WorldWideScience

Sample records for surface water groundwater

  1. Groundwater-surface water interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, P.A.; Clausen, B.; Hunt, B.; Cameron, S.; Weir, J.J.

    2001-01-01

    This chapter discusses natural and modified interactions between groundwater and surface water. Theory on recharge to groundwater from rivers is introduced, and the relative importance of groundwater recharge from rivers is illustrated with an example from the Ngaruroro River, Hawke's Bay. Some of the techniques used to identify and measure recharge to groundwater from gravel-bed rivers will be outlined, with examples from the Ngaruroro River, where the recharge reach is relatively well defined, and from the Rakaia River, where it is poorly defined. Groundwater recharged from rivers can have characteristic chemical and isotopic signatures, as shown by Waimakariri River water in the Christchurch-West Melton groundwater system. The incorporation of groundwater-river interaction in a regional groundwater flow model is outlined for the Waimea Plains, and relationships between river scour and groundwater recharge are examined for the Waimakariri River. Springs are the result of natural discharge from groundwater systems and are important water sources. The interactions between groundwater systems, springs, and river flow for the Avon River in New Zealand will be outlined. The theory of depletion of stream flow by groundwater pumpage will be introduced with a case study from Canterbury, and salt-water intrusion into groundwater systems with examples from Nelson and Christchurch. The theory of artificial recharge to groundwater systems is introduced with a case study from Hawke's Bay. Wetlands are important to flora, and the relationship of the wetland environment to groundwater hydrology will be discussed, with an example from the South Taupo wetland. (author). 56 refs., 25 figs., 3 tabs

  2. Groundwater and surface water pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chae, Y.S.; Hamidi, A. [eds.

    2000-07-01

    This book contains almost all the technical know-how that is required to clean up the water supply. It provides a survey of up-to-date technologies for remediation, as well as a step-by-step guide to pollution assessment for both ground and surface waters. In addition to focusing on causes, effects, and remedies, the book stresses reuse, recycling, and recovery of resources. The authors suggest that through total recycling wastes can become resources.

  3. The interaction between surface water and groundwater and its ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Surface water; groundwater; stable isotopes; water quality; Second Songhua River basin. .... The total dissolved solid (TDS) was calculated by the con- centrations of major ions in ...... evaluating water quality management effectiveness; J.

  4. Groundwater sustainability and groundwater/surface-water interaction in arid Dunhuang Basin, northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jingjing; Ma, Rui; Hu, Yalu; Sun, Ziyong; Wang, Yanxin; McCarter, Colin P. R.

    2018-03-01

    The Dunhuang Basin, a typical inland basin in northwestern China, suffers a net loss of groundwater and the occasional disappearance of the Crescent Lake. Within this region, the groundwater/surface-water interactions are important for the sustainability of the groundwater resources. A three-dimensional transient groundwater flow model was established and calibrated using MODFLOW 2000, which was used to predict changes to these interactions once a water diversion project is completed. The simulated results indicate that introducing water from outside of the basin into the Shule and Danghe rivers could reverse the negative groundwater balance in the Basin. River-water/groundwater interactions control the groundwater hydrology, where river leakage to the groundwater in the Basin will increase from 3,114 × 104 m3/year in 2017 to 11,875 × 104 m3/year in 2021, and to 17,039 × 104 m3/year in 2036. In comparison, groundwater discharge to the rivers will decrease from 3277 × 104 m3/year in 2017 to 1857 × 104 m3/year in 2021, and to 510 × 104 m3/year by 2036; thus, the hydrology will switch from groundwater discharge to groundwater recharge after implementing the water diversion project. The simulation indicates that the increased net river infiltration due to the water diversion project will raise the water table and then effectively increasing the water level of the Crescent Lake, as the lake level is contiguous with the water table. However, the regional phreatic evaporation will be enhanced, which may intensify soil salinization in the Dunhuang Basin. These results can guide the water allocation scheme for the water diversion project to alleviate groundwater depletion and mitigate geo-environmental problem.

  5. Monitoring of Water and Contaminant Migration at the Groundwater-Surface Water Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    seepage is occurring in a freshwater lake environment and to map the lateral extent of any subsurface contamination at the groundwatersurface water ...and Contaminant Migration at the Groundwater -Surface Water Interface August 2008 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Monitoring of Water and Contaminant Migration at the Groundwater -Surface Water Interface 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER

  6. Impact of Water Withdrawals from Groundwater and Surface Water on Continental Water Storage Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doell, Petra; Hoffmann-Dobrev, Heike; Portmann, Felix T.; Siebert, Stefan; Eicker, Annette; Rodell, Matthew; Strassberg, Gil

    2011-01-01

    Humans have strongly impacted the global water cycle, not only water flows but also water storage. We have performed a first global-scale analysis of the impact of water withdrawals on water storage variations, using the global water resources and use model WaterGAP. This required estimation of fractions of total water withdrawals from groundwater, considering five water use sectors. According to our assessment, the source of 35% of the water withdrawn worldwide (4300 cubic km/yr during 1998-2002) is groundwater. Groundwater contributes 42%, 36% and 27% of water used for irrigation, households and manufacturing, respectively, while we assume that only surface water is used for livestock and for cooling of thermal power plants. Consumptive water use was 1400 cubic km/yr during 1998-2002. It is the sum of the net abstraction of 250 cubic km/yr of groundwater (taking into account evapotranspiration and return flows of withdrawn surface water and groundwater) and the net abstraction of 1150 km3/yr of surface water. Computed net abstractions indicate, for the first time at the global scale, where and when human water withdrawals decrease or increase groundwater or surface water storage. In regions with extensive surface water irrigation, such as Southern China, net abstractions from groundwater are negative, i.e. groundwater is recharged by irrigation. The opposite is true for areas dominated by groundwater irrigation, such as in the High Plains aquifer of the central USA, where net abstraction of surface water is negative because return flow of withdrawn groundwater recharges the surface water compartments. In intensively irrigated areas, the amplitude of seasonal total water storage variations is generally increased due to human water use; however, in some areas, it is decreased. For the High Plains aquifer and the whole Mississippi basin, modeled groundwater and total water storage variations were compared with estimates of groundwater storage variations based on

  7. Surface water and groundwater interaction in Marala - Khanki area, Punjab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akram, W.; Ahmad, M.; Latif, Z.; Tariq, J.A.; Malik, M.R.

    2011-07-01

    Isotope hydrological investigations were carried out in two selected areas of Indus Basin viz. Haripur Area and Chashma- Taunsa Area for elucidating various aspects of surface water and groundwater interaction. Groundwater samples were collected on seasonal basis (low and high river discharge periods) while surface water samples were collected more frequently (weekly or monthly basis). Isotopic data suggested that there is no contribution of surface water to groundwater recharge in Haripur Area and rain is the prevailing source of groundwater recharge. The data further revealed that isotopic values of the Haripur pocket of Tarbela Lake are higher than those of Main Lake / Indus River meaning that there is a significant contribution of base flow in this pocket. Indus River appeared to be the dominant source of groundwater recharge at most of the locations in Chashma- Taunsa Area. Isotopic data of Indus River showed an increase at Taunsa as compared to Chashma in low flow period indicating the high contribution of base flow at this point in time. Stable isotopes were successfully used to quantify the base flow contribution. (author)

  8. Hydrochemistry of surface water and groundwater from a fractured ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Groundwater contamination decreases the amount of available groundwater ...... ture; Food and Agriculture Organization, FAO Irrigation and Drainage, paper No. ... province); The 1st IWA Malaysia Young Water Profes- sionals Conference ...

  9. Impact of river restoration on groundwater - surface water - interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurth, Anne-Marie; Schirmer, Mario

    2014-05-01

    Since the end of the 19th century, flood protection was increasingly based on the construction of impermeable dams and side walls (BWG, 2003). In spite of providing flood protection, these measures also limited the connectivity between the river and the land, restricted the area available for flooding, and hampered the natural flow dynamics of the river. Apart from the debilitating effect on riverine ecosystems due to loss of habitats, these measures also limited bank filtration, inhibited the infiltration of storm water, and affected groundwater-surface water-interactions. This in turn had a profound effect on ecosystem health, as a lack of groundwater-surface water interactions led to decreased cycling of pollutants and nutrients in the hyporheic zone and limited the moderation of the water temperature (EA, 2009). In recent decades, it has become apparent that further damages to riverine ecosystems must be prohibited, as the damages to ecology, economy and society surmount any benefits gained from exploiting them. Nowadays, the restoration of rivers is a globally accepted means to restore ecosystem functioning, protect water resources and amend flood protection (Andrea et al., 2012; Palmer et al., 2005; Wortley et al., 2013). In spite of huge efforts regarding the restoration of rivers over the last 30 years, the question of its effectiveness remains, as river restorations often reconstruct a naturally looking rather than a naturally functioning stream (EA, 2009). We therefore focussed our research on the effectiveness of river restorations, represented by the groundwater-surface water-interactions. Given a sufficiently high groundwater level, a lack of groundwater-surface water-interactions after restoration may indicate that the vertical connectivity in the stream was not fully restored. In order to investigate groundwater-surface water-interactions we determined the thermal signature on the stream bed and in +/- 40 cm depth by using Distributed Temperature

  10. Pesticide monitoring in surface water and groundwater using passive samplers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodes, V.; Grabic, R.

    2009-04-01

    Passive samplers as screening devices have been used within a czech national water quality monitoring network since 2002 (SPMD and DGT samplers for non polar substances and metals). The passive sampler monitoring of surface water was extended to polar substances, in 2005. Pesticide and pharmaceutical POCIS samplers have been exposed in surface water at 21 locations and analysed for polar pesticides, perfluorinated compounds, personal care products and pharmaceuticals. Pesticide POCIS samplers in groundwater were exposed at 5 locations and analysed for polar pesticides. The following active substances of plant protection products were analyzed in surface water and groundwater using LC/MS/MS: 2,4,5-T, 2,4-D, Acetochlor, Alachlor, Atrazine, Atrazine_desethyl, Azoxystrobin, Bentazone, Bromacil, Bromoxynil, Carbofuran, Clopyralid, Cyanazin, Desmetryn, Diazinon, Dicamba, Dichlobenil, Dichlorprop, Dimethoat, Diuron, Ethofumesate, Fenarimol, Fenhexamid, Fipronil, Fluazifop-p-butyl, Hexazinone, Chlorbromuron, Chlorotoluron, Imazethapyr, Isoproturon, Kresoxim-methyl, Linuron, MCPA, MCPP, Metalaxyl, Metamitron, Methabenzthiazuron, Methamidophos, Methidathion, Metobromuron, Metolachlor, Metoxuron, Metribuzin, Monolinuron, Nicosulfuron, Phorate, Phosalone, Phosphamidon, Prometryn, Propiconazole, Propyzamide, Pyridate, Rimsulfuron, Simazine, Tebuconazole, Terbuthylazine, Terbutryn, Thifensulfuron-methyl, Thiophanate-methyl and Tri-allate. The POCIS samplers performed very well being able to provide better picture than grab samples. The results show that polar pesticides and also perfluorinated compounds, personal care products and pharmaceuticals as well occur in hydrosphere of the Czech republic. Acknowledgment: Authors acknowledge the financial support of grant No. 2B06095 by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports.

  11. Multiple sources of boron in urban surface waters and groundwaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasenmueller, Elizabeth A., E-mail: eahasenm@wustl.edu; Criss, Robert E.

    2013-03-01

    Previous studies attribute abnormal boron (B) levels in streams and groundwaters to wastewater and fertilizer inputs. This study shows that municipal drinking water used for lawn irrigation contributes substantial non-point loads of B and other chemicals (S-species, Li, and Cu) to surface waters and shallow groundwaters in the St. Louis, Missouri, area. Background levels and potential B sources were characterized by analysis of lawn and street runoff, streams, rivers, springs, local rainfall, wastewater influent and effluent, and fertilizers. Urban surface waters and groundwaters are highly enriched in B (to 250 μg/L) compared to background levels found in rain and pristine, carbonate-hosted streams and springs (< 25 μg/L), but have similar concentrations (150 to 259 μg/L) compared to municipal drinking waters derived from the Missouri River. Other data including B/SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}−S and B/Li ratios confirm major contributions from this source. Moreover, sequential samples of runoff collected during storms show that B concentrations decrease with increased discharge, proving that elevated B levels are not primarily derived from combined sewer overflows (CSOs) during flooding. Instead, non-point source B exhibits complex behavior depending on land use. In urban settings B is rapidly mobilized from lawns during “first flush” events, likely representing surficial salt residues from drinking water used to irrigate lawns, and is also associated with the baseflow fraction, likely derived from the shallow groundwater reservoir that over time accumulates B from drinking water that percolates into the subsurface. The opposite occurs in small rural watersheds, where B is leached from soils by recent rainfall and covaries with the event water fraction. Highlights: ► Boron sources and loads differ between urban and rural watersheds. ► Wastewaters are not the major boron source in small St. Louis, MO watersheds. ► Municipal drinking water used for lawn

  12. Studying groundwater and surface water interactions using airborne remote sensing in Heihe River basin, northwest China

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, C.; Liu, J.; Hu, Y.; Zheng, C.

    2015-01-01

    Managing surface water and groundwater as a unified system is important for water resource exploitation and aquatic ecosystem conservation. The unified approach to water management needs accurate characterization of surface water and groundwater interactions. Temperature is a natural tracer for identifying surface water and groundwater interactions, and the use of remote sensing techniques facilitates basin-scale temperature measurement. This study focuses on the Heihe River basin, the second...

  13. Characterizing the interaction of groundwater and surface water in the karst aquifer of Fangshan, Beijing (China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Haibo; Wei, Jiahua; Wang, Rong; Xin, Baodong

    2017-03-01

    Correct understanding of groundwater/surface-water (GW-SW) interaction in karst systems is of greatest importance for managing the water resources. A typical karst region, Fangshan in northern China, was selected as a case study. Groundwater levels and hydrochemistry analyses, together with isotope data based on hydrogeological field investigations, were used to assess the GW-SW interaction. Chemistry data reveal that water type and the concentration of cations in the groundwater are consistent with those of the surface water. Stable isotope ratios of all samples are close to the local meteoric water line, and the 3H concentrations of surface water and groundwater samples are close to that of rainfall, so isotopes also confirm that karst groundwater is recharged by rainfall. Cross-correlation analysis reveals that rainfall leads to a rise in groundwater level with a lag time of 2 months and groundwater exploitation leads to a fall within 1 month. Spectral analysis also reveals that groundwater level, groundwater exploitation and rainfall have significantly similar response periods, indicating their possible inter-relationship. Furthermore, a multiple nonlinear regression model indicates that groundwater level can be negatively correlated with groundwater exploitation, and positively correlated with rainfall. The overall results revealed that groundwater level has a close correlation with groundwater exploitation and rainfall, and they are indicative of a close hydraulic connection and interaction between surface water and groundwater in this karst system.

  14. Geophysical characterisation of the groundwater-surface water interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLachlan, P. J.; Chambers, J. E.; Uhlemann, S. S.; Binley, A.

    2017-11-01

    Interactions between groundwater (GW) and surface water (SW) have important implications for water quantity, water quality, and ecological health. The subsurface region proximal to SW bodies, the GW-SW interface, is crucial as it actively regulates the transfer of nutrients, contaminants, and water between GW systems and SW environments. However, geological, hydrological, and biogeochemical heterogeneity in the GW-SW interface makes it difficult to characterise with direct observations. Over the past two decades geophysics has been increasingly used to characterise spatial and temporal variability throughout the GW-SW interface. Geophysics is a powerful tool in evaluating structural heterogeneity, revealing zones of GW discharge, and monitoring hydrological processes. Geophysics should be used alongside traditional hydrological and biogeochemical methods to provide additional information about the subsurface. Further integration of commonly used geophysical techniques, and adoption of emerging techniques, has the potential to improve understanding of the properties and processes of the GW-SW interface, and ultimately the implications for water quality and environmental health.

  15. Application of surface geophysics to ground-water investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohdy, Adel A.R.; Eaton, Gordon P.; Mabey, Don R.

    1974-01-01

    This manual reviews the standard methods of surface geophysics applicable to ground-water investigations. It covers electrical methods, seismic and gravity methods, and magnetic methods. The general physical principles underlying each method and its capabilities and limitations are described. Possibilities for non-uniqueness of interpretation of geophysical results are noted. Examples of actual use of the methods are given to illustrate applications and interpretation in selected geohydrologic environments. The objective of the manual is to provide the hydrogeologist with a sufficient understanding of the capabilities, imitations, and relative cost of geophysical methods to make sound decisions as to when to use of these methods is desirable. The manual also provides enough information for the hydrogeologist to work with a geophysicist in designing geophysical surveys that differentiate significant hydrogeologic changes.

  16. Studying groundwater and surface water interactions using airborne remote sensing in Heihe River basin, northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C.; Liu, J.; Hu, Y.; Zheng, C.

    2015-05-01

    Managing surface water and groundwater as a unified system is important for water resource exploitation and aquatic ecosystem conservation. The unified approach to water management needs accurate characterization of surface water and groundwater interactions. Temperature is a natural tracer for identifying surface water and groundwater interactions, and the use of remote sensing techniques facilitates basin-scale temperature measurement. This study focuses on the Heihe River basin, the second largest inland river basin in the arid and semi-arid northwest of China where surface water and groundwater undergoes dynamic exchanges. The spatially continuous river-surface temperature of the midstream section of the Heihe River was obtained by using an airborne pushbroom hyperspectral thermal sensor system. By using the hot spot analysis toolkit in the ArcGIS software, abnormally cold water zones were identified as indicators of the spatial pattern of groundwater discharge to the river.

  17. Studying groundwater and surface water interactions using airborne remote sensing in Heihe River basin, northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Liu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Managing surface water and groundwater as a unified system is important for water resource exploitation and aquatic ecosystem conservation. The unified approach to water management needs accurate characterization of surface water and groundwater interactions. Temperature is a natural tracer for identifying surface water and groundwater interactions, and the use of remote sensing techniques facilitates basin-scale temperature measurement. This study focuses on the Heihe River basin, the second largest inland river basin in the arid and semi-arid northwest of China where surface water and groundwater undergoes dynamic exchanges. The spatially continuous river-surface temperature of the midstream section of the Heihe River was obtained by using an airborne pushbroom hyperspectral thermal sensor system. By using the hot spot analysis toolkit in the ArcGIS software, abnormally cold water zones were identified as indicators of the spatial pattern of groundwater discharge to the river.

  18. Spatial variability analysis of combining the water quality and groundwater flow model to plan groundwater and surface water management in the Pingtung plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ching-Fang; Chen, Jui-Sheng; Jang, Cheng-Shin

    2014-05-01

    As a result of rapid economic growth in the Pingtung Plain, the use of groundwater resources has changed dramatically. The groundwater is quite rich in the Pingtung plain and the most important water sources. During the several decades, a substantial amount of groundwater has been pumped for the drinking, irrigation and aquaculture water supplies. However, because the sustainable use concept of groundwater resources is lack, excessive pumping of groundwater causes the occurrence of serious land subsidence and sea water intrusion. Thus, the management and conservation of groundwater resources in the Pingtung plain are considerably critical. This study aims to assess the conjunct use effect of groundwater and surface water in the Pingtung plain on recharge by reducing the amount of groundwater extraction. The groundwater quality variability and groundwater flow models are combined to spatially analyze potential zones of groundwater used for multi-purpose in the Pingtung Plain. First, multivariate indicator kriging (MVIK) is used to analyze spatial variability of groundwater quality based on drinking, aquaculture and irrigation water quality standards, and probabilistically delineate suitable zones in the study area. Then, the groundwater flow model, Processing MODFLOW (PMWIN), is adopted to simulate groundwater flow. The groundwater flow model must be conducted by the calibration and verification processes, and the regional groundwater recovery is discussed when specified water rights are replaced by surface water in the Pingtung plain. Finally, the most suitable zones of reducing groundwater use are determined for multi-purpose according to combining groundwater quality and quantity. The study results can establish a sound and low-impact management plan of groundwater resources utilization for the multi-purpose groundwater use, and prevent decreasing ground water tables, and the occurrence of land subsidence and sea water intrusion in the Pingtung plain.

  19. A Study on the Surface and Subsurface Water Interaction Based on the Groundwater Recession Curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S. T.; Chen, Y. W.; Chang, L. C.; Chiang, C. J.; Wang, Y. S.

    2017-12-01

    The interaction of surface to subsurface water is an important issue for groundwater resources assessment and management. The influences of surface water to groundwater are mainly through the rainfall recharge, river recharge and discharge and other boundary sources. During a drought period, the interaction of river and groundwater may be one of the main sources of groundwater level recession. Therefore, this study explores the interaction of surface water to groundwater via the groundwater recession. During drought periods, the pumping and river interaction together are the main mechanisms causing the recession of groundwater level. In principle, larger gradient of the recession curve indicates more groundwater discharge and it is an important characteristic of the groundwater system. In this study, to avoid time-consuming manual analysis, the Python programming language is used to develop a statistical analysis model for exploring the groundwater recession information. First, the slopes of the groundwater level hydrograph at every time step were computed for each well. Then, for each well, the represented slope to each groundwater level was defined as the slope with 90% exceedance probability. The relationship between the recession slope and the groundwater level can then be obtained. The developed model is applied to Choushui River Alluvial Fan. In most wells, the results show strong positive correlations between the groundwater levels and the absolute values of the recession slopes.

  20. Water level observations from Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for improving estimates of surface water-groundwater interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandini, Filippo; Butts, Michael; Vammen Jacobsen, Torsten

    2017-01-01

    spatial resolution; ii) spatially continuous profiles along or across the water body; iii) flexible timing of sampling. A semi-synthetic study was conducted to analyse the value of the new UAV-borne datatype for improving hydrological models, in particular estimates of GW (Groundwater)- SW (Surface Water...

  1. Coastal Zone Hazards Related to Groundwater-Surface Water Interactions and Groundwater Flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontar, Y. A.; Ozorovich, Y. R.; Salokhiddinov, A. T.

    2009-12-01

    Worldwide, as many as half a million people have died in natural and man-made disasters since the turn of the 21st century (Wirtz, 2008). Further, natural and man-made hazards can lead to extreme financial losses (Elsner et al, 2009). Hazards, hydrological and geophysical risk analysis related to groundwater-surface water interactions and groundwater flooding have been to a large extent under-emphasized for coastal zone applications either due to economical limitations or underestimation of its significance. This is particularly true for tsunamis creating salt water intrusion to coastal aquifers, even though most tsunami hazard assessments have in the past relied on scenario or deterministic type models (Geist and Parsons, 2006), and to increasing mineralization of potable water because of intensive water diversions and also the abundance of highly toxic pollutants (mainly pesticides) in water, air and food, which contribute to the deterioration of the coastal population's health (Glantz, 2007). In the wake of pressing environmental and economic issues, it is of prime importance for the scientific community to shed light onto the great efforts by hydrologists and geophysicists to quantify conceptual uncertainties and to provide quality assurances of potential coastal zone hazard evaluation and prediction. This paper proposes consideration of two case studies which are important and significant for future development and essential for feasibility studies of hazards in the coastal zone. The territory of the Aral Sea Region in Central Asia is known as an ecological disaster coastal zone (Zavialov, 2005). It is now obvious that, in order to provide reasonable living conditions to the coastal zone population, it is first of all necessary to drastically improve the quality of the water dedicated to human needs. Due to their intensive pollution by industrial wastes and by drainage waters from irrigated fields, the Syr Darya and Amu Darya rivers can no longer be considered

  2. Effects of road salts on groundwater and surface water ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Road salts are a growing environmental concern in urban watersheds. We examined groundwater (GW) and surface water (SW) dynamics of Na+ and Cl− in Minebank Run (MBR), an urban stream in Maryland, USA. We observed an increasing salinity trend in this restored stream. Current baseflow salinity does not exceed water quality recommendations, but rapid “first flush” storm flow was approximately one-third that of seawater. Comparisons between the upstream and downstream study reaches suggest that a major interstate highway is the primary road salt source. A heavily used road parallels most of MBR and was an additional source to GW concentrations, especially the downstream right bank. A baseflow synoptic survey identified zones of increased salinity. Downstream piezometer wells exhibited increases in salt concentrations and there was evidence that Na+ is exchanging Ca2+ and Mg2+ on soils. SW salt concentrations were generally elevated above GW concentrations. Salinity levels persisted at MBR throughout the year and were above background levels at Bynum Run, a nearby reference stream not bisected by a major highway, suggesting that GW is a long-term reservoir for accumulating road salts. Chronic salinity levels may be high enough to damage vegetation and salinity peaks could impact other biota. Beneficial uses and green infrastructure investments may be at risk from salinity driven degradation. Therefore, road salt may represent an environmental risk that could af

  3. Iron oxidation kinetics and phosphorus immobilization at the groundwater-surface water interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Grift, Bas; Rozemeijer, Joachim; Griffioen, Jasper; van der Velde, Ype

    2014-01-01

    Eutrophication of freshwater environments following diffuse nutrient loads is a widely recognized water quality problem in catchments. Fluxes of non-point P sources to surface waters originate from surface runoff and flow from soil water and groundwater into surface water. The availability of P in

  4. An isotope-aided study on the interaction of surface water and groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Jong Sung; Kim, Jong Hoon; Yun, Si Tae; Jeong, Chan Ho; Kim, Kae Nam

    1987-12-01

    The interaction between surface water and groundwater was studied by isotope-aided techniques in the vicinity of the KAERI area. The understanding of surface water and groundwater flow systems and the analysis of geomaterials which provide the pathway of groundwater is important for the hydrogeological safety assessment of the radioactive waste disposal. The results of the analyses of environmental isotopes have shown that the shallow groundwater in this area was originated from the meteoric water which is infiltrated rapidly into the subsurface materials. The higher content of the environmental isotopes in some groundwater samples indicate that this anomalous values is attributed to impermeable, fine-grained materials. Also, the results of hydrochemical analyses of water samples indicate that shallow groundwater and precipitation are well mixed. (Author)

  5. Initial site characterisation of a dissolved hydrocarbon groundwater plume discharging to a surface water environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westbrook, S.J.; Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation Land and Water, Wembley, WA; Davis, G.B.; Rayner, J.L.; Fisher, S.J.; Clement, T.P.

    2000-01-01

    Preliminary characterisation of a dissolved hydrocarbon groundwater plume flowing towards a tidally- and seasonally-forced estuarine system has been completed at a site in Perth, Western Australia. Installation and sampling of multiport boreholes enabled fine scale (0.5-m) vertical definition of hydrocarbon concentrations. Vertical electrical conductivity profiles from multiport and spear probe sampling into the river sediments indicated that two groundwater/river water interfaces or dispersion zones are present: (a) an upper dispersion zone between brackish river water and groundwater, and (b) a lower interface between groundwater and deeper saline water. On-line water level loggers show that near-shore groundwater levels are also strongly influence by tidal oscillation. Results from the initial site characterisation will be used to plan further investigations of contaminated groundwater/surface water interactions and the biodegradation processes occurring at the site

  6. Iron oxidation kinetics and phosphorus immobilization at the groundwater-surface water interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Grift, Bas; Rozemeijer, Joachim; Griffioen, Jasper; van der Velde, Ype

    2014-05-01

    Eutrophication of freshwater environments following diffuse nutrient loads is a widely recognized water quality problem in catchments. Fluxes of non-point P sources to surface waters originate from surface runoff and flow from soil water and groundwater into surface water. The availability of P in surface waters is controlled strongly by biogeochemical nutrient cycling processes at the soil-water interface. The mechanisms and rates of the iron oxidation process with associated binding of phosphate during exfiltration of anaerobic Fe(II) bearing groundwater are among the key unknowns in P retention processes in surface waters in delta areas where the shallow groundwater is typically pH-neutral to slightly acid, anoxic, iron-rich. We developed an experimental field set-up to study the dynamics in Fe(II) oxidation and mechanisms of P immobilization at the groundwater-surface water interface in an agricultural experimental catchment of a small lowland river. We physically separated tube drain effluent from groundwater discharge before it entered a ditch in an agricultural field. The exfiltrating groundwater was captured in in-stream reservoirs constructed in the ditch. Through continuous discharge measurements and weekly water quality sampling of groundwater, tube drain water, exfiltrated groundwater, and ditch water, we quantified Fe(II) oxidation kinetics and P immobilization processes across the seasons. This study showed that seasonal changes in climatic conditions affect the Fe(II) oxidation process. In winter time the dissolved iron concentrations in the in-stream reservoirs reached the levels of the anaerobic groundwater. In summer time, the dissolved iron concentrations of the water in the reservoirs are low, indicating that dissolved Fe(II) is completely oxidized prior to inflow into the reservoirs. Higher discharges, lower temperatures and lower pH of the exfiltrated groundwater in winter compared to summer shifts the location of the redox transition zone

  7. The groundwater contribution to surface water contamination in a region with intensive agricultural land use (Noord-Brabant, The Netherlands)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozemeijer, J.C.; Broers, H.P.

    2007-01-01

    Traditionally, monitoring of soil, groundwater and surface water quality is coordinated by different authorities in the Netherlands. Nowadays, the European Water Framework Directive (EU, 2000) stimulates an integrated approach of the complete soil-groundwater-surface water system. Based on water quality data from several test catchments, we propose a conceptual model stating that stream water quality at different discharges is the result of different mixing ratios of groundwater from different depths. This concept is used for a regional study of the groundwater contribution to surface water contamination in the Dutch province of Noord-Brabant, using the large amount of available data from the regional monitoring networks. The results show that groundwater is a dominant source of surface water contamination. The poor chemical condition of upper and shallow groundwater leads to exceedance of the quality standards in receiving surface waters, especially during quick flow periods. - Water quality monitoring data show the importance of the groundwater contribution to surface water pollution

  8. Response of groundwater level and surface-water/groundwater interaction to climate variability: Clarence-Moreton Basin, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Tao; Raiber, Matthias; Pagendam, Dan; Gilfedder, Mat; Rassam, David

    2018-03-01

    Understanding the response of groundwater levels in alluvial and sedimentary basin aquifers to climatic variability and human water-resource developments is a key step in many hydrogeological investigations. This study presents an analysis of groundwater response to climate variability from 2000 to 2012 in the Queensland part of the sedimentary Clarence-Moreton Basin, Australia. It contributes to the baseline hydrogeological understanding by identifying the primary groundwater flow pattern, water-level response to climate extremes, and the resulting dynamics of surface-water/groundwater interaction. Groundwater-level measurements from thousands of bores over several decades were analysed using Kriging and nonparametric trend analysis, together with a newly developed three-dimensional geological model. Groundwater-level contours suggest that groundwater flow in the shallow aquifers shows local variations in the close vicinity of streams, notwithstanding general conformance with topographic relief. The trend analysis reveals that climate variability can be quickly reflected in the shallow aquifers of the Clarence-Moreton Basin although the alluvial aquifers have a quicker rainfall response than the sedimentary bedrock formations. The Lockyer Valley alluvium represents the most sensitively responding alluvium in the area, with the highest declining (-0.7 m/year) and ascending (2.1 m/year) Sen's slope rates during and after the drought period, respectively. Different surface-water/groundwater interaction characteristics were observed in different catchments by studying groundwater-level fluctuations along hydrogeologic cross-sections. The findings of this study lay a foundation for future water-resource management in the study area.

  9. GSFLOW model simulations used to evaluate the impact of irrigated agriculture on surface water - groundwater interaction

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — Watershed-scale coupled surface water (SW) – groundwater (GW) flow modeling was used to examine changes in streamflow and SW – GW interaction resulting from...

  10. Determination of Groundwater and Surface Water Qualities at Si Racha, Chon Buri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wangsawang, Jarinee; Naenorn, Warinlada; Khuntong, Soontree; Wongsorntam, Krirk; Udomsomporn, Suchin

    2011-06-01

    Full text: Groundwater (13 wells) and surface water (7 ponds) at Si Racha, Chon Buri province were collected for measurement of water qualities and radionuclides. The water qualities included physical and chemical analysis such as pH, EC, TS, TDS, TSS, TKN, total phosphate, BOD, COD, total hardness and FOG based on standard methods for examination of water and wastewater. Heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni and Zn) were analyzed by ICP-AES while total coliform was determined by Multiple Tube Methods. Moreover, radionuclides were analyzed by gamma spectrometer and gross beta and gross alpha were obtained from low background gas proportional counter. Values of most parameters in groundwater were below water qualities standards but all parameters in surface water samples were exceeded water qualities standards. It was found that all radionuclides in water samples were originated from natural uranium and thorium series. The data obtained enabled evaluation of pollutants in groundwater and surface water

  11. Interaction of surface water and groundwater in the Nile River basin: isotopic and piezometric evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebede, Seifu; Abdalla, Osman; Sefelnasr, Ahmed; Tindimugaya, Callist; Mustafa, Osman

    2017-05-01

    Past discussions around water-resources management and development in the River Nile basin disregard groundwater resources from the equation. There is an increasing interest around factoring the groundwater resources as an integral part of the Nile Basin water resources. This is hampered by knowledge gap regarding the groundwater resources dynamics (recharge, storage, flow, quality, surface-water/groundwater interaction) at basin scale. This report provides a comprehensive analysis of the state of surface-water/groundwater interaction from the headwater to the Nile Delta region. Piezometric and isotopic (δ18O, δ2H) evidence reveal that the Nile changes from a gaining stream in the headwater regions to mostly a loosing stream in the arid lowlands of Sudan and Egypt. Specific zones of Nile water leakage to the adjacent aquifers is mapped using the two sources of evidence. Up to 50% of the surface-water flow in the equatorial region of the Nile comes from groundwater as base flow. The evidence also shows that the natural direction and rate of surface-water/groundwater interaction is largely perturbed by human activities (diversion, dam construction) particularly downstream of the Aswan High Dam in Egypt. The decrease in discharge of the Nile River along its course is attributed to leakage to the aquifers as well as to evaporative water loss from the river channel. The surface-water/groundwater interaction occurring along the Nile River and its sensitivity to infrastructure development calls for management strategies that account groundwater as an integral part of the Nile Basin resources.

  12. Modeling groundwater/surface-water interactions in an Alpine valley (the Aosta Plain, NW Italy): the effect of groundwater abstraction on surface-water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefania, Gennaro A.; Rotiroti, Marco; Fumagalli, Letizia; Simonetto, Fulvio; Capodaglio, Pietro; Zanotti, Chiara; Bonomi, Tullia

    2018-02-01

    A groundwater flow model of the Alpine valley aquifer in the Aosta Plain (NW Italy) showed that well pumping can induce river streamflow depletions as a function of well location. Analysis of the water budget showed that ˜80% of the water pumped during 2 years by a selected well in the downstream area comes from the baseflow of the main river discharge. Alluvial aquifers hosted in Alpine valleys fall within a particular hydrogeological context where groundwater/surface-water relationships change from upstream to downstream as well as seasonally. A transient groundwater model using MODFLOW2005 and the Streamflow-Routing (SFR2) Package is here presented, aimed at investigating water exchanges between the main regional river (Dora Baltea River, a left-hand tributary of the Po River), its tributaries and the underlying shallow aquifer, which is affected by seasonal oscillations. The three-dimensional distribution of the hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer was obtained by means of a specific coding system within the database TANGRAM. Both head and flux targets were used to perform the model calibration using PEST. Results showed that the fluctuations of the water table play an important role in groundwater/surface-water interconnections. In upstream areas, groundwater is recharged by water leaking through the riverbed and the well abstraction component of the water budget changes as a function of the hydraulic conditions of the aquifer. In downstream areas, groundwater is drained by the river and most of the water pumped by wells comes from the base flow component of the river discharge.

  13. Groundwater Discharge of Legacy Nitrogen to River Networks: Linking Regional Groundwater Models to Streambed Groundwater-Surface Water Exchange and Nitrogen Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, J. R.; Helton, A. M.; Briggs, M. A.; Starn, J. J.; Hunt, A.

    2017-12-01

    Despite years of management, excess nitrogen (N) is a pervasive problem in many aquatic ecosystems. More than half of surface water in the United States is derived from groundwater, and widespread N contamination in aquifers from decades of watershed N inputs suggest legacy N discharging from groundwater may contribute to contemporary N pollution problems in surface waters. Legacy N loads to streams and rivers are controlled by both regional scale flow paths and fine-scale processes that drive N transformations, such as groundwater-surface water exchange across steep redox gradients that occur at stream bed interfaces. Adequately incorporating these disparate scales is a challenge, but it is essential to understanding legacy N transport and making informed management decisions. We developed a regional groundwater flow model for the Farmington River, a HUC-8 basin that drains to the Long Island Sound, a coastal estuary that suffers from elevated N loads despite decades of management, to understand broad patterns of regional transport. To evaluate and refine the regional model, we used thermal infrared imagery paired with vertical temperature profiling to estimate groundwater discharge at the streambed interface. We also analyzed discharging groundwater for multiple N species to quantify fine scale patterns of N loading and transformation via denitrification at the streambed interface. Integrating regional and local estimates of groundwater discharge of legacy N to river networks should improve our ability to predict spatiotemporal patterns of legacy N loading to and transformation within surface waters.

  14. Impacts of Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility operations on groundwater and surface water: Appendix 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.W.

    1986-04-01

    The operation of the proposed Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) at Newport News, Virginia, is expected to result in the activation and subsequent contamination of water resources in the vicinity of the accelerator. Since the proposed site is located in the headwaters of the watershed supplying Big Bethel Reservoir, concern has been expressed about possible contamination of water resources used for consumption. Data characterizing the surface water and groundwater regime in the site area are limited. A preliminary geotechnical investigation of the site has been completed (LAW 1985). This investigation concluded that groundwater flow is generally towards the southeast at an estimated velocity of 2.5 m/y. This conclusion is based on groundwater and soil boring data and is very preliminary in nature. This analysis makes use of the data and conclusions developed during the preliminary geotechnical investigation to provide an upper-bound assessment of radioactive contamination from CEBAF operations. A site water balance was prepared to describe the behavior of the hydrologic environment that is in close agreement with the observed data. The transport of contamination in the groundwater regime is assessed using a one-dimensional model. The groundwater model includes the mechanisms of groundwater flow, groundwater recharge, radioactive decay, and groundwater activation. The model formulation results in a closed-form, exact, analytic solution of the concentration of contamination in the groundwater. The groundwater solution is used to provide a source term for a surface-water analysis. The surface-water and groundwater models are prepared for steady state conditions such that they represent conservative evaluations of CEBAF operations

  15. Coupling a groundwater model with a land surface model to improve water and energy cycle simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Tian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Water and energy cycles interact, making these two processes closely related. Land surface models (LSMs can describe the water and energy cycles on the land surface, but their description of the subsurface water processes is oversimplified, and lateral groundwater flow is ignored. Groundwater models (GWMs describe the dynamic movement of the subsurface water well, but they cannot depict the physical mechanisms of the evapotranspiration (ET process in detail. In this study, a coupled model of groundwater flow with a simple biosphere (GWSiB is developed based on the full coupling of a typical land surface model (SiB2 and a 3-D variably saturated groundwater model (AquiferFlow. In this coupled model, the infiltration, ET and energy transfer are simulated by SiB2 using the soil moisture results from the groundwater flow model. The infiltration and ET results are applied iteratively to drive the groundwater flow model. After the coupled model is built, a sensitivity test is first performed, and the effect of the groundwater depth and the hydraulic conductivity parameters on the ET are analyzed. The coupled model is then validated using measurements from two stations located in shallow and deep groundwater depth zones. Finally, the coupled model is applied to data from the middle reach of the Heihe River basin in the northwest of China to test the regional simulation capabilities of the model.

  16. Emerging organic contaminants in surface water and groundwater: a first overview of the situation in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meffe, Raffaella; de Bustamante, Irene

    2014-05-15

    This paper provides the first review of the occurrence of 161 emerging organic compounds (EOCs) in Italian surface water and groundwater. The reported EOCs belong to the groups of industrials, pharmaceuticals, estrogens and illicit drugs. Occurrence of 137 pesticides was also reported. The reviewed research works have been published between 1997 and 2013. The majority of the studies have been carried out in Northern Italy (n. 30) and to a lower extent in Central Italy (n. 13). Only a limited number of research studies report EOC concentrations in water resources of Southern Italy. The EOCs that have been more frequently studied are in the following descending order, pesticides (16), pharmaceuticals (15), industrials (13), estrogens (7) and illicit drugs (2). Research activities investigating the EOC occurrence in surface water are more numerous than those in groundwater. This is consistent with the higher complexity involved in groundwater sampling and EOC detection. Among the reported EOCs, industrials and pesticides are those occurring in both surface water and groundwater with the highest concentrations (up to 15 × 10(6) and 4.78 × 0(5)ng L(-1), respectively). Concentrations of pharmaceuticals in surface water reach a maximum of 3.59 × 10(3)ng L(-1), whereas only the antimicrobial agent josamycin has been encountered in groundwater with a concentration higher than 100 ng L(-1). Both estrogens and illicit drugs appeared in surface water with concentrations lower than 50 ng L(-1). Groundwater concentrations for estrogens were measured to be below the detection limits, whereas illicit drugs have so far not been studied in groundwater. The present review reveals the serious contamination status of Italian surface water and groundwater especially by pesticides, industrials and to a lower extent by pharmaceuticals and the necessity to foster the research on EOC occurrence in Italian water resources, in particular in Southern Italy where a limited number of

  17. Eco-hydrological process simulations within an integrated surface water-groundwater model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butts, Michael; Loinaz, Maria Christina; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Integrated water resources management requires tools that can quantify changes in groundwater, surface water, water quality and ecosystem health, as a result of changes in catchment management. To address these requirements we have developed an integrated eco-hydrological modelling framework...... that allows hydrologists and ecologists to represent the complex and dynamic interactions occurring between surface water, ground water, water quality and freshwater ecosystems within a catchment. We demonstrate here the practical application of this tool to two case studies where the interaction of surface...... water and ground water are important for the ecosystem. In the first, simulations are performed to understand the importance of surface water-groundwater interactions for a restored riparian wetland on the Odense River in Denmark as part of a larger investigation of water quality and nitrate retention...

  18. Tracing nitrate pollution sources and transformation in surface- and ground-waters using environmental isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yan; Li, Fadong; Zhang, Qiuying; Li, Jing; Liu, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    Water pollution in the form of nitrate nitrogen (NO 3 − –N) contamination is a major concern in most agricultural areas in the world. Concentrations and nitrogen and oxygen isotopic compositions of nitrate, as well as oxygen and deuterium isotopic compositions of surface and groundwater from a typical irrigated region in the North China Plain (NCP) collected from May to October in 2012 were analyzed to examine the major nitrate sources and transformations. Concentrations of NO 3 − –N ranged from 0.2 to 29.6 mg/L (mean of 11.2 mg/L) in surface water, and from 0.1 to 19.4 mg/L (mean of 2.8 mg/L) in groundwater. Approximately 46.7% of the surface water samples and 10% of the groundwater samples exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO) drinking water standard for NO 3 − –N. Surface water samples that exceeded the standard were collected mainly in the dry season (May and October), while groundwater samples that exceeded the standard were collected in the wet season (June). Overall, the highest nitrate levels were observed in surface water in May and in groundwater in June, indicating that fertilizer application, precipitation, and irrigation strongly influence the NO 3 − –N concentrations. Analyses of isotopic compositions suggest that the main sources of nitrate are nitrification of fertilizer and sewage in surface water, in contrast, mineralization of soil organic N and sewage is the groundwater sources during the dry season. When fertilizers are applied, nitrate will be transported by precipitation through the soil layers to the groundwater in the wet season (June). Denitrification only occurred in surface water in the wet season. Attempts should be made to minimize overuse of nitrogen fertilizers and to improve nitrogen use efficiency in irrigated agricultural regions. - Highlights: • Nitrate sources in surface and groundwater were identified by multiple isotopes. • Nitrate pollution displayed obvious seasonal variations. • Nitrate of

  19. Tracing nitrate pollution sources and transformation in surface- and ground-waters using environmental isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yan [Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Li, Fadong, E-mail: lifadong@igsnrr.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Zhang, Qiuying [Center for Agricultural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shijiazhuang 050021 (China); Li, Jing [Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Liu, Qiang [Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2014-08-15

    Water pollution in the form of nitrate nitrogen (NO{sub 3}{sup −}–N) contamination is a major concern in most agricultural areas in the world. Concentrations and nitrogen and oxygen isotopic compositions of nitrate, as well as oxygen and deuterium isotopic compositions of surface and groundwater from a typical irrigated region in the North China Plain (NCP) collected from May to October in 2012 were analyzed to examine the major nitrate sources and transformations. Concentrations of NO{sub 3}{sup −}–N ranged from 0.2 to 29.6 mg/L (mean of 11.2 mg/L) in surface water, and from 0.1 to 19.4 mg/L (mean of 2.8 mg/L) in groundwater. Approximately 46.7% of the surface water samples and 10% of the groundwater samples exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO) drinking water standard for NO{sub 3}{sup −}–N. Surface water samples that exceeded the standard were collected mainly in the dry season (May and October), while groundwater samples that exceeded the standard were collected in the wet season (June). Overall, the highest nitrate levels were observed in surface water in May and in groundwater in June, indicating that fertilizer application, precipitation, and irrigation strongly influence the NO{sub 3}{sup −}–N concentrations. Analyses of isotopic compositions suggest that the main sources of nitrate are nitrification of fertilizer and sewage in surface water, in contrast, mineralization of soil organic N and sewage is the groundwater sources during the dry season. When fertilizers are applied, nitrate will be transported by precipitation through the soil layers to the groundwater in the wet season (June). Denitrification only occurred in surface water in the wet season. Attempts should be made to minimize overuse of nitrogen fertilizers and to improve nitrogen use efficiency in irrigated agricultural regions. - Highlights: • Nitrate sources in surface and groundwater were identified by multiple isotopes. • Nitrate pollution displayed obvious

  20. Groundwater and surface water interaction in a basin surrounded by steep mountains, central Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Koichi; Tsujimura, Maki; Kaeriyama, Toshiaki; Nakano, Takanori

    2015-04-01

    Mountainous headwaters and lower stream alluvial plains are important as water recharge and discharge areas from the view point of groundwater flow system. Especially, groundwater and surface water interaction is one of the most important processes to understand the total groundwater flow system from the mountain to the alluvial plain. We performed tracer approach and hydrometric investigations in a basin with an area 948 square km surrounded by steep mountains with an altitude from 250m to 2060m, collected 258 groundwater samples and 112 surface water samples along four streams flowing in the basin. Also, Stable isotopes ratios of oxygen-18 (18O) and deuterium (D) and strontium (Sr) were determined on all water samples. The 18O and D show distinctive values for each sub-basin affected by different average recharge altitudes among four sub-basins. Also, Sr isotope ratio shows the same trend as 18O and D affected by different geological covers in the recharge areas among four sub-basins. The 18O, D and Sr isotope values of groundwater along some rivers in the middle stream region of the basin show close values as the rivers, and suggesting that direct recharge from the river to the shallow groundwater is predominant in that region. Also, a decreasing trend of discharge rate of the stream along the flow supports this idea of the groundwater and surface water interaction in the basin.

  1. Utilization threshold of surface water and groundwater based on the system optimization of crop planting structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang FU,Jiahong LI,Tianxiao LI,Dong LIU,Song CUI

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on the diversity of the agricultural system, this research calculates the planting structures of rice, maize and soybean considering the optimal economic-social-ecological aspects. Then, based on the uncertainty and randomness of the water resources system, the interval two-stage stochastic programming method, which introduces the uncertainty of the interval number, is used to calculate the groundwater exploitation and the use efficiency of surface water. The method considers the minimum cost of water as the objective of the uncertainty model for surface water and groundwater joint scheduling optimization for different planting structures. Finally, by calculating harmonious entropy, the optimal exploitation utilization interval of surface water and groundwater is determined for optimal cultivation in the Sanjiang Plain. The optimal matching of the planting structure under the economic system is suitable when the mining ratio of the surface is in 44.13%—45.45% and the exploitation utilization of groundwater is in 54.82%—66.86%, the optimal planting structure under the social system is suitable when surface water mining ratio is in 47.84%—48.04% and the groundwater exploitation threshold is in 67.07%—72.00%. This article optimizes the economic-social-ecological-water system, which is important for the development of a water- and food-conserving society and providing a more accurate management environment.

  2. Surface water and groundwater interaction in selected areas of Indus basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akram, W.; Ahmad, M.; Tariq, J.A.; Latif, Z.; Malik, M.R.

    2011-08-01

    Isotope hydrological investigations were carried out in Marala-Khanki Area of Punjab for elucidating various aspects of surface water and groundwater interaction. Groundwater samples were collected on seasonal basis (low and high river discharge periods) while surface water (Chenab River) samples were collected more frequently (weekly or monthly basis). Isotopic data suggested that there is no significant contribution of surface water to groundwater recharge in Marala-Khanki Area and rain is the prevailing source of groundwater recharge. The data further revealed that isotopic values of Tarbala lake are higher than those of main lake. Indus river meaning that there is significant contribution of base flow in this pocket. Isotopic data of Indus river showed an increase at Tunsa as compared to Chashma in flow period indicating the high contribution of base flow at this point in time. Stable isotopes were successfully used to quantify the base flow contribution. (author)

  3. Possible effects of groundwater pumping on surface water in the Verde Valley, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leake, Stanley A.; Haney, Jeanmarie

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with The Nature Conservancy, has applied a groundwater model to simulate effects of groundwater pumping and artificial recharge on surface water in the Verde Valley sub-basin of Arizona. Results are in two sets of maps that show effects of locations of pumping or recharge on streamflow. These maps will help managers make decisions that will meet water needs and minimize environmental impacts.

  4. Integrated modelling for assessing the risk of groundwater contaminants to human health and surface water ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKnight, Ursula S.; Rasmussen, Jes; Funder, Simon G.

    2010-01-01

    for evaluating the impact of a TCE groundwater plume, located in an area with protected drinking water interests, to human health and surface water ecosystems. This is accomplished by coupling the system dynamicsbased decision support system CARO-Plus to the aquatic ecosystem model AQUATOX via an analytical......The practical implementation of the European Water Framework Directive has resulted in an increased focus on the groundwater-surface water interaction zone. A gap exists with respect to preliminary assessment methodologies that are capable of evaluating and prioritising point sources...... volatilisation model for the stream. The model is tested on a Danish case study involving a 750 m long TCE groundwater plume discharging into a stream. The initial modelling results indicate that TCE contaminant plumes with μgL-1 concentrations entering surface water systems do not pose a significant risk...

  5. Integrated assessment of groundwater - surface water exchange in the hillslope - riparian interface of a montane catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheliga, Bernhard; Tetzlaff, Doerthe; Nuetzmann, Gunnar; Soulsby, Chris

    2016-04-01

    Groundwater-surface water dynamics play an important role in runoff generation and the hydrologic connectivity between hillslopes and streams. Here, we present findings from a suite of integrated, empirical approaches to increase our understanding of groundwater-surface water interlinkages in a 3.2 km ^ 2 experimental catchment in the Scottish Highlands. The montane catchment is mainly underlain by granite and has extensive (70%) cover of glacial drift deposits which are up to 40 m deep and form the main aquifer in the catchment. Flat valley bottom areas fringe the stream channel and are characterised by peaty soils (0.5-4 m deep) which cover about 10% of the catchment and receive drainage from upslope areas. The transition between the hillslopes and riparian zone forms a critical interface for groundwater-surface water interactions that controls both the dynamics of riparian saturation and stream flow generation. We nested observations using wells to assess the groundwater - surface water transition, LiDAR surveys to explore the influence of micro-topography on shallow groundwater efflux and riparian wells to examine the magnitude and flux rates of deeper groundwater sources. We also used electrical resistivity surveys to assess the architecture and storage properties of drift aquifers. Finally, we used isotopic tracers to differentiate recharge sources and associated residence times as well as quantifying how groundwater dynamics affect stream flow. These new data have provided a novel conceptual framework for local groundwater - surface water exchange that is informing the development of new deterministic models for the site.

  6. Potential effects of groundwater and surface water contamination in an urban area, Qus City, Upper Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, Fathy; Khalil, Ramadan

    2018-05-01

    The potential effects of anthropogenic activities, in particular, unsafe sewage disposal practices, on shallow groundwater in an unconfined aquifer and on surface water were evaluated within an urban area by the use of hydrogeological, hydrochemical, and bacteriological analyses. Physicochemical and bacteriological data was obtained from forty-five sampling points based on33 groundwater samples from variable depths and 12 surface water samples. The pollution sources are related to raw sewage and wastewater discharges, agricultural runoff, and wastewater from the nearby Paper Factory. Out of the 33 groundwater samples studied, 17 had significant concentrations of NO3-, Cl- and SO42-, and high bacteria counts. Most of the water samples from the wells contained high Fe, Mn, Pb, Zn, Cd, and Cr. The majority of surface water samples presented high NO3- concentrations and high bacteria counts. A scatter plot of HCO3- versus Ca indicates that 58% of the surface water samples fall within the extreme contamination zone, while the others are within the mixing zone; whereas 94% of groundwater samples showed evidence of mixing between groundwater and wastewater. The bacteriological assessment showed that all measured surface and groundwater samples contained Escherichia coli and total coliform bacteria. A risk map delineated four classes of contamination, namely, those sampling points with high (39.3%), moderate (36.3%), low (13.3%), and very low (11.1%) levels of contamination. Most of the highest pollution points were in the middle part of the urban area, which suffers from unmanaged sewage and industrial effluents. Overall, the results demonstrate that surface and groundwater in Qus City are at high risk of contamination by wastewater since the water table is shallow and there is a lack of a formal sanitation network infrastructure. The product risk map is a useful tool for prioritizing zones that require immediate mitigation and monitoring.

  7. Groundwater and surface-water interactions near White Bear Lake, Minnesota, through 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Perry M.; Trost, Jared J.; Rosenberry, Donald O.; Jackson, P. Ryan; Bode, Jenifer A.; O'Grady, Ryan M.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the White Bear Lake Conservation District, the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, and other State, county, municipal, and regional planning agencies, watershed organizations, and private organizations, conducted a study to characterize groundwater and surface-water interactions near White Bear Lake through 2011. During 2010 and 2011, White Bear Lake and other lakes in the northeastern part of the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area were at historically low levels. Previous periods of lower water levels in White Bear Lake correlate with periods of lower precipitation; however, recent urban expansion and increased pumping from the Prairie du Chien-Jordan aquifer have raised the question of whether a decline in precipitation is the primary cause for the recent water-level decline in White Bear Lake. Understanding and quantifying the amount of groundwater inflow to a lake and water discharge from a lake to aquifers is commonly difficult but is important in the management of lake levels. Three methods were used in the study to assess groundwater and surface-water interactions on White Bear Lake: (1) a historical assessment (1978-2011) of levels in White Bear Lake, local groundwater levels, and their relation to historical precipitation and groundwater withdrawals in the White Bear Lake area; (2) recent (2010-11) hydrologic and water-quality data collected from White Bear Lake, other lakes, and wells; and (3) water-balance assessments for White Bear Lake in March and August 2011. An analysis of covariance between average annual lake-level change and annual precipitation indicated the relation between the two variables was significantly different from 2003 through 2011 compared with 1978 through 2002, requiring an average of 4 more inches of precipitation per year to maintain the lake level. This shift in the linear relation between annual lake-level change and annual precipitation

  8. Flux Meter Assesses the Effects of Groundwater, Surface Water, and Contaminated Sediment Interactions on Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    The slow flow of water between groundwater (GW) and surface water (SW) is often referred to as seepage, or in scientific terms, advective flux. This slow flow at the GW/SW interface presents measurement difficulties. This project was conducted to develop a durable advective flux ...

  9. Simulation of groundwater flow and interaction of groundwater and surface water on the Lac du Flambeau Reservation, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juckem, Paul F.; Fienen, Michael N.; Hunt, Randall J.

    2014-01-01

    The Lac du Flambeau Band of Lake Superior Chippewa and Indian Health Service are interested in improving the understanding of groundwater flow and groundwater/surface-water interaction on the Lac du Flambeau Reservation (Reservation) in southwest Vilas County and southeast Iron County, Wisconsin, with particular interest in an understanding of the potential for contamination of groundwater supply wells and the fate of wastewater that is infiltrated from treatment lagoons on the Reservation. This report describes the construction, calibration, and application of a regional groundwater flow model used to simulate the shallow groundwater flow system of the Reservation and water-quality results for groundwater and surface-water samples collected near a system of waste-water-treatment lagoons. Groundwater flows through a permeable glacial aquifer that ranges in thickness from 60 to more than 200 feet (ft). Seepage and drainage lakes are common in the area and influence groundwater flow patterns on the Reservation. A two-dimensional, steady-state analytic element groundwater flow model was constructed using the program GFLOW. The model was calibrated by matching target water levels and stream base flows through the use of the parameter-estimation program, PEST. Simulated results illustrate that groundwater flow within most of the Reservation is toward the Bear River and the chain of lakes that feed the Bear River. Results of analyses of groundwater and surface-water samples collected downgradient from the wastewater infiltration lagoons show elevated levels of ammonia and dissolved phosphorus. In addition, wastewater indicator chemicals detected in three downgradient wells and a small downgradient stream indicate that infiltrated wastewater is moving southwest of the lagoons toward Moss Lake. Potential effects of extended wet and dry periods (within historical ranges) were evaluated by adjusting precipitation and groundwater recharge in the model and comparing the

  10. Combining groundwater quality analysis and a numerical flow simulation for spatially establishing utilization strategies for groundwater and surface water in the Pingtung Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Cheng-Shin; Chen, Ching-Fang; Liang, Ching-Ping; Chen, Jui-Sheng

    2016-02-01

    Overexploitation of groundwater is a common problem in the Pingtung Plain area of Taiwan, resulting in substantial drawdown of groundwater levels as well as the occurrence of severe seawater intrusion and land subsidence. Measures need to be taken to preserve these valuable groundwater resources. This study seeks to spatially determine the most suitable locations for the use of surface water on this plain instead of extracting groundwater for drinking, irrigation, and aquaculture purposes based on information obtained by combining groundwater quality analysis and a numerical flow simulation assuming the planning of manmade lakes and reservoirs to the increase of water supply. The multivariate indicator kriging method is first used to estimate occurrence probabilities, and to rank townships as suitable or unsuitable for groundwater utilization according to water quality standards for drinking, irrigation, and aquaculture. A numerical model of groundwater flow (MODFLOW) is adopted to quantify the recovery of groundwater levels in townships after model calibration when groundwater for drinking and agricultural demands has been replaced by surface water. Finally, townships with poor groundwater quality and significant increases in groundwater levels in the Pingtung Plain are prioritized for the groundwater conservation planning based on the combined assessment of groundwater quality and quantity. The results of this study indicate that the integration of groundwater quality analysis and the numerical flow simulation is capable of establishing sound strategies for joint groundwater and surface water use. Six southeastern townships are found to be suitable locations for replacing groundwater with surface water from manmade lakes or reservoirs to meet drinking, irrigation, and aquaculture demands.

  11. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater And Surface Water Sampling And Analysis Plan For Calendar Year 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elvado Environmental, LLC

    2011-09-01

    This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 2012 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) that will be managed by the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring performed by the GWPP during CY 2012 is in accordance with the following goals: (1) to protect the worker, the public, and the environment; (2) to maintain surveillance of existing and potential groundwater contamination sources; (3) to provide for the early detection of groundwater contamination and determine the quality of groundwater and surface water where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the Oak Ridge Reservation property line; (4) to identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality at Y-12; and (5) to provide data to support decisions concerning the management and protection of groundwater resources. Groundwater and surface water monitoring will be performed in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located in Bear Creek Valley and the Chestnut Ridge Regime is located south of Y-12 (Figure A.1). Additional surface water monitoring will be performed north of Pine Ridge along the boundary of the Oak Ridge Reservation. Modifications to the CY 2012 monitoring program may be necessary during implementation. Changes in programmatic requirements may alter the analytes specified for selected monitoring wells or may add or remove wells from the planned monitoring network. Each modification to the monitoring program will be approved by the Y-12 GWPP manager and documented as an addendum to this sampling and analysis plan. The following sections of this report provide details regarding

  12. Imbalance in Groundwater-Surface Water Interactions and its Relationship to the Coastal Zone Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontar, Y. A.; Ozorovich, Y. R.; Salokhiddinov, A. T.

    2011-12-01

    We report here some efforts and results in studying the imbalance in groundwater-surface water interactions and processes of groundwater-surface water interactions and groundwater flooding creating hazards in the coastal zones. Hazards, hydrological and geophysical risk analysis related to imbalance in groundwater-surface water interactions and groundwater flooding have been to a large extent under-emphasized for coastal zone applications either due to economical limitations or underestimation of significance of imbalance in groundwater-surface water interactions. This is particularly true for tsunamis creating salt water intrusion to coastal aquifers, even though most tsunami hazard assessments have in the past relied on scenario or deterministic type models, and to increasing mineralization of potable water because of intensive water diversions and also the abundance of highly toxic pollutants (mainly pesticides) in water, air and food, which contribute to the deterioration of the coastal population's health. In the wake of pressing environmental and economic issues, it is of prime importance for the scientific community to shed light onto the great efforts by hydrologists and geophysicists to quantify conceptual uncertainties and to provide quality assurances of potential coastal zone hazard evaluation and prediction under conditions of imbalance in groundwater-surface water interactions. This paper proposes consideration of two case studies which are important and significant for future understanding of a concept of imbalance in groundwater-surface water interactions and development and essential for feasibility studies of hazards in the coastal zone. The territory of the Aral Sea Region in Central Asia is known as an ecological disaster coastal zone. It is now obvious that, in order to provide reasonable living conditions to the coastal zone population, it is first of all necessary to drastically improve the quality of the water dedicated to human needs. Due

  13. Dry Stream Reaches in Carbonate Terranes: Surface Indicators of Ground-Water Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahana, J.V.; Hollyday, E.F.

    1988-01-01

    In areas where dry stream reaches occur, subsurface drainage successfully competes with surface drainage, and sheet-like dissolution openings have developed parallel to bedding creating the ground-water reservoir. Union Hollow in south-central Tennessee is the setting for a case study that illustrates the application of the dry stream reach technique. In this technique, dry stream reach identification is based on two types of readily acquired information: remotely sensed black and white infrared aerial photography; and surface reconnaissance of stream channel characteristics. Test drilling in Union Hollow subsequent to identification of the dry reach proved that a localized ground-water reservoir was present.

  14. A nested observation and model approach to non linear groundwater surface water interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velde, Y.; Rozemeijer, J. C.; de Rooij, G. H.

    2009-04-01

    Surface water quality measurements in The Netherlands are scattered in time and space. Therefore, water quality status and its variations and trends are difficult to determine. In order to reach the water quality goals according to the European Water Framework Directive, we need to improve our understanding of the dynamics of surface water quality and the processes that affect it. In heavily drained lowland catchment groundwater influences the discharge towards the surface water network in many complex ways. Especially a strong seasonal contracting and expanding system of discharging ditches and streams affects discharge and solute transport. At a tube drained field site the tube drain flux and the combined flux of all other flow routes toward a stretch of 45 m of surface water have been measured for a year. Also the groundwater levels at various locations in the field and the discharge at two nested catchment scales have been monitored. The unique reaction of individual flow routes on rainfall events at the field site allowed us to separate the discharge at a 4 ha catchment and at a 6 km2 into flow route contributions. The results of this nested experimental setup combined with the results of a distributed hydrological model has lead to the formulation of a process model approach that focuses on the spatial variability of discharge generation driven by temporal and spatial variations in groundwater levels. The main idea of this approach is that discharge is not generated by catchment average storages or groundwater heads, but is mainly generated by points scale extremes i.e. extreme low permeability, extreme high groundwater heads or extreme low surface elevations, all leading to catchment discharge. We focused on describing the spatial extremes in point scale storages and this led to a simple and measurable expression that governs the non-linear groundwater surface water interaction. We will present the analysis of the field site data to demonstrate the potential

  15. The hydrochemistry of glacial Ebba River (Petunia Bay, Central Spitsbergen): Groundwater influence on surface water chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragon, Krzysztof; Marciniak, Marek; Szpikowski, Józef; Szpikowska, Grażyna; Wawrzyniak, Tomasz

    2015-10-01

    The article presents the investigation of surface water chemistry changes of the glacial Ebba River (Central Spitsbergen) during three melting seasons of 2008, 2009 and 2010. The twice daily water chemistry analyses allow recognition of the surface water chemistry differentiation. The surface water chemistry changes are related to the river discharge and changes in the influence of different water balance components during each melting season. One of the most important process that influence river water component concentration increase is groundwater inflow from active layer occurring on the valley area. The significance of this process is the most important at the end of the melting season when temperatures below 0 °C occur on glaciers (resulting in a slowdown of melting of ice and snow and a smaller recharge of the river by the water from the glaciers) while the flow of groundwater is still active, causing a relatively higher contribution of groundwater to the total river discharge. The findings presented in this paper show that groundwater contribution to the total polar river water balance is more important than previously thought and its recognition allow a better understanding of the hydrological processes occurring in a polar environment.

