Sample records for surface warfare dahlgren

  1. 76 FR 10522 - Naval Surface Warfare Center, Upper Machodoc Creek and the Potomac River, Dahlgren, VA; Danger Zone (United States)


    ... and the Potomac River, Dahlgren, VA; Danger Zone AGENCY: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, DoD. ACTION... danger zone in the vicinity of Naval Surface Warfare Center, Dahlgren, in King George County, Virginia..., and expands the boundaries of a portion of the danger zone. The amendment is necessary to protect...

  2. Hydrogeologic and water-quality data for the explosive experimental area, Naval Surface Warfare Center, Dahlgren Site, Dahlgren, Virginia (United States)

    Hammond, E.C.; Bell, C.F.


    Hydrogeologic and water-quality data were collected at the Explosive Experimental Area, Naval Surface Warfare Center, Dahlgren Site at Dahlgren, Virginia, as part of a hydrogeologic assessment of the shallow aquifer system begun in 1993. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted this study to provide the U.S. Navy with hydrogeologic data to aid in the evaluation of the effects from remediation of contaminated sites and to protect against additional contamination. This report describes the ground-water observation- well network, hydrogeologic, and water-quality data collected between October 1993 and April 1995. The report includes a description of the locations and construction of 28 observation wells on the Explosive Experimental Area. Hydrogeologic data include lithologic logs, geophysical logs, and vertical hydraulic conductivity measurements of selected core intervals. Hydrologic data include synoptic and hourly measurements of ground-water levels, and observation-well slug tests to determine horizontal hydraulic conductivity. Water-quality data include analyses of major dissolved constituents in ground water and surface water.

  3. 75 FR 69032 - Naval Surface Warfare Center, Potomac River, Dahlgren, VA; Danger Zone (United States)


    ..., Dahlgren, VA; Danger Zone AGENCY: United States Army Corps of Engineers, Department of Defense. ACTION... amend an existing permanent danger zone in the waters of the Upper Machodoc Creek and the Potomac River... River Test Range. Many of the tests are hazardous operations presenting a danger to persons or...

  4. Range Condition Assessment Report for Naval Surface Warfare Center, Dahlgren Laboratory Ranges, Dahlgren, Virginia (United States)


    base like a small reef where organisms such as oysters, invertebrates, and algae colonize (NSWC 2005a). Other projectiles include sophisticated...primary game species for RSEPA RCA Report September 2010 Final 5-47 hunting includes white- tailed deer, wild turkey, quail, rabbit, dove, and...have dislodged many benthic organisms from the sampled material, thereby artificially depressing the number of collected organisms. It was

  5. Naval Surface Warfare Center Dahlgren Division Technical Digest. Advanced Materials Technology (United States)


    Commander) (STS-8) shuttle missions. The results of the Andrew M. Allen (Pilot) EOIM investigations provide much of the cur- Claude Nicollier 119 rent...34 Corrosion. Marine Biofourling - A Review." 1. 1). Cristlowv. anid R. Vol. 49. 19)93. pp. 63-73. c.. ’ripper. Eds.. Morine ’ Riodetei ’r’i-ationi: An, 131. Pope

  6. Naval Surface Warfare Center, Dahlgren Division Technical Digest. Detection Systems and Technology, September 1992 (United States)


    ECM) are used, the exponent wide-angle retroreflectors . Aircraft require cock- in Equation (1) changes. For a self-screening pits, cruise missiles and...into the inlet duct, a notorious retroreflector . more sophisticated signal-processing tech- The use of radar-absorbing material to line the niques...parameters it contains. Such models provide N(D/He) - 1/2 or 0.577. The probability of dam - simple first estimates that cant be used in many age. P

  7. Naval Surface Warfare Center Dahlgren Division: Application of Lean Six Sigma in the Pre-Award Procurement Process (United States)


    This Project outlines Lean Six Sigma principles, provides examples of Lean Six Sigma events, and analyzes principles that can be applied to Navy...acquisition and contracting. The objectives of this project are as follows: (1) provide an overview of Lean Six Sigma principles in contracting and...acquisition; (2) identify Navy contracting processes that have and can be analyzed using Lean Six Sigma principles; (3) explore how Lean Six Sigma can be

  8. Naval Surface Warfare Center Dahlgren Division: application of Lean Six Sigma in the pre-award procurement process


    Himes, Kristy M.; Salisbury, Constance M.


    Joint Applied Project This Project outlines Lean Six Sigma principles, provides examples of Lean Six Sigma events, and analyzes principles that can be applied to Navy acquisition and contracting. The objective of this project is to: (1) provide an overview of Lean Six Sigma principles in contracting and acquisition; (2) identify Navy contracting processes that have and can be analyzed using Lean Six Sigma principles; (3) explore how Lean Six Sigma can be applied to interpret and implem...

  9. Estimated Chemical Warfare Agent Surface Clearance Goals for Remediation Pre-Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolislager, Frederick [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Bansleben, Dr. Donald [U.S. Department of Homeland Security; Watson, Annetta Paule [ORNL


    Health-based surface clearance goals, in units of mg/cm2, have been developed for the persistent chemical warfare agents sulfur mustard (HD) and nerve agent VX as well as their principal degradation products. Selection of model parameters and critical receptor (toddler child) allow calculation of surface residue estimates protective for the toddler child, the general population and adult employees of a facilty that has undergone chemical warfare agent attack.

  10. Spectroscopic investigations of surface deposited biological warfare simulants (United States)

    Barrington, Stephen J.; Bird, Hilary; Hurst, Daniel; McIntosh, Alastair J. S.; Spencer, Phillippa; Pelfrey, Suzanne H.; Baker, Matthew J.


    This paper reports a proof-of-principle study aimed at discriminating biological warfare (BW) simulants from common environmental bacteria in order to differentiate pathogenic endospores in situ, to aid any required response for hazard management. We used FTIR spectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis; FTIR is a versatile technique for the non-destructive analysis of a range of materials. We also report an evaluation of multiple pre-processing techniques and subsequent differences in cross-validation accuracy of two pattern recognition models (Support Vector Machines (SVM) and Principal Component - Linear Discriminant Analysis (PC-LDA)) for two classifications: a two class classification (Gram + ve spores vs. Gram -ve vegetative cells) and a six class classification (bacterial classification). Six bacterial strains Bacillus atrophaeus, Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki, Bacillus thuringiensis, Escherichia coli, Pantaeoa agglomerans and Pseudomonas fluorescens were analysed.

  11. An Assessment of the Effectiveness of Computer-based Training for Newly Commissioned Surface Warfare Division Officers (United States)


    Chief of Naval Operations Surface Warfare Directorate. (2002, June 15). Navigation, seamanship and shiphandling training requirements document...unlimited. Prepared for: Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California 93943 An Assessment of the Effectiveness of Computer-based Training...Stephen Mehay, Professor With the assistance of Carol Stoker and Robert Paynter Naval Postgraduate School Naval Postgraduate School

  12. 75 FR 3395 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; U.S. Naval Surface Warfare Center Panama City Division... (United States)


    ..., and provide the opportunity for an experienced biologist to collect data on marine mammal behavior... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 218 RIN 0648-AW80 Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; U.S. Naval Surface Warfare Center Panama City Division Mission Activities AGENCY: National Marine...

  13. Efficacy of liquid and foam decontamination technologies for chemical warfare agents on indoor surfaces. (United States)

    Love, Adam H; Bailey, Christopher G; Hanna, M Leslie; Hok, Saphon; Vu, Alex K; Reutter, Dennis J; Raber, Ellen


    Bench-scale testing was used to evaluate the efficacy of four decontamination formulations on typical indoor surfaces following exposure to the liquid chemical warfare agents sarin (GB), soman (GD), sulfur mustard (HD), and VX. Residual surface contamination on coupons was periodically measured for up to 24h after applying one of four selected decontamination technologies [0.5% bleach solution with trisodium phosphate, Allen Vanguard Surface Decontamination Foam (SDF™), U.S. military Decon Green™, and Modec Inc. and EnviroFoam Technologies Sandia Decontamination Foam (DF-200)]. All decontamination technologies tested, except for the bleach solution, performed well on nonporous and nonpermeable glass and stainless-steel surfaces. However, chemical agent residual contamination typically remained on porous and permeable surfaces, especially for the more persistent agents, HD and VX. Solvent-based Decon Green™ performed better than aqueous-based bleach or foams on polymeric surfaces, possibly because the solvent is able to penetrate the polymer matrix. Bleach and foams out-performed Decon Green for penetrating the highly polar concrete surface. Results suggest that the different characteristics needed for an ideal and universal decontamination technology may be incompatible in a single formulation and a strategy for decontaminating a complex facility will require a range of technologies.

  14. Multifunctional ultra-high vacuum apparatus for studies of the interactions of chemical warfare agents on complex surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilmsmeyer, Amanda R.; Morris, John R. [Department of Chemistry, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Gordon, Wesley O.; Mantooth, Brent A.; Lalain, Teri A. [Research and Technology Directorate, U.S. Army Edgewood Chemical Biological Center, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland 21010 (United States); Davis, Erin Durke [OptiMetrics, Inc., Abingdon, Maryland 21009 (United States)


    A fundamental understanding of the surface chemistry of chemical warfare agents is needed to fully predict the interaction of these toxic molecules with militarily relevant materials, catalysts, and environmental surfaces. For example, rules for predicting the surface chemistry of agents can be applied to the creation of next generation decontaminants, reactive coatings, and protective materials for the warfighter. Here, we describe a multifunctional ultra-high vacuum instrument for conducting comprehensive studies of the adsorption, desorption, and surface chemistry of chemical warfare agents on model and militarily relevant surfaces. The system applies reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry to study adsorption and surface reactions of chemical warfare agents. Several novel components have been developed to address the unique safety and sample exposure challenges that accompany the research of these toxic, often very low vapor pressure, compounds. While results of vacuum-based surface science techniques may not necessarily translate directly to environmental processes, learning about the fundamental chemistry will begin to inform scientists about the critical aspects that impact real-world applications.

  15. Nanowire-based surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) for chemical warfare simulants (United States)

    Hoffmann, J. A.; Miragliotta, J. A.; Wang, J.; Tyagi, P.; Maddanimath, T.; Gracias, D. H.; Papadakis, S. J.


    Hand-held instruments capable of spectroscopic identification of chemical warfare agents (CWA) would find extensive use in the field. Because CWA can be toxic at very low concentrations compared to typical background levels of commonly-used compounds (flame retardants, pesticides) that are chemically similar, spectroscopic measurements have the potential to reduce false alarms by distinguishing between dangerous and benign compounds. Unfortunately, most true spectroscopic instruments (infrared spectrometers, mass spectrometers, and gas chromatograph-mass spectrometers) are bench-top instruments. Surface-acoustic wave (SAW) sensors are commercially available in hand-held form, but rely on a handful of functionalized surfaces to achieve specificity. Here, we consider the potential for a hand-held device based on surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) using templated nanowires as enhancing substrates. We examine the magnitude of enhancement generated by the nanowires and the specificity achieved in measurements of a range of CWA simulants. We predict the ultimate sensitivity of a device based on a nanowire-based SERS core to be 1-2 orders of magnitude greater than a comparable SAW system, with a detection limit of approximately 0.01 mg m-3.

  16. Surface plasmon resonance detection of biological warfare agent Staphylococcal enterotoxin B using high affinity monoclonal antibody

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Garima; Singh, Pawan K.; Boopathi, M., E-mail:; Kamboj, D.V.; Singh, Beer; Vijayaraghavan, R.


    A novel sensitive method was developed for the detection as well as quantification of Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) using surface plasmon resonance (SPR). It is well known that the amount of SEB needed to cause the intoxication to human beings is very less and this concentration (0.02 {mu}g/kg) is highly dangerous, hence, it is used as biological warfare agent. Thus, the need to develop a reliable and potential detection system against SEB is warranted. In the present work, SEB antibody was immobilized on carboxymethyldextran modified gold chip. The immobilization of SEB antibody and interaction of antigen with immobilized antibody were in-situ characterized by SPR and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. A sample solution containing SEB antigen was injected in a working channel and the results revealed linearity in the concentration from 2.0 to 32.0 pM with a detection limit of 1.0 pM. By using kinetic evaluation software, K{sub D} (equilibrium constant) and Bmax (maximum binding capacity of analyte) values were calculated and found to be 13 pM and 424.23, respectively. Moreover, the thermodynamic parameter, change in Gibb's free energy was deduced and found to be -62.08 kJ/mol and this value shows the spontaneous interaction between SEB antigen and SEB antibody. In order to optimize the detection method, temperature and pH variation studies were also performed. Interference study was conducted to know the selectivity for the antigen-antibody interaction of SEB. The selectivity efficiency of SEB, SEC, SEA and SED were 100, 27.15, 20.01 and 12.05%, respectively towards SEB antibody.

  17. The Effect of the Goldwater-Nichols Department of Defense Reorganization Act on Surface Warfare Officer Career Paths. (United States)


    OF THE GOLDWATER-NIaIS DEARnhmr OF DESE REOFGANIZATION ACr ON SURFACE WARFARE OFFICER CAREER PATHS 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Steward, Thomas F. these levels. The stocks at tour 12D increase 160o by the 5 %i year of the simulation. This is depicted graphically in Figure -4.2. The stocks of...with Datj B.,e Management ,DB.MI and graphics software to provide a powerful decisIon sUpporT " for the manpower analyst. e.r5 dt r APPENDIX A FLOW

  18. Roman Warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.B. Saddington


    Full Text Available

    ROTH, Jonathan P 2009. Roman Warfare. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Pbk. R250. ISBN 978-0-521-53726-1.

    Jonathan Roth of San Jose State University, known as an expert on military logistics, has written this attractive Cambridge Introduction to Roman Civilization volume on Roman Warfare. The series is designed for students with no prior knowledge of Roman antiquity. The book comprises an Introduction on Sources and Methods (pp. 1-6 and 15 chapters on Roman warfare from the beginnings to the fall of the Western Empire in AD 476, using a chronological approach. There are 68 illustrations and maps, a Timeline, a Glossary, a Glossary of People, a Bibliography (which includes several websites and an Index.

  19. Governing Warfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

      It would seem as though warfare has gotten out of control, not only in Iraq and Afghanistan, but also in Central Africa. The paper outlines the strategic history of politically controlled warfare since the early Enlightenment. The argument is that control is implausible. The idea of control has...... the risks of lacking unity and displays the organisational trap to the fatal political myth of controlled warfare: Does it come from the military organisation system itself, from political ideologies of goal-rational governance, or from the chameleonic logic of wars?  ...... administration. While organisation systems continue to make some kind of political control possible, this is not the case in relation to wars. The organisation system is the in-between that should mediatise politics and war but is not functionally equivalent to just and unjust wars. The paper investigates...

  20. Surface with two paint strips for detection and warning of chemical warfare and radiological agents (United States)

    Farmer, Joseph C.


    A system for warning of corrosion, chemical, or radiological substances. The system comprises painting a surface with a paint or coating that includes an indicator material and monitoring the surface for indications of the corrosion, chemical, or radiological substances.

  1. Seasonal morphological and biochemical changes of Dahlgren cells implies a potential role of the caudal neurosecretory system (CNSS) in the reproduction cycle of teleostean fish. (United States)

    Chen, Heng; Mu, Rui


    The purpose of this mini-review is to summarize recent research on the seasonal morphological and biochemical changes of Dahlgren cells in the caudal neurosecretory system (CNSS) of the freshwater teleosts carp Carassius auratus. The quantitative proof for these seasonal changes in the morphology and biochemistry of Dahlgren cells reflects the relationship between the CNSS and the reproduction cycle of fish and implies that the CNSS is probably involved in the reproduction process of fish.

  2. Chemical Warfare Agent Surface Adsorption: Hydrogen Bonding of Sarin and Soman to Amorphous Silica (United States)


    small transfer chamber located within the confines of a CWA-certified surety fume hood . Within the main chamber, the sample was mounted on a molybdenum...Particulate silica surface samples were prepared by dispersing silica (200 m2/g, Aerosil fumed silica with a 12 nm average particle diameter) from a

  3. Biological warfare agents. (United States)

    Pohanka, Miroslav; Kuca, Kamil


    Biological warfare agents are a group of pathogens and toxins of biological origin that can be potentially misused for military or criminal purposes. The present review attempts to summarize necessary knowledge about biological warfare agents. The historical aspects, examples of applications of these agents such as anthrax letters, biological weapons impact, a summary of biological warfare agents and epidemiology of infections are described. The last section tries to estimate future trends in research on biological warfare agents.

  4. Flying Electronic Warfare Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides NP-3D aircraft host platforms for Effectiveness of Navy Electronic Warfare Systems (ENEWS) Program antiship missile (ASM) seeker simulators used...

  5. Flying Electronic Warfare Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides NP-3D aircraft host platforms for Effectiveness of Navy Electronic Warfare Systems (ENEWS) Program antiship missile (ASM) seeker simulators used...

  6. Comparison of latex body paint with wetted gauze wipes for sampling the chemical warfare agents VX and sulfur mustard from common indoor surfaces. (United States)

    Hernon-Kenny, Laura A; Behringer, Deborah L; Crenshaw, Michael D


    Comparison of solvent-wetted gauze with body paint, a peelable surface sampling media, for the sampling of the chemical warfare agents VX and sulfur mustard from nine surfaces was performed. The nine surfaces sampled are those typical of interior public venues and include smooth, rough, porous, and non-porous surfaces. Overall, solvent-wetted gauze (wipes) performed better for the recovery of VX from non-porous surfaces while body paint (BP) performed better for the porous surfaces. The average percent VX recoveries using wipes and BP, respectively, are: finished wood flooring, 86.2%, 71.4%; escalator handrail, 47.3%, 26.7%; stainless steel, 80.5%, 56.1%; glazed ceramic tile, 81.8%, 44.9%; ceiling tile, 1.77%, 13.1%; painted drywall 7.83%, 21.1%; smooth cement, 0.64%, 10.3%; upholstery fabric, 24.6%, 23.1%; unfinished wood flooring, 9.37%, 13.1%. Solvent-wetted gauze performed better for the recovery of sulfur mustard from three of the relatively non-porous surfaces while body paint performed better for the more porous surfaces. The average percent sulfur mustard recoveries using wipes and BP, respectively, are: finished wood flooring, 30.2%, 2.97%; escalator handrail, 4.40%, 4.09%; stainless steel, 21.2%, 3.30%; glazed ceramic tile, 49.7%, 16.7%; ceiling tile, 0.33%, 11.1%; painted drywall 2.05%, 10.6%; smooth cement, 1.20%, 35.2%; upholstery fabric, 7.63%, 6.03%; unfinished wood flooring, 0.90%, 1.74%.

  7. Framework of Shipboard UAV Coordinated Surface to Sea Attack Based on Target-Centric Warfare Theory%基于目标中心战的舰载UAV协同对海突击作战构想

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩玉龙; 严建钢; 陈榕


    Aiming at the characteristics of shipboard UAV formationcoordinated surface to sea attack,absorbing target-centric warfare theory,a framework of shipboard UAV formationcoordinated surface to sea attack is put forward and the application feasibility of the theory is demonstrated. Then the conception and characteristics of shipboard UAV formationcoordinated surface to sea attack based on target-centric warfare theory are advanced. Moreover,this paper reconstructs the’Reconnaissance-Regulation-Attack-Evaluation’operation flow of target-centric warfare theory and establishes five steps for shipboard UAV coordinated surface to sea attack based on target-centric warfare theory, including situation evaluation, target selection and allocation, path planning and effectiveness evaluation.%针对舰载无人机编队协同对海突击作战的特点,在充分吸收目标中心战理论的基础上,提出了基于目标中心战的舰载无人机编队协同对海突击作战构想,论证了目标中心战应用于舰载无人机编队协同对海突击作战的可行性,并对其概念和特征进行了界定和分析,着重对目标中心战理论中的“侦-控-打-评”作战过程进行适应性改造,提出了基于目标中心战的舰载无人机编队协同对海突击作战的主要环节,包括态势评估,目标选择与分配,航路规划,协同打击和效能评估等。

  8. Wipe selection for the analysis of surface materials containing chemical warfare agent nitrogen mustard degradation products by ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Willison, Stuart A


    Degradation products arising from nitrogen mustard chemical warfare agent were deposited on common urban surfaces and determined via surface wiping, wipe extraction, and liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry detection. Wipes investigated included cotton gauze, glass fiber filter, non-woven polyester fiber and filter paper, and surfaces included several porous (vinyl tile, painted drywall, wood) and mostly non-porous (laminate, galvanized steel, glass) surfaces. Wipe extracts were analyzed by ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC–MS/MS) and compared with high performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC–MS/MS) results. An evaluation of both techniques suggests UPLC–MS/MS provides a quick and sensitive analysis of targeted degradation products in addition to being nearly four times faster than a single HPLC run, allowing for greater throughput during a wide-spread release concerning large-scale contamination and subsequent remediation events. Based on the overall performance of all tested wipes, filter paper wipes were selected over other wipes because they did not contain interferences or native species (TEA and DEA) associated with the target analytes, resulting in high percent recoveries and low background levels during sample analysis. Other wipes, including cotton gauze, would require a pre-cleaning step due to the presence of large quantities of native species or interferences of the targeted analytes. Percent recoveries obtained from a laminate surface were 47–99% for all nitrogen mustard degradation products. The resulting detection limits achieved from wipes were 0.2 ng/cm(2) for triethanolamine (TEA), 0.03 ng/cm(2) for N-ethyldiethanolamine (EDEA), 0.1 ng/cm(2) for N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA), and 0.1 ng/cm(2) for diethanolamine (DEA).

  9. Defining cyber warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan D. Mladenović


    Full Text Available Cyber conflicts represent a new kind of warfare that is technologically developing very rapidly. Such development results in more frequent and more intensive cyber attacks undertaken by states against adversary targets, with a wide range of diverse operations, from information operations to physical destruction of targets. Nevertheless, cyber warfare is waged through the application of the same means, techniques and methods as those used in cyber criminal, terrorism and intelligence activities. Moreover, it has a very specific nature that enables states to covertly initiate attacks against their adversaries. The starting point in defining doctrines, procedures and standards in the area of cyber warfare is determining its true nature. In this paper, a contribution to this effort was made through the analysis of the existing state doctrines and international practice in the area of cyber warfare towards the determination of its nationally acceptable definition.

  10. Rethinking Defensive Information Warfare (United States)


    electronic warfare, and special information operations. Defensive information operations ensure timely, accurate, and relevant information access...information and information systems. IA, physical security, OPSEC, counter-deception, counter-psyops, CI, EW, and special information operations. Ensure

  11. Biological warfare agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duraipandian Thavaselvam


    Full Text Available The recent bioterrorist attacks using anthrax spores have emphasized the need to detect and decontaminate critical facilities in the shortest possible time. There has been a remarkable progress in the detection, protection and decontamination of biological warfare agents as many instrumentation platforms and detection methodologies are developed and commissioned. Even then the threat of biological warfare agents and their use in bioterrorist attacks still remain a leading cause of global concern. Furthermore in the past decade there have been threats due to the emerging new diseases and also the re-emergence of old diseases and development of antimicrobial resistance and spread to new geographical regions. The preparedness against these agents need complete knowledge about the disease, better research and training facilities, diagnostic facilities and improved public health system. This review on the biological warfare agents will provide information on the biological warfare agents, their mode of transmission and spread and also the detection systems available to detect them. In addition the current information on the availability of commercially available and developing technologies against biological warfare agents has also been discussed. The risk that arise due to the use of these agents in warfare or bioterrorism related scenario can be mitigated with the availability of improved detection technologies.

  12. On the Probability of Predicting and Mapping Traditional Warfare Measurements to the Cyber Warfare Domain

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, M


    Full Text Available to cyber warfare. This article aims to provide evidence towards the probability of predicting and mapping traditional warfare measurements to the cyber warfare domain. Currently the only way of cyber warfare measurement is located in traditional information...

  13. Multifunctional Ultra-High Vacuum Apparatus for Studies of the Interactions of Chemical Warfare Agents on Complex Surfaces (United States)


    on gamma alumina surfaces. This work was followed by other investigations of organophosphate CWA decomposition on alumina.35 In addition, Wagner and...nm particle di- ameter) was chosen as the first surface to study because the adsorption of many organophosphate molecules (simu- lants) to silica has...Kondratyuk, and J. T. Yates, “Photooxidation of a mus- tard gas simulant over TiO2-SiO2 mixed-oxide photocatalyst: Site poison - ing by oxidation products


    Abstract was given as an oral platform presentation at the Pittsburgh Conference, Orlando FL (March 5-9, 2006). Research described is the development of sensors based on molecular surface imprinting. Applications include the monitoring of chemical and biological agents and inse...

  15. Biological Warfare Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dev Vrat Kamboj


    Full Text Available There is a long historic record of use of biological warfare (BW agents by warring countriesagainst their enemies. However, the frequency of their use has increased since the beginningof the twentieth century. World war I witnessed the use of anthrax agent against human beingsand animals by Germans, followed by large-scale field trials by Japanese against war prisonersand Chinese population during world war II. Ironically, research and development in biologicalwarfare agents increased tremendously after the Geneva Protocol, signed in 1925, because ofits drawbacks which were overcome by Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC in1972. Biological warfare programme took back seat after the 1972 convention but biologicalagents regained their importance after the bioterrorist attacks of anthrax powder in 2001. In thelight of these attacks, many of which turned out to be hoax, general awareness is required aboutbiological warfare agents that can be used against them. This review has been written highlightingimportant biological warfare agents, diseases caused by them, possible therapies and otherprotection measures.

  16. The Physics of Warfare (United States)

    Giordano, Gerardo


    Recently, I was tasked with the creation and execution of a new themed general education physics class called The Physics of Warfare. In the past, I had used the theme of a class, such as the physics of sports medicine, as a way to create homework and in-class activities, generate discussions, and provide an application to demonstrate that physics…

  17. Hybrid Warfare: the 21st Century Russian Way of Warfare (United States)


    social, military, information, and diplomatic means. Russian information operations are a critical component of their hybrid theory of warfare which NATO discontinues encroaching on Russia’s sphere of influence and in which Russia ascends to regional hegemony .2 Although unsuccessful, this...Russian model of hybrid warfare illuminates several critical innovations to warfare that transpired while the United States was committed to operations

  18. Electronic Warfare Signature Measurement Facility (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electronic Warfare Signature Measurement Facility contains specialized mobile spectral, radiometric, and imaging measurement systems to characterize ultraviolet,...

  19. Electronic Warfare Signature Measurement Facility (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electronic Warfare Signature Measurement Facility contains specialized mobile spectral, radiometric, and imaging measurement systems to characterize ultraviolet,...

  20. Electronic Warfare in Operations (United States)


    through gamma radiation (at the short-wavelength end). It covers wavelengths from thousands of kilometers to a fraction of the size of an atom...INFORMATION FUSION EXCHANGE F-13. The Knowledge and Information Fusion Exchange (sometimes called KnIFE ) is a program sponsored by U.S. Joint Forces...Warfare Analysis Center, 7-9 K–L–M Knowledge and Information Fusion Exchange ( KnIFE ), F-13 lasers, directed energy and, A-7 leadership (element

  1. Modern Maritime Trade Warfare (United States)


    historically established method for conducting maritime trade warfare is Maritime Interdiction Operations ( MIO ). In the context of this paper, the...operating far from friendly shores. Accordingly, this tool would be most useful against nations with less capable navies. An advantage of MIO in...or collateral damage. 6 Large-scale MIO can be resource intensive and time consuming, and the U.S. Navy and Coast Guard have limited ships and

  2. Establishing Cyber Warfare Doctrine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M. Colarik


    Full Text Available Over the past several decades, advances in technology have transformed communications and the ability to acquire, disseminate, and utilize information in a range of environments. Modern societies and their respective militaries have taken advantage of a robust information space through network-centric systems. Because military and commercial operations have increasingly converged, communication and information infrastructures are now high-priority military objectives in times of war. This article examines the theoretical underpinning of current cyber warfare research, what we have learned so far about its application, and some of the emerging themes to be considered; it also postulates the development of a (national cyber warfare doctrine (CWD. An endeavor of this scale requires lots of considerations and preparation for its development if it is to be cooperatively embraced. This article considers why information technology systems and their supporting infrastructures should be considered legitimate military targets in conflicts, and offers several events that support this supposition. In addition, it identifies the various forms of doctrine that will become the basis for developing a CWD, discusses a CWD's possible components, and proposes a national collaborative and discussion framework for obtaining a nation's stakeholder buy-in for such an endeavor.

  3. Graphene oxide as sensitive layer in Love-wave surface acoustic wave sensors for the detection of chemical warfare agent simulants. (United States)

    Sayago, Isabel; Matatagui, Daniel; Fernández, María Jesús; Fontecha, José Luis; Jurewicz, Izabela; Garriga, Rosa; Muñoz, Edgar


    A Love-wave device with graphene oxide (GO) as sensitive layer has been developed for the detection of chemical warfare agent (CWA) simulants. Sensitive films were fabricated by airbrushing GO dispersions onto Love-wave devices. The resulting Love-wave sensors detected very low CWA simulant concentrations in synthetic air at room temperature (as low as 0.2 ppm for dimethyl-methylphosphonate, DMMP, a simulant of sarin nerve gas, and 0.75 ppm for dipropylene glycol monomethyl ether, DPGME, a simulant of nitrogen mustard). High responses to DMMP and DPGME were obtained with sensitivities of 3087 and 760 Hz/ppm respectively. Very low limit of detection (LOD) values (9 and 40 ppb for DMMP and DPGME, respectively) were calculated from the achieved experimental data. The sensor exhibited outstanding sensitivity, good linearity and repeatability to all simulants tested. The detection mechanism is here explained in terms of hydrogen bonding formation between the tested CWA simulants and GO.

  4. The ethics of information warfare

    CERN Document Server

    Floridi, Luciano


    This book offers an overview of the ethical problems posed by Information Warfare, and of the different approaches and methods used to solve them, in order to provide the reader with a better grasp of the ethical conundrums posed by this new form of warfare.The volume is divided into three parts, each comprising four chapters. The first part focuses on issues pertaining to the concept of Information Warfare and the clarifications that need to be made in order to address its ethical implications. The second part collects contributions focusing on Just War Theory and its application to the case of Information Warfare. The third part adopts alternative approaches to Just War Theory for analysing the ethical implications of this phenomenon. Finally, an afterword by Neelie Kroes - Vice President of the European Commission and European Digital Agenda Commissioner - concludes the volume. Her contribution describes the interests and commitments of the European Digital Agenda with respect to research for the developme...

  5. Airpower Support to Unconventional Warfare (United States)


    supplies to isolated mountain outposts (Trest 2000, 109). The Helio Couriers operated out of small dirt strips, referred to as lima sites, usually... rosa : The O.S.S. and American espionage. New York: Reynal and Hitchcock. AF Special Operations Command white paper. 2007. USAF irregular warfare...Symposium on the role of airpower in counterinsurgency and unconventional warfare: A brief summary of viewpoints. Santa Monica, CA: The RAND

  6. ISIL's Hybrid Warfare in Syria & Iraq

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Heine


    The case study specifically seeks to answer the following problem statement: Does ISIL qualify as an actor using hybrid warfare and if so what characterizes their particular use of this type of warfare? Based on an analysis of ISIL’s warfare from August 2012 to August 2016 the chapter argues, tha...

  7. The ethics of drone warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatić Aleksandar


    Full Text Available The paper investigates the compatibility of the modern technologies of warfare, specifically the use of offensive drones, with traditional military ethics and suggests that the new technologies radically change the value system of the military in ways which make large parts of the traditional military ethics inapplicable. The author suggests that Agamben’s concept of ‘effectivity’ through ‘special actions’ which mark one’s belonging to a particular community or profession is a useful conceptual strategy to explore the compatibility of drone warfare with traditional military ethics; this strategy shows mixed results at best.

  8. The Anatomy of Counterinsurgency Warfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringsmose, Jens; Pedersen, Kenneth

    Since the beginning of the new millennium, the West has been increasingly involved in a tiresome and rather particular type of conflict: insurgency warfare. The bloody and shocking terrorist attacks on New York and Washington in September 2001 marked the beginning of a new era, and the introducti...

  9. Evolutionary Models of Irregular Warfare (United States)


    G. (2010) Decentralize, adapt and cooperate. Nature 465:292-293. Sagarin, R. (2012) Learning From the Octopus : How Secrets from Nature Can Help Us...because the concepts map on to important features of modern irregular warfare. For example, small-scale behaviors are increasingly thought to


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan-Iulian VOITAȘEC


    Full Text Available According to the Declaration of Saint Petersburg of 1868 “the only legitimate object which States should endeavor to accomplish during war is to weaken the military forces of the enemy”. Thus, International Humanitarian Law prohibits or limits the use of certain means and methods of warfare. The rapid development of technology has led to the emergence of a new dimension of warfare. The cyber aspect of armed conflict has led to the development of new means and methods of warfare. The purpose of this paper is to study how the norms of international humanitarian law apply to the means and methods of cyber warfare.

  11. Cyber warfare building the scientific foundation

    CERN Document Server

    Jajodia, Sushil; Subrahmanian, VS; Swarup, Vipin; Wang, Cliff


    This book features a wide spectrum of the latest computer science research relating to cyber warfare, including military and policy dimensions. It is the first book to explore the scientific foundation of cyber warfare and features research from the areas of artificial intelligence, game theory, programming languages, graph theory and more. The high-level approach and emphasis on scientific rigor provides insights on ways to improve cyber warfare defense worldwide. Cyber Warfare: Building the Scientific Foundation targets researchers and practitioners working in cyber security, especially gove

  12. Roots of Russian Irregular Warfare (United States)


    concluded that the United States has a national policy gap in our own ability to wage “unconventional warfare in the gray zone.”3 That statement...advancing army—few have studied the irregular nature of the campaign waged against Napoleon. Napoleon’s overstretched logistics and the elusiveness of...94 Karl E. Meyer and Shareen Blair Brysac, Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia (Washington, DC: Basic

  13. Rethinking Cultural Influences on Warfare (United States)


    militaries turn toward understanding culture as an important corrective action to naive ethnocentrism , but warns about the dangers of... Ethnocentrism (Holmes and Meier, 1979); Robert E. Harkavy and Stephanie G. Neuman, Warfare in the Third World (Palgrave, 2001); more recently, Mary...influence of ethnocentrism and the mirror imaging of our cultural values on to another culture with its own history. Scholars according to John Ferris

  14. Air Power in Irregular Warfare (United States)


    Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaisance IW Irregular Warfare JFC Joint Force Commander JP Joint Publication xii MCP Malayan Communist Party...being or acting in accord with laws , rules, or established custom.”5 Combined with the Clausewitzian definition of war as “an act of violence meant...Quarterly and Defence Journal , October, 1920), accessed March 21, 2012,, 17. 22 Bruce

  15. Electronic warfare target location methods

    CERN Document Server

    Poisel, Richard


    Describing the mathematical development underlying current and classical methods of geolocating electronic systems that are emitting, this newly revised and greatly expanded edition of a classic Artech House book offers practical guidance in electronic warfare target location. The Second Edition features a wealth of additional material including new chapters on time delay estimation, direction finding techniques, and the MUSIC algorithm. This practical resource provides you with critical design information on geolocation algorithms, and establishes the fundamentals of existing algorithms as a

  16. Advanced Undersea Warfare Systems (United States)


    122 hours188 187 Rowinski, Lech . “Submersible propulsion and energy.” 18 Mar. 2002. 23 Apr. 2011. <http...per hour 8 Detect-to-Engage 5 mins 9 Transportability Air delivery from fixed wing assets (P-8) Surface delivery and recovery from any surface...interest? 8 Employment Are the tactics developed for AUWS for deter and engage targets scenarios effective? 9 Transportability Can AUWS be deployed and

  17. Rain-Induced Wash-Off of Chemical Warfare Agent (VX) from Foliar Surfaces of Living Plants Maintained in a Surety Hood (United States)


    Spain. Int. J. Climatol. 2001, 21, 1385–1400. Rothamsted Research. Pesticide Chemistry . (accessed April 2013). Sanyal, D.; Bhowmil, P.C.; Reddy, K.N. Influence of Leaf Surface Micromorphology, Wax Content, and Surfactant on

  18. Russia’s Approach to Cyber Warfare (United States)


    psychological operations, and information operations. • In keeping with traditional Soviet notions of battling constant threats from abroad and within...theorists, is a holistic concept that includes computer network operations, electronic warfare, psychological operations, and information operations.3...that “in the ongoing revolution in information technologies, information and psychological warfare will largely lay the groundwork for victory.”10

  19. Effectiveness and reaction networks of H2O2 vapor with NH3 gas for decontamination of the toxic warfare nerve agent, VX on a solid surface. (United States)

    Gon Ryu, Sam; Wan Lee, Hae


    The nerve agent, O-ethyl S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothioate (VX) must be promptly eliminated following its release into the environment because it is extremely toxic, can cause death within a few minutes after exposure, acts through direct skin contact as well as inhalation, and persists in the environment for several weeks after release. A mixture of hydrogen peroxide vapor and ammonia gas was examined as a decontaminant for the removal of VX on solid surfaces at ambient temperature, and the reaction products were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry (NMR). All the VX on glass wool filter disks was found to be eliminated after 2 h of exposure to the decontaminant mixtures, and the primary decomposition product was determined to be non-toxic ethyl methylphosphonic acid (EMPA); no toxic S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothioic acid (EA-2192), which is usually produced in traditional basic hydrolysis systems, was found to be formed. However, other by-products, such as toxic O-ethyl S-vinyl methylphosphonothioate and (2-diisopropylaminoethyl) vinyl disulfide, were detected up to 150 min of exposure to the decontaminant mixture; these by-products disappeared after 3 h. The two detected vinyl byproducts were identified first in this study with the decontamination system of liquid VX on solid surfaces using a mixture of hydrogen peroxide vapor and ammonia gas. The detailed decontamination reaction networks of VX on solid surfaces produced by the mixture of hydrogen peroxide vapor and ammonia gas were suggested based on the reaction products. These findings suggest that the mixture of hydrogen peroxide vapor and ammonia gas investigated in this study is an efficient decontaminant mixture for the removal of VX on solid surfaces at ambient temperature despite the formation of a toxic by-product in the reaction process.

  20. 78 FR 63971 - Notice of Availability of Record of Decision for Outdoor Research, Development, Test and... (United States)


    ... Department of the Navy Notice of Availability of Record of Decision for Outdoor Research, Development, Test... decision to expand the Naval Surface Warfare Center, Dahlgren Division's (NSWCDD) outdoor research, development, test and evaluation (RDT&E) activities within the Potomac River Test Range (PRTR) complex, the...

  1. The Art of Aerial Warfare (United States)


    the  Strait  of  Gibraltar   from  North  Africa  during  the Spanish Civil War. 11 FAIRCHILD PAPER A Comparison of Aerial Warfare to Land... Hitler , for example, the United States cannot assume that Nazi aggression would have  evaporated  instantly. Although  Hitler himself profoundly affected


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurian GHERMAN


    Full Text Available The paper is focused on changes occurred in military organizations in Information Age. During Industrial Age the military structure of forces evolved according with principles of decomposition, specialization, hierarchy, optimization, deconfliction, centralized planning, and decentralized execution. But now the solutions based upon Industrial Age assumptions and practices will break down and fail in the Information Age. This will happen no matter how well intentioned, hardworking, or dedicated the leadership and the force are. Two key force capabilities needed by Information Age militaries are interoperability and agility. Both interoperability and agility are provided by Network centric warfare theory of war.

  3. Information warfare technologies in political discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karpova Anna Yu.


    Full Text Available We attempt to examine the technology of «information warfare» in this paper. The dominant theme of the paper is that the outcome of the information warfare is important not only for the future of a state itself but for the future of the world balance of forces. The main task of geopolitical actors in information warfare is to introduce ideas corresponding to their interests into mass consciousness. All participants of political conflicts have common features in technologies of Information warfare. The information anomie is the indicator of the great geopolitical actors’ personified interests on the stage of «information warfare» - the process resulted in destroying the communicative line: report-information understanding and disrupting the social order in society. In this paper authors describe the following Information Warfare technologies: "Political volcano" technology; "SPIN" technology; "Widening media resource" technology; "specific gravity" technology; "Cold War 2.0" technology and Information cleaningup technology. It is assumed that in the future there will be new instructions on applying technologies of information warfare. To impart perspective to the paper we consider examples, opinions and trends.

  4. Grid architecture model of network centric warfare

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Tihua; Wang Baoshu


    NCW(network centric warfare) is an information warfare concentrating on network. A global network-centric warfare architecture with OGSA grid technology is put forward, which is a four levels system including the user level, the application level, the grid middleware layer and the resource level. In grid middleware layer, based on virtual hosting environment, a BEPL4WS grid service composition method is introduced. In addition, the NCW grid service model is built with the help of Eclipse-SDK-3.0.1 and Bpws4j.

  5. An Archaeological Curation-Needs Assessment for the U.S. Navy, Engineering Field Activity, Chesapeake Division (United States)


    during the period February 1995 to September 1996, of archaeological collections recovered from eight U.S. Navy Engineering Field Activity, Chesapeake...Warfare Center, Patuxent Division) and Virginia (Naval Surface Warfare Center, Dahlgren Division, and Marine Corps Base, Quantico). In sum, 281 cubic...feet of archaeological materials and 17 linear feet of associated records from these facilities are curated in 13 repositories. All collections require at least partial rehabilitation to comply with 36 CFR Part 79.

  6. A Taxonomy of Network Centric Warfare Architectures (United States)


    Distributed Database Theory, an area of Computer Science that has studied information flow in networks extensively ( Ceri & Pelagatti 1984, Mullender 1993...Australian Department of Defence, 2003, Australian Defence Force Network Centric Warfare Roadmap (First Draft), September. Ceri , S. & Pelagatti

  7. Topic modelling in the information warfare domain

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Waal, A


    Full Text Available In this paper the authors provide context to Topic Modelling as an Information Warfare technique. Topic modelling is a technique that discovers latent topics in unstructured and unlabelled collection of documents. The topic structure can be searched...

  8. Transforming the Surface Warfare Officer Training Curriculum (United States)


    Structures. Additionally, students were introduced to Staff Planning , Operational Security, Damage Control, Firefighting, Message Drafting, and...Union Nacional de Instituciones Para El Trabajo de Acci6n Social] UNIT AS exercise, in the darkness and fog, LA MOURE COUNTY drove ashore on a small

  9. Physical Readiness Testing of Surface Warfare Officers (United States)


    choose to perform the 500- yard swim. Diving starts are not permitted, but swimmers may push off from the ends of the pool with their hands and feet at...alcohol, and caffeine [Ref. 57]. c. Skin-fold Caliper The skin-fold caliper method involves measuring the thickness of skin and underlying subcutaneous fat

  10. A Dialectic for Network Centric Warfare (United States)


    Giffin, 2003; Borgu , 2003; Kaufman, 2004). For example, from a standpoint of Popperian methodological falsificationism (Popper, 1934), Reid and...focused term network-centric warfare has common favor ( Borgu , 2003) despite the organisational decree to use the term ‘network centric warfare...Commonwealth Department of Defence, June. Borgu , A., (2003), “The Challenges and Limitations of Network Centric Warfare”, Presented at NCW: Improving ADF

  11. Finding Lawrence recruiting talent for unconventional warfare


    Mourouzis, Michael G.


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. From Francis Marion's guerrilla war against the British to advising the resistance against the Nazis and Japanese, the United States has depended on unconventional warfare (UW) as a component of national defense. Today, the U.S. Army Special Forces (SF) is the premiere unconventional warfare unit in the U.S. military. With a smaller Army and increasing missions, SF must expand its recruiting efforts. This thesis analyzes the recruitme...

  12. Cyber Warfare: New Character with Strategic Results (United States)


    defense ( CND ).”7 Thus cyber warfare is distinguished from cyber criminal acts based upon its coercive nature to attain a strategic end, whereas...CNA and CND . Conceptually, CNA effects “range from disrupting the adversary’s electronic systems and what operations they enable (communications...or self-destruct.”10 The second component of cyber warfare seeks to eliminate or minimize the risk of the first. The role of CND is to defend

  13. UML modelling of network warfare examples

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Veerasamy, N


    Full Text Available , Analysis, Development and Maintenance [6] [12] [13]. Furthermore, Baker and Harris also discuss techniques like Intrusion Prevention, Personnel Security and Security Awareness as part of information security [14] [12]. Moreover, when considering... techniques that are core to information security and to Network Warfare were thus identified. The following summary of the techniques found in Network Warfare is given: Risk Analysis, Intrusion Prevention, Physical Security, Personnel Security, Cyber...

  14. Hybrid Warfare: Implications for CAF Force Development (United States)


    also McCulloh and Johnson who demonstrate throughout their study that context is critical . Indeed, their summary statement for “hybrid warfare theory ...Muhr, eds., Hybrid and Cyber War as Consequences of the Asymmetry, Frankfurt : Peter Lang, 2011, p.95. Interestingly, the CFD Hybrid Warfare Concept...the highest political and military levels. The study of hybrid-type case studies yields the critical lesson that: “leadership is essential to victory

  15. Intrafamily and intragenomic conflicts in human warfare (United States)


    Recent years have seen an explosion of multidisciplinary interest in ancient human warfare. Theory has emphasized a key role for kin-selected cooperation, modulated by sex-specific demography, in explaining intergroup violence. However, conflicts of interest remain a relatively underexplored factor in the evolutionary-ecological study of warfare, with little consideration given to which parties influence the decision to go to war and how their motivations may differ. We develop a mathematical model to investigate the interplay between sex-specific demography and human warfare, showing that: the ecology of warfare drives the evolution of sex-biased dispersal; sex-biased dispersal modulates intrafamily and intragenomic conflicts in relation to warfare; intragenomic conflict drives parent-of-origin-specific patterns of gene expression—i.e. ‘genomic imprinting’—in relation to warfare phenotypes; and an ecological perspective of conflicts at the levels of the gene, individual, and social group yields novel predictions as to pathologies associated with mutations and epimutations at loci underpinning human violence. PMID:28228515

  16. Chemical Warfare Agent Degradation and Decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talmage, Sylvia Smith [ORNL; Watson, Annetta Paule [ORNL; Hauschild, Veronique [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; Munro, Nancy B [ORNL; King, J. [U.S. Army Environmental Center


    The decontamination of chemical warfare agents (CWA) from structures, environmental media, and even personnel has become an area of particular interest in recent years due to increased homeland security concerns. In addition to terrorist attacks, scenarios such as accidental releases of CWA from U.S. stockpile sites or from historic, buried munitions are also subjects for response planning. To facilitate rapid identification of practical and effective decontamination approaches, this paper reviews pathways of CWA degradation by natural means as well as those resulting from deliberately applied solutions and technologies; these pathways and technologies are compared and contrasted. We then review various technologies, both traditional and recent, with some emphasis on decontamination materials used for surfaces that are difficult to clean. Discussion is limited to the major threat CWA, namely sulfur mustard (HD, bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide), VX (O-ethyl S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl) methylphosphonothioate), and the G-series nerve agents. The principal G-agents are GA (tabun, ethyl N,N-dimethylphosphoramidocyanidate), GB (sarin, isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate), and GD (soman, pinacolyl methylphosphonofluoridate). The chemical decontamination pathways of each agent are outlined, with some discussion of intermediate and final degradation product toxicity. In all cases, and regardless of the CWA degradation pathway chosen for decontamination, it will be necessary to collect and analyze pertinent environmental samples during the treatment phase to confirm attainment of clearance levels.

  17. Ultraviolet Raman scattering from persistent chemical warfare agents (United States)

    Kullander, Fredrik; Wästerby, Pär.; Landström, Lars


    Laser induced Raman scattering at excitation wavelengths in the middle ultraviolet was examined using a pulsed tunable laser based spectrometer system. Droplets of chemical warfare agents, with a volume of 2 μl, were placed on a silicon surface and irradiated with sequences of laser pulses. The Raman scattering from V-series nerve agents, Tabun (GA) and Mustard gas (HD) was studied with the aim of finding the optimum parameters and the requirements for a detection system. A particular emphasis was put on V-agents that have been previously shown to yield relatively weak Raman scattering in this excitation band.

