explains the ice growth providing information about the icing temperature in real time.

  4. Liquid Water may Stick on Hydrophobic Surfaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Common Perception. A surface can be classified as. > Wetting. > Non-wetting. Depending on the spreading characteristics of a droplet of water that splashes on the surface. The behavior of fluid on a solid surface under static and dynamic ..... color of the number density profile. Ions at the interface tend to form pinning zones ...

  5. PHOTOCHEMISTRY OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN COSMIC WATER ICE: THE ROLE OF PAH IONIZATION AND CONCENTRATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, Amanda M.; Mattioda, Andrew L.; Roser, Joseph; Bregman, Jonathan; Ricca, Alessandra; Allamandola, Louis J.; Bouwman, Jordy; Linnartz, Harold

    2015-01-01

    Infrared spectroscopic studies of ultraviolet (UV) irradiated, water-rich, cosmic ice analogs containing small polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are described. The irradiation studies of anthracene:H 2 O, pyrene:H 2 O, and benzo[ghi]perylene:H 2 O ices (14 K) at various concentrations reported by Bouwman et al. are extended. While aromatic alcohols and ketones have been reported in residues after irradiated PAH:H 2 O ices were warmed to 270 K, it was not known if they formed during ice irradiation or during warm-up when reactants interact as H 2 O sublimes. Recent work has shown that they form in low temperature ice. Using DFT computed IR spectra to identify photoproducts and PAH cations, we tentatively identify the production of specific alcohols [PAH(OH) n ] and quinones [PAH(O) n ] for all PAH:H 2 O ices considered here. Little evidence is found for hydrogenation at 14 K, consistent with the findings of Gudipati and Yang. Addition of O and OH to the parent PAH is the dominant photochemical reaction, but PAH erosion to smaller PAHs (producing CO 2 and H 2 CO) is also important. DFT spectra are used to assess the contribution of PAH-related species to interstellar absorption features from 5 to 9 μm. The case is made that PAH cations are important contributors to the C2 component and PAH(OH) n and PAH(O) n to the C5 component described by Boogert et al. Thus, interstellar ices should contain neutral and ionized PAHs, alcohols, ketones and quinones at the ∼2%-4% level relative to H 2 O. PAHs, their photoproducts, and ion-mediated processes should therefore be considered when modeling interstellar ice processes

  6. PHOTOCHEMISTRY OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN COSMIC WATER ICE: THE ROLE OF PAH IONIZATION AND CONCENTRATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Amanda M.; Mattioda, Andrew L.; Roser, Joseph; Bregman, Jonathan [NASA Ames Research Center, PO Box 1, M/S 245-6, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Ricca, Alessandra; Allamandola, Louis J. [SETI Institute, 189 North Bernardo Avenue, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Bouwman, Jordy [Radboud University Nijmegen, Institute for Molecules and Materials, Toernooiveld 5, 6525 ED Nijmegen (Netherlands); Linnartz, Harold [Sackler Laboratory for Astrophysics, Leiden Observatory, University of Leiden, PO Box 9513, NL2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2015-01-20

    Infrared spectroscopic studies of ultraviolet (UV) irradiated, water-rich, cosmic ice analogs containing small polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are described. The irradiation studies of anthracene:H{sub 2}O, pyrene:H{sub 2}O, and benzo[ghi]perylene:H{sub 2}O ices (14 K) at various concentrations reported by Bouwman et al. are extended. While aromatic alcohols and ketones have been reported in residues after irradiated PAH:H{sub 2}O ices were warmed to 270 K, it was not known if they formed during ice irradiation or during warm-up when reactants interact as H{sub 2}O sublimes. Recent work has shown that they form in low temperature ice. Using DFT computed IR spectra to identify photoproducts and PAH cations, we tentatively identify the production of specific alcohols [PAH(OH) {sub n} ] and quinones [PAH(O) {sub n} ] for all PAH:H{sub 2}O ices considered here. Little evidence is found for hydrogenation at 14 K, consistent with the findings of Gudipati and Yang. Addition of O and OH to the parent PAH is the dominant photochemical reaction, but PAH erosion to smaller PAHs (producing CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}CO) is also important. DFT spectra are used to assess the contribution of PAH-related species to interstellar absorption features from 5 to 9 μm. The case is made that PAH cations are important contributors to the C2 component and PAH(OH) {sub n} and PAH(O) {sub n} to the C5 component described by Boogert et al. Thus, interstellar ices should contain neutral and ionized PAHs, alcohols, ketones and quinones at the ∼2%-4% level relative to H{sub 2}O. PAHs, their photoproducts, and ion-mediated processes should therefore be considered when modeling interstellar ice processes.