  16. Suitability of artificial sweeteners as indicators of raw wastewater contamination in surface water and groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Ngoc Han; Hu, Jiangyong; Li, Jinhua; Ong, Say Leong

    2014-01-01

    There is no quantitative data on the occurrence of artificial sweeteners in the aquatic environment in Southeast Asian countries, particularly no information on their suitability as indicators of raw wastewater contamination on surface water and groundwater. This study provided the first quantitative information on the occurrence of artificial sweeteners in raw wastewater, surface water and groundwater in the urban catchment area in Singapore. Acesulfame, cyclamate, saccharin, and sucralose were ubiquitous in raw wastewater samples at concentrations in the range of ng/L-μg/L, while other sweeteners were not found or found only in a few of the raw wastewater samples. Residential and commercial effluents were demonstrated to be the two main sources of artificial sweeteners entering the municipal sewer systems. Relatively higher concentrations of the detected sweeteners were frequently found in surface waters at the sampling sites located in the residential/commercial areas. No significant difference in the concentrations of the detected sweeteners in surface water or groundwater was noted between wet and dry weather conditions (unpaired T-test, p> 0.05). Relatively higher concentrations and detection frequencies of acesulfame, cyclamate and saccharin in surface water samples were observed at the potentially impacted sampling sites, while these sweeteners were absent in most of the background surface water samples. Similarly, acesulfame, cyclamate, and saccharin were found in most groundwater samples at the monitoring well (GW6), which is located close to known leaking sewer segment; whereas these were absent in the background monitoring well, which is located in the catchment with no known wastewater sources. Taken together, the results suggest that acesulfame, cyclamate, and saccharin can be used as potential indicators of raw wastewater contamination in surface water and groundwater. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Integrated Modeling of Groundwater and Surface Water Interactions in a Manmade Wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guobiao Huang Gour-Tsyh Yeh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A manmade pilot wetland in south Florida, the Everglades Nutrient Removal (ENR project, was modeled with a physics-based integrated approach using WASH123D (Yeh et al. 2006. Storm water is routed into the treatment wetland for phosphorus removal by plant and sediment uptake. It overlies a highly permeable surficial groundwater aquifer. Strong surface water and groundwater interactions are a key component of the hydrologic processes. The site has extensive field measurement and monitoring tools that provide point scale and distributed data on surface water levels, groundwater levels, and the physical range of hydraulic parameters and hydrologic fluxes. Previous hydrologic and hydrodynamic modeling studies have treated seepage losses empirically by some simple regression equations and, only surface water flows are modeled in detail. Several years of operational data are available and were used in model historical matching and validation. The validity of a diffusion wave approximation for two-dimensional overland flow (in the region with very flat topography was also tested. The uniqueness of this modeling study is notable for (1 the point scale and distributed comparison of model results with observed data; (2 model parameters based on available field test data; and (3 water flows in the study area include two-dimensional overland flow, hydraulic structures/levees, three-dimensional subsurface flow and one-dimensional canal flow and their interactions. This study demonstrates the need and the utility of a physics-based modeling approach for strong surface water and groundwater interactions.

  18. Application of new point measurement device to quantify groundwater-surface water interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cremeans, Mackenzie; Devlin, J.F.; McKnight, Ursula S.

    2018-01-01

    The Streambed Point Velocity Probe (SBPVP) measures in situ groundwater velocities at the groundwater-surface water interface without reliance on hydraulic conductivity, porosity, or hydraulic gradient information. The tool operates on the basis of a mini-tracer test that occurs on the probe...... hydraulic head and temperature gradient data collected at similar scales. Spatial relationships of water flow through the streambed were found to be similar by all three methods, and indicated a heterogeneous pattern of groundwater-surface water exchange. The magnitudes of estimated flow varied to a greater...... degree. It was found that pollutants enter the stream in localized regions of high flow which do not always correspond to the locations of highest pollutant concentration. The results show the combined influence of flow and concentration on contaminant discharge and illustrate the advantages of adopting...

  19. Study on Water Quality of Surface Runoff and Groundwater Runoff on the Basis of Separation by a Numerical Filter

    OpenAIRE

    Kawara, Osami; Fukumoto, Kohji

    1994-01-01

    In this study we investigated the water quality of surface runoff and groundwater runoff from the basins of the Yodo River and the Asahi River based on that separated by a numerical filter. The water quality of the surface runoff is greatly different from the groundwater runoff. The tendency of concentration change in accordance with river discharges is different from each other. The water qtiality of groundwater runoff changes with river discharges clockwise in many cases. The differences of...

  20. Interaction between surface water areas and groundwater in Hanoi city, Viet Nam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, T.; Kuroda, K.; Do Thuan, A.; Tran Thi Viet, N.; Takizawa, S.

    2012-12-01

    Hanoi is the capital of Viet Nam and the second largest city in this country (population: 6.45 million in 2009). Hanoi city has developed along the Red River and has many lakes, ponds and canals. However, recent rapid urbanization of this city has reduced number of natural water areas such as ponds and lakes by reclamation not only in the central area but the suburban area. Canals also have been reclaimed or cut into pieces. Contrary, number of artificial water areas such as fish cultivation pond has rapidly increased. On the other hand, various kind of waste water flows into these natural and artificial water areas and induces pollution and eutrophication. These waste waters also have possibility of pollution of groundwater that is one of major water resources in this city. In addition, groundwater in this area has high concentrations of Arsenic, Fe and NH4. Thus, groundwater use may causes re-circulation of Arsenic. However, studies on the interaction between surface water areas and groundwater and on the role of surface water areas for solute transport with water cycle are a few. Therefore, we focused on these points and took water samples of river, pond and groundwater from four communities in suburban areas: two communities are located near the Red River and other two are far from the River. Also, columnar sediment samples of these ponds were taken and pore water was abstracted. Major dissolved ions, metals and stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen of water samples were analyzed. As for water cycle, from the correlation between δ18O and δD, the Red River water (after GNIR) were distributed along the LMWL (δD=8.2δ18O+14.1, calculated from precipitation (after GNIP)). On the other hand, although the pond waters in rainy season were distributed along the LMWL, that in dry season were distributed along the local evaporation line (LEL, slope=5.6). The LEL crossed with the LMWL at around the point of weighted mean values of precipitation in rainy season and of

  1. Major ions composition of the groundwater and surface water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The total ionic concentration increases dramatically from the highlands towards the rift valley following the regional groundwater flow directions to low-lying regions characterized by low annual rainfall and high evapotranspiration. In the rift the total dissolved solids (TDS) variation is dramatic (in places more than 50 fold).

  2. Agricultural contamination in soil-groundwater-surface water systems in the North China Plain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brauns, Bentje

    of fertilizers and pesticides. Unfortunately, the lack of regulation or oversight has led to the overuse of these agrochemicals: current application rates (in kg/ha) are two- to threefold higher than in most developed countries, and this is taking its toll on the environment. Problems include severe surface...... water and groundwater pollution by nitrogen and pesticides, soil degradation, bioaccumulation of toxic compounds, and more. It is crucial for China to do improve the safeguarding of its water resources in order to sustain the livelihoods of its people and ensure safe supply of drinking water. Recently......-groundwater interaction was chosen, and field work was performed between October 2012 and March 2014. Results from the field study showed that fertilizer inputs were excessive, and could be reduced substantially. Contaminated river water was infiltrating – and carrying ammonium pollution – into the shallow groundwater...

  3. Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater and Surface Water sampling and Analysis Plan for Calendar Year 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 2000 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant that will be managed by tie Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring during CY 2000 will be performed in three hydrogeologic regimes at the Y-12 Plant: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located in Bear Creek Valley, and the Chestnut Ridge Regime is located south of the Y-12 Plant (Figure 1). Groundwater and surface water monitoring performed under the auspices of the Y-12 Plant GWPP during CY 2000 will comply with: Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation regulations governing detection monitoring at nonhazardous Solid Waste Disposal Facilities (SWDF); and DOE Order 5400.1 surveillance monitoring and exit pathway/perimeter monitoring. Some of the data collected for these monitoring drivers also will be used to meet monitoring requirements of the Integrated Water Quality Program, which is managed by Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC. Data from five wells that are monitored for SWDF purposes in the Chestnut Ridge Regime will be used to comply with requirements specified in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act post closure permit regarding corrective action monitoring. Modifications to the CY 2000 monitoring program may be necessary during implementation. Changes in regulatory or programmatic requirements may alter the analytes specified for selected monitoring wells, or wells could be added or removed from the planned monitoring network. All modifications to the monitoring program will be approved by the Y-12 Plant GWPP manager and documented as addenda to this sampling and analysis plan

  4. Iron oxidation kinetics and phosphate immobilization along the flow-path from groundwater into surface water

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Grift, B.; Rozemeijer, J. C.; Griffioen, J.; van der Velde, Y.

    2014-11-01

    The retention of phosphorus in surface waters through co-precipitation of phosphate with Fe-oxyhydroxides during exfiltration of anaerobic Fe(II) rich groundwater is not well understood. We developed an experimental field set-up to study Fe(II) oxidation and P immobilization along the flow-path from groundwater into surface water in an agricultural experimental catchment of a small lowland river. We physically separated tube drain effluent from groundwater discharge before it entered a ditch in an agricultural field. Through continuous discharge measurements and weekly water quality sampling of groundwater, tube drain water, exfiltrated groundwater, and surface water, we investigated Fe(II) oxidation kinetics and P immobilization processes. The oxidation rate inferred from our field measurements closely agreed with the general rate law for abiotic oxidation of Fe(II) by O2. Seasonal changes in climatic conditions affected the Fe(II) oxidation process. Lower pH and lower temperatures in winter (compared to summer) resulted in low Fe oxidation rates. After exfiltration to the surface water, it took a couple of days to more than a week before complete oxidation of Fe(II) is reached. In summer time, Fe oxidation rates were much higher. The Fe concentrations in the exfiltrated groundwater were low, indicating that dissolved Fe(II) is completely oxidized prior to inflow into a ditch. While the Fe oxidation rates reduce drastically from summer to winter, P concentrations remained high in the groundwater and an order of magnitude lower in the surface water throughout the year. This study shows very fast immobilization of dissolved P during the initial stage of the Fe(II) oxidation process which results in P-depleted water before Fe(II) is completely depleted. This cannot be explained by surface complexation of phosphate to freshly formed Fe-oxyhydroxides but indicates the formation of Fe(III)-phosphate precipitates. The formation of Fe(III)-phosphates at redox gradients

  5. A collection of mathematical models for dispersion in surface water and groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Codell, R.B.; Key, K.T.; Whelan, G.

    1982-06-01

    This report represents a collection of some of the manual procedures and simple computer programs used by the Hydrologic Engineering Section of the Division of Engineering, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, for computing the fate of routinely or accidentally released radionuclides in surface water and groundwater. All models are straightforward simulations of dispersion with constant coefficients in simple geometries

  6. MIKE-SHE integrated groundwater and surface water model used to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-07-03

    Jul 3, 2016 ... for Arid Rivers (DRIFT-ARID) decision support system (DSS). The DRIFT-ARID ... Most methods start with a description of the present day (PD) and ... or coupled groundwater and surface water hydrological model to produce a ...

  7. Sensitivity analysis of the surface water- groundwater interaction for the sandy area of the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomez del Campo, E.; Jousma, G.; Massop, H.T.L.

    1993-01-01

    The "Sensitivity Analysis of the Surface Water- Groundwater Interaction for the Sandy Area of the Netherlands" was carried out in the framework of a bilateral research project in support of the implementation of a nationwide geohydrological information system (REGIS) in the Netherlands. This

  8. Nature and analysis of chemical species: pollution effects on surface waters and groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, R.H.F.

    1975-01-01

    A literature review of 103 items covers: nutrients in surface waters; runoff and waste discharges primarily from energy-intensive activities; groundwater pollution causes, effects, controls and monitoring; land and subsurface wastewater disposal; radionuclides; biological effects; thermal effluents; and biological and mathematical models for rivers

  9. Iron oxidation kinetics and phosphate immobilization along the flow-path from groundwater into surface water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Grift, B.; Rozemeijer, J. C.; Griffioen, J.; Van Der Velde, Y.

    2014-01-01

    The retention of phosphorus in surface waters through co-precipitation of phosphate with Fe-oxyhydroxides during exfiltration of anaerobic Fe(II) rich groundwater is not well understood. We developed an experimental field set-up to study Fe(II) oxidation and P immobilization along the flow-path from

  10. Iron oxidation kinetics and phosphate immobilization along the flow-path from groundwater into surface water.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grift, van der B.; Rozemeijer, J.C.; Griffioen, J.; Velde, van der Y.

    2014-01-01

    The retention of phosphorus in surface waters though co-precipitation of phosphate with Fe-oxyhydroxides during exfiltration of anaerobic Fe(II) rich groundwater is not well understood. We developed an experimental field set-up to study Fe(II) oxidation and 5 P immobilization along the flow-path

  11. Iron oxidation kinetics and phosphate immobilization along the flow-path from groundwater into surface water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Grift, B.; Rozemeijer, J. C.; Griffioen, J.; van der Velde, Y.

    2014-01-01

    The retention of phosphorus in surface waters though co-precipitation of phosphate with Fe-oxyhydroxides during exfiltration of anaerobic Fe(II) rich groundwater is not well understood. We developed an experimental field set-up to study Fe(II) oxidation and P immobilization along the flow-path from

  12. Groundwater and surface-water interactions and impacts of human activities in the Hailiutu catchment, northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhi; Zhou, Yangxiao; Wenninger, Jochen; Uhlenbrook, Stefan; Wang, Xusheng; Wan, Li

    2017-08-01

    The interactions between groundwater and surface water have been significantly affected by human activities in the semi-arid Hailiutu catchment, northwest China. Several methods were used to investigate the spatial and temporal interactions between groundwater and surface water. Isotopic and chemical analyses of water samples determined that groundwater discharges to the Hailiutu River, and mass balance equations were employed to estimate groundwater seepage rates along the river using chemical profiles. The hydrograph separation method was used to estimate temporal variations of groundwater discharges to the river. A numerical groundwater model was constructed to simulate groundwater discharges along the river and to analyze effects of water use in the catchment. The simulated seepage rates along the river compare reasonably well with the seepage estimates derived from a chemical profile in 2012. The impacts of human activities (river-water diversion and groundwater abstraction) on the river discharge were analyzed by calculating the differences between the simulated natural groundwater discharge and the measured river discharge. Water use associated with the Hailiutu River increased from 1986 to 1991, reached its highest level from 1992 to 2000, and decreased from 2001 onwards. The reduction of river discharge might have negative impacts on the riparian ecosystem and the water availability for downstream users. The interactions between groundwater and surface water as well as the consequences of human activities should be taken into account when implementing sustainable water resources management in the Hailiutu catchment.

  13. Groundwater infiltration, surface water inflow and sewerage exfiltration considering hydrodynamic conditions in sewer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpf, Christian; Hoeft, Stefan; Scheffer, Claudia; Fuchs, Lothar; Krebs, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Sewer systems are closely interlinked with groundwater and surface water. Due to leaks and regular openings in the sewer system (e.g. combined sewer overflow structures with sometimes reverse pressure conditions), groundwater infiltration and surface water inflow as well as exfiltration of sewage take place and cannot be avoided. In the paper a new hydrodynamic sewer network modelling approach will be presented, which includes--besides precipitation--hydrographs of groundwater and surface water as essential boundary conditions. The concept of the modelling approach and the models to describe the infiltration, inflow and exfiltration fluxes are described. The model application to the sewerage system of the City of Dresden during a flood event with complex conditions shows that the processes of infiltration, exfiltration and surface water inflows can be described with a higher reliability and accuracy, showing that surface water inflow causes a pronounced system reaction. Further, according to the simulation results, a high sensitivity of exfiltration rates on the in-sewer water levels and a relatively low influence of the dynamic conditions on the infiltration rates were found.

  14. Multi-objective analysis of the conjunctive use of surface water and groundwater in a multisource water supply system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, João; da Conceição Cunha, Maria

    2017-04-01

    A multi-objective decision model has been developed to identify the Pareto-optimal set of management alternatives for the conjunctive use of surface water and groundwater of a multisource urban water supply system. A multi-objective evolutionary algorithm, Borg MOEA, is used to solve the multi-objective decision model. The multiple solutions can be shown to stakeholders allowing them to choose their own solutions depending on their preferences. The multisource urban water supply system studied here is dependent on surface water and groundwater and located in the Algarve region, southernmost province of Portugal, with a typical warm Mediterranean climate. The rainfall is low, intermittent and concentrated in a short winter, followed by a long and dry period. A base population of 450 000 inhabitants and visits by more than 13 million tourists per year, mostly in summertime, turns water management critical and challenging. Previous studies on single objective optimization after aggregating multiple objectives together have already concluded that only an integrated and interannual water resources management perspective can be efficient for water resource allocation in this drought prone region. A simulation model of the multisource urban water supply system using mathematical functions to represent the water balance in the surface reservoirs, the groundwater flow in the aquifers, and the water transport in the distribution network with explicit representation of water quality is coupled with Borg MOEA. The multi-objective problem formulation includes five objectives. Two objective evaluate separately the water quantity and the water quality supplied for the urban use in a finite time horizon, one objective calculates the operating costs, and two objectives appraise the state of the two water sources - the storage in the surface reservoir and the piezometric levels in aquifer - at the end of the time horizon. The decision variables are the volume of withdrawals from

  15. Integrating Multiple Geophysical Methods to Quantify Alpine Groundwater- Surface Water Interactions: Cordillera Blanca, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glas, R. L.; Lautz, L.; McKenzie, J. M.; Baker, E. A.; Somers, L. D.; Aubry-Wake, C.; Wigmore, O.; Mark, B. G.; Moucha, R.

    2016-12-01

    Groundwater- surface water interactions in alpine catchments are often poorly understood as groundwater and hydrologic data are difficult to acquire in these remote areas. The Cordillera Blanca of Peru is a region where dry-season water supply is increasingly stressed due to the accelerated melting of glaciers throughout the range, affecting millions of people country-wide. The alpine valleys of the Cordillera Blanca have shown potential for significant groundwater storage and discharge to valley streams, which could buffer the dry-season variability of streamflow throughout the watershed as glaciers continue to recede. Known as pampas, the clay-rich, low-relief valley bottoms are interfingered with talus deposits, providing a likely pathway for groundwater recharged at the valley edges to be stored and slowly released to the stream throughout the year by springs. Multiple geophysical methods were used to determine areas of groundwater recharge and discharge as well as aquifer geometry of the pampa system. Seismic refraction tomography, vertical electrical sounding (VES), electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), and horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) seismic methods were used to determine the physical properties of the unconsolidated valley sediments, the depth to saturation, and the depth to bedrock for a representative section of the Quilcayhuanca Valley in the Cordillera Blanca. Depth to saturation and lithological boundaries were constrained by comparing geophysical results to continuous records of water levels and sediment core logs from a network of seven piezometers installed to depths of up to 6 m. Preliminary results show an average depth to bedrock for the study area of 25 m, which varies spatially along with water table depths across the valley. The conceptual model of groundwater flow and storage derived from these geophysical data will be used to inform future groundwater flow models of the area, allowing for the prediction of groundwater

  16. Surface-Water and Ground-Water Interactions in the Central Everglades, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Judson W.; Newlin, Jessica T.; Krest, James M.; Choi, Jungyill; Nemeth, Eric A.; Krupa, Steven L.

    2004-01-01

    Everglades restoration. A century of water management for flood control and water storage in the Everglades resulted in the creation of the Water Conservation Areas (WCAs). Construction of the major canals began in the 1910s and the systems of levees that enclose the basins and structures that move water between basins were largely completed by the 1950s. The abandoned wetlands that remained outside of the Water Conservation areas tended to dry out and subside by 10 feet or more, which created abrupt transitions in land-surface elevations and water levels across the levees. The increases in topographic and hydraulic gradients near the margins of the WCAs, along with rapid pumping of water between basins to achieve management objectives, have together altered the patterns of recharge and discharge in the Everglades. The most evident change is the increase in the magnitude of recharge (on the upgradient side) and discharge (on the downgradient side) of levees separating WCA-2A from other basins or areas outside. Recharge and discharge in the vast interior of WCA-2A also likely have increased, but fluxes in the interior wetlands are more subtle and more difficult to quantify compared with areas close to the levees. Surface-water and ground-water interactions differ in fundamental ways between wetlands near WCA-2A's boundaries and wetlands in the basin's interior. The levees that form the WCA's boundaries have introduced step functions in the topographic and hydraulic gradients that are important as a force to drive water flow across the wetland ground surface. The resulting recharge and discharge fluxes tend to be unidirectional (connecting points of recharge on the upgradient side of the levee with points of discharge on the downgradient side), and fluxes are also relatively steady in magnitude compared with fluxes in the interior. Recharge flow paths are also relatively deep in their extent near levees, with fluxes passing entirely through the 1-m peat layer and inte

  17. CROSS-CORRELATION MODELLING OF SURFACE WATERGROUNDWATER INTERACTION USING THE EXCEL SPREADSHEET APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristijan Posavec

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Modelling responses of groundwater levels in aquifer systems, which occur as a reaction to changes in aquifer system boundary conditions such as river or stream stages, is commonly being studied using statistical methods, namely correlation, cross-correlation and regression methods. Although correlation and regression analysis tools are readily available in Microsoft Excel, a widely applied spreadsheet industry standard, the cross-correlation analysis tool is missing. As a part of research of groundwater pressure propagation into alluvial aquifer systems of the Sava and Drava/Danube River catchments following river stages rise, focused on estimating groundwater pressure travel times in aquifers, an Excel spreadsheet data analysis application for cross-correlation modelling has been designed and used in modelling surface watergroundwater interaction. Examples of fi eld data from the Zagreb aquifer system and the Kopački rit Nature Park aquifer system are used to illustrate the usefulness of the cross-correlation application.

  18. Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program: Groundwater and surface water sampling and analysis plan for Calendar Year 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 1998 at the Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant. These monitoring activities are managed by the Y-12 Plant Environmental Compliance Organization through the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring during CY 1998 will be performed in three hydrogeologic regimes at the Y-12 Plant: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located within Bear Creek Valley, and the Chestnut Ridge Regime is located south of the Y-12 Plant. Groundwater and surface water monitoring will be performed during CY 1998 to comply with: (1) requirements specified in Resource Conservation and Recover Act (RCRA) post-closure permits regarding RCRA corrective action monitoring and RCRA detection monitoring; (2) Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation regulations governing detection monitoring at nonhazardous solid waste management facilities; and (3) DOE Order 5400.1 surveillance monitoring and exit pathway monitoring. Data from some of the sampling locations in each regime will be used to meet the requirements of more than one of the monitoring drivers listed above. Modifications to the CY 1998 monitoring program may be necessary during implementation. For example, changes in regulatory requirements may alter the parameters specified for selected monitoring wells, or wells could be removed from the planned monitoring network. All modifications to the monitoring program will be approved by the Y-12 Plant GWPP manager and documented as addenda to this sampling and analysis plan

  19. Experimental and numerical modelling of surface water-groundwater flow and pollution interactions under tidal forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanoudaki, Katerina; Bockelmann-Evans, Bettina; Schaefer, Florian; Kampanis, Nikolaos; Nanou-Giannarou, Aikaterini; Stamou, Anastasios; Falconer, Roger

    2015-04-01

    Surface water and groundwater are integral components of the hydrologic continuum and the interaction between them affects both their quantity and quality. However, surface water and groundwater are often considered as two separate systems and are analysed independently. This separation is partly due to the different time scales, which apply in surface water and groundwater flows and partly due to the difficulties in measuring and modelling their interactions (Winter et al., 1998). Coastal areas in particular are a difficult hydrologic environment to represent with a mathematical model due to the large number of contributing hydrologic processes. Accurate prediction of interactions between coastal waters, groundwater and neighbouring wetlands, for example, requires the use of integrated surface water-groundwater models. In the past few decades a large number of mathematical models and field methods have been developed in order to quantify the interaction between groundwater and hydraulically connected surface water bodies. Field studies may provide the best data (Hughes, 1995) but are usually expensive and involve too many parameters. In addition, the interpretation of field measurements and linking with modelling tools often proves to be difficult. In contrast, experimental studies are less expensive and provide controlled data. However, experimental studies of surface water-groundwater interaction are less frequently encountered in the literature than filed studies (e.g. Ebrahimi et al., 2007; Kuan et al., 2012; Sparks et al., 2013). To this end, an experimental model has been constructed at the Hyder Hydraulics Laboratory at Cardiff University to enable measurements to be made of groundwater transport through a sand embankment between a tidal water body such as an estuary and a non-tidal water body such as a wetland. The transport behaviour of a conservative tracer was studied for a constant water level on the wetland side of the embankment, while running a

  20. Impact of water diversion on the hydrogeochemical characterization of surface water and groundwater in the Yellow River Delta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Qiang; Li, Fadong; Zhang, Qiuying; Li, Jing; Zhang, Yan; Tu, Chun; Ouyang, Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We assess the response of different ecosystems to the water diversion. • We characterized the interaction between surface water and groundwater. • We use the Piper and HFE-D to illustrate the salinization process. - Abstract: The Yellow River Delta is undergoing severe ecosystem degradation through salinization caused mainly by seawater intrusion. The Yellow River diversion project, in operation since 2008, aims to mitigate a projected ecosystem disaster. We conducted field investigations across three ecosystems (Farmland, Wetland and Coast) in the delta to assess the effectiveness of the annual water pulse and determine the relationships between surface water and groundwater. The chemical characteristics of the groundwater in Farmland exclude the possibility of seawater intrusion. The Wetland is vulnerable to pollution by groundwater discharge from Farmland and to secondary salinization caused by rising water tables. The salinity values of groundwater at Coast sites likely reflect the presence of seawater trapped in the clay sediments, a premise corroborated through measurements of groundwater levels, stable isotopes and major ion signatures. Our δD–δ 18 O two-dimensional graphic plot demonstrated that groundwaters of Farmland and Wetland changed toward more depleted isotopic compositions following water diversion, but this was not the case in the Coast sites, where the water table varied little year-round. A hydrochemical facies evolution diagram (HFE-D) demonstrated that freshening is taking place in the largest portions of the aquifers and that, without sustained water diversion recharge, these underground water bodies may switch from freshening to salinization on a seasonal time scale. Thus, the qualities of waters in coastal aquifers in the Yellow River Delta are substantially influenced by the process of ecological water diversion, and also by land use practices and by the lithological properties of the drainage landscape

  1. Optimizing conjunctive use of surface water and groundwater resources with stochastic dynamic programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Claus; Liu, Suxia; Mo, Xinguo

    2014-01-01

    . A stochastic dynamic programming (SDP) approach is used to minimize the basin-wide total costs arising from water allocations and water curtailments. Dynamic allocation problems with inclusion of groundwater resources proved to be more complex to solve with SDP than pure surface water allocation problems due...... to head-dependent pumping costs. These dynamic pumping costs strongly affect the total costs and can lead to non-convexity of the future cost function. The water user groups (agriculture, industry, domestic) are characterized by inelastic demands and fixed water allocation and water supply curtailment...

  2. Modeling Groundwater-Surface Water Interaction and Contaminant Transport of Chlorinated Solvent Contaminated Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yimer Ebrahim, Girma; Jonoski, Andreja; van Griensven, Ann; Dujardin, Juliette; Baetelaan, Okke; Bronders, Jan

    2010-05-01

    Chlorinated-solvent form one of the largest groups of environmental chemicals. Their use and misuse in industry have lead to a large entry of these chemicals into the environment, resulting in widespread dissemination and oftentimes environmental contamination. Chlorinated solvent contamination of groundwater resources has been widely reported. For instance, there has been much interest in the assessment of these contaminant levels and their evolutions with time in the groundwater body below the Vilvoorde-Machelen industrial area (Belgium). The long industrial history of the area has lead to complex patterns of pollution from multiple sources and the site has been polluted to the extent that individual plumes are not definable any more. Understanding of groundwater/surface water interaction is a critical component for determining the fate of contaminant both in streams and ground water due to the fact that groundwater and surface water are in continuous dynamic interaction in the hydrologic cycle. The interaction has practical consequences in the quantity and quality of water in either system in the sense that depletion and/or contamination of one of the system will eventually affect the other one. The transition zone between a stream and its adjacent aquifer referred to as the hyporheic zone plays a critical role in governing contaminant exchange and transformation during water exchange between the two water bodies. The hyporheic zone of Zenne River ( the main receptor ) is further complicated due to the fact that the river banks are artificially trained with sheet piles along its reach extending some 12 m below the surface. This study demonstrates the use of MODFLOW, a widely used modular three-dimensional block-centred finite difference, saturated flow model for simulating the flow and direction of movement of groundwater through aquifer and stream-aquifer interaction and the use of transport model RT3D, a three-dimensional multi-species reactive transport model

  3. Groundwater and surface-water interaction within the upper Smith River Watershed, Montana 2006-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Rodney R.; Eddy-Miller, Cheryl A.

    2013-01-01

    The 125-mile long Smith River, a tributary of the Missouri River, is highly valued as an agricultural resource and for its many recreational uses. During a drought starting in about 1999, streamflow was insufficient to meet all of the irrigation demands, much less maintain streamflow needed for boating and viable fish habitat. In 2006, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Meagher County Conservation District, initiated a multi-year hydrologic investigation of the Smith River watershed. This investigation was designed to increase understanding of the water resources of the upper Smith River watershed and develop a detailed description of groundwater and surface-water interactions. A combination of methods, including miscellaneous and continuous groundwater-level, stream-stage, water-temperature, and streamflow monitoring was used to assess the hydrologic system and the spatial and temporal variability of groundwater and surface-water interactions. Collectively, data are in agreement and show: (1) the hydraulic connectedness of groundwater and surface water, (2) the presence of both losing and gaining stream reaches, (3) dynamic changes in direction and magnitude of water flow between the stream and groundwater with time, (4) the effects of local flood irrigation on groundwater levels and gradients in the watershed, and (5) evidence and timing of irrigation return flows to area streams. Groundwater flow within the alluvium and older (Tertiary) basin-fill sediments generally followed land-surface topography from the uplands to the axis of alluvial valleys of the Smith River and its tributaries. Groundwater levels were typically highest in the monitoring wells located within and adjacent to streams in late spring or early summer, likely affected by recharge from snowmelt and local precipitation, leakage from losing streams and canals, and recharge from local flood irrigation. The effects of flood irrigation resulted in increased hydraulic gradients

  4. Soil, Groundwater, Surface Water, and Sediments of Kennedy Space Center, Florida: Background Chemical and Physical Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmalzer, Paul A.; Hensley, Melissa A.; Mota, Mario; Hall, Carlton R.; Dunlevy, Colleen A.

    2000-01-01

    This study documented background chemical composition of soils, groundwater, surface; water, and sediments of Kennedy Space Center. Two hundred soil samples were collected, 20 each in 10 soil classes. Fifty-one groundwater wells were installed in 4 subaquifers of the Surficial Aquifer and sampled; there were 24 shallow, 16 intermediate, and 11 deep wells. Forty surface water and sediment samples were collected in major watershed basins. All samples were away from sites of known contamination. Samples were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides, aroclors, chlorinated herbicides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), total metals, and other parameters. All aroclors (6) were below detection in all media. Some organochlorine pesticides were detected at very low frequencies in soil, sediment, and surface water. Chlorinated herbicides were detected at very low frequencies in soil and sediments. PAH occurred in low frequencies in soiL, shallow groundwater, surface water, and sediments. Concentrations of some metals differed among soil classes, with subaquifers and depths, and among watershed basins for surface water but not sediments. Most of the variation in metal concentrations was natural, but agriculture had increased Cr, Cu, Mn, and Zn.

  5. Delineating groundwater/surface water interaction in a karst watershed: Lower Flint River Basin, southwestern Georgia, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Rugel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Study region: Karst watershed in Lower Flint River Basin (LFRB, southwestern Georgia, USA. Study focus: Baseflow discharges in the LFRB have declined for three decades as regional irrigation has increased; yet, the location and nature of connectivity between groundwater and surface water in this karstic region are poorly understood. Because growing water demands will likely be met by further development of regional aquifers, an important management concern is the nature of interactions between groundwater and surface water components under natural and anthropogenic perturbations. We conducted coarse and fine-scale stream sampling on a major tributary of the Lower Flint River (Ichawaynochaway Creek in southwestern Georgia, USA, to identify locations and patterns of enhanced hydrologic connectivity between this stream and the Upper Floridan Aquifer. New hydrological insights for the region: Prior water resource studies in the LFRB were based on regional modeling that neglected local heterogeneities in groundwater/surface water connectivity. Our results demonstrated groundwater inputs were concentrated around five of fifty sampled reaches, evidenced by increases in multiple groundwater indicators at these sites. These five reaches contributed up to 42% of the groundwater detected along the entire 50-km sampling section, with ∼24% entering through one groundwater-dominated tributary, Chickasawhatchee Creek. Intermittent flows occurred in two of these upstream reaches during extreme drought and heavy groundwater pumping, suggesting reach-scale behaviors should be considered in resource management and policy. Keywords: Karst hydrogeology, Hydrologic connectivity, Groundwater/surface water interaction, Upper Floridan Aquifer, Groundwater Irrigation

  6. A conceptual model for the analysis of multi-stressors in linked groundwater-surface water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaandorp, Vince P; Molina-Navarro, Eugenio; Andersen, Hans E; Bloomfield, John P; Kuijper, Martina J M; de Louw, Perry G B

    2018-06-15

    Groundwater and surface water are often closely coupled and are both under the influence of multiple stressors. Stressed groundwater systems may lead to a poor ecological status of surface waters but to date no conceptual framework to analyse linked multi-stressed groundwater - surface water systems has been developed. In this paper, a framework is proposed showing the effect of groundwater on surface waters in multiple stressed systems. This framework will be illustrated by applying it to four European catchments, the Odense, Denmark, the Regge and Dinkel, Netherlands, and the Thames, UK, and by assessing its utility in analysing the propagation or buffering of multi-stressors through groundwater to surface waters in these catchments. It is shown that groundwater affects surface water flow, nutrients and temperature, and can both propagate stressors towards surface waters and buffer the effect of stressors in space and time. The effect of groundwater on drivers and states depends on catchment characteristics, stressor combinations, scale and management practises. The proposed framework shows how groundwater in lowland catchments acts as a bridge between stressors and their effects within surface waters. It shows water managers how their management areas might be influenced by groundwater, and helps them to include this important, but often overlooked part of the water cycle in their basin management plans. The analysis of the study catchments also revealed a lack of data on the temperature of both groundwater and surface water, while it is an important parameter considering future climate warming. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Hydrochemistry of shallow groundwater and surface water in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    judevom

    chemical characteristics of the water,. (2) define the factors that control major ion chemistry, and (3) evaluate their suitability for drinking and irrigation. The data will provide a hydrochemical baseline data for water quality assessment, management, ...

  8. Tile Drainage Management Influences on Surface-Water and Groundwater Quality following Liquid Manure Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Steven K; Topp, Ed; Ball, Bonnie R; Edwards, Mark; Gottschall, Natalie; Sunohara, Mark; Zoski, Erin; Lapen, David R

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the potential for controlled tile drainage (CD) to reduce bacteria and nutrient loading to surface water and groundwater from fall-season liquid manure application (LMA) on four macroporous clay loam plots, of which two had CD and two had free-draining (FD) tiles. Rhodamine WT (RWT) was mixed into the manure and monitored in the tile water and groundwater following LMA. Tile water and groundwater quality were influenced by drainage management. Following LMA on the FD plots, RWT, nutrients, and bacteria moved rapidly via tiles to surface water; at the CD plots, tiles did not flow until the first post-LMA rainfall, so the immediate risk of LMA-induced contamination of surface water was abated. During the 36-d monitoring period, flow-weighted average specific conductance, redox potential, and turbidity, as well as total Kjeldahl N (TKN), total P (TP), NH-N, reactive P, and RWT concentrations, were higher in the CD tile effluent; however, because of lower tile discharge from the CD plots, there was no significant ( ≤ 0.05) difference in surface water nutrient and RWT loading between the CD and FD plots when all tiles were flowing. The TKN, TP, and RWT concentrations in groundwater also tended to be higher at the CD plots. Bacteria behaved differently than nutrients and RWT, with no significant difference in total coliform, , fecal coliform, fecal streptococcus, and concentrations between the CD and FD tile effluent; however, for all but , hourly loading was higher from the FD plots. Results indicate that CD has potential for mitigating bacteria movement to surface water. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  9. Groundwater-Surface water interaction in agricultural watershed that encompasses dense network of High Capacity wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talib, A.; Desai, A. R.

    2017-12-01

    The Central Sands region of Wisconsin is characterized by productive trout streams, lakes, farmland and forest. However, stream channelization, past wetland drainage, and ground water withdrawals have disrupted the hydrology of this Central Sands region. Climatically driven conditions in last decade (2000-2008) alone are unable to account for the severely depressed water levels. Increased interception and evapotranspiration from afforested areas in central sand Wisconsin may also be culprit for reduced water recharge. Hence, there is need to study the cumulative effects of changing precipitation patterns, groundwater withdrawals, and forest evapotranspiration to improve projections of the future of lake levels and water availability in this region. Here, the SWAT-MODFLOW coupled model approach was applied at large spatio-temporal scale. The coupled model fully integrates a watershed model (SWAT) with a groundwater flow model (MODFLOW). Surface water and ground water flows were simulated integratively at daily time step to estimate the groundwater discharge to the stream network in Central Sands that encompasses high capacity wells. The model was calibrated (2010-2013) and validated (2014-2017) based on streamflow, groundwater extraction, and water table elevation. As the long-term trends in some of the primary drivers is presently ambiguous in Central Sands under future climate, as is the case for total precipitation or timing of precipitation, we relied on a sensitivity student to quantitatively access how primary and secondary drivers may influence future net groundwater recharge. We demonstrate how such an approach could then be coupled with decision-making models to evaluate the effectiveness of groundwater withdrawal policies under a changing climate.

  10. Distributed Temperature Sensing - a Useful Tool for Investigation of Surface Water - Groundwater Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, T.; Hahn-Woernle, L.; Sunarjo, B.; Thum, T.; Schneider, P.; Schirmer, M.; Cirpka, O. A.

    2009-04-01

    In recent years, the transition zone between surface water bodies and groundwater, known as the hyporheic zone, has been identified as crucial for the ecological status of the open-water body and the quality of groundwater. The hyporheic exchange processes vary both in time and space. For the assessment of water quality of both water bodies reliable models and measurements of the exchange rates and their variability are needed. A wide range of methods and technologies exist to estimate water fluxes between surface water and groundwater. Due to recent developments in sensor techniques and data logging work on heat as a tracer in hydrological systems advances, especially with focus on surface water - groundwater interactions. Here, we evaluate the use of Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) for the qualitative and quantitative investigation of groundwater discharge into and groundwater recharge from a river. DTS is based on the temperature dependence of Raman scattering. Light from a laser pulse is scattered along an optical fiber of up to several km length, which is the sensor of the DTS system. By sampling the the back-scattered light with high temporal resolution, the temperature along the fiber can be measured with high accuracy (0.1 K) and high spatial resolution (1 m). We used DTS at a test side at River Thur in North-East Switzerland. Here, the river is loosing and the aquifer is drained by two side-channels, enabling us to test DTS for both, groundwater recharge from the river and groundwater discharge into the side-channels. For estimation of seepage rates, we measured highly resolved vertical temperature profiles in the river bed. For this application, we wrapped an optical fiber around a piezometer tube and measured the temperature distribution along the fiber. Due to the wrapping, we obtained a vertical resolution of approximately 5 mm. We analyzed the temperature time series by means of Dynamic Harmonic Regression as presented by Keery et al. (2007

  11. Groundwater impacts on surface water quality and nutrient loads in lowland polder catchments: monitoring the greater Amsterdam area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Liang; Rozemeijer, Joachim; van Breukelen, Boris M.; Ouboter, Maarten; van der Vlugt, Corné; Broers, Hans Peter

    2018-01-01

    The Amsterdam area, a highly manipulated delta area formed by polders and reclaimed lakes, struggles with high nutrient levels in its surface water system. The polders receive spatially and temporally variable amounts of water and nutrients via surface runoff, groundwater seepage, sewer leakage, and via water inlets from upstream polders. Diffuse anthropogenic sources, such as manure and fertiliser use and atmospheric deposition, add to the water quality problems in the polders. The major nutrient sources and pathways have not yet been clarified due to the complex hydrological system in lowland catchments with both urban and agricultural areas. In this study, the spatial variability of the groundwater seepage impact was identified by exploiting the dense groundwater and surface water monitoring networks in Amsterdam and its surrounding polders. A total of 25 variables (concentrations of total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), NH4, NO3, HCO3, SO4, Ca, and Cl in surface water and groundwater, N and P agricultural inputs, seepage rate, elevation, land-use, and soil type) for 144 polders were analysed statistically and interpreted in relation to sources, transport mechanisms, and pathways. The results imply that groundwater is a large source of nutrients in the greater Amsterdam mixed urban-agricultural catchments. The groundwater nutrient concentrations exceeded the surface water environmental quality standards (EQSs) in 93 % of the polders for TP and in 91 % for TN. Groundwater outflow into the polders thus adds to nutrient levels in the surface water. High correlations (R2 up to 0.88) between solutes in groundwater and surface water, together with the close similarities in their spatial patterns, confirmed the large impact of groundwater on surface water chemistry, especially in the polders that have high seepage rates. Our analysis indicates that the elevated nutrient and bicarbonate concentrations in the groundwater seepage originate from the decomposition of

  12. Sensitivity analysis of the surface water- groundwater interaction for the sandy area of the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez del Campo, E.; Jousma, G.; Massop, H.T.L.

    1993-01-01

    The "Sensitivity Analysis of the Surface Water- Groundwater Interaction for the Sandy Area of the Netherlands" was carried out in the framework of a bilateral research project in support of the implementation of a nationwide geohydrological information system (REGIS) in the Netherlands. This project, conducted in cooperation between the TNO Institute for Applied Scientific Research (IGG-TNO) and !he Winand Staring Centre for Integrated Land, Soil and Water Research (SC-DLO), is aimed at defin...

  13. Monitoring for Pesticides in Groundwater and Surface Water in Nevada, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thodal, Carl E.; Carpenter, Jon; Moses, Charles W.

    2009-01-01

    Commercial pesticide applicators, farmers, and homeowners apply about 1 billion pounds of pesticides annually to agricultural land, non-crop land, and urban areas throughout the United States (Gilliom and others, 2006, p. 1). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) defines a pesticide as any substance used to kill or control insects, weeds, plant diseases, and other pest organisms. Although there are important benefits from the proper use of pesticides, like crop protection and prevention of human disease outbreaks, there are also risks. One risk is the contamination of groundwater and surface-water resources. Data collected during 1992-2001 from 51 major hydrologic systems across the United States indicate that one or more pesticide or pesticide breakdown product was detected in more than 50 percent of 5,057 shallow (less than 20 feet below land surface) wells and in all of the 186 stream sites that were sampled in agricultural and urban areas (Gilliom and others, 2006, p. 2-4). Pesticides can contaminate surface water and groundwater from both point sources and non-point sources. Point sources are from specific locations such as spill sites, disposal sites, pesticide drift during application, and application of pesticides to control aquatic pests. Non-point sources represent the dominant source of surface water and groundwater contamination and may include agricultural and urban runoff, erosion, leaching from application sites, and precipitation that has become contaminated by upwind applications. Pesticides typically enter surface water when rainfall or irrigation exceeds the infiltration capacity of soil and resulting runoff then transports pesticides to streams, rivers, and other surface-water bodies. Contamination of groundwater may result directly from spills near poorly sealed well heads and from pesticide applications through improperly designed or malfunctioning irrigation systems that also are used to apply pesticides (chemigation; Carpenter and

  14. Groundwater/surface-water interactions in the Bad River Watershed, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf, Andrew T.; Fienen, Michael N.; Hunt, Randall J.; Buchwald, Cheryl A.

    2015-11-23

    A groundwater-flow model was developed for the Bad River Watershed and surrounding area by using the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) finite-difference code MODFLOW-NWT. The model simulates steady-state groundwater-flow and base flow in streams by using the streamflow routing (SFR) package. The objectives of this study were to: (1) develop an improved understanding of the groundwater-flow system in the Bad River Watershed at the regional scale, including the sources of water to the Bad River Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Reservation (Reservation) and groundwater/surface-water interactions; (2) provide a quantitative platform for evaluating future impacts to the watershed, which can be used as a starting point for more detailed investigations at the local scale; and (3) identify areas where more data are needed. This report describes the construction and calibration of the groundwater-flow model that was subsequently used for analyzing potential locations for the collection of additional field data, including new observations of water-table elevation for refining the conceptualization and corresponding numerical model of the hydrogeologic system.

  15. Suitability of groundwater and surface water for drinking and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water quality for irrigation purpose were determined by sodium absorption ratio, soluble sodium percentage (SSP), magnesium adsorption ratio (MAR), Kelly's ratio (KR), permeability index (PI), residual sodium bicarbonate (RSC) to investigate an eventual ionic toxicity of water on soil and plants. In this study, HCO3- is ...

  16. Groundwater impacts on surface water quality and nutrient loads in lowland polder catchments: monitoring the greater Amsterdam area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Yu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Amsterdam area, a highly manipulated delta area formed by polders and reclaimed lakes, struggles with high nutrient levels in its surface water system. The polders receive spatially and temporally variable amounts of water and nutrients via surface runoff, groundwater seepage, sewer leakage, and via water inlets from upstream polders. Diffuse anthropogenic sources, such as manure and fertiliser use and atmospheric deposition, add to the water quality problems in the polders. The major nutrient sources and pathways have not yet been clarified due to the complex hydrological system in lowland catchments with both urban and agricultural areas. In this study, the spatial variability of the groundwater seepage impact was identified by exploiting the dense groundwater and surface water monitoring networks in Amsterdam and its surrounding polders. A total of 25 variables (concentrations of total nitrogen (TN, total phosphorus (TP, NH4, NO3, HCO3, SO4, Ca, and Cl in surface water and groundwater, N and P agricultural inputs, seepage rate, elevation, land-use, and soil type for 144 polders were analysed statistically and interpreted in relation to sources, transport mechanisms, and pathways. The results imply that groundwater is a large source of nutrients in the greater Amsterdam mixed urban–agricultural catchments. The groundwater nutrient concentrations exceeded the surface water environmental quality standards (EQSs in 93 % of the polders for TP and in 91 % for TN. Groundwater outflow into the polders thus adds to nutrient levels in the surface water. High correlations (R2 up to 0.88 between solutes in groundwater and surface water, together with the close similarities in their spatial patterns, confirmed the large impact of groundwater on surface water chemistry, especially in the polders that have high seepage rates. Our analysis indicates that the elevated nutrient and bicarbonate concentrations in the groundwater seepage originate

  17. A regional coupled surface water/groundwater model of the Okavango Delta, Botswana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer-Gottwein, Peter; Gumbricht, T.; Kinzelbach, W.

    2006-01-01

    In the endorheic Okavango River system in southern Africa a balance between human and environmental water demands has to be achieved. The runoff generated in the humid tropical highlands of Angola flows through arid Namibia and Botswana before forming a large inland delta and eventually being...... of a surface water flow component based on the diffusive wave approximation of the Saint- Venant equations, a groundwater component, and a relatively simple vadose zone component for calculating the net water exchange between land and atmosphere. The numerical scheme is based on the groundwater simulation......, spectacular wildlife, and a first- class tourism infrastructure, depend on the combined effect of the highly seasonal runoff in the Okavango River and variable local climate. The annual fluctuations in the inflow are transformed into vast areas of seasonally inundated floodplains. Water abstraction...

  18. Risk assessing heavy metals in the groundwater-surface water interface at a contaminated site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigi, Giovanni; McKnight, Ursula S.; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    such as surface water and groundwater (EC, 2017). The current study quantified and assessed the contamination of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in the shallow aquifer, hyporheic zone, stream water and streambed sediments at Rådvad site, a former metal manufacturing industrial area located in Denmark, investigating...... in the soil). Stream water was sampled in 12 points, while groundwater was sampled in 4 wells close to the stream where the interaction was suspected. Sediments and hyporheic zone were sampled in pair, where upward hydraulic heads have been detected. A drain discharging in the river was also sampled....... Sediments were divided in different layers and both heavy metal total concentration and chemical partitioning were analysed. Redox species and dissolved organic matter were also analysed in the water samples, while fraction of organic carbon was investigated in the extracted sediments. Results showed a high...

  19. Optimizing water resources management in large river basins with integrated surface water-groundwater modeling: A surrogate-based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bin; Zheng, Yi; Wu, Xin; Tian, Yong; Han, Feng; Liu, Jie; Zheng, Chunmiao

    2015-04-01

    Integrated surface water-groundwater modeling can provide a comprehensive and coherent understanding on basin-scale water cycle, but its high computational cost has impeded its application in real-world management. This study developed a new surrogate-based approach, SOIM (Surrogate-based Optimization for Integrated surface water-groundwater Modeling), to incorporate the integrated modeling into water management optimization. Its applicability and advantages were evaluated and validated through an optimization research on the conjunctive use of surface water (SW) and groundwater (GW) for irrigation in a semiarid region in northwest China. GSFLOW, an integrated SW-GW model developed by USGS, was employed. The study results show that, due to the strong and complicated SW-GW interactions, basin-scale water saving could be achieved by spatially optimizing the ratios of groundwater use in different irrigation districts. The water-saving potential essentially stems from the reduction of nonbeneficial evapotranspiration from the aqueduct system and shallow groundwater, and its magnitude largely depends on both water management schemes and hydrological conditions. Important implications for water resources management in general include: first, environmental flow regulation needs to take into account interannual variation of hydrological conditions, as well as spatial complexity of SW-GW interactions; and second, to resolve water use conflicts between upper stream and lower stream, a system approach is highly desired to reflect ecological, economic, and social concerns in water management decisions. Overall, this study highlights that surrogate-based approaches like SOIM represent a promising solution to filling the gap between complex environmental modeling and real-world management decision-making.

  20. Investigation of the Effect of Water Removal from Wells Surrounding Parishan Lake on Groundwater and Surface Water Levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafiei, M.; Raini Sarjaz, M.; Fazloli, R.; Gholami Sefidkouhi, M. A.

    2017-01-01

    In recent decades the human impacts on global warming and, its consequences, climate change, stirred up earth ecosystems balance and has created many problems all over the world. Unauthorized underground water removal, especially in arid and semi-arid regions of Iran, along with recent decade drought occurrences significantly lowered underground and surface water levels. To investigate the impacts of water removal from surrounding wells in Parishan Lake water level, during 1996 to 2009 interval, 8 buffer layers surrounding the lake were mapped in ArcGIS 9.3 environment. Each buffer layer wells and their total annual discharges were determined. Using SPSS 16 software, the regression equations between wells water levels and water discharges were computed. By employing Thiessen function and creating Thiessen network (TIN) around observation wells, decline of groundwater levels was evaluated. Finally regression equations between wells discharges and groundwater level declines were created. The findings showed that there are highly significant correlations (p ≤ 0.01), in all buffer layers, between water levels and wells discharges. Investigation of the observation wells surrounding lake showed that severe groundwater level declines has been started since the beginning of the first decade of the 21st century. Using satellite images in ArcGIS 9.3 environment it was confirmed that lake’s area has been reduced significantly. In conclusion, it is obvious that human interferences on lake’s natural ecosystem by digging unauthorized wells and removing underground water more than annual recharges significantly impacted surface and groundwater levels.

  1. Water quality responses to the interaction between surface water and groundwater along the Songhua River, NE China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Yanguo; Hu, Bin; Zheng, Jieqiong; Wang, Jinsheng; Zhai, Yuanzheng; Zhu, Chen

    2018-03-01

    Investigation of surface water and groundwater interaction (SW-GW interaction) provides basic information for regional water-resource protection, management, and development. In this survey of a 10-km-wide area along both sides of the Songhua River, northeast China, the hydrogeochemical responses to different SW-GW interactions were studied. Three types of SW-GW interactions were identified—"recharge", "discharge", and "flow-through"—according to the hydraulic connection between the surface water and groundwater. The single factor index, principal component analysis, and hierarchical cluster analysis of the hydrogeochemistry and pollutant data illuminated the hydrogeochemical response to the various SW-GW interactions. Clear SW-GW interactions along the Songhua River were revealed: (1) upstream in the study area, groundwater usually discharges into the surface water, (2) groundwater is recharged by surface water downstream, and (3) discharge and flow-through coexist in between. Statistical analysis indicated that the degree of hydrogeochemical response in different types of hydraulic connection varied, being clear in recharge and flow-through modes, and less obvious in discharge mode. During the interaction process, dilution, adsorption, redox reactions, nitrification, denitrification, and biodegradation contributed to the pollutant concentration and affected hydrogeochemical response in the hyporheic zone.

  2. Validation of a new device to quantify groundwater-surface water exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremeans, Mackenzie M.; Devlin, J. F.

    2017-11-01

    Distributions of flow across the groundwater-surface water interface should be expected to be as complex as the geologic deposits associated with stream or lake beds and their underlying aquifers. In these environments, the conventional Darcy-based method of characterizing flow systems (near streams) has significant limitations, including reliance on parameters with high uncertainties (e.g., hydraulic conductivity), the common use of drilled wells in the case of streambank investigations, and potentially lengthy measurement times for aquifer characterization and water level measurements. Less logistically demanding tools for quantifying exchanges across streambeds have been developed and include drive-point mini-piezometers, seepage meters, and temperature profiling tools. This project adds to that toolbox by introducing the Streambed Point Velocity Probe (SBPVP), a reusable tool designed to quantify groundwater-surface water interactions (GWSWI) at the interface with high density sampling, which can effectively, rapidly, and accurately complement conventional methods. The SBPVP is a direct push device that measures in situ water velocities at the GWSWI with a small-scale tracer test on the probe surface. Tracer tests do not rely on hydraulic conductivity or gradient information, nor do they require long equilibration times. Laboratory testing indicated that the SBPVP has an average accuracy of ± 3% and an average precision of ± 2%. Preliminary field testing, conducted in the Grindsted Å in Jutland, Denmark, yielded promising agreement between groundwater fluxes determined by conventional methods and those estimated from the SBPVP tests executed at similar scales. These results suggest the SBPVP is a viable tool to quantify groundwater-surface water interactions in high definition in sandy streambeds.

  3. Surface-Water and Groundwater Interactions along the Withlacoochee River, West-Central Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trommer, J.T.; Yobbi, D.K.; McBride, W.S.

    2009-01-01

    A study of the Withlacoochee River watershed in west-central Florida was conducted from October 2003 to March 2007 to gain a better understanding of the hydrology and surface-water and groundwater interactions along the river. The Withlacoochee River originates in the Green Swamp area in north-central Polk County and flows northerly through seven counties, emptying into the Gulf of Mexico. This study includes only the part of the watershed located between the headwaters in the Green Swamp and the U.S. Geological Survey gaging station near Holder, Florida. The Withlacoochee River within the study area is about 108 miles long and drains about 1,820 square miles. The Withlacoochee River watershed is underlain by thick sequences of carbonate rock that are covered by thin surficial deposits of unconsolidated sand and sandy clay. The clay layer is breached in many places because of the karst nature of the underlying limestone, and the degree of confinement between the Upper Florida aquifer and the surficial aquifer is highly variable throughout the watershed. The potential for movement of water from the surface or shallow deposits to deeper deposits, or from deeper deposits to the shallow deposits, exists throughout the Withlacoochee River watershed. Water levels were higher in deeper Upper Floridan aquifer wells than in shallow Upper Floridan aquifer wells or surficial aquifer wells at 11 of 19 paired or nested well sites, indicating potential for discharge to the surface-water system. Water levels were higher in shallow Upper Floridan aquifer or surficial aquifer wells than in deeper Upper Floridan aquifer wells at five other sites, indicating potential for recharge to the deeper Upper Floridan aquifer. Water levels in the surficial aquifer and Upper Floridan aquifer wells at the remaining three sites were virtually the same, indicating little or no confinement at the sites. Potentiometric-surface maps of the Upper Floridan aquifer indicate the pattern of groundwater

  4. Exploring the spatio-temporal interrelation between groundwater and surface water by using the self-organizing maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, I.-Ting; Chang, Li-Chiu; Chang, Fi-John

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we propose a soft-computing methodology to visibly explore the spatio-temporal groundwater variations of the Kuoping River basin in southern Taiwan. The self-organizing map (SOM) is implemented to investigate the interactive mechanism between surface water and groundwater over the river basin based on large high-dimensional data sets coupled with their occurrence times. We find that extracting the occurrence time from each 30-day moving average data set in the clustered neurons of the SOM is a crucial step to learn the spatio-temporal interaction between surface water and groundwater. We design 2-D Topological Bubble Map to summarize all the groundwater values of four aquifers in a neuron, which can visibly explore the major features of the groundwater in the vertical direction. The constructed SOM topological maps nicely display that: (1) the groundwater movement, in general, extends from the eastern area to the western, where groundwater in the eastern area can be easily recharged from precipitation in wet seasons and discharged into streams during dry seasons due to the high permeability in this area; (2) the water movements in the four aquifers of the study area are quite different, and the seasonal variations of groundwater in the second and third aquifers are larger than those of the others; and (3) the spatial distribution and seasonal variations of groundwater and surface water are comprehensively linked together over the constructed maps to present groundwater characteristics and the interrelation between groundwater and surface water. The proposed modeling methodology not only can classify the large complex high-dimensional data sets into visible topological maps to effectively facilitate the quantitative status of regional groundwater resources but can also provide useful elaboration for future groundwater management.

  5. Impacts of Solid Waste Leachate on Groundwater and Surface Water Quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karim, S.

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out to assess the impacts of solid waste leachate on groundwater and surface water quality at unlined dumping site. Six leachate samples collected from different locations have average values of COD and BOD 2563 mg/L and 442 mg/L, respectively. Surface water samples were collected in two different seasons (rainy and non- rainy). Samples collected during non-rainy season were found to be more contaminated than rainy season. Soil samples collected from the depth of 1.5 m are contaminated with heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Fe and Zn) and E.coli. Presence of E.coli shows that leachate has deteriorated groundwater quality. (author)

  6. May 2011 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Rio Blanco, Colorado, Site (Data Validation Package)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Annual sampling was conducted at the Rio Blanco, Colorado, site for the Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program May 16-17, 2011, to monitor groundwater and surface water for potential radionuclide contamination. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in Sampling and Analysis Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated). A duplicate sample was collected from location Johnson Artesian WL. Samples were analyzed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Radiation&Indoor Environments National Laboratory in Las Vegas, Nevada. Samples were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides by high-resolution gamma spectrometry, and for tritium using the conventional method. Tritium was not measured using the enrichment method because the EPA laboratory no longer offers that service. Results of this monitoring at the Rio Blanco site demonstrate that groundwater and surface water outside the boundaries have not been affected by project-related contaminants.

  7. May 2012 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Rio Blanco, Colorado, Site (Data Validation Package)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Annual sampling was conducted at the Rio Blanco, Colorado, site for the Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program May 9-10, 2012, to monitor groundwater and surface water for potential radionuclide contamination. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in Sampling and Analysis Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated). A duplicate sample was collected from location Johnson Artesian WL. Samples were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides by high-resolution gamma spectrometry and for tritium using the conventional and enrichment methods. Results of this monitoring at the Rio Blanco site demonstrate that groundwater and surface water outside the site boundaries have not been affected by project-related contaminants.

  8. Utilization of Groundwater, Spring, and the Surface Water for Drinking Water Service for the People of Surakarta

    OpenAIRE

    Team PDAM Surakarta

    2004-01-01

    Case study: utilizing the groundwater, water resources, and surface of water to supply the drinking water for the inhabitants is Surakarta. Of the early target at 75%, the supply of drinking water for the inhabitants in Surakarta only achieves 44%. Because of this, the Regional Drinking Water ompany (PDAM) of Surakarta made a decision to: 1) utilize the debit of water production by making a deep well at a capacity of 30 liters a second for a short term, and on the basis of the study of water ...

  9. Spatially telescoping measurements for improved characterization of groundwater-surface water interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Colin; Ferre, Ty P.A.; Welker, Jeffery M.

    2012-01-01

    The suite of measurement methods available to characterize fluxes between groundwater and surface water is rapidly growing. However, there are few studies that examine approaches to design of field investigations that include multiple methods. We propose that performing field measurements in a spatially telescoping sequence improves measurement flexibility and accounts for nested heterogeneities while still allowing for parsimonious experimental design. We applied this spatially telescoping approach in a study of ground water-surface water (GW-SW) interaction during baseflow conditions along Lucile Creek, located near Wasilla, Alaska. Catchment-scale data, including channel geomorphic indices and hydrogeologic transects, were used to screen areas of potentially significant GW-SW exchange. Specifically, these data indicated increasing groundwater contribution from a deeper regional aquifer along the middle to lower reaches of the stream. This initial assessment was tested using reach-scale estimates of groundwater contribution during baseflow conditions, including differential discharge measurements and the use of chemical tracers analyzed in a three-component mixing model. The reach-scale measurements indicated a large increase in discharge along the middle reaches of the stream accompanied by a shift in chemical composition towards a regional groundwater end member. Finally, point measurements of vertical water fluxes -- obtained using seepage meters as well as temperature-based methods -- were used to evaluate spatial and temporal variability of GW-SW exchange within representative reaches. The spatial variability of upward fluxes, estimated using streambed temperature mapping at the sub-reach scale, was observed to vary in relation to both streambed composition and the magnitude of groundwater contribution from differential discharge measurements. The spatially telescoping approach improved the efficiency of this field investigation. Beginning our assessment

  10. Application of new point measurement device to quantify groundwater-surface water interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremeans, M. M.; Devlin, J. F.; McKnight, U. S.; Bjerg, P. L.

    2018-04-01

    The streambed point velocity probe (SBPVP) measures in situ groundwater velocities at the groundwater-surface water interface without reliance on hydraulic conductivity, porosity, or hydraulic gradient information. The tool operates on the basis of a mini-tracer test that occurs on the probe surface. The SBPVP was used in a meander of the Grindsted Å (stream), Denmark, to determine the distribution of flow through the streambed. These data were used to calculate the contaminant mass discharge of chlorinated ethenes into the stream. SBPVP data were compared with velocities estimated from hydraulic head and temperature gradient data collected at similar scales. Spatial relationships of water flow through the streambed were found to be similar by all three methods, and indicated a heterogeneous pattern of groundwater-surface water exchange. The magnitudes of estimated flow varied to a greater degree. It was found that pollutants enter the stream in localized regions of high flow which do not always correspond to the locations of highest pollutant concentration. The results show the combined influence of flow and concentration on contaminant discharge and illustrate the advantages of adopting a flux-based approach to risk assessment at the groundwater-surface water interface. Chlorinated ethene mass discharges, expressed in PCE equivalents, were determined to be up to 444 kg/yr (with SBPVP data) which compared well with independent estimates of mass discharge up to 438 kg/yr (with mini-piezometer data from the streambed) and up to 372 kg/yr crossing a control plane on the streambank (as determined in a previous, independent study).

