WorldWideScience

Sample records for surface type combination

  1. High quality crystalline silicon surface passivation by combined intrinsic and n-type hydrogenated amorphous silicon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuttauf, J.A.; van der Werf, C.H.M.; Kielen, I.M.; van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.; Rath, J.K.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the influence of thermal annealing on the passivation quality of crystalline silicon (c-Si) surfaces by intrinsic and n-type hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) films. For temperatures up to 255 C, we find an increase in surface passivation quality, corresponding to a decreased da

  2. Combining different types of classifiers

    OpenAIRE

    Gatnar, Eugeniusz

    2008-01-01

    Model fusion has proved to be a very successful strategy for obtaining accurate models in classification and regression. The key issue, however, is the diversity of the component classifiers because classification error of an ensemble depends on the correlation between its members. The majority of existing ensemble methods combine the same type of models, e.g. trees. In order to promote the diversity of the ensemble members, we propose to aggregate classifiers of different t...

  3. Rapid detection of six phosphodiesterase type 5 enzyme inhibitors in healthcare products using thin-layer chromatography and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy combined with BP neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaopeng; Fang, Guozhen; Han, Ailing; Fu, Yunpeng; Tong, Rui; Wang, Shuo

    2017-06-01

    A novel facile method for the detection of the phosphodiesterase type 5 enzyme inhibitors added illegally into health products was established using thin-layer chromatography and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy combined with BP neural network. When the detection conditions were optimized in detail, a repetitive adding procedure of silver colloids with the total amount keeping constant was used to improve the enhancement effect of surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy. According to the main Raman peaks and the retention factor of analyte, the data predictive model was established. Under the optimized experimental conditions, this method was successful to apply to detect the artificially produced model samples, and the limit of detection less than 5 mg/kg was obtained. Based on the excellent sensitivity of this method, the real samples have been detected accurately and the detection results were confirmed by high-performance liquid chromatography. In addition, the developed method was suitable for the detection of other adulterants, especially those that have similar chromatographic or spectroscopic behaviors. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Type-safe pattern combinators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhiger, Morten

    2009-01-01

    Macros still haven't made their way into typed higher-order programming languages such as Haskell and Standard ML. Therefore, to extend the expressiveness of Haskell or Standard ML, one must express new linguistic features in terms of functions that fit within the static type systems of these lan...... of these languages. This is particularly challenging when introducing features that span across multiple types and that bind variables. We address this challenge by developing, in a step by step manner, mechanisms for encoding patterns and pattern matching in Haskell in a type-safe way....

  5. Typed combinators for generic traversal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lämmel, R.; Vonk, J.

    2001-01-01

    Lacking support for generic traversal, functional programming languages suffer from a scalability problem when applied to large-scale program transformation problems. As a solution, we introduce emph{functional strategies: typeful generic functions that not only can be applied to terms of any type,

  6. The effect of substituents on the surface modification of anatase nanoparticles with catecholate-type ligands: a combined DFT and experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savić, Tatjana D; Čomor, Mirjana I; Nedeljković, Jovan M; Veljković, Dušan Ž; Zarić, Snežana D; Rakić, Vesna M; Janković, Ivana A

    2014-10-14

    The surface modification of nanocrystalline TiO2 particles (45 Å) with catecholate-type ligands having different electron donating/electron withdrawing substituent groups, specifically 3-methylcatechol, 4-methylcatechol, 3-methoxycatechol, 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde and 4-nitrocatechol, was found to alter the optical properties of nanoparticles in a similar way to catechol. The formation of the inner-sphere charge-transfer (CT) complexes results in a red shift of the semiconductor absorption compared to unmodified nanocrystallites and a reduction of the effective band gap, being slightly less pronounced in the case of electron withdrawing substituents. The investigated ligands have the optimal geometry for binding to surface Ti atoms, resulting in ring coordination complexes of the catecholate type (binuclear bidentate binding-bridging) thus restoring six-coordinated octahedral geometry of surface Ti atoms. From the absorption measurements (Benesi-Hildebrand plot), the stability constants in methanol/water = 90/10 solutions at pH 2 in the order of 10(3) M(-1) have been determined. The binding structures were investigated by using FTIR spectroscopy. Thermal stability of CT-complexes was investigated by using TG/DSC/MS analysis. Quantum chemical calculations on model systems using density functional theory (DFT) were performed to obtain the vibrational frequencies of charge transfer complexes, and the calculated values were compared with the experimental data.

  7. Surface modification of anatase nanoparticles with fused ring salicylate-type ligands (3-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acids): a combined DFT and experimental study of optical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savić, Tatjana D.; Šaponjić, Zoran V.; Čomor, Mirjana I.; Nedeljković, Jovan M.; Dramićanin, Miroslav D.; Nikolić, Marko G.; Veljković, Dušan Ž.; Zarić, Snežana D.; Janković, Ivana A.

    2013-07-01

    The surface modification of nanocrystalline TiO2 particles (45 Å) with salicylate-type ligands consisting of an extended aromatic ring system, specifically 3-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid, 3,5-dihydroxy-2-naphthoic acid and 3,7-dihydroxy-2-naphthoic acid, was found to alter the optical properties of nanoparticles in a similar way to salicylic acid. The formation of the inner-sphere charge-transfer (CT) complexes results in a red shift of the semiconductor absorption compared to unmodified nanocrystallites and a reduction in the band gap upon the increase in the electron delocalization when including an additional ring. The investigated ligands have the optimal geometry for binding to surface Ti atoms, resulting in ring coordination complexes of a salicylate-type (binuclear bidentate binding-bridging) thus restoring the six-coordinated octahedral geometry of surface Ti atoms. From both absorption measurements in methanol/water = 90/10 solutions and steady-state quenching measurements of modifier fluorescence upon binding to TiO2 in aqueous solutions, stability constants in the order of 103 M-1 have been determined at pH 2 and pH 3. Fluorescence lifetime measurements, in the presence and absence of colloidal TiO2 nanoparticles, indicated that the fluorescence quenching process is primarily static quenching, thus proving the formation of a nonfluorescent CT complex. The binding structures were investigated by using FTIR spectroscopy. Quantum chemical calculations on model systems using density functional theory (DFT) were performed to obtain the vibrational frequencies of charge transfer complexes, and the calculated values were then compared with the experimental data.The surface modification of nanocrystalline TiO2 particles (45 Å) with salicylate-type ligands consisting of an extended aromatic ring system, specifically 3-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid, 3,5-dihydroxy-2-naphthoic acid and 3,7-dihydroxy-2-naphthoic acid, was found to alter the optical properties of

  8. Anatase nanoparticles surface modified with fused ring salicylate-type ligands (1-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acids): A combined DFT and experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savić, Tatjana D.; Čomor, Mirjana I.; Abazović, Nadica D.; Šaponjić, Zoran V.; Marinović-Cincović, Milena T. [University of Belgrade, Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Veljković, Dušan Ž.; Zarić, Snežana D. [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Belgrade, Studentski trg 12-16, 11058 Belgrade (Serbia); Janković, Ivana A., E-mail: ivanaj@vinca.rs [University of Belgrade, Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2015-05-05

    Highlights: • Formation of the charge-transfer complexes results in a red shift of the TiO{sub 2} absorption. • Extended aromatic ring systems reduce the effective bang gap. • For the CT complexes formed stability constants in the order 10{sup 3} M{sup −1} were determined. • Binding was found to be through bidentate binuclear-bridging complexes. • Ligands interact with different active sites on the TiO{sub 2} surface that express energetic heterogeneity. - Abstract: Sensitization of TiO{sub 2} crystals and nanoparticles with appropriately chosen organic molecules can lead to a significant shift of their absorption threshold from the UV to the visible, thus improving the absorption of the solar spectrum as well as the efficiency of photocatalytic and photovoltaic devices. Herein, the surface modification of nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} particles (45 Å) with salicylate-type ligands consisting of an extended aromatic ring system, specifically 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid and 1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoic acid, was found to alter the optical properties of nanoparticles in a similar way to salicylic acid. From both absorption measurements and steady-state quenching measurements of modifier fluorescence upon binding to TiO{sub 2} in methanol/water = 90/10 solutions, stability constants in the order of 10{sup 3} M{sup −1} have been determined at pH 2. Fluorescence lifetime measurements, in the presence and absence of colloidal TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles, indicated that the fluorescence quenching process is primarily static quenching, thus proving the formation of a nonfluorescent charge-transfer (CT) complex. The binding structures were investigated by using FTIR spectroscopy. Thermal stability of CT-complexes was investigated by using TPD analysis (TG/DTA/MS). Quantum chemical calculations on model systems using density functional theory (DFT) were performed to obtain the vibrational frequencies of charge transfer complexes, and the calculated values were compared

  9. Clinical Aspects of Combination of Ceramic and Acrylic Occlusal Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Ozhohan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research was to develop and substantiate the methods of constructing the occlusal surfaces when manufacturing aesthetic fixed restorations through the combination of different materials. Materials and methods. The study included 65 patients with ceramic and acrylic occlusal surfaces of aesthetic fixed dental prostheses. Group I included 21 patients with a combination of ceramic and acrylic occlusal surfaces. Group II included 22 patients with a combination of ceramic occlusal surfaces. Group III included 22 patients with a combination of acrylic occlusal surfaces. The patients were observed 3, 6 and 12 months after prosthetic repair. Results. The greatest increase in the occlusal contact surface area of fixed restorations was observed in Group I, that is, when combining dental prostheses with ceramic and acrylic occlusal surfaces. Considering uneven abrasion of the occlusal surfaces, we do not recommend to combine different materials when veneering the occlusal surface of the antagonistic teeth. Conclusions. This study demonstrated the important role of the correct combination of materials when veneering the occlusal surfaces. Physical and chemical properties of materials, namely the abrasion resistance play a significant role in the long-term denture functioning. The smallest increase in the occlusal contact surface area was observed in Group II when combining ceramic occlusal surfaces. It was due to a good abrasion resistance of ceramics as compared to acrylic resin as well as the presence of the glazed layer which prevents the premature abrasion of the occlusal surfaces of the antagonistic teeth due to lower surface roughness. The combination of acrylic resin and ceramics when constructing the occlusal surfaces of fixed restorations in Group I demonstrated the highest rate of the increase in the occlusal contact surface area – 9.93%. It was due to a low hardness of acrylic resin and its high surface roughness. In

  10. Combined surface and volumetric occlusion shading

    KAUST Repository

    Schott, Matthias O.

    2012-02-01

    In this paper, a method for interactive direct volume rendering is proposed that computes ambient occlusion effects for visualizations that combine both volumetric and geometric primitives, specifically tube shaped geometric objects representing streamlines, magnetic field lines or DTI fiber tracts. The proposed algorithm extends the recently proposed Directional Occlusion Shading model to allow the rendering of those geometric shapes in combination with a context providing 3D volume, considering mutual occlusion between structures represented by a volume or geometry. © 2012 IEEE.

  11. Winter precipitation types and icing at the surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theriault, J.; Stewart, R. [McGill Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences

    2005-07-01

    An understanding of the physics of winter precipitation formation mechanisms is important for the forecasting of winter storms and associated icing. Empirical techniques are generally used to account for many types of precipitation. This paper proposed a microphysics scheme able to predict liquid particles, solid particles and those with a mixture of solid and liquid particles within varying environmental conditions. A revised 1-D cloud model utilizing a double-moment microphysics scheme was presented. The basic physics of liquid and semi-liquid particles formation and their interaction with the environment were outlined. A detailed evolution of precipitation types and environmental conditions was examined using typical temperature profiles and a study of other atmospheric conditions. The double microphysics scheme predicted the total concentration and mixing of various hydrometeor categories which were divided into 2 different branches: frozen and liquid. Characteristics for the categories were presented. A comparison of temperature, moisture and precipitation profiles was presented, as well as a comparison of surface precipitation types. The relationship between sounding parameters and precipitation types was examined, and ranges of temperature and depth were outlined. The study showed that the occurrence of a particular precipitation type or combinations of types can be associated with a range of atmospheric profiles. Melting and refreezing parameters exhibited variations for the same precipitation types and their combinations were not produced within a single profile. It was concluded that profiles must be very precise to simulate certain combinations. 10 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs.

  12. Simple Type Theory as Framework for Combining Logics

    CERN Document Server

    Benzmueller, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    Simple type theory is suited as framework for combining classical and non-classical logics. This claim is based on the observation that various prominent logics, including (quantified) multimodal logics and intuitionistic logics, can be elegantly embedded in simple type theory. Furthermore, simple type theory is sufficiently expressive to model combinations of embedded logics and it has a well understood semantics. Off-the-shelf reasoning systems for simple type theory exist that can be uniformly employed for reasoning within and about combinations of logics.

  13. A Web-based Tool Combining Different Type Analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Kim Steen; Gallagher, John Patrick

    2006-01-01

    of both, and they can be goal-dependent or goal-independent. We describe a prototype tool that can be accessed from a web browser, allowing various type analyses to be run. The first goal of the tool is to allow the analysis results to be examined conveniently by clicking on points in the original program...... clauses, and to highlight ill-typed program constructs, empty types or other type anomalies. Secondly the tool allows combination of the various styles of analysis. For example, a descriptive regular type can be automatically inferred for a given program, and then that type can be used to generate...

  14. Viscoelastic love-type surface waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcherdt, Roger D.

    2008-01-01

    The general theoretical solution for Love-Type surface waves in viscoelastic media provides theoreticalexpressions for the physical characteristics of the waves in elastic as well as anelastic media with arbitraryamounts of intrinsic damping. The general solution yields dispersion and absorption-coefficient curves for the waves as a function of frequency and theamount of intrinsic damping for any chosen viscoelastic model.Numerical results valid for a variety of viscoelastic models provide quantitative estimates of the physicalcharacteristics of the waves pertinent to models of Earth materials ranging from small amounts of damping in the Earth’s crust to moderate and large amounts of damping in soft soils and water-saturated sediments. Numerical results, presented herein, are valid for a wide range of solids and applications.

  15. Surface-immobilized DNAzyme-type biocatalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan, Loic; Lavergne, Thomas; Spinelli, Nicolas; Defrancq, Eric; Monchaud, David

    2014-02-01

    The structure of the double helix of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA, also called duplex-DNA) was elucidated sixty years ago by Watson, Crick, Wilkins and Franklin. Since then, DNA has continued to hold a fascination for researchers in diverse fields including medicine and nanobiotechnology. Nature has indeed excelled in diversifying the use of DNA: beyond its canonical role of repository of genetic information, DNA could also act as a nanofactory able to perform some complex catalytic tasks in an enzyme-mimicking manner. The catalytic capability of DNA was termed DNAzyme; in this context, a peculiar DNA structure, a quadruple helix also named quadruplex-DNA, has recently garnered considerable interest since its autonomous catalytic proficiency relies on its higher-order folding that makes it suitable to interact efficiently with hemin, a natural cofactor of many enzymes. Quadruplexes have thus been widely studied for their hemoprotein-like properties, chiefly peroxidase-like activity, i.e., their ability to perform hemin-mediated catalytic oxidation reactions. Recent literature is replete with applications of quadruplex-based peroxidase-mimicking DNAzyme systems. Herein, we take a further leap along the road to biochemical applications, assessing the actual efficiency of catalytic quadruplexes for the detection of picomolar levels of surface-bound analytes in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA)-type assay. To this end, we exploit an innovative strategy based on the functionalization of DNA by a multitasking platform named RAFT (for regioselectivity addressable functionalized template), whose versatility enables the grafting of DNA whatever its nature (duplex-DNA, quadruplex-DNA, etc.). We demonstrate that the resulting biotinylated RAFT/quadruplex systems indeed acquire catalytic properties that allow for efficient luminescent detection of picomoles of surface-bound streptavidin. We also highlight some of the pitfalls that have to be faced during optimization

  16. Combining multi-atlas segmentation with brain surface estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Yuankai; Carass, Aaron; Resnick, Susan M.; Pham, Dzung L.; Prince, Jerry L.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2016-03-01

    Whole brain segmentation (with comprehensive cortical and subcortical labels) and cortical surface reconstruction are two essential techniques for investigating the human brain. The two tasks are typically conducted independently, however, which leads to spatial inconsistencies and hinders further integrated cortical analyses. To obtain self-consistent whole brain segmentations and surfaces, FreeSurfer segregates the subcortical and cortical segmentations before and after the cortical surface reconstruction. However, this "segmentation to surface to parcellation" strategy has shown limitation in various situations. In this work, we propose a novel "multi-atlas segmentation to surface" method called Multi-atlas CRUISE (MaCRUISE), which achieves self-consistent whole brain segmentations and cortical surfaces by combining multi-atlas segmentation with the cortical reconstruction method CRUISE. To our knowledge, this is the first work that achieves the reliability of state-of-the-art multi-atlas segmentation and labeling methods together with accurate and consistent cortical surface reconstruction. Compared with previous methods, MaCRUISE has three features: (1) MaCRUISE obtains 132 cortical/subcortical labels simultaneously from a single multi-atlas segmentation before reconstructing volume consistent surfaces; (2) Fuzzy tissue memberships are combined with multi-atlas segmentations to address partial volume effects; (3) MaCRUISE reconstructs topologically consistent cortical surfaces by using the sulci locations from multi-atlas segmentation. Two data sets, one consisting of five subjects with expertly traced landmarks and the other consisting of 100 volumes from elderly subjects are used for validation. Compared with CRUISE, MaCRUISE achieves self-consistent whole brain segmentation and cortical reconstruction without compromising on surface accuracy. MaCRUISE is comparably accurate to FreeSurfer while achieving greater robustness across an elderly population.

  17. Landau-Zener type surface hopping algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Belyaev, Andrey K; Trigila, Giulio

    2014-01-01

    A class of surface hopping algorithms is studied comparing two recent Landau-Zener (LZ) formulas for the probability of nonadiabatic transitions. One of the formulas requires a diabatic representation of the potential matrix while the other one depends only on the adiabatic potential energy surfaces. For each classical trajectory, the nonadiabatic transitions take place only when the surface gap attains a local minimum. Numerical experiments are performed with deterministically branching trajectories and with probabilistic surface hopping. The deterministic and the probabilistic approach confirm the good agreement of both the LZ probabilities as well the good approximation of the reference solution computed solving the Schroedinger equation via a grid based pseudo-spectral method. Visualizations of position expectations and superimposed surface hopping trajectories with reference position densities illustrate the effective dynamics of the investigated algorithms.

  18. Weierstrass Type Representation of Willmore Surfaces in Sn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiao Ling XIA; Yi Bing SHEN

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we reformulate the Euler-Lagrange equations of Willmore surfaces in Sn as the flatness of a family of certain loop algebra-valued 1-forms. Therefore we can give the Weierstrass type representation of conformal Willmore surfaces. We also discuss the relations between conformal Willmore surfaces in Sn and minimal surfaces in constant curvature spaces Sn, Rn, Hn, and prove that some special Willmore surfaces can be derived from minimal surfaces in Sn, Rn, Hn.

  19. ANALYSIS OF COMBINED POLYSURFACES TO MESH SURFACES MATCHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek WYLEŻOŁ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article applies to an example of the process of quantitatively evaluate the fit of combined polysurface (NURBS class to a surface mesh. The fitting process of the polysurface and the evaluation of obtained results have been realized in the environment of the CATIA v5 system. Obtained quantitative evaluation are shown graphically in the form of three-dimensional graphs and histograms. As the base surface mesh was used a pelvic bone stl model (the model was created by digitizing didactic physical model.

  20. Spectral properties and conformal type of surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PHILIPPE CASTILLON

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available In this short note, we announce a result relating the geometry of a riemannian surface to the positivity of some operators on this surface (the operators considered here are of the form surface Laplacian plus a scalar multiple of the curvature function. In particular we obtain a theorem "à la Huber'': under a spectral hypothesis we prove that the surface is conformally equivalent to a Riemann surface with a finite number of points removed. This problem has its origin in the study of stable minimal surfaces.Nesta comunicação, anunciamos um resultado que relaciona a geometria de uma superfície riemanniana com a positividade de certos operadores na superfície (os operadores considerados têm forma "Laplaciano mais um múltiplo da curvatura''. Em particular, obtemos um teorema "à la Huber'': usando uma condição espectral, provamos que a superfície é conformemente equivalente a uma superfície de Riemann menos um número finito de pontos. Este problema tem origem no estudo das superfícies mínimas estáveis.

  1. Surfaces with combined microscale and nanoscale structures: a route to mechanically stable superhydrophobic surfaces?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groten, Jonas; Rühe, Jürgen

    2013-03-19

    Materials with superhydrophobic properties are usually generated by covering the surfaces with hydrophobic nanoscale rough features. A major problem, however, for any practical application of such strongly water-repellent surfaces is the mechanical fragility of the nanostructures. Even moderate forces caused by touching or rubbing the surfaces are frequently strong enough to destroy the nanostructures and lead to the loss of the superhydrophobic properties. In this article, we study the mechanical stability of superhydrophobic surfaces with three different topographies: nano- and microscale features and surfaces carrying a combination of both. The surfaces are generated by silicon etching and subsequent coating with a monolayer of a fluoropolymer (PFA). We perform controlled wear tests on the different surfaces and discuss the impact of wear on the wetting properties of the different surfaces.

  2. Surface profiling in mating parts by combined nonabrasive finishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolentsev, EV; Fedonin, ON; Smolentsev, VP

    2017-02-01

    Nonabrasive finishing of precision mating surfaces in locking devices with the use of a combined erosion-chemical process at the first stage of the processing and with the use of anodic dissolution by alternating low-voltage current at the final stage of a refinement operation till gapless joints obtaining is considered. It is shown that the application of electro-erosion, electrochemical and combined nonabrasive finishing in mating parts opens up a possibility to ensure stable impermeability in locking devices on a macro- and micro-level through the method of a substantiated purpose of technological modes. A procedure is created for the development of such modes, and on their basis technological processes for the obtaining of gapless mating surfaces meeting the performance requirements for locking devices are developed. For this purpose, qualitative devices resistant to hostile environment are manufactured that is urgent for the mechanical engineering including repetition work for the equipment of petrochemical industry, transport and household machinery.

  3. Novel types of anti-ecloud surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Montero, I; Dávila, M E; Nistor, V; Galán, L; González, L A; Raboso, D; Costa Pinto, P; Taborelli, M; Caspers, F; Ulrich, U; Wolk, D

    2013-01-01

    In high power RF devices for space, secondary electron emission appears as the main parameter governing the multipactor effect and as well as the e-cloud in large accelerators. Critical experimental activities included development of coatings with low secondary electron emission yield (SEY) for steel (large accelerators) and aluminium (space applications). Coatings with surface roughness of high aspect ratio producing the so-call secondary emission suppression effect appear as the selected strategy. In this work a detailed study of the SEY of these technological coatings and also the experimental deposition methods (PVD and electrochemical) are presented. The coating-design approach selected for new low SEY coatings include rough metals (Ag, Au, Al), rough alloys (NEG), particulated and magnetized surfaces, and also graphene like coatings. It was found that surface roughness also mitigate the SEY deterioration due to aging processes.

  4. Learning and working: types of combining university studies with employment

    OpenAIRE

    Yanbarisova, Diana

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to mark out and describe different types of combining university studies with work among 4th year university students of Yaroslavl and Tatarstan and to analyze their influence on academic achievement. Seven ‘study-work’ types are defined on the basis of two variables: work schedule and work relatedness to specialty. 1) Full-time work from the 1st-2nd university year not in a specialty field (223 students), 2) Full-time work during senior university years not in a ...

  5. A Simons type formula for surfaces with parallel mean curvature

    CERN Document Server

    Fetcu, Dorel

    2011-01-01

    We prove a Simons type equation for non-minimal surfaces with parallel mean curvature vector (pmc surfaces) in $M^n(c)\\times\\mathbb{R}$, where $M^n(c)$ is an $n$-dimensional space form. Then, we use this equation in order to characterize complete non-minimal pmc surfaces with non-negative Gaussian curvature.

  6. Nanopatterned antimicrobial enzymatic surfaces combining biocidal and fouling release properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qian; Ista, Linnea K.; López, Gabriel P.

    2014-04-01

    Surfaces incorporating the antimicrobial enzyme, lysozyme, have been previously demonstrated to effectively disrupt bacterial cellular envelopes. As with any surface active antimicrobial, however, lysozyme-expressing surfaces become limited in their utility by the accumulation of dead bacteria and debris. Surfaces modified with environmentally responsive polymers, on the other hand, have been shown to reversibly attach and release both live and dead bacterial cells. In this work, we combine the antimicrobial activity of lysozyme with the fouling release capability of the thermally responsive polymer, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm), which has a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) in water at ~32 °C. Nanopatterned PNIPAAm brushes were fabricated using interferometric lithography followed by surface-initiated polymerization. Lysozyme was then adsorbed into the polymer-free regions of the substrate between the brushes to achieve a hybrid surface with switchable antimicrobial activity and fouling-release ability in response to the change of temperature. The temperature triggered hydration and conformational change of the nanopatterned PNIPAAm brushes provide the ability to temporally regulate the spatial concealment and exposure of adsorbed lysozyme. The biocidal efficacy and release properties of the hybrid surface were tested against Escherichia coli K12 and Staphylococcus epidermidis. The hybrid surfaces facilitated the attachment of bacteria at 37 °C for E. coli and 25 °C for S. epidermidis and when the temperature is above the LCST, collapsed and dehydrated PNIPAAm chains expose lysozyme to kill attached bacteria. Changing temperature across the LCST of PNIPAAm (e.g. from 37 °C to 25 °C for E. coli or from 25 °C to 37 °C for S. epidermidis) to induce a hydration transition of PNIPAAm promoted the release of dead bacteria and debris from the surfaces upon mild shearing. These results suggest that nano-engineered surfaces can provide an effective

  7. Fixed-dose combinations in type 2 diabetes – role of the canagliflozin metformin combination

    OpenAIRE

    Fleming JW; Fleming LW; Davis CS

    2015-01-01

    Joshua W Fleming, Laurie W Fleming, Courtney S Davis Department of Pharmacy Practice, The University of Mississippi School of Pharmacy, Jackson, MS, USA Abstract: Canagliflozin–metformin is one of the newest combination therapies available for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Canagliflozin is an inhibitor of the sodium–glucose co-transporter 2 which causes an increase in the urinary excretion of glucose. In the present article, we review the safety and ef...

  8. Surface detail reproduction of Type IV dental stones with selected polyvinyl siloxane impression materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelb, E; Cavazos, E; Troendle, K B; Prihoda, T J

    1991-01-01

    Four polyvinyl siloxane impression materials and 14 modified Type IV dental stones were evaluated for their abilities to reproduce surface detail. Each combination of impression material and dental stone was used to duplicate a 20-microns-wide line. Surface detail reproduction was observed by two paired-rater groups. The line was reproduced in all impression material specimens, but in only 32% of the stone cast specimens. Some combinations of impression material/dental stone reproduced the line all or most of the time, but 12 combinations did not reproduce the line at all.

  9. Formation of Combined Surface Features of Protrusion Array and Wrinkles atop Shape-Memory Polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, L.; Zhao, Y.; Huang, W. M.; Tong, T. H.

    We demonstrate a simple and cost-effective approach to realize two combined surface features of different scales together, namely submillimeter-sized protrusion array and microwrinkles, atop a polystyrene shape-memory polymer. Two different types of protrusions, namely flat-top protrusion and crown-shaped protrusion, were studied. The array of protrusions was produced by the Indentation-Polishing-Heating (IPH) process. Compactly packed steel balls were used for making array of indents. A thin gold layer was sputter deposited atop the polymer surface right after polishing. After heating for shape recovery, array of protrusions with wrinkles on the top due to the buckling of gold layer was produced.

  10. Spherical robot of combined type: Dynamics and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilin, Alexander A.; Pivovarova, Elena N.; Ivanova, Tatyana B.

    2015-11-01

    This paper is concerned with free and controlled motions of a spherical robot of combined type moving by displacing the center of mass and by changing the internal gyrostatic momentum. Equations of motion for the nonholonomic model are obtained and their first integrals are found. Fixed points of the reduced system are found in the absence of control actions. It is shown that they correspond to the motion of the spherical robot in a straight line and in a circle. A control algorithm for the motion of the spherical robot along an arbitrary trajectory is presented. A set of elementary maneuvers (gaits) is obtained which allow one to transfer the spherical robot from any initial point to any end point.

  11. Fixed-dose combinations in type 2 diabetes – role of the canagliflozin metformin combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fleming JW

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Joshua W Fleming, Laurie W Fleming, Courtney S Davis Department of Pharmacy Practice, The University of Mississippi School of Pharmacy, Jackson, MS, USA Abstract: Canagliflozin–metformin is one of the newest combination therapies available for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Canagliflozin is an inhibitor of the sodium–glucose co-transporter 2 which causes an increase in the urinary excretion of glucose. In the present article, we review the safety and efficacy of canagliflozin and metformin from data obtained from Phase III metformin add-on therapy clinical trials as there are no studies to date that specifically evaluate the combination of metformin and canagliflozin. Trials included in this review were dual-therapy trials of subjects who were already taking background metformin and were assigned to receive canagliflozin, glimepiride, or sitagliptin. The addition of canagliflozin to metformin resulted in a decrease in HbA1c of 0.73%–0.93%. Canagliflozin 100 mg was considered to be non-inferior to glimepiride and sitagliptin 100 mg with the canagliflozin 300 mg dose being statistically superior to sitagliptin and glimepiride. Other advantages of the use of canagliflozin are reduction in weight (3.3–4.0 kg and systolic blood pressure (3.3–4.7 mmHg. The primary disadvantages are potential genital mycotic infections, hypotension, and gastrointestinal side effects from metformin. All things considered, this combination appears to be safe and effective in clinical trials and represents a promising option for the treatment of T2DM. Keywords: type 2 diabetes, fixed-dose combination (FDC, canagliflozin metformin 

  12. Combining surface reanalysis and remote sensing data for monitoring evapotranspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, M.; Tu, K.; Funk, C.; Michaelsen, J.; Williams, Pat; Williams, C.; Ardö, J.; Marie, B.; Cappelaere, B.; Grandcourt, A.; Nickless, A.; Noubellon, Y.; Scholes, R.; Kutsch, W.

    2012-01-01

    Climate change is expected to have the greatest impact on the world's poor. In the Sahel, a climatically sensitive region where rain-fed agriculture is the primary livelihood, expected decreases in water supply will increase food insecurity. Studies on climate change and the intensification of the water cycle in sub-Saharan Africa are few. This is due in part to poor calibration of modeled actual evapotranspiration (AET), a key input in continental-scale hydrologic models. In this study, a model driven by dynamic canopy AET was combined with the Global Land Data Assimilation System realization of the NOAH Land Surface Model (GNOAH) wet canopy and soil AET for monitoring purposes in sub-Saharan Africa. The performance of the hybrid model was compared against AET from the GNOAH model and dynamic model using eight eddy flux towers representing major biomes of sub-Saharan Africa. The greatest improvements in model performance are at humid sites with dense vegetation, while performance at semi-arid sites is poor, but better than individual models. The reduction in errors using the hybrid model can be attributed to the integration of a dynamic vegetation component with land surface model estimates, improved model parameterization, and reduction of multiplicative effects of uncertain data.

  13. Combining surface reanalysis and remote sensing data for monitoring evapotranspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, M.; Tu, K.; Funk, C.; Michaelsen, J.; Williams, P.; Williams, C.; Ardö, J.; Marie, B.; Cappelaere, B.; Grandcourt, A.; Nickless, A.; Nouvellon, Y.; Scholes, R.; Kutsch, W.

    2012-02-01

    Climate change is expected to have the greatest impact on the world's poor. In the Sahel, a climatically sensitive region where rain-fed agriculture is the primary livelihood, expected decreases in water supply will increase food insecurity. Studies on climate change and the intensification of the water cycle in sub-Saharan Africa are few. This is due in part to poor calibration of modeled actual evapotranspiration (AET), a key input in continental-scale hydrologic models. In this study, a model driven by dynamic canopy AET was combined with the Global Land Data Assimilation System realization of the NOAH Land Surface Model (GNOAH) wet canopy and soil AET for monitoring purposes in sub-Saharan Africa. The performance of the hybrid model was compared against AET from the GNOAH model and dynamic model using eight eddy flux towers representing major biomes of sub-Saharan Africa. The greatest improvements in model performance are at humid sites with dense vegetation, while performance at semi-arid sites is poor, but better than individual models. The reduction in errors using the hybrid model can be attributed to the integration of a dynamic vegetation component with land surface model estimates, improved model parameterization, and reduction of multiplicative effects of uncertain data.

  14. Combining surface reanalysis and remote sensing data for monitoring evapotranspiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Marshall

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is expected to have the greatest impact on the world's poor. In the Sahel, a climatically sensitive region where rain-fed agriculture is the primary livelihood, expected decreases in water supply will increase food insecurity. Studies on climate change and the intensification of the water cycle in sub-Saharan Africa are few. This is due in part to poor calibration of modeled actual evapotranspiration (AET, a key input in continental-scale hydrologic models. In this study, a model driven by dynamic canopy AET was combined with the Global Land Data Assimilation System realization of the NOAH Land Surface Model (GNOAH wet canopy and soil AET for monitoring purposes in sub-Saharan Africa. The performance of the hybrid model was compared against AET from the GNOAH model and dynamic model using eight eddy flux towers representing major biomes of sub-Saharan Africa. The greatest improvements in model performance are at humid sites with dense vegetation, while performance at semi-arid sites is poor, but better than individual models. The reduction in errors using the hybrid model can be attributed to the integration of a dynamic vegetation component with land surface model estimates, improved model parameterization, and reduction of multiplicative effects of uncertain data.

  15. Towards a Combined Surface Temperature Dataset for the Arctic from the Along-Track Scanning Radiometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Emma; Veal, Karen; Corlett, Gary; Ghent, Darren; Remedios, John

    2017-04-01

    Surface Temperature (ST) changes in the Polar Regions are predicted to be more rapid than either global averages or responses in lower latitudes. Observations increasingly confirm these findings, their urgency, and their significance in the Arctic. It is, therefore, particularly important to monitor Arctic climate change. Satellites are particularly relevant to observations of Polar Regions as they are well-served by low-Earth orbiting satellites. Whilst clouds often cause problems for satellite observations of the surface, in situ observations of STs are much sparser. The ATSRs are accurate infra-red satellite radiometers, designed explicitly for climate standard observations and particularly suited to ST observations. ATSR radiance observations have been used to retrieve sea and land ST for a series of three instruments over a period greater than twenty years. This series has been extended with the launch of SLSTR on Sentinel 3, which has the same key design features. We have combined land, ocean and sea-ice ST retrievals from ATSR-2 and AATSR to produce a new ST dataset for the Arctic; the ATSR Arctic combined Surface Temperature (AAST) dataset. The method of cloud-clearing, use of auxiliary data for ice classification and the ST retrievals used for each surface-type will be described. We will establish the accuracy of sea-ice and land-ice retrievals with results from validation against in situ data and comparison with other datasets. Time series of ST anomalies for each surface type will be presented. The time series for open ocean in the Arctic Polar Region shows a significant warming trend during the AATSR mission. Time series for land, land-ice and sea-ice show high variability as expected but also interesting patterns. Overall, our purpose is to present the state-of-the-art for ATSR observations of surface temperature change in the Arctic and hence indicate the confidence we can have in temperature change across all three domains, and in combination.

  16. Fixed-dose combinations in type 2 diabetes – role of the canagliflozin metformin combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Joshua W; Fleming, Laurie W; Davis, Courtney S

    2015-01-01

    Canagliflozin–metformin is one of the newest combination therapies available for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Canagliflozin is an inhibitor of the sodium–glucose co-transporter 2 which causes an increase in the urinary excretion of glucose. In the present article, we review the safety and efficacy of canagliflozin and metformin from data obtained from Phase III metformin add-on therapy clinical trials as there are no studies to date that specifically evaluate the combination of metformin and canagliflozin. Trials included in this review were dual-therapy trials of subjects who were already taking background metformin and were assigned to receive canagliflozin, glimepiride, or sitagliptin. The addition of canagliflozin to metformin resulted in a decrease in HbA1c of 0.73%–0.93%. Canagliflozin 100 mg was considered to be non-inferior to glimepiride and sitagliptin 100 mg with the canagliflozin 300 mg dose being statistically superior to sitagliptin and glimepiride. Other advantages of the use of canagliflozin are reduction in weight (3.3–4.0 kg) and systolic blood pressure (3.3–4.7 mmHg). The primary disadvantages are potential genital mycotic infections, hypotension, and gastrointestinal side effects from metformin. All things considered, this combination appears to be safe and effective in clinical trials and represents a promising option for the treatment of T2DM. PMID:26150733

  17. Adsorption of mercury on lignin: combined surface complexation modeling and X-ray absorption spectroscopy studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Jitao; Luo, Lei; Zhang, Jing; Christie, Peter; Zhang, Shuzhen

    2012-03-01

    Adsorption of mercury (Hg) on lignin was studied at a range of pH values using a combination of batch adsorption experiments, a surface complexation model (SCM) and synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Surface complexation modeling indicates that three types of acid sites on lignin surfaces, namely aliphatic carboxylic-, aromatic carboxylic- and phenolic-type surface groups, contributed to Hg(II) adsorption. The bond distance and coordination number of Hg(II) adsorption samples at pH 3.0, 4.0 and 5.5 were obtained from extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy analysis. The results of SCM and XAS combined reveal that the predominant adsorption species of Hg(II) on lignin changes from HgCl(2)(0) to monodentate complex -C-O-HgCl and then bidentate complex -C-O-Hg-O-C- with increasing pH value from 2.0 to 6.0. The good agreement between SCM and XAS results provides new insight into understanding the mechanisms of Hg(II) adsorption on lignin.

  18. Combined surface acoustic wave and surface plasmon resonance measurement of collagen and fibrinogen layer physical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-M. Friedt

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We use an instrument combining optical (surface plasmon resonance and acoustic (Love mode surface acoustic wave device real-time measurements on a same surface for the identification of water content in collagen and fibrinogen protein layers. After calibration of the surface acoustic wave device sensitivity by copper electrodeposition and surfactant adsorption, the bound mass and its physical properties – density and optical index – are extracted from the complementary measurement techniques and lead to thickness and water ratio values compatible with the observed signal shifts. Such results are especially usefully for protein layers with a high water content as shown here for collagen on an hydrophobic surface. We obtain the following results: collagen layers include 70±20% water and are 16±3 to 19±3 nm thick for bulk concentrations ranging from 30 to 300 μg/ml. Fibrinogen layers include 50±10% water for layer thicknesses in the 6±1.5 to 13±2 nm range when the bulk concentration is in the 46 to 460 μg/ml range.

  19. Effect of a combined inversion and plantarflexion surface on ankle kinematics and EMG activities in landing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Bhaskaran

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: These findings suggest that compared to the inversion surface, the combined plantarflexion and inversion surface seems to provide a more unstable surface condition for lateral ankle sprains during landing.

  20. A combined QCM and XPS investigation of asphaltene adsorption on metal surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudrake, Amit; Karan, Kunal; Horton, J Hugh

    2009-04-01

    To investigate asphaltene-metal interactions, a combined quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) study of asphaltene adsorption on a gold surface was conducted. Adsorption experiments were conducted at 25 degrees C with solutions of asphaltenes in toluene at concentrations ranging from 50 to 1500 ppm. QCM measurements yielded information on the kinetics of adsorption and further assessment of the data allowed the estimation of equilibrium adsorption levels. XPS analysis of adsorbed and bulk asphaltene demonstrated the presence of carboxylic, thiophenic, sulfide, pyridinic and pyrrolic type functional groups. The intensity of the main carbon (C-H) peak was related to surface coverage of adsorbed asphaltene as a function of asphaltene concentration by a simple mathematical model. The mass adsorption data from the QCM experiments also allowed estimation of the surface coverage, which was compared to those from XPS analyses. Surface coverage estimates as a function of asphaltene concentration could be described by a Langmuir (type-I) isotherm. The free energy of asphaltene adsorption was estimated to be -26.8+/-0.1 and -27.3+/-0.1 kJ/mol from QCM and XPS data, respectively assuming asphaltene molar mass of 750 g/gmol. QCM and XPS data was also analyzed to estimate adsorbed layer thickness after accounting for surface coverage. The thickness of the adsorbed asphaltene estimated from both XPS and QCM data analyses ranged from 6-8 nm over the entire range of adsorption concentrations investigated.

  1. Combined Atherosclerotic Lesions in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Khimion

    2016-06-01

    .3 %, hsCRP — 4.2 (3.0–5.3 mg/L (p < 0.05. Conclusion. In patients with type 2 DM with higher average levels of SBP, hsCRP, HbA1c, UA, LDL–C and anxiety-depressive disorders, the disease is associated with more frequent occurrence of atherosclerotic lesions, including combined lesions of arteries of different systems.

  2. Revealing Surface Waters on an Antifreeze Protein by Fusion Protein Crystallography Combined with Molecular Dynamic Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tianjun; Gauthier, Sherry Y; Campbell, Robert L; Davies, Peter L

    2015-10-01

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) adsorb to ice through an extensive, flat, relatively hydrophobic surface. It has been suggested that this ice-binding site (IBS) organizes surface waters into an ice-like clathrate arrangement that matches and fuses to the quasi-liquid layer on the ice surface. On cooling, these waters join the ice lattice and freeze the AFP to its ligand. Evidence for the generality of this binding mechanism is limited because AFPs tend to crystallize with their IBS as a preferred protein-protein contact surface, which displaces some bound waters. Type III AFP is a 7 kDa globular protein with an IBS made up two adjacent surfaces. In the crystal structure of the most active isoform (QAE1), the part of the IBS that docks to the primary prism plane of ice is partially exposed to solvent and has clathrate waters present that match this plane of ice. The adjacent IBS, which matches the pyramidal plane of ice, is involved in protein-protein crystal contacts with few surface waters. Here we have changed the protein-protein contacts in the ice-binding region by crystallizing a fusion of QAE1 to maltose-binding protein. In this 1.9 Å structure, the IBS that fits the pyramidal plane of ice is exposed to solvent. By combining crystallography data with MD simulations, the surface waters on both sides of the IBS were revealed and match well with the target ice planes. The waters on the pyramidal plane IBS were loosely constrained, which might explain why other isoforms of type III AFP that lack the prism plane IBS are less active than QAE1. The AFP fusion crystallization method can potentially be used to force the exposure to solvent of the IBS on other AFPs to reveal the locations of key surface waters.

  3. Atomic-Scale Visualization of Quasiparticle Interference on a Type-II Weyl Semimetal Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hao; Bian, Guang; Chang, Guoqing; Lu, Hong; Xu, Su-Yang; Wang, Guangqiang; Chang, Tay-Rong; Zhang, Songtian; Belopolski, Ilya; Alidoust, Nasser; Sanchez, Daniel S.; Song, Fengqi; Jeng, Horng-Tay; Yao, Nan; Bansil, Arun; Jia, Shuang; Lin, Hsin; Hasan, M. Zahid

    2016-12-01

    We combine quasiparticle interference simulation (theory) and atomic resolution scanning tunneling spectromicroscopy (experiment) to visualize the interference patterns on a type-II Weyl semimetal Mox W1 -xTe2 for the first time. Our simulation based on first-principles band topology theoretically reveals the surface electron scattering behavior. We identify the topological Fermi arc states and reveal the scattering properties of the surface states in Mo0.66 W0.34 Te2 . In addition, our result reveals an experimental signature of the topology via the interconnectivity of bulk and surface states, which is essential for understanding the unusual nature of this material.

  4. SURFACE CAST IRON STRENGTHENING USING COMBINED LASER AND ULTRASONIC PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Devojno

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides an analysis of ultrasonic surface plastic deformation and subsequent laser thermal strengthening of gray cast iron parts in the regime of hardening from a solid state with the purpose to obtain strengthened surface layers of bigger depth and less roughness of the processed surface. Program complex ANSYS 11.0 has been used for calculation of temperature fields induced by laser exposure.  The appropriate regime of laser processing without surface fusion has been selected on the basis of the applied complex. The possibility of displacement in the bottom boundary of α–γ-transformation temperature  for СЧ20 with 900 °С up to 800 °С is confirmed due to preliminary ultrasonic surface plastic deformation of the surface that allows to expand technological opportunities of laser quenching  of gray  cast iron from a solid state. 

  5. Visible-light photocatalysis in Cu2Se nanowires with exposed {111} facets and charge separation between (111) and (1[combining macron]1[combining macron]1[combining macron]) polar surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Ning, Lichao; Zhao, Hua; Zhang, Congjie; Yang, Heqing; Liu, Shengzhong Frank

    2015-05-28

    The search for active narrow band gap semiconductor photocatalysts that directly split water or degrade organic pollutants under solar irradiation remains an open issue. We synthesized Cu2Se nanowires with exposed {111} facets using ethanol and glycerol as morphology controlling agents. The {111} facets were found to be the active facets for decomposing organic contaminants in the entire solar spectrum. Based on the polar structure of the Cu2Se {111} facets, a charge separation model between polar (111) and (1[combining macron]1[combining macron]1[combining macron]) surfaces is proposed. The internal electric field between polar (111) and (1[combining macron]1[combining macron]1[combining macron]) surfaces created by spontaneous polarization drives charge separation. The reduction and oxidation reactions occur on the positive (111) and negative (1[combining macron]1[combining macron]1[combining macron]) polar surfaces, respectively. This suggests the surface-engineering of narrow band gap semiconductors as a strategy to fabricate photocatalysts with high reactivity in the entire solar spectrum. The charge separation model can deepen the understanding of charge transfer in other semiconductor nanocrystals with high photocatalytic activities and offer guidance to design more effective photocatalysts as well as new types of solar cells, photoelectrodes and photoelectric devices.

  6. Lung CT registration combining intensity, curves and surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorbunova, Vladlena; Durrieman, Stanley; Lo, Pechin Chien Pau

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we propose a registration method that combinesintensity information with geometrical information inthe form of curves and surfaces derived from lung CT images.Vessel tree centerlines and lung surfaces were extractedfrom segmented structures. First, a current-based registrationwas ap...

  7. Scattering-Type Surface-Plasmon-Resonance Biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Pain, Bedabrata; Cunningham, Thomas; Seshadri, Suresh

    2005-01-01

    Biosensors of a proposed type would exploit scattering of light by surface plasmon resonance (SPR). Related prior biosensors exploit absorption of light by SPR. Relative to the prior SPR biosensors, the proposed SPR biosensors would offer greater sensitivity in some cases, enough sensitivity to detect bioparticles having dimensions as small as nanometers. A surface plasmon wave can be described as a light-induced collective oscillation in electron density at the interface between a metal and a dielectric. At SPR, most incident photons are either absorbed or scattered at the metal/dielectric interface and, consequently, reflected light is greatly attenuated. The resonance wavelength and angle of incidence depend upon the permittivities of the metal and dielectric. An SPR sensor of the type most widely used heretofore includes a gold film coated with a ligand a substance that binds analyte molecules. The gold film is thin enough to support evanescent-wave coupling through its thickness. The change in the effective index of refraction at the surface, and thus the change in the SPR response, increases with the number of bound analyte molecules. The device is illuminated at a fixed wavelength, and the intensity of light reflected from the gold surface opposite the ligand-coated surface is measured as a function of the angle of incidence. From these measurements, the angle of minimum reflection intensity is determined

  8. Rayleigh-type Surface Quasimodes in General Linear Elasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Sönke

    2010-01-01

    Rayleigh-type surface waves correspond to the characteristic variety, in the elliptic boundary region, of the displacement-to-traction map. In this paper, surface quasimodes are constructed for the reduced elastic wave equation, anisotropic in general, with traction-free boundary. Assuming a global variant of a condition of Barnett and Lothe, the construction is reduced to an eigenvalue problem for a selfadjoint scalar first order pseudo-differential operator on the boundary. The principal and the subprincipal symbol of this operator are computed. The formula for the subprincipal symbol seems to be new even in the isotropic case.

  9. Surface nanobubbles as a function of gas type

    CERN Document Server

    van Limbeek, Michiel; 10.1021/la2005387

    2011-01-01

    We experimentally investigate the nucleation of surface nanobubbles on PFDTS-coated silicon as a function of the specific gas dissolved in the water. In each case we restrict ourselves to equilibrium conditions ($c=100%$, $T_{liquid} = T_{substrate}$). Not only is nanobubble nucleation a strong function of gas type, but there also exists an optimal system temperature of $\\sim 35-40\\mathrm{^oC}$ where nucleation is maximized, which is weakly dependent on gas type. We also find that contact angle is a function of nanobubble radius of curvature for all gas types investigated. Fitting this data allows us to describe a line tension which is dependent on the type of gas, indicating that the nanobubbles are sat on top of adsorbed gas molecules. The average line tension was $\\tau \\sim -0.8 \\mathrm{nN}$.

  10. The Land Surface Temperature Impact to Land Cover Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, I.; Abu Samah, A.; Fauzi, R.; Noor, N. M.

    2016-06-01

    Land cover type is an important signature that is usually used to understand the interaction between the ground surfaces with the local temperature. Various land cover types such as high density built up areas, vegetation, bare land and water bodies are areas where heat signature are measured using remote sensing image. The aim of this study is to analyse the impact of land surface temperature on land cover types. The objectives are 1) to analyse the mean temperature for each land cover types and 2) to analyse the relationship of temperature variation within land cover types: built up area, green area, forest, water bodies and bare land. The method used in this research was supervised classification for land cover map and mono window algorithm for land surface temperature (LST) extraction. The statistical analysis of post hoc Tukey test was used on an image captured on five available images. A pixel-based change detection was applied to the temperature and land cover images. The result of post hoc Tukey test for the images showed that these land cover types: built up-green, built up-forest, built up-water bodies have caused significant difference in the temperature variation. However, built up-bare land did not show significant impact at p<0.05. These findings show that green areas appears to have a lower temperature difference, which is between 2° to 3° Celsius compared to urban areas. The findings also show that the average temperature and the built up percentage has a moderate correlation with R2 = 0.53. The environmental implications of these interactions can provide some insights for future land use planning in the region.

  11. Durable Microstructured Surfaces: Combining Electrical Conductivity with Superoleophobicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zihe; Wang, Tianchang; Sun, Shaofan; Zhao, Boxin

    2016-01-27

    In this study, electrically conductive and superoleophobic polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) has been fabricated through embedding Ag flakes (SFs) and Ag nanowires (SNWs) into microstructures of the trichloroperfluorooctylsilane (FDTS)-blended PDMS elastomer. Microstructured PDMS surfaces became conductive at the percolation surface coverage of 3.0 × 10(-2) mg/mm(2) for SFs; the highest conductivity was 1.12 × 10(5) S/m at the SFs surface coverage of 6.0 × 10(-2) mg/mm(2). A significant improvement of the conductivity (increased 3 times at the SNWs fraction of 11%) was achieved by using SNWs to replace some SFs because of the conductive pathways from the formed SNWs networks and its connections with SFs. These conductive fillers bonded strongly with microstructured FDTS-blended PDMS and retained surface properties under the sliding preload of 8.0 N. Stretching tests indicated that the resistance increased with the increasing strains and returned to its original state when the strain was released, showing highly stretchable and reversible electrical properties. Compared with SFs embedded surfaces, the resistances of SFs/SNWs embedded surfaces were less dependent on the strain because of bridging effect of SNWs. The superoleophobicity was achieved by the synergetic effect of surface modification through blending FDTS and the microstructures transferred from sand papers. The research findings demonstrate a simple approach to make the insulating elastomer to have the desired surface oleophobicity and electrical conductivity and help meet the needs for the development of conductive devices with microstructures and multifunctional properties.

  12. Identification of contaminant type in surface electromyography (EMG) signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCool, Paul; Fraser, Graham D; Chan, Adrian D C; Petropoulakis, Lykourgos; Soraghan, John J

    2014-07-01

    The ability to recognize various forms of contaminants in surface electromyography (EMG) signals and to ascertain the overall quality of such signals is important in many EMG-enabled rehabilitation systems. In this paper, new methods for the automatic identification of commonly occurring contaminant types in surface EMG signals are presented. Such methods are advantageous because the contaminant type is typically not known in advance. The presented approach uses support vector machines as the main classification system. Both simulated and real EMG signals are used to assess the performance of the methods. The contaminants considered include: 1) electrocardiogram interference; 2) motion artifact; 3) power line interference; 4) amplifier saturation; and 5) additive white Gaussian noise. Results show that the contaminants can readily be distinguished at lower signal to noise ratios, with a growing degree of confusion at higher signal to noise ratios, where their effects on signal quality are less significant.

  13. A numerical simulation of surface wave excitation in a rectangular planar-type plasma source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Zhao-Quan; Liu Ming-Hai; Lan Chao-Hui; Chen Wei; Tang Liang; Luo Zhi-Qing; Yan Bao-Rong; Lu Jian-Hong; Hu Xi-Wei

    2009-01-01

    The principle of surface wave plasma discharge in a rectangular cavity is introduced simply based on surface plasmon polariton theory.The distribution of surface-wave electric field at the interface of the plasma-dielectric slab is investigated by using the three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain method (3D-FDTD) with different slotantenna structures.And the experimental image of discharge with a novel slot antenna array and the simulation of the electric field with this slot antenna array are both displayed.Combined with the distribution of surface wave excitation and experimental results,the numerical simulation performed by using 3D-FDTD is shown to be a useful tool in the computer-aided antenna design for large area planar-type surface-wave plasma sources.

  14. Global and local grey matter reductions in boys with ADHD combined type and ADHD inattentive type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilgis, Veronika; Sun, Li; Chen, Jian; Silk, Timothy J; Vance, Alasdair

    2016-08-30

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has reliably been associated with global grey matter reductions but local alterations are largely inconsistent with perhaps the exception of the caudate nucleus. The aim of this study was to examine local and global brain volume differences between typically developing children (TD) and children with a diagnosis of ADHD. We also addressed whether these parameters would differ between children with the ADHD-combined type (ADHD-C) and those with the ADHD-inattentive type (ADHD-I). Using an ROI approach caudate volume differences were also examined. 79 boys between the ages of 8 and 17 participated in the study. Of those 33 met diagnostic criteria for the ADHD-C and 15 for the ADHD-I subtype. 31 boys were included in the TD group. Structural magnetic resonance imaging data were analysed using voxel-based morphometry. The ADHD group had significantly lower global and local grey matter volumes within clusters in the bilateral frontal, right parietal and right temporal regions compared to TD. A significant group by age interaction was found for right caudate nucleus volume. No differences between the ADHD-C and ADHD-I groups were found. Right caudate nucleus volume and age are more strongly related in ADHD than in TD consistent with previous research.

  15. REAPER OF A COMBINE HARVESTER OF A NEW TYPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Truflyak I. S.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the possibility of modernization of grain harvesters, reapers, aimed to simplify their struc-tures and reduction of energy intensity of the process of harvesting grain crops. The article reflects the results of comparative experiments of work of a combine in different modes

  16. Microfluidic assay for simultaneous culture of multiple cell types on surfaces or within hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yoojin; Han, Sewoon; Jeon, Jessie S.; Yamamoto, Kyoko; Zervantonakis, Ioannis K.; Sudo, Ryo; Kamm, Roger D.; Chung, Seok

    2014-01-01

    This protocol describes a simple but robust microfluidic assay combining three-dimensional (3D) and two-dimensional (2D) cell culture. The microfluidic platform comprises hydrogel incorporating chambers between surface-accessible microchannels. Using this platform, well-defined biochemical and biophysical stimuli can be applied to multiple cell types interacting over distances of experiments can run for up to several weeks. PMID:22678430

  17. Combining ability of tomato lines in saladette-type hybrids

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Given the growing importance of the saladette fresh tomato market in Brazil, the objective of this paper was to assess the combining abilities of lines potentially useful as parents of hybridsin this class. The experiment consisted of28 genotypes, 18 hybrids from a partial diallel crossobtained from crossing two groups of tomato lines (Group I, with 9 parents, and Group II, with 2 parents), 8 F1 experimental hybrids, and 2 commercial checks. Traits evaluated were total yield, mean fruit mass,...

  18. Electronic system for floor surface type detection in robotics applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarapata, Grzegorz; Paczesny, Daniel; Tarasiuk, Łukasz

    2016-11-01

    The paper reports a recognizing method base on ultrasonic transducers utilized for the surface types detection. Ultra-sonic signal is transmitted toward the examined substrate, then reflected and scattered signal goes back to another ultra-sonic receiver. Thee measuring signal is generated by a piezo-electric transducer located at specified distance from the tested substrate. The detector is a second piezo-electric transducer located next to the transmitter. Depending on thee type of substrate which is exposed by an ultrasonic wave, the signal is partially absorbed inn the material, diffused and reflected towards the receiver. To measure the level of received signal, the dedicated electronic circuit was design and implemented in the presented systems. Such system was designed too recognize two types of floor surface: solid (like concrete, ceramic stiles, wood) and soft (carpets, floor coverings). The method will be applied in electronic detection system dedicated to autonomous cleaning robots due to selection of appropriate cleaning method. This work presents the concept of ultrasonic signals utilization, the design of both the measurement system and the measuring stand and as well number of wide tests results which validates correctness of applied ultrasonic method.

  19. Combining ability of tomato lines in saladette-type hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Carvalho Andrade

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Given the growing importance of the saladette fresh tomato market in Brazil, the objective of this paper was to assess the combining abilities of lines potentially useful as parents of hybridsin this class. The experiment consisted of28 genotypes, 18 hybrids from a partial diallel crossobtained from crossing two groups of tomato lines (Group I, with 9 parents, and Group II, with 2 parents, 8 F1 experimental hybrids, and 2 commercial checks. Traits evaluated were total yield, mean fruit mass, fruit shelf life, shape and percentsoluble solids. Additive genetic effects were generally more important than non-additive effects for all traits evaluated. The TOM-542 and TOM-734 lines, from group I, and the TOM-720 line, from group II, presented high general combining ability (GCA estimates for most of the traits of importance for saladette tomatoes, and were therefore considered suitable parents of hybrids of this class. Higher fruit shelf life of TOM-723 as a parental line compared with TOM-720 (Group II, was mainly attributed to the presence in the former of the norA allele, which controls longer fruit shelf life. F1 hybrids (TOM-542 x TOM-720, (TOM-580 x TOM-720, (TOM-734 x TOM-720, and (TOM-727 x TOM-720 showed good performance and fruit quality and thus constitute possible commercial varieties.

  20. Salter-Harris Type III and Type IV Combined Fracture of the Distal Femoral Epiphysis: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Ali; Topal, Murat; Tuncer, Kutsi; Senocak, Eyüp

    2012-01-01

    Distal femoral physeal fractures are not common but have a high rate of complications. They generally follow one of the patterns described in the Salter-Harris classification. We present a case of combination of Salter-Harris type III and type IV injury. Our case was a 15-year-old boy who had a motor vehicle accident. There was swelling, ecchymosis, severe pain, and valgus deformity, because of medial proximal fracture fragment, on the left knee. We deemed that Salter-Harris type III and type IV combination fracture in our case has not been previously reported. We prepared this paper in consideration of its contribution to the literature.

  1. Combining Slater-type orbitals and effective core potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesiuk, Michał; Tucholska, Aleksandra M.; Moszynski, Robert

    2017-05-01

    We present a general methodology to evaluate matrix elements of the effective core potentials (ECPs) within a one-electron basis set of Slater-type orbitals (STOs). The scheme is based on translation of individual STO distributions in the framework of the Barnett-Coulson method. We discuss different types of integrals which naturally appear and reduce them to a few basic quantities which can be calculated recursively or purely numerically. Additionally, we consider evaluation of the STOs matrix elements involving the core polarization potentials and effective spin-orbit potentials. Construction of the STOs basis sets designed specifically for use with ECPs is discussed and differences in comparison with all-electron basis sets are briefly summarized. We verify the validity of the present approach by calculating excitation energies, static dipole polarizabilities, and valence orbital energies for the alkaline-earth metals (Ca, Sr, and Ba). Finally, we evaluate interaction energies, permanent dipole moments, and ionization energies for barium and strontium hydrides, and compare them with the best available experimental and theoretical data.

  2. Wetting, prewetting and surface transitions in type-I superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indekeu, J. O.; van Leeuwen, J. M. J.

    1995-02-01

    Within the Ginzburg-Landau theory, which is quantitatively correct for classical superconductors, it is shown that a type-I superconductor can display an interface delocalization or “wetting” transition, in which a macroscopically thick superconducting layer intrudes from the surface into the bulk normal phase. The condition for this transition to occur is that the superconducting order parameter | ψ| 2 is enhanced at the surface. This corresponds to a negative surface extrapolation length b. The wetting transition takes place at bulk two-phase coexistence of normal and superconducting phases, at a temperature TD below the critical temperature Tc, and at magnetic field HD = Hc( TD). The field is applied parallel to the surface. Surprisingly, the order of the wetting transition is controlled by a bulk material constant, the Ginzburg-Landau parameter κ. This is very unusual, since in other systems (fluids, Ising magnets,…) the order of the wetting transition depends on surface parameters that are difficult to determine or control. For superconductors, first-order wetting is predicted for 0 ≤ κ wetting for 0.374 wetting, the prewetting extension is also found. Unlike in standard wetting problems, the prewetting line does not terminate at a critical point but changes from first to second order at a tricritical point. Twinning-plane superconductivity (TPS) is reinterpreted as a prewetting phenomenon. The possibility of critical wetting in superconductors is especially interesting because this phenomenon has largely eluded experimental verification in any system until now. Furthermore, superconductors provide a realization of wetting in systems with short-range (exponentially decaying) interactions. This is very different from the usual long-range (algebraically decaying) interactions, such as van der Waals forces, and has important consequences for the wetting characteristics.

  3. Manufacture of functional surfaces through combined application of tool manufacturing processes and Robot Assisted Polishing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Rasmus Solmer; Arentoft, Mogens; Grønbæk, J.

    2012-01-01

    The tool surface topography is often a key parameter in the tribological performance of modern metal forming tools. A new generation of multifunctional surfaces is achieved by combination of conventional tool manufacturing processes with a novel Robot Assisted Polishing process. This novel surface...

  4. Enhanced infrared detectors using resonant structures combined with thin type-II superlattice absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldflam, M. D.; Kadlec, E. A.; Olson, B. V.; Klem, J. F.; Hawkins, S. D.; Parameswaran, S.; Coon, W. T.; Keeler, G. A.; Fortune, T. R.; Tauke-Pedretti, A.; Wendt, J. R.; Shaner, E. A.; Davids, P. S.; Kim, J. K.; Peters, D. W.

    2016-12-01

    We examined the spectral responsivity of a 1.77 μm thick type-II superlattice based long-wave infrared detector in combination with metallic nanoantennas. Coupling between the Fabry-Pérot cavity formed by the semiconductor layer and the resonant nanoantennas on its surface enables spectral selectivity, while also increasing peak quantum efficiency to over 50%. Electromagnetic simulations reveal that this high responsivity is a direct result of field-enhancement in the absorber layer, enabling significant absorption in spite of the absorber's subwavelength thickness. Notably, thinning of the absorbing material could ultimately yield lower photodetector noise through a reduction in dark current while improving photocarrier collection efficiency. The temperature- and incident-angle-independent spectral response observed in these devices allows for operation over a wide range of temperatures and optical systems. This detector paradigm demonstrates potential benefits to device performance with applications throughout the infrared.

  5. Photodynamic and Antibiotic Therapy in Combination to Fight Biofilms and Resistant Surface Bacterial Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barra, Federica; Roscetto, Emanuela; Soriano, Amata A; Vollaro, Adriana; Postiglione, Ilaria; Pierantoni, Giovanna Maria; Palumbo, Giuseppe; Catania, Maria Rosaria

    2015-08-28

    Although photodynamic therapy (PDT), a therapeutic approach that involves a photosensitizer, light and O₂, has been principally considered for the treatment of specific types of cancers, other applications exist, including the treatment of infections. Unfortunately, PDT does not always guarantee full success since it exerts lethal effects only in cells that have taken up a sufficient amount of photosensitizer and have been exposed to adequate light doses, conditions that are not always achieved. Based on our previous experience on the combination PDT/chemotherapy, we have explored the possibility of fighting bacteria that commonly crowd infected surfaces by combining PDT with an antibiotic, which normally does not harm the strain at low concentrations. To this purpose, we employed 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA), a pro-drug that, once absorbed by proliferating bacteria, is converted into the natural photosensitizer Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), followed by Gentamicin. Photoactivation generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) which damage or kill the cell, while Gentamicin, even at low doses, ends the work. Our experiments, in combination, have been highly successful against biofilms produced by several Gram positive bacteria (i.e., Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, etc.). This original approach points to potentially new and wide applications in the therapy of infections of superficial wounds and sores.

  6. Motor Profile of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Combined Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulardins, Juliana B.; Marques, Juliana C. Bilhar; Casella, Erasmo B.; Nascimento, Roseane O.; Oliveira, Jorge A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the motor profile of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), combined type. Method: The case group consisted of 34 treatment-naive, male patients, aged 7-11 years, who had been diagnosed with ADHD, combined type, without comorbidities (except oppositional defiant disorder). The…

  7. Effect of enzymatic hydrolysis on surface activity and surface rheology of type I collagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kezwoń, Aleksandra; Chromińska, Ilona; Frączyk, Tomasz; Wojciechowski, Kamil

    2016-01-01

    We describe the adsorption behaviour and rheological properties of a calf skin type I collagen, and of its hydrolysates obtained using a Clostridium histolyticum collagenase (CHC) under moderate conditions (pH 7, 37°C). The effect of CHC concentration (2×10(-9)-2×10(-6)M) and incubation time (35-85min) was studied and optimised to achieve the highest decrease of surface tension and the highest dilational surface viscoelasticity of the adsorbed layers. SDS-PAGE electrophoresis and reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) were used to characterise the hydrolysis products. The results show that even simple modifications (heat treatment, pH change, partial hydrolysis) of collagen enhances its surface properties, especially in terms of surface dilational elasticity modulus. The use of low enzyme concentration (CHC-to-collagen molar ratio of 4×10(-3)) and short incubation time (<45min) results in moderately hydrolysed products with the highest ability to lower surface tension (γ=53.9mNm(-1)) forming highly elastic adsorbed layers (surface dilational elasticity, E'=74.5mNm(-1)).

  8. PDE Surface Generation with Combined Closed and Non-Closed Form Solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Jun Zhang; Li-Hua You

    2004-01-01

    Partial differential equations (PDEs) combined with suitably chosen boundary conditions are effective in creating free form surfaces. In this paper, a fourth order partial differential equation and boundary conditions up to tangential continuity are introduced. The general solution is divided into a closed form solution and a non-closed form one leading to a mixed solution to the PDE. The obtained solution is applied to a number of surface modelling examples including glass shape design, vase surface creation and arbitrary surface representation.

  9. Well test analysis results interpretation: Combined type curve and pressure derivative approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabbri, P.; Matteotti, G. (Padua Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Geologia, Paleontologia e Geofisica Padua Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Idraulica)

    In reviewing theoretical concepts forming the basis for the interpretation of well test analyses, this paper focusses on the 'theoretical model' for the determination of the parameters and variables. It then applies this theory to the combined type curve and pressure derivative interpretation approaches. Finally, the paper illustrates an approach combining the combined type curve and pressure derivative methods for homogeneous and isotropic conditions in a thermal aquifer and in the presence of the skin effect and wellbore storage.

  10. A weather type method to study surface ocean variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menendez, M.; Camus, P.; Mendez, F. J.; Losada, I. J.

    2012-04-01

    The set of methodologies for obtaining wave climate information at high spatial resolution from relatively coarse resolution is known as downscaling. Dynamic downscaling, based on the use of numerical models, is perhaps the most widely used methodology for surface ocean variables. An alternative approach is the statistical downscaling, that can be conducted by means of regression methods or weather pattern-based approaches. The main advantages of the statistical downscaling based on weather patterns are: the low computational requirements; the ease of implementation; the additional climatology information; and local forecast application. Moreover, this technique allows exploring the synoptic atmospheric climatology and their relationship with surface ocean variables. It is well known nowadays that the seasonal-to-interannual variability of wave climate is linked to the atmosphere circulation patterns. We proposed a statistical approach based on the predictand (eg. local wave characteristics) is associated to a particular synoptic-scale weather type (predictor). The predictor is the n-days-averaged sea level pressure field (SLP) anomalies, which are synthesized using data mining techniques to describe a number of weather types. In particular, we focus in NE Atlantic (NAO region) using as predictor the 3-days-averaged SLP fields calculated by NCEP atmospheric reanalysis (1948-2010). A principal component analysis is applied over SLP fields to reduce the spatial and temporal dimensions. The K-means clustering technique is then applied to the two-dimensional sample of the principal components which explain more than 95% variance of the SLP. The K-means technique divides the data space into a number of clusters, where each of them is characterized by a centroid and formed by the data for which the centroid is the nearest. Finally, we visualize the weather types associated to each centroid in an ordered way similar to self-organizing maps, SOMs. The probability

  11. Characterization of Copper Corrosion Products in Drinking Water by Combining Electrochemical and Surface Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study focuses on the application of electrochemical approaches to drinking water copper corrosion problems. Applying electrochemical approaches combined with copper solubility measurements, and solid surface analysis approaches were discussed. Tafel extrapolation and Electro...