  7. Improved regional sea-level estimates from Ice Sheets, Glaciers and land water storage using GRACE time series and other data

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Z.; Velicogna, I.; Hsu, C. W.; Rignot, E. J.; Mouginot, J.; Scheuchl, B.; Fettweis, X.; van den Broeke, M. R.

    2017-12-01

    Changes in ice sheets, glaciers and ice caps (GIC) and land water mass cause regional sea level variations that differ significantly from a uniform re-distribution of mass over the ocean, with a decrease in sea level compared to the global mean sea level contribution (GMSL) near the sources of mass added to the ocean and an increase up to 30% larger than the GMSL in the far field. The corresponding sea level fingerprints (SLF) are difficult to separate from ocean dynamics on short time and spatial scales but as ice melt continues, the SLF signal will become increasingly dominant in the pattern of regional sea level rise. It has been anticipated that it will be another few decades before the land ice SLF could be identified in the pattern of regional sea level rise. Here, we combine 40 years of observations of ice sheet mass balance for Antarctica (1975-present) and Greenland (1978-present), along with surface mass balance reconstructions of glacier and ice caps mass balance (GIC) from 1970s to present to determine the contribution to the SLF from melting land ice (MAR and RACMO). We compare the results with observations from GRACE for the time period 2002 to present for evaluation of our approach. Land hydrology is constrained by GRACE data for the period 2002-present and by the GLDAS-NOAH land hydrology model for the longer time period. Over the long time period, we find that the contribution from land ice dominates. We quantify the contribution to the total SLF from Greenland and Antarctica in various parts of the world over the past 40 years. More important, we compare the cumulative signal from SLF with tide gauge records around the world, corrected for earth dynamics, to determine whether the land ice SLF can be detected in that record. Early results will be reported at the meeting. This work was performed at UC Irvine and at Caltech's Jet Propulsion Laboratory under a contract with NASA's Cryospheric Science Program.

  8. Scratching the surface of ice: Interfacial phase transitions and their kinetic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limmer, David

    The surface structure of ice maintains a high degree of disorder down to surprisingly low temperatures. This is due to a number of underlying interfacial phase transitions that are associated with incremental changes in broken symmetry relative to the bulk crystal. In this talk I summarize recent work attempting to establish the nature and locations of these different phase transitions as well as how they depend on external conditions and nonequilibrium driving. The implications of this surface disorder is discussed in the context of simple kinetic processes that occur at these interfaces. Recent experimental work on the roughening transition is highlighted.

  9. Surface Water Quality Monitoring Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The MN Department of Agriculture (MDA) is charged with periodically collecting and analyzing water samples from selected locations throughout the state to determine...

  10. Analysis of the Effect of Water Activity on Ice Formation Using a New Theory of Nucleation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barahona, Donifan

    2013-01-01

    In this work a new theory of nucleation is developed and used to investigate the effect of water activity on the formation of ice within super-cooled droplets. The new theory is based on a novel concept where the interface is assumed to be made of liquid molecules trapped by the solid matrix. Using this concept new expressions are developed for the critical ice germ size and the nucleation work, with explicit dependencies on temperature and water activity. However unlike previous approaches, the new theory does not depend on the interfacial tension between liquid and ice. Comparison against experimental results shows that the new theory is able to reproduce the observed effect of water activity on nucleation rate and freezing temperature. It allows for the first time a theoretical derivation of the constant shift in water activity between melting and nucleation. The new theory offers a consistent thermodynamic view of ice nucleation, simple enough to be applied in atmospheric models of cloud formation.

  11. Estimating Past Temperature Change in Antarctica Based on Ice Core Stable Water Isotope Diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahle, E. C.; Markle, B. R.; Holme, C.; Jones, T. R.; Steig, E. J.