  11. ECO Update / Groundwater Foum Issue Paper: Evaluating Ground-Water/Surface-Water Transition Zones in Ecological Risk Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    This ECO Update builds on the standard approach to ERA (U.S. EPA 1997), by providing a framework for incorporating groundwater/surface-water (GW/SW) interactions into existing ERAs (see U.S. EPA 1997 and 2001a for an introduction to ecological risk....

  12. New Module to Simulate Groundwater-Surface Water Interactions in Small-Scale Alluvial Aquifer System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, L.

    2017-12-01

    Streamflow depletion can occur when groundwater pumping wells lower water table elevations adjacent to a nearby stream. Being able to accurately model the severity of this process is of critical importance in semi-arid regions where groundwater-surface water interactions affect water rights and the sustainability of water resource practices. The finite-difference flow model MODFLOW is currently the standard for estimating groundwater-surface water interactions in many regions in the western United States. However, certain limitations of the model persist when highly-resolved spatial scales are used to represent the stream-aquifer system, e.g. when the size of computational grid cells is much less than the river width. In this study, an external module is developed and linked with MODFLOW that (1) allows for multiple computational grid cells over the width of the river; (2) computes streamflow and stream stage along the length of the river using the one-dimensional (1D) steady (over a stress period) shallow water equations, which allows for more accurate stream stages when normal flow cannot be assumed or a rating curve is not available; and (3) incorporates a process for computing streamflow loss when an unsaturated zone develops under the streambed. Use of the module not only provides highly-resolved estimates of streamflow depletion, but also of streambed hydraulic conductivity. The new module is applied to the stream-aquifer alluvial system along the South Platte River south of Denver, Colorado, with results tested against field-measured groundwater levels, streamflow, and streamflow depletion.

  13. Conjunctive use of groundwater and surface water for irrigated agriculture: Risk aversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredehoeft, John D.; Young, Richard A.

    1983-01-01

    In examining the South Platte system in Colorado where surface water and groundwater are used conjunctively for irrigation, we find the actual installed well capacity is approximately sufficient to irrigate the entire area. This would appear to be an overinvestment in well capacity. In this paper we examine to what extent groundwater is being developed as insurance against periods of low streamflow. Using a simulation model which couples the hydrology of a conjunctive stream aquifer system to a behavioral-economic model which incorporates farmer behavior in such a system, we have investigated the economics of an area patterned after a reach of the South Platte Valley in Colorado. The results suggest that under current economic conditions the most reasonable groundwater pumping capacity is a total capacity capable of irrigating the available acreage with groundwater. Installing sufficient well capacity to irrigate all available acreage has two benefits: (1) this capacity maximizes the expected net benefits and (2) this capacity also minimizes the variation in annual income: it reduces the variance to essentially zero. As pumping capacity is installed in a conjunctive use system, the value of flow forecasts is diminished. Poor forecasts are compensated for by pumping groundwater.

  14. Simulation of groundwater and surface-water flow in the upper Deschutes Basin, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannett, Marshall W.; Lite, Kenneth E.; Risley, John C.; Pischel, Esther M.; La Marche, Jonathan L.

    2017-10-20

    This report describes a hydrologic model for the upper Deschutes Basin in central Oregon developed using the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) integrated Groundwater and Surface-Water Flow model (GSFLOW). The upper Deschutes Basin, which drains much of the eastern side of the Cascade Range in Oregon, is underlain by large areas of permeable volcanic rock. That permeability, in combination with the large annual precipitation at high elevations, results in a substantial regional aquifer system and a stream system that is heavily groundwater dominated.The upper Deschutes Basin is also an area of expanding population and increasing water demand for public supply and agriculture. Surface water was largely developed for agricultural use by the mid-20th century, and is closed to additional appropriations. Consequently, water users look to groundwater to satisfy the growing demand. The well‑documented connection between groundwater and the stream system, and the institutional and legal restrictions on streamflow depletion by wells, resulted in the Oregon Water Resources Department (OWRD) instituting a process whereby additional groundwater pumping can be permitted only if the effects to streams are mitigated, for example, by reducing permitted surface-water diversions. Implementing such a program requires understanding of the spatial and temporal distribution of effects to streams from groundwater pumping. A groundwater model developed in the early 2000s by the USGS and OWRD has been used to provide insights into the distribution of streamflow depletion by wells, but lacks spatial resolution in sensitive headwaters and spring areas.The integrated model developed for this project, based largely on the earlier model, has a much finer grid spacing allowing resolution of sensitive headwater streams and important spring areas, and simulates a more complete set of surface processes as well as runoff and groundwater flow. In addition, the integrated model includes improved

  15. Hydrochemical and environmental isotope analysis of groundwater and surface water in a dry mountain region in Northern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Carina; Dame, Juliane; Nüsser, Marcus

    2018-05-08

    This case study examines the geological imprint and land use practices on water quality in the arid Huasco Valley against the backdrop of ongoing water conflicts surrounding competing demands for agriculture and mining. The study is based on a detailed analysis of spatial and temporal variations of monthly surface and bi-monthly groundwater quality samples measured during the Chilean summer of 2015/16. Additional information on source regions and river-groundwater interactions were collected using stable water isotopes. Regarding the geological impact on water quality, high concentrations of Ca 2+ , SO 4 2- and HCO 3 - indicate a strong influence of magmatic rocks, which constitute this high mountain basin, on the hydrochemistry. Piper and Gibbs-diagrams revealed that all samples show a homogenous distribution dominated by rock-water interactions. Measured NO 3 - concentrations in surface water are generally low. However, groundwater aquifers exhibit higher concentrations. Mn is the only heavy metal with elevated concentrations in surface water, which are possibly related to mining activities. The results illustrate that both surface and groundwater can be classified as suitable for irrigation. In addition, groundwater has been found to be suitable as drinking water. High similarities in isotopic signatures indicate a strong connection between surface and groundwater. Isotopic analyses suggest a strong influence of evaporation. This combined approach of hydrogeochemical and isotopic analysis proved to be a helpful tool in characterizing the catchment and can serve as a basis for future sustainable water management.

  16. Arsenic Fate, Transport And Stability Study: Groundwater, Surface Water, Soil And Sediment Investigation At Fort Devens Superfund Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    A field investigation was conducted to examine the distribution of arsenic in groundwater, surface water, and sediments at the Fort Devens Superfund Site. The study area encompassed a portion of plow Shop Pond (Red Cove), which receives groundwater discharge from the aquifer und...

  17. Genetic diversity of Escherichia coli isolates from surface water and groundwater in a rural environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambero, Maria Laura; Blarasin, Monica; Bettera, Susana; Giuliano Albo, Jesica

    2017-10-01

    The genetic characteristics among Escherichia coli strains can be grouped by origin of isolation. Then, it is possible to use the genotypes as a tool to determine the source of water contamination. The aim of this study was to define water aptitude for human consumption in a rural basin and to assess the diversity of E. coli water populations. Thus, it was possible to identify the main sources of fecal contamination and to explore linkages with the hydrogeological environment and land uses. The bacteriological analysis showed that more than 50% of samples were unfit for human consumption. DNA fingerprinting analysis by BOX-PCR indicated low genotypic diversity of E. coli isolates taken from surface water and groundwater. The results suggested the presence of a dominant source of fecal contamination. The relationship between low genotypic diversity and land use would prove that water contamination comes from livestock. The genetic diversity of E. coli isolated from surface water was less than that identified in groundwater because of the different hydraulic features of both environments. Furthermore, each one of the two big strain groups identified in this basin is located in different sub-basins, showing that hydrological dynamics exerts selective pressure on bacteria DNA.

  18. Tool for assessment of process importance at the groundwater/surface water interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palakodeti, Ravi C; LeBoeuf, Eugene J; Clarke, James H

    2009-10-01

    The groundwater/surface water interface (GWSWI) represents an important transition zone between groundwater and surface water environments that potentially changes the nature and flux of contaminants exchanged between the two systems. Identifying dominant and rate-limiting contaminant transformation processes is critically important for estimating contaminant fluxes and compositional changes across the GWSWI. A new, user-friendly, spreadsheet- and Visual Basic-based analytical screening tool that assists in evaluating the dominance of controlling kinetic processes across the GWSWI is presented. Based on contaminant properties, first-order processes that may play a significant role in solute transport/transformation are evaluated in terms of a ratio of process importance (P(i)) that relates the process rate to the rate of fluid transfer. Besides possessing several useful compilations of contaminant and process data, the screening tool also includes 1-D analytical models that assist users in evaluating contaminant transport across the GWSWI. The tool currently applies to 29 organics and 10 inorganics of interest within the context of the GWSWI. Application of the new screening tool is demonstrated through an evaluation of natural attenuation at a site with trichloroethylene and 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane contaminated groundwater discharging into wetlands.

  19. A flexible hydrological warning system in Denmark for real-time surface water and groundwater simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xin; Stisen, Simon; Wiese, Marianne B.; Jørgen Henriksen, Hans

    2015-04-01

    In Denmark, increasing focus on extreme weather events has created considerable demand for short term forecasts and early warnings in relation to groundwater and surface water flooding. The Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) has setup, calibrated and applied a nationwide water resources model, the DK-Model, primarily for simulating groundwater and surface water flows and groundwater levels during the past 20 years. So far, the DK-model has only been used in offline historical and future scenario simulations. Therefore, challenges arise in operating such a model for online forecasts and early warnings, which requires access to continuously updated observed climate input data and forecast data of precipitation, temperature and global radiation for the next 48 hours or longer. GEUS has a close collaboration with the Danish Meteorological Institute in order to test and enable this data input for the DK model. Due to the comprehensive physical descriptions of the DK-Model, the simulation results can potentially be any component of the hydrological cycle within the models domain. Therefore, it is important to identify which results need to be updated and saved in the real-time mode, since it is not computationally economical to save every result considering the heavy load of data. GEUS have worked closely with the end-users and interest groups such as water planners and emergency managers from the municipalities, water supply and waste water companies, consulting companies and farmer organizations, in order to understand their possible needs for real time simulation and monitoring of the nationwide water cycle. This participatory process has been supported by a web based questionnaire survey, and a workshop that connected the model developers and the users. For qualifying the stakeholder engagement, GEUS has selected a representative catchment area (Skjern River) for testing and demonstrating a prototype of the web based hydrological warning system at the

  20. Occurrence of Antibiotics in Surface and Groundwater of a Drinking Water Catchment Area in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Victoria; Richter, Doreen; Greskowiak, Janek; Mehrtens, Anne; Schulz, Lena; Massmann, Gudrun

    2016-07-01

    The contamination of the aquatic environment with organic micropollutants, such as veterinary pharmaceuticals, has become an increasingly serious problem and has aroused attention in the course of the last decades. This study presents a screening for a series of veterinary antibiotics, potentially introduced by the application of liquid manure, in ground- and surface water of a drinking water catchment in Lower Saxony, Germany. Of the 26 compounds analyzed, eight, including sulfadiazine, sulfapyridine, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, dehydrato-erythromycin, sulfadimidine, tylosin, and tetracycline were detected in surface water samples. Trimethoprim was detected in 11 out of 15 shallow groundwater samples, indicating its high environmental relevance. Column sorption experiments conducted on trimethoprim show a comparatively moderate sorption affinity to sandy aquifer material with a retardation coefficient of 5.7.

  1. The assessment of the required groundwater quantity for the conservation of ecosystems and the achievement of a good ecological status of surface waters

    OpenAIRE

    Mitja Janža; Dejan Šram; Kim Mezga; Mišo Andjelov; Jože Uhan

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of the available quantity of groundwater is of essential importance for its sustainable use. Modern approaches for estimation of groundwater availability take into account all potential impacts of abstractions, including impacts on groundwater dependent ecosystems and impacts on surface waters ecological status. Groundwater body is in good quantitative status if groundwater abstractions do not cause signifiant damages to groundwater dependent ecosystems and signifiant d...

  2. Characterizing interactions between surface water and groundwater in the Jialu River basin using major ion chemistry and stable isotopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Yang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Jialu River, a secondary tributary of the Huaihe River, has been severely contaminated from major contaminant sources, such as a number of untreated or lightly treated sewage waste in some cities. Groundwater along the river is not an isolated component of the hydrologic system, but is instead connected with the surface water. This study aims to investigate temporal and spatial variations in water chemistry affected by humans and to characterize the relationships between surface water (e.g. reservoirs, lakes and rivers and groundwater near the river in the shallow Quaternary aquifer. Concentration of Cl in north Zhengzhou City increased prominently due to the discharge of a large amount of domestic water. Nitrate and potassium show maximum concentrations in groundwater in Fugou County. These high levels can be attributed to the use of a large quantity of fertilizer over this region. Most surface water appeared to be continuously recharged from the surrounding groundwater (regional wells based on comparison surface water with groundwater levels, stable-isotopes and major ion signatures. However, the groundwater of a transitional well (location SY3 seemed to be recharged by river water via bank infiltration in September 2010. Fractional contributions of river water to the groundwater were calculated based on isotopic and chemical data using a mass-balance approach. Results show that the groundwater was approximately composed of 60–70% river water. These findings should be useful for a better understanding of hydrogeological processes at the river-aquifer interface and ultimately benefit water management in the future.

  3. Groundwater recharge in suburban areas of Hanoi, Vietnam: effect of decreasing surface-water bodies and land-use change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Keisuke; Hayashi, Takeshi; Do, An Thuan; Canh, Vu Duc; Nga, Tran Thi Viet; Funabiki, Ayako; Takizawa, Satoshi

    2017-05-01

    Over-exploited groundwater is expected to remain the predominant source of domestic water in suburban areas of Hanoi, Vietnam. In order to evaluate the effect on groundwater recharge, of decreasing surface-water bodies and land-use change caused by urbanization, the relevant groundwater systems and recharge pathways must be characterized in detail. To this end, water levels and water quality were monitored for 3 years regarding groundwater and adjacent surface-water bodies, at two typical suburban sites in Hanoi. Stable isotope (δ18O, δD of water) analysis and hydrochemical analysis showed that the water from both aquifers and aquitards, including the groundwater obtained from both the monitoring wells and the neighboring household tubewells, was largely derived from evaporation-affected surface-water bodies (e.g., ponds, irrigated farmlands) rather than from rivers. The water-level monitoring results suggested distinct local-scale flow systems for both a Holocene unconfined aquifer (HUA) and Pleistocene confined aquifer (PCA). That is, in the case of the HUA, lateral recharge through the aquifer from neighboring ponds and/or irrigated farmlands appeared to be dominant, rather than recharge by vertical rainwater infiltration. In the case of the PCA, recharge by the above-lying HUA, through areas where the aquitard separating the two aquifers was relatively thin or nonexistent, was suggested. As the decrease in the local surface-water bodies will likely reduce the groundwater recharge, maintaining and enhancing this recharge (through preservation of the surface-water bodies) is considered as essential for the sustainable use of groundwater in the area.

  4. Antibiotic resistance patterns of Escherichia coli strains isolated from surface water and groundwater samples in a pig production area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Neto Schneider

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of antibiotics, so excessive and indiscriminate in intensive animal production, has triggered an increase in the number of resistant microorganisms which can be transported to aquatic environments. The aim of this study was to determine the profile of the antimicrobial resistance of samples of Escherichia coli isolated from groundwater and surface water in a region of pig breeding. Through the test of antimicrobial susceptibility, we analyzed 205 strains of E. coli. A high rate of resistance to cefaclor was observed, both in surface water (51.9% and groundwater (62.9%, while all samples were sensitive to amikacin. The percentages of multi-resistant samples were 25.96% and 26.73% in surface water and groundwater, respectively, while 19.23% and 13.86% were sensitive to all antibiotics tested. It was determined that the rate of multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR was 0.164 for surface water and 0.184 for groundwater. No significant differences were found in the profile of the antimicrobial resistance in strains of E. coli isolated in surface water and groundwater, but the index MAR calculated in certain points of groundwater may offer a potential risk of transmission of resistant genes.

  5. Field Evaluation Of Arsenic Transport Across The Ground-Water/Surface Water Interface: Ground-Water Discharge And Iron Oxide Precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    A field investigation was conducted to examine the distribution of arsenic in ground water, surface water, and sediments at a Superfund Site in the northeastern United States (see companion presentation by K. G. Scheckel et al). Ground-water discharge into the study area was cha...

  6. Water levels and groundwater and surface-water exchanges in lakes of the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota, 2002 through 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Perry M.; Trost, Jared J.; Erickson, Melinda L.

    2016-10-19

    OverviewThis study assessed lake-water levels and regional and local groundwater and surface-water exchanges near northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area lakes applying three approaches: statistical analysis, field study, and groundwater-flow modeling.  Statistical analyses of lake levels were completed to assess the effect of physical setting and climate on lake-level fluctuations of selected lakes. A field study of groundwater and surface-water interactions in selected lakes was completed to (1) estimate potential percentages of surface-water contributions to well water across the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, (2) estimate general ages for waters extracted from the wells, and (3) assess groundwater inflow to lakes and lake-water outflow to aquifers downgradient from White Bear Lake.  Groundwater flow was simulated using a steady-state, groundwater-flow model to assess regional groundwater and surface-water exchanges and the effects of groundwater withdrawals, climate, and other factors on water levels of northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area lakes.

  7. Impacts of model initialization on an integrated surface water - groundwater model

    KAUST Repository

    Ajami, Hoori

    2015-04-01

    Integrated hydrologic models characterize catchment responses by coupling the subsurface flow with land surface processes. One of the major areas of uncertainty in such models is the specification of the initial condition and its influence on subsequent simulations. A key challenge in model initialization is that it requires spatially distributed information on model states, groundwater levels and soil moisture, even when such data are not routinely available. Here, the impact of uncertainty in initial condition was explored across a 208 km2 catchment in Denmark using the ParFlow.CLM model. The initialization impact was assessed under two meteorological conditions (wet vs dry) using five depth to water table and soil moisture distributions obtained from various equilibrium states (thermal, root zone, discharge, saturated and unsaturated zone equilibrium) during the model spin-up. Each of these equilibrium states correspond to varying computation times to achieve stability in a particular aspect of the system state. Results identified particular sensitivity in modelled recharge and stream flow to the different initializations, but reduced sensitivity in modelled energy fluxes. Analysis also suggests that to simulate a year that is wetter than the spin-up period, an initialization based on discharge equilibrium is adequate to capture the direction and magnitude of surface water–groundwater exchanges. For a drier or hydrologically similar year to the spin-up period, an initialization based on groundwater equilibrium is required. Variability of monthly subsurface storage changes and discharge bias at the scale of a hydrological event show that the initialization impacts do not diminish as the simulations progress, highlighting the importance of robust and accurate initialization in capturing surface water–groundwater dynamics.

  8. Characterizing groundwater/surface-water interactions in the interior of Jianghan Plain, central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yao; Ma, Teng; Deng, Yamin; Shen, Shuai; Lu, Zongjie

    2018-01-01

    Quantifying groundwater/surface-water interactions is essential for managing water resources and revealing contaminant fate. There has been little concern on the exchange between streams and aquifers through an extensive aquitard thus far. In this study, hydrogeologic calculation and tritium modeling were jointly applied to characterize such interactions through an extensive aquitard in the interior of Jianghan Plain, an alluvial plain of Yangtze River, China. One groundwater simulation suggested that the lateral distance of influence from the river was about 1,000 m; vertical flow in the aquitard followed by lateral flow in the aquifer contributed significantly more ( 90%) to the aquifer head change near the river than lateral bank storage in the aquitard followed by infiltration. The hydrogeologic calculation produced vertical fluxes of the order 0.01 m/day both near and farther from the river, suggesting that similar shorter-lived (half-monthly) vertical fluxes occur between the river and aquitard near the river, and between the surface end members and aquitard farther from the river. Tritium simulation based on the OTIS model produced an average groundwater residence time of about 15 years near the river and a resulting vertical flux of the order 0.001 m/day. Another tritium simulation based on a dispersion model produced a vertical flux of the order 0.0001 m/day away from the river, coupled with an average residence time of around 90 years. These results suggest an order of magnitude difference for the longer-lived (decadal) vertical fluxes between surface waters and the aquifer near and away from the river.

  9. Overview of groundwater and surface water standards pertinent to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundahl, A.L.; Williams, S.; Grizzle, B.J.

    1995-09-01

    This document presents an overview of groundwater- and surface water-related laws, regulations, agreements, guidance documents, Executive Orders, and DOE orders pertinent to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. This document is a summary and is intended to help readers understand which regulatory requirements may apply to their particular circumstances. However, the document is not intended to be used in lieu of applicable regulations. Unless otherwise noted, the information in this report reflects a summary and evaluation completed July 1, 1995. This document is considered a Living Document, and updates on changing laws and regulations will be provided.

  10. May 2013 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Rio Blanco, Colorado, Site (Data Validation Package)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutton, Rick [S.M. Stoller Corporation, Broomfield, CO (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Annual sampling was conducted at the Rio Blanco, Colorado, site for the Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program May 14-16, 2013, to monitor groundwater and surface water for potential radionuclide contamination. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in Sampling and Analysis Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated). A duplicate sample was collected from location CER #1 Black Sulphur. Samples were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides by high-resolution gamma spectrometry and for tritium using the conventional and enrichment methods.

  11. An open loop equilibrator for continuous monitoring of radon at the groundwater-surface water interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kil Yong Lee; Yoon Yeol Yoon; Soo Young Cho; Eunhee Lee; Sang-Ho Moon; Dong-Chan Koh; Kyoochul Ha; Yongcheol Kim; Kyung-Seok Ko

    2015-01-01

    A continuous monitoring system (CMS) using an open loop equilibrator for assessment of 222 Rn at the groundwater-surface water interface was developed and tested. For the characterization and validation of the system, three air loops (open loop, closed loop, and open bubble loop) were tested in relation to high and precise count rates, rapid response, and equilibration of radon. The water and air stream is fed to the equilibrator by an experimental setup with a commercial submersible water pump and the internal pump with built-in radon-in-air detector. Efficiency calibration of the CMS is done by simultaneous determination of a groundwater sample using liquid scintillation counting, and the RAD7 accessories RAD-H 2 O, BigBottle RAD-H 2 O. The higher count rates are provided by the closed loop. However, the open loop with bubbler (open bubble loop) provides the best precision count rates, rapid response, and equilibration time. The CMS allows radon determination in discrete water samples as well as continuous water streams. (author)

  12. Characterization of Surface Water and Groundwater Quality in the Lower Tano River Basin Using Statistical and Isotopic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edjah, Adwoba; Stenni, Barbara; Cozzi, Giulio; Turetta, Clara; Dreossi, Giuliano; Tetteh Akiti, Thomas; Yidana, Sandow

    2017-04-01

    Adwoba Kua- Manza Edjaha, Barbara Stennib,c,Giuliano Dreossib, Giulio Cozzic, Clara Turetta c,T.T Akitid ,Sandow Yidanae a,eDepartment of Earth Science, University of Ghana Legon, Ghana West Africa bDepartment of Enviromental Sciences, Informatics and Statistics, Ca Foscari University of Venice, Italy cInstitute for the Dynamics of Environmental Processes, CNR, Venice, Italy dDepartment of Nuclear Application and Techniques, Graduate School of Nuclear and Allied Sciences University of Ghana Legon This research is part of a PhD research work "Hydrogeological Assessment of the Lower Tano river basin for sustainable economic usage, Ghana, West - Africa". In this study, the researcher investigated surface water and groundwater quality in the Lower Tano river basin. This assessment was based on some selected sampling sites associated with mining activities, and the development of oil and gas. Statistical approach was applied to characterize the quality of surface water and groundwater. Also, water stable isotopes, which is a natural tracer of the hydrological cycle was used to investigate the origin of groundwater recharge in the basin. The study revealed that Pb and Ni values of the surface water and groundwater samples exceeded the WHO standards for drinking water. In addition, water quality index (WQI), based on physicochemical parameters(EC, TDS, pH) and major ions(Ca2+, Na+, Mg2+, HCO3-,NO3-, CL-, SO42-, K+) exhibited good quality water for 60% of the sampled surface water and groundwater. Other statistical techniques, such as Heavy metal pollution index (HPI), degree of contamination (Cd), and heavy metal evaluation index (HEI), based on trace element parameters in the water samples, reveal that 90% of the surface water and groundwater samples belong to high level of pollution. Principal component analysis (PCA) also suggests that the water quality in the basin is likely affected by rock - water interaction and anthropogenic activities (sea water intrusion). This

  13. Dynamics in groundwater and surface water quality : from field-scale processes to catchment-scale monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozemeijer, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    Clean water is essential for our existence on earth. In areas with intensive agricultural land use, such as The Netherlands, groundwater and surface water resources are threatened. The leaching of agrochemicals from agricultural fields leads to contamination of drinking water resources and toxic

  14. Radionuclides as natural tracers of the interaction between groundwater and surface water in the River Andarax, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Martinez, Francisco; Salas Garcia, Alejandro; Sánchez-Martos, Francisco; Baeza Espasa, Antonio; Molina Sánchez, Luis; Rodríguez Perulero, Antonio

    2017-12-01

    The identification of specific aquifers that supply water to river systems is fundamental to understanding the dynamics of the rivers' hydrochemistry, particularly in arid and semiarid environments where river flow may be discontinuous. There are multiple methods to identify the source of river water. In this study of the River Andarax, in the Southeast of Spain, an analysis of natural tracers (physico-chemical parameters, uranium, radium and radon) in surface water and groundwater indicates that chemical parameters and uranium clearly identify the areas where there is groundwater-surface water interaction. The concentration of uranium found in the river defines two areas: the headwaters with U concentrations of 2 μg L -1 and the lower reaches, with U of 6 μg L -1 . Furthermore, variation in the 234 U/ 238 U isotopic ratio allowed us to detect the influence that groundwater from the carbonate aquifer has on surface water in the headwaters of the river, where the saline content is lower and the water has a calcium bicarbonate facies. The concentration of 226 Ra and 222 Rn are low in the surface waters: aquifer on the surface waters. The results of this study indicate the utility in the use of physico-chemical and radiological data conjointly as tracers of groundwater-surface water interaction in semiarid areas where the lithology of aquifers is diverse (carbonate and detritic) and where evaporitic rocks are present. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Using SWAT-MODFLOW to simulate groundwater flow and groundwater-surface water interactions in an intensively irrigated stream-aquifer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, X.; Bailey, R. T.

    2017-12-01

    Agricultural irrigated watersheds in semi-arid regions face challenges such as waterlogging, high soil salinity, reduced crop yield, and leaching of chemical species due to extreme shallow water tables resulting from long-term intensive irrigation. Hydrologic models can be used to evaluate the impact of land management practices on water yields and groundwater-surface water interactions in such regions. In this study, the newly developed SWAT-MODFLOW, a coupled surface/subsurface hydrologic model, is applied to a 950 km2 watershed in the Lower Arkansas River Valley (southeastern Colorado). The model accounts for the influence of canal diversions, irrigation applications, groundwater pumping, and earth canal seepage losses. The model provides a detailed description of surface and subsurface flow processes, thereby enabling detailed description of watershed processes such as runoff, infiltration, in-streamflow, three-dimensional groundwater flow in a heterogeneous aquifer system with sources and sinks (e.g. pumping, seepage to subsurface drains), and spatially-variable surface and groundwater exchange. The model was calibrated and tested against stream discharge from 5 stream gauges in the Arkansas River and its tributaries, groundwater levels from 70 observation wells, and evapotranspiration (ET) data estimated from satellite (ReSET) data during the 1999 to 2007 period. Since the water-use patterns within the study area are typical of many other irrigated river valleys in the United States and elsewhere, this modeling approach is transferable to other regions.

  16. Groundwater/surface-water interaction in central Sevier County, Tennessee, October 2015–2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, John K.; Johnson, Gregory C.

    2017-12-14

    The U.S. Geological Survey evaluated the interaction of groundwater and surface water in the central part of Sevier County, Tennessee, from October 2015 through October 2016. Stream base flow was surveyed in December 2015 and in July and October 2016 to evaluate losing and gaining stream reaches along three streams in the area. During a July 2016 synoptic survey, groundwater levels were measured in wells screened in the Cambrian-Ordovician aquifer to define the potentiometric surface in the area. The middle and lower reaches of the Little Pigeon River and the middle reaches of Middle Creek and the West Prong Little Pigeon River were gaining streams at base-flow conditions. The lower segments of the West Prong Little Pigeon River and Middle Creek were losing reaches under base-flow conditions, with substantial flow losses in the West Prong Little Pigeon River and complete subsurface diversion of flow in Middle Creek through a series of sinkholes that developed in the streambed and adjacent flood plain beginning in 2010. The potentiometric surface of the Cambrian-Ordovician aquifer showed depressed water levels in the area where loss of flow occurred in the lower reaches of West Prong Little Pigeon River and Middle Creek. Continuous dewatering activities at a rock quarry located in this area appear to have lowered groundwater levels by as much as 180 feet, which likely is the cause of flow losses observed in the two streams, and a contributing factor to the development of sinkholes at Middle Creek near Collier Drive.

  17. Evaluation of water quality and hydrogeochemistry of surface and groundwater, Tiruvallur District, Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna Kumar, S.; Hari Babu, S.; Eswar Rao, P.; Selvakumar, S.; Thivya, C.; Muralidharan, S.; Jeyabal, G.

    2017-09-01

    Water quality of Tiruvallur Taluk of Tiruvallur district, Tamil Nadu, India has been analysed to assess its suitability in relation to domestic and agricultural uses. Thirty water samples, including 8 surface water (S), 22 groundwater samples [15 shallow ground waters (SW) and 7 deep ground waters (DW)], were collected to assess the various physico-chemical parameters such as Temperature, pH, Electrical conductivity (EC), Total dissolved solids (TDS), cations (Ca, Mg, Na, K), anions (CO3, HCO3, Cl, SO4, NO3, PO4) and trace elements (Fe, Mn, Zn). Various irrigation water quality diagrams and parameters such as United states salinity laboratory (USSL), Wilcox, sodium absorption ratio (SAR), sodium percentage (Na %), Residual sodium carbonate (RSC), Residual Sodium Bicarbonate (RSBC) and Kelley's ratio revealed that most of the water samples are suitable for irrigation. Langelier Saturation Index (LSI) values suggest that the water is slightly corrosive and non-scale forming in nature. Gibbs plot suggests that the study area is dominated by evaporation and rock-water dominance process. Piper plot indicates the chemical composition of water, chiefly controlled by dissolution and mixing of irrigation return flow.

  18. Exploratory multivariate modeling and prediction of the physico-chemical properties of surface water and groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoko, Godwin A.; Singh, Kirpal; Balerea, Steven; Kokot, Serge

    2007-03-01

    SummaryPhysico-chemical properties of surface water and groundwater samples from some developing countries have been subjected to multivariate analyses by the non-parametric multi-criteria decision-making methods, PROMETHEE and GAIA. Complete ranking information necessary to select one source of water in preference to all others was obtained, and this enabled relationships between the physico-chemical properties and water quality to be assessed. Thus, the ranking of the quality of the water bodies was found to be strongly dependent on the total dissolved solid, phosphate, sulfate, ammonia-nitrogen, calcium, iron, chloride, magnesium, zinc, nitrate and fluoride contents of the waters. However, potassium, manganese and zinc composition showed the least influence in differentiating the water bodies. To model and predict the water quality influencing parameters, partial least squares analyses were carried out on a matrix made up of the results of water quality assessment studies carried out in Nigeria, Papua New Guinea, Egypt, Thailand and India/Pakistan. The results showed that the total dissolved solid, calcium, sulfate, sodium and chloride contents can be used to predict a wide range of physico-chemical characteristics of water. The potential implications of these observations on the financial and opportunity costs associated with elaborate water quality monitoring are discussed.

  19. Variation in surface water-groundwater exchange with land use in an urban stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Robert J.; Welty, Claire; Larson, Philip C.

    2010-10-01

    SummaryA suite of methods is being utilized in the Baltimore metropolitan area to develop an understanding of the interaction between groundwater and surface water at multiple space and time scales. As part of this effort, bromide tracer experiments were conducted over two 10-day periods in August 2007 and May 2008 along two sections (each approximately 900 m long) of Dead Run, a small urban stream located in Baltimore County, Maryland, to investigate the influence of distinct zones of riparian land cover on surface-subsurface exchange and transient storage under low and high baseflow conditions. Riparian land cover varied by reach along a gradient of land use spanning parkland, suburban/residential, commercial, institutional, and transportation, and included wooded, meadow, turf grass, and impervious cover. Under summer low baseflow conditions, surface water-groundwater exchange, defined by gross inflow and gross outflow, was larger and net inflow (gross inflow minus gross outflow) had greater spatial variability, than was observed under spring high baseflow conditions. In addition, the fraction of nominal travel time attributable to transient storage ( Fmed) was lower and was more spatially variable under high baseflow conditions than under low baseflow conditions. The influence of baseflow condition on surface water-ground water exchange and transient storage was most evident in the subreaches with the least riparian forest cover and these effects are attributed to a lack of shading in reaches with little riparian forest cover. We suggest that under summer low baseflow conditions, the lack of shading allowed excess in-channel vegetation growth which acted as a transient storage zone and a conduit for outflow (i.e. uptake and evapotranspiration). Under spring high baseflow conditions the transient storage capacity of the channel was reduced because there was little in-channel vegetation.

  20. Simulation and assessment of groundwater flow and groundwater and surface-water exchanges in lakes of the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota, 2003 through 2013: Chapter B of Water levels and groundwater and surface-water exchanges in lakes of the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota, 2002 through 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Perry M.; Roth, Jason L.; Trost, Jared J.; Christenson, Catherine A.; Diekoff, Aliesha L.; Erickson, Melinda L.

    2017-09-05

    Water levels during 2003 through 2013 were less than mean water levels for the period 1925–2013 for several lakes in the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area in Minnesota. Previous periods of low lake-water levels generally were correlated with periods with less than mean precipitation. Increases in groundwater withdrawals and land-use changes have brought into question whether or not recent (2003–13) lake-water-level declines are solely caused by decreases in precipitation. A thorough understanding of groundwater and surface-water exchanges was needed to assess the effect of water-management decisions on lake-water levels. To address this need, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Metropolitan Council and the Minnesota Department of Health, developed and calibrated a three-dimensional, steady-state groundwater-flow model representing 2003–13 mean hydrologic conditions to assess groundwater and lake-water exchanges, and the effects of groundwater withdrawals and precipitation on water levels of 96 lakes in the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area.Lake-water budgets for the calibrated groundwater-flow model indicated that groundwater is flowing into lakes in the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area and lakes are providing water to underlying aquifers. Lake-water outflow to the simulated groundwater system was a major outflow component for Big Marine Lake, Lake Elmo, Snail Lake, and White Bear Lake, accounting for 45 to 64 percent of the total outflows from the lakes. Evaporation and transpiration from the lake surface ranged from 19 to 52 percent of the total outflow from the four lakes. Groundwater withdrawals and precipitation were varied from the 2003‒13 mean values used in the calibrated model (30-percent changes in groundwater withdrawals and 5-percent changes in precipitation) for hypothetical scenarios to assess the effects of groundwater withdrawals and precipitation on water budgets and levels in Big Marine Lake, Snail Lake

  1. Groundwater, surface-water, and water-chemistry data, Black Mesa area, northeastern Arizona—2013–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macy, Jamie P.; Mason, Jon P.

    2017-12-07

    The Navajo (N) aquifer is an extensive aquifer and the primary source of groundwater in the 5,400-square-mile Black Mesa area in northeastern Arizona. Availability of water is an important issue in northeastern Arizona because of continued water requirements for industrial and municipal use by a growing population and because of low precipitation in the arid climate of the Black Mesa area. Precipitation in the area typically is between 6 and 16 inches per year.The U.S. Geological Survey water-monitoring program in the Black Mesa area began in 1971 and provides information about the long-term effects of groundwater withdrawals from the N aquifer for industrial and municipal uses. This report presents results of data collected as part of the monitoring program in the Black Mesa area from January 2013 to December 2015. The monitoring program includes measurements of (1) groundwater withdrawals (pumping), (2) groundwater levels, (3) spring discharge, (4) surface-water discharge, and (5) groundwater chemistry.In 2013, total groundwater withdrawals were 3,980 acre-feet (ft), in 2014 total withdrawals were 4,170 acre-ft, and in 2015 total withdrawals were 3,970 acre-ft. From 2013 to 2015 total withdrawals varied by less than 5 percent.From 2014 to 2015, annually measured water levels in the Black Mesa area declined in 9 of 15 wells that were available for comparison in the unconfined areas of the N aquifer, and the median change was -0.1 feet. Water levels declined in 3 of 16 wells measured in the confined area of the aquifer. The median change for the confined area of the aquifer was 0.6 feet. From the prestress period (prior to 1965) to 2015, the median water-level change for 34 wells in both the confined and unconfined areas was -13.2 feet; the median water-level changes were -1.7 feet for 16 wells measured in the unconfined areas and -42.3 feet for 18 wells measured in the confined area.Spring flow was measured at four springs in 2014. Flow fluctuated during the

  2. Evaluating the impact of irrigation on surface water - groundwater interaction and stream temperature in an agricultural watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essaid, Hedeff I; Caldwell, Rodney R

    2017-12-01

    Changes in groundwater discharge to streams caused by irrigation practices can influence stream temperature. Observations along two currently flood-irrigated reaches in the 640-square-kilometer upper Smith River watershed, an important agricultural and recreational fishing area in west-central Montana, showed a downstream temperature decrease resulting from groundwater discharge to the stream. A watershed-scale coupled surface water and groundwater flow model was used to examine changes in streamflow, groundwater discharge to the stream and stream temperature resulting from irrigation practices. The upper Smith River watershed was used to develop the model framework including watershed climate, topography, hydrography, vegetation, soil properties and current irrigation practices. Model results were used to compare watershed streamflow, groundwater recharge, and groundwater discharge to the stream for three scenarios: natural, pre-irrigation conditions (PreIrr); current irrigation practices involving mainly stream diversion for flood and sprinkler irrigation (IrrCurrent); and a hypothetical scenario with only groundwater supplying sprinkler irrigation (IrrGW). Irrigation increased groundwater recharge relative to natural PreIrr conditions because not all applied water was removed by crop evapotranspiration. Groundwater storage and groundwater discharge to the stream increased relative to natural PreIrr conditions when the source of irrigation water was mainly stream diversion as in the IrrCurrent scenario. The hypothetical IrrGW scenario, in which groundwater withdrawals were the sole source of irrigation water, resulted in widespread lowering of the water table and associated decreases in groundwater storage and groundwater discharge to the stream. A mixing analysis using model predicted groundwater discharge along the reaches suggests that stream diversion and flood irrigation, represented in the IrrCurrent scenario, has led to cooling of stream temperatures

  3. Occurrence of perchloroethylene in surface water and fish in a river ecosystem affected by groundwater contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittlingerová, Zdena; Macháčková, Jiřina; Petruželková, Anna; Zimová, Magdalena

    2016-03-01

    Long-term monitoring of the content of perchloroethylene (PCE) in a river ecosystem affected by groundwater contamination was performed at a site in the Czech Republic. The quality of surface water was monitored quarterly between 1994 and 2013, and fish were collected from the affected ecosystem to analyse the content of PCE in their tissue in 1998, 2011 and 2012. Concentrations of PCE (9-140 μg/kg) in the tissue of fish collected from the contaminated part of the river were elevated compared to the part of the river unaffected by the contamination (ND to 5 μg/kg PCE). The quality of surface water has improved as a result of groundwater remediation during the evaluated period. Before the remedial action, PCE concentrations ranged from 30 to 95 μg/L (1994-1997). Following commencement of remedial activities in September 1997, a decrease in the content of PCE in the surface water to 7.3 μg/L (1998) and further to 1 μg/L (2011) and 1.1 μg/L (2012) led to a progressive decrease in the average concentration of PCE in the fish muscle tissue from 79 μg/kg (1998) to 24 (2011) and 30 μg/kg (2012), respectively. It was determined that the bioconcentration of PCE does not have a linear dependence because the decrease in contamination in the fish muscle tissue is not directly proportional to the decrease in contamination in the river water. The observed average bioconcentration factors were 24 and 28 for the lower concentrations of PCE and 11 for the higher concentrations of PCE in the river. In terms of age, length and weight of the collected fish, weight had the greatest significance for bioconcentration, followed by the length, with age being evaluated as a less significant factor.

  4. Sources of groundwater and characteristics of surface-water recharge at Bell, White, and Suwannee Springs, Florida, 2012–13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, John F.; McBride, W. Scott

    2016-12-21

    Discharge from springs in Florida is sourced from aquifers, such as the Upper Floridan aquifer, which is overlain by an upper confining unit that locally can have properties of an aquifer. Water levels in aquifers are affected by several factors, such as precipitation, recharge, and groundwater withdrawals, which in turn can affect discharge from springs. Therefore, identifying groundwater sources and recharge characteristics can be important in assessing how these factors might affect flows and water levels in springs and can be informative in broader applications such as groundwater modeling. Recharge characteristics include the residence time of water at the surface, apparent age of recharge, and recharge water temperature.The groundwater sources and recharge characteristics of three springs that discharge from the banks of the Suwannee River in northern Florida were assessed for this study: Bell Springs, White Springs, and Suwannee Springs. Sources of groundwater were also assessed for a 150-foot-deep well finished within the Upper Floridan aquifer, hereafter referred to as the UFA well. Water samples were collected for geochemical analyses in November 2012 and October 2013 from the three springs and the UFA well. Samples were analyzed for a suite of major ions, dissolved gases, and isotopes of sulfur, strontium, oxygen, and hydrogen. Daily means of water level and specific conductance at White Springs were continuously recorded from October 2012 through December 2013 by the Suwannee River Water Management District. Suwannee River stage at White Springs was computed on the basis of stage at a U.S. Geological Survey streamgage about 2.4 miles upstream. Water levels in two wells, located about 2.5 miles northwest and 13 miles southeast of White Springs, were also used in the analyses.Major ion concentrations were used to differentiate water from the springs and Upper Floridan aquifer into three groups: Bell Springs, UFA well, and White and Suwannee Springs. When

  5. Use of ground-water reservoirs for storage of surface water in the San Joaquin Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, G.H.; Lofgren, B.E.; Mack, Seymour

    1964-01-01

    The San Joaquin Valley includes roughly the southern two-thirds of the Central Valley of California, extending 250 miles from Stockton on the north to Grapevine at the foot of the Tehachapi Mountains. The valley floor ranges in width from 25 miles near Bakersfield to about 55 miles near Visalia; it has a surface area of about 10,000 square miles. More than one-quarter of all the ground water pumped for irrigation in the United States is used in this highly productive valley. Withdrawal of ground water from storage by heavy pumping not only provides a needed irrigation water supply, but it also lowers the ground-water level and makes storage space available in which to conserve excess water during periods of heavy runoff. A storage capacity estimated to be 93 million acre-feet to a depth of 200 feet is available in this ground-water reservoir. This is about nine times the combined capacity of the existing and proposed surface-water reservoirs in the San Joaquin Valley under the California Water Plan. The landforms of the San Joaquin Valley include dissected uplands, low plains and fans, river flood plains and channels, and overflow lands and lake bottoms. Below the land surface, unconsolidated sediments derived from the surrounding mountain highlands extend downward for hundreds of feet. These unconsolidated deposits, consisting chiefly of alluvial deposits, but including some widespread lacustrine sediments, are the principal source of ground water in the valley. Ground water occurs under confined and unconfined conditions in the San Joaquin Valley. In much of the western, central, and southeastern parts of the valley, three distinct ground-water reservoirs are present. In downward succession these are 1) a body of unconfined and semiconfined fresh water in alluvial deposits of Recent, Pleistocene, and possibly later Pliocene age, overlying the Corcoran clay member of the Tulare formation; 2) a body of fresh water confined beneath the Corcoran clay member, which

  6. Hydrochemistry in surface water and shallow groundwater. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troejbom, Mats (Mopelikan, Norrtaelje (SE)); Soederbaeck, Bjoern (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (SE)); Johansson, Per-Olof (Artesia Grundvattenkonsult AB, Taeby (SE))

    2007-10-15

    mineral has a central role in the forming of today's hydrochemistry in surface systems, and probably also on the composition of the dilute, non-brackish, groundwater in the upper parts of the fractured bedrock. The rich supply of calcium and the high alkalinity affects the structure of the whole ecosystem, for example by forming the oligotrophic hardwater lakes which are characteristic for the area. One major issue in the report is if there can be found any indications on deep groundwater discharge in the surface system. According to observations in surface water and shallow groundwater, and to the hydrological/hydrochemical conceptual model, there is probably no ongoing deep discharge into the freshwater surface system. In restricted areas there are, however, indications that relict marine remnants, which also includes deep saline signatures, prevail in the groundwater at relatively shallow depths in the Quaternary deposits, but not reach the surface due to the downwards directed groundwater flow pattern that generally prevail in the area. This hydrochemical pattern could according to the conceptual model probably be explained by influence from marine remnants formed under a previous hydrological regime and these signatures are preserved because of stagnant conditions in some areas

  7. Hydrochemistry in surface water and shallow groundwater. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troejbom, Mats; Soederbaeck, Bjoern; Johansson, Per-Olof

    2007-10-01

    mineral has a central role in the forming of today's hydrochemistry in surface systems, and probably also on the composition of the dilute, non-brackish, groundwater in the upper parts of the fractured bedrock. The rich supply of calcium and the high alkalinity affects the structure of the whole ecosystem, for example by forming the oligotrophic hardwater lakes which are characteristic for the area. One major issue in the report is if there can be found any indications on deep groundwater discharge in the surface system. According to observations in surface water and shallow groundwater, and to the hydrological/hydrochemical conceptual model, there is probably no ongoing deep discharge into the freshwater surface system. In restricted areas there are, however, indications that relict marine remnants, which also includes deep saline signatures, prevail in the groundwater at relatively shallow depths in the Quaternary deposits, but not reach the surface due to the downwards directed groundwater flow pattern that generally prevail in the area. This hydrochemical pattern could according to the conceptual model probably be explained by influence from marine remnants formed under a previous hydrological regime and these signatures are preserved because of stagnant conditions in some areas

  8. Hydrochemistry in surface water and shallow groundwater. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troejbom, Mats (Mopelikan, Norrtaelje (Sweden)); Soederbaeck, Bjoern; Kalinowski, Birgitta (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden))

    2008-10-15

    elevated areas, meteoric recharge has a great influence on the observed hydrochemistry, which is usually characterised by dilute fresh waters of low ionic strength. In lower areas close to the coast, there are indications of ongoing flushing of marine relicts since the area was covered by sea water. At most locations in the Laxemar-Simpevarp area, this flushing is more or less completed and concentrations of marine ions may be explained by deposition and anthropogenic sources. As much as 2/3 of the Cl input to the surface system has been estimated to originate from anthropogenic sources as road salt. One important question in the hydrochemical evaluation is whether there are any indications of deep groundwater discharge in the surface system. It can be concluded from observations in shallow groundwater that deep groundwater signatures are present in the Quaternary deposits in potential deep discharge areas beneath lakes and brackish bays. On land, no deep signatures have been detected neither in surface water nor in groundwater, which indicates that shallow meteoric recharge/discharge patterns dominate and that potential regional deep discharge is too dilute to be detected in surface water

  9. Hydrochemistry in surface water and shallow groundwater. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Laxemar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troejbom, Mats; Soederbaeck, Bjoern; Kalinowski, Birgitta

    2008-10-01

    elevated areas, meteoric recharge has a great influence on the observed hydrochemistry, which is usually characterised by dilute fresh waters of low ionic strength. In lower areas close to the coast, there are indications of ongoing flushing of marine relicts since the area was covered by sea water. At most locations in the Laxemar-Simpevarp area, this flushing is more or less completed and concentrations of marine ions may be explained by deposition and anthropogenic sources. As much as 2/3 of the Cl input to the surface system has been estimated to originate from anthropogenic sources as road salt. One important question in the hydrochemical evaluation is whether there are any indications of deep groundwater discharge in the surface system. It can be concluded from observations in shallow groundwater that deep groundwater signatures are present in the Quaternary deposits in potential deep discharge areas beneath lakes and brackish bays. On land, no deep signatures have been detected neither in surface water nor in groundwater, which indicates that shallow meteoric recharge/discharge patterns dominate and that potential regional deep discharge is too dilute to be detected in surface water

  10. Investigating the spatio-temporal variability in groundwater and surface water interactions: a multi-technique approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unland, N. P.; Cartwright, I.; Andersen, M. S.; Rau, G. C.; Reed, J.; Gilfedder, B. S.; Atkinson, A. P.; Hofmann, H.

    2013-09-01

    The interaction between groundwater and surface water along the Tambo and Nicholson rivers, southeast Australia, was investigated using 222Rn, Cl, differential flow gauging, head gradients, electrical conductivity (EC) and temperature profiles. Head gradients, temperature profiles, Cl concentrations and 222Rn activities all indicate higher groundwater fluxes to the Tambo River in areas of increased topographic variation where the potential to form large groundwater-surface water gradients is greater. Groundwater discharge to the Tambo River calculated by Cl mass balance was significantly lower (1.48 × 104 to 1.41 × 103 m3 day-1) than discharge estimated by 222Rn mass balance (5.35 × 105 to 9.56 × 103 m3 day-1) and differential flow gauging (5.41 × 105 to 6.30 × 103 m3 day-1) due to bank return waters. While groundwater sampling from the bank of the Tambo River was intended to account for changes in groundwater chemistry associated with bank infiltration, variations in bank infiltration between sample sites remain unaccounted for, limiting the use of Cl as an effective tracer. Groundwater discharge to both the Tambo and Nicholson rivers was the highest under high-flow conditions in the days to weeks following significant rainfall, indicating that the rivers are well connected to a groundwater system that is responsive to rainfall. Groundwater constituted the lowest proportion of river discharge during times of increased rainfall that followed dry periods, while groundwater constituted the highest proportion of river discharge under baseflow conditions (21.4% of the Tambo in April 2010 and 18.9% of the Nicholson in September 2010).

  11. Assessing the impact of model spin-up on surface water-groundwater interactions using an integrated hydrologic model

    KAUST Repository

    Ajami, Hoori; McCabe, Matthew; Evans, Jason P.; Stisen, Simon

    2014-01-01

    is to minimize the impact of initialization while using the smallest spin-up time possible. In this study, multicriteria analysis was performed to assess the spin-up behavior of the ParFlow.CLM integrated groundwater-surface water-land surface model over a 208 km

  12. Quality of groundwater and surface water, Wood River Valley, south-central Idaho, July and August 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Candice B.; Bartolino, James R.

    2013-01-01

    Residents and resource managers of the Wood River Valley of south-central Idaho are concerned about the effects that population growth might have on the quality of groundwater and surface water. As part of a multi-phase assessment of the groundwater resources in the study area, the U.S. Geological Survey evaluated the quality of water at 45 groundwater and 5 surface-water sites throughout the Wood River Valley during July and August 2012. Water samples were analyzed for field parameters (temperature, pH, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, and alkalinity), major ions, boron, iron, manganese, nutrients, and Escherichia coli (E.coli) and total coliform bacteria. This study was conducted to determine baseline water quality throughout the Wood River Valley, with special emphasis on nutrient concentrations. Water quality in most samples collected did not exceed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency standards for drinking water. E. coli bacteria, used as indicators of water quality, were detected in all five surface-water samples and in two groundwater samples collected. Some analytes have aesthetic-based recommended drinking water standards; one groundwater sample exceeded recommended iron concentrations. Nitrate plus nitrite concentrations varied, but tended to be higher near population centers and in agricultural areas than in tributaries and less populated areas. These higher nitrate plus nitrite concentrations were not correlated with boron concentrations or the presence of bacteria, common indicators of sources of nutrients to water. None of the samples collected exceeded drinking-water standards for nitrate or nitrite. The concentration of total dissolved solids varied considerably in the waters sampled; however a calcium-magnesium-bicarbonate water type was dominant (43 out of 50 samples) in both the groundwater and surface water. Three constituents that may be influenced by anthropogenic activity (chloride, boron, and nitrate plus nitrite) deviate from this

  13. An integrated model for assessing the risk of TCE groundwater contamination to human receptors and surface water ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKnight, Ursula S.; Funder, S.G.; Rasmussen, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    The practical implementation of the European Water Framework Directive has resulted in an increased focus on the hyporheic zone. In this paper, an integrated model was developed for evaluating the impact of point sources in groundwater on human health and surface water ecosystems. This was accomp...

  14. Fate and Transport of Nutrients in Groundwater and Surface Water in an Urban Slum Catchment Kampala, Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyenje, P.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the generation, transport and fate of sanitation-related nutrients in groundwater and surface water in an urban slum area in sub-Saharan Africa. In excess, nutrients can cause eutrophication of downstream water bodies. The study argues that nitrogen-containing rains and

  15. Drivers and Effects of Groundwater-Surface Water Interaction in the Karstic Lower Flint River Basin, Southwestern Georgia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugel, K.; Golladay, S. W.; Jackson, C. R.; Rasmussen, T. C.; Dowd, J. F.; Mcdowell, R. J.

    2017-12-01

    Groundwater provides the majority of global water resources for domestic and agricultural usage while contributing vital surface water baseflows which support healthy aquatic ecosystems. Understanding the extent and magnitude of hydrologic connectivity between groundwater and surface water components in karst watersheds is essential to the prudent management of these hydraulically-interactive systems. We examined groundwater and surface water connectivity between the Upper Floridan Aquifer (UFA) and streams in the Lower Flint River Basin (LFRB) in southwestern Georgia where development of agricultural irrigation intensified over the past 30 years. An analysis of USGS streamflow data for the pre- and post-irrigation period showed summer baseflows in some Lower Flint River tributaries were reduced by an order of magnitude in the post-irrigation period, reiterating the strong hydraulic connection between these streams and the underlying aquifer. Large and fine-scale monitoring of calcium, nitrate, specific conductance and stable isotopes (δ18O and δD) on 50 km of Ichawaynochaway Creek, a major tributary of the Lower Flint, detected discrete groundwater-surface water flow paths which accounted for 42% of total groundwater contributions in the 50 km study reach. This presentation will highlight a new analysis using the metadata EPA Reach File (1) and comparing stream reach and instream bedrock joint azimuths with stream geochemical results from previous field study. Our findings suggested that reaches with NNW bearing may be more likely to display enhanced groundwater-surface water connectivity. Our results show that local heterogeneity can significantly affect water budgets and quality within these watersheds, making the use of geomorphological stream attributes a valuable tool to water resource management for the prediction and protection of vulnerable regions of hydrologic connectivity in karst catchments.

  16. Arsenic transport in groundwater, surface water, and the hyporheic zone of a mine-influenced stream-aquifer system

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Brendan

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the transport of dissolved arsenic in groundwater, surface water and the hyporheic zone in a stream-aquifer system influenced by an abandoned arsenopyrite mine. Mine tailing piles consisting of a host of arsenic-bearing minerals including arsenopyrite and scorodite remain adjacent to the stream and represent a continuous source of arsenic. Arsenic loads from the stream, springs, and groundwater were quantified at the study reach on nine dates from January to August 2005 and ...

  17. Hydrogeologic framework and groundwater/surface-water interactions of the upper Yakima River Basin, Kittitas County, central Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendaszek, Andrew S.; Ely, D. Matthew; Hinkle, Stephen R.; Kahle, Sue C.; Welch, Wendy B.

    2014-01-01

    The hydrogeology, hydrology, and geochemistry of groundwater and surface water in the upper (western) 860 square miles of the Yakima River Basin in Kittitas County, Washington, were studied to evaluate the groundwater-flow system, occurrence and availability of groundwater, and the extent of groundwater/surface-water interactions. The study area ranged in altitude from 7,960 feet in its headwaters in the Cascade Range to 1,730 feet at the confluence of the Yakima River with Swauk Creek. A west-to-east precipitation gradient exists in the basin with the western, high-altitude headwaters of the basin receiving more than 100 inches of precipitation per year and the eastern, low-altitude part of the basin receiving about 20 inches of precipitation per year. From the early 20th century onward, reservoirs in the upper part of the basin (for example, Keechelus, Kachess, and Cle Elum Lakes) have been managed to store snowmelt for irrigation in the greater Yakima River Basin. Canals transport water from these reservoirs for irrigation in the study area; additional water use is met through groundwater withdrawals from wells and surface-water withdrawals from streams and rivers. Estimated groundwater use for domestic, commercial, and irrigation purposes is reported for the study area. A complex assemblage of sedimentary, metamorphic, and igneous bedrock underlies the study area. In a structural basin in the southeastern part of the study area, the bedrock is overlain by unconsolidated sediments of glacial and alluvial origin. Rocks and sediments were grouped into six hydrogeologic units based on their lithologic and hydraulic characteristics. A map of their extent was developed from previous geologic mapping and lithostratigraphic information from drillers’ logs. Water flows through interstitial space in unconsolidated sediments, but largely flows through fractures and other sources of secondary porosity in bedrock. Generalized groundwater-flow directions within the

  18. Evaluating the effects of urbanization and land-use planning using ground-water and surface-water models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, R.J.; Steuer, J.J.

    2001-01-01

    Why are the effects of urbanization a concern? As the city of Middleton, Wisconsin, and its surroundings continue to develop, the Pheasant Branch watershed (fig.l) is expected to undergo urbanization. For the downstream city of Middleton, urbanization in the watershed can mean increased flood peaks, water volume and pollutant loads. More subtly, it may also reduce water that sustains the ground-water system (called "recharge") and adversely affect downstream ecosystems that depend on ground water such as the Pheasant Branch Springs (hereafter referred to as the Springs). The relation of stormwater runoff and reduced ground-water recharge is complex because the surface-water system is coupled to the underlying ground-water system. In many cases there is movement of water from one system to the other that varies seasonally or daily depending on changing conditions. Therefore, it is difficult to reliably determine the effects of urbanization on stream baseflow and spring flows without rigorous investigation. Moreover, mitigating adverse effects after development has occurred can be expensive and administratively difficult. Overlying these concerns are issues such as stewardship of the resource, the rights of the public, and land owners' rights both of those developing their land and those whose land is affected by this development. With the often- contradictory goals, a scientific basis for assessing effects of urbanization and effectiveness of mitigation measures helps ensure fair and constructive decision-making. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Middleton and Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, completed a study that helps address these issues through modeling of the hydrologic system. This Fact Sheet discusses the results of this work.

  19. Groundwater-surface water relations in the Fox River watershed: insights from exploratory studies in Illinois and Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Patrick C.

    2014-01-01

    Exploratory studies were conducted at sites bordering the Fox River in Waukesha, Wisconsin, during 2010 and McHenry, Illinois, during 2011–13. The objectives of the studies were to assess strategies for the study of and insights into the potential for directly connected groundwater and surface-water systems with natural groundwater discharge to streams diverted and (or) streamflow induced (captured) by nearby production-well withdrawals. Several collection efforts of about 2 weeks or less provided information and data on site geology, groundwater and surface-water levels, hydraulic gradients, water-temperature and stream-seepage patterns, and water chemistry including stables isotopes. Overview information is presented for the Waukesha study, and selected data and preliminary findings are presented for the McHenry study.

  20. Using radon-222 to study coastal groundwater/surface-water interaction in the Crau coastal aquifer (southeastern France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Adriano; Nguyen, Bach Thao; Banton, Olivier

    2016-11-01

    Radon has been used to determine groundwater velocity and groundwater discharge into wetlands at the southern downstream boundary of the Crau aquifer, southeastern France. This aquifer constitutes an important high-quality freshwater resource exploited for agriculture, industry and human consumption. An increase in salinity occurs close to the sea, highlighting the need to investigate the water balance and groundwater behavior. Darcy velocity was estimated using radon activities in well waters according to the Hamada "single-well method" (involving comparison with radon in groundwater in the aquifer itself). Measurements done at three depths (7, 15 and 21 m) provided velocity ranging from a few mm/day to more than 20 cm/day, with highest velocities observed at the 15-m depth. Resulting hydraulic conductivities agree with the known geology. Waters showing high radon activity and high salinity were found near the presumed shoreline at 3,000 years BP, highlighting the presence of ancient saltwater. Radon activity has also been measured in canals, rivers and ponds, to trace groundwater discharges and evaluate water balance. A model of the radon spatial evolution explains the observed radon activities. Groundwater discharge to surface water is low in pond waters (4 % of total inputs) but significant in canals (55 l/m2/day).

  1. Geochemical and isotopic determination of deep groundwater contributions and salinity to the shallow groundwater and surface water systems, Mesilla Basin, New Mexico, Texas, and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, A.; Carroll, K. C.; Kubicki, C.; Purtshert, R.

    2017-12-01

    The Mesilla Basin/Conejos-Médanos aquifer system, extending from southern New Mexico to Chihuahua, Mexico, is a priority transboundary aquifer under the 2006 United States­-Mexico Transboundary Aquifer Assessment Act. Declining water levels, deteriorating water quality, and increasing groundwater use by municipal, industrial, and agricultural users on both sides of the international border raise concerns about long-term aquifer sustainability. Relative contributions of present-day and "paleo" recharge to sustainable fresh groundwater yields has not been determined and evidence suggests that a large source of salinity at the distal end of the Mesilla Basin is saline discharge from deep groundwater flow. The magnitude and distribution of those deep saline flow paths are not determined. The contribution of deep groundwater to discharge and salinity in the shallow groundwater and surface water of the Mesilla Basin will be determined by collecting discrete groundwater samples and analyzing for aqueous geochemical and isotopic tracers, as well as the radioisotopes of argon and krypton. Analytes include major ions, trace elements, the stable isotopes of water, strontium and boron isotopes, uranium isotopes, the carbon isotopes of dissolved inorganic carbon, noble gas concentrations and helium isotope ratios. Dissolved gases are extracted and captured from groundwater wells using membrane contactors in a process known as ultra-trace sampling. Gas samples are analyzed for radioisotope ratios of krypton by the ATTA method and argon by low-level counting. Effectiveness of the ultra-trace sampling device and method was evaluated by comparing results of tritium concentrations to the krypton-85 content. Good agreement between the analyses, especially in samples with undetectable tritium, indicates that the ultra-trace procedure is effective and confirms that introduction of atmospheric air has not occurred. The geochemistry data indicate a complex system of geochemical

  2. An integrated model for assessing the risk of TCE groundwater contamination to human receptors and surface water ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKnight, Ursula S.; Funder, S.G.; Rasmussen, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    The practical implementation of the European Water Framework Directive has resulted in an increased focus on the hyporheic zone. In this paper, an integrated model was developed for evaluating the impact of point sources in groundwater on human health and surface water ecosystems....... This was accomplished by coupling the system dynamics-based decision support system CARO-PLUS to the aquatic ecosystem model AQUATOX using an analytical volatilization model for the stream. The model was applied to a case study where a TCE contaminated groundwater plume is discharging to a stream. The TCE source...... will not be depleted for many decades, however measured and predicted TCE concentrations in surface water were found to be below human health risk management targets. Volatilization rapidly attenuates TCE concentrations in surface water. Thus, only a 300 m stream reach fails to meet surface water quality criteria...

  3. Investigating the spatio-temporal variability in groundwater and surface water interactions: a multi-technical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unland, N. P.; Cartwright, I.; Andersen, M. S.; Rau, G. C.; Reed, J.; Gilfedder, B. S.; Atkinson, A. P.; Hofmann, H.

    2013-03-01

    The interaction between groundwater and surface water along the Tambo and Nicholson Rivers, southeast Australia, was investigated using 222Rn, Cl, differential flow gauging, head gradients, electrical conductivity (EC) and temperature profiling. Head gradients, temperature profiles, Cl concentrations and 222Rn activities all indicate higher groundwater fluxes to the Tambo River in areas of increased topographic variation where the potential to form large groundwater-surface water gradients is greater. Groundwater discharge to the Tambo River calculated by Cl mass balance was significantly lower (1.48 × 104 to 1.41 × 103 m3 day-1) than discharge estimated by 222Rn mass balance (5.35 × 105 to 9.56 × 103 m3 day-1) and differential flow gauging (5.41 × 105 to 6.30 × 103 m3 day-1). While groundwater sampling from the bank of the Tambo River was intended to account for the variability in groundwater chemistry associated with river-bank interaction, the spatial variability under which these interactions occurs remained unaccounted for, limiting the use of Cl as an effective tracer. Groundwater discharge to both the Tambo and Nicholson Rivers was the highest under high flow conditions in the days to weeks following significant rainfall, indicating that the rivers are well connected to a groundwater system that is responsive to rainfall. Groundwater constituted the lowest proportion of river discharge during times of increased rainfall that followed dry periods, while groundwater constituted the highest proportion of river discharge under baseflow conditions (21.4% of the Tambo in April 2010 and 18.9% of the Nicholson in September 2010).