  12. Characterization of Copper Corrosion Products Formed in Drinking Water by Combining Electrochemical and Surface Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study focuses on the application of electrochemical approaches to drinking water copper corrosion problems. Applying electrochemical approaches combined with copper solubility measurements, and solid surface analysis approaches were discussed. Tafel extrapolation and Electro...

  13. Salter-Harris Type III and Type IV Combined Fracture of the Distal Femoral Epiphysis: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Aydin; Murat Topal; Kutsi Tuncer; Eyüp Şenocak

    2012-01-01

    Distal femoral physeal fractures are not common but have a high rate of complications. They generally follow one of the patterns described in the Salter-Harris classification. We present a case of combination of Salter-Harris type III and type IV injury. Our case was a 15-year-old boy who had a motor vehicle accident. There was swelling, ecchymosis, severe pain, and valgus deformity, because of medial proximal fracture fragment, on the left knee. We deemed that Salter-Harris type III and type...

  14. Surface treatment method for cladding tube of LMFBR type reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suda, Yoshitaka; Matsumoto, Kunio; Ito, Kenji.

    1994-06-07

    Upon surface finishing by polishing, shot peening or blasting is applied on the outer surface of a cladding tube to eliminate orientation of residual stresses on the surface layer in order to eliminate residual stresses formed on the outer surface in the circumferential direction. This can suppress occurrence of cracks in oxide membranes formed on the outer surface to suppress development of corrosion on the outer surface irrespective of the ingredient composition of fuel cladding tube made of zircaloy. (T.M.).

  15. Description and application of the combined surface and groundwater flow model MOGROW

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Querner, E.P.

    1997-01-01

    In the Netherlands shallow groundwater tables prevail in many parts, such that groundwater and surface water are closely interlinked. Thus the use of a combined groundwater and surface water model is necessary to predict the effect of certain measures on a regional scale. Therefore the model MOGROW

  16. Simultaneous Retrieval of Aerosol and Surface Optical Properties from Combined Airborne- and Ground-Based Direct and Diffuse Radiometric Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatebe, C. K.; Dubovik, O.; King, M. D.; Sinyuk, A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a new method for simultaneously retrieving aerosol and surface reflectance properties from combined airborne and ground-based direct and diffuse radiometric measurements. The method is based on the standard Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) method for retrieving aerosol size distribution, complex index of refraction, and single scattering albedo, but modified to retrieve aerosol properties in two layers, below and above the aircraft, and parameters on surface optical properties from combined datasets (Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR) and AERONET data). A key advantage of this method is the inversion of all available spectral and angular data at the same time, while accounting for the influence of noise in the inversion procedure using statistical optimization. The wide spectral (0.34-2.30 m) and angular range (180 ) of the CAR instrument, combined with observations from an AERONET sunphotometer, provide sufficient measurement constraints for characterizing aerosol and surface properties with minimal assumptions. The robustness of the method was tested on observations made during four different field campaigns: (a) the Southern African Regional Science Initiative 2000 over Mongu, Zambia, (b) the Intercontinental Transport Experiment-Phase B over Mexico City, Mexico (c) Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign over the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Central Facility, Oklahoma, USA, and (d) the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) over Elson Lagoon in Barrow, Alaska, USA. The four areas are dominated by different surface characteristics and aerosol types, and therefore provide good test cases for the new inversion method.

  17. Salter-Harris Type III and Type IV Combined Fracture of the Distal Femoral Epiphysis: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Aydin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Distal femoral physeal fractures are not common but have a high rate of complications. They generally follow one of the patterns described in the Salter-Harris classification. We present a case of combination of Salter-Harris type III and type IV injury. Our case was a 15-year-old boy who had a motor vehicle accident. There was swelling, ecchymosis, severe pain, and valgus deformity, because of medial proximal fracture fragment, on the left knee. We deemed that Salter-Harris type III and type IV combination fracture in our case has not been previously reported. We prepared this paper in consideration of its contribution to the literature.

  18. Axially astigmatic surfaces: different types and their properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malacara-Doblado, Daniel; Malacara-Hernandez, Daniel; Garcia-Marquez, Jorge L.

    1996-12-01

    Axially astigmatic surfaces have different curvatures in orthogonal diameters. Toroidal and spherocylindrical optical surfaces are two mathematically different special cases of axially astigmatic surfaces as noted by Menchaca and Malacara (1986), but they are almost identical in the vicinity of the optical axis. The different between these two surfaces increases when the distance to the optical axis increases. We study the general properties of astigmatic surfaces and some special interesting cases.

  19. Introduction of Enhanced Compressive Residual Stress Profiles in Aerospace Components Using Combined Mechanical Surface Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinath, Abhay; Lim, Andre; Nagarajan, Balasubramanian; Cher Wong, Chow; Maiti, Rajarshi; Castagne, Sylvie

    2016-11-01

    Mechanical surface treatments such as Shot Peening (SP) and Deep Cold Rolling (DCR) are being used to introduce Compressive Residual Stress (CRS) at the surface and subsurface layers of aerospace components, respectively. This paper investigates the feasibility of a combined introduction of both the surface and sub-surface compressive residual stress on Ti6Al4V material through a successive application of the two aforementioned processes, one after the other. CRS profiles between individual processes were compared to that of combination of processes to validate the feasibility. It was found out that shot peening introduces surface compressive residual stress into the already deep cold rolled sample, resulting in both surface and sub-surface compressive residual stresses in the material. However the drawback of such a combination would be the increased surface roughness after shot peening a deep cold rolled sample which can be critical especially in compressor components. Hence, a new technology, Vibro-Peening (VP) may be used as an alternative to SP to introduce surface stress at reduced roughness.

  20. Rotation and surface abundance peculiarities in A-type stars

    CERN Document Server

    Takeda, Yoichi; Kang, Dong-Il; Lee, Byeong-Cheol; Kim, Kang-Min

    2008-01-01

    In an attempt of clarifying the connection between the photospheric abundance anomalies and the stellar rotation as well as of exploring the nature of "normal A" stars, the abundances of seven elements (C, O, Si, Ca, Ti, Fe, and Ba) and the projected rotational velocity for 46 A-type field stars were determined by applying the spectrum-fitting method to the high-dispersion spectral data obtained with BOES at BOAO. We found that the peculiarities (underabundances of C, O, and Ca; an overabundance of Ba) seen in slow rotators efficiently decrease with an increase of rotation, which almost disappear at v_e sin i > 100 km s^-1. This further suggests that stars with sufficiently large rotational velocity may retain the original composition at the surface without being altered. Considering the subsolar tendency (by several tenths dex below) exhibited by the elemental abundances of such rapidly-rotating (supposedly normal) A stars, we suspect that the gas metallicity may have decreased since our Sun was born, contra...

  1. Protein adhesion on dental surfaces-a combined surface analytical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Christine; Wald, Johanna; Hoth-Hannig, Wiebke; Umanskaya, Natalia; Scholz, Daniel; Hannig, Matthias; Ziegler, Christiane

    2011-05-01

    Protein adsorption is a field of huge interest in a number of application fields. Information on protein adhesion is accessible by a variety of methods. However, the results obtained are significantly influenced by the applied technique. The objective of this work was to understand the role of adhesion forces (obtained by scanning force spectroscopy, SFS) in the process of protein adsorption and desorption. In SFS, the protein is forced to and retracted from the surface, even under unfavorable conditions, in contrast to the natural situation. Furthermore, adhesion forces are correlated with adhesion energies, neglecting the entropic part in the Gibbs enthalpy. In this context, dynamic contact angle (DCA) measurements were performed to identify the potential of this method to complement SFS data. In DCA measurements, the protein diffuses voluntarily to the surface and information on surface coverage and reversibility of adsorption is obtained, including entropic effects (conformational changes and hydrophobic effect). It could be shown that the surface coverage (by DCA) of bovine serum albumin on dental materials correlates well with the adhesion forces (by SFS) if no hydrophobic surface is involved. On those, the entropic hydrophobic effect plays a major role. As a second task, the reversibility of the protein adsorption, i.e., the voluntary desorption as studied by DCA, was compared to the adhesion forces. Here, a correlation between low adhesion forces and good reversibility could be found as long as no covalent bonds were involved. The comparative study of DCA and SFS, thus, leads to a more detailed picture of the complete adsorption/desorption cycle.

  2. Combined mucopolysaccharidosis type VI and congenital adrenal hyperplasia in a child: Anesthetic considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Bansal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a child posted for magnetic resonance imaging of brain under general anesthesia with the rare combination of mucopolysachharidosis type VI and congenital adrenal hyperplasia. The presence of both these disorders has important anesthetic implications. The pathophysiology of this rare combination of disease is reviewed with emphasis on the anesthesia management.

  3. Northern South China Sea Surface Circulation and its Variability Derived by Combining Satellite Altimetry and Surface Drifter Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Peter Benny

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study analyses the mean and seasonal mesoscale surface circulation of the Northern South China Sea (NSCS and determines the influence of El Niño/SouthernNiño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO. High resolution Eulerian velocity field is derived by combining the available satellite tracked surface drifter data with satellite altimetry during 1993 - 2012. The wind driven current is computed employing the weekly ocean surface mean wind fields derived from the scatterometers on board ERS 1/2, QuikSCAT and ASCAT. The derived mean velocity field exhibits strong boundary currents and broad zonal flow across NSCS. The anomalous field is quite strong in the southern part and the Seasonal circulation clearly depicts the monsoonal forcing. Eddy Kinetic Energy (EKE distribution and its spatial and temporal structures are determined employing Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF analysis. The ENSO influence on NSCS surface circulation has been analyzed using monthly absolute geostrophic velocity fields during 1996 - 1999.

  4. Col-OSSOS: z-Band Photometry Reveals Three Distinct TNO Surface Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Rosemary E.; Fraser, Wesley C.; Schwamb, Megan E.; Kavelaars, J. J.; Marsset, Michael; Bannister, Michele T.; Lehner, Matthew J.; Wang, Shiang-Yu; Alexandersen, Mike; Chen, Ying-Tung; Gladman, Brett J.; Gwyn, Stephen; Petit, Jean-Marc; Volk, Kathryn

    2017-09-01

    Several different classes of trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) have been identified based on their optical and near-infrared colors. As part of the Colours of the Outer Solar System Origins Survey (Col-OSSOS), we have obtained g-, r-, and z-band photometry of 26 TNOs using Subaru and Gemini Observatories. Previous color surveys have not utilized z-band reflectance, and the inclusion of this band reveals significant surface reflectance variations between sub-populations. The colors of TNOs in g - r and r - z show obvious structure, and appear consistent with the previously measured bi-modality in g - r. The distribution of colors of the two dynamically excited surface types can be modeled using the two-component mixing models from Fraser & Brown. With the combination of g - r and r - z, the dynamically excited classes can be separated cleanly into red and neutral surface classes. In g - r and r - z, the two dynamically excited surface groups are also clearly distinct from the cold classical TNO surfaces, which are red, with g-r≳ 0.85 and r - z ≲ 0.6, while all dynamically excited objects with similar g - r colors exhibit redder r - z colors. The z-band photometry makes it possible for the first time to differentiate the red excited TNO surfaces from the red cold classical TNO surfaces. The discovery of different r - z colors for these cold classical TNOs makes it possible to search for cold classical surfaces in other regions of the Kuiper Belt and to completely separate cold classical TNOs from the dynamically excited population, which overlaps in orbital parameter space.

  5. Combined effect of alcohol consumption and lifestyle behaviors on risk of type 2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, M.M.; Grobbee, D.E.; Verschuren, W.M.M.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Beulens, J.W.J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: It has been suggested that the inverse association between alcohol and type 2 diabetes could be explained by moderate drinkers' healthier lifestyles. Objective: We studied whether moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes in adults with combined low-

  6. Research on testing method for combined aspheric surface with non-rotational symmetric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wencai; Xu, Feng; Wei, Xiaoxiao

    2016-09-01

    Non-rotational symmetric aspheric surface has many significant advantages, but it still can not be widely used because the limiting that there is no method can tests it precisely. At present, the coordinate contour measuring machine is the main testing method for the aspheric surface with non-rotational symmetric, but the measurement accuracy of this method is not high. In this paper, the method of diffraction compensator (computed graphic holograph) has been adopted to test the combined aspheric surface, which can compensate the phase caused by tested lens. The sample surface is the combined aspheric surface with diameter of 33.84mm, and the process from optical software simulation design, the fabrication of the computed graphic holograph (CGH) to experimental platform built is given in detail after testing via the CGH technology. The simulation results show that the root mean square (RMS) of remnant wave-front error is 0.004 λ, and the peak to valley (PV) is 0.0245 λ. The free-from surface has been tested by Zygo interferometer, and the experimental results show that the RMS is 0.49 λ, the PV is 4.69 λ. The accuracy of the result is higher than that of coordinate contour measuring machine. The system error caused by optical elements analysed is 0.1149λ. The accurate result means that the CGH technology for testing the combined aspheric surface is realized.

  7. Numerical simulation analysis and optimum design for combined type pressure reducing valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, D. M.; Guo, P. C.; Zheng, X. B.; Luo, X. Q.; Sun, L. G.

    2016-05-01

    Pressure reducing valve is an extremely significant equipment of energy dissipation for the water supply by gravity with pressure reducing technology in hydropower stations, and which has a pronounced effect on the normal technical water supply even safety operation for the hydropower units. A three-dimensional numerical calculation of flow field and cavitation characteristics towards a combined type pressure reducing valves was carried out based on the system of technical water supply in this paper. The numerical results show that the investigated valve could meet the requirements of technological supply water pressure and great pressure loss was caused when the water flow was accelerated by narrow overflowing section between throttling cone and valve seat. At working operation, obvious cavitation phenomenon was observed on the surface of throttling cone, and the maximum volume fraction of vapor reached 0.537%. Based on above researches, this paper introduces an optimization model for profile line design of throttling cone. The optimal results show that the cavitation performance is effectively improved with identical pressure drop compared with original results.

  8. Major Successes of Theory-and-Experiment-Combined Studies in Surface Chemistry and Heterogeneous Catalysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somorjai, Gabor A.; Li, Yimin

    2009-11-21

    Experimental discoveries followed by theoretical interpretations that pave the way of further advances by experimentalists is a developing pattern in modern surface chemistry and catalysis. The revolution of modern surface science started with the development of surface-sensitive techniques such as LEED, XPS, AES, ISS and SIMS, in which the close collaboration between experimentalists and theorists led to the quantitative determination of surface structure and composition. The experimental discovery of the chemical activity of surface defects and the trends in the reactivity of transitional metals followed by the explanations from the theoretical studies led to the molecular level understanding of active sites in catalysis. The molecular level knowledge, in turn, provided a guide for experiments to search for new generation of catalysts. These and many other examples of successes in experiment-and-theory-combined studies demonstrate the importance of the collaboration between experimentalists and theorists in the development of modern surface science.

  9. Influence of Combined Hard and Fine Machining on the Surface Properties of Cemented Carbides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Engel

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available As a result of recent developments in cold forging cemented carbides are increasingly used as tool materials. Due to their high hardness only electrical discharge machining (EDM and grinding are suitable for tool machining. The structure of tool surface has significant influence on dominating failure mechanisms wear and fatigue. For improvement of tribological conditions the surface is polished in a finale processing step. The result of hard and fine machining is a specific combination of coarse and fine structure which is determined by processing parameters. The different surface structures lead to a particular tool behavior in forming process. This paper aims to show the influence of combined hard and fine machining on the surface properties of cemented carbides.

  10. Soft sets combined with interval valued intuitionistic fuzzy sets of type-2 and rough sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjan Mukherjee

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Fuzzy set theory, rough set theory and soft set theory are all mathematical tools dealing with uncertainties. The concept of type-2 fuzzy sets was introduced by Zadeh in 1975 which was extended to interval valued intuitionistic fuzzy sets of type-2 by the authors.This paper is devoted to the discussions of the combinations of interval valued intuitionistic sets of type-2, soft sets and rough sets.Three different types of new hybrid models, namely-interval valued intuitionistic fuzzy soft sets of type-2, soft rough interval valued intuitionistic fuzzy sets of type-2 and soft interval valued intuitionistic fuzzy rough sets of type-2 are proposed and their properties are derived.

  11. Soft sets combined with interval valued intuitionistic fuzzy sets of type-2 and rough sets

    OpenAIRE

    Anjan Mukherjee; Abhijit Saha

    2015-01-01

    Fuzzy set theory, rough set theory and soft set theory are all mathematical tools dealing with uncertainties. The concept of type-2 fuzzy sets was introduced by Zadeh in 1975 which was extended to interval valued intuitionistic fuzzy sets of type-2 by the authors.This paper is devoted to the discussions of the combinations of interval valued intuitionistic sets of type-2, soft sets and rough sets.Three different types of new hybrid models, namely-interval valued intuitionistic fuzzy soft sets...

  12. Lake Storage Measurements For Water Resources Management: Combining Remotely Sensed Water Levels and Surface Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakenridge, G. R.; Birkett, C. M.

    2013-12-01

    Presently operating satellite-based radar altimeters have the ability to monitor variations in surface water height for large lakes and reservoirs, and future sensors will expand observational capabilities to many smaller water bodies. Such remote sensing provides objective, independent information where in situ data are lacking or access is restricted. A USDA/NASA (http://www.pecad.fas.usda.gov/cropexplorer/global_reservoir/) program is performing operational altimetric monitoring of the largest lakes and reservoirs around the world using data from the NASA/CNES, NRL, and ESA missions. Public lake-level products from the Global Reservoir and Lake Monitor (GRLM) are a combination of archived and near real time information. The USDA/FAS utilizes the products for assessing international irrigation potential and for crop production estimates; other end-users study climate trends, observe anthropogenic effects, and/or are are involved in other water resources management and regional water security issues. At the same time, the Dartmouth Flood Observatory (http://floodobservatory.colorado.edu/), its NASA GSFC partners (http://oas.gsfc.nasa.gov/floodmap/home.html), and associated MODIS data and automated processing algorithms are providing public access to a growing GIS record of the Earth's changing surface water extent, including changes related to floods and droughts. The Observatory's web site also provide both archival and near real time information, and is based mainly on the highest spatial resolution (250 m) MODIS bands. Therefore, it is now possible to provide on an international basis reservoir and lake storage change measurements entirely from remote sensing, on a frequently updating basis. The volume change values are based on standard numerical procedures used for many decades for analysis of coeval lake area and height data. We provide first results of this combination, including prototype displays for public access and data retrieval of water storage

  13. Tailorable Surface Morphology of 3D Scaffolds by Combining Additive Manufacturing with Thermally Induced Phase Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Luca, Andrea; de Wijn, Joost R; van Blitterswijk, Clemens A; Camarero-Espinosa, Sandra; Moroni, Lorenzo

    2017-08-01

    The functionalization of biomaterials substrates used for cell culture is gearing towards an increasing control over cell activity. Although a number of biomaterials have been successfully modified by different strategies to display tailored physical and chemical surface properties, it is still challenging to step from 2D substrates to 3D scaffolds with instructive surface properties for cell culture and tissue regeneration. In this study, additive manufacturing and thermally induced phase separation are combined to create 3D scaffolds with tunable surface morphology from polymer gels. Surface features vary depending on the gel concentration, the exchanging temperature, and the nonsolvent used. When preosteoblasts (MC-3T3 cells) are cultured on these scaffolds, a significant increase in alkaline phosphatase activity is measured for submicron surface topography, suggesting a potential role on early cell differentiation. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Tomographic inversion of near-surface Q factor by combining surface and cross-hole seismic surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guo-Fa; Zheng, Hao; Zhu, Wen-Liang; Wang, Ming-Chao; Zhai, Tong-Li

    2016-03-01

    The estimation of the quality factor Q plays a fundamental role in enhancing seismic resolution via absorption compensation in the near-surface layer. We present a new geometry that can be used to acquire field data by combining surface and cross-hole surveys to decrease the effect of geophone coupling on Q estimation. In this study, we drilled number of receiver holes around the source hole, each hole has different depth and each geophone is placed geophones into the bottom of each receiver hole to avoid the effect of geophone coupling with the borehole wall on Q estimation in conventional cross-hole seismic surveys. We also propose a novel tomographic inversion of the Q factor without the effect of the source signature, and examine its stability and reliability using synthetic data. We estimate the Q factors of the near-surface layer in two different frequency bands using field data acquired in the Dagang Oilfield. The results show that seismic absorption in the near-surface layer is much greater than that in the subsurface strata. Thus, it is of critical practical importance to enhance the seismic solution by compensating for near-surface absorption. In addition, we derive different Q factors from two frequency bands, which can be treated, to some extent, as evidence of a frequency-dependent Q.

  15. On the relationship between the snowflake type aloft and the surface precipitation types at temperatures near 0 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaré, Housseyni; Thériault, Julie M.

    2016-11-01

    Winter precipitation types can have major consequences on power outages, road conditions and air transportation. The type of precipitation reaching the surface depends strongly on the vertical temperature of the atmosphere, which is often composed of a warm layer aloft and a refreezing layer below it. A small variation of the vertical structure can lead to a change in the type of precipitation near the surface. It has been shown in previous studies that the type of precipitation depends also on the precipitation rate, which is directly linked to the particle size distribution and that a difference as low as 0.5 °C in the vertical temperature profile could change the type of precipitation near the surface. Given the importance of better understanding the formation of winter precipitation type, the goal of this study is to assess the impact of the snowflake habit aloft on the type of precipitation reaching the surface when the vertical temperature is near 0 °C. To address this, a one dimensional cloud model coupled with a bulk microphysics scheme was used. Four snowflake types (dendrite, bullet, column and graupel) have been added to the scheme. The production of precipitation at the surface from these types of snow has been compared to available observations. The results showed that the thickness of the snow-rain transition is four times deeper when columns and graupel only fall through the atmosphere compared to dendrites. Furthermore, a temperature of the melting layer that is three (four) times warmer is required to completely melt columns and graupel (dendrites). Finally, the formation of freezing rain is associated with the presence of lower density snowflakes (dendrites) aloft compared to the production of ice pellets (columns). Overall, this study demonstrated that the type of snowflakes has an impact on the type of precipitation reaching the surface when the temperature is near 0 °C.

  16. Combined effects of surface conditions, boundary layer dynamics and chemistry on diurnal SOA evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, R.H.H.; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J.; Ganzeveld, L.N.; Kabat, P.; Jimenez, J.L.; Farmer, D.K.; Heerwaarden, van C.C.; Mammarella, I.

    2012-01-01

    We study the combined effects of land surface conditions, atmospheric boundary layer dynamics and chemistry on the diurnal evolution of biogenic secondary organic aerosol in the atmospheric boundary layer, using a model that contains the essentials of all these components. First, we evaluate the mod

  17. Decomposition of integrable holomorphic quadratic differential on Riemann surface of infinite type

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In this paper,decomposition of the integrable holomorphic quadratic differential on Riemann surface of infinite type is studied.Hubbard,Schleicher and Shishikura gave a thick-thin decomposition on Riemann surface of finite type with an integrable holomorphic quadratic differential and they thought their result might be generalized to arbitrary hyperbolic Riemann surface of infinite type.We confirm what they thought is right and give a proposition(Proposition 2.2) of its own interest.

  18. Sound field separating on arbitrary surfaces enclosing a sound scatterer based on combined integral equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zongwei; Mei, Deqing; Yang, Keji; Chen, Zichen

    2014-12-01

    To eliminate the limitations of the conventional sound field separation methods which are only applicable to regular surfaces, a sound field separation method based on combined integral equations is proposed to separate sound fields directly in the spatial domain. In virtue of the Helmholtz integral equations for the incident and scattering fields outside a sound scatterer, combined integral equations are derived for sound field separation, which build the quantitative relationship between the sound fields on two arbitrary separation surfaces enclosing the sound scatterer. Through boundary element discretization of the two surfaces, corresponding systems of linear equations are obtained for practical application. Numerical simulations are performed for sound field separation on different shaped surfaces. The influences induced by the aspect ratio of the separation surfaces and the signal noise in the measurement data are also investigated. The separated incident and scattering sound fields agree well with the original corresponding fields described by analytical expressions, which validates the effectiveness and accuracy of the combined integral equations based separation method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Superhydrophobic aluminium-based surfaces: Wetting and wear properties of different CVD-generated coating types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieme, M.; Streller, F.; Simon, F.; Frenzel, R.; White, A. J.

    2013-10-01

    In view of generating superhydrophobic aluminium-based surfaces, this work presents further results for the combination of anodic oxidation as the primary pretreatment method and chemical vapour deposition (CVD) variants for chemical modification producing coatings of 250-1000 nm thickness. In detail, CVD involved the utilisation of i - hexafluoropropylene oxide as precursor within the hot filament CVD process for the deposition of poly(tetrafluoroethylene) coatings at alternative conditions (PTFE-AC) and ii - 1,3,5-trivinyltrimethylcyclotrisiloxane for the deposition of polysiloxane coatings (PSi) by initiated CVD. The substrate material was Al Mg1 subjected to usual or intensified sulphuric acid anodisation pretreatments (SAAu, SAAi, respectively) affording various degrees of surface micro-roughness (SAAu weathering and/or mild wear testing. Superhydrophobicity (SH) was observed with the system SAAi + PTFE-AC similarly to former findings with the standard hot filament CVD PTFE coating variant (SAAi + PTFE-SC). The results indicated that the specific coating morphology made an important contribution to the water-repellency, because even some of the SAAu-based samples tended to reveal SH. Subjecting samples to weathering treatment resulted in a general worsening of the wetting behaviour, primarily limited to the receding contact angles. These tendencies were correlated with the chemical composition of the sample surfaces as analysed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The wear tests showed, as evaluated by scanning electron microscopy and contact angle measurement, that the PTFE coatings were relatively sensitive to friction. This was connected with a dramatic deterioration of the water-repelling properties. PSi-coated surfaces generally showed rather poor water-repellency, but this coating type was surprisingly resistant towards the applied friction test. From these findings it may be concluded that the combination of hydrophobic fluorine containing structure

  20. Procedure for combining a facial porcelain veneer with a metal lingual and occluding surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, K; Priestley, D

    1996-04-01

    This article describes a procedure for making a crown that combines an all-porcelain facial veneer with a metal lingual and occluding surface. The procedure combines both the conventional lost wax technique and the use of a refractory cast for firing porcelain. The crown retains the advantages of the traditional all-porcelain crown restoration but reduces the risk of damage to the opposing teeth associated with an all-ceramic occluding surface. Furthermore, compared with porcelain, the metal surface allows more control over the occlusal and lingual contours during construction of the crown. Although the construction of the anterior crown is described, the procedure is equally applicable to posterior full-coverage restorations.

  1. Hardening of the surface layers of commercial pure titanium VT1-0 under combined treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashchenko, Lyudmila P.; Gromov, Viktor E.; Budovskikh, Evgenii A.; Ivanov, Yurii F.; Soskova, Nina A.

    2015-10-01

    The treatment of VT1-0 titanium samples was carried out by concentrated energy fluxes. The combined treatment included surface carburizing with the joint use of powder samples of compounds with high physical and mechanical properties (namely, titanium diboride TiB2, silicon carbide SiC and zirconium oxide ZrO2) and subsequent electron beam treatment of surface layers formed in electroexplosive treatment. The combined treatment of surface layers resulted in the multifold increase in microhardness, which reduces depending on the depth of hardening zone. After electron-beam treatment, the depth of hardening zone is increased. During electron-beam treatment, the two-layer hardening zone forms.

  2. Hardening of the surface layers of commercial pure titanium VT1-0 under combined treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bashchenko, Lyudmila P., E-mail: luda.baschenko@gmail.com; Gromov, Viktor E., E-mail: gromov@physics.sibsiu.ru; Budovskikh, Evgenii A., E-mail: budovskih-ea@physics.sibsiu.ru; Soskova, Nina A., E-mail: gromov@physics.sibsiu.ru [Siberian State Industrial University, Novokuznetsk, 654007 (Russian Federation); Ivanov, Yurii F., E-mail: yufi55@mail.ru [Institute of High Current Electronics SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk State University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-27

    The treatment of VT1-0 titanium samples was carried out by concentrated energy fluxes. The combined treatment included surface carburizing with the joint use of powder samples of compounds with high physical and mechanical properties (namely, titanium diboride TiB{sub 2}, silicon carbide SiC and zirconium oxide ZrO{sub 2}) and subsequent electron beam treatment of surface layers formed in electroexplosive treatment. The combined treatment of surface layers resulted in the multifold increase in microhardness, which reduces depending on the depth of hardening zone. After electron-beam treatment, the depth of hardening zone is increased. During electron-beam treatment, the two-layer hardening zone forms.

  3. Letter to the EditorRetrieval of land surface temperature from combined AVHRR data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Fischer

    Full Text Available Accurate retrievals of land surface temperature (LST from space are of high interest for studies of land surface processes. Here, an operationally applicable method to retrieve LST from NOAA/AVHRR data is proposed, which combines a split-window technique (SWT for atmospheric correction with a Normalised Difference Vegetation Index threshold method for the retrieval of land surface emissivity. Preliminary results of LST retrievals with this "combined method" are in good agreement with ground truth measurements for bare soil and wheat crops. The results are also compared with results from the same SWT but using emissivities from laboratory measurements.Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (radiation processes; instruments and techniques – Radio science (remote sensing

  4. Simultaneous retrieval of aerosol and surface optical properties from combined airborne- and ground-based direct and diffuse radiometric measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. K. Gatebe

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new method for simultaneously retrieving aerosol and surface reflectance properties from combined airborne and ground-based direct and diffuse radiometric measurements. The method is based on the standard Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET method for retrieving aerosol size distribution, complex index of refraction, and single scattering albedo, but modified to retrieve aerosol properties in two layers, below and above the aircraft, and parameters on surface optical properties from combined datasets (Cloud Absorption Radiometer, CAR, and AERONET data. A key advantage of this method is the inversion of all available spectral and angular data at the same time, while accounting for the influence of noise in the inversion procedure using statistical optimization. The wide spectral (0.34–2.30 μm and angular range (180° of the CAR instrument, combined with observations from an AERONET sunphotometer, provide sufficient measurement constraints for characterizing aerosol and surface properties with minimal assumptions. The robustness of the method was tested on observations made during four different field campaigns: (a the Southern African Regional Science Initiative 2000 over Mongu, Zambia, (b the Intercontinental Transport Experiment-Phase B over Mexico City, Mexico (c Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign over the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM Central Facility, Oklahoma, USA, and (d the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS over Elson Lagoon in Barrow, Alaska, USA. The four areas are dominated by different surface characteristics and aerosol types, and therefore provide good test cases for the new inversion method.

  5. Simultaneous retrieval of aerosol and surface optical properties from combined airborne- and ground-based direct and diffuse radiometric measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. K. Gatebe

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new method for simultaneously retrieving aerosol and surface reflectance properties from combined airborne and ground-based direct and diffuse radiometric measurements. The method is based on the standard Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET method for retrieving aerosol size distribution, complex index of refraction, and single scattering albedo, but modified to retrieve aerosol properties in two layers, below and above the aircraft, and parameters on surface optical properties from combined datasets (Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR and AERONET data. A key advantage of this method is the inversion of all available spectral and angular data at the same time, while accounting for the influence of noise in the inversion procedure using statistical optimization. The wide spectral (0.34–2.30 μm and angular range (180° of the CAR instrument, combined with observations from an AERONET sunphotometer, provide sufficient measurement constraints for characterizing aerosol and surface properties with minimal assumptions. The robustness of the method was tested on observations made during four different field campaigns: (a the Southern African Regional Science Initiative 2000 over Mongu, Zambia, (b the Intercontinental Transport Experiment-Phase B over Mexico City, Mexico (c Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign over the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM Central Facility, Oklahoma, USA, and (d the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS over Elson Lagoon in Barrow, Alaska, USA. The four areas are dominated by different surface characteristics and aerosol types, and therefore provide good test cases for the new inversion method.

  6. Novel combination treatment of type 2 diabetes DPP-4 inhibition + metformin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Ahrén

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Bo AhrénDepartment of Clinical Sciences, Division of Medicine, Lund University, Lund, SwedenAbstract: Inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4 as a novel therapy for type 2 diabetes is based on prevention of the inactivation process of bioactive peptides, the most important in the context of treatment of diabetes of which is glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1. Most clinical experience with DPP-4 inhibition is based on vildagliptin (GalvusR, Novartis and sitagliptin (JanuviaR, Merck. These compounds improve glycemic control both in monotherapy and in combination with other oral hyperglycemic agents. Both have also been shown to efficiently improve glycemic control when added to ongoing metformin therapy in patients with inadequate glycemic control. Under that condition, they reduce HbA1c levels by 0.65%–1.1% (baseline HbA1c 7.2–8.7% in studies up to 52 weeks of duration in combination versus continuous therapy with metformin alone. Sitagliptin has also been examined in initial combination therapy with metformin have; HbA1c was reduced by this combination by 2.1% (baseline HbA1c 8.8% after 24 weeks of treatment. Both fasting and prandial glucose are reduced by DPP-4 inhibition in combination with metformin in association with improvement of insulin secretion and insulin resistance and increase in concentrations of active GLP-1. The combination of DPP-4 inhibition and metformin has been shown to be highly tolerable with very low risk of hypoglycemia. Hence, DPP-4 inhibition in combination with metformin is an efficient, safe and tolerable combination therapy for type 2 diabetes.Keywords: DPP-4 inhibition, sitagliptin, vildagliptin, metformin, type 2 diabetes

  7. [Estimation of combining ability of specialized types of the big white breed].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezovskiĭ, N D; Giria, V N

    1991-01-01

    The combining ability of the specialized intrabreed types of Estonian Big White (EBW-1) and Ukrainian Big White (UBW) selections of pigs has been studied by the results of their productivity using the first Griffing method (1956). Close agreement of theoretical and practical indices by the characters under study proves the possibility of applying this method to predict efficiency of interlinear big hybridization.

  8. [Estimation of combining ability of specialized types of the Big White breeds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezovskiĭ, N D; Giria, V N

    1992-01-01

    The combining ability of the specialized intrabreed types of Estonia Big White (EBW-1) and Ukrainian Big White (UBW) breeding of pigs has been studied by the results of their productivity using the first Griffing method (1956). A close coincidence of theoretical and practical indices by the studied sings, proves the ability to use this method for prediction of interline hybridization of pigs.

  9. Improving Weather Radar Precipitation Estimates by Combining two Types of Radars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Ellerbæk; Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke; Rasmussen, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    the two radar types achieves a radar product with both long range and high temporal resolution. It is validated that the blended radar product performs better than the individual radars based on ground observations from laser disdrometers. However, the data combination is challenged by lower performance...

  10. Combined lateral and longitudinal CACC for a unicycle-type platoon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bayuwindra, A.; Aakre, O.L.; Ploeg, J.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the controller design for combined lateral and longitudinal Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC) for a unicycle-type platoon with emphasis on the cornering maneuvers. A decentralized controller for lateral and longitudinal behavior is designed using input-output linearizati

  11. MODELING OF WIND LOADS ACTING ON THE WIND POWER STATION CONSTRUCTION OF THE COMBINED TYPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bukhtoyarova E. S.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the solution of questions about the intensity of wind loads acting on the wind power station of the combined type in relation to the conditions of the Rostov region on the basis of the structural dynamic simulation

  12. SEROTONIN METABOLISM FOLLOWING PLATINUM-BASED CHEMOTHERAPY COMBINED WITH THE SEROTONIN TYPE-3 ANTAGONIST TROPISETRON

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SCHRODER, CP; VANDERGRAAF, WTA; KEMA, IP; GROENEWEGEN, A; SLEIJFER, DT; DEVRIES, EGE

    1995-01-01

    The administration of platinum-based chemotherapy induces serotonin release from the enterochromaffin cells, causing nausea and vomiting. This study was conducted to evaluate parameters of serotonin metabolism following platinum-based chemotherapy given in combination with the serotonin type-3 antag

  13. Novel drugs in familial combined hyperlipidemia: lessons from type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, M.C.; Graaf, J. de; Greevenbroek, M.M. van; Schaper, N.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.; Stalenhoef, A.F.H.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCHL) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are prevalent entities that share many features of the metabolic syndrome. Recent findings suggest that FCHL and T2DM are less distinct than initially anticipated, which could offer new insights for their

  14. Spatial resolution in thin film deposition on silicon surfaces by combining silylation and UV/ozonolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lei; Zaera, Francisco

    2014-12-01

    A simple procedure has been developed for the processing of silicon wafers in order to facilitate the spatially resolved growth of thin solid films on their surfaces. Specifically, a combination of silylation and UV/ozonolysis was tested as a way to control the concentration of the surface hydroxo groups required for subsequent atomic layer deposition (ALD) of metals or oxides. Water contact angle measurements were used to evaluate the hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity of the surface, a proxy for OH surface coverage, and to optimize the UV/ozonolysis treatment. Silylation with hexamethyldisilazane, trichloro(octadecyl)silane, or trimethylchlorosilane was found to be an efficient way to block the hydroxo sites and to passivate the underlying surface, and UV/O3 treatments were shown to effectively remove the silylation layer and to regain the surface reactivity. Both O3 and 185 nm UV radiation were determined necessary for the removal of the silylation layer, and additional 254 nm radiation was found to enhance the process. Attenuated total reflection-infrared absorption spectroscopy was employed to assess the success of the silylation and UV/O3 removal steps, and atomic force microscopy data provided evidence for the retention of the original smoothness of the surface. Selective growth of HfO2 films via TDMAHf + H2O ALD was seen only on the UV/O3 treated surfaces; total inhibition of the deposition was observed on the untreated silylated surfaces (as determined by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and ellipsometry). Residual film growth was still detected on the latter if the ALD was carried out at high temperatures (250 °C), because the silylation layer deteriorates under such harsh conditions and forms surface defects that act as nucleation sites for the growth of oxide grains (as identified by electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy). We believe that the silylation-UV/O3 procedure advanced here could be easily implemented for the patterning of surfaces

  15. Hybrid Doping of Few-Layer Graphene via a Combination of Intercalation and Surface Doping

    KAUST Repository

    Mansour, Ahmed

    2017-05-23

    Surface molecular doping of graphene has been shown to modify its work function and increase its conductivity. However, the associated shifts in work function and increases in carrier concentration are highly coupled and limited by the surface coverage of dopant molecules on graphene. Here we show that few-layer graphene (FLG) can be doped using a hybrid approach, effectively combining surface doping by larger (metal-)organic molecules, while smaller molecules, such as Br2 and FeCl3, intercalate into the bulk. Intercalation tunes the carrier concentration more effectively, whereas surface doping of intercalated FLG can be used to tune its work function without reducing the carrier mobility. This multi-modal doping approach yields a very high carrier density and tunable work function for FLG, demonstrating a new versatile platform for fabricating graphene-based contacts for electronic, optoelectronic and photovoltaic applications.

  16. Combined Bulk and Surface Radiation Damage Effects at Very High Fluences in Silicon Detectors: Measurements and TCAD Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Moscatelli, F; Morozzi, A; Mendicino, Roberto; Betta, G -F Dalla; Bilei, G M

    2016-01-01

    In this work we propose a new combined TCAD radiation damage modelling scheme, featuring both bulk and surface radiation damage effects, for the analysis of silicon detectors aimed at the High Luminosity LHC. In particular, a surface damage model has been developed by introducing the relevant parameters (NOX, NIT) extracted from experimental measurements carried out on p-type substrate test structures after gamma irradiations at doses in the range 10-500 Mrad(Si). An extended bulk model, by considering impact ionization and deep-level cross-sections variation, was included as well. The model has been validated through the comparison of the simulation findings with experimental measurements carried out at very high fluences (2 10^16 1 MeV equivalent n/cm^2) thus fostering the application of this TCAD approach for the design and optimization of the new generation of silicon detectors to be used in future HEP experiments.

  17. Combined Bulk and Surface Radiation Damage Effects at Very High Fluences in Silicon Detectors: Measurements and TCAD Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Moscatelli, F; Morozzi, A; Mendicino, R; Dalla Betta, G F; Bilei, G M

    2016-01-01

    In this work we propose a new combined TCAD radiation damage modelling scheme, featuring both bulk and surface radiation damage effects, for the analysis of silicon detectors aimed at the High Luminosity LHC. In particular, a surface damage model has been developed by introducing the relevant parameters (NOX, NIT) extracted from experimental measurements carried out on p-type substrate test structures after gamma irradiations at doses in the range 10-500 Mrad(Si). An extended bulk model, by considering impact ionization and deep-level cross-sections variation, was included as well. The model has been validated through the comparison of the simulation findings with experimental measurements carried out at very high fluences (2×1016 1 MeV equivalent n/cm2) thus fostering the application of this TCAD approach for the design and optimization of the new generation of silicon detectors to be used in future HEP experiments.

  18. Global luminous efficacies on vertical surfaces for all sky types

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soler, A. [E.T.S. Arquitectura, Madrid (Spain). Dpto. de Fisica e Instalaciones Aplicados; Universidad Politecnico de Madrid (Spain). Facultad de Ciencias Ambientales; Robledo, L. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (Spain). Dpto. Sistemas Intelligentes Aplicados

    2000-02-01

    Luminous efficacies are determined at Madrid for North, South, East, West facing surfaces in two ways: by taking into account all the global illuminance and irradiance values available, and by considering data for each of three sky categories as defined from values of the sky clearness index {epsilon}' and the sky brightness index {delta}. Both methods are compared, and for {epsilon}' < 1.23 (overcast skies) the second method is found to be more accurate than the first. (author)

  19. Model heterogeneous acid catalysts and metal-support interactions: A combined surface science and catalysis study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boszormenyi, I.

    1991-05-01

    This (<100 [Angstrom]) silica-alumina layers were tested as potential model heterogeneous acid catalysts for combined surface science and catalysis studies. Three preparation methods were used: oxidation of r3 [times] r3 R30 Al/Si(111) structure in UHV; deposition on Si(lll) from aqueous solution; and argon ion beam sputter deposition in UHV. The homogeneous thin layers are amorphous, and the chemical environment of surface atoms is similar to that of Si, Al and oxygen atoms on high surface area acid catalysts. Since the ion beam-deposited thin layer of silica-alumina has the same composition as the target zeolite this deposition method is a promising tool to prepare model catalysts using practical catalyst targets. The silica-alumina layers are active in cumene cracking, a typical acid catalyzed reaction. In order to clearly distinguish background reactions and the acid catalyzed reaction at least 20 cm[sup 2] catalyst surface area is needed. Two series of model platinum-alumina catalysts were prepared in a combined UHV -- high pressure reactor cell apparatus by depositing alumina on polycrystalline Pt foil and by vapor depositing Pt on a thin alumina layer on Au. Both model surfaces have been prepared with and without chlorine. AES, CO desorption as well as methyl cyclopentane (MCP) hydrogenolysis studies indicate that the Pt surface area is always higher if a chlorination step is involved. Selectivity patterns in MCP ring opening on Pt-on-alumina'' and on alumina-on-Pt'' are different; only the former is a linear combination of selective and statistical ring opening. Product distribution, however, changes with coverage and reaction time. The properties of the two model catalyst systems and role of chlorine in MCP hydrogenolysis are also discussed.

  20. Model heterogeneous acid catalysts and metal-support interactions: A combined surface science and catalysis study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boszormenyi, I.

    1991-05-01

    This (<100 {Angstrom}) silica-alumina layers were tested as potential model heterogeneous acid catalysts for combined surface science and catalysis studies. Three preparation methods were used: oxidation of r3 {times} r3 R30 Al/Si(111) structure in UHV; deposition on Si(lll) from aqueous solution; and argon ion beam sputter deposition in UHV. The homogeneous thin layers are amorphous, and the chemical environment of surface atoms is similar to that of Si, Al and oxygen atoms on high surface area acid catalysts. Since the ion beam-deposited thin layer of silica-alumina has the same composition as the target zeolite this deposition method is a promising tool to prepare model catalysts using practical catalyst targets. The silica-alumina layers are active in cumene cracking, a typical acid catalyzed reaction. In order to clearly distinguish background reactions and the acid catalyzed reaction at least 20 cm{sup 2} catalyst surface area is needed. Two series of model platinum-alumina catalysts were prepared in a combined UHV -- high pressure reactor cell apparatus by depositing alumina on polycrystalline Pt foil and by vapor depositing Pt on a thin alumina layer on Au. Both model surfaces have been prepared with and without chlorine. AES, CO desorption as well as methyl cyclopentane (MCP) hydrogenolysis studies indicate that the Pt surface area is always higher if a chlorination step is involved. Selectivity patterns in MCP ring opening on ``Pt-on-alumina`` and on ``alumina-on-Pt`` are different; only the former is a linear combination of selective and statistical ring opening. Product distribution, however, changes with coverage and reaction time. The properties of the two model catalyst systems and role of chlorine in MCP hydrogenolysis are also discussed.

  1. The combined action of UV irradiation and chemical treatment on the titanium surface of dental implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spriano, Silvia [Politecnico di Torino, Department of Applied Science and Technology, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi, 24-10129 Torino (Italy); Ferraris, Sara, E-mail: sara.ferraris@polito.it [Politecnico di Torino, Department of Applied Science and Technology, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi, 24-10129 Torino (Italy); Bollati, Daniele; Morra, Marco; Cassinelli, Clara [Nobil Bio Ricerche, Portacomaro (Italy); Lorenzon, Giorgio [Centro Chirurgico, Via Mallonetto, 47, 10032, Brandizzo Torino (Italy)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • A combined UV irradiation and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} treatment was applied to titanium surfaces. • A thin, homogeneous, not porous, crack-free and bioactive oxide layer was obtained. • The process significantly improves the biological response of titanium surfaces. • A clinical case demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed treatment. - Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to describe an innovative treatment for titanium dental implants, aimed at faster and more effective osteointegration. The treatment has been performed with the use of hydrogen peroxide, whose action was enhanced by concomitant exposure to a source of ultraviolet light. The developed surface oxide layer was characterized from the physical and chemical points of view. Moreover osteoblast-like SaOS2 cells were cultured on treated and control titanium surfaces and cell behavior investigated by scanning electron microscope observation and gene expression measurements. The described process produces, in only 6 min, a thin, homogeneous, not porous, free of cracks and bioactive (in vitro apatite precipitation) oxide layer. High cell density, peculiar morphology and overexpression of several genes involved with osteogenesis have been observed on modified surfaces. The proposed process significantly improves the biological response of titanium surfaces, and is an interesting solution for the improvement of bone integration of dental implants. A clinical application of the described surfaces, with a 5 years follow-up, is reported in the paper, as an example of the effectiveness of the proposed treatment.

  2. Discrimination of Combined Motions for Prosthetic Hands Using Surface EMG Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibe, Ayuko; Gouko, Manabu; Ito, Koji

    The present paper proposes a multiple step discrimination method to determine single and combined movements intended by an amputee from surface electromyogram (EMG) signals. Most previous approaches to the discrimination of movement using EMG signals have been restricted to single joint movements. Our approach enables the amputee's intended movement to be determined from among four single and two combined limb functions using an initial rise zone 125 msec long. Experiments with ten subjects and four electrodes demonstrated that our proposal determines six forearm movements at a discrimination rate exceeding than 90%.

  3. Novel combination treatment of type 2 diabetes DPP-4 inhibition + metformin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrén, Bo

    2008-01-01

    Inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) as a novel therapy for type 2 diabetes is based on prevention of the inactivation process of bioactive peptides, the most important in the context of treatment of diabetes of which is glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Most clinical experience with DPP-4 inhibition is based on vildagliptin (GalvusR, Novartis) and sitagliptin (JanuviaR, Merck). These compounds improve glycemic control both in monotherapy and in combination with other oral hyperglycemic agents. Both have also been shown to efficiently improve glycemic control when added to ongoing metformin therapy in patients with inadequate glycemic control. Under that condition, they reduce HbA1C levels by 0.65%-1.1% (baseline HbA1C 7.2-8.7%) in studies up to 52 weeks of duration in combination versus continuous therapy with metformin alone. Sitagliptin has also been examined in initial combination therapy with metformin have; HbA1 was reduced by this combination by 2.1% (baseline HbA1C 8.8%) after 24 weeks of treatment. Both fasting and prandial glucose are reduced by DPP-4 inhibition in combination with metformin in association with improvement of insulin secretion and insulin resistance and increase in concentrations of active GLP-1. The combination of DPP-4 inhibition and metformin has been shown to be highly tolerable with very low risk of hypoglycemia. Hence, DPP-4 inhibition in combination with metformin is an efficient, safe and tolerable combination therapy for type 2 diabetes.

  4. Conformal Wasserstein Distance: Comparing disk and sphere-type surfaces in polynomial time II, computational aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Lipman, Yaron; Daubechies, Ingrid

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a companion paper to [Lipman and Daubechies 2011]. We provide numerical procedures and algorithms for computing the alignment of and distance between two disk type surfaces. We furthermore generalize the framework to support sphere-type surfaces, prove a result connecting this distance to geodesic distortion, and provide convergence analysis on the discrete approximation to the arising mass-transportation problems.

  5. Dynamic surface soil components of land and vegetation types in Kebbi State Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleiman Usman

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Land and vegetation are important components of soil and provides many benefits to surface soil including protection against erosion, climate change impact and unacceptable degradation of soil particles. Visual Soil Assessment was used as a mechanism to assess and classify the land and vegetation types of some agricultural sites in Kebbi State, Nigeria. The aim was to get better understanding of the environmental soil function for sustainable crop production in dryland and fadama areas of the State. The assessment was able to put together combinations of different vegetation types and land age classes. It is valued that the land age classes possessed the characteristics of Holocene-natural, Holocene-anthropogeomorphic, Holocene-young-natural, young-anthropogeomorphic, very-young anthropogeomorphic and very-young natural. However, the vegetation types could be related to evergreen forest, short medium forest (scattered clustered, dwarf vegetation (scattered isolated, grass vegetation, thick vegetation, stony-grass vegetation (scattered sparse and short-length vegetation. The assessment provides an improve understanding of the current status of land and vegetation conditions of the study area and suggested regular soil management for sustainable crop production in the State.

  6. [Acupuncture combined with moxibustion plaster for nerve-root type cervical spondylosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li-an; Zhang, Shu; Wang, Hajying; Tang Lixin

    2016-02-01

    To compare the clinical efficacy differences between acupuncture combined with moxi-bustion plaster and electroacupuncture (EA) for nerve-root type cervical spondylosis. A total of 60 casesof nerve-root type cervical spondylosis were randomly divided into a plaster group and an EA group, 30 cases ineach one. Patients in the plaster group were treated with regular acupuncture at Jiaji(EX-B 2) points and ashipoints, combined with moxibustion plaster at Gaohuang (BL 43); patients in the EA group were treated with EAat identical acupoints as plaster group. The treatment was given once a day, and 5 days were taken as one course;there was an interval of 2 days between courses and totally 2 courses were performed. The pain questionnaires andquantitative score of signs and symptoms were observed before and after treatment in the two groups. The clinicalefficacy of the two groups was compared. The total effective rate was 96. 7% (29/30) in the plastergroup, which was not significantly different from 93. 3% (28/30) in the EA group (P>0. 05). After treatment,PRI, VAS and PPI were all reduced in the two groups (all Pplaster groups (all Pplaster group (all Pplaster and EA both have superior clinical efficacy for nerve-root type cervical spondylosis; EA issuperior to acupuncture combined with moxibustion plaster on relieving pain, while acupuncture combined withmoxibustion plaster is superior to EA on improving life quality, muscle strength and feeling.

  7. Modeling of type-2 fuzzy cubic B-spline surface for flood data problem in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidin, Mohd Syafiq; Wahab, Abd. Fatah

    2017-08-01

    Malaysia possesses a low and sloping land areas which may cause flood. The flood phenomenon can be analyzed if the surface data of the study area can be modeled by geometric modeling. Type-2 fuzzy data for the flood data is defined using type-2 fuzzy set theory in order to solve the uncertainty of complex data. Then, cubic B-spline surface function is used to produce a smooth surface. Three main processes are carried out to find a solution to crisp type-2 fuzzy data which is fuzzification (α-cut operation), type-reduction and defuzzification. Upon conducting these processes, Type-2 Fuzzy Cubic B-Spline Surface Model is applied to visualize the surface data of the flood areas that are complex uncertainty.

  8. Clinical utility of fixed combinations of sitagliptin–metformin in treatment of type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Barnard

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Karen Barnard1,2, Mary Elizabeth Cox1, Jennifer B Green1,21Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, Metabolism and Nutrition, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA; 2Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Durham Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Durham, NC, USAAbstract: Adequate glycemic control in type 2 diabetes remains a difficult but achievable goal. The development of new classes of glucose-lowering medications, including in particular the incretin-based therapies, provides an opportunity to utilize combinations of medications which target multiple physiologic abnormalities in type 2 diabetes. Complementary combination therapy with sitagliptin–metformin lowers glucose via enhancement of insulin secretion, suppression of glucagon secretion, and insulin sensitization. Use of this combination in diabetes management will provide a greater degree of glycosylated hemoglobin-lowering than that seen with the use of either drug as monotherapy, is unlikely to cause significant hypoglycemia, and is generally associated with weight loss. The effectiveness, tolerability, and potential cost savings associated with the use of sitagliptin–metformin combination therapy make this an attractive option in diabetes management. The possible beneficial effects of this therapy on beta cell function, as well as its cardiovascular impact, remain inadequately explored but are of significant interest.Keywords: diabetes mellitus, sitagliptin, dipeptidyl peptidase-4, combination therapy

  9. Sitagliptin as combination therapy in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon A Miller

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Shannon A Miller1, Erin L St Onge2, J Roger Accardi31Pharmacotherapy Faculty, Florida Hospital East Family Practice Residency, Orlando, Florida, USA; 2University of Florida College of Pharmacy, Orlando Campus, Florida, USA; 3Accardi Clinical Pharmacy, Orange City, Florida, USAAbstract: The American Diabetes Association and The European Association for the Study of Diabetes recommend metformin as the initial agent of choice in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Unfortunately, most patients require multiple medications to obtain glycemic control. One of the newest additions to the antidiabetic armamentarium is the class of drugs known as dipeptidyl-peptidase IV (DPP-IV inhibitors. This novel approach focuses on harnessing the beneficial effects of GLP-1, an incretin hormone released from the gut postprandially. The first DPP-IV inhibitor approved in the United States was sitagliptin. It has been studied in both monotherapy and combination therapy. Combination studies with metformin realize a hemoglobin A1c reduction of 0.65%–1.1%. The combination of the two has a modest positive effect on body weight with the convenience of an oral route of administration. It has also been shown to be highly tolerable, efficacious and with little risk of hypoglycemia. This review will focus on combination therapy with sitagliptin with emphasis on combination with metformin. Keywords: DPP-IV inhibitor, sitagliptin, metformin, type 2 diabetes, incretins

  10. Wear mechanism of heavy load friction contact pairs in tracked vehicle by combined ferrography and surface analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Li; ZHU You-li; HUANG Yuan-lin; XU Bin-shi; LI Xiao-yan

    2004-01-01

    Ferrography is deemed as one of the most effective methods for wear particle analysis and failure diagnosis. By analyzing the configuration, content and composition of wear particles in the lubricanting grease and the surface state of the worn surface with combined ferrography and surface analysis techniques, the wear mechanism of the ball groove of the master clutch's release device of a heavy load tracked vehicle was determined. Results show that the controlling wear mechanism is combined of abrasion, adhesion, contact fatigue and corrosion wear, which demonstrates the effectiveness of using combined ferrography and worn surface analysis for the study of wear mechanism of contact surface with friction.

  11. Surface science in sub-seconds by a combination of grazing incidence geometry and QEXAFS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lützenkirchen-Hecht, D.; Stötzel, J.; Müller, O.; Frahm, R.

    2013-03-01

    The feasibility of time resolved in-situ investigations of surfaces and thin film growth phenomena was explored by combining quick-scanning X-ray absorption spectroscopy with the grazing incidence geometry. Using a dedicated monochromator and an X-ray reflectometer, a time resolution of about 50 ms for a single spectrum is feasible. In-situ investigations performed during the sputter deposition of thin copper films demonstrate the capabilities of this approach.

  12. Combination of surface nanocrystallization and co-rolling: Creating multilayer nanocrystalline composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waltz, L. [Institute Charles Delaunay, FRE CNRS 2848, LASMIS, University of Technology of Troyes, 10000 Troyes (France); Retraint, D. [Institute Charles Delaunay, FRE CNRS 2848, LASMIS, University of Technology of Troyes, 10000 Troyes (France)], E-mail: delphine.retraint@utt.fr; Roos, A. [Institute Charles Delaunay, FRE CNRS 2848, LASMIS, University of Technology of Troyes, 10000 Troyes (France); Olier, P. [DEN/DNM/SRMA/LTMEX, Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique de Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2009-01-15

    This paper describes a combination of surface mechanical attrition treatment and co-rolling performed at 550 deg. C. This duplex method leads to the formation of a semi-massive multilayer structure of alternating nanocrystalline layers, transition layers and coarse-grained layers. Transmission electron microscopy observations correlated with nanoindentation hardness measurements demonstrate that the nano- and subnanocrystalline layers are preserved after the process. Tensile tests showed improved yield and ultimate strengths, and acceptable ductility.

  13. The transient response for different types of erodable surface thermocouples using finite element analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Hussein

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The transient response of erodable surface thermocouples has been numerically assessed by using a two dimensional finite element analysis. Four types of base metal erodable surface thermocouples have been examined in this study, included type-K (alumel-chromel, type-E (chromel-constantan, type-T (copper-constantan, and type-J (iron-constantan with 50 mm thick- ness for each. The practical importance of these types of thermocouples is to be used in internal combustion engine studies and aerodynamics experiments. The step heat flux was applied at the surface of the thermocouple model. The heat flux from the measurements of the surface temperature can be commonly identified by assuming that the heat transfer within these devices is one-dimensional. The surface temperature histories at different positions along the thermocouple are presented. The normalized surface temperature histories at the center of the thermocouple for different types at different response time are also depicted. The thermocouple response to different heat flux variations were considered by using a square heat flux with 2 ms width, a sinusoidal surface heat flux variation width 10 ms period and repeated heat flux variation with 2 ms width. The present results demonstrate that the two dimensional transient heat conduction effects have a significant influence on the surface temperature history measurements made with these devices. It was observed that the surface temperature history and the transient response for thermocouple type-E are higher than that for other types due to the thermal properties of this thermocouple. It was concluded that the thermal properties of the surrounding material do have an impact, but the properties of the thermocouple and the insulation materials also make an important contribution to the net response.

  14. Combining nutation and surface gravity observations to estimate the Earth's core and inner core resonant frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Yann; Lambert, Sébastien; Rosat, Séverine; Nurul Huda, Ibnu; Bizouard, Christian

    2017-04-01

    Nutation time series derived from very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) and time varying surface gravity data recorded by superconducting gravimeters (SG) have long been used separately to assess the Earth's interior via the estimation of the free core and inner core resonance effects on nutation or tidal gravity. The results obtained from these two techniques have been shown recently to be consistent, making relevant the combination of VLBI and SG observables and the estimation of Earth's interior parameters in a single inversion. We present here the intermediate results of the ongoing project of combining nutation and surface gravity time series to improve estimates of the Earth's core and inner core resonant frequencies. We use VLBI nutation time series spanning 1984-2016 derived by the International VLBI Service for geodesy and astrometry (IVS) as the result of a combination of inputs from various IVS analysis centers, and surface gravity data from about 15 SG stations. We address here the resonance model used for describing the Earth's interior response to tidal excitation, the data preparation consisting of the error recalibration and amplitude fitting for nutation data, and processing of SG time-varying gravity to remove any gaps, spikes, steps and other disturbances, followed by the tidal analysis with the ETERNA 3.4 software package, the preliminary estimates of the resonant periods, and the correlations between parameters.

  15. Patient considerations in type 2 diabetes – role of combination dapagliflozin–metformin XR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuecker CM

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Catherine M Kuecker, Eva M Vivian Pharmacy Practice Division, School of Pharmacy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, USA Purpose: The purpose of this review article is to provide guidance to health care providers regarding the use of dapagliflozin–metformin XR (extended release as a therapeutic option for the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Methods: The PubMed database was searched through August 2015 to identify clinical trials and meta-analyses evaluating the use of the sodium–glucose cotransporter type 2 inhibitor dapagliflozin administered as monotherapy or in combination with metformin. Results: Fourteen studies were included for this review, six of which evaluated dapagliflozin in combination with metformin, one of which evaluated dapagliflozin monotherapy, and four of which evaluated dapagliflozin as an add-on therapy to other antidiabetic agents. The combination of dapagliflozin and metformin resulted in an A1C decrease of up to 2%, weight loss of 2–3 kg, and modest systolic blood pressure decrease of 3–5 mmHg. However, long-term effects on cancer and cardiovascular health are still being investigated. Providing patients with a fixed-dose combination therapy such as dapagliflozin-metformin XR can increase medication adherence and patient satisfaction, and improve glycemic control. Dapagliflozin–metformin XR is ideal because it can be administered orally once a day, is associated with a low risk of hypoglycemia, and provides the added benefit of weight reduction and modest blood pressure lowering. Conclusion: The unique combined mechanism of action and favorable efficacy and safety profile of dapagliflozin–metformin XR support consideration of this fixed-dose combination as a treatment option for patients with T2DM. Keywords: fixed-dose combination therapy, metformin, SGLT2 inhibitor

  16. Thermal shock behaviour of blisters on W surface during combined steady-state/pulsed plasma loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Y. Z.; Liu, W.; Xu, B.; Luo, G.-N.; Li, C.; Qu, S. L.; Morgan, T. W.; De Temmerman, G.

    2015-09-01

    The thermal shock behaviour of blister-covered W surfaces during combined steady-state/pulsed plasma loading was studied by scanning electron microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction. The W samples were first exposed to steady-state D plasma to induce blisters on the surface, and then the blistered surfaces were exposed to steady-state/pulsed plasma. Growth and cracking of blisters were observed after the exposure to the steady-state/pulsed plasma, while no obvious damage occurred on the surface area not covered with blisters. The results confirm that blisters induced by D plasma might represent weak spots on the W surface when exposed to transient heat load of ELMs. The cracks on blisters were different from the cracks due to the transient heat loads reported before, and they were assumed to be caused by stress and strain due to the gas expansion inside the blisters during the plasma pulses. Moreover, most of cracks were found to appear on the blisters formed on grains with surface orientation near [1 1 1].

  17. Arrangement of type IV collagen on NH₂ and COOH functionalized surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Nuno Miranda; González-García, Cristina; Salmerón-Sánchez, Manuel; Altankov, George

    2011-12-01

    Apart from the paradigm that cell-biomaterials interaction depends on the adsorption of soluble adhesive proteins we anticipate that upon distinct conditions also other, less soluble ECM proteins such as collagens, associate with the biomaterials interface with consequences for cellular response that might be of significant bioengineering interest. Using atomic force microscopy (AFM) we seek to follow the nanoscale behavior of adsorbed type IV collagen (Col IV)--a unique multifunctional matrix protein involved in the organization of basement membranes (BMs) including vascular ones. We have previously shown that substratum wettability significantly affects Col IV adsorption pattern, and in turn alters endothelial cells interaction. Here we introduce two new model surfaces based on self-assembled monolayers (SAMs), a positively charged -NH(2) , and negatively charged -COOH surface, to learn more about their particular effect on Col IV behavior. AFM studies revealed distinct pattern of Col IV assembly onto the two SAMs resembling different aspects of network-like structure or aggregates (suggesting altered protein conformation). Moreover, the amount of adsorbed FITC-labeled Col IV was quantified and showed about twice more protein on NH(2) substrata. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells attached less efficiently to Col IV adsorbed on negatively charged COOH surface judged by altered cell spreading, focal adhesions formation, and actin cytoskeleton development. Immunofluorescence studies also revealed better Col IV recognition by both α(1) and α(2) integrins on positively charged NH(2) substrata resulting in higher phosphorylated focal adhesion kinase recruitment in the focal adhesion complexes. On COOH surface, no integrin clustering was observed. Taken altogether these results, point to the possibility that combined NH(2) and Col IV functionalization may support endothelization of cardiovascular implants.

  18. Self-cleaning superhydrophobic surface based on titanium dioxide nanowires combined with polydimethylsiloxane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xia; Guo, Yonggang; Zhang, Zhijun; Zhang, Pingyu

    2013-11-01

    The present work describes a simple dipping process for the preparation of superhydrophobic coatings based on titanium dioxide nanowires combined with polydimethylsiloxane. The coating surface morphology, composition and wettability were investigated by scanning electron microscope, X-ray photoelectron spectroscope and contact angle measurements, respectively. Interestingly, the superhydrophobic coatings turn into a hydrophilic one after UV irradiation. It is found that the superhydrophobic surface shows almost complete wet self-cleaning of dirt particles with water droplets. Furthermore, the coating surface shows the anti-fouling performance for organic solvents, which can self-remove the organic solvents layer and recovers its superhydrophobic behavior. The advantage of the present approach is that the damaged coating can be easily repaired.

  19. Biomimetic superhydrophobic surfaces by combining mussel-inspired adhesion with lotus-inspired coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Chao-Hua; Ji, Xue-Qing; Zhang, Jing; Ma, Jian-Zhong; Jia, Shun-Tian

    2015-08-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces on PET textiles were fabricated by combined bioinspiration from the strong adhesion of marine mussels and the two-scale structure of lotus leaves under mild conditions. Dopamine can spontaneously polymerize in alkaline aqueous solution to form a thin adhesive layer of polydopamine (PDA) wrapping on the micro-scale fibers. The as-formed thin PDA layer worked as a reactive template to generate PDA nanoparticles decorated on the fiber surfaces, imparting the textiles with excellent UV-shielding properties as well as a hierarchical structure similar to the morphology of the lotus leaf. After further modification with perfluorodecyl trichlorosilane, the textiles turned superhydrophobic with a water contact angle higher than 150°. Due to the strong adhesion of PDA to a wide range of materials, the present strategy may be extendable to fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces on a variety of other substrates.

  20. Biomimetic superhydrophobic surfaces by combining mussel-inspired adhesion with lotus-inspired coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Chao-Hua; Ji, Xue-Qing; Zhang, Jing; Ma, Jian-Zhong; Jia, Shun-Tian

    2015-08-21

    Superhydrophobic surfaces on PET textiles were fabricated by combined bioinspiration from the strong adhesion of marine mussels and the two-scale structure of lotus leaves under mild conditions. Dopamine can spontaneously polymerize in alkaline aqueous solution to form a thin adhesive layer of polydopamine (PDA) wrapping on the micro-scale fibers. The as-formed thin PDA layer worked as a reactive template to generate PDA nanoparticles decorated on the fiber surfaces, imparting the textiles with excellent UV-shielding properties as well as a hierarchical structure similar to the morphology of the lotus leaf. After further modification with perfluorodecyl trichlorosilane, the textiles turned superhydrophobic with a water contact angle higher than 150°. Due to the strong adhesion of PDA to a wide range of materials, the present strategy may be extendable to fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces on a variety of other substrates.