    2017-12-01

    The magnitude of the last glacial-interglacial transition is a key target for constraining climate sensitivity on long timescales. Ice core proxy records and general circulation models (GCMs) both provide insight on the magnitude of climate change through the last glacial-interglacial transition, but appear to provide different answers. In particular, the magnitude of the glacial-interglacial temperature change reconstructed from East Antarctic ice-core water-isotope records is greater ( 9 degrees C) than that from most GCM simulations ( 6 degrees C). A possible source of this difference is error in the linear-scaling of water isotopes to temperature. We employ a novel, nonlinear temperature-reconstruction technique using the physics of water-isotope diffusion to infer past temperature. Based on new, ice-core data from the South Pole, this diffusion technique suggests East Antarctic temperature change was smaller than previously thought. We are able to confirm this result using a simple, water-isotope fractionation model to nonlinearly reconstruct temperature change at ice core locations across Antarctica based on combined oxygen and hydrogen isotope ratios. Both methods produce a temperature change of 6 degrees C for South Pole, agreeing with GCM results for East Antarctica. Furthermore, both produce much larger changes in West Antarctica, also in agreement with GCM results and independent borehole thermometry. These results support the fidelity of GCMs in simulating last glacial maximum climate, and contradict the idea, based on previous work, that the climate sensitivity of current GCMs is too low.

  12. UV/Vis spectroscopy of C60 embedded in water ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cuylle, Steven; Linnartz, Harold; Thrower, John

    2012-01-01

    Electronic solid state spectra are recorded for C60 embedded in 40 K water ice using broad band direct absorption spectroscopy, and assigned with reference to existing matrix data. The results are interesting in view of the recent gas phase detection of fullerenes in the interstellar medium...

  13. High laser-fluence deposition of organic materials in water ice matrices by ''MAPLE''

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bo Toftmann; Rodrigo, K.; Schou, Jørgen

    2005-01-01

    Matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) is a deposition technique for organic material. Water ice was used as a matrix for the biotechnologically important guest material, polyethylene glycol (PEG), for concentrations from 0.5 to 4 wt.%. The target was irradiated with 6 ns laser pulses...

  14. Surface composition and surface properties of water hyacinth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Surface composition and surface properties of water hyacinth ( Eichhornia ... (2/1, v/v) followed by ethanol, using Fourier Transform Infra-red (FT-IR) spectroscopy, ... polar organic solvents and non-polar n-alkane hydrocarbons is discussed.

  15. Volume changes of Vatnajökull ice cap, Iceland, due to surface mass balance, ice flow, and subglacial melting at geothermal areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnússon, Eyjólfur; Björnson, Helgi; Dall, Jørgen

    2005-01-01

    We present observed changes in the geometry of western Vatnajökull over a period of about ten years which are caused by the surface mass balance, ice flow (both during surges and quiescent periods), and basal melting due to geothermal and volcanic activity. Comparison of two digital elevation...

  16. Abrupt Greenland Ice Sheet runoff and sea water temperature changes since 1821, recorded by coralline algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenos, N.; Hoey, T.; Bedford, J.; Claverie, T.; Fallick, A. E.; Lamb, C. M.; Nienow, P. W.; O'Neill, S.; Shepherd, I.; Thormar, J.

    2012-12-01

    The Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) contains the largest store of fresh water in the northern hemisphere, equivalent to ~7.4m of eustatic sea level rise, but its impacts on current, past and future sea level, ocean circulation and European climate are poorly understood. Previous estimates of GrIS melt, from 26 years of satellite observations and temperature driven melt-models over 48 years, show a trend of increasing melt. There are however no runoff data of comparable duration with which to validate temperature-based runoff models, or relationships between the spatial extent of melt and runoff. Further, longer runoff records that extend GrIS melt records to centennial timescales will enable recently observed trends to be put into a better historical context. We measured Mg/Ca, δ18O and structural cell size in annual growth bands of red coralline algae to reconstruct: (1) near surface sea water temperature; and, (2) melt/runoff from the GrIS. (1) Temperature: we reconstructed the longest (1821-2009) sub-annual resolution record of water temperature in Disko Bugt (western Greenland) showing an abrupt change in temperature oscillation patterns during the 1920s which may be attributable to the interaction between atmospheric temperature and mass loss from Jakobshavn Isbrae glacier. (2) GrIS runoff: using samples from distal parts of Søndre Strømfjord we produced the first reconstruction of decadal (1939-2002) GrIS runoff. We observed significant negative relationships between historic runoff, relative salinity and marine summer temperature. Our reconstruction shows a trend of increasing reconstructed runoff since the mid 1980s. In situ summer marine temperatures followed a similar trend. We suggest that since 1939 atmospheric temperatures have been important in forcing runoff. Subject to locating in situ coralline algae samples, these methods can be applied across hundreds to thousands of years. These results show that our technique has significant potential to enhance

  17. Modeling Commercial Turbofan Engine Icing Risk With Ice Crystal Ingestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgenson, Philip C. E.; Veres, Joseph P.