  4. Fecal pollution source tracking toolbox for identification, evaluation and characterization of fecal contamination in receiving urban surface waters and groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Ngoc Han; Gin, Karina Yew-Hoong; Ngo, Huu Hao

    2015-12-15

    The quality of surface waters/groundwater of a geographical region can be affected by anthropogenic activities, land use patterns and fecal pollution sources from humans and animals. Therefore, the development of an efficient fecal pollution source tracking toolbox for identifying the origin of the fecal pollution sources in surface waters/groundwater is especially helpful for improving management efforts and remediation actions of water resources in a more cost-effective and efficient manner. This review summarizes the updated knowledge on the use of fecal pollution source tracking markers for detecting, evaluating and characterizing fecal pollution sources in receiving surface waters and groundwater. The suitability of using chemical markers (i.e. fecal sterols, fluorescent whitening agents, pharmaceuticals and personal care products, and artificial sweeteners) and/or microbial markers (e.g. F+RNA coliphages, enteric viruses, and host-specific anaerobic bacterial 16S rDNA genetic markers) for tracking fecal pollution sources in receiving water bodies is discussed. In addition, this review also provides a comprehensive approach, which is based on the detection ratios (DR), detection frequencies (DF), and fate of potential microbial and chemical markers. DR and DF are considered as the key criteria for selecting appropriate markers for identifying and evaluating the impacts of fecal contamination in surface waters/groundwater. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. An isotope-aided study on the interaction between surface water and groundwater in the KAERI area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Jong Sung; Kim, Jong Hoon; Yun, Si Tae; Jeong, Chan Ho; Kim, Kae Nam

    1988-01-01

    The basement rocks of the KAERI area are compose421d of two mica granite and schistose granite. The groundwater in these fresh crystalline rocks appears to be restricted within the zones developing the fractures. The groundwater in this area occurs mainly in the weathered zones of granitic rocks, with a thickness of 5-20 m. On the results of environmental isotopes analyses, it was proved that surface water and precipitation infiltrated rapidly through the subsurface media into the weathered zone. The high environmental isotopes level found in some groundwater samples are ascribed to the impermeable layer such as clay and silt around the sampling points. Consequently, the groundwater flow in this area is controlled by the heterogeneity of weathered materials. The water types classified by the piper diagram are attributed to the Ca-Cl and Ca-HCO 3 types

  6. Acid-base status of soils in groundwater discharge zones — relation to surface water acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrström, Ann Catrine

    1995-08-01

    Critical load calculations have suggested that groundwater at depth of 2 m in Sweden is very sensitive to acid load. As environmental isotope studies have shown that most of the runoff in streams has passed through the soil, there is a risk in the near future of accelerated acidification of surface waters. To assess the importance of the last soil horizon of contact before discharge, the upper 0-0.2m of soils in seven discharge zones were analysed for pools of base cations, acidity and base saturation. The sites were about 3-4 m 2 in size and selected from two catchments exposed to different levels of acid deposition. The soils in the seven sites had high concentrations of exchangeable base cations and consequently high base saturation. The high correlation ( r2 = 0.74) between base saturation in the soils of the discharge zones and mean pH of the runoff waters suggested that the discharge zone is important for surface water acidification. The high pool of exchangeable base cations will buffer initially against the acid load. As the cation exchange capacity (meq dm -3) and base saturation were lower in the sites from the catchment receiving lower deposition, these streams may be more vulnerable to acidification in the near future. The high concentration of base cations in non-exchangeable fractions may also buffer against acidification as it is likely that some of these pools will become exchangeable with time.

  7. Fate of Uranium During Transport Across the Groundwater-Surface Water Interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaffe, Peter R. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Kaplan, Daniel I. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-06-30

    Discharge of contaminated groundwater to surface waters is of concern at many DOE facilities. For example, at F-Area and TNX-Area on the Savannah River Site, contaminated groundwater, including uranium, is already discharging into natural wetlands. It is at this interface where contaminants come into contact with the biosphere. These this research addressed a critical knowledge gap focusing on the geochemistry of uranium (or for that matter, any redox-active contaminant) in wetland systems. Understanding the interactions between hydrological, microbial, and chemical processes will make it possible to provide a more accurate conceptual and quantitative understanding of radionuclide fate and transport under these unique conditions. Understanding these processes will permit better long-term management and the necessary technical justification for invoking Monitored Natural Attenuation of contaminated wetland areas. Specifically, this research did provide new insights on how plant-induced alterations to the sediment biogeochemical processes affect the key uranium reducing microorganisms, the uranium reduction, its spatial distribution, the speciation of the immobilized uranium, and its long-term stability. This was achieved by conducting laboratory mesocosm wetland experiments as well as field measurements at the SRNL. Results have shown that uranium can be immobilized in wetland systems. To a degree some of the soluble U(VI) was reduced to insoluble U(IV), but the majority of the immobilized U was incorporated into iron oxyhydroxides that precipitated onto the root surfaces of wetland plants. This U was immobilized mostly as U(VI). Because it was immobilized in its oxidized form, results showed that dry spells, resulting in the lowering of the water table and the exposure of the U to oxic conditions, did not result in U remobilization.

  8. Groundwater suppression and surface water diversion structures applied to closed shallow land burial trenches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, E.C.; Stansfield, R.G.; Melroy, L.A.; Huff, D.D.

    1984-01-01

    Shallow depth to groundwater, surface drainage, and subsurface flow during storm events are major environmental concerns of low-level radioactive waste management operations in humid regions. At two waste disposal sites within the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), groups of closed trenches have experienced these problems and have been shown to collect and hold water with seasonal fluctuations ranging from 1 to 2 m. In an attempt to correct these water-related problems, the older of the two sites [Solid Waste Storage Area Four (SWSA 4)] was equipped in September 1975 with asphalt lined drainage-ways designed to prevent infiltration of storm drainage from a 13.8-ha upslope catchment. At the second site (49-Trench area of SWSA 6), the entire 0.44-ha trench area was capped with a bentonite clay cover in 1976. These attempts have not corrected the water problems. In September 1983, engineered drainage projects were initiated at both the disposal sites. The SWSA 4 project was designed to divert surface runoff and shallow subsurface flow which originates upslope of the site away from the disposal area. The second project, a passive French drain constructed in SWSA 6, was aimed strictly at suppressing the site water table, thus preventing its intersection with the bottoms of disposal trenches. Postconstruction monitoring for performance evaluation has shown that the water table in the 49-Trench area has been suppressed to a depth > 4.9 m below the ground surface over 50% of the site as compared to a depth of only 2.1 m for certain parts of the same area observed during seasonally wet months prior to drain construction. The SWSA 4 project evaluation indicates that 56% of the Winter-Spring 1984 runoff was diverted around SWSA 4 via the drainage system

  9. ArcNLET: A GIS-based software to simulate groundwater nitrate load from septic systems to surface water bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, J. Fernando; Ye, Ming; Wang, Liying; Lee, Paul Z.; Davis, Hal; Hicks, Rick

    2013-03-01

    Onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTS), or septic systems, can be a significant source of nitrates in groundwater and surface water. The adverse effects that nitrates have on human and environmental health have given rise to the need to estimate the actual or potential level of nitrate contamination. With the goal of reducing data collection and preparation costs, and decreasing the time required to produce an estimate compared to complex nitrate modeling tools, we developed the ArcGIS-based Nitrate Load Estimation Toolkit (ArcNLET) software. Leveraging the power of geographic information systems (GIS), ArcNLET is an easy-to-use software capable of simulating nitrate transport in groundwater and estimating long-term nitrate loads from groundwater to surface water bodies. Data requirements are reduced by using simplified models of groundwater flow and nitrate transport which consider nitrate attenuation mechanisms (subsurface dispersion and denitrification) as well as spatial variability in the hydraulic parameters and septic tank distribution. ArcNLET provides a spatial distribution of nitrate plumes from multiple septic systems and a load estimate to water bodies. ArcNLET's conceptual model is divided into three sub-models: a groundwater flow model, a nitrate transport and fate model, and a load estimation model which are implemented as an extension to ArcGIS. The groundwater flow model uses a map of topography in order to generate a steady-state approximation of the water table. In a validation study, this approximation was found to correlate well with a water table produced by a calibrated numerical model although it was found that the degree to which the water table resembles the topography can vary greatly across the modeling domain. The transport model uses a semi-analytical solution to estimate the distribution of nitrate within groundwater, which is then used to estimate a nitrate load using a mass balance argument. The estimates given by ArcNLET are

  10. Water use and groundwater contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elton, J.J.; Livingstone, B.

    1998-01-01

    A general review of the groundwater resources in Saskatchewan and their vulnerability to contamination was provided. In particular, the use of water and the effects on water by the oil and gas industry in Saskatchewan were discussed. It was suggested that public concerns over scarcity and contamination of water are gradually changing perceptions about Canada's abundance of water. Saskatchewan's surface water covers 12 per cent of the province. About 90 per cent of the rural populations and 80 per cent of municipalities depend on groundwater supplies. Regulations affecting oil and gas operations that could affect water resources have become more stringent. Techniques used in the detection and monitoring of groundwater affected by salt and petroleum hydrocarbons were described. Electromagnetic surveys are used in detecting salt-affected soils and groundwater. Laboratory analysis of chloride concentrations are needed to define actual chloride concentrations in groundwater. Wells and barriers can be installed to control and recover chloride plumes. Deep well injection and reverse osmosis are other methods, but there is no cheap or simple treatment or disposal method for salt-impacted groundwater. Spills or leaks of petroleum hydrocarbons from various sources can also lead to contamination of groundwater. Various assessment and remediation methods are described. Although there is no scarcity of techniques, all of them are difficult, costly, and may take several years to complete. 11 refs., 1 tab

  11. Effects of road salts on groundwater and surface water dynamics of socium and chloride in an urban restored stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Road salts are a growing environmental concern in urban watersheds. We examined groundwater (GW) and surface water (SW) dynamics of Na+ and Cl− in Minebank Run (MBR), an urban stream in Maryland, USA. We observed an increasing salinity trend in this restored stream. Current basef...

  12. Groundwater and surface water dynamics of Na and Cl in an urban stream: effects of road salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbstractRoad salts are a growing environmental and health concern in urban watersheds. We examined groundwater (GW) and surface water (SW) dynamics of Na and Cl in an urban stream, Minebank Run (MBR), MD. We observed an increasing salinity trend in this restored stream. Current b...

  13. Surface water / groundwater interactions and their spatial variability, an example from the Avon River, South-East Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Harald; Cartwright, Ian; Gilfedder, Benjamin

    2013-04-01

    Understanding the interaction between river water and regional groundwater has significant importance for water management and resource allocation. The dynamics of groundwater/surface water interactions also have implications for ecosystems, pollutant transport, and the quality and quantity of water supply for domestic, agriculture and recreational purposes. After general assumptions and for management purposes rivers are classified in loosing or gaining rivers. However, many streams alternate between gaining and loosing conditions on a range of temporal and spatial scales due to factors including: 1) river water levels in relation to groundwater head; 2) the relative response of the groundwater and river system to rainfall; 3) heterogeneities in alluvial sediments that can lead to alternation of areas of exfiltration and infiltration along a river stretch; and 4) differences in near river reservoirs, such parafluvial flow and bank storage. Spatial variability of groundwater discharge to rivers is rarely accounted for as it is assumed that groundwater discharge is constant over river stretches and only changes with the seasonal river water levels. Riverbank storage and parafluvial flow are generally not taken in consideration. Bank storage has short-term cycles and can contribute significantly to the total discharge, especially after flood events. In this study we used hydrogeochemistry to constrain spatial and temporal differences in gaining and loosing conditions in rivers and investigate potential sources. Environmental tracers, such as major ion chemistry, stables isotopes and Radon are useful tools to characterise these sources. Surface water and ground water samples were taken in the Avon River in the Gippsland Basin, Southwest Australia. Increasing TDS along the flow path from 70 to 250 mg/l, show that the Avon is a net gaining stream. The radon concentration along the river is variable and does not show a general increase downstream, but isolated peaks in

  14. Studying temporal and spatial variations of groundwater-surface water exchange flux for the Slootbeek (Belgium) using the LPML method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anibas, Christian; Schneideweind, Uwe; Vandersteen, Gerd; Huysmans, Marijke; Batelaan, Okke

    2015-04-01

    Knowledge of groundwater-surface water interaction is important for the assessment of water resources and for the investigation of fate and transport of contaminants and nutrients. In streams and rivers exchange fluxes of water are sensitive to local and regional factors such as riverbed hydraulic conductivity and hydraulic gradients. Field monitoring in time and space is therefore indispensible for assessing the variability of groundwater-surface water interaction. Not only the complexity of the examined processes demand novel data processing and characterization tools, the amount of acquired data also urges for new modeling tools. These tools should be easily applicable, allow for a fast computation, and utilize the maximum amount of available data for detailed analysis, including uncertainties. Such analytical tools should be combined with modern field equipment, data processing tools, geographical information systems and geostatistics for best results. A simple and cost effective methodology to estimate groundwater-surface water interaction is the use of temperature as an environmental tracer (ANDERSON, 2005). LPML (VANDERSTEEN et al., 2014) is one of the most advanced analytical 1D coupled water flow and heat transport models, combining a local polynomial method with a maximum likelihood estimator. It is flexible, fast and able to create time series of exchange fluxes, as well as model quality and parameter uncertainty. LPML determines frequency response functions from measured temperature time series and an analytical model, and applies a non-linear optimization technique. With this tool the variability of groundwater-surface water interaction of the Belgian stream Slootbeek was assessed. Multilevel temperature sensors were placed in seven locations to obtain temperature-time series. Located at the streambed top and at six depths below, several months worth of data was collected and analyzed. Results identified a high spatial and temporal variability of

  15. Hydrology of prairie wetlands: Understanding the integrated surface-water and groundwater processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Masaki; van der Kamp, Garth; Rosenberry, Donald O.

    2016-01-01

    Wetland managers and policy makers need to make decisions based on a sound scientific understanding of hydrological and ecological functions of wetlands. This article presents an overview of the hydrology of prairie wetlands intended for managers, policy makers, and researchers new to this field (e.g., graduate students), and a quantitative conceptual framework for understanding the hydrological functions of prairie wetlands and their responses to changes in climate and land use. The existence of prairie wetlands in the semi-arid environment of the Prairie-Pothole Region (PPR) depends on the lateral inputs of runoff water from their catchments because mean annual potential evaporation exceeds precipitation in the PPR. Therefore, it is critically important to consider wetlands and catchments as highly integrated hydrological units. The water balance of individual wetlands is strongly influenced by runoff from the catchment and the exchange of groundwater between the central pond and its moist margin. Land-use practices in the catchment have a sensitive effect on runoff and hence the water balance. Surface and subsurface storage and connectivity among individual wetlands controls the diversity of pond permanence within a wetland complex, resulting in a variety of eco-hydrological functionalities necessary for maintaining the integrity of prairie-wetland ecosystems.

  16. Large-Scale Groundwater Flow with Free Water Surface Based on Data from SKB's Site Investigation in the Forsmark Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woerman, Anders; Sjoegren, Bjoern; Marklund, Lars

    2004-12-01

    This report describes a data-base that covers entire Sweden with regard to various geographical parameters with implications to simulation of groundwater circulation on a regional and continental scale. The data-base include topography, stream network properties, and-use and water chemistry for limited areas. Furthermore, the report describes a computational (finite difference) code that solves the continuum equation for laminar, stationary and isotropic groundwater flow. The formulation accounts for a free groundwater surface except where the groundwater recharge into the stream network and lake bottoms. The theoretical background of the model is provided and the codes are described. The report also contain a simple user manual in a Matlab environment and provides and example calculation for the Forsmark area, Uppland, Sweden.

  17. Tritium as a tracer for the movement of surface water and groundwater in the Glatt Valley, Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santschi, P.H.; Hoehn, E.; Lueck, A.; Farrenkothen, K.

    1987-01-01

    A pulse of tritiated water (∼ 500 Ci) accidentally discharged by an isotope processing plant in the Glatt River Valley, northern Switzerland, allowed us to observe the migration of a contaminant pulse through a sewage treatment plant, rivers, and various wells of infiltrated groundwater. The accident pointed to various memory effects of the tritium, which acted as a conservative tracer. Tritium concentrations in surface water and groundwater were used to test predictions for the transport of conservative anthropogenic trace contaminants accidentally discharged into the sewer system. Mass balance calculations indicate that about 2-10% of the tritium pulse infiltrated to the groundwater and about 0.5% of the total reached eight major drinking water wells of this densely populated area. In spite of the complex hydrogeology of the lower Glatt River Valley, tritium breakthrough curves could be effectively simulated with modeling approaches developed from an experimental well field

  18. Complementary effects of surface water and groundwater on soil moisture dynamics in a degraded coastal floodplain forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, D.; Muñoz-Carpena, R.

    2011-02-01

    SummaryRestoration of degraded floodplain forests requires a robust understanding of surface water, groundwater, and vadose zone hydrology. Soil moisture is of particular importance for seed germination and seedling survival, but is difficult to monitor and often overlooked in wetland restoration studies. This research hypothesizes that the complex effects of surface water and shallow groundwater on the soil moisture dynamics of floodplain wetlands are spatially complementary. To test this hypothesis, 31 long-term (4-year) hydrological time series were collected in the floodplain of the Loxahatchee River (Florida, USA), where watershed modifications have led to reduced freshwater flow, altered hydroperiod and salinity, and a degraded ecosystem. Dynamic factor analysis (DFA), a time series dimension reduction technique, was applied to model temporal and spatial variation in 12 soil moisture time series as linear combinations of common trends (representing shared, but unexplained, variability) and explanatory variables (selected from 19 additional candidate hydrological time series). The resulting dynamic factor models yielded good predictions of observed soil moisture series (overall coefficient of efficiency = 0.90) by identifying surface water elevation, groundwater elevation, and net recharge (cumulative rainfall-cumulative evapotranspiration) as important explanatory variables. Strong and complementary linear relationships were found between floodplain elevation and surface water effects (slope = 0.72, R2 = 0.86, p < 0.001), and between elevation and groundwater effects (slope = -0.71, R2 = 0.71, p = 0.001), while the effect of net recharge was homogenous across the experimental transect (slope = 0.03, R2 = 0.05, p = 0.242). This study provides a quantitative insight into the spatial structure of groundwater and surface water effects on soil moisture that will be useful for refining monitoring plans and developing ecosystem restoration and management scenarios

  19. Questa baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality investigation. 5. Well installation, water-level data, and surface- and ground-water geochemistry in the Straight Creek drainage basin, Red River Valley, New Mexico, 2001-03

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naus, Cheryl A.; McCleskey, R. Blaine; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Donohoe, Lisa C.; Hunt, Andrew G.; Paillet, Frederick L.; Morin, Roger H.; Verplanck, Philip L.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the New Mexico Environment Department, is investigating the pre-mining ground-water chemistry at the Molycorp molybdenum mine in the Red River Valley, northern New Mexico. The primary approach is to determine the processes controlling ground-water chemistry at an unmined, off-site, proximal analog. The Straight Creek drainage basin, chosen for this purpose, consists of the same quartz-sericite-pyrite altered andesitic and rhyolitic volcanic rock of Tertiary age as the mine site. The weathered and rugged volcanic bedrock surface is overlain by heterogeneous debris-flow deposits that interfinger with alluvial deposits near the confluence of Straight Creek and the Red River. Pyritized rock in the upper part of the drainage basin is the source of acid rock drainage (pH 2.8-3.3) that infiltrates debris-flow deposits containing acidic ground water (pH 3.0-4.0) and bedrock containing water of circumneutral pH values (5.6-7.7). Eleven observation wells were installed in the Straight Creek drainage basin. The wells were completed in debris-flow deposits, bedrock, and interfingering debris-flow and Red River alluvial deposits. Chemical analyses of ground water from these wells, combined with chemical analyses of surface water, water-level data, and lithologic and geophysical logs, provided information used to develop an understanding of the processes contributing to the chemistry of ground water in the Straight Creek drainage basin. Surface- and ground-water samples were routinely collected for determination of total major cations and selected trace metals; dissolved major cations, selected trace metals, and rare-earth elements; anions and alkalinity; and dissolved-iron species. Rare-earth elements were determined on selected samples only. Samples were collected for determination of dissolved organic carbon, mercury, sulfur isotopic composition (34S and 18O of sulfate), and water isotopic composition (2H and 18O) during

  20. Hydrology, Water Quality, and Surface- and Ground-Water Interactions in the Upper Hillsborough River Watershed, West-Central Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trommer, J.T.; Sacks, L.A.; Kuniansky, E.L.

    2007-01-01

    A study of the Hillsborough River watershed was conducted between October 1999 through September 2003 to characterize the hydrology, water quality, and interaction between the surface and ground water in the highly karstic uppermost part of the watershed. Information such as locations of ground-water recharge and discharge, depth of the flow system interacting with the stream, and water quality in the watershed can aid in prudent water-management decisions. The upper Hillsborough River watershed covers a 220-square-mile area upstream from Hillsborough River State Park where the watershed is relatively undeveloped. The watershed contains a second order magnitude spring, many karst features, poorly drained swamps, marshes, upland flatwoods, and ridge areas. The upper Hillsborough River watershed is subdivided into two major subbasins, namely, the upper Hillsborough River subbasin, and the Blackwater Creek subbasin. The Blackwater Creek subbasin includes the Itchepackesassa Creek subbasin, which in turn includes the East Canal subbasin. The upper Hillsborough River watershed is underlain by thick sequences of carbonate rock that are covered by thin surficial deposits of unconsolidated sand and sandy clay. The clay layer is breached in many places because of the karst nature of the underlying limestone, and the highly variable degree of confinement between the Upper Floridan and surficial aquifers throughout the watershed. Potentiometric-surface maps indicate good hydraulic connection between the Upper Floridan aquifer and the Hillsborough River, and a poorer connection with Blackwater and Itchepackesassa Creeks. Similar water level elevations and fluctuations in the Upper Floridan and surficial aquifers at paired wells also indicate good hydraulic connection. Calcium was the dominant ion in ground water from all wells sampled in the watershed. Nitrate concentrations were near or below the detection limit in all except two wells that may have been affected by

  1. Using diurnal temperature signals to infer vertical groundwater-surface water exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, Dylan J.; Briggs, Martin A.; Lautz, Laura K.; Gordon, Ryan P.; McKenzie, Jeffrey M.; Cartwright, Ian

    2017-01-01

    Heat is a powerful tracer to quantify fluid exchange between surface water and groundwater. Temperature time series can be used to estimate pore water fluid flux, and techniques can be employed to extend these estimates to produce detailed plan-view flux maps. Key advantages of heat tracing include cost-effective sensors and ease of data collection and interpretation, without the need for expensive and time-consuming laboratory analyses or induced tracers. While the collection of temperature data in saturated sediments is relatively straightforward, several factors influence the reliability of flux estimates that are based on time series analysis (diurnal signals) of recorded temperatures. Sensor resolution and deployment are particularly important in obtaining robust flux estimates in upwelling conditions. Also, processing temperature time series data involves a sequence of complex steps, including filtering temperature signals, selection of appropriate thermal parameters, and selection of the optimal analytical solution for modeling. This review provides a synthesis of heat tracing using diurnal temperature oscillations, including details on optimal sensor selection and deployment, data processing, model parameterization, and an overview of computing tools available. Recent advances in diurnal temperature methods also provide the opportunity to determine local saturated thermal diffusivity, which can improve the accuracy of fluid flux modeling and sensor spacing, which is related to streambed scour and deposition. These parameters can also be used to determine the reliability of flux estimates from the use of heat as a tracer.

  2. Gross alpha and gross beta determination in surface and groundwater water by liquid scintillation counting (LSC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, Ligia S.; Moreira, Rubens M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study has used 40 samples of groundwater and surface water collected at four different sites along the period of one year in Brumadinho and Nova Lima, two municipalities in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, as part of a more extensive study aiming at determination of the natural radioactivity in the water used for domestic use. These two sites are inside an Environmental Protection Area is located in a region of very intensive iron ore exploration. In addition of mineral resources, the region has a geological characteristic that includes quartzitic conglomerates associated with uranium. Radioactivity levels were determined via liquid scintillation counting (LSC), a fast and high counting efficiency method that can be advantageously employed to determine gross alpha and gross beta activity in liquid samples. Previously to gross alpha and gross beta counting the samples were acidified with concentrated HNO 3 in the field. The technique involved a pre-concentration of the sample to obtain a low detection limit. Specific details of the employed methodology are commented. The results showed that concentrations of gross alpha natural activity and gross beta values ranged from less than the detection limit of the equipment (0.03 Bq.L -1 ) to 0.275 ± 0.05 Bq.L -1 for gross alpha. As regards gross beta, all samples were below the limit of detection. (author)

  3. Groundwater, surface-water, and water-chemistry data, Black Mesa area, northeastern Arizona: 2011-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macy, Jamie P.; Unema, Joel A.

    2014-01-01

    The Navajo (N) aquifer is an extensive aquifer and the primary source of groundwater in the 5,400-square-mile Black Mesa area in northeastern Arizona. Availability of water is an important issue in northeastern Arizona because of continued water requirements for industrial and municipal use by a growing population and because of low precipitation in the arid climate of the Black Mesa area. Precipitation in the area typically is between 6 and 14 inches per year. The U.S. Geological Survey water-monitoring program in the Black Mesa area began in 1971 and provides information about the long-term effects of groundwater withdrawals from the N aquifer for industrial and municipal uses. This report presents results of data collected as part of the monitoring program in the Black Mesa area from January 2011 to September 2012. The monitoring program includes measurements of (1) groundwater withdrawals, (2) groundwater levels, (3) spring discharge, (4) surface-water discharge, and (5) groundwater chemistry. In 2011, total groundwater withdrawals were 4,480 acre-ft, industrial withdrawals were 1,390 acre-ft, and municipal withdrawals were 3,090 acre-ft. Total withdrawals during 2011 were about 39 percent less than total withdrawals in 2005 because of Peabody Western Coal Company’s discontinued use of water to transport coal in a slurry. From 2010 to 2011 total withdrawals increased by 11 percent; industrial withdrawals increased by approximately 19 percent, and total municipal withdrawals increased by 8 percent. From 2011 to 2012, annually measured water levels in the Black Mesa area declined in 8 of 15 wells that were available for comparison in the unconfined areas of the N aquifer, and the median change was -0.1 feet. Water levels declined in 9 of 18 wells measured in the confined area of the aquifer. The median change for the confined area of the aquifer was 0.0 feet. From the prestress period (prior to 1965) to 2012, the median water-level change for 34 wells in both

  4. Groundwater, surface-water, and water-chemistry data, Black Mesa area, northeastern Arizona—2012–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macy, Jamie P.; Truini, Margot

    2016-03-02

    The Navajo (N) aquifer is an extensive aquifer and the primary source of groundwater in the 5,400-square-mile Black Mesa area in northeastern Arizona. Availability of water is an important issue in northeastern Arizona because of continued water requirements for industrial and municipal use by a growing population and because of low precipitation in the arid climate of the Black Mesa area. Precipitation in the area typically is between 6 and 14 inches per year.The U.S. Geological Survey water-monitoring program in the Black Mesa area began in 1971 and provides information about the long-term effects of groundwater withdrawals from the N aquifer for industrial and municipal uses. This report presents results of data collected as part of the monitoring program in the Black Mesa area from January 2012 to September 2013. The monitoring program includes measurements of (1) groundwater withdrawals, (2) groundwater levels, (3) spring discharge, (4) surface-water discharge, and (5) groundwater chemistry.In calendar year 2012, total groundwater withdrawals were 4,010 acre-ft, industrial withdrawals were 1,370 acre-ft, and municipal withdrawals were 2,640 acre-ft. Total withdrawals during 2012 were about 45 percent less than total withdrawals in 2005 because of Peabody Western Coal Company’s discontinued use of water to transport coal in a coal slurry pipeline. From 2011 to 2012 total withdrawals decreased by 10 percent; industrial withdrawals decreased by approximately 1 percent, and total municipal withdrawals decreased by 15 percent.From 2012 to 2013, annually measured water levels in the Black Mesa area declined in 6 of 16 wells that were available for comparison in the unconfined areas of the N aquifer, and the median change was 0.8 feet. Water levels declined in 5 of 16 wells measured in the confined area of the aquifer. The median change for the confined area of the aquifer was 0.3 feet. From the prestress period (prior to 1965) to 2013, the median water

  5. Groundwater and surface-water interaction, water quality, and processes affecting loads of dissolved solids, selenium, and uranium in Fountain Creek near Pueblo, Colorado, 2012–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, L. Rick; Ortiz, Roderick F.; Brown, Christopher R.; Watts, Kenneth R.

    2016-11-28

    In 2012, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Arkansas River Basin Regional Resource Planning Group, initiated a study of groundwater and surface-water interaction, water quality, and loading of dissolved solids, selenium, and uranium to Fountain Creek near Pueblo, Colorado, to improve understanding of sources and processes affecting loading of these constituents to streams in the Arkansas River Basin. Fourteen monitoring wells were installed in a series of three transects across Fountain Creek near Pueblo, and temporary streamgages were established at each transect to facilitate data collection for the study. Groundwater and surface-water interaction was characterized by using hydrogeologic mapping, groundwater and stream-surface levels, groundwater and stream temperatures, vertical hydraulic-head gradients and ratios of oxygen and hydrogen isotopes in the hyporheic zone, and streamflow mass-balance measurements. Water quality was characterized by collecting periodic samples from groundwater, surface water, and the hyporheic zone for analysis of dissolved solids, selenium, uranium, and other selected constituents and by evaluating the oxidation-reduction condition for each groundwater sample under different hydrologic conditions throughout the study period. Groundwater loads to Fountain Creek and in-stream loads were computed for the study area, and processes affecting loads of dissolved solids, selenium, and uranium were evaluated on the basis of geology, geochemical conditions, land and water use, and evapoconcentration.During the study period, the groundwater-flow system generally contributed flow to Fountain Creek and its hyporheic zone (as a single system) except for the reach between the north and middle transects. However, the direction of flow between the stream, the hyporheic zone, and the near-stream aquifer was variable in response to streamflow and stage. During periods of low streamflow, Fountain Creek generally gained flow from

  6. ARSENIC TRANSPORT ACROSS THE GROUNDWATERSURFACE WATER INTERFACE AT A SITE IN CENTRAL MASSACHUSETTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plow Shop Pond, located in central Massachusetts within the New England ‘arsenic belt,’ receives water from a series of interconnected upstream ponds as well as from upward-discharging groundwater. A small, shallow embayment on the southwest side of the pond is known as Red Cove...

  7. Understanding surface-water availability in the Central Valley as a means to projecting future groundwater storage with climate variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, J. P.; Cayan, D. R.

    2017-12-01

    California's Central Valley (CV) relies heavily on diverted surface water and groundwater pumping to supply irrigated agriculture. However, understanding the spatiotemporal character of water availability in the CV is difficult because of the number of individual farms and local, state, and federal agencies involved in using and managing water. Here we use the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM), developed by the USGS, to understand the relationships between climatic variability, surface water inputs, and resulting groundwater use over the historical period 1970-2013. We analyzed monthly surface water diversion data from >500 CV locations. Principle components analyses were applied to drivers constructed from meteorological data, surface reservoir storage, ET, land use cover, and upstream inflows, to feed multiple regressions and identify factors most important in predicting surface water diversions. Two thirds of the diversion locations ( 80% of total diverted water) can be predicted to within 15%. Along with monthly inputs, representations of cumulative precipitation over the previous 3 to 36 months can explain an additional 10% of variance, depending on location, compared to results that excluded this information. Diversions in the southern CV are highly sensitive to inter-annual variability in precipitation (R2 = 0.8), whereby more surface water is used during wet years. Until recently, this was not the case in the northern and mid-CV, where diversions were relatively constant annually, suggesting relative insensitivity to drought. In contrast, this has important implications for drought response in southern regions (eg. Tulare Basin) where extended dry conditions can severely limit surface water supplies and lead to excess groundwater pumping, storage loss, and subsidence. In addition to fueling our understanding of spatiotemporal variability in diversions, our ability to predict these water balance components allows us to update CVHM predictions before

  8. Uncertainty quantification of surface-water/groundwater exchange estimates in large wetland systems using Python

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J. D.; Metz, P. A.

    2014-12-01

    Most watershed studies include observation-based water budget analyses to develop first-order estimates of significant flow terms. Surface-water/groundwater (SWGW) exchange is typically assumed to be equal to the residual of the sum of inflows and outflows in a watershed. These estimates of SWGW exchange, however, are highly uncertain as a result of the propagation of uncertainty inherent in the calculation or processing of the other terms of the water budget, such as stage-area-volume relations, and uncertainties associated with land-cover based evapotranspiration (ET) rate estimates. Furthermore, the uncertainty of estimated SWGW exchanges can be magnified in large wetland systems that transition from dry to wet during wet periods. Although it is well understood that observation-based estimates of SWGW exchange are uncertain it is uncommon for the uncertainty of these estimates to be directly quantified. High-level programming languages like Python can greatly reduce the effort required to (1) quantify the uncertainty of estimated SWGW exchange in large wetland systems and (2) evaluate how different approaches for partitioning land-cover data in a watershed may affect the water-budget uncertainty. We have used Python with the Numpy, Scipy.stats, and pyDOE packages to implement an unconstrained Monte Carlo approach with Latin Hypercube sampling to quantify the uncertainty of monthly estimates of SWGW exchange in the Floral City watershed of the Tsala Apopka wetland system in west-central Florida, USA. Possible sources of uncertainty in the water budget analysis include rainfall, ET, canal discharge, and land/bathymetric surface elevations. Each of these input variables was assigned a probability distribution based on observation error or spanning the range of probable values. The Monte Carlo integration process exposes the uncertainties in land-cover based ET rate estimates as the dominant contributor to the uncertainty in SWGW exchange estimates. We will discuss

  9. Groundwater-surface water interactions across scales in a boreal landscape investigated using a numerical modelling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutebring Sterte, Elin; Johansson, Emma; Sjöberg, Ylva; Huseby Karlsen, Reinert; Laudon, Hjalmar

    2018-05-01

    Groundwater and surface-water interactions are regulated by catchment characteristics and complex inter- and intra-annual variations in climatic conditions that are not yet fully understood. Our objective was to investigate the influence of catchment characteristics and freeze-thaw processes on surface and groundwater interactions in a boreal landscape, the Krycklan catchment in Sweden. We used a numerical modelling approach and sub-catchment evaluation method to identify and evaluate fundamental catchment characteristics and processes. The model reproduced observed stream discharge patterns of the 14 sub-catchments and the dynamics of the 15 groundwater wells with an average accumulated discharge error of 1% (15% standard deviation) and an average groundwater-level mean error of 0.1 m (0.23 m standard deviation). We show how peatland characteristics dampen the effect of intense rain, and how soil freeze-thaw processes regulate surface and groundwater partitioning during snowmelt. With these results, we demonstrate the importance of defining, understanding and quantifying the role of landscape heterogeneity and sub-catchment characteristics for accurately representing catchment hydrological functioning.

  10. The assessment of the required groundwater quantity for the conservation of ecosystems and the achievement of a good ecological status of surface waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitja Janža

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of the available quantity of groundwater is of essential importance for its sustainable use. Modern approaches for estimation of groundwater availability take into account all potential impacts of abstractions, including impacts on groundwater dependent ecosystems and impacts on surface waters ecological status. Groundwater body is in good quantitative status if groundwater abstractions do not cause signifiant damages to groundwater dependent ecosystems and signifiant diminution in the ecological status of surface water bodies. The methodology presented in this paper was developed as an integral part of the assessment of the quantitative status of groundwater bodies in Slovenia and is tailored to the characteristics of the groundwater dependent ecosystems as well as hydrological and hydrogeological conditions in the Slovenian territory. Two different approaches were implemented; for forest habitats on alluvial aquifers, and habitats of amphibians and molluscs in karst areas. Estimates of the required quantity of groundwater for groundwater dependent ecosystems conservation were performed at the level of groundwater bodies and annual averages of temporal variables of the water balance, calculated with the regional water balance model GROWA-SI. In the areas of groundwater bodies with groundwater dependent ecosystems estimated quantity present 0.1 % - 12.4 % of the groundwater recharge. The estimated share of annual renewable quantity of groundwater to maintain the ecological status of surface waters for the entire territory of Slovenia is 23.2 %. The largest share, 30 % is in north-eastern Slovenia and the lowest in the north-west part of Slovenia with a 16.6 % average annual renewable quantity.

  11. Numerical simulation of groundwater and surface-water interactions in the Big River Management Area, central Rhode Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, John P.; Granato, Gregory E.

    2013-01-01

    The Rhode Island Water Resources Board is considering use of groundwater resources from the Big River Management Area in central Rhode Island because increasing water demands in Rhode Island may exceed the capacity of current sources. Previous water-resources investigations in this glacially derived, valley-fill aquifer system have focused primarily on the effects of potential groundwater-pumping scenarios on streamflow depletion; however, the effects of groundwater withdrawals on wetlands have not been assessed, and such assessments are a requirement of the State’s permitting process to develop a water supply in this area. A need for an assessment of the potential effects of pumping on wetlands in the Big River Management Area led to a cooperative agreement in 2008 between the Rhode Island Water Resources Board, the U.S. Geological Survey, and the University of Rhode Island. This partnership was formed with the goal of developing methods for characterizing wetland vegetation, soil type, and hydrologic conditions, and monitoring and modeling water levels for pre- and post-water-supply development to assess potential effects of groundwater withdrawals on wetlands. This report describes the hydrogeology of the area and the numerical simulations that were used to analyze the interaction between groundwater and surface water in response to simulated groundwater withdrawals. The results of this analysis suggest that, given the hydrogeologic conditions in the Big River Management Area, a standard 5-day aquifer test may not be sufficient to determine the effects of pumping on water levels in nearby wetlands. Model simulations showed water levels beneath Reynolds Swamp declined by about 0.1 foot after 5 days of continuous pumping, but continued to decline by an additional 4 to 6 feet as pumping times were increased from a 5-day simulation period to a simulation period representative of long-term average monthly conditions. This continued decline in water levels with

  12. Changes in the Regional Groundwater Aquifer and Potential Impacts on Surface Waters in Central Zealand, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorn, Paul

    The regional, confined aquifer on the island of Zealand, in eastern Denmark, is the primary aquifer used for large-scale abstraction for the supplies of all larger cities, including Roskilde and the greater Copenhagen metropolitan area. Large-scale groundwater abstraction from this aquifer...... in the area near Lejre Denmark (approximately 15km to the SW of Roskilde) began in 1937, exporting approximately 18 million m3 of water per year to supply the city of Copenhagen. After abstraction began, streams in the area were observed to go dry after extended periods without precipitation, where......, wetlands and lakes in the area. The results show that there was a significant impact on the regional groundwater aquifer in the Langvad river catchment, with groundwater as much as 17m lower in 1987 from 1936 (pre-abstraction). However, in the Elverdam river catchment, the levels remained virtually...

  13. Removal of pollutants from surface water and groundwater by nanofiltration: overview of possible applications in the drinking water industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruggen, Bart van der; Vandecasteele, Carlo

    2003-01-01

    The nanofiltration system has many potential uses in removing chemical and biological contaminants from water. - During the last decade, nanofiltration (NF) made a breakthrough in drinking water production for the removal of pollutants. The combination of new standards for drinking water quality and the steady improvement of the nanofiltration process have led to new insights, possible applications and new projects on lab-scale, pilot scale and industrial scale. This paper offers an overview of the applications in the drinking water industry that have already been realised or that are suggested on the basis of lab-scale research. Applications can be found in the treatment of surface water as well as groundwater. The possibility of using NF for the removal of hardness, natural organic material (NOM), micropollutants such as pesticides and VOCs, viruses and bacteria, salinity, nitrates, and arsenic will be discussed. Some of these applications have proven to be reliable and can be considered as known techniques; other applications are still studied on laboratory scale. Modelling is difficult due to effects of fouling and interaction between different components. The current insight in the separation mechanisms will be briefly discussed

  14. GSFLOW - Coupled Ground-Water and Surface-Water Flow Model Based on the Integration of the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) and the Modular Ground-Water Flow Model (MODFLOW-2005)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markstrom, Steven L.; Niswonger, Richard G.; Regan, R. Steven; Prudic, David E.; Barlow, Paul M.

    2008-01-01

    The need to assess the effects of variability in climate, biota, geology, and human activities on water availability and flow requires the development of models that couple two or more components of the hydrologic cycle. An integrated hydrologic model called GSFLOW (Ground-water and Surface-water FLOW) was developed to simulate coupled ground-water and surface-water resources. The new model is based on the integration of the U.S. Geological Survey Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) and the U.S. Geological Survey Modular Ground-Water Flow Model (MODFLOW). Additional model components were developed, and existing components were modified, to facilitate integration of the models. Methods were developed to route flow among the PRMS Hydrologic Response Units (HRUs) and between the HRUs and the MODFLOW finite-difference cells. This report describes the organization, concepts, design, and mathematical formulation of all GSFLOW model components. An important aspect of the integrated model design is its ability to conserve water mass and to provide comprehensive water budgets for a location of interest. This report includes descriptions of how water budgets are calculated for the integrated model and for individual model components. GSFLOW provides a robust modeling system for simulating flow through the hydrologic cycle, while allowing for future enhancements to incorporate other simulation techniques.

  15. Presence, distribution, and diversity of iron-oxidizing bacteria at a landfill leachate-impacted groundwater surface water interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, R.; Gan, P.; Mackay, A.A.

    2010-01-01

    ) were dominated by members of the Bradyrhizobiaceae and Comamonadaceae; clones from the deeper sediments were phylogenetically more diverse, dominated by members of the Rhodocyclaceae. The iron deposition profiles indicated that active iron oxidation occurred only within the near-to-surface GSI......We examined the presence of iron-oxidizing bacteria (IOB) at a groundwater surface water interface (GSI) impacted by reduced groundwater originating as leachate from an upgradient landfill. IOB enrichments and quantifications were obtained, at high vertical resolution, by an iron/oxygen opposing...... site mirrored the IOB distribution. Clone libraries from two separate IOB enrichments indicated a stratified IOB community with clear differences at short vertical distances. Alpha- and Betaproteobacteria were the dominant phylotypes. Clones from the near-surface sediment (1-2 cm below ground surface...

  16. Direct measurements of the tile drain and groundwater flow route contributions to surface water contamination: From field-scale concentration patterns in groundwater to catchment-scale surface water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozemeijer, J.C.; Velde, Y. van der; Geer, F.C. van; Bierkens, M.F.P.; Broers, H.P.

    2010-01-01

    Enhanced knowledge of water and solute pathways in catchments would improve the understanding of dynamics in water quality and would support the selection of appropriate water pollution mitigation options. For this study, we physically separated tile drain effluent and groundwater discharge from an agricultural field before it entered a 43.5-m ditch transect. Through continuous discharge measurements and weekly water quality sampling, we directly quantified the flow route contributions to surface water discharge and solute loading. Our multi-scale experimental approach allowed us to relate these measurements to field-scale NO 3 concentration patterns in shallow groundwater and to continuous NO 3 records at the catchment outlet. Our results show that the tile drains contributed 90-92% of the annual NO 3 and heavy metal loads. Considering their crucial role in water and solute transport, enhanced monitoring and modeling of tile drainage are important for adequate water quality management. - Direct measurements of flow route contributions to surface water contaminant loading reveal the crucial role of tile drainage for catchment-scale water and solute transport.

  17. Surface-water, water-quality, and ground-water assessment of the Municipio of Carolina, Puerto Rico, 1997-99

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Jesús; Gómez-Gómez, Fernando; Santiago-Rivera, Luis; Oliveras-Feliciano, M. L.

    2001-01-01

    To meet the increasing need for a safe and adequate supply of water in the municipio of Carolina, an integrated surface-water, water-quality, and ground-water assessment of the area was conducted. The major results of this study and other important hydrologic and water-quality features were compiled in a Geographic Information System and are presented in two 1:30,000-scale map plates to facilitate interpretation and use of the diverse water-resources data. Because the supply of safe drinking water was a critical issue during recent dry periods, the surface-water assessment portion of this study focused on analysis of low-flow characteristics in local streams and rivers. Low-flow characteristics were evaluated for one continuous-record gaging station, based on graphical curve-fitting techniques and log-Pearson Type III frequency analysis. Estimates of low-flow characteristics for seven partial-record stations were generated using graphical-correlation techniques. Flow-duration characteristics were computed for the one continuous-record gaging station and were estimated for the partial-record stations using the relation curves developed from the low-flow study. Stream low-flow statistics document the general hydrology under current land and water use. Low-flow statistics may substantially change as a result of streamflow diversions for public supply, and an increase in ground-water development, waste-water discharges, and flood-control measures; the current analysis provides baseline information to evaluate these impacts and develop water budgets. A sanitary quality survey of streams utilized 29 sampling stations to evaluate the sanitary quality of about 87 miles of stream channels. River and stream samples were collected on two occasions during base-flow conditions and were analyzed for fecal coliform and fecal streptococcus. Bacteriological analyses indicate that a significant portion of the stream reaches within the municipio of Carolina may have fecal coliform

  18. A field comparison of multiple techniques to quantify groundwater - surface-water interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Pinzón, Ricardo; Ward, Adam S; Hatch, Christine E; Wlostowski, Adam N; Singha, Kamini; Gooseff, Michael N.; Haggerty, Roy; Harvey, Judson; Cirpka, Olaf A; Brock, James T

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater–surface-water (GW-SW) interactions in streams are difficult to quantify because of heterogeneity in hydraulic and reactive processes across a range of spatial and temporal scales. The challenge of quantifying these interactions has led to the development of several techniques, from centimeter-scale probes to whole-system tracers, including chemical, thermal, and electrical methods. We co-applied conservative and smart reactive solute-tracer tests, measurement of hydraulic heads, distributed temperature sensing, vertical profiles of solute tracer and temperature in the stream bed, and electrical resistivity imaging in a 450-m reach of a 3rd-order stream. GW-SW interactions were not spatially expansive, but were high in flux through a shallow hyporheic zone surrounding the reach. NaCl and resazurin tracers suggested different surface–subsurface exchange patterns in the upper ⅔ and lower ⅓ of the reach. Subsurface sampling of tracers and vertical thermal profiles quantified relatively high fluxes through a 10- to 20-cm deep hyporheic zone with chemical reactivity of the resazurin tracer indicated at 3-, 6-, and 9-cm sampling depths. Monitoring of hydraulic gradients along transects with MINIPOINT streambed samplers starting ∼40 m from the stream indicated that groundwater discharge prevented development of a larger hyporheic zone, which progressively decreased from the stream thalweg toward the banks. Distributed temperature sensing did not detect extensive inflow of ground water to the stream, and electrical resistivity imaging showed limited large-scale hyporheic exchange. We recommend choosing technique(s) based on: 1) clear definition of the questions to be addressed (physical, biological, or chemical processes), 2) explicit identification of the spatial and temporal scales to be covered and those required to provide an appropriate context for interpretation, and 3) maximizing generation of mechanistic understanding and reducing costs of

  19. Integrated modeling of groundwater-surface water interactions in a tile-drained agricultural field: The importance of directly measured flow route contributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozemeijer, J.C.; Velde, Y. van der; McLaren, R.G.; Geer, F.C. van; Broers, H.P.; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the dynamics of groundwater-surface water interaction is needed to evaluate and simulate water and solute transport in catchments. However, direct measurements of the contributions of different flow routes from specific surfaces within a catchment toward the surface water are rarely

  20. The advantages, and challenges, in using multiple techniques in the estimation of surface water-groundwater fluxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanafield, M.; Cook, P. G.

    2014-12-01

    When estimating surface water-groundwater fluxes, the use of complimentary techniques helps to fill in uncertainties in any individual method, and to potentially gain a better understanding of spatial and temporal variability in a system. It can also be a way of preventing the loss of data during infrequent and unpredictable flow events. For example, much of arid Australia relies on groundwater, which is recharged by streamflow through ephemeral streams during flood events. Three recent surface water/groundwater investigations from arid Australian systems provide good examples of how using multiple field and analysis techniques can help to more fully characterize surface water-groundwater fluxes, but can also result in conflicting values over varying spatial and temporal scales. In the Pilbara region of Western Australia, combining streambed radon measurements, vertical heat transport modeling, and a tracer test helped constrain very low streambed residence times, which are on the order of minutes. Spatial and temporal variability between the methods yielded hyporheic exchange estimates between 10-4 m2 s-1 and 4.2 x 10-2 m2 s-1. In South Australia, three-dimensional heat transport modeling captured heterogeneity within 20 square meters of streambed, identifying areas of sandy soil (flux rates of up to 3 m d-1) and clay (flux rates too slow to be accurately characterized). Streamflow front modeling showed similar flux rates, but averaged over 100 m long stream segments for a 1.6 km reach. Finally, in central Australia, several methods are used to decipher whether any of the flow down a highly ephemeral river contributes to regional groundwater recharge, showing that evaporation and evapotranspiration likely accounts for all of the infiltration into the perched aquifer. Lessons learned from these examples demonstrate the influences of the spatial and temporal variability between techniques on estimated fluxes.

  1. Residence times and mixing of water in river banks: implications for recharge and groundwater-surface water exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unland, N. P.; Cartwright, I.; Cendón, D. I.; Chisari, R.

    2014-12-01

    Bank exchange processes within 50 m of the Tambo River, southeast Australia, have been investigated through the combined use of 3H and 14C. Groundwater residence times increase towards the Tambo River, which suggests the absence of significant bank storage. Major ion concentrations and δ2H and δ18O values of bank water also indicate that bank infiltration does not significantly impact groundwater chemistry under baseflow and post-flood conditions, suggesting that the gaining nature of the river may be driving the return of bank storage water back into the Tambo River within days of peak flood conditions. The covariance between 3H and 14C indicates the leakage and mixing between old (~17 200 years) groundwater from a semi-confined aquifer and younger groundwater (bank infiltration. Furthermore, the more saline deeper groundwater likely controls the geochemistry of water in the river bank, minimising the chemical impact that bank infiltration has in this setting. These processes, coupled with the strongly gaining nature of the Tambo River are likely to be the factors reducing the chemical impact of bank storage in this setting. This study illustrates the complex nature of river groundwater interactions and the potential downfall in assuming simple or idealised conditions when conducting hydrogeological studies.

  2. Hydrochemistry of surface water and groundwater in the shale bedrock, Cross River Basin and Niger Delta Region, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nganje, T. N.; Hursthouse, A. S.; Edet, Aniekan; Stirling, D.; Adamu, C. I.

    2017-05-01

    Water chemistry in the shale bedrock of the Cretaceous-Tertiary of the Cross River and Niger Delta hydrological basins has been investigated using major ions. To carry out a characterization of the water bearing units, 30 and 16 representatives surface and groundwater samples were collected. The evolution of the water is characterized by enhanced content of sodium, calcium and sulphate as a result of leaching of shale rock. The spatial changes in groundwater quality of the area shows an anomalous concentrations of ions in the central parts, while lower values characterize the eastern part of the basin covering Ogoja, Ikom and Odukpani areas. The values of total dissolved solids (TDS) and ions increases down gradient in the direction of groundwater flow. The dissolution of halite and gypsum explains part of the contained Na+, Ca2+, Cl- and SO4 2-, but other processes such as ion exchange, silicate weathering and pyrite oxidation also contribute to water composition. The assessment with contamination indicators such as TDS, hardness, chloride, nitrate and sulphate indicates that the water in area is suitable for human consumption in some locations. Modelling using MINTEQA2 program shows that the water from all the shale water bearing units are under saturated with respect to gypsum.

  3. Data Validation Package October 2016 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Monticello, Utah, Disposal and Processing Sites January 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Jason [USDOE Office of Legacy Management (LM), Washington, DC (United States); Smith, Fred [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Grand Junction, CO (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Sampling Period: October 10–12, 2016. This semiannual event includes sampling groundwater and surface water at the Monticello Disposal and Processing Sites. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated) and Program Directive MNT-2016-01. Samples were collected from 54 of 64 planned locations (16 of 17 former mill site wells, 15 of 18 downgradient wells, 7 of 9 downgradient permeable reactive barrier wells, 3 of 3 bedrock wells, 4 of 7 seeps and wetlands, and 9 of 10 surface water locations).

  4. Antibiotic resistance patterns of Escherichia coli strains isolated from surface water and groundwater samples in a pig production area

    OpenAIRE

    Roger Neto Schneider; André Nadvorny; Verônica Schmidt

    2009-01-01

    The use of antibiotics, so excessive and indiscriminate in intensive animal production, has triggered an increase in the number of resistant microorganisms which can be transported to aquatic environments. The aim of this study was to determine the profile of the antimicrobial resistance of samples of Escherichia coli isolated from groundwater and surface water in a region of pig breeding. Through the test of antimicrobial susceptibility, we analyzed 205 strains of E. coli. A high rate of res...

  5. EPA Office of Water (OW): SDWIS - HUC12 Densities for Public Surface Water and Groundwater Sources

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Public Water System location points, based on information from the Safe Drinking Water Act Information System (SDWIS/Federal) for a 2010 third quarter (SDWIS_2010Q3)...

  6. Groundwater and Terrestrial Water Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodell, Matthew; Chambers, Don P.; Famiglietti, James S.

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial water storage (TWS) comprises groundwater, soil moisture, surface water, snow,and ice. Groundwater typically varies more slowly than the other TWS components because itis not in direct contact with the atmosphere, but often it has a larger range of variability onmultiannual timescales (Rodell and Famiglietti, 2001; Alley et al., 2002). In situ groundwaterdata are only archived and made available by a few countries. However, monthly TWSvariations observed by the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE; Tapley et al.,2004) satellite mission, which launched in 2002, are a reasonable proxy for unconfinedgroundwater at climatic scales.

  7. Contamination of ground water, surface water, and soil, and evaluation of selected ground-water pumping alternatives in the Canal Creek area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorah, Michelle M.; Clark, Jeffrey S.

    1996-01-01

    Chemical manufacturing, munitions filling, and other military-support activities have resulted in the contamination of ground water, surface water, and soil in the Canal Creek area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Chlorinated volatile organic compounds, including 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane and trichloroethylene, are widespread ground-water contaminants in two aquifers that are composed of unconsolidated sand and gravel. Distribution and fate of chlorinated organic compounds in the ground water has been affected by the movement and dissolution of solvents in their dense immiscible phase and by microbial degradation under anaerobic conditions. Detection of volatile organic contaminants in adjacent surface water indicates that shallow contaminated ground water discharges to surface water. Semivolatile organic compounds, especially polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, are the most prevalent organic contaminants in soils. Various trace elements, such as arsenic, cadmium, lead, and zinc, were found in elevated concentrations in ground water, surface water, and soil. Simulations with a ground-water-flow model and particle tracker postprocessor show that, without remedial pumpage, the contaminants will eventually migrate to Canal Creek and Gunpowder River. Simulations indicate that remedial pumpage of 2.0 million gallons per day from existing wells is needed to capture all particles originating in the contaminant plumes. Simulated pumpage from offsite wells screened in a lower confined aquifer does not affect the flow of contaminated ground water in the Canal Creek area.

  8. Effect of land-applied biosolids on surface-water nutrient yields and groundwater quality in Orange County, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Chad R.; Fitzgerald, Sharon A.; McSwain, Kristen Bukowski; Harden, Stephen L.; Gurley, Laura N.; Rogers, Shane W.

    2015-01-01

    Land application of municipal wastewater biosolids is the most common method of biosolids management used in North Carolina and the United States. Biosolids have characteristics that may be beneficial to soil and plants. Land application can take advantage of these beneficial qualities, whereas disposal in landfills or incineration poses no beneficial use of the waste. Some independent studies and laboratory analysis, however, have shown that land-applied biosolids can pose a threat to human health and surface-water and groundwater quality. The effect of municipal biosolids applied to agriculture fields is largely unknown in relation to the delivery of nutrients, bacteria, metals, and contaminants of emerging concern to surface-water and groundwater resources. Therefore, the North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources (NCDENR) collaborated with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) through the 319 Nonpoint Source Program to better understand the transport of nutrients and bacteria from biosolids application fields to groundwater and surface water and to provide a scientific basis for evaluating the effectiveness of the current regulations.

  9. Residence times and mixing of water in river banks: implications for recharge and groundwater - surface water exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unland, N. P.; Cartwright, I.; Cendón, D. I.; Chisari, R.

    2014-02-01

    The residence time of groundwater within 50 m of the Tambo River, South East Australia, has been estimated through the combined use of 3H and 14C. Groundwater residence times increase towards the Tambo River which implies a gaining river system and not increasing bank storage with proximity to the Tambo River. Major ion concentrations and δ2H and δ18O values of bank water also indicate that bank infiltration does not significantly impact groundwater chemistry under baseflow and post-flood conditions, suggesting that the gaining nature of the river may be driving the return of bank storage water back into the Tambo River within days of peak flood conditions. The covariance between 3H and 14C indicates the leakage and mixing between old (~17 200 yr) groundwater from a semi-confined aquifer and younger groundwater (bank storage, as rapid pressure propagation into the semi-confined aquifer during flooding will minimise bank infiltration. This study illustrates the complex nature of river groundwater interactions and the potential downfall in assuming simple or idealised conditions when conducting hydrogeological studies.

  10. Variations of uranium concentrations in a multi-aquifer system under the impact of surface water-groundwater interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ya; Li, Junxia; Wang, Yanxin; Xie, Xianjun

    2018-04-01

    Understanding uranium (U) mobility is vital to minimizing its concentrations in potential drinking water sources. In this study, we report spatial-seasonal variations in U speciation and concentrations in a multi-aquifer system under the impact of Sanggan River in Datong basin, northern China. Hydrochemical and H, O, Sr isotopic data, thermodynamic calculations, and geochemical modeling are used to investigate the mechanisms of surface water-groundwater mixing-induced mobilization and natural attenuation of U. In the study site, groundwater U concentrations are up to 30.2 μg/L, and exhibit strong spatial-seasonal variations that are related to pH and Eh values, as well as dissolved Ca2+, HCO3-, and Fe(III) concentrations. For the alkaline aquifers of this site (pH 7.02-8.44), U mobilization is due to the formation and desorption of Ca2UO2(CO3)30 and CaUO2(CO3)32- caused by groundwater Ca2+ elevation via mineral weathering and Na-Ca exchange, incorporated U(VI) release from calcite, and U(IV) oxidation by Fe(OH)3. U immobilization is linked to the adsorption of CaUO2(CO3)32- and UO2(CO3)34- shifted from Ca2UO2(CO3)30 because of HCO3- elevation and Ca2+ depletion, U(VI) co-precipitation with calcite, and U(VI) reduction by adsorbed Fe2+ and FeS. Those results are of great significance for the groundwater resource management of this and similar other surface water-groundwater interaction zones.

  11. Surface-water, water-quality, and ground-water assessment of the Municipio of Comerio, Puerto Rico, 1997-99

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Jesús; Gómez-Gómez, Fernando; Santiago-Rivera, Luis; Oliveras-Feliciano, M. L.

    2001-01-01

    To meet the increasing need for a safe and adequate supply of water in the municipio of Comerio, an integrated surface-water, water-quality, and ground-water assessment of the area was conducted. The major results of this study and other important hydrologic and water-quality features were compiled in a Geographic Information System, and are presented in two 1:30,000-scale map plates to facilitate interpretation and use of the diverse water-resource data. Because the supply of safe drinking water was a critical issue during recent dry periods, the surface-water assessment portion of this study focused on analysis of low-flow characteristics in local streams and rivers. Low-flow characteristics were evaluated at one continuous-record gaging station based on graphical curve-fitting techniques and log-Pearson Type III frequency curves. Estimates of low-flow characteristics for 13 partial-record stations were generated using graphical-correlation techniques. Flow-duration characteristics for the continuous- and partial-record stations were estimated using the relation curves developed for the low-flow study. Stream low-flow statistics document the general hydrology under current land- and water-use conditions. A sanitary quality survey of streams utilized 24 sampling stations to evaluate about 84 miles of stream channels with drainage to or within the municipio of Comerio. River and stream samples for fecal coliform and fecal streptococcus analyses were collected on two occasions at base-flow conditions to evaluate the sanitary quality of streams. Bacteriological analyses indicate that about 27 miles of stream reaches within the municipio of Comerio may have fecal coliform bacteria concentrations above the water-quality goal established by the Puerto Rico Environmental Quality Board (Junta de Calidad Ambiental de Puerto Rico) for inland surface waters. Sources of fecal contamination may include illegal discharge of sewage to storm-water drains, malfunction of sanitary

  12. Comparison of the behaviour of rare earth elements in surface waters, overburden groundwaters and bedrock groundwaters in two granitoidic settings, Eastern Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roennback, Pernilla; Astroem, Mats; Gustafsson, Jon-Petter

    2008-01-01

    This work, which was done within the Swedish nuclear waste management program, was carried out in order to increase the understanding of the mobility and fate of rare earth elements (REEs) in natural boreal waters in granitoidic terrain. Two areas were studied, Forsmark and Simpevarp, one of which will be selected as a site for spent nuclear fuel. The highest REE concentrations were found in the overburden groundwaters, in Simpevarp in particular (median ΣREE 52 μg/L), but also in Forsmark (median ΣREE 6.7 μg/L). The fractionation patterns in these waters were characterised by light REE (LREE) enrichment and negative Ce and Eu anomalies. In contrast, the surface waters had relatively low REE concentrations. They were characterised either by an increase in relative concentrations throughout the lanthanide series (Forsmark which has a carbonate-rich till) or flat patterns (Simpevarp with carbonate-poor till), and had negative Ce and Eu anomalies. In the bedrock groundwaters, the concentrations and fractionation patterns of REEs were entirely different from those in the overburden groundwaters. The median La concentrations were low (just above 0.1 μg/L in both areas), only in a few samples were the concentrations of several REEs (and in a couple of rare cases all REEs) above the detection limit, and there was an increase in the relative concentrations throughout the lanthanide series. In contrast to these large spatial variations, the temporal trends were characterised by small (or non existent) variations in REE-fractionation patterns but rather large variations in concentrations. The Visual MINTEQ speciation calculations predicted that all REEs in all waters were closely associated with dissolved organic matter, and not with carbonate. In the hydrochemical data for the overburden groundwater in particular, there was however a strong indication of association with inorganic colloids, which were not included in the speciation model. Overall the results showed

  13. Arsenic mobility in groundwater/surface water systems in carbonate-rich Pleistocene glacial drift aquifers (Michigan)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szramek, Kathryn; Walter, Lynn M.; McCall, Patti

    2004-01-01

    Within the Lower Peninsula of Michigan, groundwaters from the Marshall Formation (Mississippian) contain As derived from As-rich pyrites, often exceeding the World Heath Organization drinking water limit of 10 μg/L. Many Michigan watersheds, established on top of Pleistocene glacial drift derived from erosion of the underlying Marshall Formation, also have waters with elevated As. The Huron River watershed in southeastern Lower Michigan is a well characterized hydrogeochemical system of glacial drift deposits, proximate to the Marshall Fm. subcrop, which hosts carbonate-rich groundwaters, streams, and wetlands (fens), and well-developed soil profiles. Aqueous and solid phase geochemistry was determined for soils, soil waters, surface waters (streams and fens) and groundwaters from glacial drift aquifers to better understand the hydrogeologic and chemical controls on As mobility. Soil profiles established on the glacial drift exhibit enrichment in both Fe and As in the oxyhydroxide-rich zone of accumulation. The amounts of Fe and As present as oxyhydroxides are comparable to those reported from bulk Marshall Fm. core samples by previous workers. However, the As host in core samples is largely unaltered pyrite and arsenopyrite. This suggests that the transformation of Fe sulfides to Fe oxyhydroxides largely retains As and Fe at the oxidative weathering site. Groundwaters have the highest As values of all the waters sampled, and many were at or above the World Health limit. Most groundwaters are anaerobic, within the zones of Fe 3+ and As(V) reduction. Although reduction of Fe(III) oxyhydroxides is the probable source of As, there is no correlation between As and Fe concentrations. The As/Fe mole ratios in drift groundwaters are about an order of magnitude greater than those in soil profiles, suggesting that As is more mobile than Fe. This is consistent with the dominance of As(III) in these groundwaters and with the partitioning of Fe 2+ into carbonate cements. Soil

  14. Analyse of pollution sources in Horna Nitra river basin using the system GeoEnviron such as instrument for groundwater and surface water pollution risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutnik, P.