  18. Towards a framework for a network warfare capability

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Veerasamy, N


    Full Text Available aspects to its network enabled capabilities and functionality (network warfare). Various computer and information security practices form part of network warfare techniques. Whilst various information and security practices are well-known and applied...

  19. Hybrid Warfare: A Military Revolution or Revolution in Military Affairs? (United States)


    warfare intersect and blend to create a new form of warfare. This thesis uses the Williamson Murray and McGregor Knox definitions of Military...irregular warfare intersect and blend to create a new form of warfare. This thesis uses the Williamson Murray and McGregor Knox definitions of...understand new concepts. Douglas C Lovelace. Director Strategic Studies Institute has this insight to offer regarding the importance of

  20. Motivation and requirements for determining a Network Warfare Capability

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Veerasamy, N


    Full Text Available to prevent misconceptions, as well as to ensure that the necessary input data is incorporated. They include the following: • The involved parties must grasp the difference between auditing and determining a Network Warfare Capability. It is encouraged... to incorporate the use of auditing in the technique set underlying Network Warfare. • To determine a Network Warfare Capability, assessments of the various techniques that contribute to Network Warfare are necessary. This will incorporate expert opinion...

  1. Biological warfare, bioterrorism, and biocrime. (United States)

    Jansen, H J; Breeveld, F J; Stijnis, C; Grobusch, M P


    Biological weapons achieve their intended target effects through the infectivity of disease-causing infectious agents. The ability to use biological agents in warfare is prohibited by the Biological and Toxin Weapon Convention. Bioterrorism is defined as the deliberate release of viruses, bacteria or other agents used to cause illness or death in people, but also in animals or plants. It is aimed at creating casualties, terror, societal disruption, or economic loss, inspired by ideological, religious or political beliefs. The success of bioterroristic attempts is defined by the measure of societal disruption and panic, and not necessarily by the sheer number of casualties. Thus, making only a few individuals ill by the use of crude methods may be sufficient, as long as it creates the impact that is aimed for. The assessment of bioterrorism threats and motives have been described before. Biocrime implies the use of a biological agent to kill or make ill a single individual or small group of individuals, motivated by revenge or the desire for monetary gain by extortion, rather than by political, ideological, religious or other beliefs. The likelihood of a successful bioterrorist attack is not very large, given the technical difficulties and constraints. However, even if the number of casualties is likely to be limited, the impact of a bioterrorist attack can still be high. Measures aimed at enhancing diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities and capacities alongside training and education will improve the ability of society to combat 'regular' infectious diseases outbreaks, as well as mitigating the effects of bioterrorist attacks.

  2. [The history of biological warfare]. (United States)

    Cohen, Amir; Robenshtok, Eyal; Rotman, Eran; Sagi, Rami


    Selected events in the history of biological weapons are highlighted to increase the physician's awareness of this crucial threat. The deliberate use of biological substances originated in antiquity and has pervaded the history of human wars throughout time until the 21th century. The history of biological warfare is difficult to assess because of a number of confounding factors. These include the difficulty in verification of allegation, the use of the threat of this weapon for propaganda purposes, the lack of microbiological or epidemiological data, and the incidence of natural occurring endemic or epidemic diseases during hostilities. Although it may be problematic to verify at times, the use of such weapons has not been limited to national armies or militia. Frustrated civilians, terrorists and even physicians have used biological substances to promote their interests. Today, the biological threat has become more serious. It's potency, cost-effectiveness, and the ability to manufacture and deploy it with little sophistication, or under the semblance of legitimate commercial endeavors, will ensure that biological weapons remain a constant threat to human health.

  3. Cognitive systems in electronic warfare (United States)

    Kulpa, Krzysztof; Szczepankiewicz, Michał; Żywek, Marcin; Malanowski, Mateusz; Misiurewicz, Jacek; Samczyński, Piotr


    Electronic warfare (EW) techniques were invented 70 years ago and are still being developed, all the time with a key role played by their operators. However, a human operator responds far too slowly for the on-going needs since to be adequate to current threats the EW system reaction should be within 1 ms or less. Too slow reaction defers an achievement of the objectives, and generally may lead to disclosure of the applied strategy and to waste of resources. Developing the adequate response to the threat is a multifaceted matter that requires considerable experience and knowledge on the one hand, and thorough observation of outcomes of the applied strategy on the other hand. Such action requires the use of not only intelligence but also more complex algorithms for automatic control than the classical ones, and it heavily builds on the experience. It is therefore a cognitive task in its nature, and a human operator acts naturally this way. Consequently, a proper training and experience gained are what really matters. As a result of tests and actions in EW the operator builds his own knowledge base, thus, gains a capability of responding to the known threats in a balanced way. New threats, however, are much more challenging since they should be handled as fast as possible but in a fresh and creative manner. To this end, adapting the algorithms of radar jamming protection for the new conditions of the battlefield is an example of such challenging tasks. At present, such adjustments are done in a long feedback loop when the operator, after recognizing the problem, notifies the equipment manufacturers, and then, their engineers work on required solutions accordingly. Thus, the reaction time is counted in years, not a single milliseconds or seconds. Speeding up the response time is therefore the key issue, and a solution to it would be feasible only when cognitive systems were used. A concept of such cognitive system is presented in this paper.

  4. US Army Special Warfare. Its Origins: Psychological and Unconventional Warfare, 1941-1952 (United States)


    sug- F P _ _ 6 PSYCHOLOGICAL WARFARE IN WORLD WAR I! gestion of a single agency which would serve as a clearinghouse for all intelligence, as well as...organizations, communications, demoli- tions, organization and training of civilians for guerrilla warfare, para- chute jumping, and amphibious...General Bolte, Director, P&O, was reluctant to endorse this latter sug- gestion , indicating, "as he had indicated from time to time at other points

  5. Guiding Warfare to Reach Sustainable Peace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestenskov, David; Drewes, Line

    The conference report Guiding Warfare to Reach Sustainable Peace constitutes the primary outcome of the conference It is based on excerpts from the conference presenters and workshop discussions. Furthermore, the report contains policy recommendations and key findings, with the ambition of develo...

  6. Agricultural Warfare and Bioterrorism using Invasive Species (United States)

    The chapter on Agricultural Warfare and Bioterrorism using Invasive Species is part of the book titled Pest Management and Phytosanitary Trade Barriers authored by Neil Heather (Australia) and Guy Hallman. The chapter attempts to briefly put the topic into context with phytosanitation. It presents...

  7. Information Warfare Arms Control: Risks and Costs (United States)


    legal system and the modern concept of arms control were able to provide for national and international collective security during the Cold War...information warfare presents many challenges that question their viability. The most significant challenges are to the international legal system , which

  8. Does the Economy or Surface Warfare Officer Career Pay Affect Surface Warfare Officer Retention? (United States)


    Table 13.  OLS coefficients and T-stat for female data set .................................. 35  Table 14.  Summary of expected and observed...retention to the economy, SWO career pay (SWOCP), and an interaction of the economy and SWOCP. B. EXPECTED BENEFITS A better understanding of...insufficient evidence to support H2, that career pay positively affects the female SWO population. 36 (3) Female Data Set—H3 The female data set is

  9. Unconventional Warfare: A Mission Metamorphosis for the 21st Century? (United States)


    brigadier general and publish several more noted works on Mao and revolutionary warfare. See Samuel B. Giffith, Mao Tse-Tung on Guerrilla Warfare (New...and propagators of the faith. The bibles (in English translation) are Mao Tse-tung on Guerrilla Warfare by Brigadier General Samuel B. Griffith...Barnett, B. Hugh Tovar , and Richard H. Schultz eds., Special Operations in US Strategy (Washington, D.C.: US Government Printing Office, 1984), 2. 58

  10. Integrated Assessment Systems for Chemical Warfare Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. M. Snyder; D. A. Verrill; G. L. Thinnes; K. D. Watts; R. J. McMorland


    The US Army must respond to a variety of situations involving suspect discovered, recovered, stored, and buried chemical warfare materiel (CWM). In some cases, the identity of the fill materiel and the status of the fusing and firing train cannot be visually determined due to aging of the container, or because the item is contained in an over-pack. In these cases, non-intrusive assessments are required to provide information to allow safe handling, storage, and disposal of the materiel. This paper will provide an overview of the integrated mobile and facility-based CWM assessment system prototypes that have been, and are being developed, at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for the US Army Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel Project. In addition, this paper will discuss advanced sensors being developed to enhance the capability of the existing and future assessment systems. The Phase I Mobile Munitions Assessment System (MMAS) is currently being used by the Army's Technical Escort Unit (TEU) at Dugway Proving Ground, Utah. This system includes equipment for non-intrusively identifying the munitions fill materiel and for assessing the condition and stability of the fuzes, firing trains, and other potential safety hazards. The system provides a self-contained, integrated command post including an on-board computer system, communications equipment, video and photographic equipment, weather monitoring equipment, and miscellaneous safety-related equipment. The Phase II MMAS is currently being tested and qualified for use by the INEEL and the US Army. The Phase II system contains several new assessment systems that significantly enhance the ability to assess CWM. A facility-based munitions assessment system prototype is being developed for the assessment of CWM stored in igloos at Pine Bluff Arsenal, Arkansas. This system is currently in the design and fabrication stages. Numerous CWM advanced sensors are being developed and tested, and

  11. Computational models of intergroup competition and warfare.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letendre, Kenneth (University of New Mexico); Abbott, Robert G.


    This document reports on the research of Kenneth Letendre, the recipient of a Sandia Graduate Research Fellowship at the University of New Mexico. Warfare is an extreme form of intergroup competition in which individuals make extreme sacrifices for the benefit of their nation or other group to which they belong. Among animals, limited, non-lethal competition is the norm. It is not fully understood what factors lead to warfare. We studied the global variation in the frequency of civil conflict among countries of the world, and its positive association with variation in the intensity of infectious disease. We demonstrated that the burden of human infectious disease importantly predicts the frequency of civil conflict and tested a causal model for this association based on the parasite-stress theory of sociality. We also investigated the organization of social foraging by colonies of harvester ants in the genus Pogonomyrmex, using both field studies and computer models.

  12. Handbook of toxicology of chemical warfare agents

    CERN Document Server


    This groundbreaking book covers every aspect of deadly toxic chemicals used as weapons of mass destruction and employed in conflicts, warfare and terrorism. Including findings from experimental as well as clinical studies, this one-of-a-kind handbook is prepared in a very user- friendly format that can easily be followed by students, teachers and researchers, as well as lay people. Stand-alone chapters on individual chemicals and major topics allow the reader to easily access required information without searching through the entire book. This is the first book that offers in-depth coverage of individual toxicants, target organ toxicity, major incidents, toxic effects in humans, animals and wildlife, biosensors, biomarkers, on-site and laboratory analytical methods, decontamination and detoxification procedures, prophylactic, therapeutic and countermeasures, and the role of homeland security. Presents a comprehensive look at all aspects of chemical warfare toxicology in one reference work. This saves research...

  13. Violence and Warfare in Precontact Melanesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M. Younger


    Full Text Available Levels of interpersonal violence and warfare for 30 Melanesian societies at the time of contact with Europeans are estimated based on ethnographic and historical records. While violence was common in indigenous Melanesia, it was not ubiquitous and some societies experienced extended periods of internal and external peace. Interpersonal violence and warfare were correlated-when one occurred there was a high probability of finding the other. Violence was not dependent on total population. It was, however, higher for population density greater than 50 persons per square kilometer. Violence in Melanesia may have been stimulated by the large number of relatively small polities, many of which competed with one another for prestige and, in some cases, land.

  14. Mapping the Spread of Mounted Warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Turchin


    Full Text Available Military technology is one of the most important factors affecting the evolution of complex societies. In particular, mounted warfare, the use of horse-riders in military operations, revolutionized war as it spread to different parts of Eurasia and Africa during the Ancient and Medieval eras, and to the Americas during the Early Modern period. Here we use a variety of sources to map this spread.

  15. Recommended Architecture for a Knowledge Management System for the Undersea Launchers Division at the Naval Undersea Warfare Center (United States)


    suggested using a systematic approach to the development of a KM system through understanding of the organization’s core competencies. One of the benefits...Kaistha, V. (2007). NAVSEA 05D ship design and certification network knowledge mangement project. West Bethesda, MD: Naval Surface Warfare Center

  16. New dimensions of the modern warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The huge scientific and technologic progress made by mankind during the last century has had an obvious impact on the military phenomenon. It is a common place to say that the present day wars do not look like the previous ones at all. The military are not the same as the one in former days either, whatever their national insignia on various uniforms. Hence, some questions require a clear and imperative answer. How has the contemporary war been changed? How has the 21 Century military prophile evolved? Which is the trigger of all these changes? What are the new concepts of the modern warfare? To all those questions we are trying to get an answer based on our personal experience gained during a couple of NATO missions and on the respective military doctrines and policies. Why both the military and the politicians are trying to avoid the term „war" by placing instead the much more innofensive syntagm of „military operations" and what are the main characteristics of the 3rd Millenium officer? These are some of the topics of this essay. Quite new military concepts experimented by the most powefull armed forces of the world, such as Effect Based Operations Approach, Network Based Warfare, Information Operations and Psychologiocal Operations will be also examined as pillars of the modern warfare.

  17. The Cycle of Warfare - Analysis of an Analytical Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mikkel Storm


    The abstract has the title: “The Cycle of Warfare - Analysis of an Analytical Model” The Cycle of Warfare is an analytical model designed to illustrate the coherence between the organization, doctrine and technology of a military entity and the influence of the surrounding society as expressed...

  18. Chemical profiling of chemical warfare agents for forensic purposes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, D.; Reuver, L.P.J. de; Fidder, A.; Tromp, M.; Verschraagen, M.


    A program has been initiated towards the chemical profiling of chemical warfare agents, in order to support forensic investigations towards synthesis routes, production sites and suspect chemical suppliers. Within the first stage of the project various chemical warfare agents (VX, sulfur mustard, sa

  19. Dirty Fighting: How to Counter Total Warfare Mentality (United States)


    DIRTY FIGHTING: HOW TO COUNTER TOTAL WARFARE MENTALITY A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army Command Counter Total Warfare Mentality Approved by: , Thesis Committee Chair LTC Sandra J. Sanchez, MBA , Member Marlyn R. Pierce...

  20. Organizing for Irregular Warfare: Implications for the Brigade Combat Team (United States)


    Glenn, Russell, John Gordon, Tom Herbert, John Matsumura, Randall Steeb, and Paul Steinberg. Lightning Over Water: Sharpening America’s Light...conventional and unconventional warfare.” Special Warfare Journal, March-April (2007). Hersey , John. A Bell for Adano. New York: Vintage Books

  1. Built to Outlast: Operational Approaches to Hybrid Warfare (United States)


    second evolutionary generation of warfare incorporating political, economic, social, and technical changes, and maneuver warfare. Much of this concept is...aligns itself with the emerging understanding of the world through nonlinear sciences, epistemological and ontological foundations.308 In this, Unified

  2. Nodes and Codes: The Reality of Cyber Warfare (United States)


    Options ‘Off the Table’ for US Response to Cyber Attacks,” Stars and Stripes, May 8, 2009. 34 Scott Shackelford , “From Nuclear War to Net War...whitepapers/warfare/redefining-role- information-warfare-chinese-strategy_896 (accessed February 18, 2012). Shackelford , Scott. “From Nuclear War to

  3. Combat Simulation Modeling in Naval Special Warfare Mission Planning. (United States)


    This thesis explores the potential role of combat simulation modeling in the Naval Special Warfare mission planning cycle. It discusses methods the tactical level. The thesis concludes by discussing additional applications of combat simulation modeling within the Naval Special Warfare community and makes recommendations for its effective and efficient implementation.

  4. Hybrid Warfare: Preparing for Future Conflict (United States)


    Fukuyama , Francis . “At the ‘End of History’ Still Stands Democracy.” The Wall Street Journal, 6 June 2014. is cultural instead of political (in the traditional Clausewitzian sense). 15 Hoffman is referring to Francis Fukuyama’s idea of “the end of...history,” as argued in his 1989 essay and subsequent book. Fukuyama first published an essay titled “The End of History” in the National Interest in

  5. Microwave receivers with electronic warfare applications

    CERN Document Server

    Tsui, James


    This book by the author of Digital Techniques for Wideband Receivers willbe like no other one on your book shelf as the definitive word on electronicwarfare (EW) receiver design and performance. Whether you are an EWscientist involved in the test and evaluation of EW receivers or a designerof RWR's and other EW-related receivers, Microwave Receivers withElectronic Warfare Applications is a handy reference through which you canperfect your technical art. Lucidly written, this book is a treatise on EWreceivers that is relevant to you if you are just looking for a top-levelinsight into EW receive

  6. Electronic warfare receivers and receiving systems

    CERN Document Server

    Poisel, Richard A


    Receivers systems are considered the core of electronic warfare (EW) intercept systems. Without them, the fundamental purpose of such systems is null and void. This book considers the major elements that make up receiver systems and the receivers that go in them.This resource provides system design engineers with techniques for design and development of EW receivers for modern modulations (spread spectrum) in addition to receivers for older, common modulation formats. Each major module in these receivers is considered in detail. Design information is included as well as performance tradeoffs o

  7. Axial Vircator for Electronic Warfare Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Drazan


    Full Text Available This paper deals with a high power microwave generator with virtual cathode – vircator in axial release for electronic warfare applications. The classification of directed energy weapons microwave (DEWM is introduced together with basic block diagrams of a particular class of DEWM. In the paper, methods for designing vircator pulsed power supply, axial vircator structure, measurement methods and experimental results are presented. The vircator in electromagnetic ammunition is powered by magneto-cumulative generator and in weapons for defense of objects (WDO, it is powered by Marx generator. The possible applications of a vircator in the DEWM area are discussed.

  8. Alternative Future Fleet Platform Architecture Study (United States)


    1067 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2016 (Appendix 1) directed the Secretary of Defense to conduct three independent studies... Secretary of Defense, the Naval Surface Warfare Center, Dahlgren Division, the Naval Postgraduate School, the U.S. Naval War College, the Center for...this leadership role , the Navy Project Team identified the key missions for the U.S. Navy: - protecting the homeland - building security globally

  9. Survey of Vulnerability Methodological Needs (United States)


    20505 2 Central Intelligence Agency ATTN: OIA ( Barbara A. Kroggel) (Monica McGuinn) Washington, DC 20505 1 Central Intelligence Agency ATTN: ORD...James Ellis Barbara J. Harris Constance P. Rollins Tom Wasmund Code G13 Dahlgren, VA 22448-5000 1 Commander Naval Surface Warfare Center ATTN: Glen...15069 1 Analysis and Technology ATTN: RADM Thomas M. Hopkins USN (Ret) 1113 Carper Street McLean, VA 22101 1 ANSER ATTN: James W. McNulty 1215 Jefferson

  10. Environmental chemistry of chemical warfare agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacNaughton, M.G.; Brewer, J.H.; Ledbetter-Ferrill, J. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States)


    This paper summarizes the approach used in the preparation of a Handbook for the Corps of Engineers, Huntsville Division, on the environmental chemistry of chemical warfare agents. The agents GB and HD will be used to illustrate the type of information in the report. Those readers interested in the full report should contact Mr. Arkie Fanning, Huntsville Corps of Engineers at (505) 955-5256. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (ACE) has identified approximately 7,200 formerly used defense sites (FUDS) in the United States, some of which are suspected to be contaminated with chemical warfare agents (CWA). The ACE has responsibility for environmental clean-up of FUDS, including site characterization, evaluation and remediation of the site. Thirty-four FUDS and 48 active DOD installations that may contain CWA were identified in an Interim Survey and Analysis Report by the USACMDA Program Manager for Non-Stockpile Chemical Material (NSCM). The chemical agents listed include sulfur mustard (H), lewisite (L), tabun (GA), sarin (GB), VX, hydrogen cyanide (AC), cyanogen chloride (CK), phosgene (CG), BZ, and CS.

  11. [Decontamination of chemical and biological warfare agents]. (United States)

    Seto, Yasuo


    Chemical and biological warfare agents (CBWA's) are diverse in nature; volatile acute low-molecular-weight toxic compounds, chemical warfare agents (CWA's, gaseous choking and blood agents, volatile nerve gases and blister agents, nonvolatile vomit agents and lacrymators), biological toxins (nonvolatile low-molecular-weight toxins, proteinous toxins) and microbes (bacteria, viruses, rickettsiae). In the consequence management against chemical and biological terrorism, speedy decontamination of victims, facilities and equipment is required for the minimization of the damage. In the present situation, washing victims and contaminated materials with large volumes of water is the basic way, and additionally hypochlorite salt solution is used for decomposition of CWA's. However, it still remains unsolved how to dispose large volumes of waste water, and the decontamination reagents have serious limitation of high toxicity, despoiling nature against the environments, long finishing time and non-durability in effective decontamination. Namely, the existing decontamination system is not effective, nonspecifically affecting the surrounding non-target materials. Therefore, it is the urgent matter to build up the usable decontamination system surpassing the present technologies. The symposiast presents the on-going joint project of research and development of the novel decontamination system against CBWA's, in the purpose of realizing nontoxic, fast, specific, effective and economical terrorism on-site decontamination. The projects consists of (1) establishment of the decontamination evaluation methods and verification of the existing technologies and adaptation of bacterial organophosphorus hydrolase, (2) development of adsorptive elimination technologies using molecular recognition tools, and (4) development of deactivation technologies using photocatalysis.

  12. Helicopters in Irregular Warfare: Algeria, Vietnam, and Afghanistan (United States)


    the political group associated with the Algerian nationalist independence movement GALAT Groupement d’ Aviation Légère de l’Armée de Terre ...unique from most conflicts because the expeditionary forces’ parent country rarely perceives an existential threat.19 The lack of perceived threat...dominance rarely guarantees success in irregular warfare.22 Instead, success in irregular warfare requires synergy between government and military efforts

  13. Littoral Combat Ship Open Ocean Anti-Submarine Warfare (United States)


    COVERED Capstone 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE LITTORAL COMBAT SHIP OPEN OCEAN ANTI-SUBMARINE WARFARE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) 311-124O/Team LCS...Life cycle cost LCCE Life cycle cost estimate LCS Littoral combat ship LHA Landing ship, helicopter assault LHD Landing ship, unlimited LITTORAL COMBAT SHIP OPEN OCEAN ANTI- SUBMARINE WARFARE by Team LCS 311-124O June 2014 Capstone Advisors: John Green Dan

  14. Fourth Generation Warfare and Its Impact on the Army (United States)


    In 1989, the authors of an article entitled, "The Changing Face of War: Into the Fourth Generation ," offered a glimpse of the future rooted in the...decline of the West in a world rife with cultural conflicts and the powerful influences of a form of cultural Marxism known as political correctness...were combining in America to create conditions for a new generation of warfare. Their vision included a form of warfare that bypassed the military

  15. The Chinese People’s Liberation Army and Information Warfare (United States)


    information confrontation operations across the elec- tromagnetic spectrum. In doing so, as Dr. Wortzel’s monograph explains, the PLA used innovative means...and in- formation confrontation operations across the electro- magnetic spectrum. As this monograph explains, the PLA used innovative means to...information warfare concepts as a barometer of how the PLA approached the concept, by 2007 the threads of integrated network electronic warfare

  16. Depth vs. breadth: talent management for special warfare


    Krebs, William K.


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis presents recommendations for improving officer talent management for Special Warfare units. Success in this complex human domain demands that key planners and commanders of a Special Warfare campaign operate with a long-term perspective, a depth of expertise, and a strong network of relationships. However, on any given day in a U.S. Army Special Forces Group, the preponderance of field grade officers are in their first year...

  17. Naval Special Warfare Injury Prevention and Human Performance Initiative (United States)


    3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 01 JUL 10-30 JUN 12 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Naval Special Warfare Group 4 Injury Prevention and Human Performance...from suboptimal biomechanical, musculoskeletal, and physiological characteristics and is further compounded with poor or inadequate nutrition . The...Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 OFFICE OF NAVAL RESEARCH FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT Naval Special Warfare Injury Prevention and Human Performance

  18. Surface Warfare Center Contributions for Addressing Warfare System Development Challenges and Goals (United States)


    during IOT &E"." "there was a loss of a large number of the most experienced management and technical personnel ...without an adequate replacement...Project Management IPT Lead Government Leadership and Development Oversight: Technical Direction Activity Dev Team Management IPT Dev Org’s Project

  19. Passive front-ends for wideband millimeter wave electronic warfare (United States)

    Jastram, Nathan Joseph

    This thesis presents the analysis, design and measurements of novel passive front ends of interest to millimeter wave electronic warfare systems. However, emerging threats in the millimeter waves (18 GHz and above) has led to a push for new systems capable of addressing these threats. At these frequencies, traditional techniques of design and fabrication are challenging due to small size, limited bandwidth and losses. The use of surface micromachining technology for wideband direction finding with multiple element antenna arrays for electronic support is demonstrated. A wideband tapered slot antenna is first designed and measured as an array element for the subsequent arrays. Both 18--36 GHz and 75--110 GHz amplitude only and amplitude/phase two element direction finding front ends are designed and measured. The design of arrays using Butler matrix and Rotman lens beamformers for greater than two element direction finding over W band and beyond using is also presented. The design of a dual polarized high power capable front end for electronic attack over an 18--45 GHz band is presented. To combine two polarizations into the same radiating aperture, an orthomode transducer (OMT) based upon a new double ridge waveguide cross section is developed. To provide greater flexibility in needed performance characteristics, several different turnstile junction matching sections are tested. A modular horn section is proposed to address flexible and ever changing operational requirements, and is designed for performance criteria such as constant gain, beamwidth, etc. A multi-section branch guide coupler and low loss Rotman lens based upon the proposed cross section are also developed. Prototyping methods for the herein designed millimeter wave electronic warfare front ends are investigated. Specifically, both printed circuit board (PCB) prototyping of micromachined systems and 3D printing of conventionally machined horns are presented. A 4--8 GHz two element array with

  20. The World War Two Allied Economic Warfare: The Case of Turkish Chrome Sales


    ÖNSOY, Murat


    Economic character of "modern warfare" is too important to be underestimated. In the Economic Warfare belligerents attempt to reduce the war capacity of the enemy through various methods. In World War II crushing down the German war production and economy was the main target of the British Ministry of Economic Warfare. For Germany, one of the many ways of overcoming the British Economic Warfare was to trade with the neutral countries that had land connection to the Third Reich. Turkey was one...

  1. Electronic Warfare Closed Loop Laboratory (EWCLL) Antenna Motor Software and Hardware Development (United States)


    ARL-TN-0779 ● SEP 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Electronic Warfare Closed Loop Laboratory (EWCLL) Antenna Motor Software and...Electronic Warfare Closed Loop Laboratory (EWCLL) Antenna Motor Software and Hardware Development by Neal Tesny Sensors and Electron Devices Directorate...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Electronic Warfare Closed Loop Laboratory (EWCLL) Antenna Motor Software and Hardware Development 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b

  2. Numerical simulation of RCS for carrier electronic warfare airplanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Kuizhi


    Full Text Available This paper studies the radar cross section (RCS of carrier electronic warfare airplanes. Under the typical naval operations section, the mathematical model of the radar wave’s pitch angle incidence range analysis is established. Based on the CATIA software, considering dynamic deflections of duck wing leading edge flaps, flaperons, horizontal tail, and rudder, as well as aircraft with air-to-air missile, anti-radiation missile, electronic jamming pod, and other weapons, the 3D models of carrier electronic warfare airplanes Model A and Model B with weapons were established. Based on the physical optics method and the equivalent electromagnetic flow method, by the use of the RCSAnsys software, the characteristics of carrier electronic warfare airplanes’ RCS under steady and dynamic flights were simulated under the UHF, X, and S radar bands. This paper researches the detection probability of aircraft by radars under the condition of electronic warfare, and completes the mathematical statistical analysis of the simulation results. The results show that: The Model A of carrier electronic warfare airplane is better than Model B on stealth performance and on discover probability by radar detection effectively.

  3. History of biological warfare and bioterrorism. (United States)

    Barras, V; Greub, G


    Bioterrorism literally means using microorganisms or infected samples to cause terror and panic in populations. Bioterrorism had already started 14 centuries before Christ, when the Hittites sent infected rams to their enemies. However, apart from some rare well-documented events, it is often very difficult for historians and microbiologists to differentiate natural epidemics from alleged biological attacks, because: (i) little information is available for times before the advent of modern microbiology; (ii) truth may be manipulated for political reasons, especially for a hot topic such as a biological attack; and (iii) the passage of time may also have distorted the reality of the past. Nevertheless, we have tried to provide to clinical microbiologists an overview of some likely biological warfare that occurred before the 18th century and that included the intentional spread of epidemic diseases such as tularaemia, plague, malaria, smallpox, yellow fever, and leprosy. We also summarize the main events that occurred during the modern microbiology era, from World War I to the recent 'anthrax letters' that followed the World Trade Center attack of September 2001. Again, the political polemic surrounding the use of infectious agents as a weapon may distort the truth. This is nicely exemplified by the Sverdlovsk accident, which was initially attributed by the authorities to a natural foodborne outbreak, and was officially recognized as having a military cause only 13 years later.

  4. Ge{sup 4+} doped TiO{sub 2} for stoichiometric degradation of warfare agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stengl, Vaclav, E-mail: [Department of Solid State Chemistry, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR v.v.i., 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Grygar, Tomas Matys [Department of Solid State Chemistry, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR v.v.i., 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Oplustil, Frantisek; Nemec, Tomas [Military Technical Institute of Protection Brno, Veslarska 230, 628 00 Brno (Czech Republic)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We prepared nanodisperse Ge{sup 4+} doped titania by a novel synthesis method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synthesis does not involve organic solvents, organometallics nor thermal processes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The prepared materials are efficient in removal of chemical warfare agents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ge{sup 4+} doping improves rate of removal of soman and agent VX by TiO{sub 2}. - Abstract: Germanium doped TiO{sub 2} was prepared by homogeneous hydrolysis of aqueous solutions of GeCl{sub 4} and TiOSO{sub 4} with urea. The synthesized samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, EDS analysis, specific surface area (BET) and porosity determination (BJH). Ge{sup 4+} doping increases surface area and content of amorphous phase in prepared samples. These oxides were used in an experimental evaluation of their reactivity with chemical warfare agent, sulphur mustard, soman and agent VX. Ge{sup 4+} doping worsens sulphur mustard degradation and improves soman and agent VX degradation. The best degree of removal (degradation), 100% of soman, 99% of agent VX and 95% of sulphur mustard, is achieved with sample with 2 wt.% of germanium.

  5. Concepto y fuentes para el estudio de la Information Warfare


    Tramullas Saz, Jesús


    En este trabajo se aborda el concepto de Información Warfare, así como las principales definiciones que se han propuesto para el mismo. Se establecen los diferentes tipos de acciones que se inscriben en este ámbito, y se delinean algunas implicaciones para el especialista en información. Como punto de partida para su estudio, se incluyen una selección de fuentes de información sobre el tema objeto de estudio. ABSTRACT: This paper broaches the concept of Information Warfare, as ...

  6. Rapid Ultrasensitive Chemical-Fingerprint Detection of Chemical and Biochemical Warfare Agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Vibrational spectra can serve as chemical fingerprints for positive identification of chemical and biological warfare molecules. The required speed and sensitivity might be achieved with surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) using nanotextured metal surfaces. Systematic and reproducible methods for preparing metallic surfaces that maximize sensitivity have not been previously developed. This work sought to develop methods for forming high-efficiency metallic nanostructures that can be integrated with either gas or liquid-phase chem-lab-on-a-chip separation columns to provide a highly sensitive, highly selective microanalytical system for detecting current and future chem/bio agents. In addition, improved protein microchromatographic systems have been made by the creation of acrylate-based porous polymer monoliths that can serve as protein preconcentrators to reduce the optical system sensitivity required to detect and identify a particular protein, such as a bacterial toxin.

  7. Biological warfare in a historical perspective. (United States)

    Roffey, R; Tegnell, A; Elgh, F


    There are some early examples of biological warfare (BW), but in modern times it was used first for sabotage by Germany during WWI. Development of biological weapons on a military significant scale was initiated in several countries in the period between the world wars. During WWII, several countries had active programs such as the USA, UK, Canada, Germany, Japan and the Soviet Union. It was only Japan that on a fairly large scale used BW. The US program continued until 1969, when President Nixon took a decision to end it in connection with signing the BTWC. The Soviet Union had also continued its program after the war, and this was enhanced after signing the BTWC: in the 1980s the program consisted of around fifty facilities and involved around 60,000 people. The Soviet Union produced and maintained a large stockpile of BW-agents. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, and due to pressure from USA and UK, President Yeltsin issued a decree in 1992 banning continued offensive BW activity. However, there are still concerns of residual activity in Russia. Another program of concern is the Iraqi BW-program. After 10 years of UN inspections that were stopped in 1998, there are still many unanswered questions concerning the BW program. There was also a covert BW-program in South Africa that was terminated around 1993. There have also been a number of allegations of alleged use or possession. In addition, there are indications that 10-12 states are now trying to acquire BW, and this assessment is based on intelligence information, mainly from the USA. For example Iraq, North Korea, Iran, Syria, Sudan and Libya. Another aspect is the strong driving force of technology developments to promote this type of program, opening new risks for future potential military misuse.

  8. Evaluation of the Marine Game Simple Surface Warfare Model (United States)


    in other research (e.g. Garris, Ahlers, & Driskel, 2002; Wiese , Freeman, Salter, Stelzer, & Jackson, 2008; Witmer & Singer, 1998). The...Ergonomics Society. Wiese , E. E., Freeman, J., Salter, W. J., Stelzer, E. M. & Jackson, C. (2008). Distributed after-action review for simulation-based...Ahlers, & Driskel, 2002; Wiese , Freeman, Salter, Stelzer, & Jackson, 2008; Witmer & Singer, 1998). Results • Analysis of variance to see differences

  9. Software Architecture for Anti-Submarine Warfare Unmanned Surface Vehicles (United States)


    autonomous vehicles,” M.S.C. thesis, Dept. Elect. and Comput. Eng., Instituto Superior Tecnico , Lisbon, Portugal, 2009. [6] V. Berzins and Luqi...TOC.htm. [Accessed: 18 July 2016]. [9] Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command, Fleet Oceanographic and Acoustic Reference Manual . Stennis Space

  10. Naval Surface Warfare Center Domestic Technology Transfer Report (FY89) (United States)


    disciplines as well as programming. 10 Main Advantages. Present methods would require manual extraction of data by desk checking and software audit reports...Tnvsrj,. Tmpnor~p,. ni;orm nftI-u lF0rrtg, Pni Crr rzermi! rsrrn TrS~nr’r,,u 1 r, PP ’l’rqan~sr rtonn~ wn pfe Vol. 25. No 3, May 1989. pp 2639-2645 1

  11. Survey and Analysis of Surface Warfare Officer Career Path Issues (United States)


    this specialization alternative are discussed in Swinger [Ref. 2:pp. 98-100]. 1. Hypothesis 1 The null hypothesis states that each specialization...Maior Career Path Change (NPRDC TN 89-5), Navy Personnel Research and Development Center, October 1988. 2. Swinger , A., "Talent at Sea," U. S. Naval

  12. Naval Surface Warfare Center Carderock Division, Technical Digest (United States)


    two vehi- cles. CUTTHROAT will be delivered to the Navy early in FY02. The vehicle names are taken from species of fish indigenous to Lake Pend Oreille...on the use of an active magnetic regenerator to produce chilled water efficiently. • Thermoacoustic Cooling - This employs sound waves to main loop system, a copper nickel pipe test section, segregation gate valve to configure the system for Zebra (battle) condition, isolation

  13. Employing U.S. Information Operations Against Hybrid Warfare Threats (United States)


    activities” ( CEMA ), which is a combination of Cyber and Electronic Warfare.115 However, the relationship between cyber and EW must be carefully considered...generating effects by themselves, as well as serving as a delivery means for MISO. The focus of CEMA may be as much to support combat operations

  14. Anti-submarine warfare with continuously active sonar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vossen, R. van; Beerens, S.P.; Spek, E. van der


    Existing surveillance sonar systems for anti-submarine warfare (ASW) use a pulsed sonar deployed at a low duty cycle. Continuously active sonar (CAS) is of special interest since the technique could provide better detection performance than conventional pulsed sonar, and it will provide the operator

  15. Trends in underwater warfare : From an underwater acoustics perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ort, C.M.; Driessen, F.P.G.


    Technological developments concerning underwater systems for Anti Submarine Warfare (ASW) and Mine Counter Measures (MCM) are directed at optimally countering the underwater threat in the near future. Countering the existing underwater threat is already extremely difficult, but there are several tre

  16. Public Discussion of Nuclear Warfare: A Time for Hope. (United States)

    Cooper, Martha

    Anti-nuclear discourse, which peaked in 1981-82, signaled an emergence of public discourse on the nuclear warfare issue. During the development of the original atomic bomb, public discussion of the issue was severely restricted, but immediately after the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, discourse on the subject increased. During the Cold War…

  17. Reactivity of Dual-Use Decontaminants with Chemical Warfare Agents (United States)


    decrease the logistical burden associated with transport and storage of decontaminants. The experiments in this study were focused on evaluating...propanediammonium dichloride, isopropanol, inert ingredients/water, hydrogen peroxide, diacetin Decontaminant formulated for chemical warfare agents F...potassium bisulfate, potassium sulfate, dipotassium peroxodisulfate, magnesium carbonate Acidic oxidative chemistry, used for VX laboratory waste

  18. Environmental assessments of sea dumped chemical warfare agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanderson, Hans; Fauser, Patrik

    This is a report on the information gathered during work related to sea dumped chemical warfare agents. It mainly reviews the work conducted in relation to the installation of the two Nord Stream gas pipeline from 2008-2012. The focus was on the weight-of-evidence risk assessment of disturbed CWA...

  19. Just War and Postmodern Warfare: A German Case Study (United States)


    Germany’s cognitive dissonance about the importance of military force and counter-insurgency operations in Afghanistan is an uphill battle they are still...1 Summary of Walzer’s Contemporary Just War Theory : ……............................................................2 Summary of...Postmodern Warfare Theory : .......................................................................................5 German Foreign Policy and Military

  20. Ethical Considerations of Computer Network Attack in Information Warfare (United States)


    attack/destruction, and special information operations (SIO). CNA and the other methods of offensive IO represent the incorporation of information...psychological operations, electronic warfare, physical attack and/or destruction, and special information operations, and could include computer computer networks to record information sent over them. 41 special information operations. Information operations that by their sensitive nature

  1. Management information systems for electronic warfare command and decision support

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Niekerk, B


    Full Text Available information to allow them to manage their own spectrum, to identify threats, and to deny adversaries’ use of the spectrum. In this paper, the concepts of integrated electronic warfare and spectrum battle management are introduced, and the relevant information...

  2. Improving Professional Development for USAF Electronic Warfare Officers (United States)


    NOTE AIR WAR COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY IMPROVING PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT FOR USAF ELECTRONIC WARFARE OFFICERS by Gregory M. Patschke, Col...and planning. Professional development comprises both continuing education and career development. In the US Air Force, the acquisition, space...and cyberspace communities have professional development programs already in place. For the continuing education half of professional development , the

  3. Simulating cyber warfare and cyber defenses: information value considerations (United States)

    Stytz, Martin R.; Banks, Sheila B.


    Simulating cyber warfare is critical to the preparation of decision-makers for the challenges posed by cyber attacks. Simulation is the only means we have to prepare decision-makers for the inevitable cyber attacks upon the information they will need for decision-making and to develop cyber warfare strategies and tactics. Currently, there is no theory regarding the strategies that should be used to achieve objectives in offensive or defensive cyber warfare, and cyber warfare occurs too rarely to use real-world experience to develop effective strategies. To simulate cyber warfare by affecting the information used for decision-making, we modify the information content of the rings that are compromised during in a decision-making context. The number of rings affected and value of the information that is altered (i.e., the closeness of the ring to the center) is determined by the expertise of the decision-maker and the learning outcome(s) for the simulation exercise. We determine which information rings are compromised using the probability that the simulated cyber defenses that protect each ring can be compromised. These probabilities are based upon prior cyber attack activity in the simulation exercise as well as similar real-world cyber attacks. To determine which information in a compromised "ring" to alter, the simulation environment maintains a record of the cyber attacks that have succeeded in the simulation environment as well as the decision-making context. These two pieces of information are used to compute an estimate of the likelihood that the cyber attack can alter, destroy, or falsify each piece of information in a compromised ring. The unpredictability of information alteration in our approach adds greater realism to the cyber event. This paper suggests a new technique that can be used for cyber warfare simulation, the ring approach for modeling context-dependent information value, and our means for considering information value when assigning cyber

  4. FOA Information from the Research Institute of Swedish National Defence on Electronic Warfare (FOA Orientar om Electronic Warfare), (United States)


    modified. If it is appears as if the psychological It is hardly likely. however. known that the opponent has a warfare element involved there- that the most...34 . -roadeatla - ".-Rhdar Raa -* * - cldignsl Toi~loieey aft u comunication , ntavigation -ctionl Examples of applications Radar bands FroquaP" UMI 0.1

  5. Evolution of Unmanned Aerial Warfare: A Historical Look at Remote Airpower - A Case Study in Innovation (United States)


    EVOLUTION OF UNMANNED AERIAL WARFARE: A HISTORICAL LOOK AT REMOTE AIRPOWER—A CASE STUDY IN INNOVATION A thesis presented to...JUN 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Evolution of Unmanned Aerial Warfare: A Historical Look at Remote Airpower—A Case Study in Innovation 5a...Warfare: A Historical Look at Remote Airpower—A Case Study in Innovation Approved by: , Thesis Committee Chair John T. Kuehn, Ph.D

  6. Electronic Warfare M-on-N Digital Simulation Logging Requirements and HDF5: A Preliminary Analysis (United States)


    E. Jarvis Electronic Warfare M-on- N Digital Simulation Logging Requirements and HDF5: A Preliminary Analysis Advanced Techniques Branch Tactical...12-04-2017 NRL Memorandum Report Electronic Warfare M-on- N Digital Simulation Logging Requirements and HDF5: A Preliminary Analysis Donald E...ELECTRONIC WARFARE M-ON- N DIGITAL SIMULATION LOGGING REQUIREMENTS AND HDF5: A PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS 1. INTRODUCTION HDF5 technology [Folk] has been

  7. Chemical and biological warfare: General studies. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The bibliography contains citations concerning federally sponsored and conducted studies into chemical and biological warfare operations and planning. These studies cover areas not addressed in other parts of this series. The topics include production and storage of agents, delivery techniques, training, military and civil defense, general planning studies, psychological reactions to chemical warfare, evaluations of materials exposed to chemical agents, and studies on banning or limiting chemical warfare. Other published searches in this series on chemical warfare cover detection and warning, defoliants, protection, and biological studies, including chemistry and toxicology. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  8. Chemical and biological warfare: General studies. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The bibliography contains citations concerning federally sponsored and conducted studies into chemical and biological warfare operations and planning. These studies cover areas not addressed in other parts of this series. The topics include production and storage of agents, delivery techniques, training, military and civil defense, general planning studies, psychological reactions to chemical warfare, evaluations of materials exposed to chemical agents, and studies on banning or limiting chemical warfare. Other published searches in this series on chemical warfare cover detection and warning, defoliants, protection, and biological studies, including chemistry and toxicology.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  9. Stuxnet and Cyber-Warfare (1/2)

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva


    The first part of the lecture is devoted to the description of the Stuxnet worm, the first cyber-weapon whose existence has been made public, discovered in 2010 and targeting a specific industrial control system; the worm is responsible for the damaging of many centrifuges at an uranium enrichment facility, with the goal of sabotaging Iran's nuclear program. In the second part, the main features of cyber-warfare in conflict and pre-conflict activities will be discussed and compared to the conventional warfare domains, with also a general view at the international political debate on this topic. Check the web site, an organisation that seeks a world free of nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction.   NB! All Academic Training lectures are recorded and are publicly available. There is no live webcast.

  10. Stuxnet and Cyber-Warfare (2/2)

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva


    The first part of the lecture is devoted to the description of the Stuxnet worm, the first cyber-weapon whose existence has been made public, discovered in 2010 and targeting a specific industrial control system; the worm is responsible for the damaging of many centrifuges at an uranium enrichment facility, with the goal of sabotaging Iran's nuclear program. In the second part, the main features of cyber-warfare in conflict and pre-conflict activities will be discussed and compared to the conventional warfare domains, with also a general view at the international political debate on this topic.   Check the web site, an organisation that seeks a world free of nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction. The lecturer invites comments via email to NB! All Academic Training lectures are recorded and are publicly available. There is no live webcast.

  11. Cutaneous reactions in nuclear, biological and chemical warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arora Sandeep


    Full Text Available Nuclear, biological and chemical warfare have in recent times been responsible for an increasing number of otherwise rare dermatoses. Many nations are now maintaining overt and clandestine stockpiles of such arsenal. With increasing terrorist threats, these agents of mass destruction pose a risk to the civilian population. Nuclear and chemical attacks manifest immediately while biological attacks manifest later. Chemical and biological attacks pose a significant risk to the attending medical personnel. The large scale of anticipated casualties in the event of such an occurrence would need the expertise of all physicians, including dermatologists, both military and civilian. Dermatologists are uniquely qualified in this respect. This article aims at presenting a review of the cutaneous manifestations in nuclear, chemical and biological warfare and their management.

  12. Decontamination of adsorbed chemical warfare agents on activated carbon using hydrogen peroxide solutions. (United States)

    Osovsky, Ruth; Kaplan, Doron; Nir, Ido; Rotter, Hadar; Elisha, Shmuel; Columbus, Ishay


    Mild treatment with hydrogen peroxide solutions (3-30%) efficiently decomposes adsorbed chemical warfare agents (CWAs) on microporous activated carbons used in protective garments and air filters. Better than 95% decomposition of adsorbed sulfur mustard (HD), sarin, and VX was achieved at ambient temperatures within 1-24 h, depending on the H2O2 concentration. HD was oxidized to the nontoxic HD-sulfoxide. The nerve agents were perhydrolyzed to the respective nontoxic methylphosphonic acids. The relative rapidity of the oxidation and perhydrolysis under these conditions is attributed to the microenvironment of the micropores. Apparently, the reactions are favored due to basic sites on the carbon surface. Our findings suggest a potential environmentally friendly route for decontamination of adsorbed CWAs, using H2O2 without the need of cosolvents or activators.

  13. USMC Electronic Warfare 2025: Trading Expertise for Advanced Technology (United States)


    airborne electronic warlare during the transition period away from legacy equipment. EA-6B pilots and Electroilic Countermeasures Officers ( ECMOs ...Electronic Warfare (EW) capability. As an EA-6B Electronic Countenneasures Officer ( ECMO ), I anticipate that both the United States Marine Corps and all... ECMOs . An increased workload for Radio Battalion will have the same effect that the assumption of an additional function of Marine aviation will have on

  14. China's Use of Cyber Warfare: Espionage Meets Strategic Deterrence



    This article presents three reasons for states to use cyber warfare and shows that cyberspace is—and will continue to be—a decisive element in China's strategy to ascend in the international system. The three reasons are: deterrence through infiltration of critical infrastructure; military technological espionage to gain military knowledge; and industrial espionage to gain economic advantage. China has a greater interest in using cyberspace offensively than other actors, such as the United St...