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence of ice accretion within commercial high bypass aircraft turbine engines has been reported under certain atmospheric conditions. Engine anomalies have taken place at high altitudes that have been attributed to ice crystal ingestion, partially melting, and ice accretion on the compression system components. The result was degraded engine performance, and one or more of the following: loss of thrust control (roll back), compressor surge or stall, and flameout of the combustor. As ice crystals are ingested into the fan and low pressure compression system, the increase in air temperature causes a portion of the ice crystals to melt. It is hypothesized that this allows the ice-water mixture to cover the metal surfaces of the compressor stationary components which leads to ice accretion through evaporative cooling. Ice accretion causes a blockage which subsequently results in the deterioration in performance of the compressor and engine. The focus of this research is to apply an engine icing computational tool to simulate the flow through a turbofan engine and assess the risk of ice accretion. The tool is comprised of an engine system thermodynamic cycle code, a compressor flow analysis code, and an ice particle melt code that has the capability of determining the rate of sublimation, melting, and evaporation through the compressor flow path, without modeling the actual ice accretion. A commercial turbofan engine which has previously experienced icing events during operation in a high altitude ice crystal environment has been tested in the Propulsion Systems Laboratory (PSL) altitude test facility at NASA Glenn Research Center. The PSL has the capability to produce a continuous ice cloud which are ingested by the engine during operation over a range of altitude conditions. The PSL test results confirmed that there was ice accretion in the engine due to ice crystal ingestion, at the same simulated altitude operating conditions as experienced previously in

  18. Waste water treatment in surface mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navasardyants, M A; Esipov, V Z; Ryzhkov, Yu A

    1981-01-01

    This paper evaluates problems associated with waste water from coal surface mines of the Kemerovougol' association in the Kuzbass. Waste water treatment in the Kuzbass is of major importance as the region is supplied with water from only one river, the Tom river. Water influx to Kemerovougol' surface mines in a year amounts to 136 million m/sup 3/. The water is used during technological processes, for fire fighting, and spraying to prevent dusting; the rest, about 82.1 million m/sup 3/, is discharged into surface waters. Of this amount, 25.1 million m/sup 3/ is heavily polluted water, 46.6 million m3 are polluted but within limits, and 10.4 million m/sup 3/ are characterized as relatively clean. Waste water is polluted with: suspended matters, oils and oil products, nitrates, nitrides and chlorides. Suspended matter content sometimes reaches 4,000 and 5,000 mg/l, and oil product content in water amounts to 2.17 mg/l. Water treatment in surface mines is two-staged: sumps and sedimentation tanks are used. Water with suspended matter content of 50 to 100 mg/l in winter and summer, and 200 to 250 mg/l in spring and autumn is reduced in sumps to 25 to 30 mg/l in summer and winter and to 40 to 50 mg/l in autumn and spring. During the first stage water treatment efficiency ranges from 50 to 80%. During the second stage water is collected in sedimentation tanks. It is noted that so-called secondary pollution is one of the causes of the relatively high level of suspended matter in discharged water. Water discharged from sedimentation tanks carries clay and loam particles from the bottom and walls of water tanks and channels.