  1. Towards a Combined Surface Temperature Dataset for the Arctic from the Along-Track Scanning Radiometers (ATSRs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Emma; Veal, Karen; Corlett, Gary; Ghent, Darren; Remedios, John

    2016-04-01

    Surface Temperature (ST) changes in the Polar Regions are predicted to be more rapid than either global averages or responses in lower latitudes. Observations increasingly confirm these findings in the Arctic. It is, therefore, particularly important to monitor Arctic climate change. Satellites are particularly relevant to observations of Polar latitudes as they are well-served by low-Earth orbiting satellites. Whilst clouds often cause problems for satellite observations of the surface, in situ observations are much sparser. The ATSRs are accurate infra-red satellite radiometers, designed explicitly for climate standard observations and particularly suited to ST observations. ATSR radiance observations have been used to retrieve sea and land ST for a series of three instruments over a period greater than twenty years. This series will be extended with the launch of SLSTR on Sentinel 3, which has the same key design features necessary for providing climate quality ST datasets. We have combined land, ocean and sea-ice ST retrievals from ATSR-2 and AATSR to produce a new ST dataset for the Arctic; the ATSR Arctic combined Surface Temperature (AAST) dataset. The method of cloud-clearing, use of auxiliary data for ice classification and the ST retrievals used for each surface-type will be described. We will establish the accuracy of sea-ice and land-ice retrievals with recent results from validation against in situ data. We will also discuss the results from the calculation and propagation of uncertainties in the AAST dataset. Time series of ST anomalies for each surface type will be presented. The time series for open ocean in the Arctic Polar Region shows a significant warming trend during the AATSR mission. Time series for land, land-ice and sea-ice show high variability as expected but also interesting patterns. Overall, our purpose is to present the state-of-the-art for ATSR observations of ST change in the Arctic and hence indicate confidence we can have in

  2. Combination of sapacitabine and HDAC inhibitors stimulates cell death in AML and other tumour types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, S R; Choudhary, A K; Fleming, I N

    2010-10-26

    Alternative treatments are needed for elderly patients with acute myeloid leukaemia, as the disease prognosis is poor and the current treatment is unsuitable for many patients. In this study, we investigated whether combining the nucleoside analogue sapacitabine with histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors could be an effective treatment. Synergy and mode-of-action analysis were studied in cultured cell lines and the efficacy of the combination was confirmed in a xenograft model. CNDAC (1-(2-C-cyano-2-deoxy-β-D-arabino-pentofuranosyl)-cytosine), the active component of sapacitabine, synergised with vorinostat in cell lines derived from a range of tumour types. Synergy was not dependent on a specific sequence of drug administration and was also observed when CNDAC was combined with an alternative HDAC inhibitor, valproate. Flow cytometry and western blot analysis confirmed that the combination induced a significant increase in apoptosis. Mode-of-action analysis detected changes in Bcl-xl, Mcl-1, Noxa, Bid and Bim, which are all regulators of the apoptotic process. The sapacitabine/vorinostat combination demonstrated significant benefit compared with the single-agent treatments in an MV4-11 xenograft, in the absence of any observed toxicity. Sapacitabine and HDAC inhibitors are an effective drug combination that is worthy of clinical exploration.

  3. Alogliptin in combination with metformin and pioglitazone for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Daniel Q; Neumiller, Joshua J

    2014-01-01

    Alogliptin is a selective dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor recently marketed for once-daily administration in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Fixed-dose combinations of alogliptin with both metformin and pioglitazone are also commercially available, providing a measure of convenience in addition to an effective mode of delivering combination therapy to improve glycemic control. Alogliptin has been studied clinically as initial therapy in treatment-naïve patients with T2DM and as initial therapy or add-on in combination with other antidiabetic agents. Clinical trial data with alogliptin demonstrate clinical efficacy in terms of glycosylated hemoglobin A1c and fasting plasma glucose reductions when used both as monotherapy and as a component of two- or three-drug combination regimens for the treatment of T2DM. Extensive Phase II and Phase III clinical trial data support the use of alogliptin in combination with metformin and pioglitazone. Glycemic reduction with both combinations is similar to the sum of the respective monotherapies, with adverse event rates similar - or more moderate - than those observed with up-titration of monotherapy or the addition of other antihyperglycemic agents.

  4. Estimating Sea Surface Salinity and Wind Using Combined Passive and Active L-Band Microwave Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yueh, Simon H.; Chaubell, Mario J.

    2012-01-01

    Several L-band microwave radiometer and radar missions have been, or will be, operating in space for land and ocean observations. These include the NASA Aquarius mission and the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission, both of which use combined passive/ active L-band instruments. Aquarius s passive/active L-band microwave sensor has been designed to map the salinity field at the surface of the ocean from space. SMAP s primary objectives are for soil moisture and freeze/thaw detection, but it will operate continuously over the ocean, and hence will have significant potential for ocean surface research. In this innovation, an algorithm has been developed to retrieve simultaneously ocean surface salinity and wind from combined passive/active L-band microwave observations of sea surfaces. The algorithm takes advantage of the differing response of brightness temperatures and radar backscatter to salinity, wind speed, and direction, thus minimizing the least squares error (LSE) measure, which signifies the difference between measurements and model functions of brightness temperatures and radar backscatter. The algorithm uses the conjugate gradient method to search for the local minima of the LSE. Three LSE measures with different measurement combinations have been tested. The first LSE measure uses passive microwave data only with retrieval errors reaching 1 to 2 psu (practical salinity units) for salinity, and 1 to 2 m/s for wind speed. The second LSE measure uses both passive and active microwave data for vertical and horizontal polarizations. The addition of active microwave data significantly improves the retrieval accuracy by about a factor of five. To mitigate the impact of Faraday rotation on satellite observations, the third LSE measure uses measurement combinations invariant under the Faraday rotation. For Aquarius, the expected RMS SSS (sea surface salinity) error will be less than about 0.2 psu for low winds, and increases to 0.3 psu at 25 m/s wind speed

  5. Combined endodontic therapy and surgery in the treatment of dens invaginatus Type 3: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Neto, Ulisses Xavier; Hirai, Vinício Hidemitsu Goto; Papalexiou, Vula; Gonçalves, Silvana Beltrami; Westphalen, Vânia Portela Ditzel; Bramante, Clovis Monteiro; Martins, Wilson Denis

    2005-12-01

    An accurate understanding of the morphology of the root canal system is a prerequisite for successful root canal treatment. Invaginated teeth have a complex root canal configuration that cannot be instrumented effectively and should be treated by both endodontic therapy and surgery. A case of dens invaginatus Type 3 in a maxillary lateral incisor with a periapical lesion and its successful treatment by these combined methods is reported.

  6. Combination of Linagliptin and Metformin for the Treatment of Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Haak

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a progressive condition requiring long-term treatment. Most patients with T2DM are unable to maintain normoglycemia using metformin alone; thus, combination therapy is a pivotal part of disease management. Addition of the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor linagliptin, with its proven efficacy, low propensity for hypoglycemia, and weight neutrality, has been shown to improve glycemic control for patients who are not well controlled with metformin. As patients ...

  7. Rationale supporting basal insulin-incretin combined therapies in type 2 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Scheen, André; Paquot, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is characterized by an insulin secretory defect that cannot compensate for insulin resistance. Such relative defect is present in the fasting state (insufficient basal insulin levels) and contributes to overnight hyperglycaemia; it is even more pronounced in the postprandial state when it is then the main responsible factor for hyperglycaemia following meals. An original approach to correct these two disturbances is to propose a therapy combining the injection of a basal insul...

  8. Treatment update: thiazolidinediones in combination with metformin for the treatment of type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M Stafford

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available John M Stafford1, Tom Elasy21Division of Diabetes Endocrinology and Metabolism, Vanderbilt University; 2Vanderbilt Eskind Diabetes Clinic, Vanderbilt University Medical CenterAbstract: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2 is characterized by excessive hepatic gluconeogenesis, increased insulin resistance and a progressive inability of pancreatic beta cells to produce sufficient insulin. DM2 evolves as a progression from normal glucose tolerance, to impaired glucose tolerance (IGT to frank diabetes mellitus, reflecting the establishment of insulin resistance and beta cell dysfunction. Insulin resistance not only contributes to impaired glycemic control in DM2, but to the development of hypertension, dyslipidemia and endothelial dysfunction. Cardiovascular disease is the primary morbidity for patients with DM2. The onset of insulin resistance and cardiovascular insult likely occurs well before the onset of IGT is detected clinically. Biguanides and thiazolidinediones (TZDs are two classes of oral agents for the management of DM2 that improve insulin resistance, and thus have potential cardiovascular benefits beyond glycemic control alone. Metformin additionally inhibits hepatic gluconeogenesis. The combined use of two of these agents targets key pathophysiologic defects in DM2. Single pill combinations of rosiglitazone/metformin and pioglitazone/metformin have recently been approved for use in the US and Europe. This article reviews the clinical data behind the use of metformin in combination with TZDs for the management of diabetes, its impact on vascular health, side effects and potential mechanisms of action for combined use.Keywords: thiazolidinediones; metformin; Type 2 diabetes

  9. Treatment update: thiazolidinediones in combination with metformin for the treatment of type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M Stafford

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available John M Stafford1, Tom Elasy21Division of Diabetes Endocrinology and Metabolism, Vanderbilt University; 2Vanderbilt Eskind Diabetes Clinic, Vanderbilt University Medical CenterAbstract: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2 is characterized by excessive hepatic gluconeogenesis, increased insulin resistance and a progressive inability of pancreatic beta cells to produce sufficient insulin. DM2 evolves as a progression from normal glucose tolerance, to impaired glucose tolerance (IGT to frank diabetes mellitus, reflecting the establishment of insulin resistance and beta cell dysfunction. Insulin resistance not only contributes to impaired glycemic control in DM2, but to the development of hypertension, dyslipidemia and endothelial dysfunction. Cardiovascular disease is the primary morbidity for patients with DM2. The onset of insulin resistance and cardiovascular insult likely occurs well before the onset of IGT is detected clinically. Biguanides and thiazolidinediones (TZDs are two classes of oral agents for the management of DM2 that improve insulin resistance, and thus have potential cardiovascular benefits beyond glycemic control alone. Metformin additionally inhibits hepatic gluconeogenesis. The combined use of two of these agents targets key pathophysiologic defects in DM2. Single pill combinations of rosiglitazone/metformin and pioglitazone/metformin have recently been approved for use in the US and Europe. This article reviews the clinical data behind the use of metformin in combination with TZDs for the management of diabetes, its impact on vascular health, side effects and potential mechanisms of action for combined use.Keywords: thiazolidinediones; metformin; Type 2 diabetes

  10. Isolated and combined Type II SLAP repairs in a military population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enad, Jerome G; Kurtz, Christopher A

    2007-11-01

    The study compares the clinical results of isolated arthroscopic repair of Type II SLAP tears with those of combined treatment for Type II SLAP and other associated shoulder conditions. The population was composed of 36 aged-matched active duty males with a mean age of 31.6 years (range 22-41 years); mean follow-up was 29.1 months (range 24-42 months). Eighteen subjects in Group I had isolated Type II SLAP tears. Eighteen subjects in Group II had Type II SLAP tear and concomitant ipsilateral shoulder conditions, including subacromial impingement in six patients, acromioclavicular arthrosis in three patients, subacromial impingement and acromioclavicular arthrosis in four patients, spinoglenoid cyst in four patients, and intra-articular loose bodies in one patient. Arthroscopic SLAP repair was performed with biodegradable suture anchors. Subacromial decompression and spinoglenoid cyst decompression were performed arthroscopically. Distal claviculectomy was performed in open fashion. Loose bodies were removed arthroscopically. At minimum 2-year follow-up, the mean UCLA score for Group I (30.2 +/- 3.0 points) was not significantly different from Group II (30.8 +/- 2.0 points) (P = 0.48). The mean post-operative ASES score for Group I (84.1 +/- 13.4 points) was significantly lower than for Group II (91.8 +/- 5.4 points) (P SLAP had comparable results with a cohort of Type II SLAP repairs treated in combination with other shoulder conditions, with the combined treatment group having significantly better results in two of three parameters measured. Return to duty rates were identical. Therefore, concurrent treatment of other associated extra-articular shoulder conditions improves the overall success of SLAP repair and the presence of these other conditions should be recognized and treated along with the SLAP tears in order to maximize clinical results.

  11. Combined MLST and AFLP typing of Bartonella henselae isolated from cats reveals new sequence types and suggests clonal evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mietze, A; Morick, D; Köhler, H; Harrus, S; Dehio, C; Nolte, I; Goethe, R

    2011-03-24

    Bartonella species are Gram-negative, fastidious bacteria. Bartonella henselae is found in cats and transmitted to humans via cat scratches or bites causing cat-scratch disease, characterized by clinical symptoms with varying severity. The prevalence of bartonellosis among humans in Germany appears to be high, and severe clinical cases have been described. However, epidemiological data of B. henselae in cats are rare. In this study we determined the detection rates of Bartonella ssp. in cats by culture and real-time PCR. Furthermore, B. henselae isolates were genetically characterized by highly discriminatory amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Bartonella spp. were isolated by culture from 11 (2.2%) of 507 blood samples. Out of 169 blood samples additionally analyzed by PCR, 28 (16.6%) were found positive for Bartonella spp., illustrating the advantage of PCR in Bartonella spp. detection. PCR-REA identified B. henselae in 27 cats and Bartonella clarridgeiae in one cat. B. henselae isolates from different geographical regions in Germany were genetically characterized by AFLP and MLST. Both methods confirmed genetic diversity of B. henselae on the strain level. MLST identified 11 new sequence types, all of them assigned to three clonal complexes as determined by eBURST. AFLP typing revealed genetic relation among the B. henselae isolates from the same geographical region. Combining AFLP typing and MLST/eBURST analyses revealed that B. henselae of the same AFLP subcluster belonged to the same clonal complex. Altogether these results indicate that B. henselae may evolve clonally.

  12. Flotation separation of polyvinyl chloride and polyethylene terephthalate plastics combined with surface modification for recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chongqing; Wang, Hui; Fu, Jiangang; Zhang, Lingling; Luo, Chengcheng; Liu, Younian

    2015-11-01

    Surface modification with potassium permanganate (KMnO4) solution was developed for separation of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) waste plastics. The floatability of PVC decreases with increasing of KMnO4 concentration, treatment time, temperature and stirring rate, while that of PET is unaffected. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) analysis confirms that mechanism of surface modification may be due to oxidization reactions occurred on PVC surface. The optimum conditions are KMnO4 concentration 1.25 mM/L, treatment time 50 min, temperature 60°C, stirring rate 300 r/min, frother concentration 17.5 g/L and flotation time 1 min. PVC and PET with different particle sizes were separated efficiently through two-stage flotation. Additionally, after ultrasonic assisted surface modification, separation of PVC and PET with different mass ratios was obtained efficiently through one-stage flotation. The purity and the recovery of the obtained products after flotation separation are up to 99.30% and 99.73%, respectively. A flotation process was designed for flotation separation of PVC and PET plastics combined with surface modification. This study provides technical insights into physical separation of plastic wastes for recycling industry.

  13. Anti-fouling surfaces by combined molecular self-assembly and surface-initiated ATRP for micropatterning active proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiu, K M; Cai, Q; Li, J S; Yang, X P; Yang, W T; Xu, F J

    2012-02-01

    A simple method by combined molecular self assembly and surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) was proposed to prepare a biologically inert surface for micropatterning active proteins. The MPEG microdomains having a short terminal poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) unit were prepared by self assembly of 2-(methyoxy(polyethylenoxy) propyl)trimethoxy silane (MPEG-silane). The remaining local regions or poly(poly(ethylene glycol)methyl ether methacrylate-co-glycidyl methacrylate) (P(PEGMEMA-co-GMA)) microdomains were produced via SI-ATRP of PEGMEMA and GMA comonomers. The epoxy groups of the P(PEGMEMA-co-GMA) microdomains were used directly for covalent coupling of an active protein (human immunoglobulin or IgG) via the ring-opening reaction to produce the IgG-coupled microdomains. The IgG-coupled microdomains interact only and specifically with target anti-IgG, while the other antifouling microregions from self-assembled monolayers with short terminal PEG units effectively prevent specific and non-specific protein fouling. When extended to other active biomolecules, microarrays for specific and non-specific analyte interactions with a high signal-to-noise ratio could be readily tailored.

  14. Combined arthroscopic repair of a type IV SLAP tear and Bankart lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Champ L; Romeo, Anthony A

    2009-09-01

    Lesions of the superior labrum can be a source of significant shoulder pain and disability. SLAP (superior labrum anterior-posterior) tears have been classified into many different types. A type IV SLAP tear is a bucket-handle tear of the superior labrum with extension into the biceps tendon. This relatively uncommon SLAP tear, if present, has been shown to be frequently associated with other pathology including Bankart lesions. We present an arthroscopic technique for combined repair of a type IV SLAP tear and Bankart lesion. Steps include initial reduction of the bucket-handle portion of the superior labral injury, repair of the anterior-inferior labral detachment, and, finally, repair of the superior labrum and biceps tendon split.

  15. [Correction of dyslipidemia in patients with chronic hepatitis C, combined with diabetes type 2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derbak, M; Boldizhar, P

    2014-01-01

    The article shows the results of treatment of 118 patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) which is associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). When planning therapeutic interventions in chronic hepatitis C in patients with diabetes, it is considered the presence of visceral obesit , dyslipidemia, and hepatic steatosis. The efficacy of different treatment regimens was studied. Found that the usage of ursodeoxycholic acid and ademetionin in HCV patients with diabetes type 2 receiving standard antiviral therapy (SAVT), significantly make a positive effect on the level of dyslipidemia. The normalization of lipid profile allows for a full course of SAVT, which reduces the frequency of relapse. It is also noted that the simultaneous use of ademetionin and ursodeoxycholic acid in treatment of chronic hepatitis C leads to a reduction of side effects of SAVT. Metabolic therapy may be recommended for patients with chronic hepatitis C in combination with type 2 diabetes in case of SAVT, and at its contraindications or intolerance.

  16. Superhydrophobic aluminium-based surfaces: Wetting and wear properties of different CVD-generated coating types

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thieme, M., E-mail: michael.thieme@tu-dresden.de [Technische Universität Dresden, Institute of Materials Science, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Streller, F., E-mail: streller@seas.upenn.edu [Technische Universität Dresden, Institute of Materials Science, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Simon, F., E-mail: frsimon@ipfdd.de [Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung Dresden, Postfach 120 411, 01005 Dresden (Germany); Frenzel, R., E-mail: frenzelr@ipfdd.de [Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung Dresden, Postfach 120 411, 01005 Dresden (Germany); White, A.J. [GVD Corporation, 45 Spinelli Place, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    In view of generating superhydrophobic aluminium-based surfaces, this work presents further results for the combination of anodic oxidation as the primary pretreatment method and chemical vapour deposition (CVD) variants for chemical modification producing coatings of 250–1000 nm thickness. In detail, CVD involved the utilisation of i – hexafluoropropylene oxide as precursor within the hot filament CVD process for the deposition of poly(tetrafluoroethylene) coatings at alternative conditions (PTFE-AC) and ii – 1,3,5-trivinyltrimethylcyclotrisiloxane for the deposition of polysiloxane coatings (PSi) by initiated CVD. The substrate material was Al Mg1 subjected to usual or intensified sulphuric acid anodisation pretreatments (SAAu, SAAi, respectively) affording various degrees of surface micro-roughness (SAAu < SAAi) to the oxidic layers. Performance characteristics were evaluated in the original as-coated states and after standardised artificial weathering and/or mild wear testing. Superhydrophobicity (SH) was observed with the system SAAi + PTFE-AC similarly to former findings with the standard hot filament CVD PTFE coating variant (SAAi + PTFE-SC). The results indicated that the specific coating morphology made an important contribution to the water-repellency, because even some of the SAAu-based samples tended to reveal SH. Subjecting samples to weathering treatment resulted in a general worsening of the wetting behaviour, primarily limited to the receding contact angles. These tendencies were correlated with the chemical composition of the sample surfaces as analysed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The wear tests showed, as evaluated by scanning electron microscopy and contact angle measurement, that the PTFE coatings were relatively sensitive to friction. This was connected with a dramatic deterioration of the water-repelling properties. PSi-coated surfaces generally showed rather poor water-repellency, but this coating type was surprisingly

  17. Sampling free energy surfaces as slices by combining umbrella sampling and metadynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Shalini; Kapil, Venkat; Nair, Nisanth N

    2016-06-15

    Metadynamics (MTD) is a very powerful technique to sample high-dimensional free energy landscapes, and due to its self-guiding property, the method has been successful in studying complex reactions and conformational changes. MTD sampling is based on filling the free energy basins by biasing potentials and thus for cases with flat, broad, and unbound free energy wells, the computational time to sample them becomes very large. To alleviate this problem, we combine the standard Umbrella Sampling (US) technique with MTD to sample orthogonal collective variables (CVs) in a simultaneous way. Within this scheme, we construct the equilibrium distribution of CVs from biased distributions obtained from independent MTD simulations with umbrella potentials. Reweighting is carried out by a procedure that combines US reweighting and Tiwary-Parrinello MTD reweighting within the Weighted Histogram Analysis Method (WHAM). The approach is ideal for a controlled sampling of a CV in a MTD simulation, making it computationally efficient in sampling flat, broad, and unbound free energy surfaces. This technique also allows for a distributed sampling of a high-dimensional free energy surface, further increasing the computational efficiency in sampling. We demonstrate the application of this technique in sampling high-dimensional surface for various chemical reactions using ab initio and QM/MM hybrid molecular dynamics simulations. Further, to carry out MTD bias reweighting for computing forward reaction barriers in ab initio or QM/MM simulations, we propose a computationally affordable approach that does not require recrossing trajectories. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. The combined effect of xylitol and fluoride in varnish on bovine teeth surface microhardness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vongsavan, Kadkao; Surarit, Rudee; Rirattanapong, Praphasri

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the combined effect of xylitol and fluoride in varnish on bovine tooth surface microhardness. Thirty caries-free bovine teeth were sectioned and embedded in self-cured acrylic resin and the buccal enamel surfaces were ground flat. Each tooth was then placed in demineralization solution for 40 hours. After demineralization, the teeth were randomly divided into 3 equal groups: group 1 was the control group (no treatment); group 2 was treated with fluoride varnish (Duraphat); group 3 was treated with a xylitol and fluoride varnish (Flor-Opal). All the specimens were then subjected to pH-cycling for 7 days, consisting of demineralization for 6 hours and remineralization for 18 hours repeated daily for five days followed by remineralization for 2 days. Surface microhardness was checked in each tooth at baseline, after demineralization and after pH-cycling. The results were recorded and the data were analyzed with the one-way ANOVA and Tukey tests. A p-value fluoride varnish and the fluoride with xylitol varnish were not significantly different from each other and showed significantly better remineralization than control group. The fluoride and xylitol varnish combination was beneficial for preventing enamel demineralization but no better than in fluoride varnish alone in vitro. Adding xylitol to fluoride tooth varnish does not appear to give any significant benefit in vitro.

  19. Compound 21 and Telmisartan combination mitigates type 2 diabetic nephropathy through amelioration of caspase mediated apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Anuradha; Gaikwad, Anil Bhanudas

    2017-06-10

    The current study aimed to understand the role of novel, highly selective, orally active, non-peptide Angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2R) agonist, Compound 21 and its potential additive effect with Telmisartan on apoptosis and underlying posttranslational modifications in a non-genetic murine model for type 2 diabetic nephropathy (T2DN). An experimental model for T2DN was developed by administering low dose Streptozotocin in high fat diet fed male Wistar rats, followed by their treatment with Telmisartan, C21 or their combination. Our results demonstrated that C21 and Telmisartan combination attenuated metabolic and renal dysfunction, renal morphological and micro-architectural aberrations and hemodynamic disturbances in type 2 diabetic rats. The anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory effects of Telmisartan were significantly accentuated by C21 indicated by expression of apoptotic markers (Parp1, Caspase 8, Caspase 7, cleaved PARP and cleaved Caspase 3) and NF-κB mediated inflammatory molecules like interleukin 6, tumour necrosis factor alpha; monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1. C21 was found to improve Telmisartan mediated reversal of histone H3 acetylation at lysine 14 and 27 and expression of histone acetyl transferase, p300/CBP-associated factor also known to regulate NF-κB activity and DNA damage response. C21 in combination with Telmisartan markedly mitigates caspase mediated apoptosis and NF-κB signalling in T2D kidney, which could be partially attributed to its influence on PCAF mediated histone H3 acetylation. Hence further research should be done to develop this combination to treat T2DN. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A novel typing method for Streptococcus pneumoniae using selected surface proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnau eDomenech

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The diverse pneumococcal diseases are associated with different pneumococcal lineages, or clonal complexes. Nevertheless, intra-clonal genomic variability, which influences pathogenicity, has been reported for surface virulence factors. These factors constitute the communication interface between the pathogen and its host and their corresponding genes are subjected to strong selective pressures affecting functionality and immunogenicity. First, the presence and allelic dispersion of 97 outer protein families were screened in 19 complete pneumococcal genomes. Seventeen families were deemed variable and were then examined in 216 draft genomes. This procedure allowed the generation of binary vectors with 17 positions and the classification of strains into surfotypes. They represent the outer protein subsets with the highest inter-strain discriminative power. A total of 116 non-redundant surfotypes were identified. Those sharing a critical number of common protein features were hierarchically clustered into 18 surfogroups. Most clonal complexes with comparable epidemiological characteristics belonged to the same or similar surfogroups. However, the very large CC156 clonal complex was dispersed over several surfogroups. In order to establish a relationship between surfogroup and pathogenicity, the surfotypes of 95 clinical isolates with different serogroup/serotype combinations were analysed. We found a significant correlation between surfogroup and type of pathogenic behaviour (primary invasive, opportunistic invasive and non-invasive. We conclude that the virulent behaviour of S. pneumoniae is related to the activity of collections of, rather than individual, surface virulence factors. Since surfotypes evolve faster than MLSTs and directly reflect virulence potential, this novel typing protocol is appropriate for the identification of emerging clones.

  1. Mapping impervious surface type and sub-pixel abundance using hyperion hyperspectral imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcone, J.A.; Gomez, R.

    2005-01-01

    Impervious surfaces have been identified as an important and quantifiable indicator of environmental degradation in urban settings. A number of research efforts have been directed at mapping impervious surface type using multispectral imagery. To date, however, no studies have compared equivalent techniques using multispectral and hyperspectral imagery to that end. In this study, data from NASA's 220-channel Hyperion instrument were used to: a) delineate three types of impervious surface, and b) map sub-pixel percent abundance for a study site near Washington, D.C., USA. The results were compared with the results of similar methods using same-spatial-resolution Landsat ETM+ data for mapping impervious surface type, and with the results of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Land Cover Data (NLCD) 2001 impervious surface data layer, which is derived from Landsat and high-resolution Ikonos data. The accuracy of discriminating impervious surface type using Hyperion data was assessed at 88% versus Landsat at 59%. The sub-pixel percent impervious map corresponded well with the NLCD 2001; impervious surface in the study area was calculated at 29.3% for NLCD 2001 and 28.4% for the Hyperion-derived layer. The results suggest that fairly simple techniques using hyperspectral data are effective for quantifying impervious surface type, and that high-spectral- resolution imagery may be a good alternative to high-spatial-resolution data.

  2. Surface flow types, near-bed hydraulics and the distribution of stream macroinvertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Reid

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Spatial variation in hydraulic conditions in streams often results in distinct water surface patterns, or surface flow types. Visual assessments of the distribution of surface flow types have been used to provide rapid assessment of the habitat heterogeneity. The efficacy of this approach is predicated on the notion that surface flow types consistently represent a distinct suite of hydraulic conditions with biological relevance. This study tested this notion, asking three specific questions. First, do surface flow types provide a characterisation of physical habitat that is relevant to macroinvertebrates? Second, how well do near-bed hydraulic conditions explain macroinvertebrate distributions? Third, what components of near-bed hydraulic conditions exert the strongest influence on macroinvertebrate distributions?

    Results show that hydraulic conditions (incorporating direct measurements of near-bed velocity and turbulence in three dimensions and substratum character (incorporating estimates of particle size distribution, and biofilm and macrophyte cover within each surface flow type were largely distinct and that macroinvertebrate assemblages differed across flow types in taxon richness and assemblage composition, thus supporting the notion that rapid assessments of surface flow type distributions provide biologically relevant information.

    Macroinvertebrate assemblages were most strongly correlated with water depth, size of a flow type patch, near-bed velocity in the downstream direction, turbulence in the transverse direction, % pebble, % sand, % silt and clay and macrophyte cover. This study suggests that surface flow type mapping provides an assessment of physical habitat that is relevant to macroinvertebrates. The strong relationship detected between macroinvertebrate assemblages and transverse turbulence also highlights the value of directly measuring near-bed hydraulics. Further investigations are required to test the

  3. Surface flow types, near-bed hydraulics and the distribution of stream macroinvertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Reid

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Spatial variation in hydraulic conditions in streams often results in distinct water surface patterns, or surface flow types. Visual assessments of the distribution of surface flow types have been used to provide rapid assessment of habitat heterogeneity. The efficacy of this approach is predicated on the notion that surface flow types consistently represent a distinct suite of hydraulic conditions with biological relevance. This study tested this notion, asking three specific questions. First, do surface flow types provide a characterisation of physical habitat that is relevant to macroinvertebrates? Second, how well do near-bed hydraulic conditions explain macroinvertebrate distributions? Third, what components of near-bed hydraulic conditions exert the strongest influence on macroinvertebrate distributions?

    Results show that hydraulic conditions (incorporating direct measurements of near-bed velocity and turbulence in three dimensions and substratum character (incorporating estimates of particle size distribution, and biofilm and macrophyte cover within each surface flow type were largely distinct and that macroinvertebrate assemblages differed across flow types in taxon richness and assemblage composition, thus supporting the notion that rapid assessments of surface flow type distributions provide biologically relevant information.

    Macroinvertebrate assemblages were most strongly correlated with water depth, size of a flow type patch, near-bed velocity in the downstream direction, turbulence in the transverse direction, % pebble, % sand, % silt and clay and macrophyte cover. This study suggests that surface flow type mapping provides an assessment of physical habitat that is relevant to macroinvertebrates. The strong relationship detected between macroinvertebrate assemblages and transverse turbulence also highlights the value of directly measuring near-bed hydraulics. Further investigations are required to test the

  4. Investigation of synthetic aperture methods in ultrasound surface imaging using elementary surface types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, W; Pierce, S G; Rowe, P

    2016-12-01

    Synthetic aperture imaging methods have been employed widely in recent research in non-destructive testing (NDT), but uptake has been more limited in medical ultrasound imaging. Typically offering superior focussing power over more traditional phased array methods, these techniques have been employed in NDT applications to locate and characterise small defects within large samples, but have rarely been used to image surfaces. A desire to ultimately employ ultrasonic surface imaging for bone surface geometry measurement prior to surgical intervention motivates this research, and results are presented for initial laboratory trials of a surface reconstruction technique based on global thresholding of ultrasonic 3D point cloud data. In this study, representative geometry artefacts were imaged in the laboratory using two synthetic aperture techniques; the Total Focusing Method (TFM) and the Synthetic Aperture Focusing Technique (SAFT) employing full and narrow synthetic apertures, respectively. Three high precision metallic samples of known geometries (cuboid, sphere and cylinder) which featured a range of elementary surface primitives were imaged using a 5MHz, 128 element 1D phased array employing both SAFT and TFM approaches. The array was manipulated around the samples using a precision robotic positioning system, allowing for repeatable ultrasound derived 3D surface point clouds to be created. A global thresholding technique was then developed that allowed the extraction of the surface profiles, and these were compared with the known geometry samples to provide a quantitative measure of error of 3D surface reconstruction. The mean errors achieved with optimised SAFT imaging for the cuboidal, spherical and cylindrical samples were 1.3mm, 2.9mm and 2.0mm respectively, while those for TFM imaging were 3.7mm, 3.0mm and 3.1mm, respectively. These results were contrary to expectations given the higher information content associated with the TFM images. However, it was

  5. Genetic adaptation of Streptococcus mutans during biofilm formation on different types of surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aharoni Reuven

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adhesion and successful colonization of bacteria onto solid surfaces play a key role in biofilm formation. The initial adhesion and the colonization of bacteria may differ between the various types of surfaces found in oral cavity. Therefore, it is conceivable that diverse biofilms are developed on those various surfaces. The aim of the study was to investigate the molecular modifications occurring during in vitro biofilm development of Streptococcus mutans UA159 on several different dental surfaces. Results Growth analysis of the immobilized bacterial populations generated on the different surfaces shows that the bacteria constructed a more confluent and thick biofilms on a hydroxyapatite surface compared to the other tested surfaces. Using DNA-microarray technology we identified the differentially expressed genes of S. mutans, reflecting the physiological state of biofilms formed on the different biomaterials tested. Eight selected genes were further analyzed by real time RT-PCR. To further determine the impact of the tested material surfaces on the physiology of the bacteria, we tested the secretion of AI-2 signal by S. mutans embedded on those biofilms. Comparative transcriptome analyses indicated on changes in the S. mutans genome in biofilms formed onto different types of surfaces and enabled us to identify genes most differentially expressed on those surfaces. In addition, the levels of autoinducer-2 in biofilms from the various tested surfaces were different. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that gene expression of S. mutans differs in biofilms formed on tested surfaces, which manifest the physiological state of bacteria influenced by the type of surface material they accumulate onto. Moreover, the stressful circumstances of adjustment to the surface may persist in the bacteria enhancing intercellular signaling and surface dependent biofilm formation.

  6. Factors for surgery indications in children with Chiari malformation Type I combined with scoliosis without syringomyelia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glagolev N.V.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Specification of indications for surgical treatment of Chiari malformations Type I (CMI in combination with scoliosis without syringomyelia. Material et Methods: The article describes the results of treatment of children with Chiari malformations Type I (CMI in combination with scoliosis without syringomyelia. The decompression surgery of the posterior fossa was made in 30 patients with CM I. All patients varied in the degrees of scoliosis. Results were evaluated including clinical and radiological survey, data of computer angiography and ultrasonic diagnostics of head and neck vessels in the preoperative and postoperative periods. The behavior of the angle of the spinal deformity in patients after decompression surgery of the posterior fossa was evaluated. Results: It has been found out that scoliosis convincingly regresses after this operation, if the angle of curvature of less than 30 degrees. Conclusion: The presence of vascular pathology at the level of the cranio-vertebral joints should be taken into account in the determination of indications for surgical treatment of patients with CMI in combination with scoliosis.

  7. Saliva analysis combining membrane protein purification with surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for nasopharyngeal cancer detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shangyuan; Lin, Duo; Lin, Juqiang; Huang, Zufang; Chen, Guannan; Li, Yongzeng; Huang, Shaohua; Zhao, Jianhua; Chen, Rong; Zeng, Haishan

    2014-02-01

    A method for saliva analysis combining membrane protein purification with silver nanoparticle-based surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) for non-invasive nasopharyngeal cancer detection was present in this paper. In this method, cellulose acetate membrane was used to obtain purified whole proteins from human saliva while removing other native saliva constituents and exogenous substances. The purified proteins were mixed with silver nanoparticle for SERS analysis. A diagnostic accuracy of 90.2% can be achieved by principal components analysis combined with linear discriminate analysis, for saliva samples obtained from patients with nasopharyngeal cancer (n = 62) and healthy volunteers (n = 30). This exploratory study demonstrated the potential for developing non-invasive, rapid saliva SERS analysis for nasopharyngeal cancer detection.

  8. Spontaneous hemarthrosis in combined Glanzmann thrombasthenia and type 2N von Willebrand disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontara, Elena; Gresele, Paolo; Cattini, Maria Grazia; Daidone, Viviana; Barbon, Giovanni; Girolami, Antonio; Zanon, Ezio; Casonato, Alessandra

    2014-06-01

    Glanzmann thrombasthenia is a rare autosomal recessive inherited bleeding disorder characterized by the lack of platelet aggregation, caused by deficiencies and/or abnormalities of platelet GPIIb-IIIa receptor. We report a case of Glanzmann thrombasthenia combined with type 2N von Willebrand disease (VWD), a variant characterized by an impaired capacity of FVIII to bind von Willebrand factor (VWF), which results in an autosomally transmitted reduction in circulating FVIII levels. Glanzmann thrombasthenia stems from compound T1214C and G1234A mutations in the ITGA2B gene; the type 2N VWD is due to a heterozygous G2561A mutation in the VWF gene (R854Q). The haemostatic phenotype of a 48-year-old female patient was unusually characterized by a severe chronic arthropathy with loss of cartilage and the presence of subchondrial cysts involving both ankles. The arthropathy was quantified with the compatible MRI scoring system (currently used to assess arthropathy in haemophilia), reaching almost the highest score. These haemorrhagic complications are very rare in Glanzmann thrombasthenia and resemble those seen in severe haemophilia; for such, a reason we decided to explore the patient's FVIII and VWF parameters. Our findings suggest that the type 2N R854Q mutation, which is normally asymptomatic at the heterozygous level, may be expressed in the presence of a combined impairment of primary haemostasis.

  9. Options for empagliflozin in combination therapy in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hershon KS

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Kenneth S Hershon1,2 1North Shore Diabetes and Endocrine Associates, New Hyde Park, 2Department of Medicine, Hofstra Northwell School of Medicine, Hempstead, NY, USA Objective: To update clinicians with an overview of empagliflozin for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, with focus on use in combination regimens. Methods: Keyword searches were conducted in the Medline database to identify literature reporting clinical trials of at least 12 weeks' duration using empagliflozin treatment in patients with T2DM. Results: When given as monotherapy or in combination therapy (as add-on or single-pill therapy with metformin, pioglitazone, sulfonylurea, linagliptin, and insulin, empagliflozin produced clinically meaningful reductions in glycated hemoglobin levels, plasma glucose concentrations, bodyweight, and blood pressure. These changes were sustained during long-term treatment. In a dedicated cardiovascular event trial, empagliflozin on top of standard of care demonstrated a significant reduction in the risk of cardiovascular mortality and all-cause mortality. Across the clinical trials, empagliflozin combination therapies were well tolerated, and empagliflozin used alone was not associated with increased risk of hypoglycemia versus placebo. Indeed, the combination of empagliflozin and metformin had a significantly reduced rate of hypoglycemia compared with the combination of metformin and a sulfonylurea. On the other hand, empagliflozin treatment did have increased risk of genital infections compared with placebo. In clinical trials to date, diabetic ketoacidosis was not seen more frequently with empagliflozin than with placebo, but physicians should be alert to the possibility of this rare event. Conclusion: Empagliflozin has the potential to make an important contribution to the treatment of patients with T2DM. In some patients, empagliflozin may be used as monotherapy, but it is most likely to be used in combination with other

  10. Sensitivity of surface air temperature change to land use/cover types in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG XuChao; ZHANG YiLi; LIU LinShan; ZHANG Wei; DING MingJun; WANG ZhaoFeng

    2009-01-01

    Using CRU high resolution grid observational temperature and ERA40 reanalysie surface air temperature data during 1960--1999, we investigated the sensitivity of surface air temperature change to land use/cover types in China by subtracting the reanalysis from the observed surface air temperature (observation minus reanalysis, OMR). The results show that there is a stable and systemic impact of land use/cover types on surface air temperature. The surface warming of each land use/cover type reacted differently to global warming. The OMR trends of unused land (≥0.17℃/decade), mainly comprised by sandy land, Gobi and bare rock gravel land, are obviously larger than those of the other land use/cover types. The OMR over grassland, farmland and construction land shows a moderate decadal a significant warming trend (0.06"C/decade). The overall assessment indicates that the surface warming is larger for areas that are barren and anthropogenically developed. The better the vegetation cover, the smaller the OMR warming trend. Responses of surface air temperature to land use/cover types with similar physical and chemical properties and biological processes have no significant difference. The surface air temperature would not react significantly until the intensity of land cover changes reach a certain degree. Within the same land use/cover type, areas in eastern China with intensive human activities exhibit larger warming trend. The results provide observational evidence for modeling research on the impact of land use/cover change on regional climate. Thus, projecting further surface climate of China in regional scale should not only take greenhouse gas increase into account, but also consider the impact of land use/cover types and land cover change.

  11. Sensitivity of surface air temperature change to land use/cover types in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Using CRU high resolution grid observational temperature and ERA40 reanalysis surface air temperature data during 1960-1999, we investigated the sensitivity of surface air temperature change to land use/cover types in China by subtracting the reanalysis from the observed surface air temperature (observation minus reanalysis, OMR). The results show that there is a stable and systemic impact of land use/cover types on surface air temperature. The surface warming of each land use/cover type reacted differently to global warming. The OMR trends of unused land (≥0.17℃/decade), mainly comprised by sandy land, Gobi and bare rock gravel land, are obviously larger than those of the other land use/cover types. The OMR over grassland, farmland and construction land shows a moderate decadal warming about 0.12℃ /decade, 0.10℃/decade, 0.12 ℃ /decade, respectively. Woodland areas do not show a significant warming trend (0.06 ℃ /decade). The overall assessment indicates that the surface warming is larger for areas that are barren and anthropogenically developed. The better the vegetation cover, the smaller the OMR warming trend. Responses of surface air temperature to land use/cover types with similar physical and chemical properties and biological processes have no significant difference. The surface air temperature would not react significantly until the intensity of land cover changes reach a certain degree. Within the same land use/cover type, areas in eastern China with intensive human activities exhibit larger warming trend. The results provide observational evidence for modeling research on the impact of land use/cover change on regional climate. Thus, projecting further surface climate of China in regional scale should not only take greenhouse gas increase into account, but also consider the impact of land use/cover types and land cover change.

  12. Pioglitazone and alogliptin combination therapy in type 2 diabetes: a pathophysiologically sound treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triplitt, Curtis; Cersosimo, Eugenio; DeFronzo, Ralph A

    2010-09-07

    Insulin resistance and islet (beta and alpha) cell dysfunction are major pathophysiologic abnormalities in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Pioglitazone is a potent insulin sensitizer, improves pancreatic beta cell function and has been shown in several outcome trials to lower the risk of atherosclerotic and cardiovascular events. Glucagon-like peptide-1 deficiency/resistance contributes to islet cell dysfunction by impairing insulin secretion and increasing glucagon secretion. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors improve pancreatic islet function by augmenting glucose-dependent insulin secretion and decreasing elevated plasma glucagon levels. Alogliptin is a new DPP-4 inhibitor that reduces glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)), is weight neutral, has an excellent safety profile, and can be used in combination with oral agents and insulin. Alogliptin has a low risk of hypoglycemia, and serious adverse events are uncommon. An alogliptin-pioglitazone combination is advantageous because it addresses both insulin resistance and islet dysfunction in T2DM. HbA(1c) reductions are significantly greater than with either monotherapy. This once-daily oral combination medication does not increase the risk of hypoglycemia, and tolerability and discontinuation rates do not differ significantly from either monotherapy. Importantly, measures of beta cell function and health are improved beyond that observed with either monotherapy, potentially improving durability of HbA(1c) reduction. The alogliptin-pioglitazone combination represents a pathophysiologically sound treatment of T2DM.

  13. Combination of Vildagliptin and Pioglitazone in Experimental Type 2 Diabetes in Male Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refaat, Rowaida; Sakr, Ahmed; Salama, Mona; El Sarha, Ashgan

    2016-09-01

    Preclinical Research The majority of studies on vildagliptin and pioglitazone have focused on their combination in glycemic control. The aim of the present study was to investigate their effects in combination on (i) hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress and inflammation and (ii) on organs involved in the pathophysiology of diabetes, pancreas, kidney and liver. Type 2 diabetes was induced using low-dose streptozotocin in male Wistar rats. Diabetic rats were treated for 4 weeks, with vildagliptin (10 mg/kg/day), pioglitazone (10 mg/kg/day) and their combination. Diabetic rats showed elevated fasting serum glucose, fasting serum insulin, serum transaminases together with a deleterious lipid profile and elevated serum creatinine and urea concentrations. Serum levels of the inflammatory markers tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and nitrite/nitrate were also elevated compared to normal rats. Oxidative stress was manifested by lowered hepatic reduced glutathione (GSH) and increased malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Pancreatic sections from diabetic rats showed degenerated islets with poorly maintained architecture that was prevented by drug treatment. Pioglitazone was generally more effective than vildagliptin in the studied parameters except for the lipid profile where the effect of both drugs was comparable and for the liver enzymes and renal parameters where vildagliptin was more effective. The combination of vildagliptin and pioglitazone produced superior effects than either drug alone. Drug Dev Res 77 : 251-257, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. A clinical report of Type III dens invaginatus: relevant aspects of a combined therapeutic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva E Souza, Patricia de Almeida Rodrigues; de Almeida, Bruno Vila Nova; Tartari, Talita; Alves, Ana Claudia Braga Amoras; Tuji, Farbicio Mesquita; Silva E Souza, Mario Honorato

    2013-01-01

    Dens invaginatus is a developmental abnormality that alters dental morphology; as a result, treating this condition is a challenge for endodontic practices. This article describes how a combination of nonsurgical and surgical therapies was utilized to treat a maxillary central incisor with Type III dens invaginatus and vital pulp. The treatment plan included using computed tomography (CT) for a detailed analysis of the dental anatomy and periapical area, endodontic and surgical procedures, and a 4-year follow-up period that included periodic clinical and radiographic examinations. The follow-up examinations revealed a regression of the apical lesion and no other signs or symptoms. Based on the present case report, the authors concluded that this combination of surgical and nonsurgical approaches was effective and that CT is a valuable auxiliary tool for the study of dental anatomy.

  15. Pioglitazone: a valuable component of combination therapy for type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanas, Nikolaos; Katsiki, Niki; Hatzitolios, Apostolos I; Maltezos, Efstratios

    2011-07-01

    Several classes of drugs have been developed to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Pioglitazone is now the only thiazolidinedione approved for the treatment of T2DM and can be administered in combination with metformin, sulfonylureas, exenatide, dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors or insulin. It improves glycemic control with an extremely low incidence of hypoglycemia. In addition to reducing insulin resistance, it may also improve pancreatic beta-cell secretory function. Moreover, it exhibits a variety of favorable pleiotropic effects. The latter include anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, vasoprotective, antihypertensive and hypolipidemic actions. Finally, this agent has been shown to improve experimental diabetic neuropathy and alleviate neuropathic pain, as well as decreasing urinary albumin excretion in patients with diabetes. Thus, pioglitazone emerges as a valuable hypoglycemic agent for combination therapy in T2DM. Importantly, however, patients should be appropriately selected, especially to avoid those with heart failure, in order to minimize adverse events attributable to water retention.

  16. Dust control equipment of UO type used in the suction or combined ventilation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frydel, W.; Steindor, M. [KOMAG, Gliwice (Poland). Mining Mechanization Centre

    2001-07-01

    Systems for dust control and ventilation of roadways, using suction or forced (combined) ventilation, are a combination of dust control installations of the UO type and the equipment for the ventilation of roadways. The electrical equipment, essential for supplying and controlling the installation as well as methane detectors, are incorporated. The system ensures safe and efficient dust control and ventilation of roadways and guarantees proper inter co-ordination of units, which form part of it. Satisfactory solutions for the system have been possible by the installation of efficient and safe dust control equipment and the use of special vortex ventubes, removing methane accumulated under the roof and operating under conditions of high dust concentration and methane explosion risk. The solutions described are used in all in Polish workings mine. Since their installation no dust or methane explosions have occurred. At the same time the incidence of pneumoconiosis cases has been reduced. 2 figs.

  17. Torque Characteristics Simulation on Small Scale Combined Type Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Fang; Li, Shengmao; Li, Yan; Xu, Dan

    The straight-bladed vertical axis wind turbine (SB-VAWT) receives more attentions recently for its goodness of simple design, low cost and good maintenance. However, its starting performance is poor. To increase its starting torque, Savonius rotor was combined on the SB-VAWT in this study because Savonius rotor has good starting torque coefficient. Based on the wind tunnel tests data, a small scaled combined type SB-VAWT (CSB-VAWT) which has 50W rated power output was designed. The starting torque coefficient, dynamic torque and power performance were analyzed. Both the starting and dynamic torque performance of the CSB-VAWT have been greatly improved according to the simulation results.

  18. Cardiovascular safety of combination therapies with incretin-based drugs and metformin compared with a combination of metformin and sulphonylurea in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, U. M.; Andersson, C.; Fosbøl, E. L.

    2014-01-01

    with metformin were safe compared with conventional combinations of glucose-lowering therapy. Use of incretin-based therapy may be target for strategies to lower CV risk in type 2 diabetes, although it should be recognized that the multivariable analysis may not have fully accounted for important baseline......AIM: Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) agonists are widely used in combinations with metformin in the treatment of type 2 diabetes; however, data on long-term safety compared with conventional combination therapies are limited. METHODS: Danish individuals...... differences....

  19. Fluoride adsorption on goethite in relation to different types of surface sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, T.; Riemsdijk, van W.H.

    2000-01-01

    Metal (hydr)oxides have different types of surface groups. Fluoride ions have been used as a probe to assess the number of surface sites. We have studied the F− adsorption on goethite by measuring the F− and H interaction and F− adsorption isotherms. Fluoride ions exchange against singly coordinated

  20. Combination therapy or monotherapy for the depressed type of schizoaffective disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubomira Izáková

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Lubomira Izáková1, Ivan Andre1, Angelos Halaris21Psychiatric Clinic, Faculty of Medicine Comenius University and Faculty Hospital, Bratislava, Slovakia; 2Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neurosciences, Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, IL, USAAbstract: Several studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of adjunctive antidepressant drug therapy to improve the depressive or negative symptoms of schizoaffective disorder, however, monotherapy with atypical antipsychotics may be advantageous. We compared the efficacy and safety of risperidone monotherapy versus combination therapy of haloperidol with sertaline for the acute treatment of schizoaffective disorder, depressed type. This is an open label study of 52 female inpatients randomly assigned to risperidone alone (N = 26 or haloperidol in combination with sertraline (N = 26 for 12 weeks. The mean daily doses of medications were: risperidone: 3.75–3.29 mg/day, haloperidol: 5.35–4.15 mg/day, sertraline: 65.39–133.82 mg/day. Efficacy was measured using clinical rating scales of treatment, safety, and tolerability. Risperidone patients showed statistically significant greater improvement than haloperidol-sertraline patients on efficacy measures including Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and Clinical Global Impressions rating. A higher number of risperidone patients dropped out of the study early. Fewer adverse events and lesser need for concomitant medications occurred in patients on risperidone. The risperidone group showed better psychological, social and occupational functioning (Global Assessment of Functioning and higher quality of life (Heinrich’s Quality of Life Scale. Risperidone has higher antipsychotic efficacy and tolerability compared with haloperidol-sertraline combination for the acute treatment of schizoaffective disorder, depressed type. Both treatments were comparable in terms of antidepressant efficacy.Keywords: schizoaffective disorder, depressed type

  1. Clinical utility in the treatment of type 2 diabetes with the saxagliptin/metformin fixed combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagoulias GS

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available George S Panagoulias,1 John Doupis2,3 11st Department of Propaedeutic and Internal Medicine, Athens University Medical School, Laiko General Hospital, Athens, Greece; 2Salamis Naval Hospital, Athens, Greece; 3Diabetes Division, Iatriko Paleou Falirou Medical Center, Athens, Greece Abstract: Fixed-dose combination (FDC products represent a widely accepted approach to type 2 diabetes treatment, given that monotherapies sometimes fail to meet the treatment targets – obtaining a sustained reduction in micro- and macrovascular complications. Saxagliptin (SAXA/metformin (MET FDC tablets can be used either alone or in combination with glyburide, thiazolidinediones, or insulin. It has been proven that the SAXA/MET combination leads to a significant improvement in glycemic control compared to placebo in patients with type 2 diabetes that is inadequately controlled with MET alone. In addition, this FDC has been proven to be safe for people with diabetes mellitus and established cardiovascular disease, elderly patients, and patients with impaired renal function (>30 mL/minute, with dosage modification. Patient compliance, adherence, and persistence to the therapeutic regimen has been shown to be very good, while the titration of each compound according to the patient's profile is easy, given the availability of different formulations. The SAXA/MET FDC is a patient-friendly, dosage-flexible, and hypoglycemia-safe regimen with very few adverse events and a neutral or even favorable effect on body weight. It achieves significant glycosylated hemoglobin A1c reduction helping the patient to achieve his/her individual glycemic goals. Keywords: DPP-4 inhibitors, saxagliptin, metformin, fixed-dose combination products, FDC products

  2. Clinical characteristics of combined cases of spinocerebellar ataxia types 6 and 31.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmori, Hiroyuki; Hara, Akio; Ishikawa, Kinya; Mizusawa, Hidehiro; Ando, Yukio

    2015-01-01

    This study reports the first family in which spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 (SCA6) and spinocerebellar ataxia type 31 (SCA31) mutations were seen. An index patient first presented to our hospital due to gait and speech disturbances. Subsequent clinical investigation of this patient and her family members revealed consistent pure cerebellar ataxia transmitted in an autosomal-dominant manner. Genetic examination unexpectedly demonstrated that two of the five affected individuals had expansions of SCA6 and SCA31, while two others had SCA31 alone and the remaining had SCA6. Clinical manifestations were more severe in individuals with combined mutations relative to those with single mutation, suggesting that the SCA6 and SCA31 mutations have a cumulative pathogenic effect.

  3. Combined sewer overflows to surface waters detected by the anthropogenic marker caffeine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buerge, Ignaz J; Poiger, Thomas; Müller, Markus D; Buser, Hans-Rudolf

    2006-07-01

    Continuous progress in wastewater treatment technology and the growing number of households connected to wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) have generally resulted in decreased environmental loading of many pollutants. Nonetheless, further reduction of pollutant inputs is required to improve the quality of surface waters in densely populated areas. In this context, the relative contribution of combined sewer overflows as sources of wastewater-derived contaminants has attracted more and more attention, but the quantitative importance of these overflows has barely been investigated. In this study, caffeine was successfully used as a chemical marker to estimate the fraction of sewer overflows in the catchment area of lake Greifensee, Switzerland. Caffeine is a ubiquitous compound in raw, domestic wastewater with typical per capita loads of approximately 16 mg person(-1) d(-1). In WWTPs of the Greifensee region, caffeine is largely eliminated (>99%), resulting in much smaller loads of combined sewer overflows were the most likely source of caffeine. Using a mass balance approach, it was possible to determine the fraction of wastewater (in dry weather equivalents) discharged untreated to the receiving streams (up to 10%, annual mean, approximately 2-3%). The concept of caffeine as a marker for combined sewer overflows was then applied to estimate phosphorus inputs to Greifensee with untreated and treated wastewater (approximately 1.5 and 2.0 t P y(-1), respectively), which corresponded well with P inputs determined in a separate study based on hydraulic considerations. For compounds with high elimination in WWTPs such as phosphorus (96-98% in the Greifensee area), inputs from combined sewer overflows are thus of similar magnitude as inputs from treated wastewater. The study demonstrated that caffeine is a suitable marker for untreated wastewater (from combined sewer overflows, direct discharges, etc.), but its sensitivity depends on regional conditions and decreases

  4. On the bioavailability of trace metals in surface sediments: a combined geochemical and biological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosa, Stéphanie; Prygiel, Emilie; Lesven, Ludovic; Wattiez, Ruddy; Gillan, David; Ferrari, Benoît J D; Criquet, Justine; Billon, Gabriel

    2016-06-01

    The bioavailability of metals was estimated in three river sediments (Sensée, Scarpe, and Deûle Rivers) impacted by different levels of Cu, Cd, Pb, and Zn (Northern France). For that, a combination of geochemistry and biological responses (bacteria and chironomids) was used. The results obtained illustrate the complexity of the notion of "bioavailability." Indeed, geochemical indexes suggested a low toxicity, even in surface sediments with high concentrations of total metals and a predicted severe effect levels for the organisms. This was also suggested by the abundance of total bacteria as determined by DAPI counts, with high bacterial cell numbers even in contaminated areas. However, a fraction of metals may be bioavailable as it was shown for chironomid larvae which were able to accumulate an important quantity of metals in surface sediments within just a few days.We concluded that (1) the best approach to estimate bioavailability in the selected sediments is a combination of geochemical and biological approaches and that (2) the sediments in the Deûle and Scarpe Rivers are highly contaminated and may impact bacterial populations but also benthic invertebrates.

  5. Improvement of Surface Wettability and Hydrophilization of Poly-paraphenylene benzobisoxazole Fiber with Fibrillation Combined Oxygen Plasma Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Xiwen Wang; Jian Hu,; Yun Liang

    2012-01-01

    A new surface modification method fibrillation combined with oxygen plasma treatment to improve the wettability and hydrophily of PBO fiber was studied in this paper. The surface chemical structure and morphology of PBO fiber were characterized by the methods of FTIR, XPS and SEM. The wettability and hydrophlic characters changes on the surface were evaluated by the dynamic contact angle system and image analysis. The results show that the increase surface roughness by fibrillation could impr...

  6. Renoprotective effects of a combined endothelin type A/type B receptor antagonist in experimental malignant hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohno, M; Yokokawa, K; Yasunari, K; Kano, H; Minami, M; Ueda, M; Tatsumi, Y; Yoshikawa, J

    1997-09-01

    We previously showed that plasma endothelin-1 (ET-1) concentration was increased in deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt-induced malignant hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). In contrast, in normal SHR, this value is similar to that seen in Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the new combined ET type A/type B (ETA/B) receptor antagonist, TAK-044, on the development of hypertension in this model of malignant hypertension. TAK-044 10 mg/kg, which effectively blocks both ETA and ETB receptors, was administered intraperitoneally once per day for 4 weeks in DOCA-salt SHR, and the effects on ET-1 and other parameters were compared with the same values in untreated WKY rats, untreated DOCA-salt SHR, and hydralazine-treated DOCA-salt SHR. DOCA-salt caused marked increases in blood pressure, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine, and plasma ET-1 concentrations in SHR. Both TAK-044 and hydralazine significantly suppressed the increase in blood pressure in DOCA-salt SHR to the same extent. Both treatments also suppressed the increase in BUN and serum creatinine, but this attenuation was less marked with hydralazine than with TAK-044. Neither TAK-044 nor hydralazine affected plasma ET-1 concentration in this model. TAK-044 significantly reduced kidney weight in DOCA-salt SHR, whereas the decrease seen with hydralazine was less marked. Prevention of DOCA-salt-induced renal structural injury (mesangial hypercellularity, glomerular sclerotic changes, and tubulointerstitial damage) in this model was clearly greater with TAK-044 treatment than with hydralazine treatment. These results suggest that endogenous ET-1 may, at least in part, contribute to renal functional and structural damage in malignant DOCA-salt SHR. Our results raise the possibility of renoprotective effects of ETA/B receptor blockers in certain forms of malignant hypertension.

  7. A Type A and Type D Combined Personality Typology in Essential Hypertension and Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients: Associations with Demographic, Psychological, Clinical, and Lifestyle Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steca, Patrizia; D'Addario, Marco; Magrin, Maria Elena; Miglioretti, Massimo; Monzani, Dario; Pancani, Luca; Sarini, Marcello; Scrignaro, Marta; Vecchio, Luca; Fattirolli, Francesco; Giannattasio, Cristina; Cesana, Francesca; Riccobono, Salvatore Pio; Greco, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have focused on Type A and Type D personality types in the context of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), but nothing is known about how these personality types combine to create new profiles. The present study aimed to develop a typology of Type A and Type D personality in two groups of patients affected by and at risk for coronary disease. The study involved 711 patients: 51.6% with acute coronary syndrome, 48.4% with essential hypertension (mean age = 56.4 years; SD = 9.7 years; 70.7% men). Cluster analysis was applied. External variables, such as socio-demographic, psychological, lifestyle, and clinical parameters, were assessed. Six groups, each with its own unique combined personality profile scores, were identified: Type D, Type A-Negatively Affected, Not Type A-Negatively Affected, Socially Inhibited-Positively Affected, Not Socially Inhibited, and Not Type A-Not Type D. The Type A-Negatively Affected cluster and, to a lesser extent, the Type D cluster, displayed the worst profile: namely higher total cardiovascular risk index, physical inactivity, higher anxiety and depression, and lower self-esteem, optimism, and health status. Identifying combined personality profiles is important in clinical research and practice in cardiovascular diseases. Practical implications are discussed.

  8. The outer disks of early-type galaxies. I. Surface-brightness profiles of barred galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erwin, Peter; Pohlen, Michael; Beckman, John E.

    2008-01-01

    We present a study of 66 barred, early-type (S0-Sb) disk galaxies, focused on the disk surface brightness profile outside the bar region, with the aim of throwing light on the nature of Freeman type I and II profiles, their origins, and their possible relation to disk truncations. This paper discuss

  9. The outer disks of early-type galaxies. I. Surface-brightness profiles of barred galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erwin, Peter; Pohlen, Michael; Beckman, John E.

    We present a study of 66 barred, early-type (S0-Sb) disk galaxies, focused on the disk surface brightness profile outside the bar region, with the aim of throwing light on the nature of Freeman type I and II profiles, their origins, and their possible relation to disk truncations. This paper

  10. Additively manufactured metallic porous biomaterials based on minimal surfaces: A unique combination of topological, mechanical, and mass transport properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbert, F S L; Lietaert, K; Eftekhari, A A; Pouran, B; Ahmadi, S M; Weinans, H; Zadpoor, A A

    2017-04-15

    Porous biomaterials that simultaneously mimic the topological, mechanical, and mass transport properties of bone are in great demand but are rarely found in the literature. In this study, we rationally designed and additively manufactured (AM) porous metallic biomaterials based on four different types of triply periodic minimal surfaces (TPMS) that mimic the properties of bone to an unprecedented level of multi-physics detail. Sixteen different types of porous biomaterials were rationally designed and fabricated using selective laser melting (SLM) from a titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V). The topology, quasi-static mechanical properties, fatigue resistance, and permeability of the developed biomaterials were then characterized. In terms of topology, the biomaterials resembled the morphological properties of trabecular bone including mean surface curvatures close to zero. The biomaterials showed a favorable but rare combination of relatively low elastic properties in the range of those observed for trabecular bone and high yield strengths exceeding those reported for cortical bone. This combination allows for simultaneously avoiding stress shielding, while providing ample mechanical support for bone tissue regeneration and osseointegration. Furthermore, as opposed to other AM porous biomaterials developed to date for which the fatigue endurance limit has been found to be ≈20% of their yield (or plateau) stress, some of the biomaterials developed in the current study show extremely high fatigue resistance with endurance limits up to 60% of their yield stress. It was also found that the permeability values measured for the developed biomaterials were in the range of values reported for trabecular bone. In summary, the developed porous metallic biomaterials based on TPMS mimic the topological, mechanical, and physical properties of trabecular bone to a great degree. These properties make them potential candidates to be applied as parts of orthopedic implants and/or as bone

  11. Kiwi fruit (Actinidia chinensis) quality determination based on surface acoustic wave resonator combined with electronic nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Liu; Guohua, Hui

    2015-01-01

    In this study, electronic nose (EN) combined with a 433 MHz surface acoustic wave resonator (SAWR) was used to determine Kiwi fruit quality under 12-day storage. EN responses to Kiwi samples were measured and analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA) and stochastic resonance (SR) methods. SAWR frequency eigen values were also measured to predict freshness. Kiwi fruit sample's weight loss index and human sensory evaluation were examined to characteristic its quality and freshness. Kiwi fruit's quality predictive models based on EN, SAWR, and EN combined with SAWR were developed, respectively. Weight loss and human sensory evaluation results demonstrated that Kiwi fruit's quality decline and overall acceptance decrease during the storage. Experiment result indicated that the PCA method could qualitatively discriminate all Kiwi fruit samples with different storage time. Both SR and SAWR frequency analysis methods could successfully discriminate samples with high regression coefficients (R = 0.98093 and R = 0.99014, respectively). The validation experiment results showed that the mixed predictive model developed using EN combined with SAWR present higher quality prediction accuracy than the model developed either by EN or by SAWR. This method exhibits some advantages including high accuracy, non-destructive, low cost, etc. It provides an effective way for fruit quality rapid analysis.

  12. Combined DFT and XPS investigation of iodine anions adsorption on the sulfur terminated (001) chalcopyrite surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kui; Zhao, Yaolin; Zhang, Peng; He, Chaohui; Deng, Jia; Ding, Shujiang; Shi, Weiqun

    2016-12-01

    The adsorption of iodine anions (iodide and iodate) on the sulfur terminated (001) chalcopyrite surface has been systematically investigated combining first-principles calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements. Based on the total energy calculations and geometric optimization, the thermodynamically preferred site was copper atom for iodide adsorption and iron atom for iodate adsorption, respectively. In the case of Cu site mode, the iodate underwent a dissociative adsorption, where one Isbnd O bond of iodate ion was broken and the dissociative oxygen atom adsorbed on the adjacent sulphur site. Projected density of states (PDOS) analysis further clarified the interaction mechanism between active sites of chalcopyrite surface and adsorbates. In addition, full-range XPS spectra qualitatively revealed the presence of iodine on chalcopyrite surface. High resolution XPS spectra of the I 3d peaks after adsorption verified the chemical environment of iodine. The binding energies of 618.8 eV and 623.5 eV for I 3d5/2 peaks unveiled that the adsorption of iodide and iodate ions on copper-iron sulfide minerals was the result of formation of low solubility metal iodides precipitate. Also two I 3d peaks with low intensity around 618 eV and 630 eV might be related to the inorganic reduction of iodate to iodide by reducing S2- ion of chalcopyrite.

  13. Combining a Spatial Model and Demand Forecasts to Map Future Surface Coal Mining in Appalachia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P Strager

    Full Text Available Predicting the locations of future surface coal mining in Appalachia is challenging for a number of reasons. Economic and regulatory factors impact the coal mining industry and forecasts of future coal production do not specifically predict changes in location of future coal production. With the potential environmental impacts from surface coal mining, prediction of the location of future activity would be valuable to decision makers. The goal of this study was to provide a method for predicting future surface coal mining extents under changing economic and regulatory forecasts through the year 2035. This was accomplished by integrating a spatial model with production demand forecasts to predict (1 km2 gridded cell size land cover change. Combining these two inputs was possible with a ratio which linked coal extraction quantities to a unit area extent. The result was a spatial distribution of probabilities allocated over forecasted demand for the Appalachian region including northern, central, southern, and eastern Illinois coal regions. The results can be used to better plan for land use alterations and potential cumulative impacts.

  14. Recognition and prediction of individual and combined muscular activation modes via surface EMG analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Graupe

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses how recognition of individual and combined muscular activation modes (functions and the prediction of intended such modes can be accomplished by identifying parameters of noninvasive surface EMG signals. It outlines the mathematical analysis of surface EMG signal to facilitate such recognition and related prediction, including recognition of intention (in terms of attempts to activate motor functions from the EMG, without accessing the CNS itself, in cases where a patient, say, a high-level amputee does not have the final-activation muscles and joints. The EMG activity thus allows to interpret and recognize CNS commands from minute variations in the parameters of surface EMG signals that record changes in the firing of motor neurons triggering contractions in related muscle fibers. We note that although in popular media this is sometimes referred to as detection of “thoughts”, no thoughts are detected, but only motor-outcomes of thoughts as found in the EMG signal. Examples of concrete cases where such recognition or prediction were accomplished in the author’s lab and in devices that came out of that lab, are given as are references to these in the literature over the last 35 years.

  15. Bionic design for surface optimization combining hydrophilic and negative charged biological macromolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Fen; Song, Haiming; Niu, Xiaoqin; Yang, Aimei; Nie, Shengqiang; Wang, Lingren; Li, Jie; Sun, Shudong; Zhao, Changsheng

    2014-06-01

    While polyethersulfone (PES) membrane represents a promising option for blood purification, the blood compatibility must be dramatically enhanced to meet today's ever-increasing demands for many emerging application. In this study, we report a bionic design for optimization and development of a modified PES membrane combining hydrophilic and negative charged biological macromolecules on its surface. The hydrophilic and ionic charged biological macromolecules sulfonated poly(styrene)-b-poly(methyl methacrylate)-b-poly-(styrene) (PSSMSS) and poly(vinyl pyrrolidone)-b-poly(methyl methacrylate)-b-poly-(vinyl pyrrolidone) were synthesized via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization and used together to modify PES membranes by blending method. A hydrophilic membrane surface with negative charged surface coating was obtained, imitating the hydrophilic and negatively charged structure feature of heparin. The modified PES membranes showed suppressed platelet adhesion, and a prolonged blood clotting time, and thereby improved blood compatibility. In addition, the blood clotting time of the modified membranes increased with the blended PSSMSS amounts increment, indicating that both the hydrophilic and negative charged groups play important roles in improving the blood compatibility of PES membranes.

  16. Capability of LEP-type surfaces to describe noncollinear reactions 2 - Polyatomic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Espinosa-Garcia, Joaquin

    2001-01-01

    In this second article of the series, the popular LEP-type surface for collinear reaction paths and a "bent" surface, which involves a saddle point geometry with a nonlinear central angle, were used to examine the capacity of LEP-type surfaces to describe the kinetics and dynamics of noncollinear reaction paths in polyatomic systems. Analyzing the geometries, vibrational frequencies, curvature along the reaction path (to estimate the tunneling effect and the reaction coordinate-bound modes coupling), and the variational transition- state theory thermal rate constants for the NH//3 + O(**3P) reaction, we found that the "collinear" LEP-type and the "bent" surfaces for this polyatomic system show similar behavior, thus allowing a considerable saving in time and computational effort. This agreement is especially encouraging for this polyatomic system because in the Cs symmetry the reaction proceeds via two electronic states of symmetries **3A prime and **3A double prime , which had to be independently calibrated....