    2004-01-01

    In this presentation author deals with the analyse of pollution sources in Horna Nitra river basin using the system GeoEnviron such as instrument for groundwater and surface water pollution risk assessment

  15. Identification of ionic chloroacetanilide-herbicide metabolites in surface water and groundwater by HPLC/MS using negative ion spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, I.; Thurman, E.M.; Barcelo, D.

    1997-01-01

    Solid-phase extraction (SPE) was combined with high-performance liquid chromatography/high-flow pneumatically assisted electrospray mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESP/MS) for the trace analysis of oxanilic and sulfonic acids of acetochlor, alachlor, and metolachlor. The isolation procedure separated the chloroacetanilide metabolites from the parent herbicides during the elution from C18 cartridges using ethyl acetate for parent compounds, followed by methanol for the anionic metabolites. The metabolites were separated chromatographically using reversed-phase HPLC and analyzed by negative-ion MS using electrospray ionization in selected ion mode. Quantitation limits were 0.01 ??g/L for both the oxanilic and sulfonic acids based on a 100-mL water sample. This combination of methods represents an important advance in environmental analysis of chloroacetanilide-herbicide metabolites in surface water and groundwater for two reasons. First, anionic chloroacetanilide metabolites are a major class of degradation products that are readily leached to groundwater in agricultural areas. Second, anionic metabolites, which are not able to be analyzed by conventional methods such as liquid extraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, are effectively analyzed by SPE and high-flow pneumatically assisted electrospray mass spectrometry. This paper reports the first HPLC/MS identification of these metabolites in surface water and groundwater.

  16. HESS Opinions "Integration of groundwater and surface water research: an interdisciplinary problem?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthel, R.

    2014-07-01

    Today there is a great consensus that water resource research needs to become more holistic, integrating perspectives of a large variety of disciplines. Groundwater and surface water (hereafter: GW and SW) are typically identified as different compartments of the hydrological cycle and were traditionally often studied and managed separately. However, despite this separation, these respective fields of study are usually not considered to be different disciplines. They are often seen as different specializations of hydrology with a different focus yet similar theory, concepts, and methodology. The present article discusses how this notion may form a substantial obstacle in the further integration of GW and SW research and management. The article focuses on the regional scale (areas of approximately 103 to 106 km2), which is identified as the scale where integration is most greatly needed, but ironically where the least amount of fully integrated research seems to be undertaken. The state of research on integrating GW and SW research is briefly reviewed and the most essential differences between GW hydrology (or hydrogeology, geohydrology) and SW hydrology are presented. Groundwater recharge and baseflow are used as examples to illustrate different perspectives on similar phenomena that can cause severe misunderstandings and errors in the conceptualization of integration schemes. The fact that integration of GW and SW research on the regional scale necessarily must move beyond the hydrological aspects, by collaborating with the social sciences and increasing the interaction between science and society in general, is also discussed. The typical elements of an ideal interdisciplinary workflow are presented and their relevance with respect to the integration of GW and SW is discussed. The overall conclusions are that GW hydrology and SW hydrogeology study rather different objects of interest, using different types of observation, working on different problem settings

  17. Surface water - groundwater relationship in the downstream part of the Komadougou Yobe River (Eastern Sahelian Niger)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hector, B.; Genthon, P.; Luxereau, A.; Descloîtres, M.; Moumouni Moussa, A.; Abdou, H.

    2012-04-01

    The Komadougou Yobe (KY) is a temporary river meandering on nearly 100 km along the Niger/Nigeria border in its lower part, before reaching the endoreic Lake Chad. There, seasonal flow from July to January is related to rainfall amount on the upstream Jos Plateau, Nigeria. In the semi-arid downstream area (350 mm annual rainfall in Diffa, Niger) the KY is the main source of recharge for the sandy quaternary aquifer which is used both for irrigation and for drinking water supply. The borders of the KY in Niger are subjected to an agricultural development involving intensive irrigated cropping of sweet pepper mainly produced for sale in Nigeria. Irrigation waters are mainly extracted from the KY, and therefore irrigation must stop when the River runs dry, but irrigation from wells is now developing with an increased risk of soil salinization. The flow rate of the KY has been impacted both by the 80s and 90s droughts, also underwent by the entire Sahel, and by the building up of a series of dams starting from the 70s in Nigeria. Therefore the KY and its relations with the underlying groundwaters should be carefully monitored to provide guidelines for policy makers in charge of the development of this area. However, in this remote area, data are scarce and often discontinuous : there are for example no continuous groundwater level data from before the drought. As part of the Lake Chad French IRD project, series of campaigns involving water level, exploration geophysics, gravity, soil sampling and social studies have been carried out between 2008 and 2011. They allowed to build a numerical model for groundwater-river interactions which in some instances has been compared with previously recorded data. This model is then forced with theoretical climatic senarii based on humid 60s data and data from the drought period. This allows discussing the relationships between the river and groundwaters in a changing climate. Our results militate for the setting up of a limited

  18. Evaluation Of The Hydraulic Connection Between The Surface Water And The Groundwater Along El-Salam Canal, North Eastern Coast, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, Y.L.; Ismail, N.A.; Abdel Mogheeth, S.M.; Salem, W.M.

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, the interconnection between the surface water of El-Salam Canal and the shallow groundwater in the adjacent aquifer has been discussed using both the environmental isotopes and the chemical analyses of the different water bodies along the canal trajectory from Faraskour in the west to Balousa in the east. The isotopic techniques were applied to investigate this relationship and to estimate the possible contribution from various sources such as groundwater, sea water and/or irrigation water, and finally to determine the extent of mixing between El-Salam Canal and the adjacent aquifers. Since the groundwater in the area is saline (more than 10000 ppm) while the mixed canal water is mainly fresh (less than 1000 ppm), the interconnection between the canal water and surrounding shallow groundwater leads to one of the following two hydrologic processes; seepage from the canal water to the shallow groundwater which means fresh water losses or leakage from the groundwater into the surface water which means water quality deterioration The present study aims to detect the hydraulic interconnection between the two water bodies by using environmental isotope techniques as well as detailed chemical analysis. For this purpose, 31 water samples from both surface water and groundwater were collected and analyzed for 18 O and 2 H contents as well as 44 representative water samples were collected and analyzed for the chemical components (anions and cations) as a major ions and minor constituents. The distribution of the analyzed samples on the 18 O vs. D diagram indicated that the samples could be classified into three genetic groups representing different sources of water. The first group reflects a contribution from evaporated rain water prior to infiltration to the groundwater, the second group represents a mixing trend between both of El-Farma drain water and El-Manzala lake water with the groundwater which have enriched isotopic values as well as high

  19. Ground-water flow and ground- and surface-water interaction at the Weldon Spring quarry, St. Charles County, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imes, J.L.; Kleeschulte, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    Ground-water-level measurements to support remedial actions were made in 37 piezometers and 19 monitoring wells during a 19-month period to assess the potential for ground-water flow from an abandoned quarry to the nearby St. Charles County well field, which withdraws water from the base of the alluvial aquifer. From 1957 to 1966, low-level radioactive waste products from the Weldon Spring chemical plant were placed in the quarry a few hundred feet north of the Missouri River alluvial plain. Uranium-based contaminants subsequently were detected in alluvial ground water south of the quarry. During all but flood conditions, lateral ground-water flow in the bedrock from the quarry, as interpreted from water-table maps, generally is southwest toward Little Femme Osage Creek or south into the alluvial aquifer. After entering the alluvial aquifer, the ground water flows southeast to east toward a ground-water depression presumably produced by pumping at the St. Charles County well field. The depression position varies depending on the Missouri River stage and probably the number and location of active wells in the St. Charles County well field

  20. Surface-Water, Water-Quality, and Ground-Water Assessment of the Municipio of Mayaguez, Puerto Rico, 1999-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Jesús; Santiago-Rivera, Luis; Guzman-Rios, Senen; Gómez-Gómez, Fernando; Oliveras-Feliciano, Mario L.

    2004-01-01

    The surface-water assessment portion of this study focused on analysis of low-flow characteristics in local streams and rivers, because the supply of safe drinking water was a critical issue during recent dry periods. Low-flow characteristics were evaluated at one continuous-record gaging station based on graphical curve-fitting techniques and log-Pearson Type III frequency curves. Estimates of low-flow characteristics for 20 partial-record stations were generated using graphical-correlation techniques. Flow-duration characteristics for the continuous- and partial-record stations were estimated using the relation curves developed for the low-flow study. Stream low-flow statistics document the general hydrology under current land use, water-use, and climatic conditions. A survey of streams and rivers utilized 37 sampling stations to evaluate the sanitary quality of about 165 miles of stream channels. River and stream samples for fecal coliform and fecal streptococcus analyses were collected on two occasions at base-flow conditions. Bacteriological analyses indicate that a significant portion of the stream reaches within the municipio of Mayaguez may have fecal coliform bacteria concentrations above the water-quality goal (standard) established by the Puerto Rico Environmental Quality Board (Junta de Calidad Ambiental de Puerto Rico) for inland surface waters. Sources of fecal contamination may include: illegal discharge of sewage to storm-water drains, malfunctioning sanitary sewer ejectors, clogged and leaking sewage pipes, septic tank leakage, unfenced livestock, and runoff from livestock pens. Long-term fecal coliform data from five sampling stations located within or in the vicinity of the municipio of Mayaguez have been in compliance with the water-quality goal for fecal coliform concentration established in July 1990. Geologic, topographic, soil, hydrogeologic, and streamflow data were compiled into a database and used to divide the municipio of Mayaguez into

  1. Groundwater and Terrestrial Water Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodell, Matthew; Chambers, Don P.; Famiglietti, James S.

    2011-01-01

    Most people think of groundwater as a resource, but it is also a useful indicator of climate variability and human impacts on the environment. Groundwater storage varies slowly relative to other non-frozen components of the water cycle, encapsulating long period variations and trends in surface meteorology. On seasonal to interannual timescales, groundwater is as dynamic as soil moisture, and it has been shown that groundwater storage changes have contributed to sea level variations. Groundwater monitoring well measurements are too sporadic and poorly assembled outside of the United States and a few other nations to permit direct global assessment of groundwater variability. However, observational estimates of terrestrial water storage (TWS) variations from the GRACE satellites largely represent groundwater storage variations on an interannual basis, save for high latitude/altitude (dominated by snow and ice) and wet tropical (surface water) regions. A figure maps changes in mean annual TWS from 2009 to 2010, based on GRACE, reflecting hydroclimatic conditions in 2010. Severe droughts impacted Russia and the Amazon, and drier than normal weather also affected the Indochinese peninsula, parts of central and southern Africa, and western Australia. Groundwater depletion continued in northern India, while heavy rains in California helped to replenish aquifers that have been depleted by drought and withdrawals for irrigation, though they are still below normal levels. Droughts in northern Argentina and western China similarly abated. Wet weather raised aquifer levels broadly across western Europe. Rains in eastern Australia caused flooding to the north and helped to mitigate a decade long drought in the south. Significant reductions in TWS seen in the coast of Alaska and the Patagonian Andes represent ongoing glacier melt, not groundwater depletion. Figures plot time series of zonal mean and global GRACE derived non-seasonal TWS anomalies (deviation from the mean of

  2. Sampling and analysis plan for groundwater and surface water monitoring at the Y-12 Plant during calendar year 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface-water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 1995 at the Department of Energy Y-12 Plant. Included in this plan are the monitoring activities managed by the Y-12 Plant Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability (HSEA) Organization through the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Other groundwater and surface water monitoring activities (e.g. selected Environmental Restoration Program activities, National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) monitoring) not managed through the Y-12 Plant GWPP are not addressed in this report. Several monitoring programs will be implemented in three hydrogeologic regimes: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located within Bear Creek Valley, and the Chestnut Ridge Regime is located south of the Y-12 Plant. For various reasons, modifications to the 1995 monitoring programs may be necessary during implementation. For example, changes in regulatory requirements may alter the parameters specified for selected wells, or wells could be added to or deleted from the monitoring network. All modifications to the monitoring programs will be approved by the Y-12 Plant GWPP manager and documented as addenda to this sampling and analysis plan

  3. Measuring the Thermal Conductivity of Sediments for the Estimation of Groundwater Discharge to Surface Waters with Temperature Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, C.; Müller, S.; Sebok, E.; Engesgaard, P. K.

    2015-12-01

    Using temperature probes is a common exploratory method for studying groundwater-surface water interaction due to the ease for collecting measurements and the simplicity of the different analytical solutions. This approach requires to define the surface water temperature, the groundwater temperature and a set of parameters (density and specific capacity of water, and thermal conductivity of sediments) that can be easily extracted from tabulated values under the assumption that they are homogeneous in the study area. In the case of the thermal conductivity, it is common to apply a standard value of 1.84 Wm-1 C-1 corresponding to sand. Nevertheless the environments where this method is applied, like streambeds or lake/lagoons shores, are sedimentary depositional systems with high energy and biological activity that often lead to sediments dominated by organic matter or sharp changes in grain size modifying greatly the thermal conductivity values. In this study, the thermal conductivity was measured in situ along transects where vertical temperature profiles were collected in a coastal lagoon bed receiving groundwater discharge (Ringkøbing Fjord, Denmark). A set of 4 transects with 10-20 temperature profiles during 3 different seasons was analyzed together with more than 150 thermal conductivity measurements along the working transects and in experimental parcels of 1 m2 where the cm scale spatial variability of the thermal conductivity was assessed. The application of a literature-based bulk thermal conductivity of 1.84 Wm-1 C-1 instead of field data that ranged from 0.62 to 2.19 Wm-1 C-1, produced a mean flux overestimation of 2.33 cm d-1 that, considering the low fluxes of the study area, represents an increase of 89 % and up to a factor of 3 in the most extreme cases. The changes in thermal conductivity can alter the estimated fluxes hindering the detection of patterns in groundwater discharge and modifying the interpretation of the results.

  4. Surface-water and groundwater interactions in an extensively mined watershed, upper Schuylkill River, Pennsylvania, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotta,, Charles A.; Goode, Daniel J.; Bartles, Michael D.; Risser, Dennis W.; Galeone, Daniel G.

    2014-01-01

    Streams crossing underground coal mines may lose flow, while abandoned mine drainage (AMD) restores flow downstream. During 2005-12, discharge from the Pine Knot Mine Tunnel, the largest AMD source in the upper Schuylkill River Basin, had near-neutral pH and elevated concentrations of iron, manganese, and sulfate. Discharge from the tunnel responded rapidly to recharge but exhibited a prolonged recession compared to nearby streams, consistent with rapid infiltration and slow release of groundwater from the mine. Downstream of the AMD, dissolved iron was attenuated by oxidation and precipitation while dissolved CO2 degassed and pH increased. During high-flow conditions, the AMD and downstream waters exhibited decreased pH, iron, and sulfate with increased acidity that were modeled by mixing net-alkaline AMD with recharge or runoff having low ionic strength and low pH. Attenuation of dissolved iron within the river was least effective during high-flow conditions because of decreased transport time coupled with inhibitory effects of low pH on oxidation kinetics. A numerical model of groundwater flow was calibrated using groundwater levels in the Pine Knot Mine and discharge data for the Pine Knot Mine Tunnel and the West Branch Schuylkill River during a snowmelt event in January 2012. Although the calibrated model indicated substantial recharge to the mine complex took place away from streams, simulation of rapid changes in mine pool level and tunnel discharge during a high flow event in May 2012 required a source of direct recharge to the Pine Knot Mine. Such recharge produced small changes in mine pool level and rapid changes in tunnel flow rate because of extensive unsaturated storage capacity and high transmissivity within the mine complex. Thus, elimination of stream leakage could have a small effect on the annual discharge from the tunnel, but a large effect on peak discharge and associated water quality in streams.

  5. Arsenic and metallic trace elements cycling in the surface water-groundwater-soil continuum down-gradient from a reclaimed mine area: Isotopic imprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaska, Mahmoud; Le Gal La Salle, Corinne; Sassine, Lara; Cary, Lise; Bruguier, Olivier; Verdoux, Patrick

    2018-03-01

    One decade after closure of the Salsigne mine (SW France), As contamination persisted in surface water, groundwater and soil near and down-gradient from the reclaimed ore processing site (OPS). We assess the fate of As and other associated chalcophilic MTEs, and their transport in the surface-water/groundwater/soil continuum down-gradient from the reclaimed OPS, using Sr-isotopic fingerprinting. The Sr-isotope ratio was used as a tracer of transfer processes in this hydro-geosystem and was combined to sequential extraction of soil samples to evaluate the impact of contaminated soil on the underlying phreatic groundwater. The contrast in Sr isotope compositions of the different soil fractions reflects several Sr sources in the soil. In the complex hydro-geosystem around the OPS, the transport of As and MTEs is affected by a succession of factors, such as (1) Existence of a reducing zone in the aquifer below the reclaimed OPS, where groundwater shows relatively high As and MTEs contents, (2) Groundwater discharge into the stream near the reclaimed OPS causing an increase in As and MTE concentrations in surface water; (3) Partial co-precipitation of As with Fe-oxyhydroxides, contributing to some attenuation of As contents in surface water; (4) Infiltration of contaminated stream water into the unconfined aquifer down-gradient from the reclaimed OPS; (5) Accumulation of As and MTEs in soil irrigated with contaminated stream- and groundwater; (6) Release of As and MTEs from labile soil fractions to underlying the groundwater.

  6. Occurrence of herbicides and pharmaceutical and personal care products in surface water and groundwater around Liberty Bay, Puget Sound, Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Jennifer A; Swarzenski, Peter W; Dinicola, Richard S; Reinhard, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Organic contaminants, such as pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), pose a risk to water quality and the health of ecosystems. This study was designed to determine if a coastal community lacking point sources, such as waste water treatment plant effluent, could release PPCPs, herbicides, and plasticizers at detectable levels to their surface water and groundwater. Research was conducted in Liberty Bay, an embayment within Puget Sound, where 70% of the population (-10,000) uses septic systems. Sampling included collection of groundwater and surface water with grab samples and the use of polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS). We analyzed for a broad spectrum of 25 commonly used compounds, including PPCPs, herbicides, and a flame retardant. Twelve contaminants were detected at least once; only N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide, caffeine, and mecoprop, a herbicide not attributed to septic systems, were detected in more than one grab sample. The use of POCIS was essential because contaminants were present at very low levels (nanograms), which is common for PPCPs in general, but particularly so in such a small community. The use of POCIS allowed the detection of five compounds that were not present in grab samples. Data suggest that the community is contaminating local water with PPCPs; this effect is likely to increase as the population and product usage increase. The results presented here are a first step toward assessing the transport of herbicides and PPCPs into this coastal system.

  7. Watershed Scale Analysis of Groundwater Surface Water Interactions and Its Application to Conjunctive Management under Climatic and Anthropogenic Stresses over the US Sunbelt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Seung Beom

    Although water is one of the most essential natural resources, human activities have been exerting pressure on water resources. In order to reduce these stresses on water resources, two key issues threatening water resources sustainability - interaction between surface water and groundwater resources and groundwater withdrawal impacts of streamflow depletion - were investigated in this study. First, a systematic decomposition procedure was proposed for quantifying the errors arising from various sources in the model chain in projecting the changes in hydrologic attributes using near-term climate change projections. Apart from the unexplained changes by GCMs, the process of customizing GCM projections to watershed scale through a model chain - spatial downscaling, temporal disaggregation and hydrologic model - also introduces errors, thereby limiting the ability to explain the observed changes in hydrologic variability. Towards this, we first propose metrics for quantifying the errors arising from different steps in the model chain in explaining the observed changes in hydrologic variables (streamflow, groundwater). The proposed metrics are then evaluated using a detailed retrospective analyses in projecting the changes in streamflow and groundwater attributes in four target basins that span across a diverse hydroclimatic regimes over the US Sunbelt. Our analyses focused on quantifying the dominant sources of errors in projecting the changes in eight hydrologic variables - mean and variability of seasonal streamflow, mean and variability of 3-day peak seasonal streamflow, mean and variability of 7-day low seasonal streamflow and mean and standard deviation of groundwater depth - over four target basins using an Penn state Integrated Hydrologic Model (PIHM) between the period 1956-1980 and 1981-2005. Retrospective analyses show that small/humid (large/arid) basins show increased (reduced) uncertainty in projecting the changes in hydrologic attributes. Further

  8. Hydrogeochemistry and isotope hydrology of surface water and groundwater systems in the Ellembelle district, Ghana, West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edjah, A. K. M.; Akiti, T. T.; Osae, S.; Adotey, D.; Glover, E. T.

    2017-05-01

    An integrated approach based on the hydrogeochemistry and the isotope hydrology of surface water and groundwater was carried out in the Ellembelle district of the Western Region of Ghana. Measurement of physical parameters (pH, temperature, salinity, total dissolved solutes, total hardness and conductivity), major ions (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, HCO3 -, Cl-, SO4 2- and NO3 -), and stable isotopes (δ2H and δ18O) in 7 rivers, 13 hand-dug wells and 18 boreholes were taken. Na+ was the dominant cation and HCO3 - was the dominant anion for both rivers and groundwater. The dominant hydrochemical facies for the rivers were Na-K-HCO3 - type while that of the groundwater (hand-dug wells and boreholes) were Na-Cl and Na-HCO3 - type. According to the Gibbs diagram, majority of the rivers fall in the evaporation-crystallization field and majority of the hand-dug wells and the boreholes fall in the rock dominance field. From the stable isotope composition measurements, all the rivers appeared to be evaporated, 60 % of the hand-dug wells and 70 % of the boreholes clustered along and in between the global meteoric water line and the local meteoric water line, suggesting an integrative and rapid recharge from meteoric origin.

  9. Concentration data for anthropogenic organic compounds in groundwater, surface water, and finished water of selected community water systems in the United States, 2002-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Janet M.; Kingsbury, James A.; Hopple, Jessica A.; Delzer, Gregory C.

    2010-01-01

    The National Water-Quality Assessment Program of the U.S. Geological Survey began implementing Source Water-Quality Assessments (SWQAs) in 2001 that focus on characterizing the quality of source water and finished water of aquifers and major rivers used by some of the larger community water systems in the United States. As used in SWQA studies, source water is the raw (ambient) water collected at the supply well before water treatment (for groundwater) or the raw (ambient) water collected from the river near the intake (for surface water), and finished water is the water that has been treated and is ready to be delivered to consumers. Finished-water samples are collected before the water enters the distribution system. The primary objective of SWQAs is to determine the occurrence of more than 250 anthropogenic organic compounds in source water used by community water systems, many of which currently are unregulated in drinking water by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. A secondary objective is to understand recurrence patterns in source water and determine if these patterns also occur in finished water before distribution. SWQA studies were conducted in two phases for most studies completed by 2005, and in one phase for most studies completed since 2005. Analytical results are reported for a total of 295 different anthropogenic organic compounds monitored in source-water and finished-water samples collected during 2002-10. The 295 compounds were classified according to the following 13 primary use or source groups: (1) disinfection by-products; (2) fumigant-related compounds; (3) fungicides; (4) gasoline hydrocarbons, oxygenates, and oxygenate degradates; (5) herbicides and herbicide degradates; (6) insecticides and insecticide degradates; (7) manufacturing additives; (8) organic synthesis compounds; (9) pavement- and combustion-derived compounds; (10) personal-care and domestic-use products; (11) plant- or animal-derived biochemicals; (12) refrigerants and

  10. Data Validation Package April 2016 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Monticello, Utah, Disposal and Processing Sites August 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Jason [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC (United States); Smith, Fred [Navarro Research and Engineering, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-08-01

    This semiannual event includes sampling groundwater and surface water at the Monticello Disposal and Processing Sites. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated) and Program Directive MNT-2016-01. Complete sample sets were collected from 42 of 48 planned locations (9 of 9 former mill site wells, 13 of 13 downgradient wells, 7 of 9 downgradient permeable reactive barrier wells, 4 of 7 seeps and wetlands, and 9 of 10 surface water locations). Planned monitoring locations are shown in Attachment 1, Sampling and Analysis Work Order. Locations R6-M3, SW00-01, Seep 1, Seep 2, and Seep 5 were not sampled due to insufficient water availability. A partial sample was collected at location R4-M3 due to insufficient water. All samples from the permeable reactive barrier wells were filtered as specified in the program directive. Duplicate samples were collected from surface water location Sorenson and from monitoring wells 92-07 and RlO-Ml. Water levels were measured at all sampled wells and an additional set of wells. See Attachment2, Trip Report for additional details. The contaminants of concern (COCs) for the Monticello sites are arsenic, manganese, molybdenum, nitrate+ nitrite as nitrogen (nitrate+ nitrite as N), selenium, uranium, and vanadium. Locations with COCs that exceeded remediation goals are listed in Table 1 and Table 2. Time-concentration graphs of the COCs for all groundwater and surface water locations are included in Attachment 3, Data Presentation. An assessment of anomalous data is included in Attachment 4.

  11. Groundwater-Surface Water Interactions and Downstream Transport of Water, Heat, and Solutes in a Hydropeaked River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferencz, S. B.; Cardenas, M. B.; Neilson, B. T.; Watson, J.

    2017-12-01

    A majority of the world's largest river systems are regulated by dams. In addition to being used for water resources management and flood prevention, many large dams are also used for hydroelectric power generation. In the United States, dams account for 7% of domestic electricity, and hydropower accounts for 16% of worldwide electricity production. To help meet electricity demand during peak usage times, hydropower utilities often increase their releases of water during high demand periods. This practice, termed hydropeaking, can cause large transient flow regimes downstream of hydroelectric dams. These transient flow increases can result in order of magnitude daily fluctuations in discharge, and the released water can have different thermal and chemical properties than ambient river water. As hydropeaking releases travel downstream, the temporary rise in stage and increase in discharge can enhance surface water-groundwater (SW-GW) exchange between the river and its alluvial aquifer. This dam-induced SW-GW exchange, combined with hydrodynamic attenuation and heat exchange processes, result in complex responses downstream. The dam-regulated Lower Colorado River downstream of Austin, TX was used as a natural laboratory to observe SW-GW interactions and downstream transport of water, heat, and solutes under hydropeaking conditions. To characterize SW-GW interactions, well transects were installed in the banks of the river to observe exchanges between the river and alluvial aquifer. The well transects were installed at three different distances from the dam (15km, 35km, and 80km). At each well transect conductivity, temperature, and pressure sensors were deployed in the monitoring wells and in the channel. Additional conductivity and temperature sensors were deployed along the study reach to provide a more detailed record of heat and solute transport during hydropeaking releases. The field data spans over two months of daily dam releases that were punctuated by two

  12. Quantification of long-term wastewater fluxes at the surface water/groundwater-interface: an integrative model perspective using stable isotopes and acesulfame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, I; Barth, J A C; Bol, R; Schulz, M; Ternes, T A; Schüth, C; van Geldern, R

    2014-01-01

    The suitability of acesulfame to trace wastewater-related surface water fluxes from streams into the hyporheic and riparian zones over long-term periods was investigated. The transport behavior of acesulfame was compared with the transport of water stable isotopes (δ(18)O or δ(2)H). A calibrated model based on a joint inversion of temperature, acesulfame, and piezometric pressure heads was employed in a model validation using data sets of acesulfame and water stable isotopes collected over 5months in a stream and groundwater. The spatial distribution of fresh water within the groundwater resulting from surface water infiltration was estimated by computing groundwater ages and compared with the predicted acesulfame plume obtained after 153day simulation time. Both, surface water ratios calculated with a mixing equation from water stable isotopes and simulated acesulfame mass fluxes, were investigated for their ability to estimate the contribution of wastewater-related surface water inflow within groundwater. The results of this study point to limitations for the application of acesulfame to trace surface water-groundwater interactions properly. Acesulfame completely missed the wastewater-related surface water volumes that still remained in the hyporheic zone under stream-gaining conditions. In contrast, under stream-losing conditions, which developed after periods of stagnating hydraulic exchange, acesulfame based predictions lead to an overestimation of the surface water volume of up to 25% in the riparian zone. If slow seepage velocities prevail a proportion of acesulfame might be stored in smaller pores, while when released under fast flowing water conditions it will travel further downstream with the groundwater flow direction. Therefore, under such conditions acesulfame can be a less-ideal tracer in the hyporheic and riparian zones and additional monitoring with other environmental tracers such as water stable isotopes is highly recommended. © 2013 Elsevier

  13. Potential for Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems Applications for Identifying Groundwater-Surface Water Exchange in a Meandering River Reach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, H.; Malenda, H. F.; Briggs, M. A.; Singha, K.; González-Pinzón, R.; Gooseff, M. N.; Tyler, S. W.

    2017-12-01

    The exchange of groundwater and surface water (GW-SW), including dissolved constituents and energy, represents a critical yet challenging characterization problem for hydrogeologists and stream ecologists. Here we describe the use of a suite of high spatial resolution remote sensing techniques, collected using a small unmanned aircraft system (sUAS), to provide novel and complementary data to analyze GW-SW exchange. sUAS provided centimeter-scale resolution topography and water surface elevations, which are often drivers of exchange along the river corridor. Additionally, sUAS-based vegetation imagery, vegetation-top elevation, and normalized difference vegetation index mapping indicated GW-SW exchange patterns that are difficult to characterize from the land surface and may not be resolved from coarser satellite-based imagery. We combined these data with estimates of sediment hydraulic conductivity to provide a direct estimate of GW "shortcutting" through meander necks, which was corroborated by temperature data at the riverbed interface.

  14. Data Validation Package - April and July 2015 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Gunnison, Colorado, Processing Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linard, Joshua [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington, DC (United States). Office of Legacy Management; Campbell, Sam [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-02-01

    This event included annual sampling of groundwater and surface water locations at the Gunnison, Colorado, Processing Site. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites. Samples were collected from 28 monitoring wells, three domestic wells, and six surface locations in April at the processing site as specified in the 2010 Ground Water Compliance Action Plan for the Gunnison, Colorado, Processing Site. Domestic wells 0476 and 0477 were sampled in July because the homes were unoccupied in April, and the wells were not in use. Duplicate samples were collected from locations 0113, 0248, and 0477. One equipment blank was collected during this sampling event. Water levels were measured at all monitoring wells that were sampled. No issues were identified during the data validation process that requires additional action or follow-up.

  15. Data Validation Package, December 2015, Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Monument Valley, Arizona, Processing Site March 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyrrell, Evan [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Oak Ridge, NV (United States); Denny, Angelita [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-03-23

    Fifty-two groundwater samples and one surface water sample were collected at the Monument Valley, Arizona, Processing Site to monitor groundwater contaminants for evaluating the effectiveness of the proposed compliance strategy as specified in the 1999 Final Site Observational Work Plan for the UMTRA Project Site at Monument Valley, Arizona. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated, http://energy.gov/lm/downloads/sampling-and-analysis-plan-us-department- energy-office-legacy-management-sites). Samples were collected for metals, anions, nitrate + nitrite as N, and ammonia as N analyses at all locations.

  16. Occurrence of phosphorus in groundwater and surface water of northwestern Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Heather L.; Kingsbury, James A.; Coupe, Richard H.

    2010-01-01

    Previous localized studies of groundwater samples from the Mississippi River Valley alluvial (MRVA) aquifer have demonstrated that dissolved phosphorus concentrations in the aquifer are much higher than the national background concentration of 0.03 milligram per liter (mg/L) found in 400 shallow wells across the country. Forty-six wells screened in the MRVA aquifer in northwestern Mississippi were sampled from June to October 2010 to characterize the occurrence of phosphorus in the aquifer, as well as the factors that might contribute to high dissolved phosphorus concentrations in groundwater. Dissolved phosphorus concentrations ranged from 0.12 to 1.2 mg/L with a median concentration of 0.62 mg/L. The predominant subunit of the MRVA aquifer in northwestern Mississippi is the Holocene alluvium in which median dissolved phosphorus concentrations were higher than the Pleistocene valley trains deposits subunit. Highest phosphorus concentrations occurred in water from wells located along the Mississippi River. A general association between elevated phosphorus concentrations and dissolved iron concentrations suggests that reducing conditions that mobilize iron in the MRVA aquifer also might facilitate transport of phosphorus. Using baseflow separation to estimate the contribution of baseflow to total streamflow, the estimated contribution to the total phosphorus load associated with baseflow at the Tensas River at Tendal, LA, and at the Bogue Phalia near Leland, MS, was 23 percent and 8 percent, respectively. This analysis indicates that elevated concentrations of dissolved phosphorus in the MRVA aquifer could be a possible source of phosphorus to streams during baseflow conditions. However, the fate of phosphorus in groundwater discharge and irrigation return flow to streams is not well understood.

  17. Data Validation Package October 2015 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Monticello, Utah, Processing Site January 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Jason [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Legacy Management; Smith, Fred [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-01-21

    Sampling Period: October 12–14, 2015. This semiannual event includes sampling groundwater and surface water at the Monticello Mill Tailings Site. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in the 2004 Monticello Mill Tailings Site Operable Unit III Post-Record of Decision Monitoring Plan, Draft Final and Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated). Samples were collected from 52 of 61 planned locations (15 of 17 former mill site wells, 17 of 18 downgradient wells, 9 of 9 downgradient permeable reactive barrier wells, 2 of 7 seeps and wetlands, and 9 of 10 surface water locations). Locations MW00-07, Seep 1, Seep 2, Seep 3, Seep 5, Seep 6, SW00-01, T01-13, and T01-19 were not sampled because of insufficient water availability. All samples were filtered as specified in the monitoring plan. Duplicate samples were collected from surface water location W3-04 and from monitoring wells 82-08, 92-09, and 92-10. Water levels were measured at all but one sampled well and an additional set of wells. The contaminants of concern (COCs) for the Monticello Mill Tailings Site are arsenic, manganese, molybdenum, nitrate + nitrite as nitrogen (nitrate + nitrite as N), selenium, uranium, and vanadium. Time-concentration graphs of the COCs for all groundwater and surface water locations are included in this report. Locations with COCs that exceeded remediation goals are listed.

  18. Assessing the impact of model spin-up on surface water-groundwater interactions using an integrated hydrologic model

    KAUST Repository

    Ajami, Hoori

    2014-03-01

    Integrated land surface-groundwater models are valuable tools in simulating the terrestrial hydrologic cycle as a continuous system and exploring the extent of land surface-subsurface interactions from catchment to regional scales. However, the fidelity of model simulations is impacted not only by the vegetation and subsurface parameterizations, but also by the antecedent condition of model state variables, such as the initial soil moisture, depth to groundwater, and ground temperature. In land surface modeling, a given model is often run repeatedly over a single year of forcing data until it reaches an equilibrium state: the point at which there is minimal artificial drift in the model state or prognostic variables (most often the soil moisture). For more complex coupled and integrated systems, where there is an increased computational cost of simulation and the number of variables sensitive to initialization is greater than in traditional uncoupled land surface modeling schemes, the challenge is to minimize the impact of initialization while using the smallest spin-up time possible. In this study, multicriteria analysis was performed to assess the spin-up behavior of the ParFlow.CLM integrated groundwater-surface water-land surface model over a 208 km2 subcatchment of the Ringkobing Fjord catchment in Denmark. Various measures of spin-up performance were computed for model state variables such as the soil moisture and groundwater storage, as well as for diagnostic variables such as the latent and sensible heat fluxes. The impacts of initial conditions on surface water-groundwater interactions were then explored. Our analysis illustrates that the determination of an equilibrium state depends strongly on the variable and performance measure used. Choosing an improper initialization of the model can generate simulations that lead to a misinterpretation of land surface-subsurface feedback processes and result in large biases in simulated discharge. Estimated spin

  19. GROUNDWATER-SURFACE WATER EXCHANGE AND IMPLICATIONS FOR LARGE RIVER RESTORATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movement of river water into and out of high-porosity alluvial deposits can have an important influence on surface water quality and aquatic habitat. In our study of a 60-km reach of the Willamette River in Oregon, USA, we: 1) used tracers to estimate the rate of exchange betw...

  20. The O and H stable isotope composition of freshwaters in the British Isles. 2. Surface waters and groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. G. Darling

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The utility of stable isotopes as tracers of the water molecule has a long pedigree. The study reported here is part of an attempt to establish a comprehensive isotopic 'baseline' for the British Isles as background data for a range of applications. Part 1 of this study (Darling and Talbot, 2003 considered the isotopic composition of rainfall in Britain and Ireland. The present paper is concerned with the composition of surface waters and groundwater. In isotopic terms, surface waters (other than some upland streams are poorly characterised in the British Isles; their potential variability has yet to be widely used as an aid in hydrological research. In what may be the first study of a major British river, a monthly isotopic record of the upper River Thames during 1998 was obtained. This shows high damping of the isotopic variation compared to that in rainfall over most of the year, though significant fluctuations were seen for the autumn months. Smaller rivers such as the Stour and Darent show a more subdued response to the balance between runoff and baseflow. The relationship between the isotopic composition of rainfall and groundwater is also considered. From a limited database, it appears that whereas Chalk groundwater is a representative mixture of weighted average annual rainfall, for Triassic sandstone groundwater there is a seasonal selection of rainfall biased towards isotopically-depleted winter recharge. This may be primarily the result of physical differences between the infiltration characteristics of rock types, though other factors (vegetation, glacial history could be involved. In the main, however, groundwaters appear to be representative of bulk rainfall within an error band of 0.5‰ δ18O. Contour maps of the δ18O and δ2H content of recent groundwaters in the British Isles show a fundamental SW-NE depletion effect modified by topography. The range of measured values, while much smaller than those for rainfall, still covers

  1. Trend-outflow method for understanding interactions of surface water with groundwater and atmospheric water for eight reaches of the Upper Rio Grande

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Sheng, Zhuping

    2011-11-01

    SummaryAtmospheric water, surface water, and groundwater interact very actively through hydrologic processes such as precipitation, infiltration, seepage, irrigation, drainage, evaporation, and evapotranspiration in the Upper Rio Grande Basin. A trend-outflow method has been developed in this paper to gain a better understanding of the interactions based on cumulated inflow and outflow data for any river reaches of interest. A general trend-outflow equation was derived by associating the net interaction of surface water with atmospheric water as a polynomial of inflow and the net interaction of surface water with groundwater as a constant based on surface water budget. Linear and quadratic relations are probably two common trend-outflow types in the real world. It was found that trend-outflows of the Upper Rio Grande reaches, Española, Albuquerque, Socorro-Engle, Palomas, and Rincon are linear with inflow, while those of reaches, Belen, Mesilla and Hueco are quadratic. Reaches Belen, Mesilla and Hueco are found as water deficit reaches mainly for irrigated agriculture in extreme drought years.

  2. Numerical analysis of one-dimensional temperature data for groundwater/surface-water exchange with 1DTempPro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voytek, E. B.; Drenkelfuss, A.; Day-Lewis, F. D.; Healy, R. W.; Lane, J. W.; Werkema, D. D.

    2012-12-01

    Temperature is a naturally occurring tracer, which can be exploited to infer the movement of water through the vadose and saturated zones, as well as the exchange of water between aquifers and surface-water bodies, such as estuaries, lakes, and streams. One-dimensional (1D) vertical temperature profiles commonly show thermal amplitude attenuation and increasing phase lag of diurnal or seasonal temperature variations with propagation into the subsurface. This behavior is described by the heat-transport equation (i.e., the convection-conduction-dispersion equation), which can be solved analytically in 1D under certain simplifying assumptions (e.g., sinusoidal or steady-state boundary conditions and homogeneous hydraulic and thermal properties). Analysis of 1D temperature profiles using analytical models provides estimates of vertical groundwater/surface-water exchange. The utility of these estimates can be diminished when the model assumptions are violated, as is common in field applications. Alternatively, analysis of 1D temperature profiles using numerical models allows for consideration of more complex and realistic boundary conditions. However, such analyses commonly require model calibration and the development of input files for finite-difference or finite-element codes. To address the calibration and input file requirements, a new computer program, 1DTempPro, is presented that facilitates numerical analysis of vertical 1D temperature profiles. 1DTempPro is a graphical user interface (GUI) to the USGS code VS2DH, which numerically solves the flow- and heat-transport equations. Pre- and post-processor features within 1DTempPro allow the user to calibrate VS2DH models to estimate groundwater/surface-water exchange and hydraulic conductivity in cases where hydraulic head is known. This approach improves groundwater/ surface-water exchange-rate estimates for real-world data with complexities ill-suited for examination with analytical methods. Additionally, the code

  3. Surface water/groundwater relationship in Chaj Doab. Final report for the period November 1985 - December 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, S D [Pakistan Inst. of Nuclear Science and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    1990-12-31

    In order to understand the relationship between surface water and groundwater in Chaj Doab area, isotopic and chemical studies were undertaken. Seven sets of water samples from hand pumps, tube wells, rivers and canals were collected during the period November 1985 to October 1988 and all the samples were analysed for environmental isotopes such as {sup 2}H, {sup 3}H, {sup 18}O and the dissolved chemical constituents like Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Ca{sup ++}, Mg{sup ++}, Cl{sup -}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup --} and TIC. Some of the water samples having very low tritium concentrations were analysed for {sup 14}C content. Analysis for {sup 13}C values for two sets of samples was also carried out. 8 refs, 13 figs, 6 tabs.

  4. Surface water/groundwater relationship in Chaj Doab. Final report for the period November 1985 - December 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, S.D.

    1989-01-01

    In order to understand the relationship between surface water and groundwater in Chaj Doab area, isotopic and chemical studies were undertaken. Seven sets of water samples from hand pumps, tube wells, rivers and canals were collected during the period November 1985 to October 1988 and all the samples were analysed for environmental isotopes such as 2 H, 3 H, 18 O and the dissolved chemical constituents like Na + , K + , Ca ++ , Mg ++ , Cl - , NO 3 - , SO 4 -- and TIC. Some of the water samples having very low tritium concentrations were analysed for 14 C content. Analysis for 13 C values for two sets of samples was also carried out. 8 refs, 13 figs, 6 tabs

  5. Summary of Inorganic Compositional Data for Groundwater, Soil-Water, and Surface-Water Samples at the Headgate Draw Subsurface Drip Irrigation Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geboy, Nicholas J.; Engle, Mark A.; Schroeder, Karl T.; Zupanic, John W.

    2007-01-01

    As part of a 5-year project on the impact of subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) application of coalbed-methane (CBM) produced waters, water samples were collected from the Headgate Draw SDI site in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, USA. This research is part of a larger study to understand short- and long-term impacts on both soil and water quality from the beneficial use of CBM waters to grow forage crops through use of SDI. This document provides a summary of the context, sampling methodology, and quality assurance and quality control documentation of samples collected prior to and over the first year of SDI operation at the site (May 2008-October 2009). This report contains an associated database containing inorganic compositional data, water-quality criteria parameters, and calculated geochemical parameters for samples of groundwater, soil water, surface water, treated CBM waters, and as-received CBM waters collected at the Headgate Draw SDI site.

  6. Chromium in surface water and groundwater in the surrounding area of a tannery: relationships with water quality baseline, Elena, Cordoba. Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matteoda, E.; Blarasin, M.; Damilano, G.; Cabrera, A.; Giuliano Albo, J.

    2009-01-01

    The basin of the El Barreal stream is a dominantly rural area in which groundwater is used for all activities whereas the stream is used as sink of residues and effluents. The existence of a tannery, which discharge the effluents into a wetland (which is drained by the stream), reveals the need to study the presence of Chromium in surface and groundwater and to compare values derived from pollution with those corresponding to the natural water baseline values. Fifty three samples of surface and groundwater were abstracted and chemical analyses were made, including total Chromium in water and plants. The chemical analysis results were studied by means of conventional and statistical techniques. The local and regional geological characteristics allow us to interpret that Chromium in water is derived from source minerals, being possible to stand out that high values probably are related to nearby serpentinite bodies.The values of total chrome in surface and groundwater are included in the natural quality baseline range calculated for this basin (0,25-5ug/L), exempting those samples with higher values linked to sites with farming activities and to the wetland environment where the Chromium effluent is discharged. In the last place, Chromium was retained in soil and plants whereas the aquifer was affected by a contaminant plume of total dissolved solids because of advective-dispersive transport. In the 2009 monitoring survey, a small increase of Chromium in groundwater was detected in relation to that of 2005, being assumed that partial desorption of Chromium is taking place from the solid phase. (Author) 19 refs.

  7. Assessment of hydrogeologic terrains, well-construction characteristics, groundwater hydraulics, and water-quality and microbial data for determination of surface-water-influenced groundwater supplies in West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozar, Mark D.; Paybins, Katherine S.

    2016-08-30

    In January 2014, a storage tank leaked, spilling a large quantity of 4-methylcyclohexane methanol into the Elk River in West Virginia and contaminating the water supply for more than 300,000 people. In response, the West Virginia Legislature passed Senate Bill 373, which requires the West Virginia Department of Health and Human Resources (WVDHHR) to assess the susceptibility and vulnerability of public surface-water-influenced groundwater supply sources (SWIGS) and surface-water intakes statewide. In response to this mandate for reassessing SWIGS statewide, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the WVDHHR, Bureau of Public Health, Office of Environmental Health Services, compiled available data and summarized the results of previous groundwater studies to provide the WVDHHR with data that could be used as part of the process for assessing and determining SWIGS.

  8. Modeling The Evolution Of A Regional Aquifer System With The California Central Valley Groundwater-Surface Water Simulation Model (C2VSIM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brush, C. F.; Dogrul, E. C.; Kadir, T. N.; Moncrief, M. R.; Shultz, S.; Tonkin, M.; Wendell, D.

    2006-12-01

    The finite element application IWFM has been used to develop an integrated groundwater-surface water model for California's Central Valley, an area of ~50,000 km2, to simulate the evolution of the groundwater flow system and historical groundwater-surface water interactions on a monthly time step from October 1921 to September 2003. The Central Valley's hydrologic system changed significantly during this period. Prior to 1920, most surface water flowed unimpeded from source areas in the mountains surrounding the Central Valley through the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta to the Pacific Ocean, and groundwater largely flowed from recharge areas on the valley rim to discharge as evapotransipration in extensive marshes along the valley's axis. Rapid agricultural development led to increases in groundwater pumping from ~0.5 km3/yr in the early 1920's to 13-18 km3/yr in the 1940's to 1970's, resulting in strong vertical head gradients, significant head declines throughout the valley, and subsidence of >0.3 m over an area of 13,000 km2. Construction of numerous dams and development of an extensive surface water delivery network after 1950 altered the surface water flow regime and reduced groundwater pumping to the current ~10 km3/yr, increasing net recharge and leading to local head gradient reversals and water level recoveries. A model calibrated to the range of historical flow regimes in the Central Valley will provide robust estimations of stream-groundwater interactions for a range of projected future scenarios. C2VSIM uses the IWFM application to simulate a 3-D finite element groundwater flow process dynamically coupled with 1-D land surface, stream flow, lake and unsaturated zone processes. The groundwater flow system is represented with three layers each having 1393 elements. Land surface processes are simulated using 21 subregions corresponding to California DWR water-supply planning areas. The surface-water network is simulated using 431 stream nodes representing 72

  9. Occurrence and risk assessment of antibiotics in surface water and groundwater from different depths of aquifers: A case study at Jianghan Plain, central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Linlin; Wang, Yanxin; Tong, Lei; Deng, Yamin; Li, Yonggang; Gan, Yiqun; Guo, Wei; Dong, Chuangju; Duan, Yanhua; Zhao, Ke

    2017-01-01

    The occurrence of 14 antibiotics (fluoroquinolones, tetracyclines, macrolides and sulfonamides) in groundwater and surface water at Jianghan Plain was investigated during three seasons. The total concentrations of target compounds in the water samples were higher in spring than those in summer and winter. Erythromycin was the predominant antibiotic in surface water samples with an average value of 1.60μg/L, 0.772μg/L and 0.546μg/L respectively in spring, summer and winter. In groundwater samples, fluoroquinolones and tetracyclines accounted for the dominant proportion of total antibiotic residues. The vertical distributions of total antibiotics in groundwater samples from three different depths boreholes (10m, 25m, and 50m) exhibited irregular fluctuations. Consistently decreasing of antibiotic residues with increasing of depth was observed in four (G01, G02, G03 and G05) groundwater sampling sites over three seasons. However, at the sampling sites G07 and G08, the pronounced high concentrations of total antibiotic residues were detected in water samples from 50m deep boreholes instead of those at upper aquifer in winter sampling campaign, with the total concentrations of 0.201μg/L and 0.100μg/L respectively. The environmental risks posed by the 14 antibiotics were assessed by using the methods of risk quotient and mixture risk quotient for algae, daphnids and fish in surface water and groundwater. The results suggested that algae might be the aquatic organism most sensitive to the antibiotics, with the highest risk levels posed by erythromycin in surface water and by ciprofloxacin in groundwater among the 14 antibiotics. In addition, the comparison between detected antibiotics in groundwater samples and the reported effective concentrations of antibiotics on denitrification by denitrifying bacteria, indicating this biogeochemical process driven by microorganisms won't be inhibitory influenced by the antibiotic residues in groundwater. Copyright © 2016

  10. Doomed reservoirs in Kansas, USA? Climate change and groundwater mining on the Great Plains lead to unsustainable surface water storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brikowski, T. H.

    2008-06-01

    SummaryStreamflow declines on the Great Plains of the US are causing many Federal reservoirs to become profoundly inefficient, and will eventually drive them into unsustainability as negative annual reservoir water budgets become more common. The streamflow declines are historically related to groundwater mining, but since the mid-1980s correlate increasingly with climate. This study highlights that progression toward unsustainability, and shows that future climate change will continue streamflow declines at historical rates, with severe consequences for surface water supply. An object lesson is Optima Lake in the Oklahoma Panhandle, where streamflows have declined 99% since the 1960s and the reservoir has never been more than 5% full. Water balances for the four westernmost Federal reservoirs in Kansas (Cedar Bluff, Keith Sebelius, Webster and Kirwin) show similar tendencies. For these four, reservoir inflow has declined by 92%, 73%, 81% and 64% respectively since the 1950s. Since 1990 total evaporated volumes relative to total inflows amounted to 68%, 83%, 24% and 44% respectively. Predictions of streamflow and reservoir performance based on climate change models indicate 70% chance of steady decline after 2007, with a ˜50% chance of failure (releases by gravity flow impossible) of Cedar Bluff Reservoir between 2007 and 2050. Paradoxically, a 30% chance of storage increase prior 2020 is indicated, followed by steady declines through 2100. Within 95% confidence the models predict >50% decline in surface water resources between 2007 and 2050. Ultimately, surface storage of water resources may prove unsustainable in this region, forcing conversion to subsurface storage.

  11. Control of groundwater in surface mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brawner, C. O.

    1982-03-01

    The presence of groundwater in surface mining operations often creates serious problems. The most important is generally a reduction in stability of the pit slopes. This is caused by pore water pressures and hydrodynamic shock due to blasting which reduce the shear strength and seepage pressures, water in tension cracks and increased unit weight which increase the shear stress. Groundwater and seepage also increase the cost of pit drainage, shipping, drilling and blasting, tyre wear and equipment maintenance. Surface erosion may also be increased and, in northern climates, ice flows on the slopes may occur. Procedures have been developed in the field of soil mechanics and engineering of dams to obtain quantitative data on pore water pressures and rock permeability, to evaluate the influence of pore water and seepage pressures on stability and to estimate the magnitude of ground-water flow. Based on field investigations, a design can be prepared for the control of groundwater in the slope and in the pit. Methods of control include the use of horizontal drains, blasted toe drains, construction of adits or drainage tunnels and pumping from wells in or outside of the pit. Recent research indicates that subsurface drainage can be augmented by applying a vacuum or by selective blasting. Instrumentation should be installed to monitor the groundwater changes created by drainage. Typical case histories are described that indicate the approach used to evaluate groundwater conditions.

  12. A conceptual model for groundwater - surface water interactions in the Darling River Floodplain, N.S.W., Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, R. S.; Lawrie, K.; Somerville, P.; Hostetler, S.; Magee, J.; Tan, K. P.; Clarke, J.

    2013-12-01

    Multiple lines of evidence were used to develop a conceptual model for interaction between the Darling River and associated floodplain aquifers in western New South Wales, Australia. Hydrostratigraphy and groundwater salinities were mapped using airborne electromagnetics (AEM), validated by sonic-core drilling. The AEM was highly effective in mapping groundwater freshening due to river leakage in discrete zones along the river corridor. These fresh resources occurred in both the unconfined Quaternary aquifers and the underlying, largely semi-confined Pliocene aquifers. The AEM was also fundamental to mapping the Blanchetown Clay aquitard which separates these two aquifer systems. Major-ion chemistry highlighted a mixing signature between river waters and groundwaters in both the Quaternary and Pliocene aquifers. Stable isotope data indicates that recharge to the key Pliocene aquifers is episodic and linked to high-flow flood events rather than river leakage being continuous. This was also evident when groundwater chemistry was compared with river chemistry under different flow conditions. Mapping of borehole levels showed groundwater mounding near the river, emphasising the regional significance of losing river conditions for both aquifer systems. Critically, rapid and significant groundwater level responses were measured during large flood events. In the Pliocene aquifers, continuation of rising trends after the flood peak receded confirms that this is an actual recharge response rather than hydraulic loading. The flow dependency of river leakage can be explained by the presence of mud veneers and mineral precipitates along the Darling River channel bank when river flows are low. During low flow conditions these act as impediments to river leakage. During floods, high flow velocities scour these deposits, revealing lateral-accretion surfaces in the shallow scroll plain sediments. This scouring allows lateral bank recharge to the shallow aquifer. During flood

  13. Forsmark site investigation. Hydrochemical monitoring of groundwaters and surface waters. Results from water sampling in the Forsmark area, January-December 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Ann-Chatrin (ed.); Berg, Cecilia; Harrstroem, Johan; Joensson, Stig; Thur, Pernilla (Geosigma AB (Sweden)); Borgiel, Micke; Qvarfordt, Susanne (Sveriges Vattenekologer AB (Sweden))

    2010-09-15

    The fifth year (2009) of hydrochemical monitoring of groundwaters, surface waters and precipitation in Forsmark is documented in the report. The hydrochemical monitoring programme 2009 included water sampling from: - percussion- and core boreholes equipped with installations for long-term pressure monitoring, tracer tests and water sampling in packed off borehole sections, sampling and analysis performed twice (spring and autumn), - near surface groundwaters (sampling four times a year), - private wells (once per year in October), - surface waters (eleven sampling occasions per year). Due to the somewhat different performance of the hydrogeochemical monitoring of the deep groundwaters during the autumn 2009 compared to previous years, some new findings and knowledge were obtained: 1) Removal of water volumes corresponding to three to five times the volume of the borehole section (the routine procedure) is seldom enough to obtain a complete exchange of the water present in the borehole section when the pumping starts. 2) It is likely that the elevated sulphide concentrations observed in the monitoring programme /1/ is due to contamination from initial water present in the borehole sections when the pumping starts. This water may have a very high sulphide concentration. Dirty water in tubes and in stand pipes may also contribute to the enhanced sulphide concentration. 3) Plug flow calculations will be introduced in the future as a new routine procedure to estimate the water volumes to be removed, in order to exchange the section water volume, prior to groundwater sampling in delimited borehole sections. During the autumn sampling, sample series of five samples per sampling location were collected during continuous pumping in thirteen selected borehole sections. Furthermore, special efforts were put on cleaning of stand pipes and exchange of water prior to sampling. The analytical protocol was rather extensive and included sulphide and uranium analyses for each sample

  14. Forsmark site investigation. Hydrochemical monitoring of groundwaters and surface waters. Results from water sampling in the Forsmark area, January-December 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, Ann-Chatrin; Borgiel, Micke; Qvarfordt, Susanne

    2010-09-01

    The fifth year (2009) of hydrochemical monitoring of groundwaters, surface waters and precipitation in Forsmark is documented in the report. The hydrochemical monitoring programme 2009 included water sampling from: - percussion- and core boreholes equipped with installations for long-term pressure monitoring, tracer tests and water sampling in packed off borehole sections, sampling and analysis performed twice (spring and autumn), - near surface groundwaters (sampling four times a year), - private wells (once per year in October), - surface waters (eleven sampling occasions per year). Due to the somewhat different performance of the hydrogeochemical monitoring of the deep groundwaters during the autumn 2009 compared to previous years, some new findings and knowledge were obtained: 1) Removal of water volumes corresponding to three to five times the volume of the borehole section (the routine procedure) is seldom enough to obtain a complete exchange of the water present in the borehole section when the pumping starts. 2) It is likely that the elevated sulphide concentrations observed in the monitoring programme /1/ is due to contamination from initial water present in the borehole sections when the pumping starts. This water may have a very high sulphide concentration. Dirty water in tubes and in stand pipes may also contribute to the enhanced sulphide concentration. 3) Plug flow calculations will be introduced in the future as a new routine procedure to estimate the water volumes to be removed, in order to exchange the section water volume, prior to groundwater sampling in delimited borehole sections. During the autumn sampling, sample series of five samples per sampling location were collected during continuous pumping in thirteen selected borehole sections. Furthermore, special efforts were put on cleaning of stand pipes and exchange of water prior to sampling. The analytical protocol was rather extensive and included sulphide and uranium analyses for each sample

  15. Groundwater Protection Program Calendar Year 1998 Evaluation of Groundwater and Surface Water Quality Data for the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime at the U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    None

    1999-01-01

    This report presents an evaluation of the water quality monitoring data obtained by the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) in the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime) during calendar year (CY) 1998. The Bear Creek Regime contains many confirmed and potential sources of groundwater and surface water contamination associated with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Applicable provisions of DOE Order 5400.1A - General Environmental Protection Program - require evaluation of groundwater and surface water quality near the Y-12 Plant to: (1) gauge groundwater quality in areas that are, or could be, affected by plant operations, (2) determine the quality of surface water and groundwater where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) property line, and (3) identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality. The following sections of this report contain relevant background information (Section 2.0); describe the results of the respective data evaluations required under DOE Order 5400.1A (Section 3.0); summarize significant findings of each evaluation (Section 4.0); and list the technical reports and regulatory documents cited for more detailed information (Section 5.0). All of the figures (maps and trend graphs) and data tables referenced in each section are presented in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively

  16. Groundwater Protection Program Calendar Year 1998 Evaluation of Groundwater and Surface Water Quality Data for the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime at the U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-09-01

    This report presents an evaluation of the water quality monitoring data obtained by the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) in the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime) during calendar year (CY) 1998. The Bear Creek Regime contains many confirmed and potential sources of groundwater and surface water contamination associated with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Applicable provisions of DOE Order 5400.1A - General Environmental Protection Program - require evaluation of groundwater and surface water quality near the Y-12 Plant to: (1) gauge groundwater quality in areas that are, or could be, affected by plant operations, (2) determine the quality of surface water and groundwater where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) property line, and (3) identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality. The following sections of this report contain relevant background information (Section 2.0); describe the results of the respective data evaluations required under DOE Order 5400.1A (Section 3.0); summarize significant findings of each evaluation (Section 4.0); and list the technical reports and regulatory documents cited for more detailed information (Section 5.0). All of the figures (maps and trend graphs) and data tables referenced in each section are presented in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively.

  17. Changing Groundwater-Surface Water Interactions Impact Stream Chemistry and Ecology at the Arctic-Boreal Transition in Western Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, J. C.; Carey, M.; O'Donnell, J.; Sjoberg, Y.; Zimmerman, C. E.

    2016-12-01

    The arctic-boreal transition zone of Alaska is experiencing rapid change related to unprecedented warming and subsequent loss of permafrost. These changes in turn may affect groundwater-surface water (GW-SW) interactions, biogeochemical cycling, and ecosystem processes. While recent field and modeling studies have improved our understanding of hydrology in watersheds underlain by thawing permafrost, little is known about how these hydrologic shifts will impact bottom-up controls on stream food webs. To address this uncertainty, we are using an integrative experimental design to link GW-SW interactions to stream biogeochemistry and biota in 10 first-order streams in northwest Alaska. These study streams drain watersheds that span several gradients, including elevation, aspect, and vegetation (tundra vs. forest). We have developed a robust, multi-disciplinary data set to characterize GW-SW interactions and to mechanistically link GW-SW dynamics to water quality and the stream ecosystem. Data includes soil hydrology and chemistry; stream discharge, temperature, and inflow rates; water chemistry (including water isotopes, major ions, carbon concentration and isotopes, nutrients and chlorophyll-a), and invertebrate and fish communities. Stream recession curves indicate a decreasing rate later in the summer in some streams, consistent with seasonal thaw in lower elevation and south-facing catchments. Base cation and water isotope chemistry display similar impacts of seasonal thaw and also suggest the dominance of groundwater in many streams. Coupled with estimates of GW-SW exchange at point, reach, and catchment scales, these results will be used to predict how hydrology and water quality are likely to impact fish habitat and growth given continued warming at the arctic-boreal transition.

  18. Ground-water travel time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentley, H.; Grisak, G.

    1985-01-01

    The Containment and Isolation Working Group considered issues related to the postclosure behavior of repositories in crystalline rock. This working group was further divided into subgroups to consider the progress since the 1978 GAIN Symposium and identify research needs in the individual areas of regional ground-water flow, ground-water travel time, fractional release, and cumulative release. The analysis and findings of the Ground-Water Travel Time Subgroup are presented

  19. Regional ground-water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, J.

    1985-01-01

    The Containment and Isolation Working Group considered issues related to the postclosure behavior of repositories in crystalline rock. This working group was further divided into subgroups to consider the progress since the 1978 GAIN Symposium and identify research needs in the individual areas of regional ground-water flow, ground-water travel time, fractional release, and cumulative release. The analysis and findings of the Ground-Water Regime Subgroup are presented

  20. Procedures for the collection and preservation of groundwater and surface water samples and for the installation of monitoring wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korte, N.; Kearl, P.

    1984-01-01

    Proper sampling procedures are essential for a successful water-quality monitoring program. It must be emphasized, however, that it is impossible to maintain absolutely in-situ conditions when collecting and preserving a water sample, whether from a flowing stream or an aquifer. Consequently, the most that can reasonably be expected is to collect a best possible sample with minimal disturbance. This document describes procedures for installing monitoring wells and for collecting samples of surface water and groundwater. The discussion of monitoring wells includes mention of multilevel sampling and a general overview of vadose-zone monitoring. Guidelines for well installation are presented in detail. The discussion of water-sample collection contains evaluations of sampling pumps, filtration equipment, and sample containers. Sample-preservation techniques, as published by several government and private sources, are reviewed. Finally, step-by-step procedures for collection of water samples are provided; these procedures address such considerations as necessary equipment, field operations, and written documentation. Separate procedures are also included for the collection of samples for determination of sulfide and for reactive aluminum. The report concludes with a brief discussion of adverse sampling, conditions that may significantly affect the quality of the data. Appendix A presents a rationale for the development and use of statistical considerations in water sampling to ensure a more complete water quality monitoring program. 51 references, 9 figures, 4 tables

  1. Residence time, chemical and isotopic analysis of nitrate in the groundwater and surface water of a small agricultural watershed in the Coastal Plain, Bucks Branch, Sussex County, Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clune, John W.; Denver, Judith M.