  15. Enterprises as Inquiring Systems with Implications for Information Warfare (United States)


    defined as the “integrated employment of the core capabilities of electronic warfare, computer network operations, psychological operations, military...comprehension (also explicitly included in Figure 3). The entire spectrum of deception, psychological operations, and all means to impact human-centered...with the same input data (other than ground truth) via different channels and that data must be consistent within itself. The belief in empiricism to

  16. Wrestling the Bear: The Rise of Russian Hybrid Warfare (United States)


    integrity. Essentially, Russia - and more directly- Vladimir Putin perceive that Russia is in an ideological struggle with the US and Europe. 1 Carl Von...conducted in a hybrid manner, though all the instruments of national power. 31 Though the nearly continuous strategic leadership of Vladimir Putin , Russia ...with a sharp focus on Vladimir Putin ’s strategic leadership, highlights the evolution ofthe Russian brand of hybrid warfare (HW). The analysis also

  17. Beyond Mission Command: Maneuver Warfare for Cyber Command and Control (United States)


    elements with maneuver warfare, mission command’s decentralization of execution through the use of mission-type orders is a more centralized form... decentralized command and control organization will instill an innovative organizational culture. Innovation will be able to freely prosper in an...warfare’s decentralized command and control doctrine to maximize military cyberspace operations. Since the establishment of U.S. Cyber Command in 2009

  18. The Enemy Below: Preparing Ground Forces for Subterranean Warfare (United States)


    can endanger the lives of U.S. forces and render mechanical breaching tools inoperable. Air blowers can be used as a hasty means to ventilate a... Penguin Books, 1996). 179 Tom Mangold, The Tunnels of Cu Chi (New York, NY: Random House, 1985). 147 6. A Historical Analysis of Tunnel Warfare and... Penguin Group, 1996. 157 Lester, W. G., & Ali, A. J. “Underground Combat: Stereophonic Blasting, tunnel Rats, and the Soviet-Afghan War.” Engineer

  19. Russian and Chinese Information Warfare: Theory and Practice (United States)


    Integral neurolinguistic programming •Placing essential programs into the conscious or sub- conscious mind •Subconscious suggestions that modify human...Generators of special rays •Optical systems • Neurolinguistic programming •Computer psychotechnology •The mass media •Audiovisual effects •Special effects...Information Warfare: Theory and Practice 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e

  20. Cyberspace Warfare: A New DoD Core Mission Area (United States)


    states to take note. Cyber issues such as these should be seen in light of the ancient dictum that “a victorious army first wins and then seeks...Examples from ancient Greece, Prussia, and World War II are illustrated to present cases where innovative leaders adapted and modified their methods to...conduct warfare and integrated them into their strategic approach to achieve their desired end states. Alexander the Great conquered Persia in three

  1. Constitution aims to bring an end to health economy warfare. (United States)

    Harding, Mary-Louise; Martin, Daniel


    A rough new constitution is being drawn up for the NHS in a bid to prevent health economies sliding into bitter 'Bradford-style' warfare in the era of foundations trusts and payment by results. The rules of engagement are part of a package of measures designed to rescue some of the government's flagship reforms amid warnings from audit chiefs on the impact of PbR.

  2. Echo chamber and trench warfare dynamics in online debates. (United States)

    Karlsen, Rune; Steen-Johnsen, Kari; Wollebæk, Dag; Enjolras, Bernard


    In this article, we take issue with the claim by Sunstein and others that online discussion takes place in echo chambers, and suggest that the dynamics of online debates could be more aptly described by the logic of 'trench warfare', in which opinions are reinforced through contradiction as well as confirmation. We use a unique online survey and an experimental approach to investigate and test echo chamber and trench warfare dynamics in online debates. The results show that people do indeed claim to discuss with those who hold opposite views from themselves. Furthermore, our survey experiments suggest that both confirming and contradicting arguments have similar effects on attitude reinforcement. Together, this indicates that both echo chamber and trench warfare dynamics - a situation where attitudes are reinforced through both confirmation and disconfirmation biases - characterize online debates. However, we also find that two-sided neutral arguments have weaker effects on reinforcement than one-sided confirming and contradicting arguments, suggesting that online debates could contribute to collective learning and qualification of arguments.

  3. Electronic Warfare:Issues and Challenges for Emitter Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Gupta


    Full Text Available Electronic warfare (EW is an important capability that provides advantage to defence forces over their adversaries. Defence forces gather tactical intelligence through EW sensors, which provide the means to counter hostile actions of enemy forces. Functions of an EW system is threat detection and the area surveillance so as to determine the identity of surrounding emitters. Emitter classification system identifies possible threats by analysing intercepted signals. Problem of identifying emitters based on its intercepted signal characteristics is a challenging problem in electronic warfare studies. Major issues and challenges for emitter classification such as drifting of emitter parameters due to aging, operational characteristic of an emitter, i.e., same emitter can operate on multiple bands and multiple pulse repetition frequencies (PRFs are highlighted. A novel approach based on some well-known statistical methods, e.g., regression analysis, hypothesis testing, and discriminent analysis is proposed. The effectiveness of the proposed approach has been tested over ELINT (Electronic Intelligence data and illustrated using simulation data. The proposed approach can play a solution for wide variety of problems in emitter classification in electronic warfare studies.Defence Science Journal, 2011, 61(3, pp.228-234, DOI:

  4. Status of dental health in chemical warfare victims: The case of Isfahan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mottaghi


    Conclusion: Chemical warfare victims have relatively poor dental/oral health. Chemical injury might cause a dysfunction in saliva secretion, with decrease in saliva secretion increasing the risk for tooth decay and periodontal disorders. Further research is required to find out the exact underlying mechanisms and the factors associated with poor dental/oral health in chemical warfare victims.

  5. Metal organic frameworks for the catalytic detoxification of chemical warfare nerve agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupp, Joseph T.; Farha, Omar K.; Katz, Michael J.; Mondloch, Joseph E.


    A method of using a metal organic framework (MOF) comprising a metal ion and an at least bidendate organic ligand to catalytically detoxify chemical warfare nerve agents including exposing the metal-organic-framework (MOF) to the chemical warfare nerve agent and catalytically decomposing the nerve agent with the MOF.

  6. Antidotes and treatments for chemical warfare/terrorism agents: an evidence-based review. (United States)

    Rodgers, G C; Condurache, C T


    This article reviews the evidence supporting the efficacy of antidotes used or recommended for the potential chemical warfare agents of most concern. Chemical warfare agents considered include cyanide, vesicants, pulmonary irritants such as chlorine and phosgene, and nerve agents. The strength of evidence for most antidotes is weak, highlighting the need for additional research in this area.

  7. Cyber Warfare: China’s Strategy to Dominate in Cyber Space (United States)


    Revolution.‖ 64Jason Fritz, ―How China will use cyber warfare to leapfrog in military competitiveness,‖ Culture Mandala : The Bulletin of the Centre for East...cyber warfare to leapfrog in military competitiveness.‖ Culture Mandala : The Bulletin of the Centre for East-West Culture and Economic Studies 8 no. 1

  8. Irregular Warfare Centric Foreign Internal Defense (United States)


    B Specials85) and in response to the marauding mobs , Catholics barricaded themselves into ―no-go‖ areas to keep the security forces out, allowing...ransacking homes, humiliating automobile occupants during searches and harassment of pedestrians on the streets.87 The Commission of Human Rights ruled...the surface often appears reactive and inconsistent, both Labour and Conservative governments have consistently adhered to a set of basic principles

  9. Cybersecurity protecting critical infrastructures from cyber attack and cyber warfare

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Thomas A


    The World Economic Forum regards the threat of cyber attack as one of the top five global risks confronting nations of the world today. Cyber attacks are increasingly targeting the core functions of the economies in nations throughout the world. The threat to attack critical infrastructures, disrupt critical services, and induce a wide range of damage is becoming more difficult to defend against. Cybersecurity: Protecting Critical Infrastructures from Cyber Attack and Cyber Warfare examines the current cyber threat landscape and discusses the strategies being used by governments and corporatio

  10. Carbon Nanotubes: Detection of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Om Kumar


    Full Text Available Discovery of carbon nanotubes has great impact on the development of newer methodologies and devicesuseful for the analysis of various types of chemicals. The functionalisation of CNTs with biomolecules relatedto chemical and biological warfare agents makes these useful for the detection of these agents. The detectionsensitivity can be increased manyfold. Various types of chemical and biological sensors were developed usingvarious type of carbon nanotubes as well as nano particles of different metals.Defence Science Journal, 2008, 58(5, pp.617-625, DOI:

  11. Women and Warfare in Pre-Colonial Akokoland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusanya Faboyede


    Full Text Available In pre-colonial Akokoland, the most conspicuous fact about its political economy and peace was security challenges and mismanagement through internal and external manipulation. This paper analyses the role of women in warfare in pre-colonial Akokoland as a potential to integrate Akokoland, a multi-cultural community for productive and sustained effort to promote economic development in the region. Thus, the paper is conceptualised on historical objectivity. The paper argues that one of the ways of dealing with the scale of insecurity in the society is to assimilate historical thinking into the intention of the security agents (women warriors.

  12. Mechanical Performance of Austempered Ductile Iron. (United States)


    Street, Alexandria, VA, 22304-6145 2 ATTN: DTIC-FDAC 1 MIAC/ CINDAS , Purdue University, 2595 Yeagar Road, West Lafayette, IN, 47905 Commander, Army Research... William Donnelly 1 ATTN: AMSMC-PBR-M(D), Mr. Al Gonsiska 1 ATTN: AMSMC-PBR-M(D), Mr. Ferdinand del Carmen 1 ATTN: SMCAR-CCH-P, Mr. William Sharpe...ATTN: Code 5830 Naval Sea System Command, Washington, DC, 20326-5101 1 ATTN: Code 03R5, Mr. John Williams Naval Surface Warfare Center, Dahlgren, VA

  13. The development of immunoassays for detection of chemical warfare agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenz, D.E. [Army Medical Research Inst. of Chemical Defense, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States)


    With the advent of enzyme linked immunoabsorbant assays (ELISA) and monoclonal antibodies in the last two decades, there has been considerable effort devoted to the development of antibodies to detect and quantify low molecular weight toxic substances in environmental or biological fluids. Polyclonal antibodies against paraoxon (the toxic metabolite of parathion) were reported as capable of detecting paraoxon in body fluids at a level of 10{sup -9} M ({approximately}260 pg/mL) when used in a competitive inhibition enzyme immunoassay (CIEIA). Monoclonal antibodies developed against a structural analogue of the chemical warfare agent soman were capable of detecting soman in buffer solutions at a level of 10{sup -6} M ({approximately}180 ng/mL). In addition, these antibodies were highly specific for soman even in the presence of its major hydrolysis product. Subsequent studies with antisoman monoclonal antibodies reported an extension of the level of sensitivity to -80 ng/mL. Furthermore these antibodies did not cross react with other chemical warfare nerve agents such as sarin or tabun. In all cases, the time for a confirmatory test was two hours or less. Immunoassays for T-2 micotoxins have also been reported with a minimal detection range of 2 pg/assay to 50 ng/assay for the polyclonal and monoclonal T-2 antibodies respectively. These antibodies offer a sensitive, rapid and low cost approach to the diagnosis or detection of the presence of toxic chemical substances.

  14. Evanescent planar waveguide detection of biological warfare simulants (United States)

    Sipe, David M.; Schoonmaker, Kenneth P.; Herron, James N.; Mostert, Michael J.


    An evanescent planar waveguide Mark 1.5 instrument was used to detect simulants of biological warfare agents; ovalbumin (OV), MS2 bacteriophage, BG, and Erwinia herbicola (EH). Polyclonal tracer antibodies were labeled with the fluorescent dye, Cy5. Discrete bands of polyclonal capture antibodies were immobilized to a polystyrene planar waveguide with molded integral lenses. An ST-6 CCD camera was used for detection. OV. MS2 and BG were detected in a simultaneous 3 by 3 array; with a total of nine measurements within 6 minutes. EH was analyzed in a separate array. Results were evaluate dat the US Army Joint Field Trials V, at the Dugway Proving Grounds. Over a 10 day period, 32 unknown samples were analyzed daily for each simulant. Detection limits: OV 10 ng/ml, MS2 107 pfu/ml, BG 105 cfu/ml. EH was detectable at 5 X 105 cfu/ml. Overall false positives were 3.0 percent. Therefore, the Mark 1.5 instrument, with a parallel array of detectors, evanescent flourescent excitation, and CCD imaging provides for rapid, sensitive, and specific detection of biological warfare agent simulants.

  15. China's Use of Cyber Warfare: Espionage Meets Strategic Deterrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Hjortdal


    Full Text Available This article presents three reasons for states to use cyber warfare and shows that cyberspace is—and will continue to be—a decisive element in China's strategy to ascend in the international system. The three reasons are: deterrence through infiltration of critical infrastructure; military technological espionage to gain military knowledge; and industrial espionage to gain economic advantage. China has a greater interest in using cyberspace offensively than other actors, such as the United States, since it has more to gain from spying on and deterring the United States than the other way around. The article also documents China's progress in cyber warfare and shows how it works as an extension of its traditional strategic thinking and the current debate within the country. Several examples of cyber attacks traceable to China are also presented. This includes cyber intrusions on a nuclear arms laboratory, attacks on defense ministries (including the Joint Strike Fighter and an airbase and the U.S. electric grid, as well as the current Google affair, which has proved to be a small part of a broader attack that also targeted the U.S. Government. There are, however, certain constraints that qualify the image of China as an aggressive actor in cyberspace. Some believe that China itself is the victim of just as many attacks from other states. Furthermore, certain actors in the United States and the West have an interest in overestimating China's capabilities in cyberspace in order to maintain their budgets.

  16. Measurements of Raman scattering in the middle ultraviolet band from persistent chemical warfare agents (United States)

    Kullander, Fredrik; Landström, Lars; Lundén, Hampus; Mohammed, Abdesalam; Olofsson, Göran; Wästerby, Pär.


    The very low Raman scattering cross section and the fluorescence background limit the measuring range of Raman based instruments operating in the visible or infrared band. We are exploring if laser excitation in the middle ultraviolet (UV) band between 200 and 300 nm is useful and advantageous for detection of persistent chemical warfare agents (CWA) on various kinds of surfaces. The UV Raman scattering from tabun, mustard gas, VX and relevant simulants in the form of liquid surface contaminations has been measured using a laboratory experimental setup with a short standoff distance around 1 meter. Droplets having a volume of 1 μl were irradiated with a tunable pulsed laser swept within the middle UV band. A general trend is that the signal strength moves through an optimum when the laser excitation wavelength is swept between 240 and 300 nm. The signal from tabun reaches a maximum around 265 nm, the signal from mustard gas around 275 nm. The Raman signal from VX is comparably weak. Raman imaging by the use of a narrow bandpass UV filter is also demonstrated.

  17. The Third World War? In The Cyberspace. Cyber Warfare in the Middle East.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This article aims to provide a brief and comprehensive introduction to the issue of cyber warfare and to display the recent development in this area. Geographically, it focuses on the Middle East region, since the vast majority of the most important recent cyber attacks appeared just in there or were connected to it. The first part of the article tries to define the key notion of cyber warfare, compares it to the standard warfare and presents different types of cyber weapons that are known today. The second part points out examples of the most striking recent cyber attacks and uses them as evidences to demonstrate today's importance and dissemination of cyber warfare. Finally, the article sums up pros and cons of the cyber weapons and, in view of these, predicts a significant increase in their use in any future war conflicts.

  18. Optimizing Armed Forces Capabilities for Hybrid Warfare – New Challenge for Slovak Armed Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter PINDJÁK


    Full Text Available The paper deals with the optimization of military capabilities of the Slovak Armed Forces for conducting operations in a hybrid conflict, which represents one of the possible scenarios of irregular warfare. Whereas in the regular warfare adversaries intend to eliminate the centers of gravity of each other, most often command and control structures, in irregular conflicts, the center of gravity shifts towards the will and cognitive perception of the target population. Hybrid warfare comprises a thoroughly planned combination of conventional military approaches and kinetic operations with subversive, irregular activities, including information and cyber operations. These efforts are often accompanied by intensified activities of intelligence services, special operation forces, and even mercenary and other paramilitary groups. The development of irregular warfare capabilities within the Slovak Armed Forces will require a progressive transformation process that may turn the armed forces into a modern and adaptable element of power, capable of deployment in national and international crisis management operations.

  19. Changing the face of cyber warfare with international cyber defense collaboration

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, M


    Full Text Available of the Government, as well as cyber security and cyber warfare acts and the command and control aspects thereof. The research presented is largely theoretical in nature, focusing on recent events in the public international domain....

  20. A Better State of War: Surmounting the Ethical Cliff in Cyber Warfare (United States)


    Unlike landmines, for example, that litter historical battlefields to this day, cyber weapons offer a more hygienic approach to warfare. In...institutions have protected civilians from harm through established regulations and norms ranging from merchant shipping protection under the law of...targeted the Laconia, a merchant vessel, in 1942.80 Citizens engaged in cyber warfare, however, may be targeted with commensurate cyber weapons

  1. Electronic Warfare: Rethinking the Importance of Its Role In Military Operations (United States)


    EW mindset changes. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Electronic Warfare, Vulnerability, Military, Threat , Technology, Technological 16. SECURITY...Signature: Kevin nernen, C USAF Corn i e Signatu P er e, , C Directo JointA ancedWarfighting Signature: 10 June 2016 Thesis Advisor: Approved by: School...Electronic warfare support actions taken to identify, locate sources of energy emitted by enemy systems for the purpose of providing threat warning

  2. Understanding the elementary considerations in a network warfare environment: an introductory framework

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Veerasamy, N


    Full Text Available framework. 5.1 Constrains and Implications Several factors can constrain network warfare and have associated consequences. These include the legal issues, ethical dilemmas, technical solutions, financial impact and skill/manpower investment. Logical... the personality traits of an individual. Users will need to balance ethical dilemmas before engaging in offensive network warfare. Computers and network are powerful tools and great harm can be caused with them. Motive, attitude, values, upbringing, experience...

  3. ‘Lest we forget’*: a veteran and son share a ‘warfare tourism’ experience


    Fallon, Paul; Robinson, Peter


    Warfare tourism’ represents an increasingly significant dimension of contemporary tourism. This paper provides a fresh perspective on participation in ‘warfare tourism’ by investigating the behaviour and experiences of a living veteran and his son returning to two theatres of war in which the veteran had served in the Royal Navy during the Second World War. Active interviews with the two family members were used to gather rich data regarding the two extended trips, which had been funded by ‘H...

  4. Agroterrorism, Biological Crimes, and Biological Warfare Targeting Animal Agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Terry M.; Logan-Henfrey, Linda; Weller, Richard E.; Kellman, Brian


    There is a rising level of concern that agriculture might be targeted for economic sabotage by terrorists. Knowledge gathered about the Soviet Union biological weapons program and Iraq following the Gulf War, confirmed that animals and agricultural crops were targets of bioweapon development. These revelations are particularly disturbing in light of the fact that both countries are States Parties to the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention that entered into force in 1975. The potential for misusing biotechnology to create more virulent pathogens and the lack of international means to detect unethical uses of new technologies to create destructive bioweapons is of increasing concern. Disease outbreaks, whether naturally occurring or intentionally, involving agricultural pathogens that destroy livestock and crops would have a profound impact on a country's infrastructure, economy and export markets. This chapter deals with the history of agroterrorism, biological crimes and biological warfare directed toward animal agriculture, specifically, horses, cattle, swine, sheep, goats, and poultry.

  5. Methodology and biological monitoring of exposure to chemical warfare agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shih, M.L.; Smith, J.R.; McMonagle, J.D. [Army Medical Research Inst. of Chemical Defense, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States)


    In the past few years, our institute has developed several GC/MS methods for the detection of the breakdown products of toxic organophosphonates (soman, sarin, GF) and vesicant sulfur mustard in biological samples. Recently we developed a modified GC/MS method for VX and are continually working on the methodology for lewisite and tabun. The purpose is to have an analytical tool to verify the exposure of chemical warfare agents in humans. Analytical procedures for quantitating the hydrolyzed phosphonic acids from nerve agents in environmental samples have been reported by many analysts. For more complex matrices such as biological samples, there is not yet a method reported. To make these polar acids amenable to gas chromatographic analysis a prior derivatization is needed. We found the pentafluorobenzyl ester derivatives of the phosphonates are suitable for verification and pharmacokinetic studies in biological samples. This method may also serve as an alternative method for confirmation purposes in environmental samples.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe MINCULETE


    Full Text Available The military joint operations of the future are characterized by large concentrations of forces and conventional means on the directions that permit the exploitation of the technological superiority and the manifestation of the offensive spirit of the commanders of the joint operation force groups. Having in mind the fact that the relation between the combatant forces and the logistic ones will shift more and more in favour of the latter, the aforementioned operations will be usually supported by modern flexible logistic structures. The constituted force groups will have a significant joint force character, ensuring superior quality of the troops’ combat training, both at individual level and collective level of units and large units. The current article presents innovative aspects of focused logistics, adapted for the modern warfare, which should be designed and achieved in order to increase the operational potential of the joint force groups.

  7. Book Review: Conquest in Cyberspace: National Security and Information Warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary C. Kessler


    Full Text Available Libicki, M.C. (2007. Conquest in Cyberspace: National Security and Information Warfare. New York: Cambridge University Press. 323 pages, ISBN: 978-0-521-69214-4 (paper, US$80Reviewed by Gary C. Kessler (gary.kessler@champlain.eduMany books -- and even movies ("Live Free or Die Hard" -- are based upon the premise of an impending information war. In these scenarios -- made all too plausible by the increased frequency with which we read about and experience major information security incidents -- a Bad Guy exploits known computer security vulnerabilities in order to control major national infrastructures via the Internet so as to reap financial, economic, and/or personal power.(see PDF for full review

  8. Respiratory Protection Against Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.K. Prasad


    Full Text Available Chemical and biological warfare (CBW agents pose unavoidable threat, both to soldiers and civilians.Exposure to such deadly agents amidst the CBW agents contaminated environment can be avoided bytaking proper protective measures. Respiratory protection is indispensable when the soldiers or civiliansare surrounded by such deadly environment as contamination-free air is needed for respiration purposes.In this context, an attempt has been made to review the literature for the past five decades on developmentof various protective devices for respiratory protection against aerosols, gases, and vapours of CBWagents. This review covers structural, textural, and adsorption properties of materials used in gas filtersand mechanical filters for the removal of CBW agents.Defence Science Journal, 2008, 58(5, pp.686-697, DOI:

  9. Technological, military and social causes for the application of cyber warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan D. Mladenović


    Full Text Available Cyber warfare is a specific new form of military conflicts the use of which is growing rapidly in the international community. However, its nature is specific and differs from all previously known forms of warfare. For the purpose of clear understanding of the nature of cyber warfare, this paper covers the basic groups of preconditions for its broad application and fast development from technological, military and social aspects. Understanding the true nature of cyber warfare is a necessary condition for building national capacities for its application that are military justified and harmonized with the international law. The paper explores the characteristic instances of cyber warfare, ranging from information propaganda to physical destruction, with the goal to determine guidelines for the possible development of cyber capacities at the national level. Based on the analysis of previous cyber warfare cases, a prediction of future development directions is made and the necessity to apply suitable methods and techniques for defense against them is analyzed.

  10. A Survey of Game Theoretic Approaches to Modelling Decision-Making in Information Warfare Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Merrick


    Full Text Available Our increasing dependence on information technologies and autonomous systems has escalated international concern for information- and cyber-security in the face of politically, socially and religiously motivated cyber-attacks. Information warfare tactics that interfere with the flow of information can challenge the survival of individuals and groups. It is increasingly important that both humans and machines can make decisions that ensure the trustworthiness of information, communication and autonomous systems. Subsequently, an important research direction is concerned with modelling decision-making processes. One approach to this involves modelling decision-making scenarios as games using game theory. This paper presents a survey of information warfare literature, with the purpose of identifying games that model different types of information warfare operations. Our contribution is a systematic identification and classification of information warfare games, as a basis for modelling decision-making by humans and machines in such scenarios. We also present a taxonomy of games that map to information warfare and cyber crime problems as a precursor to future research on decision-making in such scenarios. We identify and discuss open research questions including the role of behavioural game theory in modelling human decision making and the role of machine decision-making in information warfare scenarios.

  11. Platform-level Distributed Warfare Model-based on Multi-Agent System Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong Li


    Full Text Available The multi-agent paradigm has become a useful tool in solving military problems. However, one of key challenges in multi-agent model for distributed warfare could be how to describe the microcosmic  tactical warfare platforms actions. In this paper, a platform-level distributed warfare model based on multi-agent system framework is designed to tackle this challenge. The basic ideas include:  Establishing multi-agent model by mapping from tactical warfare system’s members, i.e., warfare platforms, to respective agents; performing task decomposition and task allocation by using task-tree decomposition method and improved contract net protocol model technique; and implementing simulation by presenting battlefield terrain environment analysis algorithm based on grid approach. The  simulation demonstration results show that our model provides a feasible and effective approach to supporting the abstraction and representation of microcosmic tactical actions for complex warfare system.Defence Science Journal, 2012, 62(1, pp.180-186, DOI:

  12. LIDAR for Detection of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Veerabuthiran


    Full Text Available Remote detection of chemical and biological warfare agents and toxic gases in the atmosphere is of current interest to both the military and civilian agencies. Out of all currently available techniques, no single technique provides efficient detection against such threats at significant standoff distances. Light detection and ranging (LIDAR technologies, based on the transmission of laser pulses and analysis of the return signals, have demonstrated impressive capabilities in remote detection of such toxic chemicals. LIDAR is a highly sensitive tool to detect the extremely low concentrations of various toxic agents present in the form of thin clouds at distances of few kilometer. The detection of these toxic clouds is based on the approach of first detecting and measuring the range of the clouds using the scattering phenomena and subsequently identifying the composition of toxic clouds using absorption and fluorescence phenomena. Laser Science and Technology Centre (LASTEC, Delhi has been working on the design and development of LIDAR systems for detection of chemical and biological warfare (CBW agents. In this paper, theoretical analysis of differential absorption LIDAR (DIAL for detection of chemical agents and fluorescence LIDAR for detection of biological agents has been discussed. For some typical parametric conditions, the received power levels from different ranges to detect specific concentrations of chemical or biological clouds have been computed and discussed. The technical details of the indigenously developed backscattering LIDAR, which detects and measures the distance of cloud layers up to 5 km is also presented.Defence Science Journal, 2011, 61(3, pp.241-250, DOI:

  13. The development of immunoassays for detection of chemical warfare agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenz, D.E.; Brimfield, A.A.; Cook, L. [Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States)


    With the advent of enzyme linked immunoabsorbent assays (ELISA) and monoclonal antibodies in the last two decades, there has been considerable effort devoted to the development of antibodies to detect and quantify low molecular weight toxic substances in environmental or biological fluids. Polyclonal antibodies against paraoxon (the toxic metabolite of parathion) were capable of detecting paraoxon in body fluids at a level of 10{sup -9} M ({approximately}260 pg/mL) when used in a competitive inhibition enzyme immunoassay (CIEIA). Monoclonal antibodies developed against a structural analogue of the chemical warfare agent soman were capable of detection soman in buffer solutions at a level of 10{sup -6} M ({approximately}180 ng/mL). In addition these antibodies were found to be highly specific for soman even in the presence of its major hydrolysis product. Subsequent studies with antisoman monoclonal antibodies extended the level of sensitivity to {approximately}80 ng/mL. Furthermore these antibodies did not cross react with other chemical warfare nerve agents such as sarin or tabun. In all cases, the time for a confirmatory test was two hours or less. Immunoassays for T-2 micotoxins have also been reported with a minimal detection range of 2 pg/assay to 50 ng/assay for the polyclonal and monoclonal T-2 antibodies respectively. These reagents offer a sensitive, rapid and low cost approach to the diagnosis or detection of the presence of toxic chemical substances. More recent efforts have focussed on developing antibodies specific for sulfur mustard a highly reactive vesicating agent.

  14. Editorial: Discovery from Lake Turkana and History of Human Warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Professor S. P. Singh, Ph.D.


    Full Text Available Very interesting finds have come to light of violently killed humans from Lake Turkana in the Kenyan Rift Valley around 10000 years ago. A stunning discovery of skeletons of 27 persons who are believed to have been killed at the same time and are supposed to have suffered violent wounds has been reported recently (Nature 529, 394–398, 21 January 2016. These finds belong to a period of late Pleistocene/early Holocene of the hunter-gatherer societies from Nataruk. Among the victims were men, women and children. The individuals were killed with projectiles and blunt weapons. These skeletons were found in the lagoon and were preserved very nicely. Such type of mass killing probably could never happen as a consequence of intra-group conflict. The evidence seems to be towards warfare and aggression in ancient societies. The experts ruled out the possibility of a cemetery and ceremonial burial. This discovery of 27 skeletons points to the fact that there may have been more causalities and many individuals might have escaped death at that time. According to one of the co-authors of this research Dr. R.A. Foley, the groups were elatively more densely packed populations than the hunter gatherers and had more chances of having inter-group conflicts because of sharing the resources which would have been plentiful near the lagoons and water bodies. Violence probably has been in the instinct of early humans and that the warfare among humans has a history of 10000 years or even earlier.

  15. Looming Threat of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. Goel


    Full Text Available In the recent past, a dramatic shift has been observed in the strategies of warfare from conventional to non-conventional. Now-a-days, traditional power is of less importance than it used to be earlier. Weapons of mass destruction, which comprise of nuclear weapons, and chemical and biological warfare agents, are posing a great peril to the world due to their devastating potential. Though, there are several bilateral as well as multilateral treaties to control the use and proliferation of these weapons, yet the risk of use of such agents by non-state actors cannot be overlooked. Chances of use of chemical and biological agents are more likely than the nuclear weapons. A comparison of nuclear, chemical and biological weapons in terms of technology, cost, signature, effectiveness on protected and un-protected troops shows that chemical and biological weapon programmes require much lower level of technology and cost than the nuclear weapon programme. Further, there is no or least distinctive and readily observable signature in biological weapon programme in comparison to nuclear and chemical weapon facilities. There can be two possibilities of use of these agents in terrorist attacks. First, there is a risk of transfer of material or know-how of these weapons to terrorists for using against the adversaries and second, the risk of these agents being pilfered due to poor security, thereby sabotaging the national security. The International Committee of Red Cross in February 1918 reckoned these agents as ‘barbarous inventions’ that can ‘only be called criminal’.

  16. A Square Peg in a Round Hole: A Case Study of Center Gravity Application in Counter Insurgency Warfare (United States)


    D.C.: Potomac Books, 2010. Griffith, Samuel B. The Illustrated Art of War. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005. Guevara , Ernesto Che, Brian... Guevara provided another approach to insurgency, encapsulated in the concept of the foco, which he described in his 1960 work Guerrilla Warfare. The... Guevara , Guerrilla Warfare, edited by Brian Loveman and Thomas Davies, (Oxford: SR Books, 1997), 7. 21 Guevara , Guerrilla Warfare, 256. 22 Guevara

  17. Plastic antibody for the recognition of chemical warfare agent sulphur mustard. (United States)

    Boopathi, M; Suryanarayana, M V S; Nigam, Anil Kumar; Pandey, Pratibha; Ganesan, K; Singh, Beer; Sekhar, K


    Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) known as plastic antibodies (PAs) represent a new class of materials possessing high selectivity and affinity for the target molecule. Since their discovery, PAs have attracted considerable interest from bio- and chemical laboratories to pharmaceutical institutes. PAs are becoming an important class of synthetic materials mimicking molecular recognition by natural receptors. In addition, they have been utilized as catalysts, sorbents for solid-phase extraction, stationary phase for liquid chromatography and mimics of enzymes. In this paper, first time we report the preparation and characterization of a PA for the recognition of blistering chemical warfare agent sulphur mustard (SM). The SM imprinted PA exhibited more surface area when compared to the control non-imprinted polymer (NIP). In addition, SEM image showed an ordered nano-pattern for the PA of SM that is entirely different from the image of NIP. The imprinting also enhanced SM rebinding ability to the PA when compared to the NIP with an imprinting efficiency (alpha) of 1.3.

  18. Global physics: from percolation to terrorism, guerilla warfare and clandestine activities (United States)

    Galam, Serge


    The September 11 attack on the US has revealed an unprecedented terrorism with worldwide range of destruction. It is argued to result from the first worldwide percolation of passive supporters. They are people sympathetic to the terrorism cause but without being involved with it. They just do not oppose it in case they could. This scheme puts suppression of the percolation as the major strategic issue in the fight against terrorism. Acting on the population is shown to be useless. Instead a new strategic scheme is suggested to increase the terrorism percolation threshold and in turn suppress the percolation. The relevant associated space is identified as a multi-dimensional social space including both the ground earth surface and all various independent flags displayed by the terrorist group. Some hints are given on how to shrink the geographical spreading of terrorism threat. The model apply to a large spectrum of clandestine activities including guerilla warfare as well as tax evasion, corruption, illegal gambling, illegal prostitution and black markets.

  19. Wearable Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Fabrics Produced by Knitting Flexible Wire Electrodes for the Decontamination of Chemical Warfare Agents (United States)

    Jung, Heesoo; Seo, Jin Ah; Choi, Seungki


    One of the key reasons for the limited use of atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) is its inability to treat non-flat, three-dimensional (3D) surface structures, such as electronic devices and the human body, because of the rigid electrode structure required. In this study, a new APP system design—wearable APP (WAPP)—that utilizes a knitting technique to assemble flexible co-axial wire electrodes into a large-area plasma fabric is presented. The WAPP device operates in ambient air with a fully enclosed power electrode and grounded outer electrode. The plasma fabric is flexible and lightweight, and it can be scaled up for larger areas, making it attractive for wearable APP applications. Here, we report the various plasma properties of the WAPP device and successful test results showing the decontamination of toxic chemical warfare agents, namely, mustard (HD), soman (GD), and nerve (VX) agents.

  20. Guerilla Warfare & Law Enforcement: Combating the 21st Century Terrorist Cell within the U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Major Richard Hughbank


    Full Text Available Both domestic and international terrorist organizations employ guerrilla warfare tactics, techniques, and procedures. Thus, the ability to identify and defeat the members of these organizations, cripple their infrastructures, and disrupt their financial resources lies in the understanding of modern guerrilla warfare as it develops in the twenty-first century within the United States.3 The forms of asymmetric warfare4 adopted by domestic and international terrorist groups alike is no longer intended to gain simple media exposure or governmental manipulation; they want to make an overpowering impact by causing massive loss of life and severe damage to infrastructure and are often motivated by religious imperatives and political goals. As terrorism analyst Stephen Flynn has observed, "Throughout the 20th century [Americans] were able to treat national security as essentially an out-of-body experience. When confronted by threats, [America] dealt with them on the turf of our allies or our adversaries. Aside from the occasional disaster and heinous crime, civilian life [in the United States] has been virtually terror-free." With the turn of the twenty-first century, terrorist operations have become more prevalent in the United States and are taking shape in the form of modern guerrilla warfare, thus creating new challenges for federal, state, and local law enforcement agencies. After reviewing the origin and nature of these challenges, this article will offer some suggestions for countering guerilla warfare in the United States.

  1. Treatability study report for remediation of chemical warfare agent contaminated soils using peroxysulfate ex-situ treatment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugh, J.R.; Grinstead, J.H.; Farley, J.A.; Enlow, P.D.; Kelly, D.A.


    This laboratory scale study examines the feasibility of using peroxysulfate based oxidants to remediate soils contaminated with GB, Hi, and VX. The project was conducted with chemical warfare agent simulants. The study concludes that peroxysulfates, and particularly peroxydisulfate, can degrade chemical warfare agent simulants in soil and recommends continuing research.

  2. Research on performance of ethernet interface in network centric warfare

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁永生; 张乃通


    The concept of network centric warfare (NCW) and its character, high requirement of real-time synchronization are introduced. The distributed equal-node network architecture in NCW is presented. Based on theoretical analysis on ethernet interface performance, this paper presents that forwarding latency between ethernet interface devices is a key influence factor of real-time synchronization in NCW. Ethernet fundamental is briefly introduced. The model between a switch under test (SUT) and a smartbits card is presented and used for two interconnecting switches in NCW. On condition that ignoring the latency of connecting fiber or twisted pairs and processing latency of the smartbits test system, this paper presents that clock frequency tolerance (CFT) between a SUT and a smartbits card is a leading influence factor of forwarding latency of an ethernet switch. The formulae to calculate internal forwarding latency and forwarding latency caused by its CFT are deduced. Theoretical calculation on forwarding latency of an ethernet switch based on the given CFT and test time is implemented. Experimental study on primary forwarding latency and secondary forwarding latency is implemented and forwarding latency between the SUT and the smartbits card is measured, thus testifying the accuracy of the above theoretical analysis that the CFT is a key influence factor of forwarding latency. The measures to satisfy the needs of forwarding latency in NCW are presented.

  3. Drone Warfare: Twenty-First Century Empire and Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Howley


    Full Text Available This paper, part of a larger project that examines drones from a social-construction of technology perspective, considers drone warfare in light of Harold Innis’s seminal work on empire and communication. Leveraging leading-edge aeronautics with advanced optics, data processing, and networked communication, drones represent an archetypal “space-biased” technology. Indeed, by allowing remote operators and others to monitor, select, and strike targets from half a world away, and in real-time, these weapon systems epitomize the “pernicious neglect of time” Innis sought to identify and remedy in his later writing. With Innis’s time-space dialectic as a starting point, then, the paper considers drones in light of a longstanding paradox of American culture: the impulse to collapse the geographical distance between the United States and other parts of the globe, while simultaneously magnifying the cultural difference between Americans and other peoples and societies. In the midst of the worldwide proliferation of drones, this quintessentially sublime technology embodies this (disconnect in important, profound, and ominous ways.

  4. Back to the future: aerial warfare in Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Nunes Vicente


    Full Text Available A century after the first air bomb mission, a new intervention in the same geographic space has made evident the changes in Airpower. The Aerial Warfare in Libya has radically changed the civil war, complying with a UN mission to protect Libyan population, imposing a no-fly zone and an arms embargo. Therefore, Operation Unified Protector became one of the most successful campaigns in the history of NATO. We aim to assess the operational efficiency of Airpower in the conflict in Libya, focusing on the challenges of a War essentially Aerial. Despite the military results and the fact that some political objectives were met, we can identify some concerning trends that, if not shifted, may negatively influence future NATO operations. We do not aim to draw general and universal conclusions on the strategic value of Airpower based on the analysis of a specific case. Above all, we focus on identifying some lessons which have influenced OUP operational efficiency. Thus, we must analyze some factors, such as the scope of objectives, the type of opposing action and aerial strategy used by the coalition and then focus on the challenges arising from the OUP.

  5. Prevalence of Asthma in Children of Chemical Warfare Victims (United States)

    Mirsadraee, Majid; Mozaffari, Abolfazl; Attaran, Davood


    Objective Exposure of DNA to sulfur mustard gas may increase the inheritance of asthma in chemical warfare victims' (CWV) offspring. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of asthma in children of CWV and compare it to asthmatic children in the general population. Methods Four hundred and nine children from 130 CWV fathers and 440 children from 145 asthmatic parents from two cities in Iran participated in this study. The prevalence of asthma was determined by standard questionnaire released for epidemiological survey of asthma in children and compared between two groups. Findings The prevalence of asthma in the CWV group was 15%; this was not significantly different from the control group (12.5%). The children of the CWV group reported a significantly greater incidence of wheezing (1.2±3.1 attacks) per year, but the control group reported more severe attacks leading to speech difficulties (3%) and coughing (7%). Regression analysis showed that with increasing family size in the control group, the number of subjects suffering from asthmatic symptoms decreases significantly (r=0.86, P=0.001). Conclusion Chemical agents may increase the prevalence of asthma in the offspring of CWV. PMID:23056804

  6. Human scalp permeability to the chemical warfare agent VX. (United States)

    Rolland, P; Bolzinger, M-A; Cruz, C; Briançon, S; Josse, D


    The use of chemical warfare agents such as VX in terrorism act might lead to contamination of the civilian population. Human scalp decontamination may require appropriate products and procedures. Due to ethical reasons, skin decontamination studies usually involve in vitro skin models, but human scalp skin samples are uncommon and expensive. The purpose of this study was to characterize the in vitro permeability to VX of human scalp, and to compare it with (a) human abdominal skin, and (b) pig skin from two different anatomic sites: ear and skull roof, in order to design a relevant model. Based on the VX skin permeation kinetics and distribution, we demonstrated that (a) human scalp was significantly more permeable to VX than abdominal skin and (b) pig-ear skin was the most relevant model to predict the in vitro human scalp permeability. Our results indicated that the follicular pathway significantly contributed to the skin absorption of VX through human scalp. In addition, the hair follicles and the stratum corneum significantly contributed to the formation of a skin reservoir for VX.

  7. SiGe-based re-engineering of electronic warfare subsystems

    CERN Document Server

    Lambrechts, Wynand


    This book equips readers with a thorough understanding of the applicability of new-generation silicon-germanium (SiGe) electronic subsystems for the military purposes of electronic warfare and defensive countermeasures. The theoretical and technical background is extensively explained and all aspects of the integration of SiGe as an enabling technology for maritime, land, and airborne (including space) electronic warfare are addressed, including research, design, development, and implementation. The coverage is supported by mathematical derivations, informative illustrations, practical examples, and case studies. While SiGe technology provides speed, performance, and price advantages in many markets, sharing of information on its use in electronic warfare systems has to date been limited, especially in developing nations. This book will therefore be warmly welcomed as an engineering guideline that focuses especially on the speed and reliability of current-generation SiGe circuits and highlights emerging innov...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin DUCARU


    Full Text Available The technological development and the instant communication possibilities advanced not only economic and social developments, but also evolving threats from those who exploit the vulnerabilities of communication and information systems. The cyber threat landscape points to a significant increase of the frequency, intensity, duration and sophistication of cyber-attacks. One of the new and concerning trends is the use of cyber capabilities in relation with military of hybrid operations – the so-called cyber dimension of hybrid warfare. NATO’s strategy on countering hybrid warfare is based on the triad: prepare-deter-defend, which also applies to cyber. Nations represent the first line of defence in countering hybrid strategies. International cooperation is also a key factor in this sense. It is in this context that NATO’s response to cyber-attacks in the context of hybrid warfare must be further refined.

  9. Fear as a medium of communication in asymmetric forms of warfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm


    Fear is defined as the distinction between risk and danger, a distinction that operates in communicative forms. War is always also warfare about the form of war. The article describes how fear in warfare becomes a symbolically generalized medium of communication, mainly focusing on how the form...... of fear evolves in asymmetric warfare. Asymmetric war induces fear in both parties, but in a communicative form that leads to very different experiences of fear. Fear is observed and analysed with Niklas Luhmann’s theory of self-referential systems of communication and well as his theory of risk....... Following Luhmann and in continuation of Clausewitz’ conceptual tools, yet with other means, the article proposes to observe war as a system that can de-ontologize itself and thereby concern moving centres of gravity such as communication lines, motivation, public fear as well as perceptions of risk...

  10. The United States and biological warfare: secrets from the early cold war and Korea. (United States)

    Bruwer, A


    The United States and Biological Warfare is about accusations that the United States resorted to bacteriological warfare at a time of great military stress during the Korean War. In December 1951, the then US Secretary of Defense ordered early readiness for offensive use of biological weapons. Soon afterwards, the North Korean and Chinese armies accused the United States of starting a large-scale biological warfare experiment in Korea. The US State Department denied the accusation. Both parties to the dispute maintain their positions today. The authors spent 20 years researching the accusations in North America, Europe and Japan. They were the first foreigners to be given access to Chinese classified documents. The reader is also introduced to the concept of 'plausible denial', an official US policy which allowed responsible governmental representatives to deny knowledge of certain events. The authors hope that their work will contribute to the understanding of a time when modern war expanded into a new type of violence.

  11. Skeletal evidence for Inca warfare from the Cuzco region of Peru. (United States)

    Andrushko, Valerie A; Torres, Elva C


    This article addresses the bioarchaeological evidence for Inca warfare through an analysis of 454 adult skeletons from 11 sites in the Inca capital region of Cuzco, Peru. These 11 sites span almost 1000 years (AD 600-1532), which allows for a comparison of the evidence for warfare before the Inca came to power (Middle Horizon AD 600-1000), during the time of Inca ascendency in the Late Intermediate Period (AD 1000-1400), and after the Inca came to power and expanded throughout the Cuzco region and beyond (Inca Imperial Period, AD 1400-1532). The results indicate that 100 of 454 adults (22.0%) showed evidence of cranial trauma. Of these, 23 individuals had major cranial injuries suggestive of warfare, consisting of large, complete, and/or perimortem fractures. There was scant evidence for major injuries during the Middle Horizon (2.8%, 1/36) and Late Intermediate Period (2.5%, 5/199), suggesting that warfare was not prevalent in the Cuzco region before and during the Inca rise to power. Only in the Inca Imperial Period was there a significant rise in major injuries suggestive of warfare (7.8%, 17/219). Despite the significant increase in Inca times, the evidence for major cranial injuries was only sporadically distributed at Cuzco periphery sites and was entirely absent at Cuzco core sites. These findings suggest that while the Inca used warfare as a mechanism for expansion in the Cuzco region, it was only one part of a complex expansion strategy that included economic, political, and ideological means to gain and maintain control. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Blaptica dubia as sentinels for exposure to chemical warfare agents - a pilot study. (United States)

    Worek, Franz; Seeger, Thomas; Neumaier, Katharina; Wille, Timo; Thiermann, Horst


    The increased interest of terrorist groups in toxic chemicals and chemical warfare agents presents a continuing threat to our societies. Early warning and detection is a key component for effective countermeasures against such deadly agents. Presently available and near term solutions have a number of major drawbacks, e.g. lack of automated, remote warning and detection of primarily low volatile chemical warfare agents. An alternative approach is the use of animals as sentinels for exposure to toxic chemicals. To overcome disadvantages of vertebrates the present pilot study was initiated to investigate the suitability of South American cockroaches (Blaptica dubia) as warning system for exposure to chemical warfare nerve and blister agents. Initial in vitro experiments with nerve agents showed an increasing inhibitory potency in the order tabun - cyclosarin - sarin - soman - VX of cockroach cholinesterase. Exposure of cockroaches to chemical warfare agents resulted in clearly visible and reproducible reactions, the onset being dependent on the agent and dose. With nerve agents the onset was related to the volatility of the agents. The blister agent lewisite induced signs largely comparable to those of nerve agents while sulfur mustard exposed animals exhibited a different sequence of events. In conclusion, this first pilot study indicates that Blaptica dubia could serve as a warning system to exposure of chemical warfare agents. A cockroach-based system will not detect or identify a particular chemical warfare agent but could trigger further actions, e.g. specific detection and increased protective status. By designing appropriate boxes with (IR) motion sensors and remote control (IR) camera automated off-site warning systems could be realized.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. R. Twomey; A. J. Caffrey; D. L. Chichester


    Prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) is now a proven method for the identification of chemical warfare agents and explosives in military projectiles and storage containers. Idaho National Laboratory is developing a next-generation PGNAA instrument based on the new Ortec Detective mechanically-cooled HPGe detector and a neutron generator. In this paper we review PGNAA analysis of suspect chemical warfare munitions, and we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of replacing the californium-252 radioisotopic neutron source with a compact accelerator neutron generator.

  14. Particle Swarm Social Adaptive Model for Multi-Agent Based Insurgency Warfare Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Xiaohui [ORNL; Potok, Thomas E [ORNL


    To better understand insurgent activities and asymmetric warfare, a social adaptive model for modeling multiple insurgent groups attacking multiple military and civilian targets is proposed and investigated. This report presents a pilot study using the particle swarm modeling, a widely used non-linear optimal tool to model the emergence of insurgency campaign. The objective of this research is to apply the particle swarm metaphor as a model of insurgent social adaptation for the dynamically changing environment and to provide insight and understanding of insurgency warfare. Our results show that unified leadership, strategic planning, and effective communication between insurgent groups are not the necessary requirements for insurgents to efficiently attain their objective.