  17. Developing Land Surface Type Map with Biome Classification Scheme Using Suomi NPP/JPSS VIIRS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Huang, Chengquan; Zhan, Xiwu; Jin, Huiran

    2016-08-01

    Accurate representation of actual terrestrial surface types at regional to global scales is an important element for a wide range of applications, such as land surface parameterization, modeling of biogeochemical cycles, and carbon cycle studies. In this study, in order to meet the requirement of the retrieval of global leaf area index (LAI) and fraction of photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by the vegetation (fPAR) and other studies, a global map generated from Suomi National Polar- orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) surface reflectance data in six major biome classes based on their canopy structures, which include: Grass/Cereal Crops, Shrubs, Broadleaf Crops, Savannas, Broadleaf Forests, and Needleleaf Forests, was created. The primary biome classes were converted from an International Geosphere-Biosphere Program (IGBP) legend global surface type data that was created in previous study, and the separation of two crop types are based on a secondary classification.

  18. Combined effects of surface conditions, boundary layer dynamics and chemistry on diurnal SOA evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. H. H. Janssen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We study the combined effects of land surface conditions, atmospheric boundary layer dynamics and chemistry on the diurnal evolution of biogenic secondary organic aerosol in the atmospheric boundary layer, using a model that contains the essentials of all these components. First, we evaluate the model for a case study in Hyytiälä, Finland, and find that it is able to satisfactorily reproduce the observed dynamics and gas-phase chemistry. We show that the exchange of organic aerosol between the free troposphere and the boundary layer (entrainment must be taken into account in order to explain the observed diurnal cycle in organic aerosol (OA concentration. An examination of the budgets of organic aerosol and terpene concentrations show that the former is dominated by entrainment, while the latter is mainly driven by emission and chemical transformation. We systematically investigate the role of the land surface, which governs both the surface energy balance partitioning and terpene emissions, and the large-scale atmospheric process of vertical subsidence. Entrainment is especially important for the dilution of organic aerosol concentrations under conditions of dry soils and low terpene emissions. Subsidence suppresses boundary layer growth while enhancing entrainment. Therefore, it influences the relationship between organic aerosol and terpene concentrations. Our findings indicate that the diurnal evolution of secondary organic aerosols (SOA in the boundary layer is the result of coupled effects of the land surface, dynamics of the atmospheric boundary layer, chemistry, and free troposphere conditions. This has potentially some consequences for the design of both field campaigns and large-scale modeling studies.

  19. A practical algorithm for estimating surface soil moisture using combined optical and thermal infrared data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Pei; Song, Xiaoning; Duan, Si-Bo; Li, Zhao-Liang

    2016-10-01

    Surface soil moisture (SSM) is a critical variable for understanding the energy and water exchange between the land and atmosphere. A multi-linear model was recently developed to determine SSM using ellipse variables, namely, the center horizontal coordinate (x0), center vertical coordinate (y0), semi-major axis (a) and rotation angle (θ), derived from the elliptical relationship between diurnal cycles of land surface temperature (LST) and net surface shortwave radiation (NSSR). However, the multi-linear model has a major disadvantage. The model coefficients are calculated based on simulated data produced by a land surface model simulation that requires sufficient meteorological measurements. This study aims to determine the model coefficients directly using limited meteorological parameters rather than via the complicated simulation process, decreasing the dependence of the model coefficients on meteorological measurements. With the simulated data, a practical algorithm was developed to estimate SSM based on combined optical and thermal infrared data. The results suggest that the proposed approach can be used to determine the coefficients associated with all ellipse variables based on historical meteorological records, whereas the constant term varies daily and can only be determined using the daily maximum solar radiation in a prediction model. Simulated results from three FLUXNET sites over 30 cloud-free days revealed an average root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.042 m3/m3 when historical meteorological records were used to synchronously determine the model coefficients. In addition, estimated SSM values exhibited generally moderate accuracies (coefficient of determination R2 = 0.395, RMSE = 0.061 m3/m3) compared to SSM measurements at the Yucheng Comprehensive Experimental Station.

  20. Assessing irrigated agriculture's surface water and groundwater consumption by combining satellite remote sensing and hydrologic modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Arancibia, Jorge L; Mainuddin, Mohammed; Kirby, John M; Chiew, Francis H S; McVicar, Tim R; Vaze, Jai

    2016-01-15

    Globally, irrigation accounts for more than two thirds of freshwater demand. Recent regional and global assessments indicate that groundwater extraction (GWE) for irrigation has increased more rapidly than surface water extraction (SWE), potentially resulting in groundwater depletion. Irrigated agriculture in semi-arid and arid regions is usually from a combination of stored surface water and groundwater. This paper assesses the usefulness of remotely-sensed (RS) derived information on both irrigation dynamics and rates of actual evapotranspiration which are both input to a river-reach water balance model in order to quantify irrigation water use and water provenance (either surface water or groundwater). The assessment is implemented for the water-years 2004/05-2010/11 in five reaches of the Murray-Darling Basin (Australia); a heavily regulated basin with large irrigated areas and periodic droughts and floods. Irrigated area and water use are identified each water-year (from July to June) through a Random Forest model which uses RS vegetation phenology and actual evapotranspiration as predicting variables. Both irrigated areas and actual evapotranspiration from irrigated areas were compared against published estimates of irrigated areas and total water extraction (SWE+GWE).The river-reach model determines the irrigated area that can be serviced with stored surface water (SWE), and the remainder area (as determined by the Random Forest Model) is assumed to be supplemented by groundwater (GWE). Model results were evaluated against observed SWE and GWE. The modelled SWE generally captures the observed interannual patterns and to some extent the magnitudes, with Pearson's correlation coefficients >0.8 and normalised root-mean-square-errormodelling. The RS irrigated areas and actual evapotranspiration can be used to: (i) understand irrigation dynamics, (ii) constrain irrigation models in data scarce regions, as well as (iii) pinpointing areas that require better ground

  1. Estimation of reactive surface area using a combined method of laboratory analyses and digital image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jin; Kong, Xiang-Zhao; Saar, Martin O.

    2017-04-01

    Fluid-rock interactions play an important role in the engineering processes such as chemical stimulation of enhanced geothermal systems and carbon capture, utilization, and storage. However, these interactions highly depend on the accessible reactive surface area of the minerals that are generally poorly constrained for natural geologic samples. In particular, quantifying surface area of each reacting mineral within whole rock samples is challenging due to the heterogeneous distribution of minerals and pore space. In this study, detailed laboratory analyses were performed on sandstone samples from deep geothermal sites in Lithuania. We measure specific surface area of whole rock samples using a gas adsorption method (so-called B.E.T.) with N2 at a temperature of 77.3K. We also quantify their porosity and pore size distribution by a Helium gas pycnometer and a Hg porosimetry, respectively. Rock compositions are determined by a combination of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and quantitative scanning electron microscopy (SEM) - Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), which are later geometrically mapped on images of two-dimensional SEM- Backscattered electrons (BSE) with a resolution of 1.2 μm and three-dimensional micro-CT with a resolution of 10.3 μm to produce a digital mineral map for further constraining the accessibility of reactive minerals. Moreover, we attempt to link the whole rock porosity, pore size distribution, and B.E.T. specific surface area with the digital mineral maps. We anticipate these necessary analyses to provide in-depth understanding of fluid sample chemistry from later hydrothermal reactive flow-through experiments on whole rock samples at elevated pressure and temperature.

  2. Identification of Type 2 Diabetes-associated combination of SNPs using Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Keun-Joon

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D, a metabolic disorder characterized by insulin resistance and relative insulin deficiency, is a complex disease of major public health importance. Its incidence is rapidly increasing in the developed countries. Complex diseases are caused by interactions between multiple genes and environmental factors. Most association studies aim to identify individual susceptibility single markers using a simple disease model. Recent studies are trying to estimate the effects of multiple genes and multi-locus in genome-wide association. However, estimating the effects of association is very difficult. We aim to assess the rules for classifying diseased and normal subjects by evaluating potential gene-gene interactions in the same or distinct biological pathways. Results We analyzed the importance of gene-gene interactions in T2D susceptibility by investigating 408 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in 87 genes involved in major T2D-related pathways in 462 T2D patients and 456 healthy controls from the Korean cohort studies. We evaluated the support vector machine (SVM method to differentiate between cases and controls using SNP information in a 10-fold cross-validation test. We achieved a 65.3% prediction rate with a combination of 14 SNPs in 12 genes by using the radial basis function (RBF-kernel SVM. Similarly, we investigated subpopulation data sets of men and women and identified different SNP combinations with the prediction rates of 70.9% and 70.6%, respectively. As the high-throughput technology for genome-wide SNPs improves, it is likely that a much higher prediction rate with biologically more interesting combination of SNPs can be acquired by using this method. Conclusions Support Vector Machine based feature selection method in this research found novel association between combinations of SNPs and T2D in a Korean population.

  3. Combination of volume and perfusion parameters reveals different types of grey matter changes in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lixue; Qin, Wen; Zhuo, Chuanjun; Liu, Huaigui; Zhu, Jiajia; Yu, Chunshui

    2017-03-27

    Diverse brain structural and functional changes have been reported in schizophrenia. Identifying different types of brain changes may help to understand the neural mechanisms and to develop reliable biomarkers in schizophrenia. We aimed to categorize different grey matter changes in schizophrenia based on grey matter volume (GMV) and cerebral blood flow (CBF). Structural and perfusion magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired in 100 schizophrenia patients and 95 healthy comparison subjects. Voxel-based GMV comparison was used to show structural changes, CBF analysis was used to demonstrate functional changes. We identified three types of grey matter changes in schizophrenia: structural and functional impairments in the anterior cingulate cortex and insular cortex, displaying reduction in both GMV and CBF; structural impairment with preserved function in the frontal and temporal cortices, demonstrating decreased GMV with normal CBF; pure functional abnormality in the anterior cingulate cortex and lateral prefrontal cortex and putamen, showing altered CBF with normal GMV. By combination of GMV and CBF, we identified three types of grey matter changes in schizophrenia. These findings may help to understand the complex manifestations and to develop reliable biomarkers in schizophrenia.

  4. Surface water quality assessment by the use of combination of multivariate statistical classification and expert information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobiszewski, M; Tsakovski, S; Simeonov, V; Namieśnik, J

    2010-08-01

    The present study deals with the assessment of surface water quality from an industrial-urban region located in northern Poland near to the city of Gdansk. Concentrations of thirteen chemicals including total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), halogenated volatile organic compounds (HVOCs) and major ions in the samples collected at five sampling points during six campaigns were used as variables throughout the study. The originality in the monitoring data treatment and interpretation was the combination of a traditional classification approach (self-organizing maps of Kohonen) with PAH diagnostic ratios expertise to achieve a reliable pollution source identification. Thus, sampling points affected by pollution from traffic (petroleum combustion products), from crude oil processing (petroleum release related compounds), and from phosphogypsum disposal site were properly discriminated. Additionally, it is shown that this original assessment approach can be useful in finding specific pollution source tracers.

  5. Combining information from common type 2 diabetes risk polymorphisms improves disease prediction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael N Weedon

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available A limited number of studies have assessed the risk of common diseases when combining information from several predisposing polymorphisms. In most cases, individual polymorphisms only moderately increase risk (approximately 20%, and they are thought to be unhelpful in assessing individuals' risk clinically. The value of analyzing multiple alleles simultaneously is not well studied. This is often because, for any given disease, very few common risk alleles have been confirmed.Three common variants (Lys23 of KCNJ11, Pro12 of PPARG, and the T allele at rs7903146 of TCF7L2 have been shown to predispose to type 2 diabetes mellitus across many large studies. Risk allele frequencies ranged from 0.30 to 0.88 in controls. To assess the combined effect of multiple susceptibility alleles, we genotyped these variants in a large case-control study (3,668 controls versus 2,409 cases. Individual allele odds ratios (ORs ranged from 1.14 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05 to 1.23 to 1.48 (95% CI, 1.36 to 1.60. We found no evidence of gene-gene interaction, and the risks of multiple alleles were consistent with a multiplicative model. Each additional risk allele increased the odds of type 2 diabetes by 1.28 (95% CI, 1.21 to 1.35 times. Participants with all six risk alleles had an OR of 5.71 (95% CI, 1.15 to 28.3 compared to those with no risk alleles. The 8.1% of participants that were double-homozygous for the risk alleles at TCF7L2 and Pro12Ala had an OR of 3.16 (95% CI, 2.22 to 4.50, compared to 4.3% with no TCF7L2 risk alleles and either no or one Glu23Lys or Pro12Ala risk alleles.Combining information from several known common risk polymorphisms allows the identification of population subgroups with markedly differing risks of developing type 2 diabetes compared to those obtained using single polymorphisms. This approach may have a role in future preventative measures for common, polygenic diseases.

  6. A method for increasing the surface area of perovskite-type oxides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Banerjee; V R Choudhary

    2000-10-01

    A method based on hydrothermal treatments is described for increasing the surface area of sintered ABO3-type perovskite oxides. Influence of hydrothermal treatments, such as water treatment at 125-300°C under autogeneous pressure and steam treatment at 350-800°C, to low surface area (or sintered) LaCoO3 and LaMnO3 perovskite oxides on their surface properties (viz. surface area, crystal size and morphology and surface La/(Co or Mn) ratio) and also catalytic activity in complete combustion of methane at different temperatures (450-600°C) has been thoroughly investigated. The hydrothermal treatments result in the activation of the perovskite oxides by increasing their surface area very markedly.

  7. Rational preparation of dibenzothiophene-imprinted polymers by surface imprinting technique combined with atom transfer radical polymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenming; Liu, Lukuan; Zhou, Zhiping; Liu, Hong; Xie, Binze; Xu, Wanzhen

    2013-10-01

    A computational simulation method is introduced to simulate the dibenzothiophene-monomer pre-assembly system of molecular imprinted polymers. The interaction type and intensity between dibenzothiophene and monomer are discussed from the binding energy and spatial position distribution. The simulation and analysis results indicate that the amount of the function monomer is not the more the better in preparing molecular imprinted polymers. Based on the above results, a novel dibenzothiophene-imprinted polymers with the favorable specific adsorption effect was prepared by surface imprinting technique combined with atom transfer radical polymerization. This combined technologies are used for preparing a desulfurization adsorbent for the first time. Various measures were selected to characterize the structure and morphology of the prepared adsorbent. The characterization results show that the adsorbent has suitable features for further adsorption process. A series of static adsorption experiments were conducted to analyze its adsorption performance. The adsorption process follows Elovich model by the kinetic analysis and Sips equation by the isothermal analysis. The approach we described will provide another opportunity in the deep desulfurization field.

  8. Effect of Basic Residue on the Kinetics of Peptide Fragmentation Examined Using Surface-Induced Dissociation Combined with Resonant Ejection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laskin, Julia

    2015-11-30

    In this work, resonant ejection coupled with surface-induced dissociation (SID) in a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer is used to examine fragmentation kinetics of two singly protonated hexapeptides, RYGGFL and KYGGFL, containing the basic arginine residue and less basic lysine residue at the N-terminus. The kinetics of individual reaction channels at different collision energies are probed by applying a short ejection pulse (1 ms) in resonance with the cyclotron frequency of a selected fragment ion and varying the delay time between ion-surface collision and resonant ejection while keeping total reaction delay time constant. Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus (RRKM) modeling of the experimental data provides accurate threshold energies and activation entropies of individual reaction channels. Substitution of arginine with less basic lysine has a pronounced effect on the observed fragmentation kinetics of several pathways, including the b2 ion formation, but has little or no effect on formation of the b5+H2O fragment ion. The combination of resonant ejection SID, time- and collision energy-resolved SID, and RRKM modeling of both types of experimental data provides a detailed mechanistic understanding of the primary dissociation pathways of complex gaseous ions.

  9. Optical tweezers and surface plasmon resonance combination system based on the high numerical aperture lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Xuchen; Zhang, Bei; Lan, Guoqiang; Wang, Yiqiao; Liu, Shugang

    2015-11-01

    Biology and medicine sample measurement takes an important role in the microscopic optical technology. Optical tweezer has the advantage of accurate capture and non-pollution of the sample. The SPR(surface plasmon resonance) sensor has so many advantages include high sensitivity, fast measurement, less consumption of sample and label-free detection of biological sample that the SPR sensing technique has been used for surface topography, analysis of biochemical and immune, drug screening and environmental monitoring. If they combine, they will play an important role in the biological, chemical and other subjects. The system we propose use the multi-axis cage system, by using the methods of reflection and transmiss ion to improve the space utilization. The SPR system and optical tweezer were builtup and combined in one system. The cage of multi-axis system gives full play to its accuracy, simplicity and flexibility. The size of the system is 20 * 15 * 40 cm3 and thus the sample can be replaced to switch between the optical tweezers system and the SPR system in the small space. It means that we get the refractive index of the sample and control the particle in the same system. In order to control the revolving stage, get the picture and achieve the data stored automatically, we write a LabVIEW procedure. Then according to the data from the back focal plane calculate the refractive index of the sample. By changing the slide we can trap the particle as optical tweezer, which makes us measurement and trap the sample at the same time.

  10. [CHARACTERISTICS OF COMBINED ANESTHESIA WITH EPIDURAL COMPONENTE DEPENDING ON VEGETATIVE NERVOUS SYSTEM TYPE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanov, F J; Aslanov, A A; Muradov, N F; Namazova, K N

    2016-01-01

    The research objective was to study the characteristics of combined anesthesia with epidural componente (CAEC) depending on vegetative nervous system type (VNS) in patients who underwent large scale traumatic surgical operations on abdominal cavity organs. The scientific research was conducted in Anaesthesiology--Reanimation Department of the Scientific Surgical Centre named after acad. MA. Topchubashev, the Ministry of Health of the Azerbaijan Republic. The research objects were 69 patients who underwent operations in conditions of CAEC due to different serious surgical pathologies of abdominal cavity organs. VNS type was identified based on electroencephalogram, Cerdo Vegetative Index (CVI), Hildebrandt coefficient (HC) and single neurophysiological tests. The patients were divided into three groups depending on VNS type: I--normotonics--17 patients (24.7%), II--sympathatonics--25 patients (36.2%), and III--vagotonics--27 patients (39.1%). Blood adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol concentration were studied in 3 stages: I -preoperative, II--operation traumatic stage, III--the 1st postoperative days. The other indicators (heart rate, systolic blood pressure--SBP, dyastolic blood pressure--DBR average blood pressure--BP ave., pulse oximetry SpO₂, ECG, gases in blood and acid-base balance, electrolytes, blood glucose level, myocardium oxygen demand--MOD) were registered after 20 minutes and the 2nd day after operation besides the above stages. The research results indicated that it is possible to define the vegetative nervous system type superiority based on complex of single tests data, EEG, ECG, Cerdo Vegetative Index, Hildebrandt coefficient. CAEC can be considered optimun alternative of general anesthesia ensuring neurohumoral and hemodynamic stability in large scale, traumatic operations on abdominal cavity organs. Clinical course of CAEC is characterized by firmer hemodynamic and humoral stability in patients with functional balance of

  11. Cadmium and lead interaction with diatom surfaces: A combined thermodynamic and kinetic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gélabert, A.; Pokrovsky, O. S.; Schott, J.; Boudou, A.; Feurtet-Mazel, A.

    2007-08-01

    This work is devoted to the physico-chemical study of cadmium and lead interaction with diatom-water interfaces for two marine planktonic ( Thalassiosira weissflogii, TW; Skeletonema costatum, SC) and two freshwater periphytic species ( Achnanthidium minutissimum, AMIN; Navicula minima, NMIN) by combining adsorption measurements with surface complexation modeling. Adsorption kinetics was studied as a function of pH and initial metal concentration in sodium nitrate solution and in culture media. Kinetic data were consistent with a two-step mechanism in which the loss of a water molecule from the inner coordination sphere of the metal is rate limiting. Reversible adsorption experiments, with 3 h of exposure to metal, were performed as a function of pH (2-9), metal concentration in solution (10 -9-10 -3 M), and ionic strength (10 -3-1.0 M). While the shape of pH-dependent adsorption edge is similar among all four diatom species, the constant-pH adsorption isotherm and maximal binding capacities differ. Measurements of electrophoretic mobilities ( μ) revealed negative surface potential for AMIN diatom, however, the absolute value of μ decreases with increase of [Pb 2+] aq suggesting the metal adsorption on negative surface sites. These observations allowed us to construct a surface complexation model (SCM) for cadmium and lead binding by diatom surfaces that postulates the Constant Capacitance of the electric double layer and considers Cd and Pb complexation with mainly carboxylic and, partially, silanol groups. In the full range of investigated Cd concentration, the SCM is able to describe the concentration of adsorbed metal as a function of [Cd 2+] aq without implying the presence of high affinity, low abundance sites, that are typically used to model the metal interactions with natural multi-component organic substances. At the same time, Cd fast initial reaction requires the presence of "highly reactive sites" those concentration represents only 2.5-3% of the

  12. Degradable polyester scaffolds with controlled surface chemistry combining minimal protein adsorption with specific bioactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grafahrend, Dirk; Heffels, Karl-Heinz; Beer, Meike V.; Gasteier, Peter; Möller, Martin; Boehm, Gabriele; Dalton, Paul D.; Groll, Jürgen

    2011-01-01

    Advanced biomaterials and scaffolds for tissue engineering place high demands on materials and exceed the passive biocompatibility requirements previously considered acceptable for biomedical implants. Together with degradability, the activation of specific cell-material interactions and a three-dimensional environment that mimics the extracellular matrix are core challenges and prerequisites for the organization of living cells to functional tissue. Moreover, although bioactive signalling combined with minimization of non-specific protein adsorption is an advanced modification technique for flat surfaces, it is usually not accomplished for three-dimensional fibrous scaffolds used in tissue engineering. Here, we present a one-step preparation of fully synthetic, bioactive and degradable extracellular matrix-mimetic scaffolds by electrospinning, using poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) as the matrix polymer. Addition of a functional, amphiphilic macromolecule based on star-shaped poly(ethylene oxide) transforms current biomedically used degradable polyesters into hydrophilic fibres, which causes the suppression of non-specific protein adsorption on the fibres’ surface. The subsequent covalent attachment of cell-adhesion-mediating peptides to the hydrophilic fibres promotes specific bioactivation and enables adhesion of cells through exclusive recognition of the immobilized binding motifs. This approach permits synthetic materials to directly control cell behaviour, for example, resembling the binding of cells to fibronectin immobilized on collagen fibres in the extracellular matrix of connective tissue.

  13. Compensation strategy for machining optical freeform surfaces by the combined on- and off-machine measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Zeng, Zhen; Liu, Xianlei; Fang, Fengzhou

    2015-09-21

    Freeform surface is promising to be the next generation optics, however it needs high form accuracy for excellent performance. The closed-loop of fabrication-measurement-compensation is necessary for the improvement of the form accuracy. It is difficult to do an off-machine measurement during the freeform machining because the remounting inaccuracy can result in significant form deviations. On the other side, on-machine measurement may hides the systematic errors of the machine because the measuring device is placed in situ on the machine. This study proposes a new compensation strategy based on the combination of on-machine and off-machine measurement. The freeform surface is measured in off-machine mode with nanometric accuracy, and the on-machine probe achieves accurate relative position between the workpiece and machine after remounting. The compensation cutting path is generated according to the calculated relative position and shape errors to avoid employing extra manual adjustment or highly accurate reference-feature fixture. Experimental results verified the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  14. Visuomotor perception in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder--combined type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raggio, D J

    1999-04-01

    Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder--Combined Type (ADHD-CT) defined by behavioral characteristics of inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity including weaknesses in fine motor coordination and poor motor inhibition frequently exhibit poor handwriting and penmanship. Performance of children on visuomotor tasks is further complicated, as most studies have not excluded children with specific learning disabilities who are known to do poorly on these tests. This study was designed to examine the performance of children diagnosed with this disorder, without learning disabilities on visuomotor tasks. 26 preadolescent patients were administered a battery of tests that included the Bender-Gestalt, Conners' Parent Rating Scale, Continuous Performance Task, and Wide Range Achievement Test-Third Edition Scores on the Bender-Gestalt test averaged significantly lower than Koppitz normative data. This study lends support to the hypothesis that ADHD-CT children without learning disabilities exhibit deficits on tasks requiring visuomotor perception.

  15. Mitochondrial dysfunction in calf muscles of patients with combined peripheral arterial disease and diabetes type 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard Pedersen, Brian; Bækgaard, Niels; Quistorff, Bjørn

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study elucidate the effects on muscle mitochondrial function in patients suffering from combined peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) and the relation to patient symptoms and treatment. METHODS: Near Infra Red Spectroscopy (NIRS) calf muscle exercise tests...... tested applying high resolution oxygraphy on isolated muscle fibers. RESULTS: The NIRS exercise tests showed evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction in the PAD+T2D group by a longer recovery of the deoxygenation resulting from exercise in spite of a higher exercise oxygenation level compared to the PAD...... were conducted on Forty subjects, 15 (PAD), 15 (PAD+T2D) and 10 healthy age matched controls (CTRL) recruited from the vascular outpatient clinic at Gentofte County Hospital, Denmark. Calf muscle biopsies (~ 80 mg) (Gastrocnemius and Anterior tibial muscles) were sampled and mitochondrial function...

  16. Efficacy of a typing scheme for Campylobacter based on the combination of true and questionable CRISPR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Cárdenas, Inés; Fernández-Garayzábal, José F; de la Cruz, María-Luisa; Domínguez, Lucas; Ugarte-Ruiz, María; Gómez-Barrero, Susana

    2015-12-01

    This study evaluates an improved scheme for Campylobacter genotyping based on the combination of true and questionable CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) elements. A total of 180 Campylobacter strains (Campylobacter jejuni n=93 and Campylobacter coli n=87), isolated from neck skin and caecal content of broilers, poultry meat and sewage water were analysed. Another 97 C. jejuni DNA samples from cases of human campylobacteriosis were assessed. Sixty-three genotypes were found in C. jejuni considering only true CRISPR, and 16 additional genotypes were identified when questionable CRISPR were also taken into account. Likewise in C. coli the number of genotypes increased from eight for only true CRISPR to 14 after including questionable CRISPR elements. The number of typeable C. jejuni and C. coli isolates was 115 (60.5%) and 17 (19.5%) respectively considering only true CRISPR. These percentages increased to 92.7% (n=176) and 39.1% (n=34) respectively when both true and questionable CRISPR were considered. 60.9% of the C. coli isolates were non-typeable by CRISPR due to the lack of any PCR amplifiable CRISPR loci, which raises questions about CRISPR analysis as an appropriate method for C. coli typing. However the assessment of true and questionable CRISPR has proved to be fairly useful for typing C. jejuni due to its high discriminatory power (Simpson's index=0.960) and typeability (92.7%) values. The results of the present work show that our genotyping method based on the combination of true and questionable CRISPR elements may be used as a suitable complementary tool to existing C. jejuni genotyping methods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Excitation and propagation of shear-horizontal-type surface and bulk acoustic waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, K Y; Yamaguchi, M

    2001-09-01

    This paper reviews the basic properties of shear-horizontal (SH)-type surface acoustic waves (SAWs) and bulk acoustic waves (BAWs). As one of the simplest cases, the structure supporting Bleustein-Gulyaev-Shimizu waves is considered, and their excitation and propagation are discussed from various view points. First, the formalism based on the complex integral theory is presented, where the surface is assumed to be covered with an infinitesimally thin metallic film, and it is shown how the excitation and propagation of SH-type waves are affected by the surface perturbation. Then, the analysis is extended to a periodic grating structure, and the behavior of SH-type SAWs under the grating structure is discussed. Finally, the origin of the leaky nature is explained.

  18. Comparing and Combining Remotely Sensed Land Surface Temperature Products for Improved Hydrological Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert M. Parinussa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Land surface temperature (LST is an important variable that provides a valuable connection between the energy and water budget and is strongly linked to land surface hydrology. Space-borne remote sensing provides a consistent means for regularly observing LST using thermal infrared (TIR and passive microwave observations each with unique strengths and weaknesses. The spatial resolution of TIR based LST observations is around 1 km, a major advantage when compared to passive microwave observations (around 10 km. However, a major advantage of passive microwaves is their cloud penetrating capability making them all-weather sensors whereas TIR observations are routinely masked under the presence of clouds and aerosols. In this study, a relatively simple combination approach that benefits from the cloud penetrating capacity of passive microwave sensors was proposed. In the first step, TIR and passive microwave LST products were compared over Australia for both anomalies and raw timeseries. A very high agreement was shown over the vast majority of the country with R2 typically ranging from 0.50 to 0.75 for the anomalies and from 0.80 to 1.00 for the raw timeseries. Then, the scalability of the passive microwave based LST product was examined and a pixel based merging approach through linear scaling was proposed. The individual and merged LST products were further compared against independent LST from the re-analysis model outputs. This comparison revealed that the TIR based LST product agrees best with the re-analysis data (R2 0.26 for anomalies and R2 0.76 for raw data, followed by the passive microwave LST product (R2 0.16 for anomalies and R2 0.66 for raw data and the combined LST product (R2 0.18 for anomalies and R2 0.62 for raw data. It should be noted that the drop in performance comes with an increased revisit frequency of approximately 20% compared to the revised frequency of the TIR alone. Additionally, this comparison against re

  19. COMBINED EFFECT OF MECHANICAL GROOVING AND STAIN-ETCHED SURFACE ON OPTICAL AND ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF CRYSTALLINE SILICON SUBSTRATES

    OpenAIRE

    AHMED ZARROUG; LOTFI DERBALI; RACHID OUERTANI; WISSEM DIMASSI; HATEM EZZAOUIA

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the combined effect of mechanical grooving and porous silicon (PS) on the front surface reflectance and the electronic properties of crystalline silicon substrates. Mechanical surface texturization leads to reduce the cell reflectance, enhance the light trapping and augment the carrier collection probability. PS was introduced as an efficient antireflective coating (ARC) onto the front surface of crystalline silicon solar cell. Micro-periodic V-shaped grooves were made...

  20. Torque Characteristic Analysis of a Transverse Flux Motor Using a Combined-Type Stator Core

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobao Yang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available An external rotor transverse flux motor using a combined-type stator core is proposed for a direct drive application in this paper. The stator core is combined by two kinds of components that can both be manufactured conveniently by generic laminated silicon steel used in traditional motors. The motor benefits from the predominance of low manufacturing cost and low iron loss by using a silicon-steel sheet. Firstly, the basic structure and operation principles of the proposed motor are introduced. Secondly, the expressions of the electromagnetic torque and the cogging torque are deduced by theoretical analysis. Thirdly, the basic characteristics such as permanent magnet flux linkage, no-load back electromotive force, cogging torque and electromagnetic torque are analyzed by a three-dimensional finite element method (3D FEM. Then, the influence of structure parameters on the torque density is investigated, which provides a useful foundation for optimum design of the novel motor. Finally, the torque density of the proposed motor is calculated and discussed, and the result shows that the proposed motor in this paper can provide considerable torque density by using few permanent magnets.

  1. Multifunctional superparamagnetic nanoshells: combining two-photon luminescence imaging, surface-enhanced Raman scattering and magnetic separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiulong; Li, Haiyan; Wang, Shanshan; Kong, Ni; Xu, Hong; Fu, Qihua; Gu, Hongchen; Ye, Jian

    2014-11-01

    With the increasing need for multi-purpose analysis in the biomedical field, traditional single diagnosis methods cannot meet the requirements. Therefore new multifunctional technologies and materials for the integration of sample collection, sensing and imaging are in great demand. Core-shell nanoparticles offer a unique platform to combine multifunctions in a single particle. In this work, we have constructed a novel type of core-shell superparamagnetic nanoshell (Fe3O4@SiO2@Au), composed of a Fe3O4 cluster core, a thin Au shell and a SiO2 layer in between. The obtained multifunctional nanoparticles combine the magnetic properties and plasmonic optical properties effectively, which were well investigated by a number of experimental characterization methods and theoretical simulations. We have demonstrated that Fe3O4@SiO2@Au nanoparticles can be utilized for two-photon luminescence (TPL) imaging, near-infrared surface-enhanced Raman scattering (NIR SERS) and cell collection by magnetic separation. The TPL intensity could be further greatly enhanced through the plasmon coupling effect in the self-assembled nanoparticle chains, which were triggered by an external magnetic field. In addition, Fe3O4@SiO2@Au nanoparticles may have great potential applications such as enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and photo-thermotherapy. Successful combination of multifunctions including magnetic response, biosensing and bioimaging in single nanoparticles allows further manipulation, real-time tracking, and intracellular molecule analysis of live cells at a single-cell level.With the increasing need for multi-purpose analysis in the biomedical field, traditional single diagnosis methods cannot meet the requirements. Therefore new multifunctional technologies and materials for the integration of sample collection, sensing and imaging are in great demand. Core-shell nanoparticles offer a unique platform to combine multifunctions in a single particle. In this work, we have

  2. Fusion of spectral and shape features for identification of urban surface cover types using reflective and thermal hyperspectral data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segl, K.; Roessner, S.; Heiden, U.; Kaufmann, H.

    The urban environment is characterized by an intense multifunctional use of available spaces, where the preservation of open green spaces is of special importance. For this purpose, area-wide urban biotope mapping based on CIR aerial photographs has been carried out for the large cities in Germany during the last 10 years. Because of dynamic urban development and high mapping costs, the municipal authorities are interested in effective methods for mapping urban surface cover types, which can be used for evaluation of ecological conditions in urban structures and supporting updates of biotope maps. Against this background, airborne hyperspectral remote sensing data of the DAIS 7915 instrument have been analyzed for a test site in the city of Dresden (Germany) with regard to their potential for automated material-oriented identification of urban surface cover types. Previous investigations have shown that the high spectral and spatial variabilities of these data require the development of special methods, which are capable of dealing with the resulting mixed-pixel problem in its specific characteristics in urban areas. Earlier, methodological developments led to an approach based on a combination of spectral classification and pixel-oriented unmixing techniques to facilitate sensible endmember selection based on the reflective bands of the DAIS instrument. This approach is now extended by a shape-based classification technique including the thermal bands of the DAIS instrument to improve the detection of buildings during the process of identifying seedling pixels, which represent the starting points for linear spectral unmixing. This new approach increases the reliability of differentiation between buildings and open spaces, leading to more accurate results for the spatial distribution of surface cover types. Thus, the new approach significantly enhances the exploitation of the information potential of the hyperspectral DAIS 7915 data for an area-wide identification

  3. U(VI) reduction by diverse outer surface c-type cytochromes of Geobacter sulfurreducens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellana, Roberto; Leavitt, Janet J; Comolli, Luis R; Csencsits, Roseann; Janot, Noemie; Flanagan, Kelly A; Gray, Arianna S; Leang, Ching; Izallalen, Mounir; Mester, Tünde; Lovley, Derek R

    2013-10-01

    Early studies with Geobacter sulfurreducens suggested that outer-surface c-type cytochromes might play a role in U(VI) reduction, but it has recently been suggested that there is substantial U(VI) reduction at the surface of the electrically conductive pili known as microbial nanowires. This phenomenon was further investigated. A strain of G. sulfurreducens, known as Aro-5, which produces pili with substantially reduced conductivity reduced U(VI) nearly as well as the wild type, as did a strain in which the gene for PilA, the structural pilin protein, was deleted. In order to reduce rates of U(VI) reduction to levels less than 20% of the wild-type rates, it was necessary to delete the genes for the five most abundant outer surface c-type cytochromes of G. sulfurreducens. X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy demonstrated that whereas 83% ± 10% of the uranium associated with wild-type cells correspond to U(IV) after 4 h of incubation, with the quintuple mutant, 89% ± 10% of uranium was U(VI). Transmission electron microscopy and X-ray energy dispersion spectroscopy revealed that wild-type cells did not precipitate uranium along pili as previously reported, but U(IV) was precipitated at the outer cell surface. These findings are consistent with those of previous studies, which have suggested that G. sulfurreducens requires outer-surface c-type cytochromes but not pili for the reduction of soluble extracellular electron acceptors.

  4. Effects of pentoxifylline and pentosan polysulphate combination therapy on diabetic neuropathy in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laczy, Boglárka; Cseh, Judit; Mohás, Márton; Markó, Lajos; Tamaskó, Mónika; Koszegi, Tamás; Molnár, Gergo A; Wagner, Zoltán; Wagner, László; Wittmann, István

    2009-06-01

    Vascular dysfunction, including impaired perfusion has a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of microvascular complications in diabetes mellitus. Both pentoxifylline (PF) and pentosan polysulphate (PPS) are known to improve microcirculation. Antioxidant and antiproteinuric effects of PF are also known. In a placebo-controlled study, we determined the possible efficacy of PF-PPS combination therapy on diabetic neuropathy and nephropathy in type 2 diabetic patients. Patients in Verum group (n = 77) received PF-PPS infusions (100-100 mg/day) for 5 days. Control diabetics (Placebo group; n = 12) were given only saline infusions. Specialized cardiovascular autonomic reflex tests, vibration threshold values and urinary albumin excretion were assessed before and after therapy. In Verum group, autonomic score, indicating the severity of cardiac autonomic dysfunction, decreased after therapy (p < or = 0.001). Of the reflexes, deep breath and handgrip tests also improved after therapy (p < or = 0.001). Vibration threshold values, an indicator of the loss of sensory nerve function, were increased after therapy (p < or = 0.001). Results of cardiac autonomic tests and vibration threshold values remained unaltered in Placebo group. Majority of patients had normalbuminuria, which was not affected by PF-PPS. In conclusion, short-term PF-PPS therapy was effective on cardiovascular autonomic function and vibration perception, whereas it failed to reduce albuminuria within normal range in type 2 diabetic patients.

  5. Combined Resistivity and Shear Wave Velocity Soil-type Estimation Beneath a Coastal Protection Levee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, J. M.; Goff, D.; Hayashi, K.

    2015-12-01

    Unconsolidated Holocene deltaic sediments comprise levee foundation soils in New Orleans, USA. Whereas geotechnical tests at point locations are indispensable for evaluating soil stability, the highly variable sedimentary facies of the Mississippi delta create difficulties to predict soil conditions between test locations. Combined electrical resistivity and seismic shear wave studies, calibrated to geotechnical data, may provide an efficient methodology to predict soil types between geotechnical sites at shallow depths (0- 10 m). The London Avenue Canal levee flank of New Orleans, which failed in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, 2005, presents a suitable site in which to pioneer these geophysical relationships. Preliminary cross-plots show electrically resistive, high-shear-wave velocity areas interpreted as low-permeability, resistive silt. In brackish coastal environments, low-resistivity and low-shear-wave-velocity areas may indicate both saturated, unconsolidated sands and low-rigidity clays. Via a polynomial approximation, soil sub-types of sand, silt and clay can be estimated by a cross-plot of S-wave velocity and resistivity. We confirm that existent boring log data fit reasonably well with the polynomial approximation where 2/3 of soil samples fall within their respective bounds—this approach represents a new classification system that could be used for other mid-latitude, fine-grained deltas.

  6. Anomalous peak-effect in type-II superconductors: A competition between bulk pinning and a surface barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maksimov, I.L. [Department of Theoretical Physics, Nizhny Novgorod University, Gagarin Avenue 23, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Ainbinder, R.M. [Department of Theoretical Physics, Nizhny Novgorod University, Gagarin Avenue 23, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: romain@inbox.ru; Vodolazov, D.Yu. [Institute for Physics of Microstructures, GSP-105, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation)

    2007-01-15

    In this work, the joint influence of the surface barrier and bulk pinning on the magnetic-field dependence of the critical current I {sub c} for bulk type-II superconductors is investigated. It is shown that in the weak magnetic field H {sub 0}, there is a section in the dependence I {sub c}(H {sub 0}) in which I {sub c} increases with the growth of H {sub 0}; this increase results in a pronounced peak in the dependence I {sub c}(H {sub 0}) - the anomalous peak-effect. This effect is explained by the combined influence of the surface barrier and bulk pinning. Two well-known models - the Bean model and the Kim-Anderson model - of the critical state were analysed in order to describe the anomalous peak-effect quantitatively.

  7. Co-ordinated regulation of plasmacytoid dendritic cell surface receptors upon stimulation with herpes simplex virus type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Philipp; Donhauser, Norbert; Pritschet, Kathrin; Ries, Moritz; Haupt, Sabrina; Kittan, Nicolai A; Korn, Klaus; Schmidt, Barbara

    2010-02-01

    Human plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDC) are crucial for innate and adaptive immune responses against viral infections, mainly through production of type I interferons. Evidence is accumulating that PDC surface receptors play an important role in this process. To investigate the PDC phenotype in more detail, a chip-based expression analysis of surface receptors was combined with respective flow cytometry data obtained from fresh PDC, PDC exposed to interleukin-3 (IL-3) and/or herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). CD156b, CD229, CD305 and CD319 were newly identified on the surface of PDC, and CD180 was identified as a new intracellular antigen. After correction for multiple comparisons, a total of 33 receptors were found to be significantly regulated upon exposure to IL-3, HSV-1 or IL-3 and HSV-1. These were receptors involved in chemotaxis, antigen uptake, activation and maturation, migration, apoptosis, cytotoxicity and costimulation. Infectious and ultraviolet-inactivated HSV-1 did not differentially affect surface receptor regulation, consistent with the lack of productive virus infection in PDC, which was confirmed by HSV-1 real-time polymerase chain reaction and experiments involving autofluorescing HSV-1 particles. Viral entry was mediated at least in part by endocytosis. Time-course experiments provided evidence of a co-ordinated regulation of PDC surface markers, which play a specific role in different aspects of PDC function such as attraction to inflamed tissue, antigen recognition and subsequent migration to secondary lymphatic tissue. This knowledge can be used to investigate PDC surface receptor functions in interactions with other cells of the innate and adaptive immune system, particularly natural killer cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes.

  8. Aerobic and combined exercise sessions reduce glucose variability in type 2 diabetes: crossover randomized trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciele R Figueira

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effects of aerobic (AER or aerobic plus resistance exercise (COMB sessions on glucose levels and glucose variability in patients with type 2 diabetes. Additionally, we assessed conventional and non-conventional methods to analyze glucose variability derived from multiple measurements performed with continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS.Fourteen patients with type 2 diabetes (56±2 years wore a CGMS during 3 days. Participants randomly performed AER and COMB sessions, both in the morning (24 h after CGMS placement, and at least 7 days apart. Glucose variability was evaluated by glucose standard deviation, glucose variance, mean amplitude of glycemic excursions (MAGE, and glucose coefficient of variation (conventional methods as well as by spectral and symbolic analysis (non-conventional methods.Baseline fasting glycemia was 139±05 mg/dL and HbA1c 7.9±0.7%. Glucose levels decreased immediately after AER and COMB protocols by ∼16%, which was sustained for approximately 3 hours. Comparing the two exercise modalities, responses over a 24-h period after the sessions were similar for glucose levels, glucose variance and glucose coefficient of variation. In the symbolic analysis, increases in 0 V pattern (COMB, 67.0±7.1 vs. 76.0±6.3, P = 0.003 and decreases in 1 V pattern (COMB, 29.1±5.3 vs. 21.5±5.1, P = 0.004 were observed only after the COMB session.Both AER and COMB exercise modalities reduce glucose levels similarly for a short period of time. The use of non-conventional analysis indicates reduction of glucose variability after a single session of combined exercises.Aerobic training, aerobic-resistance training and glucose profile (CGMS in type 2 diabetes (CGMS exercise. ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT00887094.

  9. Metformin and sulphonylurea (second- or third-generation) combination therapy for adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kasper S.; Kähler, Pernille; Kähler, Lise Katrine

    2016-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To assess the effects of metformin and sulphonylurea (second- or third-generation) combination therapy for adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus.......This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To assess the effects of metformin and sulphonylurea (second- or third-generation) combination therapy for adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus....

  10. Combined Effects of Numerical Method Type and Time Step on Water Stressed Actual Crop ET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ghahraman

    2016-02-01

    .7. Therefore, nine different classes were formed by combination of three crop types and three soil class types. Then, the results of numerical methods were compared to the analytical solution of the soil moisture differential equation as a datum. Three factors (time step, initial soil water content, and maximum evaporation, ETc were considered as influencing variables. Results and Discussion: It was clearly shown that as the crops becomes more sensitive, the dependency of Eta to ETc increases. The same is true as the soil becomes fine textured. The results showed that as water stress progress during the time step, relative errors of computed ET by different numerical methods did not depend on initial soil moisture. On overall and irrespective to soil tpe, crop type, and numerical method, relative error increased by increasing time step and/or increasing ETc. On overall, the absolute errors were negative for implicit Euler and third order Heun, while for other methods were positive. There was a systematic trend for relative error, as it increased by sandier soil and/or crop sensitivity. Absolute errors of ET computations decreased with consecutive time steps, which ensures the stability of water balance predictions. It was not possible to prescribe a unique numerical method for considering all variables. For comparing the numerical methods, however, we took the largest relative error corresponding to 10-day time step and ETc equal to 12 mm.d-1, while considered soil and crop types as variable. Explicit Euler was unstable and varied between 40% and 150%. Implicit Euler was robust and its relative error was around 20% for all combinations of soil and crop types. Unstable pattern was governed for modified Euler. The relative error was as low as 10% only for two cases while on overall it ranged between 20% and 100%. Although the relative errors of third order Heun were the smallest among the all methods, its robustness was not as good as implicit Euler method. Excluding one large

  11. Interaction of lubricin with type II collagen surfaces: adsorption, friction, and normal forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Debby P; Guilak, Farshid; Jay, Gregory D; Zauscher, Stefan

    2014-02-01

    One of the major constituents of the synovial fluid that is thought to be responsible for chondroprotection and boundary lubrication is the glycoprotein lubricin (PRG4); however, the molecular mechanisms by which lubricin carries out its critical functions still remain largely unknown. We hypothesized that the interaction of lubricin with type II collagen, the main component of the cartilage extracellular matrix, results in enhanced tribological and wear properties. In this study, we examined: (i) the molecular details by which lubricin interacts with type II collagen and how binding is related to boundary lubrication and adhesive interactions; and (ii) whether collagen structure can affect lubricin adsorption and its chondroprotective properties. We found that lubricin adsorbs strongly onto denatured, amorphous, and fibrillar collagen surfaces. Furthermore, we found large repulsive interactions between the collagen surfaces in presence of lubricin, which increased with increasing lubricin concentration. Lubricin attenuated the large friction and also the long-range adhesion between fibrillar collagen surfaces. Interestingly, lubricin adsorbed onto and mediated the frictional response between the denatured and native amorphous collagen surfaces equally and showed no preference on the supramolecular architecture of collagen. However, the coefficient of friction was lowest on fibrillar collagen in the presence of lubricin. We speculate that an important role of lubricin in mediating interactions at the cartilage surface is to attach to the cartilage surface and provide a protective coating that maintains the contacting surfaces in a sterically repulsive state.

  12. Application of Q-type aspheric surface in the design of Wynne-Dyson projection lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Cheng-Fang; Peng, Wei-Jei; Hsu, Wei-Yao

    2016-10-01

    ITRC dedicates in high precision optics for more than 40 years and focuses in lithography optics for projection system recently. The first project of the lithography optics in ITRC is an i-line Wynne-Dyson projection lens for 3D-ICs applications. The Wynne-Dyson projection lens is a classical design for unity magnification projection system. We take the advantages of the established benefits of Wynne-Dyson lens and modify it. ITRC`s Wynne-Dyson lens is a 0.16 NA system with unity magnification, which is designed in double telecentricity and long working distance. The projection lens comprises three lenses and one concave mirror. Two aspheric surfaces are deployed in lens 1 and concave mirror. A lens with aspheric surfaces can correct for aberration and deliver a higher performance with fewer lens elements; therefore it has advantages of compact and light. However, aspheres are more difficult to fabricate and higher cost than spherical surface. In order to control the testability and manufacturability of the aspheric surface, the Q-type aspheric surfaces are applied in our design phase and manufacture process. We optimize for both performance and manufacturability by Q-type aspheric surfaces. Not only a testable and manufacturable asphere can be approached but also an additional benefits of less sensitive and cost-effective to manufacture to the required specification. In this paper, the Q-type aspheric surfaces and slope constraint are applied to a Wynne-Dyson projection lens, the testability of Q-type aspheric surfaces by the departure from best-fit-sphere and fringe density of interferometry are estimated. Furthermore, subaperture stitching interferometer system (ASI, from QED technologies) is also applied for testability comparison. The tolerance and sensitivity are also discussed. Finally, the results show a diffraction limit approached lens with testable aspheric surface is designed using Q-type aspheric surface. One of the asphere is 150 m departure from best

  13. Placement of replace select Ti-Unite-coated type implants using a combination of immediate and submerge techniques after tooth extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coen Pramono D

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The high success rate of immediate implant placement both in the anterior and posterior regions were reported by many authors, therefore applying this techniques can be considered as a safe surgical procedure and minimizing the dental office visit for patient satisfaction. This paper reports the outcome of immediate placement of implants following extraction of anterior maxillary teeth. Combination technique of immediate and submerge implant placements including bone grafting procedure were used. Four implants with TiUnite surface type were placed immediately in two patients with the short-term result indicated that this technique may serve as a simple and safe procedure for immediate implant placement. It was concluded that immediate implant placement technique combined with TiUnite implant surface was successful in treating region directly after tooth extraction therefore this technique can be use as an alternative surgical method for dental implant rehabilitation.

  14. Engineering of a parainfluenza virus type 5 fusion protein (PIV-5 F): development of an autonomous and hyperfusogenic protein by a combinational mutagenesis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrier, O; Durupt, F; Cartet, G; Thomas, L; Lina, B; Rosa-Calatrava, M

    2009-12-01

    The entry of enveloped viruses into host cells is accomplished by fusion of the viral envelope with the target cell membrane. For the paramyxovirus parainfluenza virus type 5 (PIV-5), this fusion involves an attachment protein (HN) and a class I viral fusion protein (F). We investigated the effect of 20 different combinations of 12 amino-acid substitutions within functional domains of the PIV-5 F glycoprotein, by performing cell surface expression measurements, quantitative fusion and syncytia assays. We found that combinations of mutations conferring an autonomous phenotype with mutations leading to an increased fusion activity were compatible and generated functional PIV-5 F proteins. The addition of mutations in the heptad-repeat domains led to both autonomous and hyperfusogenic phenotypes, despite the low cell surface expression of the corresponding mutants. Such engineering approach may prove useful not only for deciphering the fundamental mechanism behind viral-mediated membrane fusion but also in the development of potential therapeutic applications.

  15. Pulsed light and antimicrobial combination treatments for surface decontamination of cheese: Favorable and antagonistic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proulx, J; Sullivan, G; Marostegan, L F; VanWees, S; Hsu, L C; Moraru, C I

    2017-03-01

    Postprocessing cross-contamination of cheese can lead to both food safety issues and significant losses due to spoilage. Pulsed light (PL) treatment, consisting of short, high-energy, broad-spectrum light pulses, has been proven effective in reducing the microbial load on cheese surface. As PL treatment effectiveness is limited by light-cheese interactions, the possibility to improve its effectiveness by combining it with the antimicrobial nisin was explored. The effect of natamycin, which is added to cheeses as an antifungal agent, on PL effectiveness was also investigated. Pseudomonas fluorescens, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, and Listeria innocua were used as challenge microorganisms. Bacterial cultures in stationary growth phase were diluted to initial inoculum levels of 5 or 7 log cfu per cheese slice. Slices of sharp white Cheddar cheese and white American singles were cut in rectangles of 2.5 × 5 cm. For cheese slices receiving antimicrobial treatment before PL, slices were dipped in natamycin or nisin, spot inoculated with 100 μL of bacterial suspension, and then treated with PL. Cheese slices receiving PL treatment before antimicrobials were spot inoculated, treated with PL, and then treated with antimicrobials. The PL fluence levels from 1.02 to 12.29 J/cm(2) were used. Survivors were enumerated by standard plate counting or the most probable number technique, as appropriate. All treatments were performed in triplicate, and the data were analyzed using a general linear model. Treatment with nisin or natamycin before PL decreased the effectiveness of PL for all bacteria tested. For instance, PL reduced P. fluorescens on Cheddar cheese by 2.19 ± 0.27 log after 6.14 J/cm(2), whereas combination treatments at the same PL fluence yielded barely 1 log reduction. Inactivation of L. innocua on Cheddar was only 0.78 ± 0.01 log when using PL after nisin, compared with a 1.30 ± 0.76 log reduction by nisin alone. This was attributed to the absorption of UV light

  16. Chemical characterization and dynamics of particulate combined amino acids in Pacific surface waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukasaki, Ayumi; Tanoue, Eiichiro

    2010-01-01

    Particulate organic matter (POM) in surface water plays an essential role in maintaining marine ecosystem and is a complex mixture of living POM (organisms) and non-living POM (detritus). Transformation of organic constituents of organisms to detritus may be the most active part in the decomposition processes of organic matter in marine biogeochemistry. Distribution and chemical fractionation of particulate combined amino acids (PCAAs) in surface waters from Southern Ocean to tropical waters along a transect of 170°W were examined to clarify the transfer processes of organic constituents of organisms to detritus. The observational facts may be summarized as follows. 1) Degradation Index (DI) based on principal component analysis of amino acid composition of bulk PCAAs agreed with the traditional degradation indicators of bulk POM, i.e., PCAAs-carbon (C)/particulate organic carbon (POC), PCAAs-nitrogen (N)/particulate nitrogen (PN) and C/N. 2) PCAAs were distinguished into 3 fractions, i.e., Urea-soluble, Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS)-soluble and SDS/Urea-insoluble fractions, by means of solubility against reagents frequently used for protein extraction from biological samples. Proportions of PCAAs of the 3 fractions to bulk PCAAs were almost constant, although concentrations of the PCAAs of 3 fractions as well as bulk in seawater varied two orders of magnitude over the transect. 3) There was no significant difference among DI values of the 3 fractions, although molecular mass distributions of the Urea-soluble and SDS-soluble fractions determined by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis were different. The results indicated that no one fraction was particularly susceptible to degradation and that there is a common mechanism for transferring and maintaining the similar chemical quality of bulk POM over the transect.

  17. Surface Partial Discharge Characteristics of Oil-paper Insulation Under Combined AC-DC Voltage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHA Yanchao; ZHOU Yuanxiang; NIE Dexin; WU Zhirong; DENG Jiangang; LU Licheng

    2013-01-01

    The valve side windings of converter transformers bear AC,DC,impulse,and reversal-polarity voltages during operation,which could result in serious insulation problems of the equipment.By performing experiments with surface discharge model of oil-paper insulation at 80 ℃ under combined AC-DC voltage for 200 h,we studied the spectrums and statistical parameters of partial discharges at different discharge stages.Furthermore,some fingerprint parameters were calculated in order to estimate the development situation of partial discharge,while the characteristic gases dissolved in the transformer oil were measured by gas chromatography.The surface discharges in the experiments were observed using a high speed camera,and a full discharge process could be marked off into four stages as follows.①The elementary stage.When a partial discharge occurs near electrodes,electrical charges are injected into the region near electrodes and causing bubble generation.②Due to their high resistivity and low dielectric constant,the bubbles would bare the major part of the voltage applied to samples.Therefore,discharge happens inside the small bubbles,and it emits a lot of light.③Micmmolecules of gas are produced in discharge,and further ionization in the transformer oil takes place simultaneously when high-energy electrons collide with oil molecules.④The carrier charge moves forward to electrodes driven by the applied electric field,till they neutralize with the charge from electrodes,and hence discharge channels are formed subsequently.

  18. A combination of CO{sub 2} laser and plasma surface modification of poly(etheretherketone) to enhance osteoblast response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Yanyan [Chengdu Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Xiong, Chengdong [Chengdu Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041 (China); Wang, Zhecun [Chengdu Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Li, Xiaoyu [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Zhang, Lifang, E-mail: zhanglfcioc@163.com [Chengdu Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041 (China)

    2015-07-30

    Highlights: • COOH and microgrooves containing micropores or microcraters structure were constructed on PEEK surface by a combination of CO{sub 2} laser and plasma treatment. • The mechanical properties of PEEK are maintained after single or dual surface treatment. • Pre-osteoblast cells (MC3T3-E1) adhesion, spreading and proliferation were improved remarkably on dual treated PEEK surface. • Cell pseudopodia protrude into the micropores or microcraters, in favor of forming firmer bone-implant integration. - Abstract: Poly(etheretherketone) (PEEK) is a rigid semicrystalline polymer that combines excellent mechanical properties, broad chemical resistance and bone-like stiffness and is widely used in biomedical fields. However, the bio-inert surface of PEEK tends to hinder its biomedical applications when direct osteointegration between the implants and the host tissue is desired. In this work, we demonstrate a dual modification method, which combines the laser and plasma surface treatment to combine advantages of both chemical states and microstructures for osteoblasts responses. While the plasma treatment introduces surface carboxyl groups (−COOH) onto PEEK surface, the laser treatment constructs microstructures over the PEEK surface. Our results indicated that −COOH as well as microgrooves containing micropores or microcraters structure are constructed on PEEK surface and plasma treatment has no apparent effect on the morphology of microstructures produced by laser micromachining. Unexpectedly, the superior mechanical properties of PEEK were maintained irrespective of the treatment used. Compared to native PEEK and single treated PEEK, dual modified PEEK is more favorable for pre-osteoblasts (MC3T3-E1) adhesion, spreading and proliferation. Moreover, cell pseudopodia protrude into the micropores or microcraters, in favor of forming firmer bone-implant integration. Our study illustrates enhanced osteoblasts responses to dual treated PEEK surface, which

  19. Bulk and surface half-metallicity: The case of D03-type Mn3Ge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hao; Gao, G. Y.; Hu, Lei; Ni, Yun; Zu, Fengxia; Zhu, Sicong; Wang, Shuling; Yao, K. L.

    2014-01-01

    Motivated by the experimental realization of D022-type Mn3Ge (001) films [Kurt et al. Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 132410 (2012)] and the structural stability of D03-type Heusler alloy Mn3Ge [Zhang et al. J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 25, 206006 (2013)], we use the first-principles calculations based on the full potential linearized augmented plane-wave method to investigate the electronic and magnetic properties of D03-type Heusler alloy Mn3Ge and its (001) surface. We show that bulk D03-Mn3Ge is a half-metallic ferromagnet with the minority-spin energy gap of 0.52 eV and the magnetic moment of 1.00 μB per formula unit. The bulk half-metallicity is preserved at the pure Mn-terminated (001) surface due to the large exchange split, but the MnGe-terminated (001) surface destroys the bulk half-metallicity. We also reveal that the surface stabilities are comparable between the D03-Mn3Ge (001) and the experimental D022-Mn3Ge (001), which indicates the feasibility to grow the Mn3Ge (001) films with D03 phase other than D022 one. The surface half-metallicity and stability make D03-Mn3Ge a promising candidate for spintronic applications.

  20. Design of an optical lens combined with a total internal reflection (TIR) freeform surface for a LED front fog lamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Li, Xiufeng; Ge, Peng

    2017-02-01

    We propose a design method of an optical lens combined with a total internal reflection (TIR) freeform surface for a LED front fog lamp. The TIR freeform surface controls the edge rays of the LED source. It totally reflects the edge rays and makes them emit from the top surface of the lens. And the middle rays of the LED source go through the refractive surface and reach the measured plane. We simulate the model by Monte Carlo method. Simulation results show that the front fog lamp system can satisfy the requirement of ECE R19 Rev7. The light control efficiency can reach up to 76%.

  1. Effect of adhesive resin type for bonding to zirconia using two surface pretreatments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samimi, P.; Hasankhani, A.; Matinlinna, J.P.; Mirmohammadi, H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This laboratory study evaluated the short-term adhesive properties of one 10-MDP-containing and two MDP-free resin composite cements, using two types of zirconia surface pretreatments. Materials and Methods: Eighteen sintered zirconia disks (Procera, Nobel Biocare) were randomly divided int

  2. The turn angle gauge of generating type with an element on surface acoustic waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lepikh Ya. I.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of intellectualized angle of rotation sensor with an element on the surface acoustic waves (SAW development are presented. The generating type sensor block diagram, in which the element on SAW plays a role of the appropriate line of a delay is described. The sensor basic characteristics are given and the area of its application are shown.

  3. Effect of adhesive resin type for bonding to zirconia using two surface pretreatments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samimi, P.; Hasankhani, A.; Matinlinna, J.P.; Mirmohammadi, H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This laboratory study evaluated the short-term adhesive properties of one 10-MDP-containing and two MDP-free resin composite cements, using two types of zirconia surface pretreatments. Materials and Methods: Eighteen sintered zirconia disks (Procera, Nobel Biocare) were randomly divided

  4. Jerky-type phenomena at nanocomposite surfaces : The breakdown of the coulomb friction law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hosson, Jeff T.M. De; Pei, Yutao; Chen, Changqiang

    This article concentrates on the jerky-type phenomenon of surfaces in relative motion (i.e., a breakdown of the Coulomb friction law) in nanocomposite materials. Physical arguments are provided to understand the dependence of friction on sliding velocity in the sense of self-lubrication. Also

  5. Improvement of the wear behaviour of highly-loaded components and tools by multi-combined surface treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gundis Grumbt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a novel multi-combined surface treatment consisting of the individual treatments of plasma nitriding (PN, physical vapour deposition (PVD and electron beam hardening (EBH. Using graded surface layers produced by such a combined surface treatment, it is possible to withstand the complex load conditions incurred by components and tools. It is shown, that the treatment sequences PN+EBH+PVD and EBH+PN+PVD are suitable for improving material properties. These multi-combined surface treatments lead to a significant improvement in load-supporting capacity. Critical load values of cohesive failure measured by scratch tests are tripled when compared to the individual treatment of PVD, and increased by at least 20% in comparison to the duplex treatments of EBH+PVD or PN+PVD. The metallurgical compatibility of the single treatments is essential for the success of combined treatments. Material-specific limitations are defined, which exclude failure due to crack initiation, the occurrence of retained austenite, and tempering effects. Based on the model wear-test assembly block-on-cylinder, it was proved, that the specific wear rate of multi-combined treated specimens is reduced about 20-50% while wear of counterpart components is decreased as well. The triplex surface heat treatment introduced opens up new prospects for highly-loaded components and tools.

  6. The influence of surface type on the absorbed radiation by a human under hot, dry conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin, A. W.; Vanos, J. K.

    2017-05-01

    Given the predominant use of heat-retaining materials in urban areas, numerous studies have addressed the urban heat island mitigation potential of various "cool" options, such as vegetation and high-albedo surfaces. The influence of altered radiational properties of such surfaces affects not only the air temperature within a microclimate, but more importantly the interactions of long- and short-wave radiation fluxes with the human body. Minimal studies have assessed how cool surfaces affect thermal comfort via changes in absorbed radiation by a human (R abs) using real-world, rather than modeled, urban field data. The purpose of the current study is to assess the changes in the absorbed radiation by a human—a critical component of human energy budget models—based on surface type on hot summer days (air temperatures > 38.5∘C). Field tests were conducted using a high-end microclimate station under predominantly clear sky conditions over ten surfaces with higher sky view factors in Lubbock, Texas. Three methods were used to measure and estimate R abs: a cylindrical radiation thermometer (CRT), a net radiometer, and a theoretical estimation model. Results over dry surfaces suggest that the use of high-albedo surfaces to reduce overall urban heat gain may not improve acute human thermal comfort in clear conditions due to increased reflected radiation. Further, the use of low-cost instrumentation, such as the CRT, shows potential in quantifying radiative heat loads within urban areas at temporal scales of 5-10 min or greater, yet further research is needed. Fine-scale radiative information in urban areas can aid in the decision-making process for urban heat mitigation using non-vegetated urban surfaces, with surface type choice is dependent on the need for short-term thermal comfort, or reducing cumulative heat gain to the urban fabric.

  7. An analysis of type F2 software measurement standards for profile surface texture parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todhunter, L. D.; Leach, R. K.; Lawes, S. D. A.; Blateyron, F.

    2017-06-01

    This paper reports on an in-depth analysis of ISO 5436 part 2 type F2 reference software for the calculation of profile surface texture parameters that has been performed on the input, implementation and output results of the reference software developed by the National Physical Laboratory (NPL), the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). Surface texture parameters have been calculated for a selection of 17 test data files obtained from the type F1 reference data sets on offer from NPL and NIST. The surface texture parameter calculation results show some disagreements between the software methods of the National Metrology Institutes. These disagreements have been investigated further, and some potential explanations are given.

  8. Lateral photovoltaic effect in p-type silicon induced by surface states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xu; Mei, Chunlian; Gan, Zhikai; Zhou, Peiqi; Wang, Hui

    2017-03-01

    A colossal lateral photovoltaic effect (LPE) was observed at the surface of p-type silicon, which differs from the conventional thought that a large LPE is only observed in Schottky junctions and PN junctions consisting of several layers with different conductivities. It shows a high sensitivity of 499.24 mV/mm and an ultra-broadband spectral responsivity (from 405 nm to 980 nm) at room temperature, which makes it an attractive candidate for near-infrared detection. We propose that this phenomenon can be understood by considering the surface band bending near the surface of p-Si induced by charged surface states. The energy band diagrams of the samples are shown based on X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy suggesting the correlation between the LPE and surface band bending. The conjectures are validated by changing the surface states of p-type silicon using Ni nano-films. These findings reveal a generation mechanism of the LPE and may lead to p-Si based, broadband-responsivity, low-cost, and high-precision optical and optoelectronic applications.

  9. Determination of atrazine in surface waters by combination of POCIS passive sampling and ELISA detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernoch, Ivo; Fránek, Milan; Diblíková, Iva; Hilscherová, Klára; Randák, Tomáš; Ocelka, Tomáš; Bláha, Luděk

    2011-09-01

    Polar organic compound integrative samplers (POCIS) in combination with instrumental techniques such as LC-MS-MS were previously used to monitor environmental pollutants but the performance of alternative immunochemical methods such as ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) has been explored less. In the present study, POCIS technology was applied to surface water sampling in the Czech Republic, and ELISA was used as a detection technique for the herbicide atrazine. In the first study, 28 samples from streams around small municipal waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) were collected using two different devices (POCISpest and POCISpharm) over the course of 21 days. Elevated atrazine concentrations (up to 25 ng per POCIS) were found in samples down-stream of WWTPs. This observation was also confirmed in another two year study (4 sampling periods) investigating 7 river sites around a major city of Brno as well as the inlet and outlet of the city's WWTP. High atrazine levels were systematically determined at the outlet from the WWTPs (120-605 ng per POCIS). A decreasing trend in the atrazine concentrations in rivers around the city of Brno has been observed, with the highest levels observed within the first sampling period in spring 2007 (100-600 ng per POCIS, with an extreme value of 2760 ng per POCIS). Results of the atrazine ELISA were closely correlated with LC-MS/MS, which confirmed good applicability of ELISA as a cost-effective screening tool.

  10. POCIS sampling in combination with ELISA: screening of sulfonamide residues in surface and waste waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Černoch, Ivo; Fránek, Milan; Diblíková, Iva; Hilscherová, Klára; Randák, Tomáš; Ocelka, Tomáš; Bláha, Luděk

    2012-01-01

    Sulfonamide antibiotics coming from both human and veterinary medicine are among the most common emerging pollutants in freshwater. The present paper shows the successful application of passive sampling using POCIS in combination with an immunochemical ELISA technique and HPLC/MS/MS analysis to study the distribution of sulfonamides in streams around small towns in the Czech Republic, as well as around a major agglomeration of the city of Brno, including its waste water treatment plant (WWTP). Results indicated the presence of sulfonamides at most studied sites with concentrations ranging from POCIS. Very high levels were detected in both the influent and effluent of the Brno WWTP with maxima > 8000 ng SMX per POCIS. All samplers collected down-stream of the studied towns and WWTPs clearly showed an increase in sulfonamide drug residues. Higher concentrations were determined in rivers at the city of Brno agglomeration. In agreement with other available studies, these findings indicate low efficiency of conventional WWTPs to eliminate polar pharmaceuticals such as sulfonamides. Good performance and correlation with the LC/MS results, as well as ease of use, indicate good potential for the immunochemical ELISA technique to become the screening tool for sulfonamide determination in surface waters including passive samplers.