    2012-01-01

    Nitrate is a common contaminant in groundwater and surface water throughout the Nation, and water-resource managers need more detailed small-scale watershed research to guide conservation efforts aimed at improving water quality. Concentrations of nitrate in Bucks Branch are among the highest in the state of Delaware and a scientific investigation was performed to provide water-quality information to assist with the management of agriculture and water resources. A combination of major-ion chemistry, nitrogen isotopic composition and age-dating techniques was used to estimate the residence time and provide a chemical and isotopic analysis of nitrate in the groundwater in the surficial aquifer of the Bucks Branch watershed in Sussex County, Delaware. The land use was more than 90 percent agricultural and most nitrogen inputs were from manure and fertilizer. The apparent median age of sampled groundwater is 18 years and the estimated residence time of groundwater contributing to the streamflow for the entire Bucks Branch watershed at the outlet is approximately 19 years. Concentrations of nitrate exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water standard of 10 milligrams per liter (as nitrogen) in 60 percent of groundwater samples and 42 percent of surface-water samples. The overall geochemistry in the Bucks Branch watershed indicates that agriculture is the predominant source of nitrate contamination and the observed patterns in major-ion chemistry are similar to those observed in other studies on the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain. The pattern of enrichment in nitrogen and oxygen isotopes (δ15N and δ18O) of nitrate in groundwater and surface water indicates there is some loss of nitrate through denitrification, but this process is not sufficient to remove all of the nitrate from groundwater discharging to streams, and concentrations of nitrate in streams remain elevated.

  2. Surface- and ground-water relations on the Portneuf river, and temporal changes in ground-water levels in the Portneuf Valley, Caribou and Bannock Counties, Idaho, 2001-02

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Gary J.

    2004-01-01

    The State of Idaho and local water users are concerned that streamflow depletion in the Portneuf River in Caribou and Bannock Counties is linked to ground-water withdrawals for irrigated agriculture. A year-long field study during 2001 02 that focused on monitoring surface- and ground-water relations was conducted, in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Water Resources, to address some of the water-user concerns. The study area comprised a 10.2-mile reach of the Portneuf River downstream from the Chesterfield Reservoir in the broad Portneuf Valley (Portneuf River Valley reach) and a 20-mile reach of the Portneuf River in a narrow valley downstream from the Portneuf Valley (Pebble-Topaz reach). During the field study, the surface- and ground-water relations were dynamic. A losing river reach was delineated in the middle of the Portneuf River Valley reach, centered approximately 7.2 miles downstream from Chesterfield Reservoir. Two seepage studies conducted in the Portneuf Valley during regulated high flows showed that the length of the losing river reach increased from 2.6 to nearly 6 miles as the irrigation season progressed.Surface- and ground-water relations in the Portneuf Valley also were characterized from an analysis of specific conductance and temperature measurements. In a gaining reach, stratification of specific conductance and temperature across the channel of the Portneuf River was an indicator of ground water seeping into the river.An evolving method of using heat as a tracer to monitor surface- and ground-water relations was successfully conducted with thermistor arrays at four locations. Heat tracing monitored a gaining reach, where ground water was seeping into the river, and monitored a losing reach, where surface water was seeping down through the riverbed (also referred to as a conveyance loss), at two locations.Conveyance losses in the Portneuf River Valley reach were greatest, about 20 cubic feet per second, during the mid-summer regulated

  3. Geophysical characterization of the role of fault and fracture systems for recharging groundwater aquifers from surface water of Lake Nasser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khamis Mansour

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The role of the fracture system is important for enhancing the recharge or discharge of fluids in the subsurface reservoir. The Lake Nasser is consider one of the largest artificial lakes all over the world and contains huge bulk of storage water. In this study, the influence of fracture zones on subsurface fluid flow in groundwater reservoirs is investigated using geophysical techniques including seismicity, geoelectric and gravity data. These data have been utilized for exploring structural structure in south west Lake Nasser, and subsurface discontinuities (joints or faults notwithstanding its related fracture systems. Seismicity investigation gave us the comprehension of the dynamic geological structure sets and proposing the main recharging paths for the Nubian aquifer from Lake Nasser surface water. Processing and modelling of aerogravity data show that the greater thickness of sedimentary cover (700 m is located eastward and northward while basement outcrops occur at Umm Shaghir and Al Asr areas. Sixty-nine vertical electrical soundings (VES’s were used to delineate the subsurface geoelectric layers along eight profiles that help to realize the subsurface geological structure behind the hydrogeological conditions of the studied area. Keywords: Fracture system, Seismicity, Groundwater reservoir, Gravity, VES

  4. {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 210}Pb determination in surface water and groundwater by liquid scintillation counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faria, Ligia S.; Moreira, Rubens M., E-mail: ligsfaria@gmail.com, E-mail: rubens@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The municipalities of Brumadinho and Nova Lima are located in the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte city, in the State of Minas Gerais. These two sites are important due to being located inside an Environmental Protection Area inserted in the Iron Quadrangle. In addition to the mineral wealth, the region has geological features that include quartz conglomerates associated with uranium and a significant groundwater potential exhibiting quite peculiar and complex hydrogeological features, such as the quartzite aquifer itself. Nuclear techniques applied to hydrology, such as Liquid Scintillation Counting technique (LSC), make possible the evaluation of natural radioactivity in surface water and groundwater. The objectives of this study were the determination of the activities of the long half-life radionuclides of the uranium and thorium series, such as {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 210}Pb, and provide an effective methodology to define if the direct consumption of these waters can cause risk to health due to its radioactivity. The results were compared with the recommendations of the Ministry of Health. (author)

  5. Using Flux Information at Surface Water Boundaries to Improve a Groundwater Flow and Transport Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Genereux, David

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the performance of a groundwater flow and solute transport model when different combinations of hydraulic head, seepage flux, and chloride concentration data were used in calibration of the model...

  6. Direct measurements of the tile drain and groundwater flow route contributions to surface water contamination: from field-scale concentration patterns in groundwater to catchment-scale surface water quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozemeijer, J.C.; Velde, van der Y.; Geer, van F.C.; Broers, H.P.; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    2010-01-01

    Enhanced knowledge of water and solute pathways in catchments would improve the understanding of dynamics in water quality and would support the selection of appropriate water pollution mitigation options. For this study, we physically separated tile drain effluent and groundwater discharge from an

  7. Direct measurements of the tile drain and groundwater flow route contributions to surface water contamination: From field-scale concentration patterns in groundwater to catchment-scale surface water quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozemeijer, J.C.; Velde, Y. van der; Geer, F.C. van; Bierkens, M.F.P.; Broers, H.P.

    2010-01-01

    Enhanced knowledge of water and solute pathways in catchments would improve the understanding of dynamics in water quality and would support the selection of appropriate water pollution mitigation options. For this study, we physically separated tile drain effluent and groundwater discharge from an

  8. Quantification of long-term wastewater fluxes at the surface water/groundwater-interface: An integrative model perspective using stable isotopes and acesulfame

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelhardt, I., E-mail: i.engelhardt@fz-juelich.de [Forschungszentrum Jülich, Institute of Bio- and Geosciences, Agrosphere — IBG-3 (Germany); Technical University of Darmstadt, Institute of Applied Geosciences (Germany); Barth, J.A.C. [GeoZentrum Nordbayern, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg (Germany); Bol, R. [Forschungszentrum Jülich, Institute of Bio- and Geosciences, Agrosphere — IBG-3 (Germany); Schulz, M.; Ternes, T.A. [Federal Institute of Hydrology (BfG) (Germany); Schüth, C. [Technical University of Darmstadt, Institute of Applied Geosciences (Germany); van Geldern, R. [GeoZentrum Nordbayern, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg (Germany)

    2014-01-01

    The suitability of acesulfame to trace wastewater-related surface water fluxes from streams into the hyporheic and riparian zones over long-term periods was investigated. The transport behavior of acesulfame was compared with the transport of water stable isotopes (δ{sup 18}O or δ{sup 2}H). A calibrated model based on a joint inversion of temperature, acesulfame, and piezometric pressure heads was employed in a model validation using data sets of acesulfame and water stable isotopes collected over 5 months in a stream and groundwater. The spatial distribution of fresh water within the groundwater resulting from surface water infiltration was estimated by computing groundwater ages and compared with the predicted acesulfame plume obtained after 153 day simulation time. Both, surface water ratios calculated with a mixing equation from water stable isotopes and simulated acesulfame mass fluxes, were investigated for their ability to estimate the contribution of wastewater-related surface water inflow within groundwater. The results of this study point to limitations for the application of acesulfame to trace surface water–groundwater interactions properly. Acesulfame completely missed the wastewater-related surface water volumes that still remained in the hyporheic zone under stream-gaining conditions. In contrast, under stream-losing conditions, which developed after periods of stagnating hydraulic exchange, acesulfame based predictions lead to an overestimation of the surface water volume of up to 25% in the riparian zone. If slow seepage velocities prevail a proportion of acesulfame might be stored in smaller pores, while when released under fast flowing water conditions it will travel further downstream with the groundwater flow direction. Therefore, under such conditions acesulfame can be a less-ideal tracer in the hyporheic and riparian zones and additional monitoring with other environmental tracers such as water stable isotopes is highly recommended

  9. Groundwater and surface-water interaction and effects of pumping in a complex glacial-sediment aquifer, phase 2, east-central Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggleston, Jack R.; Zarriello, Phillip J.; Carlson, Carl S.

    2015-12-31

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Town of Framingham, Massachusetts, has investigated the potential of proposed groundwater withdrawals at the Birch Road well site to affect nearby surface water bodies and wetlands, including Lake Cochituate, the Sudbury River, and the Great Meadows National Wildlife Refuge in east-central Massachusetts. In 2012, the U.S. Geological Survey developed a Phase 1 numerical groundwater model of a complex glacial-sediment aquifer to synthesize hydrogeologic information and simulate potential future pumping scenarios. The model was developed with MODFLOW-NWT, an updated version of a standard USGS numerical groundwater flow modeling program that improves solution of unconfined groundwater flow problems. The groundwater model and investigations of the aquifer improved understanding of groundwater–surface-water interaction and the effects of groundwater withdrawals on surface-water bodies and wetlands in the study area. The initial work also revealed a need for additional information and model refinements to better understand this complex aquifer system.

  10. Continuous Long-Term Modeling of Shallow Groundwater-Surface Water Interaction: Implications for a Wet Prairie Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijayarathne, D. B.; Gomezdelcampo, E.

    2017-12-01

    The existence of wet prairies is wholly dependent on the groundwater and surface water interaction. Any process that alters this interaction has a significant impact on the eco-hydrology of wet prairies. The Oak Openings Region (OOR) in Northwest Ohio supports globally rare wet prairie habitats and the precious few remaining have been drained by ditches, altering their natural flow and making them an unusually variable and artificial system. The Gridded Surface Subsurface Hydrologic Analysis (GSSHA) model from the US Army Engineer Research and Development Center was used to assess the long-term impacts of land-use change on wet prairie restoration. This study is the first spatially explicit, continuous, long-term modeling approach for understanding the response of the shallow groundwater system of the OOR to human intervention, both positive and negative. The GSSHA model was calibrated using a 2-year weekly time series of water table elevations collected with an array of piezometers in the field. Basic statistical analysis indicates a good fit between observed and simulated water table elevations on a weekly level, though the model was run on an hourly time step and a pixel size of 10 m. Spatially-explicit results show that removal of a local ditch may not drastically change the amount of ponding in the area during spring storms, but large flooding over the entire area would occur if two other ditches are removed. This model is being used by The Nature Conservancy and Toledo Metroparks to develop different scenarios for prairie restoration that minimize its effect on local homeowners.

  11. Evaluation of water quality in surface water and shallow groundwater: a case study of a rare earth mining area in southern Jiangxi Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Xiuzhen; Wang, Dengjun; Wang, Peiran; Wang, Yuxia; Zhou, Dongmei

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the quality of surface water and shallow groundwater near a rare earth mining area in southern Jiangxi Province, China. Water samples from paddy fields, ponds, streams, wells, and springs were collected and analyzed. The results showed that water bodies were characterized by low pH and high concentrations of total nitrogen (total N), ammonium nitrogen (NH4 (+)-N), manganese (Mn), and rare earth elements (REEs), which was likely due to residual chemicals in the soil after mining activity. A comparison with the surface water standard (State Environmental Protection Administration & General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine of China GB3838, 2002) and drinking water sanitary standard (Ministry of Health & National Standardization Management Committee of China GB5749, 2006) of China revealed that 88 % of pond and stream water samples investigated were unsuitable for agricultural use and aquaculture water supply, and 50 % of well and spring water samples were unsuitable for drinking water. Moreover, significant cerium (Ce) negative and heavy REEs enrichment was observed after the data were normalized to the Post-Archean Australian Shales (PAAS). Principal component analysis indicated that the mining activity had a more significant impact on local water quality than terrace field farming and poultry breeding activities. Moreover, greater risk of water pollution and adverse effects on local residents' health was observed with closer proximity to mining sites. Overall, these findings indicate that effective measures to prevent contamination of surrounding water bodies from the effects of mining activity are needed.

  12. Chemical characteristics of surface systems in the Forsmark area. Visualisation and statistical evaluation of data from surface water, precipitation, shallow groundwater, and regolith

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-02-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste management Co (SKB) initiated site investigations for a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel at two different sites in Sweden, Forsmark and Oskarshamn, in 2002. This report evaluates the results from chemical investigations of the surface system in the Forsmark area during the period November 2002 - March 2005. The evaluation includes data from surface waters (lakes, streams and the sea), precipitation, shallow groundwater and regolith (till, soil, peat, sediments and biota) in the area. Results from surface waters are not presented in this report since these were treated in a recently published report. The main focus of the study is to visualize the vast amount of data collected hitherto in the site investigations, and to give a chemical characterisation of the investigated media at the site. The results will be used to support the site descriptive models, which in turn are used for safety assessment studies and for the environmental impact assessment. The data used consist of water chemical composition in lakes, streams, coastal sites, and in precipitation, predominantly sampled on a monthly basis, and in groundwater from soil tubes and wells, sampled up to four times per year. Moreover, regolith data includes information on the chemical composition of till, soil, sediment and vegetation samples from the area. The characterisations include all measured chemical parameters, i.e. major and minor constituents, trace elements, nutrients, isotopes and radio nuclides, as well as field measured parameters. The evaluation of data from each medium has been divided into the following parts: Characterisation of individual sampling sites, and comparisons within and among sampling sites as well as comparisons with local, regional and national reference data; Analysis of time trends and seasonal variation (for shallow groundwater); Exploration of relationships among the various chemical parameters. For all investigated parameters, the

  13. Documentation of the Surface-Water Routing (SWR1) Process for modeling surface-water flow with the U.S. Geological Survey Modular Ground-Water Model (MODFLOW-2005)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Joseph D.; Langevin, Christian D.; Chartier, Kevin L.; White, Jeremy T.

    2012-01-01

    A flexible Surface-Water Routing (SWR1) Process that solves the continuity equation for one-dimensional and two-dimensional surface-water flow routing has been developed for the U.S. Geological Survey three-dimensional groundwater model, MODFLOW-2005. Simple level- and tilted-pool reservoir routing and a diffusive-wave approximation of the Saint-Venant equations have been implemented. Both methods can be implemented in the same model and the solution method can be simplified to represent constant-stage elements that are functionally equivalent to the standard MODFLOW River or Drain Package boundary conditions. A generic approach has been used to represent surface-water features (reaches) and allows implementation of a variety of geometric forms. One-dimensional geometric forms include rectangular, trapezoidal, and irregular cross section reaches to simulate one-dimensional surface-water features, such as canals and streams. Two-dimensional geometric forms include reaches defined using specified stage-volume-area-perimeter (SVAP) tables and reaches covering entire finite-difference grid cells to simulate two-dimensional surface-water features, such as wetlands and lakes. Specified SVAP tables can be used to represent reaches that are smaller than the finite-difference grid cell (for example, isolated lakes), or reaches that cannot be represented accurately using the defined top of the model. Specified lateral flows (which can represent point and distributed flows) and stage-dependent rainfall and evaporation can be applied to each reach. The SWR1 Process can be used with the MODFLOW Unsaturated Zone Flow (UZF1) Package to permit dynamic simulation of runoff from the land surface to specified reaches. Surface-water/groundwater interactions in the SWR1 Process are mathematically defined to be a function of the difference between simulated stages and groundwater levels, and the specific form of the reach conductance equation used in each reach. Conductance can be

  14. Surface Water Transport for the F/H Area Seepage Basins Groundwater Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Kuo-Fu.

    1995-01-01

    The contribution of the F- and H-Area Seepage Basins (FHSBs) tritium releases to the tritium concentration in the Savannah River are presented in this report. WASP5 was used to simulate surface water transport for tritium releases from the FHSBs. The WASP5 model was qualified with the 1993 tritium measurements at US Highway 301. The tritium concentrations in Fourmile Branch and the Savannah River were calculated for tritium releases from FHSBs. The calculated tritium concentrations above normal environmental background in the Savannah River, resulting from FHSBs releases, drop from 1.25 pCi/ml (<10% of EPA Drinking Water Guide) in 1995 to 0.0056 pCi/ml in 2045

  15. Statistical mapping of zones of focused groundwater/surface-water exchange using fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwakanyamale, Kisa; Day-Lewis, Frederick D.; Slater, Lee D.

    2013-01-01

    Fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing (FO-DTS) increasingly is used to map zones of focused groundwater/surface-water exchange (GWSWE). Previous studies of GWSWE using FO-DTS involved identification of zones of focused GWSWE based on arbitrary cutoffs of FO-DTS time-series statistics (e.g., variance, cross-correlation between temperature and stage, or spectral power). New approaches are needed to extract more quantitative information from large, complex FO-DTS data sets while concurrently providing an assessment of uncertainty associated with mapping zones of focused GSWSE. Toward this end, we present a strategy combining discriminant analysis (DA) and spectral analysis (SA). We demonstrate the approach using field experimental data from a reach of the Columbia River adjacent to the Hanford 300 Area site. Results of the combined SA/DA approach are shown to be superior to previous results from qualitative interpretation of FO-DTS spectra alone.

  16. Hydrogeologic framework, groundwater and surface-water systems, land use, pumpage, and water budget of the Chamokane Creek basin, Stevens County, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahle, Sue C.; Taylor, William A.; Lin, Sonja; Sumioka, Steven S.; Olsen, Theresa D.

    2010-01-01

    A study of the water resources of the unconsolidated groundwater system of the Chamokane Creek basin was conducted to determine the hydrogeologic framework, interactions of shallow and deep parts of the groundwater system with each other and the surface-water system, changes in land use and land cover, and water-use estimates. Chamokane Creek basin is a 179 mi2 area that borders and partially overlaps the Spokane Indian Reservation in southern Stevens County in northeastern Washington State. Aquifers within the Chamokane Creek basin are part of a sequence of glaciofluvial and glaciolacustrine sediment that may reach total thicknesses of about 600 ft. In 1979, most of the water rights in the Chamokane Creek basin were adjudicated by the United States District Court requiring regulation in favor of the Spokane Tribe of Indians' senior water right. The Spokane Tribe, the State of Washington, and the United States are concerned about the effects of additional groundwater development within the basin on Chamokane Creek. Information provided by this study will be used to evaluate the effects of potential increases in groundwater withdrawals on groundwater and surface-water resources within the basin. The hydrogeologic framework consists of six hydrogeologic units: The Upper outwash aquifer, the Landslide Unit, the Valley Confining Unit, the Lower Aquifer, the Basalt Unit, and the Bedrock Unit. The Upper outwash aquifer occurs along the valley floors of the study area and consists of sand, gravel, cobbles, boulders, with minor silt and (or) clay interbeds in places. The Lower aquifer is a confined aquifer consisting of sand and gravel that occurs at depth below the Valley confining unit. Median horizontal hydraulic conductivity values for the Upper outwash aquifer, Valley confining unit, Lower aquifer, and Basalt unit were estimated to be 540, 10, 19, and 3.7 ft/d, respectively. Many low-flow stream discharge measurements at sites on Chamokane Creek and its tributaries

  17. Spatially variable stage-driven groundwater-surface water interaction inferred from time-frequency analysis of distributed temperature sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwakanyamale, Kisa; Slater, Lee; Day-Lewis, Frederick D.; Elwaseif, Mehrez; Johnson, Carole D.

    2012-01-01

    Characterization of groundwater-surface water exchange is essential for improving understanding of contaminant transport between aquifers and rivers. Fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing (FODTS) provides rich spatiotemporal datasets for quantitative and qualitative analysis of groundwater-surface water exchange. We demonstrate how time-frequency analysis of FODTS and synchronous river stage time series from the Columbia River adjacent to the Hanford 300-Area, Richland, Washington, provides spatial information on the strength of stage-driven exchange of uranium contaminated groundwater in response to subsurface heterogeneity. Although used in previous studies, the stage-temperature correlation coefficient proved an unreliable indicator of the stage-driven forcing on groundwater discharge in the presence of other factors influencing river water temperature. In contrast, S-transform analysis of the stage and FODTS data definitively identifies the spatial distribution of discharge zones and provided information on the dominant forcing periods (≥2 d) of the complex dam operations driving stage fluctuations and hence groundwater-surface water exchange at the 300-Area.

  18. Impact of wastewater treatment plant discharge of lidocaine, tramadol, venlafaxine and their metabolites on the quality of surface waters and groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rúa-Gómez, Paola C; Püttmann, Wilhelm

    2012-05-01

    The presence of the anesthetic lidocaine (LDC), the analgesic tramadol (TRA), the antidepressant venlafaxine (VEN) and the metabolites O-desmethyltramadol (ODT) and O-desmethylvenlafaxine (ODV) was investigated in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents, in surface waters and in groundwater. The analytes were detected in all effluent samples and in only 64% of the surface water samples. The mean concentrations of the analytes in effluent samples from WWTPs with wastewater from only households and hospitals were 107 (LDC), 757 (TRA), 122 (ODT), 160 (VEN) and 637 ng L(-1) (ODV), while the mean concentrations in effluents from WWTPs treating additionally wastewater from pharmaceutical industries as indirect dischargers were for some pharmaceuticals clearly higher. WWTP effluents were identified as important sources of the analyzed pharmaceuticals and their metabolites in surface waters. The concentrations of the compounds found in surface waters ranged from Infiltration of the target analytes into groundwater was not observed.

  19. Data Validation Package - June 2016 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Green River, Utah, Disposal Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linard, Joshua [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC (United States); Price, Jeffrey [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2016-10-10

    This event included annual sampling of groundwater and surface water locations at the Green River, Utah, Disposal Site. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in Sampling and Analysis Plan for US. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated, http://energy.gov/lrnldownloads/sampling-and- analysis-plan-us-department-energy-office-legacy-management-sites). Samples were collected from 15 monitoring wells and two surface locations at the disposal site as specified in the draft 2011 Ground Water Compliance Action Plan for the Green River, Utah, Disposal Site. Planned monitoring locations are shown in Attachment 1, Sampling and Analysis Work Order. A duplicate sample was collected from location 0179. One equipment blank was collected during this sampling event. Water levels were measured at all monitoring wells that were sampled. See Attachment 2, Trip Reports for additional details. The analytical data and associated qualifiers can be viewed in environmental database reports and are also available for viewing with dynamic mapping via the GEMS (Geospatial Environmental Mapping System) website at http://gems.lm.doe.gov/#. No issues were identified during the data validation process that requires additional action or follow-up.

  20. Use of Isotopic Techniques for the Assessment of Hydrological Interaction Surface Water and Groundwater. Rio Man - Cienaga Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacio B, P.; Betancur V, T.; Dapena, C.

    2011-01-01

    This job integrates the first results from the studies ''Conceptual Hydrological Model for the middle and lower parts of the Man River basin using hydrological, hydrochemical and isotopic techniques'' (Palacio, 2011) and ''Hydrochemical and Isotopic techniques for the assessment of hydrological processes in the the wetlands of Bajo Cauca Antioquia'' (University of Antioquia and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The Man river basin covers an area of 688 km 2 ; with temperatures ranging from 25 to 30 o C; The average annual rainfall is 2.800 mm. The geology of the area is composed mainly of clastic sedimentary rocks of continental origin. A hydrological model of interaction between surface water and groundwater for the lower middle of the Man River basin was obtained by the use of hydrological analysis techniques. This model was refined, adjusted and validated using isotope techniques based mainly on the analysis of spatial and temporal variance of stable isotopes found in rain water, surface bodies of water such as streams and wetlands, and in an unconfined aquifer.

  1. Quantification of groundwater infiltration and surface water inflows in urban sewer networks based on a multiple model approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpf, Christian; Krebs, Peter

    2011-05-01

    The management of sewer systems requires information about discharge and variability of typical wastewater sources in urban catchments. Especially the infiltration of groundwater and the inflow of surface water (I/I) are important for making decisions about the rehabilitation and operation of sewer networks. This paper presents a methodology to identify I/I and estimate its quantity. For each flow fraction in sewer networks, an individual model approach is formulated whose parameters are optimised by the method of least squares. This method was applied to estimate the contributions to the wastewater flow in the sewer system of the City of Dresden (Germany), where data availability is good. Absolute flows of I/I and their temporal variations are estimated. Further information on the characteristics of infiltration is gained by clustering and grouping sewer pipes according to the attributes construction year and groundwater influence and relating these resulting classes to infiltration behaviour. Further, it is shown that condition classes based on CCTV-data can be used to estimate the infiltration potential of sewer pipes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Quantifying phosphorus levels in soils, plants, surface water, and shallow groundwater associated with bahiagrass-based pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigua, Gilbert C; Hubbard, Robert K; Coleman, Samuel W

    2010-01-01

    Recent assessments of water quality status have identified eutrophication as one of the major causes of water quality 'impairment' not only in the USA but also around the world. In most cases, eutrophication has accelerated by increased inputs of phosphorus due to intensification of crop and animal production systems since the early 1990 s. Despite substantial measurements using both laboratory and field techniques, little is known about the spatial and temporal variability of phosphorus dynamics across landscapes, especially in agricultural landscapes with cow-calf operations. Critical to determining environmental balance and accountability is an understanding of phosphorus excreted by animals, phosphorus removal by plants, acceptable losses of phosphorus within the manure management and crop production systems into soil and waters, and export of phosphorus off-farm. Further research effort on optimizing forage-based cow-calf operations to improve pasture sustainability and protect water quality is therefore warranted. We hypothesized that properly managed cow-calf operations in subtropical agroecosystem would not be major contributors to excess loads of phosphorus in surface and ground water. To verify our hypothesis, we examined the comparative concentrations of total phosphorus among soils, forage, surface water, and groundwater beneath bahiagrass-based pastures with cow-calf operations in central Florida, USA. Soil samples were collected at 0-20; 20-40, 40-60, and 60-100 cm across the landscape (top slope, middle slope, and bottom slope) of 8 ha pasture in the fall and spring of 2004 to 2006. Forage availability and phosphorus uptake of bahiagrass were also measured from the top slope, middle slope, and bottom slope. Bi-weekly (2004-2006) groundwater and surface water samples were taken from wells located at top slope, middle slope, and bottom slope, and from the runoff/seepage area. Concentrations of phosphorus in soils, forage, surface water, and shallow

  3. Recent Approaches to Modeling Transport of Mercury in Surface Water and Groundwater - Case Study in Upper East Fork Poplar Creek, Oak Ridge, TN - 13349

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostick, Kent; Daniel, Anamary; Tachiev, Georgio; Malek-Mohammadi, Siamak

    2013-01-01

    In this case study, groundwater/surface water modeling was used to determine efficacy of stabilization in place with hydrologic isolation for remediation of mercury contaminated areas in the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek (UEFPC) Watershed in Oak Ridge, TN. The modeling simulates the potential for mercury in soil to contaminate groundwater above industrial use risk standards and to contribute to surface water contamination. The modeling approach is unique in that it couples watershed hydrology with the total mercury transport and provides a tool for analysis of changes in mercury load related to daily precipitation, evaporation, and runoff from storms. The model also allows for simulation of colloidal transport of total mercury in surface water. Previous models for the watershed only simulated average yearly conditions and dissolved concentrations that are not sufficient for predicting mercury flux under variable flow conditions that control colloidal transport of mercury in the watershed. The transport of mercury from groundwater to surface water from mercury sources identified from information in the Oak Ridge Environmental Information System was simulated using a watershed scale model calibrated to match observed daily creek flow, total suspended solids and mercury fluxes. Mercury sources at the former Building 81-10 area, where mercury was previously retorted, were modeled using a telescopic refined mesh with boundary conditions extracted from the watershed model. Modeling on a watershed scale indicated that only source excavation for soils/sediment in the vicinity of UEFPC had any effect on mercury flux in surface water. The simulations showed that colloidal transport contributed 85 percent of the total mercury flux leaving the UEFPC watershed under high flow conditions. Simulation of dissolved mercury transport from liquid elemental mercury and adsorbed sources in soil at former Building 81-10 indicated that dissolved concentrations are orders of magnitude

  4. Recent Approaches to Modeling Transport of Mercury in Surface Water and Groundwater - Case Study in Upper East Fork Poplar Creek, Oak Ridge, TN - 13349

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostick, Kent; Daniel, Anamary [Professional Project Services, Inc., Bethel Valley Road, Oak Ridge, TN, 37922 (United States); Tachiev, Georgio [Florida International University, Applied Research Center 10555 W. Flagler St., EC 2100 Miami Florida 33174 (United States); Malek-Mohammadi, Siamak [Bradley University, 413A Jobst Hall, Preoria, IL 61625 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    In this case study, groundwater/surface water modeling was used to determine efficacy of stabilization in place with hydrologic isolation for remediation of mercury contaminated areas in the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek (UEFPC) Watershed in Oak Ridge, TN. The modeling simulates the potential for mercury in soil to contaminate groundwater above industrial use risk standards and to contribute to surface water contamination. The modeling approach is unique in that it couples watershed hydrology with the total mercury transport and provides a tool for analysis of changes in mercury load related to daily precipitation, evaporation, and runoff from storms. The model also allows for simulation of colloidal transport of total mercury in surface water. Previous models for the watershed only simulated average yearly conditions and dissolved concentrations that are not sufficient for predicting mercury flux under variable flow conditions that control colloidal transport of mercury in the watershed. The transport of mercury from groundwater to surface water from mercury sources identified from information in the Oak Ridge Environmental Information System was simulated using a watershed scale model calibrated to match observed daily creek flow, total suspended solids and mercury fluxes. Mercury sources at the former Building 81-10 area, where mercury was previously retorted, were modeled using a telescopic refined mesh with boundary conditions extracted from the watershed model. Modeling on a watershed scale indicated that only source excavation for soils/sediment in the vicinity of UEFPC had any effect on mercury flux in surface water. The simulations showed that colloidal transport contributed 85 percent of the total mercury flux leaving the UEFPC watershed under high flow conditions. Simulation of dissolved mercury transport from liquid elemental mercury and adsorbed sources in soil at former Building 81-10 indicated that dissolved concentrations are orders of magnitude

  5. Case studies of groundwater- surface water interactions and scale relationships in small alluvial aquifers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Love, Dave; de Hamer, Wouter; Owen, Richard J.S.; Booij, Martijn J.; Uhlenbrook, Stefan; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; van der Zaag, Pieter

    2007-01-01

    An alluvial aquifer can be described as a groundwater system, generally unconfined, that is hosted in laterally discontinuous layers of gravel, sand, silt and clay, deposited by a river in a river channel, banks or flood plain. In semi-arid regions, streams that are associated with alluvial aquifers

  6. Rapid nutrient leaching to groundwater and surface water in clay soil areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronswijk, J.J.B.; Hamminga, W.; Oostindie, K.

    1995-01-01

    The mechanism and magnitude of nitrate leaching from grassland on a heavy clay soil were investigated by measuring nitrogen input, and nitrate concentrations in groundwater and drain discharge for two years. A bromide tracer was applied to study solute transport mechanisms. Nitrate transport in the

  7. The National Danish Water Resources Model - using an integrated groundwater - surface water model for decision support and WFD implementation in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajer Hojberg, Anker; Hinsby, Klaus; Jørgen Henriksen, Hans; Troldborg, Lars

    2014-05-01

    Integrated and sustainable water resources management and development of river basin management plans according to the Water Framework Directive is getting increasingly complex especially when taking projected climate change into account. Furthermore, uncertainty in future developments and incomplete knowledge of the physical system introduces a high degree of uncertainty in the decision making process. Knowledge based decision making is therefore vital for formulation of robust management plans and to allow assessment of the inherent uncertainties. The Department of Hydrology at the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland started in 1996 to develop a mechanistically, transient and spatially distributed groundwater-surface water model - the DK-model - for the assessment of groundwater quantitative status accounting for interactions with surface water and anthropogenic changes, such as extraction strategies and land use, as well as climate change. The model has been subject to continuous update building on hydrogeological knowledge established by the regional water authorities and other national research institutes. With the on-going improvement of the DK-model it is now increasingly applied both by research projects and for decision support e.g. in implementation of the Water Framework Directive or to support other decisions related to protection of water resources (quantitative and chemical status), ecosystems and the built environment. At present, the DK-model constitutes the backbone of a strategic modelling project funded by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency, with the aim of developing a modelling complex that will provide the foundation of the implementation of the Water Framework Directive. Since 2003 the DK-model has been used in more than 25 scientific papers and even more public reports. In the poster and the related review paper we describe the most important applications in both science and policy, where the DK-model has been used either

  8. Summary of Surface-Water Quality, Ground-Water Quality, and Water Withdrawals for the Spirit Lake Reservation, North Dakota

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vinning, Kevin C; Cates, Steven W

    2006-01-01

    .... The data were collected intermittently from 1948 through 2004 and were compiled from U.S. Geological Survey databases, North Dakota State Water Commission databases, and Spirit Lake Nation tribal agencies...

  9. Simulated effects of groundwater pumping and artificial recharge on surface-water resources and riparian vegetation in the Verde Valley sub-basin, Central Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leake, Stanley A.; Pool, Donald R.

    2010-01-01

    In the Verde Valley sub-basin, groundwater use has increased in recent decades. Residents and stakeholders in the area have established several groups to help in planning for sustainability of water and other resources of the area. One of the issues of concern is the effect of groundwater pumping in the sub-basin on surface water and on groundwater-dependent riparian vegetation. The Northern Arizona Regional Groundwater-Flow Model by Pool and others (in press) is the most comprehensive and up-to-date tool available to understand the effects of groundwater pumping in the sub-basin. Using a procedure by Leake and others (2008), this model was modified and used to calculate effects of groundwater pumping on surface-water flow and evapotranspiration for areas in the sub-basin. This report presents results for the upper two model layers for pumping durations of 10 and 50 years. Results are in the form of maps that indicate the fraction of the well pumping rate that can be accounted for as the combined effect of reduced surface-water flow and evapotranspiration. In general, the highest and most rapid responses to pumping were computed to occur near surface-water features simulated in the modified model, but results are not uniform along these features. The results are intended to indicate general patterns of model-computed response over large areas. For site-specific projects, improved results may require detailed studies of the local hydrologic conditions and a refinement of the modified model in the area of interest.

  10. Sources, pathways, and relative risks of contaminants in surface water and groundwater: a perspective prepared for the Walkerton inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Len; Solomon, Keith; Sibley, Paul; Hall, Ken; Keen, Patricia; Mattu, Gevan; Linton, Beth

    2002-01-11

    On a global scale, pathogenic contamination of drinking water poses the most significant health risk to humans, and there have been countless numbers of disease outbreaks and poisonings throughout history resulting from exposure to untreated or poorly treated drinking water. However, significant risks to human health may also result from exposure to nonpathogenic, toxic contaminants that are often globally ubiquitous in waters from which drinking water is derived. With this latter point in mind, the objective of this commission paper is to discuss the primary sources of toxic contaminants in surface waters and groundwater, the pathways through which they move in aquatic environments, factors that affect their concentration and structure along the many transport flow paths, and the relative risks that these contaminants pose to human and environmental health. In assessing the relative risk of toxic contaminants in drinking water to humans, we have organized our discussion to follow the classical risk assessment paradigm, with emphasis placed on risk characterization. In doing so, we have focused predominantly on toxic contaminants that have had a demonstrated or potential effect on human health via exposure through drinking water. In the risk assessment process, understanding the sources and pathways for contaminants in the environment is a crucial step in addressing (and reducing) uncertainty associated with estimating the likelihood of exposure to contaminants in drinking water. More importantly, understanding the sources and pathways of contaminants strengthens our ability to quantify effects through accurate measurement and testing, or to predict the likelihood of effects based on empirical models. Understanding the sources, fate, and concentrations of chemicals in water, in conjunction with assessment of effects, not only forms the basis of risk characterization, but also provides critical information required to render decisions regarding regulatory

  11. Mobility of major and trace elements in a coupled groundwater-surface water system: Merced River, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildman, R. A.; Domagalski, J. L.; Hering, J. G.

    2004-12-01

    Trace element transport in coupled surface water/groundwater systems is controlled not only by advective flow, but also by redox reactions that affect the partitioning of various elements between mobile and immobile phases. These processes have been examined in the context of a field project conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program. The Merced River flows out of Yosemite National Park and the Sierra Nevada foothills and into California's Central Valley, where it joins the San Joaquin River. Our field site is approximately twenty river kilometers from the confluence with the San Joaquin River. This deep alluvial plain has minimal topography. Agricultural development characterizes the land surrounding this reach of river; consequently, the hydrology is heavily influenced by irrigation. Riverbed groundwater samples were collected from ten wells aligned in two transects across the river located approximately 100 m apart. The wells were sampled from depths of 0.5 m, 1 m, and 3 m below the sediment-water interface. Groundwater flowpath samples were taken from wells positioned on a path perpendicular to the river and located 100 m, 500 m, and 1000 m from the river. The saturated groundwater system exists from 7 to 40 m below the surface and is confined below by a clay layer. Each well location samples from 3-5 depths in this surface aquifer. Samples were collected in December 2003, March-April, June-July, and October 2004. This served to provide an evenly-spaced sampling frequency over the course of a year, and also to allow observation of trends coinciding with the onset of winter, the spring runoff, and early and late summer irrigation. An initial survey of the elements in the riverbed samples was conducted using Inductively-Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Elements for further study were selected based on variability in this survey, either with respect to depth or location, as well as to

  12. Model of hydrological behaviour of the anthropized semiarid wetland of Las Tablas de Daimiel National Park (Spain) based on surface water-groundwater interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, H.; Castaño, S.; Moreno, L.; Jiménez-Hernández, M. E.; de la Losa, A.

    2013-05-01

    Las Tablas de Daimiel National Park (TDNP) in Spain is one of the most important semiarid wetlands of the Mediterranean area. The inversion of the regional groundwater flow, primarily due to overexploitation and inadequate aquifer management, has led to degradation. The system has turned from a groundwater discharge zone into a recharge zone, and has remained mostly dry since the 1980s. High heterogeneity and complexity, enhanced by anthropogenic management action, hampers prediction of the surface-groundwater system response to flooding events. This study analyses these interactions and provides empirical evidence to define a conceptual model of flooding-infiltration-groundwater dynamics through the application of a few simple analysis tools to basic hydrological data. Relevant surface water-groundwater interactions are mainly localized in the left (west) margin of TDNP, as confirmed by the fast responses to flooding observed in the hydrochemic, hydrodynamic and isotopic data. During drying periods, small artificial and/or low-flow natural floods are followed by infiltration of evaporated poor-quality ponding water into saline low-permeability layers. The results allow an improved understanding of the hydrological behaviour essential to support efficient management practices. The relative simplicity of the methodology allows for its application in other similar complex groundwater-linked wetlands where detailed knowledge of local geology is still absent.

  13. Field scale interaction and nutrient exchange between surface water and shallow groundwater in the Baiyang Lake region, North China Plain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brauns, Bentje; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup; Song, Xianfang

    2016-01-01

    in Hebei Province, China, was undertaken. The study showed a high influence of low-quality surface water on the shallow aquifer. Major inflowing pollutants into the aquifer were ammonium and nitrate via inflow from the adjacent Fu River (up to 29.8mg/L NH4-N and 6.8mg/L NO3-N), as well as nitrate via...... vertical transport from the field surface (up to 134.8mg/L NO3-N in soil water). Results from a conceptual model show an excess nitrogen input of about 320kg/ha/a. Nevertheless, both nitrogen species were only detected at low concentrations in shallow groundwater, averaging at 3.6mg/L NH4-N and 1.8mg/L NO3......-N. Measurement results supported by PHREEQC-modeling indicated cation exchange, denitrification, and anaerobic ammonium oxidation coupled with partial denitrification as major nitrogen removal pathways. Despite the current removal capacity, the excessive nitrogen fertilization may pose a future...

  14. Thermal infrared remote sensing in assessing groundwater and surface-water resources related to Hannukainen mining development site, northern Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautio, Anne B.; Korkka-Niemi, Kirsti I.; Salonen, Veli-Pekka

    2018-02-01

    Mining development sites occasionally host complicated aquifer systems with notable connections to natural surface water (SW) bodies. A low-altitude thermal infrared (TIR) imaging survey was conducted to identify hydraulic connections between aquifers and rivers and to map spatial surface temperature patterns along the subarctic rivers in the proximity of the Hannukainen mining development area, northern Finland. In addition to TIR data, stable isotopic compositions ( δ 18O, δD) and dissolved silica concentrations were used as tracers to verify the observed groundwater (GW) discharge into the river system. Based on the TIR survey, notable GW discharge into the main river channel and its tributaries (61 km altogether) was observed and over 500 GW discharge sites were located. On the basis of the survey, the longitudinal temperature patterns of the studied rivers were found to be highly variable. Hydrological and hydrogeological information is crucial in planning and siting essential mining operations, such as tailing areas, in order to prevent any undesirable environmental impacts. The observed notable GW discharge was taken into consideration in the planning of the Hannukainen mining development area. The results of this study support the use of TIR imagery in GW-SW interaction and environmental studies in extensive and remote areas with special concerns for water-related issues but lacking the baseline research.

  15. Monitoring groundwater-surface water interaction using time-series and time-frequency analysis of transient three-dimensional electrical resistivity changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Timothy C.; Slater, Lee D.; Ntarlagiannis, Dimitris; Day-Lewis, Frederick D.; Elwaseif, Mehrez

    2012-01-01

    Time-lapse resistivity imaging is increasingly used to monitor hydrologic processes. Compared to conventional hydrologic measurements, surface time-lapse resistivity provides superior spatial coverage in two or three dimensions, potentially high-resolution information in time, and information in the absence of wells. However, interpretation of time-lapse electrical tomograms is complicated by the ever-increasing size and complexity of long-term, three-dimensional (3-D) time series conductivity data sets. Here we use 3-D surface time-lapse electrical imaging to monitor subsurface electrical conductivity variations associated with stage-driven groundwater-surface water interactions along a stretch of the Columbia River adjacent to the Hanford 300 near Richland, Washington, USA. We reduce the resulting 3-D conductivity time series using both time-series and time-frequency analyses to isolate a paleochannel causing enhanced groundwater-surface water interactions. Correlation analysis on the time-lapse imaging results concisely represents enhanced groundwater-surface water interactions within the paleochannel, and provides information concerning groundwater flow velocities. Time-frequency analysis using the Stockwell (S) transform provides additional information by identifying the stage periodicities driving groundwater-surface water interactions due to upstream dam operations, and identifying segments in time-frequency space when these interactions are most active. These results provide new insight into the distribution and timing of river water intrusion into the Hanford 300 Area, which has a governing influence on the behavior of a uranium plume left over from historical nuclear fuel processing operations.

  16. Data Validation Package - June 2015 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Green River, Utah, Disposal Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linard, Joshua [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC (United States); Price, Jeffrey [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Groundwater samples were collected during the 2015 sampling event from point-of-compliance (POC) wells 0171, 0173, 0176, 0179, 0181, and 0813 to monitor the disposition of contaminants in the middle sandstone unit of the Cedar Mountain Formation. Groundwater samples also were collected from alluvium monitoring wells 0188, 0189, 0192, 0194, and 0707, and basal sandstone monitoring wells 0182, 0184, 0185, and 0588 as a best management practice. Surface locations 0846 and 0847 were sampled to monitor for degradation of water quality in the backwater area of Brown’s Wash and in the Green River immediately downstream of Brown’s Wash. The Green River location 0801 is upstream from the site and is sampled to determine background-threshold values (BTVs). Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated, http://energy.gov/lm/downloads/sampling-and- analysis-plan-us-department-energy-office-legacy-management-sites). Water levels were measured at each sampled well. The analytical data and associated qualifiers can be viewed in environmental database reports and are also available for viewing with dynamic mapping via the GEMS (Geospatial Environmental Mapping System) website at http://gems.lm.doe.gov/#. All six POC wells are completed in the middle sandstone unit of the Cedar Mountain Formation and are monitored to measure contaminant concentrations for comparison to proposed alternate concentration limits (ACLs), as provided in Table 1. Contaminant concentrations in the POC wells remain below their respective ACLs.

  17. Determination of submicrogram-per-liter concentrations of caffeine in surface water and groundwater samples by solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, M.R.; Soliven, P.P.; Werner, S.L.; Vaught, D.G.

    1999-01-01

    A method for determining submicrogram-per-liter concentrations of caffeine in surface water and groundwater samples has been developed. Caffeine is extracted from a 1 L water sample with a 0.5 g graphitized carbon-based solid-phase cartridge, eluted with methylene chloride-methanol (80 + 20, v/v), and analyzed by liquid chromatography with photodiode-array detection. The single-operator method detection limit for organic-free water samples was 0.02 ??g/L. Mean recoveries and relative standard deviations were 93 ?? 13% for organicfree water samples fortified at 0.04 ??g/L and 84 ?? 4% for laboratory reagent spikes fortified at 0.5 ??g/L. Environmental concentrations of caffeine ranged from 0.003 to 1.44 ??g/L in surface water samples and from 0.01 to 0.08 ??g/L in groundwater samples.

  18. Methods for evaluating potential sources of chloride in surface waters and groundwaters of the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granato, Gregory E.; DeSimone, Leslie A.; Barbaro, Jeffrey R.; Jeznach, Lillian C.

    2015-09-04

    Chloride exists as a major ion in most natural waters, but many anthropogenic sources are increasing concentrations of chloride in many receiving waters. Although natural concentrations in continental waters can be as high as 200,000 milligrams per liter, chloride concentrations that are suitable for freshwater ecology, human consumption, and agricultural and industrial water uses commonly are on the order of 10 to 1,000 milligrams per liter. “Road salt” frequently is identified as the sole source of anthropogenic chloride, but only about 30 percent of the salt consumed and released to the environment is used for deicing. Furthermore, several studies in Southern States where the use of deicing salt is minimal also show anthropogenic chloride in rising concentrations and in strong correlation to imperviousness and road density. This is because imperviousness and road density also are strongly correlated to population density. The term “road salt” is a misnomer because deicers applied to parking lots, sidewalks, and driveways can be a substantial source of chloride in some catchments because these land covers are comparable to roadways as a percentage of the total impervious area and commonly receive higher salt application rates than some roadways. Other sources of anthropogenic chloride include wastewater, dust control on unpaved roads, fertilizer, animal waste, irrigation, aquaculture, energy production wastes, and landfill leachates. The assumption that rising chloride concentrations in surface water or groundwater is indicative of contamination by deicing chemicals rather than one or more other potential sources may preclude the identification of toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic, or endocrine-disrupting contaminants that are associated with many sources of elevated chloride concentrations. Once the sources of anthropogenic chloride in an area of interest have been identified and measured, water and solute budgets can be estimated to guide decisionmakers to

  19. Natural uranium and strontium isotope tracers of water sources and surface water-groundwater interactions in arid wetlands: Pahranagat Valley, Nevada, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paces, James B.; Wurster, Frederic C.

    2014-01-01

    Near-surface physical and chemical process can strongly affect dissolved-ion concentrations and stable isotope compositions of water in wetland settings, especially under arid climate conditions. In contrast, heavy radiogenic isotopes of strontium (87Sr/86Sr) and uranium (234U/238U) remain largely unaffected and can be used to help identify unique signatures from different sources and quantify end-member mixing that would otherwise be difficult to determine. The utility of combined Sr and U isotopes are demonstrated in this study of wetland habitats on the Pahranagat National Wildlife Refuge, which depend on supply from large-volume springs north of the Refuge, and from small-volume springs and seeps within the Refuge. Water budgets from these sources have not been quantified previously. Evaporation, transpiration, seasonally variable surface flow, and water management practices complicate the use of conventional methods for determining source contributions and mixing relations. In contrast, 87Sr/86Sr and 234U/238U remain unfractionated under these conditions, and compositions at a given site remain constant. Differences in Sr- and U-isotopic signatures between individual sites can be related by simple two- or three-component mixing models. Results indicate that surface flow constituting the Refuge’s irrigation source consists of a 65:25:10 mixture of water from two distinct regionally sourced carbonate aquifer springs, and groundwater from locally sourced volcanic aquifers. Within the Refuge, contributions from the irrigation source and local groundwater are readily determined and depend on proximity to those sources as well as water management practices.

  20. Chemical characteristics of surface systems in the Simpevarp area. Visualisation and statistical evaluation of data from surface water, precipitation, shallow groundwater, and regolith

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-01-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste management Co (SKB) initiated site investigations for a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel at two different sites in Sweden, Forsmark and Oskarshamn, in 2002. This report evaluates the results from chemical investigations of the surface system in the Simpevarp area in Oskarshamn, i.e. both the Laxemar subarea and the Simpevarp subarea, during the period Nov 2002 - Mar 2005. The evaluation includes data from surface waters (lakes, streams and the sea), precipitation, shallow groundwater and regolith (till, soil, peat, sediments and biota) in the area. The main focus of the study is to visualize the vast amount of data collected hitherto in the site investigations, and to give a chemical characterisation of the investigated media at the site. The results will be used to support the site descriptive models, which in turn are used for safety assessment studies and for the environmental impact assessment. The data used consist of water chemical composition in lakes, streams and coastal sites, and in precipitation, predominantly sampled on a monthly basis, and in groundwater from soil tubes and wells. Moreover, regolith data includes information on the chemical composition of till, soil, sediment and vegetation samples from the area. The characterisations include all measured chemical parameters, i.e. major and minor constituents, trace elements, nutrients, isotopes and radio nuclides, as well as field measured parameters. The evaluation of data from each medium has been divided into the following parts: Characterisation of individual sampling sites, and comparisons within and among sampling sites as well as comparisons with local, regional and national reference data. Analysis of time trends and seasonal variation (for surface waters). Exploration of relationships among the various chemical parameters. For all investigated parameters, the report presents selected statistics for each sampling site, as well as for available reference

  1. Chemical characteristics of surface systems in the Simpevarp area. Visualisation and statistical evaluation of data from surface water, precipitation, shallow groundwater, and regolith

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troejbom, Mats; Soederbaeck, Bjoern

    2006-01-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste management Co (SKB) initiated site investigations for a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel at two different sites in Sweden, Forsmark and Oskarshamn, in 2002. This report evaluates the results from chemical investigations of the surface system in the Simpevarp area in Oskarshamn, i.e. both the Laxemar subarea and the Simpevarp subarea, during the period Nov 2002 - Mar 2005. The evaluation includes data from surface waters (lakes, streams and the sea), precipitation, shallow groundwater and regolith (till, soil, peat, sediments and biota) in the area. The main focus of the study is to visualize the vast amount of data collected hitherto in the site investigations, and to give a chemical characterisation of the investigated media at the site. The results will be used to support the site descriptive models, which in turn are used for safety assessment studies and for the environmental impact assessment. The data used consist of water chemical composition in lakes, streams and coastal sites, and in precipitation, predominantly sampled on a monthly basis, and in groundwater from soil tubes and wells. Moreover, regolith data includes information on the chemical composition of till, soil, sediment and vegetation samples from the area. The characterisations include all measured chemical parameters, i.e. major and minor constituents, trace elements, nutrients, isotopes and radio nuclides, as well as field measured parameters. The evaluation of data from each medium has been divided into the following parts: Characterisation of individual sampling sites, and comparisons within and among sampling sites as well as comparisons with local, regional and national reference data. Analysis of time trends and seasonal variation (for surface waters). Exploration of relationships among the various chemical parameters. For all investigated parameters, the report presents selected statistics for each sampling site, as well as for available reference

  2. Highway deicing salt dynamic runoff to surface water and subsequent infiltration to groundwater during severe UK winters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivett, Michael O; Cuthbert, Mark O; Gamble, Richard; Connon, Lucy E; Pearson, Andrew; Shepley, Martin G; Davis, John

    2016-09-15

    groundwater resource management, highway salt application practice, surface-water - ecosystem management, and decision making on highway drainage to ground. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The impact of pesticides use on surface water and groundwater: a case study in the Kadjebi District, Volta Region, Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suraj, S. I.

    2015-07-01

    The Kadjebi district is predominantly made up of farming communities, hence, the major economic activities in the area are the cultivation of cocoa, ginger, maize, vegetables. The extensive use of organochlorines, organophosphate and synthetic pyrethroids have raised concerns about potential adverse effect on human health and the environment. This study aims at assessing the impact of pesticide use on surface water and groundwater in the Kadjebi District of the Volta Region of Ghana. Results of the study revealed that about 92.6% of farmers used one or more pesticides obtained from agro-chemical shops, Cocoa Marketing Board, cooperative societies and relatives in labelled and unlabeled containers. Of these numbers, 62% admitted not having access to services of the extension officers on the use and application of pesticides, hence, believe that, the more the chemical applied the faster and better the result. 18% of the farmers reported positively to the use of protective gears to cover the whole body during pesticide application, 12% cover only the face while 45% do not use any protective gear. On the disposal of the pesticide containers, 51% indicated that, they re-use the containers for food and water storage after thoroughly washing with soap and water. The data obtained also showed a high risk of pesticide poisoning and occupational exposure, about 68% of the respondents reported clinical symptoms of pesticide poisoning such as nausea, headache, blurred vision, eye irritation, dizziness, vomiting and skin irritation. About 51% of water samples analyzed showed positive detections of pesticide residues while all sediments samples showed positive detections of pesticides residues varying from one to five different types of pesticides residues. The common pesticides residues found in the samples were Deltamethrine, Cyfluthrin, Cypermethrin, Dieldrin, Fenvaerate, Lambda-cyhal, p,p’ DDT. Synthetic pyrethroids (72%) were the dominant residues detected. Deltamethrine

  4. Applications of electrical resistivity imaging for characterizing groundwater-surface water interactions from local to regional scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenas, M. B.; Befus, K. M.; Zamora, P. B.; Ong, J.; Zlotnik, V. A.; Cook, P. L.; Tait, D. R.; Erler, D.; Santos, I. R.; Siringan, F. P.

    2012-12-01

    Surface water (SW) and groundwater (GW) interact across multiple spatial and temporal scales and their interaction is important for ecological and biogeochemical functions. The mixing of GW and SW has been challenging to simultaneously map with sufficient detail and coverage. Fortunately, ambient differences in salinity of waters occupying geologic formations and sediment are an ideal target for electrical resistivity imaging (ERI). We present examples of the application of ERI for mapping GW discharge and for understanding GW-SW interactions at: (1) a large regulated river, (2) neighboring lakes with differing salinity, (3) fringing coral reefs and lagoons, (4) beaches, and (5) estuaries. In all these cases, the ER tomograms were critical for improving conceptual understanding of GW-SW interactions. At the Lower Colorado River in Austin, Texas (USA), time-lapse ERI was conducted across a 12-hour dam-release cycle when the river stage varied by 0.7 m. Using temporal variability in electrical resistivity (ER) signatures, we identified a shallow well-flushed hyporheic zone, a transition zone where SW and GW mix, and a stable deep zone hosting only GW. In alkaline lakes in the Nebraska Sand Hills (Nebraska, USA), ER surveys using boat-towed cables allowed for mapping the 3D electrical structure underneath the lake. The tomograms were used to distinguish flow-through lakes, which have decreasing subsurface ER from GW inflow to outflow area, from pure GW discharge lakes, which have uniformly stratified increasing-with-depth ER profiles. Moreover, GW plumes in both discharge and recharge zones were clearly outlined underneath the lake. More than 30 km of ER profiles collected via boat-towed surveys over a fringing coral reef in the Philippines identified areas of high ER within the reef that coincide with resistive zones in the seawater. Analysis of 222Rn of bottom waters and vertical conductivity-temperature-depth measurements show the persistence of fresh GW input into

  5. Global modeling of withdrawal, allocation and consumptive use of surface water and groundwater resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wada, Y.; Wisser, D.; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    2013-01-01

    To sustain growing food demand and increasing standard of living, global water withdrawal and consumptive water use have been increasing rapidly. To analyze the human perturbation on water resources consistently over a large scale, a number of macro-scale hydrological models (MHMs) have been

  6. Global modeling of withdrawal, allocation and consumptive use of surface water and groundwater resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wada, Y.; Wisser, D.; Bierkens, M. F. P.

    2014-01-01

    To sustain growing food demand and increasing standard of living, global water withdrawal and consumptive water use have been increasing rapidly. To analyze the human perturbation on water resources consistently over large scales, a number of macro-scale hydrological models (MHMs) have been

  7. Estimating the tritium input to groundwater from wine samples: Groundwater and direct run-off contribution to Central European surface waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roether, W.

    1967-01-01

    A model is derived which allows a quantitative evaluation of wine tritium data. It is shown that the tritium content of a wine sample is not determined exclusively by water taken up by the roots, but is also influenced to a large extent by direct exchange with atmospheric moisture. The soil-water fraction amounts normally to not more than 40%. Thus, wine is a sample partly of atmospheric moisture at ground level, partly of soil moisture, integrated over a period around three weeks before vintage. The tritium content of two sets of wine samples originating from two selected sites in the Federal Republic of Germany and dating back to 1949 is reported. For the period since records of the tritium content of rain in Europe have become available comparisons of wine tritium with reported tritium activities of rain are in favour of the model outlined. The first distinguishable influence of bomb tritium shows up in the 1953 wine, whilst no detectable response to Castle tritium is found in 1954. By comparison with recorded rain activities at Ottawa, Canada, it is concluded that Castle influenced the tritium fall-out in Central Europe much less than it did at Ottawa. For the period before 1955 the tritium activity of the annual groundwater recharge, including pre-thermonuclear recharge in Central Europe, is estimated from the wine data. An estimation of the total assimilation of pre-thermonuclear tritium into the ocean at 50 degrees N is also given, which points to a value of 1-1.5 atoms/cm 2 s. It is shown that in further uses of pre-thermonuclear wines the possibility that samples have been contaminated by penetration of thermonuclear tritium through the bottle seals must be considered. The estimates of the tritium activities of groundwater recharge are based on the fact that in our climate the main contribution to groundwater is made up by autumn and winter precipitation. Because of this correlation with season the groundwater recharge is much lower in tritium than the

  8. Ground-Water System in the Chimacum Creek Basin and Surface Water/Ground Water Interaction in Chimacum and Tarboo Creeks and the Big and Little Quilcene Rivers, Eastern Jefferson County, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonds, F. William; Longpre, Claire I.; Justin, Greg B.

    2004-01-01

    A detailed study of the ground-water system in the unconsolidated glacial deposits in the Chimacum Creek Basin and the interactions between surface water and ground water in four main drainage basins was conducted in eastern Jefferson County, Washington. The study will assist local watershed planners in assessing the status of the water resources and the potential effects of ground-water development on surface-water systems. A new surficial geologic map of the Chimacum Creek Basin and a series of hydrogeologic sections were developed by incorporating LIDAR imagery, existing map sources, and drillers' logs from 110 inventoried wells. The hydrogeologic framework outlined in the study will help characterize the occurrence of ground water in the unconsolidated glacial deposits and how it interacts with the surface-water system. Water levels measured throughout the study show that the altitude of the water table parallels the surface topography and ranges from 0 to 400 feet above the North American Vertical Datum of 1988 across the basin, and seasonal variations in precipitation due to natural cycles generally are on the order of 2 to 3 feet. Synoptic stream-discharge measurements and instream mini-piezometers and piezometers with nested temperature sensors provided additional data to refine the positions of gaining and losing reaches and delineate seasonal variations. Chimacum Creek generally gains water from the shallow ground-water system, except near the community of Chimacum where localized losses occur. In the lower portions of Chimacum Creek, gaining conditions dominate in the summer when creek stages are low and ground-water levels are high, and losing conditions dominate in the winter when creek stages are high relative to ground-water levels. In the Quilcene Bay area, three drainage basins were studied specifically to assess surface water/ground water interactions. The upper reaches of Tarboo Creek generally gain water from the shallow ground-water system

  9. Spatiotemporal variation of the surface water effect on the groundwater recharge in a low-precipitation region: Application of the multi-tracer approach to the Taihang Mountains, North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakakibara, Koichi; Tsujimura, Maki; Song, Xianfang; Zhang, Jie

    2017-02-01

    Groundwater recharge variations in time and space are crucial for effective water management, especially in low-precipitation regions. To determine comprehensive groundwater recharge processes in a catchment with large seasonal hydrological variations, intensive field surveys were conducted in the Wangkuai Reservoir watershed located in the Taihang Mountains, North China, during three different times of the year: beginning of the rainy season (June 2011), mid-rainy season (August 2012), and dry season (November 2012). Oxygen and hydrogen isotope and chemical analyses were conducted on the groundwater, spring water, stream water, and reservoir water of the Wangkuai Reservoir watershed. The results were processed using endmember mixing analysis to determine the amount of contribution of the groundwater recharging processes. Similar isotopic and chemical signatures between the surface water and groundwater in the target area indicate that the surface water in the mountain-plain transitional area and the Wangkuai Reservoir are the principal groundwater recharge sources, which result from the highly permeable geological structure of the target area and perennial large-scale surface water, respectively. Additionally, the widespread and significant effect of the diffuse groundwater recharge on the Wangkuai Reservoir was confirmed with the deuterium (d) excess indicator and the high contribution throughout the year, calculated using endmember mixing analysis. Conversely, the contribution of the stream water to the groundwater recharge in the mountain-plain transitional area clearly decreases from the beginning of the rainy season to the mid-rainy season, whereas that of the precipitation increases. This suggests that the main groundwater recharge source shifts from stream water to episodic/continuous heavy precipitation in the mid-rainy season. In other words, the surface water and precipitation commonly affect the groundwater recharge in the rainy season, whereas the

  10. Isotopic Composition and Age of Surface Water as Indicators of Groundwater Sustainability in a Semiarid Area: Case of the Souss Basin (Morocco)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouchaou, L.; Tagma, T.; Boutaleb, S.; Hsissou, Y. [LAGAGE Laboratory, Ibn Zohr University, Agadir (Morocco); Nathaniel, W.; Vengosh, A. [Duke University (United States); Michelot, J. L.; Massault, M. [UMR ' IDES' , CNRS - Universite Paris-Sud, Orsay (France); Elfaskaoui, M. [Hydraulic Agency of Souss-Massa-Draa Basins, Agadir (Morocco)

    2013-07-15

    This study aims to determine the surface water and groundwater interconnection in the Souss catchment of western Morocco by applying multiple isotopic tracers such as {delta}{sup 18}O, {delta}{sup 2}H, {sup 3}H, Ra, {sup 14}C, {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr and CFCs. Stable water isotope data indicate that the High Atlas Mountains, with their high rainfall and low {delta}{sup 18}O and {delta}{sup 2}H values, constitute the major source of recharge to the Souss-Massa aquifer. Carbon-{sup 14} activities (34-94 pMC) and {sup 3}H indicate a long residence time of groundwater in some areas. The high {sup 14}C activities measured in the Ifni spring located at 2158 m a.s.l. and the Tiar spring at 711 m a.s.l. indicate a modern contribution, which is consistent with recharge from the High Atlas tributaries. In the upstream mountainous section, the mass balance mixing model suggest that groundwater contribution to stream flow is about 72% during the wet season and 36% during the dry season. In the downstream plain, 80% of surface flow infiltrates to the aquifer. {sup 226}Ra and {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr variations were indistinguishable for surface waters and groundwater. (author)

  11. Delineation of spatial-temporal patterns of groundwater/surface-water interaction along a river reach (Aa River, Belgium) with transient thermal modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anibas, Christian; Tolche, Abebe Debele; Ghysels, Gert; Nossent, Jiri; Schneidewind, Uwe; Huysmans, Marijke; Batelaan, Okke

    2017-12-01

    Among the advances made in analytical and numerical analysis methods to quantify groundwater/surface-water interaction, one methodology that stands out is the use of heat as an environmental tracer. A large data set of river and riverbed temperature profiles from the Aa River in Belgium has been used to examine the spatial-temporal variations of groundwater/surface-water interaction. Exchange fluxes were calculated with the numerical heat-transport code STRIVE. The code was applied in transient mode to overcome previous limitations of steady-state analysis, and allowed for the calculation of model quality. In autumn and winter the mean exchange fluxes reached -90 mm d-1, while in spring and early summer fluxes were -42 mm d-1. Predominantly gaining conditions occurred along the river reach; however, in a few areas the direction of flow changed in time. The river banks showed elevated fluxes up to a factor of 3 compared to the center of the river. Higher fluxes were detected in the upstream section of the reach. Due to the influence of exchange fluxes along the river banks, larger temporal variations were found in the downstream section. The exchange fluxes at the river banks seemed more driven by variable local exchange flows, while the center of the river was dominated by deep and steady regional groundwater flows. These spatial and temporal differences in groundwater/surface-water exchange show the importance of long-term investigations on the driving forces of hyporheic processes across different scales.