  19. Calibrating a surface mass-balance model for Austfonna ice cap, Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, Thomas Vikhamar; Loe, Even; Taurisano, Andrea; Eiken, Trond; Hagen, Jon Ove; Kohler, Jack

    2007-10-01

    Austfonna (8120 km2) is by far the largest ice mass in the Svalbard archipelago. There is considerable uncertainty about its current state of balance and its possible response to climate change. Over the 2004/05 period, we collected continuous meteorological data series from the ice cap, performed mass-balance measurements using a network of stakes distributed across the ice cap and mapped the distribution of snow accumulation using ground-penetrating radar along several profile lines. These data are used to drive and test a model of the surface mass balance. The spatial accumulation pattern was derived from the snow depth profiles using regression techniques, and ablation was calculated using a temperature-index approach. Model parameters were calibrated using the available field data. Parameter calibration was complicated by the fact that different parameter combinations yield equally acceptable matches to the stake data while the resulting calculated net mass balance differs considerably. Testing model results against multiple criteria is an efficient method to cope with non-uniqueness. In doing so, a range of different data and observations was compared to several different aspects of the model results. We find a systematic underestimation of net balance for parameter combinations that predict observed ice ablation, which suggests that refreezing processes play an important role. To represent these effects in the model, a simple PMAX approach was included in its formulation. Used as a diagnostic tool, the model suggests that the surface mass balance for the period 29 April 2004 to 23 April 2005 was negative (-318 mm w.e.).

  20. Mixed ice accretion on aircraft wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjua, Zaid A.; Turnbull, Barbara; Hibberd, Stephen; Choi, Kwing-So

    2018-02-01

    Ice accretion is a problematic natural phenomenon that affects a wide range of engineering applications including power cables, radio masts, and wind turbines. Accretion on aircraft wings occurs when supercooled water droplets freeze instantaneously on impact to form rime ice or runback as water along the wing to form glaze ice. Most models to date have ignored the accretion of mixed ice, which is a combination of rime and glaze. A parameter we term the "freezing fraction" is defined as the fraction of a supercooled droplet that freezes on impact with the top surface of the accretion ice to explore the concept of mixed ice accretion. Additionally we consider different "packing densities" of rime ice, mimicking the different bulk rime densities observed in nature. Ice accretion is considered in four stages: rime, primary mixed, secondary mixed, and glaze ice. Predictions match with existing models and experimental data in the limiting rime and glaze cases. The mixed ice formulation however provides additional insight into the composition of the overall ice structure, which ultimately influences adhesion and ice thickness, and shows that for similar atmospheric parameter ranges, this simple mixed ice description leads to very different accretion rates. A simple one-dimensional energy balance was solved to show how this freezing fraction parameter increases with decrease in atmospheric temperature, with lower freezing fraction promoting glaze ice accretion.

  1. Reconstruction of the 1979–2006 Greenland ice sheet surface mass balance using the regional climate model MAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Fettweis

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Results from a 28-year simulation (1979–2006 over the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS reveal an increase of solid precipitation (+0.4±2.5 km3 yr−2 and run-off (+7.9±3.3 km3 yr−2 of surface meltwater. The net effect of these competing factors is a significant Surface Mass Balance (SMB loss of −7.2±5.1 km3 yr−2. The contribution of changes in the net water vapour flux (+0.02±0.09 km3 yr−2 and rainfall (+0.2±0.2 km3 yr−2 to the SMB variability is negligible. The meltwater supply has increased because the GrIS surface has been warming up +2.4°C since 1979. Sensible heat flux, latent heat flux and net solar radiation have not varied significantly over the last three decades. However, the simulated downward infrared flux has increased by 9.3 W m−2 since 1979. The natural climate variability (e.g. the North Atlantic Oscillation does not explain these changes. The recent global warming, due to the greenhouse gas concentration increase induced by human activities, could be a cause of these changes. The doubling of surface meltwater flux into the ocean over the period 1979–2006 suggests that the overall ice sheet mass balance has been increasingly negative, given the likely meltwater-induced acceleration of outlet glaciers. This study suggests that increased melting overshadows over an increased accumulation in a warming scenario and that the GrIS is likely to keep losing mass in the future. An enduring GrIS melting will probably affect in the future an certain effect on the stability of the thermohaline circulation and the global sea level rise.

  2. Measurements of the Ice Water Content of Cirrus in the Tropics and Subtropics. I; Instrument Details and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstock, E. M.; Smith, J. B.; Sayres, D.; Pittman, J. V.; Allen, N.; Demusz, J.; Greenberg, M.; Rivero, M.; Anderson, J. G.