  15. Historical Overview of Directed-Energy Work at Dahlgren (United States)


    new types of rotating machines were stud- ied, including flywheels, conventional alternators, homopolar generators, rotary flux compressors, and...and mechanical stresses. MHD genera- tors were developed using rocket- motor propellant that could be started and stopped. In the mid- 1980s, a full

  16. Chemical Warfare Materiel in Sediment at a Deep-Water Discarded Military Munitions Site (United States)

    Briggs, C. W.; Bissonnette, M. C.; Edwards, M.; Shjegstad, S. M.


    Understanding the release and transformation of chemical agent (CA) at underwater discarded military munitions (DMM) sites is essential to determine the potential risk to human health and impact on the ocean environment; yet few studies have been conducted at sites in excess of 250 m, the depth at which most U.S. CA munitions were disposed. Maritime construction workers installing cables or pipelines at a CA DMM site, as well as fishermen and scientific researchers deploying bottom-contact gear, represent possible exposure pathways to human receptors. The Hawai`i Undersea Military Munitions Assessment (HUMMA) sought to characterize a historic munitions sea-disposal site at depths between 400-650 m. During the 2014 HUMMA Sampling Survey, the Jason 2 remotely operated vehicle was used to collect sediments within two meters of suspected World War II chemical munitions, confirmed to be 100-lb M47 series bombs containing sulfur mustard. When environmental media was brought to the surface, samples were screened for distilled sulfur mustard (HD) and related agent breakdown products (ABP) (collectively referred to as chemical warfare materiel [CWM]). Detectable concentrations of HD and/or its ABP 1,4-dithiane were found in sediments collected at all CA DMM sites; HD was also detected at two control sites. The location and extent of munitions casing deterioration strongly influenced the distribution and level of CWM in sediment. The interior of the casing contained levels of CWM orders of magnitudes higher than that observed in the surrounding sediment at one meter distance, indicating the majority of the CWM is hydrolyzed as it is released from the munitions casing and a fraction of the fill materiel persists in the environment for decades following disposal. Although the potential for future site users to become exposed to CWA in recovered sediments and debris exists, the level of risk is significantly mitigated by the depth and location of the sea-disposal site.

  17. Multiple functional UV devices based on III-Nitride quantum wells for biological warfare agent detection (United States)

    Wang, Qin; Savage, Susan; Persson, Sirpa; Noharet, Bertrand; Junique, Stéphane; Andersson, Jan Y.; Liuolia, Vytautas; Marcinkevicius, Saulius


    We have demonstrated surface normal detecting/filtering/emitting multiple functional ultraviolet (UV) optoelectronic devices based on InGaN/GaN, InGaN/AlGaN and AlxGa1-xN/AlyGa1-yN multiple quantum well (MQW) structures with operation wavelengths ranging from 270 nm to 450 nm. Utilizing MQW structure as device active layer offers a flexibility to tune its long cut-off wavelength in a wide UV range from solar-blind to visible by adjusting the well width, well composition and barrier height. Similarly, its short cut-off wavelength can be adjusted by using a GaN or AlGaN block layer on a sapphire substrate when the device is illuminated from its backside, which further provides an optical filtering effect. When a current injects into the device under forward bias the device acts as an UV light emitter, whereas the device performs as a typical photodetector under reverse biases. With applying an alternating external bias the device might be used as electroabsorption modulator due to quantum confined Stark effect. In present work fabricated devices have been characterized by transmission/absorption spectra, photoresponsivity, electroluminescence, and photoluminescence measurements under various forward and reverse biases. The piezoelectric effect, alloy broadening and Stokes shift between the emission and absorption spectra in different InGaN- and AlGaN-based QW structures have been investigated and compared. Possibilities of monolithic or hybrid integration using such multiple functional devices for biological warfare agents sensing application have also be discussed.

  18. A statistical analysis of the effect of warfare on the human secondary sex ratio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graffelman, J.; Hoekstra, R.F.


    Many factors have been hypothesized to affect the human secondary sex ratio (the annual percentage of males among all live births), among them race, parental ages, and birth order. Some authors have even proposed warfare as a factor influencing live birth sex ratios. The hypothesis that during and s

  19. Sandals and Robes to Business Suits and Gulf Streams: Warfare in the 21st Century (United States)


    cartels, or simply shooting an American for the price of a loaf of bread to feed their families, we need to better understand what we’re facing. From...our goals, but as warfare becomes more untenable in the age of social media, as the unacceptable killing of civilians on any battlefield could lose

  20. (Review of) Reno, William. 2011. Warfare in Independent Africa. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagmann, Tobias


    Warfare in Independent Africa is Reno’s bold attempt to analyze the modern history of African insurgencies. The book tackles this task through the prism of five generations of rebel, which left their mark on the continent; anti-colonial rebels, majority rule rebels, reform rebels, warlord rebels ...

  1. Ion mobility spectrometry and its applications in detection of chemical warfare agents. (United States)

    Mäkinen, Marko A; Anttalainen, Osmo A; Sillanpää, Mika E T


    When fast detection of chemical warfare agents in the field is required, the ion mobility spectrometer may be the only suitable option. This article provides an essential survey of the different ion mobility spectrometry detection technologies. (To listen to a podcast about this feature, please go to the Analytical Chemistry multimedia page at

  2. Analysis of Urinary Metabolites of Nerve and Blister Chemical Warfare Agents (United States)


    Warfare Agents GA Tabun , ethyl dimethylphosphoramidate GB Sarin, isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate GD Soman, pinacolyl methylphosphonofluoridate...and their metabolites Agent Metabolite GA, Tabun O P O N CN Ethyl Dimethylphosphoroamidate, EDMAP, GA Acid HO P O N CN GB, Sarin P O


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nane Zeynalyan


    Full Text Available In the recent decades, war fields have moved into the information sphere. Today’s person has reason to “be informed”; as having information provides a sense of security. In the modern world, great effort is invested in expanding information sources, because it serves to articulate both international policies and the context of wars. The exchange of information in domestic and international platforms influences the quality of public debate and ideology, which affects social attitudes and decision-making processes. This article presents the role of information-psychological warfare as a factor in forming public opinion. It discusses the peculiarities of organizing an information-psychological warfare during military conflicts. The goal of our research is to explore how social groups might perceive peculiarities in the information-psychological warfare. The research involves methods of survey, content analysis, and free associations. The effectiveness of psychological warfare significantly depends on how people perceive information. Consequently, in the contemporary world, it is necessary to not only protect or fight on the battlefield, but also to use information weapons. This imposes requirements on psychological scientists to explore peculiarities around the perception of information to help find mechanisms that safeguard people’s lives by way of contributing to the formation of necessary attitudes and stereotypes.

  4. Detachment 101 in the CBI: An Unconventional Warfare Paradigm for Contemporary Special Operations (United States)


    American Espionage. NY: Reynal and Hitchcock , 1946. Barrett, Neil H. Chingpaw. NY: Vantage, 1962. Bartholomew-Feis, Dixee R. The O.S.S. and Ho Chi...United States Army. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1990. Paddock, Alfred H. U.S. Army Special Warfare; Its Origins. Lawrence, KS

  5. Development of Novel Alternative Technologies for Decontamination of Warfare Agents: Electric Heating with Intrinsically Conductive Polymers (United States)


    in converting electric energy to thermal energy for the decon applications. Other conductive materials, such as polythiophenes , polypyrroles, carbon...Development of Novel Alternative Technologies for Decontamination of Warfare Agents: Electric Heating with Intrinsically Conductive Polymers...Joule)-heating with conducting polymers. The basic concept is that electrically conducting polymers, such as polyaniline, can be used as coatings or

  6. Key Planning Factors for Recovery from a Chemical Warfare Agent Incident (United States)


    chemical scenario involving the release of a blister agent (mustard lewisite) would result in a waste that the State of Colorado would regulate as... Waste Management ................................................................. 24 4.3 Key Planning Factors: Recovery Planning...Planning Factors, this document presents a chemical warfare agent scenario featuring Agent Yellow, a blister agent. Agent Yellow is a mixture of

  7. Application of non-quantitative modelling in the analysis of a network warfare environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Veerasamy, N


    Full Text Available of the various interacting components, a model to better understand the complexity in a network warfare environment would be beneficial. Non-quantitative modelling is a useful method to better characterize the field due to the rich ideas that can be generated...

  8. Disruption of a binary organogel by the chemical warfare agent soman (GD) and common organophosphorus simulants


    Hiscock, Jennifer R.; Sambrook, Mark R; Ede, Jayne A.; Wells, Neil J.; Philip A. Gale


    The chemical warfare agent (CWA) soman (GD) acts as a molecular stimulus for the disruption of an anthracene-based binary organogel prepared in cyclohexane. The CWA simulants dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) and diethyl chlorophosphate (DCP) were also found to disrupt the binary organogel through changes in solvent polarity and reactions with the gelator.\\ud \\ud

  9. On modeling of the evaporation of chemical warfare agents on the ground

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westin, S.N.; Winter, S.; Karlsson, E.; Hin, A.; Oeseburg, F.


    A model for evaporation of chemical warfare agents on the ground has been developed. The process of evaporation is described in three steps: (1) the immediate drop enlargement due to impact momentum is modeled using an empirical correlation from technical literature; (2) further enlargement caused b

  10. From Douhet to drones, air warfare, and the evolution of targeting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osinga, F.P.B.; Roorda, M.P.; Ducheine, P.A.L.; Schmitt, M.N.; Osinga, F.P.B.


    Through the prism of the experience of air warfare, this chapter identifies key factors that have shaped targeting. These include technological developments, organizational structures, and processes and inter-service competition for scarce resources. Moreover, targeting is informed by perspectives o

  11. Evaluating Effectiveness of a Frigate in an Anti-Air Warfare (AAW) Environment (United States)


    air warfare (AAW), weapon selection, unmanned aerial vehicle, simulation, design of experiments, combat systems 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 81 16. PRICE ...Explanation of a Cookie-Cutter Sensor. ........................ 19 Figure 12. Stop Conditions Menu in MANA...companies sell these deadly missiles at affordable prices to allow many countries to easily employ them onboard their warships. Missiles also offer

  12. Military medicine and the ethics of war: British colonial warfare during the Seven Years War (1756-63). (United States)

    Charters, Erica


    This article examines 18th-century European warfare, tracing the first formal codifications of conventions of war, frequently introduced by military physicians and initially regarding the treatment of the sick and wounded. It outlines to what extent these conventions were followed in practice, particularly in the challenging environment of American irregular warfare, with a focus on the most well-known incident of "biological warfare" in the period: the deliberate spread of smallpox by British officers among Amerindians in 1763. More broadly, it demonstrates that the history of military medicine provides a fruitful method with which to uncover assumptions about the ethics of war.

  13. Irregular Warfare and Future War: Strategy and Defense Planning; Strategic Insights, v. 10, Special issue (October 2011), 92-98. Topic: Global Trends and Future Warfare ; Part II: Technological and Doctrinal Innovation


    Russell, James A.


    This article appeared in Strategic Insights, v.10, Special issue (October 2011), 92-98. Topic: Global Trends and Future Warfare ; Part II: Technological and Doctrinal Innovation Approved for public display, distribution unlimited The purpose of this paper is threefold: to speculate on the role and prominence of irregular warfare in the strategic environment over the next quarter century, to comment on the impact that phenomenon may have on shaping the postulated scenarios addressed in t...

  14. Chromatography and mass spectrometry of chemical warfare agents, toxins and related compounds: state of the art and future prospects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kientz, C.E.


    Methods for the identification of chemical warfare agents, toxins, bioregulators and related products are frequently reported in literature. These methods are often based on instrumental analysis using chromatography (gas and liquid) and mass spectrometry. Here, these instrumental techniques are dis

  15. Autonomous-agent based simulation of anti-submarine warfare operations with the goal of protecting a high value unit


    Akbori, Fahrettin


    Approved for public release, distribution unlimited The Anti-Submarine Warfare screen design simulation is a program that provides a model for operations in anti-submarine warfare (ASW). The purpose of the program is to aid ASW commanders, allowing them to configure an ASW screen, including the sonar policy, convoy speed, and the number of ships, to gain insight into how these and other factors beyond their control, such as water conditions, impact ASW effectiveness. It is also designed to...

  16. The Short-Term Effect of Chest Physiotherapy on Spirometric Indices in Chemical Warfare Victims Exposed to Mustard Gas


    Abedi, A.; HR Koohestani; Z Roosta


    ABCTRACT Introduction & Objective: Chronic respiratory diseases are the most prevalent late sequels of sulfur mustard gas injury among Iranian chemical warfare victims. Chest physiotherapy is one of the useful methods in care, cure and infection prevention of these patients. The aim of this study was to determine the short-term effect of chest physiotherapy on spirometric indices in chemical warfare victims exposed to sulfur mustard gas. Materials & Methods: In this study, 27 of the chemical ...

  17. The Military-Entertainment Complex: A New Facet of Information Warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Muir


    Full Text Available The second Gulf War will become synonymous with the emergence of fully-fledged information warfare where the military-entertainment complex has so influenced strategic and logistic possibilities that it becomes apparent that the war was waged as entertainment. This is entertainment not as an amusement or diversion but utilising the techniques and tropes of the burgeoning entertainment industry as a means to achieve military objectives. This paper offers a short history of the military-entertainment complex as reality and simulation become fused in the practices of the US military machine. The paper then briefly explores three central aspects of this phenomenon evident in recent developments: the military function of computer games; the role of the Hollywood scenario and the blurring between news and reality TV. Finally the suggestion is made that subverting, co-opting and reconstructing the military-entertainment complex provides new possibilities for alternative strategies of information warfare.

  18. Reactive skin decontamination lotion (RSDL) for the decontamination of chemical warfare agent (CWA) dermal exposure. (United States)

    Schwartz, M D; Hurst, C G; Kirk, M A; Reedy, S J D; Braue, E H


    Rapid decontamination of the skin is the single most important action to prevent dermal absorption of chemical contaminants in persons exposed to chemical warfare agents (CWA) and toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) as a result of accidental or intentional release. Chemicals on the skin may be removed by mechanical means through the use of dry sorbents or water. Recent interest in decontamination systems which both partition contaminants away from the skin and actively neutralize the chemical has led to the development of several reactive decontamination solutions. This article will review the recently FDA-approved Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion (RSDL) and will summarize the toxicity and efficacy studies conducted to date. Evidence of RSDL's superior performance against vesicant and organophosphorus chemical warfare agents compared to water, bleach, and dry sorbents, suggests that RSDL may have a role in mass human exposure chemical decontamination in both the military and civilian arenas.

  19. New studies disputing allegations of bacteriological warfare during the Korean War. (United States)

    Rolicka, M


    In the television series Korea the Unknown War produced jointly by Thames Television (London) and WGBH (Boston) in 1990, General Matthew Ridgway, Commander in Chief of United Nations forces during the Korean War, called the accusations that the United States waged bacteriological warfare "black propaganda." The charges discredited the United States and, despite denials and many international discussions, have not been completely refuted until new. Following studies in archives previously not available for research and after uncovering new sources, many specific examples of black propaganda were discovered that contained false information and lies discrediting the United States. The mechanism of lies, which convinced the Korean population that bacteriological warfare was going on and that the only way not to become victims of the United States' inhuman cruelty was to fight, are shown in this paper.

  20. Cyberspace as a Complex Adaptive System and the Policy and Operational Implications for Cyber Warfare (United States)


    accessed 13 February 2014). 66Teresa Degenhard “Between War and Crime: The Overlap between War and Crime: Unpacking Foucault and Agamben’s Studies...Article-2-Revision- for- Foucault -and-Agamben-Degenhardt-July-2013.pdf (accessed 5 April 2014). 26... Foucault and Agamben’s Studies within the Context of the War on Terror.”, 34. 68US Department of Defense, Electronic Warfare, Joint Publication 3-13, I-2

  1. Integrated electronic warfare framework for infrared self-protection of transport aircraft

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Annamalai, L


    Full Text Available Warfare Framework for Infrared Self-protection of Transport Aircraft L. Annamalai Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) Abstract - In the African scenario, slow-moving airborne platforms such as transport aircraft have in recent... predetermined baseline were considered the best method of optimising aircraft operating procedures against threats. L. Annamalai, Defence Peace, Safety and Security (DPSS), Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), PO Box 395, 0001...

  2. Aerospace Power in Urban Warfare: Beware the Hornet’s Nest (United States)


    Board Task Force on Military Operations in Built-Up Areas ( MOBA )," (Washington, DC: Office of the Undersecretary of Defense for Acquisition and...Smithsonian Institute Press, 1999), 130. 45 Vick, et al., 120. 46 Rebecca A. Grant, "The Radar Game ," Air Force Magazine, February 1999, 52-60. Grant...University Press, 1962. Grant, Rebecca A. "The Radar Game ." Air Force Magazine, February 1999, 52-60. Hawkins, William R. Putting Urban Warfare in

  3. Diagnosing Guerilla Warfare: Was William Clarke Quantrill Missouri’s Francis Marion? (United States)


    frightful epoch when priests, women, and children throughout Spain plotted the murder of isolated soldiers." -Antoine-Henri J omini Jomini2...there are setbacks at any stage there sequences can be reversed to a previous phase.29 FRANCIS MARION AND GUERILLA WARFARE One of the most famous...Militia under General 28 D.M. Frost to stage his forces near the St. Louis Arsenal, as a "training camp," at what became known as Camp Jackson. 148

  4. Management of DoD Irregular Warfare (IW) and Security Force Assistance (SFA) Capabilities (United States)


    manage DoD personnel with skills , training, education, and experience related to IW and SFA. DoDI 3000.11, May 3, 2016 TABLE OF CONTENTS 2...DOD INSTRUCTION 3000.11 MANAGEMENT OF DOD IRREGULAR WARFARE (IW) AND SECURITY FORCE ASSISTANCE (SFA) CAPABILITIES Originating Component...well as building the security capacity and capability of U.S. partners and allies. c. IW and SFA skills , training, education, and experience must be

  5. A Survey of Game Theoretic Approaches to Modelling Decision-Making in Information Warfare Scenarios


    Kathryn Merrick; Medria Hardhienata; Kamran Shafi; Jiankun Hu


    Our increasing dependence on information technologies and autonomous systems has escalated international concern for information- and cyber-security in the face of politically, socially and religiously motivated cyber-attacks. Information warfare tactics that interfere with the flow of information can challenge the survival of individuals and groups. It is increasingly important that both humans and machines can make decisions that ensure the trustworthiness of information, communication and ...

  6. Investigating Iraq’s Chemical Warfare Program: Updated and Expanded Research Plan (United States)


    chemical warfare, chemical weapons, Conflict Records Research Center, Tabun , Sarin, UN Sepcial Commission, UN UN Monitoring, Verification and Inspection...7 for tabun and sarin; and Ahmed 2 & 3 for production of precursors for tabun and sarin. The general contractor is Al Fao General Establishment that... tabun , and sarin. “mid- 1970s” Al Hazen Institute has by this time set up contacts with “30 major foreign organizations and companies” for securing

  7. Coalition Warfare Program Tactile Situation Awareness System for Aviation Applications: Simulator Flight Test (United States)


    USAARL Report No. 2016-07 Coalition Warfare Program Tactile Situation Awareness System for Aviation Applications: Simulator Flight Test By...pilot evaluation of The Tactile Situation Awareness System (TSAS) during simulated flight . The objective was to evaluate the ability of TSAS to improve...summarizes recent findings obtained during a simulated helicopter flight employing TSAS. The objective was to evaluate the ability of TSAS to improve a

  8. Landmine Warfare in Support of Multi-domain Battle: Balancing Discrimination and Military Effectiveness (United States)


    military personnel, obstruct economic development and reconstruction following a conflict, inhibit the repatriation of refugees and internally displaced...Basing themselves on the principle of international law that the right of the parties to an armed conflict to choose methods or means of warfare is...Conflict in the Gulf (London: Atlantic Books, 2006), 120-21. 30 Human Rights Watch, “Back in Business? US Landmine Production and Exports,” briefing

  9. Special Operations, Irregular Warfare, and Operational Art: A Theory of Special Operations (United States)


    D.C.: U.S. Army Center of Military History, 2002), 304–308. 66Walter Laqueur , Guerrilla Warfare: A Historical & Critical Study (New Brunswick, NJ...Strategy in Guerrilla War Against Japan, 15–16. 72Peter L. Berger and Thomas Luckmann, The Social Construction of Reality (New York: Anchor Books...each other, undermining each other’s positions, or making a separate peace. The Some authors, such as Thomas Hammes, have argued that the

  10. Guerrilla Operations in the Civil War: Assessing Compound Warfare During Price’s Raid (United States)


    hand, Three Years with Quantrill by O. S. Barton and Noted Guerrillas, or the Warfare on the Border by John Edwards provide alternate views described in other sources. For example, Barton relates John McCorkle’s account of the story about guerrillas who Price’s army before the Battle of...Jay Monaghan provided excellent accounts of the major operations in the Trans-Mississippi Department during the Civil War. Finally, the framework for

  11. China’s Development of Asymmetric Warfare and the Security of Taiwan, Republic of China (United States)


    thanks to my loving and devoted wife, Anita . Her patience, understanding, and remarkable ability to maintain a pleasant, comforting home during this...should arise (Bolt, Brenner , 2004, p.130). Information warfare technology can delay a United States response and commitment in the Taiwan Strait in...destruction of C4 systems by missiles, airpower, and high-energy weapons (Bolt & Brenner , 2004, p.133). Perhaps the most astonishing view of the PRC’s IW

  12. Molecular modeling toward selective inhibitors of dihydrofolate reductase from the biological warfare agent Bacillus anthracis. (United States)

    Giacoppo, Juliana O S; Mancini, Daiana T; Guimarães, Ana P; Gonçalves, Arlan S; da Cunha, Elaine F F; França, Tanos C C; Ramalho, Teodorico C


    In the present work, we applied docking and molecular dynamics techniques to study 11 compounds inside the enzymes dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) from the biological warfare agent Bacillus anthracis (BaDHFR) and Homo sapiens sapiens (HssDHFR). Six of these compounds were selected for a study with the mutant BaF96IDHFR. Our results corroborated with experimental data and allowed the proposition of a new molecule with potential activity and better selectivity for BaDHFR.

  13. Pirates of the Nuclear Age: The Role of U.S. Submarines in Modern Trade Warfare (United States)


    the Department of the Navy. Signature: _____________________ 14 July 2016 ii Contents Page...World War II ,” (U.S. Navy, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, Submarine Warfare Division, 1999). 2 Geoffrey Till, “A Changing Focus for the...escalation to nuclear war or a major conventional war such as the forcible reunification of Taiwan via a cross-strait invasion. If U.S. national strategic

  14. Challenges in Coalition Unconventional Warfare: The Allied Campaign in Yugoslavia, 1941-1945 (United States)


    JFQ 75, 4th Quarter 2014 Duke, Phil lips, and Conover 129 Challenges in Coalition Unconventional Warfare The Allied Campaign in Yugoslavia , 1941...resistance elements in Yugoslavia . The resistance movement effectively fixed in place 35 German and Italian divisions, consisting of roughly 660,000...mountain headquarters in Yugoslavia on May 14, 1944 (Imperial War Museum) Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting

  15. Hungary’s alternative to counter hybrid warfare small state’s weaponized citizenry. (United States)


    Wales and Warsaw emphasized the importance of cyber defense as a crucial capability of the international security environment against hybrid threats ...and “raising public awareness on cyber threats and cyber security .”214 In other words, the Cyber Defence Unit promotes the connection between the...from asymmetric threats , and has to cover all domains–including cyber . Former studies on countering hybrid warfare have identified these

  16. A Need for Systems Architecture Approach for Next Generation Mine Warfare Capability (United States)


    uncontrolled mining ultimately led to the first Hague convention where 10 Henry Petroski (1992). To Engineer is...Littoral and Mine Warfare, without which I would not have been able to participate in this program. Jon, Henry and Capt. “J” juggling between work, home...Palmer, M. (1992). Guardians of the Gulf. [Photograph], Free Press, New York. Petroski , H (1992). To Engineer is Human: The Role of Failure in

  17. Courses of Action for Enhancing USAF ’Irregular Warfare’ Capabilities: A Functional Solutions Analysis (United States)


    Warfare Center to ensure that technological opportunities for novel IW appli- cations were explored, developed, and fielded. (See pp. 38–40...activities; transnational criminal activities, including narco -trafficking, illicit arms dealing, and illegal financial transactions, that support or...opportunities for novel IW applications are explored, devel- oped, and fielded. In fact, over time, it might be appropriate for the USAF to create a

  18. Transport and Reactivity of Decontaminants to Provide Hazard Mitigation of Chemical Warfare Agents from Materials (United States)


    of Additives and Impurities from Polymeric Materials; EPA 560/5-85-015; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticides and Toxic...performance, a penetrating decontaminant may cause damage to the material, such as the swelling of polymers caused by solvents or any active...Chemical Warfare Agent Degradation Products. Environ . Health Perspect. 1999, 107 (12), 933–974. 5. Kim, K.; Tsay, O.G.; Atwood, D.A.; Churchill, D.G

  19. No Compromise: Establishing Balance in the US Army’s Approach to Full-Spectrum Warfare (United States)


    also needlessly prolongs corporate acceptance for a leadership culture that appreciates the ’ fluid character of warfare in the modern era. Beyond the...of Iraq, reveals that a numl?er of tactical leaders exhibited superb situational awareness and thoughtful response to extremely dynamic security...Paul D. Batchelor , Fixing Intel: · . A B lneprint for Making Intelligence Relevant in Afghanistan, Center for a New American Security, Washington

  20. General George Crook’s development as a practitioner of irregular warfare during the Indian wars. (United States)


    continue to prepare, train, and equip for large-scale peer or near-peer conventional warfare, the breadth of the republic’s history teaches that Irregular...considered many of the officers he encountered to be selfish, self- important, and worse yet, out of touch with the realities facing them. They limited...of Cottonwood generally, thereby virtually acknowledging himself whipped by a small party of Indians and leaving our citizens and their property

  1. Mountain Warfare and Other Lofty Problems: Foreign Perspectives on High-Altitude Combat (United States)


    rope. The two primary ropes should be thoroughly tested when crossing along a rope with a climbing harness and pulley or carabiner. Gear should be...consequently, the Russian Army has a long history of mountain troops, production of specialized mountain warfare gear , and mountain training centers...The mountain units of foreign armies have spent years developing a well-worked-out technique for training Jägers. What gear should you to take to the

  2. Working on warfare-related sites. Review after 15 years and perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, U. [Umweltberatung und Planung, Kassel (Germany)


    Fifteen years ago, in 1988, in connection with the Second International TNO/BMFT-Congress for the first time sites contaminated due to armaments production were mentioned, caused by the results of the first systematic investigation of a former explosives production plant in Hessisch Lichtenau. The authors referred to another 72 large chemical armament production plants in the FRG and 39 in the GDR. At the Third International TNO/BMFT-Congress in 1990 the complex of problems were substantiated and at the same time more topics were added. The Federal Government of Germany named the following areas suspected of being warfare-related contaminated sites: former production plants, ammunition depots, defusing sites, demolition areas and firing ranges, disassembly plants and intermediate and final storage plants for conventional and chemical combat agents. Soil, water and air pollution could be caused by the following products: explosives, chemical warfare agents, incendiaries, smoke agents, propellants, additives, primary and waste products and residues from the destruction of combat agents. In 1995 the Federal Environmental Agency (UBA) presented the results of the national survey showing that there are 3240 suspected contaminated sites. In 1995 also began the soil clean-up at the warfare-related contaminated sites Stadtallendorf and Hessisch Lichtenau. 8 respectively 10 years after the beginning of the systematic investigations the first contaminated soil was removed and treated in a thermal plant. In the run-up several R and D projects funded by the Federal Government were carried out (Stadtallendorf: MOSAL = Model Remediation of Contaminated Sites, Hessisch Lichtenau: Joint project Biological Remediation of Warfare-Related Contamination). At these sites basics were worked out and technologies were put to the test which can be used for the remediation of other sites. (orig.)

  3. Chemical Warfare in World War 1: The American Experience, 1917-1918 (Leavenworth Papers, Number 10) (United States)


    before they reached the front. While moving forward one night toward Chauteau Thierry , the men stopped to rest in shallow shell holes near the road. A...20-23; Curt Wachtel, Chemical Warfare (Brooklyn, NY: Chemical Publishing Co., 1941), 66. 8. Hogg, Gas, 23. 9. Augustin Mitchell Prentiss...Magazine, 10 March 1980:28. Powell, E. Alexander. The Army Behind the Army. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1919. Prentiss, Augustin Mitchell

  4. Operational advantages of using Cyber Electronic Warfare (CEW) in the battlefield (United States)

    Yasar, Nurgul; Yasar, Fatih M.; Topcu, Yucel


    While cyberspace is emerging as a new battlefield, conventional Electronic Warfare (EW) methods and applications are likely to change. Cyber Electronic Warfare (CEW) concept which merges cyberspace capabilities with traditional EW methods, is a new and enhanced form of the electronic attack. In this study, cyberspace domain of the battlefield is emphazised and the feasibility of integrating Cyber Warfare (CW) concept into EW measures is researched. The SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) analysis method is used to state the operational advantages of using CEW concept in the battlefield. The operational advantages of CEW are assessed by means of its effects on adversary air defense systems, communication networks and information systems. Outstanding technological and operational difficulties are pointed out as well. As a result, a comparison of CEW concept and conventional EW applications is presented. It is concluded that, utilization of CEW concept is feasible at the battlefield and it may yield important operational advantages. Even though the computers of developed military systems are less complex than normal computers, they are not subjected to cyber threats since they are closed systems. This concept intends to show that these closed systems are also open to the cyber threats. As a result of the SWOT analysis, CEW concept provides Air Forces to be used in cyber operations effectively. On the other hand, since its Collateral Damage Criteria (CDC) is low, the usage of cyber electronic attack systems seems to grow up.

  5. [Glanders--a potential disease for biological warfare in humans and animals]. (United States)

    Lehavi, Ofer; Aizenstien, Orna; Katz, Lior H; Hourvitz, Ariel


    Infection with Burkholderia mallei (formerly Pseudomonas mallei) can cause a subcutaneous infection known as "farcy" or can disseminate to condition known as Glanders. It is primarily a disease affecting horses, donkeys and mules. In humans, Glanders can produce four types of disease: localized form, pulmonary form, septicemia, and chronic form. Necrosis of the tracheobronchial tree and pustular skin lesions characterize acute infection with B. mallei. Other symptoms include febrile pneumonia, if the organism was inhaled, or signs of sepsis and multiple abscesses, if the skin was the port of entry. Glanders is endemic in Africa, Asia, the Middle East, and Central and South America. Glanders has low contiguous potential, but because of the efficacy of aerosolized dissemination and the lethal nature of the disease, B. mallei was considered a candidate for biological warfare. During World War I, Glanders was believed to have been spread to infect large numbers of Russian horses and mules on the Eastern front. The Japanese infected horses, civilians and prisoners of war during World War II. The USA and the Soviet Union have shown interest in B. mallei in their biological warfare program. The treatment is empiric and includes mono or poly-therapy with Ceftazidime, Sulfadiazine, Trimethoprim + Sulfamethoxazol, Gentamicin, Imipenem etc. Aggressive control measures essentially eliminated Glanders from the west. However, with the resurgent concern about biological warfare, B. mallei is now being studied in a few laboratories worldwide. This review provides an overview of the disease and presents the only case reported in the western world since 1949.

  6. General Urban Warfare Amphibious Logistics Applications. Volume 3. Operational Plans. (United States)


    fictitious metropolitan development. These locales are: Casablanca, Morocco Canton, China Charleston, South Carolina, USA Bremerhaven, Germany Leningrad...Communications: Garbage, sewage, water, electricity, telephones, radio/television. * Transportation: Geomorphology , terrain characteristics, surface

  7. An Examination of the Human Factors Attitudes and Knowledge of Surface Warfare Officers (United States)


    result from a single error. This idea is captured by the most widely known model of accident causation of human error—the “Swiss Cheese ” model (Reason...London: Lloyds List Events. Booher, H. (2003). Handbook of human systems integration. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons. Canadian Transportation

  8. Adding a Performance-Based Component to Surface Warfare Officer Bonuses: Will it Affect Retention? (United States)


    2007b; Herzberg , 1987) The military is no stranger to applications of Herzberg’s Motivation -Hygiene Theory . The 2000 Military Exit Survey indicated...115 3. Agency Theory .................................................................................117 4. Herzberg’s Motivation -Hygiene...114 Figure 27. Expectancy Theory of Motivation (Adapted from McShane & Von Glinow, 2007, p. 96

  9. Surface Warfare: A Total Force. Volume 19. Number 4, July/August 1994 (United States)


    William D. Daniels COMDESRON 8, CAPT Oliver K. Spears III relieved relieved CDR Stephen D. Gilmore in May. CAPT Stephen A. Jarecdi in April. USS...CAPT Stephen H. Ries in June. USS Yellowtone (AD 41), CAPT Ronald C. Bogle USS Anirkn (FFG 20), CDR Daniel D. Sloss relieved relieved CAPT Ronald C...36), CDR Paul C. Cassani relieved LCDR Peter R. Kendrick in May. relieved CDR Thomas J. Brown in May. USS MAehemey (FFG 8), CDR Ronald Y. Heath USS

  10. Revitalization of Naval Surface Warfare Center Excellence in Early Stage Combat System Engineering (United States)


    central tenet of the DoD’s Better Buying Power initiatives, and budget projections indicate it will continue to be important as the nation works its way...éêçÖê~ãW= `êÉ~íáåÖ=póåÉêÖó=Ñçê=fåÑçêãÉÇ=ÅÜ~åÖÉ= -=379 - = developed system architecture products for the Air and Missile Defense Radar, Railgun , and...CBR Defense Systems Science and Engineering  Directed Energy Science and Engineering  Electromagnetic Environmental Effects  Electro

  11. A Proficiency-Based Cost Estimate of Surface Warfare Officer On-the-Job Training (United States)


    organization and capabilities. The Character Development and Training program is designed to teach first-year students ( Plebes ) about the Navy they are...inheriting. Each subsequent rank of midshipmen has a responsibility to train Plebes during regular review periods throughout the year. While the...focus of the pro-knowledge review is on the Plebes , all midshipmen (regardless of rank) must stay current on these topics to maintain and foster an

  12. An Exploratory Study: Female Surface Warfare Officers’ Decisions to Leave Their Community (United States)


    want to be part of a profession that condones this type of behavior. I had problems with a lot of sexism , sexual harassment in the chain of command...the community. If you close the gates and say, “You’re not getting in because you’re going to have to fight to get into this community. We’re not

  13. The Effect of Graduate Education Timing on the Retention of Surface Warfare Officers (United States)


    characteristics including gender , race/ethnicity category, marital status, dependents. Job related measures included are prior enlisted, commissioning...retention tool. Future work can address the potential selection bias associated with higher retention of those with graduate education attained after...of a strategic investment in human capital that can be used by the Navy as a retention tool. Future work can address the potential selection bias

  14. Naval Surface Warfare Center Technical Digest. Research and Technology - Shaping Future Naval Systems (United States)


    on the three-trillion- and to foster cooperation. dollar national debt, it is very likely that the 0 There will be an increased requirement todefense...sophisticated multimode guidance, and "smart" countermeasures are but a few of the weapon features which technology advances are already foster - costo . sthedule, and rapid obsolescence due to technological ad- c ho i:al perto~rnman2e objectives. ’ vances. All these factors, along with

  15. Analysis of Surface Warfare Enterprise’s Implementation of Enterprise Management Practices (United States)


    OMT Overall Metrics Team OPNAV Office of the Chief of Naval Operations OPTEVFOR Operational Test & Evaluation Force PAC...Charter, 10–12. 54  Overarching Metrics Team ( OMT ) – led by CNSF N8A and provides consistent, replicable, and integrated SWE performance measures in

  16. Why UW: Factoring in the Decision Point for Unconventional Warfare (United States)


    Entrenamiento Militar, or CREM) that would be home to the DoD’s semi-permanent presence in the region the Joint Task Force-Bravo (JTF-Bravo), were all...missile system and the HAWK is an all-weather, surface-to-air, medium-range/medium- altitude missile system. 105 3. Analysis The following sections

  17. Simulation of Operations in the Underwater Warfare Testbed (UWT)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keus, D.; Benders, F.P.A.; Fitski, H.J.; Grootendorst, H.J.


    Surface vessels and submarines must be able to defend themselves against a torpedo attack. Several studies have shown the benefits of multi-platform and multi-static operations. To facilitate torpedo defence system studies and the development of future tactics, TNO Defence, Security and Safety start

  18. Multi-platform operations in the Underwater Warfare Testbed (UWT)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keus, D; Benders, F.P.A.; Fitski, H.J.; Grootendorst, H.J.


    More than a decade ago, the long-term NATO scientific study “Maritime Operations in 2015” (MO 2015) identified the so-called multi-platform and co-operative multi-static Low Frequency Active Sonar (LFAS) concept, involving co-operative sonar data exchange between surface ships and submarines. Severa

  19. Quality of life in chemical warfare survivors with ophthalmologic injuries: the first results form Iran Chemical Warfare Victims Health Assessment Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soroush Mohammad


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Iraq used chemical weapons extensively against the Iranians during the Iran-Iraq war (1980–1988. The aim of this study was to assess the health related quality of life (HRQOL in people who had ophthalmologic complications due to the sulfur mustard gas exposure during the war. Methods The Veterans and Martyrs Affair Foundation (VMAF database indicated that there were 196 patients with severe ophthalmologic complications due to chemical weapons exposure. Of these, those who gave consent (n = 147 entered into the study. Quality of life was measured using the 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36 and scores were compared to those of the general public. In addition logistic regression analysis was performed to indicate variables that contribute to physical and mental health related quality of life. Results The mean age of the patients was 44.8 (SD = 8.7 ranging from 21 to 75 years. About one-third of the cases (n= 50 reported exposure to chemical weapons more than once. The mean exposure duration to sulfur mustard gas was 21.6 years (SD = 1.2. The lowest scores on the SF-36 subscales were found to be: the role physical and the general health. Quality of life in chemical warfare victims who had ophthalmologic problems was significantly lower than the general public (P Conclusion The study findings suggest that chemical warfare victims with ophthalmologic complications suffer from poor health related quality of life. It seems that the need for provision of health and support for this population is urgent. In addition, further research is necessary to measure health related quality of life in victims with different types of disabilities in order to support and enhance quality of life among this population.

  20. Mass Spectrometry Applications for the Identification and Quantitation of Biomarkers Resulting from Human Exposure to Chemical Warfare Agents (United States)

    Smith, J. Richard; Capacio, Benedict R.

    In recent years, a number of analytical methods using biomedical samples such as blood and urine have been developed for the verification of exposure to chemical warfare agents. The majority of methods utilize gas or liquid chromatography in conjunction with mass spectrometry. In a small number of cases of suspected human exposure to chemical warfare agents, biomedical specimens have been made available for testing. This chapter provides an overview of biomarkers that have been verified in human biomedical samples, details of the exposure incidents, the methods utilized for analysis, and the biomarker concentration levels determined in the blood and/or urine.

  1. Programming Coup D’Oeil: The Impact of Decision Making Technology in Operational Warfare (United States)


    that it is time consuming and it requires a high degree of good information to yield accurate options for success. In warfare, tempo is vital and...influence decision makers and planners is ethnocentrism . Dong, Day, and Collaço defined ethnocentrism as the “belief that 6 one‟s ethnic or is the center of everything, and all other things are related to or dependent on it.” 12 Ethnocentrism plays a role in shaping stereotypes


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.K.B. Barron


    Full Text Available Lawrence was basically an academic thrown into the hurly-burly of leading an Arab revolt against Turkish domination. It could be said that the war in the Middle East was a sideshow of the First World War and Lawrence's part was a ' ... sideshow to the sideshow'l Why then has Lawrence been remembered when greater military men have been forgotten? The romanticism of his exploits are surely the reason, and yet the fact that he is the first modern theorist and possibly the "father" of modern revolutionary warfare, tends to be forgotten.

  3. Development of Bicarbonate-Activated Peroxide as a Chemical and Biological Warfare Agent Decontaminant (United States)


    Peroxide (HOO-) 7.8 29 26.7 ± 0.2 t-Butyl hydroperoxide ((CH3)3COO-) 7.8 9.7 39 Cumene hydroperoxide ((C6H6)C(CH3)2OO-) 7.8 9.3 22 All reactions run with...peroxymonocarbonate ion (HCO4-) as the oxidant in the catalytic oxidation reactions . For perhydrolytic cleavage of organophosphates the peroxycarbonate dianion...solubility and reaction rates for applications in chemical warfare agent decontamination. -O *C O O OH -O *C OH O HO *C OH O *CO2 HO2 - H2OHO *C O O OH pKa

  4. New concepts and their applications in underwater acoustic warfare simulation system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Yangze; YAO Lan


    An underwater acoustic warfare simulation system (UAWSS) with a structure of high level architecture (HLA) is studied based upon a previous research project. With the experience and lessons learned, some new concepts are adopted in the implementation of UAWSS according to the essence of simulation and the objective of the system, among which are simulation synthetic environment, signal processing at other simulation nodes, decomposition of underwater sound channel, channel varying law and rules on system and parts evaluation, etc. Applications of these new ideas show that they are effective.

  5. A Wolfram in Sheep's Clothing: Economic Warfare in Spain and Portugal, 1940-1944


    Rockoff, Hugh; Caruana, Leonard


    One of the most sustained uses of economic warfare by the United States, at least judged by the variety of means used and the issue at stake, occurred in Spain and Portugal during WWII. We provide an overview of this episode by weaving together findings from the secondary literature and from new research in the Spanish archives. The war evolved through several distinct phases. (1) An oil embargo against Spain, although launched when Germany appeared to be winning the war (July 27 to September...

  6. Handheld and mobile hyperspectral imaging sensors for wide-area standoff detection of explosives and chemical warfare agents (United States)

    Gomer, Nathaniel R.; Gardner, Charles W.; Nelson, Matthew P.


    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is a valuable tool for the investigation and analysis of targets in complex background with a high degree of autonomy. HSI is beneficial for the detection of threat materials on environmental surfaces, where the concentration of the target of interest is often very low and is typically found within complex scenery. Two HSI techniques that have proven to be valuable are Raman and shortwave infrared (SWIR) HSI. Unfortunately, current generation HSI systems have numerous size, weight, and power (SWaP) limitations that make their potential integration onto a handheld or field portable platform difficult. The systems that are field-portable do so by sacrificing system performance, typically by providing an inefficient area search rate, requiring close proximity to the target for screening, and/or eliminating the potential to conduct real-time measurements. To address these shortcomings, ChemImage Sensor Systems (CISS) is developing a variety of wide-field hyperspectral imaging systems. Raman HSI sensors are being developed to overcome two obstacles present in standard Raman detection systems: slow area search rate (due to small laser spot sizes) and lack of eye-safety. SWIR HSI sensors have been integrated into mobile, robot based platforms and handheld variants for the detection of explosives and chemical warfare agents (CWAs). In addition, the fusion of these two technologies into a single system has shown the feasibility of using both techniques concurrently to provide higher probability of detection and lower false alarm rates. This paper will provide background on Raman and SWIR HSI, discuss the applications for these techniques, and provide an overview of novel CISS HSI sensors focused on sensor design and detection results.

  7. Real-time, wide-area hyperspectral imaging sensors for standoff detection of explosives and chemical warfare agents (United States)

    Gomer, Nathaniel R.; Tazik, Shawna; Gardner, Charles W.; Nelson, Matthew P.


    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is a valuable tool for the detection and analysis of targets located within complex backgrounds. HSI can detect threat materials on environmental surfaces, where the concentration of the target of interest is often very low and is typically found within complex scenery. Unfortunately, current generation HSI systems have size, weight, and power limitations that prohibit their use for field-portable and/or real-time applications. Current generation systems commonly provide an inefficient area search rate, require close proximity to the target for screening, and/or are not capable of making real-time measurements. ChemImage Sensor Systems (CISS) is developing a variety of real-time, wide-field hyperspectral imaging systems that utilize shortwave infrared (SWIR) absorption and Raman spectroscopy. SWIR HSI sensors provide wide-area imagery with at or near real time detection speeds. Raman HSI sensors are being developed to overcome two obstacles present in standard Raman detection systems: slow area search rate (due to small laser spot sizes) and lack of eye-safety. SWIR HSI sensors have been integrated into mobile, robot based platforms and handheld variants for the detection of explosives and chemical warfare agents (CWAs). In addition, the fusion of these two technologies into a single system has shown the feasibility of using both techniques concurrently to provide higher probability of detection and lower false alarm rates. This paper will provide background on Raman and SWIR HSI, discuss the applications for these techniques, and provide an overview of novel CISS HSI sensors focusing on sensor design and detection results.

  8. Textbook of Military Medicine. Part 1. Warfare, Weaponry, and the Casualty. Part 5. Conventional Warfare. Ballistic, Blast, and Burn Injuries (United States)


    submunitions are becoming increasingly common in projection that resembles a butterfly’s wings combat (Figure 1-50). around the detonation site (Figure 1...T.; Phillips, Y. Y III. 1988. Computer modelir.g -. thoracic response to blast. J. Trauma 28:S149-$152. 240 Wing , Chapter 7 THE PHYSICS AND...or postmortem sphenoid , and lacrimal bones on the medial surface of examination unless a retrobulbar hemorrhage has re- the orbital wall. In studies

  9. Assessing the Operational Effectiveness of a Small Surface Combat Ship in an Anti-Surface Warfare Environment (United States)


    Marine Protected Areas for CETACEANS , 93. Bonabeau, E. (2002). Agent-based modeling: Methods and techniques for simulating human systems...61 5. Interaction of the Factors ...................................................... 63 6...stepwise regression model to include the main effects, two-way interactions , and polynomials. ....... 48 Figure 23. Sorted parameter estimates of

  10. Academic Training Lectures | Stuxnet and Cyber-Warfare | 13-14 January 2016

    CERN Multimedia


    Please note that the next series of Academic Training Lectures will take place on 13 and 14 January 2016. The lectures will be given by Gian Piero Siroli (Università e INFN, Bologna (IT))   Stuxnet and Cyber-Warfare (1/2)​ on Wednesday, 13 January from 11 a.m. to 12 p.m. Stuxnet and Cyber-Warfare (2/2) on Thursday, 14 January from 11 a.m. to 12 p.m. at CERN, Council Chamber (503-1-001)  Description: The first part of the lecture is devoted to the description of the Stuxnet worm, the first cyber-weapon whose existence has been made public, discovered in 2010 and targeting a specific industrial control system; the worm is responsible for the damaging of many centrifuges at an uranium enrichment facility, with the goal of sabotaging Iran&...

  11. Bioarchaeological investigation of ancient Maya violence and warfare in inland Northwest Yucatan, Mexico. (United States)

    Serafin, Stanley; Lope, Carlos Peraza; Uc González, Eunice


    This study investigates evidence of changes and continuities in ancient Maya violence and warfare in inland northwest Yucatan, Mexico from the Middle Preclassic (600-300 BC) to the Postclassic (AD 1050-1542) through bioarchaeological analysis of cranial and projectile trauma. It is hypothesized that the frequency of violence increases before the Classic Maya collapse and remains high during the Postclassic period. It is also hypothesized that the flat, open terrain was conducive to warfare and resulted in higher trauma frequencies than in other parts of the Maya area. Results show that the frequency of cranial trauma decreases before the Classic collapse and increases in the Postclassic, partially matching the expected chronological trends. The frequency of cranial trauma does not differ significantly from other Maya regions but the pattern does: for all periods, males have more healed injuries than females and they are concentrated on the left side of the anterior of the skull. Some injuries appear to be from small points hafted in wooden clubs. In addition, projectile trauma is evident in a scapula with an embedded arrowhead tip, the first such case reported in a Maya skeleton. Overall, these results suggest greater reliance on open combat and less on raids in this region compared with other parts of the Maya area, possibly due to the flat, open terrain, though the identification of perimortem trauma in both women and men indicates surprise raids on settlements were also practiced. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. An Empirical Examination of the Warfare Metaphor with Respect to Pre-Service Elementary Teachers (United States)

    Cobern, William W.; Loving, Cathleen C.; Davis, Edward B.; Terpstra, Jeff


    Since its origination in the late nineteenth century, the warfare metaphor has been used to characterize the relationship between science and religion, especially orthodox Christianity. Though thoroughly discredited by historians of science, the ideological descendants of Thomas Huxley, who spoke of science in quasi-religious terms, have kept the warfare metaphor alive. On the other hand, there are substantial numbers of Christians who at least appear to oppose science given their high-profile opposition to the general theory of evolution. The research reported in this paper asked, "Does anti-science sentiment increase with increasing orthodox Christian belief?" Two validated, published instruments were used: The Thinking about Science Survey Instrument and the Christian Fundamentalist Belief Scale. The subjects for the study were 545 preservice elementary teachers. The analysis did not show that anti-science sentiment increases with increasing Christian belief. Subjects with strong Christian beliefs were found to be just as supportive of science, if not more so, than subjects with no Christian beliefs. The study concludes with a caution against projecting attitudes toward science "on the whole" based on attitudes specifically toward evolution when working with preservice elementary teachers. Such a projection could well be counterproductive. The study has implications for other modern countries having highly religious populations such as Turkey.