  12. Delineation of spatial-temporal patterns of groundwater/surface-water interaction along a river reach (Aa River, Belgium) with transient thermal modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anibas, Christian; Tolche, Abebe Debele; Ghysels, Gert; Nossent, Jiri; Schneidewind, Uwe; Huysmans, Marijke; Batelaan, Okke

    2018-05-01

    Among the advances made in analytical and numerical analysis methods to quantify groundwater/surface-water interaction, one methodology that stands out is the use of heat as an environmental tracer. A large data set of river and riverbed temperature profiles from the Aa River in Belgium has been used to examine the spatial-temporal variations of groundwater/surface-water interaction. Exchange fluxes were calculated with the numerical heat-transport code STRIVE. The code was applied in transient mode to overcome previous limitations of steady-state analysis, and allowed for the calculation of model quality. In autumn and winter the mean exchange fluxes reached -90 mm d-1, while in spring and early summer fluxes were -42 mm d-1. Predominantly gaining conditions occurred along the river reach; however, in a few areas the direction of flow changed in time. The river banks showed elevated fluxes up to a factor of 3 compared to the center of the river. Higher fluxes were detected in the upstream section of the reach. Due to the influence of exchange fluxes along the river banks, larger temporal variations were found in the downstream section. The exchange fluxes at the river banks seemed more driven by variable local exchange flows, while the center of the river was dominated by deep and steady regional groundwater flows. These spatial and temporal differences in groundwater/surface-water exchange show the importance of long-term investigations on the driving forces of hyporheic processes across different scales.

  13. Water quality and quantity and simulated surface-water and groundwater flow in the Laurel Hill Creek Basin, southwestern Pennsylvania, 1991–2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeone, Daniel G.; Risser, Dennis W.; Eicholtz, Lee W.; Hoffman, Scott A.

    2017-07-10

    Laurel Hill Creek is considered one of the most pristine waterways in southwestern Pennsylvania and has high recreational value as a high-quality cold-water fishery; however, the upper parts of the basin have documented water-quality impairments. Groundwater and surface water are withdrawn for public water supply and the basin has been identified as a Critical Water Planning Area (CWPA) under the State Water Plan. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Somerset County Conservation District, collected data and developed modeling tools to support the assessment of water-quality and water-quantity issues for a basin designated as a CWPA. Streams, springs, and groundwater wells were sampled for water quality in 2007. Streamflows were measured concurrent with water-quality sampling at main-stem sites on Laurel Hill Creek and tributaries in 2007. Stream temperatures were monitored continuously at five main-stem sites from 2007 to 2010. Water usage in the basin was summarized for 2003 and 2009 and a Water-Analysis Screening Tool (WAST) developed for the Pennsylvania State Water Plan was implemented to determine whether the water use in the basin exceeded the “safe yield” or “the amount of water that can be withdrawn from a water resource over a period of time without impairing the long-term utility of a water resource.” A groundwater and surface-water flow (GSFLOW) model was developed for Laurel Hill Creek and calibrated to the measured daily streamflow from 1991 to 2007 for the streamflow-gaging station near the outlet of the basin at Ursina, Pa. The CWPA designation requires an assessment of current and future water use. The calibrated GSFLOW model can be used to assess the hydrologic effects of future changes in water use and land use in the basin.Analyses of samples collected for surface-water quality during base-flow conditions indicate that the highest nutrient concentrations in the main stem of Laurel Hill Creek were at sites in the

  14. Dynamic surface water-groundwater exchange and nitrogen transport in the riparian aquifer of a tidal river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, A. H.; Barnes, R.; Wallace, C.; Knights, D.; Tight, D.; Bayer, M.

    2017-12-01

    Tides in coastal rivers can propagate tens to hundreds of kilometers inland and drive large daily changes in water and nitrogen exchange across the sediment-water interface. We use field observations and numerical models to illuminate hydrodynamic controls on nitrogen export from the riparian aquifer to a fresh, tidal reach of White Clay Creek (Delaware, USA). In the banks, an aerobic zone with high groundwater nitrate concentrations occurs near the fluctuating water table. Continuous depth-resolved measurements of redox potential suggest that this zone is relatively stable over tidal timescales but moves up or down in response to storms. The main source of dissolved oxygen is soil air that is imbibed in the zone of water table fluctuations, and the source of nitrate is likely nitrification of ammonium produced locally from the mineralization of organic matter in floodplain soils. Much of the nitrate is removed by denitrification along oscillating flow paths towards the channel. Within centimeters of the sediment-water interface, denitrification is limited by the mixing of groundwater with oxygen-rich river water. Our models predict that the benthic zones of tidal rivers play an important role in removing new nitrate inputs from discharging groundwater but may be less effective at removing nitrate from river water. Nitrate removal and production rates are expected to vary significantly along tidal rivers as permeability, organic matter content, tidal range vary. It is imperative that we understand nitrogen dynamics along tidal rivers and their role in nitrogen export to the coast.

  15. Impacts of model initialization on an integrated surface water - groundwater model

    KAUST Repository

    Ajami, Hoori; McCabe, Matthew; Evans, Jason P.

    2015-01-01

    Integrated hydrologic models characterize catchment responses by coupling the subsurface flow with land surface processes. One of the major areas of uncertainty in such models is the specification of the initial condition and its influence

  16. Radon as a tracer to characterize the interactions between groundwater and surface water around the ground source heat pump system in riverside area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaeyeon; Lee, Seong-Sun; Lee, Kang-Kun

    2016-04-01

    The interaction characteristics between groundwater and surface water was examined by using Radon-222 at Han River Environmental Research Center (HRERC) in Korea where a geothermal resource using indirect open loop ground source heat pump (GSHP) has been developed. For designing a high efficiency performance of the open loop system in shallow aquifer, the riverside area was selected for great advantage of full capacity of well. From this reason groundwater properties of the study site can be easily influenced by influx of surrounding Han River. Therefore, 12 groundwater wells were used for monitoring radon concentration and groundwater level with fluctuation of river stage from May, 2014 to Apr., 2015. The short term monitoring data showed that the radon concentration was changed in accordance with flow meter data which was reflected well by the river stage fluctuation. The spatial distribution of radon concentration from long term monitoring data was also found to be affected by water level fluctuation by nearby dam activity and seasonal effect such as heavy rainfall and groundwater pumping. The estimated residence time indicates that river flows to the study site change its direction according to the combined effect of river stage and groundwater hydrology. In the linear regression of the values, flow velocities were yielded around 0.04 to 0.25 m/day which were similar to flow meter data. These results reveal that Radon-222 can be used as an appropriate environmental tracer in examining the characteristics of interaction in consideration of fluctuating river flow on operation of GSHP in the riverside area. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT This work was supported by the research project of "Advanced Technology for Groundwater Development and Application in Riversides (Geowater+) in "Water Resources Management Program (code 11 Technology Innovation C05)" of the MOLIT and the KAIA in Korea.

  17. Trace metal in surface water and groundwater and its transfer in a Yellow River alluvial fan: Evidence from isotopes and hydrochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jing; Li, Fadong, E-mail: lifadong@igsnrr.ac.cn; Liu, Qiang; Zhang, Yan

    2014-02-01

    Metals are ubiquitous in the environment. The aim of sustainable management of the agro-ecosystem includes ensuring that water continues to fulfill its function in agricultural production, cycling of elements, and as a habitat of numerous organisms. There is no doubt that the influence of large-scale irrigation projects has impacted the regional surface–groundwater interactions in the North China Plain (NCP). Given these concerns, the aim of this study is to evaluate the pollution, identify the sources of trace metals, analyze the influence of surface–groundwater interactions on trace metal distribution, and to propose urgent management strategies for trace metals in the agriculture area in China. Trace metals, hydrochemical indicators (EC, pH, concentrations of Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Mg{sup 2+}, Ca{sup 2+}, Cl{sup −}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}, and HCO{sub 3}{sup −}) and stable isotopic composition (δ{sup 18}O and δ{sup 2}H) were determined for surface water (SW) and groundwater (GW) samples. Trace metals were detected in all samples. Concentrations of Fe, Se, B, Mn, and Zn in SW exceeded drinking water standards by 14.8%, 29.6%, 25.9%, 11.1%, and 14.8% higher, respectively, and by 3.8%, 23.1%, 11.5%, 11.5%, and 7.7% in GW. The pollution of trace metals in surface water was more serious than that in groundwater, and was also higher than in common irrigation areas in NCP. Trace metals were found to have a combined origin of geogenic and agriculture and industrial activities. Their distribution varied greatly and exhibited a certain relationship with the water flow direction, with the exception of a number of singular sites. Hydrochemical and environmental isotopic evidence indicates surface–groundwater interactions influence the spatial distribution of trace metal in the study area. Facing the ongoing serious pollution, management practices for source control, improved control technologies, and the construction of a monitoring net to warn of increased risk are

  18. Statistical analysis of lake levels and field study of groundwater and surface-water exchanges in the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota, 2002 through 2015: Chapter A of Water levels and groundwater and surface-water exchanges in lakes of the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota, 2002 through 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Perry M.; Trost, Jared J.; Diekoff, Aliesha L.; Rosenberry, Donald O.; White, Eric A.; Erickson, Melinda L.; Morel, Daniel L.; Heck, Jessica M.

    2016-10-19

    Water levels declined from 2003 to 2011 in many lakes in Ramsey and Washington Counties in the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota; however, water levels in other northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area lakes increased during the same period. Groundwater and surface-water exchanges can be important in determining lake levels where these exchanges are an important component of the water budget of a lake. An understanding of groundwater and surface-water exchanges in the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area has been limited by the lack of hydrologic data. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Metropolitan Council and Minnesota Department of Health, completed a field and statistical study assessing lake-water levels and regional and local groundwater and surface-water exchanges near northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area lakes. This report documents the analysis of collected hydrologic, water-quality, and geophysical data; and existing hydrologic and geologic data to (1) assess the effect of physical setting and climate on lake-level fluctuations of selected lakes, (2) estimate potential percentages of surface-water contributions to well water across the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, (3) estimate general ages for waters extracted from the wells, and (4) assess groundwater inflow to lakes and lake-water outflow to aquifers downgradient from White Bear Lake. Statistical analyses of lake levels during short-term (2002–10) and long-term (1925–2014) periods were completed to help understand lake-level changes across the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area. Comparison of 2002–10 lake levels to several landscape and geologic characteristics explained variability in lake-level changes for 96 northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area lakes. Application of several statistical methods determined that (1) closed-basin lakes (without an active outlet) had larger lake-level declines than flow-through lakes with an outlet; (2

  19. Springwater geochemistry at Honey Creek State Natural Area, central Texas: Implications for surface water and groundwater interaction in a karst aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musgrove, M.; Stern, L. A.; Banner, J. L.

    2010-06-01

    SummaryA two and a half year study of two adjacent watersheds at the Honey Creek State Natural Area (HCSNA) in central Texas was undertaken to evaluate spatial and temporal variations in springwater geochemistry, geochemical evolution processes, and potential effects of brush control on karst watershed hydrology. The watersheds are geologically and geomorphologically similar, and each has springs discharging into Honey Creek, a tributary to the Guadalupe River. Springwater geochemistry is considered in a regional context of aquifer components including soil water, cave dripwater, springwater, and phreatic groundwater. Isotopic and trace element variability allows us to identify both vadose and phreatic groundwater contributions to surface water in Honey Creek. Spatial and temporal geochemical data for six springs reveal systematic differences between the two watersheds. Springwater Sr isotope values lie between values for the limestone bedrock and soils at HCSNA, reflecting a balance between these two primary sources of Sr. Sr isotope values for springs within each watershed are consistent with differences between soil compositions. At some of the springs, consistent temporal variability in springwater geochemistry (Sr isotopes, Mg/Ca, and Sr/Ca values) appears to reflect changes in climatic and hydrologic parameters (rainfall/recharge) that affect watershed processes. Springwater geochemistry was unaffected by brush removal at the scale of the HCSNA study. Results of this study build on previous regional studies to provide insight into watershed hydrology and regional hydrologic processes, including connections between surface water, vadose groundwater, and phreatic groundwater.

  20. Rapid nutrient leaching to groundwater and surface water in clay soil areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronswijk, J.J.B.; Hamminga, W.; Oostindie, K.

    1995-01-01

    Nitrate leaching from agricultural soils has frequently led to concentrations above the EU drinking-water standard. Most data originate from sandy soils. In this experiment the mechanism and magnitude of nitrate leaching from grassland on a heavy claysoil were investigated. In an experimental field,

  1. Insights on surface-water/groundwater exchange in the upper Floridan aquifer, north-central Florida (USA), from streamflow data and numerical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, James E.; Screaton, Elizabeth J.; Martin, Jonathan B.

    2015-03-01

    Surface-water/groundwater exchange impacts water quality and budgets. In karst aquifers, these exchanges also play an important role in dissolution. Five years of river discharge data were analyzed and a transient groundwater flow model was developed to evaluate large-scale temporal and spatial variations of exchange between an 80-km stretch of the Suwannee River in north-central Florida (USA) and the karstic upper Floridan aquifer. The one-layer transient groundwater flow model was calibrated using groundwater levels from 59 monitoring wells, and fluxes were compared to the exchange calculated from discharge data. Both the numerical modeling and the discharge analysis suggest that the Suwannee River loses water under both low- and high-stage conditions. River losses appear greatest at the inside of a large meander, and the former river water may continue across the meander within the aquifer rather than return to the river. In addition, the numerical model calibration reveals that aquifer transmissivity is elevated within this large meander, which is consistent with enhanced dissolution due to river losses. The results show the importance of temporal and spatial variations in head gradients to exchange between streams and karst aquifers and dissolution of the aquifers.

  2. Ground-water quality and its relation to hydrogeology, land use, and surface-water quality in the Red Clay Creek basin, Piedmont Physiographic Province, Pennsylvania and Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, Lisa A.

    1996-01-01

    The Red Clay Creek Basin in the Piedmont Physiographic Province of Pennsylvania and Delaware is a 54-square-mile area underlain by a structurally complex assemblage of fractured metamorphosed sedimentary and igneous rocks that form a water-table aquifer. Ground-water-flow systems generally are local, and ground water discharges to streams. Both ground water and surface water in the basin are used for drinking-water supply.Ground-water quality and the relation between ground-water quality and hydrogeologic and land-use factors were assessed in 1993 in bedrock aquifers of the basin. A total of 82 wells were sampled from July to November 1993 using a stratified random sampling scheme that included 8 hydrogeologic and 4 land-use categories to distribute the samples evenly over the area of the basin. The eight hydrogeologic units were determined by formation or lithology. The land-use categories were (1) forested, open, and undeveloped; (2) agricultural; (3) residential; and (4) industrial and commercial. Well-water samples were analyzed for major and minor ions, nutrients, volatile organic compounds (VOC's), pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl compounds (PCB's), and radon-222.Concentrations of some constituents exceeded maximum contaminant levels (MCL) or secondary maximum contaminant levels (SMCL) established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for drinking water. Concentrations of nitrate were greater than the MCL of 10 mg/L (milligrams per liter) as nitrogen (N) in water from 11 (13 percent) of 82 wells sampled; the maximum concentration was 38 mg/L as N. Water from only 1 of 82 wells sampled contained VOC's or pesticides that exceeded a MCL; water from that well contained 3 mg/L chlordane and 1 mg/L of PCB's. Constituents or properties of well-water samples that exceeded SMCL's included iron, manganese, dissolved solids, pH, and corrosivity. Water from 70 (85 percent) of the 82 wells sampled contained radon-222 activities greater than the proposed MCL of

  3. Simulating groundwater-surface water interactions in the Canadian Prairies using a coupled land-atmosphere model (ParFlow-CLM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, M. A.; Ireson, A. M.; Keim, D.

    2015-12-01

    The Canadian prairies are cold and dry. Surface depressions are ubiquitous, and contain permanent or ephemeral ponds. The ponds are filled by snowmelt and precipitation on the ponds and lose a significant portion of their water to evaporation, but also, depending on their landscape position, may spill to other ponds or channels, recharge groundwater, or received groundwater discharge. Since precipitation and actual evaporation are closely balanced, the pond water balances are very sensitive to change in climate, and the prairies in general have been subject to damaging floods and droughts, in particular in the last decade or two. A 2.25 km2 field site at St Denis, central Saskatchewan, contains over 100 ponds, some permanent, some ephemeral, some saline, some fresh, some recharging groundwater, some receiving groundwater discharge. The site has been extensively studied for almost 50 years, with about one decade of continuous meteorological data, and three years of detailed pond level, soil moisture and temperature, and groundwater data. The objective of this study was to assess the performance of PARFLOW-CLM (a coupled land-atmosphere model) in simulating the pond-groundwater interactions at this site. Our conceptual model of the site includes soil properties that are progressively weathered with depth, and we implement this in a simplified dual permeability mathematical model of the soil hydraulic properties, whereby storage is dominated by the matrix and flow is dominated by macropores. The model performance was surprisingly good, doing quite a good job of capturing the observed groundwater and pond level dynamics. The soil freezing regime is also captured reasonably well, though the timing and pattern of the zero degree isotherm during soil thaw, which is critically important for runoff generation processes, was not captured as well. The model provides credible insights into the spatial patterns of evapotranspiration, and the seasonal dynamics of subsurface

  4. Evaluation of PAHs in groundwater and surface waters at Multipurpose Reactor Installation Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Karoline P.; Martins, Elâine A.J.; Cotrim, Marycel E.B.; Pires, Maria A.F.

    2017-01-01

    Brazil has four research reactors in operation, all old and low power. The IEA-R1 reactor of IPEN/CNEN-SP has only limited radioisotope production capacity, materials irradiation, and neutron beam utilization. This reactor has been operating for fifty-nine years and has prospects of operation for a maximum period of ten years. It is necessary to implement a new reactor, which will support nuclear activities, and the national strategic objectives related to technological development in the areas of energy and defense; scientific and technological development; training of human resources and the growing production of radioisotopes for medical application. The Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB) will be a nuclear reactor for research and will be built in the state of São Paulo, in the municipality of Iperó. Its construction may involve the release of effluents into the environment. With monitoring before, during and after construction, it will be possible to verify if the construction itself will harm the environment. Several organics compounds are released daily in water bodies collaborating for environmental imbalance. Many of them have carcinogenic and mutagenic properties, receiving more attention by the scientific community. Most of the organic compounds are not included in environmental legislation and many of them present high toxicity, especially those classified as endocrine disrupters, as some Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs). Only seven of the thirteen PAHs studied in this project are contemplated in Brazilian legislation, and just one is contained in international legislation. The PAHs studied in this work present, considered hazardous chemical compounds due to their toxicity, persistence in the environment, their bioaccumulative potential and their tendency to biomagnify. For the determination of the PAHs, the samples were concentrated by solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by quantification by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). It

  5. Evaluation of PAHs in groundwater and surface waters at Multipurpose Reactor Installation Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Karoline P.; Martins, Elâine A.J.; Cotrim, Marycel E.B.; Pires, Maria A.F., E-mail: karolinedepaulapereira@usp.br, E-mail: elaine@ipen.br, E-mail: mecotrim@ipen.br, E-mail: mapires@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Brazil has four research reactors in operation, all old and low power. The IEA-R1 reactor of IPEN/CNEN-SP has only limited radioisotope production capacity, materials irradiation, and neutron beam utilization. This reactor has been operating for fifty-nine years and has prospects of operation for a maximum period of ten years. It is necessary to implement a new reactor, which will support nuclear activities, and the national strategic objectives related to technological development in the areas of energy and defense; scientific and technological development; training of human resources and the growing production of radioisotopes for medical application. The Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB) will be a nuclear reactor for research and will be built in the state of São Paulo, in the municipality of Iperó. Its construction may involve the release of effluents into the environment. With monitoring before, during and after construction, it will be possible to verify if the construction itself will harm the environment. Several organics compounds are released daily in water bodies collaborating for environmental imbalance. Many of them have carcinogenic and mutagenic properties, receiving more attention by the scientific community. Most of the organic compounds are not included in environmental legislation and many of them present high toxicity, especially those classified as endocrine disrupters, as some Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs). Only seven of the thirteen PAHs studied in this project are contemplated in Brazilian legislation, and just one is contained in international legislation. The PAHs studied in this work present, considered hazardous chemical compounds due to their toxicity, persistence in the environment, their bioaccumulative potential and their tendency to biomagnify. For the determination of the PAHs, the samples were concentrated by solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by quantification by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). It

  6. Heavy metal transport processes in surface water and groundwater. Geochemical and isotopic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tricca, A.

    1997-01-01

    This work deals with the transport mechanisms of trace elements in natural aquatic systems. The experimental field is situated in the Upper Rhine Rift Valley because of the density and variety of its hydrological net. This study focused on three aspects: the isotopic tracing with Sr, Nd and O allowed to characterize the hydro-system. The 87 Sr/ 86 Sr and 143 Nd/ 144 Nd ratios show that the system is controlled by two natural end members a carbonate and a silicate one and a third end member of anthropogenic origin. The isotopic data allowed also to investigate the exchange processes between the dissolved and the particulate phases of the water samples. Because of their use in the industry and their very low concentrations in natural media, the Rare Earth Elements (REE) are very good tracers of anthropogenic contamination. Furthermore, due to their similar chemical properties with the actinides,they constitute excellent analogues to investigate the behaviour of fission products in the nature. In this study we determined the distribution of the REE within a river between the dissolved, the colloidal and the particulate phases. Among the REE of the suspended load, we distinguished between the exchangeable and the residual REE by means OF IN HCl leading experiments. The third topic is the investigation of uranium series disequilibrium using α-Spectrometry. The determination of ratios 234 U/ 238 U as well as of the activities short-lived radionuclides like 222 Rn, 224 Ra, 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 210 Po and 210 Pb have been performed. Their activities are controlled by chemical and physical parameters and depend also on the lithology of the source area. The combination of the three aspects provided relevant informations about the exchanges between the different water masses, about the transport mechanisms of the REE. Furthermore, the uranium series disequilibrium provided informations about the geochemical processes at a micro-scale. (author)

  7. Long-term effects of surface coal mining on ground-water levels and quality in two small watersheds in eastern Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, W.L.; Jones, R.L.

    1990-01-01

    Two small eastern Ohio watersheds surface mined for coal and reclaimed were studied during 1986-89. Water level and water quality data were compared with data from investigations conducted during 1976-83 to determine long-term effects of surface mining on the hydrologic system. Before mining, the watersheds were characterized by flatlying sedimentary rocks above clay beds underlying two major coal seams. Two aquifers overlay each under clay. Surface mining removed the upper aquifer, stripped the coal seam, and replaced the spoil, creating a new aquifer with hydraulic and chemical characteristics different from those of the original upper aquifer. Water levels were measured continuously in one well in each aquifer and every 2 months in other wells. Water levels in upper aquifers reached hydraulic equilibrium from 2 to 5 years after mining and, in middle aquifers, water levels increased more than 5 ft during mining; equilibrium occurred almost immediately thereafter. Water samples were collected from three upper aquifer wells, one middle-aquifer well, a seep from the upper aquifer, and the stream in each watershed. Samples were collected in 1986, 1987, 1988, and 1989. In both watersheds, sulfate replaced bicarbonate as the dominant anion in the upper aquifer after mining. In general, significant increases in concentrations of dissolved constituents in groundwater resulted from surface mining. The continued decrease in pH indicates that groundwater had not reached complete geochemical equilibrium in either watershed more than 8 years after mining ended

  8. Wetland Surface Water Processes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1993-01-01

    .... Temporary storage includes channel, overbank, basin, and groundwater storage. Water is removed from the wetland through evaporation, plant transpiration, channel, overland and tidal flow, and groundwater recharge...

  9. Occurrence of fungicides and other pesticides in surface water, groundwater, and sediment from three targeted-use areas in the United States, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, James L.; Smalling, Kelly L.; Reilly, Timothy J.; Boehlke, Adam; Meyer, Michael T.; Kuivila, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    Surface-water, groundwater, and suspended- and bedsediment samples were collected in three targeted-use areas in the United States where potatoes were grown during 2009 and analyzed for an extensive suite of fungicides and other pesticides by gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Fungicides were detected in all environmental matrices sampled during the study. The most frequently detected fungicides were azoxystrobin, boscalid, chlorothalonil, and pyraclostrobin. Other pesticides that were detected frequently included amino phosphonic acid (AMPA), atrazine, metolaclor, and the organochlorine insecticide p,p’-DDT and its degradates p,p’-DDD and p,p’-DDE. A greater number of pesticides were detected in surface water relative to the other environmental matrices sampled, and at least one pesticide was detected in 62 of the 63 surfacewater samples. The greatest numbers of pesticides and the maximum observed concentrations for most pesticides were measured in surface-water samples from Idaho. In eight surface- water samples (six from Idaho and two from Wisconsin), concentrations of bifenthrin, metolachlor, or malathion exceeded U.S. Environmental Protection Agency freshwater aquatic-life benchmarks for chronic toxicity to invertebrates. Thirteen pesticides, including seven fungicides, were detected in groundwater samples. Shallow groundwater samples collected beneath recently harvested potato fields contained more pesticides and had higher concentrations of pesticides than samples collected from other groundwater sources sampled during the study. Generally, pesticide concentrations were lower in groundwater samples than in surfacewater or sediment samples, with the exception of the fungicide boscalid, which was found to have its highest concentration in a shallow groundwater sample collected in Wisconsin. Thirteen pesticides, including four fungicides, were detected in suspended-sediment samples. The most

  10. Study on the impact of the deposit garbage of Andralanitra on the characteristics of groundwater and surface water using isotopic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakotomalala, C.U.

    2014-01-01

    Since 1966, Andralanitra has become a place for landfill in Antananarivo. Currently, more dwellings are around this area, the local population uses well water and surface water for their daily water needs and also for their cattle. The goal of the study is to analyze the impact of the landfill on the chemical characteristics of the water using the isotopic method. The chemical results show that the groundwater is characterized by three different chemical types (chlorinated sodium and potassium, chloride-calcium sulfate and magnesium, sodium and potassium carbonate) with high levels of nitrate, both upstream and downstream of the area deposit. For water wells located upstream of the zone, the nitrate would have an anthropogenic origin, mainly because of the presence of latrines and / or barn near water sampling points. For water wells, located directly downstream of the drop zone, there are high levels of nitrate and other major ions. The tritium analyzes indicate the natural origins of the radioisotope ( [fr

  11. Data Validation Package February 2016 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Tuba City, Arizona, Disposal Site April 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, Richard [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC (United States); Lemke, Peter [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The groundwater compliance strategy for the Tuba City, Arizona, Disposal Site is defined in the 1999 Phase I Ground Water Compliance Action Plan for the Tuba City, Arizona, UMTRA Site. Samples are collected and analyzed on a semiannual basis to evaluate the performance of the Phase I remediation system. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) groundwater standards were exceeded in samples collected from monitoring wells as listed in Table 1. The data from this sampling event are generally consistent with previously obtained values and are acceptable for general use as qualified. Data anomalies are not significant with respect to the known nature and extent of contamination and progress of remedial action at the site. The data from this sampling event will be incorporated into the annual performance evaluation report that will present a comprehensive hydrologic summary and evaluation of groundwater remedial action performance at the Tuba City site through March 2016.

  12. Data Validation Package August 2015 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Tuba City, Arizona, Disposal Site November 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, Richard [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC (United States); Lemke, Peter [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The groundwater compliance strategy for the Tuba City, Arizona, Disposal Site is defined in the 1999 Phase I Ground Water Compliance Action Plan for the Tuba City, Arizona, UMTRA Site. Samples are collected and analyzed on a semiannual basis to evaluate the performance of the Phase I remediation system. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) groundwater standards were exceeded in samples collected from monitoring wells and extraction wells as listed in Table 1. The data from this sampling event are generally consistent with previously obtained values and are acceptable for general use as qualified. Data anomalies are not significant with respect to the known nature and extent of contamination and progress of remedial action at the site. The data from this sampling event will be incorporated into the annual performance evaluation report that will present a comprehensive hydrologic summary and evaluation of groundwater remedial action performance at the Tuba City site through March 2016.

  13. Evaluation of groundwater and surface-water interactions in the Caddo Nation Tribal Jurisdictional Area, Caddo County, Oklahoma, 2010-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashburn, Shana L.; Smith, S. Jerrod

    2014-01-01

    Streamflows, springs, and wetlands are important natural and cultural resources to the Caddo Nation. Consequently, the Caddo Nation is concerned about the vulnerability of the Rush Springs aquifer to overdrafting and whether the aquifer will continue to be a viable source of water to tribal members and other local residents in the future. Interest in the long-term viability of local water resources has resulted in ongoing development of a comprehensive water plan by the Caddo Nation. As part of a multiyear project with the Caddo Nation to provide information and tools to better manage and protect water resources, the U.S. Geological Survey studied the hydraulic connection between the Rush Springs aquifer and springs and streams overlying the aquifer. The Caddo Nation Tribal Jurisdictional Area is located in southwestern Oklahoma, primarily in Caddo County. Underlying the Caddo Nation Tribal Jurisdictional Area is the Permian-age Rush Springs aquifer. Water from the Rush Springs aquifer is used for irrigation, public, livestock and aquaculture, and other supply purposes. Groundwater from the Rush Springs aquifer also is withdrawn by domestic (self-supplied) wells, although domestic use was not included in the water-use summary in this report. Perennial streamflow in many streams and creeks overlying the Rush Springs aquifer, such as Cobb Creek, Lake Creek, and Willow Creek, originates from springs and seeps discharging from the aquifer. This report provides information on the evaluation of groundwater and surface-water resources in the Caddo Nation Jurisdictional Area, and in particular, information that describes the hydraulic connection between the Rush Springs aquifer and springs and streams overlying the aquifer. This report also includes data and analyses of base flow, evidence for groundwater and surface-water interactions, locations of springs and wetland areas, groundwater flows interpreted from potentiometric-surface maps, and hydrographs of water levels

  14. Assessing the impact of groundwater contamination on stream water quality by multiple approaches at the groundwater-surface water interface (Invited Presentation)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup; Rønde, Vinni Kampman; Balbarini, Nicola

    Contaminants such as chlorinated solvents and pesticides, as well as new classes of compounds or emerging micropollutants are extensively produced, utilized and then discarded in society and subsequently released to streams from multiple point and diffuse sources. Sustainable management of water...

  15. Surface water quality assessment using factor analysis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-01-16

    Jan 16, 2006 ... Surface water, groundwater quality assessment and environ- .... Urbanisation influences the water cycle through changes in flow and water ..... tion of aquatic life, CCME water quality Index 1, 0. User`s ... Water, Air Soil Pollut.

  16. Water resources management in the Ganges Basin: a comparison of three strategies for conjunctive use of groundwater and surface water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mahfuzur R.; Voss, Clifford I.; Yu, Winston; Michael, Holly A.

    2014-01-01

    The most difficult water resources management challenge in the Ganges Basin is the imbalance between water demand and seasonal availability. More than 80 % of the annual flow in the Ganges River occurs during the 4-month monsoon, resulting in widespread flooding. During the rest of the year, irrigation, navigation, and ecosystems suffer because of water scarcity. Storage of monsoonal flow for utilization during the dry season is one approach to mitigating these problems. Three conjunctive use management strategies involving subsurface water storage are evaluated in this study: Ganges Water Machine (GWM), Pumping Along Canals (PAC), and Distributed Pumping and Recharge (DPR). Numerical models are used to determine the efficacy of these strategies. Results for the Indian State of Uttar Pradesh (UP) indicate that these strategies create seasonal subsurface storage from 6 to 37 % of the yearly average monsoonal flow in the Ganges exiting UP over the considered range of conditions. This has clear implications for flood reduction, and each strategy has the potential to provide irrigation water and to reduce soil waterlogging. However, GWM and PAC require significant public investment in infrastructure and management, as well as major shifts in existing water use practices; these also involve spatially-concentrated pumping, which may induce land subsidence. DPR also requires investment and management, but the distributed pumping is less costly and can be more easily implemented via adaptation of existing water use practices in the basin.

  17. Surface-water quantity and quality, aquatic biology, stream geomorphology, and groundwater-flow simulation for National Guard Training Center at Fort Indiantown Gap, Pennsylvania, 2002-05

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langland, Michael J.; Cinotto, Peter J.; Chichester, Douglas C.; Bilger, Michael D.; Brightbill, Robin A.

    2010-01-01

    similar to the invertebrate data. Stream classification based on evolution of the stream channels indicates about 94 percent of the channels were considered to be in equilibrium (type B or C channels), neither aggrading nor eroding. A regional, uncalibrated groundwater-flow model indicated the surface-water and groundwater-flow divides coincided. Because of folding of rock layers, groundwater was under confined conditions and nearly all the water leaves the facility via the streams.

  18. Analysis of environmental setting, surface-water and groundwater data, and data gaps for the Citizen Potawatomi Nation Tribal Jurisdictional Area, Oklahoma, through 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, William J.; Harich, Christopher R.; Smith, S. Jerrod; Lewis, Jason M.; Shivers, Molly J.; Seger, Christian H.; Becker, Carol J.

    2013-01-01

    The Citizen Potawatomi Nation Tribal Jurisdictional Area, consisting of approximately 960 square miles in parts of three counties in central Oklahoma, has an abundance of water resources, being underlain by three principal aquifers (alluvial/terrace, Central Oklahoma, and Vamoosa-Ada), bordered by two major rivers (North Canadian and Canadian), and has several smaller drainages. The Central Oklahoma aquifer (also referred to as the Garber-Wellington aquifer) underlies approximately 3,000 square miles in central Oklahoma in parts of Cleveland, Logan, Lincoln, Oklahoma, and Pottawatomie Counties and much of the tribal jurisdictional area. Water from these aquifers is used for municipal, industrial, commercial, agricultural, and domestic supplies. The approximately 115,000 people living in this area used an estimated 4.41 million gallons of fresh groundwater, 12.12 million gallons of fresh surface water, and 8.15 million gallons of saline groundwater per day in 2005. Approximately 8.48, 2.65, 2.24, 1.55, 0.83, and 0.81 million gallons per day of that water were used for domestic, livestock, commercial, industrial, crop irrigation, and thermoelectric purposes, respectively. Approximately one-third of the water used in 2005 was saline water produced during petroleum production. Future changes in use of freshwater in this area will be affected primarily by changes in population and agricultural practices. Future changes in saline water use will be affected substantially by changes in petroleum production. Parts of the area periodically are subject to flooding and severe droughts that can limit available water resources, particularly during summers, when water use increases and streamflows substantially decrease. Most of the area is characterized by rural types of land cover such as grassland, pasture/hay fields, and deciduous forest, which may limit negative effects on water quality by human activities because of lesser emissions of man-made chemicals on such areas than

  19. Temporal variability of exchange between groundwater and surface water based on high-frequency direct measurements of seepage at the sediment-water interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberry, Donald O.; Sheibley, Rich W.; Cox, Stephen E.; Simonds, Frederic W.; Naftz, David L.

    2013-01-01

    Seepage at the sediment-water interface in several lakes, a large river, and an estuary exhibits substantial temporal variability when measured with temporal resolution of 1 min or less. Already substantial seepage rates changed by 7% and 16% in response to relatively small rain events at two lakes in the northeastern USA, but did not change in response to two larger rain events at a lake in Minnesota. However, seepage at that same Minnesota lake changed by 10% each day in response to withdrawals from evapotranspiration. Seepage increased by more than an order of magnitude when a seiche occurred in the Great Salt Lake, Utah. Near the head of a fjord in Puget Sound, Washington, seepage in the intertidal zone varied greatly from −115 to +217 cm d−1 in response to advancing and retreating tides when the time-averaged seepage was upward at +43 cm d−1. At all locations, seepage variability increased by one to several orders of magnitude in response to wind and associated waves. Net seepage remained unchanged by wind unless wind also induced a lake seiche. These examples from sites distributed across a broad geographic region indicate that temporal variability in seepage in response to common hydrological events is much larger than previously realized. At most locations, seepage responded within minutes to changes in surface-water stage and within minutes to hours to groundwater recharge associated with rainfall. Likely implications of this dynamism include effects on water residence time, geochemical transformations, and ecological conditions at and near the sediment-water interface.

  20. Potential depletion of surface water in the Colorado River and agricultural drains by groundwater pumping in the Parker-Palo Verde-Cibola area, Arizona and California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leake, Stanley A.; Owen-Joyce, Sandra J.; Heilman, Julian A.

    2013-01-01

    Water use along the lower Colorado River is allocated as “consumptive use,” which is defined to be the amount of water diverted from the river minus the amount that returns to the river. Diversions of water from the river include surface water in canals and water removed from the river by pumping wells in the aquifer connected to the river. A complication in accounting for water pumped by wells occurs if the pumping depletes water in drains and reduces measured return flow in those drains. In that case, consumptive use of water pumped by the wells is accounted for in the reduction of measured return flow. A method is needed to understand where groundwater pumping will deplete water in the river and where it will deplete water in drains. To provide a basis for future accounting for pumped groundwater in the Parker-Palo Verde-Cibola area, a superposition model was constructed. The model consists of three layers of finite-difference cells that cover most of the aquifer in the study area. The model was run repeatedly with each run having a pumping well in a different model cell. The source of pumped water that is depletion of the river, expressed as a fraction of the pumping rate, was computed for all active cells in model layer 1, and maps were constructed to understand where groundwater pumping depletes the river and where it depletes drains. The model results indicate that if one or more drains exist between a pumping well location and the river, nearly all of the depletion will be from drains, and little or no depletion will come from the Colorado River. Results also show that if a well pumps on a side of the river with no drains in the immediate area, depletion will come from the Colorado River. Finally, if a well pumps between the river and drains that parallel the river, a fraction of the pumping will come from the river and the rest will come from the drains. Model results presented in this report may be considered in development or refinement of strategies

  1. Effect of river excavation on a bank filtration site - assessing transient surface water - groundwater interaction by 3D heat and solute transport modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W.; Oswald, S. E.; Munz, M.; Strasser, D.

    2017-12-01

    Bank filtration is widely used either as main- or pre-treatment process for water supply. The colmation of the river bottom as interface to groundwater plays a key role for hydraulic control of flow paths and location of several beneficial attenuation processes, such as pathogen filtration, mixing, biodegradation and sorption. Along the flow path, mixing happens between the `young' infiltrated water and ambient `old' groundwater. To clarify the mechanisms and their interaction, modelling is often used for analysing spatial and temporal distribution of the travelling time, quantifying mixing ratios, and estimating the biochemical reaction rates. As the most comprehensive tool, 2-D or 3-D spatially-explicit modelling is used in several studies, and for area with geological heterogeneity, the adaptation of different natural tracers could constrain the model in respect to model non-uniqueness and improve the interpretation of the flow field. In our study, we have evaluated the influence of a river excavation and bank reconstruction project on the groundwater-surface water exchange at a bank filtration site. With data from years of field site monitoring, we could include besides heads and temperature also the analysis of stable isotope data and ions to differentiate between infiltrated water and groundwater. Thus, we have set up a 3-D transient heat and mass transport groundwater model, taking the strong local geological heterogeneity into consideration, especially between river and water work wells. By transferring the effect of the river excavation into a changing hydraulic conductivity of the riverbed, model could be calibrated against both water head and temperature time-series observed. Finally, electrical conductivity dominated by river input was included as quasi-conservative tracer. The `triple' calibrated, transient model was then used to i) understand the flow field and quantify the long term changes in infiltration rate and distribution brought by the

  2. Using the PCRaster-POLFLOW approach to GIS-based modelling of coupled groundwater-surface water hydrology in the Forsmark Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarsjoe, Jerker; Shibuo, Yoshihiro; Destouni, Georgia

    2004-09-01

    The catchment-scale hydrologic modelling approach PCRaster-POLFLOW permits the integration of environmental process modelling functions with classical GIS functions such as database maintenance and screen display. It has previously successfully been applied at relatively large river basins and catchments, such as Rhine, Elbe and Norrstroem, for modelling stream water flow and nutrient transport. In this study, we review the PCRaster-POLFLOW modelling approach and apply it using a relatively fine spatial resolution to the smaller catchment of Forsmark. As input we use data from SKB's database, which includes detailed data from Forsmark (and Simpevarp), since these locations are being investigated as part of the process to find a suitable location for a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel. We show, by comparison with independently measured, area-averaged runoff data, that the PCRaster-POLFLOW model produces results that, without using site-specific calibration, agree well with these independent measurements. In addition, we deliver results for four planned hydrological stations within the Forsmark catchment thus allowing for future direct comparisons with streamflow monitoring. We also show that, and how, the PCRaster-POLFLOW model in its present state can be used for predicting average seasonal streamflow. The present modelling exercise provided insights into possible ways of extending and using the PCRaster-POLFLOW model for applications beyond its current main focus of surface water hydrology. In particular, regarding analysis of possible surface water-groundwater interactions, we identify the Analytic Element Method for groundwater modelling together with its GIS-based pre- and post processor ArcFlow as suitable and promising for use in combination with the PCRaster-POLFLOW modelling approach. Furthermore, for transport modelling, such as that of radionuclides entering the coupled shallow groundwater-surface water hydrological system from possible deep

  3. Using the PCRaster-POLFLOW approach to GIS-based modelling of coupled groundwater-surface water hydrology in the Forsmark Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarsjoe, Jerker; Shibuo, Yoshihiro; Destouni, Georgia [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology

    2004-09-01

    The catchment-scale hydrologic modelling approach PCRaster-POLFLOW permits the integration of environmental process modelling functions with classical GIS functions such as database maintenance and screen display. It has previously successfully been applied at relatively large river basins and catchments, such as Rhine, Elbe and Norrstroem, for modelling stream water flow and nutrient transport. In this study, we review the PCRaster-POLFLOW modelling approach and apply it using a relatively fine spatial resolution to the smaller catchment of Forsmark. As input we use data from SKB's database, which includes detailed data from Forsmark (and Simpevarp), since these locations are being investigated as part of the process to find a suitable location for a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel. We show, by comparison with independently measured, area-averaged runoff data, that the PCRaster-POLFLOW model produces results that, without using site-specific calibration, agree well with these independent measurements. In addition, we deliver results for four planned hydrological stations within the Forsmark catchment thus allowing for future direct comparisons with streamflow monitoring. We also show that, and how, the PCRaster-POLFLOW model in its present state can be used for predicting average seasonal streamflow. The present modelling exercise provided insights into possible ways of extending and using the PCRaster-POLFLOW model for applications beyond its current main focus of surface water hydrology. In particular, regarding analysis of possible surface water-groundwater interactions, we identify the Analytic Element Method for groundwater modelling together with its GIS-based pre- and post processor ArcFlow as suitable and promising for use in combination with the PCRaster-POLFLOW modelling approach. Furthermore, for transport modelling, such as that of radionuclides entering the coupled shallow groundwater-surface water hydrological system from possible deep

  4. Surface Water & Surface Drainage

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set contains boundaries for all surface water and surface drainage for the state of New Mexico. It is in a vector digital data structure digitized from a...

  5. Relations between total phosphorus and orthophosphorus concentrations and rainfall, surface-water discharge, and groundwater levels in Big Cypress Seminole Indian Reservation, Florida, 2014–16

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, W. Scott; Sifuentes, Dorothy F.

    2018-02-06

    The Seminole Tribe of Florida (the Tribe) is partnering with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to develop a numeric phosphorus criterion for the 52,000-acre Big Cypress Seminole Indian Reservation (BCSIR), which is located downgradient of the Everglades Agricultural Area, and of other public and private lands, in southeastern Hendry County and northwestern Broward County in southern Florida. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Tribe, used water-quality data collected between October 2014 and September 2016 by the Tribe and the South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD), along with data from rainfall gages, surface-water stage and discharge gages, and groundwater monitoring wells, to (1) examine the relations between local hydrology and measured total phosphorus (TP) and orthophosphorus (OP) concentrations and (2) identify explanatory variables for TP concentrations. Of particular concern were conditions when TP exceeded 10 parts per billion (ppb) (0.01 milligram per liter [mg/L]) given that the State of Florida and the Miccosukee Tribe of Indians Alligator Alley Reservation (located downstream of the BCSIR) have adopted a 10-ppb maximum TP criterion for surface waters.From October 2014 to September 2016, the Tribe collected 47–52 samples at each of nine water-quality sites for analysis of TP and OP, except at one site where 28 samples were collected. For all sites sampled, concentrations of TP (as phosphorus [P]) ranged from less than 0.002 mg/L (2 ppb) to a maximum of nearly 0.50 mg/L (500 ppb), whereas concentrations of OP (as P), the reactive form of inorganic phosphorus readily absorbed by plants and (or) abiotically absorbed, ranged from less than 0.003 mg/L (3 ppb) to a maximum of 0.24 mg/L (240 ppb). The median and interquartile ranges of concentrations of TP and OP in the samples collected in 2014–16 by the Tribe were similar to the median and interquartile ranges of concentrations in samples collected by the SFWMD at

  6. Hydrogeochemistry and quality of surface water and groundwater in the vicinity of Lake Monoun, West Cameroon: approach from multivariate statistical analysis and stable isotopic characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamtchueng, Brice T; Fantong, Wilson Y; Wirmvem, Mengnjo J; Tiodjio, Rosine E; Takounjou, Alain F; Ndam Ngoupayou, Jules R; Kusakabe, Minoru; Zhang, Jing; Ohba, Takeshi; Tanyileke, Gregory; Hell, Joseph V; Ueda, Akira

    2016-09-01

    With the use of conventional hydrogeochemical techniques, multivariate statistical analysis, and stable isotope approaches, this paper investigates for the first time surface water and groundwater from the surrounding areas of Lake Monoun (LM), West Cameroon. The results reveal that waters are generally slightly acidic to neutral. The relative abundance of major dissolved species are Ca(2+) > Mg(2+) > Na(+) > K(+) for cations and HCO3 (-) ≫ NO3 (-) > Cl(-) > SO4 (2-) for anions. The main water type is Ca-Mg-HCO3. Observed salinity is related to water-rock interaction, ion exchange process, and anthropogenic activities. Nitrate and chloride have been identified as the most common pollutants. These pollutants are attributed to the chlorination of wells and leaching from pit latrines and refuse dumps. The stable isotopic compositions in the investigated water sources suggest evidence of evaporation before recharge. Four major groups of waters were identified by salinity and NO3 concentrations using the Q-mode hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). Consistent with the isotopic results, group 1 represents fresh unpolluted water occurring near the recharge zone in the general flow regime; groups 2 and 3 are mixed water whose composition is controlled by both weathering of rock-forming minerals and anthropogenic activities; group 4 represents water under high vulnerability of anthropogenic pollution. Moreover, the isotopic results and the HCA showed that the CO2-rich bottom water of LM belongs to an isolated hydrological system within the Foumbot plain. Except for some springs, groundwater water in the area is inappropriate for drinking and domestic purposes but good to excellent for irrigation.

  7. Effects of surface-water and groundwater inflows and outflows on the hydrology of the Tsala Apopka Lake Basin in Citrus County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepúlveda, Nicasio; Fulkerson, Mark; Basso, Ron; Ryan, Patrick J.

    2018-05-21

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Southwest Florida Water Management District, initiated a study to quantify the inflows and outflows in the Floral City, Inverness, and Hernando pools of the Tsala Apopka Lake Basin in Citrus County, Florida. This study assesses hydrologic changes in pool stages, groundwater levels, spring flows, and streamflows caused by the diversion of streamflow from the Withlacoochee River to the Tsala Apopka Lake Basin through water-control structures. A surface-water/groundwater flow model was developed using hydraulic parameters for lakes, streams, the unsaturated zone, and the underlying surficial and Upper Floridan aquifers estimated using an inverse modeling calibration technique. After calibration, the model was used to assess the relation between inflows and outflows in the Tsala Apopka Lake Basin and changes in pool stages.Simulation results using the calibrated surface-water/groundwater flow model showed that leakage rates from the pools to the Upper Floridan aquifer were largest at the deep lake cells and that these leakage rates to the Upper Floridan aquifer were the highest in the model area. Downward leakage to the Upper Floridan aquifer occurred beneath most of the extent of the Floral City, Inverness, and Hernando pools. These leakage rates depended on the lakebed leakance and the difference between lake stages and heads in the Upper Floridan aquifer. Leakage rates were higher for the Floral City pool than for the Inverness pool, and higher for the Inverness pool than for the Hernando pool. Lakebed leakance was higher for the Floral City pool than for the Hernando pool, and higher for the Hernando pool than for the Inverness pool.Simulation results showed that the average recharge rate to the surficial aquifer was 10.3 inches per year for the 2004 to 2012 simulation period. Areas that recharge the surficial aquifer covered about 86 percent of the model area. Simulations identified areas along segments of the

  8. A comparison study of the start-up of a MnOx filter for catalytic oxidative removal of ammonium from groundwater and surface water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ya; Li, Ye; Huang, Tinglin; Sun, Yuankui; Shi, Xinxin; Shao, Yuezong

    2018-03-01

    As an efficient method for ammonium (NH 4 + ) removal, contact catalytic oxidation technology has drawn much attention recently, due to its good low temperature resistance and short start-up period. Two identical filters were employed to compare the process for ammonium removal during the start-up period for ammonium removal in groundwater (Filter-N) and surface water (Filter-S) treatment. Two types of source water (groundwater and surface water) were used as the feed waters for the filtration trials. Although the same initiating method was used, Filter-N exhibited much better ammonium removal performance than Filter-S. The differences in catalytic activity among these two filters were probed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and compositional analysis. XRD results indicated that different manganese oxide species were formed in Filter-N and Filter-S. Furthermore, the Mn3p XPS spectra taken on the surface of the filter films revealed that the average manganese valence of the inactive manganese oxide film collected from Filter-S (FS-MnO x ) was higher than in the film collected from Filter-N (FN-MnO x ). Mn(IV) was identified as the predominant oxidation state in FS-MnO x and Mn(III) was identified as the predominant oxidation state in FN-MnO x . The results of compositional analyses suggested that polyaluminum ferric chloride (PAFC) used during the surface water treatment was an important factor in the mineralogy and reactivity of MnO x . This study provides the theoretical basis for promoting the wide application of the technology and has great practical significance. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Terrestrial water load and groundwater fluctuation in the Bengal Basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgess, W.G.; Shamsudduha, M.; Taylor, R.G.; Zahid, A.; Ahmed, K.M.; Mukherjee, A.; Lapworth, D.J.; Bense, V.F.

    2017-01-01

    Groundwater-level fluctuations represent hydraulic responses to changes in groundwater storage due to aquifer recharge and drainage as well as to changes in stress that include water mass loading and unloading above the aquifer surface. The latter 'poroelastic' response of confined aquifers is a

  10. Use of borehole and surface geophysics to investigate ground-water quality near a road-deicing salt-storage facility, Valparaiso, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risch, M.R.; Robinson, B.A.

    2001-01-01

    Borehole and surface geophysics were used to investigate ground-water quality affected by a road-deicing salt-storage facility located near a public water-supply well field. From 1994 through 1998, borehole geophysical logs were made in an existing network of monitoring wells completed near the bottom of a thick sand aquifer. Logs of natural gamma activity indicated a uniform and negligible contribution of clay to the electromagnetic conductivity of the aquifer so that the logs of electromagnetic conductivity primarily measured the amount of dissolved solids in the ground water near the wells. Electromagneticconductivity data indicated the presence of a saltwater plume near the bottom of the aquifer. Increases in electromagnetic conductivity, observed from sequential logging of wells, indicated the saltwater plume had moved north about 60 to 100 feet per year between 1994 and 1998. These rates were consistent with estimates of horizontal ground-water flow based on velocity calculations made with hydrologic data from the study area.

  11. Occurrence of boscalid and other selected fungicides in surface water and groundwater in three targeted use areas in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Timothy J; Smalling, Kelly L; Orlando, James L; Kuivila, Kathryn M

    2012-09-01

    To provide an assessment of the occurrence of fungicides in water resources, the US Geological Survey used a newly developed analytical method to measure 33 fungicides and an additional 57 current-use pesticides in water samples from streams, ponds, and shallow groundwater in areas of intense fungicide use within three geographic areas across the United States. Sampling sites were selected near or within farms using prophylactic fungicides at rates and types typical of their geographic location. At least one fungicide was detected in 75% of the surface waters and 58% of the groundwater wells sampled. Twelve fungicides were detected including boscalid (72%), azoxystrobin (51%), pyraclostrobin (40%), chlorothalonil (38%) and pyrimethanil (28%). Boscalid, a carboxamide fungicide registered for use in the US in 2003, was detected more frequently than atrazine and metolachlor, two herbicides that are typically the most frequently occurring pesticides in many large-scale water quality studies. Fungicide concentrations ranged from less than the method detection limit to approximately 2000 ngL(-1). Currently, limited toxicological data for non-target species exists and the environmental impacts are largely unknown. The results of this study indicate the importance of including fungicides in pesticide monitoring programs, particularly in areas where crops are grown that require frequent treatments to prevent fungal diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Global and regional aspects for genesis of catastrophic floods - the problems of forecasting and estimates for mass and water balance (surface and groundwater contribution)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifonova, Tatiana; Arakelian, Sergei; Trifonov, Dmitriy; Abrakhin, Sergei

    2017-04-01

    1. The principal goal of present talk is, to discuss the existing uncertainty and discrepancy between water balance estimation for the area under heavy rain flood, on the one hand from the theoretical approach and reasonable data base due to rainfall going from atmosphere and, on the other hand the real practicle surface water flow parameters measured by some methods and/or fixed by some eye-witness (cf. [1]). The vital item for our discussion is that the last characteristics sometimes may be noticeably grater than the first ones. Our estimations show the grater water mass discharge observation during the events than it could be expected from the rainfall process estimation only [2]. The fact gives us the founding to take into account the groundwater possible contribution to the event. 2. We carried out such analysis, at least, for two catastrophic water events in 2015, i.e. (1) torrential rain and catastrophic floods in Lousiana (USA), June 16-20; (2) Assam flood (India), Aug. 22 - Sept. 8. 3. Groundwater flood of a river terrace discussed e.g. in [3] but in respect when rise of the water table above the land surface occurs coincided with intense rainfall and being as a relatively rare phenomenon. In our hypothesis the principal part of possible groundwater exit to surface is connected with a crack-net system state in earth-crust (including deep layers) as a water transportation system, first, being in variated pressure field for groundwater basin and, second, modified by different reasons ( both suddenly (the Krimsk-city flash flood event, July 2012, Russia) and/or smoothly (the Amur river flood event, Aug.-Sept. 2013, Russia) ). Such reconstruction of 3D crack-net under external reasons (resulting even in local variation of pressures in any crack-section) is a principal item for presented approach. 4. We believe that in some cases the interconnection of floods and preceding earthquakes may occur. The problem discuss by us for certain events ( e.g. in addition to

  13. Occurrence patterns of pharmaceutical residues in wastewater, surface water and groundwater of Nairobi and Kisumu city, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    K'oreje, K O; Vergeynst, L; Ombaka, D; De Wispelaere, P; Okoth, M; Van Langenhove, H; Demeestere, K

    2016-04-01

    Emerging organic contaminants have not received a lot of attention in developing countries, particularly Africa, although problems regarding water quantity and quality are often even more severe than in more developed regions. This study presents general water quality parameters as well as unique data on concentrations and loads of 24 pharmaceuticals including antibiotic, anti(retro)viral, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and psychiatric drugs in three wastewater treatment plants, three rivers and three groundwater wells in Nairobi and Kisumu. This allowed studying removal efficiencies in wastewater treatment, identifying important sources of pharmaceutical pollution and distinguishing dilution effects from natural attenuation in rivers. In general, antiretrovirals and antibiotics, being important in the treatment of common African diseases such as HIV and malaria, were in all matrices more prevalent as compared to the Western world. Wastewater stabilization ponds removed pharmaceuticals with an efficiency between 11 and 99%. Despite this large range, a different removal is observed for a number of compounds, as compared to more conventional activated sludge systems. Total concentrations in river water (up to 320 μg L(-1)) were similar or exceeded concentrations in untreated wastewater, with domestic discharges from slums, wastewater treatment plant effluent and waste dumpsites identified as important sources. In shallow wells situated next to pit latrines and used for drinking water, the recalcitrant antiretroviral nevirapine was measured at concentrations as high as 1-2 μg L(-1). Overall, distinct pharmaceutical contamination patterns as compared to the Western world can be concluded, which might be a trigger for further research in developing regions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Temporal dynamics of groundwater-surface water interaction under the effects of climate change: A case study in the Kiskatinaw River Watershed, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Gopal Chandra; Li, Jianbing; Thring, Ronald W.; Hirshfield, Faye; Paul, Siddhartho Shekhar

    2017-08-01

    Groundwater-surface water (GW-SW) interaction plays a vital role in the functioning of riparian ecosystem, as well as sustainable water resources management. In this study, temporal dynamics of GW-SW interaction were investigated under climate change. A case study was chosen for a study area along the Kiskatinaw River in Mainstem sub-watershed of the Kiskatinaw River Watershed, British Columbia, Canada. A physically based and distributed GW-SW interaction model, Gridded Surface Subsurface Hydrologic Analysis (GSSHA), was used. Two different greenhouse gas (GHG) emission scenarios (i.e., A2: heterogeneous world with self-reliance and preservation of local identities, and B1: more integrated and environmental friendly world) of SRES (Special Report on Emissions Scenarios) from Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) were used for climate change study for 2020-2040. The simulation results showed that climate change influences significantly the temporal patterns of GW-SW interaction by generating variable temporal mean groundwater contributions to streamflow. Due to precipitation variability, these contributions varied monthly, seasonally, and annually. The mean annual groundwater contribution to streamflow during 2020-2040 under the A2 and B1 scenarios is expected to be 74.5% (σ = 2%) and 75.6% (σ = 3%), respectively. As compared to that during the base modeling period (2007-2011), the mean annual groundwater contribution to streamflow during 2020-2040 under the A2 and B1 scenarios is expected to decrease by 5.5% and 4.4%, respectively, due to the increased precipitation (on average 6.7% in the A2 and 4.8% in the B1 scenarios) and temperature (on average 0.83 °C in the A2 and 0.64 °C in the B1 scenarios). The results obtained from this study will provide useful information in the long-term seasonal and annual water extractions from the river for future water supply, as well as for evaluating the ecological conditions of the

  15. Bioregional Assessments: Determining the Impacts of Coal Resource Development on Water Resources in Australia through Groundwater, Surface Water and Ecological Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, L. J.; Post, D. A.; Crosbie, R.; Holland, K.

    2017-12-01

    While extraction of methane from shale gas deposits has been the principal source of the recent expansion of the industry in the United States, in Australia extraction of methane from coal bed methane deposits (termed `coal seam gas' in Australia) has been the focus to date. The two sources of methane share many of the same characteristics including the potential requirement for hydraulic fracturing. However, as coal seam gas deposits generally occur at shallower depths than shale gas, the potential impacts of extraction on surface and groundwater resources may be of even greater concern. The Australian Federal Government commissioned a multi-disciplinary programme of bioregional assessments to improve understanding of the potential impacts of coal seam gas and large coal mining activities on water resources and water-dependent assets across six bioregions Australia. A bioregional assessment is a transparent scientific analysis of the ecology, hydrology, geology and hydrogeology of a bioregion with explicit assessment of the potential direct, indirect and cumulative impacts of coal seam gas and large coal mining development on water resources. The first step in the analysis is to establish the most likely scenario for coal development in each region and establish a causal pathway linking coal development to impacts to the social, economic and ecological functioning of water resources. This forms the basis for a sequence of probabilistic geological, hydrogeological, hydrological and ecological models to quantify the probability of potential impacts. This suite of models is developed independent of the proponents and regulators of coal resource developments and so can provide unbiased information to all stakeholders. To demonstrate transparency of the modelling, all inputs, outputs and executables will be available from http://www.bioregionalassessments.gov.au. The analysis delineated a zone of potential hydrological change for each region, outside of which impacts

  16. Groundwater–Surface Water Exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karan, Sachin

    The exchange of groundwater-surface water has been invetigated in the western part of Denmark. Holtum AA provides the framework for all the performed investigations. Several methods are used, primarily eld based measurements ombined with numerical models to achieve insight to the governing...... processes of interaction between groundwater and surface water. By using heat as a tracer it has been possible to use temperature directly as calibrationtargets in a groundwater and heat transport model. Thus, it is possible to use heat investigate the change in groundwater discharge in dynamic conditions...... by using simple temperature devices along a stream to delineate the areas of interest in regard to GW{SW exchange. Thus, at several locations in a stream a temperature data logger was placed in the water column and right at the streambed-water interface. By looking at the correlation of streambed...

  17. Data Validation Package November 2015 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Old and New Rifle, Colorado, Processing Sites February 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, Richard [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC (United States); Lemke, Peter [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Water samples were collected from 36 locations at New Rifle and Old Rifle, Colorado, Processing Sites. Duplicate samples were collected from New Rifle locations 0659 and 0855, and Old Rifle location 0304. One equipment blank was collected after decontamination of non-dedicated equipment used to collect one surface water sample. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated). New Rifle Site Samples were collected at the New Rifle site from 16 monitoring wells and 7 surface locations in compliance with the December 2008 Groundwater Compliance Action Plan [GCAP] for the New Rifle, Colorado, Processing Site (LMS/RFN/S01920), with one exception: New Rifle location 0635 could not be sampled because it was inaccessible; a fence installed by the Colorado Department of Transportation prevents access to this location. DOE is currently negotiating access with the Colorado Department of Transportation. Analytes measured at the New Rifle site included contaminants of concern (COCs) (arsenic, molybdenum, nitrate + nitrite as nitrogen, selenium, uranium, and vanadium) ammonia as nitrogen, major cations, and major anions. Field measurements of total alkalinity, oxidation- reduction potential, pH, specific conductance, turbidity, and temperature were made at each location, and the water level was measured at each sampled well. A proposed alternate concentration limit (ACL) for vanadium of 50 milligrams per liter (mg/L), specific to the compliance (POC) wells (RFN-0217, -0659, -0664, and -0669) is included in the New Rifle GCAP. Vanadium concentrations in the POC wells were below the proposed ACL as shown in the time-concentration graphs in the Data Presentation section (Attachment 2). Time-concentration graphs from all other locations sampled are also included in Attachment 2. Sampling location RFN-0195 was misidentified for the June/August 2014

  18. Development and application of a groundwater/surface-water flow model using MODFLOW-NWT for the Upper Fox River Basin, southeastern Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, D.T.; Fienen, M.N.; Kennedy, J.L.; Buchwald, C.A.; Greenwood, M.M.