    2003-01-01

    We describe an instrument mounted in a pallet on the NASA WB-57 aircraft that is designed to measure the sum of gas phase and solid phase water, or total water, in cirrus clouds. Using an isokinetic inlet, a 600-watt heater mounted directly in the flow, and Lyman-alpha photofragment fluorescence technique for detection, accurate measurements of total water have been made over almost three orders of magnitude. Isokinetic flow is achieved with an actively controlled roots pump by referencing aircraft pressure, temperature, and true air speed, together with instrument flow velocity, temperature, and pressure. During CRYSTAL FACE, the instrument operated at duct temperatures sufficiently warm to completely evaporate particles up to 150 microns diameter. In flight diagnostics, intercomparison with water measured by absorption in flight, as well as intercomparisons in clear air with water vapor measured by the Harvard water vapor instrument and the JPL infrared tunable diode laser hygrometer validate the detection sensitivity of the instrument and illustrate minimal hysteresis from instrument surfaces. The simultaneous measurement of total water and water vapor in cirrus clouds yields their ice water content.

  3. Water vapor retrieval over many surface types

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borel, C.C.; Clodius, W.C.; Johnson, J.

    1996-04-01

    In this paper we present a study of of the water vapor retrieval for many natural surface types which would be valuable for multi-spectral instruments using the existing Continuum Interpolated Band Ratio (CIBR) for the 940 nm water vapor absorption feature. An atmospheric code (6S) and 562 spectra were used to compute the top of the atmosphere radiance near the 940 nm water vapor absorption feature in steps of 2.5 nm as a function of precipitable water (PW). We derive a novel technique called ``Atmospheric Pre-corrected Differential Absorption`` (APDA) and show that APDA performs better than the CIBR over many surface types.

  4. Ice sheet hydrology from observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansson, Peter [Dept. of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology, Stockholm Univ-, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2010-11-15

    The hydrological systems of ice sheets are complex. Our view of the system is split, largely due to the complexity of observing the systems. Our basic knowledge of processes have been obtained from smaller glaciers and although applicable in general to the larger scales of the ice sheets, ice sheets contain features not observable on smaller glaciers due to their size. The generation of water on the ice sheet surface is well understood and can be satisfactorily modeled. The routing of water from the surface down through the ice is not complicated in terms of procat has been problematic is the way in which the couplings between surface and bed has been accomplished through a kilometer of cold ice, but with the studies on crack propagation and lake drainage on Greenland we are beginning to understand also this process and we know water can be routed through thick cold ice. Water generation at the bed is also well understood but the main problem preventing realistic estimates of water generation is lack of detailed information about geothermal heat fluxes and their geographical distribution beneath the ice. Although some average value for geothermal heat flux may suffice, for many purposes it is important that such values are not applied to sub-regions of significantly higher fluxes. Water generated by geothermal heat constitutes a constant supply and will likely maintain a steady system beneath the ice sheet. Such a system may include subglacial lakes as steady features and reconfiguration of the system is tied to time scales on which the ice sheet geometry changes so as to change pressure gradients in the basal system itself. Large scale re-organization of subglacial drainage systems have been observed beneath ice streams. The stability of an entirely subglacially fed drainage system may hence be perturbed by rapid ice flow. In the case of Antarctic ice streams where such behavior has been observed, the ice streams are underlain by deformable sediments. It is

  5. Ice sheet hydrology from observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansson, Peter

    2010-11-01

    The hydrological systems of ice sheets are complex. Our view of the system is split, largely due to the complexity of observing the systems. Our basic knowledge of processes have been obtained from smaller glaciers and although applicable in general to the larger scales of the ice sheets, ice sheets contain features not observable on smaller glaciers due to their size. The generation of water on the ice sheet surface is well understood and can be satisfactorily modeled. The routing of water from the surface down through the ice is not complicated in terms of procat has been problematic is the way in which the couplings between surface and bed has been accomplished through a kilometer of cold ice, but with the studies on crack propagation and lake drainage on Greenland we are beginning to understand also this process and we know water can be routed through thick cold ice. Water generation at the bed is also well understood but the main problem preventing realistic estimates of water generation is lack of detailed information about geothermal heat fluxes and their geographical distribution beneath the ice. Although some average value for geothermal heat flux may suffice, for many purposes it is important that such values are not applied to sub-regions of significantly higher fluxes. Water generated by geothermal heat constitutes a constant supply and will likely maintain a steady system beneath the ice sheet. Such a system may include subglacial lakes as steady features and reconfiguration of the system is tied to time scales on which the ice sheet geometry changes so as to change pressure gradients in the basal system itself. Large scale re-organization of subglacial drainage systems have been observed beneath ice streams. The stability of an entirely subglacially fed drainage system may hence be perturbed by rapid ice flow. In the case of Antarctic ice streams where such behavior has been observed, the ice streams are underlain by deformable sediments. It is