  13. A decade of major vascular trauma: Lessons learned from gang and civilian warfare. (United States)

    Ramdass, M J; Harnarayan, P


    INTRODUCTION Trinidad and Tobago is a trans-shipment point for the illegal trade of drugs, arms and ammunition and, as such, has a high incidence of gang-related warfare and drug-related crimes. This has led to a high incidence of gunshot and stab wounds, with associated major vascular injuries. We describe our management strategies learned from a decade of vascular trauma experience. METHODS A retrospective analysis of age, gender, type of trauma, vessel injured, procedure and outcome for all cases of vascular trauma between 2006 and 2015 at two surgical units in Trinidad and Tobago. RESULTS There were 198 vascular trauma cases (232 procedures), involving 159 (80%) males at a mean age of 33 years. Gunshots accounted for 103 (52%) cases, followed by stabs/chops (n=50; 25%) and lacerations (n=15; 8%). The most commonly injured vessels were the radial/ulnar arteries (n=39; 20%) and the superficial femoral artery (n=37; 19%). There were seven pseudoaneurysms and three traumatic arteriovenous fistulae. Repair techniques included primary (n=82; 35%), reversed vein (n=63; 27%), polytetrafluoroethylene (n=58; 25%), oversew (n=24; 10%) and endovascular (n=5; 2%) techniques. There were eight (4%) secondary amputations and eight (4%) deaths. CONCLUSIONS Major vascular trauma causes significant morbidity and mortality in Trinidad and Tobago, with the majority of cases due to gunshot injuries secondary to gang-related warfare and civilian violence. We compare our experience with that in the literature on the epidemiology and management of vascular trauma.

  14. Investigating the Relationship Between Drone Warfare and Civilian Casualties in Gaza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Ann Rogers


    Full Text Available Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs, better known as drones, are increasingly touted as ‘humanitarian’ weapons that contribute positively to fighting just wars and saving innocent lives. At the same time, civilian casualties have become the most visible and criticized aspect of drone warfare. It is argued here that drones contribute to civilian casualties not in spite of, but because of, their unique attributes. They greatly extend war across time and space, pulling more potential threats and targets into play over long periods, and because they are low-risk and highly accurate, they are more likely to be used. The assumption that drones save lives obscures a new turn in strategic thinking that sees states such as Israel and the US rely on large numbers of small, highly discriminating attacks applied over time to achieve their objectives. This examination of Israel’s 2014 war in Gaza argues that civilian casualties are not an unexpected or unintended consequence of drone warfare, but an entirely predictable outcome.

  15. Next Generation Non-particulate Dry Nonwoven Pad for Chemical Warfare Agent Decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramkumar, S S; Love, A; Sata, U R; Koester, C J; Smith, W J; Keating, G A; Hobbs, L; Cox, S B; Lagna, W M; Kendall, R J


    New, non-particulate decontamination materials promise to reduce both military and civilian casualties by enabling individuals to decontaminate themselves and their equipment within minutes of exposure to chemical warfare agents or other toxic materials. One of the most promising new materials has been developed using a needlepunching nonwoven process to construct a novel and non-particulate composite fabric of multiple layers, including an inner layer of activated carbon fabric, which is well-suited for the decontamination of both personnel and equipment. This paper describes the development of a composite nonwoven pad and compares efficacy test results for this pad with results from testing other decontamination systems. The efficacy of the dry nonwoven fabric pad was demonstrated specifically for decontamination of the chemical warfare blister agent bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide (H or sulfur mustard). GC/MS results indicate that the composite fabric was capable of significantly reducing the vapor hazard from mustard liquid absorbed into the nonwoven dry fabric pad. The mustard adsorption efficiency of the nonwoven pad was significantly higher than particulate activated carbon (p=0.041) and was similar to the currently fielded US military M291 kit (p=0.952). The nonwoven pad has several advantages over other materials, especially its non-particulate, yet flexible, construction. This composite fabric was also shown to be chemically compatible with potential toxic and hazardous liquids, which span a range of hydrophilic and hydrophobic chemicals, including a concentrated acid, an organic solvent and a mild oxidant, bleach.

  16. APSTNG: neutron interrogation for detection of explosives, drugs, and nuclear and chemical warfare materials (United States)

    Rhodes, Edgar A.; Peters, Charles W.


    A recently developed neutron diagnostic probe system has the potential to satisfy a significant number of van-mobile and fixed-portal requirements for nondestructive detection, including monitoring of contraband explosives, drugs, and weapon materials, and treaty verification of sealed munitions. The probe is based on a unique associated-particle sealed-tube neutron generator (APSTNG) that interrogates the object of interest with a low-intensity beam of 14- MeV neutrons generated from the deuterium-tritium reaction and that detects the alpha-particle associated with each neutron. Gamma-ray spectra of resulting neutron reactions identify nuclides associated with all major chemicals in explosives, drugs, and chemical warfare agents, as well as many pollutants and fissile and fertile special nuclear material. Flight times determined from detection times of the gamma-rays and alpha-particles yield a separate coarse tomographic image of each identified nuclide. The APSTNG also forms the basis for a compact fast-neutron transmission imaging system that can be used along with or instead of the emission imaging system. Proof-of-concept experiments have been performed under laboratory conditions for simulated nuclear and chemical warfare munitions and for explosives and drugs. The small and relatively inexpensive APSTNG exhibits high reliability and can be quickly replaced. Surveillance systems based on APSTNG technology can avoid the large physical size, high capital and operating expenses, and reliability problems associated with complex accelerators.

  17. Three-dimensional visualization and control of electronic warfare (EW) payloads (United States)

    Kirsch, Patricia; Tremper, David; Cortesi, Roger


    The proliferation of unmanned vehicles carrying tactical payloads in the battle-space has accelerated the need for user-friendly visualization with graphical interfaces to provide remote command and control. Often these platforms and payloads receive their control functions from command centers located half a world away via satellite communications. Operators require situational awareness tools capable of graphically presenting the remote battlefield asset positions and collected sensor data. Often these systems use 2D software mapping tools in conjunction with video for real time situational awareness. The Special Projects Group (SPG) in the Tactical Electronic Warfare Division of the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory has been developing an operator control interface called the Jammer Control Station (JCS) to provide 3D battle-space visualization with built-in, remote EW payload command and control (C2) capabilities. The JCS interface presents the operator with graphic depictions of both the platforms' states and the RF environment. Text based messaging between the JCS and the EW payload reduces the impact of the system on the available bandwidth. This paper will discuss the use of the SIMDIS 3-D visualization tool as a real-time command and control interface for electronic warfare (EW) payloads.

  18. Implications for studying team cognition and team performance in network-centric warfare paradigms. (United States)

    Krueger, Gerald P; Banderet, Louis E


    Network-centric warfare's (NCW) information-rich systems involving sophisticated sensors, tracking systems, smart weapons, and enhanced digital communications threaten to overload combatants with voluminous amounts of data. It is unclear whether warfighters will perceive such extensive data as actionable information to which they will respond accurately in a timely enough manner. Members of small teams in command and control centers, operating in crew-served vehicles, or simply "grunting it out" as ground-pounding infantrymen, may be disparately separated by space, but will communicate and be connected by electronic linkages, e.g., radio, text messages, situation displays, or global positioning data. However, team members will also have to remember shared mental models of tasks at hand, pay attention to and share common situation awareness in complex operational environments, perform team cognition and team coordination, and integrate both lower and higher cognitive processes with those of team behaviors. Such exceptional capabilities are required more now than ever before; such capabilities today are far from assured. After two workshops to establish performance metrics for assessing cognitive performance of military personnel in NCW, this preface introduces five manuscripts addressing team cognition and team performance from both a theoretical and a practical perspective. The authors of this preface question if NCW, and perhaps the politico-social ramifications of modern warfare, have already outstripped behavioral scientists' approach to researching team cognition and team performance-expertise that is so crucially needed for combatants on the rapidly changing 21st-century battlegrounds.

  19. Chemical and biological warfare: Detection and warning systems. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The bibliography contains citations concerning the detection, identification, verification, and warning systems of chemical and biological warfare agents. Citations discuss agents sampling, monitoring, and assessment. Techniques include chromotography, biosensing, chemical analysis, and DNA probes. Land pollution, soil tests, and skin protection are examined. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  20. Chemical and biological warfare: Biology, chemistry, and toxicology. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The bibliography contains citations concerning the physiological effects, physicochemical effects, and toxicology of chemical and biological warfare agents. Citations discuss toxic chemicals, chemical agent simulants, detoxification and decontamination, environmental toxicity, and land pollution. Detection techniques and warning systems are examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  1. Chemical and biological warfare: Biology, chemistry, and toxicology. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The bibliography contains citations concerning the physiological effects, physicochemical effects, and toxicology of chemical and biological warfare agents. Citations discuss toxic chemicals, chemical agent simulants, detoxification and decontamination, environmental toxicity, and land pollution. Detection techniques and warning systems are examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  2. Global Survey of Research and Capabilities in Genetically Engineered Organisms That Could be Used in Biological Warfare or Bioterrorism (United States)


    advances (summarized in Section 4) that could facilitate or at least inspire the pursuit of biological warfare capabilities. We share the opinion that...a) Infectious Diseases Control Unit of the Direction de la sante publique , Montreal Chest Institute, Montreal Division of Infectious and

  3. Warfare has changed - so should have methods: Ammunition and weapon performance induced operational risk and safety issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, T.L.A.; Voorde, M.J. van de


    Warfare has changed. Out-of-area operations have increased the awareness that we are unfamiliar with the performance of the current conventional medium and large calibre ammunitions in day-to-day practice. Current ammunition is primarily developed and procured to defeat the traditional ‘steel’

  4. Multi Service Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures for Treatment of Chemical Warfare Agent Casualties and Conventional Military Chemical Injuries (United States)


    Carbon Monoxide 1 B Phosgene 3 B Hydrogen Cyanide 3 B Chlorine 4 A Cyanogen Chloride 4 A Ethylene Oxide 2 C Formaldehyde 2 B Methyl Bromide 3 B...10-7 Chlorine ............................................................................................................ 10-8...especially vulnerable and may be targeted as part of a plan to defeat U.S. force projection. Chemical warfare agents and TICs (such as chlorine , phosgene

  5. Groundwater geochemical and selected volatile organic compound data, Operable Unit 1, Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Keyport, Washington, July 2015 (United States)

    Huffman, Raegan L.


    Previous investigations indicate that concentrations of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs) are substantial in groundwater beneath the 9-acre former landfill at Operable Unit 1, Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Keyport, Washington. The U.S. Geological Survey has continued to monitor groundwater geochemistry to ensure that conditions remain favorable for contaminant biodegradation as specified in the Record of Decision for the site.

  6. Speed of adaptation and genomic footprints of host-parasite coevolution under arms race and trench warfare dynamics. (United States)

    Tellier, Aurélien; Moreno-Gámez, Stefany; Stephan, Wolfgang


    Coevolution between hosts and their parasites is expected to follow a range of possible dynamics, the two extreme cases being called trench warfare (or Red Queen) and arms races. Long-term stable polymorphism at the host and parasite coevolving loci is characteristic of trench warfare, and is expected to promote molecular signatures of balancing selection, while the recurrent allele fixation in arms races should generate selective sweeps. We compare these two scenarios using a finite size haploid gene-for-gene model that includes both mutation and genetic drift. We first show that trench warfare do not necessarily display larger numbers of coevolutionary cycles per unit of time than arms races. We subsequently perform coalescent simulations under these dynamics to generate sequences at both host and parasite loci. Genomic footprints of recurrent selective sweeps are often found, whereas trench warfare yield signatures of balancing selection only in parasite sequences, and only in a limited parameter space. Our results suggest that deterministic models of coevolution with infinite population sizes do not predict reliably the observed genomic signatures, and it may be best to study parasite rather than host populations to find genomic signatures of coevolution, such as selective sweeps or balancing selection.

  7. Warfare has changed - so should have methods: Ammunition and weapon performance induced operational risk and safety issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, T.L.A.; Voorde, M.J. van de


    Warfare has changed. Out-of-area operations have increased the awareness that we are unfamiliar with the performance of the current conventional medium and large calibre ammunitions in day-to-day practice. Current ammunition is primarily developed and procured to defeat the traditional ‘steel’ targe

  8. Modern sample preparation techniques for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of environmental markers of chemical warfare agents use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terzic, O.; de Voogt, P.; Banoub, J.


    The chapter introduces problematics of on-site chemical analysis in the investigations of past chemical warfare agents (CWA) events. An overview of primary environmental degradation pathways of CWA leading to formation of chemical markers of their use is given. Conventional and modern sample

  9. 78 FR 53109 - Security Zones; Naval Base Point Loma; Naval Mine Anti-Submarine Warfare Command; San Diego Bay... (United States)


    ...-Submarine Warfare Command; San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard proposes extending a portion of an existing San Diego Bay security zone... security zone modifications are intended to restrict vessels from a portion of the San Diego Bay in order...

  10. 78 FR 72025 - Security Zones; Naval Base Point Loma; Naval Mine Anti Submarine Warfare Command; San Diego Bay... (United States)


    ... Submarine Warfare Command; San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is increasing a portion of an existing San Diego Bay security zone at Naval Base... Diego Bay in order to ensure the safety and security of Naval assets. Both security zones will safeguard...

  11. Reevaluation of 1999 Health-Based Environmental Screening Levels (HBESLs) for Chemical Warfare Agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Annetta Paule [ORNL; Dolislager, Fredrick G [ORNL


    This report evaluates whether new information and updated scientific models require that changes be made to previously published health-based environmental soil screening levels (HBESLs) and associated environmental fate/breakdown information for chemical warfare agents (USACHPPM 1999). Specifically, the present evaluation describes and compares changes that have been made since 1999 to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) risk assessment models, EPA exposure assumptions, as well as to specific chemical warfare agent parameters (e.g., toxicity values). Comparison was made between screening value estimates recalculated with current assumptions and earlier health-based environmental screening levels presented in 1999. The chemical warfare agents evaluated include the G-series and VX nerve agents and the vesicants sulfur mustard (agent HD) and Lewisite (agent L). In addition, key degradation products of these agents were also evaluated. Study findings indicate that the combined effect of updates and/or changes to EPA risk models, EPA default exposure parameters, and certain chemical warfare agent toxicity criteria does not result in significant alteration to the USACHPPM (1999) health-based environmental screening level estimates for the G-series and VX nerve agents or the vesicant agents HD and L. Given that EPA's final position on separate Tier 1 screening levels for indoor and outdoor worker screening assessments has not yet been released as of May 2007, the study authors find that the 1999 screening level estimates (see Table ES.1) are still appropriate and protective for screening residential as well as nonresidential sites. As such, risk management decisions made on the basis of USACHPPM (1999) recommendations do not require reconsideration. While the 1999 HBESL values are appropriate for continued use as general screening criteria, the updated '2007' estimates (presented below) that follow the new EPA protocols currently under development

  12. Chemiluminescence assay for the detection of biological warfare agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langry, K; Horn, J


    A chemiluminescent homogeneous immunoassay and a hand-size multiassay reader are described that could be used for detecting biological materials. The special feature of the assay is that it employs two different antibodies that each bind to a unique epitope on the same antigen. Each group of epitope-specific antibodies has linked to it an enzyme of a proximal-enzyme pair. One enzyme of the pair utilizes a substrate in high concentration to produce a second substrate required by the second enzyme. This new substrate enables the second enzyme to function. The reaction of the second enzyme is configured to produce light. This chemiluminescence is detected with a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. The proximal pair enzymes must be in close proximity to one another to allow the second enzyme to react with the product of the first enzyme. This only occurs when the enzyme-linked antibodies are attached to the antigen, whether antigen is a single protein with multiple epitopes or the surface of a cell with a variety of different antigens. As a result of their juxtaposition, the enzymes produce light only in the presence of the biological material. A brief description is given as to how this assay could be utilized in a personal bio-agent detector system.

  13. Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet for Chem/Bio Warfare Decontamination (United States)

    Herrmann, Hans W.; Henins, Ivars; Park, Jaeyoung; Selwyn, Gary S.


    Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet (APPJ) technology may provide a much needed method of CBW decontamination which, unlike traditional decon methods, is dry and nondestructive to sensitive equipment and materials. The APPJ discharge uses a high-flow feedgas consisting primarily of an inert carrier gas, such as He, and a small amount of a reactive additive, such as O2, which flows between capacitively-coupled electrodes powered at 13.56 MHz. The plasma generates highly reactive metastable and atomic species of oxygen which are then directed onto a contaminated surface. The reactive effluent of the APPJ has been shown to effectively neutralize VX nerve agent as well as simulants for anthrax and mustard blister agent. Research efforts are now being directed towards reducing He consumption and increasing the allowable stand-off distance. Recent results demonstrate that by replacing the O2 reactive additive with CO2, ozone formation is greatly reduced. This has the result of extending the lifetime of atomic oxygen by an order of magnitude or more. A recirculating APP Decon Chamber which combines heat, vacuum, forced convection and reactivity is currently being developed for enhanced decontamination of sensitive equipment. Several techniques are also being evaluated for use in an APP Decon Jet for decontamination of items which cannot be placed inside a chamber.

  14. The Venus "Shell-over-Star" hieroglyph and Maya warfare: An examination of the interpretation of a Mayan symbol (United States)

    Voit, Claudia Ann

    For decades, Maya scholars have associated the Mayan "Shell-Star" (also referred to as "Star-War") hieroglyph with Maya warfare. Put forward by scholars such as Floyd Lounsbury and David Kelley, and later advanced by Linda Schele, David Freidel, Ian Graham, Peter Matthews, Anthony Aveni and others, there are now dozens of published articles and chapters relating the hieroglyph to Venus and warfare. Venus is one of the most notable celestial objects outside of the Sun and Moon and was highly visible to the inhabitants of the Maya world. The Dresden Codex (an astronomical almanac) contains important information about the planet Venus, and the calendar section was deciphered by the librarian and mathematician, Ernst Förstemann in the late 1800s. In his decipherment, he deduced that the numbers contained in the tables must be connected to the orbital period of the planet. There is no other planet with the same orbital period 3 as Venus. Förstemann suggested that the decoded astronomy tables were used by the Maya to determine when to wage war. This interpretation, along with others, like Floyd Lounsbury`s study of Venus and the Long Count date at Bonampak were the seeds that have led to methodological errors that first began to take root in Maya research. The idea of the Venus association with warfare took hold and continues to propagate. Many scholars continue to assert that the "shell-star" glyph is related to warfare events. Others, like Gerardo Aldana, and Stanley Guenter, have recently come forward to reexamine and question the hieroglyph and its relationship, if any, to Maya warfare. I suggest, further, that methodological errors may have occurred along the way. I propose that these errors include data lost in translation, and inaccurate translations. In addition, the statistical analysis of Venus cycles has weak points. If this identification of the errors is correct, we need to re-evaluate the weakened foundation on which we are building our assertions about

  15. Research on the Interaction of Hydrogen-Bond Acidic Polymer Sensitive Sensor Materials with Chemical Warfare Agents Simulants by Inverse Gas Chromatography


    Liu Yang; Qiang Han; Shuya Cao; Feng Huang; Molin Qin; Chenghai Guo; Mingyu Ding


    Hydrogen-bond acidic polymers are important high affinity materials sensitive to organophosphates in the chemical warfare agent sensor detection process. Interactions between the sensor sensitive materials and chemical warfare agent simulants were studied by inverse gas chromatography. Hydrogen bonded acidic polymers, i.e., BSP3, were prepared for micro-packed columns to examine the interaction. DMMP (a nerve gas simulant) and 2-CEES (a blister agent simulant) were used as probes. Chemical an...

  16. Possible Long Term Effects of Chemical Warfare Using Visual Evoked Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Riazi


    Full Text Available Some studies have already addressed the effects of occupational organic solvent exposure on the visually evoked potentials (VEPs. Visual system is an important target for Sulphur Mustard (SM toxicity. A number of Iranian victims of Sulphur Mustard (SM agent were apprehensive about the delay effect of SM on their vision and a possible delay effect of SM on their visual cortex. This investigation was performed on 34 individuals with a history of chemical exposure and a control group of 15 normal people. The Toennies electro-diagnosis device was used and its signals were saved as the latencies. The mean of N75, N140 and P100 of victims of chemical warfare (VCWs and control group indicated no significant results (P>0.05. The VCWs did not show any visual symptoms and there was no clear deficit in their VEPs.

  17. Investigation of Acute Toxicity of a Chemical Warfare Agent in Kidneys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turgut Topal


    Full Text Available One of the most important chemical warfare agents, sulfur mustard (SM causes crucial acute and chronic toxic effects. Lung, skin, eye and kidneys are the most affected organs. In this work, it was investigated if increased nitric oxide (NO and peroxynitrite are involved in nitrogen mustard (NM induced kidney damage. In this experimen, aminoguanidine (AG as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS inhibitor and ebselen as peroxynitrite scavenger were used. NM administration resulted in important oxidant and antioxidant changes as well as tissue damage in kidneys. Therapeutic agents showed significant protection and reduced oxidant parameteres leading to tissue healing was observed. Results of this study suggest that drugs with similar properties can be used to protect kidney damage caused by NM. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(4: 227-232

  18. Investigation of Acute Toxicity of a Chemical Warfare Agent in Kidneys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turgut Topal


    Full Text Available One of the most important chemical warfare agents, sulfur mustard (SM causes crucial acute and chronic toxic effects. Lung, skin, eye and kidneys are the most affected organs. In this work, it was investigated if increased nitric oxide (NO and peroxynitrite are involved in nitrogen mustard (NM induced kidney damage. In this experimen, aminoguanidine (AG as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS inhibitor and ebselen as peroxynitrite scavenger were used. NM administration resulted in important oxidant and antioxidant changes as well as tissue damage in kidneys. Therapeutic agents showed significant protection and reduced oxidant parameteres leading to tissue healing was observed. Results of this study suggest that drugs with similar properties can be used to protect kidney damage caused by NM. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(4.000: 227-232


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrişor JALBĂ


    Full Text Available Within the framework of the current revolution in military affairs, at the End of the Cold War a new concept was born: the concept of War Based on Computer Networking or NCW Network Centric-Warfare which was established as a central element of modern military operations. Determined by theprogress recorded in the field of communication systems of all types, technology of information (HI-Tech, IT, war based on computer networking brings a change in the war paradigm and its inherent components In this respect, logistics based on computer networking represents one of the ways in which the reality of the battlefield is preserved which enhances the joint perspective upon the military forces.

  20. The art of antibacterial warfare: Deception through interference with quorum sensing-mediated communication. (United States)

    Rampioni, Giordano; Leoni, Livia; Williams, Paul


    Almost a century on from the discovery of penicillin, the war against bacterial infection still rages compounded by the emergence of strains resistant to virtually every clinically approved antibiotic and the dearth of new antibacterial agents entering the clinic. Consequently there is renewed interest in drugs which attenuate virulence rather than bacterial growth. Since the metaphors of warfare are often used to describe the battle between pathogen and host, we will describe in such a context, the molecular communication (quorum sensing) mechanisms used by bacteria to co-ordinate virulence at the population level. Recent progress in exploiting this information through the design of anti-virulence deception strategies that disrupt quorum sensing through signal molecule inactivation, inhibition of signal molecule biosynthesis or the blockade of signal transduction and their advantages and disadvantages are considered.

  1. Love-Wave Sensors Combined with Microfluidics for Fast Detection of Biological Warfare Agents (United States)

    Matatagui, Daniel; Fontecha, José Luis; Fernández, María Jesús; Gràcia, Isabel; Cané, Carles; Santos, José Pedro; Horrillo, María Carmen


    The following paper examines a time-efficient method for detecting biological warfare agents (BWAs). The method is based on a system of a Love-wave immunosensor combined with a microfluidic chip which detects BWA samples in a dynamic mode. In this way a continuous flow-through of the sample is created, promoting the reaction between antigen and antibody and allowing a fast detection of the BWAs. In order to prove this method, static and dynamic modes have been simulated and different concentrations of BWA simulants have been tested with two immunoreactions: phage M13 has been detected using the mouse monoclonal antibody anti-M13 (AM13), and the rabbit immunoglobulin (Rabbit IgG) has been detected using the polyclonal antibody goat anti-rabbit (GAR). Finally, different concentrations of each BWA simulants have been detected with a fast response time and a desirable level of discrimination among them has been achieved. PMID:25029282

  2. Approximation and Filtering Techniques for Navigation Data in Time-critical Electronic Warfare Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanitha D.


    Full Text Available This paper presents a holistic solution to the navigation requirements in a time critical electronic warfare systems like missile warning systems (MWS. In a passive MWS using IR sensors the efficiency of the system is determined by attributes such as low false alarm rate, minimal response time and ability to track different IR radiating objects by association and correlation of consecutive detections through time. Such a system is required to be supported by a navigation system capable of accurate estimation of the aircraft position, attitude angles and altitude. In this paper, estimation techniques used to accurately calculate aircraft navigation data at the time of capture of IR frames are discussed. The paper discusses about synchronization of INGPS, IR sensors & Processor on to same timeline. The paper also intends to evaluate the performance of wavelet transform filter in effective elimination of noise in navigation parameters like acceleration and attitude angle rates for a better estimation of position and attitude.

  3. High-temperature superconductivity for avionic electronic warfare and radar systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, P.A. [Wright Lab., Wright-Patterson AFB, OH (United States). Avionics Directorate


    The electronic warfare (EW) and radar communities expect to be major beneficiaries of the performance advantages high-temperature superconductivity (HTS) has to offer over conventional technology. Near term upgrades to system hardware can be envisioned using extremely small, high Q, microwave filters and resonators; compact, wideband, low loss, microwave delay and transmission lines; as well as, wideband, low loss, monolithic microwave integrated circuit phase shifters. The most dramatic impact will be in the far term, using HTS to develop new, real time threat identification and response strategy receiver/processing systems designed to utilize the unique high frequency properties of microwave and ultimately digital HTS. To make superconductivity practical for operational systems, however, technological obstacles need to be overcome. Compact cryogenically cooled subsystems with exceptional performance able to withstand rugged operational environments for long periods of time need to be developed.

  4. A war psychiatry approach to warfare in the Middle Byzantine period. (United States)

    Ntafoulis, Pavlos


    Combat stress cases were traced in historical texts and military manuals on warfare from the Middle Byzantine period; they were mainly labelled as cowardice. Soldiers suffered from nostalgia or exhaustion; officers looked stunned, or could not speak during the battle. Cruel punishments were often enforced. Suicide and alcohol abuse were rarely mentioned. The Byzantines' evacuation system for battle casualties was well organized. Psychological operations were conducted and prisoners-of-war were usually part of them. The Byzantine army had 'parakletores', officers assigned to encourage soldiers before combat. The leaders dealt with combat stress by using their rhetoric skills and emphasizing religious faith in eternal life. The treatment of the 'cowards' was rather similar to modern war psychiatry principles of treatment. No description of PTSD was found. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Love-Wave Sensors Combined with Microfluidics for Fast Detection of Biological Warfare Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Matatagui


    Full Text Available The following paper examines a time-efficient method for detecting biological warfare agents (BWAs. The method is based on a system of a Love-wave immunosensor combined with a microfluidic chip which detects BWA samples in a dynamic mode. In this way a continuous flow-through of the sample is created, promoting the reaction between antigen and antibody and allowing a fast detection of the BWAs. In order to prove this method, static and dynamic modes have been simulated and different concentrations of BWA simulants have been tested with two immunoreactions: phage M13 has been detected using the mouse monoclonal antibody anti-M13 (AM13, and the rabbit immunoglobulin (Rabbit IgG has been detected using the polyclonal antibody goat anti-rabbit (GAR. Finally, different concentrations of each BWA simulants have been detected with a fast response time and a desirable level of discrimination among them has been achieved.

  6. Love-wave sensors combined with microfluidics for fast detection of biological warfare agents. (United States)

    Matatagui, Daniel; Fontecha, José Luis; Fernández, María Jesús; Gràcia, Isabel; Cané, Carles; Santos, José Pedro; Horrillo, María Carmen


    The following paper examines a time-efficient method for detecting biological warfare agents (BWAs). The method is based on a system of a Love-wave immunosensor combined with a microfluidic chip which detects BWA samples in a dynamic mode. In this way a continuous flow-through of the sample is created, promoting the reaction between antigen and antibody and allowing a fast detection of the BWAs. In order to prove this method, static and dynamic modes have been simulated and different concentrations of BWA simulants have been tested with two immunoreactions: phage M13 has been detected using the mouse monoclonal antibody anti-M13 (AM13), and the rabbit immunoglobulin (Rabbit IgG) has been detected using the polyclonal antibody goat anti-rabbit (GAR). Finally, different concentrations of each BWA simulants have been detected with a fast response time and a desirable level of discrimination among them has been achieved.

  7. Research on Electronic Warfare Operational Simulation Experiment Design%电子对抗作战仿真实验设计研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶玉; 耿松涛; 王枭犇


      针对目前电子对抗作战仿真实验设计中存在的突出问题,对电子对抗作战仿真实验设计进行研究。介绍我军电子对抗作战仿真实验设计的发展现状,分析电子对抗作战仿真实验设计中存在的问题,提出结合实验目的规范电子对抗作战仿真实验设计的思路。该研究为实现电子对抗作战仿真实验设计的规范化、标准化做出了有益探索。%Aiming at the problems existed in designing electronic warfare operational simulation experiment, electronic warfare operational simulation experiment design is researched. It introduces the development situation of PLA’s electronic warfare operational simulation experiment firstly, analyses the problems in designing electronic warfare operational simulation experiment, and brings a design idea that combines it with experiment goals for electronic warfare operational simulation experiment. The research can offer reference for realize the normalization and standardization of electronic warfare campaign simulation experimental design.

  8. Naval electronic warfare simulation for effectiveness assessment and softkill programmability facility (United States)

    Lançon, F.


    The Anti-ship Missile (ASM) threat to be faced by ships will become more diverse and difficult. Intelligence, rules of engagement constraints, fast reaction-time for effective softkill solution require specific tools to design Electronic Warfare (EW) systems and to integrate it onboard ship. SAGEM Company provides decoy launcher system [1] and its associated Naval Electronic Warfare Simulation tool (NEWS) to permit softkill effectiveness analysis for anti-ship missile defence. NEWS tool generates virtual environment for missile-ship engagement and counter-measure simulator over a wide spectrum: RF, IR, EO. It integrates EW Command & Control (EWC2) process which is implemented in decoy launcher system and performs Monte-Carlo batch processing to evaluate softkill effectiveness in different engagement situations. NEWS is designed to allow immediate EWC2 process integration from simulation to real decoy launcher system. By design, it allows the final operator to be able to program, test and integrate its own EWC2 module and EW library onboard, so intelligence of each user is protected and evolution of threat can be taken into account through EW library update. The objectives of NEWS tool are also to define a methodology for trial definition and trial data reduction. Growth potential would permit to design new concept for EWC2 programmability and real time effectiveness estimation in EW system. This tool can also be used for operator training purpose. This paper presents the architecture design, the softkill programmability facility concept and the flexibility for onboard integration on ship. The concept of this operationally focused simulation, which is to use only one tool for design, development, trial validation and operational use, will be demonstrated.

  9. Media Discourse in an Atmosphere of Information Warfare: From Manipulation to Aggression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Владимир Иванович Озюменко


    Full Text Available In todays atmosphere of information warfare the biased impact of the media has increased, pushing behind other functions, including the informative one. The forms of media influence have also changed: direct persuasion has been replaced by implicit manipulation, which develops into outright aggression. Since, in the media discourse aggression can be both verbal and non-verbal, we propose to use the term information (or media aggression , which is broader than verbal aggression . Media aggression can be considered as a binary process - in relation to the referent (affective aggression and in relation to the audience (cognitive aggression. As a result, the information under media aggression refers to the expression of open hostility and animosity towards the referent and meaningful impact on the consciousness of the recipient (the target audience to its ideological subordination. The purpose of this article is to justify the hypothesis that the growing media aggression is a feature of modern media discourse in the atmosphere of information warfare, and this function can be analysed within the framework of manipulative discourse as manipulative persuasion. The data has been taken from quality British and American newspapers, news websites of The BBC, The Economist, The Guardian, The New York Times, The Washington Post, and some others covering the relations between Russia and the USA, the situation in the Middle East, particularly in Syria. The the study was conducted using critical discourse analysis (Fairclough 2001, Van Dijk 2006, 2009; Wodak 2007; Weiss, Wodak 2007 and the multimodal approach (Ivanova, Spodarets 2010; Ponton 2016, and reveals various strategies and means of linguistic manipulation and media aggression. It also shows that the main aim of linguistic manipulation accentuated by verbal and non-verbal aggression is to deliberately mislead the audience imposing on it the desired idea of ideological subordination. Therefore, a

  10. Bioterrorism and Biological Warfare, from Past to the Present: A classic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Zare Bidaki


    Full Text Available Bioterrorism is defined as any terrorist action of intentional release or dissemination of highly pathogenic biological agents, including a variety of microorganisms or biological toxins. With the growing threat of terrorism, is necessary that the potential danger of various microorganisms – as a powerful tool of aggression and threat- to be taken seriously. This review tries to explain the concept of biological weapons and their historical development process with an emphasis on efforts to control the proliferation of these types of weapons over the last century. Potential impact of infectious diseases on people and armed forces was known from since 600 BC. Using the victims of the plague as a weapon in medieval warfare and spread of smallpox as a weapon during the war against the Indians when initially America was discovered, the development of biological weapons during the World War I, World War II and the Cold War, and even since the beginning of the third millennium, all show the strategic importance of pathogenic microorganisms as a deterrent power for the superiority of some governments and cults. Historical attempts to use infectious diseases as biological weapons reveal that the distinction between a natural outbreak of an infectious disease and that of a deliberate biological attack is very difficult. Abusing this characteristic of infectious diseases has made it possible for the purposes of superiority. International agreements to control the development of biological weapons, such as “the 1925 Geneva Protocol” and “the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Biological and Toxic Weapons” have not been able to control the development and using of biological warfare.  The current paper is a classic review (Overview article aiming at increasing the knowledge and awareness of people especially of health authorities and government officials.

  11. Mobile Warfare

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ In 1984, US computer manufacturer Apple spent almost USD 1.5 million on a lavish, Ridley Scott-directed commercial for its new Macintosh 128k personal computer. A year later, Microsoft released Microsoft Windows for IBM PC, signaling the start of the battle for domi-nation of the personal computer market which has waged ever since.

  12. Toxic Warfare (United States)


    suicide squad from the LTTE sea ______________ 34See “FARC Allegedly Using Acid, Tar, Feces to Make Bombs,” El Tiempo , September 6, 2001, accessed from...Program and ser - vices provided by the University of Texas A&M Emergency Re- sponder Training Program. Three interactive training CD-ROMs for the emergency...Bombs,” El Tiempo , September 6, 2001, accessed from FBIS-LAP-20010906000034. “FBI Starts Nationwide Records Check on HAZMAT Truckers,” CNN Online

  13. Nuclear warfare

    CERN Multimedia



    Le Prof.Broda a étudié à Vienne et Berlin et a travaillé pendant la dernière guerre mondiale en Grande Bretagne pour le conseil de la recherche médicale, notamment sur la chimie de la vision. Il est maintenant Prof. de la chimie, physique et radiochimie à l'Université de Vienne, où il concentre ses travaux sur les méchanisme de transport d'énergie à travers les cellules de membranes.

  14. Millennial Warfare (United States)


    processes of segmentation and fragmentation, and sovereignty. Segmentation is accomplished through dividing the terrain into zones of monopolistic...discussed idea of segmentation , and form the foundation for Kalyvas’ idea of zones. He breaks down the area of operations into fives zones, each with...dataset may have been motivated by frustration over failure to achieve expected success in the job market following their education.54 This analysis

  15. Hybrid Warfare (United States)


    Air and Space Studies, Air University and JSOU Associate Fellow William W. Mendel Colonel, U.S. Army, Ret. JSOU Senior Fellow Alvaro de Souza... Gregor , “Military Planning Systems and Stability Operations,” Prism 1, no. 3 (June 2010). Gregor’s analysis is an even account regarding the role of

  16. Electronic Warfare (United States)


    2) The use of the EMS is essential to control the OE during all military operations. The transfer of information from the collectors to the...frequencies used for satellite communications (SATCOM); the effects of solar activities such as sunspots, solar flares, and atmospheric fluctuations, alteration, suppression, absorption , denial, enhancement, or reflection of EM energy in a manner intended to convey misleading

  17. Air Warfare (United States)


    advanced waves of friendly troops, have already been described. It was noted also that the airplane finally came to be relied on for the performance of...vivid imagination to conjure up one, where it would be justifiable to use all bom- bardment units against the very advanced waves of infantry. Another

  18. Identification of water-bearing fractures by the use of geophysical logs, May to July 1998, former Naval Air Warfare Center, Bucks County, Pennsylvania (United States)

    Conger, Randall W.; Bird, Philip H.


    Between May and July 1998, 10 monitor wells were drilled near the site of the former Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC), Warminster, Bucks County, Pa., to monitor water levels and sample ground water in shallow and intermediate water-bearing fractures. The sampling will determine the horizontal and vertical distribution of contaminated ground water migrating from known or suspected sources. Three boreholes were drilled on the property at 960 Jacksonville Road, at the northwestern side of NAWC, along strike from Area A; seven boreholes were drilled in Area B in the southeastern corner of NAWC. Depths range from 40.5 to 150 feet below land surface. Borehole geophysical logging and video surveys were used to identify water-bearing fractures so that appropriate intervals could be screened in each monitor well. Geophysical logs were obtained at the 10 monitor wells. Video surveys were obtained at three monitor wells in the southeastern corner of the NAWC property. Caliper logs and video surveys were used to locate fractures. Inflections on fluid-temperature and fluid-resistivity logs were used to locate possible water-bearing fractures. Heatpulse-flowmeter measurements verified these locations. Natural-gamma logs provided information on stratigraphy. After interpretation of geophysical logs, video surveys, and driller?s logs, all wells were screened such that water-level fluctuations could be monitored and water samples collected from discrete water-bearing fractures in each monitor well.

  19. Chemical and biological warfare: Protection, decontamination, and disposal. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The bibliography contains citations concerning the means to defend against chemical and biological agents used in military operations, and to eliminate the effects of such agents on personnel, equipment, and grounds. Protection is accomplished through protective clothing and masks, and in buildings and shelters through filtration. Elimination of effects includes decontamination and removal of the agents from clothing, equipment, buildings, grounds, and water, using chemical deactivation, incineration, and controlled disposal of material in injection wells and ocean dumping. Other Published Searches in this series cover chemical warfare detection; defoliants; general studies; biochemistry and therapy; and biology, chemistry, and toxicology associated with chemical warfare agents.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  20. Chemical and biological warfare: Protection, decontamination, and disposal. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The bibliography contains citations concerning the means to defend against chemical and biological agents used in military operations, and to eliminate the effects of such agents on personnel, equipment, and grounds. Protection is accomplished through protective clothing and masks, and in buildings and shelters through filtration. Elimination of effects includes decontamination and removal of the agents from clothing, equipment, buildings, grounds, and water, using chemical deactivation, incineration, and controlled disposal of material in injection wells and ocean dumping. Other Published Searches in this series cover chemical warfare detection; defoliants; general studies; biochemistry and therapy; and biology, chemistry, and toxicology associated with chemical warfare agents. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  1. Modeling and Optimal Control of a Class of Warfare Hybrid Dynamic Systems Based on Lanchester (n,1 Attrition Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangyong Chen


    hybrid dynamic systems is established based on Lanchester equation in a (n,1 battle, where a heterogeneous force of n different troop types faces a homogeneous force. This model can be characterized by the interaction of continuous-time models (governed by Lanchester equation, and discrete event systems (described by variable tactics. Furthermore, an expository discussion is presented on an optimal variable tactics control problem for warfare hybrid dynamic system. The optimal control strategies are designed based on dynamic programming and differential game theory. As an example of the consequences of this optimal control problem, we take the (2, 1 case and solve the optimal strategies in a (2, 1 case. Simulation results show the feasibility of warfare hybrid system model and the effectiveness of the optimal control strategies designed.

  2. A Comparison of Neutron-Based Non-Destructive Assessment Methods for Chemical Warfare Materiel and High Explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.H. Seabury; D.L. Chichester; C.J. Wharton; A.J. Caffrey


    Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) systems employ neutrons as a probe to interrogate items, e.g. chemical warfare materiel-filled munitions. The choice of a neutron source in field-portable systems is determined by its ability to excite nuclei of interest, operational concerns such as radiological safety and ease-of-use, and cost. Idaho National Laboratory’s PINS Chemical Assay System has traditionally used a Cf-252 isotopic neutron source, but recently a Deuterium-Tritium (DT) Electronic Neutron Generator (ENG) has been tested as an alternate neutron source. This paper presents the results of using both of these neutron sources to interrogate chemical warfare materiel (CWM) and high explosive (HE) filled munitions.

  3. A hybrid method for protection against threats to a network infrastructure for an electronic warfare management system (United States)

    Byłak, Michał; RóŻański, Grzegorz


    The article presents the concept of ensuring the security of network information infrastructure for the management of Electronic Warfare (EW) systems. The concept takes into account the reactive and proactive tools against threats. An overview of the methods used to support the safety of IT networks and information sources about threats is presented. Integration of mechanisms that allow for effective intrusion detection and rapid response to threats in a network has been proposed. The architecture of the research environment is also presented.

  4. Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) : a case study of Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center San Diego's Project Cabrillo


    Hoffman, Dean M.; Oxendine, Eric


    Approved for public release; distribution unlimited This thesis examines the Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) pilot implementation conducted at the Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center San Diego (SSC-SD), the first of four Department of the Navy (DON) pilot implementations. Specifically, comparisons are drawn between both successful and unsuccessful ERP implementations within private sector organizations and that of SSC-SD. Any commonalities in implementation challenges could be...

  5. An Irony of War: Human Development as Warfare in Afghanistan (Colloquium, Volume 3, Number 3, October 2010) (United States)


    other type of warfare, do not associate human development with counterinsurgency (COIN). In fact, " Human development " is not a standard term in the...34 Human development is a process of enlarging people’s choices. The most critical of these wide-ranging choices are to live a long and healthy life, to...public administration, health system, communications, education, and, sometimes, the rule of law and security, they are trying to build human

  6. The Short-Term Effect of Chest Physiotherapy on Spirometric Indices in Chemical Warfare Victims Exposed to Mustard Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Abedi


    Full Text Available ABCTRACT Introduction & Objective: Chronic respiratory diseases are the most prevalent late sequels of sulfur mustard gas injury among Iranian chemical warfare victims. Chest physiotherapy is one of the useful methods in care, cure and infection prevention of these patients. The aim of this study was to determine the short-term effect of chest physiotherapy on spirometric indices in chemical warfare victims exposed to sulfur mustard gas. Materials & Methods: In this study, 27 of the chemical warfare victims with respiratory diseases were selected. Chest physiotherapy including postural drainage percussion and vibration were used in four positions for all patients. Pulmonary function test (PFT was obtained before (baseline, immediately and 20 minute after the chest physiotherapy. The SPSS software was used for the data analysis of the collected data. Results: Results of this study showed the significant effect (p<0.01 of chest physiotherapy upon forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV1 (baseline mean, 44.19 immediately after intervention mean 47.3 and 20 minute after intervention mean 48.3 and forced vital capacity (FVC (baseline mean, 69.37 immediately after intervention mean, 73.67 20 minute after intervention 75.74. Chest physiotherapy had significant effect (p<0.01 in asthmatic bronchitis group and also had significant effect (p<0.05 in both severe and moderate groups. Conclusion: Chest physiotherapy was able to improve pulmonary function test indices in chemical warfare victims suffering from respiratory problems. The effect on asthmatic bronchitis group, as well as both severe and moderate groups, was significant.

  7. The Soldier-Cyborg Transformation: A Framework for Analysis of Social and Ethical Issues of Future Warfare (United States)



  8. Use of Simulation for Training in the U.S. Navy Surface Force (United States)


    STCW ) for Seafarers establishes minimum requirements for personnel in certain areas of responsibility, as well as more-general requirements for all...Status of Resources and Training System SPAWAR Space and Naval Warfare Systems Command SSAAC Surface Ship Acoustic Analysis Center STCW Standards of...standards are established through the International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification, and Watchkeeping ( STCW ) for Seafarers, and the

  9. Social networks as a new tool of information warfare in the modern world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. W. Kovalevych


    Full Text Available With the rapid development of information technologies, especially the Internet, people are becoming increasingly dependent on information that surrounds them. And social networks, where a person spends most of their time, become the ideal instruments of influence on the people consciousness and information warfare. Due to psychological factors ( such as ‘spiral of silence’, the herd instinct, the entire credibility of published information, opinion leaders, the desire for self­realization or replacement of reality that influence the human behavior in the network and the use of models of influence (model of network attack, model of involving users as volunteers, total block model, social networks become a platform for the dissemination of political ideas, ideologies and implementation of the ‘color revolutions’. However, social media play a positive role, especially in the establishment of civil society and the free flow of information. Positive or negative impact of networks primary depends on the purpose of use of social networking tools.

  10. Chemical and Biological Warfare: Should Rapid Detection Techniques Be Researched To Dissuade Usage? A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark R. Hurst


    Full Text Available Chemistry, microbiology and genetic engineering have opened new doorways for the human race to propel itself to a better future. However, there is a darker side to Bioengineering. One element of this is the manufacture and proliferation of biological and chemical weapons. It is clearly in the interest of humankind to prevent the future use of such weapons of mass destruction. Though many agents have been proposed as potential biological and chemical weapons, the feasibility of these weapons is a matter of conjecture. The unpredictable and indiscriminate devastation caused by natural epidemics and hazardous chemicals during wartime without medical treatment should warn humans of the dangers of employing them as weapons. This study argues rapid detection techniques may dissuade future use. Many agents are far less toxic to treatment. A quick response time to most attacks will decrease the chances of serious health issues. The agent will be less effective and discourage the attacker from using the weapon. Fortunately, the Chemical and Biological Weapons Convention (CWCIBWC allows defensive work in the area of biological and chemical weapons. Consequently, the review will discuss history, delivery/dispersal systems and specific agents of the warfare. The study presents current developments in biosensors for toxic materials of defense interest. It concludes with future directions for biosensor development.