    2012-01-01

    The Fox River is a 199-mile-long tributary to the Illinois River within the Mississippi River Basin in the states of Wisconsin and Illinois. For the purposes of this study the Upper Fox River Basin is defined as the topographic basin that extends from the upstream boundary of the Fox River Basin to a large wetland complex in south-central Waukesha County called the Vernon Marsh. The objectives for the study are to (1) develop a baseline study of groundwater conditions and groundwater/surface-water interactions in the shallow aquifer system of the Upper Fox River Basin, (2) develop a tool for evaluating possible alternative water-supply options for communities in Waukesha County, and (3) contribute to the methodology of groundwater-flow modeling by applying the recently published U.S. Geological Survey MODFLOW-NWT computer code, (a Newton formulation of MODFLOW-2005 intended for solving difficulties involving drying and rewetting nonlinearities of the unconfined groundwater-flow equation) to overcome computational problems connected with fine-scaled simulation of shallow aquifer systems by means of thin model layers. To simulate groundwater conditions, a MODFLOW grid is constructed with thin layers and small cell dimensions (125 feet per side). This nonlinear unconfined problem incorporates the streamflow/lake (SFR/LAK) packages to represent groundwater/surface-water interactions, which yields an unstable solution sensitive to initial conditions when solved using the Picard-based preconditioned-gradient (PCG2) solver. A particular problem is the presence of many isolated wet water-table cells over dry cells, causing the simulated water table to assume unrealistically high values. Attempts to work around the problem by converting to confined conditions or converting active to inactive cells introduce unacceptable bias. Application of MODFLOW-NWT overcomes numerical problem by smoothing the transition from wet to dry cells and keeps all cells active. The simulation is

  19. Optimizing conjunctive use of surface water and groundwater for irrigation in arid and semi-arid areas: an integrated modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xin; Wu, Bin; Zheng, Yi; Tian, Yong; Liu, Jie; Zheng, Chunmiao

    2015-04-01

    In arid and semi-arid agricultural areas, groundwater (GW) is an important water source of irrigation, in addition to surface water (SW). Groundwater pumping would significantly alter the regional hydrological regime, and therefore complicate the water resources management process. This study explored how to optimize the conjunctive use of SW and GW for agricultural irrigation at a basin scale, based on integrated SW-GW modeling and global optimization methods. The improved GSFLOW model was applied to the Heihe River Basin, the second largest inland river basin in China. Two surrogate-based global optimization approaches were implemented and compared, including the well-established DYCORS algorithm and a new approach we proposed named as SOIM, which takes radial basis function (RBF) and support vector machine (SVM) as the surrogate model, respectively. Both temporal and spatial optimizations were performed, aiming at maximizing saturated storage change of midstream part conditioned on non-reduction of irrigation demand, constrained by certain annual discharge for the downstream part. Several scenarios for different irrigation demand and discharge flow are designed. The main study results include the following. First, the integrated modeling not only provides sufficient flexibility to formulation of optimization problems, but also makes the optimization results more physically interpretable and managerially meaningful. Second, the surrogate-based optimization approach was proved to be effective and efficient for the complex, time-consuming modeling, and is quite promising for decision-making. Third, the strong and complicated SW-GW interactions in the study area allow significant water resources conservation, even if neither irrigation demand nor discharge for the downstream part decreases. Under the optimal strategy, considerable part of surface water division is replaced by 'Stream leakage-Pump' process to avoid non-beneficial evaporation via canals. Spatially

  20. Quantitative estimation of pollution in groundwater and surface ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quantitative estimation of pollution in groundwater and surface water in Benin City and environs. ... Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management ... Physico-chemical parameters were compared with regulatory standards from Federal Ministry of Environment for drinking water and they all fell within ...

  1. Documentation of a restart option for the U.S. Geological Survey coupled Groundwater and Surface-Water Flow (GSFLOW) model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, R. Steve; Niswonger, Richard G.; Markstrom, Steven L.; Barlow, Paul M.

    2015-10-02

    A new option to write and read antecedent conditions (also referred to as initial conditions) has been developed for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Groundwater and Surface-Water Flow (GSFLOW) numerical, hydrologic simulation code. GSFLOW is an integration of the USGS Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) and USGS Modular Groundwater-Flow Model (MODFLOW), and provides three simulation modes: MODFLOW-only, PRMS-only, and GSFLOW (or coupled). The new capability, referred to as the restart option, can be used for all three simulation modes, such that the results from a pair (or set) of spin-up and restart simulations are nearly identical to results produced from a continuous simulation for the same time period. The restart option writes all results to files at the end of a spin-up simulation that are required to initialize a subsequent restart simulation. Previous versions of GSFLOW have had some capability to save model results for use as antecedent condiitions in subsequent simulations; however, the existing capabilities were not comprehensive or easy to use. The new restart option supersedes the previous methods. The restart option was developed in collaboration with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Weather Service as part of the Integrated Water Resources Science and Services Partnership. The primary focus for the development of the restart option was to support medium-range (7- to 14-day) forecasts of low streamflow conditions made by the National Weather Service for critical water-supply basins in which groundwater plays an important role.

  2. Characterization of groundwater flow for near surface disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-02-01

    The main objective of this report is to provide a description of the site investigation techniques and modelling approaches that can be used to characterise the flow of subsurface water at near surface disposal facilities in relation to the various development stages of the repositories. As one of the main goals of defining groundwater flow is to establish the possible contaminant migration, certain aspects related to groundwater transport are also described. Secondary objectives are to discuss the implications of various groundwater conditions with regard to the performance of the isolation systems

  3. Water Balance Study of a Groundwater-dependent Oak Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MÓRICZ, Norbert

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were (1 to estimate the water balance components of an oak standby calibrating a Hydrus 1-D model, (2 to determine the groundwater consumption by the water tablefluctuation method and (3 to compare the results of the modelling with a remote-sensing based estimation.Model simulation described the observed soil moisture and groundwater level relatively well, theroot mean square errors varied between 12.0 and 14.9% for the soil moisture measurements and 5.0%for the groundwater level. Groundwater consumption was estimated also by the water table fluctuationmethod, which provided slightly different groundwater consumption rates than estimated by theHydrus model simulation. The simulated evapotranspiration was compared with results of a remotesensingbased estimation using the surface temperature database of MODIS.According to the Hydrus model, the estimated evapotranspiration resulted from transpiration(73%, interception loss (23% and soil surface evaporation (4% in the two-year study period. Theproportion of groundwater consumption was 58% of the total transpiration. During the dry growingseason of 2007 the groundwater consumption was significant with 66% of the total transpiration.Water supply from groundwater was found to be less important in the wet growing season of 2008with 50%. The remote-sensing based estimation of evapotranspiration was about 4% lower than themodel based results of nearby comparable sites.

  4. Surface-water and karst groundwater interactions and streamflow-response simulations of the karst-influenced upper Lost River watershed, Orange County, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayless, E. Randall; Cinotto, Peter J.; Ulery, Randy L.; Taylor, Charles J.; McCombs, Gregory K.; Kim, Moon H.; Nelson, Hugh L.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) and the Indiana Office of Community and Rural Affairs (OCRA), conducted a study of the upper Lost River watershed in Orange County, Indiana, from 2012 to 2013. Streamflow and groundwater data were collected at 10 data-collection sites from at least October 2012 until April 2013, and a preliminary Water Availability Tool for Environmental Resources (WATER)-TOPMODEL based hydrologic model was created to increase understanding of the complex, karstic hydraulic and hydrologic system present in the upper Lost River watershed, Orange County, Ind. Statistical assessment of the optimized hydrologic-model results were promising and returned correlation coefficients for simulated and measured stream discharge of 0.58 and 0.60 and Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency values of 0.56 and 0.39 for USGS streamflow-gaging stations 03373530 (Lost River near Leipsic, Ind.), and 03373560 (Lost River near Prospect, Ind.), respectively. Additional information to refine drainage divides is needed before applying the model to the entire karst region of south-central Indiana. Surface-water and groundwater data were used to tentatively quantify the complex hydrologic processes taking place within the watershed and provide increased understanding for future modeling and management applications. The data indicate that during wet-weather periods and after certain intense storms, the hydraulic capacity of swallow holes and subsurface conduits is overwhelmed with excess water that flows onto the surface in dry-bed relic stream channels and karst paleovalleys. Analysis of discharge data collected at USGS streamflow-gaging station 03373550 (Orangeville Rise, at Orangeville, Ind.), and other ancillary data-collection sites in the watershed, indicate that a bounding condition is likely present, and drainage from the underlying karst conduit system is potentially limited to near 200 cubic feet per second. This

  5. Data Validation Package September 2016 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Slick Rock, Colorado, Processing Sites January 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traub, David [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Nguyen, Jason [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2017-01-04

    The Slick Rock, Colorado, Processing Sites are referred to as the Slick Rock West Processing Site (SRK05) and the Slick Rock East Processing Site (SRK06). This annual event involved sampling both sites for a total of 16 monitoring wells and 6 surface water locations as required by the 2006 Draft Final Ground Water Compliance Action Plan for the Slick Rock, Colorado, Processing Sites (GCAP). A domestic well was also sampled at a property adjacent to the Slick Rock East site at the request of the landowner.

  6. Temporal variability in groundwater and surface water quality in humid agricultural catchments; Driving processes and consequences for regional water quality monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozemeijer, Joachim; Van Der Velde, Ype

    2014-01-01

    Considering the large temporal variability in surface water quality is essential for adequate water quality policy and management. Neglecting these dynamics may easily lead to decreased effectiveness of measures to improve water quality and to inefficient water quality monitoring. The objective of

  7. Temporal variability in groundwater and surface water quality in humid agricultural catchments; driving processes and consequences for regional water quality monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozemeijer, J.; Velde, van der Y.

    2014-01-01

    Considering the large temporal variability in surface water quality is essential for adequate water quality policy and management. Neglecting these dynamics may easily lead to decreased effectiveness of measures to improve water quality and to inefficient water quality monitoring. The objective of

  8. First-order exchange coefficient coupling for simulating surface water-groundwater interactions: Parameter sensitivity and consistency with a physics-based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebel, B.A.; Mirus, B.B.; Heppner, C.S.; VanderKwaak, J.E.; Loague, K.

    2009-01-01

    Distributed hydrologic models capable of simulating fully-coupled surface water and groundwater flow are increasingly used to examine problems in the hydrologic sciences. Several techniques are currently available to couple the surface and subsurface; the two most frequently employed approaches are first-order exchange coefficients (a.k.a., the surface conductance method) and enforced continuity of pressure and flux at the surface-subsurface boundary condition. The effort reported here examines the parameter sensitivity of simulated hydrologic response for the first-order exchange coefficients at a well-characterized field site using the fully coupled Integrated Hydrology Model (InHM). This investigation demonstrates that the first-order exchange coefficients can be selected such that the simulated hydrologic response is insensitive to the parameter choice, while simulation time is considerably reduced. Alternatively, the ability to choose a first-order exchange coefficient that intentionally decouples the surface and subsurface facilitates concept-development simulations to examine real-world situations where the surface-subsurface exchange is impaired. While the parameters comprising the first-order exchange coefficient cannot be directly estimated or measured, the insensitivity of the simulated flow system to these parameters (when chosen appropriately) combined with the ability to mimic actual physical processes suggests that the first-order exchange coefficient approach can be consistent with a physics-based framework. Copyright ?? 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. The role of ocean tides on groundwater-surface water exchange in a mangrove-dominated estuary: Shark River Slough, Florida Coastal Everglades, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Christopher G.; Price, René M.; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Stalker, Jeremy C.

    2016-01-01

    Low-relief environments like the Florida Coastal Everglades (FCE) have complicated hydrologic systems where surface water and groundwater processes are intimately linked yet hard to separate. Fluid exchange within these lowhydraulic-gradient systems can occur across broad spatial and temporal scales, with variable contributions to material transport and transformation. Identifying and assessing the scales at which these processes operate is essential for accurate evaluations of how these systems contribute to global biogeochemical cycles. The distribution of 222Rn and 223,224,226Ra have complex spatial patterns along the Shark River Slough estuary (SRSE), Everglades, FL. High-resolution time-series measurements of 222Rn activity, salinity, and water level were used to quantify processes affecting radon fluxes out of the mangrove forest over a tidal cycle. Based on field data, tidal pumping through an extensive network of crab burrows in the lower FCE provides the best explanation for the high radon and fluid fluxes. Burrows are irrigated during rising tides when radon and other dissolved constituents are released from the mangrove soil. Flushing efficiency of the burrows—defined as the tidal volume divided by the volume of burrows— estimated for the creek drainage area vary seasonally from 25 (wet season) to 100 % (dry season) in this study. The tidal pumping of the mangrove forest soil acts as a significant vector for exchange between the forest and the estuary. Processes that enhance exchange of O2 and other materials across the sediment-water interface could have a profound impact on the environmental response to larger scale processes such as sea level rise and climate change. Compounding the material budgets of the SRSE are additional inputs from groundwater from the Biscayne Aquifer, which were identified using radium isotopes. Quantification of the deep groundwater component is not obtainable, but isotopic data suggest a more prevalent signal in the dry

  10. Analysis of trace levels of sulfonamide and tetracycline antimicrobials in groundwater and surface water using solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, M.E.; Meyer, M.; Thurman, E.M.

    2001-01-01

    A method has been developed for the trace analysis of two classes of antimicrobials consisting of six sulfonamides (SAs) and five tetracyclines (TCs), which commonly are used for veterinary purposes and agricultural feed additives and are suspected to leach into ground and surface water. The method used solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) with positive ion electrospray. The unique combination of a metal chelation agent (Na2EDTA) with a macroporous copolymer resulted in quantitative recoveries by solid-phase extraction (mean recovery, 98 ?? 12%) at submicrogram-per-liter concentrations. An ammonium formate/formic acid buffer with a methanol/water gradient was used to separate the antimicrobials and to optimize the signal intensity. Mass spectral fragmentation and ionization characteristics were determined for each class of compounds for unequivocal identification. For all SAs, a characteristic m/z 156 ion representing the sulfanilyl fragment was identified. TCs exhibited neutral losses of 17 amu resulting from the loss of ammonia and 35 amu from the subsequent loss of water. Unusual matrix effects were seen only for TCs in this first survey of groundwater and surface water samples from sites around the United States, requiring that TCs be quantitated using the method of standard additions.

  11. Hydrologic response to multimodel climate output using a physically based model of groundwater/surface water interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulis, M.; Paniconi, C.; Marrocu, M.; Huard, D.; Chaumont, D.

    2012-12-01

    General circulation models (GCMs) are the primary instruments for obtaining projections of future global climate change. Outputs from GCMs, aided by dynamical and/or statistical downscaling techniques, have long been used to simulate changes in regional climate systems over wide spatiotemporal scales. Numerous studies have acknowledged the disagreements between the various GCMs and between the different downscaling methods designed to compensate for the mismatch between climate model output and the spatial scale at which hydrological models are applied. Very little is known, however, about the importance of these differences once they have been input or assimilated by a nonlinear hydrological model. This issue is investigated here at the catchment scale using a process-based model of integrated surface and subsurface hydrologic response driven by outputs from 12 members of a multimodel climate ensemble. The data set consists of daily values of precipitation and min/max temperatures obtained by combining four regional climate models and five GCMs. The regional scenarios were downscaled using a quantile scaling bias-correction technique. The hydrologic response was simulated for the 690 km2des Anglais catchment in southwestern Quebec, Canada. The results show that different hydrological components (river discharge, aquifer recharge, and soil moisture storage) respond differently to precipitation and temperature anomalies in the multimodel climate output, with greater variability for annual discharge compared to recharge and soil moisture storage. We also find that runoff generation and extreme event-driven peak hydrograph flows are highly sensitive to any uncertainty in climate data. Finally, the results show the significant impact of changing sequences of rainy days on groundwater recharge fluxes and the influence of longer dry spells in modifying soil moisture spatial variability.

  12. Tritium in Precipitation, Surface and Groundwaters in the Zagreb Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvatincic, N.; Baresic, J.; Sironic, A.; Krajcar Bronic, I.; Obelic, B.

    2011-01-01

    Radioactive isotope tritium (3H) and stable isotopes of hydrogen (2H/1H) and oxygen (18O/16O) were measured in Sava River, precipitation and groundwater at 3 monitoring wells (piezometers) and 1 production well of the Petrusevec aquifer, close to the Sava River. Samples were collected monthly during 2010. The investigation is included in the Regional IAEA Project RER/8/016 Using Environmental Isotopes for Evaluation of Streamwater/Groundwater Interactions in Selected Aquifers in the Danube Basin. Sava River is a tributary of Danube River and the aim of the investigation is to determine the influence of surface stream of Sava River to the groundwater of aquifer used for water exploitation. In this work only 3H results were presented. 3H was measured by liquid scintillation counter Quantulus 1220, using electrolytic enrichment for all samples. 3H activity in precipitation showed slight seasonal fluctuation between 4 TU and 14 TU, with higher values in summer. 3H activity of Sava River and groundwater of the Petrusevec aquifer followed 3H of precipitation till May 2010. Significant increase of 3H in Sava River was observed in June, (199 @ 20) TU, and in the next month it fell down at 6 TU. Increase of 3H was also observed in groundwater but with damped response (maximum 60 TU) and with delay of 2 - 3 months related to Sava River. Different response of different piezometers and the well indicated the different infiltration times of surface water of Sava River to groundwater of the Petrusevec aquifer. The increased 3H activity in surface and groundwaters was caused by release of tritiated water from the Krsko Nuclear Power Plant, 30 km upstream from Zagreb. The results of 3H, 2H/1H and 18O/16O measurements will be used to determine the infiltration time of groundwater of the Petrusevec aquifer using conceptual and mathematical models. (author)

  13. Procedures for ground-water investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    This manual was developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to document the procedures used to carry out and control the technical aspects of ground-water investigations at the PNL. Ground-water monitoring procedures are developed and used in accordance with the PNL Quality Assurance Program

  14. Importance of including small-scale tile drain discharge in the calibration of a coupled groundwater-surface water catchment model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Lausten; Refsgaard, Jens Christian; Christensen, Britt Stenhøj Baun

    2013-01-01

    the catchment. In this study, a coupled groundwater-surface water model based on the MIKE SHE code was developed for the 4.7 km2 Lillebæk catchment in Denmark, where tile drain flow is a major contributor to the stream discharge. The catchment model was calibrated in several steps by incrementally including...... the observation data into the calibration to see the effect on model performance of including diverse data types, especially tile drain discharge. For the Lillebæk catchment, measurements of hydraulic head, daily stream discharge, and daily tile drain discharge from five small (1–4 ha) drainage areas exist....... The results showed that including tile drain data in the calibration of the catchment model improved its general performance for hydraulic heads and stream discharges. However, the model failed to correctly describe the local-scale dynamics of the tile drain discharges, and, furthermore, including the drain...

  15. Data Validation Package June 2016 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Old and New Rifle, Colorado, Processing Sites September 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, Richard [USDOE Office of Legacy Management (LM), Washington, DC (United States); Lemke, Peter [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-10-17

    Sampling Period: June 14–17 and July 7, 2016. Water samples were collected from 36 locations at New Rifle and Old Rifle, Colorado, Disposal/Processing Sites. Planned monitoring locations are shown in Attachment 1, Sampling and Analysis Work Order. Duplicate samples were collected from New Rifle locations 0216 and 0855, and Old Rifle location 0655. One equipment blank was collected after decontamination of non-dedicated equipment used to collect one surface water sample. See Attachment 2, Trip Report for additional details. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated, http://energy.gov/lm/downloads/sampling-and- analysis-plan-us-department-energy-office-legacy-management-sites). New Rifle Site Samples were collected at the New Rifle site from 16 monitoring wells and 7 surface locations in compliance with the December 2008 Groundwater Compliance Action Plan [GCAP] for the New Rifle, Colorado, Processing Site (LMS/RFN/S01920). Monitoring well 0216 could not be sampled in June because it was surrounded by standing water due to the high river stage from spring runoff, it was later sampled in July. Monitoring well 0635 and surface location 0322 could not be sampled because access through the elk fence along Interstate 70 has not been completed at this time. Old Rifle Site Samples were collected at the Old Rifle site from eight monitoring wells and five surface locations in compliance with the December 2001 Ground Water Compliance Action Plan for the Old Rifle, Colorado, UMTRA Project Site (GJ0-2000-177-TAR).

  16. Shallow ground-water conditions, Tom Green County, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.N.

    1986-01-01

    Most of the water needs of Tom Green County, Texas, are supplied by ground water; however, the city of San Angelo is supplied by surface water. Groundwater withdrawals during 1980 (latest year for which data are available) in Tom Green County totaled about 15,300 acre-feet, all derived from shallow aquifers. Shallow aquifers in this report refer to the ground-water system generally less than 400 feet deep that contains water with less than a 10,000 milligrams per liter concentration of dissolved solids; aquifers comprising this system include: The Leona, Comanche Peak, Trinity, Blaine, San Angelo, Choza, Bullwagon, Vale, Standpipe, and Arroyo aquifers.

  17. Ground-water, surface-water, and water-chemistry data, Black Mesa Area, northeastern Arizona: 2000-2001, and performance and sensitivity of the 1988 USGS numerical model of the N aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Blakemore E.

    2002-01-01

    The N aquifer is the major source of water in the 5,400-square-mile area of Black Mesa in northeastern Arizona. Availability of water is an important issue in this area because of continued industrial and municipal use, a growing population, and precipitation of about 6 to 14 inches per year. The monitoring program in Black Mesa has been operating since 1971 and is designed to determine the long-term effects of ground-water withdrawals from the N aquifer for industrial and municipal uses. The monitoring program includes measurements of (1) ground-water pumping, (2) ground-water levels, (3) spring discharge, (4) surface-water discharge, and (5) ground-water chemistry. In 2000, total ground-water withdrawals were 7,740 acre-feet, industrial use was 4,490 acre-feet, and municipal use was 3,250 acre-feet. From 1999 to 2000, total withdrawals increased by 9 percent, industrial use increased by 7 percent, and municipal use increased by 12 percent. From 1999 to 2001, water levels declined in 10 of 15 wells in the unconfined part of the aquifer, and the median change was -0.4 foot. Water levels declined in 8 of 16 wells in the confined part of the aquifer, and the median change was -0.2 foot. From the prestress period (prior to 1965) to 2001, the median water-level change for 33 wells was -17.2 feet. Median water-level changes were -1.2 feet for 15 wells in the unconfined part of the aquifer and -31.0 feet for 18 wells in the confined part. Discharges were measured once in 1999 and once in 2001 at four springs. Discharges decreased by 5 percent and 33 percent at two springs and increased by 3 percent and 81 percent at two springs. For about the past 10 years, discharges did not significantly change in Burro Spring, the unnamed spring near Dennehotso, and Moenkopi School Spring. The record of discharge from a consistent measuring point for Pasture Canyon Spring is too short for statistical analysis of trends. Continuous records of surface-water discharge have been collected

  18. Using SDP to optimize conjunctive use of surface and groundwater in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Claus; Mo, X; Liu, S.

    2014-01-01

    A hydro-economic modelling approach to optimize conjunctive use of scarce surface water and groundwater resources under uncertainty is presented. Stochastic dynamic programming (SDP) is used to minimize the basin-wide total costs arising from allocations of surface water, head-dependent groundwater......, which includes surface water droughts and groundwater over-pumping. The head-dependent groundwater pumping costs will enable assessment of the long-term effects of increased electricity prices on the groundwater pumping. The optimization framework is used to assess realistic alternative development...... pumping costs, water allocations from the South-North Water Transfer Project and water curtailments of the users. Each water user group (agriculture, industry, domestic) is characterized by fixed demands and fixed water allocation and water supply curtailment costs. The non-linear one step-ahead sub...

  19. Quantifying groundwater dependency of riparian surface hydrologic features using the exit gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examines groundwater exit gradients as a way to quantify groundwater interactions with surface water. We calibrated high resolution groundwater models for the basin fill sediments in the lower Calapooia watershed, Oregon, using data collected between 1928--2000. The e...

  20. Surface and groundwater management in the oil sands industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, D.G.; Barker, J.

    2004-02-01

    A study was conducted to examine the sublethal effects of oil sands constituents on gill and liver histopathology and fish reproduction. Field studies of food web dynamics were conducted using stable isotopes, including oil sands constituents degradation isotope studies. The objective was to determine changes in food web dynamics associated with reclamation methods and maturity using stable isotopes. The study related changes in toxicity to changes in ground and surface naphthenic acids concentration and composition. It also demonstrated the natural attenuation of toxic chemicals as they travel through groundwater to potential surface water receptors. A methodology was developed to assess the natural attenuation capacity for future situations involving process-affected groundwater of different chemistry with different critical potential contaminants such as sulphides, metals, and specific organics. The mobility and natural attenuation of process water chemicals migrating in groundwater was also assessed. tabs., figs

  1. Seasonal and spatial variations in microbial activity at various phylogenetic resolutions at a groundwatersurface water interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Ran; Smets, Barth F.; Gan, Ping

    2014-01-01

    analysis. Consistently higher microbial activities with less variation in depth were measured in the AIMC traps than in the ambient sediments. Flood disturbance appeared to control AIMC activity distributions at the gradually elevated GSI. The highest AIMC activities were generally obtained from locations...... closest to the free surface water boundary except during the dry season when microbial activities were similar across the entire GSI. A clone library of AIMC 16S rRNA genes was constructed, and it confirmed the predominant role of the targeted alphaproteobacterial group in AIMC activity and composition...... phylogenetically related to putative IOB, supporting the occurrence and persistence of active microbial iron oxidation across the studied iron-rich GSI ecosystem....

  2. Evaluation of Calendar Year 1996 groundwater and surface water quality data for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime at the US Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    This report presents an evaluation of the groundwater monitoring data obtained in the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime) during calendar year (CY) 1996. The East Fork Regime encompasses several confirmed and suspected sources of groundwater contamination within industrialized areas of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant in Bear Creek Valley (BCV) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The CY 1996 groundwater and surface water monitoring data are presented in Calendar Year 1996 Annual Groundwater Monitoring Report for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime at the US Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, along with the required data evaluations specified in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) post-closure permit for the East Fork Regime. This report provides additional evaluation of the CY 1996 groundwater and surface water monitoring data with an emphasis on regime-wide groundwater contamination and long-term concentration trends for regulated and non-regulated monitoring parameters

  3. Ground-water monitoring under RCRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coalgate, J.

    1993-11-01

    In developing a regulatory strategy for the disposal of hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), protection of ground-water resources was the primary goal of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). EPA's ground-water protection strategy seeks to minimize the potential for hazardous wastes and hazardous constituents in waste placed in land disposel units to migrate into the environment. This is achieved through liquids management (limiting the placement of liquid wastes in or on the land, requiring the use of liners beneath waste, installing leachate collection systems and run-on and run-off controls, and covering wastes at closure). Ground-water monitoring serves to detect any failure in EPA's liquids management strategy so that ground-water contamination can be detected and addressed as soon as possible

  4. Determination of pharmaceutical compounds in surface- and ground-water samples by solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, J.D.; Furlong, E.T.; Burkhardt, M.R.; Kolpin, D.; Anderson, L.G.

    2004-01-01

    Commonly used prescription and over-the-counter pharmaceuticals are possibly present in surface- and ground-water samples at ambient concentrations less than 1 μg/L. In this report, the performance characteristics of a combined solid-phase extraction isolation and high-performance liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC–ESI-MS) analytical procedure for routine determination of the presence and concentration of human-health pharmaceuticals are described. This method was developed and used in a recent national reconnaissance of pharmaceuticals in USA surface waters. The selection of pharmaceuticals evaluated for this method was based on usage estimates, resulting in a method that contains compounds from diverse chemical classes, which presents challenges and compromises when applied as a single routine analysis. The method performed well for the majority of the 22 pharmaceuticals evaluated, with recoveries greater than 60% for 12 pharmaceuticals. The recoveries of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, a histamine (H2) receptor antagonist, and antihypoglycemic compound classes were less than 50%, but were retained in the method to provide information describing the potential presence of these compounds in environmental samples and to indicate evidence of possible matrix enhancing effects. Long-term recoveries, evaluated from reagent-water fortifications processed over 2 years, were similar to initial method performance. Method detection limits averaged 0.022 μg/L, sufficient for expected ambient concentrations. Compound-dependent matrix effects on HPLC/ESI-MS analysis, including enhancement and suppression of ionization, were observed as a 20–30% increase in measured concentrations for three compounds and greater than 50% increase for two compounds. Changing internal standard and more frequent ESI source maintenance minimized matrix effects. Application of the method in the national survey demonstrates that several

  5. Impact of surface water recharge on the design of a groundwater monitoring system for the Radioactive Waste Management Complex, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, T.R.

    1990-01-01

    Recent hydrogeologic studies have been initiated to characterize the hydrogeologic conditions at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Measured water levels in wells penetrating the Snake River Plain aquifer near the RWMC and the corresponding direction of flow show change over time. This change is related to water table mounding caused by recharge from excess water diverted from the Big Lost River for flood protection during high flows. Water levels in most wells near the RWMC rise on the order of 10 ft (3 m) in response to recharge, with water in one well rising over 60 ft (18 m). Recharge changes the normal south-southwest direction of flow to the east. Design of the proposed groundwater monitoring network for the RWMC must account for the variable directions of groundwater flow. 11 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Evaluation of Calendar Year 1996 groundwater and surface water quality data for the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime at the US Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-08-01

    This report presents an evaluation of the groundwater monitoring data obtained in the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime) during calendar year (CY) 1996. The monitoring data were collected for the multiple programmatic purposes of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) and have been reported in Calendar Year 1996 Annual Groundwater Monitoring Report for the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime at the US Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The Annual Monitoring report presents only the results of the monitoring data evaluations required for waste management sites addressed under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) post-closure permit for the Bear Creek Regime. The Annual Monitoring Report also serves as a consolidated reference for the groundwater and surface water monitoring data obtained throughout the Bear Creek Regime under the auspices of the Y-12 GWPP. This report provides an evaluation of the CY 1996 monitoring data with an emphasis on regime-wide groundwater and surface water quality and long-term concentration trends of regulated and non-regulated monitoring parameters

  7. Evaluation of Calendar Year 1996 groundwater and surface water quality data for the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime at the US Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    This report presents an evaluation of the groundwater monitoring data obtained in the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime) during calendar year (CY) 1996. The monitoring data were collected for the multiple programmatic purposes of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) and have been reported in Calendar Year 1996 Annual Groundwater Monitoring Report for the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime at the US Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The Annual Monitoring report presents only the results of the monitoring data evaluations required for waste management sites addressed under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) post-closure permit for the Bear Creek Regime. The Annual Monitoring Report also serves as a consolidated reference for the groundwater and surface water monitoring data obtained throughout the Bear Creek Regime under the auspices of the Y-12 GWPP. This report provides an evaluation of the CY 1996 monitoring data with an emphasis on regime-wide groundwater and surface water quality and long-term concentration trends of regulated and non-regulated monitoring parameters.

  8. Prediction of nitrogen and phosphorus leaching to groundwater and surface waters; process descriptions of the animo4.0 model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenendijk, P.; Renaud, L.V.; Roelsma, J.

    2005-01-01

    The fertilization reduction policy intended to pursue environmental objects and regional water management strategies to meet Water Framework Directive objectives justify a thorough evaluation of the effectiveness of measures and reconnaissance of adverse impacts. The model aims at the evaluation and

  9. Evaluation of effects of changes in canal management and precipitation patterns on salinity in Biscayne Bay, Florida, using an integrated surface-water/groundwater model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmann, Melinda A.; Swain, Eric D.; Wang, John D.; Dixon, Joann

    2012-01-01

    Biscayne National Park, located in Biscayne Bay in southeast Florida, is one of the largest marine parks in the country and sustains a large natural marine fishery where numerous threatened and endangered species reproduce. In recent years, the bay has experienced hypersaline conditions (salinity greater than 35 practical salinity units) of increasing magnitude and duration. Hypersalinity events were particularly pronounced during April to August 2004 in nearshore areas along the southern and middle parts of the bay. Prolonged hypersaline conditions can cause degradation of water quality and permanent damage to, or loss of, brackish nursery habitats for multiple species of fish and crustaceans as well as damage to certain types of seagrasses that are not tolerant of extreme changes in salinity. To evaluate the factors that contribute to hypersalinity events and to test the effects of possible changes in precipitation patterns and canal flows into Biscayne Bay on salinity in the bay, the U.S. Geological Survey constructed a coupled surface-water/groundwater numerical flow model. The model is designed to account for freshwater flows into Biscayne Bay through the canal system, leakage of salty bay water into the underlying Biscayne aquifer, discharge of fresh and salty groundwater from the Biscayne aquifer into the bay, direct effects of precipitation on bay salinity, indirect effects of precipitation on recharge to the Biscayne aquifer, direct effects of evapotranspiration (ET) on bay salinity, indirect effects of ET on recharge to the Biscayne aquifer, and maintenance of mass balance of both water and solute. The model was constructed using the Flow and Transport in a Linked Overland/Aquifer Density Dependent System (FTLOADDS) simulator, version 3.3, which couples the two-dimensional, surface-water flow and solute-transport simulator SWIFT2D with the density-dependent, groundwater flow an solute-transport simulator SEAWAT. The model was calibrated by a trial

  10. Science to support the understanding of south Texas surface-water and groundwater resources in a changing landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ockerman, Darwin J.; Garcia, Travis J.; Opsahl, Stephen P.

    2012-01-01

    Against a backdrop of constant cycles of extreme hydrologic conditions ranging from oppressive droughts to life-threatening floods, the water-resource landscape of south Texas is undergoing constant change. Demands on water resources are increasing because of changes related to population growth, energy demands, agricultural practices, and other human-related activities. In south Texas, the Nueces, San Antonio, and Guadalupe River Basins cover approximately 50,000 square miles and include all or part of 45 counties. These stream systems transect the faulted and fractured carbonate rocks of the Edwards aquifer recharge zone and provide the largest sources of recharge to the aquifer. As the streams make their way to the Gulf of Mexico, they provide water for communities and ecosystems in south Texas and deliver water, sediment, and nutrients to the south Texas bays and estuaries.

  11. Does plant uptake or low soil mineral-N production limit mineral-N losses to surface waters and groundwater from soils under grass in summer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatti, Ambreen; McClean, Colin J.; Cresser, Malcolm S.

    2013-01-01

    Summer minima and autumn/winter maxima in nitrate concentrations in rivers are reputedly due to high plant uptake of nitrate from soils in summer. A novel alternative hypothesis is tested here for soils under grass. By summer, residual readily mineralizable plant litter from the previous autumn/winter is negligible and fresh litter input low. Consequently little mineral-N is produced in the soil. Water-soluble and KCl-extractable mineral N in fresh soils and soils incubated outdoors for 7 days have been monitored over 12 months for soil transects at two permanent grassland sites near York, UK, using 6 replicates throughout. Vegetation-free soil is shown to produce very limited mineral-N in summer, despite the warm, moist conditions. Litter accumulates in autumn/winter and initially its high C:N ratio favours N accumulation in the soil. It is also shown that mineral-N generated monthly in situ in soil substantially exceeds the monthly mineral-N inputs via wet deposition at the sites. -- Highlights: •Soil mineral-N has been measured over a year at two grassland sites in the UK. •Rates of mineral-N production have also been measured in vegetation-free soils. •In summer, though soils were warm and moist, rate of mineral-N production was low. •The effect is attributed to low litter inputs in summer when grass is growing well. •Low mineral-N production in summer must be limiting N losses to fresh waters. -- Low mineral-N production in soils under grass limits summer N losses to surface- and ground-waters

  12. Surface and groundwater quality assessment of Marikina river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dela Pena, Jowell P.; Pael, Limela G.

    2009-03-01

    The study used the physico-chemical characteristics to determine the degree of pollution in different surface and groundwater sources in Marikina. The hydrogen ion concentration in all the stations for surface water was generally basic ranging from 7.24 to 7.44, while conductivity was observed to be highest in Royal Ville station that has a value of 253 μ/cm. Among the four stations in groundwater which obtained an acidic pH, Brgy. Singkamas deep-well has a neutral value. The conductivity was observed to be highest in Brgy. Conception which has a value of 1026 μ/cm. The major ions result showed that the three stations from Marikina River have conformed to the water quality criteria for fresh waters set by the Department of Environment and Natural Resources, while results from different deep-well stations showed that among four stations, Brgy. Singkamas and Conception deep-well have exceeded the recommended value concentration for drinking water quality standards. The multi-element results were obtained from an Energy-Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy. Results showed that significant concentrations of metals like Al, Cd, Cr, Fe, and Pb in both surface and groundwater stations have exceeded the maximum concentrations set by both DENR and PNSDW. The significant differences in the concentrations of physico-chemical components facilitate detection of contamination from domestic and industrial wastes. (author)

  13. Effects of physical and biogeochemical processes on aquatic ecosystems at the groundwater-surface water interface: An evaluation of a sulfate-impacted wild rice stream in Minnesota (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, G. H. C.; Yourd, A. R.; Myrbo, A.; Johnson, N.

    2015-12-01

    Significant uncertainty and variability in physical and biogeochemical processes at the groundwater-surface water interface complicate how surface water chemistry affects aquatic ecosystems. Questions surrounding a unique 10 mg/L sulfate standard for wild rice (Zizania sp.) waters in Minnesota are driving research to clarify conditions controlling the geochemistry of shallow sediment porewater in stream- and lake-beds. This issue raises the need and opportunity to carry out in-depth, process-based analysis into how water fluxes and coupled C, S, and Fe redox cycles interact to impact aquatic plants. Our study builds on a recent state-wide field campaign that showed that accumulation of porewater sulfide from sulfate reduction impairs wild rice, an annual grass that grows in shallow lakes and streams in the Great Lakes region of North America. Negative porewater sulfide correlations with organic C and Fe quantities also indicated that lower redox rates and greater mineral precipitation attenuate sulfide. Here, we focus on a stream in northern Minnesota that receives high sulfate loading from iron mining activity yet maintains wild rice stands. In addition to organic C and Fe effects, we evaluate the degree to which streambed hydrology, and in particular groundwater contributions, accounts for the active biogeochemistry. We collect field measurements, spanning the surrounding groundwater system to the stream, to constrain a reactive-transport model. Observations from seepage meters, temperature probes, and monitoring wells delineate upward flow that may lessen surface water impacts below the stream. Geochemical analyses of groundwater, porewater, and surface water samples and of sediment extractions reveal distinctions among the different domains and stream banks, which appear to jointly control conditions in the streambed. A model based on field conditions can be used to evaluate the relative the importance and the spatiotemporal scales of diverse flux and

  14. Surface-water and ground-water quality in the Powell Creek and Armstrong Creek Watersheds, Dauphin County, Pennsylvania, July-September 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeone, Daniel G.; Low, Dennis J.

    2003-01-01

    Powell Creek and Armstrong Creek Watersheds are in Dauphin County, north of Harrisburg, Pa. The completion of the Dauphin Bypass Transportation Project in 2001 helped to alleviate traffic congestion from these watersheds to Harrisburg. However, increased development in Powell Creek and Armstrong Creek Watersheds is expected. The purpose of this study was to establish a baseline for future projects in the watersheds so that the effects of land-use changes on water quality can be documented. The Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PADEP) (2002) indicates that surface water generally is good in the 71 perennial stream miles in the watersheds. PADEP lists 11.1 stream miles within the Armstrong Creek and 3.2 stream miles within the Powell Creek Watersheds as impaired or not meeting water-quality standards. Siltation from agricultural sources and removal of vegetation along stream channels are cited by PADEP as likely factors causing this impairment.

  15. Ground-Water Protection and Monitoring Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresel, P.E.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the ground-water protection and monitoring program strategy for the Hanford Site in 1994. Two of the key elements of this strategy are to (1) protect the unconfined aquifer from further contamination, and (2) conduct a monitoring program to provide early warning when contamination of ground water does occur. The monitoring program at Hanford is designed to document the distribution and movement of existing ground-water contamination and provides a historical baseline for evaluating current and future risk from exposure to the contamination and for deciding on remedial action options

  16. Ground-Water Protection and Monitoring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresel, P.E.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the ground-water protection and monitoring program strategy for the Hanford Site in 1994. Two of the key elements of this strategy are to (1) protect the unconfined aquifer from further contamination, and (2) conduct a monitoring program to provide early warning when contamination of ground water does occur. The monitoring program at Hanford is designed to document the distribution and movement of existing ground-water contamination and provides a historical baseline for evaluating current and future risk from exposure to the contamination and for deciding on remedial action options.

  17. The role of dynamic surface water-groundwater exchange on streambed denitrification in a first-order, low-relief agricultural watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Mina; Essaid, Hedeff I.; Wilson, John T.

    2015-12-01

    The role of temporally varying surface water-groundwater (SW-GW) exchange on nitrate removal by streambed denitrification was examined along a reach of Leary Weber Ditch (LWD), Indiana, a small, first-order, low-relief agricultural watershed within the Upper Mississippi River basin, using data collected in 2004 and 2005. Stream stage, GW heads (H), and temperatures (T) were continuously monitored in streambed piezometers and stream bank wells for two transects across LWD accompanied by synoptic measurements of stream stage, H, T, and nitrate (NO3) concentrations along the reach. The H and T data were used to develop and calibrate vertical two-dimensional, models of streambed water flow and heat transport across and along the axis of the stream. Model-estimated SW-GW exchange varied seasonally and in response to high-streamflow events due to dynamic interactions between SW stage and GW H. Comparison of 2004 and 2005 conditions showed that small changes in precipitation amount and intensity, evapotranspiration, and/or nearby GW levels within a low-relief watershed can readily impact SW-GW interactions. The calibrated LWD flow models and observed stream and streambed NO3 concentrations were used to predict temporal variations in streambed NO3 removal in response to dynamic SW-GW exchange. NO3 removal rates underwent slow seasonal changes, but also underwent rapid changes in response to high-flow events. These findings suggest that increased temporal variability of SW-GW exchange in low-order, low-relief watersheds may be a factor contributing their more efficient removal of NO3.

  18. Evaluation of groundwater-surface water interaction through groundwater modelling: simulation of the effects of removal of a dam along a river at a contaminated site in Northern France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Remonti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A numerical groundwater flow model has been developed for an industrial site bounded by a river in in Basse Normandie, Northern France. The scope of the work was the optimisation of the existing groundwater pump and treat system and the prediction of possible effects on groundwater circulation after the future removal of a dam located along the river. The model has been implemented with the finite difference code MODFLOW 2005 and represents an area with an extension of approximately 800 x 500 m. It has been calibrated using static conditions groundwater head data (wells deactivated and verified with 1 abstracting conditions (wells abstracting head data, 2 simulating pumping tests with transient simulations and 3 comparing measured average river baseflow with modelled river drainage. The model indicates that the hydraulic barrier in the present abstraction scenario has some problematic areas and needs some improvements, as confirmed by the hydrochemical data of the river water. A first predictive scenario has been developed to optimise the barrier, indicating that a flow rate of 0.5 m3/h each at three new barrier wells, in addition to the present abstraction scenario, should ensure the hydraulic containment of the site. A second predictive scenario simulates the optimised groundwater abstractions without the presence of the dam along the neighbouring river. In these conditions, the river will increase the drainage effect on the aquifer, requiring a further increase in the rate of abstraction from the existing and new wells to ensure the hydraulic containment. With this paper we would like to present an example of what we think is a correct professional approach, with the design of the simplest model as possible depending on the hydrogeological conceptual model complexity, the abundance of data and the model objectives, and where multiple confirmations of the correctness of groundwater model results have been searched for.

  19. Ground-water contamination and legal controls in Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Morris

    1963-01-01

    The great importance of the fresh ground-water resources of Michigan is evident because 90 percent of the rural and about 70 percent of the total population of the State exclusive of the Detroit metropolitan area are supplied from underground sources. The water-supply and public-health problems that have been caused by some cases of ground-water contamination in the State illustrate the necessity of protecting this vital resource.Manmade and natural contaminants, including many types of chemical and organic matter, have entered many of the numerous aquifers of the State. Aquifers have been contaminated by waste-laden liquids percolating from the surface or from the zone of aeration and by direct injection to the aquifer itself. Industrial and domestic wastes, septic tanks, leaking sewers, flood waters or other poor quality surface waters, mine waters, solids stored or spread at the surface, and even airborne wastes all have been sources of ground-water contamination in Michigan. In addition, naturally occurring saline waters have been induced into other aquifers by overpumping or unrestricted flow from artesian wells, possibly by dewatering operations, and by the deepening of surface stream channels. Vertical migration of saline waters through open holes from formations underlying various important aquifers also has spoiled some of the fresh ground waters in the State. In spite of the contamination that has occurred, however, the total amount of ground water that has been spoiled is only a small part of the total resource. Neither is the contamination so widespread as that of the surface streams of Michigan.Overall legal authority to control most types of ground-water contamination in the State has been assigned by the Michigan Legislature to the Water Resources Commission, although the Department of Conservation and the Health Department also exercise important water-pollution control functions. The Michigan Supreme Court, in an important case upholding the power

  20. Ground-water resources of Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, William Charles; Bradford, Gary M.

    1977-01-01

    available information is on the central lowlands and contiguous low plateaus, as the mountainous areas on the west and the high plateaus on the east are relatively unexplored with respect to their ground-water availability. No persistent artesian aquifer has been identified nor have any large potential ground-water sources been found .although much of the country yet remains to be explored by test drilling. Well irrigation for garden produce is feasible on a modest scale in many localities throughout Cambodia. It does not seem likely, however, that large-scale irrigation from wells will come about in the future. Ground water may be regarded as a widely available supplemental source to surface water for domestic, small-scale industrial, and irrigation use.

  1. Hydrogeology and water quality of the shallow ground-water system in eastern York County, Virginia. Water resources investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The report describes the hydrogeology and water quality of the shallow ground-water system in the eastern part of York County, Va. The report includes a discussion of (1) the aquifers and confining units, (2) the flow of ground water, and (3) the quality of ground water. The report is an evaluation of the shallow ground-water system and focuses on the first 200 ft of sediments below land surface. Historical water-level and water-quality data were not available for the study area; therefore, a network of observation wells was constructed for the study. Water levels were measured to provide an understanding of the flow of ground water through the multiaquifer system. Water samples were collected and analyzed for major inorganic constituents, nutrients, and metals. The report presents maps that show the regional distribution of chloride and iron concentrations. Summary statistics and graphical summaries of selected chemical constituents provide a general assessment of the ground-water quality

  2. Novel Insights Linking Ecological Health to Biogeochemical Hotspots across the Groundwater-Surface Water Interface in Mixed Land Use Stream Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKnight, U. S.; Sonne, A. T.; Rasmussen, J. J.; Rønde, V.; Traunspurger, W.; Höss, S.; Bjerg, P. L.

    2017-12-01

    Increasing modifications in land use and water management have resulted in multiple stressors impacting freshwater ecosystems globally. Chemicals with the potential to impact aquatic habitats are still often evaluated individually for their adverse effects on ecosystem health. This may lead to critical underestimations of the combined impact caused by interactions occurring between stressors not typically evaluated together, e.g. xenobiotic groundwater pollutants and trace metals. To address this issue, we identified sources and levels of chemical stressors along a 16-km groundwater-fed stream corridor (Grindsted, Denmark), representative for a mixed land use stream system. Potential pollution sources included two contaminated sites (factory, landfill), aquaculture, wastewater/industrial discharges, and diffuse sources from agriculture and urban areas. Ecological status was determined by monitoring meiobenthic and macrobenthic invertebrate communities.The stream was substantially impaired by both geogenic and anthropogenic sources of metals throughout the investigated corridor, with concentrations close to or above threshold values for barium, copper, lead, nickel and zinc in the stream water, hyporheic zone and streambed sediment. The groundwater plume from the factory site caused elevated concentrations of chlorinated ethenes, benzene and pharmaceuticals in both the hyporheic zone and stream, persisting for several km downstream. Impaired ecological conditions, represented by a lower abundance of meiobenthic individuals, were found in zones where the groundwater plume discharges to the stream. The effect was only pronounced in areas characterized by high xenobiotic organic concentrations and elevated dissolved iron and arsenic levels - linked to the dissolution of iron hydroxides caused by the degradation of xenobiotic compounds in the plume. The results thus provide ecological evidence for the interaction of organic and inorganic chemical stressors, which may

  3. Effect of solid waste landfill on underground and surface water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of solid waste landfill on underground and surface water quality at ring road, Ibadan, Nigeria. ... parameters showed increased concentrations over those from control sites. ... Keywords: Landfill, groundwater, surface-water, pollution.

  4. Deliverable 4.2-2: Stressor propagation through surface-groundwater linkages and its effect on aquatic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaandorp, Vince; de Louw, Perry; Bloomfield, John

    2017-01-01

    The good ecological status of Europe’s freshwaters is still lacking. This paper reviews the role of groundwater in these systems and demonstrates that it is an important factor to include in surface water management. Groundwater influences streamflow, water chemistry and water temperature...... and connects rivers and streams with their catchment and thus functions as a pathway for stressors to reach the surface water. A new ‘Groundwater DPS’ framework is proposed which shows how groundwater fits in the system of a stressed aquatic ecosystem. The functioning of this framework is demonstrated using...... examples from four different European lowland catchments: the Thames, Odense, Regge and Dinkel catchments. The importance of groundwater varies between scales, between catchments and within catchments. The Groundwater DPS will aid water managers in understanding the importance of groundwater...

  5. Characterising flow regime and interrelation between surface-water and ground-water in the Fuente de Piedra salt lake basin by means of stable isotopes, hydrogeochemical and hydraulic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohfahl, Claus; Rodriguez, Miguel; Fenk, Cord; Menz, Christian; Benavente, Jose; Hubberten, Hans; Meyer, Hanno; Paul, Liisa; Knappe, Andrea; López-Geta, Juan Antonio; Pekdeger, Asaf

    2008-03-01

    SummaryThis research reports the characterisation of ground- and surface-water interaction in the Fuente de Piedra Salt lake basin in southern Spain by a combined approach using hydraulic, hydrogeochemical and stable isotope data. During three sampling campaigns (February 2004, 2005 and October 2005) ground- and surface-water samples were collected for stable isotope studies ( 18O, D) and for major and minor ion analysis. Hydraulic measurements at multilevel piezometers were carried out at four different locations around the lake edge. Conductivity logs were performed at four piezometers located along a profile at the northern lake border and at two deeper piezometers in the Miocene basin at a greater distance from the lake. To describe processes that control the brine evolution different hydrogeochemical simulations were performed. Hydrogeochemical data show a variety of brines related to thickness variations of lacustrine evaporites around the lake. Salinity profiles in combination with stable isotope and hydraulic data indicate the existence of convection cells and recycled brines. Furthermore restricted ground-water inflow into the lake was detected. Dedolomitisation processes were identified by hydrogeochemical simulations and different brine origins were reproduced by inverse modelling approaches.

  6. Simulation of ground-water flow and land subsidence in the Antelope Valley ground-water basin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leighton, David A.; Phillips, Steven P.

    2003-01-01

    ground-water development have eliminated the natural sources of discharge, and pumping for agricultural and urban uses have become the primary source of discharge from the ground-water system. Infiltration of return flows from agricultural irrigation has become an important source of recharge to the aquifer system. The ground-water flow model of the basin was discretized horizontally into a grid of 43 rows and 60 columns of square cells 1 mile on a side, and vertically into three layers representing the upper, middle, and lower aquifers. Faults that were thought to act as horizontal-flow barriers were simulated in the model. The model was calibrated to simulate steady-state conditions, represented by 1915 water levels and transient-state conditions during 1915-95 using water-level and subsidence data. Initial estimates of the aquifer-system properties and stresses were obtained from a previously published numerical model of the Antelope Valley ground-water basin; estimates also were obtained from recently collected hydrologic data and from results of simulations of ground-water flow and land subsidence models of the Edwards Air Force Base area. Some of these initial estimates were modified during model calibration. Ground-water pumpage for agriculture was estimated on the basis of irrigated crop acreage and crop consumptive-use data. Pumpage for public supply, which is metered, was compiled and entered into a database used for this study. Estimated annual pumpage peaked at 395,000 acre-feet (acre-ft) in 1952 and then declined because of declining agricultural production. Recharge from irrigation-return flows was estimated to be 30 percent of agricultural pumpage; the irrigation-return flows were simulated as recharge to the regional water table 10 years following application at land surface. The annual quantity of natural recharge initially was based on estimates from previous studies. During model calibration, natural recharge was reduced from the initial

  7. Water management, agriculture, and ground-water supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nace, Raymond L.

    1960-01-01

    Southeastern States. Ground water is not completely 'self-renewing' because, where it is being mined, the reserve is being diminished and the reserve would be renewed only if pumping were stopped. Water is being mined at the rate of 5 million acre-feet per year in Arizona and 6 million in the High Plains of Texas. In contrast, water has been going into storage in the Snake River Plain of Idaho, where deep percolation from surface-water irrigation has added about 10 million acre-feet of storage since irrigation began. Situations in California illustrate problems of land subsidence resulting from pumping and use of water, and deterioration of ground-water reservoirs due to sea-water invasion. Much water development in the United States has been haphazard and rarely has there been integrated development of ground water and surface water. Competition is sharpening and new codes of water law are in the making. New laws, however, will not prevent the consequences of bad management. An important task for water management is to recognize the contingencies that may arise in the future and to prepare for them. The three most important tasks at hand are to make more efficient use of water, to develop improved quantitative evaluations of water supplies arid their quality, and to develop management practices which are based on scientific hydrology.

  8. River water infiltration enhances denitrification efficiency in riparian groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trauth, Nico; Musolff, Andreas; Knöller, Kay; Kaden, Ute S; Keller, Toralf; Werban, Ulrike; Fleckenstein, Jan H

    2018-03-01

    Nitrate contamination in ground- and surface water is a persistent problem in countries with intense agriculture. The transition zone between rivers and their riparian aquifers, where river water and groundwater interact, may play an important role in mediating nitrate exports, as it can facilitate intensive denitrification, which permanently removes nitrate from the aquatic system. However, the in-situ factors controlling riparian denitrification are not fully understood, as they are often strongly linked and their effects superimpose each other. In this study, we present the evaluation of hydrochemical and isotopic data from a 2-year sampling period of river water and groundwater in the riparian zone along a 3rd order river in Central Germany. Based on bi- and multivariate statistics (Spearman's rank correlation and partial least squares regression) we can show, that highest rates for oxygen consumption and denitrification in the riparian aquifer occur where the fraction of infiltrated river water and at the same time groundwater temperature, are high. River discharge and depth to groundwater are additional explanatory variables for those reaction rates, but of minor importance. Our data and analyses suggest that at locations in the riparian aquifer, which show significant river water infiltration, heterotrophic microbial reactions in the riparian zone may be fueled by bioavailable organic carbon derived from the river water. We conclude that interactions between rivers and riparian groundwater are likely to be a key control of nitrate removal and should be considered as a measure to mitigate high nitrate exports from agricultural catchments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Annual report of 1991 groundwater monitoring data for the Kerr Hollow Quarry and Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin at the Y-12 Plant: Ground water surface elevations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shevenell, L.; Switek, J.

    1992-02-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide a summary and interpretation of hydraulic head measurements obtained from wells surrounding the Kerr Hollow Quarry and Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin sites at the US Department of Energy Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Periodic water level observations are presented using hydrographs and water table contour maps based on data obtained from quarterly sampling during calendar year 1991. Generalized, preliminary interpretation of results are presented. The two sites covered by this report have interim status under the provisions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). A subset of the wells at each rate are used for groundwater monitoring purposes under the requirements of RCRA. A discussion of the up-gradient and down-gradient directions for each of the sites is included

  10. Procedures for ground-water investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-09-01

    This manual was developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to document the procedures used to carry out and control the technical aspects of ground-water investigations at the PNL. Ground-water investigations are carried out to fulfill the requirements for the US Department of Energy (DOE) to meet the requirements of DOE Orders. Investigations are also performed for various clients to meet the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). National standards including procedures published by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) and the US Geological Survey were utilized in developing the procedures contained in this manual

  11. The spatial geochemical characteristics of groundwater and surface in the Tuul River basin, Ulaanbatar, Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batdelger, Odsuren; Tsujimura, Maki; Zorigt, Byambasuren; Togtokh, Enkhjargal

    2017-04-01

    The capital city, Ulaanbaatar, is located along the Tuul River and its water supply totally dependent on the groundwater, which comes from the aquifer of the Tuul River. Due to the rapid growth of the population and the increasing human pressures in this basin, water quality has been deteriorating and has become a crucial issue for sustainable environmental and socio-economic development. Hydro-chemical and stable isotope tracing approaches were applied into the groundwater and surface water in order to study geochemical characteristics and groundwater and surface water interaction. The Tuul River water was mostly characterized by the Ca-HCO3 type, spatially variable and it changed into Ca-Na-HCO3 type in the downstream of the city after wastewater (WW) meets the river. Also, electrical conductivity (EC) values of Tuul River are increasing gradually with distance and it increased more than 2 times after WW meets the stream, therefore anthropogenic activities influence to the downstream of the river. The dominant hydro-chemical facies of groundwater were the Ca-HCO3 type, which represents 83% of the total analyzed samples, while Ca- HCO3-Cl-NO3, Na-HCO3, Ca-HCO3-SO4 each represent 4%, and Ca-mixed and Ca-Mg-HCO3 each represent 2% of the total samples. This suggests that groundwater chemistry is controlled by rock-water interaction and anthropogenic pollution. The floodplain groundwater chemical characteristics were similar to Tuul River water and showing lowest EC values. Groundwater far from floodplain showed higher EC (mean value of 498 μs/cm) values than river waters and floodplain groundwater. Also, different kinds of hydro-chemical facies were observed. The stable isotopic compositions revealed less evaporation effect on the groundwater and surface water, as well as an altitude effect in the river water. The similarity of stable isotopes and chemical characteristics of floodplain groundwater and river water suggests that alluvial groundwater is recharged by

  12. Ground-water contamination at Wurtsmith Air Force Base, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, J.R.; Cummings, T.R.; Twenter, F.R.

    1983-01-01

    A sand and gravel aquifer of glacial origin underlies Wurtsmith Air Force Base in northeastern lower Michigan. The aquifer overlies a thick clay layer at an average depth of 65 feet. The water table is about 10 feet below land surface in the western part of the Base and about 25 feet below land surface in the eastern part. A ground-water divide cuts diagonally across the Base from northwest to southeast. South of the divide, ground water flows to the Au Sable River; north of the divide, it flows to Van Etten Creek and Van Etten Lake. Mathematical models were used to aid in calculating rates of groundwater flow. Rates range from about 0.8 feet per day in the eastern part of the Base to about 0.3 feet per day in the western part. Models also were used as an aid in making decisions regarding purging of contaminated water from the aquifer. In 1977, trichloroethylene was detected in the Air Force Base water-supply system. It had leaked from a buried storage tank near Building 43 in the southeastern part of the Base and moved northeastward under the influence of the natural ground-water gradient and the pumping of Base water-supply wells. In the most highly contaminated part of the plume, concentrations are greater than 1,000 micrograms per liter. Current purge pumping is removing some of the trichloroethylene, and seems to have arrested its eastward movement. Pumping of additional purge wells could increase the rate of removal. Trichloroethylene has also been detected in ground water in the vicinity of the Base alert apron, where a plume from an unknown source extends northeastward off Base. A smaller, less well-defined area of contamination also occurs just north of the larger plume. Trichloroethylene, identified near the waste-treatment plant, seepage lagoons, and the northern landfill area, is related to activities and operations in these areas. Dichloroethylene and trichloroethylene occur in significant quantities westward of Building 43, upgradient from the major

  13. Ground-water sample collection and analysis plan for the ground-water surveillance project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryce, R.W.; Evans, J.C.; Olsen, K.B.

    1991-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory performs ground-water sampling activities at the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford Site in support of DOE's environmental surveillance responsibilities. The purpose of this document is to translate DOE's General Environmental Protection Program (DOE Order 5400.1) into a comprehensive ground-water sample collection and analysis plan for the Hanford Site. This sample collection and analysis plan sets forth the environmental surveillance objectives applicable to ground water, identifies the strategy for selecting sample collection locations, and lists the analyses to be performed to meet those objectives

  14. Development, Testing, and Application of a Coupled Hydrodynamic Surface-Water/Groundwater Model (FTLOADDS) with Heat and Salinity Transport in the Ten Thousand Islands/Picayune Strand Restoration Project Area, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Eric D.; Decker, Jeremy D.

    2009-01-01

    A numerical model application was developed for the coastal area inland of the Ten Thousand Islands (TTI) in southwestern Florida using the Flow and Transport in a Linked Overland/Aquifer Density-Dependent System (FTLOADDS) model. This model couples a two-dimensional dynamic surface-water model with a three-dimensional groundwater model, and has been applied to several locations in southern Florida. The model application solves equations for salt transport in groundwater and surface water, and also simulates surface-water temperature using a newly enhanced heat transport algorithm. One of the purposes of the TTI application is to simulate hydrologic factors that relate to habitat suitability for the West Indian Manatee. Both salinity and temperature have been shown to be important factors for manatee survival. The inland area of the TTI domain is the location of the Picayune Strand Restoration Project, which is designed to restore predevelopment hydrology through the filling and plugging of canals, construction of spreader channels, and the construction of levees and pump stations. The effects of these changes are simulated to determine their effects on manatee habitat. The TTI application utilizes a large amount of input data for both surface-water and groundwater flow simulations. These data include topography, frictional resistance, atmospheric data including rainfall and air temperature, aquifer properties, and boundary conditions for tidal levels, inflows, groundwater heads, and salinities. Calibration was achieved by adjusting the parameters having the largest uncertainty: surface-water inflows, the surface-water transport dispersion coefficient, and evapotranspiration. A sensitivity analysis did not indicate that further parameter changes would yield an overall improvement in simulation results. The agreement between field data from GPS-tracked manatees and TTI application results demonstrates that the model can predict the salinity and temperature

  15. Ground-water availability from surficial aquifers in the Red River of the North Basin, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reppe, Thomas H.C.

    2005-01-01

    Population growth and commercial and industrial development in the Red River of the North Basin in Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota have prompted the Bureau of Reclamation, U.S. Department of the Interior, to evaluate sources of water to sustain this growth. Nine surficial-glacial (surficial) aquifers (Buffalo, Middle River, Two Rivers, Beach Ridges, Pelican River, Otter Tail, Wadena, Pineland Sands, and Bemidji-Bagley) within the Minnesota part of the basin were identified and evaluated for their ground-water resources. Information was compiled and summarized from published studies to evaluate the availability of ground water. Published information reviewed for each of the aquifers included location and extent, physical characteristics, hydraulic properties, ground-water and surface-water interactions, estimates of water budgets (sources of recharge and discharge) and aquifer storage, theoretical well yields and actual ground-water pumping data, recent (2003) ground-water use data, and baseline ground-water-quality data.

  16. Statistical and Fractal Approaches on Long Time-Series to Surface-Water/Groundwater Relationship Assessment: A Central Italy Alluvial Plain Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Chiaudani

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this research, univariate and bivariate statistical methods were applied to rainfall, river and piezometric level datasets belonging to 24-year time series (1986–2009. These methods, which often are used to understand the effects of precipitation on rivers and karstic springs discharge, have been used to assess piezometric level response to rainfall and river level fluctuations in a porous aquifer. A rain gauge, a river level gauge and three wells, located in Central Italy along the lower Pescara River valley in correspondence of its important alluvial aquifer, provided the data. Statistical analysis has been used within a known hydrogeological framework, which has been refined by mean of a photo-interpretation and a GPS survey. Water–groundwater relationships were identified following the autocorrelation and cross-correlation analyses. Spectral analysis and mono-fractal features of time series were assessed to provide information on multi-year variability, data distributions, their fractal dimension and the distribution return time within the historical time series. The statistical–mathematical results were interpreted through fieldwork that identified distinct groundwater flowpaths within the aquifer and enabled the implementation of a conceptual model, improving the knowledge on water resources management tools.

  17. Questa baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality investigation 4. Historical surface-water quality for the Red River Valley, New Mexico, 1965 to 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maest, Ann S.; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; LoVetere, Sara H.