  11. Urban Climate Station Site Selection Through Combined Digital Surface Model and Sun Angle Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Chris; Chapman, Lee

    2012-01-01

    Meteorological measurements within urban areas are becoming increasingly important due to the accentuating effects of climate change upon the Urban Heat Island (UHI). However, ensuring that such measurements are representative of the local area is often difficult due to the diversity of the urban environment. The evaluation of sites is important for both new sites and for the relocation of established sites to ensure that long term changes in the meteorological and climatological conditions continue to be faithfully recorded. Site selection is traditionally carried out in the field using both local knowledge and visual inspection. This paper exploits and assesses the use of lidar-derived digital surface models (DSMs) to quantitatively aid the site selection process. This is acheived by combining the DSM with a solar model, first to generate spatial maps of sky view factors and sun-hour potential and second, to generate site-specific views of the horizon. The results show that such a technique is a useful first-step approach to identify key sites that may be further evaluated for the location of meteorological stations within urban areas.

  12. Combined Sewer Overflows as a Source of Hormones to Surface Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, P.; Chalmers, A.; Gray, J. L.; Foreman, W.; Kolpin, D. W.; Wall, G.; Esposito, K.

    2009-12-01

    Some sources of hormones to surface water, such as wastewater-treatment-plant (WWTP) effluent, have been well documented, but other sources, particularly wet-weather discharges from combined-sewer-overflows (CSOs), are not well characterized. Flow-weighted composite samples of secondarily treated WWTP effluent and untreated sewage discharges from WWTP inflows and CSO discharges were collected during 12 storms and 6 non-storm conditions from November 2007-December 2008 at the main Burlington Vermont WWTP. Concentrations of many androgens and estrogens were highest in samples from untreated sewage, and lower in samples from treated sewage. For example, concentrations of estriol in CSO samples ranged from 5 to over 100 ng/L (nanograms per liter), but were generally less than 1 ng/L in treated sewage. Many androgens were detected in CSO discharge samples in concentrations ranging from 1 to over 1000 ng/L, but were not detected above 1 ng/L in treated samples. For many of the hormones, including androgens and estriol, CSO discharges comprised over half of the total load discharged by the WWTP, even though annual CSO discharge is less than 10% of the treated plant discharge. These results indicate that untreated discharges during CSO events can be a major source of some hormones and other wastewater compounds to the environment.

  13. Combined effects of sleep quality and depression on quality of life in patients with type 2 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Pan; Lou, Peian; Chang, Guiqiu; Chen, Peipei; Zhang, Lei; Li, Ting; Qiao, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Background Poor sleep quality and depression negatively impact the health-related quality of life of patients with type 2 diabetes, but the combined effect of the two factors is unknown. This study aimed to assess the interactive effects of poor sleep quality and depression on the quality of life in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods Patients with type 2 diabetes (n = 944) completed the Diabetes Specificity Quality of Life scale (DSQL) and questionnaires on sleep quality and depression. T...

  14. The Impact of Cloud Type on Surface Radiation and Road Pavement Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, C. L.; Anderson, A.; Chapman, M.; Drobot, S.

    2012-12-01

    Forecast systems provide decision support for end-users ranging from the solar energy industry to municipalities concerned with winter road maintenance. The racing community also relies on racetrack pavement temperature forecast systems because tire friction decreases as temperature increases, affecting vehicle performance. Race crews perform vehicle maintenance (e.g., tire pressure and suspension adjustments) to maximize traction given a forecasted racetrack temperature. Many forecast systems suffer from inaccurate radiation forecasts resulting in part from a lack of information relating radiation to cloud types. This research seeks to improve the forecasts by determining how cloud type impacts the amount of solar radiation reaching the surface. Cloud type information was obtained from the Naval Research Laboratory Cloud Classifier algorithm and radiation data were obtained from a Davis Weather Station. A theoretical maximum solar radiation distribution was calculated. Cloud type-radiation distribution analyses from Salisbury, North Carolina during May-June 2012 indicated that low clouds allowed approximately 20% of the maximum possible radiation to reach the surface, mid level clouds 32%, high clouds 40% and cumuliform types 34%. A categorical regression analysis revealed 33% of the variation in solar radiation on cloudy case days can be explained by cloud type. Inclusion of clear case days with apparent variability lowered this to 7% suggesting another influence on radiation. A similar bulk statistical analysis is in progress on a much larger data set obtained from the Oklahoma Mesonet. This work lays the foundation for use of satellite cloud type information in order to improve the output of forecast systems. Distribution of mean solar radiation measured at the surface for all nine case studies, sorted by cloud type height characteristics, where n represents the sample size.

  15. A combination of CO2 laser and plasma surface modification of poly(etheretherketone) to enhance osteoblast response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yanyan; Xiong, Chengdong; Wang, Zhecun; Li, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Lifang

    2015-07-01

    Poly(etheretherketone) (PEEK) is a rigid semicrystalline polymer that combines excellent mechanical properties, broad chemical resistance and bone-like stiffness and is widely used in biomedical fields. However, the bio-inert surface of PEEK tends to hinder its biomedical applications when direct osteointegration between the implants and the host tissue is desired. In this work, we demonstrate a dual modification method, which combines the laser and plasma surface treatment to combine advantages of both chemical states and microstructures for osteoblasts responses. While the plasma treatment introduces surface carboxyl groups (sbnd COOH) onto PEEK surface, the laser treatment constructs microstructures over the PEEK surface. Our results indicated that sbnd COOH as well as microgrooves containing micropores or microcraters structure are constructed on PEEK surface and plasma treatment has no apparent effect on the morphology of microstructures produced by laser micromachining. Unexpectedly, the superior mechanical properties of PEEK were maintained irrespective of the treatment used. Compared to native PEEK and single treated PEEK, dual modified PEEK is more favorable for pre-osteoblasts (MC3T3-E1) adhesion, spreading and proliferation. Moreover, cell pseudopodia protrude into the micropores or microcraters, in favor of forming firmer bone-implant integration. Our study illustrates enhanced osteoblasts responses to dual treated PEEK surface, which gives beneficial information of its potential use in orthopedic or dental implants.

  16. Combined use of anti-ErbB monoclonal antibodies and erlotinib enhances antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity of wild-type erlotinib-sensitive NSCLC cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavazzoni Andrea

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR is an established target for anti-cancer treatment in different tumour types. Two different strategies have been explored to inhibit this pivotal molecule in epithelial cancer development: small molecules TKIs and monoclonal antibodies. ErbB/HER-targeting by monoclonal antibodies such as cetuximab and trastuzumab or tyrosine-kinase inhibitors as gefitinib or erlotinib has been proven effective in the treatment of advanced NSCLC. Results In this study we explored the potential of combining either erlotinib with cetuximab or trastuzumab to improve the efficacy of EGFR targeted therapy in EGFR wild-type NSCLC cell lines. Erlotinib treatment was observed to increase EGFR and/or HER2 expression at the plasma membrane level only in NSCLC cell lines sensitive to the drug inducing protein stabilization. The combined treatment had marginal effect on cell proliferation but markedly increased antibody-dependent, NK mediated, cytotoxicity in vitro. Moreover, in the Calu-3 xenograft model, the combination significantly inhibited tumour growth when compared with erlotinib and cetuximab alone. Conclusion Our results indicate that erlotinib increases surface expression of EGFR and/or HER2 only in EGFR-TKI sensitive NSCLC cell lines and, in turns, leads to increased susceptibility to ADCC both in vitro and in a xenograft models. The combination of erlotinib with monoclonal antibodies represents a potential strategy to improve the treatment of wild-type EGFR NSCLC patients sensitive to erlotinib.

  17. Balance in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder-combined type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Hsun-Ying; Kuo, Li-Chieh; Yang, Ai-Lun; Su, Chia-Ting

    2014-06-01

    The balance ability in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder-combined type (ADHD-C) has not been fully examined, particularly dynamic sitting balance. Moreover, the findings of some published studies are contradictory. We examined the static and dynamic sitting balance ability in 20 children with ADHD-C (mean age: 9 years 3 months; 18 boys, 2 girls) and 20 age-, sex-, height-, weight-, and IQ-matched healthy and typically developing controls (mean age: 9 years 2 months; 18 boys, 2 girls). The balance subtests of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC) and the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOTMP) were used to compare the two groups, and a mechanical horseback riding test was recorded using a motion-capture system. Compared with the controls, children with ADHD-C had less-consistent patterns of movement, more deviation of movement area, and less-effective balance strategies during mechanical horseback riding. In addition, their performance on the balance subtests of the MABC and BOTMP were not as well as those of the controls. Our findings suggest that balance ability skill levels in children with ADHD-C were generally not as high as those of the controls in various aspects, including static and dynamic balance.

  18. Taxonomy of Hylotribus Jekel (Coleoptera: Anthribidae, Anthribinae): new synonymies, combinations and type designations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, Fernando Ávila; Elgueta, Mario; Mermudes, José Ricardo M

    2017-02-02

    The type material of six species of Anthribidae from Chile and one from Peru, originally described as Stenocerus Schoenherr and Stenorrhynchus Philippi & Philippi and later transferred to Hylotribus Jekel, was reexamined. These species are Stenocerus asperatus Blanchard, 1851, Stenocerus aspis Erichson, 1847, Stenocerus posticalis Philippi & Philippi, 1864, Stenocerus quadratipennis Germain, 1854, Stenorrhynchus quadrinotatus Philippi & Philippi, 1864, and Stenocerus tuberculosus Blanchard, 1851. Lectotype designations were made for Hylotribus asperatus, Hylotribus quadratipennis, and Hylotribus tuberculosus. New synonyms were established as follows: Hylotribus signatipes (Blanchard, 1851) = H. quadratipennis (Germain, 1854) syn. n., = H. quadrinotatus (Philippi & Philippi, 1864) syn. n., Hylotribus asperatus (Blanchard, 1851) = H. posticalis (Philippi & Philippi, 1864) syn. n.. While, Hylotribus aspis (Erichson, 1847) from Peru was transferred to Piesocorynus Dejean, 1834 and a new combination and synonymy proposed, Piesocorynus aspis (Erichson, 1847) n. comb. = Piesocorynus gracilicornis (Jekel, 1855) syn. n. The genus Hylotribus is defined with five species from Chile and six from Brazil, and the Chilean species are redescribed with illustrations. A new key to all species is included.

  19. The ingenious Mr Hughes: Combining forced, flat, and reverse perspective all in one art piece to pit objects against surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papathomas, Thomas V; Baker, Nicholas; Yeshua, Arielle S; Zhuang, Xiaohua; Ng, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    The artist Patrick Hughes has ingeniously painted rows of stacked Brillo boxes in Forced into Reverse Perspective. The geometry is in reverse perspective, predicting only one type of illusory motion for each planar surface for moving viewers. He “broke” these surfaces into objects by painting the boxes in three types of perspective (planar, forced, and reverse). Our experiments confirmed that he succeeded in eliciting different types of illusory motion, including “differential motion” between boxes for most viewers. In some sense, this illustrates the superiority of secondary (painted) over primary (physical) cues. PMID:23145280

  20. The Ingenious Mr Hughes: Combining Forced, Fat, and Reverse Perspective All in One Art Piece to Pit Objects against Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas V Papathomas

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The artist Patrick Hughes has ingeniously painted rows of stacked Brillo boxes in Forced into Reverse Perspective. The geometry is in reverse perspective, predicting only one type of illusory motion for each planar surface for moving viewers. He “broke” these surfaces into objects by painting the boxes in three types of perspective (planar, forced, and reverse. Our experiments confirmed that he succeeded in eliciting different types of illusory motion, including “differential motion” between boxes for most viewers. In some sense, this illustrates the superiority of secondary (painted over primary (physical cues.

  1. [Rapid determination of melamine in pet food by surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy in combination with Ag nanoparticles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jie; Su, Xiao-Ou

    2011-01-01

    The rapid qualitative and quantitative analysis of melamine in pet food was realized by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy in combination with Ag nanoparticle. In the present study, the 709 and 1 542 cm(-1) Raman shift was chosen as qualitative basis. The quantitative calculation of the concentration range between 1.0 and 10.0 mg x kg(-1) was achieved based on the intensity of 1 149 cm(-1) Raman peak which was used as a normalization standard. The limit of detection was 0.5 mg x kg(-1). The Ag nanoparticle had a strong Raman enhancement effect on melamine and the intensity was affected by the adding time of Ag nanoparticle and the vortex strength. At the same time, the intensity of SERS was affected by the extraction solvent type, and the manner of extraction. The analysis time of each sample was about 5 min. It was so quick that it was easy to realize the rapid detection of melamine in pet food compared with existing methods.

  2. Improvement of Surface Wettability and Hydrophilization of Poly-paraphenylene benzobisoxazole Fiber with Fibrillation Combined Oxygen Plasma Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiwen Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A new surface modification method fibrillation combined with oxygen plasma treatment to improve the wettability and hydrophily of PBO fiber was studied in this paper. The surface chemical structure and morphology of PBO fiber were characterized by the methods of FTIR, XPS and SEM. The wettability and hydrophlic characters changes on the surface were evaluated by the dynamic contact angle system and image analysis. The results show that the increase surface roughness by fibrillation could improve the wettability. Fibrillation combined oxygen plasma treatment has a better effect than oxygen plasma treatment to improve the wettability and hdyrophlization of PBO fiber. The specific area of PBO fiber increased to 10.7 m2/g from 0.7 m2/g, contact angle decreased to 43.2° from 84.4° and WRV increased to 208.4% from 13.7%. The modified fibers have a good dispersion in water for hydrophilization improvement.

  3. Analysis of separate and combined effects of common variation in KCNJ11 and PPARG on risk of type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Sara Krogh; Nielsen, Eva-Maria D; Ek, Jakob

    2005-01-01

    The separate and combined effects of the PPARG Pro(12)Ala polymorphism and the KCNJ11 Glu(23)Lys polymorphisms on risk of type 2 diabetes were investigated in relatively large-scale, case-control studies. Separate effects of the variants were examined among 1187/1461 type 2 diabetic patients...... the PPARG Pro(12)Ala showed no significant association with type 2 diabetes. The combined analysis indicated that the two polymorphisms acted in an additive manner to increase the risk of type 2 diabetes, and we found no evidence for a synergistic interaction between them. Analysis of a model with equal...... between the KCNJ11 Glu(23)Lys and PPARG Pro(12)Ala polymorphisms, but indicated that they may act in an additive manner to increase the risk of type 2 diabetes....

  4. Controlled parallel crystallization of lithium disilicate and diopside using a combination of internal and surface nucleation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampf, Markus; Dittmer, Marc; Ritzberger, Christian; Höland, Wolfram

    2016-10-01

    In the mid-19th century, Dr. Donald Stookey identified the importance and usability of nucleating agents and mechanisms for the development of glass-ceramic materials. Today, a number of various internal and surface mechanisms as well as combinations thereof have been established in the production of glass-ceramic materials. In order to create new innovative material properties the present study focuses on the precipitation of CaMgSiO6 as a minor phase in Li2Si2O5 based glass-ceramics. In the base glass of the SiO2-Li2O-P2O5-Al2O3-K2O-MgO-CaO system P2O5 serves as nucleating agent for the internal precipitation of Li2Si2O5 crystals while a mechanical activation of the glass surface by means of ball milling is necessary to nucleate the minor CaMgSi2O6 crystal phase. For a successful precipitation of CaMgSi2O6 a minimum ratio of MgO and CaO in the range between 1.4 mol% and 2.9 mol% in the base glasses was determined. The nucleation and crystallization of both crystal phases takes place during sintering a powder compact. Dependent on the quality of the sintering process the dense Li2Si2O5-CaMgSi2O6 glass-ceramics show a mean biaxial strength of up to 392 ± 98 MPa. The microstructure of the glass-ceramics is formed by large (5-10 µm) bar like CaMgSi2O6 crystals randomly embedded in a matrix of small (≤ 0.5 µm) plate like Li2Si2O5 crystals arranged in an interlocking manner. While there is no significant influence of the minor CaMgSi2O6 phase on the strength of the material, the translucency of the material decreases upon precipitation of the minor phase.

  5. Surface modification on a glass surface with a combination technique of sol–gel and air brushing processes

    KAUST Repository

    Tsai, Meng-Yu

    2011-08-01

    This study fabricated the large area and optically transparent superhydrophobic silica based films on glass surface with optimized hardness. A silane coupling agent, tetraethoxysilane (TEOS), effectively bonds silica particles onto the glass substrate. Desired surface roughness was obtained by adjusting nano silica particles concentration of the precursors prepared by the sol-gel process. Silica suspension was coated onto the glass substrate by the air brushing methods. This method can deposit a uniform, transparent coating on the glass substrate efficiently. Diluting the precursor by adding ethanol or a mixture of D.I. water and ethanol further improved the transmittance and superhydrophobicity efficiency. The results showed that as the silica particle concentration and the thickness of the coating were increased, the surface roughness was enhanced. Rougher surface displayed a higher superhydrophobicity and lower transmittance. Therefore, the concentration of silica particle, volume of coatings, and the ratio of ethanol and D.I. water are of great importance to deposit a transparent, superhydrophobic coating on glass. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Combining Modis and Quikscat Data to Delineate Surface and Near-Surface Melt on the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Nghiem, Son V.; DiGirolamo, Nicolo E.; Neumann, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    Over the last two decades, increasing melt has been measured on the Greenland Ice Sheet, along with mass loss as determined from satellite data, Monitoring the state of the Greenland Ice Sheet becomes critical especially because it is actively losing mass, and the ice sheet has a sea-level rise potential of 7 in. However measurement of the extent of surface melt varies depending on the sensor used, whether it is passive or active microwave or visible or thermal infrared. We have used remote-sensing data products to study surface and near-surface melt characteristics of the Greenland Ice Sheet. We present a blended MODIS-QS melt daily product for 2007 [1]. The products, including Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) daily land-surface temperature (LST) and a special daily melt product derived from the QuikSCAT (QS) scatterometer [2,3] show consistency in delineating the melt boundaries on a daily basis in the 2007 melt season [I], though some differences are identified. An assessment of maximum melt area for the 2007 melt shows that the QSCAT product detects a greater amount of melt (862,769 square kilometers) than is detected by the MODIS LST product (766,184 square kilometers). The discrepancy is largely because the QS product can detect both surface and near-surface melt and the QS product captures melt if it occurred anytime during the day while the MODIS product is obtained from a point in time on a given day. However on a daily bases, other factors influence the measurement of melt extent. In this work we employ the digital-elevation model of Bamber et al. [4] along with the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) data to study some areas and time periods in detail during the 2007 melt season. We focus on times in which the QS and MODIS LST products do not agree exactly. We use NCEP and elevation data to analyze the atmospheric factors forcing the melt process, to gain an improved understanding of the conditions that lead to melt

  7. Heterotic-type IIA duality and degenerations of K3 surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, A.P. [Department of Mathematics, University of Oxford,Andrew Wiles Building, Woodstock Rd, Oxford OX2 6GG (United Kingdom); Watari, T. [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo,Kashiwano-ha 5-1-5, 277-8583 (Japan)

    2016-08-04

    We study the duality between four-dimensional N=2 compactifications of heterotic and type IIA string theories. Via adiabatic fibration of the duality in six dimensions, type IIA string theory compactified on a K3-fibred Calabi-Yau threefold has a potential heterotic dual compactification. This adiabatic picture fails whenever the K3 fibre degenerates into multiple components over points in the base of the fibration. Guided by monodromy, we identify such degenerate K3 fibres as solitons generalizing the NS5-brane in heterotic string theory. The theory of degenerations of K3 surfaces can then be used to find which solitons can be present on the heterotic side. Similar to small instanton transitions, these solitons escort singular transitions between different Calabi-Yau threefolds. Starting from well-known examples of heterotic-type IIA duality, such transitions can take us to type IIA compactifications with unknown heterotic duals.

  8. Combining phenotypic and proteomic approaches to identify membrane targets in a ‘triple negative’ breast cancer cell type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rust Steven

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The continued discovery of therapeutic antibodies, which address unmet medical needs, requires the continued discovery of tractable antibody targets. Multiple protein-level target discovery approaches are available and these can be used in combination to extensively survey relevant cell membranomes. In this study, the MDA-MB-231 cell line was selected for membranome survey as it is a ‘triple negative’ breast cancer cell line, which represents a cancer subtype that is aggressive and has few treatment options. Methods The MDA-MB-231 breast carcinoma cell line was used to explore three membranome target discovery approaches, which were used in parallel to cross-validate the significance of identified antigens. A proteomic approach, which used membrane protein enrichment followed by protein identification by mass spectrometry, was used alongside two phenotypic antibody screening approaches. The first phenotypic screening approach was based on hybridoma technology and the second was based on phage display technology. Antibodies isolated by the phenotypic approaches were tested for cell specificity as well as internalisation and the targets identified were compared to each other as well as those identified by the proteomic approach. An anti-CD73 antibody derived from the phage display-based phenotypic approach was tested for binding to other ‘triple negative’ breast cancer cell lines and tested for tumour growth inhibitory activity in a MDA-MB-231 xenograft model. Results All of the approaches identified multiple cell surface markers, including integrins, CD44, EGFR, CD71, galectin-3, CD73 and BCAM, some of which had been previously confirmed as being tractable to antibody therapy. In total, 40 cell surface markers were identified for further study. In addition to cell surface marker identification, the phenotypic antibody screening approaches provided reagent antibodies for target validation studies. This is illustrated

  9. High surface hole concentration p-type GaN using Mg implantation

    CERN Document Server

    Long Tao; Zhang Guo Yi

    2001-01-01

    Mg ions were implanted on Mg-doped GaN grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The p-type GaN was achieved with high hole concentration (8.28 x 10 sup 1 sup 7 cm sup - sup 3) conformed by Van derpauw Hall measurement after annealing at 800 degree C for 1 h. this is the first experimental report of Mg implantation on Mg-doped GaN and achieving p-type GaN with high surface hole concentration

  10. Combining surface plasmonic and light extraction enhancement on InGaN quantum-well light-emitters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fadil, Ahmed; Ou, Yiyu; Iida, Daisuke

    2016-01-01

    Surface plasmon coupling with light-emitters and surface nano-patterning have widely been used separately to improve low efficiency InGaN light-emitting diodes. We demonstrate a method where dielectric nano-patterning and Ag nanoparticles (NPs) are combined to provide both light extraction...... and internal quantum efficiency enhancement for InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitters. By fabricating dielectric nano-rod pattern on the GaN surface, an optical coating that improves the light extraction is obtained, and furthermore has a low refractive index which blue-shifts the plasmonic resonance of Ag NPs...

  11. Obtaining detailed structural information about supramolecular systems on surfaces by combining high-resolution force microscopy with ab initio calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Shigeki; Sadeghi, Ali; Xu, Feng; Feng, Xu; Peng, Lifen; Lifen, Peng; Pawlak, Rémy; Glatzel, Thilo; Willand, Alexander; Orita, Akihiro; Otera, Junzo; Goedecker, Stefan; Meyer, Ernst

    2013-10-22

    State-of-the art experimental techniques such as scanning tunneling microscopy have great difficulties in extracting detailed structural information about molecules adsorbed on surfaces. By combining atomic force microscopy and Kelvin probe force microscopy with ab initio calculations, we demonstrate that we can obtain a wealth of detailed structural information about the molecule itself and its environment. Studying an FFPB molecule on a gold surface, we are able to determine its exact location on the surface, the nature of its bonding properties with neighboring molecules that lead to the growth of one-dimensional strips, and the internal torsions and bendings of the molecule.

  12. Combined 'en bloc' liver and pancreas transplantation in patients with liver disease and type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirenne, Jacques; Deloose, Koen; Coosemans, Willy; Aerts, Raymond; Van Gelder, Frank; Kuypers, Dirk; Maes, Bart; Verslype, Chris; Yap, Paul; Van Steenbergen, Werner; Roskams, Tania; Mathieu, Chantal; Fevery, Johan; Nevens, Frederik

    2004-11-01

    Liver disease alters the glucose metabolism and may cause diabetes, but this condition is potentially reversible with liver transplantation (LTx). Type 1 diabetes mellitus may be coincidentally present in a LTx candidate and immunosuppressive drugs will aggravate diabetes and make its management more difficult for posttransplant. In addition, diabetes negatively influences outcome after LTx. Therefore, the question arises as to why not transplanting the pancreas in addition to the liver in selected patients suffering from both liver disease and Type 1 diabetes. We report two cases of en bloc combined liver and pancreatic transplantation, a technique originally described a decade ago in the treatment of upper abdominal malignancies but rarely used for the treatment of combined liver disease and Type 1 diabetes. Both recipients are currently liver disease-free and insulin-free more than 2 and 4 years posttransplant, respectively. Surgical, medical and immunological aspects of combined liver-pancreas transplantation are discussed in the light of the existing relevant literature.

  13. A combined electrochemical and DFT study of the lattice strain effect on the surface reactivity of Pd

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    We report a combined study of electrochemical experiments and ab initio calculations on tuning the surface reactivity of Pd via a compressive lattice strain achieved by employing nanoparticles of Pd-Cu alloys with a Pd-rich surface. Surface oxygen-containing species were used as the probing molecule for revealing the surface reactivity. Both density functional theory (DFT) calculations and experiments showed linear relationships, with very close slopes, between the adsorption strength of OHads and the Pd lattice constant. Not only is this work a successful realization of controllable modulation in the surface reactivity, but it also provides valuable information for the rational design of Pd-based catalysts for fuel cell applications.

  14. Uranium in surface soils: an easy-and-quick assay combining X-ray diffraction and fluorescence qualitative data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, M. O.; Silva, T. P.; Batista, M. J.; Leote, J.; Ferreira, M. L.; Limpo, V.

    2009-04-01

    Portugal has been a uranium-producer since the beginning of the last century. The uranium-rich area of Alto Alentejo, East-central Portugal, was identified more than fifty years ago [1]. Almost all the uranium-bearing mineralization occurs in schistose rocks of the contact metamorphic aureole produced by intrusion of the Hercynian monzonitic granite of Alto Alentejo into the pre-Ordovitian schist-greywacke complex forming deposits of vein and dissemination type. The Nisa uranium-reservoir, situated at the sharp border of a large and arch shaped granite pluton, was identified in 1957 [2] but its exploitation was considered economically impracticable until recently. However, its existence and the accumulated detritus of these prospect efforts are a concern for local populations [3]. A study of the near-surface soils close to the Nisa reservoir was therefore undertaken to assess the uranium retention by adsorption on clay components under the form of uranyl ions, [UO2]2+ [4-6] and its eventual release into the aquifer groundwater. As an attempt to very quickly appraise the presence of uranium in as-collected near-surface sediment samples a combination of laboratory X-ray techniques was designed: X-ray diffraction (XRD) to identify the mineral phases and roughly estimate its relative proportion plus X-ray fluorescence spectrometry in wavelength dispersive mode (XRF-WDS) to ascertain the presence of uranium and tentatively evaluate its content by comparison with selected chemical components of the soil. A description of the experimental methodology adopted for the implemented easy-and-quick uranium assay is presented. Obtained results compare quite well to the data of certified time-consuming analytical tests of uranium in those soil samples. [1] L. Pilar (1966) Conditions of formation of Nisa uranium deposit (in Portuguese). Comunic. Serv. Geol. Portugal, tomo L, 50-85. [2] C. Gonçalves & J.V. Teixeira Lopes (1971) Uranium deposit of Nisa: geological aspects of its

  15. The genus distributions for a certain type of permutation graphs in orientable surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong-xia; HAO; Wei-li; HE; Yan-pei; LIU; Er-ling; WEI

    2007-01-01

    A circuit is a connected nontrivial 2-regular graph. A graph G is a permutation graph over a circuit C, if G can be obtained from two copies of C by joining these two copies with a perfect matching. In this paper, based on the joint tree method introduced by Liu, the genus polynomials for a certain type of permutation graphs in orientable surfaces are given.

  16. New Hybrid Properties of TiO2 Nanoparticles Surface Modified With Catecholate Type Ligands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janković, Ivana A.; Šaponjić, Zoran V.; Džunuzović, Enis S.; Nedeljković, Jovan M.

    2010-01-01

    Surface modification of nanocrystalline TiO2 particles (45 Å) with bidentate benzene derivatives (catechol, pyrogallol, and gallic acid) was found to alter optical properties of nanoparticles. The formation of the inner-sphere charge-transfer complexes results in a red shift of the semiconductor absorption compared to unmodified nanocrystallites. The binding structures were investigated by using FTIR spectroscopy. The investigated ligands have the optimal geometry for chelating surface Ti atoms, resulting in ring coordination complexes (catecholate type of binuclear bidentate binding-bridging) thus restoring in six-coordinated octahedral geometry of surface Ti atoms. From the Benesi-Hildebrand plot, the stability constants at pH 2 of the order 103 M-1 have been determined.

  17. Reflectance anisotropy for characterising fine-scale changes in soil surface condition across different soil types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, Holly; Anderson, Karen; Kuhn, Nikolaus J.

    2010-05-01

    Soils can experience rapid structural degradation in response to land cover changes, resulting in a reduction in soil productivity, an increased susceptibility to erosion and increased release of greenhouse gases. Soil surface roughness at the centimetre scale plays a fundamental role in affecting soil erosion and surface runoff pathways. A decline in surface roughness can also be used to infer soil degradation as soil aggregates are broken down through raindrop impact. However, due to the time and resources involved in using traditional field sampling techniques, there is a lack of spatially-distributed information on soil surface condition. Remotely sensed data can provide a cost-effective means of monitoring changes in soil surface condition over broad spatial extents. Furthermore, a growing recognition into the importance of the directional reflectance domain has led to an increasing number of satellites with multiple view angle (MVA) capabilities (e.g. MISR, CHRIS on Proba). This is potentially useful for monitoring soil degradation and susceptibility to erosion because changes in soil surface roughness, associated with the breakdown of macro-aggregates, have a measurable effect on directional reflectance factors. Consequently, field and laboratory data are required for an empirical understanding of soil directional reflectance characteristics, underpinning subsequent model development. This study assessed the extent to which a hyperspectral MVA approach (350-2500 nm) could detect fine-scale changes in soil crusting states across five different soil types. A series of soil crusting states were produced for all five soil types, using an artificial rainfall simulator. The controlled conditions allowed the production of a series of stages in the soil crusting process; showing progressively declining surface roughness values. Each soil state was then spatially characterised, using a laboratory laser device at 2 mm sample spacing, over a 10 x 10 cm area. Laser data

  18. A combined modelling and experimental study of the surface energetics of alpha-lactose monohydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, A; Kendrick, J; Grimsey, I M; Roberts, R; York, P

    2010-02-01

    The surface energy of alpha-lactose monohydrate measured by inverse gas chromatography (IGC) is reported along with a dynamic molecular modelling study of the interaction of the various molecular probes with different surfaces of alpha-lactose monohydrate. The IGC results show that alpha-lactose monohydrate is acidic in nature. Using quantitative calculations of the energy of adsorption, the acidic nature of the surface is confirmed and the calculated values agree closely with the experimentally measured values. Along with the acidic nature, dynamic molecular modelling also reveals that the presence of a channel and water molecules on a surface affects the surface energetics of that face. The presence of water on the surface can decrease or increase the surface energy by either blocking or attracting a probe molecule, respectively. This property of water depends on its position and association with other functional groups present on the surface. The effect of a channel or cavity on the surface energy is shown to depend on its size, which determines whether the functional groups in the channel are assessable by probe molecules or not. Overall molecular modelling explains, at the molecular level, the effect of different factors affecting the surface energy of individual faces of the crystal. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  19. Towards a high-throughput label-free detection system combining localized-surface plasmon resonance and microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Tang, Yunfang; Hsieh, Yi-Heui; Hsu, Chuen-Yuan; Xi, Jianzhong; Lin, Kuan-Jiuh; Jiang, Xingyu

    2012-09-07

    This work reports an integrated platform combining localized-surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) and microfluidic chips to carry out multiplexed and label-free protein analysis. We fabricated an optical bench to enable detection using only a laboratory UV-Vis spectrophotometer. This assay not only improves throughput, but also allows quantitative analysis.

  20. Density gradient theory combined with the PC-SAFT equation of state used for modeling the surface tension of associating systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinš Václav

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The density gradient theory (GT combined with a SAFT-type (Statistical Associating Fluid Theory equation of state has been used for modeling the surface tension of associating fluids represented by a series of six alkanols ranging from methanol to 1-pentanol. The effect of nonzero dipole moment of the selected alkanols on the predicted surface tension was investigated in this study. Results of the GT + non-polar Perturbed Chain (PC SAFT equation of state were compared to predictions of GT combined with the PC-polar-SAFT, i.e. PCP-SAFT, equation. Both GT + PC-SAFT and GT + PCP-SAFT give reasonable prediction of the surface tension for pure alkanols. Results of both models are comparable as no significant difference in the modeled saturation properties and in the predicted surface tension using GT was found. Consideration of dipolar molecules of selected alkanols using PCP-SAFT had only minor effect on the predicted properties compared to the non-polar PC-SAFT model.

  1. Combined Effect of Surface Tension, Gravity and van der Waals Force Induced by a Non-Contact Probe Tip on the Shape of Liquid Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Nan; BAI Yi-Long; XIA Meng-Fen; KE Fu-Jiu

    2005-01-01

    @@ Aiming at understanding how a liquid film on a substrate affects the atomic force microscopic image in experiments, we present an analytical representation of the shape of liquid surface under van der Waals interaction induced by a non-contact probe tip. The analytical expression shows good consistence with the corresponding numerical results. According to the expression, we find that the vertical scale of the liquid dome is mainly gov erned by a combination of van der Waals force, surface tension and probe tip radius, and is weekly related to gravity. However, its horizontal extension is determined by the capillary length.

  2. Wetting effects of surface treatments on inlay wax-investment combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, J T; Duncanson, M G; Shillingburg, H T

    1981-11-01

    Gypsum-bonded and phosphate-bonded investments were applied to wax surfaces which were untreated, treated by buffing with cotton moistened with a die lubricant containing organic solvent, or treatment with a wax pattern cleaner. Contact angles between the investment material and wax surfaces were measured and compared. The treatment of a wax pattern with a surface tension reducing agent significantly increases the degree of wetting by both gypsum- and phosphate-bonded investments.

  3. Surface effects after a combination of dental bleaching and enamel microabrasion: An in vitro and in situ study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Laura Molinar; Machado, Lucas Silveira; Salomão, Fabio Martins; Dos Santos, Paulo Henrique; Briso, André Luiz Fraga; Sundfeld, Renato Herman

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of combining enamel microabrasion and dental bleaching on the physical properties of enamel, using in vitro and in situ conditions and evaluating surface roughness, enamel microhardness and scanning electron microscopy images. One hundred sound bovine teeth were sectioned and cut into discs and randomly divided into 10 study groups (n=10). The results were submitted to Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) for repeated measures, followed by the Tukey test, with significance at 5%. Enamel surface roughness was significantly influenced by microabrasion, regardless of being combined with dental bleaching, for both HS (Human Saliva) or AS (Artificial Saliva) condition. Enamel microhardness was significantly decreased in the groups in which enamel microabrasion was performed, regardless its combination with dental bleaching; although storage in HS reestablished the initial enamel microhardness. It was concluded that dental bleaching does not cause major damage to microabraided enamel, and that only human saliva recovered the initial enamel microhardness.

  4. Not just a sum? : Identifying different types of interplay between constituents in combined interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Deun, Katrijn; Thorrez, Lieven; van den Berg, Robert A.; Smilde, Age K.; Van Mechelen, Iven

    2015-01-01

    Motivation Experiments in which the effect of combined manipulations is compared with the effects of their pure constituents have received a great deal of attention. Examples include the study of combination therapies and the comparison of double and single knockout model organisms. Often the effect

  5. Not Just a Sum? Identifying Different Types of Interplay between Constituents in Combined Interventions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Deun, K.; Thorrez, L.; van Berg, R.A.; Smilde, A.K.; Van Mechelen, I.

    2015-01-01

    MOTIVATION: Experiments in which the effect of combined manipulations is compared with the effects of their pure constituents have received a great deal of attention. Examples include the study of combination therapies and the comparison of double and single knockout model organisms. Often the

  6. Combined use of atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and secondary ion mass spectrometry for cell surface analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dague, Etienne; Delcorte, Arnaud; Latgé, Jean-Paul; Dufrêne, Yves F

    2008-04-01

    Understanding the surface properties of microbial cells is a major challenge of current microbiological research and a key to efficiently exploit them in biotechnology. Here, we used three advanced surface analysis techniques with different sensitivity, probing depth, and lateral resolution, that is, in situ atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and secondary ion mass spectrometry, to gain insight into the surface properties of the conidia of the human fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. We show that the native ultrastructure, surface protein and polysaccharide concentrations, and amino acid composition of three mutants affected in hydrophobin production are markedly different from those of the wild-type, thereby providing novel insight into the cell wall architecture of A. fumigatus. The results demonstrate the power of using multiple complementary techniques for probing microbial cell surfaces.

  7. Effect of surface BRDF of various land cover types on geostationary observations of tropospheric NO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, K.; Richter, A.; Rozanov, V.; Rozanov, A.; Burrows, J. P.; Irie, H.; Kita, K.

    2014-10-01

    We investigated the effect of surface reflectance anisotropy, bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF), on satellite retrievals of tropospheric NO2. We assume the geometry of geostationary measurements over Tokyo, which is one of the worst air-polluted regions in East Asia. We calculated air mass factors (AMF) and box AMFs (BAMF) for tropospheric NO2 to evaluate the effect of BRDF by using the radiative transfer model SCIATRAN. To model the BRDF effect, we utilized the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) products (MOD43B1 and MOD43B2), which provide three coefficients to express the RossThick-LiSparse reciprocal model, a semi-empirical and kernel-based model of BRDF. Because BRDF depends on the land cover type, we also utilized the High Resolution Land-Use and Land-Cover Map of the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS)/Advanced Visible and Near Infrared Radiometer type 2 (AVNIR-2), which classifies the ground pixels over Tokyo into six main types: water, urban, paddy, crop, deciduous forest, and evergreen forest. We first develop an empirical model of the three BRDF coefficients for each land cover type over Tokyo and then apply the model to the calculation of land-cover-type-dependent AMFs and BAMFs. Results show that the variability of AMF among the land types is up to several tens of percent, and if we neglect the reflectance anisotropy, the difference with AMFs based on BRDF reaches 10% or more. The evaluation of the BAMFs calculated shows that not considering BRDF will cause large errors if the concentration of NO2 is high close to the surface, although the importance of BRDF for AMFs decreases for large aerosol optical depth (AOD).

  8. Campylobacter fetus surface layer proteins are transported by a type I secretion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, S A; Shedd, O L; Ray, K C; Beins, M H; Jorgensen, J P; Blaser, M J

    1998-12-01

    The virulence of Campylobacter fetus, a bacterial pathogen of ungulates and humans, is mediated in part by the presence of a paracrystalline surface layer (S-layer) that confers serum resistance. The subunits of the S-layer are S-layer proteins (SLPs) that are secreted in the absence of an N-terminal signal sequence and attach to either type A or B C. fetus lipopolysaccharide in a serospecific manner. Antigenic variation of multiple SLPs (encoded by sapA homologs) of type A strain 23D occurs by inversion of a promoter-containing DNA element flanked by two sapA homologs. Cloning and sequencing of the entire 6.2-kb invertible region from C. fetus 23D revealed a probable 5.6-kb operon of four overlapping genes (sapCDEF, with sizes of 1,035, 1,752, 1,284, and 1,302 bp, respectively) transcribed in the opposite direction from sapA. The four genes also were present in the invertible region of type B strain 84-107 and were virtually identical to their counterparts in the type A strain. Although SapC had no database homologies, SapD, SapE, and SapF had predicted amino acid homologies with type I protein secretion systems (typified by Escherichia coli HlyBD/TolC or Erwinia chrysanthemi PrtDEF) that utilize C-terminal secretion signals to mediate the secretion of hemolysins, leukotoxins, or proteases from other bacterial species. Analysis of the C termini of four C. fetus SLPs revealed conserved structures that are potential secretion signals. A C. fetus sapD mutant neither produced nor secreted SLPs. E. coli expressing C. fetus sapA and sapCDEF secreted SapA, indicating that the sapCDEF genes are sufficient for SLP secretion. C. fetus SLPs therefore are transported to the cell surface by a type I secretion system.

  9. Surface Modification by Means of Laser Melting Combined with Shot Peening : A Novel Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordhuis, J.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De

    1992-01-01

    Among the available laser applications laser surface melting has turned out to be a powerful technique for the production of wear-resistant layers. Despite the advantages of this process, laser surface melting results in tensile stresses which may assist crack propagation. In this paper it will be

  10. SURFACE MODIFICATION BY MEANS OF LASER MELTING COMBINED WITH SHOT PEENING - A NOVEL-APPROACH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NOORDHUIS, J; DEHOSSON, JTM

    1992-01-01

    Among the available laser applications laser surface melting has turned out to be a powerful technique for the production of wear-resistant layers. Despite the advantages of this process, laser surface melting results in tensile stresses which may assist crack propagation. In this paper it will be

  11. Surface Modification by Means of Laser Melting Combined with Shot Peening : A Novel Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordhuis, J.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De

    1992-01-01

    Among the available laser applications laser surface melting has turned out to be a powerful technique for the production of wear-resistant layers. Despite the advantages of this process, laser surface melting results in tensile stresses which may assist crack propagation. In this paper it will be s

  12. SURFACE MODIFICATION BY MEANS OF LASER MELTING COMBINED WITH SHOT PEENING - A NOVEL-APPROACH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NOORDHUIS, J; DEHOSSON, JTM

    1992-01-01

    Among the available laser applications laser surface melting has turned out to be a powerful technique for the production of wear-resistant layers. Despite the advantages of this process, laser surface melting results in tensile stresses which may assist crack propagation. In this paper it will be s

  13. Surface enzyme kinetics for biopolymer microarrays: a combination of Langmuir and Michaelis-Menten concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye Jin; Wark, Alastair W; Goodrich, Terry T; Fang, Shiping; Corn, Robert M

    2005-04-26

    Real-time surface plasmon resonance (SPR) imaging measurements of surface enzymatic reactions on DNA microarrays are analyzed using a kinetics model that couples the contributions of both enzyme adsorption and surface enzyme reaction kinetics. For the case of a 1:1 binding of an enzyme molecule (E) to a surface-immobilized substrate (S), the overall enzymatic reaction can be described in terms of classical Langmuir adsorption and Michaelis-Menten concepts and three rate constants: enzyme adsorption (k(a)), enzyme desorption (k(d)) and enzyme catalysis (k(cat)). In contrast to solution enzyme kinetics, the amount of enzyme in solution is in excess as compared to the amount of substrate on the surface. Moreover, the surface concentration of the intermediary enzyme-substrate complex (ES) is not constant with time, but goes to zero as the reaction is completed. However, kinetic simulations show that the fractional surface coverage of ES on the remaining unreacted sites does reach a steady-state value throughout the course of the surface reaction. This steady-state value approaches the Langmuir equilibrium value for cases where k(a)[E] > k(cat). Experiments using the 3' --> 5' exodeoxyribonuclease activity of Exonuclease III on double-stranded DNA microarrays as a function of temperature and enzyme concentration are used to demonstrate how this model can be applied to quantitatively analyze the SPR imaging data.

  14. Olmesartan Combined With Amlodipine on Oxidative Stress Parameters in Type 2 Diabetics, Compared With Single Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derosa, Giuseppe; Mugellini, Amedeo; Pesce, Rosa Maria; D’Angelo, Angela; Maffioli, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To evaluate the effects of a fixed combination of olmesartan/amlodipine compared with olmesartan or amlodipine alone on some parameters of endothelial damage in diabetic, hypertensive patients. We enrolled 221 patients; 74 were randomized to olmesartan 20 mg, 72 to amlodipine 10 mg, and 75 to olmesartan/amlodipine fixed combination 20/5 mg for 12 months. We assessed blood pressure monthly; in addition, we also assessed at baseline, and after 6 and 12 months, the following parameters: lipoprotein (a), myeloperoxidase (MPO), isoprostanes, and paraoxonase-1 (PON-1). Blood pressure values obtained with fixed olmesartan/amlodipine combination were significantly lower than those reached with single monotherapies. There was a reduction of lipoprotein (a), and isoprostanes levels with olmesartan/amlodipine fixed combination, both compared with baseline, and with single monotherapies. On the other hand, there was an increase of PON-1 with fixed olmesartan/amlodipine combination, both compared with baseline, and with single drugs. All treatments reduced MPO compared with baseline; however, in group-to-group comparison, MPO reduction was greater with olmesartan/amlodipine fixed combination. Fixed combination of olmesartan/amlodipine was more effective than single monotherapies in reducing oxidative stress, especially in increasing PON-1, and reducing isoprostanes levels in diabetic and hypertensive patients. PMID:27043671

  15. Chemistry of the interaction between azole type corrosion inhibitor molecules and metal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovacevic, Natasa [Department of Physical and Organic Chemistry, Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Kokalj, Anton, E-mail: tone.kokalj@ijs.si [Department of Physical and Organic Chemistry, Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2012-11-15

    By means of density functional theory calculations, it has been shown how typical organic corrosion inhibitors-molecules that have the ability to remarkably slow down the corrosion of metals and alloys-interact with bare surfaces of various types of metals. As representative model systems, benzimidazole and benzotriazole inhibitors on iron, copper, and aluminum surfaces are considered. It is found that bonding depends sensitively on the type of metal. On transition metals with open d-band the inhibitor molecules can chemisorb strongly either parallel to the surface with a pronounced {pi}-d hybridization or perpendicularly with unsaturated N atom(s) through {sigma}-molecular orbitals, whereas on transition metals with fully occupied d-band and on sp-metals the molecules weakly chemisorb only with the latter mode. In addition to neutral inhibitor molecules also inhibitors in deprotonated (anionic) and protonated (cationic) forms are considered, because many corrosion inhibitors possess acidic hydrogens as well as basic heteroatoms. It is shown that the chemisorptive bonding is far the strongest for deprotonated inhibitors and, moreover, that even protonated inhibitors may chemisorb, although such bonding is characteristic of more reactive metals. However adsorbed protonated inhibitors are likely to deprotonate on all considered metals, whereas further deprotonation from neutral to deprotonated form is more likely on more reactive metals. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bonding of azole corrosion inhibitors onto metal surfaces characterized by DFT calculations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adsorption bonding depends sensitively on the type of metal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Azoles bond with either {pi}-system or {sigma}-orbitals to transition metals with open d-band. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Azoles bond with {sigma}-orbitals to transition metals with fully occupied d-band and to sp-metals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Among various molecular forms

  16. A connectionist-geostatistical approach for classification of deformation types in ice surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz-Weiss, L. R.; Herzfeld, U. C.; Hale, R. G.; Hunke, E. C.; Bobeck, J.

    2014-12-01

    Deformation is a class of highly non-linear geophysical processes from which one can infer other geophysical variables in a dynamical system. For example, in an ice-dynamic model, deformation is related to velocity, basal sliding, surface elevation changes, and the stress field at the surface as well as internal to a glacier. While many of these variables cannot be observed, deformation state can be an observable variable, because deformation in glaciers (once a viscosity threshold is exceeded) manifests itself in crevasses.Given the amount of information that can be inferred from observing surface deformation, an automated method for classifying surface imagery becomes increasingly desirable. In this paper a Neural Network is used to recognize classes of crevasse types over the Bering Bagley Glacier System (BBGS) during a surge (2011-2013-?). A surge is a spatially and temporally highly variable and rapid acceleration of the glacier. Therefore, many different crevasse types occur in a short time frame and in close proximity, and these crevasse fields hold information on the geophysical processes of the surge.The connectionist-geostatistical approach uses directional experimental (discrete) variograms to parameterize images into a form that the Neural Network can recognize. Recognizing that each surge wave results in different crevasse types and that environmental conditions affect the appearance in imagery, we have developed a semi-automated pre-training software to adapt the Neural Net to chaining conditions.The method is applied to airborne and satellite imagery to classify surge crevasses from the BBGS surge. This method works well for classifying spatially repetitive images such as the crevasses over Bering Glacier. We expand the network for less repetitive images in order to analyze imagery collected over the Arctic sea ice, to assess the percentage of deformed ice for model calibration.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of hybrid micro/nano-structured NiTi surfaces by a combination of etching and anodizing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huan, Z; Fratila-Apachitei, L E; Apachitei, I; Duszczyk, J

    2014-02-07

    The purpose of this study was to generate hybrid micro/nano-structures on biomedical nickel-titanium alloy (NiTi). To achieve this, NiTi surfaces were firstly electrochemically etched and then anodized in fluoride-containing electrolyte. With the etching process, the NiTi surface was micro-roughened through the formation of micropits uniformly distributed over the entire surface. Following the subsequent anodizing process, self-organized nanotube structures enriched in TiO2 could be superimposed on the etched surface under specific conditions. Furthermore, the anodizing treatment significantly reduced water contact angles and increased the surface free energy compared to the surfaces prior to anodizing. The results of this study show for the first time that it is possible to create hybrid micro/nano-structures on biomedical NiTi alloys by combining electrochemical etching and anodizing under controlled conditions. These novel structures are expected to significantly enhance the surface biofunctionality of the material when compared to conventional implant devices with either micro- or nano-structured surfaces.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of hybrid micro/nano-structured NiTi surfaces by a combination of etching and anodizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huan, Z.; Fratila-Apachitei, L. E.; Apachitei, I.; Duszczyk, J.

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to generate hybrid micro/nano-structures on biomedical nickel-titanium alloy (NiTi). To achieve this, NiTi surfaces were firstly electrochemically etched and then anodized in fluoride-containing electrolyte. With the etching process, the NiTi surface was micro-roughened through the formation of micropits uniformly distributed over the entire surface. Following the subsequent anodizing process, self-organized nanotube structures enriched in TiO2 could be superimposed on the etched surface under specific conditions. Furthermore, the anodizing treatment significantly reduced water contact angles and increased the surface free energy compared to the surfaces prior to anodizing. The results of this study show for the first time that it is possible to create hybrid micro/nano-structures on biomedical NiTi alloys by combining electrochemical etching and anodizing under controlled conditions. These novel structures are expected to significantly enhance the surface biofunctionality of the material when compared to conventional implant devices with either micro- or nano-structured surfaces.

  19. Estimation of Land Surface Temperature under Cloudy Skies Using Combined Diurnal Solar Radiation and Surface Temperature Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyu Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Land surface temperature (LST is a key parameter in the interaction of the land-atmosphere system. However, clouds affect the retrieval of LST data from thermal-infrared remote sensing data. Thus, it is important to determine a method for estimating LSTs at times when the sky is overcast. Based on a one-dimensional heat transfer equation and on the evolution of daily temperatures and net shortwave solar radiation (NSSR, a new method for estimating LSTs under cloudy skies (Tcloud from diurnal NSSR and surface temperatures is proposed. Validation is performed against in situ measurements that were obtained at the ChangWu ecosystem experimental station in China. The results show that the root-mean-square error (RMSE between the actual and estimated LSTs is as large as 1.23 K for cloudy data. A sensitivity analysis to the errors in the estimated LST under clear skies (Tclear and in the estimated NSSR reveals that the RMSE of the obtained Tcloud is less than 1.5 K after adding a 0.5 K bias to the actual Tclear and 10 percent NSSR errors to the actual NSSR. Tcloud is estimated by the proposed method using Tclear and NSSR products of MSG-SEVIRI for southern Europe. The results indicate that the new algorithm is practical for retrieving the LST under cloudy sky conditions, although some uncertainty exists. Notably, the approach can only be used during the daytime due to the assumption of the variation in LST caused by variations in insolation. Further, if there are less than six Tclear observations on any given day, the method cannot be used.

  20. ON THE GAUSS MAP OF RULED SURFACES OF TYPE II IN 3-DIMENSIONAL PSEUDO-GALILEAN SPACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alper Osman Öğrenmis

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, ruled surfaces of type II in a three-dimensional Pseudo-Galilean space are given. By studying its Gauss map and Laplacian operator, we obtain a classification of ruled surfaces of type II in a three-dimensional Pseudo-Galilean space.

  1. Goblet Cell Carcinoid in a Patient with Neurofibromatosis Type 1: A Rare Combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tine Gregersen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuroendocrine tumors are rare tumors primarily located in the gastrointestinal tract. Goblet cell carcinoid is a rare subgroup of neuroendocrine tumors located in the appendix. Neurofibromatosis type 1 is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by a mutation in the NF1 gene. Patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 have an increased incidence of typical neuroendocrine tumors, but it is unknown if this is the case with goblet cell carcinoids. We describe a patient with both neurofibromatosis type 1 and goblet cell carcinoid, that according to literature would occur in 0.00017 per million per year. This may suggest a previously unknown association between neurofibromatosis type 1 and goblet cell carcinoids.

  2. Ground States for the Schrödinger Systems with Harmonic Potential and Combined Power-Type Nonlinearities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baiyu Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a class of coupled nonlinear Schrödinger systems with potential terms and combined power-type nonlinearities. We establish the existence of ground states, by using a variational method. As an application, some symmetry results for ground states of Schrödinger systems with harmonic potential terms are obtained.

  3. Differences in Motor Imagery between Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder with and without the Combined Type of ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Matthew; Vance, Alasdair; Maruff, Paul; Wilson, Peter; Cairney, Sheree

    2008-01-01

    It has been proposed, and questioned, whether motor impairments in attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder, combined type (ADHD-C) alone, developmental coordination disorder (DCD) alone, and ADHD-C and comorbid DCD (ADHD-C/DCD) may arise from disruption to a common set of cognitive functions and their related neural substrate. This study examined…

  4. Effects of Type and Combination of Feedback upon Conceptual Learning by Children: Implications for Research in Academic Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barringer, Craig; Gholson, Barry

    1979-01-01

    Laboratory research that compared the effects of various types and combinations of feedback on children's conceptual learning was reviewed and evaluated in terms of theories involving reinforcement, motivation, and information-processing interpretations. It was concluded that some important laboratory research findings and implications have been…

  5. Metformin in combination with various insulin secretagogues in type 2 diabetes and associated risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Ulrik Madvig; Andersson, Charlotte; Fosbøl, Emil Loldrup

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: Metformin is the first-line treatment for most patients with type 2 diabetes but many patients need additional treatment with insulin secretagogues (IS) to achieve glycemic control. We aimed to compare mortality and cardiovascular risk among users of metformin in combination with pharmacolo...

  6. Combining insulin with metformin or an insulin secretagogue in non-obese patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Søren S; Tarnow, Lise; Frandsen, Merete

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study the effect of insulin treatment in combination with metformin or an insulin secretagogue, repaglinide, on glycaemic regulation in non-obese patients with type 2 diabetes. DESIGN: Randomised, double blind, double dummy, parallel trial. SETTING: Secondary care in Denmark betwee...

  7. Combining ligand-induced quantum-confined stark effect with type II heterojunction bilayer structure in CdTe and CdSe nanocrystal-based solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaacobi-Gross, Nir; Garphunkin, Natalia; Solomeshch, Olga; Vaneski, Aleksandar; Susha, Andrei S; Rogach, Andrey L; Tessler, Nir

    2012-04-24

    We show that it is possible to combine several charge generation strategies in a single device structure, the performance of which benefits from all methods used. Exploiting the inherent type II heterojunction between layered structures of CdSe and CdTe colloidal quantum dots, we systematically study different ways of combining such nanocrystals of different size and surface chemistry and with different linking agents in a bilayer solar cell configuration. We demonstrate the beneficial use of two distinctly different sizes of NCs not only to improve the solar spectrum matching but also to reduce exciton binding energy, allowing their efficient dissociation at the interface. We further make use of the ligand-induced quantum-confined Stark effect in order to enhance charge generation and, hence, overall efficiency of nanocrystal-based solar cells.

  8. Beam-surface scattering studies of the individual and combined effects of VUV radiation and hyperthermal O, O2, or Ar on FEP Teflon surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunsvold, Amy L; Zhang, Jianming; Upadhyaya, Hari P; Minton, Timothy K

    2009-01-01

    Beam-surface scattering experiments were used to probe products that scattered from FEP Teflon surfaces during bombardment by various combinations of atomic and molecular oxygen, Ar atoms, and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light. A laser-breakdown source was used to create hyperthermal (translational energies in the range 4-13 eV) beams of argon and atomic/molecular oxygen. The average incidence energy of these beams was tunable and was controlled precisely with a synchronized chopper wheel. A filtered deuterium lamp provided a source of VUV light in a narrow-wavelength range centered at 161 nm. Volatile products that exited the surfaces were monitored with a rotatable mass spectrometer detector. Hyperthermal O atoms with average translational energies above approximately 4 eV may react directly with a pristine FEP Teflon surface, and the reactivity appears to increase with the translational energy of the incident O atoms. VUV light or highly energetic collisions of O2 or Ar may break chemical bonds and lead to the ejection of volatile products; the ejection of volatile products is enhanced when the surface is subjected to VUV light and energetic collisions simultaneously. Exposure to VUV light or to hyperthermal O2 or Ar may increase the reactivity of an FEP Teflon surface to O atoms.

  9. Electroremediation of PCB contaminated soil combined with iron nanoparticles: Effect of the soil type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomes, Helena I.; Dias-Ferreira, Celia; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2015-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are carcinogenic and persistent organic pollutants that accumulate in soils and sediments. Currently, there is no cost-effective and sustainable remediation technology for these contaminants. In this work, a new combination of electrodialytic remediation and zero...

  10. On the performance of surface plasmon resonance based fibre optic sensor with different bimetallic nanoparticle alloy combinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Anuj K; Mohr, Gerhard J [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Friedrich-Schiller University, Lessingstrasse 10, 07743 Jena (Germany)], E-mail: anuj.sharma@uni-jena.de

    2008-03-07

    In this work, we have investigated the capability of different bimetallic nanoparticle alloy combinations to be used in fibre optic sensors based on the technique of surface plasmon resonance. The metals considered for this analysis are silver, gold, copper and aluminium. The performance of the sensor with different bimetallic nanoparticle alloy combinations is evaluated and compared numerically. The performance is analysed in terms of three parameters: sensitivity, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and operating range for the sensing layer refractive index values. On the basis of the comparison and some logistic criteria, the best possible bimetallic alloy combinations along with a requisite alloy composition ratio are predicted. The bimetallic nanoparticle alloy combination is capable of simultaneously providing larger values of sensitivity, SNR and operating range, which is not possible with any single metallic nanoparticle layer.

  11. Improving maps of ice-sheet surface elevation change using combined laser altimeter and stereoscopic elevation model data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredenslund Levinsen, Joanna; Howat, I. M.; Tscherning, C. C.

    2013-01-01

    laser altimeters have relatively low errors but are spatially limited to the ground tracks, while DEMs have larger errors but provide spatially continuous surfaces. The principle of our method is to fit the DEM surface to the altimeter point clouds in time and space to minimize the DEM errors and use......We combine the complementary characteristics of laser altimeter data and stereoscopic digital elevation models (DEMs) to construct high-resolution (_100 m) maps of surface elevations and elevation changes over rapidly changing outlet glaciers in Greenland. Measurements from spaceborne and airborne...... that surface to extrapolate elevations away from altimeter flight lines. This reduces the DEM registration errors and fills the gap between the altimeter paths. We use data from ICESat and ATM as well as SPOT 5 DEMs from 2007 and 2008 and apply them to the outlet glaciers Jakobshavn Isbræ (JI...

  12. Not Just a Sum? Identifying Different Types of Interplay between Constituents in Combined Interventions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrijn Van Deun

    Full Text Available Experiments in which the effect of combined manipulations is compared with the effects of their pure constituents have received a great deal of attention. Examples include the study of combination therapies and the comparison of double and single knockout model organisms. Often the effect of the combined manipulation is not a mere addition of the effects of its constituents, with quite different forms of interplay between the constituents being possible. Yet, a well-formalized taxonomy of possible forms of interplay is lacking, let alone a statistical methodology to test for their presence in empirical data.Starting from a taxonomy of a broad range of forms of interplay between constituents of a combined manipulation, we propose a sound statistical hypothesis testing framework to test for the presence of each particular form of interplay. We illustrate the framework with analyses of public gene expression data on the combined treatment of dendritic cells with curdlan and GM-CSF and show that these lead to valuable insights into the mode of action of the constituent treatments and their combination.R code implementing the statistical testing procedure for microarray gene expression data is available as supplementary material. The data are available from the Gene Expression Omnibus with accession number GSE32986.

  13. Contact angle hysteresis and meniscus corrugation on randomly heterogeneous surfaces with mesa-type defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliev, Dimitar; Pesheva, Nina; Iliev, Stanimir

    2013-05-14

    The results of a numerical study of the various characteristics of the static contact of a liquid meniscus with a flat but heterogeneous surface, consisting of two types of homogeneous materials, forming regularly and randomly distributed microscopic defects are presented. The solutions for the meniscus shape are obtained numerically using the full expression of the system free energy functional. The goal is to establish how the magnitude and the limits of the hysteresis interval of the equilibrium contact angle, the Cassie's angle, and the contact line (CL) roughness exponent are related to the parameters, characterizing the heterogeneous surface-the equilibrium contact angles on the two materials and their fractions. We compare the results of different ways of determining the averaged contact angle on heterogeneous surfaces. We study the spread of the CL corrugation along the liquid meniscus. We compare our results with the numerical results, obtained using linearized energy functional, and also with experimental results for the CL roughness exponent. The obtained results support the conclusion that some characteristics depends on the type (regular or random) of the heterogeneity pattern.

  14. Finite element analysis on influence of implant surface treatments, connection and bone types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago Junior, Joel Ferreira; Verri, Fellippo Ramos; Almeida, Daniel Augusto de Faria; de Souza Batista, Victor Eduardo; Lemos, Cleidiel Aparecido Araujo; Pellizzer, Eduardo Piza

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the effect of different dental implant designs, bone type, loading, and surface treatment on the stress distribution around the implant by using the 3D finite-element method. Twelve 3D models were developed with Invesalius 3.0, Rhinoceros 4.0, and Solidworks 2010 software. The analysis was processed using the FEMAP 10.2 and NeiNastran 10.0 software. The applied oblique forces were 200 N and 100 N. The results were analyzed using maps of maximum principal stress and bone microstrain. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA and Tukey's test. The results showed that the Morse taper design was most efficient in terms of its distribution of stresses (p0.05). The different bone types did not show a significant difference in the stress/strain distribution (p>0.05). The surface treatment increased areas of stress concentration under axial loading (p<0.05) and increased areas of microstrain under axial and oblique loading (p<0.05) on the cortical bone. The Morse taper design behaved better biomechanically in relation to the bone tissue. The treated surface increased areas of stress and strain on the cortical bone tissue.

  15. A novel Rad gene polymorphism combined with obesity increases risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王国英; 牛天华; 陈常忠; 李琼芳; 徐希平

    2004-01-01

    @@ The ras-associated diabetes (Rad) was initially identified by subtraction cloning from the skeletal muscle of humans with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (type 2 DM).1 Rad mRNA expression is markedly increased in the skeletal muscle of type 2 DM patients compared with normal controls.

  16. Inferring three-dimensional surface displacement field by combining SAR interferometric phase and amplitude information of ascending and descending orbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Conventional Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar(InSAR) technology can only measure one-dimensional surface displacement(along the radar line-of-sight(LOS) direction).Here we presents a method to infer three-dimensional surface displacement field by combining SAR interferometric phase and amplitude information of ascending and descending orbits.The method is realized in three steps:(1) measuring surface displacements along the LOS directions of both ascending and descending orbits based on interferometric phases;(2) measuring surface displacements along the azimuth directions of both the ascending and descending orbits based on the SAR amplitude data;and(3) estimating the three-dimensional(3D) surface displacement field by combining the above four independent one-dimensional displacements using the method of least squares and Helmert variance component estimation.We apply the method to infer the 3D surface displacement field caused by the 2003 Bam,Iran,earthquake.The results reveal that in the northern part of Bam the ground surface experienced both subsidence and southwestward horizontal movement,while in the southern part uplift and southeastward horizontal movement occurred.The displacement field thus determined matches the location of the fault very well with the maximal displacements reaching 22,40,and 30 cm,respectively in the up,northing and easting directions.Finally,we compare the 3D displacement field with that simulated from the Okada model.The results demonstrate that the method presented here can be used to generate reliable and highly accurate 3D surface displacement fields.

  17. Effects of Surface Composition on the Aerosolisation and Dissolution of Inhaled Antibiotic Combination Powders Consisting of Colistin and Rifampicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenbo; Zhou, Qi Tony; Sun, Si-Ping; Denman, John A; Gengenbach, Thomas R; Barraud, Nicolas; Rice, Scott A; Li, Jian; Yang, Mingshi; Chan, Hak-Kim

    2016-03-01

    Colistin is often the only effective antibiotic against the respiratory infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. However, colistin-resistant multidrug-resistant isolates have been increasingly reported and combination therapy is preferred to combat resistance. In this study, five combination formulations containing colistin (COL) and rifampicin (RIF) were prepared by spray drying. The lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value against Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 was measured for the formulation of COL/RIF = 4:1 with relatively high emitted doses (over 80%) and satisfactory fine particle fractions (over 60%). Data from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and nano-time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) showed the surfaces of particles were mainly covered by rifampicin even for the formulation with a mass ratio of COL/RIF = 4:1. Because colistin is hygroscopic and rifampicin is hydrophobic, moisture absorption of combination formulations was significantly lower than the pure colistin formulation in the dynamic vapour sorption results. To investigate the dissolution characteristics, four dissolution test methods (diffusion Franz cell, modified Franz cell, flow-through and beaker methods) were employed and compared. The modified Franz cell method was selected to test the dissolution behaviour of aerosolised powder formulations to eliminate the effect of membrane on dissolution. The results showed that surface enrichment of hydrophobic rifampicin neither affected aerosolisation nor retarded dissolution rate of colistin in the combination formulations. For the first time, advanced surface characterisation techniques of XPS and ToF-SIMS have shown their capability to understand the effect of surface composition on the aerosolisation and dissolution of combination powders.

  18. 关于一类Bush型分形曲面的维数分析%DIMENSION ANALYSIS ON A CLASS OF BUSH TYPE FRACTAL SURFACES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In this paper,the authors construct a class of fractal surfaces,Bush type surfaces,based on the Bush type functions.The Box dimension,Packing dimension and Hausdorff dimension of such surfaces are investigated.

  19. Effect of laser surface melting in tensile properties of type 304L stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akgun, O.V.; Inal, O.T. (New Mexico Inst. of Mining and Technology, Materials and Metallurgical Engineering Dept., Socorro, NM (US)); Lovato, M.L.; Jervist, T.R. (Los Alamos National Lab., Los Alamos, NM (US))

    1992-07-15

    In previous study the authors showed laser surface melting (LSM) to increase yield strength of 304 austenitic stainless steels. A consistent increase approximately 10% was also observed in the hardness of the melted layer compared to that of the substrate. Austentic stainless steels do not transform to martensite during laser processing. The microstructure is observed to contain only austenite and some retained {delta}-ferrite due to rapid cooling. Therefore, the hardness increase observed was interpreted to be due to microstructural modifications, namely in the formation of austenite {delta}-ferrite duplex structure as well as a refinement in the subgrain structure. The alloy used in this study, type 304L, is a lower carbon modification of type 304 for welding applications. Lower carbon content minimizes carbide precipitation in the heat affected zone of welds. In an annealed condition type 304L has lower mechanical properties than type 304. This paper reports on this present study which was undertaken to verify if a material that possesses an initially high yield strength, type 304L, would exhibit a similar increase in its yield strength and the magnitude of this enhancement at different test temperatures (22, 100, 200 and 300{degrees}C).

  20. Study on Transmission Torque Characteristics of a Surface-Permanent-Magnet-Type Magnetic Gear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niguchi, Noboru; Hirata, Katsuhiro; Hayakawa, Yuichi

    Magnetic gears have some advantages such as low mechanical loss and maintenance-free operation that are not observed in conventional mechanical gears. In addition, magnetic gears have inherent overload protection. Therefore, magnetic gears are expected to be used in special applications; for example, they can be used in a joint of a humanoid robot. Recently, various types of new magnetic gears have been proposed. Among these new gears, a surface-permanent-magnet-type (SPM-type) magnetic gear employing harmonic magnetic flux has gained attention because of its high transmission torque density, though it has a complex structure with multipole magnets. Some studies on an SPM-type magnetic gear have been carried out, but there are few papers on cogging torque. This paper describes the transmission torque characteristics of an SPM-type magnetic gear. The operating principle and the transmission torque under synchronous operation are formulated in accordance with the gear ratio. High orders of the cogging torque are computed by employing the 3-D finite element method, and the validity of the analysis is verified by carrying out measurements on a prototype. Furthermore, a method for reducing the cogging torque is discussed.