  11. Healthcare and warfare. Medical space, mission and apartheid in twentieth century northern Namibia. (United States)

    Nord, Catharina


    In the year 1966, the first government hospital, Oshakati hospital, was inaugurated in northern South-West Africa. It was constructed by the apartheid regime of South Africa which was occupying the territory. Prior to this inauguration, Finnish missionaries had, for 65 years, provided healthcare to the indigenous people in a number of healthcare facilities of which Onandjokwe hospital was the most important. This article discusses these two agents' ideological standpoints. The same year, the war between the South-West African guerrillas and the South African state started, and continued up to 1988. The two hospitals became involved in the war; Oshakati hospital as a part of the South African war machinery, and Onandjokwe hospital as a 'terrorist hospital' in the eyes of the South Africans. The missionary Onandjokwe hospital was linked to the Lutheran church in South-West Africa, which became one of the main critics of the apartheid system early in the liberation war. Warfare and healthcare became intertwined with apartheid policies and aggression, materialised by healthcare provision based on strategic rationales rather than the people's healthcare needs. When the Namibian state took over a ruined healthcare system in 1990, the two hospitals were hubs in a healthcare landscape shaped by missionary ambitions, war and apartheid logic.

  12. Virtual Warfare: Masculinity, Sexuality, and Propaganda in the Russo-Ukrainian War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryna Romanets


    Full Text Available This paper explores the intersection of sexual and political discourses as a particular aspect of the body politics that Russia has employed, among other strategies, in its massive propaganda offensive during the hybrid warfare against Ukraine.While recognizing sexuality as one of the mainstream concepts in political analysis, the paper draws on sexually explicit imagery and idiom used in Russian social media, and public discursive space in general, as propaganda techniques, and maps their “genealogy” within wider sociocultural and political contexts. Being conceptualized in terms of Russian hegemonic masculinity in relation to subordinated femininity and non-hegemonic masculinities of its adversarial others, these setups reveal how sexuality constitutes uneven and contradictory nexuses of power once being co-opted by Putin’s propaganda machine. It is noteworthy that Russia’s neo-imperial discursive tactics of homologizing sexual and political dominance—when supplemented with the official rhetoric of restituting Russia as a great power, Orthodox Christian fundamentalism as an integral part of Russian unique “state-civilization,” state-sanctioned homophobia, and traditional macho gender ideology—contribute quite effectively to sustaining public support in Russia for aggression against Ukraine in the process of Russian reimperialization of the former Soviet space.

  13. Ultra-Fast Degradation of Chemical Warfare Agents Using MOF-Nanofiber Kebabs. (United States)

    Zhao, Junjie; Lee, Dennis T; Yaga, Robert W; Hall, Morgan G; Barton, Heather F; Woodward, Ian R; Oldham, Christopher J; Walls, Howard J; Peterson, Gregory W; Parsons, Gregory N


    The threat associated with chemical warfare agents (CWAs) motivates the development of new materials to provide enhanced protection with a reduced burden. Metal-organic frame-works (MOFs) have recently been shown as highly effective catalysts for detoxifying CWAs, but challenges still remain for integrating MOFs into functional filter media and/or protective garments. Herein, we report a series of MOF-nanofiber kebab structures for fast degradation of CWAs. We found TiO2 coatings deposited via atomic layer deposition (ALD) onto polyamide-6 nanofibers enable the formation of conformal Zr-based MOF thin films including UiO-66, UiO-66-NH2 , and UiO-67. Cross-sectional TEM images show that these MOF crystals nucleate and grow directly on and around the nanofibers, with strong attachment to the substrates. These MOF-functionalized nanofibers exhibit excellent reactivity for detoxifying CWAs. The half-lives of a CWA simulant compound and nerve agent soman (GD) are as short as 7.3 min and 2.3 min, respectively. These results therefore provide the earliest report of MOF-nanofiber textile composites capable of ultra-fast degradation of CWAs.

  14. Medical effects of internal contamination with actinides: further controversy on depleted uranium and radioactive warfare. (United States)

    Durakovic, Asaf


    The Nuclear Age began in 1945 with testing in New Mexico, USA, and the subsequent bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Regardless of attempts to limit the development of nuclear weapons, the current world arsenal has reached the staggering dimensions and presents a significant concern for the biosphere and mankind. In an explosion of a nuclear weapon, over 400 radioactive isotopes are released into the biosphere, 40 of which pose potential dangers including iodine, cesium, alkaline earths, and actinides. The immediate health effects of nuclear explosions include thermal, mechanical, and acute radiation syndrome. Long-term effects include radioactive fallout, internal contamination, and long-term genotoxicity. The current controversial concern over depleted uranium's somatic and genetic toxicity is still a subject of worldwide sustained research. The host of data generated in the past decades has demonstrated conflicting findings, with the most recent evidence showing that its genotoxicity is greater than previously considered. Of particular concern are the osteotropic properties of uranium isotopes due to their final retention in the crystals of exchangeable and nonexchangeable bone as well as their proximity to pluripotent stem cells. Depleted uranium remains an unresolved issue in both warfare and the search for alternative energy sources.

  15. Metabolic Syndrome in Chemical Warfare Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrzad M. Lari


    Full Text Available   Introduction: Sulfur mustard (SM, a toxic alkylating gas, can cause serious long-term pulmonary complications such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Metabolic syndrome (MetS is one of the important comorbidities of COPD. This study was designed to evaluate the frequency of metabolic syndrome in Iranian chemical warfare patients (CWPs with COPD. Materials and Methods: Thirty CWPs with a mean age of 46.93± 6.8 were enrolled in this study. The following parameters were studied in: complete pulmonary function tests, health-related quality of life, serum triglycerides (TG, high density lipoprotein (HDL and fasting blood sugar (FBS levels. Additionally, 32 COPD patients and 56 healthy persons were considered as control groups who were matched to CWPs. Results: We found a statistically significant difference in the frequency of MetS between the COPD patients and the healthy control group (p=0.04. Additionally, we observed a statistically significant difference in the mean HDL levels among these groups (p=

  16. China’s Three Warfares Strategy Mitigates Fallout From Cyber Espionage Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Iasiello


    Full Text Available China is engaged in longstanding cyber espionage against the U.S., as well as other nations, to collect sensitive public and private information in support of national objectives laid out in its 12th Five Year Plan. Foreign governments citing China’s malfeasance have rebuked these activities, a claim vehemently denied by Beijing. In response, China is leveraging the “Three Warfares” an integrated three-prong information warfare strategy to combat these accusations by leveraging Media, Legal, and Psychological components designed to influence the international community. While the United States has threatened the imposition of economic sanctions, Beijing has successfully parried consequential actions by arresting U.S.-identified hackers, thereby demonstrating its commitment toward preserving a stable and peaceful cyberspace. These interrelated “Three Warfares” disciplines have targeted the cognitive processes of the U.S. leadership, as well as the international public’s perception of China as a global threat, thereby having successfully forestalled the implementation of any effective punitive or economic deterrence strategy to include the imposition of cyber sanctions.

  17. Modified clay minerals efficiency against chemical and biological warfare agents for civil human protection. (United States)

    Plachá, Daniela; Rosenbergová, Kateřina; Slabotínský, Jiří; Kutláková, Kateřina Mamulová; Studentová, Soňa; Martynková, Gražyna Simha


    Sorption efficiencies of modified montmorillonite and vermiculite of their mono ionic Na and organic HDTMA and HDP forms were studied against chemical and biological warfare agents such as yperite and selected bacterial strains. Yperite interactions with modified clay minerals were observed through its capture in low-density polyethylene foil-modified clay composites by measuring yperite gas permeation with using chemical indication and gas chromatography methods. The antibacterial activities of synthetized organoclays were tested against selected Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial species in minimum inhibitory concentration tests. The obtained results showed a positive influence of modified clay minerals on the significant yperite breakthrough-time increase. The most effective material was the polyethylene-Na form montmorillonite, while the polyethylene-Na form vermiculite showed the lowest efficiency. With increasing organic cations loading in the interlayer space the montmorillonite efficiency decreased, and in the case of vermiculite an opposite effect was observed. Generally the modified montmorillonites were more effective than modified vermiculites. The HDP cations seem to be more effective compare to the HDTMA. The antibacterial activity tests confirmed efficiency of all organically modified clay minerals against Gram-positive bacteria. The confirmation of antibacterial activity against Y. pestis, plague bacteria, is the most interesting result of this part of the study.

  18. Extraordinary Measures: Drone Warfare, Securitization, and the “War on Terror”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romaniuk Scott Nicholas


    Full Text Available The use of unmanned aerial vehicles or “drones,” as part of the United States’ (US targeted killing (TK program dramatically increased after the War on Terror (WoT was declared. With the ambiguous nature and parameters of the WoT, and stemming from the postulation of numerous low-level, niche-, and other securitizations producing a monolithic threat, US drone operations now constitute a vital stitch in the extensive fabric of US counterterrorism policy. This article employs the theories of securitization and macrosecuritization as discussed by Buzan (1991, 2006, and Buzan and Wæver (2009 to understand targeted killing, by means of weaponized drones, as an extraordinary measure according to the Copenhagen School’s interpretation. An overarching securitization and the use of the “security” label warrants the emergency action of targeted killing through the use of drones as an extraordinary measure. We argue that the WoT serves as a means of securitizing global terrorism as a threat significant enough to warrant the use of drone warfare as an extraordinary use of force. By accepting the WoT as a securitization process we can reasonably accept that the US’ response(s against that threat are also securitized and therefore become extraordinary measures.

  19. The possible role of intravenous lipid emulsion in the treatment of chemical warfare agent poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arik Eisenkraft


    Full Text Available Organophosphates (OPs are cholinesterase inhibitors that lead to a characteristic toxidrome of hypersecretion, miosis, dyspnea, respiratory insufficiency, convulsions and, without proper and early antidotal treatment, death. Most of these compounds are highly lipophilic. Sulfur mustard is a toxic lipophilic alkylating agent, exerting its damage through alkylation of cellular macromolecules (e.g., DNA, proteins and intense activation of pro-inflammatory pathways. Currently approved antidotes against OPs include the peripheral anticholinergic drug atropine and an oxime that reactivates the inhibited cholinesterase. Benzodiazepines are used to stop organophosphate-induced seizures. Despite these approved drugs, efforts have been made to introduce other medical countermeasures in order to attenuate both the short-term and long-term clinical effects following exposure. Currently, there is no antidote against sulfur mustard poisoning. Intravenous lipid emulsions are used as a source of calories in parenteral nutrition. In recent years, efficacy of lipid emulsions has been shown in the treatment of poisoning by fat-soluble compounds in animal models as well as clinically in humans. In this review we discuss the usefulness of intravenous lipid emulsions as an adjunct to the in-hospital treatment of chemical warfare agent poisoning.

  20. Approximation and Filtering Techniques for Navigation Data in Time-critical Electronic Warfare Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanitha D.


    Full Text Available This paper presents a holistic solution to the navigation requirements in a time critical electronic warfare systems like missile warning systems (MWS. In a passive MWS using IR sensors the efficiency of the system is determined by attributes such as low false alarm rate, minimal response time and ability to track different IR radiating objects by association and correlation of consecutive detections through time. Such a system is required to be supported by a navigation system capable of accurate estimation of the aircraft position, attitude angles and altitude. In this paper, estimation techniques used to accurately calculate aircraft navigation data at the time of capture of IR frames are discussed. The paper discusses about synchronization of INGPS, IR sensors & Processor on to same timeline. The paper also intends to evaluate the performance of wavelet transform filter in effective elimination of noise in navigation parameters like acceleration and attitude angle rates for a better estimation of position and attitude.Defence Science Journal, 2013, 63(2, pp.204-209, DOI:

  1. Toxicogenomic studies of human neural cells following exposure to organophosphorus chemical warfare nerve agent VX. (United States)

    Gao, Xiugong; Lin, Hsiuling; Ray, Radharaman; Ray, Prabhati


    Organophosphorus (OP) compounds represent an important group of chemical warfare nerve agents that remains a significant and constant military and civilian threat. OP compounds are considered acting primarily via cholinergic pathways by binding irreversibly to acetylcholinesterase, an important regulator of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Many studies over the past years have suggested that other mechanisms of OP toxicity exist, which need to be unraveled by a comprehensive and systematic approach such as genome-wide gene expression analysis. Here we performed a microarray study in which cultured human neural cells were exposed to 0.1 or 10 μM of VX for 1 h. Global gene expression changes were analyzed 6, 24, and 72 h post exposure. Functional annotation and pathway analysis of the differentially expressed genes has revealed many genes, networks and canonical pathways that are related to nervous system development and function, or to neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease, and Parkinson's disease. In particular, the neuregulin pathway impacted by VX exposure has important implications in many nervous system diseases including schizophrenia. These results provide useful information valuable in developing suitable antidotes for more effective prevention and treatment of, as well as in developing biomarkers for, VX-induced chronic neurotoxicity.

  2. Smart limbed vehicles for naval applications. Part II. Relevant technologies and performance evaluation. Interim report on research work on smart vehicle concepts for military use on the ocean surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weisberg, A.; Wood, L.


    Research work in smart, unmanned water-traversing limbed vehicles for naval warfare applications is reported. The areas covered include prime movers, power transformers and actuators, structural considerations, physical control, joint servo-control, motion control, visual data and the ocean surface, smartness, and vehicle characterization. (TFD)

  3. 竞技排球运动心理战理论模型的构建%Theoretical Models of Psychological Warfare Built in Competitive Volleyball

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    通过对军事心理学中心理战思想的精心研读,结合竞技排球运动与战场心理战的共通之处,从理论建设、专业人才建设、规章制度建设、谋略创新建设以及球队心理素质建设五个方面构建了竞技排球运动心理战的理论模型。%This article through the study of thoughts of psychological warfare in military psychology carefully, combined with the commons of volleyball and psychological warfare, from five aspects that construction of theory, construction of professional, and construction of rules and regulations, construction of counsel innovation and construction of team psychological quality to construct the theoretical model of psychological warfare of volleyball.

  4. Research on the Interaction of Hydrogen-Bond Acidic Polymer Sensitive Sensor Materials with Chemical Warfare Agents Simulants by Inverse Gas Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yang


    Full Text Available Hydrogen-bond acidic polymers are important high affinity materials sensitive to organophosphates in the chemical warfare agent sensor detection process. Interactions between the sensor sensitive materials and chemical warfare agent simulants were studied by inverse gas chromatography. Hydrogen bonded acidic polymers, i.e., BSP3, were prepared for micro-packed columns to examine the interaction. DMMP (a nerve gas simulant and 2-CEES (a blister agent simulant were used as probes. Chemical and physical parameters such as heats of absorption and Henry constants of the polymers to DMMP and 2-CEES were determined by inverse gas chromatography. Details concerning absorption performance are also discussed in this paper.

  5. Research on the interaction of hydrogen-bond acidic polymer sensitive sensor materials with chemical warfare agents simulants by inverse gas chromatography. (United States)

    Yang, Liu; Han, Qiang; Cao, Shuya; Huang, Feng; Qin, Molin; Guo, Chenghai; Ding, Mingyu


    Hydrogen-bond acidic polymers are important high affinity materials sensitive to organophosphates in the chemical warfare agent sensor detection process. Interactions between the sensor sensitive materials and chemical warfare agent simulants were studied by inverse gas chromatography. Hydrogen bonded acidic polymers, i.e., BSP3, were prepared for micro-packed columns to examine the interaction. DMMP (a nerve gas simulant) and 2-CEES (a blister agent simulant) were used as probes. Chemical and physical parameters such as heats of absorption and Henry constants of the polymers to DMMP and 2-CEES were determined by inverse gas chromatography. Details concerning absorption performance are also discussed in this paper.

  6. Chemical and biological warfare: Biochemistry, therapy, and treatment. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The bibliography contains citations concerning biochemistry, therapy, and treatment of the effects of military chemical and biological warfare agents. References include surveys and studies of immunizing agents and drugs, the efficacy of these drugs, and the effect of the drugs on the patient. Also included are biochemical studies, assay techniques, and antidote development, some of which is supported by animal studies. Citations concerning detection and warning, defoliants, protection, biology and toxicology, and general studies are covered in separate bibliographies.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  7. Chemical and biological warfare: Biochemistry, therapy, and treatment. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The bibliography contains citations concerning biochemistry, therapy, and treatment of the effects of military chemical and biological warfare agents. References include surveys and studies of immunizing agents and drugs, the efficacy of these drugs, and the effect of the drugs on the patient. Also included are biochemical studies, assay techniques, and antidote development, some of which is supported by animal studies. Citations concerning detection and warning, defoliants, protection, biology and toxicology, and general studies are covered in separate bibliographies.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  8. Fate of chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial chemicals in landfills. (United States)

    Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon L; Barlaz, Morton A; Knappe, Detlef R U; Kjeldsen, Peter


    One component of preparedness for a chemical attack is planning for the disposal of contaminated debris. To assess the feasibility of contaminated debris disposal in municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills, the fate of selected chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) in MSW landfills was predicted with a mathematical model. Five blister agents [sulfur mustard (HD), nitrogen mustard (HN-2), lewisite (L), ethyldichloroarsine (ED), and phosgene oxime (CX)], eight nerve agents [tabun (GA), sarin (GB), soman (GD), GE, GF, VX, VG, and VM], one riot-control agent [CS], and two TICs [furan and carbon disulfide] were studied. The effects of both infiltration (climate) and contaminant biodegradability on fate predictions were assessed. Model results showed that hydrolysis and gas-phase advection were the principal fate pathways for CWAs and TICs, respectively. Apart from CX and the TICs, none of the investigated compounds was predicted to persist in a landfill for more than 5 years. Climate had little impact on CWA/TIC fate, and biodegradability was only important for compounds with long hydrolysis half-lives. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to assess the influence of uncertainty in model input parameters on CWA/TIC fate predictions. Correlation analyses showed that uncertainty in hydrolysis rate constants was the primary contributor to variance of CWA fate predictions, while uncertainty in the Henry's Law constant and landfill gas-production rate accounted for most of the variance of TIC fate predictions. CWA hydrolysates were more persistent than the parent CWAs, but limited information is available on abiotic or biotic transformation rates for these chemicals.

  9. Advances in toxicology and medical treatment of chemical warfare nerve agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moshiri Mohammd


    Full Text Available Abstract Organophosphorous (OP Nerve agents (NAs are known as the deadliest chemical warfare agents. They are divided into two classes of G and V agents. Most of them are liquid at room temperature. NAs chemical structures and mechanisms of actions are similar to OP pesticides, but their toxicities are higher than these compounds. The main mechanism of action is irreversible inhibition of Acetyl Choline Esterase (AChE resulting in accumulation of toxic levels of acetylcholine (ACh at the synaptic junctions and thus induces muscarinic and nicotinic receptors stimulation. However, other mechanisms have recently been described. Central nervous system (CNS depression particularly on respiratory and vasomotor centers may induce respiratory failure and cardiac arrest. Intermediate syndrome after NAs exposure is less common than OP pesticides poisoning. There are four approaches to detect exposure to NAs in biological samples: (I AChE activity measurement, (II Determination of hydrolysis products in plasma and urine, (III Fluoride reactivation of phosphylated binding sites and (IV Mass spectrometric determination of cholinesterase adducts. The clinical manifestations are similar to OP pesticides poisoning, but with more severity and fatalities. The management should be started as soon as possible. The victims should immediately be removed from the field and treatment is commenced with auto-injector antidotes (atropine and oximes such as MARK I kit. A 0.5% hypochlorite solution as well as novel products like M291 Resin kit, G117H and Phosphotriesterase isolated from soil bacterias, are now available for decontamination of NAs. Atropine and oximes are the well known antidotes that should be infused as clinically indicated. However, some new adjuvant and additional treatment such as magnesium sulfate, sodium bicarbonate, gacyclidine, benactyzine, tezampanel, hemoperfusion, antioxidants and bioscavengers have recently been used for OP NAs poisoning.

  10. Mass spectrometric analysis of chemical warfare agents in support of a chemical terrorist event

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hancock, J.R.; D' Agostino, P.A.; Chenier, C.L. [Defence R and D Canada Suffield, Medicine Hat, AB (Canada)


    Chemical warfare (CW) agents are considered to be any chemicals which, through their chemical action on life processes can cause death, temporary incapacitation or permanent harm to humans or animals. In Canada, the probability of a CW terrorist attack is low despite the catastrophic consequences that would result from such an attack. The three levels of government would be responding to such an event. CW agent response training for all levels of government is offered at Defence R and D Canada-Suffield. Appropriate samples must be collected for analysis in a laboratory, as such an event would lead to a criminal investigation. Research into new methods for the identification of CW agents is being conducted by the analytical laboratory at Defence R and D Canada-Suffield. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) are being used extensively to separate and characterize CW agents in organic extracts. In the case of aqueous samples, another method might be more appropriate, since additional sample handling is required before GC-MS analysis can be performed. Minimal sample handling is required when using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) for direct analysis of CW agents. The authors demonstrated the use of LC-ESI-MS for analyzing CW agents and their hydrolysis products in aqueous samples. For the analysis of nerve agents and phosphonic acids in soil, comparable or superior results to organic extraction and GC-MS were obtained for aqueous extractions followed by LC-ESI-MS. The combination of GC-MS and LC-ESI-MS for the analysis of mustard related compounds in soil extracts from a former mustard storage area showed that the two methods are complementary in this situation. 9 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs.

  11. Limitations and challenges in treatment of acute chemical warfare agent poisoning. (United States)

    Thiermann, Horst; Worek, Franz; Kehe, Kai


    Recent news from Syria on a possible use of chemical warfare agents made the headlines. Furthermore, the motivation of terrorists to cause maximal harm shifts these agents into the public focus. For incidents with mass casualties appropriate medical countermeasures must be available. At present, the most important threats arise from nerve agents and sulfur mustard. At first, self-protection and protection of medical units from contamination is of utmost importance. Volatile nerve agent exposure, e.g. sarin, results in fast development of cholinergic crisis. Immediate clinical diagnosis can be confirmed on-site by assessment of acetylcholinesterase activity. Treatment with autoinjectors that are filled with 2mg atropine and an oxime (at present obidoxime, pralidoxime, TMB-4 or HI-6) are not effective against all nerve agents. A more aggressive atropinisation has to be considered and more effective oximes (if possible with a broad spectrum or a combination of different oximes) as well as alternative strategies to cope with high acetylcholine levels at synaptic sites should be developed. A further gap exists for the treatment of patients with sustained cholinergic crisis that has to be expected after exposure to persistent nerve agents, e.g. VX. The requirement for long-lasting artificial ventilation can be reduced with an oxime therapy that is optimized by using the cholinesterase status for guidance or by measures (e.g. scavengers) that are able to reduce the poison load substantially in the patients. For sulfur mustard poisoning no specific antidote is available until now. Symptomatic measures as used for treatment of burns are recommended together with surgical or laser debridement. Thus, huge amounts of resources are expected to be consumed as wound healing is impaired. Possible depots of sulfur mustard in tissues may aggravate the situation. More basic knowledge is necessary to improve substantially therapeutic options. The use of stem cells may provide a new

  12. Effectiveness of Unmanned Surface Vehicles in Anti-submarine Warfare with the Goal of Protecting a High Value Unit (United States)


    computational mathematics systems such as MATLAB and Mathematica; general programming languages such as Python, Java , C++, and C; and other agent...A. Peters, Eds., Inst. of Elect. and Electron. Engineers, Piscataway, NJ, 2004, pp. 171–180. [29] C. Macal and M. North, “ Tutorial on agent-based

  13. Infrared Spectra and Binding Energies of Chemical Warfare Nerve Agent Simulants on the Surface of Amorphous Silica (United States)


    such as DMMP and DFP. While many groups have investigated the fundamental interactions between select organophosphorous compounds and silica, many...substituents within organophosphorous compounds (a key characteristic of the CWAs sarin and soman7) affect the strength of hydrogen-bond formation on silica...the bonding geometries and electronic structure of the organophosphorous compounds on silica. Furthermore, the calculations enable us to explore

  14. Proceedings of the 4th Workshop on ICT Uses in Warfare and the Safeguarding of Peace 2012 (IWSP 2012), Protea Hotel Balalaika, Sandton, 16 August 2012

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Niekerk, B


    Full Text Available -1 Proceedings of the 4th Workshop on ICT Uses in Warfare and the Safeguarding of Peace 2012 (IWSP 2012), Protea Hotel Balalaika, Sandton, 16 August 2012 Edited by Dr Brett van Niekerk, Dr Louise Leenen, Trishana Ramluckan, and Prof. Manoj Maharaj A conference...

  15. Determination of contamination of a chemical warfare-proof operating theatre with volatile anaesthetic agents and assessment of anaesthetic gas scavenging systems. (United States)

    Yoganathan, S; Johnston, I G; Parnell, C J; Houghton, I T; Restall, J


    Three types of anaesthetic waste scavenging systems (active antipollution system, Papworth Block passive system and activated charcoal absorber system) were compared with a non-scavenging control to assess their effectiveness in reducing waste halothane concentrations in a chemical warfare-proof operating theatre. All three systems were found to reduce the level of pollution significantly.

  16. Mechanism of injury and microbiological flora of the geographical location are essential for the prognosis in soldiers with serious warfare injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wetterslev, Mik; Rose-Larsen, Katrine; Hansen-Schwartz, Jacob


    has been and remains a substantial part of warfare, and this review has showed us that the knowledge of the mechanism of injury is indeed essential, and that intelligence on the microbiological flora of the geographical location of the conflict is essential. FUNDING: not relevant. TRIAL REGISTRATION...

  17. Estimating areas threatened by contamination from leaking chemical warfare agents dumped into the Baltic Sea (United States)

    Jakacki, Jaromir; Przyborska, Anna; Andrzejewski, Jan


    Approximately 60,000 tons of chemical munitions were dumped into the Baltic Sea after World War II (the exact amount is unknown and some sources estimate it as more than 200,000 tons). Dumped munitions still pose a risk of leakage caused by erosion and corrosion, and it is important to know the danger areas. Because of wide dispersion of the dumped munitions, modelling is only one tool that could provide wide image of physical state of the sea at all locations and which could also be used for analysing contamination during a potential leakage. Obviously, it is possible to take samples at each dumpsite, but modelling also allows to develop possible scenarios of leakages under specific physical conditions. For the purpose of analysis of potential leakage a high-resolution model (HRM) of the contamination will be embedded in the hydrodynamic model (HM) of the Baltic Sea. The HRM will use data from general circulation model results of estimated resolution of nearly 2 km. The Parallel Ocean Program will be implemented as the HM for the whole Baltic Sea. Atmospheric data from regional implementation of the Weather Research and Forecasting System (WRF) have been used as the top boundary conditions of the HM, and sea level data from Gothenburg had been included into model barotropic equation as lateral boundary conditions. Passive tracer will represent the contamination in the HRM and horizontal resolution of the HRM will be close to 50 meters. Passive tracers will also be implemented in the HM - for comparison of the results. For proper representation of potential leakage of chemical warfare agents the HRM will have included diffusion and advection processes. The results from the HM are going to be interpolated into the HRM domain and then integration will be performed. Based on the implemented simulations, estimated contaminated area and its comparison from the HRM as well as from the HM will be presented. The research work was fund by the European Union (European

  18. Anthropogenic landforms of warfare origin and their ecological significance: the Verdun Forest, NE France (United States)

    De Matos Machado, Rémi; Amat, Jean-Paul; Arnaud-Fassetta, Gilles; Bétard, François; Bilodeau, Clélia; Jacquemot, Stéphanie; Toumazet, Jean-Pierre


    By its unprecedented industrial character, the First World War marked landscapes like no other conflict in the world. As a result of artillery bombardment and building facilities, the relief suffered major disturbances giving rise to millions anthropogenic landforms of warfare origin on the Western front: shell craters, trenches, shelters and gun sites. This landscape made of bumps and holes that dominated the lands of West Flanders and North-eastern France during the four years of war took chaotic aspects on the great battle sites. In some areas, substrate crushing by repeated bombings resulted in a field lowering of several metres. Although these geomorphological legacies of war are still present on these scarred lands, their effects on local environment and on present-day biodiversity patterns are not fully understood. On the battlefield of Verdun, where a huge number and range of conflict-induced landforms may be observed, special attention is being paid to the ecological significance of these anthropogenic landforms in a current landscape matrix dominated by forest. In 2013, an airborne LiDAR mission conducted over the battlefield has brought to light the relief inherited from the fighting that was until now concealed by the Verdun forest planted in the 1930's. Through a digital terrain model (DTM) with centimetre level accuracy, it is now possible to observe the smallest traces of the fighting. A first programmatic mapping work allowed to inventory and to locate these reliefs on the whole 10,000 hectares covered by the DTM. Also, the calculation of their geometry enabled us to quantify the erosion rate due to the military activities on the battlefield. On the basis of these morphometric measurements, a typology was developed to better appreciate the morphological diversity of conflict-induced landforms. The results show that these anthropogenic landforms are generally hollow. Because of this particular morphology, the conflict-induced landforms provide

  19. Interleukin-6 and airflow limitation in chemical warfare patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davood Attaran


    disease, interleukin-6, inflammation, chemical warfare

  20. Narrowing the zone of uncertainty between research and development in biological warfare defense. (United States)

    Huxsoll, D L


    Although "research" is not prohibited by the Biological Weapons Convention, States Parties to the Convention have maintained the spirit of the Convention in actions relating to research. The confidence-building measures agreed to at RC2 refer to research facilities, publication of research results, and promotion of contacts between scientists engaged in research related to the Convention. However, assessment of basic research on biological agents is not a productive way to distinguish an offensive from a defensive program. Additionally, if a country were to initiate a biological weapons program, basic research on biological agents may not be necessary. For example, the extensive published research on Bacillus anthracis, both as a cause of anthrax in cattle and other species and as a biological-warfare agent, would enable any motivated group or nation to initiate a biological weapons program that could immediately advance to the development and scale-up stages. Research on biological agents for offensive purposes would be characterized by activities such as selection for growth, virulence, and toxin production; improving stability under varying environmental conditions; and selection of strains that might overcome existing means of prophylaxis and treatment. A biological program with an offensive intent would in most cases be characterized by evidence of development efforts in mass production and dissemination, which are often agent-specific. Thus, an assessment of development may distinguish offensive from defensive programs. If a country were to initiate a biological weapons research program, and were willing to risk worldwide condemnation should existence of such a program become known, it is likely that such a program would include development and production capabilities. If a country were not committed to production capability, there would be no rationale for an offensive biological research that would bring worldwide condemnation. Critics of the U

  1. Coalition Warfare Program (CWP): secure policy controlled information query and dissemination over a Bices network (United States)

    Toth, Andrew; Pham, Tien; Karr, Todd; Bent, Graham; Harries, Dominic; Knox, Alan


    In 2006, the US Army Research Laboratory (ARL) and the UK Ministry of Defence (MoD) established a collaborative research alliance with academia and industry, called the International Technology Alliance (ITA) to address fundamental issues concerning Network and Information Sciences. Under the ITA research program, a US-UK transition project on "ITA Policy Controlled Information Query and Dissemination" was funded in 2011 by OSD's Coalition Warfare Program (CWP). The goal of this CWP project is to develop an extensible capability of performing distributed federated query and information dissemination across a coalition network of distributed disparate data/information sources with access­ controlled policies. The CWP project is lead by US Army Research Laboratory (ARL) and UK Defence Science Technology Laboratory (Dstl) with software development by IBM UK and IBM US. The CWP project exploits two key technology components developed within the ITA, namely the Gaian Database and integrated Access Policy Decision and Enforcement mechanisms. The Gaian Database (GaianDB) is a Dynamic Distributed Federated Database (DDFD) that addresses a need to share information among coalition members by providing a means for policy-controlled access to data across a network of heterogeneous data sources. GaianDB implements a SQL-compliant Store-Locally-Query-Anywhere (SLQA) approach providing software applications with global access to data from any node in the database network via standard SQL queries. Security policy is stored locally and enforced at the database node level, reducing potential for unauthorized data access and waste of network bandwidth. A key metric of success for a CWP project is the transition of coalition-related technology from TRL-3 or 4 to TRL-6 or higher. Thus, the end goal of this CWP project was to demonstrate the GaianDB and policy technology within an operational environment at the NATO Intelligence Fusion Centre (NIFC) at Molesworth RAF. An initial

  2. The Sound of Freedom. Naval Weapons Technology at Dahlgren, Virginia, 1918-2006 (United States)


    improvement. We also wish to thank our colleagues Paul Veneziano, Amber Moulton-Wiseman, Jennifer Rogers , and Janet Holsinger for repeatedly pitching in at...ballistician Roger Dement and the chief chemist and powder expert George W. Patterson. The group argued on behalf of their community that the old Indian...Cooper Hewitt (inventor of the mercury-vapor lamp) consulted with Elmer Sperry , a recognized expert in the field of gyro-stabilization and founder

  3. Synthesized CAD Methods for Combat Vehicle Survivability Analysis (United States)


    Hartzler) Washington, DC 20505 38 No. of Qopli:s Organization 2 Central Intelligence Agency ATTN: OIA ( Barbara A. Kroggel) (Monica McGuinn...Warfare Center ATTN: Gregory J. Budd James Ellis Barbara J. Harris Constance P. Rollins Code G13 Dahlgren, VA 22448-5000 1 Commander US Naval...Hering USN (Ret) 1113 Carper Street 1725 Jefferson Davis Highway McLean, VA 22101 Suite 1300 Arlington, VA 22202 1 ANSER ATTN: James W. McNulty 1

  4. Evaluation of Molecular Markers and Analytical Methods Documenting the Occurrence of Mustard Gas and Arsenical Warfare Agents in Soil. (United States)

    Sassolini, Alessandro; Brinchi, Giampaolo; Di Gennaro, Antonio; Dionisi, Simone; Dominici, Carola; Fantozzi, Luca; Onofri, Giorgio; Piazza, Rosario; Guidotti, Maurizio


    The chemicals warfare agents (CWAs) are an extremely toxic class of molecules widely produced in many industrialized countries for decades, these compounds frequently contained arsenic. The plants where the CWAs have been produced or the plants where they have been demilitarized after the Second World War with unacceptable techniques can represent a serious environmental problem. CWAs standards are difficult to find on market so in present work an environmental assessment method based on markers has been proposed. Triphenylarsine, phenylarsine oxide and thiodiglycol have been selected as markers. Three reliable analytical methods based on gaschromatography and mass detection have been proposed and tested for quantitative analysis of markers. Methods performance have been evaluated testing uncertainty, linearity, recovery and detection limits and also comparing detection limits with exposure limits of reference CWAs. Proposed assessment methods have been applied to a case study of a former industrial plant sited in an area characterized by a high background of mineral arsenic.

  5. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Fluorescence and other Optical Properties of Biological Particles for Biological Warfare Agent Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Hoekstra, Alfons; Videen, Gorden; Optics of Biological Particles


    This book covers the optics of single biological particles, both theory and experiment, with emphasis on Elastic Light Scattering and Fluorescence. It deals with the optics of bacteria (bio-aerosols), marine particles (selected phytoplankton communities) and red and white blood cells. Moreover, there are dedicated chapters on a general theory for scattering by a cell, and modelling and simulation of scattering by inhomogeneous biological cells. Finally, one chapter is dedicated to astro-biological signatures, discussing the possibilities for detecting non-terrestrial biological material. The volume has up-to-date discussions on new experimental and numerical techniques, and many examples of applications of these techniques in real-life systems, as used to detect and characterize e.g. biological warfare agents or human blood cells.

  6. Dual-Function Metal-Organic Framework as a Versatile Catalyst for Detoxifying Chemical Warfare Agent Simulants. (United States)

    Liu, Yangyang; Moon, Su-Young; Hupp, Joseph T; Farha, Omar K


    The nanocrystals of a porphyrin-based zirconium(IV) metal-organic framework (MOF) are used as a dual-function catalyst for the simultaneous detoxification of two chemical warfare agent simulants at room temperature. Simulants of nerve agent (such as GD, VX) and mustard gas, dimethyl 4-nitrophenyl phosphate and 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide, have been hydrolyzed and oxidized, respectively, to nontoxic products via a pair of pathways catalyzed by the same MOF. Phosphotriesterase-like activity of the Zr6-containing node combined with photoactivity of the porphyrin linker gives rise to a versatile MOF catalyst. In addition, bringing the MOF crystals down to the nanoregime leads to acceleration of the catalysis.

  7. Capillary zone electrophoresis analysis and detection of mid-spectrum biological warfare agents. Suffield memorandum No. 1463

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulet, C.A.


    Mid-spectrum biological warfare agents such as proteins, peptides, and toxins are often difficult to analyze and often require individually developed assay methods for detection and identification. In this regard, capillary electrophoresis is an important, emerging technique for separation and quantitation of peptides and proteins, providing separation efficiencies up to two orders of magnitude greater than high performance liquid chromatography. The technique can also analyze a broad range of compounds, has a simple instrument design which can be automated, and has low sample volume requirements. In this study, a highly efficient and reproducible capillary zone electrophoresis method was developed to separate and identify a series of nine peptides of defense interest including bradykinin, leucine enkephalin, and oxytocin. The paper demonstrates three strategies which could be used in a fully automated field detection and identification system for unknown peptides.

  8. Biological warfare warriors, secrecy and pure science in the Cold War: how to understand dialogue and the classifications of science. (United States)

    Bud, Robert


    This paper uses a case study from the Cold War to reflect on the meaning at the time of the term 'Pure Science'. In 1961, four senior scientists from Britain's biological warfare centre at Porton Down visited Moscow both attending an International Congress and visiting Russian microbiological and biochemical laboratories. The reports of the British scientists in talking about a limited range of topics encountered in the Soviet Union expressed qualities of openness, sociologists of the time associated with pure science. The paper reflects on the discourses of "Pure Science", secrecy and security in the Cold War. Using Bakhtin's approach, I suggest the cordial communication between scientists from opposing sides can be seen in terms of the performance, or speaking, of one language among several at their disposal. Pure science was the language they were allowed to share outside their institutions, and indeed political blocs.

  9. Hand-held analyser based on microchip electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection for measurement of chemical warfare agent degradation products (United States)

    Duran, Karolina-Petkovic; Zhu, Yonggang; Chen, Chuanpin; Swallow, Anthony; Stewart, Robert; Hoobin, Pam; Leech, Patrick; Ovenden, Simon


    This paper reports on the development of a hand-held device for on-site detection of organophosphonate nerve agent degradation products. This field-deployable analyzer relies on efficient microchip electrophoresis separation of alkyl methylphosphonic acids and their sensitive contactless conductivity detection. Miniaturized, low-powered design is coupled with promising analytical performance for separating the breakdown products of chemical warfare agents such as Soman, Sarin and VX . The detector has a detection limit of about 10 μg/mL and has a good linear response in the range 10-300 μg/mL concentration range. Applicability to environmental samples is demonstrated .The new hand-held analyzer offers great promise for converting conventional ion chromatography or capillary electrophoresis sophisticated systems into a portable forensic laboratory for faster, simpler and more reliable on-site screening.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe CAFORIO


    Full Text Available This article deals with the problems of anxiety, stress and psychological discomfort that can affect soldiers sent on asymmetric warfare operations. It is based on secondary analysis of the data of two important field researches whose results have recently (2013 been published. Although the two researches adopted different methodologies, the testimonies are fully comparable and show that soldiers from different countries and cultures display common or similar reactions when they are placed in the stress conditions that the asymmetric environment involves. The approach of the paper is drawn up in such a way as to make the reader a participating observer of the reality of such missions. It is therefore centered on the personal testimonies of the soldiers interviewed in the two researches, testimonies reported just as they are, in their simplicity and, often, drama, with comments by the author kept to a minimum in order to give readers ample opportunity to evaluate and interpret the reported texts on their own. The research data, drawn from the declarations of those directly concerned, reveal the existence of a problem of psychological distress resulting from deployment in asymmetric warfare situations that is in part different in the causes of the problems resulting from deployment in traditional combat and affects percentages of participating soldiers that are not high but definitely significant. The highest incidence appears to be constituted by problems relating to reintegration into normal social and working life upon returning from the mission. This is followed in percentage terms by anxiety situations relating to life far from the family, due in large part to a sense of powerlessness for the scant possibility of managing family situations that may have cropped up or already existed beforehand.

  11. 网络电磁空间作战威胁分析%Analysis of Cyber Electromagnetic Space Warfare Threat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    提出了网电空间作战几个需要关注的问题以及解决方案,使得部队可以根据战场具体环境,进行适应性的应用。首先陈述了网电空间作战的特点,接着阐述了在网电空间中军队所要面临、应对的现实威胁。然后针对这些威胁进行了进一步分析,并且确定了战场环境下所需要的基础安全条件。最后从四个层面阐述了网电空间的脆弱性,同时给出了防御措施。该工作可以对确立可实施的网电空间战术以及有效地组织网电空间行动形成支撑。%A cyber warfare scenario is shown ,which is applicable on the basis of modern battlefield situations .The sce-nario removes misconceptions about present cyber warfare properties and defines actual dangers that should be prepared for in the background of the cyberspace .The dangers are analyzed further and the basic security prerequisites are determined . Technologies are proposed that offer the basic necessary for achieving these prerequisites .An organization of cyberspace weaknesses and the correlative defenses in four levels is shown .Conclusions are drawn that demonstrate the manner in which cyber threats should be determined ,their likelihood assessed and averted .This knowledge leads to the determination of im-plementable cyber tactics and effective organization of cyber operations .

  12. Strategies for the prevention of a successful biological warfare aerosol attack. (United States)

    Wiener, S L


    Biological warfare (BW) aerosol attacks are different from chemical attacks in that they may provide no warning/all clear signals that allow the soldier to put on or remove his M17/M40 protective mask. Methods are now being perfected to detect a BW aerosol cloud using an airborne (helicopter) pulsed laser system to scan the lower altitudes upwind from a troop concentration of corps size, and to sample and analyze the nature of the aerosol within a brief time interval. This system has certain limitations and vulnerabilities, since it is designed specifically to detect a line-type aerosol attack. Provision of, training with, and field use of a lightweight dust mist or HEPA filter respirator for each soldier is proposed for protection against undetected aerosol attacks. This particulate filter respirator would be issued in addition to the M17/M40 mask. Such a BW respirator will be able to purify the soldier's air by removing particles in the 0.3- to 15-micro m-diameter range with an efficiency of 98 to 100%. Particle size of BW aerosols is in the same range, with an optimum size for high-efficiency casualty production of 1 to 5 micro m mass median diameter. The proposed BW respirator will be lightweight; will require low inhalation pressures; will be comfortable to wear for prolonged periods; will not interfere with vision, hearing, and communication; and will not degrade overall effectiveness and performance to the degree observed with the M17/M40 masks. Such respirators would be worn as part of a contingency defense against an enemy likely to use BW agents. This respirator could be worn for prolonged periods when under threat of an undetectable BW attack during weather conditions favorable to the success of such an attack (i.e., low wind velocity and temperature inversion in the target area). In addition, tactically important assets such as command and control centers and missile batteries can also be protected continuously by air filtration systems powered by

  13. Selective Surface Acoustic Wave-Based Organophosphorus Sensor Employing a Host-Guest Self-Assembly Monolayer of β-Cyclodextrin Derivative. (United States)

    Pan, Yong; Mu, Ning; Shao, Shengyu; Yang, Liu; Wang, Wen; Xie, Xiao; He, Shitang


    Self-assembly and molecular imprinting technologies are very attractive technologies for the development of artificial recognition systems and provide chemical recognition based on need and not happenstance. In this paper, we employed a b-cyclodextrin derivative surface acoustic wave (SAW) chemical sensor for detecting the chemical warfare agents (CWAs) sarin (O-Isoprophyl methylphosphonofluoridate, GB). Using sarin acid (isoprophyl hydrogen methylphosphonate) as an imprinting template, mono[6-deoxy-6-[(mercaptodecamethylene)thio

  14. Selective Surface Acoustic Wave-Based Organophosphorus Sensor Employing a Host-Guest Self-Assembly Monolayer of β-Cyclodextrin Derivative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Pan


    Full Text Available Self-assembly and molecular imprinting technologies are very attractive technologies for the development of artificial recognition systems and provide chemical recognition based on need and not happenstance. In this paper, we employed a b-cyclodextrin derivative surface acoustic wave (SAW chemical sensor for detecting the chemical warfare agents (CWAs sarin (O-Isoprophyl methylphosphonofluoridate, GB. Using sarin acid (isoprophyl hydrogen methylphosphonate as an imprinting template, mono[6-deoxy-6-[(mercaptodecamethylenethio

  15. Effective methylation of phosphonic acids related to chemical warfare agents mediated by trimethyloxonium tetrafluoroborate for their qualitative detection and identification by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Valdez, Carlos A; Leif, Roald N; Alcaraz, Armando


    The effective methylation of phosphonic acids related to chemical warfare agents (CWAs) employing trimethyloxonium tetrafluoroborate (TMO·BF4) for their qualitative detection and identification by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is presented. The methylation occurs in rapid fashion (1 h) and can be conveniently carried out at ambient temperature, thus providing a safer alternative to the universally employed diazomethane-based methylation protocols. Optimization of the methylation parameters led us to conclude that methylene chloride was the ideal solvent to carry out the derivatization, and that even though methylated products can be observed surfacing after only 1 h, additional time was not found to be detrimental but beneficial to the process particularly when dealing with analytes at low concentrations (∼10 μg mL(-1)). Due to its insolubility in methylene chloride, TMO·BF4 conveniently settles to the bottom during the reaction and does not produce additional interfering by-products that may further complicate the GC-MS analysis. The method was demonstrated to successfully methylate a variety of Schedule 2 phosphonic acids, including their half esters, resulting in derivatives that were readily detected and identified using the instrument's spectral library. Most importantly, the method was shown to simultaneously methylate a mixture of the organophosphorus-based nerve agent hydrolysis products: pinacolyl methylphosphonate (PMPA), cyclohexyl methylphosphonate (CyMPA) and ethyl methylphosphonate (EMPA) (at a 10 μg mL(-1) concentration each) in a fatty acid ester-rich organic matrix (OPCW-PT-O3) featured in the 38th Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) Proficiency Test. In addition, the protocol was found to effectively methylate N,N-diethylamino ethanesulfonic acid and N,N-diisopropylamino ethanesulfonic acid that are products arising from the oxidative degradation of the V-series agents VR and VX respectively. The

  16. Identification of water-bearing zones by the use of geophysical logs and borehole television surveys, collected February to September 1997, at the Former Naval Air Warfare Center, Warminster, Bucks County, Pennsylvania (United States)

    Conger, Randall W.


    Between February 1997 and September 1997, 10 monitor wells were drilled near the site of the former Naval Air Warfare Center, Warminster, Bucks County, Pa., to monitor water levels and sample ground-water contaminants in the shallow, intermediate, and deep water-bearing zones. The sampling will determine the horizontal and vertical distribution of contaminated ground water migrating from known or suspected contaminant sources. Four wells were drilled north of the property adjacent to Area A, three wells along strike located on Lewis Drive, and three wells directly down dip on Ivyland Road. Well depths range from 69 feet to 300 feet below land surface. Borehole-geophysical logging and television surveys were used to identify water-bearing zones so that appropriate intervals could be screened in each monitor well. Geophysical logs were obtained at the 10 monitor wells. Borehole television surveys were obtained at the four monitor wells adjacent to Area A. Caliper and borehole television surveys were used to locate fractures, inflections on fluidtemperature and fluid-resistivity logs were used to locate possible water-bearing fractures, and heatpulse- flowmeter measurements verified these locations. Natural-gamma logs provided information on stratigraphy. After interpretation of geophysical logs, borehole television surveys, and driller?s logs, all wells were screened such that water-level fluctuations could be monitored and water samples collected from discrete water-bearing zones in each borehole.

  17. Effects of CW (chemical warfare)-related chemicals on social behavior and performance. Annual report, 30 September 1984-29 September 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunnell, B.N.; Iturrian, W.B.


    This report summarizes work accomplished in the second year of a three-year project aimed at developing a battery of tests of social behavior and performance that wil be sensitive to the effects of chemical warfare-related chemicals considered for use as antidotes or prophylactics against chemical-warfare agents. Procedures for assessing social behavior in nonhuman primates are described and compared. Performance scores on three operant schedules, a test of complex problem solving, and behavior in a novel environment are presented and correlations between the social and performance variables are examined. The effects of atropines on several of the social and performance measures are reported as are data from plasma hormone assays for cortisol and prolactin.