  6. Sea surface temperature and sea ice variability in the subpolar North Atlantic from explosive volcanism of the late thirteenth century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sicre, M. -A.; Khodri, M.; Mignot, J.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we use IP25 and alkenone biomarker proxies to document the subdecadal variations of sea ice and sea surface temperature in the subpolar North Atlantic induced by the decadally paced explosive tropical volcanic eruptions of the second half of the thirteenth century. The short-and long......-term evolutions of both variables were investigated by cross analysis with a simulation of the IPSL-CM5A LR model. Our results show short-term ocean cooling and sea ice expansion in response to each volcanic eruption. They also highlight that the long response time of the ocean leads to cumulative surface cooling...... and subsurface heat buildup due to sea ice capping. As volcanic forcing relaxes, the surface ocean rapidly warms, likely amplified by subsurface heat, and remains almost ice free for several decades....

  7. Thermodynamic and Dynamic Aspects of Ice Nucleation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barahona, Donifan

    2018-01-01

    It is known that ice nucleating particles (INP) immersed within supercooled droplets promote the formation of ice. Common theoretical models used to represent this process assume that the immersed particle lowers the work of ice nucleation without significantly affecting the dynamics of water in the vicinity of the particle. This is contrary to evidence showing that immersed surfaces significantly affect the viscosity and diffusivity of vicinal water. To study how this may affect ice formation this work introduces a model linking the ice nucleation rate to the modification of the dynamics and thermodynamics of vicinal water by immersed particles. It is shown that INP that significantly reduce the work of ice nucleation also pose strong limitations to the growth of the nascent ice germs. This leads to the onset of a new ice nucleation regime, called spinodal ice nucleation, where the dynamics of ice germ growth instead of the ice germ size determines the nucleation rate. Nucleation in this regime is characterized by an enhanced sensitivity to particle area and cooling rate. Comparison of the predicted ice nucleation rate against experimental measurements for a diverse set of species relevant to cloud formation suggests that spinodal ice nucleation may be common in nature.

  8. Simulation studies of an air Cherenkov telescope, IceACT, for future IceCube surface extensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansmann, Bengt; Auffenberg, Jan; Bekman, Ilja; Kemp, Julian; Roegen, Martin; Schaufel, Merlin; Stahlberg, Martin; Wiebusch, Christopher [III. Physikalisches Institut B, RWTH Aachen, Aachen (Germany); Bretz, Thomas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Middendorf, Lukas; Niggemann, Tim; Schumacher, Johannes [III. Physikalisches Institut A, RWTH Aachen, Aachen (Germany); Collaboration: IceCube-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    IceACT is a compact air Cherenkov telescope using silicon photomultipliers. The Fresnel lens based design has been adopted from the fluorescence telescope FAMOUS. The goal of IceACT is the efficient detection of cosmic ray induced air showers above the IceCube Neutrino Observatory at the geographic South Pole. This allows to distinguish cosmic ray induced muons and neutrinos in the southern sky from astrophysical neutrinos in the deep ice detector. This leads to an increase in low-background astrophysical neutrinos of several dozen events per year for a detection threshold of several 100 TeV cosmic ray primary energy. To determine the actual telescope performance, dedicated CORSIKA air shower simulations incorporating the full Cherenkov light information are performed.

  9. A connectionist-geostatistical approach for classification of deformation types in ice surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz-Weiss, L. R.; Herzfeld, U. C.; Hale, R. G.; Hunke, E. C.; Bobeck, J.

    2014-12-01

    Deformation is a class of highly non-linear geophysical processes from which one can infer other geophysical variables in a dynamical system. For example, in an ice-dynamic model, deformation is related to velocity, basal sliding, surface elevation changes, and the stress field at the surface as well as internal to a glacier. While many of these variables cannot be observed, deformation state can be an observable variable, because d