  1. Impact of surface type, wheelchair weight, and axle position on wheelchair propulsion by novice older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Rachel E; Nash, Mark S; Collinger, Jennifer L; Koontz, Alicia M; Boninger, Michael L

    2009-07-01

    To examine the impact of surface type, wheelchair weight, and rear axle position on older adult propulsion biomechanics. Crossover trial. Biomechanics laboratory. Convenience sample of 53 ambulatory older adults with minimal wheelchair experience (65-87y); men, n=20; women, n=33. Participants propelled 4 different wheelchair configurations over 4 surfaces: tile, low carpet, high carpet, and an 8% grade ramp (surface, chair order randomized). Chair configurations included (1) unweighted chair with an anterior axle position, (2) 9.05 kg weighted chair with an anterior axle position, (3) unweighted chair with a posterior axle position (Delta0.08 m), and (4) 9.05 kg weighted chair with a posterior axle position (Delta0.08 m). Weight was added to a titanium folding chair, simulating the weight difference between very light and depot wheelchairs. Instrumented wheels measured propulsion kinetics. Average self-selected velocity, push frequency, stroke length, peak resultant and tangential force. Velocity decreased as surface rolling resistance or chair weight increased. Peak resultant and tangential forces increased as chair weight increased, as surface resistance increased, and with a posterior axle position. The effect of a posterior axle position was greater on high carpet and the ramp. The effect of weight was constant, but was more easily observed on high carpet and ramp. The effects of axle position and weight were independent of one another. Increased surface resistance decreases self-selected velocity and increases peak forces. Increased weight decreases self-selected velocity and increases forces. Anterior axle positions decrease forces, more so on high carpet. The effects of weight and axle position are independent. The greatest reductions in peak forces occur in lighter chairs with anterior axle positions.

  2. Cytotoxicity Induced by Engineered Silver Nanocrystallites is Dependent on Surface Coatings and Cell Types

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suresh, Anil K [ORNL; Pelletier, Dale A [ORNL; Wang, Wei [ORNL; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer L [ORNL; Doktycz, Mitchel John [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Due to their unique antimicrobial properties silver nanocrystallites have garnered substantial recognition and are used extensively in biomedical applications such as wound dressing, surgical instruments and as bone substitute material. They are also released into unintended locations such as the environment or biosphere. Therefore it is imperative to understand the potential interactions, fate and transport of nanoparticles with environmental biotic systems. Although numerous factors including the composition, size, shape, surface charge and capping molecule of nanoparticles are known to influence the cell cytotoxicity, our results demonstrate for the first time that surface coatings are a major determinant in eliciting the potential cytotoxicity and cell interactions of silver nanoparticles. In the present investigation, silver nanocrystallites with nearly uniform size and shape distribution but with different surface coatings, imparting overall high negativity to high positivity, were synthesized. These nanoparticles were poly (diallyldimethylammonium) chloride-Ag, biogenic-Ag, colloidal-Ag (uncoated) and oleate-Ag with zeta potentials +45 5 mV, -12 2 mV, -42 5 mV and -45 5 mV respectively; the particles were thoroughly purified so as to avoid false cytotoxicity interpretations. A systematic investigation on the cytotoxic effects, cellular response and membrane damage caused by these four different silver nanoparticles were evaluated using multiple toxicity measurements on mouse macrophage (RAW-264.7) and lung epithelial (C-10) cell lines. From a toxicity perspective, our results clearly indicated that the cytotoxicity was depend on various factors such as synthesis procedure, surface coat or surface charge and the cell-type for the different silver nanoparticles that were investigated. Poly (diallyldimethylammonium) chloride -Ag was found to be the most toxic, followed by biogenic-Ag and oleate-Ag, whereas uncoated-Ag was found to be least toxic to both

  3. Evaluation of Haney-Type Surface Thermal Boundary Conditions Using a Coupled Atmosphere and Ocean Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A coupled atmosphere-ocean model developed at the Institute for Space Studies at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (Russell et al., 1995) was used to verify the validity of Haney-type surface thermal boundary condition, which linearly connects net downward surface heat flux Q to air / sea temperature difference △T by a relaxation coefficient k. The model was initiated from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) atmospheric observations for 1 December 1977, and from the National Ocean Data Center (NODC) global climatological mean December temperature and salinity fields at 1° ×1° resolution. The time step is 7.5 minutes. We integrated the model for 450 days and obtained a complete model-generated global data set of daily mean downward net surface flux Q, surface air temperature TA,and sea surface temperature To. Then, we calculated the cross-correlation coefficients (CCC) between Q and △T. The ensemble mean CCC fields show (a) no correlation between Q and △T in the equatorial regions, and (b) evident correlation (CCC≥ 0.7) between Q and △T in the middle and high latitudes.Additionally, we did the variance analysis and found that when k= 120 W m-2K-1, the two standard deviations, σrq and σk△T, are quite close in the middle and high latitudes. These results agree quite well with a previous research (Chu et al., 1998) on analyzing the NCEP re-analyzed surface data, except that a smaller value of k (80 W m-2K-1) was found in the previous study.

  4. User Interface for 3D Visualization with Emphasis on Combined Voxel and Surface Representation: Design Report

    OpenAIRE

    Lyngset, Runar Ylvisåker

    2006-01-01

    The thesis presents a user interface design aimed at the scenario where a dual representation of a volume is desired in order to emphasize certain parts of a volume using surface graphics while the rest of the volume is rendered using direct volume rendering techniques. A typical situation in which this configuration can prove useful is when studying images acquired for medical purposes. Sometimes the user wants to identify and represent an organ using an opaque surface in an otherwise partly...

  5. An ultrahigh-vacuum chamber for surface X-ray diffraction combined with MBE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlieg, E.; Van't Ent, A.; De Jongh, A. P.; Neerings, H.; Van Der Veen, J. F.

    1987-12-01

    An ultrahigh-vacuum chamber has been built which can be coupled to a diffractometer via a rotary feedthrough. X-rays enter and leave the chamber through a large beryllium window. In addition to standard equipment for surface preparation and reflection high-energy electron diffraction, the chamber contains Knudsen evaporation cells for MBE crystal growth. This arrangement allows in situ diffraction experiments to be performed on growing surfaces and thin films.

  6. Structured Light Based 3d Scanning for Specular Surface by the Combination of Gray Code and Phase Shifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yujia; Yilmaz, Alper

    2016-06-01

    Surface reconstruction using coded structured light is considered one of the most reliable techniques for high-quality 3D scanning. With a calibrated projector-camera stereo system, a light pattern is projected onto the scene and imaged by the camera. Correspondences between projected and recovered patterns are computed in the decoding process, which is used to generate 3D point cloud of the surface. However, the indirect illumination effects on the surface, such as subsurface scattering and interreflections, will raise the difficulties in reconstruction. In this paper, we apply maximum min-SW gray code to reduce the indirect illumination effects of the specular surface. We also analysis the errors when comparing the maximum min-SW gray code and the conventional gray code, which justifies that the maximum min-SW gray code has significant superiority to reduce the indirect illumination effects. To achieve sub-pixel accuracy, we project high frequency sinusoidal patterns onto the scene simultaneously. But for specular surface, the high frequency patterns are susceptible to decoding errors. Incorrect decoding of high frequency patterns will result in a loss of depth resolution. Our method to resolve this problem is combining the low frequency maximum min-SW gray code and the high frequency phase shifting code, which achieves dense 3D reconstruction for specular surface. Our contributions include: (i) A complete setup of the structured light based 3D scanning system; (ii) A novel combination technique of the maximum min-SW gray code and phase shifting code. First, phase shifting decoding with sub-pixel accuracy. Then, the maximum min-SW gray code is used to resolve the ambiguity resolution. According to the experimental results and data analysis, our structured light based 3D scanning system enables high quality dense reconstruction of scenes with a small number of images. Qualitative and quantitative comparisons are performed to extract the advantages of our new

  7. Activity of type i methanotrophs dominates under high methane concentration: Methanotrophic activity in slurry surface crusts as influenced by methane, oxygen, and inorganic nitrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duan, Yun Feng; Reinsch, Sabine; Ambus, Per

    2017-01-01

    Livestock slurry is a major source of atmospheric methane (CH4), but surface crusts harboring methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) could mediate against CH4 emissions. This study examined conditions for CH4 oxidation by in situ measurements of oxygen (O2) and nitrous oxide (N2O), as a proxy for inorg......Livestock slurry is a major source of atmospheric methane (CH4), but surface crusts harboring methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) could mediate against CH4 emissions. This study examined conditions for CH4 oxidation by in situ measurements of oxygen (O2) and nitrous oxide (N2O), as a proxy...... in phospholipid fatty acids suggested that both Type I and Type II MOB were active, with Type I dominating high-concentration CH4 oxidation. Given the structural heterogeneity of crusts, CH4 oxidation activity likely varies spatially as constrained by the combined effects of CH4, O2, and inorganic N availability...

  8. A study of electrodischarge machining–pulse electrochemical machining combined machining for holes with high surface quality on superalloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Ma

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Noncircular holes on the surface of turbine rotor blades are usually machined by electrodischarge machining. A recast layer containing numerous micropores and microcracks is easily generated during the electrodischarge machining process due to the rapid heating and cooling effects, which restrict the wide applications of noncircular holes in aerospace and aircraft industries. Owing to the outstanding advantages of pulse electrochemical machining, electrodischarge machining–pulse electrochemical machining combined technique is provided to improve the overall quality of electrodischarge machining-drilled holes. The influence of pulse electrochemical machining processing parameters on the surface roughness and the influence of the electrodischarge machining–pulse electrochemical machining method on the surface quality and accuracy of holes have been studied experimentally. The results indicate that the pulse electrochemical machining processing time for complete removal of the recast layer decreases with the increase in the pulse electrochemical machining current. The low pulse electrochemical machining current results in uneven dissolution of the recast layer, while the higher pulse electrochemical machining current induces relatively homogeneous dissolution. The surface roughness is reduced from 4.277 to 0.299 µm, and the hole taper induced by top-down electrodischarge machining process was reduced from 1.04° to 0.17° after pulse electrochemical machining. On account of the advantages of electrodischarge machining and the pulse electrochemical machining, the electrodischarge machining–pulse electrochemical machining combined technique could be applied for machining noncircular holes with high shape accuracy and surface quality.

  9. Analysis of surface segregation in polymer mixtures: A combination of mean field and statistical associated fluid theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk, Jaroslaw; Croce, Salvatore; Chakrabarti, Buddhapriya; Tasche, Jos

    The surface segregation in polymer mixtures remains a challenging problem for both academic exploration as well as industrial applications. Despite its ubiquity and several theoretical attempts a good agreement between computed and experimentally observed profiles has not yet been achieved. A simple theoretical model proposed in this context by Schmidt and Binder combines Flory-Huggins free energy of mixing with the square gradient theory of wetting of a wall by fluid. While the theory gives us a qualitative understanding of the surface induced segregation and the surface enrichment it lacks the quantitative comparison with the experiment. The statistical associating fluid theory (SAFT) allows us to calculate accurate free energy for a real polymeric materials. In an earlier work we had shown that increasing the bulk modulus of a polymer matrix through which small molecules migrate to the free surface causes reduction in the surface migrant fraction using Schmidt-Binder and self-consistent field theories. In this work we validate this idea by combining mean field theories and SAFT to identify parameter ranges where such an effect should be observable. Department of Molecular Physics, Łódź University of Technology, Żeromskiego 116, 90-924 Łódź, Poland.

  10. SU-E-J-87: Lung Deformable Image Registration Using Surface Mesh Deformation for Dose Distribution Combination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labine, A; Carrier, J; Bedwani, S [CHUM - Notre-Dame, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Chav, R [Laboratoire de recherche en imagerie et orthopedie (LIO), Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Ecole de technologie superieure, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); DeGuise, J [Laboratoire de recherche en imagerie et orthopedie (LIO), Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To allow a reliable deformable image registration (DIR) method for dose calculation in radiation therapy. This work proposes a performance assessment of a morphological segmentation algorithm that generates a deformation field from lung surface displacements with 4DCT datasets. Methods: From the 4DCT scans of 15 selected patients, the deep exhale phase of the breathing cycle is identified as the reference scan. Varian TPS EclipseTM is used to draw lung contours, which are given as input to the morphological segmentation algorithm. Voxelized contours are smoothed by a Gaussian filter and then transformed into a surface mesh representation. Such mesh is adapted by rigid and elastic deformations to match each subsequent lung volumes. The segmentation efficiency is assessed by comparing the segmented lung contour and the TPS contour considering two volume metrics, defined as Volumetric Overlap Error (VOE) [%] and Relative Volume Difference (RVD) [%] and three surface metrics, defined as Average Symmetric Surface Distance (ASSD) [mm], Root Mean Square Symmetric Surface Distance (RMSSD) [mm] and Maximum Symmetric Surface Distance (MSSD) [mm]. Then, the surface deformation between two breathing phases is determined by the displacement of corresponding vertices in each deformed surface. The lung surface deformation is linearly propagated in the lung volume to generate 3D deformation fields for each breathing phase. Results: The metrics were averaged over the 15 patients and calculated with the same segmentation parameters. The volume metrics obtained are a VOE of 5.2% and a RVD of 2.6%. The surface metrics computed are an ASSD of 0.5 mm, a RMSSD of 0.8 mm and a MSSD of 6.9 mm. Conclusion: This study shows that the morphological segmentation algorithm can provide an automatic method to capture an organ motion from 4DCT scans and translate it into a volume deformation grid needed by DIR method for dose distribution combination.

  11. Effects of Spatial Dispersion on Reflection from Mushroom-type Artificial Impedance Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Luukkonen, Olli; Yakovlev, Alexander B; Simovski, Constantin R; Nefedov, Igor S; Tretyakov, Sergei A

    2008-01-01

    Several recent works have emphasized the role of spatial dispersion in wire media, and demonstrated that arrays of parallel metallic wires may behave very differently from a uniaxial local material with negative permittivity. Here, we investigate using local and non-local homogenization methods the effect of spatial dispersion on reflection from the mushroom structure introduced by Sievenpiper. The objective of the paper is to clarify the role of spatial dispersion in the mushroom structure and demonstrate that under some conditions it is suppressed. The metamaterial substrate, or metasurface, is modeled as a wire medium covered with an impedance surface. Surprisingly, it is found that in such configuration the effects of spatial dispersion may be nearly suppressed when the slab is electrically thin, and that the wire medium can be modeled very accurately using a local model. This result paves the way for the design of artificial surfaces that exploit the plasmonic-type response of the wire medium slab.

  12. Effect of combined electromagnetic fields on surface quality and structure of a HDC casting 5182 Al alloy ingot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qingfeng ZHU; Zhihao ZHAO; Yubo ZUO; Xiangjie WANG; Jianzhong CUI

    2012-01-01

    5182 Al alloy ingots with the diameters of 100 mm are produced by conventional and combined electromagnetic fields (CEMF) horizontal direction chill (HDC) casting process.The effect of CEMF on the ingot surface quality and floating grains is investigated.The results show that the CEMF is effective in reducing the segregation layer in both top and bottom sub-surfaces.Big floating grains with coarse dendrite arms mainly distribute in the crescent-shaped area near the bottom in the conventional HDC casting ingot.With the application of the CEMF,they disappear in the whole cross section of the HDC casting ingot and the equiaxed grains are significantly refined.

  13. Quantitative surface characterization of silicon spheres by combined XRF and XPS analysis for the determination of the Avogadro constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Matthias; Beckhoff, Burkhard; Beyer, Edyta; Darlatt, Erik; Fliegauf, Rolf; Ulm, Gerhard; Kolbe, Michael

    2017-10-01

    For the quantitative surface characterization of a monocrystalline silicon sphere, PTB has constructed and put into operation an analytical instrument, which combines x-ray fluorescence and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy techniques. The main objective of this novel instrument is the characterization of the oxide layer and unintentional contaminations, e.g. from hydrocarbons. It is equipped with a ball manipulator allowing measurements at each point on the surface of ball-shaped samples with a diameter of about 93.7 mm. Monocrystalline silicon spheres with this diameter allow a realization of the SI base unit of mass.

  14. Evaluation of the Various Drying Methods on Surface Hardness of Type IV Dental Stone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhakar, A; Srivatsa, G; Shetty, Rohit; Rajeswari, C L; Manvi, Supriya

    2015-01-01

    Background: Studies regarding the effect of various methods to increase the surface hardness of Type IV dental stone are not conclusive. Therefore, this study was carried out to evaluate the effect of air drying, micro oven drying and die hardener on surface hardness of Type IV dental stone. Materials and Methods: A standard metal die was fabricated; polyvinyl siloxane impression material was used to make the molds of metal die. A total of 120 specimens were obtained from two different die stones and were grouped as Group A (kalrock) and Group B (pearl stone), and were subjected to air drying for 24 h, micro oven drying and application of die hardener. These models were then subjected to surface hardness testing using the knoop hardness instrument. The obtained data were subjected to statistical analysis. Results: The hardness of Group A specimens was 64 ± 0.54 Knoop hardness number (KHN) after application of die hardener, 60.47 ± 0.41 KHN after 24 h air drying, 58.2 ± 0.88 after microwave oven drying and 24.6 ± 0.4 after 1 h air drying. The hardness of Group B specimens was 45.59 ± 0.63 KHN after application of die hardener, 40.2 ± 0.63 KHN after 24 h air drying, 38.28 ± 0.55 KHN after microwave oven drying and 19.91 ± 0.64 KHN after 1 h air drying. Conclusion: Group A showed better results than Group B at all times. Application of the die hardener showed highest hardness values followed in the order by 24 h air drying, microwave oven drying and 1 h air drying in both groups. The study showed that air drying the dies for 24 h followed by application of a single layer of the die hardener produced the best surface hardness and is recommended to be followed in practice. PMID:26124610

  15. Tumor suppressor protein SMAR1 modulates the roughness of cell surface: combined AFM and SEM study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamgain Hitesh

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Imaging tools such as scanning electron microscope (SEM and atomic force microscope (AFM can be used to produce high-resolution topographic images of biomedical specimens and hence are well suited for imaging alterations in cell morphology. We have studied the correlation of SMAR1 expression with cell surface smoothness in cell lines as well as in different grades of human breast cancer and mouse tumor sections. Methods We validated knockdown and overexpression of SMAR1 using RT-PCR as well as Western blotting in human embryonic kidney (HEK 293, human breast cancer (MCF-7 and mouse melanoma (B16F1 cell lines. The samples were then processed for cell surface roughness studies using atomic force microscopy (AFM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The same samples were used for microarray analysis as well. Tumors sections from control and SMAR1 treated mice as well as tissues sections from different grades of human breast cancer on poly L-lysine coated slides were used for AFM and SEM studies. Results Tumor sections from mice injected with melanoma cells showed pronounced surface roughness. In contrast, tumor sections obtained from nude mice that were first injected with melanoma cells followed by repeated injections of SMAR1-P44 peptide, exhibited relatively smoother surface profile. Interestingly, human breast cancer tissue sections that showed reduced SMAR1 expression exhibited increased surface roughness compared to the adjacent normal breast tissue. Our AFM data establishes that treatment of cells with SMAR1-P44 results into increase in cytoskeletal volume that is supported by comparative gene expression data showing an increase in the expression of specific cytoskeletal proteins compared to the control cells. Altogether, these findings indicate that tumor suppressor function of SMAR1 might be exhibited through smoothening of cell surface by regulating expression of cell surface proteins. Conclusion Tumor suppressor

  16. Beneficial effects of canagliflozin in combination with pioglitazone on insulin sensitivity in rodent models of obese type 2 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinori Watanabe

    Full Text Available Despite its insulin sensitizing effects, pioglitazone may induce weight gain leading to an increased risk of development of insulin resistance. A novel sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2 inhibitor, canagliflozin, provides not only glycemic control but also body weight reduction through an insulin-independent mechanism. The aim of this study was to investigate the combined effects of these agents on body weight control and insulin sensitivity.Effects of combination therapy with canagliflozin and pioglitazone were evaluated in established diabetic KK-Ay mice and prediabetic Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF rats.In the KK-Ay mice, the combination therapy further improved glycemic control compared with canagliflozin or pioglitazone monotherapy. Furthermore, the combination significantly attenuated body weight and fat gain induced by pioglitazone and improved hyperinsulinemia. In the ZDF rats, early intervention with pioglitazone monotherapy almost completely prevented the progressive development of hyperglycemia, and no further improvement was observed by add-on treatment with canagliflozin. However, the combination significantly reduced pioglitazone-induced weight gain and adiposity and improved the Matsuda index, suggesting improved whole-body insulin sensitivity.Our study indicates that combination therapy with canagliflozin and pioglitazone improves insulin sensitivity partly by preventing glucotoxicity and, at least partly, by attenuating pioglitazone-induced body weight gain in two different obese diabetic animal models. This combination therapy may prove to be a valuable option for the treatment and prevention of obese type 2 diabetes.

  17. Beneficial effects of canagliflozin in combination with pioglitazone on insulin sensitivity in rodent models of obese type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yoshinori; Nakayama, Keiko; Taniuchi, Nobuhiko; Horai, Yasushi; Kuriyama, Chiaki; Ueta, Kiichiro; Arakawa, Kenji; Senbonmatsu, Takaaki; Shiotani, Masaharu

    2015-01-01

    Despite its insulin sensitizing effects, pioglitazone may induce weight gain leading to an increased risk of development of insulin resistance. A novel sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, canagliflozin, provides not only glycemic control but also body weight reduction through an insulin-independent mechanism. The aim of this study was to investigate the combined effects of these agents on body weight control and insulin sensitivity. Effects of combination therapy with canagliflozin and pioglitazone were evaluated in established diabetic KK-Ay mice and prediabetic Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. In the KK-Ay mice, the combination therapy further improved glycemic control compared with canagliflozin or pioglitazone monotherapy. Furthermore, the combination significantly attenuated body weight and fat gain induced by pioglitazone and improved hyperinsulinemia. In the ZDF rats, early intervention with pioglitazone monotherapy almost completely prevented the progressive development of hyperglycemia, and no further improvement was observed by add-on treatment with canagliflozin. However, the combination significantly reduced pioglitazone-induced weight gain and adiposity and improved the Matsuda index, suggesting improved whole-body insulin sensitivity. Our study indicates that combination therapy with canagliflozin and pioglitazone improves insulin sensitivity partly by preventing glucotoxicity and, at least partly, by attenuating pioglitazone-induced body weight gain in two different obese diabetic animal models. This combination therapy may prove to be a valuable option for the treatment and prevention of obese type 2 diabetes.

  18. Beneficial Effects of Canagliflozin in Combination with Pioglitazone on Insulin Sensitivity in Rodent Models of Obese Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yoshinori; Nakayama, Keiko; Taniuchi, Nobuhiko; Horai, Yasushi; Kuriyama, Chiaki; Ueta, Kiichiro; Arakawa, Kenji; Senbonmatsu, Takaaki; Shiotani, Masaharu

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite its insulin sensitizing effects, pioglitazone may induce weight gain leading to an increased risk of development of insulin resistance. A novel sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, canagliflozin, provides not only glycemic control but also body weight reduction through an insulin-independent mechanism. The aim of this study was to investigate the combined effects of these agents on body weight control and insulin sensitivity. Methods Effects of combination therapy with canagliflozin and pioglitazone were evaluated in established diabetic KK-Ay mice and prediabetic Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. Results In the KK-Ay mice, the combination therapy further improved glycemic control compared with canagliflozin or pioglitazone monotherapy. Furthermore, the combination significantly attenuated body weight and fat gain induced by pioglitazone and improved hyperinsulinemia. In the ZDF rats, early intervention with pioglitazone monotherapy almost completely prevented the progressive development of hyperglycemia, and no further improvement was observed by add-on treatment with canagliflozin. However, the combination significantly reduced pioglitazone-induced weight gain and adiposity and improved the Matsuda index, suggesting improved whole-body insulin sensitivity. Conclusions Our study indicates that combination therapy with canagliflozin and pioglitazone improves insulin sensitivity partly by preventing glucotoxicity and, at least partly, by attenuating pioglitazone-induced body weight gain in two different obese diabetic animal models. This combination therapy may prove to be a valuable option for the treatment and prevention of obese type 2 diabetes. PMID:25615826

  19. Olmesartan Combined With Amlodipine on Oxidative Stress Parameters in Type 2 Diabetics, Compared With Single Therapies

    OpenAIRE

    Derosa, Giuseppe; Mugellini, Amedeo; Pesce, Rosa Maria; D’Angelo, Angela; Maffioli, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To evaluate the effects of a fixed combination of olmesartan/amlodipine compared with olmesartan or amlodipine alone on some parameters of endothelial damage in diabetic, hypertensive patients. We enrolled 221 patients; 74 were randomized to olmesartan 20 mg, 72 to amlodipine 10 mg, and 75 to olmesartan/amlodipine fixed combination 20/5 mg for 12 months. We assessed blood pressure monthly; in addition, we also assessed at baseline, and after 6 and 12 months, the following parameters:...

  20. Two New Type Surface Polaritons Excited into Nanoholes in Metal Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minasyan V. N.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We argue that the smooth metal-air interface should be regarded as a distinct dielectric medium, the skin of the metal. Here we present quantized Maxwell’s equations for electromagnetic field in an isotropic homogeneous medium, allowing us to solve the absorption anomaly property of these metal films. The results imply the existence of light quasi-particles with spin one and effective mass m = 2.5 E-5 me which in turn provide the presence of two type surface polaritons into nanoholes in metal films.

  1. Molecule-surface interaction processes of relevance to gas blanket type fusion device divertor design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snowdon, K.J. [Newcastle Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics; Tawara, H.

    1997-01-01

    The mechanisms which may lead to the departure of molecular species from surfaces exposed to low energy (0.1-100 eV) particle or photon and electron irradiation are reviewed. Where possible, the charge and electronic state, angular, translational and internal energy distributions of the departing molecules are described and the physical origin of the nature of those distributions identified. The consequences, for the departing molecules, of certain material choices become apparent from such an analysis. Such information may help guide the choice of appropriate materials for plasma facing components of gas-blanket type divertors such as that recently proposed for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). (author). 71 refs.

  2. Error determination of a successive correction type objective analysis scheme. [for surface meteorological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D. R.; Leslie, F. W.

    1984-01-01

    The Purdue Regional Objective Analysis of the Mesoscale (PROAM) is a successive correction type scheme for the analysis of surface meteorological data. The scheme is subjected to a series of experiments to evaluate its performance under a variety of analysis conditions. The tests include use of a known analytic temperature distribution to quantify error bounds for the scheme. Similar experiments were conducted using actual atmospheric data. Results indicate that the multiple pass technique increases the accuracy of the analysis. Furthermore, the tests suggest appropriate values for the analysis parameters in resolving disturbances for the data set used in this investigation.

  3. Lack of a surface layer in Tannerella forsythia mutants deficient in the type IX secretion system

    OpenAIRE

    Narita, Yuka; Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Shoji, Mikio; Nakane, Daisuke; Nagano, Keiji; Yoshimura, Fuminobu; Naito, Mariko; Nakayama, Koji

    2014-01-01

    Tannerella forsythia, a Gram-negative anaerobic bacterium, is an important pathogen in periodontal disease. This bacterium possesses genes encoding all known components of the type IX secretion system (T9SS). T. forsythia mutants deficient in genes orthologous to the T9SS-encoding genes porK, porT and sov were constructed. All porK, porT and sov single mutants lacked the surface layer (S-layer) and expressed less-glycosylated versions of the S-layer glycoproteins TfsA and TfsB. In addition, t...

  4. Self-organization of 1-methylnaphthalene on the surface of artificial snow grains: a combined experimental-computational approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heger, Dominik; Nachtigallová, Dana; Surman, František; Krausko, Ján; Magyarová, Beata; Brumovský, Miroslav; Rubeš, Miroslav; Gladich, Ivan; Klán, Petr

    2011-10-20

    A combined experimental-computational approach was used to study the self-organization and microenvironment of 1-methylnaphthalene (1MN) deposited on the surface of artificial snow grains from vapors at 238 K. The specific surface area of this snow (1.1 × 10(4) cm(2) g(-1)), produced by spraying very fine droplets of pure water from a nebulizer into liquid nitrogen, was determined using valerophenone photochemistry to estimate the surface coverage by 1MN. Fluorescence spectroscopy at 77 K, in combination with molecular dynamics simulations, and density functional theory (DFT) and second-order coupled cluster (CC2) calculations, provided evidence for the occurrence of ground- and excited-state complexes (excimers) and other associates of 1MN on the snow grains' surface. Only weak excimer fluorescence was observed for a loading of 5 × 10(-6) mol kg(-1), which is ∼2-3 orders of magnitude below monolayer coverage. However, the results indicate that the formation of excimers is favored at higher surface loadings (>5 × 10(-5) mol kg(-1)), albeit still being below monolayer coverage. The calculations of excited states of monomer and associated moieties suggested that a parallel-displaced arrangement is responsible for the excimer emission observed experimentally, although some other associations, such as T-shape dimer structures, which do not provide excimer emission, can still be relatively abundant at this surface concentration. The hydrophobic 1MN molecules, deposited on the ice surface, which is covered by a relatively flexible quasi-liquid layer at 238 K, are then assumed to be capable of dynamic motion resulting in the formation of energetically preferred associations to some extent. The environmental implications of organic compounds' deposition on snow grains and ice are discussed.

  5. Smell identification of spices using nanomechanical membrane-type surface stress sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Gaku; Shiba, Kota; Yoshikawa, Genki

    2016-11-01

    Artificial olfaction, that is, a chemical sensor system that identifies samples by smell, has not been fully achieved because of the complex perceptional mechanism of olfaction. To realize an artificial olfactory system, not only an array of chemical sensors but also a valid feature extraction method is required. In this study, we achieved the identification of spices by smell using nanomechanical membrane-type surface stress sensors (MSS). Features were extracted from the sensing signals obtained from four MSS coated with different types of polymers, focusing on the chemical interactions between polymers and odor molecules. The principal component analysis (PCA) of the dataset consisting of the extracted parameters demonstrated the separation of each spice on the scatter plot. We discuss the strategy for improving odor identification based on the relationship between the results of PCA and the chemical species in the odors.

  6. On gel electrophoresis of dielectric charged particles with hydrophobic surface: A combined theoretical and numerical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majee, Partha Sarathi; Bhattacharyya, Somnath; Gopmandal, Partha Pratim; Ohshima, Hiroyuki

    2017-09-21

    A theoretical study on the gel electrophoresis of a charged particle incorporating the effects of dielectric polarization and surface hydrophobicity at the particle-liquid interface is made. A simplified model based on the weak applied field and low charge density assumption is also presented and compared with the full numerical model for a nonpolarizable particle to elucidate the nonlinear effects such as double layer polarization and relaxation as well as surface conduction. The main motivation of this study is to analyze the electrophoresis of the surface functionalized nanoparticle with tunable hydrophobicity or charged fluid drop in gel medium by considering the electrokinetic effects and hydrodynamic interactions between the particle and the gel medium. An effective medium approach, in which the transport in the electrolyte saturated hydrogel medium is governed by the Brinkman equation, is adopted in the present analysis. The governing electrokinetic equations based on the conservation principles is solved numerically. The Navier-slip boundary condition along with the continuity condition of dielectric displacement are imposed on the surface of the hydrophobic polarizable particle. The impact of the slip length on the electrophoresis is profound for a thinner Debye layer, however, surface conduction effect also becomes significant for a hydrophobic particle. Impact of hydrophobicity and relaxation effects are higher for a larger particle. Dielectric polarization creates a reduction in its electrophoretic propulsion and has negligible impact at the thinner Debye length as well as lower gel screening length. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. Implementation of Combined Feather and Surface-Normal Ice Growth Models in LEWICE/X

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez, M. T.; Hansman, R. J., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Experimental observations have shown that discrete rime ice growths called feathers, which grow in approximately the direction of water droplet impingement, play an important role in the growth of ice on accreting surfaces for some thermodynamic conditions. An improved physical model of ice accretion has been implemented in the LEWICE 2D panel-based ice accretion code maintained by the NASA Lewis Research Center. The LEWICE/X model of ice accretion explicitly simulates regions of feather growth within the framework of the LEWICE model. Water droplets impinging on an accreting surface are withheld from the normal LEWICE mass/energy balance and handled in a separate routine; ice growth resulting from these droplets is performed with enhanced convective heat transfer approximately along droplet impingement directions. An independent underlying ice shape is grown along surface normals using the unmodified LEWICE method. The resulting dual-surface ice shape models roughness-induced feather growth observed in icing wind tunnel tests. Experiments indicate that the exact direction of feather growth is dependent on external conditions. Data is presented to support a linear variation of growth direction with temperature and cloud water content. Test runs of LEWICE/X indicate that the sizes of surface regions containing feathers are influenced by initial roughness element height. This suggests that a previous argument that feather region size is determined by boundary layer transition may be incorrect. Simulation results for two typical test cases give improved shape agreement over unmodified LEWICE.

  8. Nitrogen removal in micro-polluted surface water by the combined process of bio-filter and ecological gravel bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng-Bing, He; Jian-Wen, Gao; Xue-Chu, Chen; Ding-Li, Dai

    2013-01-01

    Nitrogen removal in micro-polluted surface water by the combined process of a bio-filter and an ecological gravel bed was studied. Sodium acetate was added into micro-polluted surface water as carbon source and the nitrogen removal under different C/N ratio, hydraulic load and temperature were investigated. The results showed that the variations in C/N ratio, hydraulic load and temperature have significant influence on nitrogen removal in bio-filter. It was found that the denitrification rate was above 90% when C/N ratio reached 10; also, the denitrification was inhibited at low water temperature (2-10 °C); at the condition of water temperature above 20 °C, C/N ratio 10, hydraulic load 8 m(3)/(m(2) h), the combined process obtained the nitrogen removal of more than 90%, and the residual organics could be removed in ecological gravel bed.

  9. [Efficacy of semiconductor laser therapy combined with botulinum toxin A type injection in treatment of temporomandibular disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Mei-Yuan; You, Qing-Ling

    2016-12-01

    To observe the efficacy of semiconductor laser therapy in combination with botulinum toxin A type injection in treating temporomandibular disorders and the influence on serum levels of interleukin(IL)-1 and tumor necrosis factor(TNF)-α. Ninety patients with temporomandibular disorders were selected and randomly divided into control group and treatment group with 45 cases in each group. Patients in the control group received semiconductor laser therapy,once per day and 1 course for 1 week. Patients in the treatment group was given semiconductor laser therapy in combination with botulinum toxin A type. 50 U botulinum toxin A type were injected into the masseteric and temporal muscles with 5 injections at different sites in each side. The treatment course of patients was 2 weeks. Fricton scale indexes, pain index, and efficacy were compared between the two groups. Serum levels of IL-1 and TNF-α were detected in both groups. SPSS19.0 software package was used for data analysis. After treatment, PI, DI and CMI in the treatment group were significantly lower than the control group (Ptreatment, VAS score of the treatment group was significantly lower than the control group (Ptreatment group was 93.33%,which was significantly higher than control group (66.67%, Ptreatment group were significantly lower than the control group (Plaser therapy in combination with botulinum toxin A type injection in treating temporomandibular disorders is significant,and may be related to decreased serum levels of IL-1 and TNF-α.

  10. Combining Multiple Types of Intelligence to Generate Probability Maps of Moving Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    need to combine human intelligence with intelligence from other sources - a process that it is traditionally done manually by trained professionals...2002). An introduction to sensor fusion. Institut f¨ur Technische Informatik Vienna University of Technology, Austria Hall, D. L., & Llinas J. (2001

  11. Method for combining fast surface and exact volume visualization techniques in medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englmeier, Karl-Hans; Haubner, Michael; Foerterer, H. M.; Perzl, W.; Fink, B. K.; Fink, U.

    1994-05-01

    In order to enable the interaction with and manipulation of 3-D data sets in the realm of medical diagnosis and therapy planning we developed a modified Z-merging algorithm that includes transparency and texture mapping features. For this an extended shape based interpolation model creates isotropic grayscale data volume in case of spatial image sequences. Interesting anatomical regions such as soft tissue, organs, and bones are detected by automatic and interactive segmentation procedures. Following that, a fully automatic surface construction algorithm detects the 3-D object boundaries by fitting geometric primitives to the binary data. The surface representations support the user with a fast overview about the structure of the 3D scene. Texture mapping is implemented as the projection of the gray values of the isotropic voxels onto a polygonal surface. Adaptive refinement, Phong's normal interpolation, and transparency are the most important features of this raytracer. The described technique enables the simultaneous display of multimodal 3D image data.

  12. Elemental analysis by surface-enhanced Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy combined with liquid–liquid microextraction

    OpenAIRE

    Aguirre Pastor, Miguel Ángel; Legnaioli, Stefano; Almodóvar, F.; Hidalgo Núñez, Montserrat; Palleschi, Vincenzo; Canals Hernández, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    In this work, the possibility of using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectrometry (LIBS) combined with liquid–liquid microextraction techniques is evaluated as a simple and fast method for trace elemental analysis. Two different strategies for LIBS analysis of manganese contained in microdroplets of extraction solvent (Triton X-114) are studied: (i) analysis by direct laser irradiation of microdroplets; and (ii) analysis by laser irradiation of microdroplets dried on metallic substrates (surface-en...

  13. Combined study of evaporation from liquid surface by background oriented schlieren, infrared thermal imaging and numerical simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plaksina Yu.Yu.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Temperature fields in evaporating liquids are measured by simultaneous use of Background Oriented Schlieren (BOS technique for the side view and IR thermal imaging for the surface distribution. Good agreement between the two methods is obtained with typical measurement error less than 0.1 K. Two configurations of surface layer are observed: thermocapillary convection state with moving liquid surface and small thermal cells, associated with Marangoni convection, and “cool skin” with negligible velocity at the surface, larger cells and dramatic increase of velocity within 0.1 mm layer beneath the surface. These configurations are shown to be formed in various liquids (water with various degrees of purification, ethanol, butanol, decane, kerosene, glycerine depending rather on initial conditions and ambient parameters than on the liquid. Water, which has been considered as the liquid without observable Marangoni convection, actually can exhibit both kinds of behavior during the same experimental run. Evaporation is also studied by means of numerical simulations. Separate problemsin air and liquid are considered, with thermal imaging data of surface temperature making the separation possible. It is shown that evaporation rate can be predicted by numerical simulation of the air side with appropriate boundary conditions. Comparison is made with known empirical correlations for Sherwood-Rayleigh relationship. Numerical simulations of water-side problem reveal the issue of velocity boundary conditions at the free surface, determining the structure of surface layer. Flow field similar to observed in the experiments is obtained with special boundary conditions of third kind, presenting a combination of no-slip and surface tension boundary conditions.

  14. Comparison of different cloud types from surface and satellite cloud classification products over China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Minyan; Zeng, Le; Wang, Shengjie; Gu, Junxia; Yang, Runzhi

    2016-04-01

    Different cloud types usually have different cloud dynamic process and micro-physical characteristics, and the relative cloud radiation forcing effects vary much. In recent years, the focus of cloud classification is the algorithm development, as well as the analysis on total cloud amount, high/middle/low cloud amount. While, research on the different cloud types (like cirrus, stratus, and cumulonimbus) is not enough. In this research, we use multi-resources cloud classification products including FY-2, Cloudsat and surface observation to obtain the temporal-spatial distribution characteristics and evolvement of different cloud types in different regions of China, analyze the quantitative difference of multi-source products and the reasons. According to the temporal and spatial scales of cloud, and temporal-spatial representation of cloud classification products based on CloudSat, etc, the scaling is necessary to explore in temporal-spatial matching/validation research. This research have important scientific significances on understanding the regional characteristics of different cloud types in China, improving the remote sensing retrieve algorithms on cloud classification, temporal-spatial matching/validation techniques of satellite data, and cloud vertical structure parameterized methods in numerical models.

  15. Pressure-enhanced superconductivity in A15-type Nb3 Ge via increased Fermi surface nesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillwell, Ryan; Jeffries, Jason; McCall, Scott; Jenei, Zsolt; Weir, Sam; Vohra, Yogesh

    The A15-type superconductors are the most widely used superconductors in industrial applications yet the physics behind maximizing the superconducting transition temperature is still not completely understood. The highest transition temperatures found to date have recently been reported for high-pressure hydride materials and it is believed that they too are BCS-type phonon-mediated superconductors, just like the A15-type superconductors. Understanding the electron-phonon coupling has therefore been brought front stage in the search to understand the mechanisms for optimizing high-temperature superconductors. Using a multi-faceted suite of high-pressure techniques we found that Nb3Ge has an isostructural phase transition at high pressure that correlates directly with a bandstructure change seen in high-pressure magnetotransport measurements. Our results suggest that A15-type superconductivity is not only phonon-mediated but that the degree of Fermi surface nesting is a controlling parameter for maximizing the superconducting transition temperature. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is operated by Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  16. Interaction between antitumor drug and silver nanoparticles:combined fluorscence and surface enhanced Raman scattering study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Yang; Hong Wang; Zhuyuan Wang; Xuebin Tan; Chunyuan Song; Ruohu Zhang; Jin Li; Yiping Cui

    2009-01-01

    Optical methods and MTT method are used to characterize the antiproliferation effect of antitumor drug 9-aminoacridine (9AA) with and without silver nanoparticles.Intracellular surface enhanced Raman scat tering (SERS) spectra and fluorescent spectra of 9AA indicate the form of 9AA adsorbed on the surface of silver nanoparticles.Although both silver nanoparticles and antitumor drug can inhibit the growth of Hela cells,silver nanoparticles can slow down the antiproliferation effect on Hela cells at low concentration of antitumor drugs.Our experimental results suggest that silver nanoparticles may serve as slow-release drug carriers,which is important in antitumor drug delivery.

  17. A New Aspergillus fumigatus Typing Method Based on Hypervariable Tandem Repeats Located within Exons of Surface Protein Coding Genes (TRESP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Rubio, Rocio; Gil, Horacio; Monteiro, Maria Candida; Pelaez, Teresa; Mellado, Emilia

    2016-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is a saprotrophic mold fungus ubiquitously found in the environment and is the most common species causing invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromised individuals. For A. fumigatus genotyping, the short tandem repeat method (STRAf) is widely accepted as the first choice. However, difficulties associated with PCR product size and required technology have encouraged the development of novel typing techniques. In this study, a new genotyping method based on hypervariable tandem repeats within exons of surface protein coding genes (TRESP) was designed. A. fumigatus isolates were characterized by PCR amplification and sequencing with a panel of three TRESP encoding genes: cell surface protein A; MP-2 antigenic galactomannan protein; and hypothetical protein with a CFEM domain. The allele sequence repeats of each of the three targets were combined to assign a specific genotype. For the evaluation of this method, 126 unrelated A. fumigatus strains were analyzed and 96 different genotypes were identified, showing a high level of discrimination [Simpson's index of diversity (D) 0.994]. In addition, 49 azole resistant strains were analyzed identifying 26 genotypes and showing a lower D value (0.890) among them. This value could indicate that these resistant strains are closely related and share a common origin, although more studies are needed to confirm this hypothesis. In summary, a novel genotyping method for A. fumigatus has been developed which is reproducible, easy to perform, highly discriminatory and could be especially useful for studying outbreaks.

  18. A New Aspergillus fumigatus Typing Method Based on Hypervariable Tandem Repeats Located within Exons of Surface Protein Coding Genes (TRESP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Rubio, Rocio; Gil, Horacio; Monteiro, Maria Candida; Pelaez, Teresa; Mellado, Emilia

    2016-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is a saprotrophic mold fungus ubiquitously found in the environment and is the most common species causing invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromised individuals. For A. fumigatus genotyping, the short tandem repeat method (STRAf) is widely accepted as the first choice. However, difficulties associated with PCR product size and required technology have encouraged the development of novel typing techniques. In this study, a new genotyping method based on hypervariable tandem repeats within exons of surface protein coding genes (TRESP) was designed. A. fumigatus isolates were characterized by PCR amplification and sequencing with a panel of three TRESP encoding genes: cell surface protein A; MP-2 antigenic galactomannan protein; and hypothetical protein with a CFEM domain. The allele sequence repeats of each of the three targets were combined to assign a specific genotype. For the evaluation of this method, 126 unrelated A. fumigatus strains were analyzed and 96 different genotypes were identified, showing a high level of discrimination [Simpson’s index of diversity (D) 0.994]. In addition, 49 azole resistant strains were analyzed identifying 26 genotypes and showing a lower D value (0.890) among them. This value could indicate that these resistant strains are closely related and share a common origin, although more studies are needed to confirm this hypothesis. In summary, a novel genotyping method for A. fumigatus has been developed which is reproducible, easy to perform, highly discriminatory and could be especially useful for studying outbreaks. PMID:27701437

  19. Combined multilocus sequence typing and O serogrouping distinguishes Escherichia coli subtypes associated with infant urosepsis and/or meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidet, Philippe; Mahjoub-Messai, Farah; Blanco, Jorge; Blanco, Jesús; Dehem, Marie; Aujard, Yannick; Bingen, Edouard; Bonacorsi, Stéphane

    2007-07-15

    The genetic relatedness of 223 invasive Escherichia coli strains that cause either meningitis or urosepsis without meningitis in young infants was determined by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), ribotyping, and phylogenetic polymerase chain reaction grouping. We also determined the serotypes and virulence genotypes (on the basis of 11 virulence genes). The strains belonged to 29 sequence type complexes (STc), 20 ribotypes, 26 O serogroups, and 39 virulence genotypes. MLST combined with O serogrouping identified 49 subtypes, or "sequence O types." Some sequence O types were almost exclusively associated with either urosepsis (STc27(O2), STc27(O6), and STc29(O2)) or meningitis (STc29(O18)). In contrast, STc29(O45) was equally frequent in these 2 infection sites. Similarly, several virulence genotypes were specifically associated with one of these syndromes. These results point to the existence of specialized invasive subtypes that cause urosepsis or meningitis in infants and identify a new dually virulent invasive clone.

  20. Assessing the influence of biofilm surface roughness on mass transfer by combining optical coherence tomography and two-dimensional modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunyan; Wagner, Michael; Lackner, Susanne; Horn, Harald

    2016-05-01

    Imaging and modeling are two major approaches in biofilm research to understand the physical and biochemical processes involved in biofilm development. However, they are often used separately. In this study we combined these two approaches to investigate substrate mass transfer and mass flux. Cross-sectional biofilm images were acquired by means of optical coherence tomography (OCT) for biofilms grown on carriers. A 2D biofilm model was developed incorporating OCT images as well as a simplified biofilm geometry serving as structural templates. The model incorporated fluid flow, substrate transfer and biochemical conversion of substrates and simulated the hydrodynamics surrounding the biofilm structure as well as the substrate distribution. The method allowed detailed analysis of the hydrodynamics and mass transfer characteristics at the micro-scale. Biofilm activity with respect to substrate fluxes was compared among different combinations of flow, substrate availability and biomass density. The combined approach revealed that higher substrate fluxes at heterogeneous biofilm surface under two conditions: pure diffusion and when high flow velocity along the biofilms surface renders the whole liquid-biofilm interface to be highly active. In-between the two conditions the substrate fluxes across the surface of smooth biofilm geometry were higher than that of the heterogeneous biofilms.

  1. Weather types across the Caribbean basin and their relationship with rainfall and sea surface temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moron, Vincent; Gouirand, Isabelle; Taylor, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Eight weather types (WTs) are computed over 98.75°W-56.25°W, 8.75°N-31.25°N using cluster analysis of daily low-level (925 hPa) winds and outgoing longwave radiation, without removing the mean annual cycle, by a k-means algorithm from 1979 to 2013. The WTs can be firstly interpreted as snapshots of the annual cycle with a clear distinction between 5 "wintertime" and 3 "summertime" WTs, which account together for 70 % of the total mean annual rainfall across the studied domain. The wintertime WTs occur mostly from late November to late April and are characterized by varying intensity and location of the North Atlantic subtropical high (NASH) and transient synoptic troughs along the northern edge of the domain. Large-scale subsidence dominates the whole basin but rainfall can occur over sections of the basin, especially on the windward shores of the troughs associated with the synoptic waves. The transition between wintertime and summertime WTs is rather abrupt, especially in May. One summertime WT (WT 4) is prevalent in summer, and almost exclusive around late July. It is characterized by strong NASH, fast Caribbean low level jet and rainfall mostly concentrated over the Caribbean Islands, the Florida Peninsula, the whole Central America and the tropical Eastern Pacific. The two remaining summertime WTs display widespread rainfall respectively from Central America to Bermuda (WT 5) and over the Eastern Caribbean (WT 6). Both WTs combine reduced regional scale subsidence and weaker Caribbean low-level jet relatively to WT 4. The relationships between WT frequency and El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events are broadly linear. Warm central and eastern ENSO events are associated with more WT 4 (less WT 5-6) during boreal summer and autumn (0) while this relationship is reversed during boreal summer (+1) for central events only. In boreal winter, the largest anomalies are observed for two WTs consistent with negative (WT 2) and positive (WT 8) phases of the

  2. Novel combination of hydrophilic/hydrophobic surface for large wettability difference and its application to liquid manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Taizo; Shimizu, Kazunori; Kaizuma, Yoshihiro; Konishi, Satoshi

    2011-02-21

    This paper reports a novel combination of hydrophilic/hydrophobic materials for the evolution of liquid manipulation. Droplet generation based on a hydrophilic/hydrophobic mechanism is a promising method for highly accurate liquid manipulations. Although several droplet manipulation devices utilizing hydrophilic/hydrophobic patterns have been reported, it has been difficult to split fluid into droplets solely through hydrophilic/hydrophobic patterns in a microchannel. In this study, a material combination for fabricating hydrophilic/hydrophobic patterns was investigated and their wettability difference was enhanced for droplet generation. To improve hydrophilicity, we attempted to increase the surface area of silicon oxide through pulsed plasma chemical vapor deposition (PPCVD). To improve hydrophobicity, the damage to the hydrophobic patterns in the fabrication process was reduced. We successfully enhanced the difference in contact angles from 54.3° to 86.6° by combining the developed hydrophilic material and hydrophobic material. The developed material combination could successfully split fluid into a quantitative droplet of 14.1 nL in a microfluidic chip. Because the developed hydrophilic/hydrophobic combination enables the formation of a droplet with desirable shape in microchannels, the developed hydrophilic/hydrophobic combination is a promising component for lab-on-a-chip applications.

  3. Sea Surface Salinity and Wind Retrieval Algorithm Using Combined Passive-Active L-Band Microwave Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yueh, Simon H.; Chaubell, Mario J.

    2011-01-01

    Aquarius is a combined passive/active L-band microwave instrument developed to map the salinity field at the surface of the ocean from space. The data will support studies of the coupling between ocean circulation, the global water cycle, and climate. The primary science objective of this mission is to monitor the seasonal and interannual variation of the large scale features of the surface salinity field in the open ocean with a spatial resolution of 150 kilometers and a retrieval accuracy of 0.2 practical salinity units globally on a monthly basis. The measurement principle is based on the response of the L-band (1.413 gigahertz) sea surface brightness temperatures (T (sub B)) to sea surface salinity. To achieve the required 0.2 practical salinity units accuracy, the impact of sea surface roughness (e.g. wind-generated ripples and waves) along with several factors on the observed brightness temperature has to be corrected to better than a few tenths of a degree Kelvin. To the end, Aquarius includes a scatterometer to help correct for this surface roughness effect.

  4. Dual-switchable surfaces between hydrophobic and superhydrophobic fabricated by the combination of click chemistry and RAFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Han

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A dual-switchable surface between hydrophobic and superhydrophobic has been fabricated successfully by combining reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization (RAFT polymeric technology and thiol-NCO click chemistry. Well-defined block copolymer, poly(7-(6-(acryloyloxy hexyloxy coumarin-b-poly(N-Isopropylacryl amide, was synthesized by RAFT, and then the block copolymer was grafted onto the surface of SiO2 modified by toluene disocynate (TDI via thiol-NCO click chemistry. The results of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR spectroscopies confirmed that the block copolymer (Number average molecular weight (Mn = 9400, polydispersity index (PDI = 1.22 has been synthesized successfully. The static contact angle (CA of the surface prepared by SiO2/P (7-6-AC-b-PNIPAAm switches from 98±2 to 137±2° by adjusting the temperature. Furthermore, the contact angle can also oscillate between 137±2 and 157±2° on the irradiation of UV light at 365 and 254 nm, respectively. The dual-switchable surfaces exhibit high stability between hydrophilicity and superhydrophobicity. Therefore, the method provides a new method to fabricate the dual-stimuli-responsive surface with tunable wettability, reversible switching, and also be easily extended to other dual-responsive surfaces. This ability to control the wettability by the adjustment of the temperature and UV light has applications in a broad range of fields.

  5. Combined effects of surface morphology and mechanical straining magnitudes on the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells without using biochemical reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Ji-Yeon; Lee, Shi Woo; Park, So Hee; Shin, Ji Won; Mun, ChiWoong; Kim, Su-Hyang; Kim, Dong Hwa; Shin, Jung-Woog

    2011-01-01

    Existing studies examining the control of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) differentiation into desired cell types have used a variety of biochemical reagents such as growth factors despite possible side effects. Recently, the roles of biomimetic microphysical environments have drawn much attention in this field. We studied MSC differentiation and changes in gene expression in relation to osteoblast-like cell and smooth muscle-like cell type resulting from various microphysical environments, including differing magnitudes of tensile strain and substrate geometries for 8 days. In addition, we also investigated the residual effects of those selected microphysical environment factors on the differentiation by ceasing those factors for 3 days. The results of this study showed the effects of the strain magnitudes and surface geometries. However, the genes which are related to the same cell type showed different responses depending on the changes in strain magnitude and surface geometry. Also, different responses were observed three days after the straining was stopped. These data confirm that controlling microenvironments so that they mimic those in vivo contributes to the differentiation of MSCs into specific cell types. And duration of straining engagement was also found to play important roles along with surface geometry.

  6. Combined Effects of Surface Morphology and Mechanical Straining Magnitudes on the Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells without Using Biochemical Reagents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Yeon Jang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Existing studies examining the control of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC differentiation into desired cell types have used a variety of biochemical reagents such as growth factors despite possible side effects. Recently, the roles of biomimetic microphysical environments have drawn much attention in this field. We studied MSC differentiation and changes in gene expression in relation to osteoblast-like cell and smooth muscle-like cell type resulting from various microphysical environments, including differing magnitudes of tensile strain and substrate geometries for 8 days. In addition, we also investigated the residual effects of those selected microphysical environment factors on the differentiation by ceasing those factors for 3 days. The results of this study showed the effects of the strain magnitudes and surface geometries. However, the genes which are related to the same cell type showed different responses depending on the changes in strain magnitude and surface geometry. Also, different responses were observed three days after the straining was stopped. These data confirm that controlling microenvironments so that they mimic those in vivo contributes to the differentiation of MSCs into specific cell types. And duration of straining engagement was also found to play important roles along with surface geometry.

  7. Exploring combined dark and bright field illumination to improve the detection of defects on specular surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, Paulo M. F.; Felgueiras, P. E. R.; Ferreira, Flávio P.; Sousa, M. A.; Nunes-Pereira, Eduardo J.; Bret, Boris P. J.; Belsley, Michael S.

    2017-01-01

    An automatic optical inspection system for detecting local defects on specular surfaces is presented. The system uses an image display to produce a sequence of structured diffuse illumination patterns and a digital camera to acquire the corresponding sequence of images. An image enhancement algorithm, which measures the local intensity variations between bright- and dark-field illumination conditions, yields a final image in which the defects are revealed with a high contrast. Subsequently, an image segmentation algorithm, which compares statistically the enhanced image of the inspected surface with the corresponding image for a defect-free template, allows separating defects from non-defects with an adjusting decision threshold. The method can be applied to shiny surfaces of any material including metal, plastic and glass. The described method was tested on the plastic surface of a car dashboard system. We were able to detect not only scratches but also dust and fingerprints. In our experiment we observed a detection contrast increase from about 40%, when using an extended light source, to more than 90% when using a structured light source. The presented method is simple, robust and can be carried out with short cycle times, making it appropriate for applications in industrial environments.

  8. Combining Theory and Experiment to Characterize the Atomic Structures of Surface-Deposited Au309 Clusters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curley, B.C.; Johnston, R.L.; Young, N.P.; Li, Z.; Di Vece, M.; Palmer, R.E.; Bleloch, A.l.

    2007-01-01

    Gold clusters with icosahedral, decahedral, and cuboctahedral shell structures, have been studied using the Gupta many-body potential, to aid in the structural characterization of surface-deposited Au309 clusters using high-angle annular dark field-scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-ST

  9. The structure of the chiral Pt531 surface: a combined LEED and DFT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puisto, S R; Held, G; Ranea, V; Jenkins, S J; Mola, E E; King, D A

    2005-12-01

    The structure of the chiral kinked Pt531 surface has been determined by low-energy electron diffraction intensity-versus-energy (LEED-IV) analysis and density functional theory (DFT). Large contractions and expansions of the vertical interlayer distances with respect to the bulk-terminated surface geometry were found for the first six layers (LEED: d12 = 0.44 A, d23 = 0.69 A, d34 = 0.49 A, d45 = 0.95 A, d56 = 0.56 A; DFT: d12 = 0.51 A, d23 = 0.55 A, d34 = 0.74 A, d45 = 0.78 A, d56 = 0.63 A; dbulk = 0.66 A). Energy-dependent cancellations of LEED spots over unusually large energy ranges, up to 100 eV, can be explained by surface roughness and reproduced by applying a model involving 0.25 ML of vacancies and adatoms in the scattering calculations. The agreement between the results from LEED and DFT is not as good as in other cases, which could be due to this roughness of the real surface.

  10. Elemental analysis by surface-enhanced Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy combined with liquid–liquid microextraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguirre, M.A. [Department of Analytical Chemistry and Food Science and University Institute of Materials, Faculty of Science, University of Alicante, Alicante E-03080 (Spain); Legnaioli, S. [Applied Laser Spectroscopy Laboratory, Institute of Chemistry of Organometallic Compounds, National Research Council (CNR), Pisa I-56124 (Italy); Almodóvar, F. [Department of Analytical Chemistry and Food Science and University Institute of Materials, Faculty of Science, University of Alicante, Alicante E-03080 (Spain); Hidalgo, M., E-mail: montserrat.hidalgo@ua.es [Department of Analytical Chemistry and Food Science and University Institute of Materials, Faculty of Science, University of Alicante, Alicante E-03080 (Spain); Palleschi, V. [Applied Laser Spectroscopy Laboratory, Institute of Chemistry of Organometallic Compounds, National Research Council (CNR), Pisa I-56124 (Italy); Canals, A. [Department of Analytical Chemistry and Food Science and University Institute of Materials, Faculty of Science, University of Alicante, Alicante E-03080 (Spain)

    2013-01-01

    In this work, the possibility of using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectrometry (LIBS) combined with liquid–liquid microextraction techniques is evaluated as a simple and fast method for trace elemental analysis. Two different strategies for LIBS analysis of manganese contained in microdroplets of extraction solvent (Triton X-114) are studied: (i) analysis by direct laser irradiation of microdroplets; and (ii) analysis by laser irradiation of microdroplets dried on metallic substrates (surface-enhanced LIBS — SENLIBS). Experiments were carried out using synthetic samples with different concentrations of manganese in a 10% w/w Triton X-114 matrix. The analysis by direct laser irradiation of microdroplets showed low precision, sensitivity and poor linearity across the concentration range evaluated (R{sup 2} < 0.95). On the other hand, the SENLIBS method of analysis improved the sensitivity, the precision and the linearity of the calibration curve with respect to the direct analysis of microdroplets. In comparison with experimental results obtained by direct analysis, SENLIBS also allowed several replicate measurements to be carried out in a single microdroplet. The limit of detection obtained was 6 μg g{sup −1} of Mn. - Highlights: ► LIBS combined with microextraction procedures for trace analysis is proposed. ► The proposed combination depends on LIBS ability to analyze sample microvolumes. ► A surface-enhanced LIBS methodology for microdroplet analysis was evaluated. ► Results indicate this combination to be promising for trace analysis in liquids.

  11. A Combined FTIR and TPD Study on the Bulk and Surface Dehydroxylation and Decarbonation of Synthetic Goethite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boily, Jean F; Szanyi, Janos; Felmy, Andrew R

    2006-08-01

    The thermal dehydroxylation of a goethite–carbonate solid solution was studied with combined Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) – Temperature programmed desorption (TPD) experiments. The TPD data revealed dehydroxylation peaks involving the intrinsic dehydroxylation of goethite at 560 K and a low temperature peak at 485 K which was shown to be associated to the release of non-stoichiometric water from the goethite bulk and surface. The FTIR and the TPD data of goethite in the absence of adsorbed carbonate species revealed the presence of adventitious carbonate mostly sequestered in the goethite bulk. The release of carbonate was however not only related to the dehydration of goethite but also from the crystallization of hematite at temperatures exceeding 600 K. The relative abundance of surface hydroxyls was shown to change systematically upon goethite dehydroxylation with a preferential stripping of singlycoordinated AOH sites followed by a dramatic change in the dominance of the different surface hydroxyls upon the formation of hematite.

  12. Dynamic behavior of water droplets on solid surfaces with pillar-type nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Woog-Jin; Ha, Man Yeong; Yoon, Hyun Sik; Ambrosia, Matthew

    2012-03-27

    In the present study, we investigated the static and dynamic behavior of water droplets on solid surfaces featuring pillar-type nanostructures by using molecular dynamics simulations. We carried out the computation in two stages. As a result of the first computational stage, an initial water cube reached an equilibrium state at which the water droplet showed different shapes depending on the height and the lateral and gap dimensions of the pillars. In the second computational stage, we applied a constant body force to the static water droplet obtained from the first computational stage and evaluated the dynamic behavior of the water droplet as it slid along the pillar-type surface. The dynamic behavior of the water droplet, which could be classified into three different groups, depended on the static state of the water droplet, the pillar characteristics (e.g., height and the lateral and gap dimensions of the pillars), and the magnitude of the applied body force. We obtained the advancing and receding contact angles and the corresponding contact angle hysteresis of the water droplets, which helped classify the water droplets into the three different groups.

  13. Surface-type humidity sensor based on cellulose-PEPC for telemetry systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kh. S. Karimov; M.Saleem; T. A. Qasuria; M. Farooq

    2011-01-01

    Au/cellulose-PEPC/Au surface-type humidity sensors were fabricated by drop-casting cellulose and poly-N-epoxypropylcarbazole (PEPC) blend thin films. A blend of 2wt% of each cellulose and PEPC in benzol was used for the deposition of humidity sensing films. Blend films were deposited on glass substrates with preliminary deposited surface-type gold electrodes. Films of different thicknesses of cellulose and PEPC composite were deposited by drop-casting technique. A change in electrical resistance and capacitance of the fabricated devices was observed by increasing the relative humidity in the range of 0-95% RH. It was observed that the capacitances of the sensors increase, while their resistances decrease with increasing the relative humidity. The sensors were connected to op-amp square wave oscillators. It was observed that with increasing the relative humidity, the oscillator's frequencies were also increased in the range of 4.2-12.0 kHz for 65/μm thick film sample, 4.1-9.0 kHz for 88 μm thick film sample, and 4.2-9.0 kHz for 210 μm sample. Effects of film thickness on the oscillator's frequency with respect to humidity were also investigated. This polymer humidity sensor controlled oscillator can be used for short-range and long-range remote systems at environmental monitoring and assessment of the humidity level.

  14. Combined high pressure and thermal processing on inactivation of type E and nonproteolytic type B and F spores of Clostridium botulinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Guy E; Marshall, Kristin M; Morrissey, Travis R; Loeza, Viviana; Patazca, Eduardo; Reddy, N Rukma; Larkin, John W

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the resistance of multiple strains of the three nonproteolytic types of Clostridium botulinum (seven strains of type E, eight of type B, and two of type F) spores exposed to combined high pressure and thermal processing. The resistance of spores suspended in N-(2-acetamido)-2-aminoethanesulfonic acid (ACES) buffer (0.05 M, pH 7) was determined at a process temperature of 80°C with high pressures of 600, 650, and 700 MPa using a laboratory-scale pressure test system. Spores of C. botulinum serotype E strains demonstrated less resistance than nonproteolytic spores of type B or F strains when processed at 80°C and 600 MPa for up to 15 min. All C. botulinum type E strains were reduced by . 6.0 log units within 5 min under these conditions. Among the nonproteolytic type B strains, KAP 9-B was the most resistant, resulting in reductions of 2.7, 5.3, and 5.5 log, coinciding with D-values of 7.7, 3.4, and 1.8 min at 80°C and 600, 650, and 700 MPa, respectively. Of the two nonproteolytic type F strains, 610F was the most resistant, showing 2.6-, 4.5-, and 5.3-log reductions with D-values of 8.9, 4.3, and 1.8 min at 80°C and 600, 650, and 700 MPa, respectively. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was performed to examine the genetic relatedness of strains tested and to determine if strains with similar banding patterns also exhibited similar D-values. No correlation between the genetic fingerprint of a particular strain and its resistance to high pressure processing was observed.

  15. Tumour eosinophilia combined with an immunohistochemistry panel is useful in the differentiation of type B3 thymoma from thymic carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, Thaer; Chandrasekhar, Rameela; Wilding, Gregory; Tan, Dongfeng; Cheney, Richard T

    2011-01-01

    It is sometimes difficult to differentiate between type B3 thymoma from thymic carcinoma histologically. Given the rarity of these tumours, studies have been limited. A series of 66 thymic neoplasms were reviewed and classified according to the World Health Organization (WHO) scheme. We performed a tissue microarray analysis of surgically resected thymic tumour specimens including 12 thymic carcinomas, 17 type B3 thymomas and 37 thymomas of other types. Percentage and staining intensity of immunohistochemical markers were recorded. Tumour eosinophilia was recorded positive if at least one eosinophilic cell identified. Positive staining of the following markers significantly differentiated type B3 thymoma from thymic carcinoma: cytokeratin 5/6 (15 vs. 3), Mesothelin (0 vs. 5), cytoplasmic androgen receptor (10 vs. 0), CD57 (9 vs. 0), CD5 (0 vs. 7), TdT (lymphocytic) (14 vs. 1), CD1a (lymphocytic) (14 vs. 2), CD117 (1 vs. 9), MOC31 (2 vs. 6), p21 (2 vs. 8), cytoplasmic Survivin (0 vs. 4), and tumour eosinophilia (1 vs. 11). Combining two or three markers was able to differentiate these two tumours with area under the curve percentage of at least 92%. Tumour eosinophilia combined with a panel of immunohistochemistry could differentiate type B3 thymoma from thymic carcinoma. PMID:21044186

  16. Height estimate for special Weingarten surfaces of elliptic type in ${\\mathbb M}^2(c \\times \\mathbb {R}$

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Morabito

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article we provide a vertical height estimate for compact special Weingarten surfaces of elliptic type in ²(×ℝ, i.e. surfaces whose mean curvature ℍ and extrinsic Gauss curvature ₑ satisfy ℍ=(ℍ²-ₑ with 4(’(²<1, for all ∈[0,+∞. The vertical height estimate generalizes a result by Rosenberg and Sa Earp and applies only to surfaces verifying a height estimate condition. When <0, using also a horizontal height estimate, we show a non-existence result for properly embedded Weingarten surfaces of elliptic type in ℍ²(×ℝ with finite topology and one end.

  17. The co-adsorption of copper and oxygen on a tungsten 100 plane-type surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, E.; Poppa, H.; Davis, P. R.; Viswanath, Y.

    1978-01-01

    The coadsorption of Cu on O2 and a W 100 plane-type surface is studied by Auger electron spectroscopy, thermal desorption, low energy electron diffraction and by work function change measurements. It is shown that the presence of Cu on the surface initially decreases the sticking coefficient of O2. For longer oxygen exposures and for higher adsorption temperatures, the coverage of preadsorbed oxygen reaches values larger than those on the clean surface for the same O2 exposure. Except at the highest values and temperatures of the coverage of preadsorbed oxygen, the sticking coefficient for copper is unity and is independent of the oxygen coverage in the range studied. Coadsorption at room temperatures does not produce any long range order while coadsorption at elevated temperature leads to ordered structures. The saturation coverage of the two dimensional coadsorbate at 800 K is given by a relation. The work function is a complicated function of the coverage of preadsorbed oxygen and the coverage of preadsorbed Cu and is determined predominantly by the temperature at which oxygen is adsorbed. At high temperatures the sequence of adsorption has no influence, in contrast to the room temperature behavior.