  18. Ka Pu Te Ruha, Ka Hao Te Rangatahi: Changes in Maori Warfare between the Period Prior to First European Contact and the End of the New Zealand Wars (United States)


    these weapons before. During the assault of a pa in Taranaki, the Nga Puhi used their limited muskets to defeat the will of the opposition . Upon seeing...Maori warfare. As contact between Maori and European developed, the variety of goods demanded for weapons expanded. Preserved tattooed heads and female... sex slaves joined introduced items such as pigs and potatoes as suitable currency. Slaves were previously only taken as revenge or to deliberately

  19. Introduction: Envisioning Future War; Strategic Insights, v. 10, Special issue (October 2011), 1-6. Topic: Global Trends and Future Warfare


    Moran, Daniel


    This article appeared in Strategic Insights, v.10, Special issue (October 2011), 1-6. Topic: Global Trends and Future Warfare Approved for public display, distribution unlimited The workshop whose proceedings are presented here was convened to provide the National Intelligence Council (NIC) with insight into the way war in the intermediate future, meaning the next twenty years or so, is viewed from the perspective of America's allies, partners, and potential adversaries. The group took ...

  20. Colloque S&T Symposium 2008: Understanding the Human Dimension in 21st Century Conflict/Warfare: The Complexities of Human-with-Human Relationships (United States)


    Colloque S&T Symposium 2008 Undestanding the Human Dimension in 21st Century Conflict/Warfare: The Complexities of Human-with-Human Relationships ...conditions for self-sustaining stability. By working towards the development of models and concepts to better understand and influence the human in...This page intentionally left blank. Colloque S&T Symposium 2008 Undestanding the Human Dimension in 21st Century Conflict

  1. Toxin warfare agents:recognition molecules and drugs for control%生物毒素战剂:检测识别分子与防治药物

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    There are various types of toxins in nature. However, these toxins. which are characterized by the ready availability, easy production and high toxicity, are likely biological warfare agents. Toxin warfare agents are different from traditional bacterial and viral agents or from chemical warfare agents in that they pose a great threat because of their diverse potency and the lack of efficacious drugs. Therefore, it is quite important to develop specific. sensitive recognition molecules for detection of toxins and drugs against intoxication caused by toxin agents. This review focuses on advances in recognition molecules of toxins and some drugs used as prevention and treatment hased on the characteristics of toxin warfare agents .%自然界中存在着种类繁多的毒素物质,但最有可能用作战剂的是那些获取方便、制备容易、毒性强、施放后可致人死亡或失能的毒素.毒素战剂既不同于传统的细菌、病毒战剂,也不同于化学毒剂,其最大的威胁来自它的高毒性及缺乏有效的治疗手段.因此,发展毒素战剂的检测识别分子与防治药物就显得尤为重要.本文讨论了生物毒素战剂相关概念、特征,重点综述了毒素战剂的检测识别分子与防治药物研究进展.

  2. How Do I Know? A Guide to the Selection of Personal Protective Equipment for Use in Responding to A Release of Chemical Warfare Agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foust, C.B.


    An incident involving chemical warfare agents requires a unique hazardous materials (HAZMAT) response. As with an HAZMAT event, federal regulations prescribe that responders must be protected from exposure to the chemical agents. But unlike other HAZMAT events, special considerations govern selection of personal protective equipment (PPE). PPE includes all clothing, respirators and monitoring devices used to respond to a chemical release. PPE can differ depending on whether responders are military or civilian personnel.

  3. Surface Water & Surface Drainage (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set contains boundaries for all surface water and surface drainage for the state of New Mexico. It is in a vector digital data structure digitized from a...

  4. Direct quantification of chemical warfare agents and related compounds at low ppt levels: comparing active capillary dielectric barrier discharge plasma ionization and secondary electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Wolf, Jan-Christoph; Schaer, Martin; Siegenthaler, Peter; Zenobi, Renato


    A novel active capillary dielectric barrier discharge plasma ionization (DBDI) technique for mass spectrometry is applied to the direct detection of 13 chemical warfare related compounds, including sarin, and compared to secondary electrospray ionization (SESI) in terms of selectivity and sensitivity. The investigated compounds include an intact chemical warfare agent and structurally related molecules, hydrolysis products and/or precursors of highly toxic nerve agents (G-series, V-series, and "new" nerve agents), and blistering and incapacitating warfare agents. Well-defined analyte gas phase concentrations were generated by a pressure-assisted nanospray with consecutive thermal evaporation and dilution. Identification was achieved by selected reaction monitoring (SRM). The most abundant fragment ion intensity of each compound was used for quantification. For DBDI and SESI, absolute gas phase detection limits in the low ppt range (in MS/MS mode) were achieved for all compounds investigated. Although the sensitivity of both methods was comparable, the active capillary DBDI sensitivity was found to be dependent on the applied AC voltage, thus enabling direct tuning of the sensitivity and the in-source fragmentation, which may become a key feature in terms of field applicability. Our findings underline the applicability of DBDI and SESI for the direct, sensitive detection and quantification of several CWA types and their degradation products. Furthermore, they suggest the use of DBDI in combination with hand-held instruments for CWAs on-site monitoring.

  5. Acoustic Warfare of Submarine and Its Development Tendency%潜艇水声对抗及其发展趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李峰; 单广超; 李晖


    The acoustic warfare of submarine,that can effectively improve the ability to survive in the com-bat of submarine,is the main content of submarine active defense operations.With the development of an-ti-sub equipment and technology,the acoustic countermeasure equipment will truly have the ability of un-derwater acoustic warfare.The paper analyses the type of modern acoustic warfare operation and mainly studies the type of the acoustic countermeasure equipment of operation in the future.%潜艇水声对抗是潜艇积极防御作战的主要内容,实施水声对抗能够有效提高潜艇在作战中的生存能力。根据反潜装备和技术的发展,分析了现代潜艇水声对抗作战样式,并重点对未来潜艇水声对抗装备作战样式的发展趋势进行了研究。

  6. 大数据在现代战争中的价值探析%Research on the Big Data’s Value in Modern Warfare

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Modern warfare is information-dominated. Information penetrates the all aspects of the warfare and becomes one of the key factors which influence the success of the warfare. Effective acquisition, storage, processing and distribution of military in-formation via big data technology can promote the ability of intelligence acquisition and command decision-making, handle the choke point of information flow, advance the integration of operational system, and strengthen the information security and pro-tection.%现代战争是“信息主导”的战争,信息渗透到战争的方方面面,成为影响战争胜负的重要因素之一,利用大数据技术对军事信息进行高效获取、存储、处理和分发,能够有效提升情报获取、指挥决策能力,疏通信息流瓶颈,推进作战体系融合,增强信息安全防护能力。

  7. Interpretation of a New Found Japanese Biological Warfare File%对一份新发现日本细菌战档案的解读

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Unit 731 focused on the research of Biological Warfare theory in the plan of biological warfare , But be-cause? of lack of evidence chain , this research is relatively backward .Entry Hojo who was the core member of Unit 731 , his speech draft On Biological Warfareis the recently found materials and evidences , has great academic research value.Through the interpretation of the Biological Warfare , analyzing the biological warfare is the vital criterion to e-valuate the research level and research competence , which is also an effective supplement to the evidences for the Jap-anese biological warfare war of aggression against China .%七三一部队在细菌战谋划中注重对细菌战理论的研究,但囿于相关证据链的缺失,致使此项研究相对滞后。七三一部队核心成员北条圆了的演讲稿《关于细菌战》作为新资料、新证据,具有重大的学术研究价值,是对国内所藏相关资料的重要补充,有助于丰富学术界对于日本细菌战理论问题的认知。《关于细菌战》是北条圆了在长期实践基础上积累形成的细菌战理论,可以在一定程度上还原战时日本细菌战的研究情况。通过对北条圆了其人及《关于细菌战》的梳理和解读,进而剖析日本细菌战理论是评估二战时期日本细菌战研究水平和研究能力的重要尺度,也是对日本侵华细菌战证据链的有效补充。

  8. Ram-air sample collection device for a chemical warfare agent sensor (United States)

    Megerle, Clifford A.; Adkins, Douglas R.; Frye-Mason, Gregory C.


    In a surface acoustic wave sensor mounted within a body, the sensor having a surface acoustic wave array detector and a micro-fabricated sample preconcentrator exposed on a surface of the body, an apparatus for collecting air for the sensor, comprising a housing operatively arranged to mount atop the body, the housing including a multi-stage channel having an inlet and an outlet, the channel having a first stage having a first height and width proximate the inlet, a second stage having a second lower height and width proximate the micro-fabricated sample preconcentrator, a third stage having a still lower third height and width proximate the surface acoustic wave array detector, and a fourth stage having a fourth height and width proximate the outlet, where the fourth height and width are substantially the same as the first height and width.

  9. Sensors Technology and Advanced Signal Processing Concepts for Layered Warfare/Layered Sensing (United States)


    between points. Earth Model: A more accurate model of the earth is a geoid defined as the shape of the gravitational equipotential of’s surface. However, geoid models are often complex, computationally intensive to implement, and are constantly being refined as technology...accurate model of the earth is a geoid defined as the shape of the gravitational equipotential of the earth’s surface. However, geoid models are often

  10. The Findings of HRCT of the Lung in Chemical Warfare Veterans with Previous Sulfur Mustard (SM Gas Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Naghibi


    Full Text Available "nIntroduction: To identify the findings of High-Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT of the lung in chemical warfare veterans with previous sulfur mustard (SM gas exposure. "nMaterials and Methods: 93 patients were studied prospectively 22 years after exposure. Demographic and clinical data were recorded. HRCT of the lung was performed during expiration and was reported double blinded by two radiologists. HRCT findings include air trapping, mosaic attenuation, ground glass attenuation, nodules, signet ring, fibrosis, bronchial wall thickening, bronchodilation, tree in bud, interlobular wall thickening, bulla, cavity, air consolidation, honey comb and mediastinal and pleural abnormalities that were analyzed. Final diagnosis was identified according to HRCT findings. The relation between HRCT findings, final diagnosis and the distribution of the abnormalities with duration after exposure were evaluated. Distribution of each finding was also evaluated. "nb The most frequent HRCT finding was air trapping (56.7%. Other common findings were mosaic attenuation (35.1%, ground glass attenuation (20.6%, nodules (17.5%, signet ring (15.5% and fibrosis(12.4%. Distribution of the abnormalities were mostly local (79.4% and bilateral (73%. Abnormalities were mostly in the lower lobe (61.3%. No significant correlation was found between the HRCT findings and the duration after exposure or distribution of the abnormalities. The respiratory complications diagnosed according to HRCT included bronchiolitis obliterans (43%, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD (27.9%, asthma (23.6%, bronchiectasis (13.9%, interstitial lung disease (ILD (9.6%. All abnormalities were seen more frequently in patients with lesser duration of exposure.( P-value < 0.05. "nConclusion: Focal bilateral air trapping was the most common finding seen in expiratory HRCT in this study, and it is highly suggestive of bronchiolitis obliterance (BO. BO can be a late complication of SM

  11. Warfare and Socio-political hierarchies: reflections on non-State societies of the predynastic Nile Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayubas, Augusto


    Full Text Available In a recent article, anthropologist Robert L. Carneiro reassessed his most debated hypothesis about the emergence of chiefdoms and the State as a result of environmental or social circumscription, theorized for a series of historical contexts including that of the Predynastic Nile Valley. The problem of the origin of the State is beyond our scope, but regarding the emergence of institutionalized leadership and chiefdoms in the Nile Valley, Carneiro’s ideas about warfare as a main factor in the process of social change remain interesting, even when his insistence in circumscription is still debatable. The aim of the present paper is to briefly review the available archaeological evidence of warfare among non-State societies of the Predynastic Nile Valley, and to evaluate its possible relation to the emergence of socio-political hierarchies, in turn refering to and criticizing some of Carneiro’s recent ideas about the issue.En un artículo reciente, Robert L. Carneiro presentó una reconsideración de su muy debatida hipótesis acerca de la emergencia de sociedades de jefatura y del Estado como resultado de un contexto de circunscripción ambiental, teorizada para una serie de situaciones históricas, entre ellas el valle del Nilo predinástico. El problema del origen del Estado excede las posibilidades de este trabajo, pero en lo que respecta al surgimiento de jefaturas, consideramos que las ideas de Carneiro acerca de la guerra como factor de importancia en el proceso revisten cierto interés, aun cuando su insistencia en la circunscripción continúa siendo discutible. El objetivo del presente artículo es considerar la evidencia arqueológica de guerra disponible para las sociedades no estatales del valle del Nilo predinástico y evaluar la posible relación entre dichos testimonios y la emergencia de jerarquías sociopolíticas, refiriendo y criticando algunas de las ideas recientes de Carneiro sobre el problema.

  12. Transport behavior of surrogate biological warfare agents in a simulated landfill: Effect of leachate recirculation and water infiltration

    KAUST Repository

    Saikaly, Pascal


    An understanding of the transport behavior of biological warfare (BW) agents in landfills is required to evaluate the suitability of landfills for the disposal of building decontamination residue (BDR) following a bioterrorist attack on a building. Surrogate BW agents, Bacillus atrophaeus spores and Serratia marcescens, were spiked into simulated landfill reactors that were filled with synthetic building debris (SBD) and operated for 4 months with leachate recirculation or water infiltration. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) was used to monitor surrogate transport. In the leachate recirculation reactors, <10% of spiked surrogates were eluted in leachate over 4 months. In contrast, 45% and 31% of spiked S. marcescens and B. atrophaeus spores were eluted in leachate in the water infiltration reactors. At the termination of the experiment, the number of retained cells and spores in SBD was measured over the depth of the reactor. Less than 3% of the total spiked S. marcescens cells and no B. atrophaeus spores were detected in SBD. These results suggest that significant fractions of the spiked surrogates were strongly attached to SBD. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  13. In Situ Probes of Capture and Decomposition of Chemical Warfare Agent Simulants by Zr-Based Metal Organic Frameworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plonka, Anna M.; Wang, Qi; Gordon, Wesley O.; Balboa, Alex; Troya, Diego; Guo, Weiwei; Sharp, Conor H.; Senanayake, Sanjaya D.; Morris, John R.; Hill, Craig L.; Frenkel, Anatoly I. (BNL); (Virginia Tech); (ECBC); (Emory); (SBU)


    Zr-based metal organic frameworks (MOFs) have been recently shown to be among the fastest catalysts of nerve-agent hydrolysis in solution. We report a detailed study of the adsorption and decomposition of a nerve-agent simulant, dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), on UiO-66, UiO-67, MOF-808, and NU-1000 using synchrotron-based X-ray powder diffraction, X-ray absorption, and infrared spectroscopy, which reveals key aspects of the reaction mechanism. The diffraction measurements indicate that all four MOFs adsorb DMMP (introduced at atmospheric pressures through a flow of helium or air) within the pore space. In addition, the combination of X-ray absorption and infrared spectra suggests direct coordination of DMMP to the Zr6 cores of all MOFs, which ultimately leads to decomposition to phosphonate products. These experimental probes into the mechanism of adsorption and decomposition of chemical warfare agent simulants on Zr-based MOFs open new opportunities in rational design of new and superior decontamination materials.

  14. The application of single particle aerosol mass spectrometry for the detection and identification of high explosives and chemical warfare agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Audrey Noreen [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    Single Particle Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (SPAMS) was evaluated as a real-time detection technique for single particles of high explosives. Dual-polarity time-of-flight mass spectra were obtained for samples of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazinane (RDX), and pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN); peaks indicative of each compound were identified. Composite explosives, Comp B, Semtex 1A, and Semtex 1H were also analyzed, and peaks due to the explosive components of each sample were present in each spectrum. Mass spectral variability with laser fluence is discussed. The ability of the SPAMS system to identify explosive components in a single complex explosive particle (~1 pg) without the need for consumables is demonstrated. SPAMS was also applied to the detection of Chemical Warfare Agent (CWA) simulants in the liquid and vapor phases. Liquid simulants for sarin, cyclosarin, tabun, and VX were analyzed; peaks indicative of each simulant were identified. Vapor phase CWA simulants were adsorbed onto alumina, silica, Zeolite, activated carbon, and metal powders which were directly analyzed using SPAMS. The use of metal powders as adsorbent materials was especially useful in the analysis of triethyl phosphate (TEP), a VX stimulant, which was undetectable using SPAMS in the liquid phase. The capability of SPAMS to detect high explosives and CWA simulants using one set of operational conditions is established.

  15. Decomposition of 2-chloroethylethylsulfide on copper oxides to detoxify polymer-based spherical activated carbons from chemical warfare agents. (United States)

    Fichtner, S; Hofmann, J; Möller, A; Schrage, C; Giebelhausen, J M; Böhringer, B; Gläser, R


    For the decomposition of chemical warfare agents, a hybrid material concept was applied. This consists of a copper oxide-containing phase as a component with reactive functionality supported on polymer-based spherical activated carbon (PBSAC) as a component with adsorptive functionality. A corresponding hybrid material was prepared by impregnation of PBSAC with copper(II)nitrate and subsequent calcination at 673K. The copper phase exists predominantly as copper(I)oxide which is homogeneously distributed over the PBSAC particles. The hybrid material containing 16 wt.% copper on PBSAC is capable of self-detoxifying the mustard gas surrogate 2-chloroethylethylsulfide (CEES) at room temperature. The decomposition is related to the breakthrough behavior of the reactant CEES, which displaces the reaction product ethylvinylsulfide (EVS). This leads to a combined breakthrough of CEES and EVS. The decomposition of CEES is shown to occur catalytically over the copper-containing PBSAC material. Thus, the hybrid material can even be considered to be self-cleaning.

  16. Efficient hydrolysis of the chemical warfare nerve agent tabun by recombinant and purified human and rabbit serum paraoxonase 1. (United States)

    Valiyaveettil, Manojkumar; Alamneh, Yonas; Biggemann, Lionel; Soojhawon, Iswarduth; Doctor, Bhupendra P; Nambiar, Madhusoodana P


    Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) has been described as an efficient catalytic bioscavenger due to its ability to hydrolyze organophosphates (OPs) and chemical warfare nerve agents (CWNAs). It is the future most promising candidate as prophylactic medical countermeasure against highly toxic OPs and CWNAs. Most of the studies conducted so far have been focused on the hydrolyzing potential of PON1 against nerve agents, sarin, soman, and VX. Here, we investigated the hydrolysis of tabun by PON1 with the objective of comparing the hydrolysis potential of human and rabbit serum purified and recombinant human PON1. The hydrolysis potential of PON1 against tabun, sarin, and soman was evaluated by using an acetylcholinesterase (AChE) back-titration Ellman method. Efficient hydrolysis of tabun (100 nM) was observed with ∼25-40 mU of PON1, while higher concentration (80-250 mU) of the enzyme was required for the complete hydrolysis of sarin (11 nM) and soman (3 nM). Our data indicate that tabun hydrolysis with PON1 was ∼30-60 times and ∼200-260 times more efficient than that with sarin and soman, respectively. Moreover, the catalytic activity of PON1 varies from source to source, which also reflects their efficiency of hydrolyzing different types of nerve agents. Thus, efficient hydrolysis of tabun by PON1 suggests its promising potential as a prophylactic treatment against tabun exposure.

  17. Evaluation of Chemical Warfare Agent Percutaneous Vapor Toxicity: Derivation of Toxicity Guidelines for Assessing Chemical Protective Ensembles.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, A.P.


    Percutaneous vapor toxicity guidelines are provided for assessment and selection of chemical protective ensembles (CPEs) to be used by civilian and military first responders operating in a chemical warfare agent vapor environment. The agents evaluated include the G-series and VX nerve agents, the vesicant sulfur mustard (agent HD) and, to a lesser extent, the vesicant Lewisite (agent L). The focus of this evaluation is percutaneous vapor permeation of CPEs and the resulting skin absorption, as inhalation and ocular exposures are assumed to be largely eliminated through use of SCBA and full-face protective masks. Selection of appropriately protective CPE designs and materials incorporates a variety of test parameters to ensure operability, practicality, and adequacy. One aspect of adequacy assessment should be based on systems tests, which focus on effective protection of the most vulnerable body regions (e.g., the groin area), as identified in this analysis. The toxicity range of agent-specific cumulative exposures (Cts) derived in this analysis can be used as decision guidelines for CPE acceptance, in conjunction with weighting consideration towards more susceptible body regions. This toxicity range is bounded by the percutaneous vapor estimated minimal effect (EME{sub pv}) Ct (as the lower end) and the 1% population threshold effect (ECt{sub 01}) estimate. Assumptions of exposure duration used in CPE certification should consider that each agent-specific percutaneous vapor cumulative exposure Ct for a given endpoint is a constant for exposure durations between 30 min and 2 hours.

  18. Extraordinary Adaptive Plasticity of Colorado Potato Beetle: “Ten-Striped Spearman” in the Era of Biotechnological Warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Cingel


    Full Text Available Expanding from remote areas of Mexico to a worldwide scale, the ten-striped insect, the Colorado potato beetle (CPB, Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say, has risen from being an innocuous beetle to a prominent global pest. A diverse life cycle, phenotypic plasticity, adaptation to adverse conditions, and capability to detoxify or tolerate toxins make this insect appear to be virtually “indestructible”. With increasing advances in molecular biology, tools of biotechnological warfare were deployed to combat CPB. In the last three decades, genetically modified potato has created a new challenge for the beetle. After reviewing hundreds of scientific papers dealing with CPB control, it became clear that even biotechnological means of control, if used alone, would not defeat the Colorado potato beetle. This control measure once again appears to be provoking the potato beetle to exhibit its remarkable adaptability. Nonetheless, the potential for adaptation to these techniques has increased our knowledge of this pest and thus opened possibilities for devising more sustainable CPB management programs.

  19. Using Metal Complex Ion-Molecule Reactions in a Miniature Rectilinear Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer to Detect Chemical Warfare Agents (United States)

    Graichen, Adam M.; Vachet, Richard W.


    The gas-phase reactions of a series of coordinatively unsaturated [Ni(L)n]y+ complexes, where L is a nitrogen-containing ligand, with chemical warfare agent (CWA) simulants in a miniature rectilinear ion trap mass spectrometer were investigated as part of a new approach to detect CWAs. Results show that upon entering the vacuum system via a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) membrane introduction, low concentrations of several CWA simulants, including dipropyl sulfide (simulant for mustard gas), acetonitrile (simulant for the nerve agent tabun), and diethyl phosphite (simulant for nerve agents sarin, soman, tabun, and VX), can react with metal complex ions generated by electrospray ionization (ESI), thereby providing a sensitive means of detecting these compounds. The [Ni(L)n]2+ complexes are found to be particularly reactive with the simulants of mustard gas and tabun, allowing their detection at low parts-per-billion (ppb) levels. These detection limits are well below reported exposure limits for these CWAs, which indicates the applicability of this new approach, and are about two orders of magnitude lower than electron ionization detection limits on the same mass spectrometer. The use of coordinatively unsaturated metal complexes as reagent ions offers the possibility of further tuning the ion-molecule chemistry so that desired compounds can be detected selectively or at even lower concentrations.

  20. Facility monitoring of chemical warfare agent simulants in air using an automated, field-deployable, miniature mass spectrometer. (United States)

    Smith, Jonell N; Noll, Robert J; Cooks, R Graham


    Vapors of four chemical warfare agent (CWA) stimulants, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES), diethyl malonate (DEM), dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), and methyl salicylate (MeS), were detected, identified, and quantitated using a fully automated, field-deployable, miniature mass spectrometer. Samples were ionized using a glow discharge electron ionization (GDEI) source, and ions were mass analyzed with a cylindrical ion trap (CIT) mass analyzer. A dual-tube thermal desorption system was used to trap compounds on 50:50 Tenax TA/Carboxen 569 sorbent before their thermal release. The sample concentrations ranged from low parts per billion [ppb] to two parts per million [ppm]. Limits of detection (LODs) ranged from 0.26 to 5.0 ppb. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves are presented for each analyte. A sample of CEES at low ppb concentration was combined separately with two interferents, bleach (saturated vapor) and diesel fuel exhaust (1%), as a way to explore the capability of detecting the simulant in an environmental matrix. Also investigated was a mixture of the four CWA simulants (at concentrations in air ranging from 270 to 380 ppb). Tandem mass (MS/MS) spectral data were used to identify and quantify the individual components. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Express analysis of explosives, chemical warfare agents and drugs with multicapillary column gas chromatography and ion mobility increment spectrometry. (United States)

    Buryakov, Igor A


    Description of a gas chromatograph designed for express analysis of explosives (2,4-dinitrotoluene, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, pentaerythritol tetranitrate), chemical warfare agents (mustard gas, lewisite, sarin) and drugs (heroin, cocaine hydrochloride, crack) is given. The devices comprises a multicapillary chromatographic column and an ion mobility increment spectrometer (MCC-IMIS). The main analytical characteristics of an IMIS (estimated detection limit (DL), linear dynamic range (LDR), speed of response) and a chromatographic column (separation power, degree of separation, a number of possible peaks at a chromatogram section, divided by analysis time) are determined. The maximum value of DL equal to 5 pg/ml was registered for cis-alpha-LW, and the lowest one of 0.001 pg/ml was for cocaine. The maximum value of LDR equal to 1000 was registered for sarin and the lowest one of 150 was for the ions of lewisite. Speed of response of one compound detection with the IMIS was 0.7 s.

  2. From energy-rich phosphate compounds to warfare agents: A review on the chemistry of organic phosphate compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Albino Giusti


    Full Text Available The chemistry of the phosphorus-oxygen bond is widely used in biological systems in many processes, such as energy transduction and the storage, transmission and expression of genetic information, which are essential to living beings in relation to a wide variety of functions. Compounds containing this bond have been designed for many purposes, ranging from agricultural defense systems, in order to increase food production, to nerve agents, for complaining use in warfare. In this review, features related to the chemistry of organic phosphate compounds are discussed, with particular emphasis on the role of phosphate compounds in biochemical events and in nerve agents. To this aim, the energy-rich phosphate compounds are focused, particularly the mode of their use as energy currency in cells. Historical and recent studies carried out by research groups have tried to elucidate the mechanism of action of enzymes responsible for energy transduction through the use of biochemical studies, enzyme models, and artificial enzymes. Finally, recent studies on the detoxification of nerve agents based on phosphorous esters are presented, and on the utilization of chromogenic and fluorogenic chemosensors for the detection of these phosphate species.

  3. Child Soldiery as a Tool of Modern Warfare(?: the Role of Child Soldiers in “New Wars”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dóra SZIJJ


    Full Text Available The hardly-known but regrettably prevalent phenomenon of child soldiery, which can be considered as a new development of modern warfare, might affect approximately 250,000 – 300,000 children worldwide. According to the estimates, 40% of our planet’s armed forces or armed groups deploy “child combatants” for different tasks, while the international community is still struggling against this form of the abuse of children. The global nature of child soldiery raises many questions in many fields, because it has deep political, social, economic, military, environmental, ethnic and religious etc. roots and far reaching consequences in the so-called Third World. Moreover, if we focus on the African peacekeeping missions of the European Union, child soldiery might also have indirect impacts on the European community. The aim of this study is to offer a comprehensive approach in connection with child soldiery, and pointing out the links between the post-colonial conflicts and this form of human rights breaches.

  4. Continuum Model for Decontamination of Chemical Warfare Agent from a Rubbery Polymer using the Maxwell-Stefan Formulation (United States)

    Varady, Mark; Bringuier, Stefan; Pearl, Thomas; Stevenson, Shawn; Mantooth, Brent

    Decontamination of polymers exposed to chemical warfare agents (CWA) often proceeds by application of a liquid solution. Absorption of some decontaminant components proceed concurrently with extraction of the CWA, resulting in multicomponent diffusion in the polymer. In this work, the Maxwell-Stefan equations were used with the Flory-Huggins model of species activity to mathematically describe the transport of two species within a polymer. This model was used to predict the extraction of the nerve agent O-ethyl S-[2(diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothioate (VX) from a silicone elastomer into both water and methanol. Comparisons with experimental results show good agreement with minimal fitting of model parameters from pure component uptake data. Reaction of the extracted VX with sodium hydroxide in the liquid-phase was also modeled and used to predict the overall rate of destruction of VX. Although the reaction proceeds more slowly in the methanol-based solution compared to the aqueous solution, the extraction rate is faster due to increasing VX mobility as methanol absorbs into the silicone, resulting in an overall faster rate of VX destruction.

  5. Detection of chemical warfare agent-related phenylarsenic compounds in marine biota samples by LC-HESI/MS/MS. (United States)

    Niemikoski, Hanna; Soderstrom, Martin; Vanninen, Paula


    A new method has been developed to determine oxidation products of three chemical warfare agent (CWA) related phenylarsenic compounds from marine biota samples by a liquid chromatography-heated electrospray ioniza-tion/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-HESI/MS/MS). The target chemicals were oxidation products of Adamsite (DM[ox]), Clark I (DA[ox]), and triphenylarsine (TPA[ox]). Method was validated within the concentration range of 1-5 ng/g, 0.2-5 ng/g and 0.2-5 ng/g for DM[ox], DA[ox] and TPA[ox], respectively. The method was linear, precise and accurate. Limits of quantification (LOQ) were 2.0, 1.3 and 2.1 ng/g for DM[ox], DA[ox] and TPA[ox], respectively. A total of ten fish samples and one lobster sample collected from near Swedish coast, Måseskär dumpsite were analysed. Trace concentrations below LOQ values were detected in three samples and the elemental composition of oxidized form of Clark I and /or II was con-firmed by LC-HESI/HRMS. To our knowledge, this is the first study that provides the presence of CWA related chemicals in marine biota samples.

  6. In Situ Studies of the Decomposition of Simulated Chemical Warfare Agents on Nanoparticle Catalysts (United States)


    insufficient energy for interdiffusion of Rh into bulk Pt surfaces.9,24,25 In addition, Monte Carlo simulations of a 1000-atom Au(50%)-Pt(50...12949. (22) Hernandez-Fernandez, P.; Rojas, S.; Ocon, P.; de la Fuente , J. L. G.; Fabian, J. S.; Sanza, J.; Pena, M. A.; Garcia-Garcia, F. J

  7. Cerium oxide for the destruction of chemical warfare agents: A comparison of synthetic routes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janoš, Pavel, E-mail: [Faculty of the Environment, University of Jan Evangelista Purkyně, Králova Výšina 7, 400 96 Ústí nad Labem (Czech Republic); Henych, Jiří [Faculty of the Environment, University of Jan Evangelista Purkyně, Králova Výšina 7, 400 96 Ústí nad Labem (Czech Republic); Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR v.v.i., 25068 Řež (Czech Republic); Pelant, Ondřej; Pilařová, Věra; Vrtoch, Luboš [Faculty of the Environment, University of Jan Evangelista Purkyně, Králova Výšina 7, 400 96 Ústí nad Labem (Czech Republic); Kormunda, Martin [Faculty of Sciences, University of Jan Evangelista Purkyně, České Mládeže 8, 400 96 Ústí nad Labem (Czech Republic); Mazanec, Karel [Military Research Institute, Veslařská 230, 637 00 Brno (Czech Republic); and others


    Highlights: • Four synthetic routes were compared to prepare the nanoceria-based reactive sorbents. • The sorbents prepared by homogeneous hydrolysis destroy efficiently the soman and VX nerve agents. • Toxic organophosphates are converted to less-dangerous products completely within a few minutes. • Surface non-stoichiometry and −OH groups promote the destruction by the S{sub N}2 mechanism. - Abstract: Four different synthetic routes were used to prepare active forms of cerium oxide that are capable of destroying toxic organophosphates: a sol–gel process (via a citrate precursor), homogeneous hydrolysis and a precipitation/calcination procedure (via carbonate and oxalate precursors). The samples prepared via homogeneous hydrolysis with urea and the samples prepared via precipitation with ammonium bicarbonate (with subsequent calcination at 500 °C in both cases) exhibited the highest degradation efficiencies towards the extremely dangerous nerve agents soman (O-pinacolyl methylphosphonofluoridate) and VX (O-ethyl S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothioate) and the organophosphate pesticide parathion methyl. These samples were able to destroy more than 90% of the toxic compounds in less than 10 min. The high degradation efficiency of cerium oxide is related to its complex surface chemistry (presence of surface −OH groups and surface non-stoichiometry) and to its nanocrystalline nature, which promotes the formation of crystal defects on which the decomposition of organophosphates proceeds through a nucleophilic substitution mechanism that is not dissimilar to the mechanism of enzymatic hydrolysis of organic phosphates by phosphotriesterase.

  8. 16th Annual Expeditionary Warfare Conference: Integrating Future and Present Capabilities (United States)


    Hovercraft . The EPS M10 is a fully amphibious, air-cushioned vessel that operates effectively at sea, in shallow waters and over any land surface. The...under an ABS Hovercraft license agreement at EPS’ Vectorworks Marina Shipyard in Titusville, Florida, USA. POC: Francesco A. Musorrafiti, Hovercraft

  9. Koncepcija partizanskoj vojny v Litve v 1920— 1930-e gody [The concept of guerrilla warfare in Lithuania in the 1920—1930s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jokubauskas Vytautas


    Full Text Available This article analyses the military and tactical training of the members of the Lithuanian Riflemen’s Union for guerrilla warfare in the interwar period. Small nations, such as Lithuania and other Baltic states, being unable to build up military strength in order to ensure national security, were forced to seek for unconventional methods of warfare, including guerrilla strategies. The study places emphasis on the development of the guerrilla war concept in the Union periodicals. The author retraces a change in the intensity of the guerrilla warfare concept propagation amongst Lithuanian population and riflemen, in particular, through publications in the Trimitas — a periodical of the Lithuanian Riflemen’s Union. The author also identifies the narratives associated with the guerrilla matters employed for propaganda purposes in order to create an image of a guerrilla as a defender of the Homeland — Lithuania. Additionally, the structure and numbers of the Union are analysed through a comparison with similar organisations of the other «small nations» of the Baltic North-East. The author addresses the issue of military missions planned by the Lithuanian Army, as well as the way riflemen implemented them. Since the Union did not only offer military training, but was also engaged in the patriotic propaganda, the article focuses on the network of cultural institutions, homes of riflemen, orchestras, libraries, choirs, and athletic clubs used by the Union. The article sets out to establish whether the loss of Lithuanian sovereignty could have been possible without giving rise to a protracted guerrilla war.

  10. Formalization Modeling on VV&A Process for Warfare Simulation by UML%基于UML的作战仿真VV&A过程形式化建模

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐见兵; 查亚兵


    可信性是作战仿真的生命线,对作战仿真的全生命周期进行校核、验证与确认(Verification,Validation and Accreditation,VV&A)是确保其可信性的重要途径.建立合适的VV&A过程形式化模型是开展作战仿真VV&A过程研究的前提和基础.基于统一建模语言(Unified Modeling Language,UML)分别从用例、静态结构、动态行为及交互等方面对VV&A过程进行形式化建模,建立了作战仿真VV&A过程的用例、类图、活动图及顺序图模型,并给出相应的形式化定义.实践表明:作战仿真VV&A过程形式化建模可以使VV&A的描述规范化、标准化及形式化,便于不同领域人员的相互沟通与交流,以及VV&A工程化应用,促进了VV&A工作顺利开展.%The credibility is the lifeline of warfare simulation. To execute verification, validation and accreditation (VV&A) is an important approach to insure the credibility of warfare simulation system through out the life circle. It is the precondition and foundation to make the right formal model of VV&A process for warfare simulation. In this paper,the formal models of VV&A process is carried out,in which the details of use case,static construction,dynamic activities and interactions are modeled based on UML, and their formalization definitions are put forward. The practice shows that the formalization modeling on VV&A process for warfare simulation by UML can make it standardization, regularization and formalization,which can help the researchers in different domains to communicate with each other. The research of VV&A can be used in engineering,which help the job of VV&A is developed expediently.

  11. More Effective Warfare: Warfare Waged Psychologically (United States)


    Hezbollah as a Case Study, 2–112. 85Schleifer, Psychological Operations, 8. 86 Rodger Shanahan, "Hizballah Rising: The Political Battle for the Loyalty ...getting up in a bedroom, coming out to the balcony to have his morning coffee , getting dressed, putting his combat webbing on, picking up his...Teams Brand IDF Doctrine ’Completely Wrong’," Jane’s Defense Weekly (January 3, 2007): accessed February 1, 2012. 46 forces only as a last resort.155

  12. Decontamination of chemical warfare sulfur mustard agent simulant by ZnO nanoparticles (United States)

    Sadeghi, Meysam; Yekta, Sina; Ghaedi, Hamed


    In this study, zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) have been surveyed to decontaminate the chloroethyl phenyl sulfide as a sulfur mustard agent simulant. Prior to the reaction, ZnO NPs were successfully prepared through sol-gel method in the absence and presence of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). PVA was utilized as a capping agent to control the agglomeration of the nanoparticles. The formation, morphology, elemental component, and crystalline size of nanoscale ZnO were certified and characterized by SEM/EDX, XRD, and FT-IR techniques. The decontamination (adsorption and destruction) was tracked by the GC-FID analysis, in which the effects of polarity of the media, such as isopropanol, acetone and n-hexane, reaction time intervals from 1 up to 18 h, and different temperatures, including 25, 35, 45, and 55 °C, on the catalytic/decontaminative capability of the surface of ZnO NPs/PVA were investigated and discussed, respectively. Results demonstrated that maximum decontamination (100 %) occurred in n-hexane solvent at 55 °C after 1 h. On the other hand, the obtained results for the acetone and isopropanol solvents were lower than expected. GC-MS chromatograms confirmed the formation of hydroxyl ethyl phenyl sulfide and phenyl vinyl sulfide as the destruction reaction products. Furthermore, these chromatograms proved the role of hydrolysis and elimination mechanisms on the catalyst considering its surface Bronsted and Lewis acid sites. A non-polar solvent aids material transfer to the reactive surface acid sites without blocking these sites.

  13. Status of miniature integrated UV resonance fluorescence and Raman sensors for detection and identification of biochemical warfare agents (United States)

    Hug, William F.; Bhartia, Rohit; Taspin, Alexandre; Lane, Arthur; Conrad, Pamela; Sijapati, Kripa; Reid, Ray D.


    Laser induced native fluorescence (LINF) is the most sensitive method of detection of biological material including microorganisms, virus', and cellular residues. LINF is also a sensitive method of detection for many non-biological materials as well. The specificity with which these materials can be classified depends on the excitation wavelength and the number and location of observation wavelengths. Higher levels of specificity can be obtained using Raman spectroscopy but a much lower levels of sensitivity. Raman spectroscopy has traditionally been employed in the IR to avoid fluorescence. Fluorescence rarely occurs at wavelength below about 270nm. Therefore, when excitation occurs at a wavelength below 250nm, no fluorescence background occurs within the Raman fingerprint region for biological materials. When excitation occurs within electronic resonance bands of the biological target materials, Raman signal enhancement over one million typically occurs. Raman sensitivity within several hundred times fluorescence are possible in the deep UV where most biological materials have strong absorption. Since the Raman and fluorescence emissions occur at different wavelength, both spectra can be observed simultaneously, thereby providing a sensor with unique sensitivity and specificity capability. We will present data on our integrated, deep ultraviolet, LINF/Raman instruments that are being developed for several applications including life detection on Mars as well as biochemical warfare agents on Earth. We will demonstrate the ability to discriminate organic materials based on LINF alone. Together with UV resonance Raman, higher levels of specificity will be demonstrated. In addition, these instruments are being developed as on-line chemical sensors for industrial and municipal waste streams and product quality applications.

  14. Facile hydrolysis-based chemical destruction of the warfare agents VX, GB, and HD by alumina-supported fluoride reagents. (United States)

    Gershonov, E; Columbus, I; Zafrani, Y


    A facile solvent-free hydrolysis (chemical destruction) of the warfare agents VX (O-ethyl S-2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl methylphosphonothioate), GB (O-isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate or sarin), and HD (2,2'-dichloroethyl sulfide or sulfur mustard) upon reaction with various solid-supported fluoride reagents is described. These solid reagents include different alumina-based powders such as KF/Al(2)O(3), AgF/KF/Al(2)O(3), and KF/Al(2)O(3) enriched by so-called coordinatively unsaturated fluoride ions (termed by us as ECUF-KF/Al(2)O(3)). When adsorbed on these sorbents, the nerve agent VX quickly hydrolyzed (t(1/2) range between 0.1-6.3 h) to the corresponding nontoxic phosphonic acid EMPA as a major product (>90%) and to the relatively toxic desethyl-VX (<10%). The latter byproduct was further hydrolyzed to the nontoxic MPA product (t(1/2) range between 2.2-161 h). The reaction rates and the product distribution were found to be strongly dependent on the nature of the fluoride ions in the KF/Al(2)O(3) matrix and on its water content. All variations of the alumina-supported fluoride reagents studied caused an immediate hydrolysis of the highly toxic GB (t(1/2) < 10 min) to form the corresponding nontoxic phosphonic acid IMPA. A preliminary study of the detoxification of HD on these catalyst supports showed the formation of the nontoxic 1,4-thioxane as a major product together with minor amounts of TDG and vinylic compounds within a few days. The mechanisms and the efficiency of these processes were successfully studied by solid-state (31)P, (13)C, and (19)F MAS NMR.

  15. Decontamination of Chemical/Biological Warfare (CBW) Agents Using an Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet (APPJ) (United States)

    Herrmann, Hans W.


    The atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) is a non-thermal, high pressure, uniform glow discharge that produces a high velocity effluent stream of highly reactive chemical species. The discharge operates on a feedstock gas (e.g. He/O_2/H_2O) which flows between an outer, grounded, cylindrical electrode and an inner, coaxial electrode powered at 13.56 MHz RF. While passing through the plasma, the feedgas becomes excited, dissociated or ionized by electron impact. Once the gas exits the discharge volume, ions and electrons are rapidly lost by recombination, but the fast-flowing effluent still contains metastables (e.g. O2*, He*) and radicals (e.g. O, OH). These reactive species have been shown to be effective neutralizers of surrogates for anthrax spores, mustard blister agent and VX nerve gas. Unlike conventional, wet decontamination methods, the plasma effluent does not cause corrosion of most surfaces and does not damage wiring, electronics, nor most plastics. This makes it highly suitable for decontamination of high value sensitive equipment such as is found in vehicle interiors (i.e. tanks, planes...) for which there is currently no good decontamination technique. Furthermore, the reactive species rapidly degrade into harmless products leaving no lingering residue or harmful byproducts. Physics of the APPJ will be discussed and results of surface decontamination experiments using simulant and actual CBW agents will be presented.

  16. Isolated iliotibial band rupture after corticosteroid injection as a cause of subjective instability and knee pain in a military special warfare trainee. (United States)

    Pandit, Sandeep R; Solomon, Daniel J; Gross, Daniel J; Golijanin, Petar; Provencher, Matthew T


    Iliotibial band friction syndrome (ITBFS) of the knee is a common overuse injury in athletes, especially in runners. The syndrome occurs when the ITB, a lateral thickening of the fascia lata of the thigh moves repetitively over the lateral femoral condyle. A variety of nonoperative measures are used for ITBFS treatment, including stretching, core strengthening, and therapeutic injection. Isolated distal ITB rupture is a rare entity and has never yet to be reported in the orthopedic literature. We present a case of isolated ITB rupture as a cause of varus instability and knee pain in a Naval Special Warfare candidate diagnosed with ITBFS and previously treated with several local corticosteroid injections before ITB rupture. Because of continued knee pain and a sense of instability, along with an inability to return to his military special warfare duties, the ITB was surgically repaired. This case highlights the presentation and management of isolated distal ITB rupture and discusses some of the potential risk factors for rupture, including prior local corticosteroid injection.

  17. 中国共产党领导的抗日心理战%Anti-Japanese Psychological Warfare Led by the Chinese Communist Party

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    During the Anti-Japanese War ,the Chinese Communist Party creatively applied the ancient Chinese mili-tary’s psychological warfare and developed psychological tactics .By conducting political psychological attacking and im-plementing POW policy and other measures to constantly shake ,lax and abate enemy psychological defense ,our Party achieved remarkable success because with the development of the war ,the psychological defense of the Japanese invaders gradually collapsed ,and the Chinese people finally won the victory in the Anti-Japanese psychological warfare .%抗日战争中,我党继承和发扬了中国古代兵家的心战思想,创造性地运用和发展了心理战术,取得了举世瞩目的战果。我军民通过开展政治攻心和实施俘虏政策等措施,不断动摇、涣散、消减敌军的士气军心,使日本侵略者的军心随着战争的发展而日渐动摇和瓦解,我国人民最终赢得了抗日心理战的胜利。

  18. Chemical analysis of bleach and hydroxide-based solutions after decontamination of the chemical warfare agent O-ethyl S-2-diisopropylaminoethyl methylphosphonothiolate (VX). (United States)

    Hopkins, F B; Gravett, M R; Self, A J; Wang, M; Chua, Hoe-Chee; Hoe-Chee, C; Lee, H S Nancy; Sim, N Lee Hoi; Jones, J T A; Timperley, C M; Riches, J R


    Detailed chemical analysis of solutions used to decontaminate chemical warfare agents can be used to support verification and forensic attribution. Decontamination solutions are amongst the most difficult matrices for chemical analysis because of their corrosive and potentially emulsion-based nature. Consequently, there are relatively few publications that report their detailed chemical analysis. This paper describes the application of modern analytical techniques to the analysis of decontamination solutions following decontamination of the chemical warfare agent O-ethyl S-2-diisopropylaminoethyl methylphosphonothiolate (VX). We confirm the formation of N,N-diisopropylformamide and N,N-diisopropylamine following decontamination of VX with hypochlorite-based solution, whereas they were not detected in extracts of hydroxide-based decontamination solutions by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy or gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We report the electron ionisation and chemical ionisation mass spectroscopic details, retention indices, and NMR spectra of N,N-diisopropylformamide and N,N-diisopropylamine, as well as analytical methods suitable for their analysis and identification in solvent extracts and decontamination residues.

  19. Detection of aqueous phase chemical warfare agent degradation products by negative mode ion mobility time-of-flight mass spectrometry [IM(tof)MS]. (United States)

    Steiner, Wes E; Harden, Charles S; Hong, Feng; Klopsch, Steve J; Hill, Herbert H; McHugh, Vincent M


    The use of negative ion monitoring mode with an atmospheric pressure ion mobility orthogonal reflector time-of-flight mass spectrometer [IM(tof)MS] to detect chemical warfare agent (CWA) degradation products from aqueous phase samples has been determined. Aqueous phase sampling used a traditional electrospray ionization (ESI) source for sample introduction and ionization. Certified reference materials (CRM) of CWA degradation products for the detection of Schedule 1, 2, or 3 toxic chemicals or their precursors as defined by the chemical warfare convention (CWC) treaty verification were used in this study. A mixture of six G-series nerve related CWA degradation products (EMPA, IMPA, EHEP, IHEP, CHMPA, and PMPA) and their related collision induced dissociation (CID) fragment ions (MPA and EPA) were found in each case to be clearly resolved and detected using the IM(tof)MS instrument in negative ion monitoring mode. Corresponding ions, masses, drift times, K(o) values, and signal intensities for each of the CWA degradation products are reported.

  20. 信息化条件下计划制定与行动实施的关系%Relationship between planning and execution in information warfare

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田仲; 李加祥


    信息化条件下的作战引发了作战指挥方式等一系列的变化,对作战计划制定与作战行动实施的关系也产生了深刻的影响.以信息化条件下“以行动为中心”的作战需求为牵引,以提升作战指挥的适应性和时效性为目的,对不同方式的计划制定与行动实施的关系进行对比分析和研究,提出了适应行动中心方式下的计划制定与行动实施关系,为深入开展信息化条件下的作战指挥研究提供了有益的参考.%Command approaches changes in information operation impact relationship between planning and execution. With the purpose to meet the demands of " operation -centric" in information warfare, and to improve the agility and timeliness for command, different approaches of planning and execution are analyzed and researched, the relationship between planning and execution suit for operation-centric approach is advanced. Therefore,it has reference value for study the command in information warfare.