  18. Dynamic analysis of new type elastic screen surface with multi degree of freedom and experimental validation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋宝成; 刘初升; 彭利平; 李珺

    2015-01-01

    A feasible method was proposed to improve the vibration intensity of screen surface via application of a new type elastic screen surface with multi degree of freedom (NTESSMDF). In the NTESSMDF, the primary robs were coupled to the main screen structure with ends embedded into the elastomers, and the secondary robs were attached to adjacent two primary robs with elastic bands. The dynamic model of vibrating screen with NTESSMDF was established based on Lagrange’s equation and the equivalent stiffnesses of the elastomer and elastic band were calculated. According to numerical simulation using the 4th order Runge-Kutta method, the vibration intensity of screen surface can be enhanced substantially with an averaged acceleration amplitude increasing ratio of 72.36%. The primary robs and secondary robs vibrate inversely in steady state, which would result in the friability of materials and avoid stoppage. The experimental results validate the dynamic characteristics with acceleration amplitude rising by 62.93%on average, which demonstrates the feasibility of NTESSMDF.

  19. Synthesis and surface activities of a novel di-hydroxyl-sulfate-betaine-type zwitterionic gemini surfactants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geng, Xiang F., E-mail: gengxiangfei1988111@126.com [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu 610500 (China); State Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploration, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu 610500 (China); Hu, Xing Q.; Xia, Ji J. [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu 610500 (China); State Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploration, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu 610500 (China); Jia, Xue C. [Institute of Resources and Environmental, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu 610500 (China)

    2013-04-15

    A series of novel di-hydroxyl-sulfate-betaine-type zwitterionic gemini surfactants of 1,2-bis[N-ethyl-N-(2-hydroxyl-3-sulfopropyl)-alkylammonium] alkyl betaines (DBA{sub s–n}, where s and n represent the spacer length of 2, 4 and 6 and the hydrocarbon chain length of 8, 12, 14, 16 and 18, respectively) were synthesized by reacting alkylamine with sodium 3-chloro-2-hydroxypropanesulfonate (the alternative sulphonated agent), followed by the reactions with a,ω-dibromoalkyl and then ethyl bromide. Their adsorption and aggregation properties were investigated by means of equilibrium surface tension, dynamic light-scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). DBA{sub s–n} gemini surfactants showed excellent surface activities and packed tightly at the interface. For example, the minimum CMC value for DBA{sub s–n} series was of the order of 10{sup −5} M and the surface tension of water can be decreased as low as 22.2 mN/m. It was also found that the aggregates of DBA{sub s–n} solutions were significantly dependent on their hydrocarbon chain lengths. The aggregates changed from vesicles to entangled fiber-like micelles as the chain length increased from dodecyl to tetradecyl.

  20. Synthesis and surface activities of a novel di-hydroxyl-sulfate-betaine-type zwitterionic gemini surfactants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Xiang F.; Hu, Xing Q.; Xia, Ji J.; Jia, Xue C.

    2013-04-01

    A series of novel di-hydroxyl-sulfate-betaine-type zwitterionic gemini surfactants of 1,2-bis[N-ethyl-N-(2-hydroxyl-3-sulfopropyl)-alkylammonium] alkyl betaines (DBAs-n, where s and n represent the spacer length of 2, 4 and 6 and the hydrocarbon chain length of 8, 12, 14, 16 and 18, respectively) were synthesized by reacting alkylamine with sodium 3-chloro-2-hydroxypropanesulfonate (the alternative sulphonated agent), followed by the reactions with а,ω-dibromoalkyl and then ethyl bromide. Their adsorption and aggregation properties were investigated by means of equilibrium surface tension, dynamic light-scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). DBAs-n gemini surfactants showed excellent surface activities and packed tightly at the interface. For example, the minimum CMC value for DBAs-n series was of the order of 10-5 M and the surface tension of water can be decreased as low as 22.2 mN/m. It was also found that the aggregates of DBAs-n solutions were significantly dependent on their hydrocarbon chain lengths. The aggregates changed from vesicles to entangled fiber-like micelles as the chain length increased from dodecyl to tetradecyl.

  1. Impact response of a Timoshenko-type viscoelastic beam considering the extension of its middle surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossikhin, Yury A; Shitikova, Marina V; Meza, Maria Guadalupe Estrada

    2016-01-01

    In the present paper, the problem of low-velocity impact of an elastic sphere against a viscoelastic Timoshenko-type beam is studied considering the extension of its middle surface. The viscoelastic features of the beam out of the contact domain are governed by the standard linear solid model with derivatives of integer order, while within the contact domain the fractional derivative standard linear solid model is utilized, in so doing rheological constants of the material in both models are the same. However the presence of the additional parameter, i.e. fractional parameter which could vary from zero to unit, allows one to vary beam's viscosity, since the structure of the beam's material within this zone may be damaged, resulting in the decrease of the beam material viscosity in the contact zone. Consideration for transient waves (surfaces of strong discontinuity) propagating in the target out of the contact zone via the theory of discontinuities and determination of the desired values behind the surfaces of discontinuities upto the contact domain with the help of ray series, as well as the utilization of the Hertz theory in the contact zone allow one to obtain a set of two integro-differential equations, which govern the desired values, namely: the local bearing of the target and impactor's materials and the displacement of the beam within the contact domain.

  2. Combining Workstation Design and Performance Management to Increase Ergonomically Correct Computer Typing Postures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culig, Kathryn M.; Dickinson, Alyce M.; Lindstrom-Hazel, Debra; Austin, John

    2008-01-01

    The effects of workstation changes and a performance management (PM) package on seven typing postures were examined for seven office workers. Workstation adjustments were implemented first. Two participants increased five safe postures by 50% or more. The effects of a PM package on postures that did not improve by 50% were then examined using a…

  3. Goblet cell carcinoid in a patient with neurofibromatosis type 1-a rare combination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Tine; Holt, Nanna; Gronbaek, Henning

    2012-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors are rare tumors primarily located in the gastrointestinal tract. Goblet cell carcinoid is a rare subgroup of neuroendocrine tumors located in the appendix. Neurofibromatosis type 1 is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by a mutation in the NF1 gene. Patients...

  4. [Ehler-Danlos syndrome (type V) with urethra bifida and polydactyly: an unusual combination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manna, R; Modugno, I; Pala, M A; Caputo, S; Caradonna, E; Greco, A V

    1981-06-30

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome is currently regarded as a connective tissue dysplasia. Its genetic, biochemical, histological and clinical features are described, together with a personal case in a patient who presented the fundamental symptoms, plus polydactyly and bifid urethra. This association had not been hitherto reported in the literature. The case itself is classed as Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type V.

  5. A combined fMRI study of typed spelling and reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Jeremy J; Napoliello, Eileen M; Eden, Guinevere F

    2011-03-15

    In this study we employed a novel technique to examine the neural basis of written spelling by having subjects touch-type single words on an fMRI compatible QWERTY keyboard. Additionally, in the same group of participants we determined if task-related signal changes associated with typed spelling were also co-localized with or separate from those for reading. Of particular interest were the left inferior frontal gyrus, left inferior parietal lobe as well as an area in the left occipitotemporal cortex termed the Visual Word Form Area (VWFA), each of which have been associated with both spelling and reading. Our results revealed that typed spelling was associated with a left hemisphere network of regions which included the inferior frontal gyrus, intraparietal sulcus, inferior temporal/fusiform gyrus, as well as a region in the superior/middle frontal gyrus, near Exner's area. A conjunction analysis of activation associated with spelling and reading revealed a significant overlap in the left inferior frontal gyrus and occipitotemporal cortex. Interestingly, within the occipitotemporal cortex just lateral and superior to the VWFA we identified an area that was selectively associated with spelling, as revealed by a direct comparison of the two tasks. These results demonstrate that typed spelling activates a predominantly left hemisphere network, a subset of which is functionally relevant to both spelling and reading. Further analysis revealed that the left occipitotemporal cortex contains regions with both conjoint and dissociable patterns of activation for spelling and reading. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Residual stress and electromagnetic characteristics in loop type frequency selective surface embedded hybrid structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kyung Mi; Seo, Yun Seok; Chun, Heoung Jae [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Ik Pyo [Kongju National University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Yong Bae [Ajoo University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yoon Jae [Agency for defense development, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    Residual stresses occur in frequency-selective surface (FSS)-embedded composite structures after co-curing due to differences between the coefficients of thermal expansion between composite skins and FSSs. Furthermore, the electromagnetic characteristics may be affected by the deformation of the FSS pattern by residual stresses. Therefore, we studied the changes in electromagnetic characteristics due to the deformation of FSS, using residual stresses to deform loop-type FSS-embedded hybrid composites. We considered the effects of loop-type FSS patterns of equal dimension as well as the stacking sequences of composite laminates on the electromagnetic characteristics of FSSs: Square loop, triangular loop and circular loop. The stacking sequences of composite laminates considered in this study were [0]{sub 8}, [0/90]{sub 4}, [+-45]{sub 4} and [0/+-45/90]{sub 2}. The FSS was located between composite laminates in the middle plane. To determine the residual stresses and deformations in the FSS embedded laminate structures, the thermal loading condition in the finite element analysis was induced by cooling the hybrid structures from 125 .deg. C to 20 .deg. C based on the cure cycle of the composite. Also, the electromagnetic reflection characteristics of the hybrid structures were predicted using deformed models by residual stresses, considering the effects of stacking sequence of composite laminates. The results showed that the maximum residual stresses and deformations were produced in the [0]{sub 8} composites with all three loop-types of FSS pattern. However, the maximum resonance frequency shifts occurred in the square and triangle loop-types with stacking sequence of [0]{sub 8} , while the maximum resonance frequency shift occurred in the circular loop-type with stacking sequence of [0/+-45/90]{sub 2}.

  7. Canagliflozin: Efficacy and Safety in Combination with Metformin Alone or with Other Antihyperglycemic Agents in Type 2 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Qiu, Rong; Balis, Dainius; Capuano, George; Xie, John; Meininger, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Metformin is typically the first pharmacologic treatment recommended for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but many patients do not achieve glycemic control with metformin alone and eventually require combination therapy with other agents. Canagliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, was assessed in a comprehensive Phase 3 clinical development program consisting of ~10,000 participants, of which ~80% were on background therapy that consisted of metformin alone or in comb...

  8. A rare combination of type 3 autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome (APS-3) or multiple autoimmune syndrome (MAS-3)

    OpenAIRE

    Betterle, Corrado; Garelli, Silvia; Coco, Graziella; Burra, Patrizia

    2014-01-01

    Context Type 3 autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome (APS-3) is defined by the presence of an autoimmune thyroid disease and another autoimmune illness, excluding Addison’s disease; this is a frequent combination. Case presentation We report the case of a 55 years old female patient with APS-3, with seven clinical or latent autoimmune manifestations. At 49 years of age she was admitted at the General Hospital for leukopenia, weight loss, tremors, anxiety and diarrhea. The personal history reveale...

  9. Interaction between mouse adenovirus type 1 and cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liesbeth Lenaerts

    Full Text Available Application of human adenovirus type 5 (Ad5 derived vectors for cancer gene therapy has been limited by the poor cell surface expression, on some tumor cell types, of the primary Ad5 receptor, the coxsackie-adenovirus-receptor (CAR, as well as the accumulation of Ad5 in the liver following interaction with blood coagulation factor X (FX and subsequent tethering of the FX-Ad5 complex to heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG on liver cells. As an alternative vector, mouse adenovirus type 1 (MAV-1 is particularly attractive, since this non-human adenovirus displays pronounced endothelial cell tropism and does not use CAR as a cellular attachment receptor. We here demonstrate that MAV-1 uses cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs as primary cellular attachment receptor. Direct binding of MAV-1 to heparan sulfate-coated plates proved to be markedly more efficient compared to that of Ad5. Experiments with modified heparins revealed that the interaction of MAV-1 to HSPGs depends on their N-sulfation and, to a lesser extent, 6-O-sulfation rate. Whereas the interaction between Ad5 and HSPGs was enhanced by FX, this was not the case for MAV-1. A slot blot assay demonstrated the ability of MAV-1 to directly interact with FX, although the amount of FX complexed to MAV-1 was much lower than observed for Ad5. Analysis of the binding of MAV-1 and Ad5 to the NCI-60 panel of different human tumor cell lines revealed the preference of MAV-1 for ovarian carcinoma cells. Together, the data presented here enlarge our insight into the HSPG receptor usage of MAV-1 and support the development of an MAV-1-derived gene vector for human cancer therapy.

  10. Combination of 3D skin surface texture features and 2D ABCD features for improved melanoma diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yi; John, Nigel W; Smith, Lyndon; Sun, Jiuai; Smith, Melvyn

    2015-10-01

    Two-dimensional asymmetry, border irregularity, colour variegation and diameter (ABCD) features are important indicators currently used for computer-assisted diagnosis of malignant melanoma (MM); however, they often prove to be insufficient to make a convincing diagnosis. Previous work has demonstrated that 3D skin surface normal features in the form of tilt and slant pattern disruptions are promising new features independent from the existing 2D ABCD features. This work investigates that whether improved lesion classification can be achieved by combining the 3D features with the 2D ABCD features. Experiments using a nonlinear support vector machine classifier show that many combinations of the 2D ABCD features and the 3D features can give substantially better classification accuracy than using (1) single features and (2) many combinations of the 2D ABCD features. The best 2D and 3D feature combination includes the overall 3D skin surface disruption, the asymmetry and all the three colour channel features. It gives an overall 87.8 % successful classification, which is better than the best single feature with 78.0 % and the best 2D feature combination with 83.1 %. These demonstrate that (1) the 3D features have additive values to improve the existing lesion classification and (2) combining the 3D feature with all the 2D features does not lead to the best lesion classification. The two ABCD features not selected by the best 2D and 3D combination, namely (1) the border feature and (2) the diameter feature, were also studied in separate experiments. It found that inclusion of either feature in the 2D and 3D combination can successfully classify 3 out of 4 lesion groups. The only one group not accurately classified by either feature can be classified satisfactorily by the other. In both cases, they have shown better classification performances than those without the 3D feature in the combinations. This further demonstrates that (1) the 3D feature can be used to

  11. Sampling Free Energy Surfaces as Slices by Combining Umbrella Sampling and Metadynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Kapil, Venkat; Nair, Nisanth N

    2015-01-01

    Metadynamics (MTD) is a very powerful technique to sample high--dimensional free energy landscapes, and due to its self--guiding property, the method has been successful in studying complex reactions and conformational changes.MTD sampling is based on filling the free energy basins by biasing potentials and thus for cases with flat, broad and unbound free energy wells, the computational time to sample them becomes very large.To alleviate this problem, we propose a scheme, named Well--Sliced MTD (WS--MTD), where we combine the standard Umbrella Sampling (US) technique with MTD to sample orthogonal collective variables (CVs) in a simultaneous way. Within this scheme, we construct the equilibrium distribution of CVs from biased distributions obtained from independent MTD simulations with umbrella potentials. Reweighting is carried out by a procedure that combines US reweighting and Tiwary-Parrinello metadynamics reweighting within the Weighted Histogram Analysis Method (WHAM). WS--MTD will be an ideal strategy f...

  12. Transport mechanism of an initially spherical droplet on a combined hydrophilic/hydrophobic surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myong, Hyon Kook; Kwon, Young Hoo [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Kookmin University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    Fluid transport is a key issue in the development of microfluidic systems. Recently, Myong (2014) has proposed a new concept for droplet transport without external power sources, and numerically validated the results for a hypothetical 2D shape, initially having a hemicylindrical droplet shape. Myong and Kwon (2015) have also examined the transport mechanism for an actual water droplet, initially having a 3D hemispherical shape, on a horizontal hydrophilic/hydrophobic surface, based on the numerical results of the time evolution of the droplet shape, as well as the total kinetic, gravitational, pressure and surface free energies inside the droplet. In this study, a 3D numerical analysis of an initially spherical droplet is carried out to establish a new concept for droplet transport. Further, the transport mechanism of an actual water droplet is examined in detail from the viewpoint of the capillarity force imbalance through the numerical results of droplet shape and various energies inside the droplet.

  13. Adsorption of Zn(II) on the kaolinite(001) surfaces in aqueous environment: A combined DFT and molecular dynamics study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiang; Kong, Xiang-Ping; Zhang, Bao-Hua; Wang, Juan

    2017-08-01

    Adsorption of Zn(II) on two types of neutral (001) surfaces of kaolinite, tetrahedral Si(t) and octahedral Al(o), was studied by means of DFT calculations and classical molecular dynamics simulations. The position and structure for both outer-sphere and mono-/bi-dentate inner-sphere complexes of Zn(II) in aqueous environment were examined, with binding energy and radial distribution function calculated. Outer-sphere complex on the Si(t) surface, monodentate inner-sphere complex of ;Ou; (surface oxygen with ;upright; hydrogen) site and bidentate complex of ;Ou-Ou; site of neighboring Al centers on the Al(o) surface are considered to be the dominant adsorption species. The outer-sphere complex is found six-coordinated with distorted octahedral geometry, while both the inner-sphere complexes exhibit the tetrahedral structure with coordination number of four. Hydrogen bonding interactions between oxygen or hydrogen of the kaolinite(001) surfaces and the aqua ligands of Zn(II) act as the key role for the structure and stability of adsorption complexes. Upon the Mulliken population analysis and partial density of states, both Zn(II) and surface oxygen accept electrons from aqua oxygens, and coupling of O 2p with the sp3d2 or sp3 hybridization states of Zn(II) is the primary bonding nature of Zn(II) with oxygen in outer- and inner-sphere complexes, respectively.

  14. Sampling Free Energy Surfaces as Slices by Combining Umbrella Sampling and Metadynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Awasthi, Shalini; Kapil, Venkat; Nair, Nisanth N.

    2015-01-01

    Metadynamics (MTD) is a very powerful technique to sample high-dimensional free energy landscapes, and due to its self-guiding property, the method has been successful in studying complex reactions and conformational changes. MTD sampling is based on filling the free energy basins by biasing potentials and thus for cases with flat, broad and unbound free energy wells, the computational time to sample them becomes very large. To alleviate this problem, we combine the standard Umbrella Sampling...

  15. Combined analysis of surface reflection imaging and vertical seismic profiling at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daley, T.M.; Majer, E.L.; Karageorgi, E. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Earth Sciences Div.

    1994-08-01

    This report presents results from surface and borehole seismic profiling performed by the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) on Yucca Mountain. This work was performed as part of the site characterization effort for the potential high-level nuclear waste repository. Their objective was to provide seismic imaging from the near surface (200 to 300 ft. depth) to the repository horizon and below, if possible. Among the issues addressed by this seismic imaging work are location and depth of fracturing and faulting, geologic identification of reflecting horizons, and spatial continuity of reflecting horizons. The authors believe their results are generally positive, with tome specific successes. This was the first attempt at this scale using modem seismic imaging techniques to determine geologic features on Yucca Mountain. The principle purpose of this report is to present the interpretation of the seismic reflection section in a geologic context. Three surface reflection profiles were acquired and processed as part of this study. Because of environmental concerns, all three lines were on preexisting roads. Line 1 crossed the mapped surface trace of the Ghost Dance fault and it was intended to study the dip and depth extent of the fault system. Line 2 was acquired along Drill Hole wash and was intended to help the ESF north ramp design activities. Line 3 was acquired along Yucca Crest and was designed to image geologic horizons which were thought to be less faulted along the ridge. Unfortunately, line 3 proved to have poor data quality, in part because of winds, poor field conditions and limited time. Their processing and interpretation efforts were focused on lines 1 and 2 and their associated VSP studies.

  16. Gravimetric and density profiling using the combination of surface acoustic waves and neutron reflectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toolan, Daniel T W; Barker, Robert; Gough, Tim; Topham, Paul D; Howse, Jonathan R; Glidle, Andrew

    2017-02-01

    A new approach is described herein, where neutron reflectivity measurements that probe changes in the density profile of thin films as they absorb material from the gas phase have been combined with a Love wave based gravimetric assay that measures the mass of absorbed material. This combination of techniques not only determines the spatial distribution of absorbed molecules, but also reveals the amount of void space within the thin film (a quantity that can be difficult to assess using neutron reflectivity measurements alone). The uptake of organic solvent vapours into spun cast films of polystyrene has been used as a model system with a view to this method having the potential for extension to the study of other systems. These could include, for example, humidity sensors, hydrogel swelling, biomolecule adsorption or transformations of electroactive and chemically reactive thin films. This is the first ever demonstration of combined neutron reflectivity and Love wave-based gravimetry and the experimental caveats, limitations and scope of the method are explored and discussed in detail.

  17. Adsorption of Emerging Munitions Contaminants on Cellulose Surface: A Combined Theoretical and Experimental Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Manoj K; Poda, Aimee

    2016-06-01

    This manuscript reports results of an integrated theoretical and experimental investigation of adsorption of two emerging contaminants (DNAN and FOX-7) and legacy compound TNT on cellulose surface. Cellulose was modeled as trimeric form of the linear chain of 1 → 4 linked of β-D-glucopyranos in (4)C1 chair conformation. Geometries of modeled cellulose, munitions compounds and their complexes were optimized at the M06-2X functional level of Density Functional Theory using the 6-31G(d,p) basis set in gas phase and in water solution. The effect of water solution was modeled using the CPCM approach. Nature of potential energy surfaces was ascertained through harmonic vibrational frequency analysis. Interaction energies were corrected for basis set superposition error and the 6-311G(d,p) basis set was used. Molecular electrostatic potential mapping was performed to understand the reactivity of the investigated systems. It was predicted that adsorbates will be weakly adsorbed on the cellulose surface in water solution than in the gas phase.

  18. Combined enhanced fluorescence and label-free biomolecular detection with a photonic crystal surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathias, Patrick C; Ganesh, Nikhil; Chan, Leo L; Cunningham, Brian T

    2007-04-20

    A 2D photonic crystal surface with a different period in each lateral direction is demonstrated to detect biomolecules using two distinct sensing modalities. The sensing mechanisms both rely on the generation of a resonant reflection peak at one of two specific wavelengths, depending on the polarization of light that is incident on the photonic crystal. One polarization results in a resonant reflection peak in the visible spectrum to coincide with the excitation wavelength of a fluorophore, while the orthogonal polarization results in a resonant reflection peak at an infrared wavelength which is used for label-free detection of adsorbed biomolecules. The photonic crystal resonance for fluorescence excitation causes enhanced near fields at the structure surface, resulting in increased signal from fluorophores within 100 nm of the device surface. Label-free detection is performed by illuminating the photonic crystal with white light and monitoring shifts in the peak reflected wavelength of the infrared resonance with a high-resolution imaging detection instrument. Rigorous coupled-wave analysis was used to determine optimal dimensions for the photonic crystal structure, and devices were fabricated using a polymer-based nanoreplica molding approach. Fluorescence-based and label-free detection were demonstrated using arrays of spots of dye-conjugated streptavidin. Quantification of the fluorescent signal showed that the fluorescence output from protein spots on the photonic crystal was increased by up to a factor of 35, and deposited spots were also imaged in the label-free detection mode.

  19. Surface Passivation and Antireflection Behavior of ALD on n-Type Silicon for Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ing-Song Yu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Atomic layer deposition, a method of excellent step coverage and conformal deposition, was used to deposit TiO2 thin films for the surface passivation and antireflection coating of silicon solar cells. TiO2 thin films deposited at different temperatures (200°C, 300°C, 400°C, and 500°C on FZ n-type silicon wafers are in the thickness of 66.4 nm ± 1.1 nm and in the form of self-limiting growth. For the properties of surface passivation, Si surface is effectively passivated by the 200°C deposition TiO2 thin film. Its effective minority carrier lifetime, measured by the photoconductance decay method, is improved 133% at the injection level of  cm−3. Depending on different deposition parameters and annealing processes, we can control the crystallinity of TiO2 and find low-temperature TiO2 phase (anatase better passivation performance than the high-temperature one (rutile, which is consistent with the results of work function measured by Kelvin probe. In addition, TiO2 thin films on polished Si wafer serve as good ARC layers with refractive index between 2.13 and 2.44 at 632.8 nm. Weighted average reflectance at AM1.5G reduces more than half after the deposition of TiO2. Finally, surface passivation and antireflection properties of TiO2 are stable after the cofire process of conventional crystalline Si solar cells.

  20. Direct numerical simulation of turbulent flow in a channel with different types of surface roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolotnov, Igor A.

    2011-11-01

    Direct numerical simulation (DNS) was performed for turbulent channel flow (Reτ = 400) for two types of wall surface roughness and well as smooth walls. The roughness elements of first type were assumed to be two-dimensional, transverse square rods positioned on both walls in a non-staggered arrangement. The height of the rods corresponds to y+ = 13.6 and thus extends in the buffer layer. The second type of roughness was represented by a set of hemispherical obstacles (height of y+ = 10) located on both channel walls and arranged on a square lattice. The presented simulations are part of benchmark problems defined by thermal-hydraulics focus area of the Consortium for Advanced Simulations of Light Water Reactors (CASL). This problem simulates the effect of the presence of growing bubbles on the walls of nuclear reactor fuel rods and aimed on evaluating CFD capabilities of various codes before applying them to more advanced problems. Mean turbulent quantities were computed and compared with available analytical and experimental results. The results of this work will be used to evaluate the performance of other LES and RANS codes on this benchmark problem. Supported by Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL).

  1. Monte Carlo simulations for a Lotka-type model with reactant surface diffusion and interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvejnieks, G; Kuzovkov, V N

    2001-05-01

    The standard Lotka-type model, which was introduced for the first time by Mai et al. [J. Phys. A 30, 4171 (1997)] for a simplified description of autocatalytic surface reactions, is generalized here for a case of mobile and energetically interacting reactants. The mathematical formalism is proposed for determining the dependence of transition rates on the interaction energy (and temperature) for the general mathematical model, and the Lotka-type model, in particular. By means of Monte Carlo computer simulations, we have studied the impact of diffusion (with and without energetic interactions between reactants) on oscillatory properties of the A+B-->2B reaction. The diffusion leads to a desynchronization of oscillations and a subsequent decrease of oscillation amplitude. The energetic interaction between reactants has a dual effect depending on the type of mobile reactants. In the limiting case of mobile reactants B the repulsion results in a decrease of amplitudes. However, these amplitudes increase if reactants A are mobile and repulse each other. A simplified interpretation of the obtained results is given.

  2. Combined quantum mechanics (TDDFT) and classical electrodynamics (Mie theory) methods for calculating surface enhanced Raman and hyper-Raman spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullin, Jonathan; Valley, Nicholas; Blaber, Martin G; Schatz, George C

    2012-09-27

    Multiscale models that combine quantum mechanics and classical electrodynamics are presented, which allow for the evaluation of surface-enhanced Raman (SERS) and hyper-Raman scattering spectra (SEHRS) for both chemical (CHEM) and electrodynamic (EM) enhancement mechanisms. In these models, time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) for a system consisting of the adsorbed molecule and a metal cluster fragment of the metal particle is coupled to Mie theory for the metal particle, with the surface of the cluster being overlaid with the surface of the metal particle. In model A, the electromagnetic enhancement from plasmon-excitation of the metal particle is combined with the chemical enhancement associated with a static treatment of the molecule-metal structure to determine overall spectra. In model B, the frequency dependence of the Raman spectrum of the isolated molecule is combined with the enhancements determined in model A to refine the enhancement estimate. An equivalent theory at the level of model A is developed for hyper-Raman spectra calculations. Application to pyridine interacting with a 20 nm diameter silver sphere is presented, including comparisons with an earlier model (denoted G), which combines plasmon enhanced fields with gas-phase Raman (or hyper-Raman) spectra. The EM enhancement factor for spherical particles at 357 nm is found to be 10(4) and 10(6) for SERS and SEHRS, respectively. Including both chemical and electromagnetic mechanisms at the level of model A leads to enhancements on the order of 10(4) and 10(9) for SERS and SEHRS.

  3. Combining geomorphological mapping and near surface geophysics (GPR and ERT) to study piping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernatek-Jakiel, Anita; Kondracka, Marta

    2016-12-01

    This paper aims to provide a more comprehensive characterization of piping systems in mountainous areas under a temperate climate using geomorphological mapping and geophysical methods (electrical resistivity tomography - ERT and ground penetrating radar - GPR). The significance of piping in gully formation and hillslope hydrology has been discussed for many years, and most of the studies are based on surface investigations. However, it seems that most surface investigations underestimate this subsurface process. Therefore, our purpose was to estimate the scale of piping activity based on both surface and subsurface investigations. We used geophysical methods to detect the boundary of lateral water movement fostering pipe development and recognize the internal structure of the underlying materials. The survey was carried out in the Bereźnica Wyżna catchment, in the Bieszczady Mountains. (Eastern Carpathians, Poland), where pipes develop in Cambisols at a mean depth of about 0.7-0.8 m. The geophysical techniques that were used are shown to be successful in identifying pipes. GPR data suggest that the density of piping systems is much larger than that detectible from surface observations alone. Pipe length can be > 6.5-9.2% (maximum = 49%) higher than what surface mapping suggests. Thus, the significance of piping in hillslope hydrology and gully formation can be greater than previously assumed. These results also draw attention to the scale of piping activity in the Carpathians, where this process has been neglected for many years. The ERT profiles reveal areas affected by piping as places of higher resistivity values, which are an effect of a higher content of air-filled pores (due to higher soil porosity, intense biological activity, and well-developed soil structure). In addition, the ERT profiles show that the pipes in the study area develop at the soil-bedrock interface, probably above the layers of shales or mudstones which create a water restrictive layer

  4. Combined measurement of surface, grain boundary and lattice diffusion coefficients on olivine bi-crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquardt, Katharina; Dohmen, Ralf; Wagner, Johannes

    2014-05-01

    Diffusion along interface and grain boundaries provides an efficient pathway and may control chemical transport in rocks as well as their mechanical strength. Besides the significant relevance of these diffusion processes for various geologic processes, experimental data are still very limited (e.g., Dohmen & Milke, 2010). Most of these data were measured using polycrystalline materials and the formalism of LeClaire (1951) to fit integrated concentration depth profiles. To correctly apply this formalism, certain boundary conditions of the diffusion problem need to be fulfilled, e.g., surface diffusion is ignored, and furthermore the lattice diffusion coefficient has to be known from other studies or is an additional fitting parameter, which produces some ambiguity in the derived grain boundary diffusion coefficients. We developed an experimental setup where we can measure the lattice and grain boundary diffusion coefficients simultaneously but independent and demonstrate the relevance of surface diffusion for typical grain boundary diffusion experiments. We performed Mg2SiO4 bicrystal diffusion experiments, where a single grain boundary is covered by a thin-film of pure Ni2SiO4 acting as diffusant source, produced by pulsed laser deposition. The investigated grain boundary is a 60° (011)/[100]. This specific grain boundary configuration was modeled using molecular dynamics for comparison with the experimental observations in the transmission electron microscope (TEM). Both, experiment and model are in good agreement regarding the misorientation, whereas there are still some disagreements regarding the strain fields along the grain boundary that are of outmost importance for the strengths of the material. The subsequent diffusion experiments were carried out in the temperature range between 800° and 1450° C. The inter diffusion profiles were measured using the TEMs energy dispersive x-ray spectrometer standardized using the Cliff-Lorimer equation and EMPA

  5. Combined Effect of Mechanical Grooving and Stain-Etched Surface on Optical and Electrical Properties of Crystalline Silicon Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarroug, Ahmed; Derbali, Lotfi; Ouertani, Rachid; Dimassi, Wissem; Ezzaouia, Hatem

    2014-05-01

    This paper investigates the combined effect of mechanical grooving and porous silicon (PS) on the front surface reflectance and the electronic properties of crystalline silicon substrates. Mechanical surface texturization leads to reduce the cell reflectance, enhance the light trapping and augment the carrier collection probability. PS was introduced as an efficient antireflective coating (ARC) onto the front surface of crystalline silicon solar cell. Micro-periodic V-shaped grooves were made by means of a micro-groove machining process prior to junction formation. Subsequently, wafers were subjected to an isotropic potassium hydroxide (KOH) etching so that the V-shape would be turned to a U-shape. We found that the successive treatment of silicon surfaces with stain-etching, grooving then alkaline etching enhances the absorption of the textured surface, and decreases the reflectance from 35% to 7% in the 300-1200 nm wavelength range. We obtained a significant increase in the overall light path that generates the building up of the light trapping inside the substrate. We found an improvement in the illuminated I-V characteristics and an increase in the minority carrier lifetime τeff. Such a simple method was adopted to effectively reinforce the overall device performance of crystalline silicon-based solar cells.

  6. Receptor-Mediated Surface Charge Inversion Platform Based on Porous Silicon Nanoparticles for Efficient Cancer Cell Recognition and Combination Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Correia, Alexandra; Mäkilä, Ermei; Li, Wei; Salonen, Jarno; Hirvonen, Jouni J; Zhang, Hongbo; Santos, Hélder A

    2017-03-22

    Negatively charged surface-modified drug delivery systems are promising for in vivo applications as they have more tendency to accumulate in tumor tissues. However, the inefficient cell uptake of these systems restricts their final therapeutic performance. Here, we have fabricated a receptor-mediated surface charge inversion nanoparticle made of undecylenic acid modified, thermally hydrocarbonized porous silicon (UnTHCPSi) nanoparticles core and sequentially modified with polyethylenimine (PEI), methotrexate (MTX), and DNA aptamer AS1411 (herein termed as UnTHCPSi-PEI-MTX@AS1411) for enhancing the cell uptake of nucleolin-positive cells. The efficient interaction of AS1411 and the relevant receptor nucleolin caused the disintegration of the negative-charged AS1411 surface. The subsequent surface charge inversion and exposure of the active targeting ligand, MTX, enhanced the cell uptake of the nanoparticles. On the basis of this synergistic effect, the UnTHCPSi-PEI-MTX@AS1411 (hydrodynamic diameter is 242 nm) were efficiently internalized by nucleolin-positive MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, with an efficiency around 5.8 times higher than that of nucleolin-negative cells (NIH 3T3 fibroblasts). The receptor competition assay demonstrated that the major mechanism (more than one-half) of the internalized nanoparticles in MDA-MB-231 cells was due to the receptor-mediated surface charge inversion process. Finally, after loading of sorafenib, the nanosystem showed efficient performance for combination therapy with an inhibition ratio of 35.6%.

  7. Combination treatment of oral terbinafine with topical terbinafine and 10% urea ointment in hyperkeratotic type tinea pedis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Tian-Wei; Zhang, Jiang-An; Zhang, Xian-Wei; Yu, Hong-Xing; Tang, Yong-Bo; Yu, Jian-Bin

    2014-09-01

    Hyperkeratotic-type tinea pedis is chronic and recalcitrant to topical antifungal agents. Some topical antifungal agents are effective; however, long duration of therapy is required, which often reduce the treatment compliance of patients. To seek for short period therapy of hyperkeratotic type tinea pedis, in this study, we observed the efficacy and safety of treatment of topical terbinafine and 10% urea ointment combined oral terbinafine. Participants with hyperkeratotic type tinea pedis were randomly assigned to two groups. Patients in group I were treated with oral terbinafine for 2 weeks and topical terbinafine and 10% urea ointment for 4 weeks, whereas in group II, only the above topical agents were applied for 12 weeks. Clinical improvement rates and fungal eradication rates were compared between the two groups at 24 weeks after the initiation of treatment. The group I had stopped the topical therapy 8 weeks earlier than group II. There were no significant differences in mycological eradication rates and clinical improvement rates between the two groups, besides, no major side effects were noted in both groups. The short combination therapy with oral terbinafine was effective and safe; it should be a valuable option for patients with hyperkeratotic type tinea pedis.

  8. Ocular surface changes in type II diabetic patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan; Gao; Yan; Zhang; Yu-Sha; Ru; Xiao-Wu; Wang; Ji-Zhong; Yang; Chun-Hui; Li; Hong-Xing; Wang; Xiao-Rong; Li; Bing; Li

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To detect and analyze the changes on ocular surface and tear function in type II diabetic patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy(PDR), an advanced stage of diabetic retinopathy(DR), using conventional ophthalmic tests and the high-resolution laser scanning confocal microscopy.METHODS: Fifty-eight patients with type II diabetes were selected. Based on the diagnostic criteria and stage classification of DR, the patients were divided into the non-DR(NDR) group and the PDR group. Thirty-six patients with cataract but no other ocular and systemic disease were included as non-diabetic controls. All the patients were subjected to the conventional clinical tests of corneal sensitivity, Schirmer I test, and corneal fluorescein staining. The non-invasive tear film break-up time(NIBUT) and tear interferometry were conducted by a Tearscope Plus. The morphology of corneal epithelia and nerve fibers was examined using the high-resolution confocal microscopy.RESULTS: The NDR group exhibited significantly declined corneal sensitivity and Schirmer I test value, as compared to the non-diabetic controls(P <0.001). The PDR group showed significantly reduced corneal sensitivity, Schirmer I test value, and NIBUT in comparison to the non-diabetic controls(P <0.001).Corneal fluorescein staining revealed the progressively injured corneal epithelia in the PDR patients. Moreover,significant decrease in the corneal epithelial density andmorphological abnormalities in the corneal epithelia and nerve fibers were also observed in the PDR patients.CONCLUSION: Ocular surface changes, including blunted corneal sensitivity, reduced tear secretion, tear film dysfunction, progressive loss of corneal epithelia and degeneration of nerve fibers, are common in type II diabetic patients, particularly in the diabetic patients with PDR. The corneal sensitivity, fluorescein staining scores,and the density of corneal epithelial cells and nerve fibers in the diabetic patients correlate with the

  9. Synoptic relationships quantified between surface Chlorophyll-a and diagnostic pigments specific to phytoplankton functional types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, T.; Hardman-Mountford, N. J.; Brewin, R. J. W.; Aiken, J.; Barlow, R.; Suzuki, K.; Isada, T.; Howell, E.; Hashioka, T.; Noguchi-Aita, M.; Yamanaka, Y.

    2010-09-01

    Error-quantified, synoptic-scale relationships between chlorophyll-a (Chla) and phytoplankton pigment groups at the sea surface are presented. A total of nine pigment groups were considered to represent nine phytoplankton functional types (PFTs) including microplankton, nanoplankton, picoplankton, diatoms, dinoflagellates, green algae, picoeukaryotes, prokaryotes and Prochlorococcus sp. The observed relationships between Chla and pigment groups were well-defined at the global scale to show that Chla can be used as an index of not only phytoplankton abundance but also community structure; large (micro) phytoplankton monotonically increase as Chla increases, whereas the small (pico) phytoplankton community generally decreases. Within these relationships, we also found non-monotonic variations with Chla for certain pico-plankton (pico-eukaryotes, Prokaryotes and Prochlorococcus sp.) and for Green Algae and nano-sized phytoplankton. The relationships were quantified with a least-square fitting approach in order to estimate the PFTs from Chla alone. The estimated uncertainty of the relationships quantified depends on both phytoplankton types and Chla concentration. Maximum uncertainty over all groups (34.7% Chla) was found from diatom at approximately Chla = 1.07 mg m-3. However, the mean uncertainty of the relationships over all groups was 5.8 [% Chla] over the entire Chla range observed (0.02 < Chla < 6.84 mg m-3). The relationships were applied to SeaWiFS satellite Chla data from 1998 to 2009 to show the global climatological fields of the surface distribution of PFTs. Results show that microplankton are present in the mid and high latitudes, constituting ~9.0 [% Chla] of the phytoplankton community at the global surface, in which diatoms explain ~6.0 [% Chla]. Nanoplankton are ubiquious throught much of the global surface oceans except subtropical gyres, acting as a background population, constituting ~44.2 [% Chla]. Picoplankton are mostly limited in subtropical

  10. Mapping three-dimensional surface deformation by combining multiple-aperture interferometry and conventional interferometry: Application to the June 2007 eruption of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, H.-S.; Lu, Zhiming; Won, J.-S.; Poland, Michael P.; Miklius, Asta

    2011-01-01

    Surface deformation caused by an intrusion and small eruption during June 17-19, 2007, along the East Rift Zone of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, was three-dimensionally reconstructed from radar interferograms acquired by the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) phased-array type L-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) (PALSAR) instrument. To retrieve the 3-D surface deformation, a method that combines multiple-aperture interferometry (MAI) and conventional interferometric SAR (InSAR) techniques was applied to one ascending and one descending ALOS PALSAR interferometric pair. The maximum displacements as a result of the intrusion and eruption are about 0.8, 2, and 0.7 m in the east, north, and up components, respectively. The radar-measured 3-D surface deformation agrees with GPS data from 24 sites on the volcano, and the root-mean-square errors in the east, north, and up components of the displacement are 1.6, 3.6, and 2.1 cm, respectively. Since a horizontal deformation of more than 1 m was dominantly in the north-northwest-south-southeast direction, a significant improvement of the north-south component measurement was achieved by the inclusion of MAI measurements that can reach a standard deviation of 3.6 cm. A 3-D deformation reconstruction through the combination of conventional InSAR and MAI will allow for better modeling, and hence, a more comprehensive understanding, of the source geometry associated with volcanic, seismic, and other processes that are manifested by surface deformation.

  11. Planetary Surface Analysis Using Fast Laser Spectroscopic Techniques: Combined Microscopic Raman, LIBS, and Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blacksberg, J.; Rossman, G. R.; Maruyama, Y.; Charbon, E.

    2011-12-01

    In situ exploration of planetary surfaces has to date required multiple techniques that, when used together, yield important information about their formation histories and evolution. We present a time-resolved laser spectroscopic technique that could potentially collect complementary sets of data providing information on mineral structure, composition, and hydration state. Using a picosecond-scale pulsed laser and a fast time-resolved detector we can simultaneously collect spectra from Raman, Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), and fluorescence emissions that are separated in time due to the unique decay times of each process. The use of a laser with high rep rate (40 KHz) and low pulse energy (1 μJ/pulse) allows us to rapidly collect high signal to noise Raman spectra while minimizing sample damage. Increasing the pulse energy by about an order of magnitude creates a microscopic plasma near the surface and enables the collection of LIBS spectra at an unusually high rep rate and low pulse energy. Simultaneously, broader fluorescence peaks can be detected with lifetimes varying from nanosecond to microsecond. We will present Raman, LIBS, and fluorescence spectra obtained on natural mineral samples such as sulfates, clays, pyroxenes and carbonates that are of interest for Mars mineralogy. We demonstrate this technique using a photocathode-based streak camera detector as well as a newly-developed solid state Single Photon Avalanche Diode (SPAD) sensor array based on Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) technology. We will discuss the impact of system design and detector choice on science return of a potential planetary surface mission, with a specific focus on size, weight, power, and complexity. The research described here was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).

  12. Characterizing Tropospheric Winds by Combining MISR Cloud-Track and QuikSCAT Surface Wind Vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, R.; Garay, M. J.; Moroney, C. M.; Liu, W. T.

    2007-12-01

    Numerous studies have found that the inclusion of wind observations results in a significantly greater improvement in operational weather forecasts compared to the addition of temperature or pressure observations alone. However, global tropospheric wind measurements are only available from 12-hourly rawinsonde launches from selected locations, primarily over land. For years the world's oceans were "data voids" in terms of wind measurements. Only recently have satellites begun to fill this gap. The SeaWinds scatterometer on the QuikSCAT satellite obtains winds referenced to 10 meters above the surface over the global oceans under nearly all weather conditions. The wind speed and direction data from QuikSCAT have been extensively tested against surface observations and are of such quality that these data are routinely assimilated into numerical weather prediction models run by both the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) and the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF). However, scatterometer data only provide wind information near the ocean surface. This information can be complemented with satellite cloud-track winds that provide information about winds in the free troposphere over the ocean, as well as over land, where scatterometer data are not available. In particular, the height resolved cloud motion vectors from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument on the NASA EOS Terra satellite yield wind speeds for clouds at altitudes less than approximately 2.5 km that are shown to compare favorably with the QuikSCAT winds globally. In addition, the direction of the MISR winds is similar to the QuikSCAT wind vectors when compared on the same basis. The synergistic use of these two sets of wind observations has the potential to make possible a variety of new studies: from improved forecast and climate model validation; to increased understanding of tropospheric water vapor transport; to observations of the coupling

  13. Diagnostic delay in narcolepsy type 1: combining the patients' and the doctors' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taddei, Raquel N; Werth, Esther; Poryazova, Rositsa; Baumann, Christian R; Valko, Philipp O

    2016-12-01

    Narcolepsy type 1 is a neurological disorder characterized by a unique syndrome, including the pathognomonic symptom of cataplexy. The diagnosis can be confirmed by objective measures, such as typical findings in the multiple sleep latency test, reduced or undetectable levels of orexin (hypocretin) in the cerebrospinal fluid, and linkage to a specific HLA haplotype. Nevertheless, the mean time that elapses from symptom onset to the correct diagnosis ranges between 10 and 20 years, and the causes and correlates of this delay are poorly understood. Diagnostic delay was assessed on 52 well-defined patients with narcolepsy type 1, evaluating clinical, electrophysiological and neurochemical parameters and the results of a 41-item questionnaire developed to obtain the patients' perspective on various aspects of the diagnostic process. The mean time gap between disease onset and first medical consultation was 3.2 ± 5.1 years; the mean diagnostic delay was 8.9 ± 11.0 years. Prior to correct diagnosis, patients received a wide variety of misdiagnoses. The self-ratings of the patients revealed that the undiagnosed symptoms caused high levels of anxiety and unjustified criticism by family, friends and employers. Multiple regression analysis identified higher cerebrospinal fluid orexin levels (β = 0.311, P = 0.01), and a longer interval between the onset of excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy (β = 0.368, P = 0.002) as independent associates of longer diagnostic delay. The diagnostic delay decreased over the last decades (β = -0.672, P narcolepsy type 1 is very common, associated with many adverse consequences, and requires educational efforts to improve awareness on narcolepsy among healthcare providers and the general population. © 2016 European Sleep Research Society.

  14. Combined Interval Training and Post-exercise Nutrition in Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Control Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique E. Francois

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: High-intensity interval training (HIIT can improve several aspects of cardiometabolic health. Previous studies have suggested that adaptations to exercise training can be augmented with post-exercise milk or protein consumption, but whether this nutritional strategy can impact the cardiometabolic adaptations to HIIT in type 2 diabetes is unknown.Objective: To determine if the addition of a post-exercise milk or protein beverage to a high-intensity interval training (HIIT intervention improves cardiometabolic health in individuals with type 2 diabetes.Design: In a proof-of-concept, double-blind clinical trial 53 adults with uncomplicated type 2 diabetes were randomized to one of three nutritional beverages (500 mL skim-milk, macronutrient control, or flavored water placebo consumed after exercise (3 days/week during a 12 week low-volume HIIT intervention. HIIT involved 10 X 1-min high-intensity intervals separated by 1-min low-intensity recovery periods. Two sessions per week were cardio-based (at ~90% of heart rate max and one session involved resistance-based exercises (at RPE of 5–6; CR-10 scale in the same interval pattern. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c, body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, cardiorespiratory fitness (V˙O2peak, blood pressure, and endothelial function (%FMD were measured before and after the intervention.Results: There were significant main effects of time (all p < 0.05 but no difference between groups (Interaction: all p > 0.71 for CGM 24-h mean glucose (−0.5 ± 1.1 mmol/L, HbA1c (−0.2 ± 0.4%, percent body fat (−0.8 ± 1.6%, and lean mass (+1.1 ± 2.8 kg. Similarly, V˙O2peak (+2.5 ± 1.6 mL/kg/min and %FMD (+1.4 ± 1.9% were increased, and mean arterial blood pressure reduced (−6 ± 7 mmHg, after 12 weeks of HIIT (all p < 0.01 with no difference between beverage groups (Interaction: all p > 0.11.Conclusion: High-intensity interval training is a

  15. Optimal control of open quantum systems: a combined surrogate hamiltonian optimal control theory approach applied to photochemistry on surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asplund, Erik; Klüner, Thorsten

    2012-03-28

    In this paper, control of open quantum systems with emphasis on the control of surface photochemical reactions is presented. A quantum system in a condensed phase undergoes strong dissipative processes. From a theoretical viewpoint, it is important to model such processes in a rigorous way. In this work, the description of open quantum systems is realized within the surrogate hamiltonian approach [R. Baer and R. Kosloff, J. Chem. Phys. 106, 8862 (1997)]. An efficient and accurate method to find control fields is optimal control theory (OCT) [W. Zhu, J. Botina, and H. Rabitz, J. Chem. Phys. 108, 1953 (1998); Y. Ohtsuki, G. Turinici, and H. Rabitz, J. Chem. Phys. 120, 5509 (2004)]. To gain control of open quantum systems, the surrogate hamiltonian approach and OCT, with time-dependent targets, are combined. Three open quantum systems are investigated by the combined method, a harmonic oscillator immersed in an ohmic bath, CO adsorbed on a platinum surface, and NO adsorbed on a nickel oxide surface. Throughout this paper, atomic units, i.e., ℏ = m(e) = e = a(0) = 1, have been used unless otherwise stated.

  16. Fabricating nanostructures through a combination of nano-oxidation and wet etching on silicon wafers with different surface conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jen-Ching

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the surface conditions of silicon wafers with native oxide layers (NOL) or hydrogen passivated layers (HPL) and how they influence the processes of nano-oxidation and wet etching. We also explore the combination of nano-oxidation and wet etching processes to produce nanostructures. Experimental results reveal that the surface conditions of silicon wafers have a considerable impact on the results of nano-oxidation when combined with wet etching. The height and width of oxides on NOL samples exceeded the dimensions of oxides on HPL samples, and this difference became increasingly evident with an increase in applied bias voltage. The height of oxidized nanolines on the HPL sample increased after wet etching; however, the width of the lines increased only marginally. After wet etching, the height and width of oxides on the NOL were more than two times greater than those on the HPL. Increasing the applied bias voltage during nano-oxidation on NOL samples increased both the height and width of the oxides. After wet etching however, the increase in bias voltage appeared to have little effect on the height of oxidized nanolines, but the width of oxidized lines increased. This study also discovered that the use of higher applied bias voltages on NOL samples followed by wet etching results in nanostructures with a section profile closely resembling a curved surface. The use of this technique enabled researchers to create molds in the shape of a silicon nanolens array and an elegantly shaped nanoscale complex structures mold.

  17. Electroremediation of PCB contaminated soil combined with iron nanoparticles: Effect of the soil type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomes, Helena I.; Dias-Ferreira, Celia; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.;

    2015-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are carcinogenic and persistent organic pollutants that accumulate in soils and sediments. Currently, there is no cost-effective and sustainable remediation technology for these contaminants. In this work, a new combination of electrodialytic remediation and zero...... nanoparticles. Remediation experiments are made with two different historically PCB contaminated soils, which differ in both soil composition and contamination source. Soil 1 is a mix of soils with spills of transformer oils, while Soil 2 is a superficial soil from a decommissioned school where PCB were used...... as windows sealants. Saponin, a natural surfactant, was also tested to increase the PCB desorption from soils and enhance dechlorination. Remediation of Soil 1 (with highest pH, carbonate content, organic matter and PCB concentrations) obtained the maximum 83% and 60% PCB removal with the two...

  18. Ultrathin suspended nanopores with surface plasmon resonance fabricated by combined colloidal lithography and film transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junesch, Juliane; Sannomiya, Takumi

    2014-05-14

    Suspended plasmonic nanopores in ultrathin film layers were fabricated through a simple and widely applicable method combining colloidal lithography and thin film transfer, which allows mass production of short-range ordered nanopore arrays on a large scale. By this combined method, mechanically stable and flexible free-standing nanopore membranes with a thickness down to 15-30 nm were produced. The plasmon resonances of the ultrathin plasmonic nanopores fabricated in AlN/Au/AlN trilayer and single layer Au membranes were tuned to lie in the vis-NIR wavelength range by properly designing their dimensions. The optical responses to the refractive index changes were tested and applied to adlayer sensing. The trilayer nanopore membrane showed a unique property to support water only on one side of the membrane, which was confirmed by the resonance shift and comparison with numerical simulation. Pore size reduction down to 10 nm can be achieved through additional material deposition. The filtering function of such pore-size-reduced conical shaped nanofunnels has also been demonstrated. The presented nanopore fabrication method offers new platforms for ultrathin nanopore sensing or filtering devices with controlled pore-size and optical properties. The film transfer technique employed in this work would enable the transformation of any substrate-based nanostructures to free-standing membrane based devices without complicated multiple etching processes.

  19. An investigative peptide-acyclovir combination to control herpes simplex virus type 1 ocular infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Paul J; Antoine, Thessicar E; Farooq, Asim V; Valyi-Nagy, Tibor; Shukla, Deepak

    2013-09-27

    To investigate the efficacy of a combination treatment composed of the cationic, membrane-penetrating peptide G2, and acyclovir (ACV) in both in vitro and ex vivo models of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) ocular infection. The antiviral activity of a combined G2 peptide and ACV therapy (G2-ACV) was assessed in various treatment models. Viral entry, spread, and plaque assays were performed in vitro to assess the prophylactic efficacy of G2, G2-ACV, and ACV treatments. In the ex vivo model of HSV-1 infection, the level of viral inhibition was also compared among the three treatment groups via Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. The potential change in expression of the target receptor for G2 was also assessed using immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR. Statistically significant effects against HSV-1 infection were seen in all treatment groups in the viral entry, spread, and plaque assays. The greatest effects against HSV-1 infection in vitro were seen in the G2-ACV group. In the ex vivo model, statistically significant anti-HSV-1 effects were also noted in all control groups. At 24 hours, the greatest inhibitory effect against HSV-1 infection was seen in the ACV group. At 48 hours, however, the G2-ACV-treated group demonstrated the greatest antiviral activity. Syndecan-1, a target of G2, was found to be upregulated at 12-hours postinfection. This study shows that G2-ACV may be an effective antiviral against HSV-1 (KOS) strain when applied as single prophylactic applications with or without continuous doses postinfection.

  20. An Investigative Peptide–Acyclovir Combination to Control Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Ocular Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Paul J.; Antoine, Thessicar E.; Farooq, Asim V.; Valyi-Nagy, Tibor; Shukla, Deepak

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the efficacy of a combination treatment composed of the cationic, membrane-penetrating peptide G2, and acyclovir (ACV) in both in vitro and ex vivo models of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) ocular infection. Methods. The antiviral activity of a combined G2 peptide and ACV therapy (G2-ACV) was assessed in various treatment models. Viral entry, spread, and plaque assays were performed in vitro to assess the prophylactic efficacy of G2, G2-ACV, and ACV treatments. In the ex vivo model of HSV-1 infection, the level of viral inhibition was also compared among the three treatment groups via Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. The potential change in expression of the target receptor for G2 was also assessed using immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR. Results. Statistically significant effects against HSV-1 infection were seen in all treatment groups in the viral entry, spread, and plaque assays. The greatest effects against HSV-1 infection in vitro were seen in the G2-ACV group. In the ex vivo model, statistically significant anti–HSV-1 effects were also noted in all control groups. At 24 hours, the greatest inhibitory effect against HSV-1 infection was seen in the ACV group. At 48 hours, however, the G2-ACV–treated group demonstrated the greatest antiviral activity. Syndecan-1, a target of G2, was found to be upregulated at 12-hours postinfection. Conclusions. This study shows that G2-ACV may be an effective antiviral against HSV-1 (KOS) strain when applied as single prophylactic applications with or without continuous doses postinfection. PMID:23989188

  1. Combination of adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy is associated with improved survival at early stage type II endometrial cancer and carcinosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sozen, Hamdullah; Çiftçi, Rumeysa; Vatansever, Dogan; Topuz, Samet; Iyibozkurt, Ahmet Cem; Bozbey, Hamza Ugur; Yaşa, Cenk; Çali, Halime; Yavuz, Ekrem; Kucucuk, Seden; Aydiner, Adnan; Salihoglu, Yavuz

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the impact of postoperative adjuvant treatment modalities and identify risk factors associated with recurrence and survival rates in women diagnosed with early stage type II endometrial cancer and carcinosarcoma. In this retrospective study, patients diagnosed with early stage (stages I-II) carcinosarcoma and type II endometrial cancer were reviewed. All women underwent comprehensive surgical staging. Postoperative treatment options of chemotherapy (CT), radiotherapy (RT), observation (OBS) and chemotherapy-radiotherapy (CT-RT) combination were compared in terms of recurrence and survival outcome. In CT-RT treatment arm, recurrence rate was found as 12.5% and this result is significantly lower than the other treatment approaches (P = 0.01 CT alone: 33.3%, RT alone: 26.7%, OBS: 62.5%). Three-year disease free survival(DFS) rate and overall survival (OS) rate were statistically higher for the group of women treated with combination of CT-RT (92-95%) compared to the women treated with RT alone (65-72%), treated with CT alone (67-74%) and women who received no adjuvant therapy (38-45%). The multivariate analysis revealed that carcinosarcoma histology was associated with shortened DFS and OS (P = 0.001, P = 0.002). On the other hand, being at stage Ia (P = 0.01, P = 0.04) and receiving adjuvant treatment of CT-RT combination (P = 0.005, P = 0.002) appeared to lead to increased DFS and OS rates. We identified that a combination treatment of chemotherapy and radiotherapy is superior compared to other postoperative adjuvant treatment approaches concerning PFS, OS and recurrence rates in stages I-II of type II endometrial cancers and uterine carcinosarcoma. © 2016 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  2. A combined multi-virulence-locus sequence typing and Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec typing scheme possesses enhanced discriminatory power for genotyping MRSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verghese, Bindhu; Schwalm, Nathan D; Dudley, Edward G; Knabel, Stephen J

    2012-12-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) remains a major threat to human populations worldwide. Knowing the extent of MRSA genetic diversity within a healthcare facility may provide important insights into the epidemiology of this important pathogen. MRSA isolates recovered from nasal swabs of patients entering the Intensive Care Unit of the Penn State Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, USA, from 2008 to 2009 were genotyped using Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec (SCCmec), multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and a newly developed multi-virulence-locus sequence typing (MVLST) scheme. Sequence data for seven housekeeping genes (arcC, aroE, glpF, gmk, pta, tpi and yqiL) and six virulence genes (alt, essC, geh, hlgA, htrA and sdrC) were used for MLST and MVLST analyses, respectively. MLST identified 12 sequence types (STs) within the hospital isolates. One ST designated ST5 was the most common subtype (38.8%) followed by ST105 (22.4%) and ST8 (16.4%). In contrast, MVLST identified 29 STs (Virulence Types, VTs) from the same set of isolates, with VT6 (32.8%) being the predominant subtype followed by VT9 (8.9%) and VT2 (8.9%). Subsequent analysis of 25 MRSA isolates associated with an outbreak at a Pennsylvania state prison revealed all isolates were VT2 and SCCmec type IVa. These results suggest that a combination of MVLST and SCCmec typing may clarify the epidemiology of MRSA. Additional research with a more diverse set of strains and correlation with conventional epidemiologic data are needed to validate this new subtyping strategy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Efficacy and safety of colesevelam in combination with pioglitazone in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenstock, J; Truitt, K E; Baz-Hecht, M; Ford, D M; Tao, B; Chou, H S

    2014-12-01

    Colesevelam improves glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes when added to existing metformin-, sulfonylurea-, or insulin-based regimens. We evaluated colesevelam's effects in subjects on stable pioglitazone-based therapy. This 24-week multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study enrolled adults with type 2 diabetes who had suboptimal glycemic control [HbA1c ≥ 58 mmol/mol (7.5%) and ≤ 80 mmol/mol (9.5%)] on pioglitazone (30 or 45 mg) with or without 1-2 other oral antidiabetes medications. Subjects were randomized to colesevelam 3.8 g/day (n = 280) or placebo (n = 282) added to existing pioglitazone-based therapy. Primary efficacy variable was mean change in HbA1c from baseline to Week 24. Secondary variables included safety and tolerability, fasting plasma glucose changes, glycemic responses, and lipid profile. Tertiary variables included lipid particle profile changes by nuclear magnetic resonance. Colesevelam decreased HbA1c [least-squares mean treatment difference, - 3.5 mmol/mol (- 0.32%); p diabetes inadequately controlled with pioglitazone-based therapy, add-on colesevelam therapy improved glycemic control and lipid parameters and was well tolerated. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00789750.

  4. Identification and characterization of the murine cell surface receptor for the urokinase-type plasminogen activator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solberg, H.; Løber, D.; Eriksen, J

    1992-01-01

    Cell-binding experiments have indicated that murine cells on their surface have specific binding sites for mouse urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA). In contrast to the human system, chemical cross-linking studies with an iodinated ligand did not yield any covalent adducts in the murine...... system, but in ligand-blotting analysis, two mouse u-PA-binding proteins could be visualized. To confirm that these proteins are the murine counterpart of the human u-PA receptor (u-PAR), a peptide was derived from the murine cDNA clone assigned to represent the murine u-PAR due to cross......-hybridization and pronounced sequence similarity with human u-PAR cDNA [Kristensen, P., Eriksen, J., Blasi, F. & Danø, K. (1991) J. Cell Biol. 115, 1763-1771]. A rabbit antiserum raised against this peptide specifically recognized two polypeptide bands with electrophoretic mobilities identical to those identified by ligand...

  5. Bulk and Surface Event Identification in p-type Germanium Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, L T; Jia, L P; Jiang, H; Li, J; Lin, F K; Lin, S T; Liu, S K; Ma, J L; Sharma, V; Singh, L; Singh, M K; Soma, A K; Yang, S W; Wang, L; Wang, Q; Wong, H T; Yue, Q; Zhao, W

    2016-01-01

    The p-type point-contact germanium detectors, due to its sub-keV sensitivities and low internal radioactivity background, are demonstrated to be competitive tools for light dark matter WIMPs searches and may have potential applications in neutrino physics. These detectors exhibit anomalous surface behavior, which has been characterized and dealt with in previous analysis. However, the analysis method rely on spectral shape assumptions and must use external calibration sources. In this report, we purpose an improved method, where in situ data could be used as calibration sources. Data from CDEX-1 and TEXONO experiments will be re-examined and the results are shown to be consistent with both analysis.

  6. Effects of micropatterned surfaces coated with type I collagen on the proliferation and morphology of tenocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Xi; Wang Zhi [Institute of Stem Cell and Tissue Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, 37 Wainan Guoxue Street, Chengdu 610041, Sichuan (China); Qin Tingwu [Institute of Stem Cell and Tissue Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, 37 Wainan Guoxue Street, Chengdu 610041, Sichuan (China)], E-mail: tingwuqin@hotmail.com; Liu Chengjun; Yang Zhiming [Institute of Stem Cell and Tissue Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, 37 Wainan Guoxue Street, Chengdu 610041, Sichuan (China)

    2008-11-15

    The effects of micropatterned surfaces coated with type I collagen (CNI) on the proliferation and morphology of rat tail tenocytes were investigated in this study. The micropatterned polydimethylsiloxane substrates were prepared by using the technique of microcontact printing and then coated with different concentrations of CNI by the microfluidic channels technology. After being seeded on the CNI-coated micropatterned substrates, the tenocytes were tested by MTT colorimetric assay at 1-, 3-, 5-, and 7-day time intervals to evaluate the proliferation of tenocytes on the substrates. The alignment and morphology of tenocytes on the CNI-coated substrates after incubation for 1 or 24 h were observed with SEM. The results showed tenocytes proliferated well with increase of CNI concentrations and identically aligned along the grooves of the CNI-coated micropatterned substrates. This could have a potential advantage in construction of engineered tendons in vitro.

  7. Effects of micropatterned surfaces coated with type I collagen on the proliferation and morphology of tenocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Wang, Zhi; Qin, Ting-Wu; Liu, Cheng-Jun; Yang, Zhi-Ming

    2008-11-01

    The effects of micropatterned surfaces coated with type I collagen (CNI) on the proliferation and morphology of rat tail tenocytes were investigated in this study. The micropatterned polydimethylsiloxane substrates were prepared by using the technique of microcontact printing and then coated with different concentrations of CNI by the microfluidic channels technology. After being seeded on the CNI-coated micropatterned substrates, the tenocytes were tested by MTT colorimetric assay at 1-, 3-, 5-, and 7-day time intervals to evaluate the proliferation of tenocytes on the substrates. The alignment and morphology of tenocytes on the CNI-coated substrates after incubation for 1 or 24 h were observed with SEM. The results showed tenocytes proliferated well with increase of CNI concentrations and identically aligned along the grooves of the CNI-coated micropatterned substrates. This could have a potential advantage in construction of engineered tendons in vitro.

  8. Testing the consistency of wildlife data types before combining them: the case of camera traps and telemetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Viorel D; Valpine, Perry; Sweitzer, Rick A

    2014-04-01

    Wildlife data gathered by different monitoring techniques are often combined to estimate animal density. However, methods to check whether different types of data provide consistent information (i.e., can information from one data type be used to predict responses in the other?) before combining them are lacking. We used generalized linear models and generalized linear mixed-effects models to relate camera trap probabilities for marked animals to independent space use from telemetry relocations using 2 years of data for fishers (Pekania pennanti) as a case study. We evaluated (1) camera trap efficacy by estimating how camera detection probabilities are related to nearby telemetry relocations and (2) whether home range utilization density estimated from telemetry data adequately predicts camera detection probabilities, which would indicate consistency of the two data types. The number of telemetry relocations within 250 and 500 m from camera traps predicted detection probability well. For the same number of relocations, females were more likely to be detected during the first year. During the second year, all fishers were more likely to be detected during the fall/winter season. Models predicting camera detection probability and photo counts solely from telemetry utilization density had the best or nearly best Akaike Information Criterion (AIC), suggesting that telemetry and camera traps provide consistent information on space use. Given the same utilization density, males were more likely to be photo-captured due to larger home ranges and higher movement rates. Although methods that combine data types (spatially explicit capture-recapture) make simple assumptions about home range shapes, it is reasonable to conclude that in our case, camera trap data do reflect space use in a manner consistent with telemetry data. However, differences between the 2 years of data suggest that camera efficacy is not fully consistent across ecological conditions and make the case

  9. Microbial colonization in diverse surface soil types in Surtsey and diversity analysis of its subsurface microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marteinsson, V.; Klonowski, A.; Reynisson, E.; Vannier, P.; Sigurdsson, B. D.; Ólafsson, M.

    2015-02-01

    Colonization of life on Surtsey has been observed systematically since the formation of the island 50 years ago. Although the first colonisers were prokaryotes, such as bacteria and blue-green algae, most studies have been focused on the settlement of plants and animals but less on microbial succession. To explore microbial colonization in diverse soils and the influence of associated vegetation and birds on numbers of environmental bacteria, we collected 45 samples from different soil types on the surface of the island. Total viable bacterial counts were performed with the plate count method at 22, 30 and 37 °C for all soil samples, and the amount of organic matter and nitrogen (N) was measured. Selected samples were also tested for coliforms, faecal coliforms and aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. The subsurface biosphere was investigated by collecting liquid subsurface samples from a 181 m borehole with a special sampler. Diversity analysis of uncultivated biota in samples was performed by 16S rRNA gene sequences analysis and cultivation. Correlation was observed between nutrient deficits and the number of microorganisms in surface soil samples. The lowest number of bacteria (1 × 104-1 × 105 cells g-1) was detected in almost pure pumice but the count was significantly higher (1 × 106-1 × 109 cells g-1) in vegetated soil or pumice with bird droppings. The number of faecal bacteria correlated also to the total number of bacteria and type of soil. Bacteria belonging to Enterobacteriaceae were only detected in vegetated samples and samples containing bird droppings. The human pathogens Salmonella, Campylobacter and Listeria were not in any sample. Both thermophilic bacteria and archaea 16S rDNA sequences were found in the subsurface samples collected at 145 and 172 m depth at 80 and 54 °C, respectively, but no growth was observed in enrichments. The microbiota sequences generally showed low affiliation to any known 16S rRNA gene sequences.

  10. Microbial colonisation in diverse surface soil types in Surtsey and diversity analysis of its subsurface microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marteinsson, V.; Klonowski, A.; Reynisson, E.; Vannier, P.; Sigurdsson, B. D.; Ólafsson, M.

    2014-09-01

    Colonisation of life on Surtsey has been observed systematically since the formation of the island 50 years ago. Although the first colonisers were prokaryotes, such as bacteria and blue-green algae, most studies have been focusing on settlement of plants and animals but less on microbial succession. To explore microbial colonization in diverse soils and the influence of associate vegetation and birds on numbers of environmental bacteria, we collected 45 samples from different soils types on the surface of the island. Total viable bacterial counts were performed with plate count at 22, 30 and 37 °C for all soils samples and the amount of organic matter and nitrogen (N) was measured. Selected samples were also tested for coliforms, faecal coliforms aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. The deep subsurface biosphere was investigated by collecting liquid subsurface samples from a 182 m borehole with a special sampler. Diversity analysis of uncultivated biota in samples was performed by 16S rRNA gene sequences analysis and cultivation. Correlation was observed between N deficits and the number of microorganisms in surface soils samples. The lowest number of bacteria (1 × 104-1 × 105 g-1) was detected in almost pure pumice but the count was significant higher (1 × 106-1 × 109 g-1) in vegetated soil or pumice with bird droppings. The number of faecal bacteria correlated also to the total number of bacteria and type of soil. Bacteria belonging to Enterobacteriaceae were only detected in vegetated and samples containing bird droppings. The human pathogens Salmonella, Campylobacter and Listeria were not in any sample. Both thermophilic bacteria and archaea 16S rDNA sequences were found in the subsurface samples collected at 145 m and 172 m depth at 80 °C and 54 °C, respectively, but no growth was observed in enrichments. The microbiota sequences generally showed low affiliation to any known 16S rRNA gene sequences.

  11. Surface polyPEGylation of Eu3+ doped luminescent hydroxyapatite nanorods through the combination of ligand exchange and metal free surface initiated atom transfer radical polymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Guangjian; Liu, Meiying; Heng, Chunning; Huang, Qiang; Mao, Liucheng; Huang, Hongye; Hui, Junfeng; Deng, Fengjie; Zhang, Xiaoyong; Wei, Yen

    2017-03-01

    The Eu3+ doped luminescent hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanorods with uniform size and morphology can be synthesized by hydrothermal route. However, these HAp nanorods are coated by hydrophobic oleylamine, which makes them difficult to be dispersed in aqueous solution and impede their biomedical applications. In this work, Eu3+ doped luminescent polymers functionalized HAp nanorods were prepared through the combination of ligand exchange reaction and metal free surface initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) method. In this procedure, the amino group functionalized HAp nanorods were first prepared by ligand exchange reaction using adenosine monophosphate (AMP) as ligand. Then the Br-containing initiators (HAp-Br) were introduced onto the surface of HAp-AMP nanorods through the amidation reaction. Finally, polymers functionalized HAp nanorods were prepared by metal free ATRP method using poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate (PEGMA) as monomer and 10-phenylphenothiazine (PTH) as organic photocatalyst. The properties of these obtained HAp nanocomposites (HAP-polyPEGMA nanorods) were characterized by means of transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis in detail. The cell imaging of these HAP-polyPEGMA nanorods was examined using laser scanning confocal microscope to evaluate their biomedical applications. We demonstrated for the first time that hydrophobic luminescent HAp nanorods can be functionalized with polyPEGMA through the combination of ligand exchange reaction and metal free surface initiated ATRP. As compared with the traditional ATRP, the metal free ATRP can overcome the toxic and fluorescence quenching effects of metal catalysts such as copper ions. More importantly, the strategy described in this work should also be utilized for fabrications of many other luminescent polymer nanocomposites due to its good monomer adoptability.

  12. Analysing the Effects of Different Land Cover Types on Land Surface Temperature Using Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şekertekin, A.; Kutoglu, Ş. H.; Kaya, S.; Marangoz, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    Monitoring Land Surface Temperature (LST) via remote sensing images is one of the most important contributions to climatology. LST is an important parameter governing the energy balance on the Earth and it also helps us to understand the behavior of urban heat islands. There are lots of algorithms to obtain LST by remote sensing techniques. The most commonly used algorithms are split-window algorithm, temperature/emissivity separation method, mono-window algorithm and single channel method. In this research, mono window algorithm was implemented to Landsat 5 TM image acquired on 28.08.2011. Besides, meteorological data such as humidity and temperature are used in the algorithm. Moreover, high resolution Geoeye-1 and Worldview-2 images acquired on 29.08.2011 and 12.07.2013 respectively were used to investigate the relationships between LST and land cover type. As a result of the analyses, area with vegetation cover has approximately 5 ºC lower temperatures than the city center and arid land., LST values change about 10 ºC in the city center because of different surface properties such as reinforced concrete construction, green zones and sandbank. The temperature around some places in thermal power plant region (ÇATES and ZETES) Çatalağzı, is about 5 ºC higher than city center. Sandbank and agricultural areas have highest temperature due to the land cover structure.

  13. ANALYSING THE EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT LAND COVER TYPES ON LAND SURFACE TEMPERATURE USING SATELLITE DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Şekertekin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring Land Surface Temperature (LST via remote sensing images is one of the most important contributions to climatology. LST is an important parameter governing the energy balance on the Earth and it also helps us to understand the behavior of urban heat islands. There are lots of algorithms to obtain LST by remote sensing techniques. The most commonly used algorithms are split-window algorithm, temperature/emissivity separation method, mono-window algorithm and single channel method. In this research, mono window algorithm was implemented to Landsat 5 TM image acquired on 28.08.2011. Besides, meteorological data such as humidity and temperature are used in the algorithm. Moreover, high resolution Geoeye-1 and Worldview-2 images acquired on 29.08.2011 and 12.07.2013 respectively were used to investigate the relationships between LST and land cover type. As a result of the analyses, area with vegetation cover has approximately 5 ºC lower temperatures than the city center and arid land., LST values change about 10 ºC in the city center because of different surface properties such as reinforced concrete construction, green zones and sandbank. The temperature around some places in thermal power plant region (ÇATES and ZETES Çatalağzı, is about 5 ºC higher than city center. Sandbank and agricultural areas have highest temperature due to the land cover structure.

  14. Adeno-associated virus type 2 binding study on model heparan sulfate surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negishi, Atsuko; Liu, Jian; McCarty, Douglas; Samulski, Jude; Superfine, Richard

    2003-11-01

    Understanding the mechanisms involved in virus infections is useful in its application in areas such as gene therapy, drug development and delivery, and biosensors. In collaboration with UNC Gene Therapy Center and School of Pharmacy, we are specifically looking at the interaction between human parvovirus adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV2), a potential viral vector, and heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG), a known cell surface receptor for AAV2. Recent development in glycobiology has shown that some protein-polysaccharide binding is sugar sequence dependent. Heparan sulfate (HS) is a polysaccharide chain of sulfated iduronic/glucuronic and sulfate glucosamine residues and can be differentiated into sequence specific structures by enzymes. These enzymatic modifications, known as heparan sulfate sulfotransferase modified modifications, have been shown to change the biological nature of heparan sulfate such as specific binding to proteins and viruses. For understanding HS-assisted viral infection mechanisms, we are interested in investigating the binding affinity and stability of AAV to different HS structures. We have developed a model heparan sulfate surface in which AAV adsorption studies are done and analyzed using the atomic force microscope (AFM). In addition, a miniArray assay has been created to facilitate to this study. Adsorption studies are done in 4 white LED wells with approximately 3 mm2 reaction areas which minimize sample use and waste.

  15. Structural definition on the surface of Helicobacter pylori type IV secretion apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Jiro; Suzuki, Toshihiko; Mimuro, Hitomi; Sasakawa, Chihiro

    2003-06-01

    Genetic and functional studies have indicated that the type IV secretion system (TFSS) of Helicobacter pylori forms a secretion complex in the cell envelope that protrudes towards the outside in order to inject CagA protein into gastric epithelial cells. However, the proposed structural model is based on partial amino acid homology with the components of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens TFSS. Therefore, we undertook the identification of the structural features of the TFSS exposed on the surface of H. pylori and found that filamentous structures present on the bacterial surface are related to the secretion apparatus. Using immunofluorescence microscopy with antibodies directed to tyrosine-phosphorylated CagA (pY-CagA) and Hp0532 (VirB7) in the infection assay, pY-CagA signals were detected just below the host cell-attached bacteria, where Hp0532 (VirB7) signals were detected as co-localized, suggesting that the CagA injected into the host cell through the TFSS apparatus is still mostly confined to the areas just below the attached bacteria after being phosphorylated. Furthermore, the filamentous structures on bacterium were found to be associated with Hp0532 (VirB7) or Hp0528 (VirB9), the major components of TFSS, by immunogold electron microscopy. These results strongly suggest that the H. pylori TFSS apparatus is a filamentous macromolecular structure protruding from the bacterial envelope.

  16. Lack of a surface layer in Tannerella forsythia mutants deficient in the type IX secretion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Yuka; Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Shoji, Mikio; Nakane, Daisuke; Nagano, Keiji; Yoshimura, Fuminobu; Naito, Mariko; Nakayama, Koji

    2014-10-01

    Tannerella forsythia, a Gram-negative anaerobic bacterium, is an important pathogen in periodontal disease. This bacterium possesses genes encoding all known components of the type IX secretion system (T9SS). T. forsythia mutants deficient in genes orthologous to the T9SS-encoding genes porK, porT and sov were constructed. All porK, porT and sov single mutants lacked the surface layer (S-layer) and expressed less-glycosylated versions of the S-layer glycoproteins TfsA and TfsB. In addition, these mutants exhibited decreased haemagglutination and increased biofilm formation. Comparison of the proteins secreted by the porK and WT strains revealed that the secretion of several proteins containing C-terminal domain (CTD)-like sequences is dependent on the porK gene. These results indicate that the T9SS is functional in T. forsythia and contributes to the translocation of CTD proteins to the cell surface or into the extracellular milieu.

  17. Chemical disinfection to interrupt transfer of rhinovirus type 14 from environmental surfaces to hands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattar, S A; Jacobsen, H; Springthorpe, V S; Cusack, T M; Rubino, J R

    1993-05-01

    Rhinoviruses can survive on environmental surfaces for several hours under ambient conditions. Hands can readily become contaminated after contact with such surfaces, and self-inoculation may lead to infection. Whereas hand washing is crucial in preventing the spread of rhinovirus colds, proper disinfection of environmental surfaces may further reduce rhinovirus transmission. In this study, the capacities of Lysol Disinfectant Spray (0.1% o-phenylphenol and 79% ethanol), a domestic bleach (6% sodium hypochlorite diluted to give 800 ppm of free chlorine), a quaternary ammonium-based product (7.05% quaternary ammonium diluted 1:128 in tap water), and a phenol-based product (14.7% phenol diluted 1:256 in tap water) were compared in interrupting the transfer of rhinovirus type 14 from stainless steel disks to fingerpads of human volunteers upon a 10-s contact at a pressure of 1 kg/cm2. Ten microliters of the virus, suspended in bovine mucin (5 mg/ml), was placed on each disk, and the inoculum was dried under ambient conditions; the input number on each disk ranged from 0.5 x 10(5) to 2.1 x 10(6) PFU. The dried virus was exposed to 20 microliters of the test disinfectant. The Lysol spray was able to reduce virus infectivity by > 99.99% after a contact of either 1 or 10 min, and no detectable virus was transferred to fingerpads from Lysol-treated disks. The bleach (800 ppm of free chlorine) reduced the virus titer by 99.7% after a contact time of 10 min, and again no virus was transferred from the disks treated with it.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Land Surface Models Evaluation for Two Different Land-Cover Types: Cropland and Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daeun Kim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Land Surface Model (LSM is an important tool used to understand the complicated hydro-meteorological flux interaction systems between the land surface and atmosphere in hydrological cycles. Over the past few decades, LSMs have further developed to more accurately estimate weather and climate hydrological processes. Common Land Model (CLM and Noah Land Surface Model (Noah LSM are used in this paper to estimate the hydro-meteorological fluxes for model applicability assessment at two different flux tower sites in Korea during the summer monsoon season. The estimated fluxes such as net radiation (RN, sensible heat flux (H, latent heat flux (LE, ground heat flux (G, and soil temperature (Ts were compared with the observed data from flux towers. The simulated RN from both models corresponded well with the in situ data. The root-mean-square error (RMSE values were 39 - 44 W m-2 for the CLM and 45 - 50 W m-2 for the Noah LSM while the H and LE showed relatively larger discrepancies with each observation. The estimated Ts from the CLM corresponded comparatively well with the observed soil temperature. The CLM estimations generally showed better statistical results than those from the Noah LSM, even though the estimated hydro-meteorological fluxes from both models corresponded reasonably with the observations. A sensitivity test indicated that differences according to different locations between the estimations from models and observations were caused by field conditions including the land-cover type and soil texture. In addition the estimated RN, H, LE, and G were more sensitive than the estimated Ts in both models.

  19. Optimization principle of combined surface and underground mining and its applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建宏; 古德生; 李建雄

    2003-01-01

    The pit limit optimization is discussed, which is one of the most important problems in the combined min-ing method, on the basis of the economic model of ore-blocks. A new principle of the limit optimization is put for-ward through analyzing the limitations of moving cone method under such conditions. With a view to recovering asmuch mineral resource as possible and making the maximum profit from the whole deposit, the new principle is tomaximize the sum of gain from both open-pit and underground mining. The mathematical models along the horizon-tal and vertical directions and modules for software package (DM&MCAD) have been developed and tested inTonglushan Copper Mine. It has been proved to be rather effective in the mining practice.

  20. Assessing combined sewer overflows with long lead time for better surface water management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdellatif, Mawada; Atherton, William; Alkhaddar, Rafid

    2014-01-01

    During high-intensity rainfall events, the capacity of combined sewer overflows (CSOs) can exceed resulting in discharge of untreated stormwater and wastewater directly into receiving rivers. These discharges can result in high concentrations of microbial pathogens, biochemical oxygen demand, suspended solids, and other pollutants in the receiving waters. The frequency and severity of the CSO discharge are strongly influenced by climatic factors governing the occurrence of urban stormwater runoff, particularly the amount and intensity of the rainfall. This study attempts to assess the impact of climate change (change in rainfall amount and frequency) on CSO under the high (A1FI) and low (B1) Special Report on Emissions Scenarios of the greenhouse concentration derived from three global circulation models in the north west of England at the end of the twenty-first century.

  1. Plasmonics of opalic surface: a combined near-and far-field approach

    CERN Document Server

    Lethiec, Clotilde; Popescu, Trajan; Frederich, Hugo; Ngoc, Phan; Yraola, Eduardo; Schwob, Catherine; Charra, Fabrice; Coolen, Laurent; Douillard, Ludovic; Maître, Agnès

    2016-01-01

    An opalic plasmonic sample, constituted by a hexagonal arrangement of metallized silica spheres, presents remarkable optical properties due to the mixing of periodic arrangement and singularities at the sphere touching points. It is therefore an interesting candidate for exploiting the excitation of both localized and propagating surface plasmons. Several channels of excitation based on these properties or exploiting a certain level of disorder are evidenced, opening new routes for the efficient excitation of plasmons on a wide spectral range. The versatility of such hybrid system is evidenced in the context of two complementary experiments: specular reflective spectrometry and photoemission electron microscopy. Both techniques offer different points of view on the same physical phenomenon and the link between them is discussed. Such experiments evidence the opportunities offered by these 2D hybrid materials in the context of nanophotonics.

  2. A NEW NUMERICAL WAVE FLUME COMBINING THE 0-1 TYPE BEM AND THE VOF METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Li-dong; SUN Da-peng; WU Hao

    2012-01-01

    A new coupling numerical wave model,based on both the Boundary Element Method (BEM) and the Volume Of Fluid (VOF) method,is established by taking advantages of the both methods to solve the wave-structure interaction problems.In this model,the wave transformation in front of structures is calculated by the 0-1 type BEM,and the intense wave motions near the structures are calculated by the VOF method.In this paper,the characteristics of the BEM and the VOF method are discussed first,and then the coupling treatments are describcd in detail.In the end,the accuracy and the validity of the coupling model are examined by comparing the numerical results with experiment results and other numerical results available for the interactions between regular waves with a monolayer horizontal plate.

  3. Resolution Enhancement in Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensor Based on Waveguide Coupled Mode by Combining a Bimetallic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Mok Kim

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we present and demonstrate a new route to a great enhancement in resolution of surface plasmon resonance sensors. Basically, our approach combines a waveguide coupled plasmonic mode and a kind of Au/Ag bimetallic enhancement concept. Theoretical modeling was carried out by solving Fresnel equations for the multilayer stack of prism/Ag inner-metal layer/dielectric waveguide/Au outer-metal layer. The inner Ag layer couples incident light to a guided wave and makes more fields effectively concentrated on the outer Au surface. A substantial enhancement in resolution was experimentally verified for the model stack using a ZnS-SiO2 waveguide layer.

  4. Topology of surfaces for molecular Stark energy, alignment, and orientation generated by combined permanent and induced electric dipole interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Burkhard, E-mail: burkhard.schmidt@fu-berlin.de [Institute for Mathematics, Freie Universität Berlin, Arnimallee 6, D-14195 Berlin (Germany); Friedrich, Bretislav, E-mail: brich@fhi-berlin.mpg.de [Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Faradayweg 4-6, D-14195 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-02-14

    We show that combined permanent and induced electric dipole interactions of linear polar and polarizable molecules with collinear electric fields lead to a sui generis topology of the corresponding Stark energy surfaces and of other observables – such as alignment and orientation cosines – in the plane spanned by the permanent and induced dipole interaction parameters. We find that the loci of the intersections of the surfaces can be traced analytically and that the eigenstates as well as the number of their intersections can be characterized by a single integer index. The value of the index, distinctive for a particular ratio of the interaction parameters, brings out a close kinship with the eigenproperties obtained previously for a class of Stark states via the apparatus of supersymmetric quantum mechanics.

  5. Effects of Surface Composition on the Aerosolisation and Dissolution of Inhaled Antibiotic Combination Powders Consisting of Colistin and Rifampicin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Wenbo; Zhou, Qi Tony; Sun, Si-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Colistin is often the only effective antibiotic against the respiratory infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. However, colistin-resistant multidrug-resistant isolates have been increasingly reported and combination therapy is preferred to combat resistance. In this study......%) and satisfactory fine particle fractions (over 60%). Data from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and nano-time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) showed the surfaces of particles were mainly covered by rifampicin even for the formulation with a mass ratio of COL/RIF = 4:1. Because colistin...

  6. Measurement of microscopic coupling constants between atoms on a surface: Combination of LEEM observation with lattice model analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akutsu, Noriko

    2014-12-01

    We present a method combining low-energy electron microscopy (LEEM) and lattice model analysis for measuring the microscopic lateral coupling constants between atoms on a surface. The calculated step (interface) stiffness in a honeycomb lattice Ising model with the nearest neighbor and the second nearest neighbor interactions (J1 = 93.8 meV and J2 = 9.38 meV) matched the experimental step quantity values on an Si(111)(1 × 1) surface reported by Pang et al. and Bartelt et al. based on LEEM measurements. The experimental value of step tension obtained by Williams et al. lies on the calculated step tension curve. The polar graphs of the step tension and a two-dimensional island shape at the temperature T = 1163 K also agree well with the experimental graphs reported by Métois and Müller. The close agreement between the LEEM observations and the lattice model calculations on a Si(111) surface suggests that our method is also suitable for measuring microscopic lateral coupling constants on the surface of other materials that are less well-studied than Si.

  7. High-frequency normal-mode statistics in shallow water: the combined effect of random surface and internal waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghukumar, Kaustubha; Colosi, John A

    2015-05-01

    In an earlier article, the statistical properties of mode propagation were studied at a frequency of 1 kHz in a shallow water environment with random sound-speed perturbations from linear internal waves, using a hybrid transport theory and Monte Carlo numerical simulations. Here, the analysis is extended to include the effects of random linear surface waves, in isolation and in combination with internal waves. Mode coupling rates for both surface and internal waves are found to be significant, but strongly dependent on mode number. Mode phase randomization by surface waves is found to be dominated by coupling effects, and therefore a full transport theory treatment of the range evolution of the cross mode coherence matrix is needed. The second-moment of mode amplitudes is calculated using transport theory, thereby providing the mean intensity while the fourth-moment is calculated using Monte Carlo simulations, which provides the scintillation index. The transport theory results for second-moment statistics are shown to closely reproduce Monte Carlo simulations. Both surface waves and internal waves strongly influence the acoustic field fluctuations.

  8. Femtosecond laser fabrication of highly hydrophobic stainless steel surface with hierarchical structures fabricated by combining ordered microstructures and LIPSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Calderon, M.; Rodríguez, A.; Dias-Ponte, A.; Morant-Miñana, M. C.; Gómez-Aranzadi, M.; Olaizola, S. M.

    2016-06-01

    In this work we have developed hierarchical structures that consist of micro-patterned surfaces covered by nanostructures with a femtosecond laser. The first part of this work is a study to determine the microscale modifications produced on a stainless steel alloy (AISI304) surface at high pulse energy, different velocities, and number of overscans in order to obtain microstructures with a selected depth of around 10 μm and line widths of 20 μm. The second part of the work is focused on finding the optimal irradiation parameters to obtain the nanostructure pattern. Nanostructures have been defined by means of Laser Induced Periodical Surface Structures (LIPSS) around 250 nm high and a period of 580 nm, which constitute the nanostructure pattern. Finally, dual scale gratings of 50 mm2 were fabricated with different geometries and their effect on the measured contact angle. Combining the micro-pattern with the LIPSS nano-pattern, highly hydrophobic surfaces have been developed with measured static contact angles higher than 150° on a stainless steel alloy.

  9. ABO Blood-Typing Using an Antibody Array Technique Based on Surface Plasmon Resonance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houngkamhang, Nongluck; Vongsakulyanon, Apirom; Peungthum, Patjaree; Sudprasert, Krisda; Kitpoka, Pimpun; Kunakorn, Mongkol; Sutapun, Boonsong; Amarit, Ratthasart; Somboonkaew, Armote; Srikhirin, Toemsak

    2013-01-01

    In this study, readily available antibodies that are used in standard agglutination tests were evaluated for their use in ABO blood typing by a surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPR imaging) technique. Five groups of antibodies, including mixed clones of anti-A, anti-B, and anti-AB, and single clones of anti-A and anti-B, were used to construct the five-line detection arrays using a multichannel flow cell in the SPR imager. The red blood cell (RBC) samples were applied to a multichannel flow cell that was orthogonal to the detection line arrays for blood group typing. We found that the blood samples were correctly grouped in less than 12 min by the SPR imaging technique, and the results were consistent with those of the standard agglutination technique for all 60 samples. We found that mixed clones of antibodies provided 33%–68% greater change in the SPR signal than the single-clone antibodies. Applying the SPR imaging technique using readily available antibodies may reduce the costs of the antibodies, shorten the measurement time, and increase the throughput. PMID:24021965

  10. Two Dimensional Array of Piezoresistive Nanomechanical Membrane-Type Surface Stress Sensor (MSS with Improved Sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico F. de Rooij

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a new generation of piezoresistive nanomechanical Membrane-type Surface stress Sensor (MSS chips, which consist of a two dimensional array of MSS on a single chip. The implementation of several optimization techniques in the design and microfabrication improved the piezoresistive sensitivity by 3~4 times compared to the first generation MSS chip, resulting in a sensitivity about ~100 times better than a standard cantilever-type sensor and a few times better than optical read-out methods in terms of experimental signal-to-noise ratio. Since the integrated piezoresistive read-out of the MSS can meet practical requirements, such as compactness and not requiring bulky and expensive peripheral devices, the MSS is a promising transducer for nanomechanical sensing in the rapidly growing application fields in medicine, biology, security, and the environment. Specifically, its system compactness due to the integrated piezoresistive sensing makes the MSS concept attractive for the instruments used in mobile applications. In addition, the MSS can operate in opaque liquids, such as blood, where optical read-out techniques cannot be applied.

  11. Surface modifications caused by a swift heavy ion irradiation on crystalline p-type gallium antimonide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jadhav, Vidya, E-mail: vj1510@yahoo.com

    2015-09-01

    Surface modifications caused by a swift heavy ion irradiation on crystalline p-type gallium antimonide crystal have been reported. Single crystal, 1 0 0〉 orientations and ∼500 μm thick p-type GaSb samples with carrier concentration of 3.30 × 10{sup 17} cm{sup −3} were irradiated at 100 MeV Fe{sup 7+} ions. We have used 15UD Pelletron facilities at IUAC with varying fluences of 5 × 10{sup 10}–1 × 10{sup 14} ions cm{sup −2}. The effects of irradiation on these samples have been investigated using, spectroscopic ellipsometry, atomic force microscopy and ultraviolet–visible–NIR spectroscopy techniques. Ellipsometry parameters, psi (Ψ) and delta (Δ) for the unirradiated sample and samples irradiated with different fluences were recorded. The data were fit to a three phase model to determine the refractive index and extinction coefficient. The refractive index and extinction coefficient for various fluences in ultraviolet, visible, and infrared, regimes were evaluated. Atomic force microscopy has been used to study these surface modifications. In order to have more statistical information about the surface, we have plotted the height structure histogram for all the samples. For unirradiated sample, we observed the Gaussian fitting. This result indicates the more ordered height structure symmetry. Whereas for the sample irradiated with the fluence of 1 × 10{sup 13}, 5 × 10{sup 13} and 1 × 10{sup 14} ions cm{sup −2}, we observed the scattered data. The width of the histogram for samples irradiated up to the fluence of 1 × 10{sup 13} ion cm{sup −2} was found to be almost same however it decreased at higher fluence. UV reflectance spectra of the sample irradiated with increasing fluences exhibit three peaks at 292, 500 and 617 nm represent the high energy GaSb; E{sub 1}, E{sub 1} + Δ and E{sub 2} band gaps in all irradiated samples.

  12. Efficacy of vitamin B12 combined with metformin in treating type 2 diabetes and its effect on homocysteine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Na Geng; Hui Qi; Hu Liu

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To observe and analyze Vitamin B12 combined with metformin treat for the type 2 diabetes, which affect the homocysteine.Methods:92 cases of type 2 diabetes were selected in our hospital for treatment and study from October 2014 to April 2014. All patients were randomly divided into control group (46 cases) and observation group (46 cases). Treatment of patients in the control group: patients were treated by metformin; observation group patients: Take vitamin B12 to patients treated with metformin. Finally, patient outcomes, as well as vitamin B12 and homocysteine in patients before and after treatment were analyzed.Results:Before treatment, all patients vitamin B12 content difference comparisons were no significant differences (P>0.05). Patients were treated in January, June and 1 year after the vitamin B12 content of the observation group were significantly higher in patients with vitamin B12 levels of data compared to each other there was a significant difference (P0.05). Patients were treated in January, June and 1 year after the homocysteine content of the observation group were not significantly reduced, the control group of patients with homocysteine increased significantly (P<0.000 1).Conclusions:Vitamin B12 combined with metformin in type 2 diabetes treatment, can significantly increase a patient's body to control homocysteine, while the treatment effect is obvious, clinical recommendations widely implemented.

  13. S-ROM modular arthroplasty combined with transverse subtrochanteric shortening for Crowe type IV congenital dislocation of hip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Cheng; CAI Xun-zi; YAN Shi-gui; HE Rong-xin

    2011-01-01

    Background This work was carried out to evaluate the clinical efficacy and the complications of S-ROM modular hip arthroplasty combined with transverse subtrochanteric shortening for Crowe type IV congenital dislocation of the hip (CDH).Methods A totoal of 28 consecutive patients with Crowe type IV CDH received treatment using this surgical technique from June 2003 to June 2010.The follow-up was conducted at 3 days,1,6,and 12 months after the operation and later annually at the outpatient of our hospital.Sequential pelvic plain film and normotopia film of the affected hip joint were taken.The limp and the Trendelenburg sign were also assessed,the ischiadic nerve injury was also evaluated by electromyogram,and Harris hip scores were recorded.Results After operation,both the alignment and the position of the transverse osteotomies were good.None of the patients had presented complications of joint infection,prosthesis loosening,joint dislocation,or nerve injury.Conclusions S-ROM modular hip arthroplasty combined with transverse subtrochanteric shortening was a satisfactory and safe technique for the Crowe type IV congenital hip dislocation within a mean follow up of 53 months.Transverse subtrochanteric shortening could effectively prevent the distraction injury of sciatic nerve.

  14. [Clavicular hook plate combined with suture anchor for the treatment of type Tossy III chronic acromioclavicular dislocation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhi-Bin; Wang, Jin

    2014-05-01

    To observe the clinical effects of clavicular hook plate combined with suture anchor in treating type Tossy III chronic acromioclavicular dislocation. From January 2008 to December 2012,18 patients with type Tossy III chronic acromioclavicular dislocation were treated with clavicular hook plate and suture anchor. There were 12 males and 6 females, aged from 20 to 56 years old with an average of 31.5 years. Ten cases were left dislocation and 8 cases were right dislocation. Operation time was 3 weeks to 4 months after injury with a mean of 1.8 months. Functional exercise was adopted 2 weeks after operation. And Karlsson standard was used to evaluate curative effect. All patients were followed up for 6 to 24 months with an average of 16 months. According to Karlsson standard, 17 cases were excellent and 1 was poor. Clavicular hook plate combined with suture anchor can repair conoid ligament and trapezoid ligament in treating type Tossy III chronic acromioclavicular dislocation, and had advantages of simple operation, less trauma, stable fixation, it can obtain satisfactory effects.

  15. Enhanced discrimination of highly clonal ST22-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus IV isolates achieved by combining spa, dru, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis typing data.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shore, Anna C

    2010-05-01

    ST22-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus type IV (ST22-MRSA-IV) is endemic in Irish hospitals and is designated antibiogram-resistogram type-pulsed-field group (AR-PFG) 06-01. Isolates of this highly clonal strain exhibit limited numbers of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns and spa types. This study investigated whether combining PFGE and spa typing with DNA sequencing of the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec element (SCCmec)-associated direct repeat unit (dru typing) would improve isolate discrimination. A total of 173 MRSA isolates recovered in one Irish hospital during periods in 2007 and 2008 were investigated using antibiogram-resistogram (AR), PFGE, spa, dru, and SCCmec typing. Isolates representative of each of the 17 pulsed-field group 01 (PFG-01) spa types identified underwent multilocus sequence typing, and all isolates were ST22. Ninety-seven percent of isolates (168 of 173) exhibited AR-PFG 06-01 or closely related AR patterns, and 163 of these isolates harbored SCCmec type IVh. The combination of PFGE, spa, and dru typing methods significantly improved discrimination of the 168 PFG-01 isolates, yielding 65 type combinations with a Simpson\\'s index of diversity (SID) of 96.53, compared to (i) pairwise combinations of spa and dru typing, spa and PFGE typing, and dru and PFGE typing, which yielded 37, 44, and 43 type combinations with SIDs of 90.84, 91.00, and 93.57, respectively, or (ii) individual spa, dru, and PFGE typing methods, which yielded 17, 17, and 21 types with SIDs of 66.9, 77.83, and 81.34, respectively. Analysis of epidemiological information for a subset of PFG-01 isolates validated the relationships inferred using combined PFGE, spa, and dru typing data. This approach significantly enhances discrimination of ST22-MRSA-IV isolates and could be applied to epidemiological investigations of other highly clonal MRSA strains.

  16. Typhoon generated surface gravity waves measured by NOMAD-type buoys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Clarence O., III

    This study examines wind-generated ocean surface waves as measured by NOMAD-type buoys during the ONR-sponsored Impact of Typhoons on the Ocean in the Pacific (ITOP) field experiment in 2010. 1-D measurements from two new Extreme Air-Sea Interaction (EASI) NOMAD-type buoys were validated against measurements from established Air-Sea Interaction Spar (ASIS) buoys. Also, during ITOP, 3 drifting Miniature Wave Buoys, a wave measuring marine radar on the R/V Roger Revelle, and several overpasses of JASON-1 (C- and Ku-band) and -2 (Ku-band) satellite altimeters were within 100 km of either EASI buoy. These additional measurements were compared against both EASI buoys. Findings are in line with previous wave parameter inter-comparisons. A corroborated measurement of mean wave direction and direction at the peak of the spectrum from the EASI buoy is presented. Consequently, this study is the first published account of directional wave information which has been successfully gathered from a buoy with a 6 m NOMAD-type hull. This result may be applied to improve operational coverage of wave direction. In addition, details for giving a consistent estimate of sea surface elevation from buoys using strapped down accelerometers are given. This was found to be particularly important for accurate measurement of extreme waves. These technical studies established a high level of confidence in the ITOP wave measurements. Detailed frequency-direction spectra were analyzed. Structures in the wave field were described during the close passages of 4 major tropical cyclones (TC) including: severe tropical storm Dianmu, Typhoon Fanapi, Super Typhoon Megi, and Typhoon Chaba. In addition, significant swell was measured from a distant 5th TC, Typhoon Malakas. Changes in storm direction and intensity are found to have a profound impact on the wave field. Measurements of extreme waves were explored. More extreme waves were measured during TCs which coincided with times of increased wave

  17. Combined Effect of Surface Roughness and Slip Velocity on Jenkins Model Based Magnetic Squeeze Film in Curved Rough Circular Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimit R. Patel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to discuss the effect of slip velocity and surface roughness on the performance of Jenkins model based magnetic squeeze film in curved rough circular plates. The upper plate’s curvature parameter is governed by an exponential expression while a hyperbolic form describes the curvature of lower plates. The stochastic model of Christensen and Tonder has been adopted to study the effect of transverse surface roughness of the bearing surfaces. Beavers and Joseph’s slip model has been employed here. The associated Reynolds type equation is solved to obtain the pressure distribution culminating in the calculation of load carrying capacity. The computed results show that the Jenkins model modifies the performance of the bearing system as compared to Neuringer-Rosensweig model, but this model provides little support to the negatively skewed roughness for overcoming the adverse effect of standard deviation and slip velocity even if curvature parameters are suitably chosen. This study establishes that for any type of improvement in the performance characteristics the slip parameter is required to be reduced even if variance (−ve occurs and suitable magnetic strength is in force.

  18. Surface circulation at the Strait of Gibraltar: A combined HF radar and high resolution model study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Navarro, Javier; Lorente, Pablo; Álvarez Fanjul, Enrique; Carlos Sánchez-Garrido, Jose; García-Lafuente, Jesús

    2016-03-01

    Observations from a high frequency radar system and outputs from a high resolution operational ocean model working at the Strait of Gibraltar have been analyzed and compared during the period February 2013 to September 2014 in order to evaluate their capability to resolve the surface circulation of the region. The description of the mean circulation patterns has been statistically assessed, showing good agreement, particularly in the central region of the strait corresponding with the Atlantic Jet (AJ) stream, although some short scale features are not reproduced by the model. In the frequency domain very high concordance is observed. Tidal maps of diurnal and semidiurnal constituents are in good agreement with previous observations. The analysis of the model and radar response to the wind forcing reveals that the low resolution of the model wind-forcing field and its deeper superficial level smoothes the wind effect on the simulated currents. The first three EOF modes account for the 86% of model and radar variances. The coincidence between the observed and simulated patterns is very significant for the first two modes, which account for the mean velocity field and the latitudinal shifting of the AJ consequence of the flow-topography interaction. The third mode captures the wind-induced circulation, and greater discrepancies are found in this case. Results underline the complementary character of both systems: radar observations improve the model description, resolving short scale processes, while the model completes the radar information when the time or spatial coverage is poorer.

  19. CO2 adsorption and separation from natural gason phosphorene surface: Combining DFT and GCMC calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yayun; Liu, Chao; Hao, Feng; Xiao, Hang; Zhang, Shiwei; Chen, Xi

    2017-03-01

    We have examined the performance of phosphorene-based material, phosphorene slit pores (PSP), in CO2 adsorption and separation from natural gas by using Density Function Theory (DFT) calculation and Grand Canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulations. First, the adsorption of CH4 and CO2molecules on phosphorene sheet were conducted by DFT study. Then, adsorption performances of natural gas components as well as their binary CO2/CH4 gas mixture were investigated at 300 K with the pressure up to 3.0 MPa. The effects of slit pore width, H, and mole ratio of CO2/CH4in the gas phase on the separation of CO2 from mixtures of CO2/CH4 were also investigated. Our DFT calculation results show that the CO2 moleculehas higher adsorption energy than that of CH4, which implies that it can be easily adsorbed to the phosphorene surface than CH4. Detailed GCMC simulations reveal that the phosphorene slit pore has a high performance in separating CO2fromnature gas and achieves the highest gas selectivity at H = 1.0 nm at pressures lower than 0.1 MPa. Moreover, the selectivity of CO2 overCO2/CH4gas mixture increases with increasing the mole ratio of CO2/CH4due to the enhanced adsorbate-adsorbent interactions for the favorable component. Therefore, it is suggested that the phosphorene is a promising candidate for natural gas purification and possessing practical potential applications in gas adsorption.

  20. Tailoring the surface plasmon resonance of embedded silver nanoparticles by combining nano- and femtosecond laser pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doster, J.; Baraldi, G.; Gonzalo, J.; Solis, J.; Hernandez-Rueda, J.; Siegel, J., E-mail: j.siegel@io.cfmac.csic.es [Laser Processing Group, Instituto de Optica, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-04-14

    We demonstrate that the broad surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of a single layer of near-coalescence silver nanoparticles (NPs), embedded in a dielectric matrix can be tailored by irradiation with a single nanosecond laser pulse into a distribution featuring a sharp resonance at 435 nm. Scanning electron microscopy studies reveal the underlying mechanism to be a transformation into a distribution of well-separated spherical particles. Additional exposure to multiple femtosecond laser pulses at 400 nm or 800 nm wavelength induces polarization anisotropy of the SPR, with a peak shift that increases with laser wavelength. The spectral changes are measured in-situ, employing reflection and transmission micro-spectroscopy with a lateral resolution of 4 μm. Spectral maps as a continuous function of local fluence can be readily produced from a single spot. The results open exciting perspectives for dynamically tuning and switching the optical response of NP systems, paving the way for next-generation applications.

  1. Glycemic and lipid control of patients with type 2 diabetes in combined treatment of metformin and insulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Brasil

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This transverse study was undertaken to assess serum lipoprotein cholesterol, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c and triglyceride levels of 105 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in insulin use belonging to a health care area of the Family Health Program (FHP. It had as objective to identify possible variations in those parameters when metformin is associated to the treatment. Thirty-three of those patients were excluded by presenting inclinations. Of the remaining, 44 subjects were on combination therapy of metformin and insulin – these indicated serum levels of HbA1c and triglycerides significantly lower than the control group in treatment with insulin alone (n=28; statistical differences were not observed regarding high-density lipoprotein and total cholesterol levels. The research appeared that, due to free readiness of metformin for the population, combined therapy should be used as first choice in public health.

  2. Bayesian hierarchical models combining different study types and adjusting for covariate imbalances: a simulation study to assess model performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Elizabeth McCarron

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bayesian hierarchical models have been proposed to combine evidence from different types of study designs. However, when combining evidence from randomised and non-randomised controlled studies, imbalances in patient characteristics between study arms may bias the results. The objective of this study was to assess the performance of a proposed Bayesian approach to adjust for imbalances in patient level covariates when combining evidence from both types of study designs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Simulation techniques, in which the truth is known, were used to generate sets of data for randomised and non-randomised studies. Covariate imbalances between study arms were introduced in the non-randomised studies. The performance of the Bayesian hierarchical model adjusted for imbalances was assessed in terms of bias. The data were also modelled using three other Bayesian approaches for synthesising evidence from randomised and non-randomised studies. The simulations considered six scenarios aimed at assessing the sensitivity of the results to changes in the impact of the imbalances and the relative number and size of studies of each type. For all six scenarios considered, the Bayesian hierarchical model adjusted for differences within studies gave results that were unbiased and closest to the true value compared to the other models. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Where informed health care decision making requires the synthesis of evidence from randomised and non-randomised study designs, the proposed hierarchical Bayesian method adjusted for differences in patient characteristics between study arms may facilitate the optimal use of all available evidence leading to unbiased results compared to unadjusted analyses.

  3. Sexual Dysfunction in Two Types of Hormonal Contraception: Combined Oral Contraceptives versus Depot Medroxyprogesterone Acetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nourossadat Kariman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Sexual health is an essential element of quality of life, affecting both physical and psychological domains. Hormones used in contraceptive methods have contradictory effects on sexual function. In this study, we aimed to compare sexual function in women using combined oral contraceptives (COC and depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA, referred to healthcare centers affiliated to Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences in Tehran, Iran in 2013. Methods: This descriptive, comparative study was performed on 240 women (n=120 per group, selected through multistage sampling in Tehran, Iran. A questionnaire consisting of three parts, General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28, demographic characteristics, and Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI, was completed through interviews. For data analysis, descriptive statistics were calculated, and independent t-test, Mann-Whitney test, Chi-square, and Fisher's exact test were performed, using SPPS version 16. P-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The mean age at marriage in women using DMPA was lower than those using COC (18.55±3.61 vs. 19.92±3.98 years. Based on the findings, the menstrual status in the majority of DMPA users was irregular (46.7% in DMPA group vs. 8.3% in COC group. The difference in sexual function between the COC and DMPA groups was significant. Sexual arousal and lubrication were more favorable in the COC group in comparison with the DMPA group; also, pain in this group was lower than the DMPA group. Scores of total sexual function (27.35±5.22 in DMPA group vs. 29.15±6.13 in COC group, sexual arousal (4.11±0.90 in DMPA group vs. 4.51±1.39 in COC group, and vaginal lubrication (4.82±1.30 in DMPA group vs. 5.26±1.35 in COC group were lower in the DMPA group, compared to the COC group. Pain scores (4.91±1.25 in DMPA group vs. 5.28±1.19 in COC group were higher in the DMPA group in comparison with the COC group (P

  4. Creating potentiometric surfaces from combined water well and oil well data in the midcontinent of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianoutsos, Nicholas J.; Nelson, Philip H.

    2013-01-01

    For years, hydrologists have defined potentiometric surfaces using measured hydraulic-head values in water wells from aquifers. Down-dip, the oil and gas industry is also interested in the formation pressures of many of the same geologic formations for the purpose of hydrocarbon recovery. In oil and gas exploration, drillstem tests (DSTs) provide the formation pressure for a given depth interval in a well. These DST measurements can be used to calculate hydraulic-head values in deep hydrocarbon-bearing formations in areas where water wells do not exist. Unlike hydraulic-head measurements in water wells, which have a low number of problematic data points (outliers), only a small subset of the DST data measure true formation pressures. Using 3D imaging capabilities to view and clean the data, we have developed a process to estimate potentiometric surfaces from erratic DST data sets of hydrocarbon-bearing formations in the midcontinent of the U.S. The analysis indicates that the potentiometric surface is more readily defined through human interpretation of the chaotic DST data sets rather than through the application of filtering and geostatistical analysis. The data are viewed as a series of narrow, 400-mile-long swaths and a 2D viewer is used to select a subset of hydraulic-head values that represent the potentiometric surface. The user-selected subsets for each swath are then combined into one data set for each formation. These data are then joined with the hydraulic-head values from water wells to define the 3D potentiometric surfaces. The final product is an interactive, 3D digital display containing: (1) the subsurface structure of the formation, (2) the cluster of DST-derived hydraulic head values, (3) the user-selected subset of hydraulic-head values that define the potentiometric surface, (4) the hydraulic-head measurements from the corresponding shallow aquifer, (5) the resulting potentiometric surface encompassing both oil and gas and water wells, and (6

  5. Development of Combined Hammer Used in Counterattack-type Crusher%反击式破碎机组合型锤头的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭莹

    2011-01-01

    Aiming at the failure characteristics of the hammer used in counterattack-type crusher due to wear, a combination-type hammer used in the counterattack-type crusher was developed. The hammer handle is made of alloy steel material, and the wear-resistant blocks is made of high chromium cast iron, the hammer handle and hammer head is connected with a special structure of profiled tapered dovetail. The connecting surface of the hammer is solid, its impact resistances is strong, and the wear-resistant blocks can be replaced, so its serve life improves, its integrated cost significantly reduces.%针对反击式破碎机中锤头因磨损而失效的特点,研发了一种应用于反击式破碎机的组合型锤头.该锤头以合金钢材料做锤柄,高铬铸铁做耐磨块,采用特殊的异形燕尾槽结构连接锤柄与锤头.锤头连接面结合牢固、抗冲击能力强,而且耐磨块可更换,不仅提高了锤头一次性使用寿命,同时大幅度降低了锤头综合使用成本.

  6. Polarization-correlation diagnostics and differentiation of cholelithiasis in patients with chronic cholecystitis combined with diabetes mellitus type 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchuk, Yu F.; Fediv, O. I.; Ivashchuk, I. O.; Andriychuk, D. R.

    2012-01-01

    The principles of optical modeling of human bile polycrystalline structure are described. The main types of polycrystalline structures are detailed. It has been proposed and founded the scenarios of formation of bile microscopic images polarization structure in coherent radiation. The results of investigating the interrelation between statistical moments of the 1st-4th order are presented that characterize the coordinate distributions of intensity of laser images of bile smears of cholelithiasis patients in combination with other pathologies. The diagnostic criteria of the cholelithiasis nascency and its severity degree differentiation are determined.

  7. Study on T lymphocyte subsets and NK cells in patients with Graves disease combined with type 2 diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏枫; 杜婧; 苏秀兰; 乌兰; 王津京; 霍晓静

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate changes in T lymphocyte subsets and NK cells in patients with simple Graves' disease(GD)and Graves' disease combined with type 2 diabetes mellitus(GD/T2DM).Methods Fifteen cases of GD/T2DM were selected from our hospital from November 2001 to November 2004.Before and after therapy thyroid function,thyroglobulin antibody(TGA),thyroid microsomal antibody(TMA)and blood glucose level were measured,and T lymphocyte subsets(CD3,CD4,CD8,CD4/CD8)and NK cells(CD56)were measured by immunofluo...

  8. A novel technique combining laparoscopic and endovascular approaches using image fusion guidance for anterior embolization of type II endoleak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mujeeb Zubair, MD

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Type II endoleak (T2E leading to aneurysm sac enlargement is one of the challenging complications associated with endovascular aneurysm repair. Recent guidelines recommend embolization of T2E associated with aneurysmal sac enlargement. Various percutaneous and endovascular techniques have been reported for embolization of T2E. We report a novel technique for T2E embolization combining laparoscopic and endovascular approaches using preoperative image fusion. We believe our technique provides a more direct access to the lumbar feeding vessels that is typically challenging with transarterial or translumbar embolization techniques.

  9. Surface structure and energy of B2 type intermetallic compound NiAl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Jianmin [College of Physics and Information Technology, Shaanxi Normal University, Xian 710062, Shaanxi (China)], E-mail: jianm_zhang@yahoo.com; Wang Doudou [College of Physics and Information Technology, Shaanxi Normal University, Xian 710062, Shaanxi (China); Institute of Telecommunication Engineering of the Air Force Engineering University (AFEU1), Xian 710077, Shaanxi (China); Chen Guoxiang [School of Science, Xian Shiyou University, Xian 710065, Shaanxi (China); Xu Kewei [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xian Jiaotong University, Xian 710049, Shaanxi (China)

    2008-02-15

    The surface structure and energies for 22 surfaces of NiAl, an ordered intermetallic compound of B2 structure, have been studied by using embedded atom method. The results show that, for alternating Ni and Al surfaces with odd numbers of the sum of their three Miller indices, the energy difference between the Ni terminated surface and Al terminated surface increase linearly with increasing the interlayer distance. So from surface energy minimization, the Al terminated surface is favorable for each alternating Ni and Al surface. This is in agreement with experimental results. However, the energy of the (1 1 0) surface belonged to the other kind of the surface consisted of stoichiometric atomic layers and with even numbers of the sum of their three Miller indices, is the lowest in all two kinds of the surfaces. Therefore the (1 1 0) texture of NiAl appears mostly in the experiments.

  10. Fixed-Dose Combination of Canagliflozin and Metformin for the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Jaime A; Sloan, Lance

    2017-01-01

    Metformin is recommended as a first-line therapy for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, many patients do not achieve glycemic goals with metformin monotherapy and require subsequent combination therapy with other antihyperglycemic agents (AHAs). For newly diagnosed patients with high blood glucose, initial combination therapy may be required to achieve glycemic control. The American Association for Clinical Endocrinologists algorithm for the treatment of T2DM recommends metformin plus a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor as the first oral combination in patients who present with HbA1c ≥7.5%. Canagliflozin, an SGLT2 inhibitor, lowers the renal threshold for glucose and increases urinary glucose excretion leading to a mild osmotic diuresis and a net caloric loss. The effect of canagliflozin is insulin-independent and complementary to other AHAs, including metformin. A fixed-dose combination (FDC) of canagliflozin and metformin is also available with variable dosing, which may be attractive to some patients owing to the potential for reduced pill burden and costs. This article reviews the efficacy and safety of canagliflozin in combination with metformin based on data from the canagliflozin phase 3 clinical program. As initial combination therapy in drug-naïve patients or as dual therapy with metformin or triple therapy in combination with metformin and other AHAs, canagliflozin 100 and 300 mg improved glycemic control and provided reductions in body weight and systolic blood pressure that were sustained for up to 104 weeks. Canagliflozin was generally well tolerated across studies in combination with metformin. An increased incidence of adverse events (AEs) related to the mechanism of SGLT2 inhibition (i.e., genital mycotic infections, urinary tract infections, osmotic diuresis-related AEs) was observed with canagliflozin. Canagliflozin was associated with a low incidence of hypoglycemia when not used in conjunction with AHAs

  11. Exact combined traveling wave solutions and multi-symplectic structure of the variant Boussinesq-Whitham-Broer-Kaup type equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao-Feng; Deng, Zi-Chen; Li, Qing-Jun; Wei, Yi

    2016-07-01

    The homogeneous balance of undetermined coefficients method (HBUCM) is firstly proposed to construct not only the exact traveling wave solutions, three-wave solutions, homoclinic solutions, N-soliton solutions, but also multi-symplectic structures of some nonlinear partial differential equations (NLPDEs). By applying the proposed method to the variant Boussinesq equations (VBEs), the exact combined traveling wave solutions and a multi-symplectic structure of the VBEs are obtained directly. Then, the definition and a multi-symplectic structure of the variant Boussinesq-Whitham-Broer-Kaup type equations (VBWBKTEs) which can degenerate to the VBEs, the Whitham-Broer-Kaup equations (WBKEs) and the Broer-Kaup equations (BKEs) are given in the multi-symplectic sense. The HBUCM is also a standard and computable method, which can be generalized to obtain the exact solutions and multi-symplectic structures for some types of NLPDEs.

  12. Gene expression profiling of acute type A aortic dissection combined with in vitroassessment†.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Naoyuki; Futamura, Kyoko; Arakawa, Mamoru; Okada, Naoko; Emrich, Fabian; Okamura, Homare; Sato, Tetsuya; Shudo, Yasuhiro; Koyano, Tiffany K; Yamaguchi, Atsushi; Adachi, Hideo; Matsuda, Akio; Kawahito, Koji; Matsumoto, Kenji; Fischbein, Michael P

    2017-04-11

    The mechanisms underlying aortic dissection remain to be fully elucidated. We aimed to identify key molecules driving dissection through gene expression profiling achieved by microarray analysis and subsequent in vitro experiments using human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) and aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (AoSMCs). Total RNA, including microRNA (miRNA), was isolated from the intima-media layer of dissected ascending aorta obtained intraoperatively from acute type A aortic dissection (ATAAD) patients without familial thoracic aortic disease ( n  = 8) and that of non-dissected ascending aorta obtained from transplant donors ( n  = 9). Gene expression profiling was performed with mRNA and miRNA microarrays, and results were confirmed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Target genes and miRNA were identified by gene ontology analysis and a literature search. To reproduce the in silico results, HAECs and AoSMCs were stimulated in vitro by upstream cytokines, and expression of target genes was assessed by qPCR. Microarray analysis revealed 1536 genes (3.6%, 1536/42 545 probes) and 41 miRNAs (3.0%, 41/1368 probes) that were differentially expressed in the ATAAD group (versus donor group). The top 15 related pathways included regulation of inflammatory response, growth factor activity and extracellular matrix. Gene ontology analysis identified JAK2 (regulation of inflammatory response), PDGFA, TGFB1, VEGFA (growth factor activity) and TIMP3 , TIMP4, SERPINE1 (extracellular matrix) as the target genes and miR-21-5p, a TIMP3 repressor, as target miRNA that interacts with the target genes. Validation qPCR confirmed the altered expression of all 7 target genes and miR-21-5p in dissected aorta specimens (all genes, P  < 0.05). Ingenuity pathway analysis showed TNF-α and TGF-β to be upstream cytokines for the target genes. In vitro experiments showed these cytokines inhibit TIMP3 expression ( P  < 0.05) and enhance VEGFA expression ( P

  13. Combination of cetuximab and PP242 synergistically suppress the progression of wild-type KRAS colorectal carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng L

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Lei Cheng,1,* Zuguang Xia,2,3,* Xinyu Bian,1 Guangchao Li,4 Jing Hu,1 Ya Cao,5 Qing Wang,1 Xiaoping Qian1 1Comprehensive Cancer Center of Drum-Tower Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Clinical Cancer Institute of Nanjing University, Nanjing, 2Department of Medical Oncology, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai, 3Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai, 4School of Bioscience and Bioengineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong, 5Department of Biological Science and Technology and State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR has been shown to be overactive in human colorectal cancer, but the first-generation mTOR inhibitor, rapamycin, has failed to show clinical efficacy against colorectal cancer. On the other hand, although the second-generation mTOR inhibitor, PP242, has exerted substantial efficacy, it was revealed that independent inhibition by PP242 was transient, which could lead to positive-feedback loop to EGFR. Using wild-type KRAS colorectal cancer cells as models, we investigate the treatment efficacy of a widely used anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody, cetuximab, and PP242, alone or in combination in vitro and in vivo. Results of cell viability assays confirmed the synergistic inhibitory effect of PP242 and cetuximab on the survival of Caco-2 and HT-29 cells. Moreover, the ability of cancer-cell invasion and proliferation was also significantly inhibited by the combination therapy when compared with cetuximab or PP242 alone. Interestingly, the percentage of CD44-positive cancer cells was substantially decreased by the combination therapy in comparison with PP242 alone through fluorescence-activated cell sorting. The growth of cancer stem-like cell spheres in vitro was

  14. Combining DCQGMP-Based Sparse Decomposition and MPDR Beamformer for Multi-Type Interferences Mitigation for GNSS Receivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Guo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In the coexistence of multiple types of interfering signals, the performance of interference suppression methods based on time and frequency domains is degraded seriously, and the technique using an antenna array requires a large enough size and huge hardware costs. To combat multi-type interferences better for GNSS receivers, this paper proposes a cascaded multi-type interferences mitigation method combining improved double chain quantum genetic matching pursuit (DCQGMP-based sparse decomposition and an MPDR beamformer. The key idea behind the proposed method is that the multiple types of interfering signals can be excised by taking advantage of their sparse features in different domains. In the first stage, the single-tone (multi-tone and linear chirp interfering signals are canceled by sparse decomposition according to their sparsity in the over-complete dictionary. In order to improve the timeliness of matching pursuit (MP-based sparse decomposition, a DCQGMP is introduced by combining an improved double chain quantum genetic algorithm (DCQGA and the MP algorithm, and the DCQGMP algorithm is extended to handle the multi-channel signals according to the correlation among the signals in different channels. In the second stage, the minimum power distortionless response (MPDR beamformer is utilized to nullify the residuary interferences (e.g., wideband Gaussian noise interferences. Several simulation results show that the proposed method can not only improve the interference mitigation degree of freedom (DoF of the array antenna, but also effectively deal with the interference arriving from the same direction with the GNSS signal, which can be sparse represented in the over-complete dictionary. Moreover, it does not bring serious distortions into the navigation signal.

  15. A unique combination of autoimmune limbic encephalitis, type 1 diabetes, and Stiff person syndrome associated with GAD-65 antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Chandra Mohan; Pandey, Rajendra Kumar; Kumawat, Banshi Lal; Khandelwal, Dinesh; Gandhi, Pankaj

    2016-01-01

    Antibodies to GAD-65 have been implicated in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes, limbic encephalitis and Stiff person syndrome, however these diseases rarely occur concurrently. We intend to present a rare case of 35 year old female who was recently diagnosed as having type 1 diabetes presented with 1½ month history of recurrent seizures, subacute onset gait ataxia, dysathria, psychiatric disturbance and cognitive decline. No tumor was found on imaging and the classic paraneoplastic panel was negative. Cerebrospinal fluid and blood was positive for GAD-65 antibodies. Patient showed significant improvement with immunomodulatory therapy. Association of GAD-65 antibodies has been found with various disorders including type 1 diabetes, limbic encephalitis, Stiff person syndrome, cerebellar ataxia and palatal myoclonus. This case presents with unique combination of type 1 diabetes, Stiff person syndrome and limbic encephalitis associated with GAD-65 antibodies that is responsive to immunotherapy. It also highlights the emerging concept of autoimmunity in the causation of various disorders and there associations.

  16. Error related negativity and multi-source interference task in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder-combined type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Huerta-Albarrán

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To compare performance of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorders-combined (ADHD-C type with control children in multi-source interference task (MSIT evaluated by means of error related negativity (ERN. Method We studied 12 children with ADHD-C type with a median age of 7 years, control children were age- and gender-matched. Children performed MSIT and simultaneous recording of ERN. Results We found no differences in MSIT parameters among groups. We found no differences in ERN variables between groups. We found a significant association of ERN amplitude with MSIT in children with ADHD-C type. Some correlation went in positive direction (frequency of hits and MSIT amplitude, and others in negative direction (frequency of errors and RT in MSIT. Conclusion Children with ADHD-C type exhibited a significant association between ERN amplitude with MSIT. These results underline participation of a cingulo-fronto-parietal network and could help in the comprehension of pathophysiological mechanisms of ADHD.

  17. Accumulation of radioactive corrosion products on steel surfaces of VVER type nuclear reactors. I. 110mAg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschberg, Gábor; Baradlai, Pál; Varga, Kálmán; Myburg, Gerrit; Schunk, János; Tilky, Péter; Stoddart, Paul

    Formation, presence and deposition of corrosion product radionuclides (such as 60Co, 51Cr, 54Mn, 59Fe and/or 110mAg) in the primary circuits of water-cooled nuclear reactors (PWRs) throw many obstacles in the way of normal operation. During the course of the work presented in this series, accumulations of such radionuclides have been studied at austenitic stainless steel type 08X18H10T (GOST 5632-61) surfaces (this austenitic stainless steel corresponds to AISI 321). Comparative experiments have been performed on magnetite-covered carbon steel (both materials are frequently used in some Soviet VVER type PWRs). For these laboratory-scale investigations a combination of the in situ radiotracer `thin gap' method and voltammetry is considered to be a powerful tool due to its high sensitivity towards the detection of the submonolayer coverages of corrosion product radionuclides. An independent technique (XPS) is also used to characterize the depth distribution and chemical state of various contaminants in the passive layer formed on austenitic stainless steel. In the first part of the series the accumulation of 110mAg has been investigated. Potential dependent sorption of Ag + ions (cementation) is found to be the predominant process on austenitic steel, while in the case of magnetite-covered carbon steel the silver species are mainly depleted in the form of Ag 2O. The XPS depth profile of Ag gives an evidence about the embedding of metallic silver into the entire passive layer of the austenitic stainless steel studied.

  18. [A recent observation of clinical effects by combined application of lanthanum,cerium and fluoride-contained gel on root surface caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Y H; Yi, N

    1999-09-01

    OBJECTIVE:The present study was to investigate the effects of combined application of lanthanum,cerium and fluoride-contained gel on root surface caries.METHODS:2000ppm lanthanum.cerium and fluoride-contained gels were used by various procedures to treat 164 teeth with root surface caries.RESULTS:The six months follow-up data revealed that combined procedure showed a better effect than each kind of trace element used alone.CONCLUSION:The study indicated that combined F/La(Ce) applying procedure has a potential value on the carious resisted root surface.

  19. Surface modification of carbon nanotubes via combination of mussel inspired chemistry and chain transfer free radical polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, Qing; Tian, Jianwen; Liu, Meiying; Zeng, Guangjian; Huang, Qiang [Department of Chemistry, Nanchang University, 999 Xuefu Avenue, Nanchang, 330031 (China); Wang, Ke; Zhang, Qingsong [Department of Chemistry and the Tsinghua Center for Frontier Polymer Research, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China); Deng, Fengjie, E-mail: fengjiedeng@aliyun.com [Department of Chemistry, Nanchang University, 999 Xuefu Avenue, Nanchang, 330031 (China); Zhang, Xiaoyong, E-mail: xiaoyongzhang1980@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Nanchang University, 999 Xuefu Avenue, Nanchang, 330031 (China); Wei, Yen, E-mail: weiyen@tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry and the Tsinghua Center for Frontier Polymer Research, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China)

    2015-08-15

    Graphical abstract: A novel strategy combination of mussel inspired chemistry and chain transfer free radical polymerization has been developed for surface modification of carbon nanotubes with polymers for the first time. - Highlights: • Surface modification of CNTs via mussel inspired chemistry. • Preparation of aminated polymers through free radical polymerization. • Functionalized CNTs with aminated polymers via Michael addition reaction. • Highly dispersed CNTs in organic and aqueous solution. - Abstract: In this work, a novel strategy for surface modification of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was developed via combination of mussel inspired chemistry and chain transfer free radical polymerization. First, pristine CNTs were functionalized with polydopamine (PDA), which is formed via self-polymerization of dopamine in alkaline conditions. These PDA functionalized CNTs can be further reacted with amino-terminated polymers (named as PDMC), which was synthesized through chain transfer free radical polymerization using cysteamine hydrochloride as chain transfer agent and methacryloxyethyltrimethyl ammonium chloride as the monomer. PDMC perfectly conjugated with CNT-PDA was ascertained by a series of characterization techniques including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The dispersibility of obtained CNT nanocomposites (named as CNT-PDA-PDMC) was further examined. Results showed that the dispersibility of CNT-PDA-PDMC in aqueous and organic solutions was obviously enhanced. Apart from PDMC, many other amino-terminated polymers can also be used to functionalization of CNTs via similar strategy. Therefore, the method described in this work should be a general strategy for fabrication various polymer nanocomposites.

  20. Optimization of formulation of soy-cakes baked in infrared-microwave combination oven by response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şakıyan, Özge

    2015-05-01

    The aim of present work is to optimize the formulation of a functional cake (soy-cake) to be baked in infrared-microwave combination oven. For this optimization process response surface methodology was utilized. It was also aimed to optimize the processing conditions of the combination baking. The independent variables were the baking time (8, 9, 10 min), the soy flour concentration (30, 40, 50 %) and the DATEM (diacetyltartaric acid esters of monoglycerides) concentration (0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 %). The quality parameters that were examined in the study were specific volume, weight loss, total color change and firmness of the cake samples. The results were analyzed by multiple regression; and the significant linear, quadratic, and interaction terms were used in the second order mathematical model. The optimum baking time, soy-flour concentration and DATEM concentration were found as 9.5 min, 30 and 0.72 %, respectively. The corresponding responses of the optimum points were almost comparable with those of conventionally baked soy-cakes. So it may be declared that it is possible to produce high quality soy cakes in a very short time by using infrared-microwave combination oven.

  1. Combining Laser Ablation/Liquid Phase Collection Surface Sampling and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovchinnikova, Olga S [ORNL; Kertesz, Vilmos [ORNL; Van Berkel, Gary J [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the coupling of ambient pressure transmission geometry laser ablation with a liquid phase sample collection method for surface sampling and ionization with subsequent mass spectral analysis. A commercially available autosampler was adapted to produce a liquid droplet at the end of the syringe injection needle while in close proximity to the surface to collect the sample plume produced by laser ablation. The sample collection was followed by either flow injection or a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation of the extracted components and detection with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). To illustrate the analytical utility of this coupling, thin films of a commercial ink sample containing rhodamine 6G and of mixed isobaric rhodamine B and 6G dyes on glass microscope slides were analyzed. The flow injection and HPLC/ESI-MS analysis revealed successful laser ablation, capture and, with HPLC, the separation of the two compounds. The ablated circular area was about 70 m in diameter for these experiments. The spatial sampling resolution afforded by the laser ablation, as well as the ability to use sample processing methods like HPLC between the sample collection and ionization steps, makes this combined surface sampling/ionization technique a highly versatile analytical tool.

  2. Experimental Investigation of Space Radiation Processing in Lunar Soil Ilmenite: Combining Perspectives from Surface Science and Transmission Electron Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoffersen, R.; Keller, L. P.; Rahman, Z.; Baragiola, R.

    2010-01-01

    Energetic ions mostly from the solar wind play a major role in lunar space weathering because they contribute structural and chemical changes to the space-exposed surfaces of lunar regolith grains. In mature mare soils, ilmenite (FeTiO3) grains in the finest size fraction have been shown in transmission electron microscope (TEM) studies to exhibit key differences in their response to space radiation processing relative to silicates [1,2,3]. In ilmenite, solar ion radiation alters host grain outer margins to produce 10-100 nm thick layers that are microstructurally complex, but dominantly crystalline compared to the amorphous radiation-processed rims on silicates [1,2,3]. Spatially well-resolved analytical TEM measurements also show nm-scale compositional and chemical state changes in these layers [1,3]. These include shifts in Fe/Ti ratio from strong surface Fe-enrichment (Fe/Ti >> 1), to Fe depletion (Fe/Ti electron (FE-STEM) study of experimentally ion-irradiated ilmenite. A key feature of this work is the combination of analytical techniques sensitive to changes in the irradiated samples at depth scales going from the immediate surface (approx.5 nm; XPS), to deeper in the grain interior (5-100 nm; FE-STEM).

  3. A combined FTIR and TPD study on the bulk and surface dehydroxylation and decarbonation of synthetic goethite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boily, Jean-François; Szanyi, János; Felmy, Andrew R.

    2006-07-01

    The thermal dehydroxylation of a goethite-carbonate solid solution was studied with combined Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR)-Temperature programmed desorption (TPD) experiments. The TPD data revealed dehydroxylation peaks involving the intrinsic dehydroxylation of goethite at 560 K and a low temperature peak at 485 K which was shown to be associated to the release of non-stoichiometric water from the goethite bulk and surface. The FTIR and the TPD data of goethite in the absence of adsorbed carbonate species revealed the presence of adventitious carbonate mostly sequestered in the goethite bulk. The release of carbonate was however not only related to the dehydration of goethite but also from the crystallization of hematite at temperatures exceeding 600 K. The relative abundance of surface hydroxyls was shown to change systematically upon goethite dehydroxylation with a preferential stripping of singly-coordinated sbnd OH sites followed by a dramatic change in the dominance of the different surface hydroxyls upon the formation of hematite.

  4. Synoptic relationships between surface Chlorophyll-a and diagnostic pigments specific to phytoplankton functional types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Noguchi-Aita

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Error-quantified, synoptic-scale relationships between chlorophyll-a (Chl-a and phytoplankton pigment groups at the sea surface are presented. A total of ten pigment groups were considered to represent three Phytoplankton Size Classes (PSCs, micro-, nano- and picoplankton and seven Phytoplankton Functional Types (PFTs, i.e. diatoms, dinoflagellates, green algae, prymnesiophytes (haptophytes, pico-eukaryotes, prokaryotes and Prochlorococcus sp.. The observed relationships between Chl-a and PSCs/PFTs were well-defined at the global scale to show that a community shift of phytoplankton at the basin and global scales is reflected by a change in Chl-a of the total community. Thus, Chl-a of the total community can be used as an index of not only phytoplankton biomass but also of their community structure. Within these relationships, we also found non-monotonic variations with Chl-a for certain pico-sized phytoplankton (pico-eukaryotes, Prokaryotes and Prochlorococcus sp. and nano-sized phytoplankton (Green algae, prymnesiophytes. The relationships were quantified with a least-square fitting approach in order to enable an estimation of the PFTs from Chl-a where PFTs are expressed as a percentage of the total Chl-a. The estimated uncertainty of the relationships depends on both PFT and Chl-a concentration. Maximum uncertainty of 31.8% was found for diatoms at Chl-a = 0.49 mg m−3. However, the mean uncertainty of the relationships over all PFTs was 5.9% over the entire Chl-a range observed in situ (0.02 < Chl-a < 4.26 mg m−3. The relationships were applied to SeaWiFS satellite Chl-a data from 1998 to 2009 to show the global climatological fields of the surface distribution of PFTs. Results show that microplankton are present in the mid and high latitudes, constituting only ~10.9% of the entire phytoplankton community in the mean field for 1998–2009, in which diatoms explain ~7.5%. Nanoplankton are ubiquitous throughout the global surface oceans

  5. Preparation of Thin Melanin-Type Films by Surface-Controlled Oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomäki, Mikko; Tupala, Matti; Parviainen, Timo; Leiro, Jarkko; Karonen, Maarit; Lukkari, Jukka