  1. 基于组件技术的分布式潜艇作战仿真系统%Research of Distributed Submarine Warfare Simulation System Based on Component

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永洁; 陆铭华; 史扬


    提出采用JavaEE/EJB组件技术开发分布式潜艇作战仿真系统,根据潜艇作战机理,建立了分布式潜艇作战仿真模型体系结构,设计了分布式潜艇作战仿真系统的软件架构,分析了系统开发过程中采用的技术协议,并研究了基于组件技术的分布式潜艇作战仿真系统实现方法。%This paper puts forward to develop distributed submarine warfare simulation system with Java EE/EJB component technology. Model component architecture is compartmentalized according to submarine warfare logic. The paper designs software structure of distributed submarine warfare simulation system,analyzes technology protocol of the system, and researches realization way of distributed submarine warfare simulation system.

  2. Application of Antibiotic on Sea Warfare Wound in Marine Environment%抗生素在海上环境下海战伤中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张贞良; 贺顺龙; 谢培增; 汪先兵


    Objective To study an appropriate anti-inflammation treatment strategy on sea warfare wound in ma-rine environment Methods Animal model of combined sea warfare wound in marine environment was established in 40 mongrel dogs. The dogs were randomly divided into control group and treatment group. The control group accepted rou-tine cefodizime treatment, and the treatment group accepted cefodizime plus levofloxacin treatment The treatment on sea warfare wound was the same in both groups. The gross condition was observed and bacteriological strains in the wound were cultured and antibiotic sensitivity was tested at 2 and 4 days after the wound. Wound infection rate and mortality were observed at the sixth day. Results The infection rate within six days was 50% in the control group, and 10% in treatment group, and the mortality was 60% and 20% respectively. These rates were significantly lower in the treatment group than those in the control group (P<0. 01). The constituent ratio of vibrion in the treatment group was lower than that in the control group (P<0. 01). Conclusion There are many species of bacteria with wide distribution in South China Sea which mainly includes vibrionaceaes, staphylococcus and escherichia. These bacteria are the main causes leading to sea warfare wound infection. To deal with the sea warfare wound in marine environment, the early and complete debride-ment, and the early application of broadspectrum and anti-vibrion antibiotics should be emphasized.%目的 探讨抗生素在海上环境下海战伤中的有效应用.方法 选取40只成年杂种犬,制作海上环境下海水浸泡复合火器伤动物模型.随机将动物分成对照组和治疗组,每组20只犬.对照组采用头孢地嗪治疗,治疗组头孢地嗪加左氧氟沙星治疗.海战伤的其他处理方法相同.在伤后第2和第4天进行细菌培养与药敏试验,观察6天伤口感染率、死亡率.结果 伤后6天,对照组的伤口感染率为500,治疗组为10

  3. Virginia Demonstration Project Encouraging Middle School Students in Pursuing STEM Careers (United States)

    Bachman, Jane T.; Kota, Dena H.; Kota, Aaron J.


    Encouraging students at all grade levels to consider pursuing a career in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) fields i s a national focus. In 2005, the Naval Surface Warfare Center, Dahlgren Division (NSWCDD), a Department of Defense laboratory located in Da hlgren, Virginia, began work on the Virginia Demonstration Project (VDP) with the goal of increasing more student interest in STEM educatio n and pursuing STEM careers. This goal continues as the program enters its sixth year. This project has been successful through the partici pation of NSWCDD's scientists and engineers who are trained as mentor s to work in local middle school classrooms throughout the school year, As an extension of the in-class activities, several STEM summer aca demies have been conducted at NSWCDD, These academies are supported by the Navy through the VDP and the STEM Learning Module Project. These projects are part of more extensive outreach efforts offered by the National Defense Education Program (NDEP), sponsored by the Director, Defense Research and Engineering. The focus of this paper is on the types of activities conducted at the summer academy, an overview of the academy planning process, and recommendations to help support a nati onal plan of integrating modeling and simulation-based engineering and science into all grade levels. based upon the lessons learned

  4. Two-pulse rapid remote surface contamination measurement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Headrick, Jeffrey M.; Kulp, Thomas J.; Bisson, Scott E.; Reichardt, Thomas A.; Farrow, Roger L.


    This project demonstrated the feasibility of a 'pump-probe' optical detection method for standoff sensing of chemicals on surfaces. Such a measurement uses two optical pulses - one to remove the analyte (or a fragment of it) from the surface and the second to sense the removed material. As a particular example, this project targeted photofragmentation laser-induced fluorescence (PF-LIF) to detect of surface deposits of low-volatility chemical warfare agents (LVAs). Feasibility was demonstrated for four agent surrogates on eight realistic surfaces. Its sensitivity was established for measurements on concrete and aluminum. Extrapolations were made to demonstrate relevance to the needs of outside users. Several aspects of the surface PF-LIF physical mechanism were investigated and compared to that of vapor-phase measurements. The use of PF-LIF as a rapid screening tool to 'cue' more specific sensors was recommended. Its sensitivity was compared to that of Raman spectroscopy, which is both a potential 'confirmer' of PF-LIF 'hits' and is also a competing screening technology.

  5. Geopolitical Trends and Security Challenges across the Indian Ocean and Asia-Pacific Regions; Strategic Insights, v. 10, Special issue (October 2011), 28-35. Topic: Global Trends and Future Warfare ; Part I: Alternative Perspectives: Traditional Powers, Rising Powers, and the Developing World


    Parthasarathy, G.


    This article appeared in Strategic Insights, v.10, Special issue (October 2011), 28-35. Topic: Global Trends and Future Warfare ; Part I: Alternative Perspectives: Traditional Powers, Rising Powers, and the Developing World Approved for public display, distribution unlimited

  6. Distribution-mode Logistical Support in Modern Warfare%现代战争条件下的配送式后勤保障

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴兆东; 朱江浩


    The distribution-mode logistical support is the product of the warfare in the information era and has become a basic form of the modern logistical practices. In this paper, in connection with the characteristics of military distribution and transportation, we analyzed the logistical support mode of the U.S. army in the war in Iraq and then proposed some thoughts on building the distribution-mode logistical support system by the Chinese army.%配送式后勤保障是信息化条件下的战争产物,已成为现代后勤保障的基本形式.结合军事物流配送的特点,分析了伊拉克战争中美军这种后勤保障模式的特点,提出关于我军配送式后勤保障建设的思考.

  7. An Analysis of the Effect of Commissioning Sources on the Retention and Promotion of Surface Warfare Officers (SWOs) in the U.S. Navy (United States)


    performance are also expected. Since USNA provides longer military training and acculturation , academy graduates are expected to stay longer. E. and education in both civilian and military organizations and they cause stress and pressure on employees. Since SWOs generally receive...same operational stress as wartime assignments, deployments during peacetime tend to have a positive effect while hostile deployments have a negative

  8. Developmental Testing of Liquid and Gaseous/Vaporous Decontamination on Bacterial Spores and Other Biological Warfare Agents on Military Relevant Surfaces (United States)


    for Testing and Materials ATCC® American Type Culture Collection B. Bacillus Ba B. anthracis BAP blood agar plate Bc B. cereus BCA...following contaminants: Bacillus (B.) subtilis (Bg), B. anthracis (Ba), Pantoea (P.) agglomerans (Pa), and Vaccinia virus [Paragraphs 1.2.f(1) through (4...Btk) and B. cereus (Bc) may be used with these test procedures. The strain used and results must be fully documented in the test report. (2

  9. How is the United States Naval Academy Developing and Preparing Surface Warfare Officers: A Needs Analysis of the SWO Leadership Capstone Course (United States)


    mandatory academic courses associated with the PRODEV Division that are taught during Plebe , Third Class, and Second Class years. They are...Leadership Continuum Plebe Year Third Class Year Second Class Year First Class Year Plebe Summer Plebe Year → Fleet Cruise/ Open Ocean Sail 3/c

  10. You Only Get One Chance to Make a First Impression: A Quantitative Analysis of Division Officer Fleet Experiences on Surface Warfare Officer Retention (United States)


    to remain in the Navy because they have a higher “taste” for the military lifestyle. Otherwise, they would not have matriculated at the Naval...physical sciences or mathematics , 149 (4.6%) majored in the biological sciences, 653 (20.4%) majored in the social sciences, 299 (9.3%) majored in...leave the Navy prior to the O-4 board than were engineering majors. Science and mathematics majors, however, were more likely to remain in the Navy

  11. The Effect of Advanced Education on the Retention and the Promotion of Surface Warfare Officers in the U.S. Navy (United States)


    promoted. First Professional degrees include fields such as law, education, medicine, pharmacy, or dentistry . Officers with those degrees can find...civilian job. We didn’t have any variables that would proxy conditions in the civilian labor market . For that reason, our model is likely

  12. Ion mobility spectrometric analysis of vaporous chemical warfare agents by the instrument with corona discharge ionization ammonia dopant ambient temperature operation. (United States)

    Satoh, Takafumi; Kishi, Shintaro; Nagashima, Hisayuki; Tachikawa, Masumi; Kanamori-Kataoka, Mieko; Nakagawa, Takao; Kitagawa, Nobuyoshi; Tokita, Kenichi; Yamamoto, Soichiro; Seto, Yasuo


    The ion mobility behavior of nineteen chemical warfare agents (7 nerve gases, 5 blister agents, 2 lachrymators, 2 blood agents, 3 choking agents) and related compounds including simulants (8 agents) and organic solvents (39) was comparably investigated by the ion mobility spectrometry instrument utilizing weak electric field linear drift tube with corona discharge ionization, ammonia doping, purified inner air drift flow circulation operated at ambient temperature and pressure. Three alkyl methylphosphonofluoridates, tabun, and four organophosphorus simulants gave the intense characteristic positive monomer-derived ion peaks and small dimer-derived ion peaks, and the later ion peaks were increased with the vapor concentrations. VX, RVX and tabun gave both characteristic positive monomer-derived ions and degradation product ions. Nitrogen mustards gave the intense characteristic positive ion peaks, and in addition distinctive negative ion peak appeared from HN3. Mustard gas, lewisite 1, o-chlorobenzylidenemalononitrile and 2-mercaptoethanol gave the characteristic negative ion peaks. Methylphosphonyl difluoride, 2-chloroacetophenone and 1,4-thioxane gave the characteristic ion peaks both in the positive and negative ion mode. 2-Chloroethylethylsulfide and allylisothiocyanate gave weak ion peaks. The marker ion peaks derived from two blood agents and three choking agents were very close to the reactant ion peak in negative ion mode and the respective reduced ion mobility was fluctuated. The reduced ion mobility of the CWA monomer-derived peaks were positively correlated with molecular masses among structurally similar agents such as G-type nerve gases and organophosphorus simulants; V-type nerve gases and nitrogen mustards. The slope values of the calibration plots of the peak heights of the characteristic marker ions versus the vapor concentrations are related to the detection sensitivity, and within chemical warfare agents examined the slope values for sarin, soman

  13. Counterworking to UAN in Underwater Acoustic Warfare%水声对抗中的水声网络及其对抗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董阳泽; 许肖梅; 刘平香


    水声对抗系统和技术的不断发展是和相关技术的发展分不开的.一方面,传统威胁目标的智能化程度的提高,使得水声对抗技术必须在纵深方向做出应对;另一方面,威胁目标种类的扩展,使得水声对抗技术必须面临新的挑战,开阔思路,寻求应对方法.其中,水声网络的出现对于水声对抗的影响将是革命性的.分析了网络化条件下水声对抗技术发展的思路,特别是针对水声网络的对抗进行了分析和思考.%Development of Underwater Acoustic Warfare (UAW) system and technologies is tightly associated with relevant progresses. On one hand, traditional threats such as torpedoes have greatly improved their intelligence, which makes countermeasures must be deeply studied. On the other hand, types of threats have been extended largely, so new measures must be taken to confront such threats. Thereinto, Underwater Acoustic Networks (UAN) is a completely new concept in UAW, which is introduced under the background of Network-Centric Warfare (NCW). As to the recent cognition, the influence of UAN to UAW is revolutionary. This report analyzes the development considerations of UAW under conditions of NCW, and special thoughts are focused on the countermeasures to UAN.

  14. Çanakkale Savaşlarına Sualtından Bir Bakış A Look From Underwater to The Çanakkale Warfares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.Barış ÖZALP


    Full Text Available Çanakkale Naval Warfares can basically be defined as a historic moment that tells of the campaign for liberation of its country and the state of defence of a nation’s capital. The importance of all battles taken place in Çanakkale surely are not ignored in winning the war, but the attacks occured around the coastal waters of Çanakkale Strait and Gallipoli Peninsula and sinking of the opposer’s ships and submarines can be evaluated as a significant information which is a proof that the strait can not be surpassed. If the enemy naval forces could not kept down and as a result of this, their willing to arrive at østanbul had come true, the success in Gallipoli campaign was not able to obtain. That can be stated that all arrangements planned by the Entente Powers on succeeding in war are primarily about the passing the Çanakkale Strait. Since the enemy forces and submarines have been stopped with severe damage or sunk, there have achieved success in naval battles and it was accepted by all the enemy forces that the strait was impassable. In this success, the powerfull emplacements deployed on both sides of the strait and our submarines and besides the mines laid by the Minelayer Nusret had a great effect. In Naval Warfares, many battleships and submarines owned by Entente Powers were sunk in the Çanakkale Strait and not allowed to drive into the sea of Marmara. Thus, all the plans of Entente Powers aim for conquering østanbul were interrupted and their will on winning in naval battle has been obstructed.

  15. Bioaccumulation of chemical warfare agents, energetic materials, and metals in deep-sea shrimp from discarded military munitions sites off Pearl Harbor (United States)

    Koide, Shelby; Silva, Jeff A. K.; Dupra, Vilma; Edwards, Margo


    The bioaccumulation of munitions-related chemicals at former military deep-water disposal sites is poorly understood. This paper presents the results of human-food-item biota sampling to assess the potential for bioaccumulation of chemical warfare agents, energetic materials, arsenic, and additional munitions-related metals in deep-sea shrimp tissue samples collected during the Hawai'i Undersea Military Munitions Assessment (HUMMA) project to date. The HUMMA investigation area is located within a former munitions sea-disposal site located south of Pearl Harbor on the island of O'ahu, Hawai'i, designated site Hawaii-05 (HI-05) by the United States Department of Defense. Indigenous deep-sea shrimp (Heterocarpus ensifer) were caught adjacent to discarded military munitions (DMM) and at control sites where munitions were absent. Tissue analysis results showed that chemical warfare agents and their degradation products were not present within the edible portions of these samples at detectable concentrations, and energetic materials and their degradation products were detected in only a few samples at concentrations below the laboratory reporting limits. Likewise, arsenic, copper, and lead concentrations were below the United States Food and Drug Administration's permitted concentrations of metals in marine biota tissue (if defined), and their presence within these samples could not be attributed to the presence of DMM within the study area based on a comparative analysis of munitions-adjacent and control samples collected. Based on this current dataset, it can be concluded that DMM existing within the HUMMA study area is not contributing to the bioaccumulation of munitions-related chemicals for the biota species investigated to date.

  16. [The re-introduction of malaria in the Pontine Marshes and the Cassino district during the end of World War II. Biological warfare or global war tactics?]. (United States)

    Sabbatani, Sergio; Fiorino, Sirio; Manfredi, Roberto


    After the fall of the Fascist regime on September 8, 1943, Italy was split into two parts: (i) the Southern regions where the King Victor Emanuel III and the military general staff escaped was under the control of English-American allied armies, and (ii) the northern regions comprising Lazio, Tuscany, Umbria, and Marche still under the control of the Germans. The German Wehrmacht, after suffering several defeats on Southern lines, established a new strengthened line of defence called the Gustav line, located south of Rome and crossing in the western portion the recently-drained Pontine Marshes. In his book published in 2006, Frank Snowden hypothesised that occupying German armies in 1943 had initiated a programme of re-flooding the Pontine plain as a biological warfare strategy to re-introduce malaria infection in the territories south of Rome, Such a plan was intended (i) to slow down the advance of English-American forces, and (ii) to punish Italians who abandoned their former allies. Other authors, including Annibale Folchi, Erhard Geissler, and Jeanne Guillemin, have disputed this hypothesis based on an analysis of recently-uncovered archive documents. What is not disputed is that the flooding of the Pontine and Roman plains in 1943 contributed to a severe malaria epidemic in 1944, which was associated with exceptionally high morbidity and mortality rates in the afflicted populations. Herein, we critically evaluate the evidence and arguments of whether the Wehrmacht specifically aimed to spread malaria as a novel biological warfare strategy in Italy during the Second World War. In our opinion, evidence for specific orders to deliberately spread malaria by the German army is lacking, although the strategy itself may have been considered by Nazis during the waning years of the war.

  17. Truth about the Consequence of Bacteriological Warfare of Disseminating Plague Bacteria%散布鼠疫菌(PX)细菌战“战果”之真相

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莇昭三[日](著); 韩慧光(译)


    日本军在中国实施细菌战的事实,随着中日学者的研究逐渐被揭示,在研究中所用材料大部分都是加害者(当事人)和受害者的口述史,缺乏日本军当时实施细菌战后对被害地的全面详细的疫学调查。731部队细菌战研究人员金子顺一论文《鼠疫效果略算法》,揭示了1940年农安、新京鼠疫流行事件是731部队实施的细菌战的事实。《陆军军医学校防疫研究报告第2部》中的高桥正彦论文中关于农安、新京鼠疫流行事件的论文,是731部队细菌战后对被害地进行的疫学调查。达格威文件Q报告中的部分数据来自“农安细菌战”受害者的病理解剖,其中不仅有中国人,也有日本人。%Facts about bacteriological warfare conducted by Japanese Army in China have been gradually re-vealed by related Chinese and Japanese researchers. However, the majority of materials used in the research are oral history orally accounted by offenders and victims, hence the lack of epidemic prevention surveys on the inflicted areas of bacteriological warfare by Japanese army. The thesis paper by Jun-Ichi Kaneko (bacterial warfare researcher of U-nit 731) namedBubonicPlagueAlgorithmunveiled the fact that plague epidemics which struck Nong’an and Changchun were caused by the Unit 731’s bacteriological warfare. Takahashi’s thesis paper inArmyMedicalCol-legeEpidemicPreventionResearchReport(VolumeⅡ)on plague epidemics that hit Nong’an and Changchun is in connection with the epidemic prevention surveys on the inflicted areas of bacteriological warfare carried out by the U-nit 731. Some data of the Report of“Q”from Dugway Proving Ground Documents came from pathological anatomy of victims of Nong’an bacteriological warfare, some of whom were Chinese and Japanese.

  18. Groundwater geochemical and selected volatile organic compound data, Operable Unit 1, Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Keyport, Washington, June 2011 (United States)

    Huffman, Raegan L.; Frans, L.M.


    Previous investigations indicate that concentrations of chlorinated volatile organic compounds are substantial in groundwater beneath the 9-acre former landfill at Operable Unit 1, Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Keyport, Washington. Phytoremediation combined with ongoing natural attenuation processes was the preferred remedy selected by the U.S. Navy, as specified in the Record of Decision for the site. The U.S. Navy planted two hybrid poplar plantations on the landfill in spring 1999 to remove and to control the migration of chlorinated volatile organic compounds in shallow groundwater. The U.S. Geological Survey has continued to monitor groundwater geochemistry to ensure that conditions remain favorable for contaminant biodegradation as specified in the Record of Decision. This report presents groundwater geochemical and selected volatile organic compound data collected at Operable Unit 1 by the U.S. Geological Survey during June 20-22, 2011, in support of long-term monitoring for natural attenuation. In 2011, groundwater samples were collected from 13 wells and 9 piezometers. Samples from all wells and piezometers were analyzed for redox sensitive constituents and dissolved gases, and samples from 5 of 13 wells and all piezometers also were analyzed for chlorinated volatile organic compounds. Concentrations of redox sensitive constituents measured in 2011 were consistent with previous years, with dissolved oxygen concentrations all at 0.4 milligram per liter or less; little to no detectable nitrate; abundant dissolved manganese, iron, and methane; and commonly detected sulfide. The reductive declorination byproducts - methane, ethane, and ethene - were either not detected in samples collected from the upgradient wells in the landfill and the upper aquifer beneath the northern phytoremediation plantation or were detected at concentrations less than those measured in 2010. Chlorinated volatile organic compound concentrations in 2011 at most piezometers

  19. Toward improved software security training using a cyber warfare opposing force (CW OPFOR): the knowledge base design (United States)

    Stytz, Martin R.; Banks, Sheila B.


    "Train the way you will fight" has been a guiding principle for military training and has served the warfighter well as evidenced by numerous successful operations over the last decade. This need for realistic training for all combatants has been recognized and proven by the warfighter and continues to guide military training. However, to date, this key training principle has not been applied fully in the arena of cyberwarfare due to the lack of realistic, cost effective, reasonable, and formidable cyberwarfare opponents. Recent technological advances, improvements in the capability of computer-generated forces (CGFs) to emulate human behavior, and current results in research in information assurance and software protection, coupled with increasing dependence upon information superiority, indicate that the cyberbattlespace will be a key aspect of future conflict and that it is time to address the cyberwarfare training shortfall. To address the need for a cyberwarfare training and defensive testing capability, we propose research and development to yield a prototype computerized, semi-autonomous (SAF) red team capability. We term this capability the Cyber Warfare Opposing Force (CW OPFOR). There are several technologies that are now mature enough to enable, for the first time, the development of this powerful, effective, high fidelity CW OPFOR. These include improved knowledge about cyberwarfare attack and defense, improved techniques for assembling CGFs, improved techniques for capturing and expressing knowledge, software technologies that permit effective rapid prototyping to be effectively used on large projects, and the capability for effective hybrid reasoning systems. Our development approach for the CW OPFOR lays out several phases in order to address these requirements in an orderly manner and to enable us to test the capabilities of the CW OPFOR and exploit them as they are developed. We have completed the first phase of the research project, which

  20. Superamphiphobic Surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cavalli, A.; Mugele, F.; Brutin, David


    This chapter discusses recent trends in the development, fabrication, and characterization of superamphiphobic surfaces. An amphiphobic surface repels both polar liquids, such as water, and nonpolar (oily) liquids, and has therefore useful technological application in microfluidics devices, protecti

  1. Rumble surfaces

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    National Institute for Transport and Road


    Full Text Available Rumble surfaces are intermittent short lengths of coarse-textured road surfacings on which vehicle tyres produce a rumbling sound. used in conjunction with appropriate roadsigns and markings, they can reduce accidents on rural roads by alerting...

  2. Surface analysis. (United States)

    Kinsella, T


    Surface analysis techniques are important tools to use in the verification of surface cleanliness and medical device functionality. How these techniques can be employed and some example applications are described.

  3. On Winter Warfare (United States)


    in Latin (Puffendorf zen water bodies had been recognized long before Charles. 1685: Historia Germanico-Sveviae), are authoritative and The Mongols...declaration of war and crossing of the Roma - in the theater of operations, the armies on both sides suf- nian border on 24 April 1877. The war was

  4. Chemical warfare in freshwater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulderij, Gabi


    Aquatic macrophytes can excrete chemical substances into their enviroment and these compounds may inhibit the growth of phytoplankton. This process is defined as allelopathy: one organism has effects on another via the excretion of a (mixture of) chemical substance(s). With laboratory and field expe

  5. Countermobilization: Unconventional Social Warfare (United States)


    pf_1967to1991_rabat_1974. php . 128 Fraser, The Arab-Israeli Conflict, 136. 129 Matthew Levitt and Dennis Ross, Hamas: Politics, Charity, and Terrorism...objectives that were to underlie the analysis of countermobilization. In this chapter, I return to those objectives and present a synthesis of theory...Arab Summit Conference.” Accessed May 24, 2014. php . Phillips, Andrew. “How al Qaeda Lost Iraq

  6. Sustaining Unconventional Warfare (United States)


    establishment of a similar organization, the Special Project Operations Center ( SPOC ). SPOC adopted SOE’s practice of consolidating requirements and...That success depended largely on coordination between SFHQ personnel and a multitude of conventional force units. SPOC provided a unique capability

  7. Warfare and Social Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaspersen, Lars Bo


    -related symptoms. METHODS: Cross-sectional studies were carried out in 1994, 2000 and 2005. The study population included men and women from ages 25 to 44 years (n (1994) = 1,781, n (2000) = 5,819, n (2005) = 4,831). The surveys were conducted by face-to-face interviews and the outcome measure was OTCA use...

  8. Changing Face of Warfare (United States)


    could reach; blood flowed in streams along the aisles and out the doors; screams and groans were 17 Benjamin Edwards Stiles Jr, letter dated April4...the tree line. Union artillery ripped holes in the attacking close knit formations almost immediately. "In the 1,000 yard ’shooting gallery’ at...the mountain, Sanders rushed his men forward to stem the overwhelming tide. The regiment was met with panicked Confederate soldiers streaming from

  9. Future Of Privatized Warfare (United States)


    Corporate Warriors, 28. 61 Mockler, Mercenaries, 15. 62 Ortiz, Private Armed Forces and Global Security, 19. 63 Erkki Holmila, “The History of...patterns and parallels that exists between the history of the nation-state and the current dynamics of the United States. In fact, the emerging...the nation-state within the international system. This methodology highlights the important patterns and parallels that exists between the history of

  10. Dehumanization and Irregular Warfare (United States)


    severe distrust between the locals and U.S. troops in the area. To rebuild trust, Bell promulgated a new policy for his officers that opposed carte ...and resulted in the assassination of the Indian Prime Minister, Indira Gandhi , in retaliation for Operation Blue Star. The shift in tactics

  11. Air Power and Warfare (United States)


    Memorial, 1963. (T) 767.8 A3 ser .3, V.4) Air war against Germany and Italy, 1939-1943. Canberra: Australian War Memorial, 1954. (D 767.8 A3 Ser .3, al. Air poder indivisible Air University Ouarterly Review 2:5-18, Fall 1950. Spaatz, Crrl. Air-power odds against us. Readers Digest 58:11-14, June

  12. Unconventional Warfare in Cyberspace (United States)


    and social networking sites , including Facebook, he reached thousands.31 Al Qaeda’s 15 contact with possible recruits was done personally in three years. DARPA noted that operations are rapidly changing with the spread of blogs, social networking sites , and media-sharing technology

  13. Cyber warfare: critical perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ducheine, P.; Osinga, F.; Soeters, J.


    Next to sea, land, air and space, ‘cyber space’ appears to be the fifth operational domain for the military. This manmade and virtual sphere brings along opportunities and threats. In this book, academics of the Netherlands Defence Academy as well as specialists and military professionals from other

  14. Cyber warfare: critical perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ducheine, P.; Osinga, F.; Soeters, J.


    Next to sea, land, air and space, ‘cyber space’ appears to be the fifth operational domain for the military. This manmade and virtual sphere brings along opportunities and threats. In this book, academics of the Netherlands Defence Academy as well as specialists and military professionals from other

  15. Preventing Space Warfare

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The international community should join forces to avoid possible conflicts in space Military competition and conflict in outer space can be divided into three stages:militarization,wea- ponization and the space battle- field. Space militarization has become a thing of the past.Now,many countries are re- searching more advanced space weaponry technology,which means space weapon- ization is becoming a growing reality.The process of space competition is astonishingly

  16. Nuclear Warfare Water Contamination. (United States)


    idies (Kand KdB I respect ivelIy) , a nd V1 I idl cates the vol u ot )otent. ial ci’i witevr issociated wit -h the first rain. (I ) t1 , ) - D di r-i n i...bP I •" Fiur B-23. , b17 T-2 wae co tmn i. SI _B . .. II’ , I 10 ... . __ __ _I I I ME bINL INI IF: .LO t Fiqure B-23. Sb-127, Te-127 water

  17. Chemical warfare in freshwater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulderij, Gabi


    Aquatic macrophytes can excrete chemical substances into their enviroment and these compounds may inhibit the growth of phytoplankton. This process is defined as allelopathy: one organism has effects on another via the excretion of a (mixture of) chemical substance(s). With laboratory and field

  18. Surface reconstructions

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, David J


    It is well-known, even at the most elementary level of scientific knowledge, that free surfaces have properties which make them differ from the underlying bulk material. In the case of liquids, it is common knowledge - even among laymen - that the liquid surface acts as though it were a distinct skin-like material. At a slightly more advanced level, it is known that the liquid surface will seek to minimize its total surface energy by minimizing its surface area; thereby affecting its local vapor-pressure and adsorption behavior. In the case of solids too, it has long been known that different

  19. Surface chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Desai, KR


    The surface Chemistry of a material as a whole is crucially dependent upon the Nature and type of surfaces exposed on crystallites. It is therefore vitally important to independently Study different, well - defined surfaces through surface analytical techniques. In addition to composition and structure of surface, the subject also provides information on dynamic light scattering, micro emulsions, colloid Stability control and nanostructures. The present book endeavour to bring before the reader that the understanding and exploitation of Solid state phenomena depended largely on the ability to

  20. A Business Overview & Summary of the SM-27S/T MACHETE RDT&E Program as Undertaken by the Military Aerospace/Tactical Air Warfare Systems Division of STAVATTI (United States)

    2005-06-27 The EMB-314 Super Tucano is produced by Empresa Brasil De Aeronautica (EMBRAER). An advanced derivative of the EMB-312 which entered...reconnaissance, electronic warfare and basic and advanced weapons familiarization . Both aircraft feature armor and redundant systems. With over 600 Tucanos...tunnel testing, STAVATTI will hold an FAA/STAVATTI familiarization /preliminary type certification board meeting. STAVATTI will pro- vide the FAA with all

  1. Intelligent Evaluation for Aerial Warfare Efficiency of Fighter-plane Based on Rough Set and Support Vector Machine%粗集支持向量机的战斗机空战效能智能评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚胜科; 徐浩军; 林敏


    根据现代空战特点,选取了战斗机的空战效能评估指标集,并采用粗糙集理论对指标体系进行约简,提取对空战效能影响起关键作用的特征参数,消除冗余信息,减少了支持向量的维效.支持向量机( SVM)具有结构简单、全局最优、泛化能力强的优点.根据所提取的特征参数,文中提出采用回归型支持向量机(SVR)建立空战效能智能评估模型,并通过实例与指数法和BP神经网络法计算结果进行了比较,验证了该模型的可行性和有效性.%According to the characteristic of modern aerial warfare. the index set of aerial warfare efficiency evaluation is selected in this paper. Reduction is performed on index systems based on rough set theory to extract characteristic parameters which affect aerial warfare efficiency crucially, which is to remove redundant information and reduce the dimension of support vector. Support vector machine (SVM) has the advantages of simple structure, global optimum and high generalization ability. With the characteristic parameters, intelligent evaluation model for aerial warfare efficiency of fighter-plane is establish by using Support Vector Regression (SVR), and we compare the SVR with index method and BP network method by a case study, which verified the feasibility and validity of the model.

  2. Analysis on Joint Operational Capability in the Condition of Information and Psychological Warfares%信息心理对抗条件下联合作战能力分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫家传; 秦伟; 陈璐; 张仁友


    In the information age, operational capabilities of troops include firepower, defense power, maintainance power, information power and many other factors, and the warfares between the opponents represent force confrontation, psychological confrontation, information warfares and many other complex forms. Based on the quantity analysis of joint operational capability, mutual functional mechanism of information, psychology and combat power is analyzed, and three feedback loops of operational confrontation, information warfares and psychological warfares are educed, and then system dynamical models are established, and effects on joint operational capability by information, psychology and other factors are deduced in the prospect of quantity.%信息化条件下作战,部队的作战能力表现为包括火力、防护力、保障力、信息力等多种因素的联合作战能力,作战双方的对抗表现为兵力对抗,心理对抗,信息对抗等多种复杂的形式.在联合作战能力量化分析基础上,分析了信息、心理和战斗力相互作用机制,得出了战斗对抗、信息对抗、心理对抗3个反馈回路环,并据此建立了系统动力学模型,从定量的角度分析了信息、心理等因素对联合作战能力的影响.

  3. Influence of Psychological Warfare Information on College Students and Educational Countermeasures%心理战信息对大学生的影响及其教育对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    In the psychological warfare of information under the background of the Internet, television, language, religious, and academic and cultural exchanges, visits and other activities for the psychological warfare of information carrier of long term effect on the students, had different effect on the students' ideological consciousness, emotion attitude, values education, the national consciousness, cultural identity education, national education measures in a timely manner, improve the ability of college students' psychological warfare defense.%在信息心理战的背景下,以互联网、语言、影视、宗教,以及学术文化交流、参观访问等活动为载体的心理战信息长期作用于大学生,对大学生的思想意识、情感态度产生了不同程度的影响,应及时通过价值观教育、国家意识教育、文化认同教育、国情国力教育等教育对策,提高大学生的心理战防御能力。

  4. The Challenges of Cyber Warfare to International Law:From Perspective of The Tallinn Manual on The International Law Applicable to Cyber Warfare%从《塔林手册》看网络战争对国际法的挑战

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Tallinn Manual on The International Law Applicable to Cyber Warfare results from an expert -driven process designed to produce a non -binding document applying existing law to cyber warfare .It encompasses both jus ad bellum and jus in bello , as well as related bodies of general international law , such as the law of State re-sponsibility etc .It is believed that how the Manual elaborates on current international law applicable to cyber war -fare reflects the current development of international law about cyber warfare .However , it is also arguable about the methodology used to ascertain rules and the composition of the International Group of Experts .Additionally , the Manual contains several flaws in the formulation of the rules and the relevant comments .Given to all these reasons , how much the Manual could affect states and international law still remains uncertain and need to be proven in the future.%《适用于网络战争的国际法塔林手册》(以下简称“《塔林手册》”)分别讨论了一般国际法和国际人道法如何适用于网络空间和网络战争中的重要问题。《塔林手册》对适用于网络战争的国际法进行的系统归纳和总结,将会影响国际社会对网络战争的认识。但是《塔林手册》在编纂方式和国际专家组的人员构成方面存在先天不足,而且其中的若干具体规则也与现今国际法有些许出入。《塔林手册》究竟能在什么程度上影响国家实践和国际法的发展,还有待检验。

  5. Spherical Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brander, David


    We study surfaces of constant positive Gauss curvature in Euclidean 3-space via the harmonicity of the Gauss map. Using the loop group representation, we solve the regular and the singular geometric Cauchy problems for these surfaces, and use these solutions to compute several new examples. We gi...

  6. Superhydrophobic surfaces (United States)

    Wang, Evelyn N; McCarthy, Matthew; Enright, Ryan; Culver, James N; Gerasopoulos, Konstantinos; Ghodssi, Reza


    Surfaces having a hierarchical structure--having features of both microscale and nanoscale dimensions--can exhibit superhydrophobic properties and advantageous condensation and heat transfer properties. The hierarchical surfaces can be fabricated using biological nanostructures, such as viruses as a self-assembled nanoscale template.

  7. Evaporation Rates of Chemical Warfare Agents Measured Using 5 CM Wind Tunnels. 2. Munitions Grade Sulfur Mustard From Sand (United States)


    was obtained from the back gate of Cannon AFB, New Mexico , and is a surface sample. Chemical analyses are in Appendix E, and surface area data are...m t*5 ft ft cO o o . a* a* «•! if- 6* s* £ aci/i^iotr- vino *» in K c\\ v " tv O O O) 00 f* tf- (T rf

  8. Development of the HS-SPME-GC-MS/MS method for analysis of chemical warfare agent and their degradation products in environmental samples. (United States)

    Nawała, Jakub; Czupryński, Krzysztof; Popiel, Stanisław; Dziedzic, Daniel; Bełdowski, Jacek


    After World War II approximately 50,000 tons of chemical weapons were dumped in the Baltic Sea by the Soviet Union under the provisions of the Potsdam Conference on Disarmament. These dumped chemical warfare agents still possess a major threat to the marine environment and to human life. Therefore, continue monitoring of these munitions is essential. In this work, we present the application of new solid phase microextraction fibers in analysis of chemical warfare agents and their degradation products. It can be concluded that the best fiber for analysis of sulfur mustard and its degradation products is butyl acrylate (BA), whereas for analysis of organoarsenic compounds and chloroacetophenone, the best fiber is a co-polymer of methyl acrylate and methyl methacrylate (MA/MMA). In order to achieve the lowest LOD and LOQ the samples should be divided into two subsamples. One of them should be analyzed using a BA fiber, and the second one using a MA/MMA fiber. When the fast analysis is required, the microextraction should be performed by use of a butyl acrylate fiber because the extraction efficiency of organoarsenic compounds for this fiber is acceptable. Next, we have elaborated of the HS-SPME-GC-MS/MS method for analysis of CWA degradation products in environmental samples using laboratory obtained fibers The analytical method for analysis of organosulfur and organoarsenic compounds was optimized and validated. The LOD's for all target chemicals were between 0.03 and 0.65 ppb. Then, the analytical method developed by us, was used for the analysis of sediment and pore water samples from the Baltic Sea. During these studies, 80 samples were analyzed. It was found that 25 sediments and 5 pore water samples contained CWA degradation products such as 1,4-dithiane, 1,4-oxathiane or triphenylarsine, the latter being a component of arsine oil. The obtained data is evidence that the CWAs present in the Baltic Sea have leaked into the general marine environment.

  9. Evaluating the Special Needs of The Military for Radiation Biodosimetry for Tactical Warfare Against Deployed Troops: Comparing Military to Civilian Needs for Biodosimetry Methods. (United States)

    Flood, Ann Barry; Ali, Arif N; Boyle, Holly K; Du, Gaixin; Satinsky, Victoria A; Swarts, Steven G; Williams, Benjamin B; Demidenko, Eugene; Schreiber, Wilson; Swartz, Harold M


    The aim of this paper is to delineate characteristics of biodosimetry most suitable for assessing individuals who have potentially been exposed to significant radiation from a nuclear device explosion when the primary population targeted by the explosion and needing rapid assessment for triage is civilians vs. deployed military personnel. The authors first carry out a systematic analysis of the requirements for biodosimetry to meet the military's needs to assess deployed troops in a warfare situation, which include accomplishing the military mission. Then the military's special capabilities to respond and carry out biodosimetry for deployed troops in warfare are compared and contrasted systematically, in contrast to those available to respond and conduct biodosimetry for civilians who have been targeted by terrorists, for example. Then the effectiveness of different biodosimetry methods to address military vs. civilian needs and capabilities in these scenarios was compared and, using five representative types of biodosimetry with sufficient published data to be useful for the simulations, the number of individuals are estimated who could be assessed by military vs. civilian responders within the timeframe needed for triage decisions. Analyses based on these scenarios indicate that, in comparison to responses for a civilian population, a wartime military response for deployed troops has both more complex requirements for and greater capabilities to use different types of biodosimetry to evaluate radiation exposure in a very short timeframe after the exposure occurs. Greater complexity for the deployed military is based on factors such as a greater likelihood of partial or whole body exposure, conditions that include exposure to neutrons, and a greater likelihood of combined injury. These simulations showed, for both the military and civilian response, that a very fast rate of initiating the processing (24,000 d) is needed to have at least some methods capable of

  10. Decontamination of VX, GD, and HD on a surface using modified vaporized hydrogen peroxide. (United States)

    Wagner, George W; Sorrick, David C; Procell, Lawrence R; Brickhouse, Mark D; Mcvey, Iain F; Schwartz, Lewis I


    Vaporized hydrogen peroxide (VHP) has proven efficacy for biological decontamination and is a common gaseous sterilant widely used by industry. Regarding chemical warfare agent decontamination, VHP is also effective against HD and VX, but not GD. Simple addition of ammonia gas to VHP affords reactivity toward GD, while maintaining efficacy for HD (and bioagents) and further enhancing efficacy for VX. Thus, modified VHP is a broad-spectrum CB decontaminant suitable for fumigant-type decontamination scenarios, i.e., building, aircraft, and vehicle interiors and sensitive equipment. Finally, as an interesting aside to the current study, commercial ammonia-containing cleaners are also shown to be effective surface decontaminants for GD, but not for VX or HD.

  11. Ionospheric Irregularity Physics Modelling. (United States)



  12. Development of a Gun Wear Data Bank. (United States)


    ELEMENT. PROJECT. TASK AREA 6 WORK UNIT NUMBERSNaval Surface Weapons Center (G33) IL662618AH80 Dahlgren, VA 22448 I1. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS...Picard) DRDAR-QA (J. Rutkowski) DRDAR-QAS (G. Pap) DRDAR-TSS FC&SCWSL E. Barrieres * B. Brodman R. Corn D. Costa S. Cytron D. Downs H. Fair D. Gyorog J

  13. Surface boxplots

    KAUST Repository

    Genton, Marc G.


    In this paper, we introduce a surface boxplot as a tool for visualization and exploratory analysis of samples of images. First, we use the notion of volume depth to order the images viewed as surfaces. In particular, we define the median image. We use an exact and fast algorithm for the ranking of the images. This allows us to detect potential outlying images that often contain interesting features not present in most of the images. Second, we build a graphical tool to visualize the surface boxplot and its various characteristics. A graph and histogram of the volume depth values allow us to identify images of interest. The code is available in the supporting information of this paper. We apply our surface boxplot to a sample of brain images and to a sample of climate model outputs.

  14. Surface phonons

    CERN Document Server

    Wette, Frederik


    In recent years substantial progress has been made in the detection of surface phonons owing to considerable improvements in inelastic rare gas scattering tech­ niques and electron energy loss spectroscopy. With these methods it has become possible to measure surface vibrations in a wide energy range for all wave vectors in the two-dimensional Brillouin zone and thus to deduce the complete surface phonon dispersion curves. Inelastic atomic beam scattering and electron energy loss spectroscopy have started to play a role in the study of surface phonons similar to the one played by inelastic neutron scattering in the investigation of bulk phonons in the last thirty years. Detailed comparison between experimen­ tal results and theoretical studies of inelastic surface scattering and of surface phonons has now become feasible. It is therefore possible to test and to improve the details of interaction models which have been worked out theoretically in the last few decades. At this point we felt that a concise, co...

  15. Research on Command Information System Invulnerability in Network-Centric Warfare%网络中心战指挥信息系统抗毁性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王欣; 姚佩阳; 周翔翔; 张杰勇; 万路军


    An evaluation method of command information system invulnerability based on service capability in Network-Centric Warfare(NCW)is proposed. The service mechanism of command information system in NCW is analyzed, and the concept of service functional chain is given for system service capability evaluation. The evaluations of system invulnerability and node significance are derived from thc influences of both network topology and service relations between nodes. An instance is designed, and the method's feasibility is verified by the simulation results.%分析网络中心战下指挥信息系统为作战服务的机理,给出服务功能链的概念,用服务能力作为衡量系统服务能力的基准.兼顾网络拓扑结构和节点服务关系两方面因素对系统抗毁性的影响,设计基于服务能力的网络中心战指挥信息系统抗毁性评价方法,并给出节点重要度的综合计算方法.以指挥信息系统网络为实例进行仿真,结果表明该方法的可行性.

  16. Development of haemostatic decontaminants for treatment of wounds contaminated with chemical warfare agents. 3: Evaluation of in vitro topical decontamination efficacy using damaged skin. (United States)

    Lydon, Helen L; Hall, Charlotte A; Dalton, Christopher H; Chipman, J Kevin; Graham, John S; Chilcott, Robert P


    Previous studies have demonstrated that haemostatic products with an absorptive mechanism of action retain their clotting efficiency in the presence of toxic materials and are effective in decontaminating chemical warfare (CW) agents when applied to normal, intact skin. The purpose of this in vitro study was to assess three candidate haemostatic products for effectiveness in the decontamination of superficially damaged porcine skin exposed to the radiolabelled CW agents, soman (GD), VX and sulphur mustard (HD). Controlled physical damage (removal of the upper 100 μm skin layer) resulted in a significant enhancement of the dermal absorption of all three CW agents. Of the haemostatic products assessed, WoundStat™ was consistently the most effective, being equivalent in performance to a standard military decontaminant (fuller's earth). These data suggest that judicious application of haemostatic products to wounds contaminated with CW agents may be a viable option for the clinical management of casualties presenting with contaminated, haemorrhaging injuries. Further studies using a relevant animal model are required to confirm the potential clinical efficacy of WoundStat™ for treating wounds contaminated with CW agents. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Strategic Political Work and Strategic Psychological Warfare%战时政治工作与战略心理作战

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Wartime political work refers to the ideological and organizational work undertaken by the armed forces while performing combat tasks. Strategic psychological warfare means the strategic confrontational activities in which psychological offensives are launched according to the principles of psychology in order to undermine the morale of both the enemy troops and its civilians or to eliminate the consequences of the enemy's deceptive propaganda, and it is a component part of wartime political work. Conducting thoroughgoing wartime political work is a unique political advantage of the PLA and an important guarantee for preserving the true political qualities of the people's army, arousing the fighting will, increasing the cohesion of our soldiers' morale, keeping internal unity against the enemy,and winning the war.%战时政治工作是军队履行作战任务期间进行的思想工作和组织工作,是发挥我军独特的政治优势的重要途径.战略心理作战是运用心理学原理,开展心理攻势,从精神上瓦解敌方军民斗志或消除敌欺骗宣传后果而进行的战略对抗活动,在战时它是战时政治工作的组成部分.

  18. Chemical Warfare Agent Simulants in Gamble’s Fluid: Is the Fluid Toxic? Can It Be Made Safer by Inclusion of Solid Nanocrystalline Metal Oxides?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Karote


    Full Text Available The reactions of chemical warfare agent simulants, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (2-CEES and di-i-propyl fluoro phosphate (DFP, in fluids have been investigated. Data analyses confirm the major degradation pathway to be hydrolysis of 2-CEES to 2-hydroxyethyl ethyl sulfide, along with minor self-condensation products. Among the three fluids examined, 2-CEES degradation was the fastest in Gamble’s fluid during a 96 h period. Upon addition of Exceptional Hazard Attenuation Materials (EHAMs to 2-CEES containing Gamble’s fluid, degradation was generally improved during the first 24 h period. The 96 h outcome was similar for fluid samples with or without EHAM 2 and EHAM 4. EHAM 1-added fluid contained only one degradation product, 2-nitroethyl ethyl sulfide. DFP degradation was the slowest in Gamble’s fluid, but was enhanced by the addition of EHAMs. FTIR and solid state 31P NMR confirm the destructive adsorption of 2-CEES and DFP by the EHAMs. The results collectively demonstrate that 2-CEES and DFP decompose to various extents in Gamble’s fluid over a 96 h period but the fluid still contains a considerable amount of intact simulant. EHAM 1 appears to be promising for 2-CEES and DFP mitigation while EHAM 2 and EHAM 4 work well for early on concentration reduction of 2-CEES and DFP.

  19. Ground-water, surface-water, and bottom-sediment contamination in the O-field area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, and the possible effects of selected remedial actions on ground water (United States)

    Vroblesky, Don A.; Lorah, Michelle M.; Oliveros, James P.


    Disposal of munitions and chemical-warfare substances has introduced inorganic and organic contaminants to the ground water, surface water, and bottom sediment at O-Field, in the Edgewood area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Contaminants include chloride, arsenic, transition metals, chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons, aromatic compounds, and organosulfur and organophosphorus compounds. The hydrologic effects of several remedial actions were estimated by use of a ground-water-flow model. The remedial actions examined were an impermeable covering, encapsulation, subsurface barriers, a ground-water drain, pumping of wells to manage water levels or to remove contaminated ground water for treatment, and no action.

  20. Evaporation Rates of Chemical Warfare Agents Measured using 5 cm Wind Tunnels III. Munition-Grade Sulfur Mustard on Concrete (United States)


    from glass occurred from a sessile droplet with a constant base and the contact angle changing during the evaporation.1" Previous studies also...Hg Parameters Adv. Contact Angle : 130.000 degrees Rec. Contact Angle : Hg Surface Tension: 485.000 dynes/cm Hg Density: Low Pressure...temperature, drop size, and air flow rate using the same instrumentation as prior studies on glass and sand. The evaporation rate increased with higher